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Sample records for iranian preeclamptic patients

  1. Estrogen Receptor Alpha (ESR1) Gene Polymorphisms in Pre-eclamptic Saudi Patients

    PubMed Central

    El-Beshbishy, Hesham A.; Tawfeek, Manal A.; Al-Azhary, Nevin M.; Mariah, Reham A.; Habib, Fawzia A.; Aljayar, Lamya; Alahmadi, Abrar F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Pre-eclampsia causes maternal mortality worldwide. Estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene polymorphisms were responsible for cardiovascular diseases. This case control study was conducted to investigate whether 2 polymorphic genes of ESR1 are associated with pre-eclampsia among Saudi women in Madina city, Saudi Arabia. Methods: Blood samples from 97 pre-eclamptic and 94 healthy pregnant women were analyzed using restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction method. All the subjects were recruited randomly from outpatient clinics of Madina Maternity Children Hospital (MMCH), Madina, Saudi Arabia, between Dec. 2012 and Jan. 2014. Results: There was no association between pre-eclampsia and PvuII and XbaI ESR1 gene polymorphisms individually. TT/AA and TT/AG genotype combination existed significantly in pre-eclamptic patients compared to control. The frequency of PvuII and XbaI combined TT/AA genotypes between pre-eclamptic women was 36.1% vs 9.6%, however, frequency of PvuII and XbaI combined TT/AG genotypes between pre-eclamptic women was 3.1% vs 17%, compared to control. The homozygous T-A haplotype carriers showed high pre-eclampsia risk, independent of pregnancy, BMI and smoking status (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 3.26, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.71-9.21). The heterozygous T-A haplotype carriers did not differ from that of non-carriers (adjusted OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 0.47-2.75). No association was observed between pre-eclampsia and T-G, C-G and C-A haplotype of PvuII and XbaIESR1 gene polymorphisms. Conclusions: T-A haplotype of homozygous associated with pre eclampsia not heterozygous carriers of ESR 1 PvuII and XbaI gene polymorphisms elicited high risk of pre-eclampsia. GG genotype of XbaI polymorphism decreased pre-eclampsia risk. Further studies using larger sample size are recommended to investigate the ESR 1 gene polymorphisms associated with pre-eclampsia. PMID:26430422

  2. Late onset postpartum eclampsia without pre-eclamptic prodromi: clinical and neuroradiological presentation in two patients

    PubMed Central

    Veltkamp, R; Kupsch, A; Polasek, J; Yousry, T; Pfister, H

    2000-01-01

    In two patients eclampsia started 9 days postpartum. Headache and visual disturbances preceded seizures but none of the classic pre-eclamptic signs oedema, proteinuria, and hypertension were present until shortly before seizure onset. Brain herniation (patient 1) and status epilepticus (patient 2) necessitated neurointensive care management. Brain MRI initially showed only frontal sulcal effacement in one patient but later showed white matter hyperintensities on T2 weighted images and a previously undescribed pattern of cortical-subcortical postgadolinium enhancement on T1 weighted images in both. Neurological deficits and MRI findings were reversed with therapy in both patients. It is concluded that late postpartum eclampsia can manifest without classic prodromi and that characteristic MRI findings may lag behind clinical manifestation.

 PMID:11080241

  3. Inhibitory Effect of the Punica granatum Fruit Extract on Angiotensin-II Type I Receptor and Thromboxane B2 in Endothelial Cells Induced by Plasma from Preeclamptic Patients.

    PubMed

    Kusumawati, Widya; Keman, Kusnarman; Soeharto, Setyawati

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate whether the Punica granatum fruit extract modulates the Angiotensin-II Type I receptor (AT1-R) and thromboxane B2 level in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. At confluence, endothelial cells were divided into five groups, which included endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from normal pregnancy (NP), endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from preeclamptic patients (PP), and endothelial cells exposed to PP in the presence of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum (PP + PG) at the following three doses: 14; 28; and 56 ppm. The expression of AT1-R was observed by immunohistochemistry technique, and thromboxane B2 level was done by immunoassay technique. Plasma from PP significantly increased AT1-R expression and thromboxane B2 levels compared to cells treated by normal pregnancy plasma. The increasing of AT1-R expression significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by high dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. Moreover, the increasing of thromboxane B2 levels significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by lowest dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. We further concluded that Punica granatum fruit protects and inhibits the sensitivity of endothelial cells to plasma from preeclamptic patients due to inhibition of AT1-R expression (56 ppm) and reduced thromboxane B2 levels (14 ppm).

  4. Inhibitory Effect of the Punica granatum Fruit Extract on Angiotensin-II Type I Receptor and Thromboxane B2 in Endothelial Cells Induced by Plasma from Preeclamptic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kusumawati, Widya; Keman, Kusnarman; Soeharto, Setyawati

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate whether the Punica granatum fruit extract modulates the Angiotensin-II Type I receptor (AT1-R) and thromboxane B2 level in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. At confluence, endothelial cells were divided into five groups, which included endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from normal pregnancy (NP), endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from preeclamptic patients (PP), and endothelial cells exposed to PP in the presence of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum (PP + PG) at the following three doses: 14; 28; and 56 ppm. The expression of AT1-R was observed by immunohistochemistry technique, and thromboxane B2 level was done by immunoassay technique. Plasma from PP significantly increased AT1-R expression and thromboxane B2 levels compared to cells treated by normal pregnancy plasma. The increasing of AT1-R expression significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by high dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. Moreover, the increasing of thromboxane B2 levels significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by lowest dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. We further concluded that Punica granatum fruit protects and inhibits the sensitivity of endothelial cells to plasma from preeclamptic patients due to inhibition of AT1-R expression (56 ppm) and reduced thromboxane B2 levels (14 ppm). PMID:26989513

  5. Theobroma cacao increases cells viability and reduces IL-6 and sVCAM-1 level in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients.

    PubMed

    Rahayu, Budi; Baktiyani, Siti Candra Windu; Nurdiana, Nurdiana

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether an ethanolic extract of Theobroma cacao bean is able to increase cell viability and decrease IL-6 and sVCAM-1 in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. At confluency, endothelial cells were divided into six groups, which included control (untreated), endothelial cells exposed to plasma from normal pregnancy, endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from preeclamptic patients (PP), endothelial cells exposed to PP in the presence of ethanolic extract of T. cacao (PP+TC) at the following three doses: 25, 50, and 100 ppm. The analysis was performed in silico using the Hex 8.0, LigPlus and LigandScout 3.1 software. Analysis on IL-6 and sVCAM-1 levels were done by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that seven of them could bind to the protein NFκB (catechin, leucoanthocyanidin, niacin, phenylethylamine, theobromine, theophylline, and thiamin). This increase in IL-6 was significantly (P<0.05) attenuated by both the 50 and 100 ppm treatments of T. cacao extract. Plasma from PP significantly increased sVCAM-1 levels compared to untreated cells. This increase in sVCAM-1 was significantly attenuated by all doses of the extract. In conclusion, T. cacao extract prohibits the increase in IL-6 and sVCAM-1 in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Therefore this may provide a herbal therapy for attenuating the endothelial dysfunction found in preeclampsia. PMID:26955771

  6. Adherence to Antihypertensive Medications in Iranian Patients.

    PubMed

    Behnood-Rod, Azin; Rabbanifar, Omid; Pourzargar, Pirouz; Rai, Alireza; Saadat, Zahra; Saadat, Habibollah; Moharamzad, Yashar; Morisky, Donald E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Appropriate adherence to medication is still a challenging issue for hypertensive patients. We determined adherence to antihypertensive(s) and its associated factors among 280 Iranian patients. Methods. They were recruited consecutively from private and university health centers and pharmacies in four cities. The validated Persian version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) was administered to measure adherence. Results. Mean (±SD) overall MMAS-8 score was 5.75 (±1.88). About half of the sample (139 cases, 49.6%) showed low adherence (MMAS-8 score < 6). There was a negative linear association between the MMAS-8 score and systolic BP (r = -0.231, P < 0.001) as well as diastolic BP (r = -0.280, P < 0.001). In linear regression model, overweight/obesity (B = -0.52, P = 0.02), previous history of admission to emergency services due to hypertensive crisis (B = -0.79, P = 0.001), and getting medication directly from drugstore without refill prescription in hand (B = -0.51, P = 0.04) were factors recognized to have statistically significant association with the MMAS-8 score. Conclusion. Antihypertensive adherence was unsatisfactory. We suggest that health care providers pay special attention and make use of the aforementioned findings in their routine visits of hypertensive patients to recognize those who are vulnerable to poor adherence. PMID:27069676

  7. Electroencephalographic characteristics of Iranian schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Chaychi, Irman; Foroughipour, Mohsen; Haghir, Hossein; Talaei, Ali; Chaichi, Ashkan

    2015-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a prevalent psychiatric disease with heterogeneous causes that is diagnosed based on history and mental status examination. Applied electrophysiology is a non-invasive method to investigate the function of the involved brain areas. In a previously understudied population, we examined acute phase electroencephalography (EEG) records along with pertinent Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores for each patient. Sixty-four hospitalized patients diagnosed to have schizophrenia in Ebn-e-Sina Hospital were included in this study. PANSS and MMSE were completed and EEG tracings for every patient were recorded. Also, EEG tracings were recorded for 64 matched individuals of the control group. Although the predominant wave pattern in both patients and controls was alpha, theta waves were almost exclusively found in eight (12.5 %) patients with schizophrenia. Pathological waves in schizophrenia patients were exclusively found in the frontal brain region, while identified pathological waves in controls were limited to the temporal region. No specific EEG finding supported laterality in schizophrenia patients. PANSS and MMSE scores were significantly correlated with specific EEG parameters (all P values <0.04). Patients with schizophrenia demonstrate specific EEG patterns and show a clear correlation between EEG parameters and PANSS and MMSE scores. These characteristics are not observed in all patients, which imply that despite an acceptable specificity, they are not applicable for the majority of schizophrenia patients. Any deduction drawn based on EEG and scoring systems is in need of larger studies incorporating more patients and using better functional imaging techniques for the brain.

  8. Electroencephalographic characteristics of Iranian schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Chaychi, Irman; Foroughipour, Mohsen; Haghir, Hossein; Talaei, Ali; Chaichi, Ashkan

    2015-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a prevalent psychiatric disease with heterogeneous causes that is diagnosed based on history and mental status examination. Applied electrophysiology is a non-invasive method to investigate the function of the involved brain areas. In a previously understudied population, we examined acute phase electroencephalography (EEG) records along with pertinent Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores for each patient. Sixty-four hospitalized patients diagnosed to have schizophrenia in Ebn-e-Sina Hospital were included in this study. PANSS and MMSE were completed and EEG tracings for every patient were recorded. Also, EEG tracings were recorded for 64 matched individuals of the control group. Although the predominant wave pattern in both patients and controls was alpha, theta waves were almost exclusively found in eight (12.5 %) patients with schizophrenia. Pathological waves in schizophrenia patients were exclusively found in the frontal brain region, while identified pathological waves in controls were limited to the temporal region. No specific EEG finding supported laterality in schizophrenia patients. PANSS and MMSE scores were significantly correlated with specific EEG parameters (all P values <0.04). Patients with schizophrenia demonstrate specific EEG patterns and show a clear correlation between EEG parameters and PANSS and MMSE scores. These characteristics are not observed in all patients, which imply that despite an acceptable specificity, they are not applicable for the majority of schizophrenia patients. Any deduction drawn based on EEG and scoring systems is in need of larger studies incorporating more patients and using better functional imaging techniques for the brain. PMID:25651947

  9. Cytogenetic Findings in Mentally Retarded Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, F; Mahjoubi, F; Manouchehry, F; Razazian, F; Mortezapour, F; Rahnama, M

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a cytogenetic study on 865 individuals with idiopathic mental retardation (MR) who were admitted to the Cytogenetics Department of the Iran Blood Transfusion Organisation (IBTO) Research Centre, Tehran, Iran; these were performed on blood samples using conventional staining methods. Chromosome anomalies were identified in 205 of the patients (23.6%). The majority were Down’s syndrome cases (n = 138). In 33 males, a positive fragile X anomaly was found. The remainder (n = 34) had other chromosomal abnormalities including structural chromosome aberrations (n = 23), marker chromosomes with an unknown origin (n = 3), sex chromosome aneuploidy (n = 6) and trisomy 18 (n = 2). The contribution of chromosome aberrations to the cause of MR in this group of patients is discussed. PMID:24052729

  10. Monocyte Subpopulations from Pre-Eclamptic Patients Are Abnormally Skewed and Exhibit Exaggerated Responses to Toll-Like Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Al-ofi, Ebtisam

    2012-01-01

    The leading cause of pregnancy-associated mortality and morbidity is pre-eclampsia (PE). Although information regarding the etiology of this disease is scant, its pathophysiology is characterized by abnormal placentation, endothelial dysfunction as well as an exaggerated inflammatory response. Clinical evidence also indicates that the abundance of many immune cells at the feto-maternal interface and in the circulation of PE patients is abnormal, when compared with normal pregnant (NP) controls. In addition, the phenotype and function of some of these cells is altered. To further characterize the systemic effects of PE on circulating cells, we analyzed monocytic subpopulations in NP and PE patients by flow cytometry. We found that non-classical CD14lowCD16+ monocytes are significantly increased in women with PE and they display irregular expression of several chemokine receptors and antigen presentation molecules. The most striking phenotypic difference among the cell surface molecules was the marked upregulation of TLR4 expression, where both CD14highCD16+ and CD14lowCD16+ monocytes demonstrated higher levels than their NP counterparts. Stimulation of PE monocytes with TLR ligands resulted in profound secretion of various cytokines in comparison with NP controls. These data suggest that PE monocytes are hyper-responsive to TLR ligands and this may contribute to exacerbation of the disease. PMID:22848746

  11. Aberrant Phenotype in Iranian Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Jahedi, Mehdi; Shamsasenjan, Karim; Sanaat, Zohreh; Aliparasti, MohammadReza; Almasi, Shohreh; Mohamadian, Mozhdeh; Nejati, Babak; Kamalifar, Amir; Movassaghpour, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of aberrant phenotypes and possible prognostic value in peripheral and bone marrow blood mononuclear cells of Iranian patients with AML. Methods: 56 cases of de novo AML (2010-2012) diagnosed by using an acute panel of monoclonal antibodies by multiparametric flowcytometry. Immunophenotyping was done on fresh bone marrow aspirate and/or peripheral blood samples using the acute panel of MoAbs is stained with Phycoerythrin (PE) /fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), Allophycocyanin (APC) and Peridinin-chlorophyll protein complex (perCP). We investigated Co-expression of lymphoid-associated markers CD2, CD3, CD7, CD 10, CD19, CD20 and CD22 in myeloblasts. Results: Out of the 56 cases, 32 (57.1%) showed AP. CD7 was positive in 72.7% of cases in M1 and 28.5% in M2 but M3 and M4 cases lacked this marker. We detected CD2 in 58.35 of M1cases, 21.40% of M2 cases, 33.3 of M3 and 20% of M5; but M4 patients lacked this marker. The CBC analysis demonstrated a wide range of haemoglobin concentration, Platelet and WBC count which varied from normal to anaemia, thrombocytopenia to thrombocytosis and leukopenia to hyper leukocytosis. Conclusions: Our findings showed that CD7 and CD2 were the most common aberrant marker in Iranian patients with AML. However, we are not find any significant correlation between aberrant phenotype changing and MRD in our population. Taken together, this findings help to provide new insights in to the investigation of other aberrant phenotypes that may play roles in diagnosis and therapeutic of AML. PMID:24409408

  12. Iranian nursing students' perspectives regarding caring for elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Rejeh, Nahid; Heravi-Karimooi, Majideh; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian nursing students' perspectives regarding caring for elderly patients. A qualitative design, based on the content analysis approach, was used to collect and analyze the perspectives of 25 senior nursing students who were providing care for elderly patients in the medical and surgical wards of two teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. After using purposeful sampling to select the participants, semistructured interviews were held in order to collect the data. During the data analysis, two main themes and six subthemes emerged. The first theme was "the barriers to caring for elderly patients", with the subthemes of "policies and rules of the organization", "a lack of educational preparation", and "an inappropriate physical environment", and the second theme was "the facilitators to caring for elderly patients", with the subthemes of "religion and cultural norms", "role modeling", and "previous exposure to elderly patients". This study informs international audiences of the factors that influence the quality of care of elderly patients so that strategies can be devised in order to prepare nursing students to meet the physical and psychological needs of elderly patients.

  13. Meanings of Health for Iranian Diabetic Patients: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Moridi, Golrokh; Valiee, Sina; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Nasab, Golnaz Esmaeil; Khaledi, Shahnaz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Health is an exclusive and subjective phenomenon, and one of the most important situations with regard to perception of health, arises when patients suffer from a chronic disease. This study was conducted within the qualitative research framework and aimed to explore the meanings of health as perceived by a group of Iranian diabetic patients. Methods A descriptive qualitative analysis design was used. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 20 participants among diabetic patients, who were admitted to the diabetes care centre of Tohid Hospital of the Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran during a ten-month period in 2014. Interviews were transcribed and analysed through conventional content analysis. Results Based on the findings of the study, three major health-related themes emerged: 1) the syndrome of the healthy body and the happy heart (physical well-being vivacity, satisfaction, and calmness of the mind), 2) life without compulsory limitations (lack of dietary limitations, No activity limitations, lack of social limitations), and 3) exalted spirituality (satisfying self and others, trusting God, remembering God). Conclusion Health care providers should consider the meaning of health in special groups, chiefly in patients with chronic diseases. It facilitates the development of appropriate programmes to improve desirable health levels among diabetic patients. PMID:27790342

  14. Coping With Stress Strategies in HIV-infected Iranian Patients.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Maryam; Dehdari, Tahereh; Shojaeezadeh, Davoud; Abbasian, Ladan

    2015-01-01

    Stress has significant adverse impacts on health outcomes of HIV-infected patients. Our study explored coping with stress strategies by HIV-infected Iranian patients. A qualitative content analysis study was conducted at the Consultation Clinic of HIV at the Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran in 2012. Twenty-six semi-structured in-depth interviews were done. Participants were asked about coping strategies for stress. After the first interview, continuous analysis of data was started and continued up to data saturation. Results showed that participants used two categories of strategies (emotion-based coping and problem-based coping) to cope with stress. Emotion-based coping had two sub-themes: adaptive and maladaptive. The problem-based coping category had three sub-themes: participation in education sessions, adherence to medication, and efforts to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Explanations of different strategies available to HIV-infected patients to cope with stress may help develop tailored interventions to improve the psychological conditions of people living with HIV.

  15. H pylori infection among 1000 southern Iranian dyspeptic patients

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Mahmood Reza; Rahnavardi, Mohammad; Bikdeli, Bavand; Zahedani, Mohsen Dehghani

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To describe the frequency of H pylori infection among 1000 southern Iranian dyspeptic patients. METHODS: A prospective study was performed in a referral hospital in south of Iran from 1999 to 2005. One thousand dyspeptic patients (518 males, mean ± SD age of 49.12 ± 12.82 years) consecutively underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Multiple gastric antral biopsy samples were taken from all patients for rapid urease test and histopathologic examination (96.9% satisfactory samples). Patients were considered H pylori-infected if one or both tests were positive. RESULTS: Six hundred and seventy-one patients (67.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 64.2%-70.0%) were H pylori-infected. H pylori positivity was significantly more frequent in patients with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) than in those with non-ulcer dyspepsia (P < 0.001). Male-to-female ratio for duodenal and gastric ulcers was 2.7:1 and 1.5:1, respectively. Moreover, the duodenal-to-gastric ulcer ratio was 1.95:1. The frequency of H pylori infection among those with endoscopic diagnosis of gastritis, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, and normal mucosa was 70.1% (398/568), 86.2% (150/174), 71.9% (64/89), and 33.5% (54/161), respectively. H pylori infection, male sex, and older age were independently associated with PUD in multivariate analysis. H pylori positivity was associated with chronic gastritis, and chronic active gastritis with odds ratios of 34.21 (95% CI: 12.19%-96.03%) and 81.21 (95% CI: 28.85%-228.55%), respectively. CONCLUSION: H pylori and PUD are highly frequent in dyspeptic patients from south of Iran. H pylori is a cardinal risk factor for chronic active or inactive gastritis. PMID:17006984

  16. Iranian Nurses Perceptions of Cancer Patients Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer is the third main cause of death in Iran only after cardiovascular diseases and accidents. Objectives The main aim of this research study was to identify nurses’ understanding of cancer patients’ Quality of Life (QoL) in an Iranian context. Patients and Methods This descriptive correlational study was conducted in an educative referral oncology center affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran in 2013. 50 pairs of cancer patients and their nurses were conveniently recruited. The sample of nurses were selected based on consensus sampling which included more than 70 percent of eligible nurses in the hospital. Patients and nurses were requested to complete the Farsi version of the world health organization quality of life (WHOQoL-BREF) questionnaire, separately. QoL was measured across four dimensions including physical, psychological, social relationship and environmental. Results The QoL mean domain scores of patients were 10.06, 11.88, 12.76 and 11.96, respectively. The corresponding scores of nurses were 11.6, 11.23, 12.65 and 12.07. Pearson correlations between patients and nurses scores were 0.42, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.58 which revealed a fair to moderate agreement between nurses’ and patients’ scores in different domains. Paired samples t-test values indicated that physical QoL mean domain scores of patients were significantly lower than the corresponding drawings of nurses [t (49) = -3.41, P < 0.001]. Conclusions The main finding of this QoL study was that nurses generally have a moderate understanding of cancer patients’ QoL. Therefore, in order to meet different physio-psycho-social needs of patients, nurses must enhance their understanding of patients’ QoL particularly in more subjective and personal domains like social domain using a holistic approach. PMID:27703641

  17. Increased xanthine oxidase in the skin of preeclamptic women.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Shannon A; Deng, Jau-Shyong; Roberts, James M

    2009-05-01

    Xanthine oxioreductase is the holoenzyme responsible for terminal purine catabolism. Under conditions of metabolic stress or heightened proinflammatory cytokine production, this enzyme is preferentially in its oxidized form, xanthine oxidase, with catalytic action that generates uric acid and the free radical superoxide. As preeclampsia is characterized by heightened inflammation, oxidative stress, and hyperuricemia, it has been proposed that xanthine oxidase plays a pivotal role in this hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. We sought to determine whether xanthine oxidase protein content was higher in maternal tissue of preeclamptic mothers, compared to healthy pregnant controls, using immunohistochemical analysis of skin biopsies. We further compared xanthine oxidase immunoreactivity in skin biopsies from preeclamptic women and patients with several inflammatory conditions. In preeclamptic women, intense xanthine oxidase immunoreactivity was present within the epidermis. By contrast, only very faint xanthine oxidase staining was observed in skin biopsies from healthy pregnant controls. Further, a role for inflammation in the increase of xanthine oxidase was suggested by similar findings of heightened xanthine oxidase immunoreactivity in the skin biopsies from nonpregnant individuals diagnosed with conditions of systemic inflammation. The finding of increased xanthine oxidase in maternal tissue, most likely as the result of heightened maternal inflammation, suggests maternal xanthine oxidase as a source of free radical and uric acid generation in preeclampsia.

  18. Determination of Interleukin-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha concentrations in Iranian-Khorasanian patients with preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Afshari, J Tavakkol; Ghomian, N; Shameli, A; Shakeri, MT; Fahmidehkar, MA; Mahajer, E; Khoshnavaz, R; Emadzadeh, M

    2005-01-01

    Background Our objective was to determine the role of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), markers of immune activation and endothelial dysfunction, in patients with preeclampsia. Methods Twenty four women with preeclampsia and eighteen antepartum normotensive pregnant women were recruited as controls. Serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We used independent-samples t test to assess the differences in the concentration of cytokines in preeclamptic patients and control subjects. Results IL-6 levels [mean (S.D.)] were significantly higher in preeclamptic women [5.8 (4.85) pg/ml] compared to normal pregnant women [3.01 (2.45) pg/ml] (p = 0.02). There was no significant change in concentration of TNF-alpha in preeclamptic women [53.8 (30.0) pg/ml] compared to normal pregnant women [51.9 (33.8) pg/ml] (p > 0.1). Conclusion The results of this study show that IL-6 as a pro-inflammatory cytokine is present in higher concentration in women with preeclampsia. The study was undertaken in women with established preeclampsia and it is not possible to determine whether the increased concentration of IL-6 is a cause or consequence of the disease. Furthermore, these findings suggest that serum TNF-alpha level is not associated with preeclampsia. PMID:16259641

  19. Allele and haplotype frequencies for HLA-DQ in Iranian celiac disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Romanos, Jihane; Rostami, Kamran; Ganji, Azita; Ehsani-Ardakani, Mohammad Javad; Bakhshipour, Ali-Reza; Zojaji, Homayoun; Mohebbi, Seyed Reza; Zali, Mohammad-Reza; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the distribution of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 and -DQ8 in Iranian celiac disease (CD) patients and compare them to healthy Iranian controls. METHODS: To predict the HLA-DQA1 and -DQB1 genes, we used six previously reported HLA-tagging single nucleotide polymorphism to determine HLA genotypes in 59 Iranian patients with ‘biopsy-confirmed’ CD and in 151 healthy Iranian individuals. To test the transferability of the method, 50 cases and controls were also typed using a commercial kit that identifies individual carriers of DQ2, DQ7 and DQ8 alleles. RESULTS: In this pilot study 97% of CD cases (n = 57) and 58% of controls (n = 87) were carriers of HLA-DQ2 and/or HLA-DQ8 heterodimers, either in the homozygous or heterozygous state. The HLA-DQ pattern of these 57 CD patients: heterozygous DQ2.2 (n = 14) and homozygous DQ2.2 (n = 1), heterozygous DQ2.5 (n = 33) and homozygous DQ2.5 (n = 8), heterozygous DQ8 (n = 13) and homozygous DQ8 (n = 2). Two CD patients were negative for both DQ2 and DQ8 (3%). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of DQ8 in our CD population was higher than that reported in other populations (25.4%). As reported in other populations, our results underline the primary importance of HLA-DQ alleles in the Iranian population’s susceptibility to CD. PMID:24876751

  20. Comparing the Hemodynamic Effects of Spinal Anesthesia in Preeclamptic and Healthy Parturients During Cesarean Section

    PubMed Central

    Nikooseresht, Mahshid; Seif Rabiei, Mohamad Ali; Hajian, Pooran; Dastaran, Razieh; Alipour, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite controversies about the safest anesthetic technique for cesarean delivery in severely preeclamptic women, there is evidence that supports the use of spinal anesthesia in this group of patients. Objectives This prospective randomized clinical trial was designed to determine the hemodynamic effects of low-dose spinal bupivacaine and the incidence of spinal anesthesia-associated hypotension in severely preeclamptic and healthy parturients undergoing cesarean sections. Patients and Methods Spinal anesthesia was performed with 10 mg (= 2 mL) hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine plus 2.5 µg sufentanil in two groups of patients after they received 500 mL of IV lactated Ringer’s solution. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded before spinal anesthesia and at two minutes intervals for 15 minutes after the block, and then every five minutes until the end of the surgery. Hypotension was defined as more than 25% of decline in the mean arterial blood pressure compared to the baseline in both groups (or systolic blood pressure < 100 mmHg in healthy parturients) and was treated with 5 mg IV ephedrine. The total amounts of intravenous administered fluid and the total doses of ephedrine were recorded for each patient as well. Results The incidence rate of hypotension among the preeclamptic patients was lower than that of the healthy parturients, despite the former group receiving smaller volumes of intravenous fluids (P < 0.05). The total doses of IV ephedrine for treating hypotension were significantly lower among the preeclamptic patients (3.2 mg in preeclamptic patients versus 7.6 mg in normotensive patients) (P = 0.02). The one-minute Apgar score was significantly lower for the preeclamptic parturients (8.4 ± 0.7 versus 7.2 ± 1.5) (P = 0.001), but there was no significant difference in the five-minute Apgar scores between the two groups. Conclusions Our results confirm that low-dose bupivacaine spinal anesthesia is associated with a lower risk of hypotension

  1. Contextual factors affecting autonomy for patients in Iranian hospitals: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Sadeghian, Efat; Seyedfatemi, Naeimeh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Crowley, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Consideration of patient autonomy is an essential element in individualized, patient-centered, ethical care. Internal and external factors associated with patient autonomy are related to culture and it is not clear what they are in Iran. The aim of this study was to explore contextual factors affecting the autonomy of patients in Iranian hospitals. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative study using conventional content analysis methods. Thirty-four participants (23 patients, 9 nurses, and 2 doctors) from three Iranian teaching hospitals, selected using purposive sampling, participated in semi-structured interviews. Unstructured observation and filed notes were other methods for data collection. The data were subjected to qualitative content analysis and analyzed using the MAXQDA-10 software. Results: Five categories and sixteen subcategories were identified. The five main categories related to patient autonomy were: Intrapersonal factors, physical health status, supportive family and friends, communication style, and organizational constraints. Conclusions: In summary, this study uncovered contextual factors that the care team, managers, and planners in the health field should target in order to improve patient autonomy in Iranian hospitals. PMID:27186203

  2. Do Cancer Patients Prefer to Know the Diagnosis? A Descriptive Study Among Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Samimi Ardestani, Seyed Mehdi; Faridhosseini, Farhad; Shirkhani, Fatemeh; Karamad, Ardeshir; Farid, Layla; Fayyazi Bordbar, Mohammad Reza; Motlagh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are important differences regarding cancer disclosure in various geographical populations (Europeans, Western Asia, Eastern Asia), depending on multiple sociocultural factors, and therefore, there is no standard protocol on this issue, especially in Iran. Objectives: To evaluate the amount of information that Iranian patients have and their preference for the disclosure of the cancer diagnosis. Patients and Methods: In this cross sectional descriptive research, patients admitted in the oncology departments of 3 referral medical centers, Imam Hussein, Shohada-e-Tajrish and Modarres, in Tehran, from March 2007 to April 2008, were questioned about their awareness and knowledge regarding their diagnosis. Two different structured questionnaires were designed for the people who know and who didn't know their diagnosis. For the former, the survey concerned their psychological reactions to their situations, whether they would prefer to know about their diagnosis and by whom they are preferred to be informed .For the latter, the questionnaire included their preference whether to know the diagnosis and their current emotional state. Descriptive statistics and chi square test was applied to analyze gathering Data, using SPSS version 14. Results: 60.3% of the patients knew their diagnosis. Among the subjects who did not know their diagnosis, 88% preferred to be more informed about their diagnosis and 68% had some psychological reaction to their situations. Among the subjects who knew their diagnosis, 92.1 % preferred to know their diagnosis, 73.6% preferred to be informed directly by their physicians. Following the diagnostic disclosure, 81.5% reported that they had felt nervous, anxious and worried. Conclusions: The majority of Iranian patients with malignancy want to know the truth and they prefer to be informed directly by their doctors. PMID:26834800

  3. TPRV-1 expression in human preeclamptic placenta.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Nora; Abán, Cyntia E; Leguizamón, Gustavo F; Damiano, Alicia E; Farina, Mariana G

    2016-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder unique to human pregnancy, characterized by abnormal placentation. Although its causes remain unclear, it is known that the expression of several transporters is altered. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV-1) is a nonselective cation channel, present in human placenta. Here, we evaluated the expression of TRPV-1 in preeclamptic placentas. We observed a deregulation in TRPV-1 expression in these placentas which may explain the impaired Ca(2+) homeostasis found in preeclampsia. PMID:27016779

  4. Genetic analysis and SOD1 mutation screening in Iranian amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Afagh; Nafissi, Shahriar; Rohani, Mohammad; Zamani, Babak; Sedighi, Behnaz; Shamshiri, Hosein; Fan, Jian-Bing; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Elahi, Elahe

    2013-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disease, and the most common in European populations. Results of genetic analysis and mutation screening of SOD1 in a cohort of 60 Iranian ALS patients are here reported. Initially, linkage analysis in 4 families identified a disease-linked locus that included the known ALS gene, SOD1. Screening of SOD1 identified homozygous p.Asp90Ala causing mutations in all the linked families. Haplotype analysis suggests that the p.Asp90Ala alleles in the Iranian patients might share a common founder with the renowned Scandinavian recessive p.Asp90Ala allele. Subsequent screening in all the patients resulted in identification of 3 other mutations in SOD1, including p.Leu84Phe in the homozygous state. Phenotypic features of the mutation-bearing patients are presented. SOD1 mutations were found in 11.7% of the cohort, 38.5% of the familial ALS probands, and 4.25% of the sporadic ALS cases. SOD1 mutations contribute significantly to ALS among Iranians.

  5. Prevalence of occult hepatitis C virus infection in Iranian patients with beta thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Bastani, Mohammad-Navid; Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Keyvani, Hossein; Esghaei, Maryam; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza; Ebrahimi, Mojtaba; Garshasebi, Saba; Fakhim, Shahin

    2016-07-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus infection (OCI) is a new pathological form of chronic hepatitis virus (HCV) infection characterized by the presence of HCV RNA in liver biopsy and/or peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) specimens and the absence of HCV RNA and anti-HCV antibodies (Abs) in plasma samples. β-thalassemia major is a hereditary recessive blood disease with deficiency in the hemoglobin beta chain. Thalassemic patients need blood transfusion therapy; repeated blood transfusion increases the risk of viral blood-borne infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of OCI in Iranian patients with β-thalassemia major. From February 2015 to November 2015, a total of 147 Iranian patients with β-thalassemia major were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. After extraction of viral RNA from the plasma and PBMC samples, HCV genomic RNA in the specimens was amplified by RT-nested PCR using primers from the 5'-UTR. The HCV genotypes of the positive specimens were tested using the RFLP assay. To confirm the HCV genotypes, the 5'-UTR fragment was amplified and cloned into the pJET1.2/blunt cloning vector and then sequenced. Out of 147 patients, 106 (72.1 %) were negative for anti-HCV Abs and HCV RNA. HCV RNA was found in PBMC specimens of six (5.7 %) patients, from a total of 106 patients with undetectable plasma HCV RNA and anti-HCV Abs. Therefore, six out of 106 patients had OCI. HCV genotyping revealed that three patients were infected with HCV subtype 1b, two patients were infected with HCV subtype 3a, and one patient was infected with HCV subtype 1a. These results revealed that Iranian patients with beta-thalassemia major might have OCI. Therefore, it seems that the design of a study to identify this infection in patients with β-thalassemia major would provide valuable information. PMID:27132015

  6. Prevalence of occult hepatitis C virus infection in the Iranian patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Keyvani, Hossein; Esghaei, Maryam; Zare-Karizi, Shohreh; Dermenaki-Farahani, Sahar-Sadat; Hesami-Zadeh, Khashayar; Fakhim, Shahin

    2016-11-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a new form of chronic HCV infection described by the presence of the genomic HCV-RNA in liver biopsy and/or peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples, and undetectable levels or absence of HCV-RNA and in the absence or presence of anti HCV antibodies in the plasma specimens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of occult HCV infection (OCI) among Iranian subjects infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) using RT-nested PCR. From March 2014 until April 2015, 109 Iranian patients with established HIV infection were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. After extraction of viral RNA from the plasma and PBMC samples, HCV-RNA status was examined by RT-nested PCR using primers from the 5'-NTR. HCV genotyping was conducted using RFLP analysis. For the confirmation of HCV genotyping by RFLP method, the PCR products were sequenced. Of the 109 patients, 50 were positive for antibodies against HCV. The HCV-RNA was detected in PBMC specimens in 6 (10.2%) out of the total 59 patients negative for anti-HCV Abs and undetectable plasma HCV-RNA and also from 4 (8.0%) out of the total 50 patients positive for anti-HCV Abs and undetectable plasma HCV-RNA. HCV genotyping analysis showed that 6 (60.0%) patients were infected with HCV subtype 3a, 3 (30.0%) were infected with HCV subtype 1a and 1 (10.0%) patient was infected with HCV subtype 1b. This study revealed the incidence of OCI (9.2%) in HIV-infected Iranian patients. Hence, designing prospective studies focusing on the detection of OCI in these patients would provide more information. J. Med. Virol. 88:1960-1966, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Prevalence of occult hepatitis C virus infection in the Iranian patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Keyvani, Hossein; Esghaei, Maryam; Zare-Karizi, Shohreh; Dermenaki-Farahani, Sahar-Sadat; Hesami-Zadeh, Khashayar; Fakhim, Shahin

    2016-11-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a new form of chronic HCV infection described by the presence of the genomic HCV-RNA in liver biopsy and/or peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples, and undetectable levels or absence of HCV-RNA and in the absence or presence of anti HCV antibodies in the plasma specimens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of occult HCV infection (OCI) among Iranian subjects infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) using RT-nested PCR. From March 2014 until April 2015, 109 Iranian patients with established HIV infection were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. After extraction of viral RNA from the plasma and PBMC samples, HCV-RNA status was examined by RT-nested PCR using primers from the 5'-NTR. HCV genotyping was conducted using RFLP analysis. For the confirmation of HCV genotyping by RFLP method, the PCR products were sequenced. Of the 109 patients, 50 were positive for antibodies against HCV. The HCV-RNA was detected in PBMC specimens in 6 (10.2%) out of the total 59 patients negative for anti-HCV Abs and undetectable plasma HCV-RNA and also from 4 (8.0%) out of the total 50 patients positive for anti-HCV Abs and undetectable plasma HCV-RNA. HCV genotyping analysis showed that 6 (60.0%) patients were infected with HCV subtype 3a, 3 (30.0%) were infected with HCV subtype 1a and 1 (10.0%) patient was infected with HCV subtype 1b. This study revealed the incidence of OCI (9.2%) in HIV-infected Iranian patients. Hence, designing prospective studies focusing on the detection of OCI in these patients would provide more information. J. Med. Virol. 88:1960-1966, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27463051

  8. Leisure time activities of Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Sadegh; Asgari, Ali; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Yazdani, Farzaneh; Mazdeh, Mehrdokht

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leisure time is one of the most important aspects of life, especially for people with chronic diseases. The concept and types of leisure have frequently been evaluated in different socio-cultural populations. The aim of this study was to identify the nature of leisure activities among a sample of Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and classify the identified types of activities in the context of Iranian culture. Methods: In this qualitative study, semi-structured interview was applied to gather data from 34 MS patients that were selected through purposive sampling. The interviews were continued up to the point of saturation. Content analysis was used to explore experiences of the interviewees regarding their leisure activities. Results: Six categories of leisure activities were extracted for the studied patients with MS i.e.physical, social, individual, art/cultural, educational and spiritual/religious. Conclusion: The results represented the range and heterogeneity of leisure activities amongst the MS patients. Considering participation in spiritual/religious and social activities as leisure time undertaking might reflect cultural diversity in the perception and use of time for recreation. For mental health promotion purposes, paying special attention to the types of activities that people of different socio-cultural background choose for their refreshment could help health care providers in giving tailored advice for patients with MS and other chronic debilitating disease. PMID:27123437

  9. Comparison of Masculine and Feminine Gender Roles in Iranian Patients with Gender Identity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Kaveh; Jalali Nadoushan, Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Gender identity disorders (GID) are heterogeneous disorders that may be influenced by culture and social norms. Aim The aim of this study was to determine masculine and feminine gender roles in a group of Iranian patients with GID and compare these roles with two control groups. Methods Twelve male‐to‐female (MF) and 27 female‐to‐male (FM) individuals with GID referred to Tehran Psychiatric Institute in Tehran, I. R. Iran were evaluated by self‐report inventories and were compared with two groups of healthy controls (81 men and 89 women). Diagnoses were established based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM‐IV) criteria. Data analysis was done using analysis of variance and chi‐squared test. Main Outcome Measures Masculine and feminine gender roles were assessed by two questionnaires: (i) Gender‐Masculine (GM) and Gender‐Feminine (GF) scales derived from the Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory‐2 (MMPI‐2); (ii) Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). Results In the scales of masculinity, MF‐GID individuals scored as male controls, but lower than female controls. FM‐GID individuals scored similar to female controls and higher than male controls. In femininity scales, MF‐GID individuals and control women seemed similar, and both scored higher than the other groups. FM‐GID persons were considered less feminine than both controls in the GF scale of MMPI‐2, but not in the BSRI. In both scales, FM‐GID persons had higher scores than control women and MF‐GID individuals. Conclusion Iranian FM‐GID individuals were less feminine than normal men. However, MF‐GID individuals were similar to normal women or more feminine. Cultural considerations remain to be investigated. Alavi K, Eftekhar M and Jalali Nadoushan AH. Comparison of masculine and feminine gender roles in Iranian patients with gender identity disorder. Sex Med 2015;3:261–268. PMID:26797060

  10. Social capital of Iranian patients living with acquired immune deficiency syndrome and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Ansari, S K; Nedjat, S; Jabbari, H; Saiepour, N; Heris, M J

    2015-12-13

    This study investigated the social capital of Iranian patients living with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the associated factors. In a cross-sectional study the Integrated Social Capital Questionnaire was filled by a sequential sample of 300 patients visiting a referral counselling centre in Tehran. The patients' social capital scores were around 50% in the trust, social cohesion, collective action and cooperation and political empowerment domains. The groups and networks membership domain scored the lowest (27.1%). In regression analysis, employment status was significantly associated with groups and networks membership; age, marital status and financial status were associated with collective action and cooperation; period of disease awareness and marital status affected social cohesion and inclusion; and having risky behaviour affected empowerment and political action. Efforts are needed to enhance the social capital of those patients living with AIDS who are younger, unemployed, divorced/widowed, with risky behaviours and shorter disease awareness.

  11. Service quality of private hospitals: The Iranian Patients' perspective

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Highly competitive market in the private hospital industry has caused increasing pressure on them to provide services with higher quality. The aim of this study was to determine the different dimensions of the service quality in the private hospitals of Iran and evaluating the service quality from the patients' perspective. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between October and November 2010 in Tehran, Iran. The study sample was composed of 983 patients randomly selected from 8 private general hospitals. The study questionnaire was the SERVQUAL questionnaire, consisting of 21 items in service quality dimensions. Results The result of factor analysis revealed 3 factors, explaining 69% of the total variance. The total mean score of patients' expectation and perception was 4.91(SD = 0.2) and 4.02(SD = 0.6), respectively. The highest expectation and perception related to the tangibles dimension and the lowest expectation and perception related to the empathy dimension. The differences between perception and expectation were significant (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference between the expectations scores based on gender, education level, and previous hospitalization in that same hospital. Also, there was a significant difference between the perception scores based on insurance coverage, average length of stay, and patients' health conditions on discharge. Conclusion The results showed that SERVQUAL is a valid, reliable, and flexible instrument to monitor and measure the quality of the services in private hospitals of Iran. Our findings clarified the importance of creating a strong relationship between patients and the hospital practitioners/personnel and the need for hospital staff to be responsive, credible, and empathetic when dealing with patients. PMID:22299830

  12. Effect of Obesity on Mortality and Morbidity After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery in Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ardeshiri, Maryam; Faritous, Zahra; Ojaghi Haghighi, Zahra; Hosseini, Shirin; Baghaei, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recent years have witnessed the emergence of obesity as a major public health concern. The drastic rise in obesity and its concomitant co-morbidities is a reflection of the recent changes in dietary habits in Iran and many other developing countries. A recent large population study in Tehran reported that 58% and 75% of middle-aged Iranian men and women, respectively, were either overweight or obese. Objectives: Considering the impact of obesity on mortality and morbidity after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), we sought to investigate the association between central obesity and the body mass index (BMI) and the post-CABG mortality and morbidity in Iranian patients. Patients and Methods: This prospective study was on 235 adult patients scheduled for isolated CABG in a university hospital. The patients were divided in two groups according to BMI ≥ 30 (obese; n = 60) and BMI < 30 (non-obese; n = 175). In-hospital and late (after 3 months) morbidity and mortality rates were compared between obese and non-obese patients. Results: A total of 235 patients (135 women) with a mean age of 59 ± 9.2 years (range = 29 to 79 years), mean BMI of 27.3 ± 4.2 (range = 17 to 40), and mean waist circumference of 101.2 ± 14.7 cm (range = 55 to 145 cm) were included. By the third postoperative month, wound infection had significantly increased in patients with BMI ≥ 30 (P = 0.022). In-hospital and late morbidity and mortality rates were comparable between the two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: In our patients obesity was a risk factor for wound infection but not atelectasis or the need for intra-aortic balloon pump or re-exploration. Obesity was not associated with increased in-hospital or 3 months mortality rates after CABG. PMID:24977121

  13. Rheumatologic Manifestations in Iranian Patients with Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hezarkhani, Sharabeh; Aghaei, Mehrdad; Shamekhi, Maryam; Nomali, Mahin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) are the most common endocrine diseases which result in rheumatologic manifestations. Some studies have shown association between rheumatologic disorders and ATDs. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the frequency of rheumatologic manifestations in patients with ATDs. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study during 2010 to 2011, 65 patients with ATDs referred to the Rheumatology clinic of 5 Azar Hospital in Gorgan (North of Iran) were studied via systematic random sampling and patients with positive antithyroid peroxides (anti-TPO) were included in the study. These patients were examined by a rheumatologist for diagnosis of rheumatologic manifestations and tested for serum levels of TSH, Free T3 and T4, Anti-Nuclear Antibodies (ANAs) and Rheumatoid Factor (RF). SPSS software (version 16) and descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Results: Nine males (14.8%) and 56 females (86.2%) with mean age of 38.81±1.44 years were studied. Overall, Rheumatologic manifestations were seen in 86.2 % (n=56). In this study, the most frequent rheumatologic manifestations were Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (36.1%) and Osteoarthritis (23%). Reynaud’s phenomenon (RP) (10.7%), Discopathy (8.9%), Fibromyalgia (5.3%), Myopathy (3.6%), Rheumatoid arthritis (3.6%) and trigger finger (3.6%) were other manifestations, respectively. Conclusion: In this region, there is a high frequency of rheumatologic manifestations in patients with ATDs. Thus, initial evaluation and regular checkings are recommended. PMID:25478383

  14. Periodic Fever: A Review on Clinical, Management and Guideline for Iranian Patients - Part II

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadinejad, Zahra; Mansouri, Sedigeh; Ziaee, Vahid; Aghighi, Yahya; Moradinejad, Mohammad-Hassan; Fereshteh-Mehregan, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Periodic fever syndromes are a group of diseases characterized by episodes of fever with healthy intervals between febrile episodes. In the first part of this paper, we presented a guideline for approaching patients with periodic fever and reviewed two common disorders with periodic fever in Iranian patients including familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and periodic fever syndromes except for periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA). In this part, we review other autoinflammatory disorders including hyper IgD, tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes, autoinflammatory bone disorders and some other rare autoinflammatory disorders such as Sweet’s and Blau syndromes. In cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes group, we discussed chronic infantile neurologic cutaneous and articular (CINCA) syndrome, Muckle-Wells syndrome and familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome. Autoinflammatory bone disorders are categorized to monogenic disorders such as pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma ;gangraenosum and acne (PAPA) syndrome, the deficiency of interleukine-1 receptor antagonist (DIRA) and Majeed syndrome and polygenic background or sporadic group such as chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) or synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome are classified in sporadic group. Other autoinflammatory syndromes are rare causes of periodic fever in Iranian system registry. PMID:25562014

  15. Religion as an Alleviating Factor in Iranian Cancer Patients: a Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Rahnama, Mozhgan; Khoshknab, Masoud Fallahi; Seyed Bagher Maddah, Sadat; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Arbabisarjou, Azizollah

    2015-01-01

    After diagnosis of cancer, many patients show more inclination towards religion and religious activities. This qualitative study using semi-structured interviews explored the perspectives and experiences of 17 Iranian cancer patients and their families regarding the role of religion in their adaptation to cancer in one of the hospitals in Tehran and a charity institute. The content analysis identified two themes: "religious beliefs "(illness as God's will, being cured by God's will, belief in God's supportiveness, having faith in God as a relieving factor, and hope in divine healing) and "relationship with God during the illness." In general, relationship with God and religious beliefs had a positive effect on the patients adapting to their condition, without negative consequences such as stopping their treatment process and just waiting to be cured by God. Thus a strengthening of such beliefs, as a coping factor, could be recommended through religious counseling.

  16. Prevalence of hepatic steatosis and associated factors in Iranian patients with chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Poortahmasebi, Vahdat; Emami Aleagha, Mohammad Sajad; Amiri, Mehdi; Qorbani, Mostafa; Farahmand, Mohammad; Asayesh, Hamid; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hepatic steatosis is commonly observed in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Many studies indicate a relationship between steatosis and fibrosis progression. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of hepatic steatosis and related factors in Iranian CHC patients. Methods: One hundred and fifteen consecutive patients with CHC were enrolled which were treatment- naïve. The patients were divided into groups with and without steatosis according to the result of liver biopsy (58.3% and 41.7%, respectively). Demographic, histological, biochemical and virological factors were examined and compared in all patients. Results: In terms of host factors, body mass index (BMI), triglyceride, fasting blood glucose (FBG), necroinflammatory activity and severity in fibrosis of CHC patients with steatosis was significantly higher than the patients without steatosis. Of viral factors, HCV viral load was not significantly altered in patients with steatosis. Moreover, HCV genotypes did not meet such association. Using multivariate regression analysis, parameters of BMI values, FBG level and stage of fibrosis were independently associated with steatosis. Conclusion: Our data indicate that CHC patients are more susceptible to development of hepatic steatosis. Based on our results, grade of steatosis appears to be associated with hepatic fibrosis progression rate in CHC patients. PMID:27390692

  17. Frequency and subtype of BK virus infection in Iranian patients infected with HIV.

    PubMed

    Akhgari, Shahla; Mohraz, Minoo; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Vahabpour, Rouhollah; Kazemimanesh, Monireh; Aghakhani, Arezoo; Jozpanahi, Manizheh; Banifazl, Mohammad; Bavand, Anahita; Ramezani, Amitis

    2016-02-01

    Human polyomavirus BK virus (BKV) is a double-stranded DNA virus that infects approximately 90 % of the general population as a subclinical or mild infection. In immunosuppressed patients, such as HIV cases, BKV may be reactivated resulting hemorrhagic cystitis and tubulointerstitial nephritis. However, there are limited studies on prevalence and molecular epidemiology of BKV in Iran. We therefore aimed to evaluate the prevalence and subtypes of BKV in Iranian HIV patients. A total of 99 patients with HIV infection were enrolled in the study. Presence of BKV DNA in plasma was evaluated by nested PCR. PCR products were sequenced directly, and phylogenetic analysis was performed. BKV DNA was detected in 8.08 % of HIV patients. BKV viremia presented in 4 out of 25 patients (16 %) not receiving antiretroviral therapy in comparison with 4 out 74 of HAART-treated patients (5.4 %) (P = 0.023). In patients with CD4 counts ≥200 cells/mm(3), viremia was found more commonly (7/80 = 8.8 %) than in those with lower counts (1/19 = 5.2 %) (not significant). All sequenced BKV isolates belonged to subtype Ib-2. Our findings indicated that the prevalence of BKV viremia is relatively prevalent in patients with HIV infection and significantly higher in naïve than HAART-treated cases. Therefore, HAART can eliminate BKV infection from plasma and reduce viremia although the actual implication of BKV viremia in HIV patients is not clear.

  18. Virulence Factors and O-Serogroups Profiles of Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli Isolated from Iranian Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dormanesh, Banafshe; Safarpoor Dehkordi, Farhad; Hosseini, Sahar; Momtaz, Hassan; Mirnejad, Reza; Hoseini, Mohammad Javad; Yahaghi, Emad; Tarhriz, Vahideh; Khodaverdi Darian, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli O- Serogroups with their virulence factors are the most prevalent causes of UTIs. Objectives: The present investigation was performed to study the virulence factors and O-Serogroups profiles of UPEC isolated from Iranian pediatric patients. Patients and Methods: This cross sectional investigation was performed on 100 urine samples collected from hospitalized pediatrics of Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Midstream urine was collected to decrease potential bacterial, cellular and artifactual contamination. All samples were cultured and those with positive results were subjected to polymerase chain reactions to detect pap, cnf1, afa, sfa and hlyA genes and various O- Serogroups. Results: We found that 37.5% of boys and 75% of girls had positive results for Escherichia coli. We also found that O1 (19.33%), O2 (13.33%), O6 (13.33%), O4 (11.66%), and O18 (11.66 %) were the most commonly detected Serogroups. Totally, the serogroup of 5% of all strains were not detected. In addition, all of these O- Serogroups were pap+, cnf1+, hlyA+, and afa+. Totally, pap (70 %), cnf1 (56.66 %), and hlyA (43.33 %) were the most commonly detected virulence genes in the both studied groups of children. The sfa (30 %) and afa (26.66 %) genes had the lowest incidence rates. Conclusions: Special health care should be performed on UTIs management in Iranian pediatric patients. Extended researches should be performed to evaluate relation between other O-Serogroups and virulent genes. PMID:24719745

  19. Fatigue and Depression in Iranian Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients in Tehran in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Nazemi, Maryam; Raad, Marjan Hassani; Arzoomanian, Christineh Serob; Ghasemzadeh, Azizreza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease with a progressive and rapid course. Fatigue and depression are common among ALS patients. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between depression and fatigue in Iranian ALS patients. Methods In this 2012 cross-sectional study, 40 ALS patients, including 22 females and 18 males, were selected through consecutive relapsing-remitting, and 40 age- and gender-matched health controls (HCs) were recruited from Loghman Hakim Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The Persian version of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS-Per) questionnaire and depression substance of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were used to assess fatigue and depression. Data were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Sminov Test, Levene’s test, Independent Samples t-test, and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. Results We identified a significant and positive relationship between fatigue and depression in patients with ALS (p=0.000). Furthermore, the scores of fatigue and depression in ALS patients were higher than in non-ALS patients. Conclusion The results indicated that there was a relationship between fatigue and depression in ALS patients and that early intervention services can improve these symptoms. Further studies are suggested to investigate the direction of such relationship. PMID:27123230

  20. Mutations of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in Iranian patients with phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Biglari, Alireza; Saffari, Fatemeh; Rashvand, Zahra; Alizadeh, Safarali; Najafipour, Reza; Sahmani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disease which results from mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. The aim of this study was the identification of sixteen different mutations in Iranian patients with hyperphenylalaninemia. The mutations were detected during the characterization of PAH genotypes of 39 PKU patients from Qazvin and Zanjan provinces of Iran. PAH mutations have been analyzed by PCR and direct sequencing of PCR products of the promoter region and all 13 exons of PAH gene, including the splicing sites. A mutation detection rate of 74.3 % was realized. Two mutations were found at high frequencies: R176X (10.25 %) and p.P281L (10.25 %). The frequencies of the other mutations were: IVS2+5G>A (2.56 %), IVS2+5G>C (2.56 %), p.L48S (2.56 %), p.R243Q (2.56 %), p.R252Q (5.12 %), p.R261Q (7.69 %), p.R261X (5.12 %), p.E280K (2.56 %), p.I283N (2.56 %), IVS9+5G>A (2.56 %), IVS9+1G>A (1.28 %), IVS11+1G>C (1.28 %), p.C357R (1.28 %), c.632delC (2.56 %). The present results confirm the high heterogeneity of the PAH locus and contribute to information about the distribution and frequency of PKU mutations in the Iranian population. PMID:26413448

  1. Corneal Crosslinking for Keratoconus in Iranian Patients: Outcomes at 1 year following treatment

    PubMed Central

    Saffarian, Ladan; Khakshoor, Hamid; Zarei-Ghanavati, Mehran; Esmaily, Habibollah

    2010-01-01

    Aim and Design: A retrospective, nonrandomized, single-center clinical study was designed to evaluate the outcomes of corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) for progressive keratoconus in Iranian patients 12 months after CXL. Settings: This study was carried out at Navid Didegan Eye Center, a private clinic, Mashhad, Iran. Materials and Methods: Ninety-two eyes of 53 subjects with progressive keratoconus were evaluated in this study. All eyes completed 1-year follow-up. The outcome measures were uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), sphere and cylinder refraction, keratometry, and corneal thickness. Comparison of baseline and 1-year postoperative data is reported in this study. The Wilcoxon signed-ranked and Student’s t-tests were used for statistical analyses. P < 0.05 was statistically significant. Results: The mean age was 21.5 ± 3.4 years (range, 16 -30 years). Thirty-one (58.5%) of the subjects were men and 22 (41.5%) were women. Mean baseline UCVA and BSCVA were 0.61 ± 0.31 and 0.06 ± 0.12 logarithm of minimal angle of resolution (logMAR), respectively. One year postoperatively UCVA was 0.31 ± 0.25 logMAR and BSCVA was 0.0 ± 0.01 logMAR. UCVA and BSCVA were statistically higher postoperatively (P < 0.001, both parameters). The mean astigmatism decreased by 0.78 ± 1.49 diopter (D) with significant variation during the follow-up period (P < 0.001). Mean baseline simulated keratometry (SIM K) was 46.94 ± 2.37 D and decreased to 46.0 ± 2.33 D on year postoperatively (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Corneal CXL seems to be efficient in stabilization of progressive keratoconus progression in Iranian patients at 1 year of followup. PMID:21180440

  2. Fatigue, depression and sleep disturbances in Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Fateh, Rouzbeh; Daneshmand, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most frequent symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and it is difficult to clarify the nature of this symptom and manage it. This study was aimed to evaluate the frequency of fatigue, depression and sleep disturbances in Iranian patients with MS. 100 patients from the outpatient MS clinic of Sina hospital were asked to complete Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Sleep Disorder Questionnaire (SDQ), Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaires. Student's t-test, ANOVA, Spearman correlation and Stepwise multiple linear regressions by SPSS version 15.0 were used for data analysis. From participants, 64 had fatigue complaint during day time and 36 did not feel fatigued. BDI, PSQI, MFIS and SDQ scores were significantly higher in fatigued patients than non-fatigued group but there were no statistically significant differences in ESS, EDSS and duration of disease between fatigued and non-fatigued cases. There were significant correlations between MFIS and BDI scores (r=0.49, P=0.01), MFIS and PSQI scores (r=0.399, P=0.01) and MFIS and ESS (r=0.25, P=0.01). This study demonstrates that depression is not the only cause of fatigue in patients with MS and it is also associated with sleep disorders, so this complaint should be carefully evaluated and managed in these patients.

  3. The assessment of pragmatics in Iranian patients with right brain damage

    PubMed Central

    Sobhani-Rad, Davood; Ghorbani, Askar; Ashayeri, Hassan; Jalaei, Shohereh; Mahmoodi-Bakhtiari, Behrooz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pragmatics is appropriate use of language across a variety of social contexts that provides accurate interpretation of intentions. The occurrence of the right hemisphere lesions can interfere with pragmatic abilities, and particularly with the processing of nonliteral speech acts. Methods: Since the objective of this study was to assess different aspects of pragmatic competence in the right hemisphere damage (RHD) patients, 20 Iranian patients with right hemisphere lesions were examined by adult pragmatic profile (APP) and a novel checklist was introduced for Persian language speaking individuals. Meanwhile, 40 healthy adult individuals, who were age and gender matched with RHD patients, were considered as the control group. After obtaining video records, all subjects were evaluated for 35 pragmatic skills, including 24 verbal, 5 paralinguistic, and 6 nonverbal aspects, by a two-point scale system. Results: Studying RHD patients and their healthy counterparts revealed that the performance by participants with right hemisphere lesions exhibited a high degree of inappropriate pragmatic abilities compared with controls in all domains. Furthermore, RHD patients showed a trend of increasing difficulty in understanding and producing different pragmatic phenomena, including standard communication acts. Conclusion: Present results indicated that the right hemisphere lesions significantly affected pragmatic abilities in verbal, paralinguistic and nonverbal aspects. Such a pattern of performance, which is in line with deficits previously reported for RHD, proved the unquestioned role of the right hemisphere in processing nonliteral language. PMID:25295151

  4. Glutathione s-transferase M1 and T1 genetic polymorphisms in Iranian patients with glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Safa, Fatemeh Kazemi; Shahsavari, Gholamreza; Abyaneh, Reza Zare

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness and it is related to oxidative stress based on numerous studies. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are members of multigenic family, which have important role in cells as an antioxidant. In the present study, we examined the polymorphism of GSTT1 and GSTM1 deletion genotypes (T0M1, T1M0, and T0M0) in 100 Glaucoma patients (41with primary open angle glaucoma (PCAG), and 59 with primary closed angle glaucoma (POAG)) compared to 100 healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: GSTM1and GSTT1 polymorphisms were determined by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Results: GSTM1 and GSTT1 null deletions genotypes were determined in 22 (53.7%) and 7 (17.1%) patients with PCAG and 34 (34%) and 15 (15%) in healthy subjects. Comparison between patients and healthy subjects regarding GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes revealed increase of GSTM1 null deletions genotypes in patients with PCAG (P=0.03). Conclusion: It was concluded that the increased frequencies of GSTM1 null in patients with PCAG could be a risk factor for incidence of PCAG in the Iranian population. PMID:24967061

  5. Interleukin-6 gene polymorphism in Iranian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Godarzi, Esmaeil Moazemi; Sarvestani, Eskandar Kamali; Aflaki, Elham; Amirghofran, Zahra

    2011-02-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) has been shown to be related to the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In the present study, the relationship between two polymorphisms in the promoter region of IL-6 gene at positions -572 G/C and -174 G/C and disease susceptibility in 401 Iranian patients with SLE was investigated using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The genotype distribution and allele frequencies of IL-6 gene polymorphism at -174 position showed no significant difference between SLE patients and controls. In contrary, both allelic and genotypic frequencies at the -572 position significantly differed in SLE patients and controls. At this position, GG genotype was observed in 77.9% of patients compared to 68.9% in the control group (p < 0.014). The frequency of -572 G allele in patients (87.3%) was also higher than in controls (83.2%; p = 0.034). The haplotype study showed no significant difference between patients and healthy subjects. Study of the relationship between these polymorphisms and clinical manifestations and laboratory parameters showed an association between -174 polymorphism and the presence of antinuclear antibodies in all patients and rash and hematuria in male patients (p < 0.04). At -572 polymorphism, a significant difference with regard to photosensitivity in male patients (p = 0.04) was found. In conclusion, results of this study showed that -572 polymorphism plays an important role in susceptibility to SLE and that -174 polymorphism could influence the presence of antinuclear antibodies in the patients. PMID:20383729

  6. Prevalence of Infertility Problems among Iranian Infertile Patients Referred to Royan Institute

    PubMed Central

    Sepidarkish, Mahdi; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Shokri, Fatemeh; Vesali, Samira; Karimi, Elaheh; Omani Samani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few studies have been conducted on the infertility problems in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of infertility problems and related factors in Iranian infertile patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 405 infertile patients referred to Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran, between 2014 and 2015, were selected by simple random sampling. Participants completed the Fertility Problem Inventory (FPI) including 46 questions in five domains (social concern, sexual concern, relationship concern, rejection of parenthood, and need for parenthood). Mean difference between male and female was verified using independent-samples Student’s t test. A generalized linear model (GLM) was also used for testing the effect of variables on the fertility problems. Data was analyzed using Stata software version 13. Results: The mean age (SD) of participants was 31.28 (5.42). Our results showed that 160 infertile men (95.23%) were classified as very high prevalence of infertility problems. Among infertile women, 83 patients (35.02%) were as very high prevalence of infertility problems, and 154 patients (64.98%) were as high prevalence. Age (P<0.001), sex (P<0.001), a history of abortion (P=0.009), failure of previous treatment (P<0.001), and education (P=0.014) had a significant relationship with FPI scores. Conclusion: Bases on the results of current study, an younger male with lower education level, history of abortion and history of previous treatments failure experienced more infertility problems. PMID:27695609

  7. Prevalence of Infertility Problems among Iranian Infertile Patients Referred to Royan Institute

    PubMed Central

    Sepidarkish, Mahdi; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Shokri, Fatemeh; Vesali, Samira; Karimi, Elaheh; Omani Samani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few studies have been conducted on the infertility problems in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of infertility problems and related factors in Iranian infertile patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 405 infertile patients referred to Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran, between 2014 and 2015, were selected by simple random sampling. Participants completed the Fertility Problem Inventory (FPI) including 46 questions in five domains (social concern, sexual concern, relationship concern, rejection of parenthood, and need for parenthood). Mean difference between male and female was verified using independent-samples Student’s t test. A generalized linear model (GLM) was also used for testing the effect of variables on the fertility problems. Data was analyzed using Stata software version 13. Results: The mean age (SD) of participants was 31.28 (5.42). Our results showed that 160 infertile men (95.23%) were classified as very high prevalence of infertility problems. Among infertile women, 83 patients (35.02%) were as very high prevalence of infertility problems, and 154 patients (64.98%) were as high prevalence. Age (P<0.001), sex (P<0.001), a history of abortion (P=0.009), failure of previous treatment (P<0.001), and education (P=0.014) had a significant relationship with FPI scores. Conclusion: Bases on the results of current study, an younger male with lower education level, history of abortion and history of previous treatments failure experienced more infertility problems.

  8. Torque Teno Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Co-Infection in Iranian Pediatric Thalassemia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Samin; Valeshabad, Ali Kord; Sharifi, Zohreh; Nourbakhsh, Kazem; Arzanian, Mohammad Taghi; Navidinia, Masoumeh; Seraj, Siamak Mehdizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Torque teno virus (TTV) infects patients at risk for parenteral exposure and chronic blood transfusion, such as those with β-thalassemic. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of TTV infection and co-infection of TTV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in pediatric thalassemia patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Material and Methods: The study included 90 pediatric thalassemia patients receiving chronic blood transfusion that presented to the Mofid Children’s Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The control group included 90 healthy volunteer children. Serum TTV DNA detection via semi-nested PCR and HCV Ab were performed in all the participants. Demographic characteristics and clinical data were collected from each participant for statistical analysis. Results: In all, 64.4% of the patients had TTV infection, versus 24.4% of the controls (P < 0.01). The thalassemia patients had a greater probability of having TTV and HCV infections than the controls, with a common OR of 5.60 (95% CI: 2.94-10.69) and 2.15 (95% CI: 1.83-2.50), respectively. In total, 17.2% (10/58) of the patients that were TTV positive were also HCV positive, whereas 6.3% (2/32) of the TTV-negative patients were anti-HCV antibody (Ab) positive (P = 0.14). Conclusion: The prevalence of TTV and HCV infection was higher in the Iranian thalassemia patients on chronic transfusion therapy than in the controls. The high prevalence of TTV in pediatric thalassemia patients on chromic transfusion therapy may indicate the superiority of the parenteral route compared to other routs of TTV transmission. PMID:24744647

  9. Vitamin D Status in Preeclamptic and Non-preeclamptic Pregnant Women: A Case-Control Study in the North West of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sadin, Bita; Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Pourteymour Fard Tabrizi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are few studies on the vitamin D status in preeclamptic women. The objective of this case-control study was to determine vitamin D status, in preeclamptic women and compare it with that of healthy pregnant controls. Methods: Forty preeclamptic women, aged 18 to 45yr and forty age- and pregnancy weight-matched healthy controls participated in the study. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were measured and its levels of <10, 10-30, 30-90 and >90 nanogram per milliliter (ng/ml) were considered as vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency, sufficiency, and toxicity, respectively. Results: Sixty and forty percent of preeclamptic women were vitamin D deficient and insufficient, while in the control group they were 10% and 90%, respectively. No significant difference was found in the median intake of vitamin D between preeclamptic and non preeclamptic women (1.45 and 1.20µg/day respectively), but serum 25(OH)D concentration was significantly lower in preeclamptic cases compared to controls (10.09 ± 6.66 and 15.73 ± 5.85ng /ml respectively, P= 0.002) . Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is common among preeclamptic and non-preeclamptic pregnant women in the north-west of Iran. Preeclampsia can cause decreasing of serum level of 25(OH)D. PMID:26634196

  10. The First Macrolide-Resistant Bordetella pertussis Strains Isolated From Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh; Nakhost Lotfi, Masoumeh; Nikbin, Vajiheh Sadat; Shooraj, Fahimeh; Azizian, Reza; Parzadeh, Masoumeh; Allahyar Torkaman, Mohammad Reza; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whooping cough was considered as one of the major causes of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Resistant isolates of Bordetella pertussis to macrolides in some countries have been recently reported. Objectives: Recent reports on macrolide-resistant B. pertussis isolates and lack of evidence for such resistance in clinical isolates of the Iranian patients led the authors of the current study to study antibiotic susceptibility of the collected isolates in the country. Susceptibility of the B. pertussis isolates to three antibiotics was studied. Relatedness of the strains recovered in this research was also examined. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activities of erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin antibiotics against the recovered isolates of 779 nasopharyngeal swabs were examined using MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) method. Relationship of the strains was characterized by Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Results: Among the specimens, 11 cases (1.4%) were culture-positive. Among these isolates, only two isolates had high MIC values for erythromycin and clarithromycin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the isolates revealed 6 PFGE profiles (A-F) among which three and two isolates had the same patterns in profiles A and B, respectively. Conclusions: Azithromycin can be a good drug of choice to treat patients infected by B. pertussis in Iran. Clonal relationship of the isolates showed that the same B. pertussis strains were isolated from different patients in Iran. PMID:25371806

  11. No Evidence of Human Herpesvirus 8 among Iranian Patients Infected with HIV

    PubMed Central

    RAMEZANI, Amitis; SABOORI, Elham; AZADMANESH, Kayhan; MOHRAZ, Minoo; KAZEMIMANESH, Monireh; KARAMI, Afsaneh; BANIFAZL, Mohammad; GOLCHEHREGAN, Hanieh; AGHAKHANI, Arezoo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Kaposi’s sarcoma is a vascular malignancy, which frequently occurs among immunocompromised individuals such as transplant recipients and patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is considered the etiological agent of all forms of Kaposi’s sarcoma. Though some seroepidemiological studies conducted on the prevalence of HHV-8 in Iran, there are insufficient data on the prevalence of HHV-8 viremia in HIV infected patients. We therefore, aimed to determine the prevalence of HHV-8 viremia in general population and HIV infected patients without Kaposi’s sarcoma in Tehran, Iran. Methods: We conducted a cross sectional survey on 99 patients with HIV infection referred to Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS and 40 healthy controls in Tehran, Iran from January to April 2014. The presence of HHV-8 DNA was detected in buffy coat samples of enrolled subjects using nested PCR assay. Results: A total of 99 HIV infected patients with mean age of 37.9±10 yr and 40 healthy controls with mean age of 39±11.5 yr were enrolled in the study. The mean CD4 count was 410.3± 211.4 cells/mm3. HHV-8 DNA was not detected in both healthy control and HIV patient groups. Conclusion: This survey showed low rate of HHV-8 DNA in healthy controls and HIV patients. Considering our findings HHV-8 infection does not seem to be widespread in our population. Further studies focusing on different regions of Iran appear to be required to have a more accurate estimation. PMID:27517001

  12. Iranian hereditary hemochromatosis patients: Baseline characteristics, laboratory data and gene mutations

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Farhad; Bagheri, Zohreh; Bayat, Maryam; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Basi, Ali; Najmabadi, Hossein; Ajdarkosh, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is the most common autosomal recessive disorder in white people, characterized by highly abnormal uptake of iron from the gastrointestinal tracts. Recently, mutation studies have focused to detect the genes responsible for HH. Material/Methods In this cross-sectional study, 12 HH patients were recruited, who were referred to Firoozgar Hospital, Tehran, Iran. In addition to the clinical assessments, a complete laboratory evaluation, imaging modalities, histopathologic assessment, atomic absorption spectrophotometry and gene mutation study were performed. The genetic study for HFE gene mutation was examined for all of the patients since 2006, while non-HFE mutation was conducted since December 2010 (only for 1 of them). Results Twelve patients were evaluated consisting of 11 men and 1 woman, with the mean age of 39.58±12.68 yr. The average of atomic iron loads was 13.25±4.83-fold higher than normal standards. Four patients had heterozygotic mutation of H63D (33.3%). There was no significant difference in either the iron load of liver (P=0.927) and heart (P=0.164) or serum concentration of ferritin (P=0.907) and TIBC (P=0.937) between the HFE-mutant and without HFE mutation HH cases. Conclusions In contrast to other studies, C282Y mutation was not detected in any of our Iranian HH patients. Heterozygotic mutations of H63D (HFE) and TFR2 (non-HFE) genes were found to be more common in these patients. Similar to previous reports, these mutations were not found to be significantly associated with severity of presentation in HH patients. PMID:23018356

  13. Nutrient-rich versus nutrient-poor foods for depressed patients based on Iranian Traditional Medicine resources

    PubMed Central

    Tavakkoli-Kakhki, Mandana; Eslami, Saeid; Motavasselian, Malihe

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Considering the positive effects of certain nutrients on depression, increasingly prevalent in the contemporary societies, we investigated the nutritional content of prescribed and prohibited foodstuffs for depressed patients in Iranian Traditional Medicine resources. Materials and Methods: In order to conduct the study, credible sources of Iranian Traditional Medicine were primarily reviewed for the prescribed and prohibited foodstuffs for depressed patients. USDA database, as a well-known and valuable source, was then visited to determine the amount of effective nutrients in each foodstuff. Finally, the obtained amounts were compared with each other in three food groups, namely vegetables, fruits and nuts and also high protein products. Results: In Iranian Traditional Medicine texts, the following are prescribed for depression management: basil, coriander, spinach, lettuce, squash, peppermint, dill, chicory, celery, chard, quince, cucumber, watermelon, grape, peach, pomegranate, banana, apple, currant, pistachio, dried fig, almond, egg, chicken, lamb, and trout; cabbage, eggplant, onion, garlic, broad beans, lentils, and beef, meanwhile, are prohibited. In this regard, the effective nutritional content of these foodstuffs was obtained and then compared in the three food groups. Conclusion: This study revealed that spinach, lettuce, chicory, and squash (vegetables), pomegranate and almond (fruits and nuts) and ultimately trout (high protein products) are the best effective foodstuffs on depressed patients from nutritional content aspect. PMID:26445711

  14. Vitamin D and Inflammatory Cytokines in Healthy and Preeclamptic Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Barrera, David; Díaz, Lorenza; Noyola-Martínez, Nancy; Halhali, Ali

    2015-08-04

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Among several disorders, the imbalance of inflammatory cytokines and the alteration of vitamin D metabolism have been reported in preeclampsia. The effects of calcitriol upon inflammatory cytokines has been demonstrated. In healthy pregnant women there is a shift toward a Th2 cytokine profile, which is necessary for an adequate pregnancy outcome. As compared with normal pregnancy, high pro-inflammatory and low anti-inflammatory cytokine levels have been observed in preeclamptic women. Preeclampsia has been associated with low calcitriol levels and vitamin D deficiency is correlated with a higher risk of the development of this disease. It has been demonstrated that placenta is a source as well as the target of calcitriol and cytokines and placental dysfunction has been associated with preeclampsia. Therefore, the present manuscript includes a review about serum calcitriol levels in non-pregnant, pregnant, and preeclamptic women as well as a review on the fetoplacental vitamin D metabolism in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies. In addition, circulating and fetoplacental inflammatory cytokines in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies are reviewed. Finally, the effects of calcitriol upon placental pro-inflammatory cytokines are also explored. In conclusion, maternal and placental calcitriol levels are low in preeclampsia which may explain, at least in part, high pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in this disease.

  15. Vitamin D and Inflammatory Cytokines in Healthy and Preeclamptic Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, David; Díaz, Lorenza; Noyola-Martínez, Nancy; Halhali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Among several disorders, the imbalance of inflammatory cytokines and the alteration of vitamin D metabolism have been reported in preeclampsia. The effects of calcitriol upon inflammatory cytokines has been demonstrated. In healthy pregnant women there is a shift toward a Th2 cytokine profile, which is necessary for an adequate pregnancy outcome. As compared with normal pregnancy, high pro-inflammatory and low anti-inflammatory cytokine levels have been observed in preeclamptic women. Preeclampsia has been associated with low calcitriol levels and vitamin D deficiency is correlated with a higher risk of the development of this disease. It has been demonstrated that placenta is a source as well as the target of calcitriol and cytokines and placental dysfunction has been associated with preeclampsia. Therefore, the present manuscript includes a review about serum calcitriol levels in non-pregnant, pregnant, and preeclamptic women as well as a review on the fetoplacental vitamin D metabolism in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies. In addition, circulating and fetoplacental inflammatory cytokines in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies are reviewed. Finally, the effects of calcitriol upon placental pro-inflammatory cytokines are also explored. In conclusion, maternal and placental calcitriol levels are low in preeclampsia which may explain, at least in part, high pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in this disease. PMID:26247971

  16. Vitamin D and Inflammatory Cytokines in Healthy and Preeclamptic Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Barrera, David; Díaz, Lorenza; Noyola-Martínez, Nancy; Halhali, Ali

    2015-08-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Among several disorders, the imbalance of inflammatory cytokines and the alteration of vitamin D metabolism have been reported in preeclampsia. The effects of calcitriol upon inflammatory cytokines has been demonstrated. In healthy pregnant women there is a shift toward a Th2 cytokine profile, which is necessary for an adequate pregnancy outcome. As compared with normal pregnancy, high pro-inflammatory and low anti-inflammatory cytokine levels have been observed in preeclamptic women. Preeclampsia has been associated with low calcitriol levels and vitamin D deficiency is correlated with a higher risk of the development of this disease. It has been demonstrated that placenta is a source as well as the target of calcitriol and cytokines and placental dysfunction has been associated with preeclampsia. Therefore, the present manuscript includes a review about serum calcitriol levels in non-pregnant, pregnant, and preeclamptic women as well as a review on the fetoplacental vitamin D metabolism in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies. In addition, circulating and fetoplacental inflammatory cytokines in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies are reviewed. Finally, the effects of calcitriol upon placental pro-inflammatory cytokines are also explored. In conclusion, maternal and placental calcitriol levels are low in preeclampsia which may explain, at least in part, high pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in this disease. PMID:26247971

  17. Barriers to and facilitators of coping with spinal cord injury for Iranian patients: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Babamohamadi, Hassan; Negarandeh, Reza; Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the perspectives and experiences of Iranian patients regarding barriers and facilitators to their ability to cope with spinal cord injury (SCI). A qualitative design, based on the content analysis approach, was used to collect and analyze the experiences of 18 patients with spinal cord injury in two centers in Tehran, Iran. After using purposeful sampling for selection of the participants, semi-structured interviews were held for data collection. Lack of "knowledge", "financial resources", "employment opportunities", "suitable facilities and accessibility" as well as "societal acceptance and support" emerged as barriers; and having "self-confidence", "religious beliefs", "support networks" and "positive thinking" emerged as facilitators in coping with spinal cord injury. Participants believed that with these hindering factors in place, adapting to their new condition had been difficult, therefore they can only manage to adapt partially to their situation. Additional multidisciplinary endeavors are needed to help this group cope adequately and further research is required to influence policy making and legislation processes efficiently.

  18. Controlled Blood Pressure in Iranian Patients: A Multi-Center Report.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Ezzatollah; Behnood-Rod, Azin; Aerab-Sheibani, Hossein; Shobeiri, Elham; Pourzargar, Pirouz; Ormoz, Ehsan; Sadigh, Nader; Moharamzad, Yashar

    2016-01-01

    We decided to determine the percentage of hypertensive patients whose blood pressure (BP) measurements were within recommended controlled range and to identify predictive factors for controlled BP. In this study carried out in 2014, 280 patients were included consecutively through sampling from both university and private medical centers/pharmacies in four Iranian cities. Demographic data as well as information about duration of HTN and prescribed medications, admission to emergency department (ED) because of HTN crisis, comorbidities, and control of HTN during the last 6 months by a healthcare provider were gathered. Adherence to anti-hypertensives was also determined using the validated Persian version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8). Controlled BP was defined as systolic BP< 140 and diastolic BP< 90 mmHg in non-diabetics and < 130/80 mmHg in diabetics. Of 280 patients, 122 subjects (43.6%) had controlled BP. Among 55 diabetics, only two patients (3.6%) had controlled BP. Multiple logistic regression revealed the following variables as significant predictors of controlled BP: higher MMAS-8 score (adjusted odds ratio (OR)= 1.19, P= 0.03), fewer number of comorbid conditions (adjusted OR= 0.71, P = 0.03), having occupation as clerk/military personnel (adjusted OR= 1.03, P= 0.04), and not having history of ED admission during the last 6 months because of HTN crisis (adjusted OR= 2.11, P= 0.01). Considerable number of the studied patients had uncontrolled BP. Regarding the dramatic consequences of uncontrolled high BP in long term, it is advisable that careful attention by health care providers to the aforementioned factors could raise the likelihood of achieving controlled BP. PMID:26573037

  19. Factors Affecting Hemodialysis Adequacy in Cohort of Iranian Patient with End Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shahdadi, Hosein; Balouchi, Abbas; Sepehri, Zahra; Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Magbri, Awad; Keikhaie, Fereshteh; Shahakzehi, Ahmad; Sarjou, Azizullah Arbabi

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are many factors that can affect dialysis adequacy; such as the type of vascular access, filter type, device used, and the dose, and rout of erythropoietin stimulation agents (ESA) used. The aim of this study was investigating factors affecting Hemodialysis adequacy in cohort of Iranian patient with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on 133 Hemodialysis patients referred to two dialysis units in Sistan-Baluchistan province in the cities of Zabol and Iranshahr, Iran. We have looked at, (the effects of the type of vascular access, the filter type, the device used, and the dose, route of delivery, and the type of ESA used) on Hemodialysis adequacy. Dialysis adequacy was calculated using kt/v formula, two-part information questionnaire including demographic data which also including access type, filter type, device used for hemodialysis (HD), type of Eprex injection, route of administration, blood groups and hemoglobin response to ESA were utilized. The data was analyzed using the SPSS v16 statistical software. Descriptive statistical methods, Mann-Whitney statistical test, and multiple regressions were used when applicable. Results: The range of calculated dialysis adequacy is 0.28 to 2.39 (units of adequacy of dialysis). 76.7% of patients are being dialyzed via AVF and 23.3% of patients used central venous catheters (CVC). There was no statistical significant difference between dialysis adequacy, vascular access type, device used for HD (Fresenius and B. Braun), and the filter used for HD (p> 0.05). However, a significant difference was observed between the adequacy of dialysis and Eprex injection and patients’ time of dialysis (p <0.05). Conclusion: Subcutaneous ESA (Eprex) injection and dialysis shift (being dialyzed in the morning) can have positive impact on dialysis adequacy. Patients should be educated on the facts that the type of device used for HD and the vascular access used has no

  20. Maternal Plasma miRNAs Expression in Preeclamptic Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hailing; Ge, Qinyu; Guo, Li; Lu, Zuhong

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific syndrome and one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiological mechanisms of PE remain poorly known. Recently, circulating miRNAs are considered as potential useful noninvasive biomarkers. The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed plasma miRNAs in preeclamptic pregnancies compared with normal pregnancies. Methods. Maternal plasma miRNA expression profiles were detected by SOLiD sequencing. Differential expressions between mPE/sPE and control group were found. Next, four differentially expressed plasma miRNAs were chosen to validate their expression in other large scale samples by real-time PCR. Results. In terms of sequencing results, we identified that 51 miRNAs were differentially expressed. Four differentially expressed plasma miRNAs (miR-141, miR-144, miR-221, and miR-29a) were selected to validate the sequencing results. RT-PCR data confirmed the reliability of sequencing results. The further statistical analysis showed that maternal plasma miR-141 and miR-29a are significantly overexpressed in mPE (P < 0.05). Maternal plasma miR-144 is significantly underexpressed in mPE and sPE (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Results showed that there were differentially expressed maternal plasma miRNAs in patients with preeclampsia. These plasma miRNAs might be used as notable biomarkers for diagnosis of preeclampsia. PMID:24195082

  1. Disease-Related Variables and Depression Among Iranian Patients with Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shakeri, Jalal; Chaghazardi, Maryam; Abdoli, Nasrin; Arman, Farid; Hoseini, Seyed Davood; Shakeri, Hania

    2015-01-01

    Background: The factors affecting the correlation between Parkinson disease (PD) and depression have remained unclear. Objectives: We assessed the prevalence of depression among patients with PD and the association between PD-related variables and depression severity. Patients and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study performed in Kermanshah Province of Iran. Sampling was based on recruitment of subjects according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients with confirmed Parkinson disease who were referred to clinics of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences participated in this study. Depression was evaluated with Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Clinical characteristics of PD, including tremor, rigidity, impaired posture, loss of autonomic movement, changes in speech and handwriting, masked face, and hyposmia were indexed. Anhedonia was assessed with Farsi version of Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale. Data were collected between April 2010 and March 2014. Results: A total of 350 patients (52.9% men and 47.1% women) participated in this investigation. Female gender (36.5% in women vs. 13.0% in men, P < 0.0001), impaired posture (27.2% in affected individuals vs. 18.8%, P = 0.002), masked face (39.0% vs. 5.2%, P < 0.0001), and hyposmia (48.7% vs. 21.0%, P = 0.001) were associated with higher susceptibility to profound depression. Lower scores of all domains of Farsi version of Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (including interest/pastimes, social interaction, sensory experience, and food/drink) were related to more severe depression (P < 0.0001 for all subscales). Severe and profound depression was found in 44% of the participants. Conclusions: This study estimated that the prevalence of major depression among Iranian individuals with PD living in Kermanshah as 44%. Major determinants of depression were female gender, rigidity, impaired posture, masked face, hyposmia, and anhedonia. PMID:26568863

  2. The early efficacy of Heller myotomy in the treatment of Iranian patients with achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Saeed; Forotan, Mojgan; Nikzamir, Abdolrahim; Zomorody, Saeedeh; Jahani-Sherafat, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of Heller myotomy for the treatment of achalasia in a referral center in Tehran, and investigate the clinical characteristics, manometric results and treatment responses among three achalasia subtypes in Iranian patients. Background: Esophageal achalasia is an unusual swallowing disorder, characterized by high pressure in the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) on swallowing, failure relaxation of the LES and the absence of peristalsis in esophageal. Patients and methods: In this cross sectional study, clinical symptom and esophageal manometry before and 2 months after treating with Heller myotomy in 20 patients with achalasia who were referred to Taleghani Hospital, Tehran, in 2013 were evaluated. Patients’ demographic, clinical features and response to treatment were analyzed using SPSS software (version 20, Chicago, IL, USA). Results: All the diagnostic criteria measured after the treatment were significantly different (P<0.05) before and after the therapy. The average decline in the length of the esophagus was 1.8 cm and dysphasia score was 7.25 units. Also an average decline in LES Resting Pressure, LES Residual Pressure, PIP, and IRP were 23.2 mmHg, 14.3 mmHg, 3.4 mmHg and 17.8 mmHg, respectively. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that the Heller myotomy is highly effective in relieving dysphasia in patients with achalasia. Also, type II achalasia is the most common subtype of achalasia with a better response to Heller myotomy compared to the other types. PMID:26744612

  3. Enhancement of the HIF-1α/15-LO/15-HETE Axis Promotes Hypoxia-Induced Endothelial Proliferation in Preeclamptic Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qian; Zhang, Yanhua; Li, Huiying; Li, Peiling; Zhu, Daling

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is an extremely serious condition in pregnant women and the leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Despite active research, the etiological factors of this disorder remain elusive. The increased release of 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) in the placenta of preeclamptic patients has been studied, but its exact role in PE pathogenesis remains unknown. Mounting evidence shows that PE is associated with placental hypoxia, impaired placental angiogenesis, and endothelial dysfunction. In this study, we confirmed the upregulated expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and 15-lipoxygenase-1/2 (15-LO-1/2) in patients with PE. Production of the arachidonic acid metabolite, 15-HETE, also increased in the preeclamptic placenta, which suggests enhanced activation of the HIF-1α–15-LO–15-HETE axis. Furthermore, this study is the first to show that the umbilical cord of preeclamptic women contains significantly higher serum concentrations of 15-HETE than that of healthy pregnant women. The results also show that expression of 15-LO-1/2 is upregulated in both human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) collected from preeclamptic women and in those cultured under hypoxic conditions. Exogenous 15-HETE promotes the migration of HUVECs and in vitro tube formation and promotes cell cycle progression from the G0/G1 phase to the G2/M + S phase, whereas the 15-LO inhibitor, NDGA, suppresses these effects. The HIF-1α/15-LO/15-HETE pathway is therefore significantly associated within the pathology of PE. PMID:24796548

  4. Polymorphisms in NOS3, MTHFR, APOB and TNF-α Genes and Risk of Coronary Atherosclerotic Lesions in Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Mohammad Mehdi; Khatami, Mehri; Hadadzadeh, Mehdi; Kazemi, Mahbobeh; Mahamed, Sahar; Malekzadeh, Pegah; Mirjalili, Massomeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Atherosclerosis is a complex multifocal arterial disease involving interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors. Objectives: In the present study, we investigated the possible association between NOS3 (rs1799983), MTHFR (rs1801133), APOB (rs5742904) and TNF-α (rs361525) polymorphisms and the risk of coronary atherosclerotic lesions in Iranian patients. Patients and Methods: In the case-control study, 108 patients with coronary atherosclerosis disease and 95 control subjects with no family history of cardiovascular disease were enrolled. Genotypes for NOS3, MTHFR, APOB and TNF-α polymorphisms were identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results: We specifically detected the NOS3 TT genotype in 12 patients (11.11%) and did not find the same genotype in any of the controls. The frequencies of T allele in patients and the controls were 24% and 17.8%, respectively. The prevalence of the MTHFR TT genotype was 16.7% in patients and 2.2% in control groups. The prevalence of the APOB-100 (R3500Q) mutation in this patient population was 0%. The frequency of the A allele in the TNF-α gene was 11.1% and 11% in patients and controls, respectively, and the AA genotype was undetected. Conclusions: Our results show a significant association of NOS3 and MTHFR gene polymorphisms with coronary atherosclerotic lesions. Therefore, these variants might influence the risk of coronary artery disease, specifically in the Iranian population. PMID:26878010

  5. Prevalence and Pattern of Accessory Teeth (Hyperdontia) in Permanent Dentition of Iranian Orthodontic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Fariborz; Rakhshan, Vahid; Jamalzadeh, Sanaz

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Awareness of hyperdontia pattern/prevalence can be useful in early diagnosis and prevention by general practitioners, pediatric dentists, and orthodontists. Since the previous results regarding the pattern of hyperdontia (supernumerary teeth) are controversial, this study aimed to assess this subject among Iranian orthodontic patients. Methods All approved panoramic radiographs of 3374 orthodontic patients (aged 10 to 20 years old) who had visited orthodontic departments of all Tehran dentistry universities and 10 private clinics during the years 1999-2009 were investigated to establish the prevalence/pattern of hyperdontia in permanent dentition (excluding third molars). The data were analyzed using a chi-square, a chi-square goodness-of-fit, and a Fisher exact test (α=0.05). Results Of the patients, 2012 were female and 1362 were male. The prevalence of hyperdontia was 0.72% (14 females [0.69% of females], 10 males [0.73% of males], female-to-male ratio=1:1.055). The difference between the genders was not significant (P = 0.896). No double or multiple supernumeraries were found. The most common accessory teeth were mesiodens (58.3%), maxillary laterals (25%), and maxillary premolars (16.7%). Hyperdontia was significantly more common (P=0.000) in maxilla (there was only one mandibular accessory tooth). It was more frequent in the anterior segment (P=0.000). However the occurrence was not significantly different between bimaxillary right and left quadrants (P=0.6). Conclusion Hyperdontia was more common in premaxilla, and the most common accessory tooth was mesiodens. Unlike earlier studies, no bilateral accessory teeth were found. Also no gender dimorphism was discerned. PMID:26171338

  6. Differential Gene Expression of Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) of Candida albicans obtained from Malaysian and Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Khalili, Vajihe; Shokri, Hojjatollah; Md Akim, Abdah; Khosravi, Ali Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Candida albicans (C. albicans) has several virulence factors, in particular heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), which is expressed by Hsp90 gene. The purposes of this study were to assess the expression of Hsp90 gene in clinical and control isolates of C. albicans obtained from different geographical regions (Malaysia and Iran), different temperatures (25°C, 37°C and 42°C) and mice with candidiasis. Methods C. albicans isolates were cultured onto sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA). The assessment of the expression of Hsp90 gene was performed using real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results The results showed a significant increase in the expression of C. albicans Hsp90 gene under high thermal shock (42°C) when compared to other temperatures tested (P-value = 0.001). The mean differences in the expression of Hsp90 gene at 37°C were 0.20 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13–0.29) between Malaysian and Iranian controls (P-value = 0.040) and 0.47 (95% CI 0.27–0.60) between Malaysian and Iranian patients (P-value = 0.040). Conclusion The results demonstrated that the expression of C. albicans Hsp90 gene varied between Malaysian and Iranian subjects, representing the efficacy of geographical and thermal conditions on virulence gene expression. PMID:27418871

  7. Prevalence, molecular characteristics and risk factors for cryptosporidiosis among Iranian immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Morteza; Jonaidi-Jafari, Nematollah; Saburi, Amin; Eyni, Hossein; Rezaiemanesh, Mohammad-Reza; Ranjbar, Reza

    2012-12-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. is a major cause of diarrhea in developing countries, mainly affecting people with compromised immune systems in general and HIV-infected individuals with low CD4 + T-cell counts in particular. This infection is self-limiting in healthy persons; however, it can be severe, progressive and persistent in those who are immunocompromised. There are few published studies concerning cryptosporidiosis and Cryptosporidium genotypes in Iranian immunocompromised patients and none of them describe risk factors. This study was undertaken to identify prevalence, genotypes and risk factors for cryptosporidiosis in immunocompromised patients. Three fecal samples were obtained at two day intervals from each of the 183 patients and processed with modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods and 18S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing. The overall infection prevalence was 6%. Cryptosporidium parvum was identified in isolates from five HIV-infected patients, one patient who had undergone bone marrow transplantation and one with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cryptosporidium hominis was identified in isolates from two HIV-infected patients and two patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia. According to univariate analysis, the statistically significant factors were diarrhea (OR = 21.7, CI = 2.83-78.4, P= 0.003), CD4 + lymphocytes less than 100 cells/mm(3) (OR = 41.3, CI = 13.45-114.8, P < 0.0001), other microbial infections (OR = 7.1321.7, CI = 1.97-25.73, P = 0.006), weight loss (OR = 73.78, CI = 15.5-350, P < 0.0001), abdominal pain (OR = 10.29, CI = 2.81-37.74.4, P= 0.001), dehydration (OR = 72.1, CI = 17.6-341.5, P < 0.0001), vomiting (OR = 4.87, CI = 1.4-16.9, P= 0.015), nausea (OR = 9.4, CI = 2.38-37.2, P < 0.001), highly active antiretroviral therapy (OR = 0.089, CI = 0.01-0.8, P= 0.015) and diarrhea in household members (OR = 7.37, CI = 2.04-26.66, P= 0.001). After multivariate analysis and a backward deletion process, only < 100 CD4 + T-lymphocytes/mm(3

  8. Periodic Fever: a review on clinical, management and guideline for Iranian patients - part I.

    PubMed

    Ahmadinejad, Zahra; Mansori, Sedigeh; Ziaee, Vahid; Alijani, Neda; Aghighi, Yahya; Parvaneh, Nima; Mordinejad, Mohammad-Hassan

    2014-02-01

    Periodic fever syndromes are a group of diseases characterized by episodes of fever with healthy intervals between febrile episodes. The first manifestation of these disorders are present in childhood and adolescence, but infrequently it may be presented in young and middle ages. Genetic base has been known for all types of periodic fever syndromes except periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA). Common periodic fever disorders are Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and PFAPA. In each patient with periodic fever, acquired infection with chronic and periodic nature should be ruled out. It depends on epidemiology of infectious diseases. Some of them such as Familial Mediterranean fever and PFAPA are common in Iran. In Iran and other Middle East countries, brucellosis, malaria and infectious mononucleosis should be considered in differential diagnosis of periodic fever disorders especially with fever and arthritis manifestation. In children, urinary tract infection may be presented as periodic disorder, urine analysis and culture is necessary in each child with periodic symptoms. Some malignancies such as leukemia and tumoral lesions should be excluded in patients with periodic syndrome and weight loss in any age. After excluding infection, malignancy and cyclic neutropenia, FMF and PFAPA are the most common periodic fever disorders. Similar to other countries, Hyper IgD, Chronic Infantile Neurologic Cutaneous and Articular, TRAPS and other auto-inflammatory syndromes are rare causes of periodic fever in Iranian system registry. In part 1 of this paper we reviewed the prevalence of FMF and PFAPA in Iran. In part 2, some uncommon auto-inflammatory disorders such as TRAPS, Hyper IgD sydrome and cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes will be reviewed. PMID:25793039

  9. Investigation of CTLA-4 and CD86 gene polymorphisms in Iranian patients with brucellosis infection.

    PubMed

    Eskandari-Nasab, Ebrahim; Moghadampour, Mehdi; Najibi, Habib; Hadadi-Fishani, Mehdi

    2014-02-01

    The protective immune response against Brucella involves T-cell-mediated immunity. T-lymphocyte receptors, CD28 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4 (CTLA-4), bind the same ligands, CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) on antigen-presenting cells and regulate T cell activation. CD28 delivers stimulatory signals whereas CTLA-4 provides inhibitory signals for T cell activation. Here, we investigated the association of four polymorphisms in CTLA4 (+49A/G [rs231775] and -318 C/T [rs5742909]) and its ligand CD86 (+1057 G/A [rs1129055] and +2379G/C [rs17281995]) with brucellosis infection. The study included 153 Iranian patients with active brucellosis and 128 healthy individuals as the control group. Genotyping of the CTLA4 and CD86 variants was performed using tetra amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (T-ARMS-PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, respectively. It was found that the CTLA4 -318 CT genotype and T allele were present more frequently in cases than in controls and are therefore associated with an increased risk for brucellosis (-318 TT genotype; OR = 2.544, P = 0.002). Likewise, the CD86 +1057 GA and AA genotypes and A allele were associated with an increased risk of brucellosis (+1057 AA genotype; OR = 3.81, P = 0.001). However, no statistically significant difference between brucellosis patients and controls in the allele and genotype distributions of CTLA4, +49A/G (P = 0.859) and CD86, +2379G/C (P = 0.476) was found. In conclusion, CTLA4 -318 CT genotype and T allele and the CD86 +057 GA and AA genotypes and A allele play roles as risk factors for developing brucellosis infection in Iran.

  10. Developing a patient satisfaction questionnaire for services provided in Iranian community pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoubifard, Saeed; Rashidian, Arash; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Sheidaei, Ali; Varmaghani, Mehdi; Hashemi-Meshkini, Amir; Zekri, Hedieh-Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To develop a valid and reliable instrument in the Persian language for evaluating patient satisfaction with services provided in community pharmacies. Methods: We selected a valid and reliable instrument from the literature and translated it to the Persian language. Some new items were added to the first draft based on the special characteristics of the Iranian health system. Then, the feasibility of utilizing the new instrument was assessed. In the third step, we conducted a formal content validity study to calculate content validity indices. Having completed the content validity study, the factorial structure of new instruments was determined by implementing a factorial analysis. Finally, the reliability of the instrument was assessed by assessment of Cronbach's alpha coefficient and test-retest reliability. Findings: The developed instrument demonstrated suitable validity and reliability. The final instrument showed desirable content validity, with inter-rater agreement of 94% and 97% for relevance and clarity, respectively. Scale content validity indices for relevance and clarity were calculated as 96% and 92%, respectively, and comprehensiveness was calculated as 100%. Factor analysis resulted in seven factors with a cumulative variance of 62.14%. In internal consistency reliability, Cronbach's alpha for the whole instrument was 0.912. About test-retest reliability, six items showed almost perfect agreement, 18 items showed substantial agreement, and three items showed moderate agreement. Therefore, test-retest reliability assessment too demonstrated appropriate results. Conclusion: The instrument demonstrated excellent validity and reliability for application in Iran. This instrument is useful for evaluating patient satisfaction with services provided in community pharmacies in the Persian-speaking communities. PMID:27162804

  11. Investigation of CTLA-4 and CD86 gene polymorphisms in Iranian patients with brucellosis infection.

    PubMed

    Eskandari-Nasab, Ebrahim; Moghadampour, Mehdi; Najibi, Habib; Hadadi-Fishani, Mehdi

    2014-02-01

    The protective immune response against Brucella involves T-cell-mediated immunity. T-lymphocyte receptors, CD28 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4 (CTLA-4), bind the same ligands, CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) on antigen-presenting cells and regulate T cell activation. CD28 delivers stimulatory signals whereas CTLA-4 provides inhibitory signals for T cell activation. Here, we investigated the association of four polymorphisms in CTLA4 (+49A/G [rs231775] and -318 C/T [rs5742909]) and its ligand CD86 (+1057 G/A [rs1129055] and +2379G/C [rs17281995]) with brucellosis infection. The study included 153 Iranian patients with active brucellosis and 128 healthy individuals as the control group. Genotyping of the CTLA4 and CD86 variants was performed using tetra amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (T-ARMS-PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, respectively. It was found that the CTLA4 -318 CT genotype and T allele were present more frequently in cases than in controls and are therefore associated with an increased risk for brucellosis (-318 TT genotype; OR = 2.544, P = 0.002). Likewise, the CD86 +1057 GA and AA genotypes and A allele were associated with an increased risk of brucellosis (+1057 AA genotype; OR = 3.81, P = 0.001). However, no statistically significant difference between brucellosis patients and controls in the allele and genotype distributions of CTLA4, +49A/G (P = 0.859) and CD86, +2379G/C (P = 0.476) was found. In conclusion, CTLA4 -318 CT genotype and T allele and the CD86 +057 GA and AA genotypes and A allele play roles as risk factors for developing brucellosis infection in Iran. PMID:24298899

  12. Omega-3 and omega-6 content of medicinal foods for depressed patients: implications from the Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tavakkoli-Kakhki, Mandana; Motavasselian, Malihe; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Esfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Nematy, Mohsen; Eslami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Considering the increasing prevalence of depression in modern societies and the positive effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on depression, this study aims to investigate the omega-3 and omega-6 content of various foodstuffs, prescribed or prohibited by Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM). Materials and Methods: Firstly, reliable sources of Iranian Traditional Medicine were reviewed in order to identify the prescribed and prohibited foodstuffs for depressed patients. Afterwards, according to the online database of United States Department of Agriculture (URL: http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/search/list), the ratio of linoleic acid to alpha linolenic acid (as representatives of omega-6 and omega-3, respectively) was identified in each foodstuff. Finally, the ratios of omega-6 to omega-3 were compared between seven food groups of vegetables, fruits, dry goods, high protein products, dairies, breads, and spices. Results: Based on the resources of Iranian Traditional Medicine, the following foods are prescribed for depressed patients: basil, coriander, spinach, lettuce, squash, peppermint, dill, chicory, celery, beet, quince, cucumber, watermelon, grape, peach, pomegranate, banana, apple, currant, pistachio, dried fig, almond, egg, chicken, lamb, trout, milk, bread without bran, saffron, oregano, and coriander seeds. On the other hand, cabbage, eggplant, onion, garlic, broad beans, lentils, beef, whole wheat bread, and mustard are prohibited. It should be noted that omega-3 content in some prescribed foods is more than that of the prohibited ones. Conclusion: The present study showed that mint, basil, spinach, lettuce, squash, lamb, saffron, oregano, cucumber, pistachio, milk, and also wild trout can be considered as medicinal foods for depressed patients. PMID:25068136

  13. Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes in Iranian Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Khodabandehloo, Mazaher; Roshani, Daem

    2014-01-01

    Context: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global public health problem and a major etiology of chronic liver disease, which may develop into cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Genotypes of HCV indicate the route of acquisition, the clinical outcome, response to treatment, prognosis and control strategies. Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the overall prevalence and trend of HCV genotypes or subtypes in Iran Data Sources: A literature review was done for papers reporting HCV genotypes in Iranian patients in PubMed, Magiran, IranMedex, Scientific Information Databank, and Google scholar databases. Study Selection: Data were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data Extraction: Data were abstracted by two independent authors. Data were analyzed based on random-effects model using the Meta R. Pooled statistical software. Prevalence of HCV genotypes in cities and provinces of Iran with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Results: Fifty-three articles published between 1999 and 31 June 2014 including 22952 HCV infected individuals were included in the meta-analysis. Subtype 1a was predominant with a rate of 39% (95% CI: 34-44%); followed by subtype 3a, 32% (95% CI: 26-39%); subtype 1b, 13% (95% CI: 10-15%); genotype 4, 5.18% (95% CI: 3.27-7.5%); and genotype 2, 3.6% (95% CI: 1.6-8.3%). Untypeable HCV had a rate of 0.11% (95% CI: 0.07-0.16%). Conclusions: The most frequent subtypes of HCV in Iran were 1a, 3a and 1b, respectively. This frequency differed in various provinces of Iran and fluctuated with time. It is important to determine the distribution of HCV genotypes in different geographical areas and its trend with time for epidemiological and patients’ management purposes. PMID:25685164

  14. Lack of Correlation Between the CCR5-Δ32 Mutation and Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Iranian Patients.

    PubMed

    Khorramdelazad, Hossein; Mortazavi, Yousef; Momeni, Mohammad; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi; Khandany, Behjat Kalantary; Moogooei, Mozhgan; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein

    2015-03-01

    Chemokines and their receptors are crucially important in the pathogenesis of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML). The CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a specific chemokine receptor for CC chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3), CCL4 and CCL5 which all play key roles in identifying cancer properties and localization of leukemia cells. It has been demonstrated that the known mutation in CCR5 gene (CCR5-Δ32) leads to mal-expression of the receptor and affect its function. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of CCR5-Δ32 mutation within Iranian AML patients. In this study, blood samples were obtained from 60 AML patients and 300 healthy controls. The CCR5-Δ32 mutation was evaluated using Gap-PCR technique. Our results showed that CCR5-Δ32 mutation was not found in the patients, while three out of the controls had hetrozygotic form of this mutation. The rest of studied samples had the wild form of the gene. According to these findings, it can probably be concluded that the CCR5-Δ32 is not associated with susceptibility to AML in Iranian patients.

  15. Assessment of protein tyrosine phosphatases number 22 polymorphism prevalence among rheumatoid arthritis patients: A study on Iranian patients

    PubMed Central

    Salesi, Mansour; Boroujeni, Golshan Taghipour; Salehi, Mansoor; Karimzadeh, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has been proposed that Trp (620) allotype of protein tyrosine phosphatases number 22 (PTPN22) gene can intensify the susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune diseases. Thus, in this study, the prevalence of this polymorphism has been surveyed among RA patients compared with healthy persons. The samples were selected from Isfahan province (one of the most populated area of Iran). Materials and Methods: In this study, 100 patients (case group) and 100 healthy persons (control group) were participated voluntarily. The case group was selected from people who had referred to the rheumatology clinic of AlZahra University Hospital to follow-up their treatment and change their drugs dosage. The control group members, who were living in Isfahan province, mutually had similar age with patients. On a total, 22% of the case group was male and 75% of the control group was female. DNA was extracted from the blood sample of all cases and controls and the PTPN22 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) C1858> T gene polymorphism were studied using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Results: PTPN22 SNP C1858> T gene polymorphism was observed in 11 persons (11%) of the case group and 8 persons (8%) of the control group. Conclusion: The results show that the difference was not statistically significant in Isfahan RA population (P = 0.47; OR = 1.42; 95% CI 0.55-3.69). Although, another study on Iranian population had shown that this polymorphism confers susceptibility to RA. PMID:25371875

  16. The perspectives of iranian physicians and patients towards patient decision aids: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient preference is one of the main components of clinical decision making, therefore leading to the development of patient decision aids. The goal of this study was to describe physicians’ and patients’ viewpoints on the barriers and limitations of using patient decision aids in Iran, their proposed solutions, and, the benefits of using these tools. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in 2011 in Iran by holding in-depth interviews with 14 physicians and 8 arthritis patient. Interviewees were selected through purposeful and maximum variation sampling. As an example, a patient decision aid on the treatment of knee arthritis was developed upon literature reviews and gathering expert opinion, and was presented at the time of interview. Thematic analysis was conducted to analyze the data by using the OpenCode software. Results The results were summarized into three categories and ten codes. The extracted categories were the perceived benefits of using the tools, as well as the patient-related and physician-related barriers in using decision aids. The following barriers in using patient decision aids were identified in this study: lack of patients and physicians’ trainings in shared decision making, lack of specialist per capita, low treatment tariffs and lack of an exact evaluation system for patient participation in decision making. Conclusions No doubt these barriers demand the health authorities’ special attention. Hence, despite patients and physicians’ inclination toward using patient decision aids, these problems have hindered the practical usage of these tools in Iran - as a developing country. PMID:24066792

  17. Dyslipidemia Prevalence in Iranian Adult Men: The Impact of Population-Based Screening on the Detection of Undiagnosed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Moshiri, Esamil; Mohammadsalehi, Narges; Ansari, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Dyslipidemia has been established as one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Due to the higher prevalence of dyslipidemia in males, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence of dyslipidemia in Iranian urban men. Materials and Methods A screening program was conducted in 845 Iranian men 25 years of age and older in 2014. A health interview survey was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported dyslipidemia and to collect demographic data, as well as serum lipid profile screening by a reference laboratory. Lipoprotein levels was categorized based on the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria and the data were analyzed using the chi-square test and analysis of variance. Results The overall prevalence of dyslipidemia was 51.8%, and the prevalence of various forms of dyslipidemia was as follows: hypercholesterolemia (≥240 mg/dL), 11.4%; hyper-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (≥160 mg/dL), 9.6%; hypertriglyceridemia (≥200 mg/dL), 25%; and hypo-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (<40 mg/dL), 34.3%. With the exception of hypo-HDL, all forms of dyslipidemia were significantly less common in men over 65 years of age (p<0.05). Conclusions The prevalence of hypo-HDL and hypertriglyceridemia was higher than expected in Iranian adult men, with half of men 25 years of age and older affected by at least one form of dyslipidemia. A large gap in primary and secondary care was observed, because nearly 80% of patients with dyslipidemia were unaware of their status. Urgent preventive programs and lifestyle changes are necessary to reduce the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:26770936

  18. The influence of matrix metalloproteinase-2, -9, and -12 promoter polymorphisms on Iranian patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ziaee, Abed-Ali; Yazdanbod, Mansour; Shahpanah, Mitra; Setayeshgar, Aziz; Nassiri, Mojgan

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a zinc-dependant endopeptidase family that can degrade extracellular matrix components. Their dysregulation has been proven in several diseases, including cancer. Genetic variations in MMP promoter regions can alter their expression. The aim of the present study is to investigate the correlation of MMP-2 (-1306C/T), MMP-9 (-1562C/T), and MMP-12 (-82A/G) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) initiation and progression susceptibility in Iranian patients. Material and methods MMP-2 (-1306C/T), MMP-9 (-1562C/T), and MMP-12 (-82A/G) SNPs were detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique in 70 patients and 60 healthy controls. The genotypes and allele distributions were statistically compared in patients and controls. The correlation of MMP-2 (-1306C/T) and MMP-9 (-1562C/T) polymorphisms with clinicopathological features were investigated in 53 patients. Results No statistically significant differences were observed in genotype and allele frequencies of MMP-2 (-1306C/T) and MMP-9 (-1562C/T) between patients and controls (p > 0.05). In addition, no relevance was observed in MMP-2 (-1306C/T) and MMP-9 (-1562C/T) SNPs and clinicopathological features. There was no nucleotide variation in MMP-12 (-82) in the case and control groups. Conclusions This study indicates that these three SNPs may have no significant association in ESCC risk in Iranian patients. PMID:26557778

  19. Landscape of Transcriptional Deregulations in the Preeclamptic Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Vaiman, Daniel; Calicchio, Rosamaria; Miralles, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy disease affecting 5 to 8% of pregnant women and a leading cause of both maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Because of a default in the process of implantation, the placenta of preeclamptic women undergoes insufficient vascularization. This results in placental ischemia, inflammation and subsequent release of placental debris and vasoactive factors in the maternal circulation causing a systemic endothelial activation. Several microarray studies have analyzed the transcriptome of the preeclamptic placentas to identify genes which could be involved in placental dysfunction. In this study, we compared the data from publicly available microarray analyses to obtain a consensus list of modified genes. This allowed to identify consistently modified genes in the preeclamptic placenta. Of these, 67 were up-regulated and 31 down-regulated. Assuming that changes in the transcription level of co-expressed genes may result from the coordinated action of a limited number of transcription factors, we looked for over-represented putative transcription factor binding sites in the promoters of these genes. Indeed, we found that the promoters of up-regulated genes are enriched in putative binding sites for NFkB, CREB, ANRT, REEB1, SP1, and AP-2. In the promoters of down-regulated genes, the most prevalent putative binding sites are those of MZF-1, NFYA, E2F1 and MEF2A. These transcriptions factors are known to regulate specific biological pathways such as cell responses to inflammation, hypoxia, DNA damage and proliferation. We discuss here the molecular mechanisms of action of these transcription factors and how they can be related to the placental dysfunction in the context of preeclampsia. PMID:23785430

  20. Prioritizing the Preferences of Iranian Cancer Patients Regarding Acquisition of Health Information: Strategy for Patient Education.

    PubMed

    Zadeh, Jamileh Mahdi; Fard, Farahnaz Ghahreman; Madani, Raihaneh; Iravani, Homa; Kahouei, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing cancer patients' preferences to obtain health information can help improve and reform the methods of communicating and providing proper services and consequently lead to effective patient education. The present cross-sectional study to prioritize the preferences of cancer patients regarding the acquisition of health informationwas conducted on cancer patients referred to hospitals affiliated to Semnan University of Medical Sciences in 2015. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was developed. In the field of side effects of medications, 50 (46.7%) reported knowing about weight change, in the area of achieving relative health, 62(57.9%) announced awareness about diet, and 45 (42.1%) reported physical complications as a first regarding information needs. In the area of obtaining information, 50 (46.7%) tended to take their information through means outside of the hospital setting. These results can help with design of clinical information systems, as they inform the most relevant and useful coverage designed for cancer patients. Providing useful information through healthcare providers, the media and clinical information systems can act as a major source of social support for cancer patients. PMID:27356722

  1. Physician's acquittal of responsibility in Iranian statutes

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Mahmoud; Pirouz, Amir Samavati

    2011-01-01

    The physician's acquittal has obsessed Iranian legislator's mind to a large extent. This is exclusively observed in Iranian statuses and specifically in Shi’ite school of though. Muslim jurists’ opinions play a very important role in enacting legal articles related to it. After reviewing the literature, the authors tried to pick and collect common features of physician's responsibilities and duties to introduce Iranian Acts with respect to the subject. Also, Iranian Acts are analyzed and the challenging medical topics such as emergency situations and infectious diseases are discussed. Iranian legislator didn’t specify a kind of physician's acquittal which received from the patient knowingly and is based on his/her free will. There are also some medical and legal gaps. Patients are not often informed of all exact and scientific information and results of their treatments. Furthermore, the forms prepared to receive the patient's consent do not provide what Iranian legislator meant. PMID:22091234

  2. Outcome Measure of Pain in Patients with Lumbar Disc Herniation: Validation Study of the Iranian version of Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Azhari, Shirzad; Shahzadi, Sohrab; Nayeb Aghaei, Hossain; Mohammadi, Hassan Reza; Montazeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional. Purpose To translate and culturally adapt an Iranian version of the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ) in Iran. Overview of Literature Instruments measuring patient reported outcomes should satisfy certain psychometric properties. Methods The PSQ was translated following cross-cultural adaptation guidelines. A total of 101 patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH), and 39 healthy cases were included in the study. All participants completed the PSQ and the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, known group comparison, criterion validity and item-scale correlations were assessed. Results The mean age of participants was 51.7 years. Reliability, validity and correlation of PSQ and PCS showed satisfactory results. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.81 for PSQ-total, 0.82 for PSQ-minor, and 0.82 for PSQ-moderate. The intraclass correlation coefficients value was 0.84 (0.616–0.932) indicating an excellent test-retest reliability. The instrument discriminated well between sub-groups of patients who differed in a standard predictive measure of LDH surgery (the Finneson–Cooper score). Total PSQ were also significantly correlated with the total scores of the PCS, lending support to its good convergent validity. Additionally, the correlation of each item with its hypothesized domain on the PSQ indicated acceptable results, suggesting that the items had a substantial relationship with their own domains. Conclusions The adapted Iranian PSQ is a valid and reliable questionnaire for the assessment of pain in patients with LDH. PMID:27340527

  3. Differential Expression of Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Molecules in Fetal-Origin Amniotic Epithelial Cells of Preeclamptic Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Sun; Yu, Ji Hea; Lee, Min-Young; Kim, Ah Leum; Jo, Mi Hyun; Kim, MinGi; Cho, Sung-Rae; Kim, Young-Han

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a common disease that can occur during human pregnancy and is a leading cause of both maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Inadequate trophoblast invasion and deficient remodeling of uterine spiral arteries are associated with preeclampsia (PE). The development of this syndrome is thought to be related to multiple factors. Recently, we isolated patient-specific human amniotic epithelial cells (AECs) from the placentas of 3 women with normal pregnancy and 3 with preeclamptic pregnancy. Since the characteristics of human AECs in PE are different from those in normal pregnancy, we sought to confirm the genes differentially expressed between preeclamptic pregnancy and normal pregnancy. Therefore, we performed transcriptome analysis to investigate the candidate genes associated with the possible pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Pathway analysis was performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) online resource. In this study, we selected a total of 12 pathways and focused on extracellular matrix-related and biological adhesion molecules. Using RT-PCR array and real-time PCR, we confirmed that COL16A1, ITGB2, and LAMA3 were significantly up-regulated, but ITGA1, ITGA3, ITGA6, MMP1, MMP3, MMP10 and MMP11 were significantly down-regulated in preeclamptic fetal origin cells. Taken together, we suggest that the genes and pathways identified here may be responsible for the occurrence and development of PE, and controlling their expression may play a role in communication with fetal-maternal placenta to keep normal pregnancy. PMID:27218821

  4. Differential Expression of Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Molecules in Fetal-Origin Amniotic Epithelial Cells of Preeclamptic Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Sun; Yu, Ji Hea; Lee, Min-Young; Kim, Ah Leum; Jo, Mi Hyun; Kim, MinGi; Cho, Sung-Rae; Kim, Young-Han

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a common disease that can occur during human pregnancy and is a leading cause of both maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Inadequate trophoblast invasion and deficient remodeling of uterine spiral arteries are associated with preeclampsia (PE). The development of this syndrome is thought to be related to multiple factors. Recently, we isolated patient-specific human amniotic epithelial cells (AECs) from the placentas of 3 women with normal pregnancy and 3 with preeclamptic pregnancy. Since the characteristics of human AECs in PE are different from those in normal pregnancy, we sought to confirm the genes differentially expressed between preeclamptic pregnancy and normal pregnancy. Therefore, we performed transcriptome analysis to investigate the candidate genes associated with the possible pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Pathway analysis was performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) online resource. In this study, we selected a total of 12 pathways and focused on extracellular matrix-related and biological adhesion molecules. Using RT-PCR array and real-time PCR, we confirmed that COL16A1, ITGB2, and LAMA3 were significantly up-regulated, but ITGA1, ITGA3, ITGA6, MMP1, MMP3, MMP10 and MMP11 were significantly down-regulated in preeclamptic fetal origin cells. Taken together, we suggest that the genes and pathways identified here may be responsible for the occurrence and development of PE, and controlling their expression may play a role in communication with fetal-maternal placenta to keep normal pregnancy.

  5. Differential Expression of Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Molecules in Fetal-Origin Amniotic Epithelial Cells of Preeclamptic Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myung-Sun; Yu, Ji Hea; Lee, Min-Young; Kim, Ah Leum; Jo, Mi Hyun; Kim, MinGi; Cho, Sung-Rae; Kim, Young-Han

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a common disease that can occur during human pregnancy and is a leading cause of both maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Inadequate trophoblast invasion and deficient remodeling of uterine spiral arteries are associated with preeclampsia (PE). The development of this syndrome is thought to be related to multiple factors. Recently, we isolated patient-specific human amniotic epithelial cells (AECs) from the placentas of 3 women with normal pregnancy and 3 with preeclamptic pregnancy. Since the characteristics of human AECs in PE are different from those in normal pregnancy, we sought to confirm the genes differentially expressed between preeclamptic pregnancy and normal pregnancy. Therefore, we performed transcriptome analysis to investigate the candidate genes associated with the possible pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Pathway analysis was performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) online resource. In this study, we selected a total of 12 pathways and focused on extracellular matrix-related and biological adhesion molecules. Using RT-PCR array and real-time PCR, we confirmed that COL16A1, ITGB2, and LAMA3 were significantly up-regulated, but ITGA1, ITGA3, ITGA6, MMP1, MMP3, MMP10 and MMP11 were significantly down-regulated in preeclamptic fetal origin cells. Taken together, we suggest that the genes and pathways identified here may be responsible for the occurrence and development of PE, and controlling their expression may play a role in communication with fetal-maternal placenta to keep normal pregnancy. PMID:27218821

  6. Quality of life in patients with gastric cancer: translation and psychometric evaluation of the Iranian version of EORTC QLQ-STO22

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Disease and treatment related events, can adversely affect the quality of life of patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to translate and validate a gastric cancer specific health related quality of life questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-STO22) for Iranian patients suffering from gastric cancer. Methods Forward-backward procedure was applied to translate the English language version of the EORTC QLQ-STO22 into Persian (Iranian language). Then, the questionnaire and the EORTC core quality of life instrument (QLQ-C30) were administered to a sample of patients with confirmed diagnosis of gastric cancer. All patients filled in questionnaires before and after one month of treatment. Patients were divided into two groups based on intension of treatment (curative vs. palliative). Reliability and validity of the module was tested by internal consistency and known group comparisons, respectively. Results In all, 105 patients were entered into the study. Cronbach's alpha for multi-item scales (to test reliability) ranged from 0.54 to 0.87. The questionnaire discriminated well between clinically distinct subgroups of patients both before and after treatment lending support to its convergent and clinical validity. Conclusion Overall, the Iranian version of the EORTC QLQ-STO22 demonstrated a good reliability and clinical validity to support its use in combination with core questionnaire in outcome studies of gastric cancer in Iran. However, using the QLQ-STO22 in a wide range of Iranian patients with gastric cancer should allow further confirmation for its psychometric properties. PMID:19715606

  7. A novel deletion and two recurrent substitutions on type VII collagen gene in seven Iranian patients with epidermolysis bullosa

    PubMed Central

    Hamidi, Armita Kakavand; Moghaddam, Mohammad; Hatamnejadian, Nasim; Ebrahimi, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Epidermolysis bullosa is one of the most important series of mechano-bullous heritable skin disorders which is categorized into four major types according to the layer that bullae forms within basement membrane zone. In dystrophic form of the disease, blisters are made in the sublamina densa zone, at the level of type VII collagen protein which produce anchoring fibrils. Type VII collagen gene is the only responsible gene for this form. The aim of this study was to survey causative mutations of type VII collagen gene among Iranian patients with epidermolysis bullosa. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, exons 73-75 were investigated by polymerase chain reaction followed by direct sequencing. Results: In current study, we found three different point mutations in type VII collagen alleles in 7 out of 50 patients. Four patients were homozygous for a new deletion which resulted in frame shift (p.Pro2089fs). Two patients were homozygous for a recurrent glycine substitution (p.G2031S) and one patient was detected with an allele carrying a substitution (p.R2069C). Conclusion: The results emphasized heterogeneity in the type VII collagen gene and will provide a sign for early diagnosis and future study of the disease pathogenesis. PMID:27746867

  8. Impact of ATM and SLC22A1 Polymorphisms on Therapeutic Response to Metformin in Iranian Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shokri, Fazlollah; Ghaedi, Hamid; Ghafouri Fard, Soudeh; Movafagh, Abolfazl; Abediankenari, Saeid; Mahrooz, Abdolkarim; Kashi, Zahra; Omrani, Mir Davood

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome and its pathological sequel, type 2 diabetes are considered as important global health problems. Metformin is the most common drug prescribed for patients with this disorder. Consequently, understanding the genetic pathways involved in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of this drug can have a considerable effect on the personalized treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the association between rs11212617 polymorphism of ATM gene and rs628031 of SLC22A1 gene with response to treatment in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients. We genotyped rs11212617 and rs628031 polymorphism by PCR based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and assessed the role of this polymorphisms on response to treatment in 140 patients who have been recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and were under monotherapy with metformin for 6 months. Response to metformin was defined by HbA1c and fasting blood sugar (FBS) values. Based on such evaluations, patients were divided into two groups: responders (n= 63) and non-responders (n= 77). No significant association was found between these polymorphisms and response to treatment (OR= 0.86, [95% CI 0.52–1.41], P= 0.32) for rs11212617 and (OR= 0.45, [95% CI 0.64–1.76], P= 0.45) for rs 628031. The reported gene variants in ATM and SLC22A1 are not significantly associated with metformin treatment response in type 2 diabetic patients in an Iranian population. PMID:27386433

  9. Effect of the Iranian hospital grading system on patients' and general practitioners' behaviour: an examination of awareness, belief and choice.

    PubMed

    Aryankhesal, Aidin; Sheldon, Trevor

    2010-08-01

    There is considerable international interest in the use of performance measurement and their public release in order to improve the quality of care. However, few studies have assessed stakeholders' awareness and use of performance data. Iranian hospitals have been graded annually since 1998 and hospital hotel charges vary by grade, but this system has never been evaluated. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 104 outpatients at eight Teheran hospitals and 103 general practitioners (GPs) to assess the awareness of and attitudes towards hospital grading system. Only 5.8% of patients (95% CI: 1.3-10.3%) and 11.7% of GPs (95% CI: 5.5-17.9%) were aware of grading results. Patients' awareness was positively associated with their education level (P = 0.016). No patient used the grading results for choosing a hospital and only one GP (1%, 95% CI: 0-2%) reported using hospital grade to influence referral decisions. Patients were more influenced by hospitals' public reputation and that of their specialists. GPs believed that the grading system did not reflect the quality of care in hospitals. When developing performance measurement systems, public release of data should be accompanied by evaluation of its impact on awareness and health-care choices.

  10. The NRAMPI, VDR and TNF-alpha gene polymorphisms in Iranian tuberculosis patients: the study on host susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Merza, Muayad; Farnia, Parissa; Anoosheh, Sabar; Varahram, Mohammed; Kazampour, Mehdi; Pajand, Omid; Saeif, Shima; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Velayati, Ali Akbar; Hoffner, Sven

    2009-08-01

    The natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP1), Vitamin-D receptor (VDR) and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) have been associated in susceptibility to tuberculosis, but the results have been inconsistent. This study aimed to determine the association of NRAMP1, VDR, and TNF-á variant with development of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) among Iranian patients. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at INT4, D543, 3'UTR of NRAMP1 gene, SNPs in restriction sites of BsmI, and FokI of the VDR gene and SNPs of TNF-alpha at -238,-308, -244,857,-863 positions were analyzed by PCR-RFLP among two groups of individual; patients with PTB (n=117) and healthy controls (n=60). Thereafter, the frequencies of extended haplotypes and diplotypes were estimated. No statistically significant differences were observed in allele frequencies of INT4, D543, 3'UTR of NRAMPI, FokI of VDR and TNF-alpha at -238, -244,-863 and -857 position. Although, the frequency of b allele of BsmI [ORs: 0.24 CI95% (0.07-0.67 (p=0.001)] and -308 A variant in TNF-alpha promoter region [ORs:0.26 CI95%( 0.07-0.77) (p=0.006)] were significantly more in PTB patients than healthy controls. The frequency of extended diplotypes of NRAMP [GG TGTG++GA; 0.02(0.001-0.0035)], VDR [FFBB; 0.2(0.6-0.6] and TNF-alpha [CCCCGGGGGG; 0.49(0.25-0.97)] were statistically different in patients and control subjects (p<0.05). This study confirmed the association of SNPs in BsmI (B/b + b/b) of VDR and SNPs in -308A (G/A +G/G) of TNF-alpha genes with susceptibility to tuberculosis in Iranian PTB patients. Furthermore, the extended haplotypes and diplotypes analysis can be considered as an alternative way to determine the host susceptibility to TB. PMID:20231985

  11. Identification of Differential Gene Expression Profiles in Placentas from Preeclamptic Pregnancies Versus Normal Pregnancies by DNA Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haiying; Sun, Manni; Wang, He; Zhao, Ge; Wang, Xiaoshuang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive analysis of gene expression profiles in placentas from preeclamptic pregnancies versus normal placentas. Placental tissues were obtained immediately after delivery from women with normal pregnancies (n=6) and patients with preeclampsia (n=6). The gene expression profile was assessed by oligonucleotide-based DNA microarrays and validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Functional relationships and canonical pathways/networks of differentially-expressed genes were evaluated by GeneSpring™ GX 11.0 software, and ingenuity pathways analysis (IPA). A total of 939 genes were identified that differed significantly in expression: 483 genes were upregulated and 456 genes were downregulated in preeclamptic placentas compared with normal placentas (fold change ≥2 and p<0.05 by unpaired t-test corrected with Bonferroni multiple testing). The IPA revealed that the primary molecular functions of these genes are involved in cellular function and maintenance, cellular development, cell signaling, and lipid metabolism. Pathway analysis provided evidence that a number of biological pathways, including Notch, Wnt, NF-κB, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathways, were aberrantly regulated in preeclampsia. In conclusion, our microarray analysis represents a comprehensive list of placental gene expression profiles and various dysregulated signaling pathways that are altered in preeclampsia. These observations may provide the basis for developing novel predictive, diagnostic, and prognostic biomarkers of preeclampsia to improve reproductive outcomes and reduce the risk for subsequent cardiovascular disease. PMID:22702245

  12. A Multidisciplinary Work-Related Low Back Pain Predictor Questionnaire: Psychometric Evaluation of Iranian Patient-Care Workers

    PubMed Central

    Sarallah, Shojaei; Jamshidi, Ahmad Reza; Joan, Wagner

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Psychometric evaluation design. Purpose Psychometric evaluation of a multidisciplinary work-related low back pain predictor questionnaire (MWRLBPPQ) of Iranians patient-care workers based on the social cognitive theory. Overview of Literature Healthcare is one of the professions in which work-related musculoskeletal disorders are prevalent. The chronic low back pain experienced by patient caregivers can negatively impact their professional performance, and patient handling in a hospital is the main cause of low back pain in this population. Methods This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Qom, Iran from July 2014 to November 2014. A MWRLBPPQ based on nine concepts of the social cognitive theory and existing literature regarding chronic low back pain was developed. Ten patient-care workers first completed the questionnaire as a pilot test, allowing the ambiguities of the instrument to be resolved. Exploratory factor analysis was used to confirm construct validity. This questionnaire was distributed among 452 patient-care workers in hospitals located in different geographically areas in Qom, Iran. Cronbach's Alpha was calculated to assess reliability. Results In all, 452 caregivers of patients with mean age of 37.71 (standard deviation=8.3) years participated in the study. An exploratory factor analysis loaded seven concepts of self-efficacy, knowledge, outcome perception, self-control, emotional coping, and self-efficacy in overcoming impediments and challenges in the environment. All concepts were jointly accounted for 50.08% of variance of behavior change. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient showed favorable internal consistency (alpha=0.83), and test-retest of the scale with 2-week intervals indicated an appropriate stability for the MWRLBPPQ. Conclusions The MWRLBPPQ is a reliable and valid theory-based instrument that can be used to predict factors influencing work-related low back pain among workers who lift and transfer patients in hospitals

  13. Psychological status in Iranian patients with ulcerative colitis and its relation to disease activity and quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaeian, Mahshid; Afshar, Hamid; Roohafza, Hamid Reza; Daghaghzadeh, Hamed; Feizi, Awat; Sharbafchi, Mohammad Reza; Tabatabaeian, Maryam; Naji, Fateme; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychological profile of inflammatory bowel disease patients is not well studied in Iran. We investigated the psychological status of Iranian patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and its relationship with disease activity and quality of life (QOL). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on adult UC patients. The Lichtiger Colitis Activity Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, General Health Questionnaire-12, and WHOQOL-BREF, were completed by the patients. Results: From 120 studied patients, 35 (29.2%), 48 (40.0%), and 46 (38.3%) had significant anxiety, depression, and psychological distress, respectively. Anxiety, depression, and psychological distress were strongly correlated with disease activity (r = 0.357 to 0.439, P < 0.01). Disease activity was negatively correlated with all QOL dimensions (r = −0.245 to −0.550, P < 0.01). Anxiety, depression, and psychological distress were also negatively correlated with all QOL domains (r = −0.356 to −0.789, P < 0.01). In the regression models, anxiety was independently associated with active disease (β = 4.150, P = 0.049). Furthermore, disease activity was associated with the physical health (β = −0.371, P < 0.001). For almost all of the QOL domains, depression and psychological distress were independent predictors (β = −0.296 to −0.453, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Anxiety, depression, and psychological distress are highly frequent in UC patients of our society and are strongly associated with disease activity. Depression and psychological distress are important predictors of poor QOL in these patients. Further prospective studies, as well as clinical trials, are warranted in this regard. PMID:26600833

  14. The study of MED12 gene mutations in uterine leiomyomas from Iranian patients.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Samaneh; Khorrami, Mandana; Amin-Beidokhti, Mona; Abbasi, Maryam; Kamalian, Zeeba; Irani, Shiva; Omrani, Mirdavood; Azmoodeh, Ozra; Mirfakhraie, Reza

    2016-02-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are the most common gynecologic benign tumors of the female genital tract that cause a variety of health problems including, abnormal menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain, placenta displacement, premature labor, and miscarriages. Recently, studies showed that recurrent somatic mutations in MED12 exon 2 are the major cause of uterine leiomyomas in different ethnic groups. In order to validate these results in Iranian population, we performed mutational analysis of exon 2 and the flanking intronic regions by using single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) and sequencing analyses in a series of 103 uterine leiomyomas samples. MED12 gene was mutated in 31.07 % of the uterine leiomyomas. Mutations were consisted of 20 missense (62.5 %) and 12 in-frame deletion (37.5 %) mutations and were not detected in normal myometrial tissue. Although this is the lowest mutation frequency reported so far, MED12 mutations are associated with fibroid pathogenesis in the studied population. Understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyoma will play an important role in designing new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26298726

  15. Mutation analysis of exon1 of bone morphogenetic protein-15 gene in Iranian patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mehdizadeh, Anahita; Sheikhha, Mohammad Hasan; Kalantar, Seyed Mehdi; Aali, Bibi Shahnaz; Ghanei, Azam

    2016-01-01

    Background: With the prevalence of 6-10%, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is considered the most common endocrinological disorder affecting women in their reproductive age. It has been suggested that genetic factors participate in the development of PCOS. Follicular development has been considered as one of the impaired processes in PCOS. Bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP-15) gene is a candidate gene in follicular development and its variants may play role in pathogenesis of PCOS. Objective: To investigate whether BMP-15 gene mutations are present in Iranian women with PCOS. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study 5 ml venous blood samples was taken from 70 PCOS women referring to Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran, between January to December 2014. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood sample by salting out method. Then a set of PCR reactions for exon1 of BMP-15 gene was performed using specific primers followed by genotyping with direct sequencing. Results: Two different polymorphisms were found in the gene under study. In total 20 patients (28.6%) were heterozygote (C/G), and 2 patients (2.86%) were homozygous (G/G) for c.-9C>G in 5´UTR promoter region of BMP-15 gene (rs3810682). In addition, in the coding region of exon1, three patients (4.3%) were heterozygote (G/A) for c.A308G (rs41308602). Two PCOS patients (2.86%) appeared to have both c.-9C>G (C/G) and c.A308G (G/A) variants simultaneously. Conclusion: Our research detected two polymorphisms of BMP-15 gene among PCOS patients, indicating that even though it cannot be concluded that variants of BMP-15 gene are the principal cause of polycystic ovarian syndrome; they could be involved in pathogenic process in development of PCOS.

  16. Mutation analysis of exon1 of bone morphogenetic protein-15 gene in Iranian patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mehdizadeh, Anahita; Sheikhha, Mohammad Hasan; Kalantar, Seyed Mehdi; Aali, Bibi Shahnaz; Ghanei, Azam

    2016-01-01

    Background: With the prevalence of 6-10%, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is considered the most common endocrinological disorder affecting women in their reproductive age. It has been suggested that genetic factors participate in the development of PCOS. Follicular development has been considered as one of the impaired processes in PCOS. Bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP-15) gene is a candidate gene in follicular development and its variants may play role in pathogenesis of PCOS. Objective: To investigate whether BMP-15 gene mutations are present in Iranian women with PCOS. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study 5 ml venous blood samples was taken from 70 PCOS women referring to Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran, between January to December 2014. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood sample by salting out method. Then a set of PCR reactions for exon1 of BMP-15 gene was performed using specific primers followed by genotyping with direct sequencing. Results: Two different polymorphisms were found in the gene under study. In total 20 patients (28.6%) were heterozygote (C/G), and 2 patients (2.86%) were homozygous (G/G) for c.-9C>G in 5´UTR promoter region of BMP-15 gene (rs3810682). In addition, in the coding region of exon1, three patients (4.3%) were heterozygote (G/A) for c.A308G (rs41308602). Two PCOS patients (2.86%) appeared to have both c.-9C>G (C/G) and c.A308G (G/A) variants simultaneously. Conclusion: Our research detected two polymorphisms of BMP-15 gene among PCOS patients, indicating that even though it cannot be concluded that variants of BMP-15 gene are the principal cause of polycystic ovarian syndrome; they could be involved in pathogenic process in development of PCOS. PMID:27679828

  17. Association of nuclear and mitochondrial genes with audiological examinations in Iranian patients with nonaminoglycoside antibiotics-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Balali, Maryam; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Farhadi, Mohammad; Ahmadipour, Fatemeh; Ashkezari, Mahmoud Dehghani; Hemami, Mohsen Rezaei; Arabzadeh, Hossein; Falah, Masoumeh; Meng, Goh Yong; Houshmand, Massoud

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA mutations play an important role in causing sensorineural hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of the mitochondrial genes RNR1, MT-TL1, and ND1 as well as the nuclear genes GJB2 and GJB6 with audiological examinations in nonfamilial Iranians with cochlear implants, using polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and RNA secondary structure analysis. We found that there were no novel mutations in the mitochondrial gene 12S rRNA (MT-RNR1) in patients with and without GJB2 mutation (GJB2(+) and GJB2(-), respectively), but a total of six polymorphisms were found. No mutations were observed in tRNA(Leu) (() (UUR) ()) (MT-TL1). Furthermore, eight polymorphisms were found in the mitochondrial ND1 gene. Additionally, no mutations were observed in the nuclear GJB6 gene in patients in the GJB2(-) and GJB2(+) groups. The speech intelligibility rating and category of auditory perception tests were statistically assessed in patients in the GJB2(-) and GJB2(+) groups. The results indicated that there was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the categories of auditory perception score in the GJB2(-) group compared to that in the GJB2(+) group. Successful cochlear implantation was observed among individuals with GJB2 mutations (GJB2(+)) and mitochondrial polymorphisms compared to those without GJB2 mutations (GJB2(-)). In conclusion, the outcome of this study suggests that variation in the mitochondrial and nuclear genes may influence the penetrance of deafness. Therefore, further genetic and functional studies are required to help patients in making the best choice for cochlear implants. PMID:26889084

  18. Variations in ESR and CRP in total knee arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty in Iranian patients from 2009 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Nazem, Khalilolah; Motififard, Mehdi; Yousefian, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Implantation of joint prosthesis, either in the knee or in the hip, may cause some problems such as an infection, so that a timely treatment is essential. In this respect, discovering a marker detecting the incidence of an infection is one of the requirements of arthroplasty. The present study was conducted to determine variations of two markers in arthroplasty and infection incidence in Iranian patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in Isfahan’s educational treatment centers from 2009 to 2011 on patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) surgical operations. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was measured by Sed rate device (Lena) and C-reactive protein (CRP) by autoanalyzer device (Erba) with the unit of ng/dL. The patients underwent ESR and CRP tests the day before operation, the day of operation, and 1, 2, 5, and 15 days and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after operation. Results: Mean ESR increased during the first 5 days then decreased gradually lasting for 3 months. After 1 year it increased to a level higher than before the operation. The variations in ESR values were 19.1 ± 12.9 before the operation and 21.14 ± 10.8 after 1 year with significant difference (P < 0.001). The level of CRP had an upward trend from the first day after operation and reached its maximum on the second day, then had a downward trend up to 1 month after the operation; however, it did not reach its preoperative level during 1 year. Conclusion: ESR and CRP and their variations can be suitable factors to detect probable infections in patients undergoing TKA and THA operations.

  19. Association of nuclear and mitochondrial genes with audiological examinations in Iranian patients with nonaminoglycoside antibiotics-induced hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Balali, Maryam; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Farhadi, Mohammad; Ahmadipour, Fatemeh; Ashkezari, Mahmoud Dehghani; Hemami, Mohsen Rezaei; Arabzadeh, Hossein; Falah, Masoumeh; Meng, Goh Yong; Houshmand, Massoud

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA mutations play an important role in causing sensorineural hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of the mitochondrial genes RNR1, MT-TL1, and ND1 as well as the nuclear genes GJB2 and GJB6 with audiological examinations in nonfamilial Iranians with cochlear implants, using polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and RNA secondary structure analysis. We found that there were no novel mutations in the mitochondrial gene 12S rRNA (MT-RNR1) in patients with and without GJB2 mutation (GJB2+ and GJB2−, respectively), but a total of six polymorphisms were found. No mutations were observed in tRNALeu(UUR) (MT-TL1). Furthermore, eight polymorphisms were found in the mitochondrial ND1 gene. Additionally, no mutations were observed in the nuclear GJB6 gene in patients in the GJB2− and GJB2+ groups. The speech intelligibility rating and category of auditory perception tests were statistically assessed in patients in the GJB2− and GJB2+ groups. The results indicated that there was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the categories of auditory perception score in the GJB2− group compared to that in the GJB2+ group. Successful cochlear implantation was observed among individuals with GJB2 mutations (GJB2+) and mitochondrial polymorphisms compared to those without GJB2 mutations (GJB2−). In conclusion, the outcome of this study suggests that variation in the mitochondrial and nuclear genes may influence the penetrance of deafness. Therefore, further genetic and functional studies are required to help patients in making the best choice for cochlear implants. PMID:26889084

  20. Principles of Nutrition in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Iranian Traditional Medicine and Comparison with Modern Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tansaz, Mojgan; Bahmani, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age with metabolic and gynecological complications. Despite the high prevalence of this disease, many challenges remain regarding its diagnosis and treatment. According to many studies, lifestyle modification especially diet is the first line of the treatment in PCOS patients. The aim of this article was to study the principles of nutrition for PCOS patients in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) in comparison with modern medicine. Methods: This is a descriptive study done using ITM references such as Canon of Medicine, Exir-e-Azam, Tib-e-Akbari, and the keywords feed, nutrition, lifestyle, and PCOS were searched in modern medicine databases. Results: In ITM resources, the symptoms of PCOS were discussed under the topic of several diseases, including “Ehtebase tams”, “infertility and uterine inflammation” and “urame rahem”. In “Ehtebase tams”, like other diseases, the first line of the treatment is diet based on disease etiology. The most common cause of “Ehtebase tams” is dystemperament of the uterus and ovaries especially cold and wet dystemperament. Conclusion: According to ITM, patients with “Ehtebase tams” should limit cold and wet foods in their diet and more hot, dry, and soft foods are most suitable for them. In modern medicine, reducing of carbohydrates and fats is considered. In other studies, there was no preference for different food groups. These differences may be due to the temperament of foods in the food groups. It seems that by combining ITM guidelines with the findings of modern medicine, a proper diet in these patients can be achieved. PMID:27516680

  1. Variations in ESR and CRP in total knee arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty in Iranian patients from 2009 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Nazem, Khalilolah; Motififard, Mehdi; Yousefian, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Implantation of joint prosthesis, either in the knee or in the hip, may cause some problems such as an infection, so that a timely treatment is essential. In this respect, discovering a marker detecting the incidence of an infection is one of the requirements of arthroplasty. The present study was conducted to determine variations of two markers in arthroplasty and infection incidence in Iranian patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in Isfahan’s educational treatment centers from 2009 to 2011 on patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) surgical operations. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was measured by Sed rate device (Lena) and C-reactive protein (CRP) by autoanalyzer device (Erba) with the unit of ng/dL. The patients underwent ESR and CRP tests the day before operation, the day of operation, and 1, 2, 5, and 15 days and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after operation. Results: Mean ESR increased during the first 5 days then decreased gradually lasting for 3 months. After 1 year it increased to a level higher than before the operation. The variations in ESR values were 19.1 ± 12.9 before the operation and 21.14 ± 10.8 after 1 year with significant difference (P < 0.001). The level of CRP had an upward trend from the first day after operation and reached its maximum on the second day, then had a downward trend up to 1 month after the operation; however, it did not reach its preoperative level during 1 year. Conclusion: ESR and CRP and their variations can be suitable factors to detect probable infections in patients undergoing TKA and THA operations. PMID:27656617

  2. Status of p53 and p27KIP1 in Iranian Patients With Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Etemad-Moghadam, Shahroo; Keyhani, Amanollah; Yazdani, Kamran; Alaeddini, Mojgan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Alterations in p53 and p27KIP1 have been documented as important events in the carcinogenesis of various cancers, but their prognostic role in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains controversial. Objectives: The present investigation aimed to evaluate the clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of p53 and p27KIP1 expression in a group of Iranian patients with OSCC. Patients and Methods: In this analytical cross-sectional study, medical records of patients with primary OSCC, diagnosed from 1994 to 2004 were reviewed and 28 subjects were selected based on the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies against p53 and p27KIP1 was performed on representative archival paraffin blocks. Demographic data along with information on p53 and p27KIP1 expression, recurrence, and tumor grade was statistically analyzed using the Fischer exact test. Prognostic factors for overall survival were determined by Cox regression analysis (P < 0.05). Results: p53 and p27KIP1 expression were found in 28.57% (8 positive versus 20 negative) and 67.85% (19 positive versus 9 negative) of OSCC cases, respectively. There was no significant association between these two proteins (P = 0.371), and neither of them showed a significant relationship with the studied clinicopathologic variables (P > 0.05). In survival analysis, only histopathologic differentiation (17 low and moderate, 11 poor) demonstrated a significant correlation with overall survival (P = 0.048). Conclusions: Despite the fact that abnormalities in p53 and p27KIP1 may be involved in the development of OSCC, their clinical significance in the studied population seems limited. Further investigation on the combined p53/p27KIP1 expression may be helpful in predicting the biologic behavior of this tumor. PMID:26568852

  3. Fetal DNA in maternal plasma in preeclamptic pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Vlková, Barbora; Turňa, Ján; Celec, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Cell-free fetal DNA present in maternal circulation has revolutionized non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of genetic diseases. In preeclampsia, the quantity of fetal DNA in maternal plasma has been studied and found to be higher in comparison to healthy pregnant women. Whether the quantity of fetal DNA can be used as a reliable predictive biomarker of preeclampsia is currently uncertain. This is a systematic review on studies quantifying fetal DNA in preeclamptic pregnancies. Using a PubMed search 22 studies were identified. In all of them, elevated levels of fetal DNA in maternal plasma in preeclampsia were found. In some of the studies, the higher concentration of fetal DNA was observed before the onset of clinical symptoms. This shows that fetal DNA levels might have a potential informative value as an early diagnostic biomarker of preeclampsia. However, in most of the studies important data are missing and there is an enormous variability in the reported results between the studies. From the available data it is currently not possible to perform a meta-analysis due to the variation between studies. If once fetal DNA should be used as a marker for determining preeclampsia at early stage, it is necessary to reduce these variations via standardized protocols for the quantification of cell-free fetal DNA as well as its reporting in the publications.

  4. Association of KCNJ11 (E23K) gene polymorphism with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in Iranian patients

    PubMed Central

    Rastegari, Ali; Rabbani, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Hamid Mirmohammad; Imani, Elham Faghih; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Moazen, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a multifactorial disease with susceptibility of several genes that are related to T2D. Insulin secretion pathway starts with potassium channels in pancreatic beta cells. KCNJ11 gene encodes ATP-sensitive potassium channel subunits. Some studies suggested that KCNJ11 (E23K) mutation increases the risk of T2D. Therefore, present study was designed to investigate the association between E23K polymorphism of KCNJ11 gene and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the Iranian population. Materials and Methods: The type of study was case-control and 40 unrelated subjects, including 20 healthy controls and 20 diabetic patients were recruited (diagnosed based on American Diabetes Association criteria). Blood samples were used for isolation of genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Having extracted the genomic DNA from human blood leukocytes by means of High Pure PCR Template Preparation Kit, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used to detect KCNJ11 E23K gene polymorphism. BanII restriction enzyme was used for digestion. Data were analyzed using Chi-square or Fisher exact test or independent t-test, as appropriate. P < 0.05 was considered. Results: We found that the carrier homozygous for KK genotype are susceptible to T2D (0.049) and in patients the frequency of K allele was higher than control subjects (0.048). Conclusion: The present study suggests that KCNJ11 (E23K) gene polymorphism is associated with T2DM. PMID:25625107

  5. Identification of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms in Iranian patients who are under warfarin therapy

    PubMed Central

    Poopak, Behzad; Rabieipoor, Saghar; Safari, Nazila; Naraghi, Emadedin; Sheikhsofla, Fatemeh; Khosravipoor, Gelareh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although catalytic properties of different genetic polymorphisms of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 products have been identified, there is limited study available regarding warfarin dose requirement in Iranian patient population. This study investigates the impact of these polymorphisms on 115 patients, referred to Payvand Clinical and Specialty Laboratory for determining the appropriate dose of warfarin. Results of the study may be applicable to individuals who are under warfarin therapy to avoid warfarin resistance or intolerance. Subjects and Methods: PT-INR test was utilized as a screening method. Genotyping were performed for VKORC1 and CYP2C9 using PCR method. Statistical analyses including unpaired t-test or ANOVA and regression were done using SPSS. Results: VKORC1 GA was the most common genotype of VKORC1 allele among the study samples, with a rate of 57.4%. In CYP2C9 variant, 20% and 14.8% of subjects carried CYP2C9*1/*2 and CYP2C9*1/*3 genotyping, respectively. By contrast, the WT *1/*1 genotype was more abundant and dominant. The high frequency of VKORC1 (_1639) GA genotype (57.4%), was significant versus for the rest of the cohort (42.6%). In addition, a significant relationship was found between CYP2C9*1 and drug dose (P>0.021). Conclusion: In this study, samples were characterized by higher frequencies of CYP2C9*1 and VKORC1 G/A, determined as higher warfarin taking doses. The results showed a significant relationship of the VCORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms with warfarin sensitivity and severe side effects. Estimating right doses of warfarin to prescribe can help to reduce the risk of over- or under-anticoagulation and subsequently, the risk of thromboembolism or bleeding. PMID:26865929

  6. Neurometabolic Diagnosis in Children who referred as Neurodevelopmental Delay (A Practical Criteria, in Iranian Pediatric Patients)

    PubMed Central

    KARIMZADEH, Parvaneh; JAFARI, Narjes; NEJAD BIGLARI, Habibeh; JABBEHDARI, Sayena; KHAYAT ZADEH, Simin; AHMAD ABADI, Farzad; LOTFI, Azra

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate the clinical and para clinical manifestations of neuro metabolic disorders, in patients who presented by neuro developmental delay in their neuro developmental milestones. Materials & Methods The patients diagnosed as neuro developmental delay and regression with or without seizure at the Neurology Department of Mofid Children Hospital in Tehran, Iran between 2004 and 2014 were included in our study. These patients diagnosed as neuro developmental delay by pediatric neurologists in view of diagnostic /screening neuro developmental assessment tests. The patients who completed our inclusion criteria as neuro metabolic disorders were evaluated in terms of metabolic and genetic study in referral lab. Results Overall, 213 patients with neurometabolic disorders were diagnosed. 54.3% of patients were male. The average age of patients was 41 +-46.1 months. 71.4% of parent’s patients had consanguinity of marriages. Eighty seven percent of patients had developmental delay (or/and) regression. 55.5% of them had different type of seizures. Overall, 213 patients with 34 different neurometabolic disorders were diagnosed and classified in the 7 sub classes, consisting of: 1- organic acidemia and aminoacidopathy (122 patients), 2-storage disease (37 patients) 3- eukodystrophy (27 patients), other classes consisted: lipid oxidation disorders, urea cycle disorders, progressive myoclonic epilepsy; and peroxizomal disorders (27 patients). Conclusion In patients with developmental delay or regression, with or without seizure, abnormal neurologic exam along with positive family history of similar disorder or relative parents, abnormal brain imaging with specific patterns, neurometabolic disorders should be considered as one of the important treatable diseases PMID:27375759

  7. Low Plasma Volume in Normotensive Formerly Preeclamptic Women Predisposes to Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Ralph R; Lotgering, Fred K; Hopman, Maria T; Van Dijk, Arie; Van de Vlugt, Maureen; Janssen, Mirian C H; Spaanderman, Marc E A

    2015-11-01

    Formerly preeclamptic women are at risk for cardiovascular disease. Low plasma volume may reflect latent hypertension and potentially links preeclampsia with chronic cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that low plasma volume in normotensive formerly preeclamptic women predisposes to hypertension. We longitudinally studied n=104 formerly preeclamptic women in whom plasma volume was measured 3 to 30 months after the preeclamptic pregnancy. Cardiovascular variables were assessed at 2 points in time (3-30 months postpartum and 2-5 years thereafter). Study population was divided into low plasma volume (≤1373 mL/m(2)) and normal plasma volume (>1373 mL/m(2)). Primary end point was hypertension at the second visit: defined as ≥140 mm Hg systolic or ≥90 mm Hg diastolic. Secondary outcome of this study was change in traditional cardiovascular risk profile between visits. Variables correlating univariately with change in blood pressure between visits were introduced in regression analysis. Eighteen of 104 (17%) formerly preeclamptic women who were normotensive at first visit had hypertension at second evaluation 2 to 5 years later. Hypertension developed more often in women with low plasma volume (10/35 [29%]) than in women with normal plasma volume (8/69 [12%]; odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-8.6). After adjustments, relationship between plasma volume status and subsequent hypertension persisted (adjusted odds ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-8.5). Mean arterial pressure at second visit correlated inverse linearly with plasma volume (r=-0.49; P<0.01). Initially normotensive formerly preeclamptic women have 17% chance to develop hypertension within 5 years. Women with low plasma volume have higher chance to develop hypertension than women with normal plasma volume. Clinically, follow-up of blood pressure seems warranted in women with history of preeclampsia, even when initially normotensive.

  8. Decreased expression and DNA methylation levels of GATAD1 in preeclamptic placentas.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoling; Li, Jinping; Brost, Brian; Cheng, Wenjun; Jiang, Shi-Wen

    2014-05-01

    Expression of syncytin-1, or the human endogenous retroviral family W member 1 (HERVWE1) in human placental trophoblasts is regulated by DNA methylation. Increased DNA methylation and decreased expression of syncytin-1 have been observed in preeclamptic placentas. The syncytin-1-mediated fusogenic as well as non-fusogenic activities, e.g., cell cycle promotion, anti-apoptosis, and immune suppression, are implicated in the pathogenic changes in preeclamptic placentas. It is noteworthy that in a close vicinity to syncytin-1 there are two genes, peroxisome biogenesis factor 1 (PEX1) and GATA zinc finger domain containing 1 (GATAD1), as well as multiple CpG islands around these genes. In this study we determined if these adjacent genes might, like syncytin-1, subject to epigenetic regulation in preeclamptic placentas. Data from quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting indicated that while PEX1 expression remained stable, GATAD1 expression was significantly decreased in the third-trimester placentas associated with preeclampsia than those associated with normal pregnancy. Immunohistochemistry detected high GATAD1 expression in trophoblast linage, and confirmed its reduced levels in preeclamptic placentas. However, COBRA and bisulfate sequencing detected decreased DNA methylation in levels in the 3 [prime] region of GATAD1 gene in preeclamptic placentas. The positive correlation between 3 [prime] methylation and GATAD1 expression was confirmed by treatment of choriocarcinoma JAR cells with DNMT inhibitor. These data pointed to a potential role of GATAD1 for the syncytium deficiency often associated with preeclamptic placentas. The sharp contrast of the methylation alterations for the closely positioned GATAD1 and HERVWE1 may provide a useful model for studying the accurate control of DNA methylation as well as their positive and negative impact on gene expression in placental trophoblasts. PMID:24462704

  9. Iranian Nurses’ Views on Barriers and Facilitators in Patient Education: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramezanli, Somayeh; Jahromi, Zohreh Badiyepeymaie

    2015-01-01

    Background: As a major factor in patient-centered care, patient education has a great impact on the quality of care provided by nurses; however, clinical nurses’ performance with regard to patient education is not satisfactory. This study is an attempt to investigate barriers and facilitators in patient education from nurses’ point of view. Methods: 122 nurses at Jahrom University of Medical Sciences participated in this descriptive-cross sectional study. Sampling was based on the census method. The questionnaire used to collect data included questions about nurses’ demography, barriers (10 questions), and facilitators (10 questions) in patient education. The questionnaire was designed to be completed independently. To analyze the data, the researchers used descriptive statistics, including frequency, mean and standard deviation. Results: The highest scores related to barriers to patient education were: nurses’ insufficient knowledge, patients’ physical and emotional unpreparedness, and lack of a proper environment for education. The most important facilitators, on the other hand, were: enhancement of instructing nurses’ knowledge and skills, motivating nurses, and a step-by-step approach to patient education. Conclusion: It is important that nurses be prepared and motivated to train their patients. By satisfactory patient education on the part of nurses, patients will be more willing to cooperate in the treatment process. PMID:26156926

  10. The clinical features and diagnosis of Metachromatic leukodystrophy: A case series of Iranian Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    JABBEHDARI, Sayena; RAHIMIAN, Elham; JAFARI, Narjes; SANII, Sara; KHAYATZADEHKAKHKI, Simin; NEJAD BIGLARI, Habibe

    2015-01-01

    Objective Metachromatic leukodystrophy disorder (MLD) is one of the rare neurometabolic diseases caused due to lack of saposin B and arylsulfatase A enzyme deficiency. Materials & Methods Eighteen patients diagnosed as metachromatic leukodystrophy in the Neurology Department of Mofid Children’s Hospital in Tehran, Iran between 2010 and 2014 were included in our study. The disorder was confirmed by clinical, EMG-NCV, arylsulfatase A enzyme checking and neuroimaging findings along with neurometabolic and genetic assessment from reference laboratory in Iran. We assessed age, gender, past medical history, developmental status, clinical manifestations, and neuroimaging findings of 18 patients with metachromatic leukodystrophy. Results From 18 patients, 80% were offspring from consanguineous marriages. A family history of metachromatic leukodystrophy disease was positive for four patients. Twelve patients had late infantile form of this disorder and six patients had juvenile form. A history of tonic type seizure was positive in 20% of the patients and tonic spasm was confirmed with clinical information. Electromyographgraphy (EMG) in 96% of patients was abnormal with demyelinating sensorimotor neuropathy pattern. MRI in all patients showed the leukodystrophic pattern as arcuate fibers sparing and subcortical rim in white matter and periventricular involvement. Our diagnosis was confirmed by EMG-NCV findings with sensorimotor neuropathy pattern and the assessment of arylsulfatase A enzyme function. Conclusion MLD is an inheritance metabolic disorder, which was confirmed by the assessment of arylsulfatase A enzyme function, peripheral blood leukocyte that assessed in a referral laboratory in Iran. PMID:26401154

  11. Evaluation of Serum Adenosine Deaminase in Cystic Fibrosis Patients in an Iranian Referral Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Farahmand, Fatemeh; Tajdini, Parisa; Falahi, Gholamhossein; Shams, Sedigheh; Mahmoudi, Shima

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adenosine, a signaling nucleoside, is controlled in part by the enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA). There are rare reports on the role of adenosine levels and ADA in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess serum ADA in CF patients in order to find whether the severity of lung disease in CF is related to significant changes of ADA or not. Patients and Methods: Venous blood serum ADA was measured in CF patients (3-15 years) and 49 healthy children (3-15 years) referred to Children’s Medical Center. Classification of respiratory and gastrointestinal disease severity in CF patients as well as Body Mass Index (BMI) was performed. The results were compared with values obtained from healthy children matched for age and gender. Results: This study included 49 children of both genders (20 females and 29 males) with CF (mean age: 6.36 ± 2.22 years). Mean serum ADA in CF patients group and control group was 9.38 ± 2.72 and 16.04 ± 1.27, respectively (P value = 0.001). Mean serum ADA in CF patients with normal BMI was higher than in patients with low BMI (P value = 0.002). Conclusions: In this study the lower serum level of ADA was seen in CF patients compared to control group. The clinical symptoms, especially respiratory symptoms, in CF patients might be associated with reduction of serum ADA and rising serum adenosine; therefore, further studies on the use of ADA enzyme therapy in CF patients are highly recommended. PMID:27617063

  12. Marital Status and Fertility in Adult Iranian Patients with β-Thalassemia Major.

    PubMed

    Miri-Aliabad, Ghasem; Fadaee, Mahsoumeh; Khajeh, Ali; Naderi, Majid

    2016-03-01

    Expecting a family is an important component and a great goal for better quality of life for most of adults with β-thalassemia major. The aim of the present study was to examine the marital status of adults with β-thalassemia major. This cross-sectional study examined the marital status of patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia aged over 15 years. Patients' demographic characteristics including age, gender, marital status, duration of marriage, divorce, having or not having children and spouse's health status were recorded. Information about the disease including cardiac and endocrine complications, ferritin level, splenectomy and viral hepatitis were also recorded. Of 228 patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia major aged over 15 years who were treated at this medical center, 32 (14 %) were married. The mean age of married patients was 25.18 ± 4.74 years. Among the married patients, 8 (25 %) were females and 24 (75 %) patients were males. The mean age of marriage was 22.76 ± 4.16 years. The minimum and maximum marriage age was 15 and 33 years, respectively. The median duration of marriage was one year with the range from 3 months to 11 years. Only 8 (25 %) patients (one female and seven males) had children. Therapeutic advances have led to significantly increased survival and improved quality of life and fertility of patients with β-thalassemia major. According to the results, 14 % of patients over 15 years were married which was slightly higher as compared with other similar studies. PMID:26855517

  13. Serum Vitamin D Status in Iranian Fibromyalgia Patients: according to the Symptom Severity and Illness Invalidation

    PubMed Central

    Maafi, Alireza Amir; Haghdoost, Afrooz; Aarabi, Yasaman; Hajiabbasi, Asghar; Shenavar Masooleh, Irandokht; Zayeni, Habib; Ghalebaghi, Babak; Hassankhani, Amir; Bidari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was designed to assess serum vitamin D status (25-OHD) in the fibromyalgia (FM) patients and to compare it with a healthy control group. It also aimed to investigate the correlation of serum vitamin D level with FM symptom severity and invalidation experiences. Methods A total of 74 consecutive patients with FM and 68 healthy control participants were enrolled. The eligible FM patients completed the Illness Invalidation Inventory (3*I), the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) and a short-form health survey (SF-12). Venous blood samples were drawn from all participants to evaluate serum 25-OHD levels. Mann-Whitney tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed and Spearman's correlations were calculated. Results 88.4% of FM patients had low levels of serum 25-OHD. FM patients had significantly higher level of serum 25-OHD than the control group (17.24 ± 13.50 and 9.91 ± 6.47 respectively, P = 0.0001). There were no significant correlations between serum 25-OHD levels and the clinical measures of disease impact, invalidation dimensions, and health status. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that an increased discounting of the disease by the patient's spouse was associated with a 4-fold increased risk for vitamin D deficiency (OR = 4.36; 95% CI, 0.95–19.87, P = 0.05). Conclusions This study showed that although high rates of vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency were seen among FM patients and healthy non-FM participants, but it seems there was no intrinsic association between FM and vitamin D deficiency. Addressing of invalidation experience especially by the patient's spouse is important in management of FM. PMID:27413482

  14. The Motivations of Iranian Patients With Cardiovascular Disease to Seek Health Information: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Mohammad; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Maddah, Sadat Seyed Bagher; Mousavi Arfaa, Nazila

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular patients need information to preserve and promote their health, but not all of them have the necessary motivation to seek relevant health knowledge. Objectives The present study analyzed experiences of patients, family caregivers, and healthcare providers to explore the motivating factors that cause cardiovascular patients to seek important health information. Patients and Methods This study was conducted using a qualitative approach and conventional qualitative content analysis method. Thirty-six people, including 18 cardiovascular patients, 7 family caregivers, and 11 healthcare providers (from multidisciplinary backgrounds) participated in the study. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and purposeful sampling and continued until data saturation. Data collection and analysis proceeded simultaneously and with constant comparison; this study was carried out from May 2012 to May 2013. Results During the analysis process, three main themes were extracted that characterized participants’ experiences, perceptions, and motivations to seek health information. The themes were “Optimizing quality of life, “Desire for personal rights to be respected,” and “Gaining confidence through consultation.” Conclusions Our findings showed that, through seeking information, patients try to achieve well-being and realize their personal rights as well as their right to security. They should also be encouraged to enhance their quality of life by using the Knowles’ learning theory to formulate their needs and learning priorities. PMID:27437128

  15. BCL-1 Gene Rearrangements in Iranian Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tohidirad, Manoush; Estiar, Mehrdad Asghari; Rezamand, Azim; Ghorbian, Saeid; Andalib, Sasan; Jahanzad, Issa; Bahrami, Tayyeb; Sakhinia, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, our aim was to assess the incidence of BCL-1 gene rearrangements in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). The BIOMED-2 protocol was applied to assess the BCL-1 gene rearrangements in NHL patients. PCR amplification was carried out on FFPE in 100 patients with B-cell lymphoma including 89 cases with diffused large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (15 cases under 18 years old) and 11 cases with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Out of the 100 patients, 19 cases (19%) were identified to have concurrent translocation involving BCL-1. The significant association was seen between BCL-1 gene rearrangements and the lymphomas in patients older than 55 years (P<0.05). Out of 100 cases, 80 cases were positive and 20 cases were negative regarding CD20. No significant association was found between DLBCL lymphoma in patients under 18 years old and BCL-1 gene rearrangements (P>0.05). In addition, the positive and negative expressions of LCA/CD45 marker were 76% (76/100) and 26% (26/100), respectively. Our findings revealed that BCL-1 gene rearrangement assays using BIOMED-2 protocol can be considered as a valuable approach in detection of the lymphomas. PMID:27045402

  16. Prevalence of depression and depressive symptoms in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: Iranian experience.

    PubMed

    Zakeri, Zahra; Shakiba, Mansoor; Narouie, Behzad; Mladkova, Nikol; Ghasemi-Rad, Mohammad; Khosravi, Alireza

    2012-05-01

    Psychiatric disorders including depression represent clinical manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Recognition of depression in SLE patients is of utmost importance since it is treatable and can be of fatal consequences if unrecognized. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of depression and depressive symptoms in SLE patients in terms of age, gender, disease duration and severity, and duration of steroid treatment in SLE patients. Eighty-five SLE patients (77 women, 8 men) with verified SLE diagnosis completed Beck's depression inventory, a self-reported measure of depression. Clinical data on disease and treatment were obtained from patient files. In total, 60% of patients achieved scores indicating depression. The most common depressive symptoms in participants were fatigue and weakness (88.2%), irritability (82.3%), sadness (77.6%), and somatic preoccupation (76.4%), while the least common symptoms were weight loss (34.1%), low level of energy (28.2%), and suicide ideation (10.5%). There was a significant difference between the disease activity and the severity of depression (P = 0.0001). Our findings show higher prevalence of depression in our sample in comparison with previous studies, suggesting that the prevalence of depression varies across different populations. Severity of depression increases with more severe disease course.

  17. Hope of patient recovery in the ICU from the viewpoint of Iranian nurses: concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Jahantigh, Mojgan; Rezaee, Nasrin; Rezaei, Nahid

    2014-11-01

    Nurses' care quality for patients in the ICU depends on their degree/ level of hope to improving patient, but there is no consensus on the concept "hoping to improve patient." The purpose of the present study is to analyze the concept nurses hoping to improving patient in the ICU. To analyze this concept, hybrid model is used which consists of theoretical phase, field work phase, and final analytical phase. In field phase work, semi-structured, face to face and individual interviews were done for nurses working in the ICU, and the data gathered from the interviews were analyzed using inductive content analysis. In theoretical phase, the concept hoping to improve patient was characterized by being available, being professional, expecting positively, and being future- oriented. The scientific definition of this concept was explained through properties which are necessary for qualified nursing care. In field work phase, the categories include nursing care, inner feeling, belief and consequences. In final analytical phase, final definition of the concept was explained through properties such as dynamic expectation, being realistic, and being goal- oriented which is a better function and attitude in effective nursing care accompanying peace of mind for nurses. Concept analysis showed that nurse's awareness of hoping to improve patient helps the nurse do his job in the best way and with peace of mind. PMID:25363116

  18. High Prevelance of Rifampin-Monoresistant Tuberculosis: A Retrospective Analysis among Iranian Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Velayati, Ali Akbar; Farnia, Parissa; Mozafari, Mohadese; Sheikholeslami, Maryam Fatemeh; Karahrudi, Mona Afraei; Tabarsi, Payam; Hoffner, Sven

    2014-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of rifampin-monoresistant tuberculosis (RMR-TB) in Iran. Because development of RMR-TB is not common, we also identified the major risk factors associated with RMR-TB reported from different provinces of Iran. Data for 3,020 TB patients who remained or became smear positive after two, four, six, and nine months of standard first-line chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Of 3,020 patients, 1,242 patients (41.1%) were culture and DNA positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Of these patients, 73 (7.4%) patients had monoresistant isolates to rifampin, which was significantly higher than that for multidrug-resistant TB (5.8%). The average rate of RMR-TB in the studied population ranged from 5% to 10%. Classical investigation showed that 33.6% of patients had either a previous or family history of TB. Molecular epidemiology methods (i.e., spoligotyping and Mycobacterium intespersed repetitive unit–variable number tandem repeat), defined transmission link in three clusters (13%). These results outline the urgent need for a comprehensive plan for detection and treatment of RMR-TB cases. PMID:24189362

  19. Incidence Assessment of MTHFR C677T and A1298C Polymorphisms in Iranian Non-syndromic Cleft Lip and/or Palate Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ebadifar, Asghar; Ameli, Nazila; Khorramkhorshid, Hamid Reza; Salehi Zeinabadi4, Mehdi; Kamali, Kourosh; Khoshbakht, Tayyebeh

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. The aim of the present study is to determine the incidence of MTHFR C677 T and A1298C muta-tions in Iranian patients with cleft lip and/or cleft palate. Materials and methods. We screened 61 Iranian patients with cleft lip and/or cleft palate for mutations in the two alleles of MTHFR gene associated with cleft lip and/or palate: A1298C and C677T, using Polymerase Chain Reaction following by RFLP. Results. The 677T and 1298C homozygote genotypes showed a frequency of 36.1% and 11.4%, respectively. Combined genotype frequencies in newborns having oral clefts showed that the highest genotype was 677TT/1298AA (22.9%) and 677TT/1298CC genotypes were not observed. Conclusion. The results showed that 65.6% of all patients had at least one T mutant allele in C677T and 58.9% C mutant allele for A1298C. According to the frequencies of homozygosity of mutant alleles, it could be said that MTHFR genotype of 677TT shows a greater role in having oral clefts. PMID:26236436

  20. Outcome Measures of Functionality, Social Interaction, and Pain in Patients with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: A Validation Study for the Iranian Version of the Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale

    PubMed Central

    Nayeb Aghaei, Hossein; Shahzadi, Sohrab; Azhari, Shirzad; Mohammadi, Hassan Reza; Alizadeh, Pooyan; Montazeri, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional. Purpose To translate and validate the Iranian version of the Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale (CNFDS). Overview of Literature Instruments measuring patient-reported outcomes should satisfy certain psychometric properties. Methods Ninety-three cases of cervical spondylotic myelopathy were entered into the study and completed the CNFDS pre and postoperatively at the 6 month follow-up. The modified Japanese Orthopedic Association Score was also completed. The internal consistency, test-retest, convergent validity, construct validity (item scale correlation), and responsiveness to change were assessed. Results Mean age of the patients was 54.3 years (standard deviation, 8.9). The Cronbach α coefficient was satisfactory (α=0.84). Test-retest reliability as assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient analysis was 0.95 (95% confidence interval, 0.92-0.98). The modified Japanese Orthopedic Association score correlated strongly with the CNFDS score, lending support to its good convergent validity (r=-0.80; p<0.001). Additionally, the correlation of each item with its hypothesized domain on the CNFDS was acceptable, suggesting that the items had a substantial relationship with their own domains. These results also indicate that the instrument was responsive to change (p<0.0001). Conclusions The findings suggest that the Iranian version of the CNFDS is a valid measure to assess functionality, social interaction, and pain among patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. PMID:26713123

  1. Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Covalently Closed Circular DNA in the Plasma of Iranian HBeAg-Negative Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Tajik, Zahra; Keyvani, Hossein; Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Zolfaghari, Mohammad Reza; Fakhim, Shahin; Keshvari, Maryam; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a marker of HBV replication in the liver of patients infected with HBV. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the association between the presence of cccDNA in the plasma samples of Iranian treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis B infection and HBV viral load and HBsAg levels. Patients and Methods: From April 2012 to May 2015, 106 treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis B infection were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The HBsAg titer was measured by the Roche HBsAg II assay on the Cobas e411 system, and HBV DNA quantitation was performed using the COBAS TaqMan 48 kit. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed for the detection of HBV cccDNA. Results: The mean (SD) age of the patients was 41.1 ± 12.4 years (range, 20 - 62 years). From a total of 106 study participants, 67 (63.2%) were males. The HBV cccDNA was detected in plasma specimens in 19 (17.9%) out of the total 106 patients, and a significant relationship was found between the presence of cccDNA in plasma sample of males (23.9%) and females (7.7%) (P = 0.039). Also, a significant correlation was found between the presence of cccDNA in plasma sample of the patients and HBV viral load level (P < 0.0001) and HBsAg titer (P = 0.0043). Conclusions: This study showed that cccDNA can be detected in the plasma specimen of 17.9% of Iranian treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. Therefore, designing prospective studies focusing on the detection of cccDNA in these patients would provide more information. PMID:26504471

  2. Prevalence of intracranial artery stenosis in Iranian patients with acute ischemic stroke using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Shariat, Abdolhamid; Niknam, Leila; Izadi, Sadegh; Salehi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of intracranial artery stenosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke in Iran. Methods: A total of 169 patients with acute ischemic stroke were eligible to participate and were enrolled in this study from January 2012 to February 2013. All the patients were admitted to the Nemazee ‎Hospital, affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. They underwent transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography. Mean flow velocity (MFV) of basilar artery, vertebral artery, middle cerebral artery (MCA), anterior cerebral artery (ACA), and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) were evaluated. Results: A mean of patients’ age was 67.80 ± 8.14 years. There were 83 men (49.1%) and 86 women (50.9%). Overall, 43 patients (25.4%), with a mean age of 66.7 ± 6.2 years, had intracranial stenosis. The number of men and women with intracranial stenosis was comparable (52.4% men vs. 47.6% women). Hypertension (P < 0.001), hyperlipidemia (P < 0.001), and diabetes mellitus (DM) (P < 0.001) were major risk factors for intracranial stenosis. Conclusion: The prevalence of intracranial artery stenosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke is 25.4% which is comparable with previous reports from Iran and other Middle East countries. PMID:27648174

  3. Knowledge and attitude assessment of Iranian multiple sclerosis patients receiving interferon beta

    PubMed Central

    Abolfazli, Roya; Elyasi, Azam; Javadi, Mohammad Reza; Gholami, Kheirollah; Torkamandi, Hassan; Amir-Shahkarami, Mohammad; Etemadifar, Masoud; Nasr, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients permanently confronted with serious challenges from treatment regimen. Developing a new questionnaire in MS management, through evaluation of patients’ perspectives and knowledge regarding treatment will help to identify the sources of tension, and to build a therapeutic alliance. We purposed to describe MS patients’ understanding of their treatments. Methods: About 425 completed and returned questionnaire were assessed of a total of 500 recruited MS patients. The knowledge of correct using interferon-beta (IFN-β) and attitude toward medical care were assessed using self-reported questionnaires consisted of 25 items with validity of multidisciplinary panel and pre-testing on 20 patients. Results: Knowledge about IFN-β therapy was very low; however, attitude was at a high level. Female patients, self-injection ability, higher educational level, normal functional status, delay from the start of diagnostic workup to definite diagnosis, and being younger were related to a higher level of knowledge. Attitude was associated with functional status, family history of disease and the summary of knowledge variable. Conclusion: Developing educational interventions are needed for MS patients regarding to their low levels of knowledge. PMID:25422736

  4. Outcome of treatment in patients with methamphetamine poisoning in an Iranian tertiary care referral center

    PubMed Central

    Paydar, Parva; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Paydar, Hooman; Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Joumaa, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Methamphetamine is the second most widely abused drug worldwide. We performed a study on the treatment outcome of acute methamphetamine intoxication in a referral tertiary care University hospital in Iran. Methods: In this hospital-based, retrospective study which was carried out from 2012 to 2013, medical records of all patients aged 18 to 65 years who were admitted with a reliable history and clinical diagnosis of acute methamphetamine intoxication were abstracted and analyzed. Patients’ data included gender, age, type and route of poisoning, clinical manifestations, duration of hospitalization, and the treatment outcome. ANOVA, Chi-square, and binary logistic regression statistical tests were used for data analysis. Findings: A total of 129 patients with a mean age of 30.70 ± 0.93 (mean ± standard error), including 111 (86%) males, had been fully evaluated. Most of the patients had intentional poisoning (93.7%). In 42.6% of patients, inhalation was the main route of exposure. Most of the patients had complete improvement without any complication (89.1%). Age (odds ratio [OR], 1.05; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.006–1.099), suicide history (OR, 30.33; 95% CI 3.11–295.24), route of poisoning ([ingestion: OR, 0.21; 95% CI 0.05–0.87], [inhalation: OR, 0.19; 95% CI 0.04–0.78]), and pulmonary system manifestations (OR 1.84; 95% CI 1.15–2.93) were predictive in patients outcome (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Methamphetamine poisoning was more common in males with intentional poisoning. Age, past history of suicide, route of poisoning, and pulmonary manifestations on admission could be considered as important predictive factors in patients’ outcome. PMID:26312257

  5. Malassezia yeast species isolated from Iranian patients with pityriasis versicolor in a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Rasi, Abbas; Naderi, Reza; Behzadi, Ashkan Heshmatzade; Falahati, Mehraban; Farehyar, Shirin; Honarbakhsh, Yasamin; Akasheh, Amir Poya

    2010-07-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of Malassezia species in pityriasis versicolor lesions and to examine if the range of species varies with patients characteristics such as: age, sex and family history and also clinical findings such as site and number of the lesions. In a prospective study from July 2006 to July 2007, the patients with a clinical diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor (n = 166) were asked to participate in the study. A total of 116 patients had positive culture for Malassezia species: M. globosa was found in 52 (31.3%) cases, M. furfur in 34 (20.5%) cases, M. pachydermatis in 12 (7.2%) cases, M. restricta in 12 (7.2%) cases, M. slooffiae in 6 (3.6%) cases. According to our data, M. globosa is the main species causing pityriasis versicolor, M. furfur was found to be the second-most frequent species. M. sympodialis and M. obtusa were not found in any case, and in 30.2% of patient's Malassezia culture was negative.

  6. Polymorphisms of genes encoding interleukin-4 and its receptor in Iranian patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ziaee, Vahid; Rezaei, Arezou; Harsini, Sara; Maddah, Marzieh; Zoghi, Samaneh; Sadr, Maryam; Moradinejad, Mohammad Hassan; Rezaei, Nima

    2016-08-01

    As cytokines, including interleukin-4 (IL-4), seem to have a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), this study is aimed at investigating of association of polymorphisms in IL-4 and IL-4 receptor α (IL-4RA) genes with susceptibility to JIA. A case-control study was conducted on 53 patients with JIA and 139 healthy unrelated controls. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of IL-4 gene at positions -1098, -590, and -33, as well as IL-4RA gene at position +1902 were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers method and compared between patients and healthy individuals. At the allelic level, C allele at IL-4 -33 was found to be more frequent in patients compared to control (P value <0.01). At the genotypic level, CC genotype at IL-4 -590 (P value <0.01), together with CC and TT genotypes at IL-4 -33 (P value <0.01), were significantly higher in patients with JIA, while TC genotypes at IL-4 -590 and -33 positions were found to be lower in case group (P value <0.01). At the haplotypic level, IL-4 (positions -1098, -509, -33) TTC, GCC, and TTT haplotypes were significantly lower than controls (P value <0.01, P value = 0.03, and P value = 0.04, respectively). Although, TCC haplotype at the same positions was found to be higher in patients (P value <0.01). Polymorphic site of +1902 IL-4RA gene did not differ between cases and controls. Polymorphisms in promoter region of IL-4 but not IL-4RA genes confer susceptibility to JIA and may predispose individuals to adaptive immune responses. PMID:26951255

  7. Unusual Recovery of Aphasia in a Polyglot Iranian Patient after Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mehrpour, Masoud; Motamed, Mohammad R.; Aghaei, Mahboubeh; Jalali, Nazanin; Ghoreishi, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Aphasia is a language disorder resulting from a lesion in the cerebral cortex. In this case report, we present a polyglot patient who recovered from aphasia by speaking his newly active learned language Case Report A 69 years old male referred with acute onset right hemiparesis and global aphasia. After imaging, he treated with 75 mg r-TPA (0.9 mg/kg). After the fourth day of hospitalization, he could name some objects and some short phrases but interestingly only in French language (although his mother language was Persian). Discussion In our patient, recovery was first in the last learned language and his learning memory was recovered earlier than his native languages. As in our case, we can expect to have different recovery theory that means active learning language could be the first part of recovery in aphasia. PMID:25337377

  8. Bioimpacts of dialyzer variety on phosphorus level in Iranian hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Pezeshgi, Aiyoub; Moharrami, Bahareh; Kolifarhood, Goodarz; Sadeghi, Alireza; Asadi-Khiavi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular events are the major cause of death in patients with chronic renal failure. About half of dialysis patients because of reduced phosphorus clearance have hyperphosphatemia. Hyperphosphatemia and following secondary hyperparathyroidism lead to some cardiovascular changes. Hemodialysis (HD) partly removes phosphorus during each dialysis session. Objectives: Presented study was designed to evaluate dialyzer variation effect on phosphorus level as a prognostic factor after dialysis using. Materials and Methods: Six kinds of dialyzer were used for dialysis; low flux (LF) dialyzer (F7 and F8), high flux (HF) dialyzer (F70 and F80) and finally hollow-fiber dialyzers including polyethersulfone (PES) 130 HF and polysulfone (PS) 13 LF. Fifty-seven patients were divided into 6 matched groups included three groups of 10 people and 3 groups of 9 persons in groups: A (F70), B (F80), C (F7), D (F8), E (PES 130 HF) and F (PS 13 LF). Patients were treated for one month with these dialyzers. At the end of the month, blood samples were taken again for phosphorus level before dialysis handling. Results: The mean pre-dialysis serum phosphorus was 5.03, 5.4, 5.2, 4.6, 4.95 and 5.1 mg/dl and the mean phosphorus was 5.43, 5.01, 4.9, 4.18, 4.17 and 5.3 mg/dl after one month of dialysis, respectively in groups A to F without any statistically differences between pre- and after one month dialysis values respectively. Discussion: The findings indicate dialyzer type in the control of serum phosphorus has not been effective in the short-term HD. We suggest a study with more duration time. PMID:27471742

  9. Predictors and Effective Factors on Quality of Life Among Iranian Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Saied; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Shokri, Azad; Mottaghi, Payman; Qolipour, Kamal; Kordi, Ayan; Bahman Ziari, Najmeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune disorder that leads to joint swelling, stiffness, pain and progressive joint destruction. It is a common disease with prevalence of 1% worldwide that affecting all aspects of patients’ lives. Therefore, this study was conducted to summarize and provide a clear view of quality of life among the patients in Iran through a literature review. Methods: This study was conducted as a literature review over article published between 2000 to 2013, by using data bases comprise of Google scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, IRANDOC, SID, Medlib, Magiran and by key words: “quality of life”, “rheumatoid arthritis”, “Iran” and their Persian equivalents. Finally 2065 articles assessed and according to the aim of the study are 11 studies synthesized. Extracted results first were summarized in Extraction Table, and then analyzed manually. Results: In reviewed articles rheumatoid arthritis patients’ quality of life was measured by using five different tools, the most important one of them was SF36 questionnaire. Among eight dimensions of SF36 questionnaire, the highest mean according included articles result was social functioning with average score of 63.4 and the lowest for physical limitation (physical role functioning) with score of 43. Overall, mean of eight dimensions was 52.47. The most important factors affecting quality of life were disease severity and pain, depression, income, educational, occupational status, married status, sign of disease, fatigue, anxiety and disease activity scores. Conclusion: The results of the study showed relatively low quality of life of rheumatoid arthritis patients in Iran. Empowering patients by participating them in service delivery process and decision making can improves quality of life and in this regard health care provider must be focused on patient self-care abilities and reinforcing this factor by training them. PMID:24167426

  10. Frequency and pattern of idiopathic osteosclerosis and condensing osteitis lesions in panoramic radiography of Iranian patients

    PubMed Central

    Farhadi, Farrokh; Ruhani, Mohammad Razavi; Zarandi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate of radiographic pattern and relative frequency of idiopathic osteosclerosis (IO) and condensing osteitis (CO) in panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: Totally 411 panoramic radiographies were randomly selected from patients referred to Radiology Department of Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Descriptive characteristics of radiopacities, including shape, border, localization, and dental relationship, were recorded. The Chi-squared test was used. Results: IO was detected in 31 (7.5%) patients and 22 (68.8%) lesions had exact border while their shape was mostly irregular. About 17 (53.1%) lesions were apical, and 13 (40.6%) lesions had no relation to the teeth. The most involved teeth were the second premolar (28.1%) and first molar (25%). Moreover, CO was detected in 32 (7.8%) patients. 17 (53.1%) lesions had an ill-defined border, and their shape was mostly irregular (65.6%) with ill-defined border. Around 18 (56.3%) lesions were apical, and 11 (34.4) lesions were apical and interradicular. The most involved teeth were the second premolar (59.4%) and the first molar (21.9%). Conclusion: The results demonstrated that relative frequency of IO in the selected population was 7.5% and for CO, it was 7.8%.

  11. Frequency and pattern of idiopathic osteosclerosis and condensing osteitis lesions in panoramic radiography of Iranian patients

    PubMed Central

    Farhadi, Farrokh; Ruhani, Mohammad Razavi; Zarandi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate of radiographic pattern and relative frequency of idiopathic osteosclerosis (IO) and condensing osteitis (CO) in panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: Totally 411 panoramic radiographies were randomly selected from patients referred to Radiology Department of Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Descriptive characteristics of radiopacities, including shape, border, localization, and dental relationship, were recorded. The Chi-squared test was used. Results: IO was detected in 31 (7.5%) patients and 22 (68.8%) lesions had exact border while their shape was mostly irregular. About 17 (53.1%) lesions were apical, and 13 (40.6%) lesions had no relation to the teeth. The most involved teeth were the second premolar (28.1%) and first molar (25%). Moreover, CO was detected in 32 (7.8%) patients. 17 (53.1%) lesions had an ill-defined border, and their shape was mostly irregular (65.6%) with ill-defined border. Around 18 (56.3%) lesions were apical, and 11 (34.4) lesions were apical and interradicular. The most involved teeth were the second premolar (59.4%) and the first molar (21.9%). Conclusion: The results demonstrated that relative frequency of IO in the selected population was 7.5% and for CO, it was 7.8%. PMID:27605989

  12. Detrimental arterial inflammatory effect of microparticles circulating in preeclamptic women: ex vivo evaluation in human arteries.

    PubMed

    Boisramé-Helms, Julie; Meziani, Ferhat; Sananès, Nicolas; Boisramé, Thomas; Langer, Bruno; Schneider, Francis; Ragot, Thierry; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Tesse, Angela

    2015-10-01

    Elevated plasmatic levels of lympho-monocyte and platelet microparticles (MPs) have been reported in preeclampsia. Previous studies suggest that MPs could participate in preeclampsia vascular impairment. In this study, we investigated the ex vivo vascular effects of MPs from preeclamptic women on arteries from normotensive pregnant women. Omental arteries were collected from normal pregnant women undergoing cesarean section and incubated during 24 h with MPs from normal pregnant or preeclamptic women. Vascular contraction to serotonin and phenylephrine was studied on a wire myograph with or without pharmacological selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and/or cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2). Expression of iNOS, COX-2, and NF-κB and production of superoxide anion and 8-isoprostane were also assessed by immunohistological or biochemical staining and/or Western blot or ELISA assay, respectively. Microparticles from preeclamptic women, but not those from normal pregnant women, induced hyporeactivity to vasocontracturant agonists in omental arteries. Selective inhibitor of iNOS partially restored this arterial contraction, suggesting that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in vascular contractility alteration. Conversely, COX-2 induced 8-isoprostane release, a vasoconstricting metabolite modulating the agonist-induced contraction. COX-2 selective inhibitor almost abolished the arterial contraction in the same vessels. Interestingly, the association of iNOS and COX-2 selective inhibitors restored the contraction to control levels. Moreover, iNOS, COX-2, and NF-κB expressions are upregulated and superoxide anion levels increased in vessels incubated with MPs from preeclamptic women. In conclusion, circulating MPs from preeclamptic women induce vascular inflammation and enhance oxidative stress. These results suggest a possible role of MPs during preeclampsia-induced arterial dysfunction.

  13. Major depressive disorder: a qualitative study on the experiences of Iranian patients.

    PubMed

    Amini, Kourosh; Negarandeh, Reza; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Eftekhar, Mehrdad

    2013-09-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one the most common mental disorders; it affects about 5-10% of the world population. This study explores the experiences of people with major depressive disorder in Zanjan, Iran. In order to identify recurring themes and patterns in individuals' experiences of major depressive disorder, semi-structured interviews with 18 patients were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were then analyzed based on conventional qualitative content analysis. Five main categories emerged. The first category was called emotional paralysis and included the subcategories feeling severely depressed; feeling anxious; feeling impatient and irritable; and having dyshedonia. The second category was disturbance of thinking and was comprised of the subcategories of preoccupation, instable spiritual beliefs, and guilt. Cognitive decline was the third identified category and was further divided into subcategories of frustration, unawareness of the disorder, negative evaluation, indecisiveness, and loss of focus and loss of memory. Another major category was physical illnesses with the subcategories of physical discomfort, sleep problems, appetite disturbance, facial changes, sexual dysfunction, and medical conditions. The final category was failure in life, which had failure in personal affairs, jeopardized interpersonal relations, and unstable work life as subcategories. These findings provide a base for further research in this area. They also have clinical relevance for health care providers working with patients with MDD. Related cultural issues also are discussed. PMID:24004363

  14. Diagnostic Value of D-Dimer’s Serum Level in Iranian Patients with Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Hashami, Leila; Rakhshan, Vahid; Karimian, Hoda; Moghaddasi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a long-term debilitating vascular brain disease with high morbidity and mortality. It may be associated with rise in D-dimer level. The aim of this study was to examine this potential association and identify the critical D-dimer cut-off level corresponding to increase the risk of CVT. This case-control study was conducted on two groups of patients with and without CVT attending the Rasool Akram Hospital (Iran) during 2014 and 2015. D-dimer levels were measured by the rapid sensitive D-dimer assay. Data were analyzed by Spearman’s correlation coefficient test, independent-samples t-test, backward-selection multiple linear regression and multiple binary logistic regression analyses. Sensitivity-specificity tests were used to detect D-dimer cut-off for CVT. Differences between the D-dimer levels of the case and control groups were significant (P<0.001). It showed that each level of increase in the number of symptoms could increase the risk of thrombosis occurrence for about 3.5 times. All symptom types except for headache were associated with D-dimer level, while headache has negative association with D-dimer level. D-dimer cut-off point for CVT diagnosis was estimated at 350 ng/mg. We concluded that D-dimer serum level significantly rises in CVT patients. A rounded cut-off point of 350 ng/mg can be used as a diagnostic criterion for CVT prediction. PMID:27441064

  15. Haplotype analysis of BRCA1 intragenic markers in Iranian patients with familial breast and ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miresmaeili, Seyed Mohsen; Kordi Tamandani, Dor Mohammad; Kalantar, Seyed Mehdi; Moshtaghioun, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Breast Cancer Type 1 Susceptibility gene (BRCA1) is a tumor suppressor gene, involved in DNA damage repair and in 81% of the breast-ovarian cancer families were due to BRCA1. In some clinically investigated genes, the intragenic marker polymorphism is important and the screening of such mutations is faster by using short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphism. Individual polymorphism of STR is a good evidence for following inheritance of repeat polymorphism. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate three intragenic BRCA1 marker polymorphisms in families, which have two or more patients with breast/ovarian cancer in comparison to healthy women. Materials and Methods: A total of 107 breast and/or ovarian cancer patients and 93 unrelated healthy women with no clinical phenotype of any malignancy or familial cancer history constitute the study groups. Haplotyping analysis, at 3 intragenic BRCA1 microsatellite markers (D17S855, D17S1322 and D17S1323), were performed for all subject and control groups using labeled primers. Results: After fragment analysis, significance differences were observed as follows: two alleles of D17S855; allele 146 (p=0.02) and 150 (p=0.006), and two alleles of D17S1322, allele 121 (p=0.015) and 142 (p=0.043). These differences were compared with control group. There was significance difference in 8 di/tri allelic haplotypes in present experimental subjects. Some haplotypes were observed to have approximately twice the relation risk for breast cancer. Conclusion: According to recent results, assessment of presence or absence of mentioned alleles in BRCA1 microsatellite can be used for prognosis in individuals, suspected of having or not having the breast cancer. PMID:27351029

  16. The influence of combined genotypes of the HLADRB1*1501 and CD24 single nucleotide polymorphism on disease severity of Iranian multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Ghlichnia, Hossein Ali; Kollaee, Abolghasem; Gaffarpoor, Majid; Movafagh, Abolfazl; Ghlichnia, Babak; Zamani, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. It is a clinically heterogeneous disorder especially in terms of disease severity. Current investigations suggest that genes and gene-gene interactions not only influence on susceptibility to MS but also affect the disease severity. In this study, we investigated the contribution of the HLADRB1*1501 allele and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in CD24 gene and also combined genotypes of the HLADRB1*1501 and CD24 SNP to disease severity in Iranian MS patients. We have reported previously that the HLA- DRB1*1501 allele and the CD24v/v genotype associated with disease susceptibility and some other studies proposed that HLA-DRB1*1501 allele be associated with MS severity. In this study, the results showed a significant difference in the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS) of the nine different genotypes (F=2.838, P=0.007). Subsequent analysis revealed a statistically significant difference in the MSSS between the MS patients who were carriers of HLA-DRB1*1501/1501 and those who were not carriers of HLA-DRB1*1501/1501 genotypes (P=0.04). Moreover, the MS patients carrying combined genotypes of the HLA- DRB1*1501/x-CD24 v/v had statistically severe disease than the patients who did not carry the HLA- DRB1*1501- CD24 v/v (P=0.047). In conclusion, our findings suggest that, HLA-DRB1*1501/1501 and bigenic genotypes of the HLA- DRB1*1501/x- CD24 v/v may influence on disease severity in Iranian MS patients.

  17. Loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability as predictive markers among Iranian esophageal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Forghanifard, Mohammad Mahdi; Vahid, Elham Emami; Dadkhah, Ezzat; Gholamin, Mehran; Noghabi, Samaneh Broumand; Ghahraman, Martha; Farzadnia, Mehdi; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Variation in microsatellite sequences that are dispersed in the genome has been linked to a deficiency in cellular mismatch repair system and defects in several genes of this system are involved in carcinogenesis. Our aim in this study was to illustrate microsatellite DNA alteration in esophageal cancer. Materials and Methods: DNA was extracted from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues from surgical and matched margin-normal samples. Microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) were studied in 50 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) by amplifying six microsatellite markers: D13S260 (13q12.3), D13S267 (13q12.3), D9S171 (9p21), D2S123 (2p), D5S2501 (5q21) and TP53 (17p13.1) analyzed on 6% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results: Statistical analysis indicated a near significant reverse correlation between grade and LOH (P= 0.068, correlation coefficient= -0.272). Specifically, increased LOH in tumor DNA has a significant correlation with increased differentiation from poorly differentiated to well differentiated tumors (P= 0.002 and P= 0.016 respectively). In addition, higher number of chromosomal loci with LOH showed a reverse correlation with lymph node metastasis (P= 0.026, correlation coefficient= -0.485). Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between addiction and MSI (P= 0.026, correlation coefficient= 0.465). Conclusion: Microsatellite DNA alterations may be a prognostic tool for detection and the evolution of prognosis in patients with SCC of esophagus. It can be concluded that regional lymph node metastasis would be less likely with increased heterozygote loci and addiction with any of opium, cigarette, water pipe or alcohol can be a susceptibility factor(s) for MSI. PMID:27635196

  18. Loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability as predictive markers among Iranian esophageal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Forghanifard, Mohammad Mahdi; Vahid, Elham Emami; Dadkhah, Ezzat; Gholamin, Mehran; Noghabi, Samaneh Broumand; Ghahraman, Martha; Farzadnia, Mehdi; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Variation in microsatellite sequences that are dispersed in the genome has been linked to a deficiency in cellular mismatch repair system and defects in several genes of this system are involved in carcinogenesis. Our aim in this study was to illustrate microsatellite DNA alteration in esophageal cancer. Materials and Methods: DNA was extracted from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues from surgical and matched margin-normal samples. Microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) were studied in 50 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) by amplifying six microsatellite markers: D13S260 (13q12.3), D13S267 (13q12.3), D9S171 (9p21), D2S123 (2p), D5S2501 (5q21) and TP53 (17p13.1) analyzed on 6% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results: Statistical analysis indicated a near significant reverse correlation between grade and LOH (P= 0.068, correlation coefficient= -0.272). Specifically, increased LOH in tumor DNA has a significant correlation with increased differentiation from poorly differentiated to well differentiated tumors (P= 0.002 and P= 0.016 respectively). In addition, higher number of chromosomal loci with LOH showed a reverse correlation with lymph node metastasis (P= 0.026, correlation coefficient= -0.485). Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between addiction and MSI (P= 0.026, correlation coefficient= 0.465). Conclusion: Microsatellite DNA alterations may be a prognostic tool for detection and the evolution of prognosis in patients with SCC of esophagus. It can be concluded that regional lymph node metastasis would be less likely with increased heterozygote loci and addiction with any of opium, cigarette, water pipe or alcohol can be a susceptibility factor(s) for MSI.

  19. Identification of a Novel Cassette Array in Integronbearing Helicobacter Pylori Strains Isolated from Iranian Patients.

    PubMed

    Goudarzi, Mehdi; Seyedjavadi, Sima Sadat; Fazeli, Maryam; Roshani, Maryam; Azad, Mehdi; Heidary, Mohsen; Navidinia, Masoumeh; Goudarzi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori as the second most common cause of gastric cancer in the world infects approximately half of the developed countries population and 80% of the population living in developing countries. Integrons as genetic reservoirs play major roles in dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report carriage of class 1 and 2 integrons and associated gene cassettes in H. pylori isolates from Iran. This crosssectional study was conducted in Tehran among 110 patients with H. pylori infection. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) for H. pylori strains were assessed by the micro broth dilution method. Class 1 and 2 integrons were detected using PCR. In order to determine gene cassettes, amplified fragments were subjected to DNA sequencing of both amplicon strands. The prevalence of resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, clarithromycin, tetracycline, amoxicillin, rifampin, and levofloxacin were 68.2% (n=75), 25.5% (n=28), 24.5% (n=27), 19.1% (n=21), 18.2% (n=20) and 16.4% (n=18), respectively. Frequency of multidrug resistance among H. pylori isolates was 12.7%. Class 2 integron was detected in 50 (45.5%) and class 1 integron in 10 (9.1%) H. pylori isolates. The most predominant gene cassette arrays in class 2 integron bearing H. pylori were included sateraaadA1, dfrA1sat2aadA1, blaoxa2 and, aadB whereas common gene cassette arrays in class 1 integron were aadBaadA1cmlA6, aacA4, blaoxa2, and catB3. The high frequency of class 2 integron and multidrug resistance in the present study should be considered as a warning for clinicians that continuous surveillance is necessary to prevent the further spread of resistant isolates. PMID:27509968

  20. Clinical characteristics, management and 1-year outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndrome in Iran: the Iranian Project for Assessment of Coronary Events 2 (IPACE2)

    PubMed Central

    Kassaian, Seyed Ebrahim; Masoudkabir, Farzad; Sezavar, Hashem; Mohammadi, Mohammad; Pourmoghaddas, Ali; Kojouri, Javad; Ghaffari, Samad; Sanaati, Hamidreza; Alaeddini, Farshid; Pourmirza, Bahin; Mir, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess contemporary data on characteristics, management and 1-year postdischarge outcomes in Iranian patients hospitalised with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Setting 11 tertiary care hospitals in 5 major cities in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Participants Patients aged ≥20 and ≤80 years discharged alive with confirmed diagnosis of ACS including ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI (NSTEMI) and high-risk unstable angina (HR-UA). Primary and secondary outcome measures Patients were followed up regarding the use of medications and the end points of the study at 1 month and 1 year after discharge. The primary end point of the study was 1-year postdischarge major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs), defined as mortality (cardiac and non-cardiac), ACS and cerebrovascular attack (stroke and/or transient ischaemic attack). The secondary end points were hospital admission because of congestive heart failure, revascularisation by coronary artery bypass grafting surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and major and minor bleeds. Results A total of 1799 patients (25.7% STEMI and 74.3% HR-UA/NSTEMI) discharged alive with confirmed diagnosis of ACS were included in the final analysis. During hospitalisation, the majority of the patients received aspirin (98.6%), clopidogrel (91.8%), anticoagulants (93.4%), statins (94.3%) and β-blockers (89.3%). Reperfusion therapy was performed in 62.6% of patients with STEMI (46.3% thrombolytic therapy and 17.3% primary PCI). The mean door-to-balloon and door-to-needle times were 82.9 and 45.6 min, respectively. In our study, 64.7% and 79.5% of the patients in HR-UA/NSTEMI and STEMI groups, respectively, underwent coronary angiography. During the 12 months after discharge, MACCEs occurred in 15.0% of all patients. Conclusions Our study showed that the composition of Iranian patients with ACS regarding the type of ACS is similar to that in developed European

  1. Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus and RNase L R462Q Variants in Iranian Patients With Sporadic Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Babaei, Farhad; Ahmadi, Ali; Rezaei, Farhad; Jalilvand, Somayeh; Ghavami, Nastaran; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Abiri, Ramin; Kondori, Nasim; Nategh, Rakhshande; Mokhtari Azad, Talat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although several studies have confirmed the association of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) and prostate cancer, this association is still controversial, as most studies did not detect XMRV in prostate tissue samples. Furthermore, some genetic and epidemiological studies have highlighted a role for RNase L polymorphisms, particularly R462Q, in the progression of prostate cancer. Objectives: The focus of this study was on the association of XMRV and RNase L R462Q variants with the risk of prostate cancer in Iranian patients. Patients and Methods: In this case-control study, 40 and 80 individuals with sporadic prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia, respectively, were included. The presence of XMRV was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of integrase and nested-PCR for the gag genes. The RNase L R462Q polymorphism analysis was carried out by PCR and sequencing. Results: In a total of 40 sporadic prostate cancer and 80 benign prostatic hyperplasia cases, no XMRV was detected by real-time PCR and nested-PCR. RNase L R462Q polymorphism analysis reveals that although there was an increase in the risk of prostate cancer correlated with the Q/Q allele of RNase L at position 462, the frequencies of the RNase L R462Q alleles were not statistically significant between the prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia groups (OR = 2.75 (95% CI = 0.67 - 11.3), P = 0.29). Conclusions: These results did not support the presence of XMRV in the samples with prostate cancer and showed that RNase L R462Q variants had relatively little or no impact on the risk of prostate cancer in Iranian population. PMID:26744630

  2. WHO quality of life-BREF 26 questionnaire: reliability and validity of the Persian version and compare it with Iranian diabetics quality of life questionnaire in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Jahanlou, Alireza Shahab; Karami, Nader Alishan

    2011-07-01

    There are several tools for the assessment of quality of life (QOL) in diabetes mellitus. In the current research, two standard questionnaires for evaluating of QOL were selected. First one was a questionnaire from the World Health Organization quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF 26) and the second one, The Iranian diabetics quality of life (IRDQOL). The first aim of this study was to reliability and validity of the Persian Version of WHOQOL-BREF 26. The second aims compare it with IRDQOL questionnaire in diabetic patients. A random sample of Iranian adult outpatient diabetics (n=387) was selected and they completed the WHOQOL and IRDQOL assessment instruments. In addition HbA1c was measured in these patients by calorimetric method. Data analysis was carried out by the use of T-test, Spearman correlation coefficient, Pearson's correlation coefficient. Data analysis based on Pearson correlations in the two questionnaires showed all subscales and total QOL have highly acceptable test-retest reliability. Comparison of total QOL and similar domains in the two questionnaires showed physical domain score in IRDQOL was lower than in WHOQOL and it was significant (P<.0001). Total QOL is more highly correlated with social domain and environmental domain in IRDQOL and WHOQOL, respectively. In IRDQOL, spiritual domain is not correlated with physical domain. Calculated parameters of reliability in the questionnaires indicated that stability present promising results in total QOL. In this study, WHOQOL domains have a logical relationship between glycemic control and QOL, but this logical relationship cannot be found in IRDQOL questionnaire. In IRDQOL spiritual domain is a very unreliable domain. We recommend more questions to be added spiritual domain in IRDQOL questionnaire and also distribution of items to be some how equal in four domains. By these, it may help to find some rational relations between afore-mentioned domains and glycemic control.

  3. Gene expression profiling of pre-eclamptic placentae by RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Kaartokallio, Tea; Cervera, Alejandra; Kyllönen, Anjuska; Laivuori, Krista; Laivuori, Hannele; Heinonen, Seppo; Kajantie, Eero; Kere, Juha; Kivinen, Katja; Pouta, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a common and complex pregnancy disorder that often involves impaired placental development. In order to identify altered gene expression in pre-eclamptic placenta, we sequenced placental transcriptomes of nine pre-eclamptic and nine healthy pregnant women in pools of three. The differential gene expression was tested both by including all the pools in the analysis and by excluding some of the pools based on phenotypic characteristics. From these analyses, we identified altogether 53 differently expressed genes, a subset of which was validated by qPCR in 20 cases and 19 controls. Furthermore, we conducted pathway and functional analyses which revealed disturbed vascular function and immunological balance in pre-eclamptic placenta. Some of the genes identified in our study have been reported by numerous microarray studies (BHLHE40, FSTL3, HK2, HTRA4, LEP, PVRL4, SASH1, SIGLEC6), but many have been implicated in only few studies or have not previously been linked to pre-eclampsia (ARMS2, BTNL9, CCSAP, DIO2, FER1L4, HPSE, LOC100129345, LYN, MYO7B, NCMAP, NDRG1, NRIP1, PLIN2, SBSPON, SERPINB9, SH3BP5, TET3, TPBG, ZNF175). Several of the molecules produced by these genes may have a role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia, and some could qualify as biomarkers for prediction or detection of this pregnancy complication. PMID:26388242

  4. The Uterine Placental Bed Renin-Angiotensin System in Normal and Preeclamptic Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Lauren; Merrill, David C.; Neves, Liomar A. A.; Diz, Debra I.; Corthorn, Jenny; Valdes, Gloria; Stovall, Kathryn; Gallagher, Patricia E.; Moorefield, Cheryl; Gruver, Courtney; Brosnihan, K. Bridget

    2009-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated activation of the renin-angiotensin system in the fetal placental chorionic villi, but it is unknown whether the immediately adjacent area of the maternal uterine placental bed is regulated similarly. This study measured angiotensin peptides, renin-angiotensin system component mRNAs, and receptor binding in the fundus from nonpregnant subjects (n = 19) and in the uterine placental bed from normal (n = 20) and preeclamptic (n = 14) subjects. In the uterine placental bed from normal pregnant women, angiotensin II peptide levels and angiotensinogen, angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1), AT2, and Mas mRNA expression were lower as compared with the nonpregnant subjects. In preeclamptic uterine placental bed, angiotensin II peptide levels and renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNA expression were significantly higher than normal pregnant subjects. The AT2 receptor was the predominant receptor subtype in the nonpregnant fundus, whereas all angiotensin receptor binding was undetectable in normal and preeclamptic pregnant uterine placental bed compared with nonpregnant fundus. These findings suggest that the maternal uterine placental bed may play an endocrine role by producing angiotensin II, which acts in the adjacent placenta to vasoconstrict fetal chorionic villi vessels where we have shown previously that AT1 receptors predominate. This would lead to decreased maternal-fetal oxygen exchange and fetal nutrition, a known characteristic of preeclampsia. PMID:19520788

  5. ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 expression is decreased in preeclamptic placentas.

    PubMed

    Chigusa, Yoshitsugu; Kondoh, Eiji; Mogami, Haruta; Nishimura, Fumitomo; Ujita, Mari; Kawasaki, Kaoru; Fujita, Kohei; Tatsumi, Keiji; Konishi, Ikuo

    2013-08-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific multisystem disorder characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Accentuated maternal hyperlipidemia, especially high serum levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), is one of the features of preeclampsia. We previously reported that lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) expression was decreased in preeclamptic placentas. Here, we show that decreased LOX-1 expression is associated with low expression of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) in the placenta. The ABCA1 mediates cellular efflux of cholesterol, and liver X receptors (LXRs) are its predominant transcriptional regulators. Both ABCA1 and LXR expressions were significantly lower in preeclamptic placentas than those in normal controls. Oxidized LDL upregulated ABCA1 expression, while LOX-1 blockade resulted in the alleviation of increasing ABCA1 messenger RNA in JAR cells. These results suggest that low LOX-1 expression may lead to insufficient oxLDL uptake, thereby contributing to reduced LXR activation and decreased ABCA1 expression in preeclamptic placentas. PMID:23275468

  6. Gene expression profiling of pre-eclamptic placentae by RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kaartokallio, Tea; Cervera, Alejandra; Kyllönen, Anjuska; Laivuori, Krista

    2015-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a common and complex pregnancy disorder that often involves impaired placental development. In order to identify altered gene expression in pre-eclamptic placenta, we sequenced placental transcriptomes of nine pre-eclamptic and nine healthy pregnant women in pools of three. The differential gene expression was tested both by including all the pools in the analysis and by excluding some of the pools based on phenotypic characteristics. From these analyses, we identified altogether 53 differently expressed genes, a subset of which was validated by qPCR in 20 cases and 19 controls. Furthermore, we conducted pathway and functional analyses which revealed disturbed vascular function and immunological balance in pre-eclamptic placenta. Some of the genes identified in our study have been reported by numerous microarray studies (BHLHE40, FSTL3, HK2, HTRA4, LEP, PVRL4, SASH1, SIGLEC6), but many have been implicated in only few studies or have not previously been linked to pre-eclampsia (ARMS2, BTNL9, CCSAP, DIO2, FER1L4, HPSE, LOC100129345, LYN, MYO7B, NCMAP, NDRG1, NRIP1, PLIN2, SBSPON, SERPINB9, SH3BP5, TET3, TPBG, ZNF175). Several of the molecules produced by these genes may have a role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia, and some could qualify as biomarkers for prediction or detection of this pregnancy complication. PMID:26388242

  7. Premedication with midazolam prior to cesarean delivery in preeclamptic parturients: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtar, Ali M.; Elsakka, Ahmed I.; Ali, Hassan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anxiety is a concern in obstetrics, especially in preeclamptic mothers. Sedation is not commonly used in parturients for fear of adverse neonatal effect. We investigated maternal and neonatal outcome of midazolam as an adjuvant to spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial, in which eighty preeclamptic parturients received either an intravenous dose of 0.035 mg/kg of midazolam or an equal volume of normal saline, 30 min before spinal anesthesia. Maternal anxiety was assessed using Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS); postoperative maternal satisfaction was assessed using Maternal Satisfaction Scale for Cesarean Section (MSSCS). Newborns were assessed using Apgar score, Neonatal Neurologic and Adaptive Capacity Score (NACS), and umbilical artery blood gases. Results: Mothers premedicated with midazolam showed a lower level of preoperative anxiety and a higher degree of postoperative satisfaction than the control group. There were no between-group differences regarding the neonatal outcome. Conclusion: Preeclamptic parturients premedicated with midazolam (0.035 mg/kg) before spinal anesthesia have lower anxiety and higher postoperative satisfaction levels, with no adverse effects on the newborns. PMID:27746564

  8. The Iranian Documentation Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, John F.

    The purpose of the Iranian Documentation Centr (Irandoc) was to collect that portion of the world's literature which was pertinent to Iran's research interests, to organize that material, and to promote its use by Iranian researchers. Stated more succinctly, Irandoc's purpose was to obtain ready access to the world's scientific literature in order…

  9. CCR5 on the NK Cells and its Ligand (RANTES) Expressions are Disrupted in South-Eastern Iranian Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaee, Vahid; Shahriari, Jahanbano; Hajghani, Masomeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: CCR5 is a receptor for CCL3 (MIP-1 α), CCL4 (MIP-1 α) and CCL5 (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES)) and play important roles in recruitment of NK cells to the HBV infected liver. Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the expression levels of CCR5 on the NK cells and also serum levels of RANTES in chronic HBV infected (CHI) patients. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study 63 CHI patients and 96 healthy controls were evaluated regarding CCR5 expression on the NK cells and serum levels of RANTES using flow cytometry and ELISA techniques, respectively. Real-Time PCR technique also was used for HBV-DNA quantification. Results: The results revealed that CCR5 expressing NK cells and serum levels of RANTES were decreased significantly in the CHI patients in compare to healthy control. Conclusions: Based on the results it can be concluded that NK cells of Iranian CHI patients are unable to express adequate levels of CCR5 and expression levels of RANTES by immune cells also are defected in CHI patients, hence, the migration of NK cells to the infected hepatocytes and HBV eradication from the cells is interrupted. PMID:24910790

  10. MicroRNA-141 is upregulated in preeclamptic placentae and regulates trophoblast invasion and intercellular communication.

    PubMed

    Ospina-Prieto, Stephanie; Chaiwangyen, Wittaya; Herrmann, Jörg; Groten, Tanja; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Markert, Udo R; Morales-Prieto, Diana M

    2016-06-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Abnormal expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) occurs in several pregnancy diseases including PE. Placental trophoblast cells express a specific set of miRNAs which changes during pregnancy. These miRNAs can be released within extracellular vesicles (EVs) and mediate intercellular communication. miR-141 is a pregnancy-related miRNA which is expressed by trophoblast cells at increased levels in maternal plasma in the third trimester. We hypothesize that miR-141 is abnormally expressed in PE placentae, controls trophoblast, and immune cell functions and is involved in the intercellular communication between fetal trophoblast and maternal immune cells. Expression of miR-141 was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in normal and preeclamptic placentae and in 2 different trophoblastic cell lines, JEG-3 and HTR-8/SVneo. Changes in JEG-3 and HTR-8/SVneo cell proliferation and invasion were investigated after miR-141 inhibition and overexpression by MTS-, BrdU-, and Matrigel assays. EVs from miR-141 transfected cells were isolated from supernatants and characterized by NanoSight analysis and qPCR. Proliferation of Jurkat T cells and invasion of HTR-8/SVneo cells were investigated after treatment with EVs containing different miR-141 levels. miR-141 expression was higher in placentae from PE patients compared with those from normal pregnancies. miR-141 inhibition in trophoblastic cells resulted in decreased cell viability and reduced invasion capability. After transfection with miR-141-mimic, trophoblastic cells secreted EVs with increased miR-141 content. These vesicles did not exert effects on trophoblastic cell invasion but reduced Jurkat T cell proliferation. In conclusion, miR-141 regulates major functions of trophoblastic and immune cells. Trophoblast cells release EVs whose miRNA content can be modified by transfection of origin cells. Furthermore

  11. Moral Distress among Iranian Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Tabatabaei, Shahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the moral distress among Iranian registered nurses. Methods: This was a descriptive –analytic study, in which 264 out of 1000 nurses were randomly selected as a sample group and completed the questionnaire. The nurses’ moral distress was assessed using Corley’s 30-item Moral Distress Scale adapted for use in an Iranian population. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 19. Results: In this study, no correlation was found between the level of moral distress and any of the demographic data. The mean moral distress score ranged from 3.56 to 5.83, indicating moderate to high levels of moral distress. The item with the highest mean score was “working with unsafe levels of nurse staffing”. The item with the lowest mean score was “giving medication intravenously to a patient who has refused to take it”. Nurses working in EMS and NICU units had the highest levels of moral distress. Conclusion: A higher degree of moral distress is observed among nurses who work in health care systems. The results of this study highly recommend practical and research-oriented evaluation of moral distress in the medical society in Iran. Our findings suggest that Iranian version of MDS is a reliable instrument to measure moral distress in nurses. PMID:26005478

  12. The Study of HFE Genotypes and Its Expression Effect on Iron Status of Iranian Haemochromatosis, Iron Deficiency Anemia Patients, Iron-Taker and Non Iron-Taker Controls.

    PubMed

    Beiranvand, Elham; Abediankenari, Saeid; Rostamian, Mosayeb; Beiranvand, Behnoush; Naazeri, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    The role of HFE gene mutations or its expression in regulation of iron metabolism of hereditary haemochromatosis (HH) patients is remained controversial. Therefore here the correlation between two common HFE genotype (p.C282Y, p.H63D) and HFE gene expression with iron status in HH, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and healthy Iranian participants was studied. For this purpose genotype determination was done by polymerase chain reaction--restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Real-Time PCR was applied for evaluation of HFE gene expression. Biochemical parameters and iron consumption were also assessed. Homozygote p.H63D mutation was seen in all HH patients and p.C282Y was not observed in any member of the population. A significant correlation was observed between serum ferritin (SF) level and gender or age of HH patients. p.H63D homozygote was seen to be able to significantly increase SF and transferrin saturation (TS) level without affecting on liver function. Our results also showed that iron consumption affects on TS level increasing. HFE gene expression level of IDA patients was significantly higher than other groups. Also the HFE gene expression was negatively correlated with TS. Finally, the main result of our study showed that loss of HFE function in HH is not derived from its gene expression inhibition and much higher HFE gene expression might lead to IDA. However we propose repeating of the study for more approval of our finding.

  13. Investigation of FOXP3 genetic variations at positions -2383 C/T and IVS9+459 T/C in southern Iranian patients with lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fazelzadeh Haghighi, Maryam; Ghayumi, Mohammad Ali; Behzadnia, Farzane; Erfani, Nasrollah

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): FOXP3 gene is an X-linked gene that encodes FOXP3 protein, an essential transcription factor in CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells. We aimed, in the present study, to investigate the association of two FOXP3 polymorphisms, -2383 C/T (rs3761549) and IVS9+459 T/C (rs2280883), with lung cancer. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study we analyzed genotypes and alleles frequencies at -2383 C/T and IVS9+459 T/C positions in 156 patients with lung cancer and 156 age and sex matched healthy controls in Southern Iranian population, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods. The data were verified by direct automated DNA sequencing. Results: The frequency of -2383 T allele was significantly higher in the patients than in the control group (11.8% versus 5.9%, P-value=0.04, OR=2.13, 95%CI=1.04-4.54). T allele frequency at IVS9+459 T/C position was higher, compared to the controls, in the patients who presented the disease over 55 years old (69.9% versus 59.1%, P-value=0.04, OR=1.61, 95%CI=1.01-2.55) and also in SCLC patients (77.8% versus 59.1%, P-value=0.03, OR=2.42, 95%CI=1.05-5.59). No significant differences were found in the genotypes and haplotypes distributions between the cases and controls. A high degree of linkage disequilibrium was observed between two polymorphisms. Conclusion: As the first study dealing with -2383 C/T and IVS9+459 T/C in lung cancer, our data conclusively suggest the association of -2383 T allele with susceptibility to lung cancer in Iranian population. The association of IVS9+459 T allele with susceptibility to lung cancer in old patients suggests the age-dependent effects of FOXP3 gene on cancer occurrence. PMID:26124932

  14. Evaluation of the Iranian versions of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) and the Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Bidad, Katayoon; Fallahi, Sasan; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Jamshidi, Ahmadreza; Farhadi, Elham; Meysamie, Alipasha; Nicknam, Mohammad Hossein

    2012-11-01

    The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) are widely used instruments in assessment of patients suffering from ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS) is regarded as a target for patients' well-being. The aim of this study was to translate and adapt BASDAI, BASFI and PASS into the Iranian official language, Farsi, and evaluate their reliability and validity. Ninety patients with AS were included in this study. The questionnaires were translated into Farsi and back translated into English, modified until the final versions were approved with minor adaptations and the VAS was changed to numerical rating scales from 0 to 10. Forty-eight-hour test-retest agreement showed good reliability: interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for BASDAI was 0.93 (CI at 95%, 0.90-0.95), for BASFI was 0.96 (CI at 95%, 0.94-0.97) and for PASS was 0.87 (CI at 95%, 0.79-0.92). Chronbach's alpha was 0.95, 0.96 and 0.87 for BASDAI, BASFI and PASS, respectively. BASDAI showed a significant correlation with patient global disease activity index, nocturnal back pain, total back pain, number of swollen joints, number of enthesites, morning stiffness, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Global Score (BAS-G), BASFI and BASMI. A significant correlation was also found between BASFI and occiput-to-wall distance, mentum-to-sternum distance, chest expansion, finger-to-floor distance, number of swollen joints, number of enthesites, nocturnal back pain, total back pain, BAS-G, BASDAI and BASMI. Patients who answered "no" to PASS (found their condition unsatisfactory) reported significantly increased pain scores, patient global disease activity scores, BAS-G, BASDAI and BASFI scores. The results showed that the Iranian versions of BASDAI, BASFI and PASS are adequately reliable and valid in patients with AS.

  15. Fifteen novel mutations in the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1, 2, 3, 4, 4L, 5 and 6 genes from Iranian patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON).

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Zahra; Didari, Elmira; Arastehkani, Ahoura; Ghodsinejad, Vadieh; Aryani, Omid; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Houshmand, Massoud

    2013-12-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is an optic nerve dysfunction resulting from mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is transmitted in a maternal pattern of inheritance. It is caused by three primary point mutations: G11778A, G3460A and T14484C; in the mitochondrial genome. These mutations are sufficient to induce the disease, accounting for the majority of LHON cases, and affect genes that encode for the different subunits of mitochondrial complexes I and III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Other mutations are secondary mutations associated with the primary mutations. The purpose of this study was to determine MT-ND variations in Iranian patients with LHON. In order to determine the prevalence and distribution of mitochondrial mutations in the LHON patients, their DNA was studied using PCR and DNA sequencing analysis. Sequencing of MT-ND genes from 35 LHON patients revealed a total of 44 nucleotide variations, in which fifteen novel variations-A14020G, A13663G, C10399T, C4932A, C3893G, C10557A, C12012A, C13934T, G4596A, T12851A, T4539A, T4941A, T13255A, T14353C and del A 4513-were observed in 27 LHON patients. However, eight patients showed no variation in the ND genes. These mutations contribute to the current database of mtDNA polymorphisms in LHON patients and may facilitate the definition of disease-related mutations in human mtDNA. This research may help to understand the disease mechanism and open up new diagnostic opportunities for LHON.

  16. Analysis of Helicobacter pylori Genotypes in Afghani and Iranian Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Dabrii, Hossein; Bolfion, Mehdi; Mirsalehian, Akbar; Rezadehbashi, Maryam; Jafari, Fereshteh; Shokrzadeh, Leila; Sahebekhtiari, Navid; Zojaji, Homayon; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Mirsattari, Darioush; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    The geographical variation in Helicobacter pylori genotypes is an observed phenomenon. Cytotoxin associated genes A (cagA) and E (cagE), and vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) genotypes of H. pylori are associated with peptic ulcer disease (PUD). This study compared the distribution of these genotypes in Iranian and Afghani isolates and their association with clinical outcomes. H. pylori infected patients, as proven by positive culture, were recruited prospectively. A total of 70 patients, 55 Iranian (26 men and 29 women, mean age 48±18 years) and 15 Afghani immigrants (13 men and 2 women, mean age 34.8±11 years) living in Tehran, Iran were enrolled in this study. DNA was extracted from isolated H. pylori and polymerase chain reaction was carried out to determine the cagA and cagE status and vacA alleles. The number of gastric cancer, peptic ulcer and gastritis cases was 11, 23 and 36, respectively. The cagA positive isolates were more common in Iranian (67%) than Afghani isolates (60%). cagE was positive in 53% of Afghani compared to 51% of Iranian isolates. The most common vacA s-region genotype was s1; 80% in Afghani and 67% in Iranian. The s1m1 was a frequently observed genotype in Afghani strains (53%) while s1m2 (47%) was more common in strains isolated from Iranian patients. There is a difference in the H. pylori strains between Iranian and Afghani groups, for instance Iranian isolates were similar to European isolates while Afghani isolates were similar to isolates from India. However, there was no significant association between cagA, cagE and vacA genotypes and clinical outcomes in Iranian and Afghani patients. PMID:20568532

  17. Lack of Association between ESR1 and CYP1A1 Gene Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Uterine Leiomyoma in Female Patients of Iranian Descent

    PubMed Central

    Taghizade Mortezaee, Fatemeh; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Hashemzadeh Chaleshtori, Morteza; Miraj, Sepideh

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyoma (UL) is the most common benign smooth muscle cell tumor with as yet unknown etiology and pathogenesis. This study was carried out to investigate the association of ESR1-351 A>G, ESR1 -397 T>C and CYP1A1 (Ile462Val) polymorphisms with UL in female patients of Iranian origin. In this case-control study, 276 patients with UL and 156 healthy women were recruited. The genetic polymorphisms ESR1-351 A>G, ESR1-397 T>C and CYP1A1 (Ile462Val) were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). No significant difference were found in frequencies of both genotypes and alleles of ESR1-351 A>G, ESR1-397 T>C and CYP1A1 (Ile462Val) polymorphisms between the two groups (p>0.05). Our findings indicated that these ESR1 and CYP1A1 polymorphisms were not associated with the development of UL in the cases reported here. PMID:24567938

  18. An Outcome Measure of Functionality and Pain in Patients with Low Back Disorder: A Validation Study of the Iranian version of Low Back Outcome Score

    PubMed Central

    Nayeb Aghaei, Hossein; Azhari, Shirzad; Shazadi, Sohrab; Khayat Kashany, Hamid; Mohammadi, Hassan Reza; Montazeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Purpose This study aimed to cross-culturally translate and validate the low back outcome score (LBOS) in Iran. Overview of Literature Lumbar disc hernia (LDH) is the most common diagnoses of low back pain and imposes a heavy burden on both individual and society. Instruments measuring patient reported outcomes should satisfy cetain psychometric properties. Methods The translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the original questionnaire was performed using Beaton's guideline. A total of 163 patients with LDH were asked to respond to the questionnaire at three points in time: preoperative and twice within 1-week interval after surgery assessments. The Oswestry disabilty index (ODI) was also completed. The internal consistency, test-retest, convergent validity, and responsiveness to change were assessed. Responsiveness to change also was assessed comparing patients' pre- and postoperative scores. Results The mean age of the cohort was 49.8 years (standard deviation=10.1). The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the LBOS at preoperative and postoperative assessments ranged from 0.77 to 0.79, indicating good internal consistency. Test-retest reliability as performed by intraclass correlation coefficient was found to be 0.82 (0.62–0.91). The instrument discriminated well between sub-groups of patients who differed in the Finneson-Cooper score. The ODI correlated strongly with the LBOS score, lending support to its good convergent validity (r=––0.83; p<0.001). Further analysis also indicated that the questionnaire was responsive to change (p<0.001). Conclusions The Iranian version of LBOS performed well and the findings suggest that it is a valid measure of back pain treatment evaluation among LDH patients. PMID:27559453

  19. The Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Core Amino Acid 70 Substitution and Genotypes of Polymorphisms Near the IFNL3 Gene in Iranian Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Kadjbaf, Danesh; Keshvari, Maryam; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Pouryasin, Ali; Behnava, Bita; Salimi, Shima; Mehrnoush, Leila; Karimi Elizee, Pegah; Sharafi, Heidar

    2016-01-01

    Background Molecular studies have demonstrated that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype and host genetics play predictive roles in the management of patients infected with HCV. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the HCV genotype, core amino acid (aa) 70 substitution, and polymorphisms near the IFNL3 gene (including rs12979860 and rs8099917) among Iranian patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the molecular profiles of the HCV genotype, core aa 70 substitution, and rs12979860 and rs8099917 polymorphisms and plasma HCV RNA levels were determined in 429 CHC patients including 141 hemophilic, 84 thalassemic, and 204 non-hemophilic, non-thalassemic patients. Results The hepatitis C virus subtype 1a was the most common subtype in the study population. Core aa substitution Arg70Gln was strongly associated with cirrhosis (OR = 2.49; 95% CI = 1.13 - 5.50; P = 0.020). Core aa 70 substitutions were more frequently observed in patients with the HCV subtype 1b than in patients with any other HCV subtypes (P < 0.001). Core aa 70 substitutions were also more common in patients with the rs12979860 TT genotype than in patients with non-TT genotypes (17.3% vs. 8.5%, P = 0.022) and also in rs8099917 non-TT genotypes than in the TT genotype (14.0% vs. 7.0%, P = 0.026). The HCV genotypes and rs8099917 polymorphisms were correlated in which HCV subtype 1b was in favor of rs8099917 GG and HCV subtype 3a favored rs8099917 TT (P = 0.021). Furthermore, the rs12979860 TT and rs8099917 GG genotypes showed significantly lower HCV RNA levels than the other genotypes (P < 0.001). Conclusions There is an as yet unexplained association between HCV and host parameters with unknown mechanisms in patients with chronic HCV infection. The assessments of core aa 70 substitution and polymorphisms near the IFNL3 gene could offer promising steps to improve the management of patients with HCV.

  20. The Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Core Amino Acid 70 Substitution and Genotypes of Polymorphisms Near the IFNL3 Gene in Iranian Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Kadjbaf, Danesh; Keshvari, Maryam; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Pouryasin, Ali; Behnava, Bita; Salimi, Shima; Mehrnoush, Leila; Karimi Elizee, Pegah; Sharafi, Heidar

    2016-01-01

    Background Molecular studies have demonstrated that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype and host genetics play predictive roles in the management of patients infected with HCV. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the HCV genotype, core amino acid (aa) 70 substitution, and polymorphisms near the IFNL3 gene (including rs12979860 and rs8099917) among Iranian patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the molecular profiles of the HCV genotype, core aa 70 substitution, and rs12979860 and rs8099917 polymorphisms and plasma HCV RNA levels were determined in 429 CHC patients including 141 hemophilic, 84 thalassemic, and 204 non-hemophilic, non-thalassemic patients. Results The hepatitis C virus subtype 1a was the most common subtype in the study population. Core aa substitution Arg70Gln was strongly associated with cirrhosis (OR = 2.49; 95% CI = 1.13 - 5.50; P = 0.020). Core aa 70 substitutions were more frequently observed in patients with the HCV subtype 1b than in patients with any other HCV subtypes (P < 0.001). Core aa 70 substitutions were also more common in patients with the rs12979860 TT genotype than in patients with non-TT genotypes (17.3% vs. 8.5%, P = 0.022) and also in rs8099917 non-TT genotypes than in the TT genotype (14.0% vs. 7.0%, P = 0.026). The HCV genotypes and rs8099917 polymorphisms were correlated in which HCV subtype 1b was in favor of rs8099917 GG and HCV subtype 3a favored rs8099917 TT (P = 0.021). Furthermore, the rs12979860 TT and rs8099917 GG genotypes showed significantly lower HCV RNA levels than the other genotypes (P < 0.001). Conclusions There is an as yet unexplained association between HCV and host parameters with unknown mechanisms in patients with chronic HCV infection. The assessments of core aa 70 substitution and polymorphisms near the IFNL3 gene could offer promising steps to improve the management of patients with HCV. PMID:27630727

  1. Growing Isolation Frustrates Iranian Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2008-01-01

    Before the Islamic Revolution of 1979, Iranian graduate students and academics frequently studied or worked in the United States. That year, for example, the 51,300 Iranian students in the United States were the single largest group of foreign students in the country. Many, if not most, Iranian professors received their doctorates from American…

  2. Calcitriol downregulates TNF-α and IL-6 expression in cultured placental cells from preeclamptic women.

    PubMed

    Noyola-Martínez, Nancy; Díaz, Lorenza; Avila, Euclides; Halhali, Ali; Larrea, Fernando; Barrera, David

    2013-01-01

    Placenta is an important source and target of hormones that contribute to immunological tolerance and maintenance of pregnancy. In preeclampsia (PE), placental calcitriol synthesis is low; whereas pro-inflammatory cytokines levels are increased, threatening pregnancy outcome. Previously, we showed that calcitriol inhibits Th-1 cytokines under experimental inflammatory conditions in normal trophoblasts. However, a study of the regulation of inflammatory cytokines by calcitriol in trophoblasts from a natural inflammatory condition, such as PE, is still lacking. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate calcitriol effects upon TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-1β in cultured placental cells from preeclamptic women by using qPCR and ELISA. Placentas were collected after cesarean section from preeclamptic women and enriched trophoblastic preparations were cultured in the absence or presence of different calcitriol concentrations during 24h. In these cell cultures, pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 secretion and mRNA expression were downregulated by calcitriol (P<0.05). No significant effects of calcitriol upon IFN-γ and IL-1β were observed. In addition, basal expression of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β decreased as the cells formed syncytia. Our study supports an important autocrine/paracrine role of placental calcitriol in controlling adverse immunological responses at the feto-maternal interface, particularly in gestational pathologies associated with exacerbated inflammatory responses such as preeclampsia.

  3. Utero-placental cellular and nuclear expression of bradykinin B2 receptors in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Gloria; Acuña, Stephanie; Munizaga, Alejandro; Soto, Gloria X; Figueroa, Carlos D

    2016-01-01

    The bradykinin type 2 receptor (B2R), main effector of the pleiotropic kallikrein-kinin system (KKS), has been localized in the key sites related to placentation in human, rat and guinea pig utero-placental units. The present study was directed to characterize the content, the cellular and subcellular localization of B2R in the villi and basal plate of placentas from normal and preeclamptic pregnancies by means of western blotting, immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy. The protein content of B2R was demonstrated in both placental zones. The villous placenta of normal and preeclamptic pregnancies expressed B2R in syncytiotrophoblast and fetal endothelium; the basal plate displayed B2R in extravillous trophoblasts and decidual cells. Lastly, immunogold electron microscopy revealed B2R in fetal endothelium, syncytiotrophoblast, extravillous cytotrophoblasts and decidual cells; in all cell types the receptor was mainly located in the cytosol and nucleus. The protein content of placental homogenates and the immunoreactivity in the different cells types did not differ between both study groups; however the abundance of nuclear immunogold B2R positive beads in extravillous trophoblasts was greater in the normal than in the preeclamptic placentas. The purpose of describing nuclear B2R in the utero-placental unit, and its increment in normal extravillous trophoblasts, is to stimulate the study of the functional pathways that may be relevant to understand the local role of the B2R in normal and preeclamptic gestation. PMID:26955769

  4. Utero-placental cellular and nuclear expression of bradykinin B2 receptors in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Gloria; Acuña, Stephanie; Munizaga, Alejandro; Soto, Gloria X; Figueroa, Carlos D

    2016-01-01

    The bradykinin type 2 receptor (B2R), main effector of the pleiotropic kallikrein-kinin system (KKS), has been localized in the key sites related to placentation in human, rat and guinea pig utero-placental units. The present study was directed to characterize the content, the cellular and subcellular localization of B2R in the villi and basal plate of placentas from normal and preeclamptic pregnancies by means of western blotting, immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy. The protein content of B2R was demonstrated in both placental zones. The villous placenta of normal and preeclamptic pregnancies expressed B2R in syncytiotrophoblast and fetal endothelium; the basal plate displayed B2R in extravillous trophoblasts and decidual cells. Lastly, immunogold electron microscopy revealed B2R in fetal endothelium, syncytiotrophoblast, extravillous cytotrophoblasts and decidual cells; in all cell types the receptor was mainly located in the cytosol and nucleus. The protein content of placental homogenates and the immunoreactivity in the different cells types did not differ between both study groups; however the abundance of nuclear immunogold B2R positive beads in extravillous trophoblasts was greater in the normal than in the preeclamptic placentas. The purpose of describing nuclear B2R in the utero-placental unit, and its increment in normal extravillous trophoblasts, is to stimulate the study of the functional pathways that may be relevant to understand the local role of the B2R in normal and preeclamptic gestation.

  5. Dysphoria and somatization in Iranian culture.

    PubMed Central

    Pliskin, K L

    1992-01-01

    Iranians express dysphoria through an undifferentiated term called narahati, meaning depressed, ill at ease, nervous, inconvenienced, or anxious. People try masking this emotion or express it in specific ways nonverbally, such as sulking or not eating. Two other dysphoric affects, sadness and anger, are not masked. Because of the social conception of persons being emotionally sensitive, the expression of narahati is guarded: expressing it not only could show that one is socially vulnerable, it could also make another sensitive empathic person narahat. The body is also sensitive, but to the physical world. Physical health is maintained by balancing a diet of "hot" and "cold" foods and avoiding exposure to cold and moisture. With the social and cultural problems brought on by revolution, war, immigration, and accommodation to a new society, Iranian refugees experience changes in family, role, status, finances, language, and other sociocultural ways of being that cause them to feel narahat and to express it verbally, nonverbally, or through somatization. Understanding Iranian conceptions of emotional and physical sensitivity will help clinicians in treating Iranian patients. PMID:1413773

  6. Incidence and clinical importance of BCR-ABL1 mutations in Iranian patients with chronic myeloid leukemia on imatinib.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Golale; Hamid, Mohammad; Yaran, Majid; Khani, Mohsen; Karimipoor, Morteza

    2015-05-01

    Mutations of the BCR-ABL1 kinase domain seem to be the most common cause of imatinib mesylate resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). We screened BCR-ABL1 kinase domain mutations using nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing in 30 CML patients including 22 resistant patients and 8 patients with optimal response to imatinib. Three mutations of two different types were identified in 3 of 22 (13.6%) resistant patients. Two patients had p.E355G mutation in the catalytic domain, and the third patient had p.G398R in the activation loop that is reported here for the first time. No mutation was found in patients with optimal response to imatinib. The frequency of mutations was similar in patients with primary resistance compared with patients with secondary resistance (25 vs 11%; P=1). Mutation status had no impact on the overall survival and progression-free survival. p.E355G mutation was correlated with shorter survival (P=0.047) in resistant patients. We conclude that BCR- ABL1 mutations are associated with the clinical resistance, but may not be considered the only cause of resistance to imatinib. Mutational analysis may identify resistant patients at risk of disease progression. PMID:25740611

  7. Shiga Toxigenic Escherichia coli in Iranian Pediatric Patients With and Without Diarrhea: O-Serogroups, Virulence Factors and Antimicrobial Resistance Properties

    PubMed Central

    Dormanesh, Banafshe; Siroosbakhat, Soheila; Karimi Goudarzi, Peyman; Afsharkhas, Ladan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli is an important human pathogen cause of diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in humans is a significant public health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the molecular characteristics and antimicrobial resistance properties of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) strains with respect to their seasonal, age and geographical distributions in Iranian pediatric patients with and without diarrhea. Patients and Methods: Four hundred and eighty swab samples were taken from pediatric patients with and without diarrhea of four major provinces of Iran. Swab samples were immediately cultured and the positive culture samples were analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Finally, antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method in Mueller-Hinton agar. Results: In total, 118 out of 200 diarrheic stool samples (59%) and 77 out of 280 non-diarrheic stool samples (27.5%) were positive for E. coli. Samples taken from one to ten months old cases (73.33%) and those from Shiraz province (81.13%) were the most commonly infected. Samples taken in the summer season (91.66%) were the most commonly infected. A significant difference was shown between AEEC and EHEC strains of E. coli. The genes encoding Shiga toxins and intimin protein were the most commonly detected in all strains. O26 (33.33%), O111 (18.18%) and O91 (12.12%) serogroups had the highest incidence in patients with and without diarrhea. Prevalence of the genes that encode resistance against ampicillin (CITM), gentamicin (aac(3)-IV) and tetracycline (tetA) were 80.30%, 75.75% and 65.15%, respectively. The STEC strains harbored the highest levels of resistance against ampicillin (84.84%), gentamycin (78.78%), tetracycline (50%) and sulfamethoxazole (40.90%) antibiotics. We found that 55.08% of diarrheic and 1.29% of non-diarrheic E. coli isolates were

  8. Placental calcitriol synthesis and IGF-I levels in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Halhali, Ali; Díaz, Lorenza; Barrera, David; Avila, Euclides; Larrea, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    Placenta is an extrarenal source of calcitriol and pregnancy is associated with increased maternal serum levels of this hormone. It has been reported that insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) stimulates placental calcitriol synthesis and that circulating levels of both hormones are low in preeclampsia. Since calcitriol production has not been determined in placental homogenates in preeclampsia, the aim of the present study was to establish if placental calcitriol synthesis and IGF-I concentration are altered in this tissue obtained from preeclamptic pregnancies. Placental samples were obtained from 8 preeclamptic (PE group) and 8 normotensive (NT group) pregnant women. Calcitriol synthesis was determined using [(3)H]-25(OH)D3 (2.94nM) as precursor and [(3)H]-1,25(OH)2D3 produced was calculated as the percentage of radioactivity co-eluting with unlabelled 1,25(OH)2D3 after two successive high pressure liquid chromatographies. Placental IGF-I levels were determined by RIA. In addition, maternal and umbilical calcitriol and IGF-I levels were also determined in these 2 groups using radioreceptor assay and RIA, respectively. The results of the present study showed that placentas from both groups were able to convert [(3)H]-25(OH)D3 into more polar metabolites. In the PE group, placental [(3)H]-1,25(OH)2D3 synthesis was significantly lower than in the NT group (19.6±6.2 vs 29.9±8.1fmoles/200mg wet weight, P=0.013). Regarding IGF-I, its levels were significantly lower in placentas of the PE group than in the NT group (15.2±3.9 vs 21.6±4.9ng/g wet weight, P=0.012). Maternal and umbilical calcitriol levels were significantly lower in the PE than in the NT group (P<0.001). In the PE group, serum IGF-I levels were significantly lower only in the maternal circulation (P<0.05). In conclusion, placental calcitriol synthesis and IGF-I levels are low in preeclampsia which may contribute to decreased local placental functions related to these two hormones and/or to decreased

  9. of Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashidi, Nasser; Mortazavi, Fariba

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size of Iranian university EFL students. Participants in the present study were a total of 67 EFL learners, studying at Shiraz Azad University as senior English Translation students. The instruments utilized for data collection were three tests: A…

  10. Higher filtration fraction in formerly early-onset preeclamptic women without comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Toering, Tsjitske J; van der Graaf, Anne Marijn; Visser, Folkert W; Groen, Henk; Faas, Marijke M; Navis, Gerjan; Lely, A Titia

    2015-04-15

    Formerly preeclamptic women have an increased risk for developing end-stage renal disease, which has been attributed to altered renal hemodynamics and abnormalities in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Whether this is due to preeclampsia itself or to comorbid conditions is unknown. Renal hemodynamics and responsiveness to ANG II during low Na(+) intake (7 days, 50 mmol Na(+)/24 h) and high Na(+) (HS) intake (7 days, 200 mmol Na(+)/24 h) were studied in 18 healthy normotensive formerly early-onset preeclamptic women (fPE women) and 18 healthy control subjects (fHP women), all selected for absence of comorbidity. At the end of each diet, renal hemodynamics and blood pressure were measured before and during graded ANG II infusion. Both HS intake and former preeclampsia increased filtration fraction (FF) without an interaction between the two. FF was highest during HS intake in fPE women [0.31 ± 0.12 vs. 0.29 ± 0.11 in fHP women, generalized estimating equation analysis (body mass index corrected), P = 0.03]. The renal response to ANG II infusion was not different between groups. In conclusion, fPE women have a higher FF compared with fHP women. As this was observed in the absence of comorbidity, preeclampsia itself might exert long-term effects on renal hemodynamics. However, we cannot exclude the presence of prepregnancy alterations in renal function, which, in itself, lead to an increased risk for preeclampsia. In experimental studies, an elevated FF has been shown to play a pathogenic role in the development of hypertension and renal damage. Future studies, however, should evaluate whether the subtle differences in renal hemodynamics after preeclampsia contribute to the increased long-term renal risk after preeclampsia.

  11. CYP2U1 mutations in two Iranian patients with activity induced dystonia, motor regression and spastic paraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Kariminejad, A.; Schöls, L.; Schüle, R.; Tonekaboni, S.H.; Abolhassani, A.; Fadaee, M.; Rosti, R.O.; Gleeson, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by progressive spasticity and weakness in the lower limbs. It is divided into two major groups, complicated and uncomplicated, based on the presence of additional features such as intellectual disability, ataxia, seizures, peripheral neuropathy and visual problems. SPG56 is an autosomal recessive form of HSP with complicated and uncomplicated manifestations, complicated being more common. CYP2U1 gene mutations have been identified as responsible for SPG56. Intellectual disability, dystonia, subclinical sensory motor neuropathy, pigmentary degenerative maculopathy, thin corpus callosum and periventricular white-matter hyperintensities were additional features noted in previous cases of SPG56. Here we identified two novel mutations in CYP2U1 in two unrelated patients by whole exome sequencing. Both patients had complicated HSP with activity-induced dystonia, suggesting dystonia as an additional finding in SPG56. Two out of 14 previously reported patients had dystonia, and the addition of our patients suggests dystonia in a quarter of SPG56 patients. Developmental regression has not been reported in SPG56 patients so far but both of our patients developed motor regression in infancy. PMID:27292318

  12. Comparison of effect between group discussion and educational booklet on Iranian nursing students’ attitude and practice toward patient privacy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to compare the effects between group discussion and educational booklet on nursing students’ attitude and practice toward patient privacy in Iran. Methods A two-group, pre-test and post-test design study was conducted in 2015. The study was conducted on 60 nursing students in Kashan, Iran who were randomly allocated into two groups to be trained on patient privacy either through group discussion or by an educational booklet. The students’ attitude and practice was assessed before and after the education using a questionnaire and a checklist. Data analysis was performed through paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test, and independent samples t-tests. Results Before the intervention, no significant difference was found between the group designated to group discussion and that designated to the educational booklet in the mean overall score of attitude (P=0.303) and practice (P=0.493) toward patient privacy. After the intervention, the mean attitude score significantly increased in the two groups (P=0.001). Moreover, the students’ practice score increased in the discussion group while it did not significantly change in the booklet group (P=0.001). Conclusion Both methods were effective on the students’ attitude; however, the educational booklet did not affect their practice toward patient privacy. Group discussion can effectively improve the students’ attitude and practice toward patient privacy. PMID:27476641

  13. Safety and Efficacy of MLC601 in Iranian Patients after Stroke: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Harandi, A. A.; Abolfazli, R.; Hatemian, A.; Ghragozlee, K.; Ghaffar-Pour, M.; Karimi, M.; Shahbegi, S.; Pakdaman, H.; Tabasi, M.; Tabatabae, A. L.; Nourian, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the safety and efficacy of MLC601 (NeuroAid) as a traditional Chinese medicine on motor recovery after ischemic stroke. Methods. This study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial on 150 patients with a recent (less than 3 month) ischemic stroke. All patients were given either MLC601 (100 patients) or placebo (50 patients), 4 capsules 3 times a day, as an add-on to standard stroke treatment for 3 months. Results. Sex, age, elapsed time from stroke onset, and risk factors in the treatment group were not significantly different from placebo group at baseline (P > .05). Repeated measures analysis showed that Fugl-Meyer assessment was significantly higher in the treatment group during 12 weeks after stroke (P < .001). Good tolerability to treatment was shown, and adverse events were mild and transient. Conclusion. MLC601 showed better motor recovery than placebo and was safe on top of standard ischemic stroke medications especially in the severe and moderate cases. PMID:21776364

  14. Safety and Efficacy of MLC601 in Iranian Patients after Stroke: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Harandi, A A; Abolfazli, R; Hatemian, A; Ghragozlee, K; Ghaffar-Pour, M; Karimi, M; Shahbegi, S; Pakdaman, H; Tabasi, M; Tabatabae, A L; Nourian, A

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the safety and efficacy of MLC601 (NeuroAid) as a traditional Chinese medicine on motor recovery after ischemic stroke. Methods. This study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial on 150 patients with a recent (less than 3 month) ischemic stroke. All patients were given either MLC601 (100 patients) or placebo (50 patients), 4 capsules 3 times a day, as an add-on to standard stroke treatment for 3 months. Results. Sex, age, elapsed time from stroke onset, and risk factors in the treatment group were not significantly different from placebo group at baseline (P > .05). Repeated measures analysis showed that Fugl-Meyer assessment was significantly higher in the treatment group during 12 weeks after stroke (P < .001). Good tolerability to treatment was shown, and adverse events were mild and transient. Conclusion. MLC601 showed better motor recovery than placebo and was safe on top of standard ischemic stroke medications especially in the severe and moderate cases. PMID:21776364

  15. Iranian National Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosroshahi, H. G.; Danesh, A.; Molaeinezhad, A.

    2016-09-01

    The Iranian National Observatory is under construction at an altitude of 3600m at Gargash summit 300km southern Tehran. The site selection was concluded in 2007 and the site monitoring activities have begun since then, which indicates a high quality of the site with a median seeing of 0.7 arcsec through the year. One of the major observing facilities of the observatory is a 3.4m Alt-Az Ritchey-Chretien optical telescope which is currently under design. This f/11 telescope will be equipped with high resolution medium-wide field imaging cameras as well as medium and high resolution spectrographs. In this review, I will give an overview of astronomy research and education in Iran. Then I will go through the past and present activities of the Iranian National Observatory project including the site quality, telescope specifications and instrument capabilities.

  16. Chemical Society Reinstates Iranian Chemists; Iranian-American Scholar Arrested

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollag, Burton

    2007-01-01

    The frosty relationship between the United States and Iran has created a chill in many areas of scholarly endeavor. One resulting battle, over whether Iranian scholars can belong to the American Chemical Society, has been largely resolved. But a new imbroglio looms with the arrest of a prominent U.S.-Iranian scholar who was visiting Tehran. The…

  17. Maternal Serum Levels of TNF-Alpha and IL-6 Long after Delivery in Preeclamptic and Normotensive Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Vitoratos, N.; Economou, E.; Iavazzo, C.; Panoulis, K.; Creatsas, G.

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate maternal TNF-alpha and IL-6 plasma levels in normotensive pregnant women, women with preeclampsia, and to examine the temporal changes in their levels from theantepartum to the postpartum period correlated with the regression of preeclampsia. Method. A prospective study was performed in the 2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Athens. Blood samples were obtained: (1) antepartum at the time of clinical diagnosis of the syndrome, 2. 12-14 weeks postpartum. Results. No statistically significant differences were found in IL-6 levels, whereas a difference was found in TNF-alpha levels between preeclamptic and controls in antepartum period (0.80 pg/ml versus 0.60 pg/ml, P : .04). Long after delivery, TNF-alpha levels were significantly higher in preeclamptic compared to normotensive controls (0.86 pg/ml versus 0.60 pg/ml, P : .004). No difference was observed in TNF-alpha before and after delivery in both groups. No difference was noticed in IL-6 levels in women of normotensive group long after delivery compared to that before delivery. Long after delivery IL-6 levels were statistically significant higher in preeclamptic women compared to normal controls (3.53 ± 0.52 pg/ml versus 1.69 ± 0.48 pg/ml, P : .02). Conclusion. Preeclamptic women remain under a status of increased inflammatory stress up to 12-14 weeks postpartum despite the fact that all the other signs of preeclampsia are resolved. PMID:21253506

  18. Iranian family caregivers’ challenges and issues in caring of multiple sclerosis patients: A descriptive explorative qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Masoudi, Reza; Abedi, Heidar Ali; Abedi, Parvin; Mohammadianinejad, Seyed Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The broad spectrum of problems caused by multiple sclerosis (MS) imposes heavy responsibility to caregivers in caring of their patients. Therefore, they encounter many issues and challenges in this situation. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences and challenges of MS family caregivers. Materials and Methods: A qualitative design, based on a thematic analysis approach, was used to reach the study aim. Data were collected and analyzed concurrently through in-depth unstructured interviews, field notes, and observations that were held with 23 participants (14 family caregivers and 9 MS patients) at two referral centers in Ahvaz, Iran. Findings: Three major themes were extracted from the analysis of the transcripts: “emotional exhaustion of caregivers,” “uncertain atmosphere of caring,” and “insularity care.” The first theme consisted of three subthemes: “stressful atmosphere of caring,” “conflict and animism,” and “continuing distress affecting the caregiver.” The second theme consisted of three subthemes: “unstable and complicacy of disease,” “caring with trial and error,” and “frequent hospitalization of patients,” and the third theme consisted of two subthemes: “caring gap and disintegration” and “lack of sufficient support.” Conclusions: This study will be useful to healthcare system for managing the challenges of MS patients’ family caregivers. Improving the conditions and performance of family caregivers is crucial in order to provide high-quality care to people with MS. PMID:25183985

  19. Aspirin Triggered-Lipoxin A4 Reduces the Adhesion of Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils to Endothelial Cells Initiated by Preeclamptic Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Villa, AM; Norling, LV; Serhan, CN; Cordero, D; Rojas, M; Cadavid, A

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia is a disorder of pregnancy, characterized by hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. Here, we evaluated the role of aspirin triggered-lipoxin A4 (ATL, 15-epi-LXA4) on the modulation of the adhesion of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) to endothelial cells initiated by preeclamptic plasma. Materials and methods Plasma from preeclamptic, normotensive pregnant, and non-pregnant women were analysed for factors involved in regulating angiogenesis, inflammation and lipid peroxidation. Plasma from preeclamptic women was added to human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and the adhesion of PMN (incubated with or without ATL) to cells was evaluated. Results Preeclampsia was associated with some augmented anti-angiogenic, oxidative and pro-inflammatory markers, as well as increasing human PMN-endothelial cell adhesion. This cell adhesion was reduced when human PMN were incubated with ATL prior to addition to endothelial monolayers. Discussions and Conclusions Our results are the starting point for further research on the efficacy and rational use of aspirin in preeclampsia. PMID:22974760

  20. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, and calcium-regulating hormones in preeclamptics and controls during first day postpartum.

    PubMed

    Dalmar, Ahmed; Raff, Hershel; Chauhan, Suneet P; Singh, Maharaj; Siddiqui, Danish S

    2015-02-01

    The evidence for a link between vitamin D and preeclampsia is conflicting. There is a paucity of studies reporting simultaneous 25-hydroxyvitamin D (inactive form) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (biologically active form). We investigated if levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium-regulating hormones (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone), and calcium differ significantly between preeclamptics and controls. On postpartum day one, 98 subjects (44 with preeclampsia, 54 controls) were recruited among women admitted to the postdelivery unit, and their serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, serum calcium, and serum albumin levels were prospectively measured. The majority of participants (70%) had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level<20 ng/mL; 53% had <15 ng/mL. Mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was similar between cases and controls (p=0.50). Mean total serum calcium adjusted for albumin and magnesium was similar between cases and controls (p=0.78). Mean serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels were normal, and there were no differences between cases and controls. The only significant differences found between preeclamptic cases and controls were mean body mass index, parity, and season of blood draw. Vitamin D levels did not differ among preeclamptic cases and controls.

  1. Whole Exome Sequencing Reveals a BSCL2 Mutation Causing Progressive Encephalopathy with Lipodystrophy (PELD) in an Iranian Pediatric Patient

    PubMed Central

    Alaei, Mohammad Reza; Talebi, Saeed; Ghofrani, Mohammad; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Keramatipour, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Progressive encephalopathy with or without lipodystrophy is a rare autosomal recessive childhood-onset seipin-associated neurodegenerative syndrome, leading to developmental regression of motor and cognitive skills. In this study, we introduce a patient with developmental regression and autism. The causative mutation was found by exome sequencing. Methods: The proband showed a generalized hypertonia and regression of all developmental milestones. Based on the advantages of next-generation sequencing (NGS), whole exome sequencing (WES) was requested. The functional significance of variants was evaluated by NGS-specific prediction servers. Sanger sequencing was used for segregation analysis in the family. Results: There was no specific sign in the clinical and paraclinical investigations of the patient to establish a conclusive clinical diagnosis. WES detected a known homozygous nonsense mutation in BSCL2 (NM_001122955.3:c. 985C>T; p.Arg329*). The variant is segregating in the pedigree with an autosomal recessive pattern. Conclusion: Exome sequencing is a robust method for identifying the candidate gene variants in Mendelian traits. PMID:27452399

  2. The Iranian model of living renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra

    2012-09-01

    Organ shortage for transplantation remains a worldwide serious problem for kidney patients with end-stage renal failure, and several countries have tried different models to address this issue. Iran has 20 years of experience with one such model that involves the active role of the government and charity foundations. Patients with a desperate demand for a kidney have given rise to a black market of brokers and other forms of organ commercialism only accessible to those with sufficient financial resources. The current Iranian model has enabled most of the Iranian kidney transplant candidates, irrespective of socioeconomic class, to have access to kidney transplantation. The Iranian government has committed a large budget through funding hospital and staff at the Ministry of Health and Medical Education by supporting the brain death donation (BDD) program or redirecting part of the budget of living unrelated renal donation (LURD) to the BDD program. It has been shown that it did not prevent the development and progression of a BDD program. However, the LURD program is characterized by several controversial procedures (e.g., confrontation of donor and recipient at the end of the evaluation procedure along with some financial interactions) that should be ethically reviewed. Operational weaknesses such as the lack of a registration system and long-term follow-up of the donors are identified as the 'Achilles heel of the model'. PMID:22673884

  3. The effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program in Iranian HIV/AIDS patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jam, Sara; Imani, Amir Hossein; Foroughi, Maryam; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad; Koochak, Hamid Emadi; Mohraz, Minoo

    2010-01-01

    Psychological or behavioral interventions that attenuate the effects of stress may be useful in promoting immunocompetence and delaying HIV disease progression and CD4 count level. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a behavioral intervention that has as its foundation the practice of insight-oriented (or mindfulness) meditation. In this study, we examined the effects of MBSR upon psychological, physical status and CD4 count of HIV/AIDS infected patients registered at the Positive Club of Imam Khomeini Hospital in 2007. Using a pilot study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a psychological intervention (8-week) that was based on training in mindfulness at the Positive Club of Imam Khomeini Hospital in 2007. Eight 2-hour sessions weekly and a day-long retreat were planned for a group of 10 participants with HIV. We investigated the long-term effects of this approach on psychological and physical status of patients by SCL-90-R and MSCL questionnaires and CD4 count after MBSR and in 3, 6, 9 and 12-month follow-ups. We studied six HIV positive patients. The mean age was 35 +/- 7.7 yrs. There was no significant difference in MSCL scores after MBSR and in 3, 6, 9 and 12 months compared to those before MBSR (P>0.05). There was a significant difference in SCL-90-R score after MBSR compared with before (P=0.05). Nevertheless, in 3, 6, 9 and 12 months no significant differences were seen in SCL-90-R scores relative to those before MBSR (P>0.05). The means of CD4 count, before and after MBSR, and in 3, 6, 9 and 12 months were 549 +/- 173.6, 640.2 +/- 189.4, 655.3 +/- 183.4, 638 +/- 167.4, 619.3 +/- 163.2, and 595.2 +/- 165.6, respectively. There was a significant difference in CD4 counts in comparison with those before MBSR (P<0.05). In our study, MBSR had positive effects on psychological status and CD4 count. However, more studies with large sample size are necessary.

  4. Iranian Senior College Library Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, John F.

    In this document are standards for Iranian senior college libraries. A four year or senior college may provide a liberal arts education or preparation for a particular profession, like nutrition or banking. These standards have been adapted from foreign library standards to fit the Iranian situation. They have been established to guide Iranian…

  5. Exploring Iranian nurses’ experiences of missed nursing care: a qualitative study: a threat to patient and nurses’ health

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Ghaffari, Fatemeh; Shali, Mahboubeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main objective of nursing is to provide comprehensive nursing care that is appropriate to patients’ needs. However, the incidence of missed nursing care compromises the provision of comprehensive and safe care and threatens patients’ lives. Thus, this in-depth qualitative study aimed to explore nurses’ experiences of missed care and factors affecting it. The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ experiences of missed care in clinical practice. Methods: In this study, qualitative research methodology, with a content analysis approach was used. The sample included 23 nurses in referral teaching hospitals. Data were collected through focus group discussions, face-to-face and telephonic interviews, using semi-structured questions. Results: Three themes, comprising several sub-themes, emerged, and included contextual conditions, coercion, and deprivation. Conclusion: The results indicated that organizational and personal factors facilitate the incidence of coerced, missed nursing care. High quality of care, the prevention of missed care incidences and patient safety depend on the provision of adequate staff, appropriate equipment and a sense of responsibility for patients’ care needs among nurses. PMID:26793667

  6. Genotyping of Haemophilus influenzae type b strains and their incidence in the clinical samples isolated from Iranian patients

    PubMed Central

    Bagherzadeh Khodashahri, Somayeh; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Rahbar, Mohammad; Abdollahpour-Alitappeh, Meghdad; Vaziri, Farzam; Rahnamaye-Farzami, Mrjan; Mohammadzadeh, Mona; Davari, Mehdi; Fateh, Abolfazl; Masoumi, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is divided into two distinct genotypes, type I and type II, based on the structure of capsular polysaccharides. The capsulation locus of Haemophilus influenzae type b consists of three functionally distinct regions, designated regions 1 to 3. Region III contains hcsA and hcsB genes; however, notable sequence variation in this region can be used to recognize different Hib genotypes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genotype of the Hib strains isolated from patients with invasive disease in Iran. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 8 pairs of primers were used for identification and serotyping of encapsulated Haemophilus influenzae strains, as well as confirmation of species identification. Additionally, in order to identify the capsular genotypes of Haemophilus influenzae type b (type I and II), two additional primer pairs were used to amplify the hcsA gene. Results: Out of 50 isolates of H. influenzae, four were found to be type b. Interestingly, among these 4 Hib isolates, 2 strains belonged to the type-II category. Conclusion: Our study shows that the prevalence of both Hib types I and II seems to be high in Iran. PMID:26668700

  7. Development of the Draft Clinical Guideline on How to Resuscitate Dying Patients in the Iranian Context: A Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Bahramnezhad, Fatemeh; Mehrdad, Neda; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The guidelines can be used as a model to guide the implementation of the best options and a suitable framework for clinical decisions. Even a guideline can largely help in challenging problems such as not to resuscitate with high cultural and value load. The guidelines try to improve the health care quality through reducing the treatment costs and variety of care measures. This study aimed to prepare a draft of clinical guidelines with the main aim of designing and drafting the clinical guideline on resuscitation in dying patients. Methodology: After selecting the subject of this guideline, in the first meeting of the team members of drafting the guideline, the guideline scope was determined. Then, the literature review done without time limitation, through searching electronic bibliographic information and internet databases and sites such as Medline, EMBASE, Springer, Blackwell Synergy, Elsevier, Scopus, Cochran Library and also databases including SID, Iran Medex, and Magiran. The experts will be the interviewed, and the interviews are directed content analysis. Conclusion: Finally, recommendations will be formed by nominal group technique. This study protocol includes informative information for designing and conducting of health professionals intending to create a direct on qualitative, theoretical, philosophical, spiritual, and moral health aspects. PMID:27559265

  8. Impacts of international sanctions on Iranian pharmaceutical market.

    PubMed

    Cheraghali, Abdol Majid

    2013-01-01

    Iran in recent decade faced several regional and international sanctions in foreign trade, financial and banking services. Iran national pharmaceutical industry has always played a major role in providing medicines to the Iranian patients. However, following the sanctions it has faced profound difficulties for importing of both finished products and pharmaceutical raw materials. Although medicines are exempted from sanctions, due to restriction on money transaction and proper insurance Iranian pharmaceutical companies have to pay cash in advance for imports of medicines and raw materials or to secure offshore funds at very high risks. Current situation in Iran pharmaceutical market confirms that the sanctions against Iran are affecting ordinary citizens and national health sector which resulted to reduction of availability of lifesaving medicines in the local market and has caused increasing pain and suffering for Iranian patients. PMID:23902642

  9. Iranian Common Attitude Toward Opium Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Zarghami, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    Iran is suffering from the 2nd most severe addiction to opioids in the world. While the explanation of this enormous drug problem is refutably related to drug trafficking, the drug dilemma also illustrates the chain reaction of the imposed war with Iraq in 1980 - 88; the problems of poverty, unemployment, urbanization, homelessness, adultery, family crises, divorce, domestic violence, and runaway children. Although opium addiction often linked to these factors, drug use is common among all social classes. It seems that a positive traditional attitude is another reason for widespread raw opium use in this country. A survey in Iranian literature reveals that famous Iranian poets, who have a substantial contribution on cultural attitude formation of Iranian population, have used the phrase “Teriac” (raw opium) as a means of “antidote” a substance that treats every disease. It seems that a concrete deduction from the literature has been leaden to a positive attitude towards opium consumption in Persian culture. Recent research also supports this idea. Many patients use raw opium as a pain killer or for treating hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and other chronic diseases; most of them had started the use after developing the disease and the remaining had increased the consumption after developing the disease. Regarding this superstitious common belief, drug control headquarters should focus on education and correction of the faulty unhealthy attitude toward opium consumption. PMID:26288642

  10. Iranian Common Attitude Toward Opium Consumption.

    PubMed

    Zarghami, Mehran

    2015-06-01

    Iran is suffering from the 2(nd) most severe addiction to opioids in the world. While the explanation of this enormous drug problem is refutably related to drug trafficking, the drug dilemma also illustrates the chain reaction of the imposed war with Iraq in 1980 - 88; the problems of poverty, unemployment, urbanization, homelessness, adultery, family crises, divorce, domestic violence, and runaway children. Although opium addiction often linked to these factors, drug use is common among all social classes. It seems that a positive traditional attitude is another reason for widespread raw opium use in this country. A survey in Iranian literature reveals that famous Iranian poets, who have a substantial contribution on cultural attitude formation of Iranian population, have used the phrase "Teriac" (raw opium) as a means of "antidote" a substance that treats every disease. It seems that a concrete deduction from the literature has been leaden to a positive attitude towards opium consumption in Persian culture. Recent research also supports this idea. Many patients use raw opium as a pain killer or for treating hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and other chronic diseases; most of them had started the use after developing the disease and the remaining had increased the consumption after developing the disease. Regarding this superstitious common belief, drug control headquarters should focus on education and correction of the faulty unhealthy attitude toward opium consumption.

  11. Iranian Common Attitude Toward Opium Consumption.

    PubMed

    Zarghami, Mehran

    2015-06-01

    Iran is suffering from the 2(nd) most severe addiction to opioids in the world. While the explanation of this enormous drug problem is refutably related to drug trafficking, the drug dilemma also illustrates the chain reaction of the imposed war with Iraq in 1980 - 88; the problems of poverty, unemployment, urbanization, homelessness, adultery, family crises, divorce, domestic violence, and runaway children. Although opium addiction often linked to these factors, drug use is common among all social classes. It seems that a positive traditional attitude is another reason for widespread raw opium use in this country. A survey in Iranian literature reveals that famous Iranian poets, who have a substantial contribution on cultural attitude formation of Iranian population, have used the phrase "Teriac" (raw opium) as a means of "antidote" a substance that treats every disease. It seems that a concrete deduction from the literature has been leaden to a positive attitude towards opium consumption in Persian culture. Recent research also supports this idea. Many patients use raw opium as a pain killer or for treating hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and other chronic diseases; most of them had started the use after developing the disease and the remaining had increased the consumption after developing the disease. Regarding this superstitious common belief, drug control headquarters should focus on education and correction of the faulty unhealthy attitude toward opium consumption. PMID:26288642

  12. Organizational Citizenship Behavior Among Iranian Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Dargahi, H; Alirezaie, S; Shaham, G

    2012-01-01

    Background: Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is defined as “individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate, promotes the effective functioning of organization”. OCB, enhance job satisfaction among nursing employees. According to several findings, nurses’ OCB have a positive and significant influence on job satisfaction. This research is aimed to study OCB among Iranian nurses. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study was conducted among 510 nurses working in 15 teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran to be selected by stratified random sampling. The respondents were asked to complete Netemeyer’s organizational citizenship behavior questionnaire that encompassed four dimensions of OCB including Sportsmanship, Civil Virtue, Conscientiousness, Altruism and selected each item of OCB dimensions and identified their attitudes about OCB items were observed in hospitals of Tehran. The data was analyzed by T-test, ANOVA and Pearson statistical methods. Results: The results of this research showed that most of the nurses who studied in this study, had OCB behaviors. Also, we found that there was significant correlation between Iranian nurses’ marriage status, qualifications and gender with sportsmanship, altruism and civic virtue. Conclusion: This research demonstrates the existence of OCB among Iranian nurses that are essential in developing patient – oriented behavior. The results can be used to develop further nursing management strategies for enhancement of OCB. Finally, the present study indicates new possibilities for future researches such as analysis and comparison of OCB between different hospitals and how nursing policy-makers can enhance these behaviors in Iranian hospitals. PMID:23113181

  13. Isolation and purification of human placental plasma membranes from normal and pre-eclamptic pregnancies. a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, V; Henriquez, M; Llanos, P; Riquelme, G

    2004-05-01

    Human placental syncytiotrophoblast is the main barrier for materno-fetal exchange. Analysis of transplacental transport involves the study of ion channels in both the maternal-facing microvillous membrane (MVM) and the fetal-facing basal membrane (BM). Difficulties in having access to intact placenta with conventional electrophysiological methods favour alternative methodologies, such as isolation and reconstitution of membranes in artificial lipid systems. Pre-eclampsia is a major health problem of human pregnancy. The search for altered physiological processes in pre-eclamptic placentae requires the investigation of events at both the microvillous and basal surfaces. The aim of this study was to obtain reliable syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes from human normal (N) and pre-eclamptic (PE) pregnancies. We describe a protocol which allows for the simultaneous isolation of MVM and BM. The purity of the membranes isolated was evaluated using enzymatic assays, binding studies, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Enrichment of alkaline phosphatase activity for MVM was 17 to 21-fold, with 13-16 per cent protein recovery, for both N and PE. Enrichment of adenylate cyclase activity for BM was 9-fold for N, and enrichment of dihydroalprenolol binding to beta-adrenergic receptors was 12-fold for N and 6-fold for PE, with 14 per cent protein recovery for both N and PE. Cross contamination was low and mitochondrial membrane contamination was negligible. We conclude that MVM and BM isolated from placentae of pre-eclamptic women are similar in enrichment and purity to those of healthy women, thus allowing their use in comparative electrophysiological studies.

  14. 31 CFR 560.518 - Transactions in Iranian-origin and Iranian Government property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transactions in Iranian-origin and... Iranian-origin and Iranian Government property. (a) Except for transactions involving the Government of Iran, all domestic transactions with respect to Iranian-origin goods located in the United States...

  15. 31 CFR 560.518 - Transactions in Iranian-origin and Iranian government property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transactions in Iranian-origin and... Transactions in Iranian-origin and Iranian government property. Except for transactions involving the... transactions with respect to Iranian-origin goods located in the United States other than goods...

  16. 31 CFR 560.518 - Transactions in Iranian-origin and Iranian government property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transactions in Iranian-origin and... Transactions in Iranian-origin and Iranian government property. Except for transactions involving the... transactions with respect to Iranian-origin goods located in the United States other than goods...

  17. 31 CFR 560.320 - Iranian accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iranian accounts. 560.320 Section 560.320 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 560.320 Iranian accounts. The term Iranian accounts means accounts of persons who are...

  18. 31 CFR 560.320 - Iranian accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iranian accounts. 560.320 Section 560.320 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.320 Iranian accounts. The term Iranian accounts means accounts of persons who are...

  19. 31 CFR 560.320 - Iranian accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iranian accounts. 560.320 Section 560.320 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.320 Iranian accounts. The term Iranian accounts means accounts of persons who are...

  20. 31 CFR 560.320 - Iranian accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iranian accounts. 560.320 Section 560.320 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.320 Iranian accounts. The term Iranian accounts means accounts of persons who are...

  1. 31 CFR 560.320 - Iranian accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iranian accounts. 560.320 Section 560.320 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 560.320 Iranian accounts. The term Iranian accounts means accounts of persons who are...

  2. Epigenetics and Preeclampsia: Defining Functional Epimutations in the Preeclamptic Placenta Related to the TGF-β Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Elizabeth; Ray, Paul D.; Smeester, Lisa; Grace, Matthew R.; Boggess, Kim; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a potentially fatal pregnancy disorder affecting millions of women around the globe. Dysregulation in gene and protein expression within key biological pathways controlling angiogenesis has been implicated in the development of preeclampsia. Altered CpG methylation, a type of epimutation, may underlie this pathway dysregulation. In the present study, placental tissue from preeclamptic cases and normotensive controls was analyzed for genome-wide differential CpG methylation and concomitant changes in gene expression. A set of 123 genes, representing 19.9% of all genes with altered CpG methylation, was associated with functional changes in transcript levels. Underscoring the complex relationships between CpG methylation and gene expression, here hypermethylation was never associated with gene silencing, nor was hypomethylation always associated with gene activation. Moreover, the genomic region of the CpG mark was important in predicting the relationship between CpG methylation and gene expression. The 123 genes were enriched for their involvement in the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway, a known regulator of placental trophoblast invasion and migration. This is the first study to identify CpG hypomethylation as an activator of TGF-β-associated gene expression in the preeclamptic placenta. The results suggest functional epimutations are associated with preeclampsia disease status and the identified genes may represent novel biomarkers of disease. PMID:26510177

  3. The metabolic clearance rate of dehydroisoandrosterone sulfate. III. The effect of thiazide diuretics in normal and future pre-eclamptic pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Gant, N F; Madden, J D; Siteri, P K; MacDonald, P C

    1975-09-15

    The present study reports that the metabolic clearance rate of dehydroisoandrosterone sulfate (MCRDS) is decreased by thiazide diuretics during normal and future pre-eclamptic pregnancies. This observation supports the thesis that diuretics represent a potential hazard to the fetus by decreasing placental perfusion.

  4. Child Abuse Reporting Barriers: Iranian Nurses’ Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Borimnejad, Leili; Khoshnavay Fomani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although in many countries child abuse reporting is mandated, Iranian nurses report abused cases voluntary. Some of the cases are reported to the police and others are referred to welfare organizations or other non-governmental organizations. Absence of a uniform reporting system along with a lack of legal support in the specific cultural context of Iran has resulted challenges for the reporters of child abuse. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the Iranian nurses’ experiences of reporting child abuse as well as to explore the existing barriers. Patients and Methods: A qualitative study with conventional content analysis was conducted to explore the barriers of reporting child abuse. Individual interviews between 30 and 45 minutes in duration were conducted with a purposive sample of 16 nurses with direct experience of dealing with children who had been abused. Graneheim and Lundman’s method was used for data analysis. Results: The data were classified to five themes including “knowledge deficit”, “previous unpleasant experiences about child abuse reporting”, “ethical challenges”,” legal challenges” and “cultural beliefs”. Conclusions: According to the findings, enhancement of nurses and public knowledge about child abuse, legal issues and jurisprudence along with legislation of clear and simple laws, are mandatory to protect abused children in Iran. PMID:26430523

  5. Iranian EFL Learners' Compliment Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allami, Hamid; Montazeri, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the knowledge of Iranian EFL learners in responding to compliments in English, with a focus on the variables of gender, age and educational background. The data were collected through a 24-item English Discourse Completion Task (DCT) to which 40 male and female EFL learners were asked to provide short…

  6. JAK2V617F Allele Burden Measurement in Peripheral Blood of Iranian Patients with Myeloproliferative Neoplasms and Effect of Hydroxyurea on JAK2V617F Allele Burden

    PubMed Central

    Ferdowsi, Shirin; Ghaffari, Seyed H.; Amirizadeh, Naser; Azarkeivan, Azita; Atarodi, Kamran; Faranoush, Mohammad; Toogeh, Gholamreza; Shirkoohi, Reza; Vaezi, Mohammad; Maghsoodlu, Mahtab; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Teimori Naghadeh, Hosein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clonal malignant diseases that represent a group of conditions including polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). The aim of this study was to evaluate possible correlations between JAK2V617F allele burden and clinicohematologic characteristics in Iranian patients with MPNs. We also aimed at determining the correlation between JAK2V617F allele burden and use of cyto reductive treatment (hydroxyurea). Materials and Methods: We performed ARMS-PCR for all MPNs samples and subsequently performed real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for JAK2V617F allele burden measurement using DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes. Results: Two distinct groups of patients were examined at a single time point: group A (n=40; 20 PV, 20 ET) was examined at the time of diagnosis; group B (n=85; 40 PV, 30 ET and 15 PMF) while under treatment with hydroxyurea (HU). The median allele burden of the JAK2 V617F was 72% for PV and 49% for ET patients at the time of diagnosis (p=0.01). For patients with HU treatment, we determined the median JAK2V617F allele burden to be 43%, 40%, and 46.5 % in PV, ET and PMF patients; respectively. HU-treated PV patients had a significant lower %JAK2V617F than PV patients at the time of diagnosis (43% vs. 72%, p=0.005). In ET group, the relationship between the JAK2 V617F allele burden and leukocyte count was significant (p=0.02 and p=0.01 in untreated and treated patients, respectively). Conclusions: Our results showed that patients with PV have a higher JAK2V617F allele burden. Moreover, our study demonstrated that the JAK2V617F allele burden correlates with clinical features in ET group. We also showed hydroxyurea can affect the JAK2V617F allele burden in PV patients. PMID:27252806

  7. Spirituality Moderates Hopelessness, and Suicidal Ideation among Iranian Depressed Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor

    2015-01-01

    To examine the moderating role of spirituality between hopelessness, spirituality, and suicidal ideation, 202 Iranian depressed adolescent inpatients completed measures of patient health, suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and core spiritual experience. Structural equation modelling indicated that depressed inpatients high in hopelessness, but also high in spirituality, had less suicidal ideation than others. These findings reinforce the importance of spirituality as a protective factor against hopelessness and suicidal ideation. PMID:25924082

  8. Iranian Joint Registry (Iranian National Hip and Knee Arthroplasty Registry)

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Hamidreza; Nourbakhsh, Seyed Taghi; Lahiji, Farivar A.; Heydarian, Keykavoos; Jabalameli, Mahmood; Ghazavi, Mohammad Taghi; Tahmasebi, Mohammad Naghi; Fayyaz, Mahmoud Reza; Sazegari, Mohammad Ali; Mohaddes, Maziar; Rajabpour, Mojtaba; Emami, Mohammad; Jazayeri, Seyyed Mohammad; Madadi, Firooz; Farahini, Hossein; Mirzatoloee, Fardin; Gharahdaghi, Mohammad; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Ebrahimian, Mohammadreza; Mirvakili, Hossein; Bashti, Kaveh; Almasizadeh, Mohtasham; Abolghasemian, Mansour; Taheriazam, Afshin; Motififard, Mehdi; Yazdi, Hamidreza; Mobarakeh, Mahmood Karimi; Shayestehazar, Masoud; Moghtadae, Mehdi; Siavashi, Babak; Sajjadi, Mohammadreza M.; Rasi, Alireza Manafi; Chabok, Seyyed Kazem; Zafarani, Zohreh; Salehi, Shahin; Ahmadi, Monireh; Mohammadi, Amin; Shahsavand, Mohammad Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Periodic evaluation and monitoring the health and economic outcome of joint replacement surgery is a common and popular process under the territory of joint registries in many countries. In this article we introduce the methodology used for the foundation of the National Iranian Joint Registry (IJR) with a joint collaboration of the Social Security Organization (SSO) and academic research departments considering the requirements of the Iran’s Ministry of Health and Education. PMID:27200403

  9. Malignant Tumors of Tongue in Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Atarbashi Moghadam, Saede; Atarbashi Moghadam, Fazele; Bastani, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of oral cancers varies from one country to another, which can be clarified by the difference in the distribution of the risk factors and the possible etiologies. Tongue is a main segment of oral cavity and malignant lesions of this region accounts for nearly 30% of all oral cancers. Objectives In the present study, we evaluated the pattern of tongue cancer in Iranian population and compared these findings with those previously reported in the other countries. Methods In this multicenter, retrospective cross-sectional study recorded cases of the malignant tongue tumors in the cancer research center (CRC) of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences were extracted. The patient records and their microscopic reports were retrieved from the archives and age, sex and microscopic types were evaluated. It is to be noted that the CRC has been serving as a cancer registry center for major hospitals all over the country since the year of 2003. Thus, the obtained statistics are highly reliable. Results During the years 2003 to 2008, a total number of 952 new cases of the tongue cancer were recorded in the CRC. Most cases are diagnosed in the sixth and seventh decades of life. 450 cases (47.2%) occurred in men and 489 cases (51.36%) in women. Four different types of malignant lesions (epithelial, salivary gland, hematopoietic and mesenchymal) were diagnosed. Epithelial tumors were the most prevalent malignancies (93%) of which squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) made up 87.39% of all lesions. Salivary gland tumors had the second place with 3.15% of the total lesions. Conclusions In Iranian population, squamous cell carcinoma is the most prevalent malignancy of tongue and it is notable that the ratio of female to male population was equal. These lesions were prevalent in the sixth and seventh decades of life. Thus screening examination of tongue by dentist especially in elderly patients is necessary for early detection of cancerous lesions. PMID:27761209

  10. Iranian Women: Between Education and Repression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bousalis, Rina

    2012-01-01

    Iranian women have endured more than 30 years of an Islamist dictatorship that uses religion as a validation for unjust control. Human rights violations against women in Iran are a tragic phenomenon for an otherwise highly developed civilization. Invisible and powerless in a male-dominated society, Iranian women are discouraged from becoming…

  11. Alenush Terian: The Iranian Solar Mother

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talebian, Mohammad; Talebian, Ehsan

    2012-06-01

    We present a biographical sketch of Alenush Terian, the first Iranian woman physicist, who was known as the Iranian Solar Mother, since she founded the first solar telescopic observatory in Iran. She taught and carried out astronomical research for three decades with inadequate resources but with unflinching devotion, motivated by a strong desire to propagate scientific education and research in her country.

  12. How Creative Are Iranian EFL Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khany, Reza; Boghayeri, Mahnaz

    2014-01-01

    The study of creativity has been of great interest to educationalists in general and language teaching practitioners in particular. With all these, very little if any has been reported on the issue in Iranian EFL context. Having this in mind and drawing on the latest profile of creativity, effort was made to see how creative Iranian EFL teachers…

  13. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iran; Iranian. 560.303 Section 560... § 560.303 Iran; Iranian. The term Iran means the territory of Iran, and any other territory or marine area, including the exclusive economic zone and continental shelf, over which the Government of...

  14. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iran; Iranian. 560.303 Section 560.303... Definitions § 560.303 Iran; Iranian. The term Iran means the territory of Iran and any other territory or... Iran claims sovereignty, sovereign rights, or jurisdiction, provided that the Government of...

  15. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iran; Iranian. 560.303 Section 560.303... Iran; Iranian. The term Iran means the territory of Iran, and any other territory or marine area, including the exclusive economic zone and continental shelf, over which the Government of Iran...

  16. Menorrhagia Management in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    PubMed

    Tansaz, Mojgan; Memarzadehzavareh, Hajar; Qaraaty, Marzieh; Eftekhar, Tahereh; Tabarrai, Malihe; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Menorrhagia is a common problem. Medical management for menorrhagia includes hormonal and nonhormonal treatments. These treatments have different side effects, which reduce quality of life. Complementary and traditional medicines have been used to handle menorrhagia for centuries in many cultures. There is a lot of information and data in Iranian traditional documents or books about medicinal herbs that are used by Iranian traditional medicine scientists for the treatment of menorrhagia. The aim of this study was to review the approaches to menorrhagia in Iranian traditional medicine texts. In this study, some main Iranian traditional medicine manuscripts including Canon of Medicine and Al-Havi of Rhazes were studied to extract important information about menorrhagia management. Iranian traditional medicine physicians have relied on an organized system of etiological theories and treatments for menorrhagia. Their methods for menorrhagia management may be able to convince the desire of many women to preserve their uterus and avoid hormonal therapy.

  17. Genetic analysis of membrane cofactor protein (CD46) of the complement system in women with and without preeclamptic pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Lokki, A Inkeri; Aalto-Viljakainen, Tia; Meri, Seppo; Laivuori, Hannele

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a common disorder of pregnancy characterized by endothelial dysfunction. It may be life-threatening for the mother and fetus in severe cases. Dysregulation of the complement system has been suggested to predispose women to preeclampsia. Complement is part of the innate and adaptive immune systems and potentially capable of causing inflammation and tissue damage. Membrane cofactor protein MCP (CD46) is among the potent complement regulators that have recently been linked to a severe form of preeclampsia with or without an underlying autoimmune phenotype. Mutations in CD46 predispose to thrombotic microangiopathy with endothelial cell dysfunction. The exome of CD46 were sequenced in 95 Finnish women with severe preeclampsia. Genetic variations discovered in the full exome were compared to those observed in 95 control women who did not develop preeclampsia. Because A304V (rs35366573) was associated with preeclampsia in one previous study, we sequenced the transmembrane region including the A304V variant and part of the cytoplasmic tail in 95 additional controls. We did not discover any association between A304V or other CD46 SNPs and preeclampsia. This study describes a carefully characterized cohort of severely preeclamptic Finnish women and found no potentially predisposing variants in CD46. However, it is possible that other genetic components of the complement system may affect the pathogenesis of severe preeclampsia and related diseases.

  18. Assessment of Defense Styles and Mechanisms in Iranian Patients Suffering from Obsessive Compulsive or Panic Disorders versus Normal Controls using Persian Version of Defense Style Questionnaire-40

    PubMed Central

    Shabanpour, Ruhollah; Zahiroddin, Ali Reza; Janbozorgi, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare defense styles and mechanisms in adult patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and panic disorder (PD) with normal subjects in Iran. Methods Defensive patterns of 22 patients with OCD, 28 patients with PD and those of 116 normal individuals (as a control group) were assessed using the Farsi version of Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40). The content validity of this questionnaire was done prior to the initiation of the present study. Results Both groups of patients with OCD or PD used more immature and less mature styles compared to the control group. No significant difference was observed in the use of neurotic style between the two groups. Conclusion It is suggested that immature defenses may have an important role in the pathogenesis of OCD and PD. PMID:23056115

  19. Factors Influencing the Successful Aging of Iranian Old Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Javadi Pashaki, Nazila; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Jafaraghaee, Fateme; Mehrdad, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aging is an irreversible natural process characterized by a decline in both the physical and mental status of individuals. Because of multiple factors, this process and its consequences vary greatly between individuals. A successful aging (SA) is the target of current health policies and well-being of individuals. Knowing the factors that contribute to SA and its barriers would translate in measurements that increase the quality of life of elderly and reduce health costs. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore barriers and facilitators to Iranian elderly women’s SA. Patients and Methods: A purposive sample of 16 elderly women, aged 61 - 96 years, was recruited for this qualitative content analysis study. Study data were collected during 2012 -.2013 by conducting 16 face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews. We continued the data collection until reaching saturation. Study data were analyzed concurrently with data collection, by using the conventional qualitative content analysis approach. Results: Barriers and facilitators to Iranian elderly women’s SA fell into five main categories, including availability of support systems, state of health, personal capabilities, personality characteristics, and lifestyle. Conclusions: Availability of support systems, state of health, personal capabilities, personality characteristics, and lifestyle were the main interrelated factors affecting Iranian elderly women’s SA. Accordingly, providing elderly women with strong educational, emotional, financial, cultural, and social supports can help facilitate their SA. PMID:26421171

  20. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus among Iranian soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Morteza; Esfahani, Ali Aliakbar; Hassannia, Hadi; Jonaidi Jafari, Nematollah; Rahmati Najarkolaei, Fatemeh; Rezaee-Zavareh, Mohammad Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to investigate the seroprevalence of HAV immunity among Iranian soldiers and determine whether vaccination should be given to military draftees. Background: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is highly contagious in individuals living in crowded conditions such as military centers. To the best of our knowledge, there are limited data about HAV prevalence among Iranian soldiers. Patients and methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1554 soldiers were recruited through a random clustering sampling. Serum anti-HAV antibody was measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS. Results: A total of 1554 male soldiers with age ranged from 18 to 34 years (mean age: 21.2±1.9 years) at baseline were evaluated. Overall, 80.3% of the analyzed specimens were anti-HAV seropositive. Seroprevalence rates significantly increased with the age. Conclusion: Our results suggest that vaccination for HAV is not necessary for Iranian military draftees. However, the vaccination is recommended for high-risk groups, including anti-HAV seronegative soldiers. PMID:27099669

  1. Motivating factors among Iranian nurses

    PubMed Central

    Negarandeh, Reza; Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Ghasemi, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the most important challenges of Iranian health care system is “quality of care,” and it is assumed that motivated nurses are more ready to provide better care. There are limited studies investigating Iranian nurses’ motivations; however, factors which motivate them have not been studied yet. Identifying the motivating factors enables nurse managers to inspire nurses for continuous quality improvement. The aim of this study was to identify motivating factors for Iranian hospital nurses. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study in which 310 nurses working at 14 hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences were selected by proportionate stratified random sampling. Data were collected in 2010 by a researcher-developed questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and independent t-test, analysis of variance, Tukey post-hoc test, Chi-Square and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. Results: The mean score of motivation was 90.53 ± 10.76 (range: 59–121). Four motivating factors including “career development” (22.63 ± 5.66), “job characteristics” (34.29 ± 4), “job authority” (18.48 ± 2.79), and “recognition” (15.12 ± 2.5) were recognized. The least mean of the motivation score, considering the number of items, was 3.23 for career development, while the highest mean was 3.81 for job characteristics. Conclusions: The findings showed that motivation of nurses was at a medium level, which calls for improvement. The factors that have the greatest potential to motivate nurses were identified in this study and they can help managers to achieve the goal of continuous quality improvement. PMID:26257797

  2. Hyperhidrosis in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Shahroodi, Aniseh Saffar; Shirbeigi, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Excessive sweating is a medical condition in which a person sweats much more than needed. The medical name of this disorder is hyperhidrosis known as a common dermal problem that affects people of all ages and leads to negative impact on the quality of life. During the last decades, several studies have shown that in many cases of hyperhidrosis there is no evidence of systemic disease. Therefore, most treatments are temporary and symptomatic therapy. According to Iranian traditional medicine (ITM), different approaches are mentioned for hyperhidrosis. Methods: This study has reviewed ITM textbooks, such as “Canon of Medicine and Exir-e-azam” as well as scientific references and databases of modern medicine (ISI, PubMed, etc.) with specific keywords. Contents and related concepts were classified and results prepared. Results: In modern medicine, hyperhidrosis has been defined as an abnormal excessive sweating, which is either primary (idiopathic) or secondary to other systemic diseases such as hyperthyroidism, neurological condition or heart disease. Current modalities for treatment are topical anti-perspiration, iontophoresis, Botox injection (Botulinum toxin type A) and eventually thoracic sympathectomy as the last therapeutic modalities. From the viewpoint of the Iranian traditional medicine as a holistic doctrine, hyperhidrosis etiologies include overfilled and repletion of body due to the accumulation of humors, excessive intake of food, excessive dilated skin pores, vigorous exercise, or physical activity. Therefore, therapeutic plan for hyperhidrosis was based on its cause, which includes reduction in the amount of food, increasing physical activity, purging the body from the excess humors and adjustment in temperament. Conclusion: Hyperhidrosis is not an important or dangerous disorder; however, due to the negative impact on quality of life and failure to achieve perfect answer in modern medicine treatments it seems that the recommendations

  3. Major gene is responsible for anencephaly among Iranian Jews

    SciTech Connect

    Zlotogora, J.

    1995-03-13

    Anencephaly is relatively frequent in Jews originating from Iran, in particular when its incidence is compared to that of open spina bifida in the same population (12 cases of anencephaly out of 14 cases of neural tube defects). The high incidence of this disorder in Iranian Jews, a relatively isolated community with a very high rate of consanguinity, suggests that anencephaly is caused by a major recessive gene. This possibility is supported by the sex ratio among these patients, which was significantly different from that observed for patients with anencephaly in other populations. 10 refs.

  4. Evaluation of the Persian Transcript of the COPD Assessment Test in the Measurement of COPD Health Status in Iranian COPD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Azargoon, Alireza; Gholami, Mohammadreza; Farhadi, Ali; Chegni, Maryam Hadi; Zendedel, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a completely irreversible obstructive airway disease. The COPD assessment test (CAT) is one of the standard methods for the clinical assessment of the disease, which is translated into Persian. This study investigated the reliability of the test and its relationship with the severity of the disease. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 120 patients filled out the Persian transcript of the test. After two weeks, the patients filled out the CAT test again. Obstruction severity was determined for all the patients using spirometry, and the patients were categorized into four groups according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. The relationship between the test scores and the disease severity wan validated. Results: The mean age of the patients was 51.5 years. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the Persian transcript of the test was 0.872 in the first time, and 0.885 in the second time. Intragroup reliability, test re-test and intragroup correlations were significant for all the questions (<0.001). The relationship between the test mean score and obstruction severity was significant, and the correlation between disease categorization in accordance with obstruction severity and categorization according to the test score was significant as well. Conclusion: The Persian transcript of the assessment test for COPD was reliable and is directly related to the disease severity according to airflow limitation. PMID:26652077

  5. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS): translation and validation study of the Iranian version

    PubMed Central

    Montazeri, Ali; Vahdaninia, Mariam; Ebrahimi, Mandana; Jarvandi, Soghra

    2003-01-01

    Background The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a widely used instrument to measure psychological morbidity in cancer patients. This study aimed to translate and test the reliability and validity of the Iranian version of the HADS. Methods The English language version of the HADS was translated into Persian (Iranian language) and was used in this study. The questionnaire was administered to a consecutive sample of 167 breast cancer patients and statistical analysis was performed to test the reliability and validity of the HADS. Results In general the Iranian version of the HADS was found to be acceptable to almost all patients (99%). Cronbach's alpha coefficient (to test reliability) has been found to be 0.78 for the HADS anxiety sub-scale and 0.86 for the HADS depression sub-scale. Validity as performed using known groups comparison analysis showed satisfactory results. Both anxiety and depression sub-scales discriminated well between sub-groups of patients differing in clinical status as defined by their disease stage. Conclusion This preliminary validation study of the Iranian version of the HADS proved that it is an acceptable, a reliable and valid measure of psychological distress among cancer patients. PMID:12816545

  6. Frequency of sex chromosomal disomy in spermatozoa of normal and oligozoospermic Iranian patients and its effects on fertilisation and implantation rates after ICSI.

    PubMed

    Ghoraeian, P; Mozdarani, Hossein; Aleyasin, A; Alizadeh-Nili, H

    2013-02-01

    Chromosomal aneuploidy is a well-known phenomenon in human gametes including spermatozoa. Success rate of fertilisation and implantation in subfertile patients with male factor has always been shown to be very low. We tried to relate the possible impact of sex chromosomal aneuploidy in spermatozoa used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) on fertilisation and implantation rate. To evaluate the frequency of disomy for X and Y chromosomes in sperm samples retrieved from normal and oligozoospermic individuals, primed in situ labelling (PRINS) technique was used. Following ICSI, the rate of eight-cell embryos for each category was determined and followed up for successful implantation. Results showed a statistically significant higher frequency of disomy for all chromosomes under study in spermatozoa of oligozoospermic patients compared with normal men (P<0.01). The rate of eight-cells embryo formation was significantly lower than in normal group (P<0.01). The number of embryos transferred for both groups were nearly similar. Implantation rate for oligozoospermic patients was much lower than that of the normal group but was not significantly different (P>0.05). These results demonstrate that men especially with severe oligozoospermia have an elevated risk for chromosome abnormalities in their spermatozoa. These abnormalities might affect fertilisation and pre-embryo formation with less impact on implantation.

  7. Lack of TNF-α Gene Polymorphism (rs1799724) Association with Sustained Virological Response in Iranian Patients with Chronic HCV Infection.

    PubMed

    Larijani, Mona Sadat; Bahiraei, Narges; Nikbin, Mehri; Mohajel, Nasir; Rad, Leila Naghizadeh; Baghbani, Fahimeh; Mapar, Maryam; Sadat, Seyed Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Infection with the hepatitis C virus is a major public health concern which can lead to carcinoma and liver failure. It has been shown that single nucleotide polymorphisms can affect the level of gene activity of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) which has an important role, especially in viral infections which can lead to apaptosis of infected hepatocellular cells. We investigated the impact of three possible genotypes for rs1800629 or A/G single nucleotide polymorphism located downstream of TNFα gene promoter in groups of control (n=76) and chronic hepatitis C patients (n=89) focusing on the response to treatment among sensitive and resistant groups. Genomic DNA was extracted from 500 μl prepheral whole blood and PCR and RFLP were used to amplify the region of interest and genotyping. With statistical analyzes a p-value <0.05 was considered meaningful. There was no significant difference in distribution of the possible three genotypes among healthy individuals and patients (P=0.906, OR=1.194, CI=0.063-22.790). However, the frequency of the G allele was higher in patients whereas A allele was more common among healthy individuals (p<0.0001). Further studies with more samples appears to be necessary. PMID:27644640

  8. Lived Experiences of Iranian Nurses Caring for Brain Death Organ Donor Patients: Caring as “Halo of Ambiguity and Doubt”

    PubMed Central

    Keshtkaran, Zahra; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Navab, Elham; Gholamzadeh, Sakineh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brain death is a concept in which its criteria have been expressed as documentations in Harvard Committee of Brain Death. The various perceptions of caregiver nurses for brain death patients may have effect on the chance of converting potential donors into actual organ donors. Objective: The present study has been conducted in order to perceive the experiences of nurses in care-giving to the brain death of organ donor patients. Methods: This qualitative study was carried out by means of Heidegger’s hermeneutic phenomenology. Eight nurses who have been working in ICU were interviewed. The semi-structured interviews were recorded by a tape-recorder and the given texts were transcribed and the analyses were done by Van-Mannen methodology and (thematic) analysis. Results: One of the foremost themes extracted from this study included ‘Halo of ambiguity and doubt’ that comprised of two sub-themes of ‘having unreasonable hope’ and ‘Conservative acceptance of brain death’. The unreasonable hope included lack of trust (uncertainty) in diagnosis and verification of brain death, passing through denial wall, and avoidance from explicit and direct disclosure of brain death in patients’ family. In this investigation, the nurses were involved in a type of ambiguity and doubt in care-giving to the potentially brain death of organ donor patients, which were also evident in their interaction with patients’ family and for this reason, they did not definitely announce the brain death and so far they hoped for treatment of the given patient. Such confusion and hesitance both caused annoyance of nurses and strengthening the denial of patients’ family to be exposed to death. Conclusion: The results of this study reveal the fundamental perceived care-giving of brain death in organ donor patients and led to developing some strategies to improve care-giving and achievement in donation of the given organ and necessity for presentation of educational and

  9. Rasch Analysis of the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) in an Iranian Sample of Prostate Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Pakpour, Amir H.; Burri, Andrea; Montazeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Male sexual dysfunction is an increasing problem across a variety of general and clinical populations, such as cancer populations; especially among prostate cancer patients who tend to receive treatments that often result in erectile dysfunction (ED) and/or premature ejaculation (PE). Therefore, in order to diagnose ED and PE in these populations, adequate and efficient instruments such as the International Index of Erectile Function 5-item version (IIEF-5) and the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) are needed. However, since this is an important topic additional evidence of psychometric properties of the IIEF-5 and the PEDT in such samples are required. Thus the aim of the present study was to use Rasch models to investigate the construct validity, local dependency, score order, and differential item functioning (DIF) of both questionnaires in a sample of prostate cancer patients. Methods Prostate cancer patients (n = 1058, mean±SD age = 64.07±6.84 years) who visited urology clinics were invited to fill out the IIEF-5 and the PEDT. Construct validity was examined using infit and outfit mean square (MnSq) and local dependency using correlations between each two residual Rasch scores. Score order was investigated using step and average measures of difficulty and DIF using DIF contrast. Results All IIEF-5 and PEDT items had acceptable infit and outfit MnSq. Step measures revealed that all but two items had disordered categories in terms of scores 1 to 3. Only one local dependency was found, and no items displayed DIF across age, educational level, and help seeking. Conclusions The results showed that both the IIEF-5 and the PEDT had sound psychometric properties in the Rasch analyses, although some score disordering could be detected in both instruments. The results of no DIF items in both instruments suggest using them to compare ED and PE across age and educational level is adequate. PMID:27336626

  10. Relationship between Body Mass Index, Skeletal Maturation and Dental Development in 6- to 15- Year Old Orthodontic Patients in a Sample of Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Hedayati, Zohreh; Khalafinejad, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: The prevalence of overweight and obesity has been increasing markedly in recent years. It may influence growth in pre pubertal children. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether increased Body Mass Index (BMI) is associated with accelerated skeletal maturation and dental maturation in six to fifteen years old orthodontic patients in Shiraz, Iran. Materials and Method: Skeletal maturation and dental development of 95 orthodontic patients (65 females and 30 males), aged 6 to 15 years, were determined. Dental development was assessed using the Demerjian method and skeletal maturation was evaluated by cervical vertebral method as presented by Bacetti. The BMI was determined for each patient. T-test was applied to compare the mean difference between chronologic and dental age among the study groups. A regression model was used to assess the relationship between BMI percentile, skeletal maturation, and dental development. Results: 18.9% of subjects were overweight and obese. The mean differences between dental age and chronologic age were 0.73±1.3 for underweight and normal weight children and 1.8±1.08 for overweight and obese children. These results highlighted the correlation between accelerated dental maturity and increasing BMI percentile (p= 0.002). A new formula was introduced for this relationship. There was not any significant relationship between BMI percentile and skeletal maturation. Conclusion: Children who were overweight or obese had accelerated dental development whereas they did not have accelerated skeletal maturation significantly after being adjusted for age and gender. PMID:25469357

  11. Measuring Iranian women's sexual behaviors: Expert opinion

    PubMed Central

    Ghorashi, Zohreh; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Yousefy, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    The cultural compatibility of sexually related instruments is problematic because the contexts from which the concepts and meanings were extracted may be significantly different from related contexts in a different society. This paper describes the instruments that have been used to assess sexual behaviors, primarily in Western contexts. Then, based on the instruments’ working definition of ‘sexual behavior’ and their theoretical frameworks, we will (1) discuss the applicability or cultural compatibility of existing instruments targeting women's sexual behaviors within an Iranian context, and (2) suggest criteria for sexually related tools applicable in Iranian settings. Iranian women's sexual scripts may compromise the existing instruments’ compatibility. Suggested criteria are as follows: understanding, language of sexuality, ethics and morality. Therefore, developing a culturally comprehensive measure that can adequately examine Iranian women's sexual behaviors is needed. PMID:25250346

  12. US university reverses Iranian student ban

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Administrators at the University of Massachusetts have backtracked on plans to ban Iranian students from entering a number of programmes in physics and chemistry as well as computer and electrical engineering.

  13. Heme Oxygenase-1 Is Not Decreased in Preeclamptic Placenta and Does Not Negatively Regulate Placental Soluble fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase-1 or Soluble Endoglin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Tong, Stephen; Kaitu'u-Lino, Tu'uhevaha J; Onda, Kenji; Beard, Sally; Hastie, Roxanne; Binder, Natalie K; Cluver, Cathy; Tuohey, Laura; Whitehead, Clare; Brownfoot, Fiona; De Silva, Manarangi; Hannan, Natalie J

    2015-11-01

    Elevated placental release of the antiangiogenic factors, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and soluble endoglin (sENG), is central to the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. It is widely accepted that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is decreased in preeclamptic placenta and negatively regulates sFlt-1 and sENG production. We set out to verify these contentions. There was no difference in HO-1 mRNA or protein levels in preterm preeclamptic placentas (n=17) compared with gestationally matched controls (n=27). In silico analysis of microarray studies did not identify decreased placental HO-1 expression in preeclamptic placenta. Silencing HO-1 in primary trophoblasts did not affect sFlt-1 protein secretion after 24 or 48 hours. Silencing nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (transcription factor that upregulates HO-1) in trophoblasts also did not affect sFlt-1 secretion. Administering tin protoporphyrin IX dichloride (HO-1 inhibitor) or cobalt protoporphyrin (HO-1 inducer) into placental explants did not affect sFlt-1 or sENG secretion. Silencing HO-1 in 2 types of primary endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial and uterine microvascular endothelial cells) significantly increased sFlt-1 secretion but not sENG secretion. However, HO-1 silencing selectively increased mRNA expression of sFlt-1 i13 (generically expressed sFlt-1 variant) but not of sFlt-1 e15a (sFlt-1 variant mainly expressed in placenta). Furthermore, adding tin protoporphyrin IX dichloride decreased sFlt-1, whereas adding HO-1 inducers (cobalt protoporphyrin, dimethyl fumarate, and rosiglitazone) either had no effect or increased sFlt-1 or sENG secretion (these trends are opposite to what is expected). We conclude that HO-1 expression is not decreased in preeclamptic placenta and HO-1 does not negatively regulate placental sFlt-1 and sENG secretion in placental or endothelial cells. PMID:26324507

  14. Heme Oxygenase-1 Is Not Decreased in Preeclamptic Placenta and Does Not Negatively Regulate Placental Soluble fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase-1 or Soluble Endoglin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Tong, Stephen; Kaitu'u-Lino, Tu'uhevaha J; Onda, Kenji; Beard, Sally; Hastie, Roxanne; Binder, Natalie K; Cluver, Cathy; Tuohey, Laura; Whitehead, Clare; Brownfoot, Fiona; De Silva, Manarangi; Hannan, Natalie J

    2015-11-01

    Elevated placental release of the antiangiogenic factors, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and soluble endoglin (sENG), is central to the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. It is widely accepted that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is decreased in preeclamptic placenta and negatively regulates sFlt-1 and sENG production. We set out to verify these contentions. There was no difference in HO-1 mRNA or protein levels in preterm preeclamptic placentas (n=17) compared with gestationally matched controls (n=27). In silico analysis of microarray studies did not identify decreased placental HO-1 expression in preeclamptic placenta. Silencing HO-1 in primary trophoblasts did not affect sFlt-1 protein secretion after 24 or 48 hours. Silencing nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (transcription factor that upregulates HO-1) in trophoblasts also did not affect sFlt-1 secretion. Administering tin protoporphyrin IX dichloride (HO-1 inhibitor) or cobalt protoporphyrin (HO-1 inducer) into placental explants did not affect sFlt-1 or sENG secretion. Silencing HO-1 in 2 types of primary endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial and uterine microvascular endothelial cells) significantly increased sFlt-1 secretion but not sENG secretion. However, HO-1 silencing selectively increased mRNA expression of sFlt-1 i13 (generically expressed sFlt-1 variant) but not of sFlt-1 e15a (sFlt-1 variant mainly expressed in placenta). Furthermore, adding tin protoporphyrin IX dichloride decreased sFlt-1, whereas adding HO-1 inducers (cobalt protoporphyrin, dimethyl fumarate, and rosiglitazone) either had no effect or increased sFlt-1 or sENG secretion (these trends are opposite to what is expected). We conclude that HO-1 expression is not decreased in preeclamptic placenta and HO-1 does not negatively regulate placental sFlt-1 and sENG secretion in placental or endothelial cells.

  15. Comparison of Normal and Pre-Eclamptic Placental Gene Expression: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a serious multi-factorial disorder of human pregnancy. It is associated with changes in the expression of placental genes. Recent transcription profiling of placental genes with microarray analyses have offered better opportunities to define the molecular pathology of this disorder. However, the extent to which placental gene expression changes in PE is not fully understood. We conducted a systematic review of published PE and normal pregnancy (NP) control placental RNA microarrays to describe the similarities and differences between NP and PE placental gene expression, and examined how these differences could contribute to the molecular pathology of the disease. A total of 167 microarray samples were available for meta-analysis. We found the expression pattern of one group of genes was the same in PE and NP. The review also identified a set of genes (PE unique genes) including a subset, that were significantly (p < 0.05) down-regulated in pre-eclamptic placentae only. Using class prediction analysis, we further identified the expression of 88 genes that were highly associated with PE (p < 0.05), 10 of which (LEP, HTRA4, SPAG4, LHB, TREM1, FSTL3, CGB, INHA, PROCR, and LTF) were significant at p < 0.001. Our review also suggested that about 30% of genes currently being investigated as possibly of importance in PE placenta were not consistently and significantly affected in the PE placentae. We recommend further work to confirm the roles of the PE unique and associated genes, currently not being investigated in the molecular pathology of the disease. PMID:27560381

  16. Serum levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-1beta and human chorionic gonadotropin in pre-eclamptic and normal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Casart, Ysabel C; Tarrazzi, Katiuska; Camejo, María I

    2007-05-01

    Studies in placentas from the first trimester and in vitro models indicate that interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 induce the release of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). During pre-eclampsia there is an increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines; however, its relationship with hCG levels during the third trimester of pregnancy has not been determined. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between blood levels of IL-6, IL-1beta and hCG in normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia. Blood samples during the third trimester of pregnancy from women with severe pre-eclampsia (n = 20) or normal pregnancy (n = 20) were assayed for hCG by immunoassay, IL-6 and IL-1beta by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum level of IL-6 was significantly higher in pre-eclamptic than in normal women (16.5 +/- 2.1 vs. 4.9 +/- 1.1 pg/ml); however, IL-1beta was similar in both groups. Although hCG was higher in pre-eclampsia than normal pregnancy, the difference was not statistically significant. Furthermore, IL-1beta in normal pregnancy was correlated negatively with hCG (r = -0.69, p < 0.001). In conclusion, serum levels of IL-6 were increased in pre-eclampsia but were not correlated with hCG or IL-1beta; however, in normal pregnancy there was a negative correlation between IL-1beta and hCG. The interaction between IL-1beta and hCG at the third trimester needs to be investigated.

  17. Comparison of Normal and Pre-Eclamptic Placental Gene Expression: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Brew, O; Sullivan, M H F; Woodman, A

    2016-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a serious multi-factorial disorder of human pregnancy. It is associated with changes in the expression of placental genes. Recent transcription profiling of placental genes with microarray analyses have offered better opportunities to define the molecular pathology of this disorder. However, the extent to which placental gene expression changes in PE is not fully understood. We conducted a systematic review of published PE and normal pregnancy (NP) control placental RNA microarrays to describe the similarities and differences between NP and PE placental gene expression, and examined how these differences could contribute to the molecular pathology of the disease. A total of 167 microarray samples were available for meta-analysis. We found the expression pattern of one group of genes was the same in PE and NP. The review also identified a set of genes (PE unique genes) including a subset, that were significantly (p < 0.05) down-regulated in pre-eclamptic placentae only. Using class prediction analysis, we further identified the expression of 88 genes that were highly associated with PE (p < 0.05), 10 of which (LEP, HTRA4, SPAG4, LHB, TREM1, FSTL3, CGB, INHA, PROCR, and LTF) were significant at p < 0.001. Our review also suggested that about 30% of genes currently being investigated as possibly of importance in PE placenta were not consistently and significantly affected in the PE placentae. We recommend further work to confirm the roles of the PE unique and associated genes, currently not being investigated in the molecular pathology of the disease. PMID:27560381

  18. Analysis of the IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α Gene Polymorphisms in Patients With Vesicoureteral Reflux Among the Southeast Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Kordi Tamandani, Dor Mohammad; Naeimi, Nasim; Ghasemi, Ali; Baranzahi, Taybe; Sadeghi-Bojd, Simin

    2016-01-01

    Background Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a common childhood disorder that is characterized by the abnormal movement of urine from the bladder into the ureters or kidneys. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine whether the genetic polymorphisms of the IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α genes are involved in the development of VUR. Patients and Methods The tetra amplification mutation refractory system-polymerase chain reaction (Tetra-ARMS PCR) was applied to analyze the four polymorphic sites of the IL-10AG-1082, IL-10CA597, IL-12CA1188, and TNF308GA genes in 124 VUR children and 110 healthy controls. Results A significant, highly increased risk of VUR disease was found for the CA, AA, and combined genotypes of IL-10CA597 (OR = 5.2, 95% CL: 1.80 - 18.25; P = 0.0006, OR = 9.1, 95% CL: 1.11 - 122.75; P = 0.02, OR = 5.3, 95% CL: 1.82 - 18.61; P = 0.00052, respectively); the AG, GG, and AG + GG genotypes of IL-10AG-1082 (OR = 12.8, 95% CL; 2.9 - 113.9; P = 0.00003, OR = 12.62, 95% CL: 2.93 - 114.53; P = 0.00003, respectively); and the AA genotype of IL-12 (AA, OR = 0.19, 95% CL: 0.5 - 0.55; P = 0.0006). The frequency of the C allele in both IL-10CA and IL-12CA was greater in patients with VUR than in the healthy controls. No association was found between TNF308GA and the risk of VUR. Conclusions The results demonstrated significant associations between the IL-10 (AG-1089, IL-10CA) and IL-12 (AA) gene polymorphisms and a highly increased risk of VUR. PMID:27247930

  19. 31 CFR 560.518 - Transactions in Iranian-origin and Iranian Government property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Iran, all domestic transactions with respect to Iranian-origin goods located in the United States are... services of Iranian origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran that are located or to be... owned or controlled by the Government of Iran, except that the following transactions are authorized:...

  20. 31 CFR 560.518 - Transactions in Iranian-origin and Iranian Government property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Iran, all domestic transactions with respect to Iranian-origin goods located in the United States are... services of Iranian origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran that are located or to be... owned or controlled by the Government of Iran, except that the following transactions are authorized:...

  1. The frequency of CCR5 promoter polymorphisms and CCR5 Δ 32 mutation in Iranian populations.

    PubMed

    Zare-Bidaki, Mohammad; Karimi-Googheri, Masoud; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein; Zainodini, Nahid; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi

    2015-04-01

    Evidence showed that chemokines serve as pro-migratory factors for immune cells. CCL3, CCL4 and CCL5, as the main CC chemokines subfamily members, activate immune cells through binding to CC chemokine receptor 5 or CCR5. Macrophages, NK cells and T lymphocytes express CCR5 and thus, affected CCR5 expression or functions could be associated with altered immune responses. Deletion of 32 base pairs (Δ 32) in the exon 1 of the CCR5 gene, which is known as CCR5 Δ 32 mutation causes down regulation and malfunction of the molecule. Furthermore, it has been evidenced that three polymorphisms in the promoter region of CCR5 modulate its expression. Altered CCR5 expression in microbial infection and immune related diseases have been reported by several researchers but the role of CCR5 promoter polymorphisms and CCR5 Δ 32 mutation in Iranian patients suffering from these diseases are controversial. Due to the fact that Iranian people have different genetic backgrounds compared to other ethnics, hence, CCR5 promoter polymorphisms and CCR5 32 mutation association with the diseases may be different in Iranian patients. Therefore, this review addresses the most recent information regarding the prevalence as well as association of the mutation and polymorphisms in Iranian patients with microbial infection and immune related diseases as along with normal population.

  2. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  3. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  4. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  5. Prevalence of common MEFV mutations and carrier frequencies in a large cohort of Iranian populations.

    PubMed

    Beheshtian, Maryam; Izadi, Nasim; Kriegshauser, Gernot; Kahrizi, Kimia; Mehr, Elham Parsi; Rostami, Maryam; Hosseini, Masoumeh; Azad, Maryam; Montajabiniat, Mona; Kariminejad, Ariana; Nemeth, Stefan; Oberkanins, Christian; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a hereditary autoinflammatory disorder caused by mutations in the MEFV gene. The disease is especially common among Armenian, Turkish, Jewish and Middle East Arab populations. To identify the frequency and the spectrum of common MEFV mutations in different Iranian populations, we investigated a cohort of 208 unselected asymptomatic individuals and 743 FMF patients. Nine hundred and fifty-one samples were analysed for the presence of 12 MEFV mutations by PCR and reverse-hybridization (FMF StripAssay, ViennaLab, Vienna, Austria). Confirmatory dideoxy sequencing of all MEFV gene exons was performed for 39 patients. Fifty-seven (27.4%) healthy individual carried mutant MEFV alleles. Three hundred and ninety-one (52.6%) FMF patients were found positive for either one (172/743; 23.1%), two or three MEFV mutations. Using dideoxy sequencing, three novel variants, A66P, R202W and H300Q, could be identified. Our analysis revealed an allele frequency and carrier rate of 15.6 and 27.4%, respectively, among healthy Iranians. Still moderate compared to neighbouring Armenia, but higher than in Turkey or Iraq, these data suggest that FMF is remarkably common among Iranian populations. E148Q was most frequent in the group of healthy individuals, whereas M694V was the most common mutation among FMF patients, thereby corroborating previous studies on MEFV mutational spectra in the Middle East. Accordingly, MEFV mutations are frequent in healthy Iranian individuals across different ethnic groups. Based on this finding, the awareness for FMF and the implementation of augmented carrier screening programmes considering the multiethnic nature of the Iranian population should be promoted. PMID:27659338

  6. DOCK8 deficiency in six Iranian patients.

    PubMed

    Saghafi, Shiva; Pourpak, Zahra; Nussbaumer, Franziska; Fazlollahi, Mohammad Reza; Houshmand, Massoud; Hamidieh, Amir Ali; Bemanian, Mohammad Hassan; Nabavi, Mohammad; Parvaneh, Nima; Grimbacher, Bodo; Moin, Mostafa; Glocker, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    DOCK8 deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive combined immunodeficiency with high IgE level, eosinophilia, severe eczema, extensive cutaneous viral, and respiratory bacterial infections, mostly in populations with higher prevalence of consanguinity. Molecular diagnosis of this gene is a useful approach for early diagnosis and timely HSCT due to deleterious consequences. PMID:27398204

  7. Visual representations of Iranian transgenders.

    PubMed

    Shakerifar, Elhum

    2011-01-01

    Transsexuality in Iran has gained much attention and media coverage in the past few years, particularly in its questionable depiction as a permitted loophole for homosexuality, which is prohibited under Iran's Islamic-inspired legal system. Of course, attention in the West is also encouraged by the “shock” that sex change is available in Iran, a country that Western media and society delights in portraying as monolithically repressive. As a result, Iranian filmmakers inevitably have their own agendas, which are unsurprisingly brought into the film making process—from a desire to sell a product that will appeal to the Western market, to films that endorse specific socio-political agendas. This paper is an attempt to situate sex change and representations of sex change in Iran within a wider theoretical framework than the frequently reiterated conflation with homosexuality, and to open and engage with a wider debate concerning transsexuality in Iran, as well as to specifically analyze the representation of transexuality, in view of its current prominent presence in media.

  8. Barriers to and Facilitators of Research Utilization among Iranian Nurses: a Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Abbas; Emami Zeydi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Research utilization (RU), is an important strategy to promote the quality of patient care. The aim of this study was to present a comprehensive literature review describing barriers and facilitators of RU among Iranian nurses. Methods: Literature review was undertaken using the international databases including Pub Med/Medline, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. Also, Persian electronic databases such as Magiran, SID and Iran Medex were searched up to May 2014. The search was limited to articles in the English and Persian languages that evaluate the barriers or facilitators of RU among Iranian nurses. Results: A total of 11 articles were in the final dataset. The most important barriers to RU among Iranian nurses were related to the organization factors such as inadequate facilities; insufficient time on the job, lack of authority, physician cooperation, and administrative support. The most frequent facilitators of RU were education in enhancing nurses knowledge and skills in research evaluation, support from knowledgeable nursing colleagues and nursing faculty in the clinical setting, access to an expert committee for clinical appraisal, improving skills in English language and searching for articles, sufficient economic resources to carry out research, and having access to more facilities such as internet. Conclusion: Iranian nurses encounter with the same difficulties as to other countries regarding RU; while setting related barriers were the predominant obstacles to RU among them. Therefore, health managers are expected to plan appropriate strategies to smooth the progress of RU by nurses in their practice. PMID:25717456

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of Three Rounds of Mammography Breast Cancer Screening in Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Haghighat, Shahpar; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Yavari, Parvin; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Ghaffari, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Iranian women as is worldwide. Mammography screening has been introduced as a beneficial method for reducing mortality and morbidity of this disease. Objectives We developed an analytical model to assess the cost effectiveness of an organized mammography screening program in Iran for early detection of the breast cancer. Patients and Methods This study is an economic evaluation of mammography screening program among Iranian woman aged 40 - 70 years. A decision tree and Markov model were applied to estimate total quality adjusted life years (QALY) and lifetime costs. Results The results revealed that the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of mammography screening in Iranian women in the first round was Int. $ 37,350 per QALY gained. The model showed that the ICER in the second and third rounds of screening program were Int. $ 141,641 and Int. $ 389,148 respectively. Conclusions Study results identified that mammography screening program was cost-effective in 53% of the cases, but incremental cost per QALY in the second and third rounds of screening are much higher than the accepted payment threshold of Iranian health system. Thus, evaluation of other screening strategies would be useful to identify more cost-effective program. Future studies with new national data can improve the accuracy of our finding and provide better information for health policy makers for decision making. PMID:27366315

  10. A Novel Method for Pulsometry Based on Traditional Iranian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yousefipoor, Farzane; Nafisi, Vahidreza

    2015-01-01

    Arterial pulse measurement is one of the most important methods for evaluation of healthy conditions. In traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), physician may detect radial pulse by holding four fingers on the patient's wrist. By using this method, under standard condition, the detected pulses are subjective and erroneous, in case of weak and/or abnormal pulses, the ambiguity of diagnosis may rise. In this paper, we present an equipment which is designed and implemented for automation of traditional pulse detection method. By this novel system, the developed noninvasive diagnostic method and database based on the TIM are way forward to apply traditional medicine and diagnose patients with present technology. The accuracy for period measuring is 76% and systolic peak is 72%. PMID:26955566

  11. Reliability and Validity of the Iranian Version of Nijmegen Questionnaire in Iranians with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ravanbakhsh, Majid; Raji, Hanieh; Haddadzadeh Shoushtari, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of Nijmegen questionnaire (NQ) translated to Farsi for diagnosis of the hyperventilation syndrome (HVS) in patients with asthma. Materials and Methods: The original version of NQ was translated to Farsi and then back-translated to English again to assess its agreement with the original version. To determine its cultural adaptation, a pilot study was carried out. The mean score of the questionnaire and the mean pressure of end tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) were compared in 100 asthmatic patients to determine the validity of the questionnaire. For reliability, 52 out of 100 patients randomly filled out the questionnaire with an interval of 5 to 10 days. Internal consistency and content validity of the questionnaire were assessed by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and by calculating floor and ceiling effects respectively. The exploratory factor analysis was used to assess the factor structure. Results: There was a significant inverse correlation between NQ scores and PETCO2 (P=−0.783). Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was greater than 0.7, indicating good internal consistency of the questionnaire (P=0.702). The questionnaire had a good stability in an interval of 5 to 10 days (P=0.826). The NQ had no floor and ceiling effect. and also factor analysis of 16 scales showed that this questionnaire has a five-factor structure, which can describe 55% of data variance. Conclusion: The Iranian version of the Nijmegen questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for detection of patients with HVS. In addition, the questionnaire can be used to evaluate the condition of respiratory function in people with asthma. PMID:26528366

  12. The PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitory pathway is altered in pre-eclampsia and regulates T cell responses in pre-eclamptic rats

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Mei; Zhang, Yonghong; Liu, Zhaozhao; Sun, Guoqiang; Mor, Gil; Liao, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    The programmed cell death-1(PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway is critical to immune homeostasis by promoting regulatory T (Treg) development and inhibiting effector T (such as Th17) cell responses. However, the association between the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway and the Treg/Th17 imbalance has not been fully investigated in pre-eclampsia (PE). In this study, we observed an inverse correlation between the percentages of Treg and Th17 cells, and the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 on the two subsets also changed in PE compared with normal pregnancy. We further explored their relationship in vivo using the L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) induced PE-like rat models, also characterized by Treg/Th17 imbalance. Administration of PD-L1-Fc protein provides a protective effects on the pre-eclamptic models, both to the mother and the fetuses, by reversing Treg/Th17 imbalance through inhibiting PI3K/AKT/m-TOR signaling and enhancing PTEN expression. In addition, we also observed a protective effect of PD-L1-Fc on the placenta by reversing placental damages. These results suggested that altered PD-1/PD-L1 pathway contributed to Treg/Th17 imbalance in PE. Treatment with PD-L1-Fc posed protective effects on pre-eclamptic models, indicating that the use of PD-L1-Fc might be a potential therapeutic target in PE treatment. PMID:27277012

  13. Apology Strategies of Iranian Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tehrani, Mohammad Dadkhah; Rezaei, Omid; Dezhara, Salman; Kafrani, Reza Soltani

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the different primary and secondary strategies the Iranian EFL students use in different situations and the effect of gender on this. A questionnaire was developed based on Sugimoto's (1995) to compare the apology strategies used by male and female students, only gender was examined as a variable. The results showed that…

  14. The Feminisation of Iranian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavarini, Mitra K.

    2005-01-01

    The number of women attending institutions of higher education in Iran has been steadily increasing since 1989. Growing enrollment rates for women in colleges and universities have sparked wide social and political debates in that country. The basic question of why young Iranian women might even choose to pursue tertiary education, however, has…

  15. Language Choice among Iranians in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namei, Shidrokh

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the language choice among Iranians in Sweden, both inside and outside the home domain. The data are collected from 188 participants through structured interviews and questionnaires. The results show that Persian is the main instrument of communication in the home domain between parents and children. However, some Swedish is…

  16. Status of Geological Education in Iranian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shomali, Bahman Saghatchian; Hungerford, Harold R.

    1974-01-01

    A statistical survey revealed that education in three Iranian universities is primarily based on memorizing and recalling theoretical knowledge rather than on applying knowledge and skills in solving geological problems, and also that the curricula ignore the fact that the study of the earth is an interdisciplinary science. (MLH)

  17. 77 FR 66918 - Iranian Financial Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... FR 49836). On February 27, 2012, OFAC amended the IFSR and reissued them in their entirety, in order... designated Iranian financial institutions (77 FR 11724). Today, OFAC is further amending the IFSR to.... 12957, 60 FR 14615, 3 CFR, 1995 Comp., p. 332; E.O. 13553, 75 FR 60567, 3 CFR, 2010 Comp., p. 253;...

  18. 75 FR 48562 - Iranian Transactions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... Government of Iran, as that term is defined in the Iranian Transactions Regulations. The names of these... Iran was actively supporting terrorism as an instrument of state policy, the President prohibited the... policies of the Government of Iran, including its support for international terrorism, its efforts...

  19. The White Revolution in Iranian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, William G.; Carr, Elizabeth

    During a 16-day examination of recent innovations in Iranian education, two institutions were most closely examined: 1) The Army of Knowledge was created in 1962 as a crash program concentrating mainly on the elementary and secondary education of rural and village children where the population is dispersed, living standards low, and four out of…

  20. 78 FR 16403 - Iranian Financial Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... the Iranian Financial Sanctions Regulations, 31 CFR part 561 (the ``IFSR''), on August 16, 2010 (75 FR... sanctionable activities. On February 27, 2012, OFAC amended the IFSR and reissued them in their entirety (77 FR... With Respect to Iran'' (77 FR 45897, August 2, 2012) (``E.O. 13622''). The President issued E.O....

  1. Iranian Validation of the Identity Style Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Shokri, Omid

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Iranian version of the Identity Style Inventory (ISI). Participants were 376 (42% males) university students. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed a clear three-factor structure of identity style and a mono-factor structure of commitment in the overall sample as well as in gender subgroups. Convergent…

  2. Post-traumatic growth: a qualitative analysis of experiences regarding positive psychological changes among Iranian women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabi, Esmat; Hajian, Sepideh; Simbar, Masoomeh; Houshyari, Mohammad; Zayeri, Farid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cancer diagnosis is an extremely stressful experience that has a profound impact on a patient’s life. Cancer related perceived stress and complications may lead to the experience of positive psychological changes and post-traumatic growth (PTG). Since there is lack of qualitative research assessing the experience of PTG in Iranian women with breast cancer, this study aims to investigate experiences relating to PTG of Iranian women. Methods: A qualitative phenomenological approach was selected to explore the experiences of Iranian women with PTG. Data were gathered using semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 18 eligible patients, which were then transcribed and analyzed using Van Manen’s thematic analysis approach. Data gathering and analyses were conducted simultaneously. In addition, MAXQDA software was used for data management. Results: In this study, the participants were 18 Iranian women between the ages of 31 and 65 years. Four prominent themes were extracted from the participant’s statements that demonstrated the Iranian women’s experiences with breast cancer-induced psychological growth and maturity: 1) appreciate of life, 2) stability, 3) spiritual prosperity, and 4) effective interaction. Conclusion: Health care professionals are strongly recommended to design robust and timely intervention programs to improving PTG among breast cancer survivors and reduce their perceived distress resulting from cancer diagnosis. PMID:26435823

  3. Science production in Iran: The scenario of Iranian medical journals

    PubMed Central

    Aminpour, Farzaneh; Kabiri, Payam

    2009-01-01

    In Iran, the number of published articles has increased significantly in the basic and applied sciences including medicine and its subspecialties during the recent years. The present study reviewed Iranian science production in medicine, focusing on Iranian medical journals and assessing the current status of Iranian medical journals in several information databases. The study revealed that only a few number of Iranian biomedical journals were indexed by Web of Science, Medline, Scopus and Biological abstract, but most of them have been covered by Index Copernicus and Index Medicus for Eastern Mediterranean Region. Observing some important factors such as journal's basic publishing standards may increase the number of Iranian medical journals indexed by reputable information databases and improve Iranian contribution to the world science. PMID:21772902

  4. The Iranian Version of the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES): Factor Structure, Internal Consistency and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noroozi, Azita; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Heydarnia, Ali Reza; Nabipour, Iraj; Tahmasebi, Rahim; Tavafian, Sedighe Sadat

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The exercise self-efficacy scale (ESES) is largely used among diabetic patients to enhance exercise behaviour. However, the Iranian version of ESES was not available. The aim of this study was to validate ESES in this country. Method: Data were collected from 348 women who referred to a diabetes institute in Iran through convenience…

  5. Working experiences of Iranian retired nurses: a content analysis study.

    PubMed

    Nobahar, Monir; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Alhani, Fatemah; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masood

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the experiences of retired nurses can be useful in increasing self-confidence, motivation to work and work enthusiasm among nurses. The purpose of this study was to explore the work experiences of Iranian retired nurses. A qualitative design was conducted using a content analysis approach. Purposive sampling was used to choose the study participants. Semi-structured interviews were held to collect the perspectives of 20 retired nurses (10 female and 10 male). Two main themes emerged in the data analysis: 'work problems and unpleasant experiences in a sense' with subthemes 'exhausting work', 'insufficient salary', 'inappropriate relation' and 'unsuitable social position'; and 'job satisfaction and pleasant experiences in a sense' with subthemes 'divine satisfaction and religious belief', 'satisfaction of patients and their companions' and 'love of nursing profession and relaxation experience'. The findings indicate the challenges that nurses face after retirement. These experiences will help nurse managers to adopt appropriate measures to support nurses after retirement. PMID:24093736

  6. Prevalence of consanguineous marriages among Iranian Georgians.

    PubMed

    Rafiee, Laleh; Saadat, Mostafa

    2011-01-01

    Consanguineous marriage--marriage between relatives--has received a great deal of attention as a potential risk factor for many adverse health outcomes. The present cross-sectional study was done in order to illustrate the prevalence and types of consanguineous marriages among Iranian Georgians living in Frydoonshahr (Isfahan province, central Iran). Data on consanguineous marriages were collected using a simple questionnaire. The total number of couples in this study was 646. Consanguineous marriage was classified by the degree of relationship between couples. First cousin marriages (14.2%) were the most common type of consanguineous marriages, followed by second cousin (7.0%), beyond second cousin (1.5%) and first cousin once removed (0.6%). The mean inbreeding coefficient (α) was calculated as 0.0104 for the population. The present study shows that the study population, as other Iranian populations, has a high level of consanguinity.

  7. Physiopathology of Dementia in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian-Attari, Mohammad Mahdi; Shirzad, Meysam

    2016-10-01

    Recently, an article published in this journal by Dr Seifaddini and colleagues. In that article, the authors tried to connect dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, with a condition mentioned in Iranian traditional medical condition, Raoonat and Homgh In this condition, intellectual functions of the brain are disturbed and therefore, learning and decision-making abilities are damaged. This condition is not age limited and affects thinking ability but not memory. On the other hand, there is a condition described in Iranian traditional medicine, which completely matches with Alzheimer's disease. This condition is explained under the title of Nesyan (forgetfulness). Nesyan has 5 subdivisions, one of which is caused by the inclination of the brain normal temperament to more coldness and dryness. By performing animal studies, we have recently shown that this kind of Nesyan is related with Alzheimer's disease. Studies on the traditional recommendations on treatment of this kind of Nesyan can be useful in treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Complete mitochondrial DNA diversity in Iranians.

    PubMed

    Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Denisova, Galina; Perkova, Maria; Farjadian, Shirin; Yepiskoposyan, Levon

    2013-01-01

    Due to its pivotal geographical location and proximity to transcontinental migratory routes, Iran has played a key role in subsequent migrations, both prehistoric and historic, between Africa, Asia and Europe. To shed light on the genetic structure of the Iranian population as well as on the expansion patterns and population movements which affected this region, the complete mitochondrial genomes of 352 Iranians were obtained. All Iranian populations studied here exhibit similarly high diversity values comparable to the other groups from the Caucasus, Anatolia and Europe. The results of AMOVA and MDS analyses did not associate any regional and/or linguistic group of populations in the Anatolia/Caucasus and Iran region pointing to close genetic positions of Persians and Qashqais to each other and to Armenians, and Azeris from Iran to Georgians. By reconstructing the complete mtDNA phylogeny of haplogroups R2, N3, U1, U3, U5a1g, U7, H13, HV2, HV12, M5a and C5c we have found a previously unexplored genetic connection between the studied Iranian populations and the Arabian Peninsula, India, Near East and Europe, likely the result of both ancient and recent gene flow. Our results for Persians and Qashqais point to a continuous increase of the population sizes from ∼24 kya to the present, although the phase between 14-24 kya is thought to be hyperarid according to the Gulf Oasis model. Since this would have affected hunter-gatherer ranges and mobility patterns and forced them to increasingly rely on coastal resources, this transition can explain the human expansion across the Persian Gulf region. PMID:24244704

  9. Complete Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in Iranians

    PubMed Central

    Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Denisova, Galina; Perkova, Maria; Farjadian, Shirin; Yepiskoposyan, Levon

    2013-01-01

    Due to its pivotal geographical location and proximity to transcontinental migratory routes, Iran has played a key role in subsequent migrations, both prehistoric and historic, between Africa, Asia and Europe. To shed light on the genetic structure of the Iranian population as well as on the expansion patterns and population movements which affected this region, the complete mitochondrial genomes of 352 Iranians were obtained. All Iranian populations studied here exhibit similarly high diversity values comparable to the other groups from the Caucasus, Anatolia and Europe. The results of AMOVA and MDS analyses did not associate any regional and/or linguistic group of populations in the Anatolia/Caucasus and Iran region pointing to close genetic positions of Persians and Qashqais to each other and to Armenians, and Azeris from Iran to Georgians. By reconstructing the complete mtDNA phylogeny of haplogroups R2, N3, U1, U3, U5a1g, U7, H13, HV2, HV12, M5a and C5c we have found a previously unexplored genetic connection between the studied Iranian populations and the Arabian Peninsula, India, Near East and Europe, likely the result of both ancient and recent gene flow. Our results for Persians and Qashqais point to a continuous increase of the population sizes from ∼24 kya to the present, although the phase between 14-24 kya is thought to be hyperarid according to the Gulf Oasis model. Since this would have affected hunter-gatherer ranges and mobility patterns and forced them to increasingly rely on coastal resources, this transition can explain the human expansion across the Persian Gulf region. PMID:24244704

  10. Aftershock Decay Rates in the Iranian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ommi, S.; Zafarani, H.; Zare, M.

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by the desire to have more information following the occurrence of damaging events, the main purpose of this article is to study aftershock sequence parameters in the Iranian plateau. To this end, the catalogue of the Iranian earthquakes between 2002 to the end of 2013 has been collected and homogenized among which 15 earthquakes have been selected to study their aftershock decay rates. For different tectonic provinces, the completeness magnitudes ( M c) of the earthquake catalogue have been calculated in different time intervals. Also, the M c variability in spatial and temporal windows has been determined for each selected event. For major Iranian earthquakes, catalogue of aftershocks has been collected thanks to three declustering methods: first, the classical windowing method of Gardner and Knopoff (Bull Seismol Soc Am 64:1363-1367, 1974); second, a modified version of this using spatial windowing based on the Wells and Coppersmith (Bull Seismol Soc Am 84:974-1002, 1994) relations; and third, the Burkhard and Grünthal (Swiss J Geosci 102:149-188, 2009) scheme. Effects of the temporal windows also have been investigated using the time periods of 1 month, 100 days, and 1 year in the declustering method of Gardner and Knopoff (Bull Seismol Soc Am 64:1363-1367, 1974). In the next step, the modified Omori law coefficients have been calculated for the 15 selected earthquakes. The calibrated regional generic model describing the temporal and magnitude distribution of aftershocks is of interest for time-dependent seismic hazard forecasts. The regional characteristics of the aftershock decay rates have been studied for the selected Iranian earthquakes in the Alborz, Zagros and Central Iran regions considering their different seismotectonics regimes. However, due to the lack of sufficient data, no results have been reported for the Kopeh-Dagh and Makran seismotectonic regions.

  11. Body wave tomography of Iranian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alinaghi, A.; Koulakov, I.; Thybo, H.

    2004-12-01

    The inverse teleseismic tomography approach has been adopted to study the P and S velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle across the Iranian Plateau. The method uses phase readings from earthquakes in a study area as reported by stations at teleseismic and regional distances to compute the velocity anomalies in the area. This use of source-receiver reciprocity allows tomographic studies of regions with sparse distribution of seismic stations, if only the region has sufficient seismicity. The input data for the algorithm are the arrival times of events located in Iran which were taken from the ISC catalogue (1964-1996). All the sources were located anew using a 1D spherical Earth model taking into account variable Moho depth and topography. The inversion provides relocation of events which is done simultaneously with calculation of velocity perturbations. With a series of synthetic tests we demonstrate the power of the algorithm to resolve both fancy and realistic anomalies using available earthquake sources and introducing measurement errors and outliers. The velocity anomalies show that the crust and upper mantle below the Iranian Plateau comprises a low velocity domain between the Arabian Plate and the Caspian Block, in agreement with models of the active Iranian plate trapped between the stable Turan plate in the north and the Arabian shield in the south. Our results show clear evidence of subduction at Makran in the southeastern corner of Iran where the oceanic crust of the Oman Sea subducts underneath the Iranian Plateau, a movement which is mainly aseismic. On the other hand, the subduction and collision of the two plates along the Zagros suture zone is highly seismic and in our images appear less consistent than the Makran region.

  12. Gestational surrogacy: Viewpoint of Iranian infertile women

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Azad; Sattarzadeh, Nilofar; Gholizadeh, Leila; Sheikhalipour, Zahra; Allahbakhshian, Atefeh; Hassankhani, Hadi

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surrogacy is a popular form of assisted reproductive technology of which only gestational form is approved by most of the religious scholars in Iran. Little evidence exists about the Iranian infertile women's viewpoint regarding gestational surrogacy. AIM: To assess the viewpoint of Iranian infertile women toward gestational surrogacy. SETTING AND DESIGN: This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of 238 infertile women who were selected using the eligible sampling method. Data were collected by using a researcher developed questionnaire that included 25 items based on a five-point Likert scale. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Data analysis was conducted by SPSS statistical software using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Viewpoint of 214 women (89.9%) was positive. 36 (15.1%) women considered gestational surrogacy against their religious beliefs; 170 women (71.4%) did not assume the commissioning couple as owners of the baby; 160 women (67.2%) said that children who were born through surrogacy would better not know about it; and 174 women (73.1%) believed that children born through surrogacy will face mental problems. CONCLUSION: Iranian infertile women have positive viewpoint regarding the surrogacy. However, to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile women, further efforts are needed. PMID:22346081

  13. The Effect of Collaboration on Iranian EFL Learners' Writing Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jafari, Narges; Ansari, Dariush Nejad

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at finding the effect of group work on Iranian EFL learners' writing accuracy. Moreover, the effect of gender on text production has also been investigated. Over a month, sixty Iranian EFL learners were chosen as the participants of this study. They were divided into two groups. The experimental group wrote collaboratively while…

  14. Demotivating Factors Affecting EFL Learning of Iranian Seminary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabatabaei, Omid; Molavi, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to determine the demotives affecting EFL learning of Iranian Islamic seminary students and also to distinguish the motivated and demotivated EFL learners in terms of their EFL learning as the major focus of this study. Fifty Iranian EFL seminary students were investigated using two validated…

  15. Language and Culture Acquisition among Iranians in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Diane M.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between language use and second culture acquisition is examined in this study of first generation Iranian immigrants and exiles in the United States. The use of both Farsi and English is found to be instrumental in the process by which American culture is incorporated within the Iranian worldview. (AF)

  16. Iranian Critical ELT: A Belated but Growing Intellectual Shift in Iranian ELT Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghagolzadeh, Ferdows; Davari, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Reviewing and discussing the development of critical studies in the field of applied linguistics in general and English language teaching (ELT) in particular in Iran, this paper attempts to highlight the main contributions in this field. Introducing a new growing critical-oriented shift in Iranian ELT community as the one which has been mostly…

  17. Association of Transforming Growth Factor Alpha Polymorphisms with Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip and Palate in Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Ebadifar, Asghar; Hamedi, Roya; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza; Saliminejad, Kioomars; Kamali, Koorosh; Aghakhani Moghadam, Fatemeh; Esmaeili Anvar, Nazanin; Ameli, Nazilla

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is one of the most common congenital anomalies and the etiology of orofacial clefts is multifactorial. Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA) is expressed at the medial edge epithelium of fusing palatal shelves during craniofacial development. In this study, the association of two important TGFA gene polymorphisms, BamHI (rs11466297) and RsaI (rs3732248), with CL/P was evaluated in an Iranian population. Methods: The frequencies of BamHI and RsaI variations were determined in 105 unrelated Iranian subjects with nonsyndromic CL/P and 218 control subjects using PCR and RFLP methods, and the results were compared with healthy controls. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The BamHI AC genotype was significantly higher (p=0.016) in the patients (12.4%) than the control group (5.0%). The BamHI C allele was significantly higher (p=0.001; OR=3.4, 95% CI: 1.6–7.4) in the cases (8.0%) compared with the control group (2.5%). Conclusion: Our study showed that there was an association between the TGFA BamHI variation and nonsyndromic CL/P in Iranian population. PMID:26605011

  18. The Iranian physicians attitude toward the do not resuscitate order

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi, Masood; Banaderakhshan, Homayion; Abdi, Alireza; Borhani, Fariba; Kaviannezhad, Rasool; Karimpour, Hassan Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Physicians are responsible for making decisions about the do not resuscitate (DNR) order of patients; however, most of them are faced with some uncertainty in decision making and ethical aspects. Moreover, there are differences on decision making related to the DNR order among physicians, which may be related to the different attitudes toward this issue. Considering the lack of information, this study was performed to investigate doctors’ attitude about DNR order for patients in their final phases of life. Methods In a descriptive–analytical study, 152 physicians were enrolled as quota sampling subjects from educational hospitals affiliated to the Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. The tool used was a researcher-developed questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software by descriptive and inferential statistics. Results The mean of attitude toward DNR was 3.22, for which the univariate t-test showed a significant positive attitude toward DNR (P=0.002); the mean of attitude number toward DNR was higher in physicians with higher education level (P=0.002). But this difference was not found in terms of age group, sex, and experiences in participating in DNR decisions. Conclusion Due to the positive attitude of doctors toward DNR orders and lack of identified guidance, clear guidelines that comply with the Iranian Islamic culture are necessary to be established. Implementing this directive requires comprehensive training to various groups, including patients, doctors, nurses, administrators, and policy makers of the health system. PMID:27418832

  19. Iranian physicist 'defects' to the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2010-05-01

    An Iranian physicist who disappeared last June during a pilgrimage to Mecca in Saudi Arabia has apparently defected to the US, where he is working for the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Shahram Amiri, who did research in nuclear physics at Malek Ashtar University of Technology in Tehran, is thought to be co-operating with the CIA to confirm their intelligence assessments about Iran's nuclear-weapons programme. The CIA has so far kept quiet on the issue and it remains unclear whether Amiri had any connections with Iran's nuclear programme.

  20. Iranians and Their Pride: Modalities of Political Sovereignty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moaddel, Mansoor

    In 2000, we asked a nationally representative sample of 2,532 Iranian adults "which of the following best describes you: I am an Iranian, above all; I am a Muslim, above all; I am an Arab, a Kurd, a Turk, a Baluch, etc., above all?" We also asked them how proud they are to be Iranian; (1) very proud, (2) proud, (3) not proud, and (4) not proud at all. In the 2005 survey of a nationally representative sample of 2,667 Iranian adults, we asked these questions again. The first question was intended to measure national identity and the second national pride. The results showed that between the two surveys the percent of Iranians who defined themselves as "Iranians, above all" went up significantly-from 35% in 2000 to 42% in 2005. Those who said that they were very proud to be Iranian, on the other hand, went down considerably-from 89% in 2000 to 64% in 2005. What is more, national identity and national pride displayed opposing relationships with the norms and values that were rigorously promoted by Iran's religious regime and these relationships grew stronger between 2000 and 2005. The feeling of national pride was positively linked to attitudes toward gender inequality, religiosity, and religious intolerance, but negatively to attitudes toward the West, while national identity had just the opposite relationships with these variables.

  1. Clinical stories and medical histories recorded by Rhazes (865-925), the Iranian-Islamic physician in the medieval period.

    PubMed

    Zohalinezhad, Mohammad E; Askari, Alireza; Farjam, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    Recording medical histories of patients is not a new issue in clinical medicine. However, the method practiced by the Iranian chemist physician, Rhazes, in the ninth century A.D is incredible. Rhazes has written several textbooks in clinical medicine, but a particular one, "Clinical Stories and Medical Histories" (Qesas va hekayat al-marazi), is a classical case book describing precise clinical courses of thirty three patients. Each chapter includes a title, the name and demographic data about a patient, his/her history of present illness, past medical and family history, findings of physical exam, impression and interventions by the physician, including pharmacological or surgical management. The reasons for each decision made by Rhazes as well as the outcomes are clearly discussed. This book review will shed light on the unknown medical practice methods in Islamic-Iranian golden era.

  2. Frequency distribution of the first clinical symptoms in the Iranian population with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Poorsaadat, Leila; Harandi, Ali Amini; Pakdaman, Hossein; Kalanie, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Background Initial symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) may be varied and nonspecific. We tried to find the frequency distribution of the first clinical symptoms in Iranian patients with MS. Methods In a case series study, 1130 patients with definite diagnosis of MS who had been referred to three referral university hospitals of Tehran, Iran, were enrolled. The patients’ medical records were reviewed for neurological history to find the first symptom at presentation. Results 884 (78.2%) patients were female and 246 (21.8%) were male. The mean ± SD age of patients was 31.4 ± 9.1 years. The most common initial symptoms were motor in 492 (43.5%), ocular in 366 (32.4%), cerebellar in 91 (8.1%), sensory in 76 (6.7%), cranial nerve involvement in 51 (4.5%), and fatigue in 23 (2%) patients. There was no difference between female and male patients in first clinical symptoms (P > 0.05). Conclusion The motor symptoms were the most common finding at presentation in the Iranian population with MS. Complementary studies with larger sample sizes are needed to increase the external validity. PMID:24250877

  3. Molecular and clinical characterization of Waardenburg syndrome type I in an Iranian cohort with two novel PAX3 mutations.

    PubMed

    Jalilian, Nazanin; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Farhadi, Mohammad; Bahrami, Tayeb; Emamdjomeh, Hesam; Noori-Daloii, Mohammad Reza

    2015-12-15

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a disease of abnormal neural-crest derived melanocyte development characterized by hearing loss and pigmentary disturbances in hair, eyes and skin. WS is subdivided into four major types, WS1-WS4, where WS1 is recognized by the presence of dystopia canthorum, with PAX3 being the only known gene involved. This study aimed at investigating PAX3 mutations and clinical characteristics of WS1 in a group of Iranian patients. A total of 12 WS1 patients from four unrelated Iranian families were enrolled. Waardenburg consortium guidelines were used for WS1 diagnosis. A detailed family history was traced and a thorough clinical examination was performed for all participants. Furthermore, WS1 patients underwent screening for PAX3 mutations using PCR-sequencing. Dystopia canthorum, broad high nasal root and synophrys were observed in all patients. Early graying, hair discoloration, hypoplastic blue eyes (characteristic brilliant blue iris) and hearing loss were the most common features observed, while heterochromia iridis was the least frequently observed sign among the studied Iranian WS1 patients. Genetic analysis of PAX3 revealed four mutations including c.667C>T, c.784C>T, c.951delT and c.451+3A>C. Two of the four mutations reported here (c.951delT and c.451+3A>C) are being reported for the first time in this study. Our data provide insight into genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of WS1 in an Iranian series of patients. Our results expand the spectrum of PAX3 mutations and may have implications for the genetic counseling of WS in Iran. PMID:26275939

  4. POSTOPERATIVE PAIN: MANAGEMENT AND DOCUMENTATION BY IRANIAN NURSES

    PubMed Central

    Rafati, Foozieh; Soltaninejad, Maryam; Aflatoonian, Mohamad Reza; Mashayekhi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pain is one of the most common symptoms experienced by patients after surgeries. Inadequate postoperative pain management is an international problem and the need to improve its management is well documented. The aim of the study was to assess nursing reports related to the patients’ pain intensity and quality, concomitant symptoms, use of scales in pain assessment, and compliance with the national guideline after surgery. Methods: This study was a retrospective cohort; samples were nurse records of patients who had elective surgery. Result: Only 6% of the patients’ pain records included pain intensity which was not measured with standard scales. More than half of all injections were opioid analgesic which is in contrast to the guidelines of the Iranian Ministry of Health. Pain assessment was higher in women and by nurses with more than 15 years of working experience. Conclusion: to conclude, the patients’ pain was not assessed properly in terms of intensity, quality, and associated symptoms. Therefore, training and motivating nurses is very important in this context and should be incorporated in nurses’ academic and continuous educational courses. PMID:27047265

  5. The Lived Experience of Iranian Women Confronting Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabi, Esmat; Hajian, Sepideh; Simbar, Masoomeh; Hoshyari, Mohammad; Zayeri, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The populations who survive from breast cancer are growing; nevertheless, they mostly encounter with many cancer related problems in their life, especially after early diagnosis and have to deal with these problems. Except for the disease entity, several socio-cultural factors may affect confronting this challenge among patients and the way they deal with. Present study was carried out to prepare clear understanding of Iranian women's lived experiences confronting breast cancer diagnosis and coping ways they applied to deal with it. Methods: This study was carried out by using qualitative phenomenological design. Data gathering was done through purposive sampling using semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 18 women who survived from breast cancer. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Van Manen’s thematic analysis approach. Results: Two main themes were emerged from the interviews including "emotional turbulence" and "threat control". The first, comprised three sub themes including uncertainty, perceived worries, and living with fears. The second included risk control, recurrence control, immediate seeking help, seeking support and resource to spirituality. Conclusion: Emotional response was the immediate reflection to cancer diagnosis. However, during post-treatment period a variety of emotions were not uncommon findings, patients' perceptions have been changing along the time and problem-focused coping strategies have replaced. Although women may experience a degree of improvement and adjustment with illness, the emotional problems are not necessarily resolved, they may continue and gradually engender positive outcomes. PMID:26989665

  6. Defining the Best Nasal Tip Projection among Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Mohebbi, Alireza; Jahandideh, Hesam; Faham, Zhaleh; Jafari, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Rhinoplasty is one of the most complicated aesthetic surgeries. One important factor in nasal profile analysis before surgery is the NTP (Nasal Tip Projection). There has been controversy over defining the best tip projection and due to cultural differences there is a need to find the best formulation for Iranian noses. We selected 50 randomized patients. Lateral nasal views were captured from all of the patients. In order to equalize the photos, all tip rotations changed first to 105. We selected four methods for measuring NTP (Goode, Crumley 1, Crumley 2, and Powell and Humphreys). Based on these methods NTP was shown in four pictures. A questionnaire was designed for rating the pictures. Questionnaires were filled in by 3 different groups: rhinoplasty surgeons, general people, and artists. A total of 73 questionnaires were filled in. The analysis and comparison were done. Crumley 2 is the best NTP measurement method from the surgeons' and artists' view. Goode is the method preferred by general people. Powell & Humphreys method seems to be the worst method from all 3 groups' view. It seems that general people prefer smaller noses, because projection in Goode method is almost less than Crumley 2. PMID:27293886

  7. Fresh plea for release of imprisoned Iranian physicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The mother of Omid Kokabee, a graduate student in physics at the University of Texas who has spent almost five years in an Iranian prison, has written to Iran's Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamanei, calling for her son's freedom.

  8. Iranian academia: evolution after revolution and plagiarism as a disorder.

    PubMed

    Ghazinoory, Sepehr; Ghazinoori, Soroush; Azadegan-Mehr, Mandana

    2011-06-01

    Recently, a few of scientific journals raise serious questions about scientific ethics and moral judgment of some of the Iranian government's senior executives in their papers. Plagiarism, under any circumstances is not justified, and we do not intend to justify it in this note. However, we find it useful in understanding why otherwise respected, responsible individuals may engage in plagiarism by terse review of the history Iranian academia.

  9. An annotated catalog of the Iranian Reduvioidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicomorpha).

    PubMed

    Ghahari, Hassan; Moulet, Pierre; Cai, Wanzhi; Karimi, Javad

    2013-01-01

    An updated list of Iranian Reduvioidea Latreille (families Pachynomidae, Reduviidae) is presented and discussed in this paper. For Iranian fauna, there are records of one species of Pachynomidae and 109 species and subspecies of assassin bugs (Reduviidae) distributed in 24 genera and subgenera, and seven subfamilies, Emesinae, Harpactorinae, Holoptilinae, Peiratinae, Phymatinae, Reduviinae, and Stenopodainae. We report 6 new country records and one new species, Empicoris baerensprungi (Dohrn, 1863) for Asian fauna. Synonyms and distribution data are also given. PMID:26258220

  10. An annotated catalog of the Iranian Reduvioidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicomorpha).

    PubMed

    Ghahari, Hassan; Moulet, Pierre; Cai, Wanzhi; Karimi, Javad

    2013-01-01

    An updated list of Iranian Reduvioidea Latreille (families Pachynomidae, Reduviidae) is presented and discussed in this paper. For Iranian fauna, there are records of one species of Pachynomidae and 109 species and subspecies of assassin bugs (Reduviidae) distributed in 24 genera and subgenera, and seven subfamilies, Emesinae, Harpactorinae, Holoptilinae, Peiratinae, Phymatinae, Reduviinae, and Stenopodainae. We report 6 new country records and one new species, Empicoris baerensprungi (Dohrn, 1863) for Asian fauna. Synonyms and distribution data are also given.

  11. A Retrospective Analysis of Oral Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in an Iranian Population: a 20-year Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Atarbashi Moghadam, Saede; Lotfi, Ali; Piroozhashemi, Batool; Mokhtari, Sepideh

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare disease with unknown pathogenesis and is characterized by local or disseminated proliferation of Langerhans cells. There is no previous investigation on prevalence of oral Langerhans cell histiocytosis in Iranian population. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the relative frequency of oral Langerhans cell histiocytosis in an Iranian population and to compare the data with previous reports. Materials and Method Pathology files of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Department of Dental School of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from 1992 to 2012 were searched for cases recorded as oral Langerhans cell histiocytosis. A total number of 20 cases were found and the clinical information of patients was recorded. Results The relative frequency of oral Langerhans cell histiocytosis was 0.34% and the most common location was the posterior mandible. In addition, the mean age of patients was 27 years and there was a definite male predominance. Most lesions were localized and tooth mobility was the most common oral presentation. Conclusion In Iranian population as in many other countries, the relative frequency of oral Langerhans cell histiocytosis is low. Moreover, tooth mobility and periodontal lesions are the frequent early signs of disease. Therefore, in patients with periodontal problems, good oral health, and no response to the treatment; Langerhans cell histiocytosis must be considered. Additionally, although most cases of oral Langerhans cell histiocytosis are localized, systemic involvement must also be considered and dental professionals have an important role in early detection of the disease. PMID:26535408

  12. A description of parasites from Iranian snakes.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, Vahid; Mobedi, Iraj; Dalimi, Abdolhossein; Mirakabadi, Abbas Zare; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh; Teymurzadeh, Shohreh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Abdoli, Amir; Paykari, Habibollah

    2014-12-01

    Little is known of the parasitic fauna of terrestrial snakes in Iran. This study aimed to evaluate the parasitic infection rates of snakes in Iran. A total of 87 snakes belonging to eight different species, that were collected between May 2012 and September 2012 and died after the hold in captivity, under which they were kept for taking poisons, were examined for the presence of gastrointestinal and blood parasites. According to our study 12 different genera of endoparasites in 64 (73.56%) of 87 examined snakes were determined. Forty one snakes (47.12%) had gastrointestinal parasites. In prepared blood smears, it was found that in 23 (26.43%) of 87 examined snakes there are at least one hemoparasite. To our knowledge, these are the first data on the internal parasitic fauna of Iranian terrestrial snakes and our findings show a higher prevalence of these organisms among them.

  13. Consanguineous Iranian kindreds with severe Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Motlagh, Maria G; Seddigh, Arshia; Dashti, Behnoosh; Leckman, James F; Alaghband-Rad, Javad

    2008-10-30

    The search for vulnerability genes for Tourette syndrome has been ongoing for nearly three decades. The contribution of recessive loci with reduced penetrance is one possibility that has been difficult to explore. Homozygosity mapping has been successfully used to detect recessive loci within populations with high rates of consanguinity. Using this technique, even quite small inbred families can be informative due to autozygosity in which the two alleles at an autosomal locus are identical by descent (i.e., copies of a single ancestral gene). To explore the utility of this approach, we identified 12 consanguineous Iranian families. Remarkably, these families were seen with an unusual natural history characterized by the early onset of vocal tics and coprolalia and frequent comorbidity with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Genotyping the affected and unaffected members of these pedigrees has the potential to identify rare recessive contributions to this disorder.

  14. A description of parasites from Iranian snakes.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, Vahid; Mobedi, Iraj; Dalimi, Abdolhossein; Mirakabadi, Abbas Zare; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh; Teymurzadeh, Shohreh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Abdoli, Amir; Paykari, Habibollah

    2014-12-01

    Little is known of the parasitic fauna of terrestrial snakes in Iran. This study aimed to evaluate the parasitic infection rates of snakes in Iran. A total of 87 snakes belonging to eight different species, that were collected between May 2012 and September 2012 and died after the hold in captivity, under which they were kept for taking poisons, were examined for the presence of gastrointestinal and blood parasites. According to our study 12 different genera of endoparasites in 64 (73.56%) of 87 examined snakes were determined. Forty one snakes (47.12%) had gastrointestinal parasites. In prepared blood smears, it was found that in 23 (26.43%) of 87 examined snakes there are at least one hemoparasite. To our knowledge, these are the first data on the internal parasitic fauna of Iranian terrestrial snakes and our findings show a higher prevalence of these organisms among them. PMID:25300762

  15. 31 CFR 560.512 - Iranian Government missions in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to, the Iranian Interests Section of the Embassy of Pakistan (or any successor protecting power) in... United States, and to employees of the Iranian Interests Section of the Embassy of Pakistan (or...

  16. Cultural Concepts and Themes of Suicidal Attempt Among Iranian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bazrafshan, Mohammad Rafi; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Molazem, Zahra; Mani, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Background: Suicide attempts are more common among adolescents than other age groups. Although suicide is considered a worldwide problem, but the related factors, to suicidal behavior are different in various cultures. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to identify themes that explain suicide attempt process among adolescents in Iran. Patients and Methods: This is a qualitative study carried out based on grounded theory. Key informants were 16 adolescents referred to two hospitals in Shiraz after suicide attempts. Also, 4 family members, a nurse, a psychologist, and a psychiatrist participated in this study. Sampling started with purposive sampling method and continued with theoretical sampling. Data were collected using semi-structured in-depth interviews. Data analysis was carried out using Strauss and Corbin approach and constant comparative method until the point of data saturation. Results: Five main categories, including personal factors and life experiences; family factors, social and educational factors, psychological-emotional problems, and stress control strategies were extracted from the data. The central concept in the data was to escape the painful psychological condition, which was in connection with other concepts describing the process of suicide attempts in adolescents. Conclusions: This study identified 5 categories of concepts as main themes that can be used to explain suicidal attempt process among Iranian adolescents. PMID:25883919

  17. Factor V Leiden does not have a role in cryptogenic ischemic stroke among Iranian young adults

    PubMed Central

    Kheradmand, Ehsan; Pourhossein, Meraj; Amini, Gilda; Saadatnia, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Different risk factors have been suggested for ischemic stroke in young adults. In a group of these patients despite of extensive diagnostic work-up, the primary cause remains unknown. Coagulation tendency is accounted as a possible cause in these patients. Previous studies on factor V Leiden (FVL) as the main cause of inherited thrombophilia for clarifying the role of FVL in stroke have resulted in controversial findings. The current study investigates the role of this factor in ischemic stroke among Iranians. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed between September 2007 and December 2008 in Isfahan, Iran. The case group comprised of 22 patients of which 15 were males and 7 were females with age range of ≤50 years, diagnosed as ischemic stroke without classic risk factors and the control group consisted of 54 healthy young adults. After filling consent form, venous blood samples were obtained and sent to the laboratory for genetic examination. Results: No FVL mutation was found in the case group. There was one carrier of the mutation as heterozygous in the control group (relative frequency = 1.85%). Conclusions: Based on our study, FVL might not be considered as an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke in Iranian individuals who are not suffering from other risk factors of ischemic stroke. PMID:24761388

  18. Oral Lymphoma Prevalence in Iranian Population: A Multicenter Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Bastani, Zahra; Mokhtari, Sepideh; Atarbashi Moghadam, Saede

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral lymphoma is the second most common malignancy of the head and neck region after malignant epithelial tumors. Objectives: Considering the lack of a multicenter study on the frequency of oral lymphoma in Iran, this study aimed to assess the relative frequency of oral lymphomas in Iran during a 6-year period. Materials and Methods: This multicenter, retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, cases of oral lymphoma registered in the cancer research center (CRC) of Shahid Beheshti university of medical sciences were extracted. The patient records and pathology reports of these patients were retrieved from the archives and age, sex and microscopic type site of the lesions were evaluated. Results: Oral lymphoma accounts for 1% of head and neck malignancies and 8% of all lymphomas. From 2003 to 2008, a total of 437 new cases of oral lymphomas had been registered in the CRC. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was found to be the most common form of oral lymphoma in the 6-year period with 240 (54.9%) registered cases. The majority of detected cases were in the 6th and 7th decades of life with a male to female ratio of 1:84. Tonsils were the most common site of occurrence of lymphoma in the oral cavity (77.8%). Conclusions: The age of onset, site of involvement, sex of patients, and histopathological subtype of oral lymphomas in the Iranian population were found to be similar to those of most other countries. PMID:26855724

  19. 31 CFR 560.407 - Transactions related to Iranian-origin goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transactions related to Iranian-origin... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.407 Transactions related to Iranian-origin goods. (a) Importation into the United States from third countries of goods containing Iranian-origin raw materials or components...

  20. 31 CFR 560.513 - Importation of Iranian-origin oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Importation of Iranian-origin oil. 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.513 Importation of Iranian-origin oil. (a) Specific licenses will be issued on a case-by-case basis to permit the importation of Iranian-origin oil...

  1. 31 CFR 560.407 - Transactions related to Iranian-origin goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transactions related to Iranian-origin... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.407 Transactions related to Iranian-origin goods. (a) Importation into the United States from third countries of goods containing Iranian-origin raw materials or components...

  2. 31 CFR 560.407 - Transactions related to Iranian-origin goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transactions related to Iranian-origin... Interpretations § 560.407 Transactions related to Iranian-origin goods. (a) Importation into the United States from third countries of goods containing Iranian-origin raw materials or components is not...

  3. 3 CFR - Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 1264 of the Victims of Iranian Censorship Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of the Victims of Iranian Censorship Act (Public Law 111-84, Subtitle D of the National Defense... 21, 2010 Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 1264 of the Victims of Iranian Censorship Act... 1264 of the Victims of Iranian Censorship Act (Public Law 111-84, subtitle D) to make the...

  4. 31 CFR 535.579 - Authorization of new transactions concerning certain Iranian property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... which Iran or an Iranian entity has an interest are authorized where: (1) The property comes within the... of the United States after January 19, 1981, or (2) The interest in the property of Iran or an Iranian entity (e.g. exports consigned to Iran or an Iranian entity) arises after January 19, 1981....

  5. 31 CFR 535.579 - Authorization of new transactions concerning certain Iranian property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... which Iran or an Iranian entity has an interest are authorized where: (1) The property comes within the... of the United States after January 19, 1981, or (2) The interest in the property of Iran or an Iranian entity (e.g. exports consigned to Iran or an Iranian entity) arises after January 19, 1981....

  6. 31 CFR 535.579 - Authorization of new transactions concerning certain Iranian property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... which Iran or an Iranian entity has an interest are authorized where: (1) The property comes within the... of the United States after January 19, 1981, or (2) The interest in the property of Iran or an Iranian entity (e.g. exports consigned to Iran or an Iranian entity) arises after January 19, 1981....

  7. Hepatitis A Is a Health Hazard for Iranian Pilgrims Who Go to Holly Karbala: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemian, Roya; Babamahmoodi, Farhang; Ahangarkani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Iraq is a highly endemic area for the prevalence of hepatitis A and annually hosts a large number of Iranian pilgrims, most of whom are susceptible to infection with the hepatitis A virus (HAV). Objectives This study reports the health hazard of hepatitis A for Iranian pilgrims who go to holly Karbala from the Mazandaran province. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the data of all patients with acute hepatitis A admitted in the Razi teaching hospital from November 23, 2014 to January 24, 2015, with a history of recently returning from holly Karbala or being exposed to Karbala pilgrims, were registered. Results A total number of nine patients were registered. Seven patients were male and two were female. The mean age was 30.11 ± 10.09.Two patients were from the same family. All patients had typical symptoms of acute hepatitis A. None of the patients died nor did fulminant occur in any patients. In addition, all patients were treated with supportive treatment and subsequently recovered. Conclusions This number of pilgrim patients with acute hepatitis A from a single province compels us to conduct more evaluations and follow up monitoring on all persons travelling to Karbala and be sensitive to early diagnoses of the pilgrims. In the future, it is important to be mindful of administering the HAV vaccine and Ig. PMID:27630729

  8. Candiduria in children: a first report from an Iranian referral pediatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Gholamipour, P; Mahmoudi, S; Pourakbari, B; Ashtiani, M Taghi Haghi; Sabouni, F; Teymuri, M; Mamishi, S

    2014-06-01

    Candida spp. especially Candida albicans is considered as one of the most common cause of fungal infections. The aim of our study was to determine epidemiology of candiduria in children who were referred to an Iranian referral hospital. During May 2011 to February 2013, among 4813 urine culture positive, 209 candida spp. isolates (4.3%) was found. Forty-one percent of cadiduria infection was seen in patients between 1 month and 1 year, 24% in neonatant and 24% in patients 1 to 5 years. Cadiduria was mainly found in patients who had received more than 2 or 3 antibiotic during their hospitalization (37% and 24%, respectively). In our study, the highest frequency of cadiduria was seen in patients who had received more than 2 antibiotics and more than 3 antibiotics during their hospitalization; therefore, the strategic goals to optimize antimicrobial use including optimizing choice and duration of empiric therapy as well as monitoring and providing feedback regarding antibiotic resistance are recommended.

  9. Characterizing of Four Common BCR-ABL Kinase Domain Mutations (T315I, Y253H, M351T and E255K) in Iranian Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Patients With Imatinib Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Rejali, Leili; Poopak, Behzad; Hasanzad, Mandana; Sheikhsofla, Fatemeh; Varnoosfaderani, Ameneh Saadat; Safari, Nazila; Rabieipoor, Saghar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a kind of hematopoietic stem-cell cancer. A significant number of CML patients who do not achieve an acceptable response to therapy, show acquired resistance against Imatinib. One of the most considerable causes of resistance against Imatinib as the first line of therapy, are BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations. Objectives: One of the most considerable causes of resistance against Imatinib as the first line of therapy, are BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations. Patients and Methods: The study was performed on 39 CML patients with Imatinib resistance. Basic hematologic parameters in blood samples were checked to identify hematologic response. To identify molecular response, BCR-ABL/ABL ratio was assessed by Real-time PCR. The ABL kinase domain amplification was performed by PCR. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was performed to detect four common mutations (T315I, Y253H, E255K and M351T). Finally the results were approved by direct sequencing. Results: In this study, the Y253H mutation, detected by RFLP method and confirmed by direct sequencing, was the prevalent ABL kinase domain mutation in these 39 CML patients. The G250E, V379I and L384M mutations were found in three different cases with failure molecular response. CML patients with these four ABL kinase domain mutations cannot achieve major molecular response (MMR). In addition, complete hematologic response (CHR) was observed only in the V379I mutated case and not in other mutated patients. Conclusions: Identification of ABL kinase domain mutations may be used as a proper and useful method for improving therapeutic strategies, avoiding delay in treatment and excessive expenditure in CML patients with Imatinib resistance. PMID:26413254

  10. Dietary compliance in Iranian children and adolescents with celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Taghdir, Maryam; Honar, Naser; Mazloomi, Seyed Mohammad; Sepandi, Mojtaba; Ashourpour, Mahkameh; Salehi, Musa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Celiac disease (CD) is caused due to intake of gluten, a protein component in wheat, barley, and rye. The only treatment currently available for CD is strict lifetime adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) which is a diet that excludes wheat, barley, and rye. There is limited information on barriers to following a GFD. The present study aimed to investigate the compliance with a GFD, barriers to compliance, and the impact of compliance on the quality of life (QOL) in Iranian children and adolescents suffering from CD. Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 65 known cases of CD (both males and females), diagnosed in Namazi Hospital, a large referral center in south of Iran, selected by census were studied in 2014. Dietary compliance was assessed using a questionnaire. A disease-specific QOL questionnaire for children with CD (the celiac disease DUX [CDDUX]) was used. Comparisons between categorical variables were performed using chi-square test. Results Sixty-five patients, 38 females (58.5%) and 27 (41.5%) males, were surveyed. Mean (± standard deviation [SD]) age of the respondents was 11.3 (±3.8) years. Dietary compliance was reported by 35 (53.8%) patients. The mean (± SD) CDDUX score was higher in dietary-compliant patients (33.5 [±19.4] vs 26.7 [±13.6], respectively, P=0.23). The score of CDDUX in parents of patients in dietary-compliant group was more than the noncompliant patients (28.1 [±13.5] vs 22.1 [±14], respectively, P=0.1). Barriers to noncompliance were poor or unavailability (100%), high cost (96.9%), insufficient labeling (84.6%), poor palatability (76.9%), and no information (69.23%). Conclusion Approximately half of the patients with CD reported dietary compliance. Poor or unavailability was found to be the most important barrier contributing to noncompliance. The QOL was better in compliant patients. Proposed strategies to improve compliance are greater availability of gluten-free products, better food labeling, and

  11. Coping Work Strategies and Job Satisfaction Among Iranian Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Adera Gebra, Addis

    2014-01-01

    Context: Nursing is a stressful job that could create physical and psychological disorders. Many studies presented information on stress, effects of coping strategies, and job satisfaction of nurses within health setting. We aimed to identify and describe nursing stresses, coping strategies and job satisfaction of Iranian nurses who are working or worked in different wards. Evidence Acquisition: In this review, we studied peer-reviewed journal articles on the field of stress, coping strategies and job satisfaction in nursing practice, especially Iranian nurses, which were published between 2000 and 2013. In this regard, we searched databases of PubMed, Elsevier, Google, BMJ, PMC, and MEDLINE. Results: The majority of the studies (60%) had analyzed the effect of coping strategies, experiences and perception of job-related stresses in Iranian nurses working in hospitals. In some of the reviewed studies (60%), the majority of the samples enrolled Iranian nurses. Forty percent of studies selected a maximum sample size of 565 (44%) participants in 2011. Nursing stress scale employed at 30% of the studies was the most commonly used strategy. This reviewed studies also revealed a combined measurement (60% of studies), based on categorical stress measurement, effects of coping strategies, and job satisfaction methods. Three studies explored the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. For instance, the majority (74.4%) of nurses reported job satisfaction. Conclusions: Effect of coping strategies and job satisfaction on Iranian nurses is a well-accepted issue and has important positive outcomes on several areas of health discipline. PMID:25068050

  12. Correlation Between Dental and Cervical Vertebral Maturation in Iranian Females

    PubMed Central

    Valizadeh, Solmaz; Eil, Nakissa; Ehsani, Sara; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

    2012-01-01

    Background Considerable variations in the development stage among patients of the same chronological age have led to introduce the concept of the developmental age based on the maturation of different organs such as cervical vertebrae or teeth. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the stages of tooth calcification and the cervical vertebral maturation in Iranian females. Patients and Methods Four hundred females (age range, 8 to 14 years) participated in the study. To determine the dental maturational stage, calcification of the mandibular teeth except for third molars were rated according to the method suggested by Demirjian et al. To evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation, cervical vertebral morphologic changes were assessed on lateral cephalometric radiographs according to the method explained by Baccetti et al. Correlations between bone maturation and teeth calcification were showed by Spearman's correlation and Kendall’s tau-b coefficients. The relevant associations were investigated by ordinal logistic regression models. Results Correlations between the two stages were observed in the first and second premolars, canine and central incisors. All these correlations were significant. The association between cervical vertebral maturation and tooth calcification was greatest in the lateral incisor (odds ratio (OR) = 11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.6-18.3). However, considering the 95% CI for OR, no significant difference was detected among the second molar, first molar and lateral incisor. Conclusion The relationship between calcification of teeth and maturation of cervical bones was significant. Bone maturation can be predicted by using teeth calcification stages, especially in the second molar, first molar and lateral incisor. PMID:23599706

  13. Iranian-Islamic traditional medicine: An ancient comprehensive personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zeinalian, Mehrdad; Eshaghi, Mehdi; Naji, Homayoun; Marandi, Sayyed Mohammad Masoud; Sharbafchi, Mohammad Reza; Asgary, Sedigheh

    2015-01-01

    Personalized medicine (PM) is a novel term used for a medical model in which all diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic aspects of a disease are individualized for a patient using specific molecular testing. In Iranian-Islamic traditional medicine (IITM) an ancient paradigm for PM has been described which has been introduced in this paper. We reviewed the ancient resources of IITM and many valid recent studies on personalized medicine and described an ancient feature of personalized medicine in comparison with new ones. According to IITM scholars, every person has an individual temperament which is concluded of four basic humors combination. The individual temper is influenced by internal and external factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, season, and environment. This variability leads to different physical and mental behaviors toward a particular condition; so if we could identify the patient's temper, we would predict his/her health-related behaviors rather than predisposition and prognosis to different diseases, and select the best treatment. This holistic viewpoint of IITM to the human health and disease justifies the variable phenotypes among similar illnesses; the fact around which more advanced high-tech researches are being developed to explore all specific molecular pathways. IITM offers an ancient comprehensive PM (APM) which is more available and inexpensive compared to the modern PM (MPM). Moreover, APM focuses more on fitness than illness in comparison to MPM. It seems more attention to APM introduced by IITM could help us to promote health community. Design studies using high-tech MPM techniques would likely lead to clarification of most molecular aspects of APM. PMID:26605230

  14. An Outcome Study of Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion among Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Haghnegahdar, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. First-line treatment strategy for managing cervical disc herniation is conservative measures. In some cases, surgery is indicated either due to signs/symptoms of severe/progressive neurological deficits, or because of persistence of radicular pain despite 12 weeks of conservative treatment. Success for treatment of cervical disc herniation using ACDF has been successfully reported in the literature. We aim to determine the outcome of ACDF in treatment of cervical disc herniation among Iranians. Methods and Materials/Patients. In a retrospective cohort study, we evaluated 68 patients who had undergone ACDF for cervical disc herniation from March 2006 to March 2011. Outcome tools were as follows: (1) study-designed questionnaire that addressed residual and/or new complaints and subjective satisfaction with the operation; (2) recent (one week prior to the interview) postoperative VAS for neck and upper extremity radicular pain; (3) Japanese Orthopaedic Association Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire (JOACMEQ) (standard Persian version); and (4) follow-up cervical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and lateral X-ray. Results. With mean follow-up time of 52.93 (months) ± 31.89 SD (range: 13–131 months), we had success rates with regard to ΔVAS for neck and radicular pain of 88.2% and 89.7%, respectively. Except QOL functional score of JOAMEQ, 100% success rate for the other 4 functional scores of JOAMEQ was achieved. Conclusion. ACDF is a successful surgical technique for the management of cervical disc herniation among Iranian population.

  15. A Revised Iranian Model of Organ Donation as an Answer to the Current Organ Shortage Crisis.

    PubMed

    Hamidian Jahromi, Alireza; Fry-Revere, Sigrid; Bastani, Bahar

    2015-09-01

    Kidney transplantation has become the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease. Six decades of success in the field of transplantation have made it possible to save thousands of lives every year. Unfortunately, in recent years success has been overshadowed by an ever-growing shortage of organs. In the United States, there are currently more than 100 000 patients waiting for kidneys. However, the supply of kidneys (combined cadaveric and live donations) has stagnated around 17 000 per year. The ever-widening gap between demand and supply has resulted in an illegal black market and unethical transplant tourism of global proportions. While we believe there is much room to improve the Iranian model of regulated incentivized live kidney donation, with some significant revisions, the Iranian Model could serve as an example for how other countries could make significant strides to lessening their own organ shortage crises.

  16. A Revised Iranian Model of Organ Donation as an Answer to the Current Organ Shortage Crisis.

    PubMed

    Hamidian Jahromi, Alireza; Fry-Revere, Sigrid; Bastani, Bahar

    2015-09-01

    Kidney transplantation has become the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease. Six decades of success in the field of transplantation have made it possible to save thousands of lives every year. Unfortunately, in recent years success has been overshadowed by an ever-growing shortage of organs. In the United States, there are currently more than 100 000 patients waiting for kidneys. However, the supply of kidneys (combined cadaveric and live donations) has stagnated around 17 000 per year. The ever-widening gap between demand and supply has resulted in an illegal black market and unethical transplant tourism of global proportions. While we believe there is much room to improve the Iranian model of regulated incentivized live kidney donation, with some significant revisions, the Iranian Model could serve as an example for how other countries could make significant strides to lessening their own organ shortage crises. PMID:26338158

  17. An Outcome Study of Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion among Iranian Population.

    PubMed

    Haghnegahdar, Ali; Sedighi, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. First-line treatment strategy for managing cervical disc herniation is conservative measures. In some cases, surgery is indicated either due to signs/symptoms of severe/progressive neurological deficits, or because of persistence of radicular pain despite 12 weeks of conservative treatment. Success for treatment of cervical disc herniation using ACDF has been successfully reported in the literature. We aim to determine the outcome of ACDF in treatment of cervical disc herniation among Iranians. Methods and Materials/Patients. In a retrospective cohort study, we evaluated 68 patients who had undergone ACDF for cervical disc herniation from March 2006 to March 2011. Outcome tools were as follows: (1) study-designed questionnaire that addressed residual and/or new complaints and subjective satisfaction with the operation; (2) recent (one week prior to the interview) postoperative VAS for neck and upper extremity radicular pain; (3) Japanese Orthopaedic Association Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire (JOACMEQ) (standard Persian version); and (4) follow-up cervical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and lateral X-ray. Results. With mean follow-up time of 52.93 (months) ± 31.89 SD (range: 13-131 months), we had success rates with regard to ΔVAS for neck and radicular pain of 88.2% and 89.7%, respectively. Except QOL functional score of JOAMEQ, 100% success rate for the other 4 functional scores of JOAMEQ was achieved. Conclusion. ACDF is a successful surgical technique for the management of cervical disc herniation among Iranian population.

  18. Regional Disparities in Sedentary Behaviors and Meal Frequency in Iranian Adolescents: The CASPIAN-III Study

    PubMed Central

    Baygi, Fereshteh; Heshmat, Ramin; Kelishadi, Roya; Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmail; Ardalan, Gelayol; Asayesh, Hamid; Larijani, Bagher; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity is increasing among Iranian youngsters like other developing countries. Objectives: This study was conducted to assess regional disparities in sedentary behaviors and meal frequency in Iranian adolescents. Patients and Methods: In this national survey, 5682 students aged 10 - 18 years from urban and rural districts of 27 provinces of Iran were selected via stratified multi-stage sampling method. The country was classified into four sub-national regions, based on criteria of the combination of geography and socioeconomic status (SES). Mean of meal frequency and physical activity levels as well as prevalence of omitting meals and sedentary behavior were compared across regions with different SES after stratifying with sex and age group. Results: Meal frequency in lower socio-economic regions was significantly higher than two other regions in 10 - 13 and 10 - 18 years old groups (P trend < 0.001). However, the mean of working hours with computer was linearly increased with increasing the SES in studied regions (P trend < 0.001), whereas the corresponding figure was not significant for the mean of watching TV (P trend > 0.05). Frequency of adolescents omitting their meals was higher in higher SES regions especially in West Iran (P < 0.001) in 10 - 13 years old age group. Having personal computer and working with it more than two hours per day mainly was observed in central Iran which ranked as the highest SES group. Conclusions: Efforts to ensure Iranian youth meet healthy food habits and screen time guidelines include limiting access to screen technologies and encouraging parents to monitor their own screen time is required. PMID:26195993

  19. Iranian human genome project: Overview of a research process among Iranian ethnicities.

    PubMed

    Banihashemi, Kambiz

    2009-09-01

    The Human Genome Project (HGP) refers to the international scientific research program, formally begun in October 1990 and completed in 2003, mainly designated to discover all the human genes, analyzing the structure of human DNA and determining the location of all human genes and also making them accessible for further biological and medical investigations. With the appropriate rationale approach, a similar study has been held in Iran. The study of human genome among Iranian ethnicities (IHGP) has been attempted formally in 2000 through a detailed and fully programmed research among all the major ethnic groups by more than 1,900 samples from all over Iran based on the main demographical and anthropological findings and formally known criteria considered for the international HGP. This paper overviewed the process of the research in the terms of program goals, primary data collection, research designation and methodology and also practical aspects and primary findings of the Iranian genome project and its progress during a nearly 5-year period.

  20. Criteria for evidence-based practice in Iranian traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Soltani Arabshahi, SeyyedKamran; Mohammadi Kenari, Hoorieh; Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Shams-Ardakani, MohammadReza; Bigdeli, Shoaleh

    2015-07-01

    The major difference between Iranian traditional medicine and allopathic medicine is in the application  of  evidence  and  documents.  In  this  study,  criteria  for  evidence-based  practice  in  Iranian traditional medicine and its rules of practice were studied. The experts' views were investigated through in- depth, semi-structured interviews and the results were categorized into four main categories including Designing clinical questions/clinical question-based search, critical appraisal, resource search criteria and clinical prescription appraisal. Although the application of evidence in Iranian traditional medicine follows Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) principles but it benefits from its own rules, regulations, and criteria that are compatible with EBM.

  1. Psychosocial profile of Iranian adolescents' Internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Saghafi, Abolfazl

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, factors that could play an important role in Internet addiction (IA) in 4,177 Iranian high school and secondary school adolescents (age range: 14-19 years) were examined. Data for the present study were gathered through Young's IA test, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and family relationship questionnaires distributed between high school and secondary school students in different demographic regions, carefully selected using multistage sampling techniques. Among the study participants, 21.1% of the students were in some way victims of IA, among whom 1.1% had significant problematic symptoms. Familial relationships was the most important factor related to IA; religious beliefs, moreover, was the second most important factor. The father's level of education was more important than that of the mother's by nearly twice as much. Other factors had important roles in the kind of Internet use, but not as much as the above mentioned factors. The findings of this study could help parents, school counselors, and teachers to pay more attention to excessive Internet use in adolescents and propose possible solutions.

  2. The Feminisation of Iranian Higher Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavarini, Mitra K.

    2005-07-01

    The number of women attending institutions of higher education in Iran has been steadily increasing since 1989. Growing enrollment rates for women in colleges and universities have sparked wide social and political debates in that country. The basic question of why young Iranian women might even choose to pursue tertiary education, however, has not been adequately addressed in the critical literature. This study gives voice to young women who explain for themselves why they are interested in higher education. It reveals that college or university studies represent for female students many things: a sphere of hope, a refuge, and a place to experience limited freedom beyond restrictive family environments; an asset that can increase a woman's value in the marriage market; a right that may make possible financial independence; and a vehicle that can earn respect for women. On the whole, the desire for higher education illuminates the challenges facing women in Muslim nations and the ways in which Muslim women are using this institution to change their social status.

  3. Patience and Mental Health in Iranian Students

    PubMed Central

    Aghababaei, Naser; Tabik, Mohammad Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Background: While the role of some personality traits has been comprehensively explored, scientific study of others, such as patience has been neglected. Psychologists have paid scant attention to patience as a personality trait, character strength or virtue. Objectives: The current study examined the relationship between patience and life satisfaction, mental health, and personality. Materials and Methods: A sample of 252 Iranian college students (129 females and 123 males) completed the 3-factor patience scale, satisfaction with life scale, general health questionnaire, anxiety and depression scales and mini international personality item pool-big five. Results: The three types of patience (interpersonal, life hardship, and daily hassles) were associated with higher levels of life satisfaction and lower levels of depression, anxiety and psychological dysfunction. Patience also showed moderate relationship with the Big-Five factors of personality. After controlling the personality factors, patience managed to explain additional unique variance in life satisfaction and mental health indicators. Conclusions: Patience is a unique predictor of mental well-being. It is suggested that long-term patience is more important for depression and general health, whereas short-term patience is more beneficial for hedonic well-being. PMID:26576165

  4. Quality measurement indicators for Iranian Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Shandiz; Atefi Manesh, Pezhman; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, quality is a serious concern in development of organizations. There are various indicators to assess quality and the purpose of this study was to identify the main indicators for quality measurement of Iranian health centers. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in three stages: first, review of the literature was performed to identify different indicators for quality measurement in health centers; second, a tworound Delphi process was used with participation of 18 experts in both rounds; third, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method was applied to give weights to each indicator. Results: Twenty-seven indicators were identified from the literature review stage. The Delphi method reduced the list to 4 indicators. Developing a quality plan in the health center had the highest weight (38%) and percentage of followed complaints the lowest (12%). The consistency rate was 7.2% indicating appropriateness of the data. Conclusion: This list of indicators can be used as a template for measuring quality of health centers in Iran and possibly in other developing countries. PMID:26034730

  5. The energy expenditure of Iranian agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Brun, T A; Geissler, C A; Mirbagheri, I; Hormozdiary, H; Bastani, J; Hedayat, H

    1979-10-01

    The energy cost of agricultural and standard activities and the daily energy expenditure of male agricultural workers were measured during different seasons in Iranian villages to assess the validity of past and present Food and Agricultural Organization recommended energy allowances for that population. Studies included low income farmers in a village representative of those around the central desert where harvesting takes place under conditions of extreme summer heat. Measurements were also made during the Moslem fasting period when no food may be eaten between dawn and dusk. Energy cost of typical activities was measured by indirect calorimetry using the Max-Planck respirometer and daily energy expenditure was assessed using these figures combined with a diary of activities throughout the 24-hr period. Results of individual activity values are compared with other published figures. Comparison of daily energy expenditure of fasting subjects and nonfasting after Ramazan showed no significant difference. No significant difference was found between values of standardized activities at high summer temperatures and moderate temperatures. Mean values of daily energy expenditure during winter when activity is low are around 2600 kcal/day and for the other seasons of high activity 3400 kcal/day. These figures suggest that past and present Food and Agricultural Organization standards are low for this population. PMID:484535

  6. Iranian Permanent GPS Network for Geodynamics (IPGN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, F.; Nankali, H. R.; Sedighi, M.; Djamour, Y.; Mosavi, Z.

    2009-04-01

    Iran is one of the most tectonically active zone in Alpine-Himalayan seismic belt where has been shaken by largely destroying historical and instrumental earthquakes. Iran is located in the convergence zone between Arabia and Eurasia with a velocity of 22 mm/yr nearly to the North. The shortening between Arabian and Eurasian plates in Iran is mainly distributed on Zagros and Alborz belts. Despite the historical and scientific awareness of seismic hazard in Iran, unfortunately this country lacked a Continuous GPS network to study geodynamic and tectonic movements. Such geodetic measurement can play an important role to understand the tectonic deformation then to evaluate the seismic hazard on Iran. Since early 2005 National Cartographic Center of Iran (NCC) is establishing a continuous GPS network named Iranian Permanent GPS Network for Geodynamics (IPGN). Taking into account the number of provided GPS receivers, (108) we made a priority based on two factors of seismicity and population. At the first, in order to study general tectonic behavior in Iran 41 stations, globally distributed in whole of Iran, were been considered. Three other areas in the priority list were: Centeral Alborz, North-West of Iran and North-East of Iran. The rest of receivers, i.e. ~60, were considered for these areas as local networks. These four networks are daily processed and give us a continuous monitoring of any surface deformation. In this paper we try to present the results obtained from the network

  7. Trend of diseases among Iranian pilgrims during five consecutive years based on a Syndromic Surveillance System in Hajj

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Seyed Mansour; Sabouri-Kashani, Ahmad; Ziaee-Ardakani, Hossein; Tabatabaei, Aminreza; Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Sadeghipour, Hamidreza; Mortazavi-Tabatabaei, Seyed Abdolreza; Salamati, Payman

    2013-01-01

    Background Every year more than 2 million people depart from Iran to Saudi Arabia for Hajj ritual whichcan be faced with some different diseases. There are not much information about frequencies and trend of diseasesin Hajj. The main objective of this study was to determine the trend of prevalent diseases during five consecutiveHajj rituals among Iranian pilgrims. Methods We established a specific surveillance system for all Iranian pilgrims who had participated in Hajjfrom 2004 to 2008. We monitored the pilgrims’ health status before departure, through their journey. The understudieddiseases were 19 selected types of diseases in the Hajj. The occurrences of diseases were recorded on aresearchers-made questionnaire. We used chi-square test for analysis with the alpha lower than 5% to reject thenull hypothesis. Results During 5 consecutive periods, a total of 254,823 of Iranian pilgrims were monitored for more commondiseases with this system. The most prevalent diseases were as follows: at least one type of respiratory involvement(71.26%), common cold like syndrome (47.15%), and musculoskeletal disorders (18.67%), The frequencyof respiratory involvement was lower in 2006 than other years (p <0.001).There were statistically significantdifferences between the numbers of hospitalization and patients who were referred back to Iran with theyear of Hajj (p <0.001). Conclusion Health managers should be informed about trend and frequency of more prevalent diseases inHajj. Easy access to health information via such surveillance system can be possible. PMID:24926178

  8. Designing an Electronic Personal Health Record for Professional Iranian Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Abdolkhani, Robab; Halabchi, Farzin; Safdari, Reza; Dargahi, Hossein; Shadanfar, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    Background: By providing sports organizations with electronic records and instruments that can be accessed at any time or place, specialized care can be offered to athletes regardless of injury location, and this makes the follow-up from first aid through to full recovery more efficient. Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop an electronic personal health record for professional Iranian athletes. Patients and Methods: First, a comparative study was carried out on the types of professional athletes’existing handheld and electronic health information management systems currently being used in Iran and leading countries in the field of sports medicine including; Australia, Canada and the United States. Then a checklist was developed containing a minimum dataset of professional athletes’ personal health records and distributed to the people involved, who consisted of 50 specialists in sports medicine and health information management, using the Delphi method. Through the use of data obtained from this survey, a basic paper model of professional athletes' personal health record was constructed and then an electronic model was created accordingly. Results: Access to information in the electronic record was through a web-based, portal system. The capabilities of this system included: access to information at any time and location, increased interaction between the medical team, comprehensive reporting and effective management of injuries, flexibility and interaction with financial, radiology and laboratory information systems. Conclusions: It is suggested that a framework should be created to promote athletes’ medical knowledge and provide the education necessary to manage their information. This would lead to improved data quality and ultimately promote the health of community athletes. PMID:25741410

  9. Tacrolimus Dose Requirement in Iranian Kidney Transplant Recipients within the First Three Weeks after Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Dashti-Khavidaki, S.; Ghaffari, S.; Gohari, M.; Khatami, M. R.; Zahiri, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tacrolimus is the main immunosuppressive agent in many kidney transplant protocols with an initial recommended daily dose of 0.2 mg/kg of ideal body weight (IBW). However, due to the high inter- and intra-patient variability in its pharmacokinetics, the required tacrolimus doses may differ markedly from patient to patient. Objective: To assess the required tacrolimus dose to achieve the desired whole blood concentration within the first three weeks after kidney transplantation among Iranian patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed at kidney transplantation ward of Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex where almost all patients receive thymoglobulin induction therapy and a calcineurin inhibitor, mainly tacrolimus, plus mycophenolate, and prednisolone as maintenance immnosuppressive drugs with the target tacrolimus whole blood concentration of 8–12 ng/mL for the first month after transplantation. Results: The mean±SD administered daily dose of tacrolimus during the first three weeks after transplantation was 0.085±0.024 mg/kg of IBW that resulted in a mean±SD whole blood concentration of 10.34±5.44 ng/mL. The required mean±SD dose of the drug to achieve the desired whole blood level of 8–10 ng/mL was 0.08±0.02 mg/kg. Only 27.4% of the assessed tacrolimus blood levels were within the desired range. Compared with males, females needed 19% more daily dose of tacrolimus to reach similar whole blood levels. Tacrolimus blood levels were significantly correlated with daily tacrolimus doses (r=0.307, p=0.001) and patients’ age (r=0.283, p=0.003). Conclusion: It seems that Iranian kidney transplant recipients need lower daily doses of tacrolimus to achieve the desired whole blood levels; compared with males, females need a higher dose.

  10. Novel CFTR Mutations in Two Iranian Families with Severe Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mohseni, Marzieh; Razzaghmanesh, Mohammad; Mehr, Elham Parsi; Zare, Hanieh; Beheshtian, Maryam; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common autosomal recessive disorder that affects many body systems and is produced by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. CF is also the most frequently inherited disorder in the West. The aim of this study was to detect the mutations in the CFTR gene in two Iranian families with CF. Methods: After DNA extraction using the salting out method, a mutation panel consisting of 35 common mutations was tested by PCR, followed by reverse hybridization Strip Assay. To confirm the mutations, we have also performed Sanger sequencing for all 27 exons, intronic flanking regions, and 5’ and 3’ UTRs of the CFTR gene. Results: Carrier testing in a spouse revealed a novel nonsense mutation in the CFTR gene (c.2777 T>A (p.L926X)) in exon 17 for husband and a previously described heterozygous splice site pathogenic mutation (c.1393-1G>A) in his wife. The other novel compound heterozygous missense mutation (c.3119 T>A (p.L1040H)), which was previously reported as nonsense c.3484C>T (p.R1162X) mutation, was found in exon 19 in patient screening. Conclusion: Two novel CFTR mutations in exons 17 and 19 are responsible for CF with severe phenotypes in two Iranian families. These two mutations supplement the mutation spectrum of CFTR and may contribute to a better understanding of CFTR protein function. PMID:27017198

  11. Components of Equity-Oriented Health Care System: Perspective of Iranian Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Rooddehghan, Zahra; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Yekta, Zohreh Parsa

    2015-01-01

    Equity in health is one of key objectives in health care systems world wide. This study aimed to explain the perspective of Iranian nurses about equity in the health care system. A qualitative exploratory design with thematic analysis approach was used to collect and analyze data. Using a purposeful sampling helped the researchers to recruit 16 eligible participants. Data were collected via in-depth semi-structured interviews. Five main categories were extracted through data analysis process including (1) inequity against the nurse, (2) the recommended patient, (3) no claim for equity-oriented care in health system, (4) physicians’ dominancy system; and (5) the need to define criteria to measure equity-oriented care. All health care systems around the world struggle to establish equity-oriented care. In perspective of Iranian nurses, the reform of structures in the health system is possible through providing the context of equitable care for caregivers and care recipients. Health system should commit the flow of equity at all of its levels. It should utilize policies to claim equity and consider the interests of all beneficiaries. Furthermore, certain criteria should be defined for equity-oriented care in the health care system, and also provides the possibility to measure and monitor it. PMID:25716398

  12. Low back pain during pregnancy in Iranian women: Prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Hasson, Scott; Naghdi, Soofia; Keyhani, Sousan; Jalaie, Shohreh

    2010-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common and often disabling condition that deserves attention. Although LBP during pregnancy is a common clinical problem, only one study was found documenting prevalence of LBP during pregnancy in Iran. No investigation evaluated the diagnostic value of possible risk factors. The aims of the present, cross-sectional study were 1) to ascertain the prevalence of LBP of Iranian women during pregnancy and compare to other ethnic/cultural groups and 2) identify risk factors associated with LBP during pregnancy in Iranian women. One hundred three women were interviewed in the obstetric ward of a university hospital within 48 hours after giving birth. Possible risk factor associations were studied by using nonparametric tests, and sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive, and likelihood ratio values were calculated for the interview questions about previous low back pain, LBP during menstruation, and trauma during pregnancy. The prevalence of LBP during pregnancy was found to be 57.3%, which is similar to most other countries. Pain onset was most frequently reported in the third trimester of pregnancy (40.7%) and was often reported to be in the low back area (71.2%). Almost half of the patients reported their pain as being moderate (44.1%). The logistic regression model demonstrated that the LBP during menstruation predicts a high risk for LBP during the current pregnancy. The study showed that LBP during menstruation and previous LBP may be useful tests for ruling out and ruling in LBP during pregnancy, respectively.

  13. How Does a Group of Iranian Youth Conceptualize Their Risky Sexual Experiences?

    PubMed Central

    Noroozi, Mahnaz; Merghati Khoei, Effat-al-Sadat; Taleghani, Fariba; Tavakoli, Mahgol; Gholami, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are restrictions as well as lawful and religious prohibition for sexual relationships in Iranian society. Objectives: This study explores the varied experiential reality of Iranian youth and their risky sexual experiences. Patients and Methods: Data collection is based on semi-structured interviews with 30 single young men and women. Observation of interactions of youth in different settings has been another source of information. Interviews were microscopically content analyzed. Results: The accounts of risky sexual experiences included gendered behavioral, cultural, and cognitive factors. In the re-contextualizing process, these accounts were categorized by two main themes: “gendered sexual script” and “cultural scenarios of interpersonal interactions”. The notion of “male power” was evident in the responses provided by the participants. Women seldom asked for condom use due to limited knowledge about STIs-HIV/AIDS and unpleasant experiences with condoms. Men had limited knowledge about various sexual modes of HIV and STIs transmission and did not use condoms consistently because they had not seen themselves at risk of STIs or HIV as well as their belief about the decrease of sexual pleasure. Conclusions: Rising youth awareness, creating a positive attitude, and appropriate knowledge about safe sex practices are seminal. It is also vital to ensure access to gender specific sexual and reproductive health services for youths, empower women, and strengthen their sexual assertiveness as well as the elimination of all forms of gender-based inequalities. PMID:25838931

  14. Components of equity-oriented health care system: perspective of Iranian nurses.

    PubMed

    Rooddehghan, Zahra; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Parsa Yekta, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Equity in health is one of key objectives in health care systems world wide. This study aimed to explain the perspective of Iranian nurses about equity in the health care system. A qualitative exploratory design with thematic analysis approach was used to collect and analyze data. Using a purposeful sampling helped the researchers to recruit 16 eligible participants. Data were collected via in-depth semi-structured interviews. Five main categories were extracted through data analysis process including (1) inequity against the nurse, (2) the recommended patient, (3) no claim for equity-oriented care in health system, (4) physicians' dominancy system; and (5) the need to define criteria to measure equity-oriented care. All health care systems around the world struggle to establish equity-oriented care. In perspective of Iranian nurses, the reform of structures in the health system is possible through providing the context of equitable care for caregivers and care recipients. Health system should commit the flow of equity at all of its levels. It should utilize policies to claim equity and consider the interests of all beneficiaries. Furthermore, certain criteria should be defined for equity-oriented care in the health care system, and also provides the possibility to measure and monitor it.

  15. Cerebrovascular Dysfunction in Preeclamptic Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Erica S.; Cipolla, Marilyn J.

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive, multi-system disorder of pregnancy that affects several organ systems, including the maternal brain. Cerebrovascular dysfunction during preeclampsia can lead to cerebral edema, seizures, stroke and potentially maternal mortality. This review will discuss the effects of preeclampsia on the cerebrovasculature that may adversely affect the maternal brain, including cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation and blood-brain barrier disruption, and the resultant clinical outcomes including posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and maternal stroke. Potential long-term cognitive outcomes of preeclampsia and the role of the cerebrovasculature are also reviewed. PMID:26126779

  16. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) Expression in Preeclamptic Decidua and MMP9 Induction by Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Interleukin 1 Beta in Human First Trimester Decidual Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Charles J.; Oner, Ceyda; Uz, Yesim H.; Kayisli, Umit A.; Huang, S. Joseph; Buchwalder, Lynn F.; Murk, William; Funai, Edmund F.; Schatz, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) invade human decidua via sequential integrin-mediated binding and proteolysis of basement membrane proteins in the extracellular matrix (ECM). In preeclampsia, shallow EVT invasion impairs spiral artery and arteriole remodeling to reduce uteroplacental blood flow. Excess decidual cell-expressed matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9, in response to preeclampsia-related interleukin 1 beta (IL1B) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), may inappropriately degrade these basement membrane proteins and impede EVT invasion. This study found significantly higher immunohistochemical MMP9 levels in decidual cells and adjacent interstitial trophoblasts in placental sections of preeclamptic versus gestational age-matched control women. In contrast, immunostaining for MMP2 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2 (TIMP1 and TIMP2) were similar in preeclamptic and control groups. First-trimester decidual cells were incubated with estradiol (E2) or E2 + medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), with or without TNF or IL1B. As measured by ELISA, both cytokines elicited concentration-dependent increases in secreted MMP9 levels that were unaffected by MPA. In contrast, secreted levels of MMP2, TIMP1, and TIMP2 were unchanged in all treatment groups. Substrate gel zymography and Western blotting confirmed that each cytokine increased secreted levels of MMP9 but not MMP2. Similarly, quantitative RT-PCR found that TNF and IL1B enhanced MMP9, but not MMP2, mRNA levels. At the implantation site, inflammatory cytokine-enhanced MMP9 may promote preeclampsia by disrupting the decidual ECM to interfere with normal stepwise EVT invasion. PMID:18276934

  17. Laboratory Diagnosis of Factor XIII Deficiency in Developing Countries: An Iranian Experience.

    PubMed

    Dorgalaleh, Akbar; Tabibian, Shadi; Shams, Mahmood; Tavasoli, Behnaz; Gheidishahran, Maryam; Shamsizadeh, Morteza

    2016-08-01

    Factor XIII (FXIII) deficiency is an extremely rare bleeding disorder with an approximately 12-times higher than the rest of the world. The International Society for Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) suggested a standard algorithm for precise diagnosis and classification of FXIII deficiency (FXIIID). However, due to lack of investment in proper equipment and procedures in Iran, almost no part of this algorithm can be used to diagnose Iranian patients. Thus, this study proposes a guideline for accurate molecular and laboratory diagnosis of FXIIID based on the available tools. Because this study suggests a simple and reliable algorithm for early diagnosis, it can therefore, reduce the rates of morbidity and mortality of FXIIID patients with this condition. PMID:27346867

  18. Seismic Waveform Tomography of the Iranian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, A.; Priestley, K.; Jackson, J.

    2001-05-01

    Surprisingly little is known about the detailed velocity structure of Iran, despite the region's importance in the tectonics of the Middle East. Previous studies have concentrated mainly on fundamental mode surface wave dispersion measurements along isolated paths (e.g.~Asudeh, 1982; Cong & Mitchell, 1998; Ritzwoller et.~al, 1998), and the propagation characteristics of crust and upper mantle body waves (e.g. Hearn & Ni 1994; Rodgers et.~al 1997). We use the partitioned waveform inversion method of Nolet (1990) on several hundred regional waveforms crossing the Iranian region to produce a 3-D seismic velocity map for the crust and upper mantle of the area. The method consists of using long period seismograms from earthquakes with well determined focal mechanisms and depths to constrain 1-D path-averaged shear wave models along regional paths. The constraints imposed on the 1-D models by the seismograms are then combined with independent constraints from other methods (e.g.~Moho depths from reciever function analysis etc.), to solve for the 3-D seismic velocity structure of the region. A dense coverage of fundamental mode rayleigh waves at a period of 100~s ensures good resolution of lithospheric scale structure. We also use 20~s period fundamental mode rayleigh waves and some Pnl wavetrains to make estimates of crustal thickness variations and average crustal velocities. A few deeper events give us some coverage of higher mode rayleigh waves and mantle S waves, which sample to the base of the upper mantle. Our crustal thickness estimates range from 45~km in the southern Zagros mountains, to 40~km in central Iran and 35~km towards the north of the region. We also find inconsistencies between the 1-D models required to fit the vertical and the tranverse seismograms, indicating the presence of anisotropy.

  19. Maternal Origin of Turkish and Iranian Native Chickens Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA D-loop Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Meydan, Hasan; Jang, Cafer Pish; Yıldız, Mehmet Ali; Weigend, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    To assess genetic diversity and maternal origin of Turkish and Iranian native chicken breeds, we analyzed the mtDNA D-loop sequences of 222 chickens from 2 Turkish (Denizli and Gerze) and 7 Iranian (White Marandi, Black Marandi, Naked Neck, Common Breed, Lari, West Azarbaijan, and New Hampshire) native chicken breeds, together with the available reference sequences of G. gallus gallus in GenBank. The haplotype diversity was estimated as 0.24±0.01 and 0.36±0.02 for Turkish and Iranian populations, respectively. In total, 19 haplotypes were observed from 24 polymorphic sites in Turkish and Iranian native chicken populations. Two different clades or haplogroups (A and E) were found in Turkish and Iranian chickens. Clade A haplotypes were found only in White Marandi, Common Breed and New Hampshire populations. Clade E haplotypes, which are quite common, were observed in Turkish and Iranian populations with 18 different haplotypes, of which Turkish and Iranian chickens, Clade E, haplotype 1 (TRIRE1) was a major haplotype with the frequency of 81.5% (181/222) across all breeds. Compared to red jungle fowl, Turkish and Iranian chicken breeds are closely related to each other. These results suggest that Turkish and Iranian chickens originated from the same region, the Indian subcontinent. Our results will provide reliable basic information for mtDNA haplotypes of Turkish and Iranian chickens and for studying the origin of domestic chickens. PMID:27189637

  20. Iranian Adolescents' Intended Age of Marriage and Desired Family Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tashakkori, Abbas; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined questionnaire data pertaining to intended age of marriage and desired family size from Iranian 12th graders. Proximal factors (individual level variables such as self-concept and school success) were stronger predictors on both dependent measures than were distal factors (parental education, sibling size, and family modernity). Proximal…

  1. An Empirical Investigation of Entrepreneurship Intensity in Iranian State Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazdeh, Mohammad Mahdavi; Razavi, Seyed-Mostafa; Hesamamiri, Roozbeh; Zahedi, Mohammad-Reza; Elahi, Behin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a framework to evaluate the entrepreneurship intensity (EI) of Iranian state universities. In order to determine EI, a hybrid multi-method framework consisting of Delphi, Analytic Network Process (ANP), and VIKOR is proposed. The Delphi method is used to localize and reduce the number of criteria extracted…

  2. The Status of Pragmatics among Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammad-Bagheri, Mehri

    2015-01-01

    The present study attempted to investigate the status of pragmatics among Iranian EFL learners. Status of pragmatics was analyzed in terms of the amount of pragmatic knowledge EFL learners believed to have and the amount of pragmatic knowledge they believed to receive from teachers, classmates, course books, and exams. Additionally, attempts were…

  3. Error Analysis in Composition of Iranian Lower Intermediate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taghavi, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Learners make errors during the process of learning languages. This study examines errors in writing task of twenty Iranian lower intermediate male students aged between 13 and 15. A subject was given to the participants was a composition about the seasons of a year. All of the errors were identified and classified. Corder's classification (1967)…

  4. Iranian Students' Performance on the IELTS: A Question of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaemi, Farid; Daftarifard, Parisa; Shirkhani, Servat

    2011-01-01

    Reading comprehension has won much effort on the part of teachers, testers, and researchers in Iran due to the fact that the immediate need of Iranian students at different university levels is the ability to read in order to get new information on the topic they are studying. The question raised is how much reading practice can move learners…

  5. Adjustment Problems of Iranian International Students in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehdizadeh, Narjes; Scott, Gill

    2005-01-01

    Despite the important contribution of the adjustment of international students to successful academic performance in the host country, little research has been done in the United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to collect factual information about adjustment problems of Iranian international students in Scotland, such as psycho-social and…

  6. Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS). Volume 1, Issue 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Iranian Journal of Language Studies" ("IJLS") is a quarterly journal devoted to all areas of language and linguistics. Its aim is to present work of current interest in all areas of language study. No particular linguistic theories or scientific trends are favored: scientific quality and scholarly standing are the only criteria applied in the…

  7. Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS). Volume 2, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS) is devoted to all areas of language and linguistics. Its aim is to present work of current interest in all areas of language study. No particular linguistic theories or scientific trends are favored: scientific quality and scholarly standing are the only criteria applied in the selection of papers…

  8. Construct Validity of MSRT Reading Comprehension Module in Iranian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichani, Elham Fallahian; Tabatabaei, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers were interested in validity of the language proficiency tests in the previous decades. The present study aims to study the construct validity of the Ministry of Science, Research, and Technology Reading Comprehension module (MSRT) in the Iranian context. After administering a standard language proficiency test (OPT) 65…

  9. Sex guilt and life satisfaction in Iranian-american women.

    PubMed

    Abdolsalehi-Najafi, Emon; Beckman, Linda J

    2013-08-01

    Although the experience of sex guilt has been considered among a variety of ethnic groups, the area has not yet been empirically explored among Iranian American women. The present study investigated the relationship between sexual self-schema (i.e., beliefs about the sexual aspects of oneself), acculturation, and sex guilt, and it further examined the association between sex guilt and life satisfaction in Iranian American women. A total of 65 Iranian American women, with a mean age of 31.3 years (SD = 11.7), completed five self-administered questionnaires. Findings indicated a significant inverse correlation between sexual self-schema and sex guilt. More specifically, women who endorsed negative self-views regarding their sexual self reported higher levels sex guilt. Results revealed that acculturation was unrelated to sex guilt, when the effect of being Muslim or non-Muslim was controlled. Women with high sex guilt reported significantly lower levels of life satisfaction. Moreover, analyses for mediation effects supported sex guilt as a partially mediating variable between sexual self-schema and life satisfaction. Levels of sex guilt were higher among Muslim women when compared to women of other religious affiliations. Additionally, Muslim women appeared to be significantly less acculturated to Western ideals than other religious groups. The present findings suggest that mental health professionals who provide services to Iranian American women need to consider the negative effects of sex guilt, particularly among Muslim women.

  10. Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS). Volume 2, Issue 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS) is devoted to all areas of language and linguistics. Its aim is to present work of current interest in all areas of language study. No particular linguistic theories or scientific trends are favored: scientific quality and scholarly standing are the only criteria applied in the selection of papers…

  11. Oral Dialogue Journals and Iranian EFL Learners' Pronunciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beh-Afarin, Seyed Reza; Moradkhan, Dennis; Monfared, Amirhossein

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on the impact of oral dialogue journals on Iranian EFL learners' pronunciation. Three classes of intermediate learners, after being reassured of their homogeneity, were randomly assigned to treatment (14 students), control (9 students), and placebo (10 students) groups. Learners in the treatment group had to respond to the…

  12. Female Empowerment in Iran: The Voice of Iranian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fereidouni, Somayeh; Mehran, Golmar; Mansourian, Yasdan

    2015-01-01

    In line with global trends, the rate of Iranian female students' enrolment in higher education has increased. However, some policy makers have been concerned about this and without considering the female voice, they have implemented strategies to balance the labour market, which has led to a decrease in female students in certain majors. The…

  13. Emotional Intelligence Moderates Perfectionism and Test Anxiety among Iranian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety is one of the common forms of anxiety for students. Thus, it is necessary to improve our knowledge regarding the etiology of test anxiety. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between perfectionism, emotional intelligence, and test anxiety among Iranian students. This study also was conducted to test emotional…

  14. A Historical Overview of Iranian Music Pedagogy (1905-2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastaninezhad, Arya

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the recent developments and changes concerning Iranian music education from the constitutional revolution of 1905 to 2014. This concentrates on the five major chronological events referred to as Nationalism, Modernism, Conservatism, Neo-Traditionalism (Shirin-navazi) and Revivalism of the Traditions. This provides a source of…

  15. A Model for Implementing E-Learning in Iranian Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaeni, Emad; Abdehagh, Babak

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the current status of information and communications technology (ICT) usage and provides a comprehensive outlook on e-learning in both virtual universities and organizations in Iran. A model for e-learning implementation is presented. This model tries to address specific issues in Iranian organizations. (Contains 1 table and 2…

  16. Iranian Dietary Patterns and Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Hosein; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Davtalab Esmaeili, Elham; Mirzapoor, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Role of diet on colorectal cancer (CRC) has been considered in terms of single foods and nutrients, but less frequently in terms of dietary patterns in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the association between Iranian dietary patterns and CRC. Methods: This case–control study was conducted in four hospitals in Tabriz City of Iran including 414 participants aged 35–75 years:207 cases with CRC confirmed by pathology and colonoscopy findings were selected and 207 controls free of neoplastic conditions and diet-related chronic diseases (from the same hospital at the same period for the cases). Dietary data were assessed using a 123-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Two dietary patterns were found by using of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method;“Healthy pattern”and “Iranian pattern”. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for relationship between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer. Results: After adjusting for confounding factors, the Iranian dietary pattern was significantly associated with an increased odds of colorectal cancer (OR= 1.46; 95% Confidenec Interval (CI)=1.05–2.19) while a reduced odds of colorectal cancer was observed with the Healthy dietary pattern (OR=0.18; 95% CI= 0.091-0.47). Conclusion: Iranian dietary pattern (IDP) seems to increase the odds of colorectal cancer and protective effect of Healthy dietary pattern. PMID:26000248

  17. Studying the Impacts of Globalization on Iranian Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chahardahcheriki, Mitra Abdolahi; Shahi, Sakine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the degree of globalization of important indicators of education system in Iran including teaching approaches, educational tools and facilities, curriculums and contents, and education management. Findings suggest that the situation of Iranian education system has some distance with the globalized level and…

  18. Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS). Volume 2, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Iranian Journal of Language Studies" ("IJLS") is devoted to all areas of language and linguistics. Its aim is to present work of current interest in all areas of language study. No particular linguistic theories or scientific trends are favored: scientific quality and scholarly standing are the only criteria applied in the selection of papers…

  19. Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS). Volume 1, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS) is a quarterly journal devoted to all areas of language and linguistics. Its aim is to present work of current interest in all areas of language study. No particular linguistic theories or scientific trends are favored: scientific quality and scholarly standing are the only criteria applied in the…

  20. Common Error Types of Iranian Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nezami, Ali; Najafi, Mousa Sadraie

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed at obtaining a clear understanding of Iranian EFL learners' L2 writing error types. To develop such an understanding, a research question was formulated to see whether there is any significant difference between the participants' language proficiency level and their error types in writing. To this end, a sample version of the…

  1. Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Iranian Upper-Intermediate EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatib, Mohammad; Hassanzadeh, Mohammad; Rezaei, Saeed

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the preferred vocabulary learning strategies of Iranian upper-intermediate EFL learners. In order to identify the aforementioned group in terms of language proficiency, a TOEFL test was administered to a population of 146 undergraduate EFL students at the university of Vali-e-Asr in Rafsanjan, Iran. Those scoring above 480 were…

  2. Multiple Intelligences Theory and Iranian Textbooks: An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taase, Yoones

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate locally designed ELT textbooks in the light of multiple intelligences theory. Three textbooks (grade 1.2.3) used in guidance school of Iranian educational system were analyzed using MI checklist developed by Botelho, Mario do Rozarioand. Catered for kinds of intelligences in the activities and exercises…

  3. Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS). Volume 1, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS) is devoted to all areas of language and linguistics. Its aim is to present work of current interest in all areas of language study. No particular linguistic theories or scientific trends are favored: scientific quality and scholarly standing are the only criteria applied in the selection of papers…

  4. An annotated catalog of the Iranian Miridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicomorpha).

    PubMed

    Ghahari, Hassan; Chérot, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    An updated list of Iranian Miridae Hahn, 1833 is provided and discussed. Seven subfamilies (Bryocorinae, Cylapinae, Deraeocorinae, Isometopinae, Mirinae, Orthotylinae, and Phylinae), 140 genera, and 498 species are confirmed from Iran. Phytocoris (Stictophytocoris) meridionalis (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1835), is newly recorded from Iran. The possible presence in the country of 28 additional species is briefly analyzed. 

  5. Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS). Volume 1, Issue 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS) is devoted to all areas of language and linguistics. Its aim is to present work of current interest in all areas of language study. No particular linguistic theories or scientific trends are favored: scientific quality and scholarly standing are the only criteria applied in the selection of papers…

  6. Travel for transplantation in iran: pros and cons regarding Iranian model.

    PubMed

    Ossareh, Shahrzad; Broumand, Behrooz

    2015-04-01

    Transplant tourism is one of the main unacceptable aspects of medical tourism, implicating travel to another country to receive an allograft. Organ shortages in wealthier countries have persuaded patients to preclude organ waiting lists and travel to other countries for getting organs especially kidneys. On the other hand, in many countries, there is no transplant program, and hemodialysis is expensive. Hence, patients with end-stage kidney disease may have to travel to get a kidney allograft for the sake of their lives. In Iran, a legal compensated and regulated living unrelated donor kidney transplant program has been adopted since 1988, in which recipients are matched with liveunrelated donors through the Iran Kidney Foundation and the recipients are compensated dually by the government and the recipient. In this model regulations were adopted to prevent transplant tourism: foreigners were not allowed to receive a kidney from Iranian donors or donate a kidney to Iranian patients; however, they could be transplanted from donors of their own nationality, after full medical workup, with the authorization of the Ministry of Health. This was first considered as a humanitarian assistance to patients of the countries with no transplant program and limited and low quality dialysis. However, the policy of "foreign nationality transplant" gradually established a spot where residents of many countries, where living-unrelated donor transplant was illegal, could bring their donors and be transplanted mainly in private hospitals, with high incentives for the transplant teams. By June 2014, six hundred eight foreign nationality kidney transplants were authorized by Ministry of Health for citizens for 17 countries. In this review, we examine the negative aspects of transplant for foreign citizens in Iran and the reasons that changed "travel for transplant" to "transplant tourism " in our country and finally led us to stop the program after more than 10 years.

  7. Perception of Alzheimer Disease in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Saifadini, Rostam; Tajadini, Haleh; Choopani, Rasool; Mehrabani, Mitra; Kamalinegad, Mohamad; Haghdoost, Aliakbar

    2016-01-01

    Context: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. In regards to the world’s aging population, control and treatment of AD will be one of the major concerns of global public health in the next century. Alzheimer disease was not mentioned with the same phrase or its equivalent in traditional medical texts. The main of present paper was to investigate symptoms and causes of alzheimer disease from the view point of Iranian traditional medicine. Evidence Acquisition: In this qualitative study, we searched reliable sources of Iranian traditional medicine such as Canon of Medicide by Avicenna (Al-Quanon fi- tibb), Aghili cure by Aghili’s (Molajat-E-aghili), Tib-E-Akbari, Exire -E-Aazam and Sharh-E-Asbab and some reliable resources of neurology were probed base on keywords to find a disease that had the most overlap in terms of symptoms with alzheimer disease. By taking from the relevant materials, the extracted texts were compared and analyzed. Results: Findings showed that alzheimer disease has the most overlap with Nesyan (fisad-e-zekr, fisad-e-fekr and fisad-e-takhayol) symptoms in Iranian traditional medicine. Although this is not a perfect overlap and there are causes, including coldness and dryness of the brain or coldness and wetness that could also lead to alzheimer disease according to Iranian traditional medicine. Conclusions: According to Iranian traditional medicine, The brain dystemperement is considered the main causes of alzheimer disease. By correcting the brain dystemperement, alzheimer can be well managed. This study helps to suggest a better strategy for preventing and treating alzheimer in the future. PMID:27247784

  8. High frequency distribution of heterogeneous vancomycin resistant Enterococcous faecium (VREfm) in Iranian hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Enterococcus faecium is a multi-resistant nosocomial pathogen causing infection in debilitated patients. Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecium (VREfm) are a major concern and increased dramatically worldwide especially in hospitals environment. The current study focused on determining the high prevalence and distribution patterns of antibiotic resistance and also its genetic linkages among various VREfm strains isolated from indoor hospitalized patients in four major Iranian teaching hospitals of Tehran. Methods The clinical samples were obtained from hospitalized patients during September 2010 to June 2011 from different teaching hospitals of Tehran. Antibiotics Resistance patterns, minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) value for vancomycin, ampicillin, gentamicin and presence of genetic linkage among the isolates were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results Overall, total of 92 (41.4%) isolates were identified as E. faecium, 45 (49%) were resistant to vancomycin with an MIC50 of ≥128 mg/L. The results showed that simultaneous resistance to teicoplanin, ampicillin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacine, tetracycline and erythromycin were observed the most frequent pattern. All the vancomycin resistant E. faecium isolates carried the vanA gene. intensive care units (ICUs) and Kidney transplantation, are most probably the wards with highest risk of infection by VRE. 17 pulsotypes were also detected by PFGE, most of the related pulsotypes belongs to the same hospitals. Conclusions This study shows the high alarming prevalence of Enterococcus faecium infection and similar clones of VREfm strains in Iranian hospitals with threatening resistance phenotypes. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1270863903102282 PMID:24088506

  9. Modeling an ancient Iranian dam system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertsen, Maurits; De Schacht, Tijs

    2013-04-01

    In Iran, along the northern and eastern fringes of the Pasargadae plain, five dam remains from the Achaemenid period (550-330 BCE) present an important footprint of the human impact and reshaping of the region. The dams are predominantly found in dry wadi beds. In the framework of the Joint Iranian-French Archaeological Project at Pasargadae, these dam sites were studied and excavated. Located 22 km to the north of Pasargadae in a small wadi, the Sad-i Didegan dam has a watershed of circa 46 square km, small compared with catchments of other known Achaemenid dams. It is an earth built gravity dam of circa 90 m wide, 21 m high and with a crown length of about 150 m. In the lower body of the dam, remains of a feeder canal and an accessible control infrastructure at the downstream flank of the dam were found. To the northwest, the dam site of Sad-i Shahidabad can be found, another large Achaemenid dam, which stored water from the perennial river of the Rud-i Polvar. This dam also had a similar canal and control structure. Close to the Sad-i Didegan area is a large earthwork, found to cross the watershed divide between Didegan and Shahidabad, consisting of a wide V-shaped trench of remarkable size: up to 100 m wide, a total length of at least 900 m and a maximum present day depth of 7.5 m. Even though the construction of the system in this case clearly was left unfinished, the remains echo the major investment of available labor. Given the contemporaneity of both dam sites, it is clear evidence of the more regionally and elaborately planned character of the hydrological endeavors in the Pasargadae area. Only through further study and future fieldwork (also obtaining absolute dating material), this impressive feature will be fully understood. This contribution proposes a possible use of the two dam system using a modern control simulation model. This analysis will also shed light on the question why the system probably never functioned.

  10. Investigating Knowledge and Attitude of Nursing Students Towards Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Khorasgani, Sahar Rabani; Moghtadaie, Leila

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at Investigating the knowledge and attitude of Nursing Students towards Iranian Traditional Medicine in universities of Tehran in 2012-2013. 300 students of nursing studying at different universities in Tehran participated in this descriptive, cross-sectional study. The data was collected through a standard questionnaire with an acceptable validity and reliability. The questionnaire was made of five sections including demographic, general knowledge of the Iranian traditional medicine, general attitude towards it, resources of the Iranian traditional medicine and the barriers to it. The results revealed that general knowledge of the students about Iranian traditional medicine and complementary medicine is low. The attitude of the students towards including Iranian traditional medicine and complementary medicine in their curriculum is positive. General attitude of students towards Iranian traditional medicine is positive too. The majority of the participants had not passed any course on Iranian traditional medicine. There was no relationship between participants’ attitude towards Iranian traditional medicine and the number of semesters they had passed. Considering the participants’ positive attitude and their low level of knowledge, it seems necessary for the university policy makers to provide nursing students with different training courses on Iranian traditional medicine and complementary medicine in order to increase their knowledge. PMID:25363119

  11. Phylogenetic relationship analysis of Iranians and other world populations using allele frequencies at 12 polymorphic markers.

    PubMed

    Fazeli, Zahra; Vallian, Sadeq

    2012-12-01

    The estimation of genetic distance between populations could improve our viewpoint about human migration and its genetic origin. In this study, we used allele frequency data of 12 polymorphic markers on 250 individuals (500 alleles) from the Iranian population to estimate genetic distance between the Iranians and other world populations. The phylogenetic trees for three different sets of allele frequency data were constructed. Our results revealed the genetic similarity between the Iranians and European populations. The lowest genetic distance was observed between the Iranians and some populations reside in Russia. Furthermore, the high genetic distance was observed between the Iranians and East Asian populations. The data suggested that the Iranians might have relatively close evolutionary history with Europeans, but historically independent from East Asian populations. The evaluation of genetic distance between Indians populations and Iranians was also performed. The Indian groups showed low genetic distance with others, but high genetic distance with the Iranians. This study could provide a new insight into the evolutionary history of the Iranian population.

  12. The language of "Circule": discursive construction of false referral in Iranian teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Mirhosseini, Seyyed-Abdolhamid; Fattahi, Hossein

    2010-09-01

    This article explores the practice of false patient out-referral by medical students in Iranian teaching hospital emergency departments. Drawing on participant-observations and interviews during eight months in six hospitals in Tehran, we investigate how discourse is appropriated to construct and legitimate out-referrals through four general strategies of sympathy, mystification, intimidation, and procrastination. Based on a critical approach to false out-referral discourse, we revisit the medical and educational functioning of teaching hospitals in Iran: Focusing on medical students involved in false out-referrals, their discursive reproduction of deception is examined along with their legitimate challenges to institutional structures. Moreover, focusing on the institution of hospital, institutional corruption is discussed along with the problematic of covert cultural defiance faced by a modernist organizational construct in a nonmainstream cultural context. Finally, we argue that the discourse of false out-referral calls for more profound public awareness in dealing with health institutions.

  13. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30): translation and validation study of the Iranian version.

    PubMed

    Montazeri, A; Harirchi, I; Vahdani, M; Khaleghi, F; Jarvandi, S; Ebrahimi, M; Haji-Mahmoodi, M

    1999-11-01

    The objective of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Iranian version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30). The English-language version of the questionnaire was translated into Persian (Iranian language), and its final form was approved by the EORTC Study Group on Quality of Life before it was used in this study. The questionnaire was administered at two time points to a consecutive sample of 168 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients, and almost all of them (99%) found the questions easy to understand and acceptable. Crohnbach's alpha coefficient for multi-item scales (to test reliability) ranged from 0.48 to 0.95 at baseline and from 0.52 to 0.98 at follow-up administration of the questionnaire. Validity was checked using two methods: inter-scale correlation and known-groups comparison. Almost all inter-scale correlations were statistically significant in the expected direction. Known-groups comparison analysis showed that all functioning and symptom scales discriminated between subgroups of patients differing in clinical status as defined by their performance status and disease stage. In general, the findings of this study indicate that the Iranian version of the EORTC QLQ-C30 is a reliable and valid measure of quality of life in cancer patients and can be used in clinical trials and studies of outcome research in oncology.

  14. An Outcome Study of Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion among Iranian Population.

    PubMed

    Haghnegahdar, Ali; Sedighi, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. First-line treatment strategy for managing cervical disc herniation is conservative measures. In some cases, surgery is indicated either due to signs/symptoms of severe/progressive neurological deficits, or because of persistence of radicular pain despite 12 weeks of conservative treatment. Success for treatment of cervical disc herniation using ACDF has been successfully reported in the literature. We aim to determine the outcome of ACDF in treatment of cervical disc herniation among Iranians. Methods and Materials/Patients. In a retrospective cohort study, we evaluated 68 patients who had undergone ACDF for cervical disc herniation from March 2006 to March 2011. Outcome tools were as follows: (1) study-designed questionnaire that addressed residual and/or new complaints and subjective satisfaction with the operation; (2) recent (one week prior to the interview) postoperative VAS for neck and upper extremity radicular pain; (3) Japanese Orthopaedic Association Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire (JOACMEQ) (standard Persian version); and (4) follow-up cervical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and lateral X-ray. Results. With mean follow-up time of 52.93 (months) ± 31.89 SD (range: 13-131 months), we had success rates with regard to ΔVAS for neck and radicular pain of 88.2% and 89.7%, respectively. Except QOL functional score of JOAMEQ, 100% success rate for the other 4 functional scores of JOAMEQ was achieved. Conclusion. ACDF is a successful surgical technique for the management of cervical disc herniation among Iranian population. PMID:27635392

  15. An Outcome Study of Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion among Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Haghnegahdar, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. First-line treatment strategy for managing cervical disc herniation is conservative measures. In some cases, surgery is indicated either due to signs/symptoms of severe/progressive neurological deficits, or because of persistence of radicular pain despite 12 weeks of conservative treatment. Success for treatment of cervical disc herniation using ACDF has been successfully reported in the literature. We aim to determine the outcome of ACDF in treatment of cervical disc herniation among Iranians. Methods and Materials/Patients. In a retrospective cohort study, we evaluated 68 patients who had undergone ACDF for cervical disc herniation from March 2006 to March 2011. Outcome tools were as follows: (1) study-designed questionnaire that addressed residual and/or new complaints and subjective satisfaction with the operation; (2) recent (one week prior to the interview) postoperative VAS for neck and upper extremity radicular pain; (3) Japanese Orthopaedic Association Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire (JOACMEQ) (standard Persian version); and (4) follow-up cervical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and lateral X-ray. Results. With mean follow-up time of 52.93 (months) ± 31.89 SD (range: 13–131 months), we had success rates with regard to ΔVAS for neck and radicular pain of 88.2% and 89.7%, respectively. Except QOL functional score of JOAMEQ, 100% success rate for the other 4 functional scores of JOAMEQ was achieved. Conclusion. ACDF is a successful surgical technique for the management of cervical disc herniation among Iranian population. PMID:27635392

  16. Root-Crown Ratio in Permanent Dentition Using Panoramic Radiography in a Selected Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Haghanifar, Sina; Moudi, Ehsan; Abbasi, Shirin; Bijani, Ali; Poorsattar Bejeh Mir, Arash; Ghasemi, Nafiseh

    2014-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Determining the crown-root ratio is crucial in many dental clinical decisions. There are no reliable data presented for Iranian population. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the root-crown ratio of permanent teeth with regards to the relationship of gender and jaw type using panoramic radiographs. The reliability of method was also assessed. Materials and Method: The crown and root lengths of teeth were measured by a digital caliper on panoramic radiographs of 185 individuals except for the third molars. A total of 1994 teeth was studied and 50.8% of the teeth belonged to males and 49.2% belonged to females. The modified Lind method was applied. Results: The highest mean root-crown ratios in both arches of both genders were obtained in the second premolars, followed by the first premolars and canines. In both genders, the lowest root-crown ratios were found in the maxillary central incisors. In male patients, the mean root-crown ratio was higher (p= 0.003) than that of females. Using Bland-Altman analysis, a non-significant difference of 0.006 (95% CI: -0.012-0.024) and 0.0002 (95% CI: -0.011-0.011) were found for intra-observer and inter-observer agreement, respectively. Conclusion: Assessment of the root-crown ratio in permanent dentition could be performed on panoramic radiographs with acceptable reproducibility in an Iranian Population. Considering observed differences, our findings suggest that for the accurate assessment, this ratio must be calculated for male and female patients and also for the upper and lower jaws, separately. PMID:25469356

  17. Association between Ala379Val polymorphism of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and migraine without aura in Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Haghdoost, Faraidoon; Gharzi, Mahsa; Faez, Farough; Hosseinzadeh, Elinaz; Tajaddini, Mohamadhasan; Rafiei, Laleh; Asgari, Fatemeh; Banihashemi, Mahboobeh; Masjedi, Samaneh Sadat; Zandifar, Alireza; Haghjooy-Javanmard, Shaghayegh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Migraine is a common neurovascular disorder with multifactorial and polygenic inheritance. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of a migraine without aura and Ala379Val polymorphism of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) gene in the Iranian population. Methods: In this study, 103 migraine patients and 100 healthy controls were enrolled. DNA samples were extracted and the Ala379Val polymorphism of Lp-PLA2 gene was investigated. To assess severity of a headache, patients filled out the headache impact test (HIT-6) and migraine severity (MIGSEV) questionnaires. Results: Allele V had significantly lower frequency in the case group than control subjects [P = 0.001, odds ratio (OR) = 0.25, confidence interval (CI): 0.15-0.40]. The frequency of migraine patients that were a carrier of V allele (V/V and A/V) was statistically significant lower than the control group (P = 0.003, OR = 2.39, CI: 1.35-4.23). There was no significant difference of alleles frequency between three grades of MIGSEV (P = 0.316). Furthermore, total HIT-6 score was not significantly different between different genotypes (P = 0.466). Conclusion: Our results showed that Ala379Val gene polymorphism of LP-PLA2 is associated with lower risk of migraine but not with severity of headaches in an Iranian population. PMID:27326362

  18. How welcome do Iranian-Americans feel in their homeland? Perceptions of social distance among Muslim, Jewish, and Non-Religious Iranian-American adults.

    PubMed

    Paige, Shari; Hatfield, Elaine; Liang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Recent political events in the United States have created a political climate that promotes prejudice against Middle Eastern, Iranian, and Muslim people. In this study, we were interested in investigating two questions: (1) How welcome do Iranian-American men and women from various religious backgrounds (Muslim, Jewish, or no religious affiliation) feel in their new homeland (specifically, how much social distance (affective distance) do they think their Euro-American neighbors feel toward them? and (2) to what extent does the possession of stereotypical Middle Eastern, Iranian, or Muslim traits (an accent, darker skin, wearing of religious symbols, traditional garb, etc.) spark prejudice and thus Iranian-Americans perception of social distance? Participants were recruited from two very different sources: (1) shoppers at grocery stores in Iranian-American neighborhoods in Los Angeles, and (2) a survey posted on http://Surveymonkey.com. A total of 374 Iranian-Americans, ages 18 and older, completed an in-person or online questionnaire that included the following: a request for demographic information, religious preferences, a survey of how typically Iranian-American the respondents' traits were, and the social distance scale. A surprise was that it was the Iranian-American Jews (not the Muslims), who felt most keenly that Euro-Americans kept them at a distance. Jewish women received higher scores on the social distance scale than did members of any other group. In addition, again, it was mainly Iranian-American Jews, particularly those who spoke with a Middle Eastern accent or wore stereotypically religious symbols, who felt the most social distance existing between them and "typical" Americans. PMID:26693106

  19. The alternative Iranian model of living renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Delmonico, Francis L

    2012-09-01

    The experience of the Iranian model should be carefully considered by those who suggest a pilot trial of a regulated market in organ sales. Mahdavi-Mazdeh's candid report makes clear that a fixed price as the basis of regulation is not possible. Iran is proceeding with an independent program of deceased organ donation in cities such as Shiraz. Mahdavi-Mazdeh's report is encouraging for the prospect of a revitalized expansion of deceased donation.

  20. Drug Use among Iranian Drivers Involved in Fatal Car Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Dejman, Masoumeh; Farnia, Marzieh; Alasvand, Ramin; Sehat, Mahmood; Roshanpazooh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mahmood; Jafari, Firoozeh; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although the problem of substance use among drivers is not limited to certain parts of the world, most epidemiological reports on this topic have been published from industrial world. Aim: To investigate pattern of drug use among Iranian drivers who were involved in fatal road accidents. Methods: This study enrolled 51 Iranian adults who were involved in fatal vehicle accidents and were imprisoned thereafter. Data came from a national survey of drug abuse that was done among Iranian prisoners. The survey collected data at the entry to seven prisons in different regions of the country during a 4-month period in 2008. Self-reported lifetime, last year, and last month drug use was measured. Commercial substance screening tests were applied to detect recent substance use (opioids, cannabinoids, methamphetamines, and benzodiazepines). Results: The commercial substance screening test showed three distinct patterns of recent illicit drug use: opioids (37.3%), cannabinoids (2.0%), opioids and cannabinoids (13.7%). 29.4% were also positive for benzodiazepines. The substance use screening test detected 23.5% of participants who had used drugs but did not disclose any substance use. Conclusion: Opioids are the most common illicit drugs being used by Iranian drivers who are involved in fatal car accidents. The high rate of substance use prior to fatal car accidents in Iran advocates for the need for drug use control policies and programs as major strategies for injury prevention in Iran. There is also a need for substance screening among all drivers involved in fatal car accidents in Iran, as more than 20% of users may not disclose substance use. PMID:25221521

  1. 77 FR 75845 - Iranian Transactions and Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... Federal Register (77 FR 64664) changing the heading of the former Iranian Transactions Regulations to the...; Pub. L. 112-158, 126 Stat. 1214; E.O. 12613, 52 FR 41940, 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p. 256; E.O. 12957, 60 FR 14615, 3 CFR, 1995 Comp., p. 332; E.O. 12959, 60 FR 24757, 3 CFR, 1995 Comp., p. 356; E.O. 13059, 62...

  2. Herbal Remedies for Functional Dyspepsia and Traditional Iranian Medicine Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Babaeian, Mahmoud; Naseri, Mohsen; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Farzaneh; Emadi, Fatemeh; Feizi, Awat; Hosseini Yekta, Nafiseh; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Context: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a functional gastro-intestinal disorder with high prevalence. Among various treatment options, treatment by complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal remedies also practiced. Traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), a valuable resource of valid applied studies of ancient Iranian scholars, recommends numerous medicinal plants to treat dyspepsia symptoms. In this study, through investigation of TIM references, we aimed to identify medicinal plants for treatment of digestion insufficiency. Evidence Acquisition: In this qualitative study, dyspepsia symptoms including fullness, early satiety, bloating, nausea, and belching were checked under reliable sources of traditional medicine. Then medicinal plants recommended for the treatment of the symptoms were extracted from the books. Likewise, for investigating the pharmacological properties of medicinal plants used for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms, electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and some Iranian databases like SID and IranMedex were employed. Results: The study yielded 105 plants from 37 families which could treat various dyspepsia symptoms; fifty-seven plants, mainly from Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Zingiberaceae had digestive effects. In this research, based on the information in TIM reference texts, we obtained 58 plants effective for bloating, 40 for nausea, 37 for appetite loss and 7 for belching. In human clinical trials conducted on medicinal plants effective for FD symptoms, 7 single plants were used. Conclusions: Finding the medicinal plants effective on digestion insufficiency based on TIM could suggest a better strategy for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms. Traditional Iranian medicine prescribes medicinal plants based on each patient’s personal characteristics and practices multiple target therapies. PMID:26734483

  3. Recent tectonics of East (Iranian) Azerbaijan from stress state reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani G., Behzad; Masson, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Iranian (East) Azerbaijan (E-Azerbaijan), in northwestern Iran, is characterized by relatively complex active tectonics. The area is shaped like a lozenge and is bordered by strike-slip faults. This region includes three fold and thrust belts, the Arasbaran, Ghoshe Dagh and Bozkosh mountain ranges, and includes a set of N-S trending compressive thrusts and folds and a set of E-W trending compressive structures.

  4. 31 CFR 535.504 - Certain judicial proceedings with respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities. 535.504 Section 535.504 Money and Finance: Treasury... § 535.504 Certain judicial proceedings with respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities. (a) Subject... existed an interest of Iran or an Iranian entity. (b) This section does not authorize: (1) Any...

  5. 31 CFR 535.504 - Certain judicial proceedings with respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities. 535.504 Section 535.504 Money and Finance: Treasury... § 535.504 Certain judicial proceedings with respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities. (a) Subject... existed an interest of Iran or an Iranian entity. (b) This section does not authorize: (1) Any...

  6. 31 CFR 535.504 - Certain judicial proceedings with respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities. 535.504 Section 535.504 Money and Finance: Treasury... § 535.504 Certain judicial proceedings with respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities. (a) Subject... existed an interest of Iran or an Iranian entity. (b) This section does not authorize: (1) Any...

  7. Types of Nasal Delivery Drugs and Medications in Iranian Traditional Medicine to Treatment of Headache

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbanifar, Zahra; Delavar Kasmaei, Hosein; Minaei, Bagher; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein; Zayeri, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Context: Headache is a common symptom throughout the world. The main purpose of patient-centered approaches is the utilization of useful and simple treatment. Nowadays, there is a rising propensity toward herbal remedies. Nasal route is one of the ancient and topical prescriptions used in headache. In Iranian traditional medicine, physicians such as Avicenna were prescribing herbal drugs through the nose to treat a variety of central nervous system diseases like headache. In this review paper, authors have attempted to introduce different types of nasal administrations which were used in Iranian traditional medicine for the treatment of headaches. Evidence Acquisition: Initially, we studied two different types of Canon and separated all herbs used in the treatment of headache. Next, all plants were classified according to the method of prescription. Then, we pick out all the plants which were nasally utilized in the treatment of headache and divided them based on the method of administration. In order to find scientific names of herbs, we used two different botany references. Moreover, we conducted various researches in scientific databases with the aim of finding results concerning the analgesic and antinociceptive effects of herbs. Throughout the research, key terms were “analgesic” and “antinociceptive “with the scientific names of all herbs separately. The databases searched included PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane library and SID. Results: 35 plants were prescribed for the treatment of headaches, which were all nasally used. These plants took either the form of powder, liquid or gas (steam). They were divided in to six categories according to the method of prescription. The Percentage of usage for each method was as follows: 62% Saoot (nasal drop), 25% Shamoom (smell), 17% Inkabab (vapor), 11% Nafookh (snuff), 11% Nashooq (inhaling) and 2% Bokhoor (smoke). Conclusions: Medications that are used via nasal delivery have greater effect than oral medications

  8. Pharmacological treatment of catarrh in Iranian traditional medicine

    PubMed Central

    Choopani, Rasool; Sadr, Saeed; Kaveh, Shahpar; Kaveh, Narges; Dehghan, Sohrab

    2015-01-01

    Catarrh is a condition that is carefully explained in Iranian traditional medicine. Medieval Iranian physicians used some medicinal plants in the treatment of the catarrh. Some of these substances are used in treatment today, although still more of these materials can be used in modern medicine. In this study we searched known sources of Iranian traditional medicine and collected the ideas of former great scholars and physicians about medicinal plants that are used for treatment of catarrh. Then we searched PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science databases and found 10 medicinal herbs that have the ability to treat catarrh. Plants discussed in this study are consistent with new research and can be used in modern treatments. According to rising bacterial resistance to antibiotics and complications of antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drugs, it seems that the various components of the medicinal herbs can be beneficial in producing new drugs. Also it is hoped that more investigations on medicinal plants will be conducted in the future treatment of catarrh and other diseases related to it. PMID:26151014

  9. Proteomics Approaches Shed New Light on Traditional Iranian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Movahhed, Mina; Poursaleh, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Until now, Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) had been extensively based on Iranian philosophy in theoretical approach in diagnosis and treatment, with doubts on academic medicine. Nevertheless, the diagnosis of temperaments, herbal standardization, and quality control had been with the obscurity of functional molecules and their action mechanisms. Proteomics is a potent board to the mechanistic investigation of ITM and has been comprehensively applied profile drug-regulated proteins. In this review, we assessed the application of this modern molecular biological method in the identification of temperaments and drug targets of ITM. Methods: All available studies related to proteomics in traditional medicine, alternative and complementary medicine, including books, journals, and other references were studied and assessed. Results: The present review showed the phenotypes of the various temperaments in healthy individuals, that is to say, same proteins with different dynamic properties. Therefore, the usefulness of proteomics seems authoritative to understand the means by which the molecular pathways protected in ITM. This might be also the key clinical viewpoint on this new approach for enabling the integration of Iranian traditional medicine and modern biological science and technology, as well for upholding the internationalization of ITM. Conclusion: Proteomics, as a powerful tool for systems biology, is an essential research methodology for understanding the mechanisms of traditional medicine. Further investigation on the applications of advanced proteomics in temperaments, herbal standardization, and quality control in ITM is recommended. PMID:27516684

  10. A high prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders in Iranian instrumentalists

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Shahram; Kazemi, Behrooz; Shooshtari, Seyed Mostafa Jazayeri; Bidari, Ali; Jafari, Peyman

    2004-01-01

    Background Cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) are common in musicians and their prevalence has been the subject of a number of studies in most western countries. Such studies are scarce in developing countries despite the possibility that CTDs may have a different prevalence in these countries, especially when considering traditional musical instruments and different methods of playing. Although not formally studied before, according to our experience the prevalence of CTDs seemed to be high among Iranian instrumentalists. We proposed this study to determine the prevalence of CTDs in amateur music students playing one of the two traditional Iranian instruments: Daf and Setar. Methods In a prospective cross sectional study, we interviewed and examined the students of three music training centers in Iran. Seventy eight instrumentalists, who were playing Daf or Setar and twelve students who had not started playing yet were regarded as case and control groups respectively. Some of them also underwent electrodiagnostic studies. Results Forty-seven percent (17 of 36) of the Setar players and 57% (24 of 42) of the Daf players and fifty-three percent (41 of 78) of the instrumentalists as a whole had CTDs. None of them had carpal tunnel syndrome. Conclusions Our study revealed that the prevalence of CTDs in Iranian instrumentalists was unusually high. In addition to age, other variables may be contributory. This needs to be further studied. PMID:15485578

  11. Body Weight Concerns and Antifat Attitude in Iranian Children

    PubMed Central

    Garousi, Saideh

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that children are showing body image issues in recent years. Body image disturbances in childhood must be taken seriously. The thin ideal is becoming more prominent in Asian countries; however, there is little research examining how this issue affects Iranian children. This study explores body weight concerns and associated factors among children in Iranian elementary schools. Methods: This study was conducted in 500 elementary schools. An assessment of body image and antifat attitudes was undertaken using the figure rating scale. In addition, body mass index (BMI) and demographic variables were assessed. Results: Nearly, 27.4% of children were underweight, and 13.3% were obese. There was a significant difference between the mean score of body dissatisfaction (BD) between boys and girls (P < 0.05). There were no differences between BD and education of parents, age, and academic grades. In girls, antifat attitudes were significantly related to BMI. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate the paramount importance of undertaking further research in order to identify the predictive factors of body concerns and its consequences among Iranian children. In addition, researchers must plan prevention and educational program for these children. PMID:25709795

  12. Patient rights in Iran: a review article.

    PubMed

    Joolaee, Soodabeh; Hajibabaee, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    A significant development for conducting research on patient rights has been made in Iran over the past decade. This study is conducted in order to review and analyze the previous studies that have been made, so far, concerning patient rights in Iran. This is a comprehensive review study conducted by searching the Iranian databases, Scientific Information Database, Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology, Iran Medex and Google using the Persian equivalent of keywords for 'awareness', 'attitude', and 'patient rights'. For pertinent Iranian papers published in English, scientific databases PubMed, and Google Scholar were searched using the keyword 'patient rights' and 'Iran'. A total of 41 Persian and five English articles were found for these keywords, only 26 of which fulfilled the objective of our study. The increasing number of papers published indicates that from 1999 onwards, this subject has begun to draw the attention of Iranian researchers in a progressive fashion and Iranian papers in English have also been compiled and published in international sources.

  13. 31 CFR 560.209 - Prohibited transactions with respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. 560.209 Section 560.209 Money and Finance... respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. Except as otherwise authorized, and... development of petroleum resources located in Iran, or (2) A guaranty of another person's performance...

  14. 31 CFR 560.209 - Prohibited transactions with respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. 560.209 Section 560.209 Money and Finance... respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. Except as otherwise authorized, and... development of petroleum resources located in Iran, or (2) A guaranty of another person's performance...

  15. 31 CFR 560.209 - Prohibited transactions with respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. 560.209 Section 560.209 Money and Finance... transactions with respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. Except as otherwise authorized... for the development of petroleum resources located in Iran, or (2) A guaranty of another...

  16. 31 CFR 560.209 - Prohibited transactions with respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. 560.209 Section 560.209 Money and Finance... transactions with respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. Except as otherwise authorized... for the development of petroleum resources located in Iran, or (2) A guaranty of another...

  17. 31 CFR 560.209 - Prohibited transactions with respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. 560.209 Section 560.209 Money and Finance... respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. Except as otherwise authorized, and... development of petroleum resources located in Iran, or (2) A guaranty of another person's performance...

  18. Effective Foreign Language Teaching: A Matter of Iranian Students' and Teachers' Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganjabi, Mahyar

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that investigated the beliefs about language learning of 120 Iranian EFL students and 16 EFL teachers. The primary aim of the study was to reveal whether there was any difference between the beliefs of Iranian students and teachers regarding different aspects of language learning such as grammar teaching, error…

  19. The Effect of Textual Metafunction on the Iranian EFL Learners' Writing Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paziraie, Mandana Eftekhar

    2013-01-01

    This study is devoted to the effect of "textual metafunction" on the levels of coherence and cohesion in the Iranian EFL learners' English writing performance. Sixty Iranian intermediate EFL learners who were adult females participated in this study were randomly divided into two groups; experimental, and control. They were given a…

  20. Iranian EFL Teachers' Perceptions of the Difficulties of Implementing CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedayati, Hora; Marandi, S. Susan

    2014-01-01

    Despite the spread of reliable technological tools and the availability of computers in Iranian universities, as well as the mounting evidence of the effectiveness of blended learning, many Iranian language teachers are still reluctant to incorporate such tools in their English as a foreign language (EFL) classes. This study inspected the status…

  1. A Comparative Study of Iranian and Japanese English Teachers' Demotivational Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baniasad-Azad, Somayeh; Ketabi, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    This study examined demotivational factors among Iranian and Japanese college teachers of English. To achieve the purpose, the study used a 35-item questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. The results were compared with the similar study in Japan by Sugino (2010). The findings of the study revealed that Iranian and Japanese lecturers are much…

  2. How Iranian Instructors Teach L2 Pragmatics in Their Classroom Practices? A Mixed-Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthasamy, Paramasivam; Farashaiyan, Atieh

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the teaching approaches and techniques that Iranian instructors utilize for teaching L2 pragmatics in their classroom practices. 238 Iranian instructors participated in this study. The data for this study were accumulated through questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. In terms of the instructional approaches, both the…

  3. Intercultural Communication Patterns of Iranian Students in Public Forums in the U. S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Bernard I.

    A study was conducted to explore aspects of intercultural communication present when Iranians attempted to communicate publicly in the United States. Thirty-six American students with little previous knowledge of Iran were interviewed following their attendance at a public lecture/demonstration sponsored by Iranian students in Texas. The…

  4. Indexing of Iranian Publications in Well-known Endodontic Textbooks: A Scientometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kakooei, Sina; Mostafavi, Mahshid; Parirokh, Masoud; Asgary, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Quoting an article in well-known textbooks is held as a credit for that paper. The numbers of Iranian publications mentioned in endodontic textbooks have increased during recent years. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the number of Iranian articles quoted in eminent endodontic textbooks. Methods and Materials: Three known textbooks (Ingle’s Endodontics, Seltzer and Bender’s Dental Pulp and Cohen’s Pathways of the Pulp) were chosen and all the editions of the textbooks since 2000 were investigated for quoted Iranian publications. Only Iranian authors with affiliations from a domestic university were chosen. All references at the end of each chapter were read by hand searching, and results were noted. The trend and percentage of Iranian publications in different editions of the textbooks were also calculated. The number of citations of these publications in Google Scholar and Scopus databases were also obtained. Results: The number of Iranian publications in all well-known textbooks have notably increased since 2000. The number and percentage of Iranian publications in the latest edition of Cohen’s Pathways of the Pulp was higher compared to other textbooks as well as the previous edition of the same text. Conclusion: Number and percentage of Iranian publications in the field of endodontics in all three textbooks have remarkably increased since 2000. PMID:27471523

  5. 31 CFR 560.407 - Transactions related to Iranian-origin goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... United States from third countries of goods containing Iranian-origin raw materials or components is not prohibited if those raw materials or components have been incorporated into manufactured products or... Iranian-origin raw materials or components are not prohibited if those raw materials or components...

  6. 31 CFR 560.413 - Letter of credit payments by Iranian banks in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TRANSACTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.413 Letter of credit payments by Iranian banks in the United... financing agreements according to their terms includes, in the case of payments made by an Iranian bank's... respect to pre-May 7, 1995 trade contracts. (b) Payments that are not binding legal obligations of...

  7. Perceived Parenting, Self-Esteem, and General Self-Efficacy of Iranian American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Gila; Plunkett, Scott W.; Otten, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether Iranian American adolescents' perceptions of parental support, parental knowledge, and parental psychological control relate to general self-efficacy directly, and indirectly through positive esteem and self-deprecation. To investigate this, self-report surveys were collected from 158 Iranian American adolescents attending…

  8. Gambling in the Iranian-American Community and an Assessment of Motives: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parhami, Iman; Siani, Aaron; Campos, Michael D.; Rosenthal, Richard J.; Fong, Timothy W.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly half a million United States residents identify themselves as being of Iranian origin, and many in this population are of high socioeconomic status. Although games of chance have been a notable part of Iranian culture for thousands of years, there is almost no research exploring gambling in this population. The objective of this case study…

  9. The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners' Beliefs about Language Learning and Language Learning Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarei, Abbas Ali; Rahmani, Hanieh

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' beliefs about language learning and language learning strategy use. A sample of 104 B.A and M.A Iranian EFL learners majoring in English participated in this study. Three instruments, the Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency (MTELP), Beliefs about Language…

  10. The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners' Beliefs about Language Learning and Their Use of Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azar, Fereshteh Khaffafi; Saeidi, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' learning strategies use and their language learning beliefs. A sample of 200 Iranian EFL learners who were all English language learners at different language institutes participated in this study. Two instruments, Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) and…

  11. Can Self-Efficacy and Self-Confidence Explain Iranian Female Students' Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezaei, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Official statistics from several resources in Iran indicate that female enrollment and achievement in Iranian universities has recently exceeded that of male students. Despite the fact that a religious government has been ruling the country for three decades, and despite many regulations against women, Iranian women have managed to overcome…

  12. Investigating the Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and Professional Identity of Iranian EFL Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaee, Mitra

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between Iranian EFL teachers' Professional Identity and their types of Multiple Intelligences. Moreover, it aimed to see the extent to which their multiple intelligences can predict their professional identity. The participants of the study were 137 Iranian EFL teachers teaching in…

  13. CLIL European-Led Projects and Their Implications for Iranian EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabet, Masoud Khalili; Sadeh, Nima

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to examine the European-led projects in the field of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) and their potential applicability in the Iranian EFL context. This paper tries to introduce various dimensions of CLIL and examine the compatibility of its component with the Iranian context.

  14. 31 CFR 560.407 - Transactions related to Iranian-origin goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transactions related to Iranian-origin goods. 560.407 Section 560.407 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN TRANSACTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.407...

  15. Examining and Dealing with the Issue of Reading Strategy Use by Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naeini, Ma'ssoumeh Bemani; Rezaei, Reyhaneh

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' performance on a reading comprehension test and their pattern of using cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies. Analysis of the data obtained from 190 Iranian intermediate EFL learners (70 males and 120 females, aged 17-25) revealed a strong relationship between reading…

  16. Podcasts: A Factor to Improve Iranian EFL Learners' Self-Regulation Ability and Use of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naseri, Somayeh; Motallebzadeh, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of listening to podcasts on Iranian upper- intermediate EFL learners' self-regulation ability and their perception toward the use of technology. To meet the objectives of the current study, 54 female Iranian EFL learners were selected. In experimental group they listened to podcast files while in the control…

  17. Assessment of the level of health literacy among fertile Iranian women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Haghighi, Soheila Tontab; Lamyian, Minoor; Granpaye, Loabat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Health literacy is one of the main determinants of health promotion. Regarding the influential role of the women in a society, enhancing their critical health literacy would be a prerequisite for the promotion of public health. The aims of this study were to determine the level of health literacy among fertile Iranian women with breast cancer and to determine the relationship between the health literacy level and socio demographic factors, such as age, educational level, occupation, age of marriage, duration of marriage, and several clinical factors, including taking psychiatric medication and the type of breast surgery among breast cancer patients. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 260 fertile patients with breast cancer from screening and monitoring centers and breast cancer clinics in Tehran from August 2014 to August 2015. Data were collected using socio demographic and clinical questionnaires developed by the researchers and the questionnaire for health literacy for Iranian adults (HELIA).The results were analyzed using SPSS-IBM version 20 and the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, along with Kido’s correlation test. Results The mean age of the participants was 43.32. Most of the participants (68.5%) had high school diplomas or lower school degrees (based on educational system in Iran). The mean score of health literacy was 75.73. The levels of health literacy among the different groups of participants were as follows: insufficient health literacy (6.9% of patients), barely enough health literacy (18.8% of patients), enough health literacy (38.8% of patients) and excellent health literacy (35.1% of patients). Also, significant relationships were found between the level of health literacy and the participants’ age of marriage, duration of marriage, educational level, and occupation (p < 0.05). Conclusion This study showed that the level of health literacy was high among women with breast cancer. This indicates

  18. Personality Disorders, Narcotics, and Stimulants; Relationship in Iranian Male Substance Dependents Population

    PubMed Central

    Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Zeinodini, Zahra; Khanjani, Zeynab; Poorsharifi, Hamid; Rajezi Esfahani, Sepideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Individuals with certain personality disorders, especially the antisocial and borderline personality disorders, are more prone to substance use disorders. Objectives: Regarding the importance of substance use disorders, this study aimed to explore the association between personality disorders and types of used drugs (narcotics and stimulants) in Iranian male substance users. Patients and Methods: The current study was a correlation study. We evaluated 285 male substance users and excluded 25 according to exclusion criteria. A total of 130 narcotic users and 130 stimulant users were recruited randomly in several phases from January 2013 to October 2013. All participants were referred to Substance Dependency Treatment Clinics in Tehran, Iran. Data collection process was accomplished by means of clinical interview based on DSM-V criteria for substance use disorders, Iranian version of addiction severity index (ASI), and Millon clinical multi-axial inventory-III (MCMI-III). Data were analyzed by SPSS 21 using Pearson correlation coefficient and regression, the. Results: There was a significant correlation between stimulant use and histrionic personality disorder (P < 0.001) and antisocial and narcissistic personality disorders (P < 0.05). In addition, correlation between avoidant, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorders (P < 0.05) and depressed, antisocial, and borderline personality disorders (P < 0.001) with narcotics consumption were significant. In clusters, there was a significant correlation between cluster B personality disorders, and narcotic and stimulants consumption (P < 0.001). In addition, this association was explored between cluster C personality disorder and narcotics (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The results of this study in terms of personality disorders and types of used drugs were in accordance with the previous studies results. It is necessary to design appropriate treatment plans for medical treatment of those with personality

  19. Are Iranians aware of carbon monoxide poisoning: symptoms and its prevention strategies?

    PubMed

    Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hassan; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Aziz, Sepehr; Keyvan, Amirhossein; Mirjafari, S Adeleh; Sodagari, Faezeh

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is still a health problem all over the world. Informing users about symptoms and suggesting annual inspection of CO producing devices will result in CO poisoning reduction. The goal of this study was to evaluate awareness about CO poisoning symptoms and its prevention ways in Iranian population. In this study, a total of 700 patients' family members attended Imam Khomeni hospital were asked to enroll in the study. A structured questionnaire was used including demographic characteristics, devices which were used at home, awareness of CO poisoning symptoms, awareness of CO detectors, the last time that tubal patency of devices are checked, if it is helpful to open the window to fix gas leak and if surveying devices by an expert at the beginning of the cold season is recommended. A total of 635 participants completed questionnaires. The most used device was gas water heater followed by gas heater. Five hundred and nine reported that they are aware of CO poisoning symptoms (80.1%), 398 (62.6%) stated that it is possible to detect CO leak and 566 (89.1%) told CO detectors would be helpful for reduction of mortality from CO poisoning. Fifty percent of participants had not checked their devices since they have bought their devices. Five hundred and thirty-six (84.4%) reported that opening window could help CO leak, and 596 (93.8%) agreed that an expert checked their fuel-burning devices at the beginning of the winter. Iranian people are not aware of all CO poisoning symptoms. Developing a national strategy for CO surveillance and people education will be helpful.

  20. Association Between Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene Polymorphisms with Breast Cancer Risk in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Maryam; Hashemi, Mohammad; Sanaei, Sara; Mashhadi, Mohammad Ali; Taheri, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most causes of death in women worldwide. It affects Iranian female population approximately a decade earlier than those in other parts of the world. Previous studies have shown that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene variants were associated with BC risk. The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of VEGF rs3025039 (+936C>T), rs2010963 (+405C>G), rs833061 (-460T>C), rs699947 (-2578C>A), and rs35569394 (18-bp I/D) polymorphisms on BC risk in an Iranian population in southeast of Iran. This case–control study was done on 250 BC patients and 215 healthy women. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) or PCR was used to genotype the polymorphisms. Our findings showed that VEGF rs699947 variant increased the risk of BC (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.15–2.54, P = 0.009, CA vs CC; OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.14–3.93, P = 0.021, AA vs CC; OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.22–2.60, P = 0.004, CA+AA vs CC; OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.12–1.92, P = 0.005, A vs C). The VEGF rs3025039, rs2010963, rs833061, and rs35569394 variants were not associated with risk/protection of BC. In conclusion, our results proposed that VEGF rs699947 polymorphism may increase the risk of BC development. Furthers studies with larger sample sizes and different ethnicities are necessary to confirm our findings. PMID:27398026

  1. Association Between Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene Polymorphisms with Breast Cancer Risk in an Iranian Population.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Maryam; Hashemi, Mohammad; Sanaei, Sara; Mashhadi, Mohammad Ali; Taheri, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most causes of death in women worldwide. It affects Iranian female population approximately a decade earlier than those in other parts of the world. Previous studies have shown that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene variants were associated with BC risk. The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of VEGF rs3025039 (+936C>T), rs2010963 (+405C>G), rs833061 (-460T>C), rs699947 (-2578C>A), and rs35569394 (18-bp I/D) polymorphisms on BC risk in an Iranian population in southeast of Iran. This case-control study was done on 250 BC patients and 215 healthy women. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) or PCR was used to genotype the polymorphisms. Our findings showed that VEGF rs699947 variant increased the risk of BC (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.15-2.54, P = 0.009, CA vs CC; OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.14-3.93, P = 0.021, AA vs CC; OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.22-2.60, P = 0.004, CA+AA vs CC; OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.12-1.92, P = 0.005, A vs C). The VEGF rs3025039, rs2010963, rs833061, and rs35569394 variants were not associated with risk/protection of BC. In conclusion, our results proposed that VEGF rs699947 polymorphism may increase the risk of BC development. Furthers studies with larger sample sizes and different ethnicities are necessary to confirm our findings. PMID:27398026

  2. Perceived cultural attitudes toward homosexuality and their effects on Iranian and American sexual minorities.

    PubMed

    Mireshghi, Sholeh I; Matsumoto, David

    2008-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between three mental health constructs and perceived cultural attitudes toward homosexuality among lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. Specifically, differences in perceived cultural attitudes and depression, self-esteem, and perceived stress between 49 Iranians and 47 Americans were compared. It was hypothesized that (a) perceived cultural attitudes toward homosexuality would be more negative among Iranians than Americans; (b) perceived cultural attitudes would be related to depression, self-esteem, and perceived stress; and (c) that Iranian participants' scores on the depression, self-esteem, and perceived stress measures would reflect poorer mental health than that of their American counterparts. Results indicated more negative perceptions of cultural attitudes toward homosexuality among Iranians. Contrary to prediction, however, no difference was found in levels of depression, self-esteem, and perceived stress among American and Iranian participants. Findings are discussed in terms of cultural and familial differences with regard to sexual orientation disclosure.

  3. A qualitative study of cognitive-behavioral therapy for Iranian migrants with mild/moderate depression in Austria.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Atefeh; Renner, Walter; Juen, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for Iranian migrants suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) and living in Austria for an average of 14 years. The qualitative data were collected through interviews based on the Farsi version of the Structured Clinical Interview for the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). However, to obtain more information from the participants, they were asked to talk in more detail about their childhood and teenage years, reasons for immigration, their lifestyle before and after immigration, and their social activities. Interviews were conducted at four time points: preintervention, postintervention, 1-month follow-up, and 6-month follow-up. Patients who did not complete the interventions were interviewed on a voluntary basis to explain their reasons. Preintervention interviews were conducted to get some useful information about participant's' expectations of psychotherapy, especially group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (GCBT), and also to assess the reasons for depression from their own point of view. The postintervention interviews were conducted to examine the participants' psychological situations as well as the reasons for positive effects of interventions. The interviews on average lasted 50 minutes, and field notes were taken. The results of this study showed a reduction in depression symptoms after the interventions. However, the effect of treatment was not persistent. The findings suggest that the main reasons behind Iranian migrants' depression in Austria is related to their dysfunctional acculturation attitude. The effectiveness of GCBT for Iranian migrants with depression also may be related to their sociocultural background. PMID:27294588

  4. Significance of a common variant in the CDKAL1 gene with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus in Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Mansoori, Yaser; Daraei, Abdolreza; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Salehi, Rasoul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a worldwide problem that threatens the public health and economies of all countries. A multifactorial etiology and interaction between environmental factors and genetic components are responsible for triggering and progression of T2DM. Recently, rs7754840 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CDKAL1 gene was reported to be associated with T2DM in various populations. However, due to inconsistent results in various populations about the association of rs7754840 with T2DM, and lack of information in the Iranian population, we have evaluated its association with T2DM in a subset of the Iranian population from Isfahan province, central part of Iran. Materials and Methods: The study included 140 patients and 140 controls selected based on the World Health Organization guidelines. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples and the rs7754840 SNP was genotyped using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay with specific primers and restriction enzyme (Ac1I). Results: The frequency of the C allele in the cases was higher than that in the controls (72.9% vs. 65%; P = 0.045). Using logistic regression analysis, we found a significant risk association of CC genotype with T2DM susceptibility (OR = 2.319, 95% CI = 1.436-3.744, P = 0.001). Furthermore, compared with the CC genotype, individuals with the GC genotype had a lower risk (protective association) of developing T2DM (OR = 0.332, 95% CI = 0.202-0.547, P < 0.001). Conclusions: We confirmed that there is a significant risk association between rs7754840 polymorphism and development of T2DM in a subset of the Iranian population from Isfahan province. PMID:25789271

  5. Associations between insulin-like growth factor I, vascular endothelial growth factor and its soluble receptor 1 in umbilical serum and endothelial cells obtained from normotensive and preeclamptic pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Olmos, Andrea; Díaz, Lorenza; Avila, Euclides; Barrera, David; López-Marure, Rebeca; Biruete, Benjamín; Larrea, Fernando; Halhali, Ali

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its soluble receptor 1 (sFlt-1) in umbilical serum and to study the effects of IGF-I upon sFlt-1 synthesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in normotensive (NT) and preeclamptic (PE) pregnancies. As compared with the NT group, umbilical serum IGF-I and VEGF levels were lower in the PE group, while sFlt-1 concentrations were higher. Levels of sFlt-1 correlated with IGF-I in the NT group and with VEGF in the PE group. Basal concentration of sFlt-1 in HUVEC culture media was higher in the PE group. IGF-I stimulated sFlt-1 synthesis only in the NT group. In summary, umbilical serum sFlt-1 is associated with IGF-I in normotensive pregnancy and with VEGF in preeclampsia. IGF-I stimulates sFlt-1 synthesis in endothelial cells in normotensive but not in PE pregnancies.

  6. Iranian Version of the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale: Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties.

    PubMed

    Patoo, Mozhgan; Allahyari, Abbas Ali; Moradi, Ali Reza; Payandeh, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Mental adjustment to cancer is known as a psychological, physical, and psychological health variable among cancer patients. The present study examines the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer scale (Mini-MAC) in a sample of Iranian adults who suffer from cancer. The sample consists of 320 cancer patients selected through non-random convenient sampling procedure from the hospitals and clinics in the cities of Kermanshah and Shiraz in Iran, using the Mini-MAC scale. One hundred of these patients also completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. Statistical methods used to analyze the data included confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis, discriminate validity, and Cronbach alpha coefficients for internal consistency. Factor analysis confirms five factors in the Mini-MAC. The values of fit indices are within the acceptable range. Significant correlations between the Mini-MAC and other measures also show that this scale has discriminate validity. Alpha coefficients for the subscales are Helplessness/Hopelessness,.94; Cognitive Avoidance.76; Anxious Preoccupation,.90; Fatalism,.77; Fighting Spirit.80; and total scale.84, respectively. The results confirm the five-factor structure of the Persian Mini-MAC scale and also prove that it is a reliable and valid scale. They show that this scale has sufficient power to measure different aspects of mental adjustment in patients with cancer. PMID:26600241

  7. Excess costs associated with common healthcare-associated infections in an Iranian cardiac surgical unit.

    PubMed

    Nosrati, M; Boroumand, M; Tahmasebi, S; Sotoudeh, M; Sheikhfathollahi, M; Goodarzynejad, H

    2010-12-01

    Healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) following open heart surgery is not only a major cause of mortality and morbidity, but also carries higher costs. There are limited data on the additional costs due to HCAI in non-western countries. To estimate the direct cost of the four most common HCAIs in an Iranian sample, we studied 1191 patients admitted for elective open heart surgery. HCAIs were defined using the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance criteria (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA). The financial costs of length of stay per day in hospital, paraclinical services, medications, instruments, and operating room were provided by the hospital's finance department. The contribution of HCAI to excess direct medical costs in patients with HCAI was assessed by multivariable linear regression. In the study population, the mean age was 57.3±11.9 years, 857 (72.0%) were men, and 64 (5.4%) developed HCAI. In total there were 73 infections of which the most common was surgical site infection (49.3%), followed by urinary tract infection (20.5%), bloodstream infection (16.5%), and pneumonia (13.7%). After adjustment for other confounders HCAI remained associated with excess direct medical costs (β=1707.06, SE=90.84; P < 0.001). The medical costs in patients with HCAI were almost twice those in patients without HCAI. More than half of the excess cost was attributable to prolonged hospitalisation. PMID:20833445

  8. Optimal Glycemic and Hemoglobin A1c Thresholds for Diagnosing Diabetes Based on Prevalence of Retinopathy in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Samadi Aidenloo, Naser; Mehdizadeh, Alireza; Valizadeh, Neda; Abbaszadeh, Mohammad; Qarequran, Siavash; Khalkhali, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of glycemic thresholds for diabetes diagnosis is controversial. However, no information is available regarding glycemic and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) thresholds for detecting diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the Iranian population. Objectives The main purpose of the current investigation was to examine the association of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c levels with diabetic retinopathy (DR), and to determine the relevant cut-off levels in an Iranian population. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional, population-based study was performed during 2012-2013 in Urmia, the capital of West Azerbaijan province, Iran. The subjects were 3,010 Iranians aged 40-81 years. The FPG levels were determined using the glucose oxidase method whereas, the HbA1c values were measured using a standardized assay by high performance liquid chromatography. DR was evaluated by an examination of the fundus photograph of each eye. The photographs were graded according to the international clinical diabetic retinopathy disease severity scale by photograph graders who were masked to the clinical information. Results Of the subjects, 59 had DR. The prevalence of DR increased steeply between the ninth and the tenth deciles for both variables. The ROC curve analysis showed overall glycemic thresholds for DR of 6.5 mmol/L (117 mg/dL) for FPG and 6.2% (44 mmol/mol) for HbA1c. The sensitivities and specificities were 78.0% and 87.1% for FPG and 89.8% and 89.5% for HbA1c, respectively. The areas under the ROC curves indicated that HbA1c was a stronger discriminator of retinopathy: the area under curve was 0.880 for FPG and 0.946 for HbA1c P < 0.001). However, the thresholds for detecting DR for the two measures showed no significant differences after excluding individuals receiving anti-hyperglycemic medication. Conclusions These findings suggest that the HbA1c and FPG thresholds for detecting diabetes in the Iranian population are lower than the current diagnostic criteria

  9. "Fewer children, better life" or "as many as God wants"? Family planning among low-income Iranian and Afghan refugee families in Isfahan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Tober, Diane M; Taghdisi, Mohammad-Hossein; Jalali, Mohammad

    2006-03-01

    In the West it is often assumed that religion (esp. Islam) and contraception are mutually exclusive. Yet, the Islamic Republic of Iran has one of the most successful family-planning programs in the developing world, and is often looked to as a potential model for other Muslim countries. Although Iran's family-planning program has been extremely successful among Iranians, it has been far less successful among Afghan refugees and other ethnic groups. Afghans and Iranians both seek services in Iran's public health sector for family health care, treatment of infectious disease, and childhood vaccinations. On these occasions, all adult married patients are strongly encouraged to use family planning to reduce the number of offspring. In this article, we explore how Iran's family-planning program is differentially perceived and utilized among low-income Iranian and Afghan refugee families in rural and urban locations. Particular attention is given to how different interpretations of Islam may or may not influence reproductive health-related behaviors and how cultural factors influence reproductive strategies.

  10. New Gene Profiling in Determination of Breast Cancer Recurrence and Prognosis in Iranian Women.

    PubMed

    Poorhosseini, Seyed Mohammad; Hashemi, Mohammad; Alipour Olyaei, Nasrin; Izadi, Amir; Moslemi, Elham; Ravesh, Zeinab; Hashemi-Gorji, Feyzollah; Kheiri, Hamid Reza; Yassaee, Vahid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the second most common cancer in the world and by far the most frequent cancer among women, with an estimated 1.67 million new cancer cases diagnosed in 2012 (25% of all cancers). Polygene expression analysis is used to predict the prognosis and determine the most appropriate treatment regimen. The objective of this study was to examine the gene expression profiles of SIRT3, HRAS, LSP1, SCUBE2 and AP2A2 in Iranian women with BC.A total of 136 patients including healthy controls were categorized into three groups based on the relapse of the disease. Expression of desired genes in formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissues collected from all groups of participants was analyzed via the RT PCR method. RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis were performed then real-time quantitative PCR was carried out. Gene expression analysis revealed that the expression of SIRT3 was equal among patient and control groups. LSP1 was down regulated in all patient groups relative to controls but reduced expression in the metastatic group relative to the non-metastatic one was not significant. HRAS was significantly overexpressed in total and metastatic tumor samples versus normal but not in non-metastatic cases. SCUBE2 expression showed significant over-expression in both overall tumor samples and the non-metastatic group as compared to normal tissues. Gene expression level of AP2A2 in all groups was not detectable. Our data are compatible with a tumor suppressor role of LSP1 related to potential prognostic factor for tumor recurrence and outcome. This study for the first time assayed the prognostic value and changes in the expression of SIRT3, LSP1, HRAS, SCUBE2 and AP2A2 genes in women with breast cancer in the Iranian population and findings confirmed potential biomarker and prognostic capability of these genes. Such expression profiling data can critically improve prognosis and treatment decisions in cancer patients. PMID:27165221

  11. Inconsistent Condom Use among Iranian Male Drug Injectors

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Yarmohmmadi Vasel, Mosaieb; Tavakoli, Mahmood; Sehat, Mahmoud; Jafari, Firoozeh; Narenjiha, Hooman; Rafiey, Hassan; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of inconsistent condom use among Iranian male injecting drug users (IDUs). Materials and Methods: Data came from the national Iranian behavioral survey of drug dependence, which sampled 7743 individuals with drug dependence, from medical centers, prisons, and streets in 29 provinces in Iran, in 2007. This study included all individuals who were male, IDUs, and were sexually active (n = 1131). The main outcome was inconsistent condom use which was assessed using a single item. A logistic regression was used to determine the association between socio-economic data, drug use data, and high risk injection behaviors with inconsistent condom use. Result: 83.3% of sexually active IDUs (n = 965) reported inconsistent condom use. Based on the logistic regression, likelihood of inconsistent condom use was higher among those with a history of syringe sharing [Odds Ratio (OR); 1.63, 95% Confidence Interval (CI); 1.13–2.34], but lower among those with higher education levels (OR; 0.34, 95% CI; 0.14–0.82), those who mostly inject at home (OR; 0.09, 95% CI; 0.02–0.47), and those with a history of treatment (OR; 0.54, 95% CI; 0.31–0.94). Conclusion: Because of the link between unsafe sex and risky injecting behaviors among Iranian IDUs, combined programs targeting both sexual and injection behavior may be more appropriate than programs that target sexual or injection behavior. The efficacy of combined programs should be, however, compared with traditional programs that only target sexual or injection behavior of IDUs. PMID:24772093

  12. Quantum leadership: the implication for Iranian nursing leaders.

    PubMed

    Dargahi, Hossein

    2013-07-13

    Quantum organizations are referred where stakeholders know how to access the infinite potential of the quantum field. Viewing healthcare organizations from perspective of quantum theory suggest new approaches into management techniques for effective and efficient delivery of healthcare services. This research is aimed to determine the quantum skills, quantum leadership characteristics and functions of Tehran University of Medical Sciences hospitals' nursing administrators. A cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study was conducted among 25 nursing administrators of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) hospitals, Tehran, Iran. The research tool for data collection was a self-constructed questionnaire that measured the quantum skills, quantum leadership characteristics and functions of TUMS hospitals' nursing administrators. The validity of questionnaire was confirmed by 5 management science experts and its reliability was performed by using test-retest method yielded a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.90. Data were collected and analyzed by SPSS software and t-test statistical methods. The results of this research showed that all respondents had desired quantum skills (75.71±5.98), quantum leadership characteristics (82.01±6.77), and quantum leadership functions (78.57±6.28) and total quantum leadership (78.76±4.50). Also, passing management training courses of the respondents was significantly correlated with their quantum leadership. Iranian healthcare organizations require quantum leadership that provides an important resource to advance Iranian nursing leadership to the organizational excellence. We hope Iranian hospitals' nursing leaders who have quantum skills potentially, present a highly developed sense of self and the ability to improve nursing care outcomes in these hospitals.

  13. ML shear wave velocity tomography for the Iranian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheri-Peyrov, Mehdi; Ghods, Abdolreza; Abbasi, Madjid; Bergman, Eric; Sobouti, Farhad

    2016-04-01

    Iranian Plateau reflects several different tectonic styles of collision, and large-scale strike-slip faults. We calculate a high-resolution 2-D ML shear velocity map for the Iranian Plateau to detect lateral crustal thickness changes associated with different tectonic boundaries. The ML velocity is very sensitive to strong lateral variations of crustal thickness and varies between the velocity of Lg and Sn phases. Our data set consists of 65 795 ML amplitude velocity measurements from 2531 precisely relocated events recorded by Iranian networks in the period 1996-2014. Using a constrained least-squares inversion scheme, we inverted the ML velocities for a 2-D shear velocity map of Iran. Our results show that the Zagros and South Caspian Basin (SCB) have shear wave velocities close to the Sn phase, and are thus Lg-blocking regions. High velocities in the High Zagros and the Simply Folded Belt imply significant crustal undulations within these zones. We note that in the central and south Zagros, the velocity border between the Zagros and central Iran is not coincident with the Zagros suture line that marks underthrusting of the Arabian plate beneath central Iran. The low plains of Gilan and Gorgan to the south of the Caspian Sea show high shear velocities similar to the SCB, implying that they are either underlain by an oceanic type crust or a transitional crust with a strong lateral crustal thickness gradient. The Lut block is an Lg-passing block implying that it is not surrounded by any sudden crustal thickness changes along its borders with central Iran. In the Alborz, NW Iran, Kopeh-Dagh, Binalud and most of the central Iran, low shear velocity near the Lg velocity is attributed to smooth or minor Moho undulations within these regions.

  14. Herbal Medicines for Leucorrhea According to Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Dehdari, Sahar; Hajimehdipoor, Homa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leucorrhea or vaginal discharge is a conventional complaint. It is generally whitish, yellowish, or greenish vaginal discharge in females that might be normal or a symptom of infection. It is almost mucus discharge, which exhibit exfoliation of vaginal epithelial cells due to estrogen influence on the vaginal mucosa. It is important to identify the differences between physiologic and pathologic discharges. Leucorrhea is a well-known disease in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM). In their manuscripts, the word “Sayalan-e rahem” was used by Avicenna and some other Iranian traditional practitioners to describe this condition. Ancient practitioners believed that excessive residue (kesrate fozool) and weakness of digestion (Za’afe hazm) were the main causes of leucorrhea, for which herbal therapy was the main proposed treatment. In the present study, medicinal plants used in ITM for leucorrhea are introduced. Methods: In this research, six Iranian traditional textbooks including Canon of Medicine (Avicena 980-1037 AD), A-Hawi (Razes 865-925 AD), Tuhfat ul-Momineen (Mo’men tonekaboni, 17th century), Makhzan-ul-Adwiah (Aghili 18th century), Ikhtiarat Badi’i (Ansari 1329-1404 AD), and al-jāmi li-mufradāt al-adwiyawa al-aghdhiy (Ibn al-Baitar 1197 AD) were studied and searched for anti-leucorrhea medicines. Then the herbal medicines were selected and scored depending on their frequency in the above-mentioned textbooks. Additional attention was paid to provide the most suitable scientific name for each plant. Results: This study introduced many Materia Medica with anti-leucorrhea activity and among them seven herbs including Rubus fruticosus L., Rhus coriaria L., Phoenix dactylifera L., Pimpinella anisum L., Rumex acetosa L., Olea europaea L. and Quercus lusitanica Lam. showed the most repetition in ITM prescriptions. Conclusion: These herbs can be introduced as new anti-leucorrhea herbal medicines for clinical research. PMID:27516669

  15. Correlation between cervical vertebral maturation and chronological age in a group of Iranian females

    PubMed Central

    Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Beikaii, Hanie; Hassanizadeh, Raheleh; Younessian, Farnaz; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Correlation between chronological age at different stages of cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) is important in clinical orthodontic practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CVM stage and chronological age in a group of Iranian female patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 196 digital lateral cephalometry of female patients with the age ranged 9-14 years. The CVM stage was determined with two calibrated examiners, using the method developed by Baccetti and its correlation with mean chronological age was assessed by the Spearman rank-order. The intra and inter-agreements were evaluated by weighted Kappa statistics in overall diagnosis of stages, in addition to determination of presence or absent of concavities at the lower border of second, third and fourth cervical vertebrae and the shapes of the third and fourth vertebrae. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The correlation coefficient between CVM stages and chronological age was relatively low (r = 0.62). The least amount of inter-observer agreement was determined to be at the clinical decision of the shape of the fourth vertebra. Conclusion: Regarding the low reported correlation, the concomitant usage of other skeletal indicators seems necessary for precise determination of physiological age of the patients. PMID:26604958

  16. Lack of FLT3-TKD835 gene mutation in toxicity of sulfur mustard in Iranian veterans

    PubMed Central

    Ayatollahi, Hossein; Rafiee, Mohammad; Keramati, Mohammad-Reza; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Asgharzadeh, Ali; Sadeghian, Mohammad Hadi; Sheikhi, Maryam; Amini, Nafiseh; Zarmehri, Azam Moradi

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Sulfur mustard (SM) was used by the Iraqi army against the Iranian troops in the Iran-Iraq war from 1983–1988. This chemical gas affects different organs including the skin, lungs and the hematopoietic system. Any exposure to SM increases the risk of chromosomal breaking, hyperdiploidy and hypodiploidy. Studies have shown that the risk for acute myeloblastic and lymphoblastic leukemia increases in veterans exposed to SM. FLT3 mutations including ITD and TKD mutations had been observed in some cases of leukemia. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the frequency of FLT3-TKD835 mutations in the veterans exposed to SM agent. Materials and Methods: We studied 42 patients who were exposed to SM during the war in Khorasan Razavi province, Mashhad, Iran in 2012. As control group, 30 healthy males were selected from first-degree relatives of the patients. For assessment of TKD835 mutation, DNA was extracted and RFLP-PCR was performed. Results: Analysis of RFLP-PCR data showed no FLT-3 TKD mutation in any of the patients. Conclusion: Although contact with SM can increase the risk of malignancy especially hematologic neoplasms, results of the study show that another mechanism of leukemogenesis, other than FLT3-TKD mutation, may be the reason for increased risk of leukemia in SM toxicity. PMID:26523218

  17. Caregiver burden among Iranian heart failure family caregivers: A descriptive, exploratory, qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Masoud; Etemadifar, Shahram; Shahriari, Mohsen; Farsani, Alireza Khosravi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Living with patients of chronic diseases such as heart failure (HF) is a difficult situation for the caregivers. This study explored the Iranian family caregivers’ burden of caregiving for patients with HF. Materials and Methods: Eighteen family caregivers of the HF patients from two governmental medical training centers in Isfahan, Iran were recruited using purposive sampling. Data were collected through face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Each interview was transcribed verbatim and was thematically analyzed concurrently. Results: Four major themes emerged from the analysis of the transcripts: Lack of care-related knowledge, physical exhaustion, psychosocial exhaustion, and lack of support. Family caregivers believed that they have little knowledge about the patients’ disease, drugs, and how to perform caregiving roles. They experienced negative physical and psychosocial consequences of full-time and highly extended caregiving roles, such as musculoskeletal disorder, fatigue, and sleep disturbance, and a high level of anxiety, stress, and social isolation. Caregivers believed that they receive little familial and organizational support on the emotional and financial dimensions of caregiving. Conclusions: The findings of this study can be used by healthcare providers, especially nurses, to provide more effective social, informational, and professional support for family caregivers. PMID:24554961

  18. Is consanguineous marriage religiously encouraged? Islamic and Iranian considerations.

    PubMed

    Akrami, Seyed Mohammad; Osati, Zahra

    2007-03-01

    Consanguineous marriage has had considerable attention as a causative factor in the prevalence of genetic disorders. Iran, with its majority Muslim population, has a high rate of consanguineous marriage. In Iranian tradition, first cousin marriage is an acceptable and appreciated custom. However, there seems to be no encouragement of consanguineous marriage in the Islamic context; it is merely mentioned as a traditional and common custom. This paper may help medical professionals providing premarital genetic counselling, who are regularly asked about consanguineous marriage, especially in Islamic communities. Increased public awareness via the mass media would seem to be a priority.

  19. Improving the status of Iranian women in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iraji zad, A.; Roshani, F.; Izadi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Iranian women have shown improving contribution in the field of physics as students and researchers in recent years. More than 60% of BSc and MSc students, 47% of PhD students, and 18% of faculty members in the physics departments in Iran are female. However, in higher levels of academic fields and management, participation by women is still below the expected values. The Women in Physics branch of the Physics Society of Iran studies the related cases to find suitable strategies to improve the situation.

  20. DEATH CONCERN AND DEATH OBSESSION IN IRANIAN NURSES.

    PubMed

    Dadfar, Mahboubeh; Lester, David

    2015-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine whether nurses had increased death concern and death obsession compared to non-nursing staff. A Death Concern Scale and a Death Obsession Scale, translated into Persian, were administered to 56 female Iranian nurses (55% in their 30s) and compared to 56 female hospital staff members (45% in their 30s). The two groups did not differ significantly in their scores on either scale. It is, therefore, recommended that death education programs in hospitals be given to all staff, nursing and non-nursing.

  1. Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in an Iranian infant.

    PubMed

    Movahedi, Zahra; Shokrollahi, Mohammad Reza; Aghaali, Mohammad; Heydari, Hosein

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Naegleria fowleri, a free living amoeba, can cause devastating and deadly diseases in humans. This is the first report of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis from Iran. Case report. A five-month-old male infant presented with the history of fever and eye gaze for three days, after beginning of bacterial meningitis, a plain and contrast CT revealed communicated hydrocephalus. In the repeat of CSF analysis on microscopic examination of wet preparation of CSF, Naegleria Fowleri was seen. Then, Amphotericin B and Rifampin were started. On followup, two months later, the patient was totally asymptomatic. Conclusion. Though occurrence of PAM is rare, this unusual disease has grave prognosis, so infection with free living amoebas must be considered in differential diagnosis of pediatric patients of purulent meningitis without evidence of bacteria on Gram's stain and imaging findings, nonspecific brain edema on CT or hydrocephalus even without history of contact. PMID:22899941

  2. Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis in an Iranian Infant

    PubMed Central

    Movahedi, Zahra; Shokrollahi, Mohammad Reza; Aghaali, Mohammad; Heydari, Hosein

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Naegleria fowleri, a free living amoeba, can cause devastating and deadly diseases in humans. This is the first report of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis from Iran. Case report. A five-month-old male infant presented with the history of fever and eye gaze for three days, after beginning of bacterial meningitis, a plain and contrast CT revealed communicated hydrocephalus. In the repeat of CSF analysis on microscopic examination of wet preparation of CSF, Naegleria Fowleri was seen. Then, Amphotericin B and Rifampin were started. On followup, two months later, the patient was totally asymptomatic. Conclusion. Though occurrence of PAM is rare, this unusual disease has grave prognosis, so infection with free living amoebas must be considered in differential diagnosis of pediatric patients of purulent meningitis without evidence of bacteria on Gram's stain and imaging findings, nonspecific brain edema on CT or hydrocephalus even without history of contact. PMID:22899941

  3. Mutation Screening of BRCA Genes in 10 Iranian Males with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zorrieh Zahra, Atieh; Kadkhoda, Sepideh; Behjati, Farkhondeh; Aghakhani Moghaddam, Fatemeh; Badiei, Azadeh; Sirati, Fereidoon; Afshin Alavi, Hossein; Atri, Morteza; Omranipour, Ramesh; Keyhani, Elahe

    2016-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease with an increasing trend. Due to limited information especially about the genetic basis of the disease in Iran and the lower age of its onset, the disease requires more attention. The aim of this study was to screen the male patients with breast cancer for BRCA mutations as well as tissue markers of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-2) and cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6). Ten Iranian males with breast cancer were selected regardless of their histologic subtypes, age and family history from patients referred to Mehrad, Day and Parsian hospitals in Tehran, Iran, during a two-year period. Paraffin blocks of the tumoral regions were tested for ER, PR, HER-2 and CK5/6 immunostaining. DNA extraction was carried out on the EDTA blood samples followed by Sanger sequencing. Immunohistochemistry results for ER, and PR were negative in 2 out of 10 patients, while the results of HER-2 and CK5/6 were negative in all the cases. A missense mutation in exon 18 of BRCA1 and a nonsense mutation in exon 25 of in BRCA2 were detected in one patient each. Both patients belonged to luminal A subtype. Despite the low number of patients in this study, it could be concluded that mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 occur in male breast cancer patients of luminal A subtype. The negative status of the tissue markers could not be used for the prediction of BRCA mutations. PMID:27478808

  4. Association of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism with Hyperhomocysteinemia and Deep Vein Thrombosis in the Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Ghaznavi, Habib; Soheili, Zahra; Samiei, Shahram; Soltanpour, Mohammad Soleiman

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a common but elusive condition characterized by a high morbidity and mortality rate. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism with plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) levels and DVT risk in an Iranian population. Materials and Methods: Our study population consisted of 67 patients with a diagnosis of DVT and 67 healthy subjects as controls. Genotyping of MTHFR C677T polymorphism was performed by the polymerase chain reaction technique combined with restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and measurement of tHcy levels was done by enzyme immunoassay method. Results: Plasma tHcy levels were significantly higher in DVT patients than controls (18.09±7.6 vs. 10.5±4.3, P=0.001). Also, plasma tHcy levels were significantly higher in MTHFR 677TT genotypes compared to 677CC genotypes in both DVT patients (P=0.016) and controls (P=0.03). Neither heterozygote nor homozygote genotypes of MTHFR C677T polymorphism was significantly correlated with DVT (P>0.05). The distribution of MTHFR C677T genotypes was similar between men and women in both DVT patients and controls (P>0.05). Moreover, the frequency of mutant 677T allele did not differ significantly between the two groups (28.3% vs. 21.6%, P=0.15). Conclusion: Based on this study, we propose that hyperhomocysteinemia but not homozygosity for MTHFR C677T polymorphism is a significant risk factor for DVT in the Iranian population. Also, MTHFR 677TT genotype is a determinant of elevated plasma tHcy levels. PMID:26719836

  5. Using Queuing Theory and Simulation Modelling to Reduce Waiting Times in An Iranian Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Haghighinejad, Hourvash Akbari; Kharazmi, Erfan; Hatam, Nahid; Yousefi, Sedigheh; Hesami, Seyed Ali; Danaei, Mina; Askarian, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hospital emergencies have an essential role in health care systems. In the last decade, developed countries have paid great attention to overcrowding crisis in emergency departments. Simulation analysis of complex models for which conditions will change over time is much more effective than analytical solutions and emergency department (ED) is one of the most complex models for analysis. This study aimed to determine the number of patients who are waiting and waiting time in emergency department services in an Iranian hospital ED and to propose scenarios to reduce its queue and waiting time. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study in which simulation software (Arena, version 14) was used. The input information was extracted from the hospital database as well as through sampling. The objective was to evaluate the response variables of waiting time, number waiting and utilization of each server and test the three scenarios to improve them. Results: Running the models for 30 days revealed that a total of 4088 patients left the ED after being served and 1238 patients waited in the queue for admission in the ED bed area at end of the run (actually these patients received services out of their defined capacity). The first scenario result in the number of beds had to be increased from 81 to179 in order that the number waiting of the “bed area” server become almost zero. The second scenario which attempted to limit hospitalization time in the ED bed area to the third quartile of the serving time distribution could decrease the number waiting to 586 patients. Conclusion: Doubling the bed capacity in the emergency department and consequently other resources and capacity appropriately can solve the problem. This includes bed capacity requirement for both critically ill and less critically ill patients. Classification of ED internal sections based on severity of illness instead of medical specialty is another solution. PMID:26793727

  6. Fate of aflatoxin M1 in Iranian white cheese processing.

    PubMed

    Kamkar, A; Karim, G; Aliabadi, F Shojaee; Khaksar, R

    2008-06-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is an important mycotoxin frequently found in milk and dairy products. AFM1 is a major metabolic product of Aflatoxin B1 and is usually excreted in the milk and urine of dairy cattle that have consumed aflatoxin-contaminated feed. The aim of this study was to determine the AFM1 concentration in curd and whey of Iranian white cheese. The cheese milk samples were artificially contaminated with AFM1 in six levels (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.75microgL(-1)). Cheese was produced according to Iranian traditional recipe. AFM1 distribution between curd, whey and cheese was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using immunoaffinity column clean up and florescence detection. AFM1 was recovered in whey, curd and cheese in the concentrations of 0.43, 1.47 and 1.57microgL(-1),respectively. The level of Aflatoxin M1 in curd and cheese obtained 3.12- and 3.65-fold more than that in whey that shows the affinity of Aflatoxin M1 to the protein fraction of milk.

  7. Iranian nurses' perceptions of social responsibility: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Faseleh-Jahromi, Mohsen; Moattari, Marzieh; Peyrovi, Hamid

    2014-05-01

    Social responsibility is intertwined with nursing; however, perceptions of Iranian nurses about social responsibility has not been explored yet. This study, as part of a larger qualitative grounded theory approach study, aims to explore Iranian nurses' perception of social responsibility. The study participants included 10 nurses with different job levels. The study data were generated through semi-structured interviews. The participants were selected through purposeful sampling approach, which was then followed by theoretical sampling until reaching the point of data saturation. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Positive human characteristics, professional competencies, professional values, solution-focused nursing care, and deployment of professional performance are five categories obtained from the study. The participants believed socially responsible nurses to have positive personality characteristics as well as the necessary skills to do their duties accurately. Such nurses also respect the values, observe the professional principles, and take major steps toward promotion and deployment of the nursing profession in the society.

  8. University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification on Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Kamrava, Seyed Kamran; Farhadi, Mohammad; Jalessi, Maryam; Khosravian, Babak; Pousti, Behzad; Amin Tehran, Ebrahim; Rezaee Hemami, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) is one of the most common smell identification tests to assess olfactory function. Objectives: The study was conducted to assess the accuracy of University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) in Iranian population. Materials and Methods: University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test was performed on 30 (50%) female and 30 (50%) male, who were healthy adult volunteers. The total mean score as well as mean scores according to the gender were assessed and compared to the UPSIT classification. Odors considered valid and accurate if its correct identification ability rate was more than 70% among study population. Results: The test score was 25.04 ± 4.92 in female and 23.29 ± 4.23 in male volunteers that all were considered as microsmia according to UPSIT. Sixteen odorants were correctly identified by about 70% of the volunteers and the remains 24 odorants were identified by less than 70%; 7, 5 and 12 odors was identified by60%-70%, 50%-60% and less than 50% of the volunteers, respectively. Conclusions: According to the results of the study, documented that even less than half of the odors (16 out of 40) were identified correctly by the volunteers, which indicating that the UPSIT is not a suitable test to evaluate olfactory function in Iranian population due to the high amount of unfamiliar smells that should be replaced with more familiar ones. PMID:24719716

  9. Climatic variability of the column ozone over the Iranian plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Seyyed Shafi; Farajzadeh, Manuchehr; Rahimi, Yousef Ghavidel; Bidokhti, Abbasali Aliakbari

    2016-08-01

    This study analyzes the total ozone column (TOC) variability over the Iranian plateau (Esfahan) from 1978 to 2011. Results show that the annual average of TOC in Esfahan tends to decrease with time, which is strongly dependent on the season, with maximum values during the winter-spring months (more than 2.2 %/decade). By applying a defined threshold that includes the TOC monthly -2σ, it is found that the maximum occurrence of low ozone events (LOEs) tends to be more frequent in the second half of year with about four-fifth of the observed LOEs (last summer, autumn, and early winter). During two cases of LOE, the tropopause height (TH) was uplifted ~2-4 km with temperature of 10 °C colder than the long-term mean, and the synoptic pattern was characterized by high-pressure systems in UTLS region. The extreme LOEs were consistent with the horizontal transport of ozone-poor air toward the Iranian plateau and vertical advection in UTLS region. The former mechanism plays a primary role in formation of extreme LOEs based on the observed TOC reductions during previous days over the source regions (Sahara desert and Himalaya region). Day-to-day variations of maximum UV index during LOEs show that by a decrease in TOC ~14 %, while the aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the cloudless condition reach their lowest rates (lower than 0.3), UV radiation exceeds very high and extreme levels in late winter and mid-spring, respectively.

  10. Smoking and Its Related Factors Among Iranian High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad; Sajedinejad, Sima; Nazemi, Saeed; Fereidoon Mohasseli, Khadije; Valizade, Behzad; Vahedi, Hamid; Hosseinzadeh, Ehsan; Amiri, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: In different studies, the prevalence of tobacco consumption has been growing in high schools boys. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of smoking and its related factors among Iranian high school students in 2011. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 450 male students from 15 high schools of Shahroud (northeast of Iran) were selected for evaluation of the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of students regarding tobacco consumption. Results: Overall, 51% (95% CI: 46.5 - 55.7) of the students had positive history of smoking for at least one time and 7.1% (95% CI: 5 - 10) of them were current smokers. The most prevalent source of information about smoking was TV and radio programs (48%) and friends were the second source (22%). Based on the students’ opinions, entertainment and smoker friends were the most important reasons for smoking tendency. There was significant statistical association between students smoking and positive family history of smoking (P value < 0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking experince was very high among high school students. The most prevalent source of information about smoking was Iranian broadcasting companies. Positive family history of smoking and smoker friends were the important motivating factors toward smoking. PMID:26834798

  11. Tobacco use among Iranian dental students: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, H; Khami, M R; Jafari, A; Virtanen, J I

    2013-08-01

    A national survey was conducted to provide up-to-date data on current and ever use of tobacco among Iranian dental students. All 4th-year students of 8 randomly selected dental schools were surveyed anonymously in December 2010 using the Global Health Professions Student Survey questionnaire. Of 325 participants, 54.2% were ever users of tobacco products (73.0% of males versus 44.4% of females); 50.8% had used waterpipes, 34.2% cigarettes and 9.3% other products. The most common age at first use was 20-24 years for both sexes. Current tobacco use was reported by 20.6% of respondents, cigarette smoking by 10.8% and waterpipe smoking by 15.8%. Regression models showed that current cigarette and waterpipe smoking were significantly associated with male sex but not with type of dental school (state/private). Current waterpipe smoking was also associated with age at first experience. In view of the important role of dentists in tobacco control, the prevention of tobacco use should be stressed among Iranian dental students.

  12. Knowledge translation in Iranian universities: need for serious interventions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the status of knowledge translation (KT) in Iranian medical science universities in order to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the most important organizations responsible for producing knowledge in the country. Methods The KT activities were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively in nine universities using the Self-Assessment Tool for Research Institutes. Results The strengths and weaknesses of universities were determined using seven main themes: priority setting; research quality and timeliness; researchers’ KT capacities; interaction with research users; the facilities and prerequisites of KT; the processes and regulations supporting KT; and promoting and evaluating the use of evidence. The quantitative and qualitative results showed that the Iranian universities did not have an appropriate context for KT. There were significant shortcomings in supportive regulations, facilities for KT activities, and the level of interaction between the researchers and research users. Conclusions The shortcomings in KT were mostly in the area of stewardship and policymaking (macro level), followed by planning and implementation at the universities. In order to strengthen KT in Iran, it should occupy a prominent and focused role in the strategies of the country’s health research system. PMID:24225146

  13. Iranian entrepreneur nurses’ perceived barriers to entrepreneurship: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Jahani, Simin; Abedi, Heidarali; Elahi, Nasrin; Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: To respond efficiently to the increasing and new needs of people in health issues, it is necessary for nurses to develop their knowledge from hospital to society and to be equipped to play entrepreneur role in different levels of care. The present study was conducted to describe Iranian entrepreneur nurses’ perceived barriers to entrepreneurship, in order to identify the existing barriers. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study in which Graneheim and Lundman's content analysis method was employed. Thirteen entrepreneur nurses were chosen purposively, and data were gathered by unstructured interviews. Results: As a result of the data analysis, five major themes were extracted: Traditional nursing structure, legal limitations, traditional attitudes of governmental managers, unprofessional behaviors of colleagues, and immoral business. Conclusions: The findings of the present study show that Iranian nurses are confronted with various problems and barriers to enter entrepreneur nursing and keep going in this area. By focusing on such barriers and applying appropriate changes, policymakers and planners in health can facilitate nurses entering into this activity. PMID:26985222

  14. Development and Adaptation of Iranian Youth Reproductive Health Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Abbas; Keramat, Afsaneh; Vakilian, Katayon; Esmaeili Vardanjani, Safar Ali

    2013-01-01

    Iran is a young country, and sexual behavior is shaped in this period. This research aimed to provide an assessment tool to evaluate Iranian youth reproductive health. This multistage research was conducted to design a valid questionnaire in the domains of knowledge, attitude, and behavior of the youth in order to evaluate behavior change programs. For this reason, after conducting a careful literature review and a qualitative research, the questionnaire was prepared. Forward and backward translations were performed. Professionals and students were used to make sure of qualitative and quantitative content and face validity. After conducting the pilot study on 100 students and eliminating defects in performance, reliability was evaluated by test-retest and Cronbach's alpha was calculated. In this study, out of 268 questions, 198 were retained after face and content validity. Self-efficacy of communication with father and mother, self-efficacy of condom use, and self-efficacy of abstinence had the highest Cronbach's alpha. Moreover, communication with parents regarding reproductive health issues and attitude to abstinence had a high Cronbach's alpha, as well. It seems to be a good instrument for assessment of Iranian reproductive health, and we are going to assess youth reproductive health in the future. PMID:23984084

  15. Unprotected anal Intercourse among Iranian Intra-Venous Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Mirabi, Parvaneh; Yarmohmmadi Vasel, Mosaieb; Moazen, Babak; Sehat, Mahmoud; Rezazadeh, Majid; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the prevalence and associated factors of unprotected anal intercourse among Iranian male heterosexual Intra-Venous Drug Users (IDUs). Methods: In a cross-sectional study 360 male heterosexual IDUs were sampled from streets of eight different geographical parts of Iran. Variables such as socio-demographics, HIV knowledge (10 items), and HIV attitude (16 items) were entered to a logistic regression to determine the predictors of unprotected anal intercourse during the past month. Results: From all, 20.8% reported unprotected anal intercourse during the past month. HIV knowledge was not significantly different among IDUs with and without unprotected anal intercourse. High age [odds ratio (OR) = 0.954, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.916–0.992] was associated with a lower likelihood of unprotected anal intercourse, while being not married (OR = 2.301, 95% CI = 1.151–4.601), and high perceived HIV risk (OR = 1.776, 95% CI = 1.376–2.290) were associated with a higher likelihood of unprotected anal intercourse. Conclusion: Although the results might not be generalizable to all Iranian IDUs, this study findings may still be helpful for design and implementation of public health programs in Iran to prevent sexual transmission of HIV through IDUs. PMID:24350203

  16. The EORTC breast cancer-specific quality of life questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-BR23): translation and validation study of the Iranian version.

    PubMed

    Montazeri, A; Harirchi, I; Vahdani, M; Khaleghi, F; Jarvandi, S; Ebrahimi, M; Haji-Mahmoodi, M

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Iranian version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Breast Cancer-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-BR23). The English-language version of the questionnaire was translated into Persian (Iranian language) and its final form was approved by the EORTC Study Group on Quality of Life and then it was used in this study. The questionnaire was administered at two points in time to a consecutive sample of 168 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients and almost all of them (99%) found the questions easy to understand and acceptable. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for multi-item scales (to test reliability) ranged from 0.63 to 0.95 at baseline and from 0.75 to 0.92 at follow-up administration of the questionnaire. Validity analysis was performed using known-groups' comparison analysis. The results showed that all functional and symptom scales discriminated between sub-groups of patients differing in clinical status as defined by their performance status and disease stage. In addition, all functional and symptoms scales detected change over time, as a function of changes in patients' performance status. In general, the findings of this study indicated that the Iranian version of the EORTC QLQ-BR23 is a reliable and valid supplementary measure of the quality of life in breast cancer patients and can be used in clinical trials and studies of outcome research in oncology.

  17. Thoracoscopic Esophageal Atresia with Tracheoesophageal Fistula Repair: The First Iranian Group Report, Passing the Learning Curve

    PubMed Central

    Hiradfar, Mehran; Gharavifard, Mohammad; Shojaeian, Reza; Joodi, Marjan; Nazarzadeh, Reza; Sabzevari, Alireza; Yal, Nazila; Eslami, Reza; Mohammadipour, Ahmad; Azadmand, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thoracoscopic treatment of esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula (EA+TEF) is accepted as a superior technique at least in cosmetic point of view but it is considered as an advance endoscopic procedure that needs a learning curve to be performed perfectly. This is the first report of Iranian group pediatric surgeons in thoracoscopic approach to EA. Methods and Materials: Since 2010, twenty four cases with EA+TEF underwent thoracoscopic approach in Sarvar Children Hospital (Mashhad -Iran). During the first 6 months, thoracoscopic approach to 6 cases of EA+TEF was converted to open procedure because of technical and instrumental problems. The first case of successful thoracoscopic EA repair was accomplished in 2010 and since then, 10 cases of EA+ TEF among 18 patients were treated successfully with thoracoscopic approach Results: Overall conversion rate was 58.3% but conversion rate after the primary learning curve period, was 35.7%. The main conversion causes include difficulties in esophageal anastomosis, limited exposure and deteriorating the patient's condition. Anastomotic leak and stenosis were observed in 20% and 40% respectively. Overall mortality rate was 4.2%. Conclusion: Thoracoscopic repair of esophageal atresia seems feasible and safe with considerable superiorities to the conventional method although acceptable results needs a prolonged learning curve and advanced endoscopic surgical skill. Clear judgment about the best surgical intervention for EA according to all cosmetic and functional outcomes needs further studies. PMID:27471677

  18. Burnout and productivity among Iranian nurses.

    PubMed

    Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan; Negarandeh, Reza; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2009-09-01

    The concept of burnout describes a number of destructive aspects in the health-care system, especially in nursing. A descriptive study was carried out in order to investigate the relationship between burnout and productivity among 200 baccalaureate nurses working in educational hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Burnout and productivity questionnaires were employed and the data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that emotional exhaustion and depersonalization had significant negative correlations with productivity. Also, a significant positive correlation was found between personal accomplishment and productivity. Efforts to alleviate burnout among nurses should lead to an increased quality of patient care and improved quality of work life; if not, health-care systems will pay the price for nurses' burnout through the quality of services that they offer.

  19. Attitude of Iranian Medical Oncologists Toward Economic Aspects, and Policy-making in Relation to New Cancer Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Daroudi, Rajabali; Mirzania, Mehrzad; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although medical oncologists can have an important role in controlling the cost of cancer treatment, there is little information about their attitudes toward the cost of cancer treatment and the impact of cost on their treatment recommendations, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In this study, we assessed the attitude of Iranian medical oncologists toward some economic aspects of new cancer drugs. Methods: We translated a questionnaire that was used in similar studies in the United States and Canada into Persian and modified it according to the local setting in Iran. The face and content validity of the questionnaire were assessed by oncologists before being used in the survey. We distributed the questionnaire and collected the data from 80 oncologists who participated in the 13th Annual Congress of the Iranian Society of Medical Oncology and Hematology (ISMOH). Results: Fifty-two oncologists participated in our study (a response rate of 65%). The majority of oncologists stated that drug costs and patient out-of-pocket (OOP) costs influence their treatment recommendations (92% and 94%, respectively). Most oncologists (70%) felt that they are ready enough to use cost-effectiveness information in their treatment decisions, and 74% believed that patients should only have access to cancer treatments that are cost-effective. Most oncologists agree that the government should have control over drug prices, and more use of cost‐effectiveness data is required for decision-making about cancer drug coverage. Ninety-one percent of oncologists said that they always or frequently discuss cancer treatment costs with their patients. Oncologists believed that academic groups (research centers and scientific societies) (81%) and the Ministry of Health (MoH) (43%) are the most eligible groups for determining whether a drug provides good value. Conclusion: Iranian medical oncologists are ready to participate in the health technology assessment and

  20. 78 FR 11950 - Identification of Entities and Vessels Pursuant to the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ...)(22660766); Fax (357)(22678777) Linked To: NATIONAL IRANIAN TANKER COMPANY. 50. PROTON PETROCHEMICALS SHIPPING LIMITED (a.k.a. PROTON SHIPPING CO; a.k.a. ``PSC''), Diagoras House, 7th Floor, 16...

  1. Effects of social interaction between Afghan refugees and Iranians on reproductive health attitudes.

    PubMed

    Piran, Parviz

    2004-09-01

    Afghan refugees in Iran, like many Muslims around the world, think that using contraceptives is against their religious beliefs. The majority of Iranians also thought so until a decade ago. Since then an all-encompassing social movement has emerged in Iran in which women and young people have played decisive roles. This movement has led to an attitude shift towards acceptance of family planning across Iranian society. High-ranking clerics, responding to the social movement, issued progressive edicts indicating that poor families could practise family planning. This paper reports the findings of focus group studies carried out among Afghan refugee men in two communities in Iran. The findings indicate that exposure to Iranian life, especially the rulings of Iranian clerics, have influenced Afghans' views on family planning. The findings also indicate that a system of justification is needed to help people avoid both social sanctions and individual stresses resulting from a controversial practice regarded as a sin for centuries.

  2. 31 CFR 560.522 - Allowable payments for overflights of Iranian airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... overflights of Iranian airspace. Payments to Iran of charges for services rendered by the Government of Iran in connection with the overflight of Iran or emergency landing in Iran of aircraft owned by a...

  3. 31 CFR 560.522 - Allowable payments for overflights of Iranian airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... overflights of Iranian airspace. Payments to Iran of charges for services rendered by the Government of Iran in connection with the overflight of Iran or emergency landing in Iran of aircraft owned by a...

  4. 31 CFR 560.522 - Allowable payments for overflights of Iranian airspace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... payments for overflights of Iranian airspace. (a) Payments to Iran of charges for services rendered by the Government of Iran in connection with the overflight of Iran or emergency landing in Iran of aircraft...

  5. An anthropometric data bank for the Iranian working population with ethnic diversity.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Mazloumi, Adel; Kazemi, Zeinab

    2015-05-01

    This study constructed an anthropometric data bank for the Iranian working population. In total, thirty-seven body dimensions were measured among 3720 Iranian workers with different ethnicities (3000 male and 720 female; aged 20-60 years). Statistical analysis revealed significant differences for most of body dimensions among the ethnical groups. Moreover, the authors compared Iranian anthropometric characteristics with those of four Asian populations: Taiwanese, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. Overall, 16 body dimensions for the five Asian populations were selected and compared. Accordingly, different morphological characteristics of these five populations were observed. The Iranian population showed wide shoulders and hips and long legs; the Chinese population showed narrow hips and shoulders and a short height relative to the other populations. The Korean sample recorded moderate body size comparing the other populations. The Taiwanese had large hands, relatively wide shoulders and short upper limbs. These differences in population dimensions should be taken into consideration for product and process design when expanding regional markets.

  6. Association of P53 codon 72 polymorphism and lung cancer in an ethnic Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Eydian, Z; Asna'ashari, A M H; Behravan, J; Sharifi-Rad, J; Entezari Heravi, R

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer death worldwide. Molecular genetic studies indicated that activation of dominant oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and the presence of polymorphism in these genes correlated with prevalence of new lung cancers. P53 as a tumor suppressor gene located at 17p13 chromosome and it is one of the most well-known mutant genes in all cancer types. Mutation in P53 can disturb the transcriptional function and suppression of cell cycle control and increase in cell division and amplification. We can predict the susceptibility of people inside a society to lung cancer with evaluation of P53 gene polymorphism. A total of 200 patients with lung cancer and 200 healthy controls participated in this case-control study. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples and PCR-RFLP analyses were used to genotype the P53 gene polymorphism in codon 72 of exon 4, chromosome 17. Among 200 lung cancer patients and 200 controls, there was no significant correlation between sexuality and cigarette smoking status. We did not find any relationship between cigarette smoking status and genotypes or pack-years but there was a significant correlation between cigarette smoking status and adenocarcinoma patients (P=0.03). The results of the present study revealed that there is no association between P53 codon 72 polymorphism and increased risk of lung cancer in patients and controls but according to results of adenocarcinoma in never-smoker patients, it seems that environmental factors may have more important role than genetic susceptibility in our ethnic Iranian population. PMID:27585259

  7. The spectrum of familial inclusion body myopathies in 13 families and a description of a quadriceps-sparing phenotype in non-Iranian Jews.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, K; Dalakas, M C

    1996-10-01

    The frequency, patterns of inheritance and clinical phenotypes of inherited myopathies with histologic features of rimmed vacuoles, tubulofilamentous inclusions and absence of inflammation (familial and hereditary inclusion body myopathy [f-IBM]) are poorly defined. Quadriceps sparing is a characteristic of f-IBM seen in the Iranian Jewish population. Among 101 patients with the feature of a red-rimmed vacuolar myopathy, characterized as inclusion body myopathy, seen during the last 4 years, we identified 13 families with f-IBM (12.8% frequency when one member per family was considered). Five families had an autosomal dominant and eight had an autosomal recessive form of inheritance. Among the latter group, five patients with early-onset disease (two Caucasian Americans, an Asian Indian, and two unrelated Iranian Jews) had the distinct feature of quadriceps sparing, which was confirmed by MRI of the thighs. Their disease began with weakness and strophy of the foot extensors, forearm flexors, and first dorsal interossei muscles and progressed to the forearm flexors, girdle, and axial muscles, but spared the quadriceps. Serum CK was normal. Muscle biopsies showed rimmed vacuoles, small fibers in groups, amyloid deposition (in one patient), tubulofilaments, and no inflammation. Immunocytochemistry did not reveal abnormalities of various membrane or cytoskeletal proteins. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen was expressed only in a few degenerating fibers invaded by macrophages. T-cell infiltrates were not present. We conclude that in a large referral population, dominant and recessive hereditary and familial forms of IBM are not rare. Quadriceps-sparing myopathy appears to be a clinically distinct, autosomal recessive, nonimmune, distal vacuolar myopathy that is not limited to Iranian-Jewish ethnic groups.

  8. A review on delayed toxic effects of sulfur mustard in Iranian veterans.

    PubMed

    Mansour Razavi, Seyed; Salamati, Payman; Saghafinia, Masoud; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Iranian soldiers were attacked with chemical bombs, rockets and artillery shells 387 times during the 8-years war by Iraq (1980-1988). More than 1,000 tons of sulfur mustard gas was used in the battlefields by the Iraqis against Iranian people. A high rate of morbidities occurred as the result of these attacks. This study aimed to evaluate the delayed toxic effects of sulfur mustard gas on Iranian victims. During a systematic search, a total of 193 (109 more relevant to the main aim) articles on sulfur mustard gas were reviewed using known international and national databases. No special evaluation was conducted on the quality of the articles and their publication in accredited journals was considered sufficient. High rate of morbidities as the result of chemical attacks by sulfur mustard among Iranian people occurred. Iranian researchers found a numerous late complications among the victims which we be listed as wide range of respiratory, ocular, dermatological, psychological, hematological, immunological, gastrointestinal and endocrine complications, all influenced the quality of life of exposed victims. The mortality rate due to this agent was 3%. Although, mortality rate induced by sulfur mustard among Iranian people was low, variety and chronicity of toxic effects and complications of this chemical agent were dramatic. PMID:23351810

  9. A review on delayed toxic effects of sulfur mustard in Iranian veterans

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Iranian soldiers were attacked with chemical bombs, rockets and artillery shells 387 times during the 8-years war by Iraq (1980–1988). More than 1,000 tons of sulfur mustard gas was used in the battlefields by the Iraqis against Iranian people. A high rate of morbidities occurred as the result of these attacks. This study aimed to evaluate the delayed toxic effects of sulfur mustard gas on Iranian victims. During a systematic search, a total of 193 (109 more relevant to the main aim) articles on sulfur mustard gas were reviewed using known international and national databases. No special evaluation was conducted on the quality of the articles and their publication in accredited journals was considered sufficient. High rate of morbidities as the result of chemical attacks by sulfur mustard among Iranian people occurred. Iranian researchers found a numerous late complications among the victims which we be listed as wide range of respiratory, ocular, dermatological, psychological, hematological, immunological, gastrointestinal and endocrine complications, all influenced the quality of life of exposed victims. The mortality rate due to this agent was 3%. Although, mortality rate induced by sulfur mustard among Iranian people was low, variety and chronicity of toxic effects and complications of this chemical agent were dramatic. PMID:23351810

  10. The Status of Hospital Information Systems in Iranian Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Jahanbakhsh, Maryam; Sharifi, Mohammed; Ayat, Masar

    2014-01-01

    Background: The area of e-Health is broad and has an excellent growth potential. An increasing number of experts believe that e-Health will fuel the next breakthroughs in health system improvements throughout the world, but there is frequent evidence of unsustainable use of e-Health systems in medical centres, particularly hospitals, for different reasons in different countries. Iran is also a developing country which is presently adopting this promising technology for its traditional healthcare delivery but there is not much information about the use of e-Health systems in its hospitals, and the weakness and opportunities of utilization of such Hospital Information Systems (HIS). Methods: For this research, a number of Hospitals from Isfahan, Iran, are selected using convenient sampling. E-health research professionals went there to observe their HIS and collect required data as a qualitative survey. The design of interview questions was based on the researchers’ experiences and knowledge in this area along with elementary interviews with experts on HIS utilization in hospitals. Results: Efficient administration of e-health implementation improves the quality of healthcare, reduces costs and medical errors, makes healthcare resources available to rural areas, etc. However, there are numerous issues affecting the successful utilization of e-health in Hospitals, such as a lack of a perfect HIS implementation plan and well-defined strategy, inadequate IT-security for the protection of e-health-related data, improper training and educational issues, legal challenges, privacy concerns, improper documentation of lessons learned, resistance to the application of new technologies, and finally a lack of recovery plan and disaster management. These results along with some informative stories are extracted from interview sessions to uncover associated challenges of HIS utilization in Iranian hospitals. Conclusion: The utilization of e-health in Iranian hospitals

  11. [Genetic structure of the Iranian-speaking population of Azerbaijan from data on frequencies of immunologic and biochemical gene markers].

    PubMed

    Asadova, P Sh; Shneĭder, Iu V; Shil'nikova, I N; Zhukova, O V

    2003-11-01

    The data on the genetic studies of Iranian-speaking populations from Azerbaijan (Talyshs and Tats) are presented. In these populations gene frequency distributions for the immunological (AB0, MN, Rhesus-D, -C, -E, P, Lewis, and Kell-Chellano) and biochemical (HP, GC, C'3, TF, 6PGD, GLO1, ESD, ACP1, and PGM1) gene markers were determined. Comparison of the genetic structure of the populations examined with the other Iranian-speaking populations (Persians and Kurds from Iran, Ossetins and Tajiks) and Azerbaijanis showed that Iranian-speaking populations from Azerbaijan were more close to Azerbaijanis, than to Iranian-speaking populations inhabiting other world regions. PMID:14714471

  12. Altruism the Essense of the Iranian Nurses’ Job Satisfaction: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Forooshani, Zahra Sadat Dibaji; Rafiee, Forough

    2016-01-01

    Skillful and efficient human resource is one of the most important tools for reaching the organizational targets and it is almost impossible to reach the predetermined goals and success without having skillful human resources. Therefore, having a study on the personnel’s job satisfaction is recommended for all of the organizations. Since the health organizations are among the most important organizations of any country, paying attention to the nurses’ job satisfaction as the main providers of the health care services gets very important. In fact, their attempts guarantee the efficient human resources’ health in the society. Understanding the Iranian nurses’ experiences of their job satisfaction. The present paper studies the implicit and explicit aspects of the clinical nurses’ job satisfaction. The needed information is collected via interviews, and then the participants’ contextual data is analyzed by the qualitative content analysis. The research results introduce the altruism as the foundation for the nurses’ job satisfaction. Altruism is composed of three categories of the patient advocacy, spiritual job satisfaction, and professional commitment. Altruism has made the nurses deliver the required health cares to the patients with all their love, while their profession has many difficulties. Job satisfaction resulted from altruism is experienced as a pleasant feeling along with enjoyment resulted from addressing the needs of a patient who looks forward to the nurse’s advocacy. According to this kind of job satisfaction, the nurse’s professional commitment is to advocate for the patient. Also, the research results show that spirituality is the inseparable component of altruism and it has a vital role in the nurses’ job satisfaction. The spirituality helps the nurses to deliver targeted acts and interventions. PMID:27045394

  13. The cost of diabetes chronic complications among Iranian people with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate the cost of diabetes related micro- and macrovascular complications in Iranian people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods In routine clinical practice, people with type 2 diabetes mellitus were assessed for 10 years at a diabetes care center. The type of medications and clinical data were extracted from patients’ documents. Mortality rate and the incidence of micro- and macrovascular complications recorded in patients’ documents were analyzed. Cost analysis was comprised of 1) para clinic costs as well as laboratory, medications, clinical visits and nonmedical costs 2) inpatient costs as well as hospital admission costs, disability, and mortality costs. Results From 1562 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a total of 1000 patients with mean duration disease of 11.2 years, who had completed information in their documents, were studied. All people were free from complications at baseline. Mean cumulative incidence of diabetes-related complications over 10 years were 10.9 ± 3.5%, 8.0 ± 3.1%, 4.6 ± 1.7%, 9.1 ± 3.6% and 2.3 ± 0.9% for peripheral neuropathy and diabetic foot ulcer, nephropathy, ophthalmic complications, cardiovascular disease and death, respectively. People with better glycemic control had less complication and also related expenditures. Average para clinic cost per patient was 393.6 ± 47.8 and average inpatient cost per patient was 1520.7 ± 104.5 USD. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate considerable incidence of diabetes chronic complications and also high health care expenditure for related complications among our patients. As the number of people with diabetes continues to rise, early detection of the disease and implementation of timely and appropriate therapeutic strategies could decrease the burden of diabetes chronic complications and also huge related expenditures. PMID:24593991

  14. Designing and Psychometric Evaluation of Adjustment to Illness Measurement Inventory for Iranian Women With Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hajian, Sepideh; Mehrabi, Esmat; Simbar, Masoumeh; Houshyari, Mohammad; Zayeri, Farid; Hajian, Parastoo

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer diagnosis for everybody may be perceived as crisis and breast cancer, as the most common malignancy in women, can influence their well-being and multiple aspects of their health. So understanding that how women in various contexts and communities adjust to the illness is necessary to facilitate this adjustment and improve their quality of life. Objectives The aim of this study was to: 1) identify the core components of coping strategies to adjust to the illness in Iranian women with breast cancer perspective, 2) to develop and determine psychometric properties of a native self-report instrument to assess coping behaviors and measure the degree of adjustment with the breast cancer. Methods The present exploratory mixed method study was conducted in two consecutive stages: 1) the hermeneutic phenomenological study was done to explore the life experiences of coping styles to adjust with the breast cancer using in-depth interviews with patients that lead to item generation; 2) psychometric properties (validity and reliability) of the instrument were evaluated recruiting 340 eligible women. The item pool was reduced systematically and resulted in a 49-item instrument. Results From the qualitative stage, item pool containing 78 items related to coping strategies to adjust with the breast cancer. After eliminating unwanted statements from the results, qualitative and quantitative face and content validity, the 10 factors extracted employing construct validity were: feeling of guilt, abstention-diversion, role preservation and seeking support, efforts for threat control, confronting, fear and anxiety, role wasting, maturation and growth, isolation, and fatalism. These factors accounted for the 59.1% of variance observed. The Cronbach reliability test was carried out and alpha value of 10 factors was calculated from 0.78 to 0.87 confirming all factors were internally consistent. The scale’s stability was tested using the test-retest method. Conclusions

  15. Factors affecting the perceptions of Iranian agricultural researchers towards nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyed Mahmood; Rezaei, Rohollah

    2011-07-01

    This descriptive survey research was undertaken to design appropriate programs for the creation of a positive perception of nanotechnology among their intended beneficiaries. In order to do that, the factors affecting positive perceptions were defined. A stratified random sample of 278 science board members was selected out of 984 researchers who were working in 22 National Agricultural Research Institutions (NARIs). Data were collected by using a mailed questionnaire. The descriptive results revealed that more than half of the respondents had "low" or "very low" familiarity with nanotechnology. Regression analysis indicated that the perceptions of Iranian NARI Science Board Members towards nanotechnology were explained by three variables: the level of their familiarity with emerging applications of nanotechnology in agriculture, the level of their familiarity with nanotechnology and their work experiences. The findings of this study can contribute to a better understanding of the present situation of the development of nanotechnology and the planning of appropriate programs for creating a positive perception of nanotechnology.

  16. High-rate Iranian blowout controlled while still burning

    SciTech Connect

    Bahmani, H.; Azarpanah, A. )

    1994-09-19

    Oil well firefighters used ingenuity and equipment designed in the field to cap a high-rate blowout well in Iran without extinguishing the fire. Well AZ-50, located about 25 km southeast of Ahwaz, Iran, blew out on Feb. 14, 1993, and was finally controlled on Mar. 31, 1993, by a firefighting team from the National Iranian Oil Co. The estimated open flow potential of producing Well AZ-50 was 60,000 bo/d and 50 MMsfd of associated gas, making this well among the world's largest blowouts. The well control operation was difficult because the flame height reached 117 m, the fluid velocity 2, 180 fps at the well-head, and the flame temperature 4,150 F. The paper describes operations.

  17. Iranian medicinal plants for diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Ali Akbar; Mirhashemi, Seyyed Mehdi; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Sarkhail, Parisa

    2013-05-01

    In the Iranian traditional medicine a significant usage of herbs is promoted for their anti-diabetic activity. The aim of this review to assess the efficacy of glucose lowering effects of medicinal plants cultivated in Iran. An electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library Database, Ebsco and Google Scholar from database inception conducted up to May 2012. A total of 85 studies (18 humans and 67 animals) examining 62 plants were reviewed. The quality of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) assessed by using the Jadad scale. Among the RCTs studies, the best results in glycemic control was found in Aloe vera, Citrullus colocynthus, Plantago ovata, Silybum marianum, Rheum ribes and Urtica dioica. The majority of plants that have been studied for antidiabetic activity showed promising results. However, efficacy and safety of the most plants used in the treatment of diabetes are not sufficient. PMID:24498803

  18. New Seismic Array Observation in the Northwestern Iranian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ling; Jiang, Mingming; Talebian, Morteza; Ghods, Abdolreza; Chung, Sun-Lin; Ai, Yinshuang; Sobouti, Farhad; He, Yumei; Motaghi, Khalil; Zheng, Tianyu; Faridi, Mohammad; Chen, Qi-Fu; Lyu, Yan; Xiao, Wenjiao; Khalatbari Jafari, Morteza; Zhu, Rixiang

    2016-04-01

    The Iranian Plateau, being formed as a consequence of the on-going Arabia-Eurasia collision, is a natural laboratory for understanding mountain/plateau building processes and deep dynamics related to the early phases of continent-continent collision. A key issue in the study of the Iranian Plateau is to acquire detailed information about the structure and deformation of the crust and mantle. For this purpose, we (IGGCAS, RIESGSI, IASBS) deployed a new temporary broadband seismic array in NW Iran, under a multidisciplinary collaborative project named "China-Iran Geological and Geophysical Survey in the Iranian Plateau (CIGSIP)". The new array consists of three linear sub-arrays running northeastward from the south of the Zagros Fold and Thrust Belt to the coast area of the southern Caspian Sea, forming an observational corridor of ~550-km long and ~150-km wide. The main sub-array consists of 46 stations with station spacing of 10-15 km. Eight and nine additional stations were located ~75 km to the west and east, respectively, of the main sub-array to provide 3D constraints on the deep structure. All the 63 stations operated for about one year from October 2013 to October 2014. We investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure beneath this new seismic array by combining P- and S-receiver function (RF) images with ambient noise tomography and gravity modeling results. Our images reveal substantial structural variations in the crust of different tectonic units that are bounded by major strike-slip faults. The Main Zagros Reverse Fault (MZRF), generally considered as the suture between the Arabian and Eurasian plates, was imaged to dip to NE, separating an overall slow crust but with a faster and denser lowermost part in the SW Arabian side from a relatively fast crust, especially a fast middle-lower crust in the NE Iranian side. Structural differences are also observed between the Alborz Mountains and the southern Caspian Sea where an apparent Moho step (~18 km

  19. Potential therapeutic applications for Terminalia chebula in Iranian traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Jokar, Assie; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Sadeghpour, Omid; Nassiri-Toosi, Mohsen; Hamedi, Shokouhsadat

    2016-04-01

    Terminalia chebula (family: Combretaceae) is widely used in the traditional medicine of India and Iran to treat diseases that include dementia, constipation, and diabetes. This tree is known in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) as halileh or halilaj and the fruit is used to develop treatments. It is described in ITM as an astringent that has a "cold" and "dry" temperament. References to the medicinal properties of Terminalia chebula were collected from important ITM sources and from modern medical databases (PubMed, Scirus, ScienceDirect, and Scopus). The medicinal properties described for this tree in ITM were compared with those reported in studies of modern phytotherapy. The results confirm that the tree referred to as halileh in traditional books is the Terminalia chebula used in present-day studies. Treatments that have not been evaluated in modern phytotherapy but have been traditionally treated with Terminalia chebula include fever, and psychological and psychiatric issues. This article confirms the medicinal uses of Terminalia chebula.

  20. In-vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Some Iranian Conifers

    PubMed Central

    Afsharzadeh, Maryam; Naderinasab, Mahboobe; Tayarani Najaran, Zahra; Barzin, Mohammad; Emami, Seyed Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Male and female leaves and fruits of eleven different taxons of Iranian conifers (Cupressus sempervirens var. horizontalis, C. sempervirens var. sempervirens, C. sempervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, J. excelsa subsp. excelsa, J. excelsa subsp. polycarpos, J. foetidissima, J. oblonga, J. sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata) were collected from different localities of Iran, dried and extracted with methanol. The extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The extracts were screened qualitatively using four different methods, the disc diffusion, hole plate, cylinder agar diffusion and agar dilution methods, whereas the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of each extract were determined by the agar dilution method. The best result was obtained by means of hole plate method in qualitative determination of antimicrobial activities of extracts and the greatest activity was found against S. aureus in all tested methods. PMID:24250573

  1. An annotated catalogue of the Iranian Alysiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Gadallah, Neveen S; Ghahari, Hassan; Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier; Fischer, Maximilian

    2015-06-19

    In the present study, a catalogue of the Iranian Alysiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is given. It is based on a detailed study of all available published data. In total 78 species from 15 genera including Alloea Haliday, 1833 (1 species), Angelovia Zaykov, 1980 (1 species), Aphaereta Foerster, 1862 (2 species), Aspilota Foerster, 1862 (2 species), Chorebus Haliday, 1833 (42 species), Coelinidea Viereck, 1913 (2 species), Coloneura Foerster, 1862 (1 species), Dacnusa Haliday, 1833 (10 species), Dinotrema Foerster, 1862 (5 species), Idiasta Foerster, 1862 (1 species), Orthostigma Ratzeburg, 1844 (3 species), Phaenocarpa Foerster, 1862 (1 species), Protodacnusa Griffiths, 1964 (2 species), Pseudopezomachus Mantero, 1905 (2 species), and Synaldis Foerster, 1862 (3 species) are reported in this catalogue. Two species are new records for Iran: Coelinidea elegans (Curtis, 1829) and Dacnusa (Pachysema) aterrima Thomson, 1895. Also, a faunistic list with distribution data and host records is provided.

  2. INGAS: Iranian Noble Gas Analyzing System for radioxenon measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doost-Mohammadi, V.; Afarideh, H.; Etaati, G. R.; Safari, M. J.; Rouhi, H.

    2016-03-01

    In this article, Iranian Noble Gas Analyzing System (INGAS) will be introduced. This system is based on beta-gamma coincidence technique and consists of a well-type NaI(Tl) as gamma or X radiation detector and a cylindrical plastic scintillator to detect beta or conversion electron. Standard NIM modules were utilized to detect coincidence events of detectors. Both the beta and gamma detectors were appropriately calibrated. The efficiency curve of gamma detector for volume geometry was obtained by comparing the results of gamma point sources measurements and simulations of GATE V7.0 Monte Carlo code. The performance of detection system was checked by injection of 222Rn and 131mXe gaseous source in the detection cell. The minimum detectable activity of the system for 133Xe is 1.240±0.024 mBq for 24 h measurement time.

  3. Sleep Problems Under-Reported by Parents in Iranian Children.

    PubMed

    Afsharpaiman, Shahla; Bagheri Hagh, Ali; Kolbadi Nejad, Mohammad; Amirsalari, Susan; Torkaman, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Sleep problems are common in childhood, but there are limited studies regarding that in Iranian children and awareness of the sleep problems and their complication in Iranian parents. We arranged this study in which parents of children attending for a sick visit or routine growth control to assess whether sleep problems are under-reported at general pediatric visits. In a cross-sectional study from April 2010 to April 2011 in 301 children aged 2-14 years old attending to pediatric clinics were enrolled. To investigate the general orientation of parents about their child sleep problem we asked them a global question at first regarding sleep of their child. After that, the Persian version of BEARS questionnaire was completed by them. Only 30 (9.9%) parents reported sleep problems in their children in response to primary global question but by collecting the data from BEARS questionnaire it was revealed 45.18% (136/301) of children had one or more of sleep disorders at all. As mentioned 136 (45.18%) children had slept problems of which the most frequent complaint (15.28%) was related to bedtime problems. The second complaint (11.96%) was awakening during the night children. A significant association between sleep problems and child gender was not found. Co-sleeping with parents was found in 55.48% of all children in this study. Despite the high prevalence and adverse effects of sleep disorders, the present study suggests that parents underreport sleep problems at consultation. We suggest children should be assessed for sleep disorders in monitoring and health screening visits.

  4. Conflict among Iranian hospital nurses: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan Nayeri, Nahid; Negarandeh, Reza

    2009-01-01

    Background This study aims to explore the experience of conflict as perceived by Iranian hospital nurses in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. Although conflict-control approaches have been extensively researched throughout the world, no research-based data are available on the perception of conflict and effective resolutions among hospital nurses in Iran. Methods A qualitative research approach was used to explore how Iranian hospital nurses perceive and resolve conflicts at work. A purposive sample of 30 hospital nurses and nurse managers was selected to obtain data by means of in-depth semi structured interviews. Data were analysed by means of the content analysis method. Results The emerging themes were: (1) the nurses' perceptions and reactions to conflict; (2) organizational structure; (3) hospital management style; (4) the nature and conditions of job assignment; (5) individual characteristics; (6) mutual understanding and interaction; and (7) the consequences of conflict. The first six themes describe the sources of the conflict as well as strategies to manage them. Conclusion How nurses perceive conflict influences how they react to it. Sources of conflict are embedded in the characteristics of nurses and the nursing system, but at the same time these characteristics can be seen as strategies to resolve conflict. We found mutual understanding and interaction to be the main factor able to prevent and resolve conflict effectively. We therefore recommend that nurses and nurse managers encourage any virtues and activities that increase such understanding and interaction. Finally, as conflict can destroy individual nurses as well as the nursing system, we must act to control it effectively. PMID:19302706

  5. Investigating the faculty evaluation system in Iranian Medical Universities

    PubMed Central

    Kamali, Farahnaz; Yamani, Nikoo; Changiz, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: To achieve a valid evaluation of faculty members, it is necessary to develop an inclusive and dynamic system of evaluation addressing all the activities and responsibilities of faculty members. Among these responsibilities, educational activities comprise an important part which needs to be investigated. This study aimed to investigate the current system of evaluating the faculty members’ educational duties. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, a checklist for investigating the current evaluation system and was developed confirmed by a focus group. The data for checklist were collected through a researcher-made questionnaire and interview with eight experts of faculty evaluation that worked in different Iranian Medical Universities. For completion of information, the available documents and records were studied. Finally, the current evaluation system of different universities was depicted. Results: The developed checklist had six themes and 123 subthemes. The extracted themes included: Tools, evaluators, processes, appropriateness of faculty field of work with evaluation, feedback status, and university status regarding decisions made based on faculty evaluation results. As for comprehensiveness, all evaluation items except for evaluation and assessment skills and religiosity from personality traits subtheme were fully investigated. The evaluation tools were not enough for different types of education such as clinical education. In six universities, the feedbacks provided were only for making inter/intra department comparison, and no scientific suggestions were included. The results of evaluations were used only for the faculties’ promotions. Discussion: Suitability between evaluation and performance components is a necessity in every evaluation system. The study showed this does not exist in Iranian Universities. For instance, there was no appropriate tool for the evaluation of clinical education. Also, the results of the faculty

  6. Experiences of Iranian Nurses on the Facilitators of Pain Management in Children: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Aziznejadroshan, Parvin; Alhani, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite decades of research and the availability of effective analgesic approaches, many children continue to experience moderate-to-severe pain after hospitalization. Greater research efforts are needed to identify the factors that facilitate effective pain management. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of Iranian nurses on facilitators of pain management in children. Materials and Methods. This qualitative study collected the data profoundly through unstructured interviews with 19 nurses in Amirkola Children's Hospital in Babol and Children's Medical Center in Tehran, during 2013-2014. Purposeful sampling and analysis of the data were conducted using conventional qualitative content analysis. Results. Four themes were extracted through data analysis: mother and child participation in diagnosis and pain relief, the timely presence of medical staff and parents, proper communication, and training and supportive role of nurses. Conclusion. Mother and child participation in the report and diagnosis of pain and nonpharmacological interventions for pain by the mother, the timely presence of medical team at the patient's bedside, and proper interaction along with the training and supportive role of a nurse enhanced the optimal pain management in hospitalized children. PMID:27123342

  7. Premarital Sexual Intercourse-Related Individual Factors Among Iranian Adolescents: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Mohtasham; Gharlipour Gharghani, Zabihollah; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Ramezankhani, Ali; Movahed, Majeed

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding sexual behavior before marriage is relatively rare in the East, especially in Islamic societies, because sexuality is a sensitive subject for many Muslims. Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify premarital sexual intercourse-related individual factors among Iranian adolescents. Patients and Methods This qualitative study was performed on 30 students of Payame Noor university of Shiraz city, Iran, in 2014. The study sample includes male and female university students selected using the convenience sampling method. Semistructured interviews were used to collect data. All interviews were conducted by the researcher in a comfortable atmosphere and carried out without the presence of others. Each interview lasted between 30 - 20 minutes. Interviews continued until data saturation occurred. Data were analyzed using the qualitative content analysis method. Participation in the study was voluntary by obtaining an informed consent. Results The study included 30 participants, 56.6% (n = 17) males and 43.4% (n = 13) females. The age range of study, participants was from 19 to 25 years of age. Data analysis showed that three main categories extracted in shaping premarital sexual intercourse in adolescents: health beliefs, religious-spiritual beliefs, and character. Conclusions This study can help find a culturally appropriate intervention to delay sexual initiation and prevent sexual behavior before marriage in adolescents and young adults. The results of the present study have both experimental and theoretical implications for future research. Finally, this study is a form of shared experience that can help similar studies. PMID:27175301

  8. Calcium Intake, Major Dietary Sources and Bone Health Indicators in Iranian Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Omidvar, Nasrin; Neyestani, Tirang-Reza; Hajifaraji, Majid; Eshraghian, Mohammad-Reza; Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Armin, Saloumeh; Haidari, Homa; Zowghi, Telma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate calcium intake may have a crucial role with regards to prevention of many chronic diseases, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, different types of cancer, obesity and osteoporosis. In children, sufficient calcium intake is especially important to support the accelerated growth spurt during the preteen and teenage years and to increase bone mineral mass to lay the foundation for older age. Objectives: This study aimed to assess daily calcium intake in school-age children to ensure whether they fulfill the FGP dairy serving recommendations, the recommended levels of daily calcium intake and to assess the relationship between dietary calcium intake and major bone health indicators. Patients and Methods: A total of 501 Iranian school-age children were randomly selected. Calcium intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bone health indicators were also assessed. Results: Dairy products contributed to 69.3% of the total calcium intake of the children. Daily adequate intake of calcium was achieved by 17.8% of children. Only 29.8% met the Food guide pyramid recommendations for dairy intake. Dietary calcium intake was not significantly correlated with serum calcium and other selected biochemical indicators of bone health. Conclusions: The need for planning appropriate nutrition strategies for overcoming inadequate calcium intake in school age children in the city of Tehran is inevitable. PMID:26199684

  9. Challenges of interprofessional collaboration in Iranian mental health services: A qualitative investigation

    PubMed Central

    Irajpour, Alireza; Alavi, Mousa; Abdoli, Samereh; Saberizafarghandi, Mohammad Bagher

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nurses and other members of health care team provide mental patients with health services through interprofessional collaboration which is a main strategy to improve health services. Nevertheless, many difficulties are evidently influencing interprofessional collaboration in Iranian context. This paper presented the results of a study aimed to explore the context. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews to collect data from 20 health professionals and 4 clients or their family members who were selected purposefully from the health centers affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Themes were identified using latent qualitative content analysis. Trustworthiness of the study was supported considering auditability, neutrality, consistency and transferability. The study lasted from 2010 to 2011. Findings: Some important challenges were identified as protecting professional territory, medical oriented approach and teamwork deficits. They were all under a main theme emphasizing professionals’ divergent views. It could shed insight into underlying causes of collaboration gaps among nurses and other health professionals. Conclusions: The three introduced themes implied difficulties mainly related to divergences among health professionals. Moreover, the difficulties revealed the need for training chiefly to improve their convergent shared views and approaches. Therefore, it is worthwhile to suggest interprofessional education for nurses and other professionals with special attention to improving interpersonal skills as well as mental health need-based services. PMID:23833601

  10. ERBB4 gene polymorphisms and the risk of prostate cancer in a sample of Iranian Population.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, M; Moradi, N; Rezaei, M; Sanaei, S; Ziaee, S A M; Narouie, B; Sotoudeh, M; Bahari, G; Ghavami, S

    2016-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in ERBB4 are thought to be associated with cancer susceptibility. In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of ERBB4 rs12052398 T>C, rs13393577 A>G, rs13424871 A>T, rs16847082 A>G and rs6147150 (12-bp I/D) polymorphisms on risk of prostate cancer (PCa) in a sample of Iranian population. In a case-control study, we enrolled 169 patients with pathologically confirmed PCa and 182 subjects with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). No significant association was found among ERBB4 polymorphisms and risk of PCa. Subjects carrying TT/AA/AA/AG/ID, TC/AA/AA/AA/II, TT/AA/AT/AA/II and TT/AA/AT/AG/ID genotypes are associated with a decreased risk of PCa. Our findings suggest that haplotypes CAAAI and TAAAD (rs12052398, rs13393577, rs13424871, rs16847082 and rs6147150I) of the ERBB4 polymorphisms are associated with a significantly lower risk of PCa. Further studies with a larger sample sizes and diverse ethnicities are necessary to verify our findings. PMID:27609473

  11. Prevention and Treatment of Respiratory Consequences Induced by Sulfur Mustard in Iranian Casualties

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Seyed M.; Salamati, Payman; Harandi, Ali Amini; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Background: About 100,000 Iranian have been exposed to chemical weapons during Iraq-Iran conflict (1980-88). After being spent of more than two decades, still about 30,000 of them are under follow-up treatment. The main aim of this study was to review various preventive and therapeutic methods for injured patients with sulfur mustard in different phases. Methods: For gathering information, we have used the electronic databases including Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, Irandoc sites. According to this search strategy, 104 published articles associated to respiratory problems and among them 50 articles related to prevention and treatment of respiratory problems were found and reviewed. Results: There is not any curative treatment for sulfur mustard induced lung injuries, but some valuable experienced measures for prevention and palliative treatments are available. Some useful measures in acute phase include: Symptomatic management, oxygen supplementation, tracheostomy in laryngospasm, use of moist air, respiratory physical therapy, mucolytic agents and bronchodilators. In the chronic phases, these measures include: Periodic clinical examinations, administration of inhaled corticosteroids alone or with long-acting beta 2 agonists, use of antioxidants, magnesium ions, long term oxygen supplement, therapeutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, and use of respiratory tract stents. Conclusions: Most treatments are symptomatic but using preventive points immediately after exposure could improve following outcomes. PMID:23671768

  12. Juvenile paget's disease in an Iranian kindred with vitamin D deficiency and novel homozygous TNFRSF11B mutation.

    PubMed

    Saki, Forough; Karamizadeh, Zohreh; Nasirabadi, Shiva; Mumm, Steven; McAlister, William H; Whyte, Michael P

    2013-06-01

    Juvenile Paget's disease (JPD) is a rare heritable osteopathy characterized biochemically by markedly increased serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity emanating from generalized acceleration of skeletal turnover. Affected infants and children typically suffer bone pain and fractures and deformities, become deaf, and have macrocranium. Some who survive to young adult life develop blindness from retinopathy engendered by vascular microcalcification. Most cases of JPD are caused by osteoprotegerin (OPG) deficiency due to homozygous loss-of-function mutations within the TNFRSF11B gene that encodes OPG. We report a 3-year-old Iranian girl with JPD and craniosynostosis who had vitamin D deficiency in infancy. She presented with fractures during the first year-of-life followed by bone deformities, delayed development, failure-to-thrive, and pneumonias. At 1 year-of-age, biochemical studies of serum revealed marked hyperphosphatasemia together with low-normal calcium and low inorganic phosphate and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Several family members in previous generations of this consanguineous kindred may also have had JPD and vitamin D deficiency. Mutation analysis showed homozygosity for a unique missense change (c.130T>C, p.Cys44Arg) in TNFRSF11B that would compromise the cysteine-rich domain of OPG that binds receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). Both parents were heterozygous for this mutation. The patient's serum OPG level was extremely low and RANKL level markedly elevated. She responded well to rapid oral vitamin D repletion followed by pamidronate treatment given intravenously. Our patient is the first Iranian reported with JPD. Her novel mutation in TNFRSF11B plus vitamin D deficiency in infancy was associated with severe JPD uniquely complicated by craniosynostosis. Pamidronate treatment with vitamin D sufficiency can be effective therapy for the skeletal disease caused by the OPG deficiency form of JPD. PMID:23322328

  13. Designing and standardizing a questionnaire for evaluating knowledge, attitude, and practice of Iranian adults with cardiovascular diseases about oral health

    PubMed Central

    Rasouli-Ghahroudi, Amir Alireza; Rokn, Amir Reza; Khorsand, Afshin; Aghajani, Hasan; Amini, Afshin; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza; Rahimi, Hamed; Kabir, Ali

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of death in Iran. Moreover, periodontal diseases are very common in our country. In this study, we have designed a standardized questionnaire for evaluating knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of Iranian adult patients with cardiovascular diseases about oral health. METHODS For designing and standardizing a self-administered questionnaire, we performed a cross-sectional pilot study on 51 cases with periodontal complaints. A dentist carried out the physical examination to determine oral health indicators. Twelve experts and ten lay people of the target population answered questions about validity. Cronbach’s alpha, factor analysis, and Pearson correlation coefficients were used in the analysis. RESULTS The cases of this pilot study were middle aged, with moderate financial and health status, but low oral health and educational level. Debris score was correlated with all other physical exam findings except decay, missing, and filled (DMF). Reliability was 0.826 according to Cronbach’s alpha score. Face validity was higher than 80%. Content validities of the whole of the questionnaire were 85.98% for clarity, 78.05% for relevancy, 85.16% for simplicity, and 82.32% for consistency of each question with the question set. Factor analysis showed that 15 components explain 74% of the total variance. CONCLUSION This questionnaire is culturally adjusted and appropriate for our community, valid and reliable, and sufficiently estimates the variance of the oral health status. It can be used as a standard tool in further studies in adult population of the Iranian middle aged patients with low level of education and moderate socioeconomic status. PMID:24575138

  14. Distal Femur Morphology of Iranian Population and Correlation With Current Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Moghtadaei, Mehdi; Moghimi, Javad; Shahhoseini, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Maintaining proper size and rotation of components of total knee arthroplasty is mandatory for optimal longevity. Ethnical differences may affect the fitness of prostheses that were manufactured mainly based on Caucasian dimensions. Objectives: To evaluate the distal femur morphology of the Iranian population at the level of standard cuts simulated via computed tomography. Patients and Methods: During 2013, 150 consecutive patients (96 males and 54 females) from the outpatient Department of Orthopedic Surgery of Rasoul Akram Hospital with knee CT scans were studied. We entered cases with apparent normal extremity alignment and bone maturity. Exclusion criteria were history of fracture or conditions affecting knee profile. Standard cuts were simulated on the CT scan using the Marco Pacs program. For each bone, anteroposterior (AP), mediolateral (ML), and aspect ratio (ML/AP) were measured. Values were compared with the sizing of four currently available prostheses. Results: The mean age of the patients was 43 years (range: 17 to 80). All isolated parameters were higher in men significantly (P < 0.001). However, the aspect ratio did not show any significant difference (1.51 ± 0.11 vs 1.46 ± 0.1), suggestive of a similar configuration of distal femur profiles between genders. Ultimately, close correlations were observed among simulated cuts and size-matched femoral components of the prostheses. For females, however, components were mostly overhang mediolaterally except for one gender-specific subset. Decrement in the aspect ratio for larger knees was another mismatch with current prostheses that preserve an almost constant ratio throughout all sizes. Conclusions: Our findings may be applied by manufacturers to design prostheses more compatible with Asian populations. Alterations to the shape of components should be considered to provide optimal coverage. PMID:27186388

  15. Jaw Intraosseous Lesions Biopsied Extracted From 1998 to 2010 in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Jamshidi, Shokoofeh; Shojaei, Setareh; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Modabbernia, Shirin; Bakhtiary, Esmaeel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Jaw bones might be potential locations for different lesions. Differences in prevalence and the type of lesions can help in designing and programming prevention procedures in health care centers. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of intraosseous lesions in the jaws of patients referred to diagnostic and therapeutic centers in Hamadan during 1990-2010. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive analytical study was carried out in Hamadan in 2011. Data sheets of the subjects were used to collect all the data of patients with intraosseous lesions, including their age, gender, location of the lesion, the radiographic view of lesions, and their type and histopathological diagnoses. Data were analyzed with SPSS, using means and frequencies. Results: A total of 284 intraosseous lesions were reported in our study. The mean age of the subjects was 28.8 ± 15.2 years. The lesions were distributed in males and females almost similarly. The most prevalent lesions were cystic lesions (54.58%), manifestations of systemic conditions in jaw bones (18.3%), benign tumors (15.5%), malignant lesions (6.7%), and inflammatory lesions (4.92%), in a descending order. The most common cystic lesion was radicular cyst; the most common manifestation of systemic conditions in jaw bones was central giant cell granuloma; the most common benign tumor was ameloblastoma; the most common malignant lesion was osteosarcoma; and the most common inflammatory lesion was periapical granuloma. Conclusions: Our data provided information on the prevalence and types of intraosseous lesions among an Iranian population. This study provided baseline information to help in designing and programming procedures in health care centers in every community so that preventive therapeutic measures can be adopted. PMID:26328061

  16. Biological and molecular variation of Iranian Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) isolates.

    PubMed

    Farzadfar, Shirin; Pourrahim, Reza

    2013-10-01

    Seventeen provinces of Iran were surveyed during 2003-2012 to find Brassicaceae hosts of Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV). A total 397 samples were collected from plants with virus-like symptoms. Among those tested by ELISA, 255 samples (67.2 %) were found to be infected with CaMV. Mechanical transmission tests showed that the Iranian isolates have similar biological properties on a number of Brassica and Raphanus plant species and cultivars tested. However, the isolates varied in the severity of symptoms they induced and in the capacity to infect B. oleracea var. capitata, on the basis of which they were grouped into two distinct biotypes L/MMo (latent/mild mottle) and severe (S) infection. The molecular diversity of natural population of CaMV were investigated based on the complete sequences of OFR 6 of 36 Iranian isolates collected from different geographically distant regions in Iran alongside the sequences of 14 previously reported isolates. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Iranian CaMV isolates belong to two groups (GI and GII). Most of the Iranian isolates fell into GI with other exotic isolates; however, the isolates from North-East Iran with Xinjiang from China fell into GII. The phylogenetic group GII (the North-East Iranian isolates) closely corresponded to the S biological group however other Iranian isolates corresponded to the L/MMo biological group. The within-population diversity was lower than the between population diversity suggesting the contribution of a founder effect on diversification of CaMV isolates. The Iranian isolates were differentiated from other exotic CaMV isolates and clustered into two RFLP groups using Hpy99I which closely corresponded to the biological and phylogenetic groups. This study showed the evolutionary process in CaMV isolates is shaped by a combination of host range differentiation and nucleotide substitution using the approach of population genetics. PMID:23828619

  17. Effectiveness of Proactive Intensive FFI in Cultivating Grammatical Knowledge of Iranian EFL Learners at Different Proficiency Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooholamin, Amir; Biria, Reza; Haghverdi, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    The present study provides a report on an experiment seeking the effect of proactive intensive form-focused instruction on the grammatical development of intermediate and advanced Iranian EFL learners. More specifically the aim of the study was to discern (a) whether the grammatical knowledge of Iranian EFL learners at different proficiency levels…

  18. Competitive Team-Based Learning versus Group Investigation with Reference to the Language Proficiency of Iranian EFL Intermediate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hassan

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a report on an experimental study which intended to look into the possible effects of Competitive Team-Based Learning (CTBL) vis-à-vis Group Investigation (GI) method of Cooperative Learning (CL) on the language proficiency of Iranian EFL intermediate students. Seventy homogeneous Iranian intermediate students were selected out of a…

  19. Illness of the Mind or Illness of the Spirit? Mental Health-Related Conceptualization and Practices of Older Iranian Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Shadi Sahami

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore whether the way mental health is conceptualized by older Iranian immigrants can influence their mental health-related practices. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 Iranians who had immigrated to the United States after the age of 50. The findings from this study revealed…

  20. 75 FR 43797 - Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 1264 of the Victims of Iranian Censorship Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... HOUSE, Washington, July 21, 2010 [FR Doc. 2010-18450 Filed 7-23-10; 11:15 am] Billing code 8610-01-P ... Victims of Iranian Censorship Act (Public Law 111-84, Subtitle D of the National Defense Authorization Act... President by section 1264 of the Victims of Iranian Censorship Act (Public Law 111-84, subtitle D) to...