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Sample records for iran

  1. Iran.

    PubMed

    1987-05-01

    Iran's population stood at 49.8 million in 1986, 1 1/2-2 million of which were Afghan refugees. The annual population growth rate was 4%. The infant mortality rate was 10/1000 and life expectancy was 54 years. 40% of the labor force is engaged in agriculture, 33% are employed in industry and commerce, and 27% work in services. Iran is an Islamic republic dominated by the Islamic Republican Party. By the 1970s, Iran has achieved significant industrialization and economic modernization. However, economic activity was disrupted by the 1979 revolution and more recently by the war with Iraq and the sharp decline in oil prices. All major business and industrial growth indicators are significantly below prerevolutionary levels and unemployment is over 30%. Political infighting has hampered the formulation of coherent economic policies, and purges in the civil service in the postrevolutionary phase eliminated many qualified personnel. The petroleum, mining, utilities, and transportation sectors have been nationalized, but there is dissension within the Khomeni's regime as to how to proceed with land reform. Iran's gross national product was US$75 billion in 1986, with a per capita income of $1667. Inflation is about 25-40%.

  2. Iran Sanctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-07

    investments, under the definition of that term provided in ISA. For example, selling Iran an oil or gas drill rig or motors or other gear that Iran will use...Japan; Volkswagen of Germany; Volvo of Sweden; ThyssenKrupp of Germany; and numerous others. Some of the foreign firms that trade with Iran, such as

  3. Iran Sanctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-23

    Iran Sanctions Congressional Research Service 9 • Petroleos de Venezuela (reportedly reached a September 2009 deal to supply Iran with gasoline...investment. State Department officials told CRS in November 2009 that projects involving Iran and Venezuela appeared to fall into the category of...2012 South Pars gas field (September 2009) Petroleos de Venezuela S.A.; 10% stake in venture $760 million Abadan refinery Upgrade and expansion

  4. Iran Sanctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-09

    de Venezuela (reportedly reached a September 2009 deal to supply Iran with gasoline); • Kuwait’s Independent Petroleum Group supplies Iran;15 and...Department officials told CRS in November 2009 that projects involving Iran and Venezuela appeared to fall into the category of symbolic...Austria) $3.2 billion 20 million tonnes of LNG annually by 2012 South Pars gas field (September 2009) Petroleos de Venezuela S.A.; 10% stake in

  5. Iran Sanctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-12

    imports).9 • Petroleos de Venezuela (reportedly reached a September 2009 deal to supply Iran with gasoline). The cessation of supplies to Iran by the...purposes and did not result in actual investment. State Department officials told CRS in November 2009 that projects involving Iran and Venezuela ...Pars gas field (September 2009) Petroleos de Venezuela S.A.; 10% stake in venture $760 million Abadan refinery upgrade and expansion; building

  6. Iran Sanctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-02

    importation of Iranian nuts , dried fruits, carpets, and caviar. Financing was permitted for U.S. importers of these goods. The United States was...failed negotiations with Iran during 2009, Resolution 1929 was adopted on June 9, 2010, by a vote of 12-2 (Turkey and Brazil ), with one abstention...Iran-Petrobras Operations.” APS Review Gas Market Trends, April 6, 2009; “Brazil’s Petrobras Sees Few Prospects for Iran Oil,” Petrobras ( Brazil

  7. Iran Sanctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-09

    investments, under the definition of that term provided in ISA. For example, selling Iran an oil or gas drill rig or motors or other gear that Iran...of Sweden; ING Group of the Netherlands; Mercedes of Germany; Renault of France; Samsung of South Korea; Sony of Japan; Volkswagen of Germany; Volvo

  8. Iran Sanctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-12

    resources. For example, selling Iran an oil or gas drill rig or motors or other gear that Iran will use to drill for oil or gas would not appear to be...Sweden; ING Group of the Netherlands; Mercedes of Germany; Renault of France; Samsung of South Korea; Sony of Japan; Volkswagen of Germany; Volvo of

  9. Iran Sanctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-03

    extract its own oil or gas resources. For example, selling Iran an oil or gas drill rig or motors or other gear that Iran will use to drill for oil...France; Samsung of South Korea; Sony of Japan; Volkswagen of Germany; Volvo of Sweden; ThyssenKrupp of Germany; and numerous others. Some of the

  10. Tehran, Iran

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Tehran,(35.5N, 51.5E) national capital of Iran is seen in this vertical view of northern Iran. The city is situated on the plains between the Elburz Mountains and the Dashte-Kavir salt desert. The extensive agricultural area to the south supports the city with farm produce.

  11. Iran Sanctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-14

    U.S. and Foreign Companies Feeling Pressure to Sever Ties With Iran,” New York Times , April 24, 2010. 74 In September 2011, the Commerce Department...finalized on July 14, 2015, provides Iran broad relief from U.S., U.N., and multilateral sanctions on Iran’s energy, financial, shipping, automotive

  12. Iran Sanctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-07

    resource-center/sanctions/Documents/tar2010. pdf . 3 http://global.factiva.com/hp/printsavews.aspx?pp=Print&hc=Publication. Iran Sanctions Congressional...funds the sale to Iran of Indian wheat, pharmaceuticals, rice , sugar, soybeans, auto parts, and other products. Still, there is a large trade...UAE firm, Golden Crown Petroleum FZE, told the author in April 2011 that, as of June 29, 2010, it no longer leases vessels for the purpose of

  13. Iran Sanctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-13

    international firms during 2010 that they are exiting the Iranian market. Iran’s oil production has fallen slightly to about 3.9 million barrels per...selling gasoline and gasoline production -related equipment and services to Iran, and to restrict international banking relationships with Iran (among many...sector is as old as the petroleum industry itself, and Iran’s onshore oil fields and oil industry infrastructure are far past peak production and in need

  14. Iran Sanctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-28

    Iranian nuts , dried fruits, carpets, and caviar. Financing was permitted for U.S. importers of these goods. The United States was the largest market for...of 12-2 (Turkey and Brazil ), with one abstention (Lebanon). (Iranian entities and persons sanctioned by the United Nations are in Table 6.) The main...Gas Market Trends, April 6, 2009; “Brazil’s Petrobras Sees Few Prospects for Iran Oil,” Petrobras ( Brazil ) $178 million No production Iran

  15. Iran Sanctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-16

    Iran (and Cuba and Sudan). • In April 2000, the trade ban was further eased to allow U.S. importation of Iranian nuts , fruit products (such as...2 (Turkey and Brazil ), with one abstention (Lebanon). (Iranian entities and persons sanctioned by the United Nations are in Table 7.) Resolution...Sees Few Prospects for Iran Oil,” (http://www.reuters.com/article/ idUSN0317110720090703.) Petrobras ( Brazil ) $178 million No production October

  16. Iran: spotlight.

    PubMed

    Roudi, N

    1987-09-01

    Given its location between Asia and Asia Minor, Iran has been a country of strategic political importance throughout history. More than 98% of Iran's population is Moslem. During the early 20th century, as Iran gradually gained independence from the USSR and Turkey, a modernization process was begun. However, this modernization process was forced to yield to Islamic traditionalism after the 1979 Islamic Revolution. Women have been most affected by this change. The implementation of Islamic traditions has meant low job opportunity or motivation for continuing education among women. Although fertility remains high, the present government is satisfied with the current rate of population growth. Family planning is allowed if implemented within the framework of Islamic law, but abortion is illegal. Mortality fell substantially after World War II, but has not continued to decline. At present, both males and females have the same life expectancy at birth. Iran's population is growing at a rate of 4%/year, and can be expected to double in another 21 years. It has been projected that Iran, currently the 21st largest country in the world with a population of 50 million, will become the 15th largest with a population of 97 million by the year 2025. Tehran, the 20th largest city in 1985, is projected to be the 9th largest by the year 2000, with a population of 13.6 million.

  17. Iran Sanctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-21

    secondary sanctions (sanctions on foreign firms) that have been imposed because of Iran’s support for terrorism , its human rights abuses, its...Iran-Owned Assets .......................................................... 3 Sanctions for Iran’s Support for Terrorism and Destabilizing Regional...Activities ......................... 3 Sanctions Triggered by Terrorism List Designation: Ban on U.S. Aid, Arms Sales, Dual-Use Exports, and

  18. Iran Sanctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-16

    Corporations Say Business With Tehran Will Be Curbed,” New York Times , March 11, 2010. 73 Peter Baker, “U.S. and Foreign Companies Feeling Pressure to...finalized on July 14, 2015, provides Iran broad relief from U.S., U.N., and multilateral sanctions on Iran’s energy, financial, shipping, automotive

  19. Iran Sanctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-09

    of Iran are UBS and Credit Suisse (Switzerland), HSBC (Britain), Germany’s Commerzbank A.G and Deutsche Bank AG. U.S. pressure has reportedly...The available sanctions the President can select from (Section 6) include: (1) denial of Export-Import Bank loans, credits , or credit guarantees...expand the definition of sanctionable entities to official credit guarantee agencies, such as France’s COFACE and Germany’s Hermes, and to financial

  20. Iran Sanctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-24

    another bank partially owned by Libya). In the biggest such instance, on December 16, 2009, the Treasury Department announced that Credit Suisse would...pay a $536 million settlement to the United States for illicitly processing Iranian transactions with U.S. banks. Credit Suisse , according to the...discussed below, ceased processing dollar transactions for Iranian banks. Credit Suisse also pledged to cease doing business with Iran. In action

  1. Iran Sanctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-19

    2 http://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sanctions/Documents/tar2010. pdf . 3 http://global.factiva.com/hp...local currency, the rupee, to settle 45% of its sales to India. That local account funds the sale to Iran of Indian wheat, pharmaceuticals, rice , sugar...according to U.S. State Department officials on May 24, 2011 A UAE firm, Golden Crown Petroleum FZE, told the author in April 2011 that, as of June 29

  2. Iran Sanctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-04

    firms since early 2010 that they are exiting the Iranian market. Iran’s oil production has fallen slightly to about 3.9 million barrels per day...amended ISA to try to curtail additional types of activity, such as selling gasoline and gasoline production -related equipment and services to Iran...early 20th century), and Iran’s onshore oil fields and oil industry infrastructure are far past peak production and in need of substantial

  3. Iran Sanctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-10

    Republic 89 Brazil 60 Source: The World Trade Atlas, adapted by Susan Chesser, Knowledge Services Group, CRS. Application to Energy Pipelines...In April 2000, the trade ban was further eased to allow U.S. importation of Iranian nuts , dried fruits, carpets, and caviar. Financing was...After failed negotiations with Iran during 2009, Resolution 1929 was adopted on June 9, 2010, by a vote of 12-2 (Turkey and Brazil ), with one

  4. Iran Sanctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-15

    importation of Iranian nuts , fruit products (such as pomegranate juice), carpets, and caviar. Trade financing was permitted for U.S. importers of...1929 was adopted on June 9, 2010, by a vote of 12-2 (Turkey and Brazil ), with one abstention (Lebanon). (Iranian entities and persons under U.N...Petrobras Sees Few Prospects for Iran Oil,” (http://www.reuters.com/article/ idUSN0317110720090703.) Petrobras ( Brazil ) $178 million No

  5. Iran Sanctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-31

    April 2000 to allow U.S. importation of Iranian nuts , fruit products (such as pomegranate juice), carpets, and caviar. The relaxations to the trade...destruction (WMD) infrastructure. Resolution 1929 was adopted on June 9, 2010, by a vote of 12-2 (Turkey and Brazil ), with one abstention (Lebanon...April 6, 2009; “Brazil’s Petrobras Sees Few Prospects for Iran Oil,” (http://www.reuters.com/article/ idUSN0317110720090703.) Petrobras ( Brazil

  6. Iran Sanctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-18

    executive order in April 2000 to allow U.S. importation of Iranian nuts , fruit products (such as pomegranate juice), carpets, and caviar. The...Sanctions Congressional Research Service 33 9, 2010, by a vote of 12-2 (Turkey and Brazil ), with one abstention (Lebanon). (Iranian entities and...Petrobras Sees Few Prospects for Iran Oil,” (http://www.reuters.com/article/ idUSN0317110720090703.) Petrobras ( Brazil ) $178 million No production

  7. Iran Sanctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-13

    eased to allow U.S. importation of Iranian nuts , fruit products (such as pomegranate juice), carpets, and caviar. Trade financing was permitted for...Iran’s borders. After failed negotiations with Iran during 2009, Resolution 1929 was adopted on June 9, 2010, by a vote of 12-2 (Turkey and Brazil ), with...www.reuters.com/article/ idUSN0317110720090703.) Petrobras ( Brazil ) $178 million No production October 2004 Yadavaran (oil) Formal start of

  8. Iran Sanctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-26

    and Sudan). • In April 2000, the trade ban was further eased to allow U.S. importation of Iranian nuts , dried fruits, carpets, and caviar. Financing...vote of 12-2 (Turkey and Brazil ), with one abstention (Lebanon). (Iranian entities and persons sanctioned by the United Nations are in Table 6...Tusan Block Petrobras ( Brazil ) $178 million No Iran Sanctions Congressional Research Service 50 Date Field/Project Company(ies)/Status (If Known

  9. Shadegan, Iran

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    The town of Shadegan, Iran is northeast of where the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers enter the Persian Gulf. It sits near a wetland and upon land that was once part of an inland river delta. The long, linear orchards follow the topography created by the delta. The image was acquired September 3, 2012, covers an area of 40.6 by 55.3 km, and is located at 30.6 degrees north, 48.6 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21170

  10. Iran Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    Iran holds the world's fourth-largest proved crude oil reserves and the world's second-largest natural gas reserves. Despite the country's abundant reserves, Iran's crude oil production has substantially declined, and natural gas production growth has been slower than expected over the past few years. International sanctions have profoundly affected Iran's energy sector and have prompted a number of cancellations or delays of upstream oil and gas projects.

  11. 31 CFR 561.329 - Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iran. 561.329 Section 561.329 Money... Iran. The term Iran means the Government of Iran and the territory of Iran and any other territory or... Iran claims sovereignty, sovereign rights, or jurisdiction, provided that the Government of Iran...

  12. 31 CFR 561.329 - Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iran. 561.329 Section 561.329 Money... Iran. The term Iran means the Government of Iran and the territory of Iran and any other territory or... Iran claims sovereignty, sovereign rights, or jurisdiction, provided that the Government of Iran...

  13. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iran; Iranian. 560.303 Section 560.303... Definitions § 560.303 Iran; Iranian. The term Iran means the territory of Iran and any other territory or... Iran claims sovereignty, sovereign rights, or jurisdiction, provided that the Government of Iran...

  14. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iran; Iranian. 560.303 Section 560.303... Definitions § 560.303 Iran; Iranian. The term Iran means the territory of Iran and any other territory or... Iran claims sovereignty, sovereign rights, or jurisdiction, provided that the Government of Iran...

  15. Iran’s Economy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-22

    Motor Vehicles (OICA), “World Motor Vehicle Production by Country and Type: 2006-2007,” [http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/]. 87 Eric Ellis...Iran is the 15th largest motor vehicle producer in the world and the largest automaker among the Middle Eastern countries. Motor vehicle production...to pollution.88 Despite Iran’s high level of automotive production, domestic demand for motor vehicles exceeds supply. Iran imports a variety of

  16. Nuclear Politics in Iran

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    system. States with prestige are recognized by other actors as having a high 21 Nuclear Politics in Iran standing either generally or with regard to...Nuclear Politics in Iran Edited by Judith S. Yaphe MIDDLE EAST STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVES 1 Center for Strategic Research Institute for National...OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE MAY 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nuclear Politics in

  17. [History of acupuncture in Iran].

    PubMed

    Bai, Xinghua

    2015-10-01

    Iran is the neighbor of western China, and is a key transport junction on ancient Silk Road. The medical communication between China and Iran dates back to the 10th century, however, according to current evidences, it is indicated that acupuncture has not been introduced to Iran until the early 1970s. Unfortunately over the last 40 years, the acupuncture in Iran has not presented great development. The history of acupuncture development in Iran implies that geographical advantage and personnel exchanges are not essential to the international exchange of acupuncture, while language and cultural background may hinder the spread of acupuncture in foreign countries.

  18. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iran; Iranian. 560.303 Section 560.303... Iran; Iranian. The term Iran means the territory of Iran, and any other territory or marine area, including the exclusive economic zone and continental shelf, over which the Government of Iran claims...

  19. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iran; Iranian. 560.303 Section 560.303... Iran; Iranian. The term Iran means the territory of Iran, and any other territory or marine area, including the exclusive economic zone and continental shelf, over which the Government of Iran claims...

  20. Country Profiles, Iran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, John K.; Moore, Richard V.

    A profile of Iran is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population--size, number of households, women of reproductive age, growth patterns, role of women, urban/rural distribution,…

  1. Transplantation activities in Iran.

    PubMed

    Broumand, Behrooz

    2005-06-01

    Iran is a tropical country with a land area of 1,648,000 square kilometers and a population of 68,100,000. Iran has a recorded history that dates back 2553 years. Its earliest medical school was Pasargad. Jondi Chapour University was founded 1753 years ago during the Sassanid dynasty as a center for higher education in medicine, philosophy, and pharmacology. Indeed, the idea of xenotransplantation dates back to days of Achaemenidae (Achaemenian dynasty), as evidenced by engravings of many mythologic chimeras still present in Persepolis. Avicenna (980-1037 AD), the great Iranian physician, performed the first nerve repair. Transplantation progress in Iran follows roughly the same pattern as that of the rest of the world, with some 10-20 years' delay. Modern organ transplantation dates back to 1935, when the first cornea transplant was performed at Farabi Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The first living-related kidney transplantation performed at Shiraz University Hospital dates back to 1968. The first bone marrow transplant was performed at Dr. Shariaati's Hospital in Tehran. The first heart transplant was performed 1993 in Tabriz, Iran. The first liver transplant was performed in 1993 in Shiraz. The first lung transplant was performed in 2001, and the first heart and lung transplants were performed in 2002, both at Tehran. In late 1985, the renal transplantation program was officially started in a major university hospital in Tehran and was poised to carry out 2 to 4 transplantations each week. Soon, another large center initiated a similar program. Both of these centers accepted surgical, medical, and nursing teams from other academic medical centers for training in kidney transplantation. Since 2002, Iran has grown to include 23 active renal, 68 cornea, 2 liver, 4 heart, 2 lung, and 2 bone marrow transplantation centers in different cities. In June 2000, the Organ Transplantation Brain Death Act was approved by the Parliament, followed by the establishment of the

  2. Iran’s Economy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-12

    production, including Peugeot and Citroen (France), Volkswagen (Germany), Nissan and Toyota (Japan), Kia Motors (South Korea), Proton (Malaysia), and...Steel Institute, “Major importers and exporters of steel, 2005,” [http://www.worldsteel.org/]. 75 International Organization of Motor Vehicles (OICA...World Motor Vehicle Production by Country and Type: 2006-2007,” [http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/]. 76 Eric Ellis, “Made in Iran

  3. Popularising astronomy in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafreshi, Babak A.

    2011-06-01

    The interest to astronomy has incredibly risen in the younger generation of Iranians during the last two decades. By the end of the devastating war with Iraq, science popularisation activities started again in Iran and with only a handful of astronomers and few dozens of serious amateur astronomers in the whole country in late 1980s now there are thousands of amateur astronomers (60% female on average) and over 100 professional astronomers propelling the fun and science of astronomy in the society.

  4. Astronomy in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobouti, Y.

    2006-08-01

    Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan, Iran In spite of her renowned pivotal role in the advancement of astronomy on the world scale during 9th to 15th centuries, Iran's rekindled interest in modern astronomy is a recent happening. Serious attempts to introduce astronomy into university curricula and to develop it into a respectable and worthwhile field of research began in the mid 60's. The pioneer was Shiraz University. It should be credited for the first few dozens of astronomy- and astrophysics- related research papers in international journals, for training the first half a dozen of professional astronomers and for creating the Biruni Observatory. Here, I take this opportunity to acknowledge the valuable advice of Bob Koch and Ed Guinan, then of the University of Pennsylvania, in the course of the establishment of this observatory. At present the astronomical community of Iran consists of about 65 professionals, half university faculty members and half MS and PhD students. The yearly scientific contribution of its members has, in the past three years, averaged to about 15 papers in reputable international journals, and presently has a healthy growth rate. Among the existing observational facilities, Biruni Observatory with its 51 cm Cassegrain, CCD cameras, photometers and other smaller educational telescopes, is by far the most active place. Tusi Observatory of Tabriz University has 60 and 40 cm Cassegrains, and a small solar telescope. A number of smaller observing facilities exist in Meshed, Zanjan, Tehran, Babol and other places. The Astronomical Society of Iran (ASI), though some 30 years old, has expanded and institutionalized its activities since early 1990's. ASI sets up seasonal schools for novices, organizes annual colloquia and seminars for professionals and supports a huge body of amateur astronomers from among high school and university students. Over twenty of ASI members are also members of IAU and take active part in its

  5. Iran's Million-Student Alternative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2008-01-01

    The Islamic Azad University was founded by Hashemi Rafsanjani, a cleric who was in the past the first speaker of the Majlis, or Parliament, of Iran's postrevolutionary government. He served as president of Iran from 1989 to 1997 and ran for re-election in 2005, when he was defeated by Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. In the two decades after Azad was founded,…

  6. Iran's Million-Student Alternative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2008-01-01

    The Islamic Azad University was founded by Hashemi Rafsanjani, a cleric who was in the past the first speaker of the Majlis, or Parliament, of Iran's postrevolutionary government. He served as president of Iran from 1989 to 1997 and ran for re-election in 2005, when he was defeated by Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. In the two decades after Azad was founded,…

  7. Natural Gas Exports from Iran

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    This assessment of the natural gas sector in Iran, with a focus on Iran’s natural gas exports, was prepared pursuant to section 505 (a) of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (Public Law No: 112-158). As requested, it includes: (1) an assessment of exports of natural gas from Iran; (2) an identification of the countries that purchase the most natural gas from Iran; (3) an assessment of alternative supplies of natural gas available to those countries; (4) an assessment of the impact a reduction in exports of natural gas from Iran would have on global natural gas supplies and the price of natural gas, especially in countries identified under number (2); and (5) such other information as the Administrator considers appropriate.

  8. Hemophilia in Iran.

    PubMed

    Dorgalaleh, Akbar; Dadashizadeh, Ghazaleh; Bamedi, Taregh

    2016-06-01

    Hemophilia A (HA) and B (HB) are common bleeding disorders, Iran having the ninth largest such population in the world. A considerable number of studies have been performed on different aspects of their disorder. The aim of the study was to gather all obtainable data about Iranian patients with HA and HB, including molecular studies, clinical presentations and treatment, and development and management of patients with inhibitor, to help better understand the disease and its management in other parts of the world. For this review study, we searched MEDLINE and Scientific Information Database for English and Persian sources until 2015. There are 5369 patients with HA and HB in Iran among which 4438 patients have HA. About one-fifth of HA patients' genes were analyzed and their underlying defects detected. Hemarthrosis, epistaxis, ecchymosis, and post-dental extraction bleeding are the most common clinical presentations. Bleeding was mainly managed by on-demand replacement therapy with factor VIII/factor IX (FVIII/FIX) concentrates or cryoprecipitate in HA, and fresh frozen plasma in HB in the absence of factor concentrate. Mean per capita for FVIII in HA patients is 1.56 IU, which is higher than the global per capita mean. However, mean per capita for FIX (0.24 IU) is lower than the global mean but highest among eastern Mediterranean countries. Replacement with plasma-derived components has led to infection in a large number of patients as well as inhibitor development against exogenous infusion of coagulation factors. According to a World Federation of Hemophilia survey, 223 HA and 6 HB patients in Iran have developed inhibitor and have been mainly managed by recombinant FVII (rFVIIa) and activated prothrombin-complex concentrate. Although this study was performed in Iranian patients, the large number thereof gives confidence that the results can be used more widely for other countries, especially in the developing world.

  9. Cigarette Smoking in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Meysamie, A; Ghaletaki, R; Zhand, N; Abbasi, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is the largest preventable cause of death worldwide. No systematic review is available on the situation of the smoking in Iran, so we decided to provide an overview of the studies in the field of smoking in Iranian populations. Methods: Published Persian-language papers of all types until 2009 indexed in the IranMedex (http://www.iranmedex.com) and Magiran (http://www.magiran.com). Reports of World Health Organization were also searched and optionally employed. The studies concerning passive smoking or presenting the statistically insignificant side effects were excluded. Databases were searched using various combinations of the following terms: cigarette, smoking, smoking cessation, prevalence, history, side effects, and lung cancer by independent reviewers. All the 83 articles concerning the prevalence or side effects of the smoking habit in any Iranian population were selected. The prevalence rate of daily cigarette smoking and the 95% confidence interval as well as smoking health risk associated odds ratio (OR) were retrieved from the articles or calculated. Results: The reported prevalence rates of the included studies, the summary of smoking-related side effects and the ORs (95%CI) of smoking associated risks and the available data on smoking cessation in Iran have been shown in the article. Conclusion: Because of lack of certain data, special studies on local pattern of tobacco use in different districts, about the relationship between tobacco use and other diseases, especially non communicable diseases, and besides extension of smoking cessation strategies, studies on efficacy of these methods seems to be essential in this field. PMID:23113130

  10. Women, Change, and Iran

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-22

    Women, Change, and Iran by MAJ Michelle M. T. Letcher U.S. Army School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army Command and General...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) LETCHER, Michelle M. T., Major, USA 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 SCHOOL OF ADVANCED MILITARY STUDIES MONOGRAPH APPROVAL MAJ Michelle M.T. Letcher Title of

  11. Coping with a Nuclearizing Iran

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    2010: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7386001.stm Iran Human Rights Documentation Center, Murder at Mykonos: Anatomy of a Political Assassination, New Haven...to international norms, is at peace with its neighbors, and respects human rights might still encourage other potential proliferators but would...direct involvement in the affair dampened Iranian-European rapprochement (Iran Human Rights Documentation Center, 2007). 12 Sadr, 2010. Iran’s

  12. Iran’s Security Dilemma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    see William 0. Beeman , "Images of the Great Satan: Representations of the United States in the Iranian Revolution," Religion and Politics in Iran...Books, 1984. Beeman , William 0., "Images of the Great Satan: Representations of the United States in the Iranian Revolution," Religion and Politics in...University Press, 1986. Wilber, Donald N., Iran: Past and Present, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1981. Woodward, Bob, veil, New York: Simon and

  13. Spider Bite in Iran.

    PubMed

    Sanaei-Zadeh, Hossein

    2017-07-01

    Some of the world's most dangerous spiders have been certified in some areas of Iran. Spider bites are common in some geographical areas, and are sporadic in some regions. Spider bites can be classified as latrodectism or loxoscelism. If the patient had not seen the spider, the clinical manifestations of latrodectism could be easily mistaken for other types of bite or sting; or an infectious disease, and withdrawal symptoms, and also loxoscelism could be mistaken for cellulitis, various types of skin infection, or even a sting from a Gadim scorpion (Hemiscorpius lepturus). Given the nonspecific presentation of spider bites, one must keep the diagnosis in mind, and question patients, regarding possible exposure to spiders. Physicians recommend becoming familiar with the geographical distribution of Iranian dangerous spiders, clinical manifestations, and management of their bites. The most useful treatment for spider bite is anti-venom administration. Producing spider bite anti-venom in the Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute is under investigation.

  14. Iran's Land Suitability for Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Mesgaran, Mohsen B; Madani, Kaveh; Hashemi, Hossein; Azadi, Pooya

    2017-08-09

    Increasing population has posed insurmountable challenges to agriculture in the provision of future food security, particularly in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region where biophysical conditions are not well-suited for agriculture. Iran, as a major agricultural country in the MENA region, has long been in the quest for food self-sufficiency, however, the capability of its land and water resources to realize this goal is largely unknown. Using very high-resolution spatial data sets, we evaluated the capacity of Iran's land for sustainable crop production based on the soil properties, topography, and climate conditions. We classified Iran's land suitability for cropping as (million ha): very good 0.4% (0.6), good 2.2% (3.6), medium 7.9% (12.8), poor 11.4% (18.5), very poor 6.3% (10.2), unsuitable 60.0% (97.4), and excluded areas 11.9% (19.3). In addition to overarching limitations caused by low precipitation, low soil organic carbon, steep slope, and high soil sodium content were the predominant soil and terrain factors limiting the agricultural land suitability in Iran. About 50% of the Iran's existing croplands are located in low-quality lands, representing an unsustainable practice. There is little room for cropland expansion to increase production but redistribution of cropland to more suitable areas may improve sustainability and reduce pressure on water resources, land, and ecosystem in Iran.

  15. Landsat View: Tehran, Iran

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Between 1985 and 2009, the population of Tehran, Iran, grew from six million to just over seven million. The city's growth was spurred largely by migration from other parts of the country. In addition to being the hub of government and associated public sector jobs, Tehran houses more than half of Iran's industry. Landsat 5 acquired these false-color images of Tehran on August 2, 1985, and July 19, 2009. The city is a web of dark purple lines, vegetation is green and bare ground is pink and tan. The images were created using both infrared and visible light (band combination 7, 4, and 2) to distinguish urban areas from the surrounding desert. ---- NASA and the U.S. Department of the Interior through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) jointly manage Landsat, and the USGS preserves a 40-year archive of Landsat images that is freely available over the Internet. The next Landsat satellite, now known as the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) and later to be called Landsat 8, is scheduled for launch in 2013. In honor of Landsat’s 40th anniversary in July 2012, the USGS released the LandsatLook viewer – a quick, simple way to go forward and backward in time, pulling images of anywhere in the world out of the Landsat archive. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  16. 31 CFR 560.427 - Exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of financial services to Iran or the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... supply of financial services to Iran or the Government of Iran. 560.427 Section 560.427 Money and Finance..., reexportation, sale or supply of financial services to Iran or the Government of Iran. (a) The prohibition on the exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of financial services to Iran or the Government of Iran...

  17. 31 CFR 560.427 - Exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of financial services to Iran or the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... supply of financial services to Iran or the Government of Iran. 560.427 Section 560.427 Money and Finance..., reexportation, sale or supply of financial services to Iran or the Government of Iran. (a) The prohibition on the exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of financial services to Iran or the Government of Iran...

  18. Managing Proliferation Issues with Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C. Richard; Saltiel, David H.

    2002-02-15

    Any government in Tehran will be inclined to seek weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missile delivery options given the realities of its strategic environment. These weapons might help Iran to deter potential external threats, to achieve equality with other major regional powers armed with WMD, and to attain self-reliance in national security, given the isolating experience of arms embargoes. A more pluralist leadership in the future, however, may examine broader choices and trade-offs, and perhaps be less likely to cross key thresholds in WMD acquisition. In any event, Iran's WMD behavior is likely to be determined by both external factors, mainly the availability of crucial components, and internal factors, including calculations of costs, risks, and benefits. Among the benefits, psychological factors, such as prestige, will play an important role. Other important factors that might well shape Iran's WMD behavior include developments in Iraq, relations with the United States and other Gulf states, Israeli-Palestinian relations and the future price of oil. This paper offers recommendations on how the United States can best hope to influence Iranian decisions regarding the acquisition of WMD and missile delivery systems if the United States decides to pursue more direct engagement with Tehran. An engagement-nonproliferation strategy should involve at least three types of parallel efforts: public, private and indirect. Public efforts should seek to create a more positive, less-threatening image of the United States among opinion leaders in Iran. Private efforts should seek to determine the purposes, nature and extent of Iran's efforts to develop WMD and missiles and to suggest better alternatives for Iran's security and prestige needs. Indirect efforts should involve key third countries and organizations in an attempt both to address Iran's security concerns and to deny Iran access to critical WMD and missile technology and components. Russian policy, in

  19. 15 CFR 746.7 - Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Iran. 746.7 Section 746.7 Commerce and... § 746.7 Iran. The Treasury Department's Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) administers a comprehensive trade and investment embargo against Iran. This embargo includes prohibitions on exports and...

  20. 15 CFR 746.7 - Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Iran. 746.7 Section 746.7 Commerce and... § 746.7 Iran. The Treasury Department's Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) administers a comprehensive trade and investment embargo against Iran. This embargo includes prohibitions on exports and...

  1. 15 CFR 746.7 - Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Iran. 746.7 Section 746.7 Commerce and... § 746.7 Iran. The Treasury Department's Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) administers a comprehensive trade and investment embargo against Iran. This embargo includes prohibitions on exports and...

  2. 15 CFR 746.7 - Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Iran. 746.7 Section 746.7 Commerce and... § 746.7 Iran. The Treasury Department's Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) administers a comprehensive trade and investment embargo against Iran. This embargo includes prohibitions on exports and...

  3. 15 CFR 746.7 - Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Iran. 746.7 Section 746.7 Commerce and... § 746.7 Iran. The Treasury Department's Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) administers a comprehensive trade and investment embargo against Iran. This embargo includes prohibitions on exports and...

  4. Health observatories in iran.

    PubMed

    Rashidian, A; Damari, B; Larijani, B; Vosoogh Moghadda, A; Alikhani, S; Shadpour, K; Khosravi, A

    2013-01-01

    The Islamic Republic of Iran, in her 20 year vision by the year 2025, is a developed country with the first economic, scientific and technological status in the region, with revolutionary and Islamic identity, inspiring Islamic world, as well as effective and constructive interaction in international relations. Enjoying health, welfare, food security, social security, equal opportunities, fair income distribution, strong family structure; to be away from poverty, corruption, and discrimination; and benefiting desirable living environment are also considered out of characteristics of Iranian society in that year. Strategic leadership towards perceived vision in each setting requires restrictive, complete and timely information. According to constitution of National Institute for Health Researches, law of the Fifth Development Plan of the country and characteristics of health policy making, necessity of designing a Health Observatory System (HOS) was felt. Some Principles for designing such system were formulated by taking following steps: reviewing experience in other countries, having local history of the HOS in mind, superior documents, analysis of current production and management of health information, taking the possibilities to run a HOS into account. Based on these principles, the protocol of HOS was outlined in 3 different stages of opinion poll of informed experts responsible for production on management of information, by using questionnaires and Focus Group Discussions. The protocol includes executive regulations, the list of health indicators, vocabulary and a calendar for periodic studies of the community health situation.

  5. Spider Bite in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sanaei-Zadeh, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Some of the world’s most dangerous spiders have been certified in some areas of Iran. Spider bites are common in some geographical areas, and are sporadic in some regions. Spider bites can be classified as latrodectism or loxoscelism. If the patient had not seen the spider, the clinical manifestations of latrodectism could be easily mistaken for other types of bite or sting; or an infectious disease, and withdrawal symptoms, and also loxoscelism could be mistaken for cellulitis, various types of skin infection, or even a sting from a Gadim scorpion (Hemiscorpius lepturus). Given the nonspecific presentation of spider bites, one must keep the diagnosis in mind, and question patients, regarding possible exposure to spiders. Physicians recommend becoming familiar with the geographical distribution of Iranian dangerous spiders, clinical manifestations, and management of their bites. The most useful treatment for spider bite is anti-venom administration. Producing spider bite anti-venom in the Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute is under investigation. PMID:28894524

  6. Iran: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that at the end of its war with Iraq, Iran embarked on an urgent program to restore its productive capacity. This effort has been hindered by lack of hard currency and, hence, technology, parts, equipment, etc. Iran has been trying to improve relations with the U.S, over the past two years. Recently, the embargo on importing Iranian crude into the U.S. was lifted. Over the past year and a half, Iran accumulated enough money to resume imports of U.S. and other foreign drilling equipment. However, drilling has remained at a low level. Also, efforts to boost output have been slowed by war damage both on and offshore---particularly the latter---and serious BHP declines in major onshore fields that can only be corrected by ultra- high cost gas injection projects. Currently, large injection projects are only operating in three major fields: Gachsaran, Ahwaz and Marun.

  7. IRAN: Interferometric Remapped Array Nulling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristidi, E.; Vakili, F.; Schutz, A.; Lanteri, H.; Abe, L.; Belu, A.; Gori, P. M.; Lardière, O.; Lopez, B.; Menut, J. L.; Patru, F.

    IRAN is a method of beam-combination in the hypertelescope imaging technique recently introduced by Labeyrie in optical interferometry. We propose to observe the interferometric image in the pupil plane, performing multi-axial pupil plane interferometry. Imaging is performed in a combined pupil-plane where the point-source intensity distribution (PSID) tends towards a pseudo Airy disc for a sufficiently large number of telescopes. The image is concentrated into the limited support of the output pupil of the individual telescopes, in which the object-image convolution relation is conserved. Specific deconvolution algorithms have been developped for IRAN hypertelescope imagery, based upon Lucy-like iterative techniques. We show that the classical (image plane) and IRAN (pupil plane) hypertelescope imaging techniques are equivalent if one uses optical fibers for beam transportation. An application to the VLT/VIDA concept is presented.

  8. 31 CFR 560.516 - Transfers of funds involving Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transfers of funds involving Iran. 560... involving Iran. (a) United States depository institutions are authorized to process transfers of funds to or from Iran, or for the direct or indirect benefit of persons in Iran or the Government of Iran, if the...

  9. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an agency, instrumentality and controlled entity of the Government of Iran for all purposes under this part. (Secs. 201-207...

  10. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an agency, instrumentality and controlled entity of the Government of Iran for all purposes under this part. (Secs. 201-207...

  11. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an agency, instrumentality and controlled entity of the Government of Iran for all purposes under this part. (Secs. 201-207...

  12. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an agency, instrumentality and controlled entity of the Government of Iran for all purposes under this part. (Secs. 201-207...

  13. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an agency, instrumentality and controlled entity of the Government of Iran for all purposes under this part. (Secs. 201-207...

  14. 31 CFR 560.516 - Transfers of funds involving Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transfers of funds involving Iran. 560... involving Iran. (a) United States depository institutions are authorized to process transfers of funds to or from Iran, or for the direct or indirect benefit of persons in Iran or the Government of Iran, if the...

  15. Iran: Illusion, Reality, and Interests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    war or living with an Iranian nuclear capability—ambiguous or overt. Dennis Ross, the former coordinator of Iran policy in the White House and a co...crush the Safavids and their tribal levies in 1514 at Chaldiran and the Sunni allies of the Safavids, the Egyptian Mamluks in 1517 Gabor Agoston and

  16. Human Gongylonema infection in Iran.

    PubMed

    Molavi, G H; Massoud, J; Gutierrez, Y

    2006-12-01

    The first human infection with Gongylonema in Iran is reported in a 35-year-old Iranian woman with complaints of one year duration and treated as a psychotic patient. Two worms, a male, and a female, were retrieved, described, and identified as G. pulchrum based on their morphological characteristics.

  17. Iran: Soviet Interests, US Concerns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    progress- ing onward toward Zanjan, Qazvin , and ultimately to the western approaches to Tehran. Another two-pronged attack was launched simultaneously...their control over northern Iran, Russian forces occupied Tabriz in 1908 and ultimately marched as far south as Qazvin in the west and Mashhad in the

  18. Bam, Iran, Radar Interferometry -- Earthquake

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-06-25

    A magnitude 6.5 earthquake devastated the small city of Bam in southeast Iran on December 26, 2003. The two images from ESA Envisat show similar measures of the radar interferometric correlation in grayscale on the left and in false colors on the right.

  19. Irans Foreign and Defense Policies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-21

    Based on statements during the 2016 U.S. election campaign and nominations to Cabinet posts made by the incoming Trump Administration, most experts...12 The Incoming Trump Administration...several occasions since Implementation Day that Iran is complying with the JCPOA. The Incoming Trump Administration During the 2016 U.S. presidential

  20. Seismotectonics of the Iran Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engdahl, E. R.; Bergman, E. A.; Myers, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    More than 2000 instrumentally recorded earthquakes occurring in the Iran region during the period 1918- 2008 have been relocated using an advanced seismic location technique. Relocation sharpens the image of seismic activity in the region and - more importantly - significantly improves event focal depths. Iranian seismicity is largely a result of the early stages of continent/continent collision (25-35mm/yr of northwards overall shortening) between the Arabian Peninsula and Eurasia. Most earthquakes in the Iranian continental lithosphere occur in the upper crust (consistent with focal depths of available local seismic network hypocenters), with crustal shortening accommodated entirely by thickening and distributed deformation. This shortening across Iran results in thrust and strike-slip faulting. In the Zagros Mountains nearly all earthquakes are confined to the upper crust (depths < 20 km), and there is no evidence for a seismically active subducted slab dipping NE beneath central Iran. Moreover, the Zagros has many earthquakes but their magnitudes are all less than Mw 7.0 and nearly all the moment release occurs near the SW topographic edge (i.e., elevations between 500-1000m) of the belt. The moment release in the Zagros cannot account for the expected convergence across it, suggesting that the missing moment release is being accommodated aseismically. In southeastern Iran, where the Arabian seafloor is being subducted beneath the Makran coast, low-level earthquake activity occurs in the upper crust as well as to depths of at least 150 km within a northward-dipping subducting slab. Near the Oman Line, a region transitional between the Zagros and the Makran, seismicity extends to depths of up to 30-45 km in the crust, consistent with low-angle thrusting of Arabian basement beneath central Iran. In north-central Iran, along the Alborz mountain belt, seismic activity occurs primarily in the upper crust but with some infrequent events in the lower crust

  1. Status of Iran's nuclear program and negotiations

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, David

    2014-05-09

    Iran's nuclear program poses immense challenges to international security. Its gas centrifuge program has grown dramatically in the last several years, bringing Iran close to a point where it could produce highly enriched uranium in secret or declared gas centrifuge plants before its breakout would be discovered and stopped. To reduce the risk posed by Iran's nuclear program, the P5+1 have negotiated with Iran short term limits on the most dangerous aspects of its nuclear programs and is negotiating long-term arrangements that can provide assurance that Iran will not build nuclear weapons. These long-term arrangements need to include a far more limited and transparent Iranian nuclear program. In advance of arriving at a long-term arrangement, the IAEA will need to resolve its concerns about the alleged past and possibly on-going military dimensions of Iran's nuclear program.

  2. A new flea from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Darvishi, Mohammad Mehdi; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Changizi, Emad; Lima, Rasoul Rostami; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2014-01-01

    Fleas are obligatory ectoparsites of humans and animals. These tiny insects are hematophagous and they can transmit a wide varity of disease agents to humans and domesticated animals. Indeed, this pest causes a considerable economic damages and health dangers particularly in tropical and subtropical. During an investigation on ectoparasites of five Mus muscuuls in Semnan province, Iran, 15 fleas (8 males and 7 females) were collected. The extracted fleas mounted using clearing, dehydrating, mounting process and preserved with Canada balsam. After precise study, all of examined specimens were recognized as Leptopsylla aethiopicus aethiopicus using available systematic keys. This is the first report of this genus and species in Iran. And this country is new locality for Leptopsylla aethiopicus aethiopicus.

  3. Iran: Theatre Security Cooperation Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-23

    challenges most likely to be exploitable are Iran’s rampant drug problem and the related HIV/AIDS epidemic . Afghanistan is the world’s largest producer...20 In   8 fact, approximately 8% of the Iranian population is addicted to drugs, and the country has the highest per capita opiate use in the world...coastline to police.28 As discussed earlier, 60% of the opiates produced in Afghanistan flow through Iran. In addition to drug traffickers, arms smugglers

  4. Reassessing US Policy Toward Iran

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Islamic-governed society will act. These are the sort of issues with which St. Augustine, St. Thomas of Aquinas , Hobbes, Locke, and others struggled...and Attitudes, Thomas L. Friedman identifies three American schools of thought regarding policy toward Iran; those who advocate rolling back the...issue. In his book, The Lexus and the Olive Tree, Thomas L. Friedman offers the following passage: “...my old two-dimensional view of the world was

  5. Diversity of beet curly top Iran virus isolated from different hosts in Iran.

    PubMed

    Gharouni Kardani, Sara; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Zakiaghl, Mohammad; Mehrvar, Mohsen; Kraberger, Simona; Varsani, Arvind

    2013-06-01

    Beet curly top Iran virus (BCTIV) is a major pathogen of sugar beet in Iran. In order to study diversity of BCTIV, we sampled 68 plants in Iran during the summer of 2010 with curly top disease symptoms on beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.), sea beets (Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima), and sugar beets (Beta vulgaris). Plant samples showing leaf curling, yellowing, and/or swelling of veins on the lower leaf surfaces were collected from various fields in Khorasan Razavi, Northern Khorasan (north-eastern Iran), East Azarbayejan, West Azarbayejan (north-western Iran), and Fars (southern Iran) provinces. Using rolling circle amplification coupled with restriction digests, cloning, and Sanger sequencing, we determined the genomes of nine new BCTIV isolates from bean, cowpea, tomato, sea beet, and sugar beet in Iran. Our analysis reveals ~11 % diversity amongst BCTIV isolates and we detect evidence of recombination within these genomes.

  6. Desert and desertification in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, M.

    2009-04-01

    One of the greatest environmental concerns in Iran as in other arid and semiarid countries is the transformation of once productive, or marginally productive, land to deteriorated land and soil unable to support plants and animals. Because the land becomes barren and dry, the process is described as desertification, which occurs as a sequence of events. The area of deserts in Iran is about 340,000 Km2 (less than one fifth of its total area), of which 100,000 Km2 is being used for some cultivation, 120,000 Km2 is subjected to moving sands about 40 % of which is active sand dunes. Most of features and processes usual in world famous deserts are also observed in Iran: low precipitation, high evaporation, poor or lack of vegetation, saline and alkaline soils, low population and small and sparse oases. The deserts of Iran are generally classified in the subtropical, warm, arid and semiarid group, but the effect and presence of some geographical and geoclimatical factors such as height, vicinity to Indian Ocean and so on do some changes in climatic conditions and geographical features causing some local and regional differences in them. Geographically, two groups of deserts have been known in Iran: (1) Coastal deserts which, like a ribbon with variable width, stretch from extreme southeast to extreme southwest, at the north parts of Oman Sea and Persian Gulf. One important feature of these deserts is relatively high humidity which differentiates them from other deserts. This causes an increase in vegetation coverage and hence a decrease in eolian erosion and also a dominance of chemical weathering to that of physical. (2) internal deserts, which rest in central, eastern and southeastern plateau of the country and in independent and semi dependent depressions. This situation, which is due to the surrounding high mountains, blocks humidity entry and causes the aridity of these deserts. Wind as a dominant process in the area causes deflated features such as Reg (desert

  7. Iran’s Balancing Act in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    of Pishin, near the Pakistan border (“Iran: Dual Attacks in Sistan- Balochistan ,” 2009). The Iranian government accuses the United States, the United...Contract=cms_Contents_I_News&r=362180 “Iran: Dual Attacks in Sistan- Balochistan ,” Stratfor, October 18, 2009. As of January 5, 2011: http

  8. Reflections on Foreign Language Education in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farhady, Hossein; Hezaveh, Fattaneh Sajadi; Hedayati, Hora

    2010-01-01

    This article reflects upon foreign-language education in Iran. Contrary to its political and historical reputation in the world, Iran has not been well presented regarding its educational system in general and its foreign-language education in particular. Of course, a critical assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the Iranian education…

  9. The state of the environment in Iran.

    PubMed

    Zekavat, S M

    1997-06-01

    This article describes environmental conditions in Iran including air pollution, pesticide pollution, soil depletion and erosion, water pollution, natural resource loss, lack of appropriate waste management, lead poisoning, and desertification. Environmental policy and implementation is described under the Shah and the Islamic Republic. Iran is beset with interrelated problems of environmental degradation, unemployment, poverty, and population growth. Sustainability is being undermined at the cost of future generations. In 1995, Iran had a population of 67 million and a growth rate of 3.6%. Population is expected to exceed 100 million by the year 2000. The country is having difficulty in maintaining its current infrastructure, housing, food, and educational facilities. Competition for admission in higher education discourages women. Women with lower levels of education results in continued supremacy of men over women, more polygamy, and a lower quality of life for women. Iran was food self-sufficient in 1970, and exported its surplus. Today, Iran may be permanently dependent on food imports. Iran has abundant oil reserves, natural gas, copper, lead, and marketable items. Exchanging natural resources for food and technology has time and resource limits. Iran needs monetary assistance from wealthy nations. Population growth leads to increased demand for infrastructure and resources. Iran has signed many international environmental agreements and has enacted detailed environmental policies and regulations, but actual enforcement is lacking.

  10. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any territory...

  11. 31 CFR 560.304 - Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Government of Iran. 560.304 Section... § 560.304 Government of Iran. The term Government of Iran includes: (a) The state and the Government of Iran, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof; (b) Any entity owned or...

  12. 31 CFR 560.304 - Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Government of Iran. 560.304 Section... Definitions § 560.304 Government of Iran. The term Government of Iran includes: (a) The state and the Government of Iran, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including the...

  13. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any territory...

  14. 31 CFR 560.304 - Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government of Iran. 560.304 Section... § 560.304 Government of Iran. The term Government of Iran includes: (a) The state and the Government of Iran, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof; (b) Any entity owned or...

  15. 31 CFR 561.321 - Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Government of Iran. 561.321 Section... Definitions § 561.321 Government of Iran. The term Government of Iran includes: (a) The state and the Government of Iran, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof; (b) Any entity...

  16. 31 CFR 560.304 - Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Government of Iran. 560.304 Section... § 560.304 Government of Iran. The term Government of Iran includes: (a) The state and the Government of Iran, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof; (b) Any entity owned or...

  17. 31 CFR 561.321 - Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Government of Iran. 561.321 Section... Definitions § 561.321 Government of Iran. The term Government of Iran includes: (a) The state and the Government of Iran, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof; (b) Any entity...

  18. 31 CFR 561.321 - Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Government of Iran. 561.321 Section... Definitions § 561.321 Government of Iran. The term Government of Iran includes: (a) The state and the Government of Iran, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof; (b) Any entity...

  19. 31 CFR 560.304 - Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Government of Iran. 560.304 Section... Definitions § 560.304 Government of Iran. The term Government of Iran includes: (a) The state and the Government of Iran, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including the...

  20. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any territory...

  1. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any territory...

  2. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any territory...

  3. 31 CFR 560.205 - Prohibited reexportation of goods, technology or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., technology or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by persons other than United States persons... Prohibitions § 560.205 Prohibited reexportation of goods, technology or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by persons other than United States persons; exceptions. (a) Except as otherwise authorized...

  4. 31 CFR 560.205 - Prohibited reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., technology, or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by persons other than United States persons... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 560.205 Prohibited reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by persons other than United States persons; exceptions. (a) Except as otherwise...

  5. 31 CFR 560.205 - Prohibited reexportation of goods, technology or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., technology or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by persons other than United States persons... Prohibitions § 560.205 Prohibited reexportation of goods, technology or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by persons other than United States persons; exceptions. (a) Except as otherwise authorized...

  6. 31 CFR 560.205 - Prohibited reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., technology, or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by persons other than United States persons... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 560.205 Prohibited reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by persons other than United States persons; exceptions. (a) Except as otherwise...

  7. 31 CFR 560.205 - Prohibited reexportation of goods, technology or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., technology or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by persons other than United States persons... Prohibitions § 560.205 Prohibited reexportation of goods, technology or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by persons other than United States persons; exceptions. (a) Except as otherwise authorized...

  8. Coding and traceability in Iran.

    PubMed

    Aghayan, Hamid Reza; Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra; Goodarzi, Parisa; Arjmand, Babak; Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hassan

    2010-11-01

    Transplantation has a long history in Iran. Cornea was the first tissue transplantation in 1935. The Central Eye Bank of Iran was established in 1991 and the Iranian Tissue Bank (ITB) in 1994. Now, there are also some private cell and tissue banks in the country, that produce different tissue grafts such as homograft heart valves, musculoskeletal tissues, soft tissues, cartilages, pericardium, amniotic membrane and some cell based products. There is not a separate legislation for tissue transplantation but the legal framework for tissue donation is based on the "Deceased or Brain dead patient organ transplantation" act (passed on April 6, 2000). For tissue banking there is no regulatory oversight by the national health authority. To increase the level of safety and considering the importance of effective traceability, each tissue bank has its own policy and terminology for coding and documentation without any correlation to others. In some cases tissue banks have implemented ISO based standards (i.e., ISO 9001) as a basic quality management system.

  9. National Immunization Program in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Esteghamati, Abdoulreza

    2013-01-01

    The national immunization program of Iran has played an important role in achievements toward the control, elimination and eradication of some important infectious diseases. However, there are challenges regarding both diseases covered by the program and the type of vaccine or route of delivery, which are discussed in this Commentary. The current immunization program does not provide vaccines for rotavirus, Hemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), varicella, pneumococcal and influenza. There are also issues regarding use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) instead of inactivated vaccine (IPV) and whole cell pertussis (wP) instead of acellular pertussis vaccine (aP). We have reviewed the evidence regarding these immunization issues; it seems that at least for rotavirus and Hib, there is sufficient evidence regarding the efficiency of vaccination in Iran. OPV is currently preferred because of the endemic situation of polio in Afghanistan and Pakistan (eastern neighbors) and considerations of efficiency. More data are needed for the analysis of policies on pneumococcal and influenza vaccines and aP vaccine. PMID:23442584

  10. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... claims sovereignty, sovereign rights or jurisdiction, provided that the Government of Iran exercises partial or total de facto control over the area or derives a benefit from economic activity in the...

  11. Zagros Mountains, Iran, SRTM Shaded Relief Anaglyph

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-06-17

    The Zagros Mountains in Iran offer a visually stunning topographic display of geologic structure in layered sedimentary rocks in this anaglyph from NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  12. Crystal in Iran: methamphetamine or heroin kerack

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, methamphetamine use has dramatically increased in Iran while there is a crucial misunderstanding about the colloquial words related to methamphetamine among health providers, policy makers, clinicians, scholars and people in the community. The word Crystal refers to methamphetamine in some parts of Iran while in some other parts of the country, Crystal refers to a high purity street-level heroin which is called Kerack and its abuse is epidemic. Methamphetamine and heroin Kerack are different drugs in Iran. Methamphetamine is a stimulant drug while heroin Kerack is an opioid. Health providers especially clinicians and emergency medicine specialists should consider colloquial words that Iranian drug users apply. Special training courses should be designed and implemented for clinicians in Iran to inform them about methamphetamine and its frequently used colloquial words in the community. This issue has important clinical and health implications. PMID:23497450

  13. Bahrain-Iran Relations in Modern Times

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    current fire brand President of Iran)’s call for Israel to be “wiped off the map” in a 27 October 2005 speech in Tehran was viewed as irrational by...Iran in 1979 AD had profound implications for Bahrain’s social and political development. There were numerous factors that had caused Bahrain to be...a strong centralized infrastructure, planned and developed bureaucracy, established industrial units and factories and built a vast railroad network

  14. Development of a Transportation System in Iran

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    transport development was i greatly assisted by many navigable waterways, Iran possesses but a single navigable river, the Karun in the southwest. The...location. Being on the western slopes of the Zagros mountains, the Karun is situated in one of the less accessible regions of Iran. f Even from Shustar...land routes into the interior even the Karun river could only contribute to regional develop- ment. This dependence upon land transport has only begun

  15. Iran’s Nuclear Program: Status

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-25

    resolution February 4, 2006, that referred the matter to the Security Council. Two days later, Tehran announced that it would stop implementing its...35 Sylvia Westall, “Iran Wants New Nuclear Fuel Talks, Deepening Doubts,” Reuters, November 2, 2009; “Iran to Seek Fuel Supply Guarantees...180 days before introducing nuclear material into it.49 If Tehran does not alter this decision, the agency will receive considerably later notice about

  16. Lessons Learned: The Iran-Iraq War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    initiation of Iran’s human wave attacks) the Syrians cut off Iraq’s major oil pipeline to the Mediterannean , leaving it with only one oil outlet through...When one adds to this the fact that Iran inducted Basij for brief three-month tours. freeing them to return home in time for planting , the comparison...electric grids, sugar factories, concrete plants , and whatever vital facilities existed inside the country. In the past the Iraqis had targeted these

  17. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Sajadi, Mohammad M.; Ansari, Hossein; Mardani, Masoud; Naieni, Kourosh Holakouie

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in Iran was first identified in studies of livestock sera and ticks in the 1970s, but the first human infection was not diagnosed until 1999. Since that time, the number of cases of CCHF in Iran has markedly increased. Through January 2012, articles in the published literature have reported a total of 870 confirmed cases, with 126 deaths, for a case fatality rate (CFR) of 17.6%. The disease has been seen in 26 of the country’s 31 provinces, with the greatest number of cases in Sistan and Baluchestan, Isfahan, Fars, Tehran, Khorasan, and Khuzestan provinces. The increase in CCHF in Iran has paralleled that in neighboring Turkey, though the number of cases in Turkey has been much larger, with an overall CFR of around 5%. In this article, we review the features of CCHF in Iran, including its history, epidemiology, animal and tick reservoirs, current surveillance and control programs, diagnostic methods, clinical features and experience with ribavirin therapy, and consider possible explanations for the difference in the CFR of CCHF between Iran and Turkey. The emergence of CCHF in Iran calls for countermeasures at many levels to protect the population, but also provides opportunities for studying the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of the disease. PMID:23872313

  18. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran.

    PubMed

    Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Sajadi, Mohammad M; Ansari, Hossein; Mardani, Masoud; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh

    2013-10-01

    The presence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in Iran was first identified in studies of livestock sera and ticks in the 1970s, but the first human infection was not diagnosed until 1999. Since that time, the number of cases of CCHF in Iran has markedly increased. Through January 2012, articles in the published literature have reported a total of 870 confirmed cases, with 126 deaths, for a case fatality rate (CFR) of 17.6%. The disease has been seen in 26 of the country's 31 provinces, with the greatest number of cases in Sistan and Baluchestan, Isfahan, Fars, Tehran, Khorasan, and Khuzestan provinces. The increase in CCHF in Iran has paralleled that in neighboring Turkey, though the number of cases in Turkey has been much larger, with an overall CFR of around 5%. In this article, we review the features of CCHF in Iran, including its history, epidemiology, animal and tick reservoirs, current surveillance and control programs, diagnostic methods, clinical features and experience with ribavirin therapy, and consider possible explanations for the difference in the CFR of CCHF between Iran and Turkey. The emergence of CCHF in Iran calls for countermeasures at many levels to protect the population, but also provides opportunities for studying the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of the disease.

  19. Silurian stratigraphy of Central Iran - an update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hairapetian, Vachik; Pour, Mansoureh Ghobadi; Popov, Leonid E.; Männik, Peep; Miller, C. Giles

    2017-06-01

    The Silurian biostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, and facies of Central Iran including the Kashmar (Boghu Mountains), Tabas (Derenjal Mountains, Ozbak-Kuh), Anarak (Pol-e Khavand) and Kerman regions is reviewed and updated. The current state of knowledge of the Silurian in the Zagros Basin, Alborz, Kopet-Dagh and Talysh regions, as well as in a few areas scattered across the Sabzevar Zone, and the Sanandaj-Sirjan terranes is also reviewed. Silurian volcanism in various parts of Iran is briefly discussed. The end of the Ordovician coincided with a widespread regression across Iran synchronous with the Hirnantian glaciation, and only in the Zagros Basin is there a continuous Ordovician-Silurian transition represented by graptolitic black shales of the Sarchahan Formation. In the Central-East Iranian Platform marine sedimentation re-commenced in the early to mid Aeronian. By the Sheinwoodian, carbonate platform depositional environments were established along its north-eastern margin. In other parts of Iran (e.g., Kopet-Dagh and the Sabzevar Zone), siliciclastic sedimentation continued probably into the late Silurian. The Silurian conodont and brachiopod biostratigraphy of Central Iran is significantly updated facilitating a precise correlation with the Standard Global Chronostratigraphic Scale, as well as with key Silurian sections in other parts of Iran. The Silurian lithostratigraphy is considerably revised and two new lithostratigraphical units, namely the Boghu and Dahaneh-Kalut formations, are introduced.

  20. Iran and Strategic Power Projection: The Iran-Iraq War as a Foundation of Understanding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    political vacuum in Lebanon and the chaos and opportunity it inspired, was prime real estate for the newly minted Islamic Republic of Iran. As a student...Theory of International Relations, ( Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1973), p. 325; quoted in R.K. Ramazani, Revolutionary Iran, 20. 21 Nikki R

  1. Prevalence of Preeclampsia and Eclampsia in Iran.

    PubMed

    Kharaghani, Roghieh; Cheraghi, Zahra; Okhovat Esfahani, Batool; Mohammadian, Zahra; Nooreldinc, Reyhaneh Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have been conducted to investigate the prevalence of preeclampsia and eclampsia in Iran. These studies have yielded different results. This meta-analysis was aimed to estimate the prevalence of preeclampsia and eclampsia in Iran. International and national electronic databases were searched up to August 2014 including PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Science Information Database, MagIran, and IranMedex as well as conference databases. All studies, in which the prevalence or cumulative incidence of preeclampsia in Iran was reported, were included in this meta-analysis. Thirty-six separate studies were assessed involving overall 132,737 participants, of which 4360 had preeclampsia and 49 had eclampsia. Overall prevalence of preeclampsia and eclampsia was 0.05 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.06) and 0.23% (95% CI: 0.12%, 0.33%) respectively. The prevalence of preeclampsia, increased from 0.04 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.05) during 1996 to 2005 to 0.07 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.09) during 2010 to 2013, while the prevalence of eclampsia decreased from 0.30% (95% CI: 0.15%, 0.45%) to 0.01% (95% CI: 0.01%, 0.01%), during the same period. The preeclampsia prevalence had an increasing growth and the eclampsia prevalence had declining growth in recent years. In addition, despite many studies aimed the prevalence of preeclampsia and eclampsia in Iran, there is a significant variation between the results. So, it is difficult to give an exact estimation of the preeclampsia and eclampsia prevalence in Iran.

  2. Ten years of snakebites in Iran.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Rouhullah; Fathi, Behrooz; Shahi, Morteza Panjeh; Jazayeri, Mehrdad

    2014-11-01

    Many species of venomous snakes are found in Iran. The most medically important species which are responsible for the most snakebite incidents in Iran belong to the Viperidae family, including Vipera lebetina, Echis carinatus, Pseudocerastes persicus, Vipera albicornuta and the Elapidae family, especially Naja naja oxiana. At least one kind of venomous snake is found in each of the 31 provinces, and many provinces have more than one venomous species. As a result, snakebite is a considerable health hazard in Iran, especially in the rural area of south and south-west of Iran. A retrospective, descriptive study of snakebite in Iran during 2002-2011 was carried out in order based on data collected from medical records of bite victims admitted to hospitals and health centers. From 2002 to 2011, 53,787 cases of snake bites were reported by medical centers in Iran. The annual incidence of snake bites in 100,000 of population varied from 4.5 to 9.1 during this decade and the number of recorded deaths were about 67 cases. The highest rate of snakebite was found in provinces of south and southwest of Iran. We suggest that people, especially in the rural areas, need to be trained and educated about venomous snakes, their hazards, prevention of bite and the importance of early hospital referral and treatment of victims. Also adequate antivenins as the main life saving medicine should be made available based on the recorded numbers of victims in each area of the country. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 15 CFR 742.8 - Anti-terrorism: Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Iran. 742.8 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.8 Anti-terrorism: Iran. (a) License Requirements. (1) A license is required for anti-terrorism purposes to export or reexport to Iran any item for which AT column 1 or AT column 2...

  4. 15 CFR 742.8 - Anti-terrorism: Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Iran. 742.8 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.8 Anti-terrorism: Iran. (a) License Requirements. (1) A license is required for anti-terrorism purposes to export or reexport to Iran any item for which AT column 1 or AT column 2...

  5. 15 CFR 742.8 - Anti-terrorism: Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Iran. 742.8 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.8 Anti-terrorism: Iran. (a) License Requirements. (1) A license is required for anti-terrorism purposes to export or reexport to Iran any item for which AT column 1 or AT column 2...

  6. 15 CFR 742.8 - Anti-terrorism: Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Iran. 742.8 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.8 Anti-terrorism: Iran. (a) License Requirements. (1) A license is required for anti-terrorism purposes to export or reexport to Iran any item for which AT column 1 or AT column 2...

  7. 15 CFR 742.8 - Anti-terrorism: Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Iran. 742.8 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.8 Anti-terrorism: Iran. (a) License Requirements. (1) A license is required for anti-terrorism purposes to export or reexport to Iran any item for which AT column 1 or AT column 2...

  8. 31 CFR 560.403 - Transshipment or transit through Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transshipment or transit through Iran... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.403 Transshipment or transit through Iran. The prohibitions in §§ 560.204... transit of goods or technology through Iran to third countries....

  9. 31 CFR 560.403 - Transshipment or transit through Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transshipment or transit through Iran... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.403 Transshipment or transit through Iran. The prohibitions in §§ 560.204... transit of goods or technology through Iran to third countries....

  10. 48 CFR 25.703-2 - Iran Sanctions Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Iran Sanctions Act. 25.703... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Prohibited Sources 25.703-2 Iran Sanctions Act. (a) Certification—(1) Certification relating to activities described in section 5 of the Iran Sanctions Act. As required by section 6...

  11. 48 CFR 25.703-2 - Iran Sanctions Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Iran Sanctions Act. 25.703... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Prohibited Sources 25.703-2 Iran Sanctions Act. (a) Certification. (1) As required by the Iran Sanctions Act, unless an exception applies or a waiver is granted in...

  12. 31 CFR 560.403 - Transshipment through Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transshipment through Iran. 560.403... Interpretations § 560.403 Transshipment through Iran. The prohibitions in §§ 560.204, 560.206 and 560.208 apply to... through Iran to third countries. ...

  13. 31 CFR 560.403 - Transshipment through Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transshipment through Iran. 560.403... Interpretations § 560.403 Transshipment through Iran. The prohibitions in §§ 560.204, 560.206 and 560.208 apply to... through Iran to third countries. ...

  14. 48 CFR 25.703-2 - Iran Sanctions Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Iran Sanctions Act. 25.703... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Prohibited Sources 25.703-2 Iran Sanctions Act. (a) Certification. (1) As required by the Iran Sanctions Act, unless an exception applies or a waiver is granted in...

  15. 31 CFR 560.403 - Transshipment through Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transshipment through Iran. 560.403... Interpretations § 560.403 Transshipment through Iran. The prohibitions in §§ 560.204, 560.206 and 560.208 apply to... through Iran to third countries. ...

  16. 48 CFR 25.703-2 - Iran Sanctions Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Iran Sanctions Act. 25.703... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Prohibited Sources 25.703-2 Iran Sanctions Act. (a) Certification—(1) Certification relating to activities described in section 5 of the Iran Sanctions Act. As required by section 6...

  17. 48 CFR 25.703-2 - Iran Sanctions Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Iran Sanctions Act. 25.703... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Prohibited Sources 25.703-2 Iran Sanctions Act. (a) Certification. (1) As required by the Iran Sanctions Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 note), unless an exception applies in...

  18. Reinforcing a Regime: Strengthening Clientelism in Iran with Sanctions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Islamic Revolution suggests that the government is making policy decisions for purposes other than economic growth. Again, based on preliminary...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK ix LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS CBI Central Bank of Iran CRS Congressional Research Service GAO Government Accountability...Office GDP Gross Domestic Product IMF International Monetary Fund IRGC Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps IRI Islamic Republic of Iran ISA Iran

  19. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Taherkhani, Reza; Farshadpour, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    In Iran, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is relatively low according to the population-based epidemiological studies. However, the epidemiology of HCV is changing and the rate of HCV infection is increasing due to the growth in the number of injecting drug users in the society. In addition, a shift has occurred in the distribution pattern of HCV genotypes among HCV-infected patients in Iran. Genotype 1a is the most prevalent genotype in Iran, but in recent years, an increase in the frequency of 3a and a decrease in 1a and 1b have been reported. These variations in the epidemiology of HCV reflect differences in the routes of transmission, status of public health, lifestyles, and risk factors in different groups and geographic regions of Iran. Health policy makers should consider these differences to establish better strategies for control and prevention of HCV infection. Therefore, this review was conducted to present a clear view regarding the current epidemiology of HCV infection in Iran. PMID:26478671

  20. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus in Iran.

    PubMed

    Taherkhani, Reza; Farshadpour, Fatemeh

    2015-10-14

    In Iran, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is relatively low according to the population-based epidemiological studies. However, the epidemiology of HCV is changing and the rate of HCV infection is increasing due to the growth in the number of injecting drug users in the society. In addition, a shift has occurred in the distribution pattern of HCV genotypes among HCV-infected patients in Iran. Genotype 1a is the most prevalent genotype in Iran, but in recent years, an increase in the frequency of 3a and a decrease in 1a and 1b have been reported. These variations in the epidemiology of HCV reflect differences in the routes of transmission, status of public health, lifestyles, and risk factors in different groups and geographic regions of Iran. Health policy makers should consider these differences to establish better strategies for control and prevention of HCV infection. Therefore, this review was conducted to present a clear view regarding the current epidemiology of HCV infection in Iran.

  1. Status of Transfusion Medicine Education in Iran.

    PubMed

    Javadzadeh Shahshahani, Hayedeh

    2016-06-01

    Optimal use of blood and blood components requires theoretical and practical knowledge in transfusion medicine. While the importance of education in transfusion medicine has long been recognized, a vacancy is widely felt in this regard in Iran. In this study, the current status of transfusion medicine education in Iran is evaluated using a review of studies conducted in this field. To access articles related to transfusion medicine education in Iran, an electronic search was performed in databases, including Magiran, SID, IranMedex, Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus and the related articles were evaluated. Knowledge of transfusion medicine was not optimal in various medical groups and there was no effective theoretical and practical education and training for transfusion medicine in medical universities. Almost all the studies concluded that transfusion medicine curricula should be implemented for both undergraduate and postgraduate students, because of its great importance in clinical practice. Educational program of transfusion medicine is a basic need of medical education for medical students, interns, residents, nursing, and midwifery students in Iran. Considering our status and capacities and by using educational programs in the world, curricula are suggested for different educational levels. Implementation of these training programs plays a vital role in improving patients' safety and also reduces the high costs of treatment with blood products.

  2. IRAN: interferometric remapped array nulling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristidi, Eric; Vakili, Farrokh; Abe, Lyu; Belu, Adrian; Lopez, Bruno; Lanteri, Henri; Schutz, A.; Menut, Jean-Luc

    2004-10-01

    This paper describes a method of beam-combination in the so-called hypertelescope imaging technique recently introduced by Labeyrie in optical interferometry. The method we propose is an alternative to the Michelson pupil reconfiguration that suffers from the loss of the classical object-image convolution relation. From elementary theory of Fourier optics we demonstrate that this problem can be solved by observing in a combined pupil plane instead of an image plane. The point-source intensity distribution (PSID) of this interferometric "image" tends towards a psuedo Airy disc (similar to that of a giant monolithic telescope) for a sufficiently large number of telescopes. Our method is applicable to snap-shot imaging of extended sources with a field comparable to the Airy pattern of single telescopes operated in a co-phased multi-aperture interferometric array. It thus allows to apply conveniently pupil plane coronagraphy. Our technique called Interferometric Remapped Array Nulling (IRAN) is particularly suitable for high dynamic imaging of extra-solar planetary companions, circumstellar nebulosities or extra-galactic objects where long baseline interferometry would closely probe the central regions of AGNs for instance.

  3. Domestic Abuse in Behshahr, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahmatian, Ali Akbar; Hosseini, Seyyed Ali Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The United Nations in a resolution defined abuse as any violent act that is primarily or exclusively committed against females and results in physical, sexual and psychological harm. Objectives: The aim of this research was to study the contributing factors of husband’s violence against females residing in the city of Behshahr, Iran. Materials and Methods: We distributed a specifically designed questionnaire among 380 married females aged between 15 and 65 years. According to the Morgan table, the subjects were randomly selected from a list of 301000 females. Demographic data and data on spouse abuse were then analyzed using the SPSS software, Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficients. According to Cronbach’s alpha, the reliability of the questionnaire was 0.96. Results: All of the females reported at least one form of violence within the past year, with R square 0.20, indicating that the independent variable can explain 20% of the violence against females. years of marriage, female’s education, male’s addiction and the number of children each had their share in the explanation of violence against females. Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of domestic violence in the sample population. Violence existed among all ages, social categories and male occupational groups, and also involved both employed and unemployed females. The situation regarding domestic abuse is similar worldwide. PMID:26834799

  4. Otomycosis in iran: a review.

    PubMed

    Gharaghani, Maral; Seifi, Zahra; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali

    2015-06-01

    Fungal infection of the external auditory canal (otitis externa and otomycosis) is a chronic, acute, or subacute superficial mycotic infection that rarely involves middle ear. Otomycosis (swimmer's ear) is usually unilateral infection and affects more females than males. The infection is usually symptomatic and main symptoms are pruritus, otalgia, aural fullness, hearing impairment, otorrhea, and tinnitus. Fungal species such as yeasts, molds, dermatophytes, and Malassezia species are agents for otitis externa. Among molds, Aspergillus niger was described as the most common agent in the literature. Candida albicans was more prevalent than other yeast species. Otomycosis has a worldwide distribution, but the prevalence of infection is related to the geographical location, areas with tropical and subtropical climate showing higher prevalence rates. Otomycosis is a secondary infection and is more prevalent among swimmers. As a result, a higher incidence is reported in summer season, when more people interested in swimming. Incidence of otomycosis in our review ranged from 5.7 to 81 %, with a mean value of 51.3 %. Our results showed that 78.59 % of otomycosis agents were Aspergillus, 16.76 % were Candida species, and the rest (4.65 %) were other saprophytic fungi. Among Iranian patients, incidence of infection was highest in summer, followed by autumn, winter, and spring. In Iran, otomycosis was most prevalent at the age of 20-40 years and the lowest prevalence was associated with being <10 years old. The sex ratio of otomycosis in our study was (M/F) 1:1.53.

  5. 78 FR 21183 - Persons on Whom Sanctions Have Been Imposed Under the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996 and the Iran...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... on Whom Sanctions Have Been Imposed Under the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996 and the Iran Threat... persons have engaged in sanctionable activity described in section 5(a)(8) of the Iran Sanctions Act of...''), that the following persons have engaged in sanctionable activity described in section 212 of the...

  6. Soil erosion in Iran: Issues and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidreza Sadeghi, Seyed; Cerdà, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    Iran currently faces many soil erosion-related problems (see citations below). These issues are resulted from some inherent characteristic and anthropogenic triggering forces. Nowadays, the latter plays more important rule to accelerate the erosion with further emphasis on soil erosion-prone arid and semi arid regions of the country. This contribution attempts to identify and describe the existing main reasons behind accelerated soil erosion in Iran. Appropriate solutions viz. structural and non-structural approaches will be then advised to combat or minimise the problems. Iran can be used as a pilot research site to understand the soil erosion processes in semiarid, arid and mountainous terrain and our research will review the scientific literature and will give an insight of the soil erosion rates in the main factors of the soil erosion in Iran. Key words: Anthropogenic Erosion, Land Degradation; Sediment Management; Sediment Problems Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7-ENV-2013- supported this research. References Aghili Nategh, N., Hemmat, A., & Sadeghi, M. (2014). Assessing confined and semi-confined compression curves of highly calcareous remolded soil amended with farmyard manure. Journal of Terramechanics, 53, 75-82. Arekhi, S., Bolourani, A. D., Shabani, A., Fathizad, H., Ahamdy-Asbchin, S. 2012. Mapping Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield Susceptibility using RUSLE, Remote Sensing and GIS (Case study: Cham Gardalan Watershed, Iran). Advances in Environmental Biology, 6(1), 109-124. Arekhi, S., Shabani, A., Rostamizad, G. 2012. Application of the modified universal soil loss equation (MUSLE) in prediction of sediment yield (Case study: Kengir Watershed, Iran). Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 5(6), 1259-1267.Sadeghi, S. H., Moosavi, V., Karami, A., Behnia, N. 2012. Soil erosion assessment and prioritization of affecting factors at plot

  7. Quantitative Analysis of Seismicity in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raeesi, Mohammad; Zarifi, Zoya; Nilfouroushan, Faramarz; Boroujeni, Samar Amini; Tiampo, Kristy

    2016-12-01

    We use historical and recent major earthquakes and GPS geodetic data to compute seismic strain rate, geodetic slip deficit, static stress drop, the parameters of the magnitude-frequency distribution and geodetic strain rate in the Iranian Plateau to identify seismically mature fault segments and regions. Our analysis suggests that 11 fault segments are in the mature stage of the earthquake cycle, with the possibility of generating major earthquakes. These faults primarily are located in the north and the east of Iran. Four seismically mature regions in southern Iran with the potential for damaging strong earthquakes are also identified. We also delineate four additional fault segments in Iran that can generate major earthquakes without robust clues to their maturity.The most important fault segment in this study is the strike-slip system near the capital city of Tehran, with the potential to cause more than one million fatalities.

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Seismicity in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raeesi, Mohammad; Zarifi, Zoya; Nilfouroushan, Faramarz; Boroujeni, Samar Amini; Tiampo, Kristy

    2017-03-01

    We use historical and recent major earthquakes and GPS geodetic data to compute seismic strain rate, geodetic slip deficit, static stress drop, the parameters of the magnitude-frequency distribution and geodetic strain rate in the Iranian Plateau to identify seismically mature fault segments and regions. Our analysis suggests that 11 fault segments are in the mature stage of the earthquake cycle, with the possibility of generating major earthquakes. These faults primarily are located in the north and the east of Iran. Four seismically mature regions in southern Iran with the potential for damaging strong earthquakes are also identified. We also delineate four additional fault segments in Iran that can generate major earthquakes without robust clues to their maturity.The most important fault segment in this study is the strike-slip system near the capital city of Tehran, with the potential to cause more than one million fatalities.

  9. Malaria Elimination in Iran, Importance and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Hemami, Mohsen Rezaei; Sari, Ali Akbari; Raeisi, Ahmad; Vatandoost, Hassan; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of study is to assess the importance and challenges of Malaria elimination (ME) in Iran's health system. Material: Opinion of experts from Ministry of Health and Medical Education and the chancellors of medical universities affected by malaria were gathered using Focus Group Discussions and in-depth interviews. We asked them about the importance and main challenges of ME in Iran. Results: Main factors on importance of ME were: it's a struggle to reach to equity in the poorest regions of county, prevention of emerging disease in susceptible regions, lowering the cost of control and its effects on the region's socioeconomic condition. Main challenges were Iran's long border with malaria-endemic countries Pakistan and Afghanistan and illegal immigrants, underdevelopment in rural areas, system's insensitivity and diagnosis problem due to reduction of cases. Conclusion: Quantitative and holistic researches are needed for assessing the consequences of ME. PMID:23413116

  10. Brief History of pharmacy ethics in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Farsam, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacy is an ethical profession. The aim of this study was to investigate the history of pharmacy ethics in Iran. In the ancient Persia, medical and pharmaceutical ethics were related to religious rules, and everybody had to respect it. The ethical rules were similar to some current pharmacy ethics. During Islamic era, the pharmacy ethics were edited according to the Islamic rules. After introduction of European pharmacy into Iran, the pharmacy ethics did not change and was regarded as before. By presentation of bioethics and medical ethics in recent years, new activities are carried out for better manipulation of their rules in health professions including pharmacy. PMID:23908727

  11. Economics of Gypsum Production in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, Abdoulkarim

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the economics of gypsum production in Iran. The trend in production cost, selling price and profit are used to investigate economics of gypsum production. In addition, the multivariate time series method is used to determine factors affecting gypsum price in domestic market. The results indicated that due to increase in production and inflation, profitability of gypsum production has decreased during recent years. It is concluded that tariff and non-tariff barriers on mines machinery are among reasons for increasing production cost in Iranian gypsum mines. Decreasing such barriers could increase profitability of gypsum production in Iran.

  12. The Impact of Culture: Communicating with Iran

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    RESEARCH PROJECT THE IMPACT OF CULTURE: COMMUNICATING WITH IRAN by Colonel Eric J. Winkie United States Army Dr. Richard Meinhart Project Adviser This...St ra te gy Re se ar ch Pr oj ec t THE IMPACT OF CULTURE: COMMUNICATING WITH IRAN BY COLONEL ERIC J. WINKIE United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT...position of the Department of the Army , Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. U.S. Army War College, Carlisle Barracks, PA 17013-5050 USAWC CLASS

  13. Iran’s Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-22

    ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Library...be used to produce Polonium -210 for civilian purposes (for nuclear batteries) or in conjunction with beryllium to create a neutron initiator for a...country-files_156/iran_301/the-iranian- nuclear-question_2724/ elements -of-revised-proposal-to-iran_5314.html]. 18 See [http://www.un.org/News/Press

  14. Iran’s Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-08

    CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...between 1989 and 1993 on irradiating bismuth, which can be used to produce Polonium -210 for civilian purposes (for nuclear batteries) or in conjunction...iran_301/the-iranian- nuclear-question_2724/ elements -of-revised-proposal-to-iran_5314.html]. 19 See [http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs//2006/sc8928

  15. The Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Iran.

    PubMed

    Khazeni, Atefeh; Adler, Peter H; Telmadareiiy, Zakieh; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Vatandoost, Hasan; Abtahi, Seyed Mohammad; Lotfi, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    Although Iran has a large geographic area encompassing 13 ecoregions, its simuliid fauna remains largely unexplored. To begin redressing this faunal gap, we reviewed literature records and coupled morphological and chromosomal identifications of material newly collected from 16 sites in Iran. Twenty-three nominal species are now recognized, including new country records for Simulium crassicaulum (Rubtsov) and Simulium alajense Rubtsov, and the southernmost world record for Simulium transcaspicum Enderlein. Multiple cytoforms of the Simulium aureum group, Simulium bezzii complex, and Simulium ornatum group were found.

  16. Reliability and economy -- Hydro electricity for Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Jahromi-Shirazi, M.J.; Zarbakhsh, M.H.

    1998-12-31

    Reliability is the probability that a device or system will perform its function adequately, for the period of time intended, under the operating conditions intended. Reliability and economy are two important factors in operating any system, especially in power generation. Due to the high rate in population growth in Iran, the experts have estimated that the demand for electricity will be about 63,000 MW in the next 25 years, the installed power is now about 26,000 MW. Therefore, the energy policy decision made in Iran is to go to power generation by hydroelectric plants because of reliability, availability of water resources and the economics of hydroelectric power.

  17. Brief History of pharmacy ethics in Iran.

    PubMed

    Farsam, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacy is an ethical profession. The aim of this study was to investigate the history of pharmacy ethics in Iran. In the ancient Persia, medical and pharmaceutical ethics were related to religious rules, and everybody had to respect it. The ethical rules were similar to some current pharmacy ethics. During Islamic era, the pharmacy ethics were edited according to the Islamic rules. After introduction of European pharmacy into Iran, the pharmacy ethics did not change and was regarded as before. By presentation of bioethics and medical ethics in recent years, new activities are carried out for better manipulation of their rules in health professions including pharmacy.

  18. A Review of Myiasis in Iran and a New Nosocomial Case from Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Mahbobeh; Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Kargar, Faranak; Nateghpour, Mehdi; Akbarzadeh, Kamran; Hajenorouzali-Tehrani, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to various climatic conditions in different parts of Iran, presenting of various kinds of human myiasis is expected. Despite of a few case series, most papers related to myiasis are case reports originated from various parts of Iran. This study discusses on different clinical features of myiasis in Iran and description of one case from Tehran as a representative to nosocomial infection in Iran. Methods: The information needed for this descriptive study was derived mainly from the digital library of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The larvae have been identified with observing on posterior spiracles, spines of their body and anal tubercles. Results: Total number of reported myiasis cases from Iran is 77 which can be categorized clinically as furuncular, wound, ophthalmic, auricular, nasopharyngeal, oral, intestinal and genitourinary. Based on parasitological features, all myiasis agents in Iran are belonging to Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Oestridae and Syrphidae flies. The case which is reporting in this paper can be mentioned as representative of nosocomial myiasis which it seems to be underreported because of some medicolegal reasons. Conclusion: Low number of investigations on various aspects of human myiasis, as well as incuriosity to report of the cases in disease reporting system of health minister, made the myiasis as a neglected disease. PMID:26114125

  19. Design issues concerning Iran`s Bushehr nuclear power plant VVER-1000 conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, C.F.

    1996-12-31

    On January 8, 1995, the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) signed a contract for $800 million with the Russian Federation Ministry for Atomic Energy (Minatom) to complete Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP) unit 1. The agreement called for a Russian VVER-1000/320 pressurized water reactor (PWR) to be successfully installed into the existing German-built BNPP facilities in 5 yr. System design differences, bomb damage, and environmental exposure are key issues with which Minatom must contend in order to fulfill the contract. The AEOI under the Shah of Iran envisioned Bushehr as the first of many nuclear power plants, with Iran achieving 24 GW(electric) by 1993 and 34 GW(electric) by 2000. Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) began construction of the two-unit plant near the Persian Gulf town of Halileh in 1975. Unit 1 was {approx}80% complete and unit 2 was {approx}50% complete when construction was interrupted by the 1979 Iranian Islamic revolution. Despite repeated AEOI attempts to lure KWU and other companies back to Iran to complete the plant, Western concerns about nuclear proliferation in Iran and repeated bombings of the plant during the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq war dissuaded Germany from resuming construction.

  20. Maximizing US Shaping Strategies Against Iran

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    drug epidemic as youth unemployment and a lack of freedoms exacerbate problems. Iranian scholars estimate that over 4 million people use drugs...regularly, that drug related incidents account for half of criminal arrests, and 50 to 65 percent of Afghan opiates travel through Iran for export.79 As

  1. Medical Biotechnology Trends and Achievements in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Hamedifar, Haleh; Aghajani, Hamideh

    2012-01-01

    A healthcare system has been the most important priority for all governments worldwide. Biotechnology products have affected the promotion of health care over the last thirty years. During the last several decades, Iran has achieved significant success in extending healthcare to the rural areas and in reducing the rates of infant mortality and increasing population growth. Biomedical technology as a converging technology is considered a helpful tool to fulfill the Iranian healthcare missions. The number of biotechnology products has reached 148 in 2012. The total sales have increased to 98 billion USD without considering vaccines and plasma derived proteins in 2012. Iran is one of the leading countries in the Middle East and North Africa in the area of Medical biotechnology. The number of biotechnology medicines launched in Iran is 13 products until 2012. More than 15 products are in pipelines now. Manufacturers are expecting to receive the market release for more than 8 products by the end of 2012. Considering this information, Iran will lead the biotechnology products especially in area of biosimilars in Asia after India in next three years. The present review will discuss leading policy, decision makers’ role, human resource developing system and industry development in medical biotechnology. PMID:23407888

  2. A Nuclear Iran: Does This Change Everything?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-31

    Berlusconi , Washington D.C., 13 October 08) 4 HR 362, 110th Congress, 2nd Session, 2008, sec. (1) 5 “Ahmadinejad: Iran won’t retreat one iota from its...Independent Task Force Report, September 2008. Bush, President George W., Remarks during Whitehouse appearance with Prime Minister Berlusconi , Washington

  3. Students from the Arab World and Iran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althen, Gary L., Ed.

    Information on the background and viewpoints of Middle Eastern students who are studying in the United States is presented in revised papers from a 1978 seminar, "The Middle East: The Arab World and Iran." In the first section of the report, "General Background," James Cowan reviews social and cultural factors, as well as…

  4. GT-12 - EARTH SKY - IRAN, TRUCIAL COAST

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-13

    S66-63486 (13 Nov. 1966) --- Iran, Trucial Coast, Oman, Zagros Mountains, and Qishm Island (large island at lower right), as seen from the Gemini-12 spacecraft during its 25th revolution of Earth. Gulf of Oman is large body of water at left and the Persian Gulf is body of water at right. View is looking east. Photo credit: NASA

  5. GT-12 - EARTH SKY - IRAN, TRUCIAL COAST

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-13

    S66-63485 (13 Nov. 1966) --- Iran, Trucial Coast, Oman, Zagros Mountains, and Qishm Island (large island at lower left), as seen from the Gemini-12 spacecraft during its 25th revolution of Earth. Gulf of Oman is at lower left edge and the Persian Gulf is large body of water in upper half of photo. Photo credit: NASA

  6. Children's Early Numeracy in Finland and Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aunio, Pirjo; Korhonen, Johan; Bashash, Laaya; Khoshbakht, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates similarities and differences in young children's early numeracy skills related to age, nationality and gender. The participants were five- to seven-year-old children from Finland and Iran. Early numeracy was investigated by using tasks measuring number-related relational skills (e.g. comparison, one-to-one…

  7. Iran’s Foreign and Defense Policies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-06

    policies. On February 1, 2017, the Trump Administration cited Iran’s continued “malign activities” and repeated ballistic missile tests, and asserted...10 Developments during the Obama Administration ............................................................. 12 The Trump ...JCPOA and the Obama Administration asserted that the threat of a nuclear-armed Iran has receded. The Trump Administration has not contradicted that

  8. Iran’s Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-06

    Developments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7...revealed that Iran experimented between 1989 and 1993 on irradiating bismuth, which can be used to produce Polonium -210 for civilian purposes (for nuclear

  9. Iran’s Strategic Intentions and Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    contracts with Russia and China for the construction of two other nuclear power plants: one to be built by Russia at Gorgan (consisting of two VVER -440/213...Iran has a significant amphibious capability, which is a critical component of its ability to project force in the Gulf. It can transport 800- 1200

  10. Iran and Iraq: Perspectives in Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Wall Street Journal ; BS = Baltimore Sun; CSM = Christian Science Monitor; SIC = Senate Intelligence Committee Report dated 1/29/87; TCR = Tower...written out, one of following abbreviations will be used: WP = Washington Post; NYT = New York Times; MH = Miami Herald; LAT = Los Angeles Times; WSJ ...Time Magazine BIBLIOGRAPHY Primary Abdulghani, J. M., Iran and Iraq: The Years of Crisis, Baltimore MD, Johns

  11. Medical biotechnology trends and achievements in iran.

    PubMed

    Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Hamedifar, Haleh; Aghajani, Hamideh

    2012-10-01

    A healthcare system has been the most important priority for all governments worldwide. Biotechnology products have affected the promotion of health care over the last thirty years. During the last several decades, Iran has achieved significant success in extending healthcare to the rural areas and in reducing the rates of infant mortality and increasing population growth. Biomedical technology as a converging technology is considered a helpful tool to fulfill the Iranian healthcare missions. The number of biotechnology products has reached 148 in 2012. The total sales have increased to 98 billion USD without considering vaccines and plasma derived proteins in 2012. Iran is one of the leading countries in the Middle East and North Africa in the area of Medical biotechnology. The number of biotechnology medicines launched in Iran is 13 products until 2012. More than 15 products are in pipelines now. Manufacturers are expecting to receive the market release for more than 8 products by the end of 2012. Considering this information, Iran will lead the biotechnology products especially in area of biosimilars in Asia after India in next three years. The present review will discuss leading policy, decision makers' role, human resource developing system and industry development in medical biotechnology.

  12. National Strategies of Ophthalmic Education in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Entezari, A; Javadi, MA; Einollahi, B

    2012-01-01

    Background: Academic medicine is in a state of dramatic transformation. For this reason strategic thinking is the most essential part of educational planning. The main purpose of the present study was developing the strategic educational planning of Ophthalmology in Iran from 2007 to 2010 Methods: A qualitative investigation using focus group discussion has been implemented successfully for developing educational planning. Six to twelve representatives of key stakeholders in the ophthalmic education of Iran participated to this study. Results: Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of ophthalmology education in Iran were analyzed. Strategic goals in education, research, and health service providing domains were being developed. Educational goals were defined as training of human resources in accordance with the community needs at the level of general practitioner, specialist, and fellowships in ophthalmology. Research goals of the program were defined as scientific inter-departmental and international communications, in order to promote the level of education, research, and treatment in the country. Also, in the field of health services according to the community needs, providing services by the means of advanced and cost effective methods were defined as strategic objectives. Conclusion: Based on this strategic plan in the last three years ophthalmic education in Iran shall be many changes in educational, research and health care provision for social accountability. PMID:23113125

  13. Children's Early Numeracy in Finland and Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aunio, Pirjo; Korhonen, Johan; Bashash, Laaya; Khoshbakht, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates similarities and differences in young children's early numeracy skills related to age, nationality and gender. The participants were five- to seven-year-old children from Finland and Iran. Early numeracy was investigated by using tasks measuring number-related relational skills (e.g. comparison, one-to-one…

  14. Nutrition policy process challenges in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Goshtaei, Massomeh; Ravaghi, Hamid; Sari, Ali Akbari; Abdollahi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nutrition transition is occurring rapidly in the world, especially in developing countries. The nutrition transition occurred in Iran very fast due to urbanization and changes in the lifestyle of people, leading to overweight and obesity. However, nutritional deficiencies are still detected due to economic factors and low nutritional knowledge. Nutrition policies do not adequately respond to the nutrition challenges in Iran. This study was conducted to evaluate and analyze the nutrition policy process challenges in Iran. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted with 59 policy makers and nutrition experts of medical universities across Iran. Interviews were continued until data saturation was achieved. Data were supplemented with surveys and documentary analysis. Thematic analysis was guided by the propositions of the stages heuristic framework. Results The results were categorized into four main themes and eight sub-themes. The main themes were 1) nutrition problem definition, 2) policy formulation, 3) implementation of the policies, and 4) evaluation of the policies. However, the multi-faceted nature of the nutritional problem makes it difficult to deal with, so a multi-sectoral approach is needed. Conclusion Nutrition policies have been implemented in Iran with varying degrees of success and with different levels of cross-sectoral collaboration. The nutrition policies sometimes have not been able to respond to the nutritional problems. One of the important reasons is that nutrition is not a priority for policy makers. Many policies suffer from a lack of adequate and appropriate resource allocation. Cooperation mechanisms to resolve nutritional problems are sometimes ineffective and inefficient. PMID:27053992

  15. Injury epidemiology in Iran: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Shabaninejad, Hosein; Abolghasem Gorji, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Injuries are the second greatest cause of mortality in Iran. Information about the epidemiological pattern of injuries is effective in decision-making. In this regard, the aim of the current study is to elaborate on the epidemiology of injuries in Iran through a systematic review. Methods: Required data were collected searching the following key words and their Persian equivalents; trauma, injury, accident, epidemiology, prevalence, pattern, etiology, risk factors and Iran. The following databases were searched: Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, MagIran, Iranian scientific information database (SID) and Iran Medex. Some of the relevant journals and web sites were searched manually. The lists of references from the selected articles were also investigated. We have also searched the gray literature and consulted some experts. Results: Out of 2747 retrieved articles, 25 articles were finally included in the review. A total of 3234481 cases have been investigated. Mean (SD) age among these cases was 30 (17.4) years. The males comprised 75.7% of all the patients. Only 31.1% of patients were transferred to hospital by ambulance. The most common mechanism of injuries was road traffic accidents (50.1%) followed by falls (22.3%). In road traffic accidents, motorcyclists have accounted for the majority of victims (45%). Roads were the most common accident scene for the injuries (57.5%). The most common injuries were to the head and neck. (47.3%). The mean (SD) Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 8.1(8.6%). The overall case-fatality proportion was 3.8% and 75% of all the mortalities related to road traffic accidents. Conclusions: The main priorities in reducing the burden of injuries include: the young, male target group, improving pre-hospital and ambulance services, preventing road traffic accidents, improving road safety and the safety of motorcyclists (compulsory helmet use, safer vehicles, dedicated motorcycle lanes). PMID:28039683

  16. Nutrition policy process challenges in Iran.

    PubMed

    Goshtaei, Massomeh; Ravaghi, Hamid; Sari, Ali Akbari; Abdollahi, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Nutrition transition is occurring rapidly in the world, especially in developing countries. The nutrition transition occurred in Iran very fast due to urbanization and changes in the lifestyle of people, leading to overweight and obesity. However, nutritional deficiencies are still detected due to economic factors and low nutritional knowledge. Nutrition policies do not adequately respond to the nutrition challenges in Iran. This study was conducted to evaluate and analyze the nutrition policy process challenges in Iran. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted with 59 policy makers and nutrition experts of medical universities across Iran. Interviews were continued until data saturation was achieved. Data were supplemented with surveys and documentary analysis. Thematic analysis was guided by the propositions of the stages heuristic framework. The results were categorized into four main themes and eight sub-themes. The main themes were 1) nutrition problem definition, 2) policy formulation, 3) implementation of the policies, and 4) evaluation of the policies. However, the multi-faceted nature of the nutritional problem makes it difficult to deal with, so a multi-sectoral approach is needed. Nutrition policies have been implemented in Iran with varying degrees of success and with different levels of cross-sectoral collaboration. The nutrition policies sometimes have not been able to respond to the nutritional problems. One of the important reasons is that nutrition is not a priority for policy makers. Many policies suffer from a lack of adequate and appropriate resource allocation. Cooperation mechanisms to resolve nutritional problems are sometimes ineffective and inefficient.

  17. Pasteur Institute of Iran- An Evaluation Model

    PubMed Central

    Dejman, Masoumeh; Habibi, Elham; Baradarn Eftekhari, Monir; Falahat, Katayoun; Malekafzali, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pasteur Institute of Iran was established in 1919 with the aim to produce vaccines and prevent communicable diseases in Iran. Over time, their activities extended into areas of research, education and services. Naturally, such a vast development begs establishment of a comprehensive management and monitoring system. With this outlook, the present study was carried out with the aim to design a performance assessment model for Pasteur Institute of Iran that, in addition to determining evaluation indicators, it could prepare the necessary grounds for providing a unified assessment model for the global network of the Pasteur Institutes. Method: This study was designed and performed in 4 stages: first; design of indicators and determining their scores. Second; editing indicators according to the outcome of discussions and debates held with members of Research Council of Pasteur Institute of Iran. Third; implementation of a pilot model based on the Institute’s activities in 2011. Fourth; providing the pilot model feedback to the stakeholders and finalizing the model according to an opinion survey. Results: Based on the results obtained, the developed indicators for Pasteur Institute of Iran evaluation were designed in 10 axes and 18 sub-axes, which included 101 major and 58 minor indicators. The axes included governance and leadership, resources and facilities, capacity building, knowledge production and collaborations, reference services, economic value of products and services, participation in industrial exhibitions, status of the institute, satisfaction and institute’s role in health promotion. Conclusion: The indicators presented in this article have been prepared based on the balance in the Institute’s four missions, to provide the basis for assessment of the Institute’s activities in consecutive years, and possibility of comparison with other institutes worldwide. PMID:24842146

  18. 78 FR 15798 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Iran Democracy Program Grants Vetting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Iran Democracy Program Grants Vetting ACTION: Notice of...DL@state.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title of Information Collection: Iran Program Grants. OMB.... Respondents: Potential grantees and participants for Iran programs. Estimated Number of Respondents:...

  19. 78 FR 31999 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Iran Democracy Program Grants Vetting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Iran Democracy Program Grants Vetting ACTION: Notice of...: Iran Program Grants Vetting. OMB Control Number: 1405-0176. Type of Request: Extension. ] Originating.... Respondents: Potential grantees and participants for Iran programs. Estimated Number of Respondents:...

  20. 78 FR 55134 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Iran Modern”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Iran Modern'' ACTION: Notice..., number 153) of determinations made by the Department of State pertaining to the exhibit ``Iran Modern... in the exhibition ``Iran Modern,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the...

  1. Spatial Analysis of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Ehsan; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Chinikar, Sadegh

    2013-01-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral zoonotic disease. During 1999–2011, 871 human cases of CCHF were diagnosed in Iran. A history of serologic conversion for CCHF virus was seen in 58.7% of 2,447 sheep samples, 25.0% of 1,091 cattle samples and 24.8% of 987 goat samples from different parts of Iran. Spatial analysis showed that the main foci of this disease in humans during these years were in eastern Iran (P < 0.01) and the second most common foci were in northeastern and central Iran. Two livestock foci were detected in the northeastern northwestern Iran. On the basis of the results of this study, infection likely entered Iran from eastern and western neighboring countries. PMID:24166038

  2. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-13

    process dollar transactions for Iranian banks. Among those that have pulled out of Iran are UBS and Credit Suisse (Switzerland), HSBC (Britain...and credits to Iran; and to convince foreign banks not to do business with Iran, are beginning to weaken Iran’s economy, compounding the effect of a...owners say the difficulty obtaining credit from foreign banks is hurting their ability to operate. Students have conducted several high-profile anti

  3. What Should be United States Policy for Iran?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    pursued the negative aims of controlling Iran’s objectionable behavior . The current relationship between the United States and Iran was established...regime in Iraq, but only demanded modifications to the behavior of the Iranian regime.11 With the overthrow of the Iraqi regime, the policy of...containing Iran continues, but it has not been notably successful. Iran has not significantly modified its behavior as a result of U.S. sanctions. To the

  4. Iran’s Economic Conditions: U.S. Policy Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-15

    between the countries, focusing particularly on steel. Automotives In 2007, Iran was the 16th largest motor vehicle producer in the world and the...contributing to pollution.73 Despite Iran’s high level of automotive production, domestic demand for motor vehicles exceeds supply. Iran imports a...in 2006. Iran recently began joint ventures with foreign companies for auto production, including Peugeot and Citroen (France), Volkswagen (Germany

  5. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-19

    Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Order Code RL32048 Iran: U.S. Concerns ...2005 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...18 Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses Summary The Bush Administration has pursued several avenues to attempt to contain or end the potential

  6. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-13

    was the October 2005 grant of new governmental supervisory powers to Rafsanjani’s Expediency Council. The second was the July 2006 creation of a ten...Iran Is Judged 10 Years From Nuclear Bomb.” Washington Post, Aug. 2, 2005; Weissman, Steven and Douglas Jehl . “Estimate Revised On When Iran Could...enrichment suspension. A round of talks, in Berlin, concluded on September 28, 2006, without agreement, and Iran began operating a second 164-centrifuge

  7. An annotated catalogue of the Buprestidae of Iran (Coleoptera: Buprestoidea).

    PubMed

    Ghahari, Hassan; Volkovitsh, Mark G; Bellamy, Charles L

    2015-07-08

    An annotated taxonomic catalogue of the jewel beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) of Iran is given. Original descriptions and recent revisionary or catalogue data are included along with the distribution, both within and outside of Iran, ecological data and host plant associations, junior synonyms, and comments. A complete bibliography completes the catalogue. In total 428 species and 52 subspecies of jewel beetles belonging to 6 subfamilies (Julodinae, Polycestinae, Galbellinae, Chrysochroinae, Buprestinae, and Agrilinae), 20 tribes, and 38 genera are known from Iran including doubtful records and 4 nomina nuda. It is likely that the number of jewel beetle species from Iran will be between 460-480 and possibly even more species.

  8. A review of the subfamily Rogadinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Farahani, Samira; Talebi, Ali Asghar; Achterberg, Cornelis Van; Rakhshani, Ehsan

    2015-06-17

    Specimens of the subfamily Rogadinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were collected in northern Iran during 2010-2011 with a series of Malaise traps. Twelve species belonging to three genera (Aleiodes Wesmael, 1838, Heterogamus Wesmael, 1838 and Clinocentrus Haliday, 1833) were identified, with one genus (Heterogamus) and seven species new for the fauna of Iran. An updated checklist of the genera and species of the subfamily Rogadinae is included. A total of 26 species belonging to four genera are listed for Iran after correction for misidentifications. A key to the genera and the species of Rogadinae known from Iran is provided.

  9. IRAN: laboratory test bench for hypertelescope pupil-plane recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allouche, F.; Vakili, F.; Glindemann, A.; Aristidi, E.; Abe, L.; Fossat, E.; Douet, R.

    2008-07-01

    In 2004, our group proposed IRAN, an alternative beam-combination technique to the so-called hypertelescope imaging method introduced by Labeyrie in the 1990s. We have recently set up a laboratory experiment aiming at validating our image densification approach instead of the pupil densification scheme of Labeyrie. In our experiment, seven sub-apertures illuminated by laser sources are recombined using the IRAN scheme. The validation of the IRAN recombination consists basically in retrieving the point-spread intensity distribution (PSID), demonstrating the conservation of the object-image convolution relation. We will introduce IRAN, compare it to the hyper-telescope, and present the experimental results that we obtained.

  10. Genetic Epidemiology, Hematological and Clinical Features of Hemoglobinopathies in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Zohreh

    2013-01-01

    There is large variation in the molecular genetics and clinical features of hemoglobinopathies in Iran. Studying structural variants of hemoglobin demonstrated that the β-chain variants of hemoglobin S and D-Punjab are more prevalent in the Fars (southwestern Iran) and Kermanshah (western Iran) provinces, respectively. Also, α-chain variants of Hb Q-Iran and Hb Setif are prevalent in western Iran. The molecular basis and clinical severity of thalassemias are extremely heterogenous among Iranians due to the presence of multiethnic groups in the country. β-Thalassemia is more prevalent in northern and southern Iran. Among 52 different β-thalassemia mutations that have been identified among Iranian populations, IVSII-1 G:A is the most frequent mutation in most parts of the country. The presence of IVS I-5 G:C mutation with high frequency in southeastern Iran might reflect gene flow from neighboring countries. A wide spectrum of α-thalassemia alleles has been detected among Iranians with −α 3.7 kb as the most prevalent α-thalassemia mutation. The prevention program of thalassemia birth in Iran has reduced the birth rate of homozygous β-thalassemia since the implementation of the program in 1997. In this review genetic epidemiology, clinical and hematological aspects of hemoglobinopathies, and the prevention programs of β-thalassemia in Iran will be discussed. PMID:23853772

  11. Genetic epidemiology, hematological and clinical features of hemoglobinopathies in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Zohreh

    2013-01-01

    There is large variation in the molecular genetics and clinical features of hemoglobinopathies in Iran. Studying structural variants of hemoglobin demonstrated that the β-chain variants of hemoglobin S and D-Punjab are more prevalent in the Fars (southwestern Iran) and Kermanshah (western Iran) provinces, respectively. Also, α-chain variants of Hb Q-Iran and Hb Setif are prevalent in western Iran. The molecular basis and clinical severity of thalassemias are extremely heterogenous among Iranians due to the presence of multiethnic groups in the country. β-Thalassemia is more prevalent in northern and southern Iran. Among 52 different β-thalassemia mutations that have been identified among Iranian populations, IVSII-1 G:A is the most frequent mutation in most parts of the country. The presence of IVS I-5 G:C mutation with high frequency in southeastern Iran might reflect gene flow from neighboring countries. A wide spectrum of α-thalassemia alleles has been detected among Iranians with -α(3.7 kb) as the most prevalent α-thalassemia mutation. The prevention program of thalassemia birth in Iran has reduced the birth rate of homozygous β-thalassemia since the implementation of the program in 1997. In this review genetic epidemiology, clinical and hematological aspects of hemoglobinopathies, and the prevention programs of β-thalassemia in Iran will be discussed.

  12. Epidemiological Review of Scorpion Envenomation in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, Amir; Rahim, Fakher

    2014-01-01

    This epidemiological review was carried out to display the magnitude and the geographic distribution of scorpion envenomation in Iran with focus on the southwestern region of Iran, particularly. The Iranian recognized scorpions belonging to two families, including Buthidae and Scorpionidae. Buthidae family consists of 14 genuses, 26 species, and 18 sub-species, while Scorpionidae family has three genuses and four species. The lack of basic knowledge, including the geographical distribution, clinical manifestations, and specific treatments related to scorpiofauna justifies such multidisciplinary studies. The venom of two endemic Iranian scorpions, including Hemiscorpius lepturus (H. lepturus) and Odonthubuthus doriae (O.doriae) have considered as an effective source of new neurotoxin peptides for the further development of physio-pharmacological probes and designing the clinical trials. Such epidemiological information may improve the determinants of Iranian scorpion stings in order to plan and implement effective public health intervention. PMID:25276176

  13. An accelerated nutrition transition in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghassemi, Hossein; Harrison, Gail; Mohammad, Kazem

    2002-02-01

    To describe the emergence of the nutrition transition, and associated morbidity shifts, in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Review and analysis of secondary data relating to the socio-political and nutritional context, demographic trends, food utilisation and consumption patterns, obesity, and diet-related morbidity. The nutrition transition in Iran is occurring rapidly, secondary to the rapid change in fertility and mortality patterns and to urbanisation. The transition is occurring against the backdrop of lack of sustained economic growth. There is considerable imbalance in food consumption with low nutrient density characterising diets at all income levels, over-consumption evident among more than a third of households, and food insecurity among 20% of the population. Obesity is an emerging problem, particularly in urban areas and for women, and both diabetes and other risk factors for heart disease are becoming significant problems.

  14. Medical tourism in Iran: Issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Jabbari, Alireza; Delgoshaei, Bahram; Mardani, Raja; Tabibi, Seid Jamaledin

    2012-01-01

    Medical tourism is rapidly becoming a worldwide, multibillion-dollar industry. Iran has a high potential for this industry. The purpose of this study was to examine the medical tourism cluster, using Diamond Analysis tool. This study is a descriptive, analytical and qualitative one. Thirty professionals and researchers in this field were interviewed and official documents belonging to the Health ministry as well as tourism organization and finally related literature were examined. The data was analyzed using content analysis method. Positive and negative parts of the medical tourism industry of Iran were determined according to diamond of advantage. The strategic issues were identified and a number of possible solutions for addressing them were recommended. More and effective public-private participations, aggressive marketing, improving infrastructures, and international accreditation of health care facilities and human resources development could improve medical tourism industry in the country.

  15. Medical tourism in Iran: Issues and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Jabbari, Alireza; Delgoshaei, Bahram; Mardani, Raja; Tabibi, Seid Jamaledin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Medical tourism is rapidly becoming a worldwide, multibillion-dollar industry. Iran has a high potential for this industry. The purpose of this study was to examine the medical tourism cluster, using Diamond Analysis tool. Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive, analytical and qualitative one. Thirty professionals and researchers in this field were interviewed and official documents belonging to the Health ministry as well as tourism organization and finally related literature were examined. The data was analyzed using content analysis method. Results: Positive and negative parts of the medical tourism industry of Iran were determined according to diamond of advantage. Conclusion: The strategic issues were identified and a number of possible solutions for addressing them were recommended. More and effective public-private participations, aggressive marketing, improving infrastructures, and international accreditation of health care facilities and human resources development could improve medical tourism industry in the country. PMID:23555142

  16. Epidemiological review of scorpion envenomation in iran.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Amir; Rahim, Fakher

    2014-01-01

    This epidemiological review was carried out to display the magnitude and the geographic distribution of scorpion envenomation in Iran with focus on the southwestern region of Iran, particularly. The Iranian recognized scorpions belonging to two families, including Buthidae and Scorpionidae. Buthidae family consists of 14 genuses, 26 species, and 18 sub-species, while Scorpionidae family has three genuses and four species. The lack of basic knowledge, including the geographical distribution, clinical manifestations, and specific treatments related to scorpiofauna justifies such multidisciplinary studies. The venom of two endemic Iranian scorpions, including Hemiscorpius lepturus (H. lepturus) and Odonthubuthus doriae (O.doriae) have considered as an effective source of new neurotoxin peptides for the further development of physio-pharmacological probes and designing the clinical trials. Such epidemiological information may improve the determinants of Iranian scorpion stings in order to plan and implement effective public health intervention.

  17. Iran: The Post-Revolutionary Evolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    obligation are based on 20 Celeste Friend, “The Social Contract,” The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy , http...ideological fundamentalism of Iran’s unique theocratic system. By relaxing governmental control over newspapers, arts, and cinema , the Khatami years...articles.latimes.com/2007/sep/05/world/fg-iran5 (accessed on October 23, 2008). Friend, Celeste., The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy ; The Social

  18. Iran’s Influence in Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-07

    to build a complex of houses, hotels , schools, markets, and other commercial buildings in Basra.26 Iran has also invested in Iraq’s banking...sites. The pilgrims support the local economy by patronizing the hotels , restaurants, transportation and other businesses associated with the... tourism infrastructure.27 There have been some negative impacts of Iran’s economic initiatives in Iraq. an effort by the Iranian government to flood

  19. Parasitic infection of Camelus dromedarius from Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirzayans, A; Halim, R

    1980-01-01

    25 intestinal tract, 30 oesophagus and respiratory organs and 47 liver of arabian camel were examined. 35 species of Nematodes two species of Cestodes one immature Trematode one cestodes larvae, one Diptera larvae, one Microfilaria of lung worm and two external parasites were found. This is a first report of helminths in camel from Iran. The Nematodes: Physocephalus sexalatus, Ascarops strongylina, Haemonchus contortus, Cooperia punctata, Nematodirus oratianus, Nematodirella longissimespiculata, Trichostrongylus axei and Gongylonema pulchrum are reported for the first time from Camel.

  20. Trends in reference crop evapotranspiration over Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinpashoh, Yagob; Jhajharia, Deepak; Fakheri-Fard, Ahmad; Singh, Vijay P.; Kahya, Ercan

    2011-03-01

    SummaryThis study examined the trends in reference crop evapotranspiration (ET 0) on monthly and annual time scales in Iran. ET 0 was estimated using the globally accepted Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Penman Monteith method (FAO-56 PM) over the 16 weather stations located in the different regions of Iran. The trends in ET 0 were detected by using the Mann-Kendall (MK) test after the removal of the significant lag-1 serial correlation effect from all the ET 0 time series by pre-whitening. The slopes of trend lines were computed using the Theil-Sen's slope estimator. The spatial and temporal homogeneity of trends were tested as well. The multiple regression analysis was performed in each time series of the governing meteorological variables to identify the cause of observed trends in ET 0. Results showed that both statistically significant increasing and decreasing trends were observed in the annual and monthly ET 0. The increasing trends in ET 0 were more pronounced than the decreasing trends. In annual time scale, the strong positive (negative) trend in ET 0 over Iran of the magnitude of about 186 (-65) mm/year per decade was observed. In monthly time scale there was greater number of increasing trends than that of the decreasing trends in most of the warm months. The most strong positive (negative) trend magnitude was found in April (July) with Theil-Sen's slope equal to 14 (-8.7) mm/year per decade. The results of homogeneity test indicated no homogeneity in ET 0 trends between the stations and months when the entire study domain is considered. Wind speed was found to be the most dominant variable influencing ET 0 in all the months except the winter months in Iran.

  1. Suicidal Attempt and Psychiatric Disorders in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Rahgozart, Mehdi; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Malekafzali, Hossein; Davidian, Haratoun; Naghavi, Hamidreza; Soori, Hamid; Yazdi, Seyed Abbas Bagheri

    2005-01-01

    This study is part of broader research aimed to determine the lifetime prevalence and pattern of comorbidity on self-reported suicidal attempts in the general population of Iran. Overall, 25,180 subjects were interviewed, face-to-face, at home; the lifetime prevalence was 1.4% (0.9% males and 2% females). The majority of attempters were 26-55…

  2. The Iran Hostages: Efforts to Obtain Compensation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Republic of Algeria; The Escrow Agreement ; and The Technical Arrangement Between Banque Centrale D’algerie as Escrow Agent and the governor and...failed due to foreign sovereign immunity and an executive agreement known as the Algiers Accords, which bars such lawsuits. Congress took action to...abrogate Iran’s sovereign immunity in the case Roeder v. Islamic Republic of Iran, but never successfully abrogated the executive agreement , leaving

  3. Coping with Iran: Confrontation, Containment, or Engagement?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    as a public service of the RAND Corporation. 6Jump down to document THE ARTS CHILD POLICY CIVIL JUSTICE EDUCATION ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT HEALTH AND...operational, at least in significant numbers. Iran appears to have focused much of its energy and resources on developing a family of ballistic missiles...array of cultural and educational exchange programs and reopening embassies, consulates, and information centers in both countries supporting efforts

  4. Analyzing International Economic Influence on Iran

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-03

    Group of 7 (G7) with the addition of Russia. Members and observers of the SCO (China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, India ...Iran. From the top right around to the bottom right are: Tajikistan (TJ), Kazakhstan (KZ), Kyrgystan (KG), India (IN), China (CN), Pakistan (PK), and...historically global competitors with the US. Thus, unlike the members of the EU, the members of the SCO except perhaps India do not have a long history

  5. Analyzing International Economic Influence on Iran

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-30

    the SCO (China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, India , Iran, Mongolia, and Pakistan) were included as the SCO represents...Kazakhstan (KZ), Kyrgystan (KG), India (IN), China (CN), Pakistan (PK), and Mongolia (MN). At about the same distance, as the SCO members and observers, and...except perhaps India do not have a long history of close friendly ties to the US. Even India has previously grossly defied US policy initiatives in

  6. Makran Mountain Range, Iran and Pakistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The long folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Ranges of Iran and Pakistan (26.0N, 63.0E) illustrate the classical Trellis type of drainage pattern, common in this region. The Dasht River and its tributaries is the principal drainage network for this area. To the left, the continental drift of the northward bound Indian sub-continent has caused the east/west parallel ranges to bend in a great northward arc.

  7. Game Theory, Predictive Analysis, And Iran

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    EBSCOhost (accessed October 15, 2013), 291. 5 Bueno De Mesquita, The Predictioneer’s Game, 71. 6 James Johnson, "What Rationality Assumption? Or, How...Talks. 28 "Iran: Implications of Ahmadinejad’s Parliamentary Defeat." Stratfor Analysis (May 2012): 34. Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost ...accessed October 28, 2013). 29 Ramin Ahmadi, "Tensions in Tehran." World Affairs 176, no. 3 (September 2013): 35-40. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost

  8. JPRS Report, Near East, & South Asia, Iran

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-18

    lethal German tehnology . And second that Iran of a joint work group to study the issue of the Bushehr has been a signatory to nuclear non...abandon the idea of nuclear power plant and instead press will only hinder and damage the prospects for accept German tehnology for conventional ones...munications is being planned for the province, which can and mobile telephones, he said: The communications be divided into four areas of development-long

  9. Thalassemia in Iran: epidemiology, prevention, and management.

    PubMed

    Abolghasemi, Hassan; Amid, Ali; Zeinali, Sirous; Radfar, Mohammad H; Eshghi, Peyman; Rahiminejad, Mohammad S; Ehsani, Mohammad A; Najmabadi, Hossein; Akbari, Mohammad T; Afrasiabi, Abdolreza; Akhavan-Niaki, Haleh; Hoorfar, Hamid

    2007-04-01

    To determine the prevalence and geographic distribution of thalassemia and to evaluate the success of the thalassemia prevention and treatment programs in Iran. Data were obtained from the National Thalassemia Registry of Iran, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, genetic laboratories involved in prenatal diagnosis, related pharmaceutical companies, and centers performing bone marrow transplantation for thalassemic patients. A total of 13,879 living patients have been registered, mostly from the northern and southern parts of Iran with the median age of 15 years. Twenty-three percent of patients were older than 20 years. The number of newly diagnosed cases has been decreased considerably after the start of the prevention program. Since the introduction of prenatal diagnosis, 2819 couples (2549 fetuses) have been tested, with only 6 false results. Elective abortion was not performed in 10 affected fetuses. Most common mutations detected were IVS II-1 and IVS I-5. In 2003, approximately 25% of the national blood products and 6 million vials of desferal were used for thalassemic patients. Overall, 340 patients have received allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, of those 46 patients deceased. Bloodborne infections have also been decreased significantly owing to the national screening of blood products for bloodborne viral infections. Owing to the national prevention program and provided special care, the age distribution of thalassemic patients in Iran is getting adapted to a full prevention and treatment program and life expectancy of these patients has been increased considerably. This shift in the age distribution of thalassemia, a traditionally considered pediatric disease, will face us with new challenges and the health care system should be prepared for this new face of thalassemia.

  10. Iran’s Nuclear Program: Status

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-18

    disruptions.14 Gas centrifuges enrich uranium by spinning uranium hexafluoride gas at high speeds to increase the concentration of the uranium -235 isotope...conversion facility, which converts uranium oxide into several compounds, including uranium hexafluoride .16 A heavy-water reactor, which Iran is constructing...additional information about the manner in which it acquired a document “describing the procedures” for reducing uranium hexafluoride to uranium metal

  11. India-Iran Relations: A Deepening Entente

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    presence in the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea at that juncture. Indian engineers also are working to upgrade and develop the Iranian port of Chabahar ...with the intent of improving the route from Chabahar , Iran to the Afghan cities of Zaranj and Delaram. To this end, India has committed $70 million for...August. In addition, an Indian consortium has been engaged by the Iranian Ports and Shipping Company to undertake development work at the Chabahar port

  12. The Right US Strategy for Iran

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    Ahmadinejad replaced scores of professional diplomats and government officials with cronies from the Revolutionary Guard and security and intelligence...and its regional hegemonic ambitions. While IRGC 43 commanders publicly trumpet Iran’s growing sea-denial capabilities and the painful costs the...in this: “tightening the economic noose around Tehran is one of the best policy options.”2 The people of Iran feel the pain of a broken economy

  13. Scorpion sting in Iran: a review.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Rouhullah; Fathi, Behrooz

    2012-10-01

    Among Middle Eastern countries, at least 52 species of scorpions, especially dangerous types, have been reported in Iran. This is more than any other country in the region. In addition, in Iran the recorded scorpion stings from 2001 to 2009 were more than 42,500 per year, of which, approximately 19.5 deaths have been reported each year, mostly in spring and summer. About 10 species are responsible for the reported envenoming which belong to the Buthidae family apart from Hemiscorpius lepturus which is a Hemiscorpiidae. The Buthidae family includes: Androctonus crassicauda, Mesobuthus eupeus, Odontobuthus doriae, Hottentotta saulcyi, Hottentotta schach, Compsobuthus matthiesseni, Orthochirus scrobiculosus, Apistobuthus pterygocercus and Olivierus caucasicus. A. crassicauda and H. lepturus are usually cited as the most dangerous species among Iranian scorpions. This article focuses on the main Iranian scorpions and their geographical distribution, especially those which are medically important and considered to be the more dangerous to human, and also attempts to demonstrate an accurate magnitude of scorpion stings in Iran. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Risky driving behaviors in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Shams, Mohsen; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2009-03-01

    Iran has one of the highest fatality rates due to road traffic crashes (RTC) in the world. The disability adjusted life years (DALYs) for RTC in Iran is more than 1,300,000 years, which is more than that for any other disease such as cardiovascular or cancer. We evaluated risky driving behaviors in Tehran, the capital of Iran. A retrospective analysis was conducted based on the data obtained from the Tehran Police Safety Driving Department. Offenses and crashes were studied in different municipal districts in Tehran from March 2006 to March 2007. The inclusion criteria were risky driving behaviors fined by the police. Nonbehavioral offences were excluded. There were 3,821,798 offenses in Tehran. Not wearing a seat belt was the most common (59%) example of risky driving behavior, followed by tailgating, not wearing motorcycle helmets, talking on the cell phone while driving, overtaking from the wrong side, speeding, not driving between the lanes, weaving in and out of traffic, left deviation, and changing lanes without signals. The most common causes of RTC in Tehran are speeding, overtaking from the wrong side, and the rapid changing of driving lanes. The study factors effective in preventing risky driving behaviors in Tehran is recommended. The consideration of specific characteristics of the municipal districts is necessary to reduce risky driving behaviors.

  15. Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in Iran.

    PubMed

    Taherkhani, Reza; Farshadpour, Fatemeh

    2016-06-14

    Iran is known as an endemic country for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, while there are variations in the epidemiology of HEV infection throughout the country. The available epidemiological studies in different regions of Iran show HEV seroprevalence of 1.1%-14.2% among general population, 4.5% -14.3% among blood donors, 6.1%-22.8% among injecting drug users, 6.3%-28.3% among hemodialysis patients, 1.6%-11.3% among patients infected with other hepatitis viruses, 27.5% among patients with chronic liver disease, 30.8% among kidney transplant recipient patients, and 10%-16.4% among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. These variations reflect differences in the status of public health and hygiene, risk factors, and routes of transmission in different regions and groups. Therefore, it is necessary to review the epidemiology of HEV infection to determine the most prevalent risk factors and routes of transmission, and to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive strategies employed in the public health services of the country. Moreover, the other epidemiological aspects of HEV, including the genotypic pattern, extra hepatic manifestations, and incidence of chronic infection need to be investigated among Iranian population to expand the current knowledge on the epidemiology of HEV and to clarify the real burden of HEV infection. Therefore, this review was performed to provide a general overview regarding the epidemiology of HEV in Iran.

  16. Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Taherkhani, Reza; Farshadpour, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Iran is known as an endemic country for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, while there are variations in the epidemiology of HEV infection throughout the country. The available epidemiological studies in different regions of Iran show HEV seroprevalence of 1.1%-14.2% among general population, 4.5% -14.3% among blood donors, 6.1%-22.8% among injecting drug users, 6.3%-28.3% among hemodialysis patients, 1.6%-11.3% among patients infected with other hepatitis viruses, 27.5% among patients with chronic liver disease, 30.8% among kidney transplant recipient patients, and 10%-16.4% among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. These variations reflect differences in the status of public health and hygiene, risk factors, and routes of transmission in different regions and groups. Therefore, it is necessary to review the epidemiology of HEV infection to determine the most prevalent risk factors and routes of transmission, and to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive strategies employed in the public health services of the country. Moreover, the other epidemiological aspects of HEV, including the genotypic pattern, extra hepatic manifestations, and incidence of chronic infection need to be investigated among Iranian population to expand the current knowledge on the epidemiology of HEV and to clarify the real burden of HEV infection. Therefore, this review was performed to provide a general overview regarding the epidemiology of HEV in Iran. PMID:27298557

  17. Aflatoxins in iran: nature, hazards and carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Khoshpey, B; Farhud, Dd; Zaini, F

    2011-12-01

    Many studies have shown that mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products is a challenge for individual's health especially in developing countries. Improper production and storage of foods, prepare conditions for aflatoxin production in crops, especially rice, wheat, pistachio, walnut, almond, etc which are the main sources of foods for people. Feeding livestock by contaminated bread is another way of human exposure to mycotoxins, especially aflatoxin and because of expensive methods for detecting and analyzing aflatoxin in laboratory; it is not measured in foods. This manuscript is a review of some Iranian and nonIranian reports about aflatoxin, its exposure ways, its adverse effect on human health and nutrition, as well as methods for reducing its exposure. Based on studies on foods, aflatoxin exposure is high in Iran. Since livestock feeding by contaminated bread is one of the potential ways for milk contamination, we should control and reduce aflatoxin contamination by improving production process, storage condition and livestock feeding as soon as possible. Pistachio is one of the most important exporting products of Iran and to maintain Iran's position in exporting of this product, specific regulations on lowering its contamination with aflatoxin should be considered seriously. Finally, effective controlling of all food and feedstuffs which are vulnerable to aflatoxin contamination is necessary to prevent its effects.

  18. Regulated compensated donation in Pakistan and Iran.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Adibul Hasan S; Naqvi, Anwar S A; Zafar, Naqi M; Ahmed, Ejaz

    2009-04-01

    Paid living unrelated kidney donor transplantation has flourished in Pakistan and Iran. This review discusses the dynamics and consequences of organ trade in Pakistan and of a regulated paid donor model in Iran on transplant activities in these countries. In 2007, over 2500 renal transplants were performed in Pakistan, where more than 70% were from socioeconomic disadvantaged kidney vendors. More than half of recipients were foreigners who paid US$20,000-30,000. Recipients of vendor kidneys had poor outcome and high infectious complications. Regulated paid donor kidney transplant in Iran number around 1500 per year and constitute 70% of the total transplants. Graft survival rates are similar to those for living related donors. The donors are paid US$1200 and additional monies are negotiated between the recipient-donor pair. This model claims to have abolished waiting lists, although many poor patients wait for deceased donors. In both countries, recipients are relatively rich and vendors are the poor of the society who sell kidneys for quick money or to repay debts. Paid donation, regulated or commercial, leads to coercion and exploitation of the poor and benefits the rich. This situation has forestalled deceased donor program and hence other solid-organ transplants. The way forward is to promote deceased donors by making transplant available to all who need it.

  19. Embryo donation in Iran: an ethical review.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Leila; Bagheri, Alireza

    2013-12-01

    Iran is the only Muslim country that has legislation on embryo donation, adopted in 2003. With an estimated 10-15% of couples in the country that are infertile, there are not any legal or religious barriers that prohibit an infertile couple from taking advantage of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs). Although all forms of ARTs available in Iran have been legitimized by religious authorities, there is a lack of legislation in all ARTs except embryo donation. By highlighting ethical issues in embryo donation, the paper presents a critical review of the Act of Embryo Donation in Iran. The paper argues that the Act does not provide enough safeguards for the future child and assurance for the safety of the donated embryos. It also does not restrict embryo donation to surplus embryos from infertile couples and is silent about the number of embryos that could be donated by each couple as well as the number of recipients for donated embryos by a couple. The Act is also silent about the issues of genetic linkage (nasab) and heritage which are challenging issues, especially in a conservative Islamic society. As a result, the future child may not inherit from their birth parents, as it is not required by the Act, or from the genetically related parents under the anonymity policy. Finally there is no standard national protocol or guidelines to evaluate the safety of the donated embryos. The paper concludes that despite its benefits, the Act lacks clarity, and it is subject to misunderstanding and confusion.

  20. Power resources of older people in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ravanipour, Maryam; Salehi, Shayesteh; Taleghani, Fariba; Abedi, Heidar Ali; Ishaghi, Sayed Reza; Schuurmans, Marieke J; de Jong, Anneke

    2013-03-01

    Maximising the client's power resources facilitates their ability to cope with chronic illness. Nurses must be well informed about power resources and feelings of empowerment among older people. This article reports on a study exploring power resources in daily life from the perspective of older people in Iran. A qualitative content analysis study was conducted. The participants were selected from older community dwellers in Iran using in-depth, semi-structured interviews to understand their experiences with power resources. Power in older people in Iran is represented by four dimensions: spiritual, intellectual, social and physical. Each power dimension can be divided into intrinsic and extrinsic modes. By maximising older people's power in intellectual, social and especially in spiritual resources, the effect of the loss of physical power, with its deteriorative or depressogenic effect on older people's sense of power and well-being can be compensated for. It is recommended that nurses should plan their interventions to enhance older people's power, especially their spiritual power. Different models of empowering older people should be explored in Iranian nursing care delivery. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Case Study: Iran, Islam, the NPT, and the Bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, E .

    2011-04-01

    The goals of this case study are: (1) To examine the correlation between Iran's nuclear program and clerical statements; (2) To evaluate the importance of these statements; (3) To understand the relationship between policy and fatwas (Islamic decrees); (4) To address the issue of a 'nuclear fatwa'; and (5) To examine how, if at all, Sharia (Islamic law) has influenced Iran's actions or inactions with respect to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Iran's adherence to its IAEA Safeguards Agreements and the Additional Protocol. The Islamic Republic of Iran (hereinafter Iran) is one of two theocracies in the world, the second being Vatican City. Iran's government derives its constitutional, moral, and political legitimacy from Islam. As a result of this theocratic culture, rules are set and interpreted with a much different calibrator than that of the Western world. Islam affects all aspects of Iranian life. This is further complicated by the fact that Islam is not a nationalistic faith, in that many people all over the world believe in and adhere to Islamic principles. As a result, a political system that derives much of its fervor from being nationalistic is caught between two worlds, one within the land boundaries of Iran and the other within a faith that transcends boundaries. Thus, any understanding of Islamic law must first be understood within this delicate balance of nationalism and transcendence. Iran has found itself on the international stage concerning its nuclear program. Because Iran is a theocratic state, it is imperative to examine its political moves, speeches, rights, and obligations through the lens of Islam. This study will examine how Islam plays a role in Iran's dealing with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), its understanding of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), including parties obligations under Safeguards Agreements and the Additional Protocol, and also provide a

  2. Factors Associated With Suicidal Attempts in Iran: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hakim Shooshtari, Mitra; Malakouti, Seyyed Kazem; Panaghi, Leili; Mohseni, Shohreh; Mansouri, Naghmeh; Rahimi Movaghar, Afarin

    2016-01-01

    Context: Suicide prevention is a health service priority. Some surveys have assessed suicidal behaviors and potential risk factors. Objectives: The current paper aimed to gather information about etiology of suicide attempts in Iran. Data Sources: Pubmed, ISI web of science, PsychInfo, IranPsych, IranMedex, IranDoc as well as gray literature were searched. Study Selection: By electronic and gray literature search, 128 articles were enrolled in this paper. Pubmed, ISI web of science, PsychInfo, IranPsych, IranMedex, IranDoc were searched for electronic search. After reading the abstracts, 84 studies were excluded and full texts of 44 articles were reviewed critically. Data Extraction: Pubmed, ISI web of science, PsychInfo, IranPsych, IranMedex, IranDoc as well as gray literature were searched to find any study about etiologic factors of suicide attempt in Iran. Results: Depressive disorder was the most common diagnosis in suicide attempters that is 45% of the evaluated cases had depression. One study that had used Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI) found that Histrionics in females and Schizophrenia and Paranoia in males were significantly influential. Family conflicts with 50.7% and conflict with parents with 44% were two effective psychosocial factors in suicidal attempts. In around one fourth (28.7%) of the cases, conflict with spouse was the main etiologic factor. Conclusions: According to the methodological limitations, outcomes should be generalized cautiously. Further studies will help to plan preventive strategies for suicidal attempts; therefore, continued researches should be conducted to fill the data gaps. PMID:27284284

  3. Middle East Stability and the Economic Ambitions of Iran

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-14

    bilateral trade and cooperation.100 By 2010, construction of a pipeline between Basra Iraq and Abadan Iran was underway and Iran was awarded a $1...and refinement capacity by 100% in comparison to 2007 levels. Plants to be improved include those at Abadan , Shazand, Lavan, Tehran, Tabriz, Isfahan

  4. Iran: Economy, Senility, and Ineptitude Greasing the Slide to Instability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-13

    Prospects 20 Conclusions 21 End Notes 26 I-. ii p Bibliography 28 4, N ൹ .4- #4 I.- 4~* 4’ KEY JUDGEMENTS *The Islamic Republic of Iran has survived...with little prospect of a dramatic reversal of Iran’s fortunes for some time to come. a. 25 L 2 &,&- i _ .,1 END NOTES Middle East Economic Digest, 24

  5. Iran's Denial of Education to Baha'is

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the background of the persecution of the Baha'is in Iran, especially the denial of education, and explores what could be done to alleviate this injustice, including enlisting the support of nations, organizations, media and people around the world. Baha'is are the largest religious minority in Iran and have been…

  6. Anagnorisma chamrani sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Gyulai, Peter; Rabieh, Mohammad Mahdi; Seraj, Ali Asghar; Ronkay, Laslo; Esfandiari, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    A new Anagnorisma species, Anagnorisma chamrani sp. n., is described from Binaloud Mountains of Khorasan-e-Razavi province in north-eastern Iran, and compared with its sister species, Anagnorisma eucratides (Boursin, 1960). The adults, and male and female genitalia of both species are illustrated in 11 figures. The genus Anagnorisma is recorded for the first time for the fauna of Iran.

  7. An annotated checklist of Malachiidae (Coleoptera: Cleroidea) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirutenko, Vladyslav; Ghahari, Hassan

    2016-09-09

    A checklist of Iranian Malachiidae (Coleoptera) is given in this paper. Eighty two species from 22 genera (subfamily Malachiinae) are listed in the fauna of Iran. Of these species, 31 are endemic to Iran, and one Anthocomus pupillatus Abeille de Perrin, 1890 is a new record for this country.

  8. Iran’s Economic Conditions: U.S. Policy Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-22

    provided low-interest loans for agriculture, tourism , and industry and has instituted loan forgiveness policies. Other activities include the...affiliates involved in economic areas such as agriculture, construction, industries , mining, transportation, commerce, and tourism . Since 1991, the...penalties on companies that supply Iran with gasoline or support its domestic petroleum-related industries . Introduction The Islamic Republic of Iran is

  9. The Idea of English in Iran: An Example from Urmia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeghi, Karim; Richards, Jack C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the place of English in Iran. To do this, we look at the social presence of English in Urmia (the capital of West Azerbaijan province, Iran). The paper draws on instances of the use of English in different contexts in Urmia, including its use in academia, business, state and private education, media, and people's ordinary…

  10. An integrated taxonomic approach to survey Armillaria in Iran

    Treesearch

    Saeideh Jafarpour; Khalil-Berdi Fotouhifar; Mohammad Javan-Nikhhah; Mohhamad Reza Asef; Anthony S. Davis; Amy L. Ross-Davis; John W. Hanna; Simona Margaritescu; Jean-Marc Moncalvo; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2016-01-01

    Iran's most valuable forests are located on the coast of the Caspian Sea and cover 1.85 million ha in the northern region of the Alborz mountain range, which is the highest mountain range in the Middle East. Dense forests cover two major provinces, Gilan and Mazandaran; however, less than 10% of Iran is forested. These forests comprise temperate,...

  11. The Idea of English in Iran: An Example from Urmia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeghi, Karim; Richards, Jack C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the place of English in Iran. To do this, we look at the social presence of English in Urmia (the capital of West Azerbaijan province, Iran). The paper draws on instances of the use of English in different contexts in Urmia, including its use in academia, business, state and private education, media, and people's ordinary…

  12. Organizational Commitment among High School Teachers of India and Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joolideh, Faranak; Yeshodhara, K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the organizational commitment of teachers in India and Iran. It is an attempt to understand how these perceptions vary by demographic variables such as age and subject taught by teachers. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from 721 high school teachers in Bangalore (India) and Sanandaj (Iran).…

  13. [On the fauna of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Iran].

    PubMed

    Iankovskiĭ, A V

    2010-01-01

    Collections of blacfklies from Iran have been examined; four species were recorded. Three new species are described--Tetisimulium iranicum sp. n., Wilhelmia lurestanica sp. n., and Crosskeyellum zagros sp. n. Presence of Tetisimulium coarctatum (Rubzov, 1940) in Iran is confirmed.

  14. Meeting the Cultural Challenges of Instructional Technology in Iran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johari, Abbas

    2002-01-01

    Discusses instructional technology in Iran. Highlights include a historical background of Iran; Islamic faith and technology; technology without western culture and influence; access to mass communication; telecommunications conferences; Internet access, usage, and connectivity; social issues; media in schools; Internet inequalities; and…

  15. Organizational Commitment among High School Teachers of India and Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joolideh, Faranak; Yeshodhara, K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the organizational commitment of teachers in India and Iran. It is an attempt to understand how these perceptions vary by demographic variables such as age and subject taught by teachers. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from 721 high school teachers in Bangalore (India) and Sanandaj (Iran).…

  16. 28 CFR 601.1 - Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Iran/Contra. 601.1 Section 601.1 Judicial Administration OFFICES OF INDEPENDENT COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE JURISDICTION OF THE INDEPENDENT COUNSEL: IRAN/CONTRA § 601.1 Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra. (a) The Independent Counsel. Iran/Contra has jurisdiction to investigate to the...

  17. 31 CFR 535.334 - Act of the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Act of the Government of Iran. 535... Definitions § 535.334 Act of the Government of Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, an act of the Government of Iran, includes any acts ordered, authorized, allowed, approved, or ratified by the Government of Iran...

  18. 28 CFR 601.1 - Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Iran/Contra. 601.1 Section 601.1 Judicial Administration OFFICES OF INDEPENDENT COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE JURISDICTION OF THE INDEPENDENT COUNSEL: IRAN/CONTRA § 601.1 Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra. (a) The Independent Counsel. Iran/Contra has jurisdiction to investigate to the...

  19. 31 CFR 535.334 - Act of the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Act of the Government of Iran. 535.334... Definitions § 535.334 Act of the Government of Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, an act of the Government of Iran, includes any acts ordered, authorized, allowed, approved, or ratified by the Government of Iran...

  20. 28 CFR 601.1 - Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Iran/Contra. 601.1 Section 601.1 Judicial Administration OFFICES OF INDEPENDENT COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE JURISDICTION OF THE INDEPENDENT COUNSEL: IRAN/CONTRA § 601.1 Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra. (a) The Independent Counsel. Iran/Contra has jurisdiction to investigate to the...

  1. 31 CFR 560.551 - Student loan payments from persons in Iran authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Iran authorized. 560.551 Section 560.551 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... payments from persons in Iran authorized. United States depository institutions and private loan companies... payments from persons in Iran or ordinarily resident in Iran. ...

  2. 31 CFR 535.334 - Act of the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Act of the Government of Iran. 535.334... Definitions § 535.334 Act of the Government of Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, an act of the Government of Iran, includes any acts ordered, authorized, allowed, approved, or ratified by the Government of Iran...

  3. 28 CFR 601.1 - Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Iran/Contra. 601.1 Section 601.1 Judicial Administration OFFICES OF INDEPENDENT COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE JURISDICTION OF THE INDEPENDENT COUNSEL: IRAN/CONTRA § 601.1 Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra. (a) The Independent Counsel. Iran/Contra has jurisdiction to investigate to the...

  4. 31 CFR 535.334 - Act of the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Act of the Government of Iran. 535.334... Definitions § 535.334 Act of the Government of Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, an act of the Government of Iran, includes any acts ordered, authorized, allowed, approved, or ratified by the Government of Iran...

  5. 28 CFR 601.1 - Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Iran/Contra. 601.1 Section 601.1 Judicial Administration OFFICES OF INDEPENDENT COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE JURISDICTION OF THE INDEPENDENT COUNSEL: IRAN/CONTRA § 601.1 Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra. (a) The Independent Counsel. Iran/Contra has jurisdiction to investigate to the...

  6. 31 CFR 560.551 - Student loan payments from persons in Iran authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Iran authorized. 560.551 Section 560.551 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... payments from persons in Iran authorized. United States depository institutions and private loan companies... payments from persons in Iran or ordinarily resident in Iran. ...

  7. 31 CFR 535.334 - Act of the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Act of the Government of Iran. 535.334... Definitions § 535.334 Act of the Government of Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, an act of the Government of Iran, includes any acts ordered, authorized, allowed, approved, or ratified by the Government of Iran...

  8. Iran`s petroleum policy: Current trends and the future outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Pezeshki, S.; Fesharaki, F.

    1994-12-01

    The Iranian economy and political situation have undergone radical changes since the 1979 Islamic revolution. The excesses of the early years of the revolution have gradually given way to moderation and a more pragmatic economic policy--based on the principles of the free market. The petroleum policy, as a subset of the economic policies, has been somewhat affected by the political and economic developments in Iran. The petroleum policy has changed from a position of no foreign participation to a position that includes a desire for foreign participation, the text of a model contract, and an attempt to introduce new technologies in the upstream sector. This report provides an overview of the key issues facing the Iranian oil industry and the economic context in which the oil industry is operating in Iran. It describes the evolution of policies meant to move the oil industry toward the free market; it discusses Iran`s oil trading partners, the outlook for refining and project investments, and current and likely future developments in the natural gas and petrochemical sectors. In short, the report provides an up-to-date assessment of the Iranian petroleum sector and its likely evolution in the future.

  9. Profiteering on the Iran-Iraq war

    SciTech Connect

    Brzoska, M.

    1987-06-01

    The military gear delivered from the US in the Iran-contra affair represents only a minor portion of arms sales to the combatants in the Iraq-Iran war. That war has now lasted more than six years and has deeply influenced the international arms market. Occurring during a period when other demand for arms has been relatively low, the war has nourished new suppliers and has revived both the legal and illegal private arms market. The erratic behavior of the USSR and the US, until recently by far the most important arms suppliers to the Third World, has pushed Iran and Iraq toward more commercially oriented sources, including many in the Third World. Both countries have had ample supplies of weapons during the war, and these weapons have served their purpose. Mainly because of its duration, the war already ranks third among post-World War II wars - after the Vietnam war and the Biafra war - in battlefield victims, with 300,000-500,000 casualties. The economic cost has risen to nearly $500 billion in weapons, destruction, and lost income. While it is hard to see anything but losers on the battlefield, the arms traffickers are profiting. Total Iranian arms imports since August 1980 have been higher than $10 billion, while Iraq has imported more than $30 billion worth. It is difficult to know whether making arms more difficult to obtain would have stopped the war, but judging from other recent wars, such as those between India and Pakistan, between Uganda and Tanzania, and in the Middle East, it seems likely that hostilities could have been stopped long ago. 12 references.

  10. Epidemiology of Scorpionism in Iran during 2009

    PubMed Central

    Rafizadeh, Sina; Rafinejad, Javad; Rassi, Yavar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Scorpion sting is a major health problem in Iran. The aim of current study was to measure the incidence rates of scorpion stings, mortality, recovery, and affected age groups. The results of treatment with and without anti venom also were considered in the entire country during 2009. Methods: All the data were collected from emergency section of different hospitals and then were analyzed by related software. The responsibility of such data collection and surveillance is related to the Department of Violence and Injury, Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran. Results: A total incidence of 59.5/100000 was found for the 12-month period. During the study period the most and the least cases were reported from Khuzestan and Mazandaran Provinces with incidence of 541 and 0 per 100000 respectively. Totally 40220 anti venom vials were used, i.e., the ratio of 91 vial/ 100 affected cases. The stings occur mainly in rural areas (57.7%). Young people with the age group of 15–24 years old were the most victims of stings. The mortality and recovery rates of cases who had received anti venom less than 6 h of stings were calculated as 0.01% and 99.9% respectively. Conclusion: The high incidence of scorpion stings in Iran especially in Khuzestan suggests the necessity of preventive programmes for decreasing the incidence. Such programmes could start by community educating in the high prevalent areas. In addition prompt and local treatment is particularly important for infants and pre-school children. PMID:23785696

  11. A survey of the Agrotis of Iran.

    PubMed

    Feizpoor, Sh; Shirvani, A; Rashki, M

    2014-01-01

    The present study reviews the genus Agrotis Ochsenheimer, 1816 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Noctuinae) in Iran from a taxonomic and faunistic point of view. An identification key of external features is presented for 16 Iranian species and subspecies. A description of each taxon is presented based on external male and female genital characteristics. Diagnostic features and comparisons with the closest relatives are given for each species. Original combination and citation with the synonymy of each species or subspecies are expounded as well as their distribution and bionomy. Adult moths and male genitalia are illustrated.

  12. The spider family Filistatidae (Araneae) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Marusik, Yuri M; Zamani, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    All species of Filistatidae occurring in Iran are surveyed. Zaituniaakhanii sp. n. is described on the basis of female specimens collected in Tehran province, and the previously unknown male of Sahastatasinuspersica Marusik, Zamani & Mirshamsi, 2014 is described for the first time. Also, the endogynes of the holotypes of Zaituniaalexandri Brignoli, 1982, Zaituniamedica Brignoli, 1982 and Zaituniapersica Brignoli, 1982 are illustrated. Including these results, the number of Iranian species of Filistatidae is increased to seven, which indicates the highest species-richness of this family in the Western Palaearctic.

  13. A Survey of the Agrotis of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Feizpoor, Sh.; Shirvani, A.; Rashki, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reviews the genus Agrotis Ochsenheimer, 1816 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Noctuinae) in Iran from a taxonomic and faunistic point of view. An identification key of external features is presented for 16 Iranian species and subspecies. A description of each taxon is presented based on external male and female genital characteristics. Diagnostic features and comparisons with the closest relatives are given for each species. Original combination and citation with the synonymy of each species or subspecies are expounded as well as their distribution and bionomy. Adult moths and male genitalia are illustrated. PMID:25368051

  14. Pediatric visceral leishmaniasis in northwest of Iran.

    PubMed

    Abdinia, Babak; Oliaei-Motlagh, Mohammad; Teimouri-Dereshki, Amir

    2016-11-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the major health problems in Iran. Although the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is reported almost everywhere, the northwestern Iran is one of the major endemic regions.To do this study, clinical, laboratory as well as disease characteristics of children admitted to Children Cure and Health Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, were examined as the reference hospital for the treatment of VL in northwestern Iran.In this study, 156 children hospitalized in a pediatric hospital from 2000 to 2015 for VL were included. Gender, age, anemia, thrombocytopenia, increase in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), alanine transaminase (SGPT), and aspartate transaminase (SGOT), major clinical manifestations such as fever, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, treatment type, and the disease were studied.Among 156 patients examined in this study, 88 (56.41%) and 68 (43.59%) participants were male and female, respectively. The minimum and maximum ages of the infection were 4.5 months and 6 years, respectively. The mean age of the infected children was 17.94 months. Fever (94.24%) and splenomegaly (86.53%) were the most common symptoms of this disease among children. In addition, 49 (31.41%), 64 (41.02%), 18 (11.53%), 33 (21.15%), and 40 (25.64%) participants had leukopenia, hemoglobin count below 8, ESR above 100, ESR above 60, and platelets below 100,000, respectively. Moreover, 39 (25%) and 17 (10.89%) patients had high aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). Also, 96.2% of the participants responded to the treatment with glucantime. The rate of mortality in this study was 3.2%.Clinically, almost all children had fever and splenomegaly at the onset of the disease. In addition, hepatic involvement was observed in all cases of mortality, cases with a lack of initial response, and those in need of auxiliary medication. Hepatic involvement appears to be related to the prognosis of the disease. In our study, bone marrow

  15. The spider family Filistatidae (Araneae) in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Marusik, Yuri M.; Zamani, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract All species of Filistatidae occurring in Iran are surveyed. Zaitunia akhanii sp. n. is described on the basis of female specimens collected in Tehran province, and the previously unknown male of Sahastata sinuspersica Marusik, Zamani & Mirshamsi, 2014 is described for the first time. Also, the endogynes of the holotypes of Zaitunia alexandri Brignoli, 1982, Zaitunia medica Brignoli, 1982 and Zaitunia persica Brignoli, 1982 are illustrated. Including these results, the number of Iranian species of Filistatidae is increased to seven, which indicates the highest species-richness of this family in the Western Palaearctic. PMID:26312024

  16. Plague in Iran: its history and current status.

    PubMed

    Hashemi Shahraki, Abdolrazagh; Carniel, Elizabeth; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Plague remains a public health concern worldwide, particularly in old foci. Multiple epidemics of this disease have been recorded throughout the history of Iran. Despite the long-standing history of human plague in Iran, it remains difficult to obtain an accurate overview of the history and current status of plague in Iran. In this review, available data and reports on cases and outbreaks of human plague in the past and present in Iran and in neighboring countries were collected, and information was compiled regarding when, where, and how many cases occurred. This paper considers the history of plague in Persia (the predecessor of today's Iran) and has a brief review of plague in countries in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region, including a range of countries in the Middle East and North Africa. Since Iran has experienced outbreaks of plague for several centuries, neighboring countries have reported the disease in recent years, the disease can be silent for decades, and the circulation of Yersinia pestis has been reported among rodents and dogs in western Iran, more attention should be paid to disease monitoring in areas with previously reported human cases and in high-risk regions with previous epizootic and enzootic activity.

  17. Plague in Iran: its history and current status

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Plague remains a public health concern worldwide, particularly in old foci. Multiple epidemics of this disease have been recorded throughout the history of Iran. Despite the long-standing history of human plague in Iran, it remains difficult to obtain an accurate overview of the history and current status of plague in Iran. METHODS: In this review, available data and reports on cases and outbreaks of human plague in the past and present in Iran and in neighboring countries were collected, and information was compiled regarding when, where, and how many cases occurred. RESULTS: This paper considers the history of plague in Persia (the predecessor of today’s Iran) and has a brief review of plague in countries in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region, including a range of countries in the Middle East and North Africa. CONCLUSIONS: Since Iran has experienced outbreaks of plague for several centuries, neighboring countries have reported the disease in recent years, the disease can be silent for decades, and the circulation of Yersinia pestis has been reported among rodents and dogs in western Iran, more attention should be paid to disease monitoring in areas with previously reported human cases and in high-risk regions with previous epizootic and enzootic activity. PMID:27457063

  18. Energy portfolio of Iran: A case study of solar desalination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besharati, Adib

    Energy plays a very important role in the economic development of a country such as Iran where industrial progress and higher living standards increase demand for energy. Iran is one of the countries in the world that simultaneously produces and consumes large amounts of energy. Because of its geographic latitude and weather conditions, Iran has the potential to develop and use of both fossil and renewable energy sources. In South Iran, there are huge oil and gas resources, and at the same time high potential of solar radiation. However, at the present large-scale utilization, solar energy is prohibitively expensive for Iran. Therefore, this study investigates an economical way to utilize solar energy in a meaningful way for Iran. One of the possible uses of solar energy that is both economical and technically feasible is desalination of water using solar energy. People in South Iran live in different areas with relatively low population density. One of the critical problems in those areas is a lack of clean drinking water. As a result, there is an urgent need to investigate ways to produce clean water from the saltwater. Therefore, the present study conducts a case study of solar desalination in south Iran using solar. Different desalination methods, such as humidification dehumidification by using a solar collector, and reverse osmosis, are discussed. In the case study, a prototype desalination plant was considered and both technical and economic aspects of the plant were investigated in details. The results showed higher productivity of drinking water in reverse osmosis method for south Iran.

  19. Aflatoxins in Iran: Nature, Hazards and Carcinogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Khoshpey, B; Farhud, DD; Zaini, F

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products is a challenge for individual’s health especially in developing countries. Improper production and storage of foods, prepare conditions for aflatoxin production in crops, especially rice, wheat, pistachio, walnut, almond, etc which are the main sources of foods for people. Feeding livestock by contaminated bread is another way of human exposure to mycotoxins, especially aflatoxin and because of expensive methods for detecting and analyzing aflatoxin in laboratory; it is not measured in foods. This manuscript is a review of some Iranian and nonIranian reports about aflatoxin, its exposure ways, its adverse effect on human health and nutrition, as well as methods for reducing its exposure. Based on studies on foods, aflatoxin exposure is high in Iran. Since livestock feeding by contaminated bread is one of the potential ways for milk contamination, we should control and reduce aflatoxin contamination by improving production process, storage condition and livestock feeding as soon as possible. Pistachio is one of the most important exporting products of Iran and to maintain Iran’s position in exporting of this product, specific regulations on lowering its contamination with aflatoxin should be considered seriously. Finally, effective controlling of all food and feedstuffs which are vulnerable to aflatoxin contamination is necessary to prevent its effects. PMID:23113099

  20. Study of onychomycosis in Isfahan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Chadeganipour, Mostafa; Nilipour, Shahi; Ahmadi, Gholamreza

    2010-03-01

    A mycological study was undertaken in 488 patients suspected of onychomycosis in Isfahan, a large province of Iran, to gain more insight into the prevalence and aetiology of this infection. Direct microscopy of the nail clips was positive in 194 (39.8%) and fingernail onychomycosis was recognised in 141 (72.7%) and toenail onychomycosis in 53 (27.3%) cases. As agents of onychomycosis, yeast were detected in 112 (57.7%), dermatophytes in 27 (13.9%) and non-dermatophyte fungi in 55 (28.4%) patients. Of the samples cultured, Candida albicans was the most prevalent (84%) yeast. Among dermatophytes, Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale was found to be the commonest aetiological agent (8.6%) followed by Epidermophyton floccosum and T. rubrum. Among the non-dermatophyte moulds, Aspergillus flavus was the most prevalent species (13%). Moreover, nine samples with positive direct microscopy yielded no growth. Females were affected more frequently with fingernail candidal infections than males, and children under 7 years of age were predominantly involved with candidal paronychia. The majority of fungal nail infections were characterised clinically by distal and proximal subungual onychomycosis. The growing trend towards the frequency of fingernail onychomycosis in housewives was noticeable in the last decade in Iran.

  1. Snakebite management in Iran: Devising a protocol

    PubMed Central

    Monzavi, Seyed Mostafa; Dadpour, Bita; Afshari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Snakebite in Iran has been a health concern. However, management of snakebite is not standardized and varies from center to center. This study is aimed at devising an evidence-based comprehensive protocol for snakebite management in Iran, to reduce unnecessary variations in practice. Materials and Methods: A narrative search in electronic databases was performed. Fifty peer-reviewed articles, guidelines, and textbooks were reviewed and practical details were extracted. Our currently used protocol in the Mashhad Toxicology Center was supplemented with this information. Consequently an improved wide-range protocol was developed. The protocol was then discussed and amended within a focus group comprised of medical toxicologists and internal medicine specialists. The amended version was finally discussed with expert physicians specialized in different areas of medicine, to be optimized by supplementing other specific considerations. Results: During a one-year process, the protocol was finalized. The final version of the protocol, which was designed in six steps, comprised of three components: A schematic algorithm, a severity grading scale, and instructions for supportive and adjunctive treatments. The algorithm pertains to both Viperidae and Elapidae snakebite envenomations and consists of a planned course of action and dosing of antivenom, based on the severity of the envenomation. Conclusion: Snakebite envenomation is a clinical toxicologic emergency, which needs to be treated in a timely and organized manner. Hence, a multi-aspect protocol was designed to improve the clinical outcomes, reduce unnecessary administration of antivenom, and help physicians make more proper clinical judgments. PMID:24778670

  2. Epidemiology of Vasculitides in Khorasan Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jokar, Mohammadhassan; Mirfeizi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Vasculitides are a heterogeneous group of more than 20 diseases defined by inflammation and destruction of blood vessels. We aimed to study the demographic characteristics of the primary vasculitides in the North East of Iran. We retrospectively studied the medical records of patients diagnosed with any kind of vasculitis at the Clinic and Department of Rheumatology of the Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2012. Patients were classified according to the American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of vasculitis and the 2012 Revised International Chapel Hill Consensus Conference Nomenclature of Vasculitides. A total of 721 patients (51.5% male, 48.5% female) with a diagnosis of primary vasculitis was identified. The frequency distributions of vasculitic disorders were as follows: Behcet’s disease, 63.6%; cutaneous leukocytoclastic angiitis, 8.2%; granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener’s), 6.8%; Takayasu’s arteritis. 6%; giant cell arteritis, 4%; polyarteritis nodosa, 2.1%; microscopic polyangiitis, 0.6%; eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss), 1.8%; cryoglobulinemic vasculitis, 0.3%; and IgA vasculitis (Henoch-Schonlein purpura), 3.5%. In our population, the most common forms of vasculitis are Behcet’s disease, cutaneous leukocytoclastic angiitis, and granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener’s). PMID:26170524

  3. Income elasticity of health expenditures in Iran.

    PubMed

    Zare, Hossein; Trujillo, Antonio J; Leidman, Eva; Buttorff, Christine

    2013-09-01

    Because of its policy implications, the income elasticity of health care expenditures is a subject of much debate. Governments may have an interest in subsidizing the care of those with low income. Using more than two decades of data from the Iran Household Expenditure and Income Survey, this article investigates the relationship between income and health care expenditure in urban and rural areas in Iran, a resource rich, upper-middle-income country. We implemented spline and quantile regression techniques to obtain a more robust description of the relationship of interest. This study finds non-uniform effects of income on health expenditures. Although the results show that health care is a necessity for all income brackets, spline regression estimates indicate that the income elasticity is lowest for the poorest Iranians in urban and rural areas. This suggests that they will show low flexibility in medical expenses as income fluctuates. Further, a quantile regression model assessing the effect of income at different level of medical expenditure suggests that households with lower medical expenses are less elastic.

  4. Mucormycosis in Iran: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vaezi, Afsane; Moazeni, Maryam; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi; de Hoog, Sybren; Badali, Hamid

    2016-07-01

    Fungi in the order Mucorales cause acute, invasive and frequently fatal infections in susceptible patients. This study aimed to perform a systematic review of all reported mucormycosis cases during the last 25 years in Iran. After a comprehensive literature search, we identified 98 cases in Iran from 1990-2015. The mean patient age was 39.8 ± 19.2 years. Diabetes was the most common underlying condition (47.9%), and 22.4% of the patients underwent solid organ or bone marrow transplantation. The most common clinical forms of mucormycosis were rhinocerebral (48.9%), pulmonary (9.2%) and cutaneous (9.2%). Eight cases of disseminated disease were identified. Overall mortality in the identified cases was 40.8%, with the highest mortality rate in patients diagnosed with disseminated infection (75%). The mortality rate in rhinocerebral infection patients was significantly lower (45.8%). Rhinocerebral infection was the most common clinical manifestation in diabetes patients (72.9%). Patients were diagnosed using various methods including histopathology (85.7%), microscopy (12.3%) and culture (2.0%). Rhizopus species were the most prevalent (51.7%), followed by Mucor species (17.2%). Sixty-nine patients were treated with a combination of surgery and antifungal therapy (resulting survival rate, 66.7%). Owing to the high mortality rate of advanced mucormycosis, early diagnosis and treatment may significantly improve survival rates. Therefore, increased monitoring and awareness of this life-threatening disease is critical.

  5. Progress of Iran in Medical Research.

    PubMed

    Kolahdoozan, Shadi; Massarrat, Sadegh

    2016-11-01

     The indexed Iranian journals in ISI and PubMed at the end of 2012 with known impact factor (IF) were evaluated with regard to the number of articles published in 2010-2012, the number of citations by authors from inside and outside Iran, their IF as well as their ranking order among all other journals in their specialized categories. There were among 130 English journals, 21 indexed with known IF. The mean IF of these journals increased from 0.4 in 2010 to 0.68 in 2012. The number of citations per article by authors from outside Iran increased from 0.19 to 0.49 during the same time period. The rank of the majority of the indexed journals was in the lowest 20% of their category. Although some improvement has been observed in the quality and the number of citations of Iranian journals indexed in ISI during these two years, the quality of the manuscripts remains low. A reduction in the number of journals, a change of their structure as well as more financial resources for research is necessary for the improvement of the quality and better rank and status of Iranian science among an international audience.

  6. History of Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Moin, Mostafa; Rezaei, Nima

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric immunology came into sight in the second half of 20th century, when pediatricians and basic immunologists began to give attention to diagnosis and treatment of children with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs). Understanding the genetic and mechanistic basis of PIDs provides unique insight into the functioning of the immune system. By progress in basic and clinical immunology, many infrastructural organizations and academic centers have been established in many countries worldwide to focus on training and research on the immune system and related disorders. Along with progress in basic and clinical immunology in the world, pediatric immunology had a good progress in Iran during the last 33-year period. Now, patients with PIDs can benefit from multidisciplinary comprehensive care, which is provided by clinical immunologists in collaboration with other specialists. Patients with history of recurrent and/or chronic infections suggestive of PIDs are evaluated by standard and research-based testing and receive appropriate treatment. The progress in PIDs can be described in three periods. Development of training program for clinical fellowship in allergy and immunology, multidisciplinary and international collaborative projects, primary immunodeficiency diseases textbooks, meetings on immunodeficiency disorders, improvement in diagnosis and treatment, and construction of Iranian primary immunodeficiency association, Students' research group for immunodeficiencies, Iranian primary immunodeficiency registry, and the immunological societies and centers were the main activities on PIDs during these years. In this article, we review the growth of modern pediatric immunology and PIDs status in Iran. PMID:23056678

  7. Timeliness of Malaria Surveillance System in Iran

    PubMed Central

    AKBARI, Hossein; MAJDZADEH, Reza; RAHIMI FOROUSHANI, Abbas; RAEISI, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Background: We aimed to evaluate the timeliness of reporting of malaria surveillance system and understanding the existing problems. Methods: The timeliness of malaria surveillance system of Iran was evaluated in four provinces of Iran including Sistan & Baluchistan, Hormozgan, Kerman (as provinces with local malaria transmission) and Khuzestan (without local malaria transmission). In this descriptive-analytic cross-sectional study two levels of Primary Health Care service providers including first level (Health Houses) and second level (Urban or Rural Health care units) were evaluated with regard to reporting of malaria surveillance system. Results: Forms number 1 (87% reported within one day) and number 2 (reporting median: 2 days) are reported from first level to second level, and forms number 4 (median: 4 days), number 3 (median: 6 days), number 7 (median: 9 days), number 5 (median: 11 days) and number 6 (median: 19 days) are reported from second level to the third level respectively in a shorter time. Independent variables such as distance, local malaria transmission level, and case finding type, are the factors affecting the reporting delay. Conclusion: Reporting in the first level compared to the second level is done with lower delay. In the areas where there is a deadline set for reporting, reporting is done more timely. Whatever number of malaria cases is decreased, sensitivity and subsequently timeliness reduced. It is recommended that the studies of timeliness be done with sensitivity and usefulness analysis of surveillance system. PMID:23515191

  8. Pharmaceutical laws and regulations in Iran: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Zaboli, Pardis; Hashemi-Meshkini, Amir; Varmaghani, Mehdi; Gholami, Hadi; Vazirian, Iman; Zekri, Hedieh-Sadat; Eslamitabar, Shahriar; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    The pharmaceutical legal framework is a very important infrastructure in achieving predefined goals in pharmaceutical sector: Accessibility, quality, and rational use of medicine. This study aims to review the current pharmaceutical sector-related legal provisions in Iran where the Food and Drug Organization (FDO) is in charge of regulating all issues related to the pharmaceutical sector. The main laws and regulations enacted by parliament and cabinet and even internal regulations enacted by the Ministry of Health or Iran FDO are reviewed. Different laws and regulations are categorized according to the main goals of Iran national drug policy. PMID:27512704

  9. Russian Missile Technology and Nuclear Reactor Transfers to Iran

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-29

    Kraftwerk Union (KWU) to build two large pressurized water reactors ( PWRs ) at Bushehr, near Kharg Island. At one point 10,000 workers were reported at...Russian- designed PWR on the site instead. Why Is Oil-Rich Iran Building Nuclear Power Plants? At the time the Shah’s government first started a nuclear...focused primarily on the power plant itself. It is not expected that Iran would divert weapons material from the Bushehr PWR . If Iran has a program to

  10. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-24

    Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Order Code RL32048 Iran: U.S. Concerns ...2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

  11. Evaluation of rainstorm-Flood modeling in Ziyarat Basin/ Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, S. Tahereh; Sharifan, Hossein; Yakhkeshi, M. Ebrahim; Dehghani, A. Ahmad

    2010-05-01

    The rainstorms and danger floods in Iran caused this country is seventh class in world from view point flood dangers. Then modeling of rainstorm- flood can help to decrease danger floods in basins. In research, evaluated relationships of these parameters in monthly scale for Ziyarat basin ( Iran North) and used data of 2002-2008 years for analysis. Results shawn that for watery months (May-August) had the best R index and dirty months (September , October) had the bad R index. Key word: Hydrograph, rainstorm-flood, Ziyarat, Iran

  12. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 560 - Persons Determined to be the Government of Iran, as defined in § 560.304 of This Part

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OVERSEAS INVESTMENT BANK LIMITED; f.k.a. IRAN OVERSEAS INVESTMENT BANK PLC; f.k.a. IRAN OVERSEAS INVESTMENT..., Tehran, Iran; 21, Africa Boulevard, Tehran, Iran; Registration ID 77283 (Jersey); all offices...

  13. A new species of the genus Acinopus Dejean, 1821 from west of Iran (Coleoptera; Carabidae; Harpalini) with a key to species of Iran.

    PubMed

    Azadbakhsh, Saeed; Wrase, David W

    2016-08-08

    A new species of the genus Acinopus Dejean, 1821, namely Acinopus (Acinopus) zagrosensis sp. n., is described on the basis of specimens collected from west Iran (type locality: Iran, Fars province, Zagros Mts., Sepidan env., 2060 m). The new species is compared with closely related species. A key for the identification of species of genus Acinopus in Iran is provided.

  14. Two new species of Gaeolaelaps (Acari: Laelapidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Nemati, Alireza; Mohseni, Mastaneh

    2013-12-17

    This paper reports on two new species of mites of the genus Gaeolaelaps in soil from Iran, G. farajii sp. nov., and G. orbiculatus sp. nov.. A key to the species of Gaeolaelaps with short peritremes is presented.

  15. A new variety of Salvia macrosiphon (Lamiaceae) for Iran.

    PubMed

    Kharazian, Navaz

    2008-04-15

    In this study, Salvia macrosiphon Boiss. var. longiflora Kharaz. is reported for the first time as one of the new varieties of Salvia macrosiphon in Iran. The morphological characters of this variety have been described in details.

  16. Imported lymphatic filariasis in an Indian immigrant to iran.

    PubMed

    Kia, Eshrat Beigom; Sharifdini, Meysam; Hajjaran, Homa; Shahbazi, Ali Ehsan; Sayyad Talaie, Zahra

    2014-03-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a nematode disease transmitted by arthropod vectors, is repeatedly reported in immigrant population. This disease is not endemic in Iran; however, different species of mosquitoes, capable of transmission of parasite microfilaria, are distributed in the country. Hereby, incidental detection of an imported case of LF due to Wuchereria bancrofti in an Indian worker in Iran is reported. Identification of the case was performed based on morphological and morphometrical characteristics of microfilaria and PCR sequencing.

  17. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-19

    Iran are UBS and Credit Suisse (Switzerland), HSBC (Britain), Germany’s Commerzbank A.G and Deutsche Bank AG. U.S. pressure has reportedly convinced...some Iranian banks. Separate U.S. efforts to persuade European governments to curb trade, investment, and credits to Iran; and to convince foreign...the difficulty obtaining credit from foreign banks is hurting their ability to operate. Students have conducted several high-profile anti-Ahmadinejad

  18. Israel: Possible Military Strike Against Iran’s Nuclear Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-27

    University Press, 2010. 2 David Ignatius, “Of a mind to attack Iran,” Washington Post, February 3, 2012. 3 At the same hearing, Secretary Panetta... based uranium enrichment program is currently the main source of proliferation concern for the international community. Gas centrifuges enrich uranium...is no evidence that Iran has built additional covert enrichment plants .”14 For a January 31, 2012 Senate Select Intelligence Committee hearing

  19. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-04

    educated , Westernized urban youth are the backbone of the Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses Congressional Research Service 6 Green Movement...Green Movement consisted primarily of educated , urban youth, intellectuals, and former regime officials. After the initial post-election daily...girls are trafficked for sexual exploitation in Iran as well to Pakistan, the Persian Gulf, and Europe. Executions Policy Human rights groups say

  20. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-06

    urban areas who sometimes use their cars as unofficial taxis , although it did reduce dependence on imported gasoline, according to industry experts...takes a harder line than Dubai , which has a large Persian- speaking community and business ties to Iran) wants to refer the dispute to the...Iran; during the visit, Ahmadinejad led an anti-U.S. rally of a reported several hundred Iranian-origin residents of Dubai at a soccer stadium there

  1. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-05

    poorer Iranians — Ahmadinejad’s key political base — who sometimes use their cars as unofficial taxis . Some protests took place, including attacks on...federation capital, Abu Dhabi, which takes a harder line than Dubai , which has a large Persian- speaking community and business ties to Iran) wants to refer...since the 1979 revolution in Iran; during the visit, Ahmadinejad led an anti-U.S. rally of a reported several hundred Iranian-origin residents of Dubai

  2. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-08

    as unofficial taxis , but it did reduce dependence on imported gasoline (to about 25% from 40%). The Oil Minister resigned in August 2007, probably...Dhabi, which takes a harder line than Dubai , which has an Iranian-origin resident community as large as 300,000 and business ties to Iran) wants to...Iranian-origin residents of Dubai at a soccer stadium there. ! Qatar is wary that Iran might seek to encroach on its large North Field (natural gas

  3. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-04

    poorer Iranians in the urban areas who sometimes use their cars as unofficial taxis , although it did reduce dependence on imported gasoline (to about 25... Dubai , which has an Iranian-origin resident community as large as 300,000 and business ties to Iran) wants to refer the dispute to the International...rally of a reported several hundred Iranian-origin residents of Dubai at a soccer stadium there. ! Qatar is wary that Iran might seek to encroach on

  4. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-28

    harmed poorer Iranians in the urban areas who sometimes use their cars as unofficial taxis , although it did reduce dependence on imported gasoline...Dhabi, which takes a harder line than Dubai , which has a large Persian- speaking community and business ties to Iran) wants to refer the dispute to the...revolution in Iran; during the visit, Ahmadinejad led an anti-U.S. rally of a reported several hundred Iranian-origin residents of Dubai at a soccer stadium

  5. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-28

    curb consumption that forces Iran to import refined gasoline. Iranians in the urban areas who sometimes use their cars as unofficial taxis , but it did...takes a harder line than Dubai , which has an Iranian-origin resident community as large as 300,000 and business ties to Iran) wants to refer the...origin residents of Dubai at a soccer stadium there. On the other hand, tensions have flared since late 2008 over UAE’s policy of fingerprinting of

  6. Iran: Politics, Gulf Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-30

    material for a nuclear weapon. In accordance with the JCPOA, Iran has rendered inactive the core of the reactor . Bushehr Reactor /Russia to Build...Additional Reactors U.S. officials have generally expressed little concern about the Russian-built nuclear power plant at Bushehr. Under their 1995...would supply and reprocess all fuel for these reactors . In January 2015, Iran announced it had begun construction on two nuclear power plants near the

  7. After the Countercoup: Advising the Imperial Armed Forces of Iran

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-20

    located, Iran became critical in the foreign policy endeavors of the Eisenhower Administration in the Middle East. After the decision to force...history, international rivalries, and the strategic constraints by continuous interference from policy makers in Washington and the Shah’s embellished...Iran due to the US demonstrable commitment there. This case study parallels future decisions for policy makers as to the future roles and organizations

  8. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-29

    wiped off the map” and that “anybody who recognizes Israel will burn in the fire of the Islamic nations’ fury.” The statement was widely condemned...of Iran’s gross domestic product ( GDP ). The revenue has helped Iran build foreign exchange reserves of about $25 billion. Iran has worked its...of Bahrain, Bahrain-Hizbollah, and other Bahraini dissident groups) in efforts to overthrow the ruling Al Khalifa family. Bahrain is about 60

  9. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-05

    to Rafsanjani’s Expediency Council. The second was the July 2006 creation of a ten-person advisory “Foreign Policy Committee” consisting of former...10 Years From Nuclear Bomb.” Washington Post, Aug. 2, 2005; Weissman, Steven and Douglas Jehl . “Estimate Revised On When Iran Could Make Nuclear Bomb...round of talks, in Berlin, concluded on September 28, 2006, without agreement, and Iran began operating a second 164-centrifuge cascade in late

  10. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-23

    seeks to constrain Ahmadinejad was the October 2005 grant of new governmental supervisory powers to Rafsanjani’s Expediency Council. The second was...Nuclear Bomb.” Washington Post, Aug. 2, 2005; Weissman, Steven and Douglas Jehl . “Estimate Revised On When Iran Could Make Nuclear Bomb.” New York...Berlin, concluded on September 28, 2006, without agreement, and Iran began operating a second 164- centrifuge cascade in late October. After almost

  11. Acute management of stroke in Iran: Obstacles and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Shahjouei, Shima; Bavarsad-Shahripour, Reza; Assarzadegan, Farhad; Rikhtegar, Reza; Mehrpour, Masoud; Zamani, Babak; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Alexandrov, Andrei; Alexandrov, Anne; Zand, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Stroke is among the leading causes of mortality and permanent disability in the world. Iran is located in the stroke belt and has a high age-adjusted stroke incidence rate. In this multistep prospective qualitative study, we aimed at investigating the status and challenges of stroke management in Iran and explore possible solutions. Methods: In the first and second phase, we attempted to define the status of stroke management in Iran by searching the relevant literature and conducting semi-structured interviews with health-care providers in thirteen hospitals located in seven large cities in Iran. In the third phase, we tried to recommend possible solutions based on international standards and experience, as well as interviews with stroke experts in Iran and the United States. Results: Little public awareness of stroke symptoms and its urgency, low prioritization for stroke management, and an inadequate number of stroke-ready hospitals are some of the major obstacles toward timely treatment of stroke in Iran. Every hospital in our pool except two hospitals had guideline-based algorithms for the administration of intravenous thrombolysis. However, there was no single call activation system for stroke alert. Data from some of the centers showed that hospital arrival of stroke patients to final decision-making took 116-160 minutes. Although there were four endovascular programs in our target areas, there was no center with 24-hour coverage. Conclusion: There are many challenges as well as potentials for improvement of stroke care in Iran. Improving public knowledge of stroke and establishing an organized and comprehensive stroke program in the hospitals will improve acute stroke management in Iran. The Iranian ministry of health should define and advocate the establishment of stroke centers, track the rate of death and disability from stroke, introduce pathways to improve the quality of stroke care through national data monitoring systems, and eliminate

  12. Endoparasites of Wild Rodents in Southeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nateghpour, Mehdi; Motevalli-Haghi, Afsaneh; Akbarzadeh, Kamran; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Mohebali, Mehdi; Mobedi, Iraj; Farivar, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was aimed to collect wild rodents for endoparasites determination in some parts of Sistan and Baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran nearby Pakistan and Afghanistan countries. Methods: A total of 100 wild rodents were captured alive with cage traps. Various samples were collected from blood and feces, also impression smear prepared from different organs. The samples were prepared by formalin-ether or stained with Giemsa, after that were examined under microscope. Results: All the caught rodents (47 Tatera indica, 44 Meriones hurriana, 5 Gerbilus nanus and 4 Meriones libycus) were studied for endoparasites emphasizing to their zoonotic aspects. Endoparasites including Spirurida, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana feraterna, Trichuris trichiura, Skerjabino taenia, Trichostrongylus spp, Entamoeba muris, Chilomastix mesnili and Leishmania spp were parasitologically identified. Conclusion: Among 9 genera or species of the identified parasites at least 5 of them have zoonotic and public health importance. PMID:26114139

  13. Favism, with special reference to Iran*

    PubMed Central

    Donoso, G.; Hedayat, H.; Khayatian, H.

    1969-01-01

    Fava beans (Vicia fava) are cultivated rather widely in most countries of the Eastern Mediterranean area and provide a cheap but protein-rich food that can be eaten alone, in various culinary preparations, including bread, or as a dietary supplement. However, the ingestion of fava beans may induce a haemolytic disease—favism—in some susceptible individuals and this might appear to limit the use of this pulse crop in those regions where favism occurs frequently. The uses of fava beans in Iran, the characteristics of favism and the present state of knowledge of the pathology of the disease are reviewed in this paper. Although some progress has been made in identifying the toxic substances and in explaining their mode of action, our understanding of favism is still limited. It appears that the disease is seen particularly in young children and is associated with a deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in the blood. PMID:5306718

  14. Brief historical perspectives of malaria in Iran.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Mohammad Hossein; Bahadori, Moslem

    2013-02-01

    The history of malaria as a serious human disease dates back to ancient times. For centuries, malaria has been a deadly disease with high morbidity and mortality that profoundly impacted the socioeconomic status of endemic countries. However, its causative agent remained unidentified until the last decades of the nineteenth century. There were no effective synthetic anti-malarial agents until the mid-twentieth century. Currently malaria has been eliminated or pre-eliminated in numerous countries; however, this preventable and curable disease remains a significant global health problem. A major concern is drug resistance. Presented here, is a brief look at the history of malaria in Iran and the rest of the world, particularly during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

  15. West Nile Virus lineage-2 in Culex specimens from Iran.

    PubMed

    Shahhosseini, Nariman; Chinikar, Sadegh; Moosa-Kazemi, Seyed Hassan; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Kayedi, Mohammad Hassan; Lühken, Renke; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2017-10-01

    Screening of mosquitoes for viruses is an important forecasting tool for emerging and re-emerging arboviruses. Iran has been known to harbour medically important arboviruses such as West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV) based on seroepidemiological data. However, there are no data about the potential mosquito vectors for arboviruses in Iran. This study was performed to provide mosquito and arbovirus data from Iran. A total of 32 317 mosquitos were collected at 16 sites in five provinces of Iran in 2015 and 2016. RT-PCR for detection of flaviviruses was performed. The PCR amplicons were sequenced, and 109 WNV sequences, including one obtained in this study, were used for phylogenetic analyses. The 32 317 mosquito specimens belonging to 25 species were morphologically distinguished and distributed into 1222 pools. Culex pipiens s.l. comprised 56.429%. One mosquito pool (0.08%), containing 46 unfed Cx. pipiens pipiens form pipiens (Cpp) captured in August 2015, was positive for flavivirus RNA. Subsequent sequencing and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the detected Iranian WNV strain belongs to lineage 2 and clusters with a strain recently detected in humans. No flaviviruses other than WNV were detected in the mosquito pools. Cpp could be a vector for WNV in Iran. Our findings indicate recent circulation of WNV lineage-2 strain in Iran and provide a solid base for more targeted arbovirus surveillance programs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A Narrative Review of Acute Adult Poisoning in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Alinejad, Samira; Zamani, Nasim; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Mehrpour, Omid

    2017-01-01

    Poisoning is a frequent cause of referral to medical emergencies and a major health problem around the world, especially in developing countries. We aimed to review the epidemiology and pattern of adult poisoning in Iran in order to facilitate the early diagnosis and management of poisoning. The pattern of poisoning is different in various parts of Iran. Pharmaceutical compounds were the most common cause of poisoning in most parts of Iran. Pesticide-related toxicities were more common in northern agricultural regions, whereas bites and stings were seen more commonly in southern Iran. Carbon monoxide poisoning was common in cities with many motor vehicles such as Tehran and in colder climates such as in northern and western regions due to inadequately vented gas appliances such as stoves and heaters. Majoon Birjandi (containing cannabis) is a unique substance used in eastern Iran. Poisoning by opioids, tramadol, and pesticides (organophosphate and aluminum phosphide) has remained a common hazard in Iran. Poisoning-associated morbidity and mortality rates vary by region and have changed over time due to the introduction of new drugs and chemicals. Early diagnosis and proper treatment may be lifesaving; thus, understanding the general pattern of poisoning in different regions is important. PMID:28761199

  17. The history of organ donation and transplantation in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghods, Ahad J

    2014-03-01

    The first kidney transplant in Iran was performed in 1967, and this was the first organ transplant in countries that are current members of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation. In 1988, in response to the long waiting list at the Iranian Ministry of Health for kidney transplant, a state-regulated living-unrelated donor kidney transplant program was adopted. By 1999, the kidney transplant waiting list in Iran was eliminated. In 1989, a fatwa (religious approval) from the Supreme Religious Leader was obtained that recognized brain death and allowed deceased-donor organ transplant. Subsequently, transplant centers began performing deceased-donor kidney, liver, and heart transplants. In 2000, the Brain Death and Organ Transplantation Act was passed by the Iranian parliament, legalizing deceased-donor organ transplant. The transplant team at Shiraz began performing more deceased-donor kidney and liver transplants and became a successful deceased-donor organ transplant model in the country. By the end of 2012, there were 34166 kidney (including 4436 deceased-donor) and 2021 liver (including 1788 deceased-donor), 482 heart, 147 pancreas, 63 lung, and several intestine and multiorgan transplants performed in Iran. In 2011, there were 2771 solid-organ transplants performed in Iran (37 transplants per million population), and Iran ranked as number 33 among the 50 most active countries worldwide. In 2011 and 2012, Iran was ahead of all country members of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation in performing deceased-donor kidney and liver transplants.

  18. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Intestinal Amoebas in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hooshyar, H; Rostamkhani, P; Rezaian, M

    2012-01-01

    Many microscopic-based epidemiological surveys on the prevalence of human intestinal pathogenic and non-pathogenic protozoa including intestinal amoeba performed in Iran show a high prevalence of human intestinal amoeba in different parts of Iran. Such epidemiological studies on amoebiasis are confusing, mainly due to recently appreciated distinction between the Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii. Differential diagnosis can be done by some methods such as PCR-based methods, monoclonal antibodies and the analysis of isoenzyme typing, however the molecular study of these protozoa in Iran is low. Based on molecular studies, it seems that E. dispar is predominant species especially in the central and northern areas of Iran and amoebiasis due to E. histolytica is a rare infection in the country. It is suggested that infection with E. moshkovskii may be common among Iranians. Considering the importance of molecular epidemiology of amoeba in Iran and also the current data, the present study reviews the data currently available on the molecular distribution of intestinal human amoeba in Iran. PMID:23193500

  19. Molecular analysis and phylogenetic characterization of HIV in Iran.

    PubMed

    Sarrami-Forooshani, Ramin; Das, Suman Ranjan; Sabahi, Farzaneh; Adeli, Ahmad; Esmaeili, Rezvan; Wahren, Britta; Mohraz, Minoo; Haji-Abdolbaghi, Mahboubeh; Rasoolinejad, Mehrnaz; Jameel, Shahid; Mahboudi, Fereidoun

    2006-07-01

    The rate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in Iran has increased dramatically in the last few years. While the earliest cases were found in hemophiliacs, intravenous drug users are now fueling the outbreak. In this study, both the 122 clones of HIV-1 gag p17 and the 131 clones of env V1-V5 region were obtained from 61 HIV-1 seropositives belonging to these two groups in Iran. HIV-1 subtyping and phylogenetic analysis was done by heteroduplex mobility assays (HMA) and multiple clone sequencing. The result indicated all hemophiliacs are infected with HIV-1 subtype B and all intravenous drug users are infected with HIV-1 subtype A. Since intravenous drug abuse is the major transmission route in Iran, HIV-1 subtype A is likely to be the dominant viral subtype circulating in the country. The analysis of genetic distances showed subtype B viruses in Iran to be twice as heterogeneous as the subtype A viruses. In conclusion, this first molecular study of HIV-1 genotypes in Iran suggests two parallel outbreaks in distinct high-risk populations and may offer clues to the origin and spread of infection in Iran.

  20. Economic Effects of 1978 Tabas Earthquake (Iran).

    PubMed

    Zandian, Elham; Rimaz, Shahnaz; Holakouie Naieni, Kourosh; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Naderimagham, Shohreh; Larijani, Bagher; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2016-06-01

    Natural disasters are one of the most important adverse health events. The earthquake that happened in the city of Tabas in 1978 was ranked third in terms of number of deaths caused by natural disasters over the past 100 years in Iran. This study was aimed to evaluate the economic and human capital consequences of earthquake in Tabas district. We used a two percent random sample of Iran Census Dataset from 2006 to run a difference-in-difference study. The difference-in-difference methodology was used to evaluate (1) the mean changes in variables including years of schooling and wealth; (2) the odds changes in primary school completion and literacy of people born (5 or 10 years) post-event versus (5 or 10 years) pre-event in Tabas compared with the same values for those born in the same period of time in the control districts. Differential increase in years of schooling for being born 10 years after the earthquake versus in 10 years before earthquake in Tabas was one-third of a school year less than in the control districts. There were 89.5% and 65.4% decrease in odds that an individual is literate, and 0.26 and 0.104 average decrease in the SES index for those born in Tabas in periods of 5 and 10 years, respectively, compared with control districts. Tabas earthquake had negative long-term effects on human capital and wealth. This study can help official authorities to promote educational and economic plans and to implement comprehensive reforms in earthquake-stricken areas.

  1. Pediatric burns in Khuzestan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Houshyarikhah, Hojjat; Shayestehfard, Marzieh; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Cheraghian, Bahman; Latifzadeh, Shila; Madari, Zahra

    2012-04-01

    Burn injuries are the most frequently occurring injuries among pediatric populations worldwide, and they are significant pediatric injuries in Iran. This study was conducted to analyze the pattern of pediatric burns in Khuzestan province in the south-west of Iran from April 2006 to March 2007. The location of the study was Taleghani Hospital, a sole center for burn patients in Khuzestan province. The number of patients with burns admitted to the center in 1 year (from April 2006 to March 2007) was 211. Data were obtained by reviewing the medical records of patients hospitalized at the center. Of the patients, 85 (40.3%) were female and 126 (59.7%) were male. Of the 85 female patients, 50 were from urban areas and 35 were from rural areas. Of the 126 male patients, 68 (54%) were from urban areas and 58 (46%) were from rural areas. The mean ± SE age of the children ranging between 0 and 11 years was 3.20 ± 0.188. Scalding was the predominant cause of burns and caused 86.7% of the burns. The age of the patients with scald injuries (2.95 ± 2.56 years) was significantly lower than that of patients with flame injuries (4.28 ± 3.3 years) (P=0.007). Correlation analysis showed that younger children and urban residents are more vulnerable to scald injuries. The mean body surface area of burns was 20.5 ± 10.26 cm in all patients. Scalding was the most common cause of burns. Age <4 years and residency in urban areas were the major factors increasing the risk of burn accidents in children in Khuzestan. An appropriate burn prevention program, with focus on education, is needed to prevent this injury.

  2. Incidence of hip fracture in Shiraz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Soveid, Mahmood; Serati, Ali Reza; Masoompoor, Masoomeh

    2005-11-01

    Hip fracture, the most serious complication of osteoporosis, puts the burden of a lot of costs for treatment on any health system. Previous reports on rates of hip fracture in Asian countries differ a lot. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence rate of hip fracture in Shiraz, Iran. In Shiraz, Iran, all operating-room logs with diagnosis of hip fracture were reviewed for hip fractures caused by a simple fall in patients over 50 years, during March 21, 2000, to March 21, 2003. According to patients' medical records, age, sex, type of fracture (intertrochanteric, neck, subtrochanteric) and patients' regions according to Shiraz municipality divisions were obtained. The age-adjusted incidence rates of hip fracture standardized to the 1985 US white population (325.74/100,000 for men and 519.05/100,000 for women) and to the 1989 US white population (384.61/100,000 for men and 548.17/100,000 for women) were the highest in Asia. The intertrochanteric fractures were significantly higher among females ( p =0.003). The incidence of intertrochanteric and neck fractures were increased with age. In all age groups, females had higher incidence rates, except for ages over 80 years, in which males had higher incidence rates than females. In wealthier regions of the city, the incidence rates were higher than in other regions. High incidence of hip fracture in our population, especially in males over 80 years, shows that preventive strategies for hip fracture and osteoporosis should be considered in males as well as females. Further studies are needed to find incidence rates in other cities, especially in the very urbanized city of Tehran.

  3. Iran’s Post-9/11 Grand Bargain: Missed Opportunity for Strategic Rapprochement Between Iran and the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    Hadley circulated the administration’s position via memorandum, which stated, “If a state like Syria or Iran offers specific assistance...meeting (chaired by Deputy National Security Advisor Stephen Hadley ), Hadley , as well as the representatives from the vice president’s office and the...Rome-Berlin Axis powers. Frum’s initial axis of hatred description of Iraq, Iran, and their terror proxies was embraced by Hadley and Rice, but changed

  4. A Study of Comparative Advantage and Intra-Industry Trade in the Pharmaceutical Industry of Iran.

    PubMed

    Yusefzadeh, Hassan; Rezapour, Aziz; Lotfi, Farhad; Ebadifard Azar, Farbod; Nabilo, Bahram; Abolghasem Gorji, Hassan; Hadian, Mohammad; Shahidisadeghi, Niusha; Karami, Atiyeh

    2015-04-23

    Drug costs in Iran accounts for about 30% of the total health care expenditure. Moreover, pharmaceutical business lies among the world's greatest businesses. The aim of this study was to analyze Iran's comparative advantage and intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals so that suitable policies can be developed and implemented in order to boost Iran's trade in this field. To identify Iran's comparative advantage in pharmaceuticals, trade specialization, export propensity, import penetration and Balassa and Vollrath indexes were calculated and the results were compared with other pharmaceutical exporting countries. The extent and growth of Iran's intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals were measured and evaluated using the Grubel-Lloyd and Menon-Dixon indexes. The required data was obtained from Iran's Customs Administration, Iran's pharmaceutical Statistics, World Bank and International Trade Center. The results showed that among pharmaceutical exporting countries, Iran has a high level of comparative disadvantage in pharmaceutical products because it holds a small share in world's total pharmaceutical exports. Also, the low extent of bilateral intra-industry trade between Iran and its trading partners in pharmaceuticals shows the trading model of Iran's pharmaceutical industry is mostly inter-industry trade rather than intra-industry trade. In addition, the growth of Iran's intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals is due to its shares of imports from pharmaceutical exporting countries to Iran and exports from Iran to its neighboring countries. The results of the analysis can play a valuable role in helping pharmaceutical companies and policy makers to boost pharmaceutical trade.

  5. A new species of the genus Ectagela Schmidt from Iran (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Miridae, Phylinae).

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Reza; Shamsi, Mohsen

    2014-05-27

    A new species of the genus Ectagela Schmidt (Phylinae) from Iran, Ectagela kermanensis sp. nov. is described and illustrated. The type specimens are deposited in the insect collection of the Natural History Museum of University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.

  6. 78 FR 48539 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Iran Modern”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Iran Modern'' SUMMARY: Notice is... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Iran Modern,'' imported from abroad for temporary...

  7. School fire in Iran: simple actions save lives.

    PubMed

    Ostad Taghizadeh, A; Mowafi, H; Ardalan, A

    2013-03-31

    On December 5, 2012 a fire broke out in a primary school in Iran, causing injuries to 26 children and two deaths. The fire came from an oil stove. Rather than evacuate the classroom and use the fire extinguisher, the teacher attempted to remove the stove itself from the classroom. During this process an explosion occurred resulting in a haphazard attempt at evacuation. This tragedy highlights gaps in both the policy and practice of fire safety. From 2005 to 2012, Iran experienced six large school fires that led to 67 injuries and five deaths. Five events were related to oil stoves. About 30% of Iran's classrooms use oil stoves for heating during the winter with 3.4 million students and 150,000 teachers at risk. Iran's Ministry of Education has mandated that regular training of school personnel in fire safety measures should be organized but no safety officer is tasked to prepare and conduct this training. Instead, the task is delegated to the Fire Departments, which fall under municipal administrations; however, such departments do not exist in 93% of the rural areas of Iran. School fires are not unique to Iran. Similar tragic events have occurred in several middle-income countries (India, Kenya, Russia) over the last decade. This article presents an overview of school fires in Iran and proposes preventive strategies through a reform in policy making and practice, including education of students and school personnel along with regular drills, designation of a fire safety officer, and development of a countrywide school fire registry.

  8. Knowledge of healthy lifestyle in Iran: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ghanei, Mostafa; Ahmady, Khodabakhsh; Babaei, Mansour; Tavana, Ali Mehrabi; Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ebadi, Abbas; Poursaid, Syed Masood

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lifestyle is a set of goals, plans, values, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs manifested in the personal and family life of the individual and in her or his social interactions. It is an interdisciplinary concept that involves a health-oriented view of the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual domains of life. Despite their great importance, there is not much knowledge in Iran about healthy lifestyles. The present study is an attempt to address the knowledge of healthy lifestyle in Iran through a review of the literature on the subject. Methods The present systematic review searched Elsevier, SID, Pub Med, Magiran, IranMedex, and Google Scholar databases for relevant articles published between 2000 and 2014. We used various keywords for the searches, including knowledge, lifestyle, health, and Iran. As a result, 62 articles were included in the study. Results There has been a dramatic increase in the publication of articles on lifestyle in Iran over the past 10 years. The results obtained showed that 64% of the articles addressed physical health, 14% addressed psychological health, 10% addressed social health, and 12% addressed spiritual health. Most lifestyle studies conducted in Iran have focused on physical health, and a few have examined the psychological, social, and spiritual aspects of lifestyle. None of the studies has examined the knowledge map of healthy lifestyles in Iran. Conclusion Given the changes in the causes of mortality from infectious and chronic diseases that impose greater medication and treatment costs on the society, and since diseases caused by unhealthy lifestyles have become the leading cause of death, it is essential for health researchers to focus on the root cause of these diseases, i.e., lifestyle and human behaviors. PMID:27123231

  9. Knowledge of healthy lifestyle in Iran: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ghanei, Mostafa; Ahmady, Khodabakhsh; Babaei, Mansour; Tavana, Ali Mehrabi; Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ebadi, Abbas; Poursaid, Syed Masood

    2016-03-01

    Lifestyle is a set of goals, plans, values, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs manifested in the personal and family life of the individual and in her or his social interactions. It is an interdisciplinary concept that involves a health-oriented view of the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual domains of life. Despite their great importance, there is not much knowledge in Iran about healthy lifestyles. The present study is an attempt to address the knowledge of healthy lifestyle in Iran through a review of the literature on the subject. The present systematic review searched Elsevier, SID, Pub Med, Magiran, IranMedex, and Google Scholar databases for relevant articles published between 2000 and 2014. We used various keywords for the searches, including knowledge, lifestyle, health, and Iran. As a result, 62 articles were included in the study. There has been a dramatic increase in the publication of articles on lifestyle in Iran over the past 10 years. The results obtained showed that 64% of the articles addressed physical health, 14% addressed psychological health, 10% addressed social health, and 12% addressed spiritual health. Most lifestyle studies conducted in Iran have focused on physical health, and a few have examined the psychological, social, and spiritual aspects of lifestyle. None of the studies has examined the knowledge map of healthy lifestyles in Iran. Given the changes in the causes of mortality from infectious and chronic diseases that impose greater medication and treatment costs on the society, and since diseases caused by unhealthy lifestyles have become the leading cause of death, it is essential for health researchers to focus on the root cause of these diseases, i.e., lifestyle and human behaviors.

  10. 31 CFR 560.206 - Prohibited trade-related transactions with Iran; goods, technology, or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with Iran; goods, technology, or services. 560.206 Section 560.206 Money and Finance: Treasury... Iran; goods, technology, or services. (a) Except as otherwise authorized pursuant to this part, and... services of Iranian origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran; or (2) Goods, technology,...

  11. Two new species of Cosmolaelaps Berlese (Acari:Laelapidae) from Iran .

    PubMed

    Ramroodi, Sara; Hajizadeh, Jalil; Joharchi, Omid

    2014-08-11

    This paper reports on two species of mites of the genus Cosmolaelaps Berlese, 1903 in Iran--C. dorfakiensis sp. nov., and C. pinnatus sp. nov., extracted from soil and leaf litter samples in Guilan Province, Northern Iran. A key to the species of Cosmolaelaps occurring in the Iran is also provided.

  12. 31 CFR 560.313 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 560.313 Section 560.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 560.313 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The term entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran includes any corporation, partnership, association...

  13. 31 CFR 560.552 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... residing in Iran. 560.552 Section 560.552 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... related to U.S. citizens residing in Iran. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, U.S. persons are authorized to engage in transactions in Iran ordinarily incident to the routine and necessary...

  14. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of March 10, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers...

  15. 77 FR 23368 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Representation Regarding Export of Sensitive Technology to Iran

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... to Iran AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration (GSA), and National... representation to implement section 106 of the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act... certain sensitive technology to Iran. DATES: Effective Date: May 18, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  16. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 12, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran and, pursuant to the International Emergency...

  17. 3 CFR - Delegation of Certain Functions and Authorities Under the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Under the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010 Presidential... Authorities Under the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010 Memorandum for... President by sections 4(c), 5(a), 5(b), 5(c), 5(f), 6(a)(1), 6(a)(2), 6(b)(5), and 9(c) of the Iran...

  18. 31 CFR 560.419 - U.S. employment of persons normally located in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... located in Iran. 560.419 Section 560.419 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.419 U.S. employment of persons normally located in Iran. The prohibitions in § 560.201 make it unlawful to hire an Iranian national normally located in Iran to come to the United...

  19. 31 CFR 560.201 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... services from Iran. 560.201 Section 560.201 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 560.201 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran. Except... services of Iranian origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran, other than information and...

  20. 31 CFR 560.201 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... services from Iran. 560.201 Section 560.201 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 560.201 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran. Except as otherwise... origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran, other than information and informational...

  1. 31 CFR 535.576 - Payment of non-dollar letters of credit to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... credit to Iran. 535.576 Section 535.576 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... letters of credit to Iran. Notwithstanding the prohibitions of §§ 535.201 and 535.206(a)(4), payment of existing non-dollar letters of credit in favor of Iranian entities or any person in Iran by any foreign...

  2. 31 CFR 535.576 - Payment of non-dollar letters of credit to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... credit to Iran. 535.576 Section 535.576 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... letters of credit to Iran. Notwithstanding the prohibitions of §§ 535.201 and 535.206(a)(4), payment of existing non-dollar letters of credit in favor of Iranian entities or any person in Iran by any foreign...

  3. 31 CFR 560.550 - Certain noncommercial, personal remittances to or from Iran authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remittances to or from Iran authorized. 560.550 Section 560.550 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Policy § 560.550 Certain noncommercial, personal remittances to or from Iran authorized. (a) In cases in which the transfer involves a noncommercial, personal remittance, the transfer of funds to or from Iran...

  4. 31 CFR 560.206 - Prohibited trade-related transactions with Iran; goods, technology, or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with Iran; goods, technology, or services. 560.206 Section 560.206 Money and Finance: Treasury... Iran; goods, technology, or services. (a) Except as otherwise authorized pursuant to this part, and... services of Iranian origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran; or (2) Goods, technology, or...

  5. 31 CFR 535.576 - Payment of non-dollar letters of credit to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... credit to Iran. 535.576 Section 535.576 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... letters of credit to Iran. Notwithstanding the prohibitions of §§ 535.201 and 535.206(a)(4), payment of existing non-dollar letters of credit in favor of Iranian entities or any person in Iran by any foreign...

  6. 31 CFR 560.206 - Prohibited trade-related transactions with Iran; goods, technology, or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with Iran; goods, technology, or services. 560.206 Section 560.206 Money and Finance: Treasury... transactions with Iran; goods, technology, or services. (a) Except as otherwise authorized pursuant to this... to: (1) Goods or services of Iranian origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran; or (2...

  7. 31 CFR 561.322 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 561.322 Section 561.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.322 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The phrase entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran means any entity, including a...

  8. 31 CFR 560.313 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 560.313 Section 560.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 560.313 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The term entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran includes any corporation, partnership...

  9. 31 CFR 535.576 - Payment of non-dollar letters of credit to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... credit to Iran. 535.576 Section 535.576 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... letters of credit to Iran. Notwithstanding the prohibitions of §§ 535.201 and 535.206(a)(4), payment of existing non-dollar letters of credit in favor of Iranian entities or any person in Iran by any foreign...

  10. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of March 11, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers...

  11. 31 CFR 560.537 - Authorization of certain survey or assessment missions in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... assessment missions in Iran. 560.537 Section 560.537 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... certain survey or assessment missions in Iran. (a) Subject to the conditions of paragraphs (b), (c), and... missions in Iran related to the planning or preparation for the provision of humanitarian support to the...

  12. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran Executive Order 12957

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to Iran Executive Order 12957 Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of March 13, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran Executive Order 12957 On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran...

  13. 31 CFR 560.419 - U.S. employment of persons ordinarily resident in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... resident in Iran. 560.419 Section 560.419 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.419 U.S. employment of persons ordinarily resident in Iran. The prohibitions in § 560.201 make it unlawful to hire an Iranian national ordinarily resident in Iran to come to...

  14. 31 CFR 560.313 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 560.313 Section 560.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 560.313 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The term entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran includes any corporation, partnership, association...

  15. 31 CFR 535.576 - Payment of non-dollar letters of credit to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... credit to Iran. 535.576 Section 535.576 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... letters of credit to Iran. Notwithstanding the prohibitions of §§ 535.201 and 535.206(a)(4), payment of existing non-dollar letters of credit in favor of Iranian entities or any person in Iran by any foreign...

  16. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 10, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran, pursuant to the International Emergency...

  17. 3 CFR - Delegation of Certain Functions and Authorities Under the Iran Freedom and Counter-Proliferation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Under the Iran Freedom and Counter-Proliferation Act of 2012 Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of June 3, 2013 Delegation of Certain Functions and Authorities Under the Iran Freedom... President by the Iran Freedom and Counter-Proliferation Act of 2012 (subtitle D of title XII of Public Law...

  18. 31 CFR 560.516 - Payment and United States dollar clearing transactions involving Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... clearing transactions involving Iran. 560.516 Section 560.516 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Payment and United States dollar clearing transactions involving Iran. (a) United States depository institutions are authorized to process transfers of funds to or from Iran, or for the direct or indirect...

  19. 31 CFR 560.550 - Certain noncommercial, personal remittances to or from Iran authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remittances to or from Iran authorized. 560.550 Section 560.550 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Policy § 560.550 Certain noncommercial, personal remittances to or from Iran authorized. (a) In cases in which the transfer involves a noncommercial, personal remittance, the transfer of funds to or from Iran...

  20. 31 CFR 561.322 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 561.322 Section 561.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.322 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The phrase entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran means any entity, including a...

  1. 31 CFR 560.537 - Authorization of certain survey or assessment missions in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... assessment missions in Iran. 560.537 Section 560.537 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... certain survey or assessment missions in Iran. (a) Subject to the conditions of paragraphs (b), (c), and... missions in Iran related to the planning or preparation for the provision of humanitarian support to the...

  2. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 7, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran, pursuant to the International Emergency...

  3. 31 CFR 560.206 - Prohibited trade-related transactions with Iran; goods, technology, or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with Iran; goods, technology, or services. 560.206 Section 560.206 Money and Finance: Treasury... transactions with Iran; goods, technology, or services. (a) Except as otherwise authorized pursuant to this... to: (1) Goods or services of Iranian origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran; or (2...

  4. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of March 8, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers...

  5. 78 FR 68321 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... With Respect to Iran #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No... ] Notice of November 12, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran and...

  6. 31 CFR 560.313 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 560.313 Section 560.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 560.313 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The term entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran includes any corporation, partnership, association...

  7. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 12, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran, pursuant to the International Emergency...

  8. 31 CFR 560.201 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... services from Iran. 560.201 Section 560.201 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 560.201 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran. Except as otherwise... origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran, other than information and informational...

  9. 31 CFR 560.206 - Prohibited trade-related transactions with Iran; goods, technology, or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with Iran; goods, technology, or services. 560.206 Section 560.206 Money and Finance: Treasury... Iran; goods, technology, or services. (a) Except as otherwise authorized pursuant to this part, and... services of Iranian origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran; or (2) Goods, technology, or...

  10. 31 CFR 560.419 - U.S. employment of persons normally located in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... located in Iran. 560.419 Section 560.419 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.419 U.S. employment of persons normally located in Iran. The prohibitions in § 560.201 make it unlawful to hire an Iranian national normally located in Iran to come to the United...

  11. 31 CFR 560.419 - U.S. employment of persons ordinarily resident in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... resident in Iran. 560.419 Section 560.419 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.419 U.S. employment of persons ordinarily resident in Iran. The prohibitions in § 560.201 make it unlawful to hire an Iranian national ordinarily resident in Iran to come to...

  12. 31 CFR 560.516 - Payment and United States dollar clearing transactions involving Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... clearing transactions involving Iran. 560.516 Section 560.516 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Payment and United States dollar clearing transactions involving Iran. (a) United States depository institutions are authorized to process transfers of funds to or from Iran, or for the direct or indirect...

  13. 31 CFR 560.537 - Authorization of certain survey or assessment missions in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... assessment missions in Iran. 560.537 Section 560.537 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... certain survey or assessment missions in Iran. (a) Subject to the conditions of paragraphs (b), (c), and... missions in Iran related to the planning or preparation for the provision of humanitarian support to the...

  14. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 9, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran and, pursuant to the International Emergency...

  15. 31 CFR 560.201 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... services from Iran. 560.201 Section 560.201 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 560.201 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran. Except as otherwise... origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran, other than information and informational...

  16. 31 CFR 560.419 - U.S. employment of persons normally located in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... located in Iran. 560.419 Section 560.419 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.419 U.S. employment of persons normally located in Iran. The prohibitions in § 560.201 make it unlawful to hire an Iranian national normally located in Iran to come to the United...

  17. 31 CFR 561.322 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 561.322 Section 561.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.322 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The phrase entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran means any entity, including a...

  18. 31 CFR 560.552 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... residing in Iran. 560.552 Section 560.552 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... related to U.S. citizens residing in Iran. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, U.S. persons are authorized to engage in transactions in Iran ordinarily incident to the routine and necessary...

  19. 31 CFR 560.516 - Payment and United States dollar clearing transactions involving Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... clearing transactions involving Iran. 560.516 Section 560.516 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Payment and United States dollar clearing transactions involving Iran. (a) United States depository institutions are authorized to process transfers of funds to or from Iran, or for the direct or indirect...

  20. 31 CFR 560.313 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 560.313 Section 560.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 560.313 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The term entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran includes any corporation, partnership...

  1. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of March 12, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On March 15, 1995, the President issued Executive Order 12957, which declared a national emergency with respect to Iran and, pursuant to the International...

  2. 31 CFR 560.201 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... services from Iran. 560.201 Section 560.201 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 560.201 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran. Except... services of Iranian origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran, other than information and...

  3. 75 FR 67025 - Delegation of Certain Functions and Authorities Under the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010 Memorandum for the Secretary of State... sections 4(c), 5(a), 5(b), 5(c), 5(f), 6(a)(1), 6(a)(2), 6(b)(5), and 9(c) of the Iran Sanctions Act of... Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010 (CISADA) (Public Law 111-195))...

  4. 75 FR 25307 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-4100, Iran Program Grants Vetting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-4100, Iran Program Grants Vetting, Information Collection... of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Iran Program Grants. OMB Control Number: 1405-0176. Type of... participants for Iran programs. Estimated Number of Respondents: 200. Estimated Number of Responses:...

  5. 75 FR 12115 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Notice of March 10, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran #0; #0; #0... Emergency With Respect to Iran On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50...

  6. 77 FR 67739 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... With Respect to Iran #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77, No... ] Notice of November 9, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran...

  7. 75 FR 69567 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To Iran

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... Notice of November 10, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To Iran #0; #0; #0... the National Emergency With Respect To Iran On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran, pursuant to the International...

  8. 77 FR 6657 - Blocking Property of the Government of Iran and Iranian Financial Institutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... February 8, 2012 Part III The President Executive Order 13599--Blocking Property of the Government of Iran... President ] Executive Order 13599 of February 5, 2012 Blocking Property of the Government of Iran and... 15, 1995, particularly in light of the deceptive practices of the Central Bank of Iran and...

  9. 76 FR 13283 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Notice of March 8, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On... Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the... States constituted by the actions and policies of the Government of Iran. On May 6, 1995, the...

  10. 77 FR 15227 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran Executive Order 12957

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... With Respect to Iran Executive Order 12957 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal...;The President ] Notice of March 13, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran... emergency with respect to Iran, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  11. Family Life and Developmental Idealism in Yazd, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad Jalal; Askari-Nodoushan, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND This paper is motivated by the theory that developmental idealism has been disseminated globally and has become an international force for family and demographic change. Developmental idealism is a set of cultural beliefs and values about development and how development relates to family and demographic behavior. It holds that modern societies are causal forces producing modern families, that modern families help to produce modern societies, and that modern family change is to be expected. OBJECTIVE We examine the extent to which developmental idealism has been disseminated in Iran. We also investigate predictors of the dissemination of developmental idealism. METHODS We use survey data collected in 2007 from a sample of women in Yazd, a city in Iran. We examine the distribution of developmental idealism in the sample and the multivariate predictors of developmental idealism. RESULTS We find considerable support for the expectation that many elements of developmental idealism have been widely disseminated. Statistically significant majorities associate development with particular family attributes, believe that development causes change in families, believe that fertility reductions and age-at-marriage increases help foster development, and perceive family trends in Iran headed toward modernity. As predicted, parental education, respondent education, and income affect adherence to developmental idealism. CONCLUSIONS Developmental idealism has been widely disseminated in Yazd, Iran and is related to social and demographic factors in predicted ways. COMMENTS Although our data come from only one city, we expect that developmental idealism has been widely distributed in Iran, with important implications for family and demographic behavior. PMID:22942772

  12. Family Life and Developmental Idealism in Yazd, Iran.

    PubMed

    Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad Jalal; Askari-Nodoushan, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper is motivated by the theory that developmental idealism has been disseminated globally and has become an international force for family and demographic change. Developmental idealism is a set of cultural beliefs and values about development and how development relates to family and demographic behavior. It holds that modern societies are causal forces producing modern families, that modern families help to produce modern societies, and that modern family change is to be expected. OBJECTIVE: We examine the extent to which developmental idealism has been disseminated in Iran. We also investigate predictors of the dissemination of developmental idealism. METHODS: We use survey data collected in 2007 from a sample of women in Yazd, a city in Iran. We examine the distribution of developmental idealism in the sample and the multivariate predictors of developmental idealism. RESULTS: We find considerable support for the expectation that many elements of developmental idealism have been widely disseminated. Statistically significant majorities associate development with particular family attributes, believe that development causes change in families, believe that fertility reductions and age-at-marriage increases help foster development, and perceive family trends in Iran headed toward modernity. As predicted, parental education, respondent education, and income affect adherence to developmental idealism. CONCLUSIONS: Developmental idealism has been widely disseminated in Yazd, Iran and is related to social and demographic factors in predicted ways. COMMENTS: Although our data come from only one city, we expect that developmental idealism has been widely distributed in Iran, with important implications for family and demographic behavior.

  13. A new present-day velocity field for eastern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walpersdorf, A.; Tavakoli, F.; Hatzfeld, D.; Jadidi, A.; Vergnolle, M.; Djamour, Y.; Nankali, H. R.; Sedighi, M.; Bellier, O.; Shabanian, E.

    2009-04-01

    Since 2004, extensive GPS campaigns and the upcoming Iranian permanent GPS network are monitoring the present-day deformation in eastern Iran. We present a new GPS velocity field that extends from Central Iran to the Turkmen shield and the Hellmand block on the Eurasian plate. It permits to monitor the right lateral shear across the aseismic Lut block between Central Iran and the Hellmand block, and the resulting shortening across the Kopeh Dagh mountain belt limiting NE Iran towards Turkmenistan. The present-day deformation pattern is used to verify existing tectonic models. Individual instantaneous fault slip rates are compared to short term and long term geological estimates. We find that GPS slip rates are generally coherent with short term geologic determinations (from dating of geomorphologic offsets over some 10-100 ka). Some differences with respect to long term estimates (from total geologic fault offsets and onset ages of several Ma) indicate non-constant slip rates over different time scales or that the onset of the present-day deformation presumed to 3-7 Ma in eastern Iran has to be revised.

  14. Acute Q fever in febrile patients in northwestern of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeili, Saber; Golzar, Farhad; Ayubi, Erfan; Naghili, Behrooz; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    Background Q fever is an endemic disease in different parts of Iran. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of acute Q fever disease among at-risk individuals in northwestern Iran. Methodology An etiological study was carried out in 2013 in Tabriz County. A total of 116 individuals who were in contact with livestock and had a nonspecific febrile illness were enrolled in the study. IgG phase II antibodies against Coxiella burnetii were detected using ELISA. Principal findings The prevalence of acute Q fever was 13.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0, 21.0%). Headache (87.5%) and fatigue and weakness (81.3%) were the dominant clinical characteristics among patients whit acute Q fever. Acute lower respiratory tract infection and chills were poorly associated with acute Q fever. Furthermore, 32% (95% CI: 24, 41%) of participants had a history of previous exposure to Q fever agent (past infection). Consumption of unpasteurized dairy products was a weak risk factor for previous exposure to C. burnetii. Conclusion This study identified patients with acute Q fever in northwestern of Iran. The evidence from this study and previous studies conducted in different regions of Iran support this fact that Q fever is one of the important endemic zoonotic diseases in Iran and needs due attention by clinical physicians and health care system. PMID:28394892

  15. Oil exports, structural change, and economic development in Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Emami-Khoi, A.

    1981-01-01

    Within the broad Chenery-Kuznets framework, using structural change as a major indicator of economic development, this study investigates the direction and magnitude and broad features of structural change in Iran, and the role of oil production and exports in that change. Although the study covers a larger horizon, the analysis is focused on the period 1955 through 1977. A similar but less-detailed investigation is conducted for Algeria, Indonesia, and Venezuela also, and a cross-country, comparative perspective is generated. The study shows that, in general, the structural changes in Iran have either been weak (for example, in production and employment), or they are contrary to what the model would predict (for instance in trade). The pattern of structural change observed in Iran, therefore, does not indicate any significant economic development even though per capita income increased five-fold over the period 1955 through 1977. In short, oil does not appear to have been an engine of economic development in Iran. The situation appears broadly similar for the other three countries. Based on these findings, the study offers some suggestions concerning the future economic strategies that should enhance very considerably the contribution that oil industry can make toward Iran's economic development, and should thus accelerate the pace of economic development. These suggestions may be useful to other oil-exporting countries as well.

  16. Acute Q fever in febrile patients in northwestern of Iran.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Saber; Golzar, Farhad; Ayubi, Erfan; Naghili, Behrooz; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2017-04-01

    Q fever is an endemic disease in different parts of Iran. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of acute Q fever disease among at-risk individuals in northwestern Iran. An etiological study was carried out in 2013 in Tabriz County. A total of 116 individuals who were in contact with livestock and had a nonspecific febrile illness were enrolled in the study. IgG phase II antibodies against Coxiella burnetii were detected using ELISA. The prevalence of acute Q fever was 13.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0, 21.0%). Headache (87.5%) and fatigue and weakness (81.3%) were the dominant clinical characteristics among patients whit acute Q fever. Acute lower respiratory tract infection and chills were poorly associated with acute Q fever. Furthermore, 32% (95% CI: 24, 41%) of participants had a history of previous exposure to Q fever agent (past infection). Consumption of unpasteurized dairy products was a weak risk factor for previous exposure to C. burnetii. This study identified patients with acute Q fever in northwestern of Iran. The evidence from this study and previous studies conducted in different regions of Iran support this fact that Q fever is one of the important endemic zoonotic diseases in Iran and needs due attention by clinical physicians and health care system.

  17. Scorpions and scorpionism in Iran's central desert.

    PubMed

    Nejati, Jalil; Saghafipour, Abedin; Mozaffari, Ehsan; Keyhani, Amir; Jesri, Nahid

    2017-02-01

    Venomous scorpions have extreme importance in field of medicine and public health. This descriptive - analytic study was done to identify scorpion fauna, their ecological aspects as well as scorpionism for risk management and prevention of this health problem in Iran's central desert. Four urban and fifteen rural areas with various climates and topography locations were selected for monthly scorpion collection through a randomly cluster sampling in 2013. The clinical data was obtained from questionnaires provided in 2009-2014. Totally, 1481 scorpion sting cases were recorded. The majority were treated less than 6h after the sting. Statistical tests showed significant difference between season, scorpion's color, living place of patients and scorpionism cases. Plain areas had the most occurrence of scorpionism followed by foothills. Moreover, 311 scorpion samples belonged to 7 species of Buthidae were collected. Mesobuthus eupeus was the dominant species in both rural and urban areas. Most of the collected samples were from indoors, yards and around the houses. The most scorpion activity was recorded in the summer. The studied areas had rich scorpion fauna due to various climates and topography locations. Scorpion stings can be important and fatal in this area, particularly in the plain regions with semi-desert climate. An investigation for assessment of peoples' awareness on prevention methods of scorpionism and also the determination and the assessment of effective factors on reducing the elapsed time between scorpion stings and receiving medical care are here recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical laboratory waste management in Shiraz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Askarian, Mehrdad; Motazedian, Nasrin; Palenik, Charles John

    2012-06-01

    Clinical laboratories are significant generators of infectious waste, including microbiological materials, contaminated sharps, and pathologic wastes such as blood specimens and blood products. Most waste produced in laboratories can be disposed of in the general solid waste stream. However, improper management of infectious waste, including mixing general wastes with infectious wastes and improper handling or storage, could lead to disease transmission. The aim of this study was to assess waste management processes used at clinical laboratories in Shiraz, Iran. One hundred and nine clinical laboratories participated In this cross sectional study, Data collection was by questionnaire and direct observation. Of the total amount of waste generated, 52% (by weight) was noninfectious domestic waste, 43% was non-sharps infectious waste and 5% consisted of sharps. There was no significant relationship between laboratory staff or manager education and the score for quality of waste collection and disposal at clinical laboratories. Improvements in infectious waste management processes should involve clearer, more uniformly accepted definitions of infectious waste and increased staff training.

  19. Haematophagus Mites in Poultry Farms of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahbari, S; Nabian, S; Ronaghi, H

    2009-01-01

    Background: Blood sucking mites are important avian ectoparasites which being found on bird species worldwide. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg production, sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on worker handle hens and eggs. The aim of this study was pointing out of the status of haematophagus mites. Methods: Eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were visited, monitoring for the presence of chicken mites performed by removing and examining debris from poultry house, infested nesting material collected into zip lock plastic bags and at least 20 birds were also randomly selected to examine the presence of chicken mites. Mites obtained from each population were mounted in Hoyer’s medium on microscope slides and identified. All eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were inspected, which were infested with chicken blood feeding mites. Results: Massive infestations of Dermanyssus gallinae were common with huge numbers of parasites on birds, cages and the conveyor belts for egg. Only one farm from Mazandaran Province was infested to Ornithonyssus bursa. Conclusion: Dermanyssus gallinae was the most prevalent blood feeder mite in the breeder and caged layer flocks in Iran, while O. bursa was reported as a first record, which found only in a breeder flock in Mazanderan Province. It seems that its presence is limited into the area which affected by both warm and humid environmental conditions. PMID:22808378

  20. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Safa, Omid; Soltanipoor, Mohammad Amin; Rastegar, Soheil; Kazemi, Mahnaz; Nourbakhsh Dehkordi, Khadijeh; Ghannadi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study is based on an ethnobotanical research project conducted in Hormozgan province that is located in south of Iran, bordering waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. This survey was carried out in order to recover the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge of the residents of this province. They are using medicinal and functional plants for treating or preventing several diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data sheets were run with the native inhabitants and people of the province by arranging frequent field trips to different parts of the province and direct interviews with them especially those who were more familiar with the plants and their usage. Results: A total of 150 plant species belonging to 53 families were recorded for their ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses among the people of province. The records were developed by scientific names, family names, local names, medicinal parts used, different ways of their application, and traditional uses of the plants. There was high compliance in the use of plants in painful disorders, gastrointestinal, and dermatological diseases. Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life. Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies. PMID:25050260

  1. Disaster nursing in Iran: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Zarea, Kourosh; Beiranvand, Samira; Sheini-Jaberi, Parisa; Nikbakht-Nasrabadi, Alireza

    2014-11-01

    Disaster nursing was one of the first forms of nursing practice in Iran, and nurses have long served voluntarily in disasters. Despite their key role throughout a disaster management cycle, few studies have examined nurses' unique role in the management of disasters in this region of the world. An integrative narrative analysis of international research published in English and Persian studies between years 2000 and 2013 was conducted. Analysis of the 32 articles yielded two major: organisational and managerial challenges, and challenges linked to the educational system. The most significant factors linked to the role of nurses in disasters included the lack of identification of those who educated nurses to serve in critical conditions, defects in university's educational systems and lack of in-service training for nurses with regard to disasters. The integration of dedicate organisational units to educate human workforces, formalising a relationship between nursing staff and the disaster organisations, creative educational content, and effective economical systems to educate nurses may further enable disaster preparedness and response. Copyright © 2014 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutritional status of schoolchildren in rural Iran.

    PubMed

    Sarraf, Zahra; Goldberg, Dena; Shahbazi, Mohammad; Arbuckle, Kristen; Salehi, Moosa

    2005-09-01

    The present study compared the nutritional status of schoolchildren from recently settled, ethnic minority tribespeople with those from a Persian village in southern Iran. Height and weight were measured and blood was collected from school children at three time points over 1.5 years. Supplemental Fe was provided to children with low Hb after the first screening. Twenty-one per cent of the children were wasted, 57 % were stunted and 23 % were anaemic. No statistically significant difference in the prevalence of wasting, stunting and anaemia was found between gender or ethnic groups. Children over the age of 12 years had a higher prevalence of wasting than children aged below 12 years. In a sub-sample of forty-one children the average BMI-for-age decreased. Fe supplementation increased Hb levels to normal in most children, but did not increase Fe level in a few children. Dietary deficiency of micronutrients, especially Zn and Fe, probably accounts for the high prevalence of stunting and anaemia in these children. Infection with Helicobacter pylori is another possible explanation for the Fe-deficiency anaemia. Further investigation is in progress to determine the cause(s) of the observed deficiencies.

  3. Impractical CME programs: Influential parameters in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Faghihi, Seyed Aliakbar; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Jalil; Soltani Arabshahi, Seyed Kamran; Faghih, Zahra; Shirazi, Mandana

    2017-01-01

    Background: Traditional approaches in Continuing Medical Education (CME) appear to be ineffective in any improvement of the patients’ care, reducing the medical errors, and/or altering physicians' behaviors. However, they are still executed by the CME providers, and are popular among the majority of the physicians. In this study, we aimed to explore the parameters involved in the degree of effectiveness of CME program in Iran. Methods: In this study, 31 participants, consisting of general practitioners, CME experts and providers were recruited to participate in in-depth interviews and field observations concerning experiences with CME. Application was made of the qualitative paradigm along with the qualitative content analysis, using grounded theory data analysis methodology (constant comparative analysis). Results: Based on the participants’ experiences, the insufficient consistency between the training program contents and the demands of GPs, in addition to the non-beneficiary programs for the physicians and the non-comprehensive educational designs, created a negative attitude to the continuing education among physicians. This could be defined by an unrealistic continuing education program, which is the main theme here. Conclusion: Impracticable continuing education has created a negative attitude toward the CME programs among physicians so much that they consider these programs less important, resulting in attending the said programs without any specific aim: they dodge absenteeism just to get the credit points. Evidently, promoting CME programs to improve the performance of the physicians requires factual needs assessment over and above adaptation of the contents to the physicians’ performance. PMID:28638813

  4. Patulin in apple leather in Iran.

    PubMed

    Montaseri, H; Eskandari, M H; Yeganeh, A T; Karami, S; Javidnia, K; Dehghanzadeh, G R; Mesbahi, G R; Niakousari, M

    2014-01-01

    Apple leather is made by dehydration of cooked fruit into leathery sheets. Mould growth and patulin production can occur in damaged apples or when fallen fruit is collected for apple leather processing. A survey was conducted to determine levels and dietary intake of patulin from apple leather marketed in Iran. Patulin was detected in all samples at concentrations ranging from <10 to 2559 µg/kg. Mean patulin concentration was 620 µg/kg and 91.4% of the samples had levels higher than 50 µg/kg. Estimated daily intake (EDI) of patulin for adults and children considering the mean concentration of patulin obtained in this study (620 µg/kg) were higher than the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of 0.4 µg/kg bw/day for patulin that has been established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This indicated the need for stricter control and improvement in processing techniques to reduce the incidence of patulin in apple leather.

  5. A history of neonatal medicine in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rezaeizadeh, Golnaz; Nayeri, Fatemeh; Shariat, Mamak

    2014-12-01

    Neonatal medicine was officially initiated in the United States of America in 1973, and in the same year, the American Board of Pediatrics held the first subspecialty examination in the field of neonatal-perinatal medicine. The first Newborn Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in Tehran began its work with great efforts of Prof. Hadi Samaee at Ali-Asghar Children's Hospital, approved by the Ministry of Health as the first standard center for training neonatologists. Hence, the first neonatology fellowship program began in 1986 and two years later (1988) its graduate started work at Ali-Asghar Children's Hospital. Afterwards, more NICUs were built all over the country and equipped gradually. The Iranian Association of Neonatology and Perinatology were founded in 1998 and 2003, respectively. These two scientific associations jointly made recommendations to health officials to develop consistent educational programs for neonatal and maternal health promotion in Iran. Regionalization of maternal-neonatal health services was also another recommendation which has now been presented to the Ministry of Health as a national program to promote neonatal and maternal health status. Thanks to the measures taken so far over the last few years, the index of neonatal mortality has declined from 26 per 1,000 live births in 1990 to 11 per 1,000 live births in 2012.

  6. Health System Vision of Iran in 2025

    PubMed Central

    Rostamigooran, N; Esmailzadeh, H; Rajabi, F; Majdzadeh, R; Larijani, B; Dastgerdi, M Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vast changes in disease features and risk factors and influence of demographic, economical, and social trends on health system, makes formulating a long term evolutionary plan, unavoidable. In this regard, to determine health system vision in a long term horizon is a primary stage. Method: After narrative and purposeful review of documentaries, major themes of vision statement were determined and its context was organized in a work group consist of selected managers and experts of health system. Final content of the statement was prepared after several sessions of group discussions and receiving ideas of policy makers and experts of health system. Results: Vision statement in evolutionary plan of health system is considered to be :“a progressive community in the course of human prosperity which has attained to a developed level of health standards in the light of the most efficient and equitable health system in visionary region1 and with the regarding to health in all policies, accountability and innovation”. An explanatory context was compiled either to create a complete image of the vision. Conclusion: Social values and leaders’ strategic goals, and also main orientations are generally mentioned in vision statement. In this statement prosperity and justice are considered as major values and ideals in society of Iran; development and excellence in the region as leaders’ strategic goals; and also considering efficiency and equality, health in all policies, and accountability and innovation as main orientations of health system. PMID:23865011

  7. Regression Models For Saffron Yields in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S. H, Sanaeinejad; S. N, Hosseini

    Saffron is an important crop in social and economical aspects in Khorassan Province (Northeast of Iran). In this research wetried to evaluate trends of saffron yield in recent years and to study the relationship between saffron yield and the climate change. A regression analysis was used to predict saffron yield based on 20 years of yield data in Birjand, Ghaen and Ferdows cities.Climatologically data for the same periods was provided by database of Khorassan Climatology Center. Climatologically data includedtemperature, rainfall, relative humidity and sunshine hours for ModelI, and temperature and rainfall for Model II. The results showed the coefficients of determination for Birjand, Ferdows and Ghaen for Model I were 0.69, 0.50 and 0.81 respectively. Also coefficients of determination for the same cities for model II were 0.53, 0.50 and 0.72 respectively. Multiple regression analysisindicated that among weather variables, temperature was the key parameter for variation ofsaffron yield. It was concluded that increasing temperature at spring was the main cause of declined saffron yield during recent years across the province. Finally, yield trend was predicted for the last 5 years using time series analysis.

  8. Autism in Developing Countries: Lessons from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Sayyed Ali; McConkey, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Most research into Autism Spectrum Disorders has been conducted in affluent English-speaking countries which have extensive professional support services. This paper describes a series of investigations that was undertaken in Iran, and these findings, together with reviews of research in other low-income countries, are used to identify key lessons in three areas of service provision of particular relevance to developing countries with scarce professional resources: first, the issues to be considered in establishing the prevalence of the condition nationally; second, identification of parental understanding of ASD and the impact it has on them as carers; third, the education and training that could be provided to families when professional supports are sparse. It is concluded that culturally sensitive, parental support strategies must be central to the planning and development of services. Moreover, future research should further elucidate the needs of families and evaluate the impact of culturally tailored interventions designed to promote the children's development and overall family quality of life. PMID:22937242

  9. Glanders outbreak at Tehran Zoo, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khaki, P; Mosavari, N; Khajeh, Nasiri S; Emam, M; Ahouran, M; Hashemi, S; Taheri, Mohammad M; Jahanpeyma, D; Nikkhah, S

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives In December 2010 four, lions and one tiger died at the Tehran zoo. Out of all samples, Burkholderia mallei (causative agent of Glanders) was isolated just from ulcer sample of the tiger which was imported to Iran from Russia. Materials and Methods One nasal swab from a tiger and fifteen blood samples with anticoagulant belonging to one tiger and fourteen lions (four dead lions and eleven live lions) were collected and were inoculated directly onto the selective media. The isolate was identified by morphological and biochemical and API BBL tests and PCR using specific primers (Bma- IS407-flip). The standard (Razi Type Culture Collection RTCC: 2375) and tiger isolates were inoculated into 2 guinea pigs. All residue solipeds and carnivores were checked by Malleination test and Complement Fixation (CF) Test respectively. Results One isolate of B. mallei was isolated from tiger's nasal swab. Both of B.mallei strains were recovered from inoculated animals. All of solipeds were negative by malleination test, however, 11 lions including 4 dead and 7 live lions out of 14 lions were positive in CF test for Glanders and all were put down by the authorities. Conclusion Active surveillance of Glanders is essential for solipeds, especially it's more important while being used to feed valuable carnivores like lions and tigers. Therefore, a reliable test like malleination must be carried out twice (first before transferring and one month after quarantine). Both test results should be negative for use for feeding. PMID:22783454

  10. Profiling of Ecstasy Tablets Seized in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khajeamiri, Ali Reza; Kobarfard, Farzad; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Mostashari, Gelareh

    2011-01-01

    In this study 50 samples of ecstasy tablets seized in Iran during the period of 2007 through 2008 were examined and their physical characteristics (appearance, marking, scored/not scored, color, weight, diameter, thickness) were determined. In order to determine the chemical characteristics of these tablets, color tests (Marquis test, Simon’s test, Chen’s test and Gallic acid test), Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), anion test, residual solvents, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) were carried out on the tablets. The range of tablets weight was 96–308 mg and the range of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) hydrochloride content in these tablets was 60–180 mg. No good correlation was found between the tablets weight and their MDMA contents. All of the tablets containing MDMA had this compound in hydrochloride form. Ketamine, phenmetrazine and ephedrine (or pseudoephedrine) were found in some of the tablets along with MDMA. No MDMA was found in 20% of the tablets. Some of these tablets contained compounds such as caffeine or tramadol as their active ingredient. PMID:24250345

  11. Earthquake Potential in the Zagros Region, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madahizadeh, Rohollah; Mostafazadeh, Mehrdad; Ashkpour-Motlagh, Shobyr

    2016-10-01

    Seismic strain and b value are used to quantify seismic potential in the Zagros region (Iran). Small b values (0.69 and 0.69) are related to large seismic moment rates (9.96×1017 and 4.12×1017) in southern zones of the Zagros, indicating more frequent large earthquakes. Medium to large b values (0.72 and 0.92) are related to small seismic moment rates (2.94×1016 and 6.80×1016) in middle zones of the Zagros, indicating less frequent large earthquakes. Small b value (0.64) is related to medium seismic moment rate (1.38×1017) in middle to northern zone of the Zagros, indicating frequent large earthquakes. Large b value (0.87) is related to large seismic moment rate (2.29×1017) in northwestern zone, indicating more frequent large earthquakes. Recurrence intervals of large earthquakes ( M > 6) are short in southern (10 and 14 years) and northwestern (13 years) zones, while the recurrence intervals are long in the middle (46 and 114 years) and middle to northern (25 years) zones.

  12. Review of the genus Cyrtosia Perris (Diptera: Mythicomyiidae: Platypyginae) in Iran, with description of three new species.

    PubMed

    Gharali, Babak; Evenhuis, Neal

    2017-05-22

    The genus Cyrtosia in Iran is reviewed and includes the description of three new species: C. bispermatheca sp. nov., C. baccadomus sp. nov. and C. zieglerii sp. nov. from northern Iran; and presents a key to species known to occur in Iran. Notes on C. meridionalis Rondani, 1863 and C. pusilla Loew, 1873, both previously recorded from Iran, are also provided.

  13. 3 CFR 13599 - Executive Order 13599 of February 5, 2012. Blocking Property of the Government of Iran and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Property of the Government of Iran and Iranian Financial Institutions 13599 Order 13599 Presidential... Government of Iran and Iranian Financial Institutions By the authority vested in me as President by the... Iran and other Iranian banks to conceal transactions of sanctioned parties, the deficiencies in Iran's...

  14. 31 CFR 560.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. 560.204 Section 560.204 Money and Finance..., reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. Except as otherwise authorized pursuant..., or services to Iran or the Government of Iran is prohibited, including the exportation, reexportation...

  15. 31 CFR 560.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. 560.204 Section 560.204 Money and Finance..., reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. Except as otherwise authorized pursuant..., or services to Iran or the Government of Iran is prohibited, including the exportation, reexportation...

  16. 31 CFR 560.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. 560.204 Section 560.204 Money and Finance..., reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. Except as otherwise authorized pursuant..., or services to Iran or the Government of Iran is prohibited, including the exportation, reexportation...

  17. 31 CFR 560.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale, or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., sale, or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. 560.204 Section 560.204 Money and Finance... exportation, reexportation, sale, or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. Except as otherwise... services to Iran or the Government of Iran is prohibited, including the exportation, reexportation, sale...

  18. 31 CFR 560.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale, or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., sale, or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. 560.204 Section 560.204 Money and Finance... exportation, reexportation, sale, or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. Except as otherwise... services to Iran or the Government of Iran is prohibited, including the exportation, reexportation, sale...

  19. 76 FR 72500 - Actions Taken Pursuant to Executive Order 13382 Related to the Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... Pursuant to Executive Order 13382 Related to the Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping Lines (IRISL) AGENCY... its connection to the Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping Lines (IRISL) and is updating the entries on.... Newly Identified Vessel IRAN SHAHR-E-KORD Container Ship 29,870DWT 23,200GRT Iran flag (IRISL);...

  20. Genotype identification of human cystic echinococcosis in Isfahan, central Iran.

    PubMed

    Kia, Eshrat Bigom; Rahimi, Hamidreza; Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Talebi, Ardeshir; Fasihi Harandi, Majid; Mirhendi, Hossein

    2010-08-01

    Echinococcosis/hydatidosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases commonly found in different regions of Iran with a major economic and public health importance. In the current study, Echinococcus granulosus isolates were collected from hospitalized patients in Isfahan, central Iran. The genotypes of 30 samples were determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification of internal transcribed spacer-1 region of ribosomal DNA, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with two restriction enzymes namely AluI and MspI. As expected, each isolate yielded an approximately 1-kbp DNA fragment on the electrophoresis gel. According to RFLP results for both enzymes, all isolates had an equal pattern indicating the G1 genotype. Our findings confirmed that G1 is the dominant genotype of cystic echinococcosis in human in central Iran, with predilection to different organs including liver, lung, and brain, and warrants the importance of sheep dog cycle in public health.

  1. A case of Moniliformis moniliformis (Acanthocephala) infection in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fata, Abdolmajid; Hosseininejad, Zahra

    2007-01-01

    Only a few cases of Acanthocephala infections have been reported in humans, and Moniliformis moniliformis is the most common species around the world. We report here a case of infection with M. moniliformis, which passed in the stool of a 2-year-old girl in Iran. The patient had abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and facial edema. According to her mother, the patient had habit of eating dirt and once a cockroach was discovered in her mouth. In stool examination, eggs of M. moniliformis were not found. She was treated with levamisole and the clinical symptoms reduced within 2 weeks. The specimen contained 2 pieces of a female worm with a total length of 148 mm lacking the posterior end. The spiral musculature of the proboscis receptacle and the shape of the trunk allowed its generic determination. Previously 2 cases of M. moniliformis infection were reported in Iran. This is the 3rd case of M. moniliformis infection in Iran. PMID:17570979

  2. HOSPITAL-BASED HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT IN IRAN.

    PubMed

    Mohtasham, Farideh; Majdzadeh, Reza; Jamshidi, Ensiyeh

    2017-08-17

    Hospitals with health technology assessment (HTA) programs have reported its positive effects on the management of resources and costs. This study aimed to identify the barriers faced by hospital-based HTA (HBHTA) in Iran by inductive content analysis of stakeholders' and decision-makers' points of view. The key individuals and organizations that could provide rich, relevant, and diverse data in response to the research question were purposively selected for the interviews and focus group discussion. Twelve stakeholders from seven public hospitals participated in the interviews. Another eighteen stakeholders from twelve HBHTA-related organizations took part in the focus group discussion. Most of the hospitals' senior management team did not feel the need for HBHTA and believed that in Iran a systematic process like HTA faces many challenges. The stakeholders participating in this study highlighted the significance of certain points that needed to be addressed before establishing HBHTA in Iran.

  3. Medical oncology, history and its future in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirzania, Mehrzad; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Asvadi Kermani, Iraj; Ashrafi, Farzaneh; Allahyari, Abolghasem; Rostami, Nematollah; Razavi, Seyed Mohsen; Ramzi, Mani; Nemanipour, Gholamreza

    2015-11-01

    Systemic therapy is one of the cornerstones of cancer treatment. In 1972, following representations by American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) recognized medical oncology as a new subspecialty of internal medicine. Subspecialty of Hematology and Medical Oncology was emerged in Iran in 1983. In the past, modern medical treatments and education were started in Dar Al-fonun school and then in Tehran University; now six universities in Iran are training in Subspecialty of Hematology and Medical Oncology. There are also ten active hematopoietic stem cell transplantation centers, thirty-one provincial medical schools use their specialized services. Future goals for Hematology and Medical Oncology in Iran include expansion and reinforcement of multidisciplinary teams across the country, early detection and prevention of cancer, providing educational program and conducting cancer researches. To achieve these goals, it is necessary to establish Cancer Hospitals in each province that link together through a network.

  4. The acanthocephalan fauna of Iran, a check list.

    PubMed

    Tavakol, Sareh; Amin, Omar M; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Halajian, Ali

    2015-10-22

    The acanthocephalan fauna of Iran is reported for the first time since the report of Pomphorhynchus perforator (von Linstow, 1908) Meyer, 1932 in 1964. The knowledge of the acanthocephalan biodiversity of Iran, with parasite-host and host-parasite checklists, is presented. The species of Acanthocephala are presented in alphabetical order, followed by the species of hosts, localities and references. A total of 30 known species of Acanthocephala from 21 genera, 12 families and 7 orders are reported from 80 species of different vertebrates of Iran. One species, Moniliformis moniliformis (Bremser, 1811) Travassos, 1915 was recorded from humans. The group of hosts with the largest number of reported species of acanthocephalan is Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes).

  5. War curbs oil exports by Iran and Iraq

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-29

    A discussion of the effects of the war between Iran and Iraq on oil exports from the area covers damage (extent unknown) to the Abadan, Iran, and Basra, Iraq, oil refineries, to the Iraqi petrochemical complex under construction at Basra, to oil export terminals at Kharg Island and Mina-al-Bakr, and to other oil facilities; war-caused reductions in oil production, refining, shipping, and export, estimated at 2.05-3.35 million bbl/day; the possible effects of the war on OPEC's decisions concerning oil production and pricing; the significance of the Strait of Hormuz for the export of oil by several countries in addition to the belligerents; the U.S. and non-Communist oil stocks which might enable the world to avoid an oil shortage if the war is ended in the near future; and the long-term effects of the war on Iran's and Iraq's oil industries.

  6. A checklist of the leafhoppers of Iran (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha:
    Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Mozaffarian, Fariba; Wilson, Michael R

    2016-01-12

    A list of Cicadellidae (leafhoppers) of Iran is provided based primarily on literature records from 1902 to the present. In total 390 species are recorded from 13 subfamilies. Ninety three of the recorded species are considered to be endemic to Iran. The current accepted name is given for each species together with synonyms and literature citations relating to Iran. Selenocephalus darei is recognized as a published misspelling for Selenocephalus dareicus Dlabola, 1981. There is no evidence that the Nearctic species Empoasca fabae (Harris, 1841) and Erythroneura comes (Say, 1825) have been found in Iran; previous records appear to have been based on misidentifications. A brief distribution of species within Iran is provided.

  7. Extreme weather events in Iran under a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh-Choobari, Omid; Najafi, M. S.

    2017-03-01

    Observations unequivocally show that Iran has been rapidly warming over recent decades, which in sequence has triggered a wide range of climatic impacts. Meteorological records of several ground stations across Iran with daily temporal resolution for the period 1951-2013 were analyzed to investigate the climate change and its impact on some weather extremes. Iran has warmed by nearly 1.3° C during the period 1951-2013 (+0.2° per decade), with an increase of the minimum temperature at a rate two times that of the maximum. Consequently, an increase in the frequency of heat extremes and a decrease in the frequency of cold extremes have been observed. The annual precipitation has decreased by 8 mm per decade, causing an expansion of Iran's dry zones. Previous studies have pointed out that warming is generally associated with more frequent heavy precipitation because a warmer air can hold more moisture. Nevertheless, warming in Iran has been associated with more frequent light precipitation, but less frequent moderate, heavy and extremely heavy precipitation. This is because in the subtropical dry zones, a longer time is required to recharge the atmosphere with water vapour in a warmer climate, causing more water vapour to be transported from the subtropics to high latitudes before precipitations forms. In addition, the altitude of the condensation level increases in a warmer climate in subtropical regions, causing an overall decrease of precipitation. We argue that changing in the frequency of heavy precipitation in response to warming varies depending on the geographical location. Warming over the dry subtropical regions is associated with a decrease in the frequency of heavy precipitation, while an increase is expected over both subpolar and tropical regions. The warmer climate has also led to the increase in the frequency of both thunderstorms (driven by convective heating) and dust events over Iran.

  8. History of Medical Parasitology and Parasitic Infections in Iran.

    PubMed

    Edrissian, Gholamhossein; Rokni, Mohammad Bagher; Mohebali, Mehdi; Nateghpour, Mehdi; Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Bahadori, Moslem

    2016-08-01

    Parasites and parasitic diseases have been prevalent in Iran according to Iranian ancient scholars and physicians' inscriptions dating back to 865-1496. Some protozoan diseases such as malaria and cutaneous leishmaniasis have been introduced by clinical manifestations and helminthic infections by size and morphology of the worms. Scientific studies of Parasitology started in Iran from 1833, first by foreign physicians and continued from 1909 by Iranian researchers. The pioneer medical parasitologists of Iran were Dr N. Ansari and Dr. Sh. Mofidi who established the Department of Medical Parasitology in the School of Medicine, University of Tehran, 1939. Afterward, a considerable number of researchers and professors of parasitology have been active in training and research works in the fields of medical parasitology throughout the entire nation. At present, some significant parasitic diseases such as bilharsiasis and dracunculiasis are more or less eradicated and malaria is in the elimination phase. The prevalence of most helminthic infections has considerably decreased. Most of the departments of medical Parasitology in Iran are active in training MD, MSPH and PhD students. The Iranian Society of Parasitology established in 1994 is active with many eligible members and its creditable publication, the Iranian Journal of Parasitology, published seasonally since 2006. From 1833, when the scientific studies of Parasitology have started in Iran up to 2013, many researchers have been done on various fields of medical Parasitology and parasitic diseases in Iran and 2517 papers in English and 1890 papers in Persian have been published in national and international scientific journals. In addition, more than 420 books related in the field of medical parasitology field have been published in Persian language.

  9. The species of mallophaga in wild birds in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rak, H; Anwar, M; Niak, A

    1975-01-01

    Up to date 2 species of Mallophaga have been reported from birds in Iran. Further studies in Tehran area showed that the wild birds harbour more lice. The following species of Mallophage are reported for the first time from birds in Iran. Anaticola crassicornis from Anas clypeata, Laemobothrion maximum from Falco tinnunculus Laemobothrion sp. from Aquila chrysaetos Alcedoecus annulatus from Alcedo athis, Colpocephalum pectinatum and Strigiphilus sp. from Streptopelia turtur, Amrysidea fulvomaculata from Coturnix coturnix, philopterus picae from pica pica, Philopterus ocellatus and Colpocephalum pectinatum from Athene noctua, Philopterus sp. from Turdus ruficollis, Upupicola upupae from Upupa epops, Amyrsidea hexapilosus from Phasianus colchicus, Colpocephalum sp. from Falco cherrug.

  10. Ecology of Anopheles stephensi Liston in southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Manouchehri, A V; Javadian, E; Eshighy, N; Motabar, M

    1976-09-01

    Anopheles stephensi mysorensis is an important malaria vector in southern Iran. It is known to be the vector of malaria in Abadan, Bandar Abbas, Kazeroun and Dezful. It readily attacks man. Precipitan tests on specimens from different parts of southern Iran showed that 15.7% were positive for human blood. This species usually rests indoors, but a small proportion of its population has been caught outdoors. Larval habitats vary. This species is resistant to DDT and Dieldrin in most of the areas of the Persian Gulf and Oman sea.

  11. Need for geriatric dentistry training programs in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mir, Arash Poorsattar Bejeh

    2013-01-01

    A shifting pattern from communicable diseases to the chronic noncommunicable diseases and increased life expectancy are being sensed throughout the world. Aged populations with multiple chronic diseases come up with their unique needs and require specific attention to be challenged by the health systems. Neglected orodental facts among the elders and the dearth of specific designated undergraduate and postgraduate courses of geriatric dentistry in Iran inevitably adversely affect the delivery of appropriate dental care service to elders by untrained dentists. In this article, a proposal for academic geriatric dentistry courses in Iran is introduced and highlighted with regards to elders' special needs.

  12. Iran: Politics, Gulf Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-19

    implementation of a July 14, 2015, “Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action” (JCPOA) nuclear agreement between Iran and six negotiating powers appeared to...release U.S. hostages in held in Lebanon. On July 3, 1988, U.S. forces in the Gulf mistakenly shot down Iran Air Flight 655 over the Gulf, killing all...Gulf Security, and U.S. Policy Congressional Research Service 5 Supreme Leader: Grand Ayatollah Ali Khamene’i Born in July 1939 to an Azeri

  13. Plagiorchis muris (Tanabe, 1922) in Rattus norvegicus in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Mobedi, Iraj; Abedkhojasteh, Hoda; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud; Shahbazi, Farideh; Massoud, Jafar

    2013-07-01

    Rats are capable to harbor various pathogens, among which certain species of zoonotic parasites are included. A long-term detection of parasite fauna of rats has sporadically been carried out in Iran. Abundance of these vertebrate pests is of great importance as regards public health issue. The present paper is focused on a digenean trematode Plagiorchis muris, obtained during a comprehensive study on rats over the decades in the country. Herein we describe this occurrence in a Rattus norvegicus in northern Tehran, with specific note on its morphological description. P. muris can infect human through consumption of infected marine food items, and has never been observed in Iran.

  14. Foreign Policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    economic system; and a brief account of Iran’s foreign policy. The essay is a broad survey of the sections mentioned above. / D N, 1473 EiTiON rf 1NV 65...It is also necessary to examine the political, economic and social systems that have evolved since 1978 under the Khomeini government. Iran, prior to...of considerable economic growth based on oil wealth and many social reforms that would lead one to believe that there existed a nation that was stable

  15. Embryonic stem cell research in Iran: status and ethics.

    PubMed

    Saniei, Mansooreh; De Vries, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    Various successes in regenerative medicine by therapeutic cloning have given rise to expectations that treatments will soon be developed for incurable diseases. But using embryonic stem cells for this purpose raises many ethical dilemmas including those about the beginning of human life. Arguments concerning stem cell research and therapeutic cloning in different countries are influenced by both the religious and bioethical traditions which dominate in these cultures. This article examines how these traditions have influenced stem cell research in Iran through an account of scientific advances and the development of regulations on embryonic stem cell research in Iran.

  16. Trichinella britovi in a leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Marucci, Gianluca; Mobedi, Iraj; Zahabiioon, Farzaneh; Mirjalali, Hamed; Pozio, Edoardo

    2009-10-14

    Nematodes of the genus Trichinella are zoonotic parasites with a cosmopolitan distribution. In Iran, these parasites have mainly been detected in carnivorous mammals, yet information on the Trichinella taxa circulating in this country date back to a time when biochemical and molecular tests were not available. We describe the first detection of Trichinella larvae in a leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) in Asia and its identification at the species level. The larvae recovered from the leopard muscles were identified as Trichinella britovi using multiplex PCR. The detection of Trichinella infection in a leopard confirms literature data on the high prevalence of infection in carnivorous mammals in Iran.

  17. Iran and Iraq - the proliferation challenge. Strategic research report

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, F.R.

    1996-04-15

    Worldwide proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and ballistic missiles has been on the rise since the end of the Cold War. This escalation has brought a new set of challenges to post-Cold War strategists and policymakers. This study focus on the impact of nuclear proliferation in the Middle East. It assesses the possibility of Iran`s and Iraq`s ability to develop a nuclear capability within the next twenty to thirty years. United States` strategy and policy to counter this potential is also considered.

  18. Leucocytozoon spp. infection in Accipitriformes birds in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rassouli, Maryam; Aghazamani, Ghazaleh; Ardekani, Abbas Oliya

    2017-09-01

    Leucocytozoon spp. (Haemosporida, Leucocytozoidae) are vector-borne parasites of various birds. Leucocytozoon can infect different reticuloendothelial tissues and blood cells of birds. In this study peripheral blood samples were collected from Accipitriformes birds [three marsh harriers (Circus aeruginosus) and one tawny eagle (Aquila rapax)] in one birds' garden in Iran. Blood films were observed for identification of hemoparasites. All samples were infected by different Leucocytozoon species. All of the observed species were first reported in Iran in Accipitriformes birds which one of them was described as a new species.

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of Wheat dwarf virus isolates from Iran.

    PubMed

    Parizipour, Mohamad Hamed Ghodoum; Schubert, Jörg; Behjatnia, Seyed Ali Akbar; Afsharifar, Alireza; Habekuß, Antje; Wu, Beilei

    2017-04-01

    Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) adversely affects cereal production in Asia, Europe, and North Africa. In this study, sequences of several WDV isolates from Iran which is located in the Fertile Crescent were analyzed. Analysis revealed a new geographic cluster for WDV-Wheat from Iran. Recombination analysis demonstrated the existence of several breakpoints in different regions of the viral genome. Data analysis demonstrated that WDV-Barley has an older history and lower diversity than WDV-Wheat. Sequence analysis identified a rare occasion of a co-infection of wheat with WDV-Wheat and WDV-Barley.

  20. The Paleotethys suture in Central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, S.; Stampfli, G. M.

    2003-04-01

    The Triassic rocks of the Nakhlak area have been used to justify the hypothesis of the rotation of the Central-East Iranian microplate, mainly based on paleomagnetic data. Davoudzadeh and his coworkers (1981) pointed out the existing contrast between the Nakhlakh succession and the time-equivalent lithostratigraphic units exposed in the surrounding regions and compared them with the Triassic rocks of the Aghdarband area on the southern edge of the Turan plate. We recently gathered evidences that this part of central Iran effectively belongs to the Northern Iranian Paleo-Tethys suture zone and related Variscan terrains of the Turan plate. This is the case for the northwestern part of central Iran, where the Anarak-Khur belt (Anarak schists and their thick Cretaceous-Paleocene sedimentary cover) presents all the elements of an orogenic zone such as dismembered ophiolites and silisiclastics, calcareous and volcanic cover which has been deformed and metamorphosed. This belt is separated to the northwest from the Alborz microcontinent by the Great Kavir fault and Cretaceous ophiolite mélanges. To the southeast it is bounded by the Biabanak fault and serpentinites and the Biabanak block, part of the central-east Iranian plate. The later zone is formed by Proterozoic metamorphic basement and marine sedimentary cover, nearly continuous from the Ordovician to the Triassic, at the uppermost part upper Triassic-lower Jurassic bauxites and silisiclastics are observed. Excepted the Ordovician angular unconformities and the boundary between lower Jurassic and younger layers, this sequence displays no significant main unconformities and can be attributed to the Cimmerian super-terrain. Thus, this sequences represents the classical evolution of the southern Paleo-Tethys passive margin, as found in the Alborz microcontinent or the Band-e Bayan zone of Afghanistan and is the witness of large scale duplication of the Paleo-Tethys suture zone through major Alpine strike-slip faults

  1. Zagros Mountains, Iran, SRTM Shaded Relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Zagros Mountains in Iran offer a visually stunning topographic display of geologic structure in layered sedimentary rocks. This scene is nearly 100 kilometers (62 miles) wide but is only a small part of similar terrain that covers much of southern Iran. This area is actively undergoing crustal shortening, as global tectonics moves Arabia toward Asia. Consequently, layers of sedimentary rock are folding much like a carpet will fold if pushed. The convex upward folds create structures called anticlines, which are prominently seen here. The convex downward folds (between the anticlines) create structures called synclines, which are mostly buried and hidden by sediments eroding off the anticlines. Layers having differing erosional resistance create distinctive patterns, often sawtooth triangular facets, that encircle the anticlines. Local relief between the higher mountain ridges and their intervening valleys is about 1200 meters (about 4000 feet).

    Salt extrusions and salt 'glaciers' are another set of geologic features readily evident in the topography. Salt deposits, likely created by the evaporation of an ancient inland sea, were buried by the sediments that now make up the layers of the anticlines and synclines. But salt is less dense than most other rocks, so it tends to migrate upward through Earth's crust in vertical columns called 'diapirs'. The compressive folding process has probably facilitated the formation of these diapirs, and the diapirs, in turn, are probably enhancing some anticlines by 'inflating' them with salt. Where the diapirs reach the surface, the salt extrudes, much like lava from a volcano, and the salt flows. Two prominent salt flows are evident in the same valley, leaking from neighboring anticlines, just north of the scene center.

    This shaded relief image was created directly from an SRTM elevation model by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear

  2. Zagros Mountains, Iran, SRTM Shaded Relief Anaglyph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Zagros Mountains in Iran offer a visually stunning topographic display of geologic structure in layered sedimentary rocks. This scene is nearly 100 kilometers (62 miles) wide but is only a small part of similar terrain that covers much of southern Iran. This area is actively undergoing crustal shortening, as global tectonics moves Arabia toward Asia. Consequently, layers of sedimentary rock are folding much like a carpet will fold if pushed. The convex upward folds create structures called anticlines, which are prominently seen here. The convex downward folds (between the anticlines) create structures called synclines, which are mostly buried and hidden by sediments eroding off the anticlines. Layers having differing erosional resistance create distinctive patterns, often sawtooth triangular facets, that encircle the anticlines. Local relief between the higher mountain ridges and their intervening valleys is about 1,200 meters (about 4,000 feet).

    Salt extrusions and salt 'glaciers' are another set of geologic features readily evident in the topography. Salt deposits, likely created by the evaporation of an ancient inland sea, were buried by the sediments that now make up the layers of the anticlines and synclines. But salt is less dense than most other rocks, so it tends to migrate upward through Earth's crust in vertical columns called 'diapirs'. The compressive folding process has probably facilitated the formation of these diapirs, and the diapirs, in turn, are probably enhancing some anticlines by 'inflating' them with salt. Where the diapirs reach the surface, the salt extrudes, much like lava from a volcano, and the salt flows. Two prominent salt flows are evident in the same valley, leaking from neighboring anticlines, just north of the scene center.

    This anaglyph was created by deriving a shaded relief image from the SRTM data, draping it back over the SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye

  3. Zagros Mountains, Iran, SRTM Shaded Relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Zagros Mountains in Iran offer a visually stunning topographic display of geologic structure in layered sedimentary rocks. This scene is nearly 100 kilometers (62 miles) wide but is only a small part of similar terrain that covers much of southern Iran. This area is actively undergoing crustal shortening, as global tectonics moves Arabia toward Asia. Consequently, layers of sedimentary rock are folding much like a carpet will fold if pushed. The convex upward folds create structures called anticlines, which are prominently seen here. The convex downward folds (between the anticlines) create structures called synclines, which are mostly buried and hidden by sediments eroding off the anticlines. Layers having differing erosional resistance create distinctive patterns, often sawtooth triangular facets, that encircle the anticlines. Local relief between the higher mountain ridges and their intervening valleys is about 1200 meters (about 4000 feet).

    Salt extrusions and salt 'glaciers' are another set of geologic features readily evident in the topography. Salt deposits, likely created by the evaporation of an ancient inland sea, were buried by the sediments that now make up the layers of the anticlines and synclines. But salt is less dense than most other rocks, so it tends to migrate upward through Earth's crust in vertical columns called 'diapirs'. The compressive folding process has probably facilitated the formation of these diapirs, and the diapirs, in turn, are probably enhancing some anticlines by 'inflating' them with salt. Where the diapirs reach the surface, the salt extrudes, much like lava from a volcano, and the salt flows. Two prominent salt flows are evident in the same valley, leaking from neighboring anticlines, just north of the scene center.

    This shaded relief image was created directly from an SRTM elevation model by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear

  4. Zagros Mountains, Iran, SRTM Shaded Relief Anaglyph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Zagros Mountains in Iran offer a visually stunning topographic display of geologic structure in layered sedimentary rocks. This scene is nearly 100 kilometers (62 miles) wide but is only a small part of similar terrain that covers much of southern Iran. This area is actively undergoing crustal shortening, as global tectonics moves Arabia toward Asia. Consequently, layers of sedimentary rock are folding much like a carpet will fold if pushed. The convex upward folds create structures called anticlines, which are prominently seen here. The convex downward folds (between the anticlines) create structures called synclines, which are mostly buried and hidden by sediments eroding off the anticlines. Layers having differing erosional resistance create distinctive patterns, often sawtooth triangular facets, that encircle the anticlines. Local relief between the higher mountain ridges and their intervening valleys is about 1,200 meters (about 4,000 feet).

    Salt extrusions and salt 'glaciers' are another set of geologic features readily evident in the topography. Salt deposits, likely created by the evaporation of an ancient inland sea, were buried by the sediments that now make up the layers of the anticlines and synclines. But salt is less dense than most other rocks, so it tends to migrate upward through Earth's crust in vertical columns called 'diapirs'. The compressive folding process has probably facilitated the formation of these diapirs, and the diapirs, in turn, are probably enhancing some anticlines by 'inflating' them with salt. Where the diapirs reach the surface, the salt extrudes, much like lava from a volcano, and the salt flows. Two prominent salt flows are evident in the same valley, leaking from neighboring anticlines, just north of the scene center.

    This anaglyph was created by deriving a shaded relief image from the SRTM data, draping it back over the SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye

  5. Characteristics of gonorrhoea in Kermanshah, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zargooshi, J

    2002-01-01

    Method: From 1997 through 2000, 100 male gonorrhoea patients were followed for a mean of 18 months (range 8–42 months). Diagnosis and follow up were made by a combination of history, physical examination, and the Gram stained smear. Results: 4% of patients became infected by girlfriends, 24% by temporary (sigheh) wives, and 64% by street prostitutes; the remaining 8% denied coitus with sex workers. Of 38 married cases, 31 reported unprotected intercourse with permanent wives while infected, and only four of 38 gave prescribed drugs to their wives. 89% of contacts with prostitutes were unprotected. Most of the prostitutes and professional sigheh wives were practising survival sex. Fear of stigmatisation and presumed severe penalties prevented prostitutes from seeking medical care, and 26% of patrons reported self medication. An average 84% of prescriptions of standard therapies failed. 31% of the cases remained refractory to all available therapies. Conclusions: The majority of the prostitutes and sigheh wives in Iran exchange sex for survival. Being uneducated survival sex workers, they accept risky sex behaviours easily. Sigheh wives are an important source of infection. The very high rate of persistent infection despite standard treatments is disturbing. Our ideal is a world in which nobody is obliged to enter commercial sex work. In the meantime, however, there is an urgent need to offer medical care and education to sex workers as needy patients in a safe and unprejudiced environment. Denying the presence of such realities as prostitution and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) because of their disagreement with cant claims and official propaganda, does not eradicate the facts but results in catastrophic public health problems. PMID:12473813

  6. Pediatric hematology and oncology in Iran.

    PubMed

    Alebouyeh, Mardawig

    2005-01-01

    Pediatric hematology and oncology (PHO) is a rapidly expandingfield. It has been our goal to meet the needs and increasing demands for comprehensive medical care of children suffering from chronic blood diseases and malignancies. In the past decade we have been able expand and optimize the PHO services throughout Iran, in general and in respect to their prevalence and clinical importance, by trained pediatric hematologist-oncologists, pediatric surgeons and improved para clinical facilities. Major beta-thalassemics receive blood transfusion and chelation therapy according to the current standards mostly at regional blood banks centers. To curb major beta-thalassemia a premarital screening program has been enacted and abortion has been legitimized if major thalassemia is diagnosed by CVS. Hemophiliacs are supervised and treated as indicated by Iranian Hemophilia Comprehensive Care Centers (IHCCC). Screening for transfusion related complications and transmitted viral diseases (HBV, HCV and HIV) in both cohorts are carried out in regular intervals and necessary management will be then carried out as indicated at respective specialized units. Childhood malignancies are treated according to protocols adopted from accredited institutions in the USA and Europe, with almost comparable results. BMT is available for selected patients with beta-thalassemia or malignancies. By going to public we have been able to rise general awareness about chronic blood diseases and childhood malignancies and have initiated establishment of parents groups and formation of NGOs to support these children and their families. Foundation of Iranian Society of Pediatric Hamatology and Oncology (ISPHO) in the year 2000 has been another step forward to consolidate and coordinate the available manpower and facilities. By evaluation of the country's main problems and shortcomings and conduction of collaborative studies and operation planning one will succeed to get the expected feedback and

  7. Dust storm simulation over Iran using HYSPLIT

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matters have detrimental effects on human health, environment and economic. This pollutant may emit from anthropogenic or natural sources. On global scale, main proportion of natural particulate matter release to the atmosphere because of wind erosion from arid and semi-arid regions. Recently, the amount of dust coming from Arabian countries has dramatically increased, especially dust storms that are affecting western and even central parts of Iran. This phenomenon has caused a lot of environmental problems. Dust source identification and trajectory simulation using numerical techniques are the main aims of this study. HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model dust module and trajectory simulation are utilized in this research and two case studies are investigated (in May and June 2010). The base of the HYSPLIT dust module is the PM10 dust storm emission algorithm for desert land use. This methodology is applied to estimate hotspots and trajectories. Due to the results, dust storms started on May 17th and June 7th because of high wind shear (>8.5 m/s) from the western Syrian Desert. The source region limited to 32.50 °N to 33.80 °N and 38.00 °E to 38.80 °E coordinates. Dust plumes lifted and dispersed towards the east and southeast of the sources and reached Ahvaz on May 18th and June 8th. The average of PM10 concentration in these dates reached 625 and 494 μgm3 on Ahvaz monitoring stations, respectively. Moreover, the results gained from the model for dust motion simulation are similar to the MODIS satellite images. PMID:24397928

  8. Obesity among university students, Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nojomi, Marzieh; Najamabadi, Shahandokht

    2006-01-01

    Evaluating the nutritional status of individuals and population groups is an important tool in public health and a feasible indicator of standards of living. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of obesity and present nutritional status of university students of Iran University of Medical Sciences in Tehran. The survey was conducted between Oct 2004 and June 2005. The statistical population included all students from School of medicine, nursing and midwifery, health services, management, science, and rehabilitation. The method of sampling was multistage random. The sample size for the survey was 1,150 students. We used a self-administered 24h food recall questionnaire. We categorized BMI to two groups in bivariate analysis (BMI <25 kg m(-2) as obese and less than 25 kg m(-2) as non-obese). Mean BMI for all subjects was 21.7 +/- 2.9 kg m(-2). Almost 88% of the subjects were classified into a non-obese group (BMI <25 kg m(-2)). About 10% were underweight and 12.4% of the students had a BMI more than 25 kg m(-2). A significant difference was observed for BMI between males and females; 7.9% of males versus 22.5% of females had BMIs over 25. About 18% of students aged 23 years and over had BMIs over 25 versus 7.7% of students aged under 18. Intakes of fiber, pre-vitamin A, folacin and iron were significantly different between BMI groups. Intakes of these nutrients were higher in the obese students than the students with BMIs less than 25 kg m(-2). Our results indicate that about 12.4% of the students had a BMI more than 25 kg m(-2). There was a significant association between BMI, and smoking habits, age, sex, place of resident and having specific dietary regimen.

  9. Hydrogeochemical analysis for Tasuj plain aquifer, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadiri, Ata Allah; Moghaddam, Asghar Asghari; Tsai, Frank T.-C.; Fijani, Elham

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the hydrogeochemical processes of groundwater in the Tasuj plain, Iran. The Tasuj plain is one of the 12 marginal plains around Urmia Lake which is currently under a critical ecological condition. In the last decades, the Tasuj plain aquifer suffered from severe groundwater level declination and caused degradation of groundwater quality. To better understand hydrogeochemical processes in the Tasuj plain, this study adopted graphical methods and multivariate statistical techniques to analyze groundwater samples. A total of 504 groundwater samples was obtained from 34 different locations (qanats, wells, and springs) over 12 years (1997-2009) and analyzed for 15 water quality parameters. From the results, the Piper diagram indicated four groundwater types and the Stiff diagram showed eight different sources of groundwater samples. The Durov diagram identified five major hydrogeochemical processes in the aquifer. However, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) identified five water types in the groundwater samples because HCA was able to analyze more chemical and physical data than graphical methods. The HCA result was checked by discriminant analysis and found consistency in all samples that were classified into correct groups. Using factor analysis, we identified three factors that accounted for 81.6% of the total variance of the dataset. Based on the high factor loadings of the variables, factors 1 and 2 reflected the natural hydrogeochemical processes and factor 3 explained the effect of agricultural fertilizers and human activities in the Tasuj plain. Dendrograms from 2000 to 2009 were studied to understand the temporal variation of groundwater quality. Comparing the distributions of groundwater types in 2000 and 2009, we found that the mixing zone was expanded. This may be due to artificial groundwater recharge in the recharge area and the effect of inverse ion exchange in the discharge area.

  10. Methadone maintenance therapy outcomes in Iran.

    PubMed

    Noori, Roya; Narenjiha, Homan; Aghabakhshi, Habibollah; Habibi, Gholamreza; Khoshkrood Mansoori, Babak

    2012-06-01

    Because of the increasing number of injecting drug users (IDUs) in Iran and the risk of the spread of HIV infection, harm reduction programs have been considered for conventional law enforcement measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in IDUs and the associated health and social outcomes. This case-control study was conducted at the Persepolis Harm Reduction Center in Tehran during the year 2006. Data were gathered from two groups of randomly chosen patients. The first group consisted of 75 IDU patients who had undergone at least 6 months of methadone treatment (the MMT group), and second group consisted of 75 newly admitted clients (the control group). Participants were assessed on their dangerous injection and sexual behaviors, social well-being, and patterns of drug use. The results were compared between the two groups. The mean age of participants in the two groups was almost the same (34.28 years in the control group and 35.68 years in the MMT group, p >.05). Prevalence of drug injection in the MMT group was less than that in the control group (16% vs. 100%). There was also a dramatic difference in needle and syringe sharing (40% in the control group vs. 4% in the MMT group) but not in crimes and arrests (p = .4). Those in the MMT group had a better relationship with their families, partners, coworkers, and neighbors compared with controls. There was no considerable difference in dangerous sexual behaviors between the two groups. Given the large number of HIV-positive cases among IDUs and considering that injection drug use is the main spreading factor for HIV, MMT would play a major role in controlling the HIV epidemic through reduction of heroin injection and the risk behaviors related to it. High inflation rate, lack of interorganization coordination, budget limitation, and no follow-up were the most important limitations of this study.

  11. Tertiary stress field evolution in Sistan (Eastern Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Jentzer; Marc, Fournier; Philippe, Agard; Jafar, Omrani

    2016-04-01

    The Sistan orogenic belt in eastern Iran, near the boundary with Afghanistan, results from the closure of a branch of the Neo-Thethys: the Sistan Ocean. It was divided by Tirrul et al. (1983) in five main units: the Lut (1) and Afghan (2) continental blocks where basement is exposed; the Neh (3) and Ratuk (4) complexes which display ophiolitic rocks weakly and highly (HP-BT) metamorphosed, respectively, and the Sefidabeh basin lying over these complexes and interpreted as a fore-arc basin. Sistan is bordered by the Makran and Zagros (formed by the closure of the Neo-Tethys) to the south and by the Kopet Dagh (formed by the closure of Paleo-Tethys) to the North. The aim of this study is to fill the gap between preliminary studies about the overall structure of the Sistan Suture Zone and recent investigations of active tectonics in the region (e.g., Walker et al., 2004 and 2006 a and b). Questions herein addressed are: (1) how are stresses transfered throughout Iran from the Zagros to the Sistan belts? (2) Did the Zagros, Makran and Sistan belts evolve independently through time, or were they mechanically coupled? In order to answer these questions, we have determined paleostress evolution in the Sistan, using a direct inversion method for 42 microtectonic sites in almost all lithologies of the Neh complex and the Sefidabeh basin. We find three successive directions of compression: (1) 87°N for the oldest deformation stage dated of the Late Miocene, (2) 59°N for the intermediate stage probably dated of the Early Pliocene, and (3) 26°N for the youngest stage dated of the Plio-Quaternary. A counterclockwise rotation of about 60° of the main stress (σ1) in less than 10 Ma is therefore documented in Sistan. These same three stages of deformation were also documented by several microtectonic studies in Iran, especially in Makran and Zagros. The direction of the youngest compression is very homogeneous indicating that the mountain belts and continental blocks of Iran

  12. The Reign of Confusion: ABC and the "Crisis in Iran."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmerton, Patricia R.

    A study examined reports broadcast by ABC News between November 8, 1979 and December 7, 1979 in its series entitled "Crisis in Iran: America Held Hostage." Transcripts of approximately 50% of actual broadcasts were subjected to rhetorical critical analysis, from which the finding emerged that confusion was the predominant characteristic…

  13. Afghan refugees in Iran model renal transplantation program: ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Ghods, A J; Nasrollahzadeh, D; Kazemeini, M

    2005-03-01

    During 23 years of civil war in Afghanistan, there has been a continuous flow of more than 5 million refugees out of the country. Iran has hosted about 40% of all refugees. The majority have resided outside of camps with opportunities to integrate locally, having access to the Iranian labor market and government services, such as dialysis and transplantation. Iran also has adopted a compensated living unrelated donor renal transplantation program in which foreigners can receive transplants from living related donors or volunteer living unrelated donors of the same nationality. In June 2004, among 241 refugees with end-stage kidney disease in Iran, 179 were on hemodialysis and 62 underwent renal transplantation. Nine patients received kidneys from living related donors, 1 from a spouse, 50 from Afghani living unrelated donors, and 1 from a cadaveric donor. No refugee had been used as a kidney donor to an Iranian patient. Transplantation of all Afghan refugees in need and the absence of their use as kidney donors to Iranian patients proffer strong evidence against commercialism and a reason to believe that the Iran Model transplantation is practiced with ethical standards. In the last 2 years since the civil war has ended, returning these patients to Afghanistan has raised important ethical concerns. Repatriation of dialysis patients and transplant recipients may be tantamount to their deaths. It is expected that The Transplantation Society and the World Health Organization will establish links with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugee Offices to provide humanitarian assistance to these patients.

  14. Higher education initiatives for disaster and emergency health in iran.

    PubMed

    Ardalan, Ali; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Masoumi, Gholamreza; Holakouie Naieni, Kourosh; Ahmadnezhad, Elham

    2013-01-01

    Iran's health system is expanding the disaster and emergency higher education programs over the country to enhance the capacity of human resources for effective and efficient disaster mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. In this article we present an overview about the initiatives and progress of disaster and emergency health higher education in Iran. Following the Bam earthquake, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health & Medical Education and National Institute of Health Research, School of Public Health at the Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran took the initiative to develop a Master of Public Health (MPH) with disaster concentration in 2006, a PhD in disaster and emergency health in 2011, and a well constructed certificate course in 2008 entitled Disaster Health Management and Risk Reduction (DHMR). Iran, Kerman and Shahid Beheshti Universities of Medical Sciences and University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation are other academia that joined this initiative. Regarding the importance of programs evaluation, we have planned for a comprehensive evaluation of MPH and DHMR programs in 2013-4 and the Accreditation and Evaluation Board of Disaster & Emergency Health, based in MOH&ME, is responsible for evaluation of the PhD program in 3-5 years from initiation.

  15. English Language Teaching Curriculum in Iran: Planning and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atai, Mahmood Reza; Mazlum, Farhad

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates English language teaching (ELT) curriculum planning in Iran's Ministry of Education and its implementation by teachers. We studied programme evaluation; needs analysis; the ELT-specific documents; communication channels between planning and practice levels; teacher evaluation and student assessment; interpretation…

  16. Provenance of Neoproterozoic sedimentary basement of northern Iran, Kahar Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etemad-Saeed, Najmeh; Hosseini-Barzi, Mahboubeh; Adabi, Mohammad Hossein; Sadeghi, Abbas; Houshmandzadeh, Abdolrahim

    2015-11-01

    This article presents new data to understand the nature of the hidden crystalline basement of northern Iran and the tectonic setting of Iran during late Neoproterozoic time. The siliciclastic-dominated Kahar Formation represents the oldest known exposures of northern Iran and comprises late Ediacaran (ca. 560-550 Ma) compositionally immature sediments including mudrocks, sandstones, and conglomerates. This work focuses on provenance of three well preserved outcrops of this formation in Alborz Mountains: Kahar Mountain, Sarbandan, and Chalus Road, through petrographic and geochemical methods. Mineralogical Index of Alteration (MIA) and Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA-after correction for K-metasomatism) values combined with A-CN-K relations suggest moderate weathering in the source areas. The polymictic nature of Kahar conglomerates indicates a mixed provenance for them. However, modal analysis of Kahar sandstones (volcanic to plagioclase-rich lithic arkose) and whole rock geochemistry of mudrocks suggest that they are largely first-cycle sediments and that their sources were remarkably late Ediacaran, intermediate-felsic igneous rocks from proximal arc settings. Tectonic setting discrimination diagrams also indicate a convergent plate margin and continental arc related basin for Kahar sediments. This interpretation is supported by the phyllo-tectic to tectic composition and geochemistry of mudrocks. These results reveal the presence of a felsic/intermediate subduction-related basement (∼600-550 Ma) in this region, which provides new constraints on subduction scenario during this time interval in Iran, as a part of the Peri-Gondwanan terranes.

  17. Colorectal cancer in Iran: Epidemiology and morphology trends

    PubMed Central

    Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Pakzad, Reza; Abedi, Mehdi; Kor, Yones; Moludi, Jalal; Towhidi, Farhad; Reza Makhsosi, Behnam; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in different countries, including Iran. No comprehensive study has been done in the country for colorectal cancer, but information on the incidence and trends is essential to planning. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and morphology of colorectal cancer and its trend in Iran. This study was conducted using data from the national cancer registry system in Iran from 2003-2008. We used joinpoint regression analysis for assessing incidence time trends and morphology change percentage. Of all cases of colorectal cancer, 61.83 % were colon cancer, 27.54 % rectal cancer, 7.46 % rectosigmoid cancer, and 3.10 anal cancer. The most common histological types with the frequencies of 80.85 % was related to adenocarcinoma, NOS. The Annual percentage changes (APC) in ASIR for colorectal cancer significantly increased in both men and women. APC in ASIR was 13.7 (CI: 10.5-17.1) in women and 16.4 (CI: 12.4-20.5) in men. APC of adenocarcinoma in villous adenoma showed significant declining trend (p<0.05), while APC of adenocarcinoma, NOS had a constant trend. The incidence of the cancer in recent years has increased in Iran because of changes in lifestyle and diet. Therefore, further studies are necessary to detect the cause of this cancer and perform preventive measures. PMID:28337105

  18. Colorectal Cancer in Iran: Molecular Epidemiology and Screening Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Dolatkhah, Roya; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Bonyadi, Mortaza Jabbarpour; Asvadi Kermani, Iraj; Farassati, Faris; Dastgiri, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The increasing incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the past three decades in Iran has made it a major public health burden. This study aimed to report its epidemiologic features, molecular genetic aspects, survival, heredity, and screening pattern in Iran. Methods. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify the relevant published articles. We used medical subject headings, including colorectal cancer, molecular genetics, KRAS and BRAF mutations, screening, survival, epidemiologic study, and Iran. Results. Age standardized incidence rate of Iranian CRCs was 11.6 and 10.5 for men and women, respectively. Overall five-year survival rate was 41%, and the proportion of CRC among the younger age group was higher than that of western countries. Depending on ethnicity, geographical region, dietary, and genetic predisposition, mutation genes were considerably diverse and distinct among CRCs across Iran. The high occurrence of CRC in records of relatives of CRC patients showed that family history of CRC was more common among young CRCs. Conclusion. Appropriate screening strategies for CRC which is amenable to early detection through screening, especially in relatives of CRCs, should be considered as the first step in CRC screening programs. PMID:25685149

  19. Heterogeneity of Hereditary Hearing Loss in Iran: a Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Beheshtian, Maryam; Babanejad, Mojgan; Azaiez, Hela; Bazazzadegan, Niloofar; Kolbe, Diana; Sloan-Heggen, Christina; Arzhangi, Sanaz; Booth, Kevin; Mohseni, Marzieh; Frees, Kathy; Azizi, Mohammad Hossein; Daneshi, Ahmad; Farhadi, Mohammad; Kahrizi, Kimia; Smith, Richard Jh; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2016-10-01

    A significant contribution to the causes of hereditary hearing impairment comes from genetic factors. More than 120 genes and 160 loci have been identified to be involved in hearing impairment. Given that consanguine populations are more vulnerable to most inherited diseases, such as hereditary hearing loss (HHL), the genetic picture of HHL among the Iranian population, which consists of at least eight ethnic subgroups with a high rate of intermarriage, is expected to be highly heterogeneous. Using an electronic literature review through various databases such as PubMed, MEDLINE, and Scopus, we review the current picture of HHL in Iran. In this review, we present more than 39 deafness genes reported to cause non-syndromic HHL in Iran, of which the most prevalent causative genes include GJB2, SLC26A4, MYO15A, and MYO7A. In addition, we highlight some of the more common genetic causes of syndromic HHL in Iran. These results are of importance for further investigation and elucidation of the molecular basis of HHL in Iran and also for developing a national diagnostic tool tailored to the Iranian context enabling early and efficient diagnosis of hereditary hearing impairment.

  20. Predicting Habitat Distribution of Five Heteropteran Pest Species in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Solhjouy-Fard, Samaneh; Sarafrazi, Alimorad; Minbashi Moeini, Mehdi; Ahadiyat, Ali

    2013-01-01

    In agroecosystems, potential species distribution models are extensively applied in pest management strategies, revealing species ecological requirements and demonstrating relationships between species distribution and predictive variables. The Maximum Entropy model was used to predict the potential distribution of five heteropteran key pests in Iran, namely Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Miridae), Lygus pratensis (L.), Apodiphus amygdali (Germar) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), Nezara viridula (L.), and Nysius cymoides (Spinola) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). A total of 663 samples were collected from different parts of Iran. The altitude and climate variable data were included in the analysis. Based on test and training data, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values were above 0.80, the binomial omission test with the lowest presence threshold for all species was statistically significant (< 0.01), and the test omission rates were less than 3%. The suitability of areas in Iran for A. amygdale (Germar) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), N. cymoides (Spinola) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae), A. lineolatus (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Miridae), L. pratensis (L.), and N. viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), ranked as 78.86%, 68.78%, 43.29%, 20%, and 15.16%, respectively. In general, central parts of Iran including salt lakes, deserts, and sand dune areas with very high temperatures and windy weather were predicted to be less suitable, while other regions, mainly northern parts, were most suitable. These new data could be applied practically for the design of integrated pest management and crop development programs. PMID:24735397

  1. Family medicine in Iran: facing the health system challenges.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Reza; Hadian, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Shariati, Mohammad; Ghaderi, Hossien

    2014-11-30

    In response to the current fragmented context of health systems, it is essential to support the revitalization of primary health care in order to provide a stronger sense of direction and integrity. Around the world, family medicine recognized as a core discipline for strengthening primary health care setting. This study aimed to understand the perspectives of policy makers and decision makers of Iran's health system about the implementation of family medicine in Iran urban areas. This study is a qualitative study with framework analysis. Purposive semi-structured interviews were conducted with Policy and decision makers in the five main organizations of Iran health care system. The codes were extracted using inductive and deductive methods. According to 27 semi-structured interviews were conducted with Policy and decision makers, three main themes and 8 subthemes extracted, including: The development of referral system, better access to health care and the management of chronic diseases. Family medicine is a viable means for a series of crucial reforms in the face of the current challenges of health system. Implementation of family medicine can strengthen the PHC model in Iran urban areas. Attempting to create a general consensus among various stakeholders is essential for effective implementation of the project.

  2. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-25

    Rang A Rang Television. Led by Davar Veiseh and based in Vienna, Virginia , advocates regime change through peaceful means. No U.S. assistance has been...publishing of a satirical cartoon with political overtones. ! Each year since 1999, the State Department religious freedom report has named Iran as a

  3. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-27

    2006, in September the government closed a major reformist daily newspaper, Shargh, citing its publishing of a satirical cartoon with political...based exile, this station broadcasts to Iran one hour each day. ! Rang A Rang Television. Led by Davar Veiseh and based in Vienna, Virginia

  4. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-05

    of a satirical cartoon with political overtones. Labor Unions/ Students In 2006, regime forcibly repressed strikes by the 17,000-member Tehran bus...based exile, this station broadcasts to Iran one hour each day. ! Rang A Rang Television. Led by Davar Veiseh and based in Vienna, Virginia

  5. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-06

    satirical cartoon with political overtones. Labor Unions/ Students In 2006, regime forcibly repressed strikes by the 17,000-member Tehran bus drivers union...station broadcasts to Iran one hour each day. ! Rang A Rang Television. Led by Davar Veiseh and based in Vienna, Virginia , advocates regime change

  6. Annotated checklist and distribution of the lizards of Iran.

    PubMed

    Smíd, Jiří; Moravec, Jiří; Kodym, Petr; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Yousefkhani, Seyyed Saeed Hosseinian; Frynta, Daniel

    2014-08-20

    We present a comprehensive summary of the distribution of the lizards of Iran accompanied by an annotated checklist. The updated maps of distribution of all 146 species of 41 genera of 11 families are based on all available bibliographic records, catalogues of museum collections and our own field observations. The final dataset used for the distribution maps contains 8525 georeferenced records and cover 41% of the country when plotted on a grid of 0.25° × 0.25° resolution. The dataset is publicly accessible through GBIF portal (http://www.gbif.org/dataset/7db4f705-61ae-4c6e-9de2-06674e7d46b2). Following the latest biogeographic division of the country, ~53% of the species (76 species) inhabit the Iranian Province, ~41% (60 species) the Western Asian mountain transition zone, ~9% (13 species) the Turanian Province, and ~18% (27 species) the Arabian Province. In addition, ~2% (3 species) reach Iran from the Indo-Malay biogeographic region and ~2% (3 species) are believed to have been introduced to Iran by humans. Endemic species (46) represent ~32% of the known species diversity. The most species-rich family of lizards in Iran is Lacertidae with 47 species, followed by Gekkonidae (41), Agamidae (18), Scincidae (15), Phyllodactylidae (10), Sphaerodactylidae (4), Eublepharidae and Uromastycidae (3), Anguidae and Varanidae (2), and Trogonophidae with one representative. 

  7. Survival of Patients with Thyroid Cancer in Yazd, Iran

    PubMed

    Vahedian Ardakani, Hassan Ali; Moghimi, Mansour; Shayestehpour, Mohammad; Doosti, Masoud; Beigi Sharifabadi, Shamsi

    2017-08-27

    Background: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine related malignancy in the world. This cancer has increased during recent years in Iran and is the11th most common malignancy in Iranian population. Survival of patients with thyroid carcinoma in the different geographic areas within Iran is not clear. The present study aimed to estimate survival of patients suffering from thyroid cancer in Yazd, Iran. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, data were collected from 80 patients with thyroid cancer registered in Shohadaye Kargar and Shahid Sadoughy hospitals in Yazd between March 2001 and March 2012. The Kaplan-Meier analysis was used for estimation of survival over time and Cox regression method was performed for calculating hazard ratios according to demographic and risk variables. Results: Survival rates at the end of 1, 3, and 5 years in thyroid cancer patients were 99%, 96%, and 91%, respectively. A statistically significant correlation was found between stage of disease, type of cancer and survival time of patients (p<0.05). The worst survival was in peoples with the anaplastic type and stage IV of thyroid carcinoma. Conclusion: The survival of patients with thyroid carcinoma was higher than some areas in Iran. Since type and stage of thyroid cancer were the important factors in survival time, screening of people for cancer diagnosis in early stages, it seems to improve survival of patients. Radioactive iodine therapy can increase the survival rate in patients suffering from thyroid malignancy. Creative Commons Attribution License

  8. Child Maltreatment among School Children in the Kurdistan Province, Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Rob; Sheikhattari, Payam; Assasi, Nazilla; Eftekhar, Hassan; Zamani, Qasem; Maleki, Bahram; Kiabayan, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the determinants of three types of child maltreatment: physical maltreatment, mental maltreatment, and child neglect among school children in the Kurdistan Province of Iran. The analysis examines the impact of socioeconomic, familial, demographic, and household dynamic factors on the three child maltreatment…

  9. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-05

    Movement links. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses Congressional Research Service 6 Student Groups Groups composed of well- educated ... educated , urban youth, intellectuals, and former regime officials. After the initial post-election daily protests, Green Movement members organized...for failing to take significant action to prevent trafficking in persons. Iranian women, boys, and girls are trafficked for sexual exploitation in

  10. Changes of extreme drought and flood events in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarres, Reza; Sarhadi, Ali; Burn, Donald H.

    2016-09-01

    Located in an arid and semi-arid region of the world, Iran has experienced many extreme flood and drought events in the last and current century. The present study aims to assess the changes in Iran's flood magnitude and drought severity for 1950-2010, with some time span variation in some stations. The Mann-Kendall test for monotonic trend was first applied to assess changes in flood and drought severity data. In addition, to consider the effect of serial correlation, two Pre-Whitening Trend (PWT) tests were also applied. It was observed that the number of stations with statistically significant trends has increased after applying PWT tests. Both increasing and decreasing trends were observed for drought severity and flood magnitude in different climate regions and major basins of Iran using these tests. The increase in flood magnitude and drought severity can be attributed partly to land use changes, an annual rainfall negative trend, a maximum rainfall increasing trend, and inappropriate water resources management policies. The paper indicates a critical situation related to extreme climate change in Iran and the increasing risk of environmental changes in the 21st century.

  11. Teaching English for Special Purposes in Iran: Problems and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayati, A. Majid

    2008-01-01

    The academic requirement for students majoring in fields other than English to pass English for Special or Specific Purposes (ESP) courses at university level has led to a rapid growth of such classes in Iran. However, despite this growth, not much literature on the practical aspects of these classes is available. The aim of the present article is…

  12. Emergence of African swine fever virus, northwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Pooneh; Sohrabi, Amir; Ashrafihelan, Javad; Edalat, Rosita; Alamdari, Mehran; Masoudi, Mohammadhossein; Mostofi, Saied; Azadmanesh, Kayhan

    2010-12-01

    In 2008, African swine fever was introduced into Georgia, after which it spread to neighboring Armenia, Azerbaijan, and the Russian Federation. That same year, PCR and sequence analysis identified African swine fever virus in samples from 3 dead female wild boars in northwestern Iran. Wild boars may serve as a reservoir.

  13. Challenges to the Future Development of Iran's Protected Areas System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolahi, Mahdi; Sakai, Tetsuro; Moriya, Kazuyuki; Makhdoum, Majid F.

    2012-10-01

    Since the 1950s, there has been a continuous increase in the number and coverage of protected areas (PAs) in Iran, and in total 253 PAs have been declared that cover 10.12 % of the country's area. This paper reviews literature addressing Iran's PAs, examines what is known about them, highlights the challenges and lessons learned, and identifies areas where more research is needed. The PA system in Iran is criticized because of (1) shortages of manpower, equipment, and financial resources; (2) de jure PAs that are often implemented as de facto reserves; (3) lack of national biodiversity indicators and objective monitoring processes; and (4) limited public participation and conflict between people over PAs. To improve, Iran's PAs system needs to be realistically supported by policies and planning instruments. In addition, the implementation of active management to restore habitat, increase education and awareness, shift practices towards the guidelines of international organizations, build capacity, and improve management and co-management by local communities needs to occur.

  14. Predicting habitat distribution of five heteropteran pest species in Iran.

    PubMed

    Solhjouy-Fard, Samaneh; Sarafrazi, Alimorad; Minbashi Moeini, Mehdi; Ahadiyat, Ali

    2013-01-01

    In agroecosystems, potential species distribution models are extensively applied in pest management strategies, revealing species ecological requirements and demonstrating relationships between species distribution and predictive variables. The Maximum Entropy model was used to predict the potential distribution of five heteropteran key pests in Iran, namely Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Miridae), Lygus pratensis (L.), Apodiphus amygdali (Germar) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), Nezara viridula (L.), and Nysius cymoides (Spinola) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). A total of 663 samples were collected from different parts of Iran. The altitude and climate variable data were included in the analysis. Based on test and training data, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values were above 0.80, the binomial omission test with the lowest presence threshold for all species was statistically significant (< 0.01), and the test omission rates were less than 3%. The suitability of areas in Iran for A. amygdale (Germar) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), N. cymoides (Spinola) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae), A. lineolatus (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Miridae), L. pratensis (L.), and N. viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), ranked as 78.86%, 68.78%, 43.29%, 20%, and 15.16%, respectively. In general, central parts of Iran including salt lakes, deserts, and sand dune areas with very high temperatures and windy weather were predicted to be less suitable, while other regions, mainly northern parts, were most suitable. These new data could be applied practically for the design of integrated pest management and crop development programs.

  15. Fatal attraction: Explaining Russia's sensitive nuclear transfers to Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchinsky, Leah R.

    This paper explores Russia's sensitive nuclear assistance to Iran in an effort to determine why a supplier state might proliferate against its own apparent security interests. The goal is to help readers understand the supply-side dynamics of nuclear proliferation. Through careful reconstruction of the historical narrative, using open source data, this study tests the plausibility of a "fatalistic calculus" explanation, identified by Stephen Sestanovich as a possible driver for Russia's behavior. According to the hypothesis, Russia has cooperated with Iran as a way both to stay in the good graces of a neighbor that is suspected of developing nuclear weapons and to win short-term influence and profits. The paper also examines the role of other factors advanced in the existing supply-side literature, such as economic motives identified by physicist and nonproliferation scholar David Albright. The findings show that bureaucratic, economic and fatalistic factors have each played a role in motivating Russia's cooperation with Iran, with their relative importance shifting over time. Fatalism begets a strategy of Russian "minimaxing," in the lexicon of Russia scholar Robert Freedman, wherein Russia attempts to minimize damage to its relationship with the U.S. while maximizing influence in Iran via nuclear cooperation. Fatalism, as actualized by minimaxing, best explains Russia's behavior after former Russian president Vladmir Putin came to power, when the bureaucratic and economic arguments become less cogent.

  16. Iran Goes Nuclear: Predictive Responses to a Wicked Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    Workers Party ( PKK ) terrorist group against Turkey, Turkey and Iran developed security cooperation in 2008 to share intelligence and coordinate...The United States‘ response in deterring Iran‘s interference in Iraq and Afghanistan responsible for deaths of United States servicemen and women

  17. Seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in southeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mahshid, Mostafavi; Baharak, Akhtardanesh; Iraj, Sharifi; Sina, Kakooei; Javad, Khedri; Mehdi, Bamorovat

    2014-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in many parts of Iran and infected dogs constitute the main domestic reservoirs that play a key role in transmission to humans. The objective of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in southeast of Iran. This survey was carried out from 2009 to 2011 in Kerman, Bam and Baft districts in Kerman province and Zabol in Sistan-Baluchestan province. Blood samples were taken from 201 dogs after complete clinical examination. Following hematological evaluation; collected sera were tested by indirect ELISA method for the presence of anti Leishmania infantum antibodies. Overall seroprevalence was 15.4 %, including 6.4, 3.5, 3 and 2.4 % in Bam, Zabol, Baft and Kerman, respectively. However, seroprevalence of disease was not significantly related to age, gender, presence of clinical signs and hematological disorders. Based to the results of the present study, CVL is endemic in southeastern Iran. Delayed diagnosis and euthanasia of potentially infectious animals may occur with an increased transmission risk to sand flies and subsequently to humans. Implementation of potent screening tests with high validity is essential for rapid detection and successful dog elimination programs in endemic parts of Iran.

  18. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-23

    called for another big protest attempt on March 16, 2010, a Zoroastrian holiday (Fire Festival) celebrated by many Iranians, despite an explicit...including Christians, Zoroastrians (an ancient religion in what is now Iran), Jewish, and Baha’i. Media Freedoms Even before the election-related unrest

  19. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    Zoroastrian holiday (Fire Festival) celebrated by many Iranians, despite an explicit statement from Khamene’i saying the festival has no basis in Islam and...about 10%. About 2% of the population is non-Muslim, including Christians, Zoroastrians (an ancient religion in what is now Iran), Jewish, and Baha’i

  20. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-20

    well as executing some oppositionists in late January. Another protest attempt was made on March 16, 2010, a Zoroastrian holiday (Fire Festival...Sunnis are about 10%. About 2% of the population is non-Muslim, including Christians, Zoroastrians (an ancient religion in what is now Iran), Jewish

  1. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-11

    Zoroastrian holiday (Fire Festival) celebrated by many Iranians. How Shaken and Divided Is the Regime? The regime, particularly the Supreme Leader...2% of the population is non-Muslim, including Christians, Zoroastrians (an ancient religion in what is now Iran), Jewish, and Baha’i. Media Even

  2. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-24

    March 16, 2010, a Zoroastrian holiday (Fire Festival) celebrated by many Iranians, despite an explicit statement from Khamene’i saying the festival...the population is non-Muslim, including Christians, Zoroastrians (an ancient religion in what is now Iran), Jewish, and Baha’i. Media Even before

  3. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-29

    executing some oppositionists in late January. Another protest attempt was made on March 16, 2010, a Zoroastrian holiday (Fire Festival) celebrated...the population is non- Muslim, including Christians, Zoroastrians (an ancient religion in what is now Iran), Jewish, and Baha’i. Media Freedoms

  4. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-22

    Another protest attempt was made on March 16, 2010, a Zoroastrian holiday (Fire Festival) celebrated by many Iranians, despite an explicit statement...including Christians, Zoroastrians (an ancient religion in what is now Iran), Jewish, and Baha’i. Media Freedoms Even before the election-related

  5. 77 FR 73516 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Iran Threat Reduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... impose sanctions with respect to transport of crude oil from Iran and evasion of sanctions by shipping... designated countries under the Trade Agreements Act is specified at section 302(f), which makes section 5(f... acquisitions subject to trade agreements. Waiver (FAR 25.703-4)--Amends the waiver requirement to...

  6. Challenges to the future development of Iran's protected areas system.

    PubMed

    Kolahi, Mahdi; Sakai, Tetsuro; Moriya, Kazuyuki; Makhdoum, Majid F

    2012-10-01

    Since the 1950s, there has been a continuous increase in the number and coverage of protected areas (PAs) in Iran, and in total 253 PAs have been declared that cover 10.12 % of the country's area. This paper reviews literature addressing Iran's PAs, examines what is known about them, highlights the challenges and lessons learned, and identifies areas where more research is needed. The PA system in Iran is criticized because of (1) shortages of manpower, equipment, and financial resources; (2) de jure PAs that are often implemented as de facto reserves; (3) lack of national biodiversity indicators and objective monitoring processes; and (4) limited public participation and conflict between people over PAs. To improve, Iran's PAs system needs to be realistically supported by policies and planning instruments. In addition, the implementation of active management to restore habitat, increase education and awareness, shift practices towards the guidelines of international organizations, build capacity, and improve management and co-management by local communities needs to occur.

  7. Content and Style of Advice in Iran and Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavakoli, Mahin

    2013-01-01

    The content and nature of nonprofessional advice in Iran, a hierarchical and collectivist culture, was compared to the same type of advice in Canada, an egalitarian and individualist culture. A researcher developed a questionnaire that consisted of 10 letters, each describing a writer's problem and asking for advice. The responses of participants…

  8. Heterogeneity of Hereditary Hearing Loss in Iran: a Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Beheshtian, Maryam; Babanejad, Mojgan; Azaiez, Hela; Bazazzadegan, Niloofar; Kolbe, Diana; Sloan-Heggen, Christina; Arzhangi, Sanaz; Booth, Kevin; Mohseni, Marzieh; Frees, Kathy; Hossein Azizi, Mohammad; Daneshi, Ahmad; Farhadi, Mohammad; Kahrizi, Kimia; Smith, Richard JH; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    A significant contribution to the causes of hereditary hearing impairment comes from genetic factors. More than 120 genes and 160 loci have been identified to be involved in hearing impairment. Given that consanguine populations are more vulnerable to most inherited diseases, such as hereditary hearing loss (HHL), the genetic picture of HHL among the Iranian population, which consists of at least eight ethnic subgroups with a high rate of intermarriage, is expected to be highly heterogeneous. Using an electronic literature review through various databases such as PubMed, MEDLINE, and Scopus, we review the current picture of HHL in Iran. In this review, we present more than 39 deafness genes reported to cause non-syndromic HHL in Iran, of which the most prevalent causative genes include GJB2, SLC26A4, MYO15A, and MYO7A. In addition, we highlight some of the more common genetic causes of syndromic HHL in Iran. These results are of importance for further investigation and elucidation of the molecular basis of HHL in Iran and also for developing a national diagnostic tool tailored to the Iranian context enabling early and efficient diagnosis of hereditary hearing impairment. PMID:27743438

  9. Content and Style of Advice in Iran and Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavakoli, Mahin

    2013-01-01

    The content and nature of nonprofessional advice in Iran, a hierarchical and collectivist culture, was compared to the same type of advice in Canada, an egalitarian and individualist culture. A researcher developed a questionnaire that consisted of 10 letters, each describing a writer's problem and asking for advice. The responses of participants…

  10. Thyroid Cancer Epidemiology in Iran: a Time Trend Study.

    PubMed

    Safavi, Ali; Azizi, Fereidoun; Jafari, Rozita; Chaibakhsh, Samira; Safavi, Amir Ali

    2016-01-01

    Considering the rising incidence of thyroid cancer worldwide, the aim of our study was to investigate the temporal trends in the incidence of this cancer in a large population of Iranian patients. We used the Iran Cancer Data System (ICDS) Registry to assess the thyroid cancer trend from 2004 to 2010 with regard to different genders, age groups, and morphologies. To do this we analyzed the data of 10,913 new cases of thyroid cancer that occurred during these years. The incidence rate (per one year) of thyroid cancer was 2.20 per 100,000 persons between 2004 and 2010 in Iran. Papillary thyroid cancer was the most common histology type, with an annual rate of 0.29 in Iran. The highest rate of prevalence in thyroid cancer was observed at the age of 45 years at the time of diagnosis. We found a female-to-male ratio of 2 in Iran. A significant decrease was detected in the trend of thyroid cancer in children <19y, which was not correlated to the trend of older patients. As expected, the trend of thyroid cancer increased over the 7 years, primarily contributed by papillary thyroid cancer. A rising pattern of incidence was seen in all the age groups except patients aged under 19 years.

  11. Iraq-Iran War (Background, Development and Regional Responses).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    mouth of the Shatt it is joined by Iran’s most important river system, the Karun . - - - 97 ITS -,ishda, 4,L J LL * 1’ - $ L, , ’ A/ , i . . L...confluence of the Shatt and Karun rivers and which also serves the Southern railhead for ,%. the Trans-Iranian railway system. Although the Shatt has an

  12. English Language Teaching Curriculum in Iran: Planning and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atai, Mahmood Reza; Mazlum, Farhad

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates English language teaching (ELT) curriculum planning in Iran's Ministry of Education and its implementation by teachers. We studied programme evaluation; needs analysis; the ELT-specific documents; communication channels between planning and practice levels; teacher evaluation and student assessment; interpretation…

  13. The Constitution Today: Lessons of the Iran-Contra Affair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobbitt, Philip

    1988-01-01

    Presents a speech which discusses private funding for government operations, secret policies, and the doctrine of plausible denial. States that the Iran-Contra affair illustrates the failure of the educational system to educate patriotic, intelligent persons in the nation's most fundamental constitutional arrangements, such as the appropriations…

  14. Smart Power: The United States, Iran, and a Nuclear Deal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    brief exile in Rome and resumed control of Iran.29 There were three major developments as a result of the coup: Iran’s growing dependence on the...government. Using Iran’s vast oil reserves, the Shah brought an ancient nation into the industrialized 20th century, creating one of the region’s most

  15. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-18

    Against: Venezuela. Abstaining: Pakistan, Algeria, Yemen, Brazil , China, Mexico, Nigeria, Russia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Tunisia, and Vietnam. 27...Congressional Research Service 32 Iran- Brazil -Turkey Uranium Exchange Deal (“Tehran Declaration”) All of Iran’s counter-proposals were deemed...market isotopes for its medical reactor. However, as international discussions of new sanctions accelerated in April 2010, Brazil and Turkey

  16. Iran: Regional Perspectives and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-13

    and its allies and proxies, namely Syria, Hamas, and Hezbollah.2 Others reject this paradigm as overly simplistic, pointing to Iran’s physical and...documentary entitled, “Execution of a Pharaoh .” The film positively portrayed Sadat’s assassin as a martyr. Although Iran attempted to distance itself

  17. Iran: Politics, Human Rights, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-25

    dual nationality. Iranian-American academic Haleh Esfandiari was imprisoned for several months in 2007 for allegations that her employer, the Woodrow ... Wilson Center, was involved in democracy promotion efforts in Iran. Iranian-American journalist Roxanna Saberi was imprisoned for five months in 2009

  18. Assurance through Performance: The Iran-Contra Hearings as Celebration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Richard A.

    Drawing on Michael Halloran's genre of public proceedings, the Iran-contra hearings can be viewed from a celebratory or epideictic perspective, with several conceptualizations of the genre combined to illuminate the functions of the hearings. The primary function of the hearings, at least from an epideictic viewpoint, was the reassurance of the…

  19. Unusual Locations of the Hydatid Cyst: A Review from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Geramizadeh, Bita

    2013-01-01

    Hydatid disease is caused by Echinococcus granulosus and is endemic in many parts of the world, including Iran. This parasitic tapeworm can produce cysts in almost every organ of the body, with the liver and lung being the most frequently targeted organs. However, the cyst tends to appear in different and sometimes unusual body sites in various geographical areas of the world. This review provides information on the reported cases of the unusual body sites of the hydatid cyst from Iran in the last 20 years. A literature search was performed through PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, IranMedex, Society Information Display (SID), Magiran, and Irandoc using the keywords of “hydatid cyst and Iran” and “Echinococcus granulosus and Iran”, and 463 published cases of the hydatid cyst in unusual body sites from Iran were reviewed, evaluated, and discussed. The most common locations were the central nervous system (brain, spinal cord, and orbit), musculoskeletal system, heart, and kidney, while some less common locations were the spleen, pancreas, appendix, thyroid, salivary gland, adrenal gland, breast, and ovary. PMID:23645952

  20. A US Strategy for Iran (Walker Paper, Number 11)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    and Staff College, Maxwell AFB, Alabama, and holds a master’s degree in public administration from Troy University. He is married to the former...doc/UNDOC/GEN/N06/681/42/PDF/N0668142.pdf ?Open Element. 19. Helene Cooper, “Diplomats to Begin Drafting New U.N. Sanctions on Iran,” New York Times

  1. Feasibility of Functional Approach to EFL Teaching in Iran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashemi, Mohammad Reza

    In Iran, English second language (ESL) instruction is increasing rapidly. Generally, the instruction is structural and the focus is on grammatical features. Structural and grammar-translation methods of teaching are most common, and change is resisted. Against this background, however, some college instructors of the new generation have begun to…

  2. Health Care Financing In Iran; Is Privatization A Good Solution?

    PubMed Central

    Davari, M; Haycox, A; Walley, T

    2012-01-01

    Background: This paper considers a range of issues related to the financing of health care system and relevant government policies in Iran. Methods: This study used mixed methods. A systematic literature review was undertaken to identify relevant publications. This was supplemented by hand searching in books and journals, including government publications. The issues and uncertainties identified in the literature were explored in detail through semi-structured interviews with key informants. These were triangulated with empirical evidence in the form of the literature, government statistics and independent expert opinions to validate the views expressed in the interviews. Results: The systematic review of published literature showed that no previous publication has addressed issues relating to the financing of healthcare services in Iran. However, a range of opinion pieces outlined issues to be explored further in the interviews. Such issues summarised into four main categories. Conclusion: The health care market in Iran has faced a period in which financial issues have enhanced managerial complexity. Privatization of health care services would appear to be a step too far in assisting the system to confront its challenges at the current time. The most important step toward solving such challenges is to focus on a feasible, relevant and comprehensive policy, which optimises the use of health care resources in Iran. PMID:23113205

  3. The Characteristics of Romanticism in the Children's Poem in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armaghan, Ali; Shajari, Reza; Jalali, Maryam; Fouladi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Romanticism is one of the important contemporary literal schools and has absorbed many poets and authors all across the world. Persian literature specifically the adolescents and children poem in Iran has been affected. Many Iranian poets have been among the pioneers of romanticism in the adolescents and children poem. The poems of these poets…

  4. Transfusion-Transmitted Malaria in Iran: A Narrative Review Article

    PubMed Central

    MARDANI, Ahmad; KESHAVARZ, Hossein; POURFATHOLLAH, Ali Akbar; MAGHSUDLU, Mahtab

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malaria is the most important transfusion-transmitted infection (TTI) in worldwide after viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The main objective of the present study was to review and evaluate the transmission of malaria via blood transfusion in Iran. Methods: A literature search was done without time limitation in the electronic databases as follows: PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Science Direct, scientific information database (SID), Magiran, IranMedex and Irandoc. The searches were limited to the published papers to English and Persian languages. Results: Six papers were eligible. From 1963 to 1983, 344 cases of Transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM) had been reported from different provinces of Iran. The most prevalent species of involved Plasmodium in investigated cases of TTM was Plasmodium malariae (79.24%). The screening results of 1,135 blood donors for malaria were negative by microscopic examination of peripheral blood smears and rapid diagnostic test (RDT) methods. Conclusion: Lack of TTM report from Iran in the last three decades indicates that the screening of blood donors through interviewing (donor selection) may be effective in the prevention of the occurrence of transfusion-transmitted malaria. PMID:28096847

  5. Life Expectancy and its Socioeconomic Determinants in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Delavari, Somayeh; Zandian, Hamed; Rezaei, Satar; Moradinazar, Mehdi; Delavari, Sajad; Saber, Ali; Fallah, Razieh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Life expectancy at birth (LEB) is closely associated with the degree of economic and social development in developed and developing countries. This study aimed to examine the socioeconomic factors affecting LEB in Iran from 1985 to 2013. Methods Time series analysis was used to examine the effects of key explanatory factors (GDP per capita, number of doctors per 10,000 population, degree of urbanization, food availability, CO2 emission, total fertility rate, inflation rate, and literacy rate) on LEB in Iran from 1985 to 2013. Study data were retrieved from the Central Bank of Iran (CBI), Iranian Statistical Center (ISC), and World Bank. Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) and Banergy, Dolado, and Master (BDM) tests, Engle Granger approach, and an ordinary least-square (OLS) model were used to achieve the aim of the study. Data analysis was performed by Stata V.12 software. Results Our findings indicated that GDP per capita (p=0.003), number of doctors per 10,000 population (p=0.036), literacy rate (p=0.0001), and food availability (p=0.0001) have a positive and significant statistically effect on LEB. The relationship between total fertility rate and LEB was negative and significant (p=0.023). In addition, the effect of degree urbanization (p=0.811), CO2 emission (p=0.185), and inflation rate (p=0.579) on LEB were not significant. Conclusion GDP per capita, number of doctors per 10,000 population, food availability, literacy rate, and total fertility were identified as the main factors affecting life expectancy in Iran. The study, however, suggests that life expectancy in Iran could be improved if attention is given to factors that reside outside of the health sector. PMID:27957304

  6. Recent trends in the nonfuel minerals industry of Iran

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hastorun, Sinan; Renaud, Karine M.; Lederer, Graham W.

    2016-07-11

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated that Iran held globally significant reserves of feldspar (2d largest in the world), barite (5th largest), gypsum (5th largest), fluorspar (8th largest), and iron ore (10th largest). The Government of Iran claimed to also have significant reserves of chromium, copper, gold, manganese, phosphate rock, and zinc. In 2014, Iran was the second-leading producer of gypsum and the sixth-leading producer of barite, with 6.1 percent and 3.6 percent of world output, respectively. Iran was also the world’s 7th-leading producer of cement, feldspar, and fluorspar; 8th-leading producer of bentonite; 9th-leading producer of molybdenum; 11th-leading producer of iron ore; and 14th-leading producer of crude steel. The Government of Iran plans to quadruple the output of aluminum, copper cathode, direct-reduced iron, and iron ore pellets; triple that of crude steel and gold; and double that of cement, pig iron, and zinc by 2025. It also plans to double the contribution of mining and to quadruple that of mineral processing to the national economy in the next decade. In order to achieve these major goals, the construction and expansion of several mines and mineral facilities are planned or under development. Whether Iran’s annual mineral production increases as rapidly as envisioned by the Government will depend largely on the amount of foreign investment into the minerals industry; integration of modern technology into mineral facilities; and availability of energy to aluminum, copper, and steel plants at competitive prices to international investors.

  7. School fire in Iran: simple actions save lives

    PubMed Central

    Ostad Taghizadeh, A.; Mowafi, H.; Ardalan, A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary On December 5, 2012 a fire broke out in a primary school in Iran, causing injuries to 26 children and two deaths. The fire came from an oil stove. Rather than evacuate the classroom and use the fire extinguisher, the teacher attempted to remove the stove itself from the classroom. During this process an explosion occurred resulting in a haphazard attempt at evacuation. This tragedy highlights gaps in both the policy and practice of fire safety. From 2005 to 2012, Iran experienced six large school fires that led to 67 injuries and five deaths. Five events were related to oil stoves. About 30% of Iran’s classrooms use oil stoves for heating during the winter with 3.4 million students and 150,000 teachers at risk. Iran’s Ministry of Education has mandated that regular training of school personnel in fire safety measures should be organized but no safety officer is tasked to prepare and conduct this training. Instead, the task is delegated to the Fire Departments, which fall under municipal administrations; however, such departments do not exist in 93% of the rural areas of Iran. School fires are not unique to Iran. Similar tragic events have occurred in several middle-income countries (India, Kenya, Russia) over the last decade. This article presents an overview of school fires in Iran and proposes preventive strategies through a reform in policy making and practice, including education of students and school personnel along with regular drills, designation of a fire safety officer, and development of a countrywide school fire registry. PMID:23966899

  8. Induced abortion rate in Iran: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Motaghi, Zahra; Poorolajal, Jalal; Keramat, Afsaneh; Shariati, Mohammad; Yunesian, Masud; Masoumi, Seyyedeh Zahra

    2013-10-01

    About 44 million induced abortions take place worldwide annually, of which 50% are unsafe. The results of studies investigated the induced abortion rate in Iran are inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis was to estimate the incidence rate of induced abortion in Iran. National and international electronic databases, as well as conference databases until July 2012 were searched. Reference lists of articles were screened and the studies' authors were contacted for additional unpublished studies. Cross-sectional studies addressing induced abortion in Iran were included in this meta-analysis. The primary outcome of interest was the induced abortion rate (the number of abortions per 1000 women aged 15-44 years in a year) or the ratio (the number of abortions per 100 live births in a year). The secondary outcome of interest was the prevalence of unintended pregnancies (the number of mistimed, unplanned, or unwanted pregnancies per total pregnancies). Data were analyzed using random effect models. Of 603 retrieved studies, using search strategy, 10 studies involving 102,394 participants were eventually included in the meta-analysis. The induced abortion rate and ratio were estimated as 8.9 per 1000 women aged 15-44 years (95% CI: 5.46, 12.33) and 5.34 per 100 live births (95% CI: 3.61, 7.07), respectively. The prevalence of unintended pregnancy was estimated as 27.94 per 100 pregnant women (95% CI: 23.46, 32.42). The results of this meta-analysis helped a better understanding of the incidence of induced abortion in Iran compared to the other developing countries in Asia. However, additional sources of data on abortion other than medical records and survey studies are needed to estimate the true rate of unsafe abortion in Iran.

  9. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Majidi, Azam; Ghiasvand, Reza; Hadji, Maryam; Nahvijou, Azin; Mousavi, Azam-Sadat; Pakgohar, Minoo; Khodakarami, Nahid; Abedini, Mehrandokht; Amouzegar Hashemi, Farnaz; Rahnamaye Farzami, Marjan; Shahsiah, Reza; Sajedinejhad, Sima; Mohagheghi, Mohammad Ali; Nadali, Fatemeh; Rashidian, Arash; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Mogensen, Ole; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV) have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Because of cultural and religious considerations, ICC has low incidence in Iran and many other Muslim countries. There is no organized cervical screening in these countries. Therefore, ICC is usually diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis in these countries. We performed a priority setting exercise and suggested priorities for prevention of ICC in this setting. Methods: We invited experts and researchers to a workshop and asked them to list important suggestions for ICC prevention in Iran. After merging similar items and removing the duplicates, we asked the experts to rank the list of suggested items. We used a strategy grid and Go-zone analysis to determine final list of priorities for ICC prevention in Iran. Results: From 26 final items suggested as priorities for prevention of ICC, the most important priorities were developing national guidelines for cervical screening and quality control protocol for patient follow-up and management of precancerous lesions. In addition, we emphasized considering insurance coverage for cervical screening, public awareness, and research priorities, and establishment of a cervical screening registry. Conclusion: A comprehensive approach and implementation of organized cervical screening program is necessary for prevention of ICC in Iran and other low incidence Muslim countries. Because of high cost for vaccination and low incidence of cervical cancer, we do not recommend HPV vaccination for the time being in Iran. PMID:27239863

  10. The monetary burden of cystic echinococcosis in Iran.

    PubMed

    Fasihi Harandi, Majid; Budke, Christine M; Rostami, Sima

    2012-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a globally distributed parasitic infection of humans and livestock. The disease is of significant medical and economic importance in many developing countries, including Iran. However, the socioeconomic impact of the disease, in most endemic countries, is not fully understood. The purpose of the present study was to determine the monetary burden of CE in Iran. Epidemiological data, including prevalence and incidence of CE in humans and animals, were obtained from regional hospitals, the scientific literature, and official government reports. Economic data relating to human and animal disease, including cost of treatment, productivity losses, and livestock production losses were obtained from official national and international datasets. Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to represent uncertainty in input parameters. Mean number of surgical CE cases per year for 2000-2009 was estimated at 1,295. The number of asymptomatic individuals living in the country was estimated at 635,232 (95% Credible Interval, CI 149,466-1,120,998). The overall annual cost of CE in Iran was estimated at US$232.3 million (95% CI US$103.1-397.8 million), including both direct and indirect costs. The cost associated with human CE was estimated at US$93.39 million (95% CI US$6.1-222.7 million) and the annual cost associated with CE in livestock was estimated at US$132 million (95% CI US$61.8-246.5 million). The cost per surgical human case was estimated at US$1,539. CE has a considerable economic impact on Iran, with the cost of the disease approximated at 0.03% of the country's gross domestic product. Establishment of a CE surveillance system and implementation of a control program are necessary to reduce the economic burden of CE on the country. Cost-benefit analysis of different control programs is recommended, incorporating present knowledge of the economic losses due to CE in Iran.

  11. Satisfying patients’ rights in Iran: Providing effective strategies

    PubMed Central

    Anbari, Zohreh; Mohammadi, Mehri; Taheri, Magid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Assessment of patients’ views about the observance of their rights and obtaining feedback from them is an integral component of service quality and ensures healthcare ethics. The aim of this study was to assess patients’ awareness of their rights and their satisfaction with observance of their rights, and provide effective strategies to improve the management of patients’ rights in hospitals of Markazi Province, Iran in 2012. Materials and Methods: This analytical study was conducted on 384 patients at 10 hospitals. Patients’ awareness of the relevant hospital legislation was assessed by a structured interview, and then patients’ satisfaction with observance of their rights was measured by a standardized questionnaire consisting of 10 principles approved by the Iran Ministry of Health of Iran in 2012. In this study, through Delphi technique, effective strategies have been provided to improve the management of patients’ rights in the hospitals of Iran. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), t-test, and Z test were applied for data analysis. Results: Overall, 89% of the patients were unaware of the relevant hospital legislation and 28% of them were not satisfied with the observance of their rights (1.4 ± 0.6). A significant difference was observed between observance of patients’ rights according to hospitals, language, and place of residence of the patients (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference with respect to patients’ rights according to sex, education, job, and duration of hospital stay (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The Patient Bill of Rights of Iran needs further revision and modification. Moreover, extensive education of patients and healthcare processionals as the most structural strategies to promote professional ethics, reduce ethical conflict, and increase implementation of the law to respect patients’ rights should be taken into deeper consideration. PMID:25878693

  12. Satisfying patients' rights in Iran: Providing effective strategies.

    PubMed

    Anbari, Zohreh; Mohammadi, Mehri; Taheri, Magid

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of patients' views about the observance of their rights and obtaining feedback from them is an integral component of service quality and ensures healthcare ethics. The aim of this study was to assess patients' awareness of their rights and their satisfaction with observance of their rights, and provide effective strategies to improve the management of patients' rights in hospitals of Markazi Province, Iran in 2012. This analytical study was conducted on 384 patients at 10 hospitals. Patients' awareness of the relevant hospital legislation was assessed by a structured interview, and then patients' satisfaction with observance of their rights was measured by a standardized questionnaire consisting of 10 principles approved by the Iran Ministry of Health of Iran in 2012. In this study, through Delphi technique, effective strategies have been provided to improve the management of patients' rights in the hospitals of Iran. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), t-test, and Z test were applied for data analysis. Overall, 89% of the patients were unaware of the relevant hospital legislation and 28% of them were not satisfied with the observance of their rights (1.4 ± 0.6). A significant difference was observed between observance of patients' rights according to hospitals, language, and place of residence of the patients (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference with respect to patients' rights according to sex, education, job, and duration of hospital stay (P > 0.05). The Patient Bill of Rights of Iran needs further revision and modification. Moreover, extensive education of patients and healthcare processionals as the most structural strategies to promote professional ethics, reduce ethical conflict, and increase implementation of the law to respect patients' rights should be taken into deeper consideration.

  13. Genetic Diversity of Echinococcus granulosus in Center of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Pestechian, Nader; Tajedini, Mohammadhasan; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Mousavi, Mohammad; Yousofi, Hosseinali; Haghjooy Javanmard, Shaghayegh

    2014-01-01

    Hydatid cyst caused by Echinococcus granulosus is one of the most important parasitic diseases around the world and many countries in Asia, including Iran, are involved with this infection. This disease can cause high mortality in humans as well as economic losses in livestock. To date, several molecular methods have been used to determine the genetic diversity of E. granulosus. So far, identification of E. granulosus using real-time PCR fluorescence-based quantitative assays has not been studied worldwide, also in Iran. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of E. granulosus from center of Iran using real-time PCR method. A total of 71 hydatid cysts were collected from infected sheep, goat, and cattle slaughtered in Isfahan, Iran during 2013. DNA was extracted from protoscolices and/or germinal layers from each individual cyst and used as template to amplify the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) (420 bp). Five cattle isolates out of 71 isolates were sterile and excluded from further investigation. Overall, of 66 isolates, partial sequences of the cox1 gene of E. granulosus indicated the presence of genotypes G1 in 49 isolates (74.2%), G3 in 15 isolates (22.7%), and G6 in 2 isolates (3.0%) in infected intermediate hosts. Sixteen sequences of G1 genotype had microgenetic variants, and they were compared to the original sequence of cox1. However, isolates identified as G3 and G6 genotypes were completely consistent with original sequences. G1 genotype in livestock was the dominant genotype in Isfahan region, Iran. PMID:25246720

  14. Acute flaccid paralysis surveillance: A 6 years study, Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Naeini, Alireza Emami; Ghazavi, Mohamadreza; Moghim, Sharareh; Sabaghi, Amirhosein; Fadaei, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Poliomyelitis is still an endemic disease in many areas of the world including Africa and South Asia. Iran is polio free since 2001. However, due to endemicity of polio in neighboring countries of Iran, the risk of polio importation and re-emergence of wild polio virus is high. Case definition through surveillance system is a well-defined method for maintenance of polio eradication in polio free countries. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey from 2007 to 2013, we reviewed all the records of under 15 years old patients reported to Acute Flaccid Paralysis Committee (AFPC) in Isfahan province, Iran. All cases were visited by members of the AFPC. Three stool samples were collected from each reported case within 2 weeks of onset of paralysis and sent to National Polio Laboratory in Tehran, Iran, for poliovirus isolation. Data were analyzed by SSPS software (version 22). Student's t-test and Chi-square was used to compare variables. Statistical significance level was set at P < 0.05. Results: In this 6-year period 85 cases were analyzed, 54 patients were male (63.5%) and 31 were female (36.5%). The mean age of patients was 5.7 ± 3.9 years. The most common cause of paralysis among these patients was Guillian–Barré syndrome (83.5%). We did not found any poliomyelitis caused by wild polio virus. Only one case of vaccine associated poliomyelitis was reported. Conclusion: Since 1992, Iran has a routine and high percent coverage of polio vaccination program for infants (>94%), with six doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV). Accurate surveillance for poliomyelitis is essential for continuing eradication. PMID:26015925

  15. Life Expectancy and its Socioeconomic Determinants in Iran.

    PubMed

    Delavari, Somayeh; Zandian, Hamed; Rezaei, Satar; Moradinazar, Mehdi; Delavari, Sajad; Saber, Ali; Fallah, Razieh

    2016-10-01

    Life expectancy at birth (LEB) is closely associated with the degree of economic and social development in developed and developing countries. This study aimed to examine the socioeconomic factors affecting LEB in Iran from 1985 to 2013. Time series analysis was used to examine the effects of key explanatory factors (GDP per capita, number of doctors per 10,000 population, degree of urbanization, food availability, CO2 emission, total fertility rate, inflation rate, and literacy rate) on LEB in Iran from 1985 to 2013. Study data were retrieved from the Central Bank of Iran (CBI), Iranian Statistical Center (ISC), and World Bank. Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) and Banergy, Dolado, and Master (BDM) tests, Engle Granger approach, and an ordinary least-square (OLS) model were used to achieve the aim of the study. Data analysis was performed by Stata V.12 software. Our findings indicated that GDP per capita (p=0.003), number of doctors per 10,000 population (p=0.036), literacy rate (p=0.0001), and food availability (p=0.0001) have a positive and significant statistically effect on LEB. The relationship between total fertility rate and LEB was negative and significant (p=0.023). In addition, the effect of degree urbanization (p=0.811), CO2 emission (p=0.185), and inflation rate (p=0.579) on LEB were not significant. GDP per capita, number of doctors per 10,000 population, food availability, literacy rate, and total fertility were identified as the main factors affecting life expectancy in Iran. The study, however, suggests that life expectancy in Iran could be improved if attention is given to factors that reside outside of the health sector.

  16. Occupational Health Services Integrated in Primary Health Care in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rafiei, Masoud; Ezzatian, Reza; Farshad, Asghar; Sokooti, Maryam; Tabibi, Ramin; Colosio, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    A healthy workforce is vital for maintaining social and economic development on a global, national and local level. Around half of the world's people are economically active and spend at least one third of their time in their place of work while only 15% of workers have access to basic occupational health services. According to WHO report, since the early 1980s, health indicators in Iran have consistently improved, to the extent that it is comparable with those in developed countries. In this paper it was tried to briefly describe about Health care system and occupational Health Services as part of Primary Health care in Iran. To describe the health care system in the country and the status of occupational health services to the workers and employers, its integration into Primary Health Care (PHC) and outlining the challenges in provision of occupational health services to the all working population. Iran has fairly good health indicators. More than 85 percent of the population in rural and deprived regions, for instance, have access to primary healthcare services. The PHC centers provide essential healthcare and public-health services for the community. Providing, maintaining and improving of the workers' health are the main goals of occupational health services in Iran that are presented by different approaches and mostly through Workers' Houses in the PHC system. Iran has developed an extensive network of PHC facilities with good coverage in most rural areas, but there are still few remote areas that might suffer from inadequate services. It seems that there is still no transparent policy to collaborate with the private sector, train managers or provide a sustainable mechanism for improving the quality of services. Finally, strengthening national policies for health at work, promotion of healthy work and work environment, sharing healthy work practices, developing updated training curricula to improve human resource knowledge including occupational health

  17. Pasteur Institute of Iran--an evaluation model.

    PubMed

    Dejman, Masoumeh; Habibi, Elham; Baradarn Eftekhari, Monir; Falahat, Katayoun; Malekafzali, Hossein

    2014-07-01

    Pasteur Institute of Iran was established in 1919 with the aim to produce vaccines and prevent communicable diseases in Iran. Over time, their activities extended into areas of research, education and services. Naturally, such a vast development begs establishment of a comprehensive management and monitoring system. With this outlook, the present study was carried out with the aim to design a performance assessment model for Pasteur Institute of Iran that, in addition to determining evaluation indicators, it could prepare the necessary grounds for providing a unified assessment model for the global network of the Pasteur Institutes. This study was designed and performed in 4 stages: first; design of indicators and determining their scores. Second; editing indicators according to the outcome of discussions and debates held with members of Research Council of Pasteur Institute of Iran. Third; implementation of a pilot model based on the Institute's activities in 2011. Fourth; providing the pilot model feedback to the stakeholders and finalizing the model according to an opinion survey. Based on the results obtained, the developed indicators for Pasteur Institute of Iran evaluation were designed in 10 axes and 18 sub-axes, which included 101 major and 58 minor indicators. The axes included governance and leadership, resources and facilities, capacity building, knowledge production and collaborations, reference services, economic value of products and services, participation in industrial exhibitions, status of the institute, satisfaction and institute's role in health promotion. The indicators presented in this article have been prepared based on the balance in the Institute's four missions, to provide the basis for assessment of the Institute's activities in consecutive years, and possibility of comparison with other institutes worldwide.

  18. Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in childbearing women of Northwest Iran.

    PubMed

    Rajaii, Mehrangiz; Pourhassan, Aboulfazl; Asle-Rahnamaie-Akbari, Najibeh; Aghebati, Leili; Xie, Juliana Ling; Goldust, Mohammad; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad

    2013-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes the most common parasitic infection in the world. Congenital transmission, prenatal mortality and abortion are major problems of T. gondii. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis is high in Iran, especially in Azerbaijan. The current literature reviewed in this paper reveal results pertaining to various regions of Iran. The present cross-sectional e-study was designed to evaluate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in childbearing women in Northwest Iran. We evaluated 1659 women in childbearing age from several cities in Northwestern Iran (Tabriz, Maragheh, Ahar, Marand, Sarab, Miane) from July 2009 to August 2010. Women aged between 20 and 40 years and seeking prenatal care were enrolled in the study. The subjects' sera were probed with indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA). A total of 1659 subjects were examined. Titres ranged from 1:100 to 1:800. In all, 899 subjects (54.13%) were seropositive. The highest frequency of seropositivity was shown in 1:200 dilution (36.08%) and in subjects from Maragheh (84% of 211 subjects). There was a direct linear relationship between seropositivity and age (p 0.001). Also, seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was higher in subjects with primary school/lower educational level (p 0.001) and subjects living in rural regions (p 0.001). Overall, more than 50% of women in childbearing age were seropositive for toxoplasmosis in northwestern Iran. Increasing seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis with age was a predictable result due to longer exposure to the parasite. The relationship between increasing seroprevalence and lower educational level as well as living in rural areas is in line with the latest epidemiological findings, which also show such relationships due to lower socioeconomic status.

  19. Policy Analysis of Road Traffic Injury Prevention in Iran.

    PubMed

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Shabaninejad, Hosein; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2017-01-01

    Due to the large number of Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) in Iran, authorities have implemented a number of policies for the prevention of RTIs. However, a scientific analysis of these policies has thus far been neglected. Therefore, this study was conducted for policy analysis of RTIs prevention in Iran. This qualitative study with a case study approach was conducted in Iran during 2016 in two phases: First, by reviewing literature and documents of the past ten years, policies that have been executed to prevent RTIs in Iran were identified. In the second phase of the study, the identified policies were ranked by prioritization matrices. The two policies with the highest scores were selected. 'Policy triangle framework' was used for Policy analyzing. Stakeholders of these policies (42 people) were interviewed. Data were analyzed manually by implementing Content-Analysis methods. The policies of "pupil liaisons" and "safety belt" were selected for analysis from thirteen potential identified polices. The results of some studies revealed that safety belts had not been properly used in Iran (less than 80%). There was an eight-year hiatus between the approval of the safety belts policy and implementation of this policy. Eight actors were identified for safety belts policy. Lack of diligence in implementation of the policy, failing to pay adequate attention to education and the culture of driving, and failing to select an organization for the implementation of the policy, were identified as the main weaknesses of this policy. For 'pupil liaisons' policy, five actors were identified. Following the implementation of this policy, the number of penalties was reduced (17.9%). Neglecting scientific findings and individual-based nature of the policy were identified as the primary weaknesses of this policy. Taking serious measures to properly execute the policy, educating people, selecting an efficient organization that is responsible for the implementation of the policies, and

  20. Drought Prediction in Iran during Next 30 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazanedari, L.; Zabol Abbasi, F.; Ghandhari, Sh.; Kouhi, M.; Malbousi, Sh.

    2009-09-01

    The effects of climate changes, especially due to increasing of greenhouse gasses, caused a lot of problems that affect different sections of society. One of the most important of these effects is the increasing of natural disasters such as flood, drought, tropical cyclones, raising sea level, dust storm, etc. Drought and flood are the most prevalent of these disasters in Iran. Because of the geographical location of Iran and the synoptic systems that affect this region, it is clear that dry is one of the characteristics of this region, and drought is one of the most important of natural disaster that affect this country. Drought affects the different sectors of society such as water resources, agriculture, industry, economy, health, etc therefore drought monitoring is necessary for planning in future. For this purpose, the climate data should be simulated for future period by using outputs of Atmospheric-Ocean General Circulation Model. In this paper precipitation data during 2010-2039 is simulated by downscaling via LARS-WG model. Then, drought situation is estimated according to DI and SPI, by using these data in Iran. The results of this study have showed that during next 30 years, drought conditions will be increase in Iran, and it confirms climate change event in this region. In addition, the most parts of Iran will experience severe and extreme drought in 2011, 2025, 2032, 2034, 2035, 2039, and among these years 2039 will have more critical drought situation. Keywords: Atmospheric General Circulation Models, Downscaling, LARS-WG, Drought, Decile Index, Standard Precipitation Index.