Science.gov

Sample records for iridium 174

  1. Iridium in natural waters

    SciTech Connect

    Anbar, A.D.; Wasserburg, G.J.; Papanastassiou, D.A.

    1996-09-13

    Iridium, commonly used as a tracer of extraterrestrial material, was measured in rivers, oceans, and an estuarine environment. The concentration of iridium in the oceans ranges from 3.0 ({+-}1.3) x 10{sup 8} to 5.7 ({+-}0.8) x 10{sup 8} atoms per kilogram. Rivers contain from 17.4 ({+-}0.9) x 10{sup 8} to 92.9 ({+-}2.2) x 10{sup 8} atoms per kilogram and supply more dissolved iridium to the oceans than do extraterrestrial sources. In the Baltic Sea, {approximately}75% of riverine iridium is removed from solution. Iron-manganese oxyhydroxides scavenge iridium under oxidizing conditions, but anoxic environments are not a major sink for iridium. The ocean residence time of iridium is between 2 x 10{sup 3} and 2 x 10{sup 4} years. 32 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Processing of Iridium and Iridium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ohriner, Evan Keith

    2008-01-01

    Iridium and its alloys have been considered to be difficult to fabricate due to their high melting temperatures, limited ductility, sensitivity to impurity content, and chemical properties. The variety of processing methods used for iridium and its alloys are reviewed, including purification, melting, forming, joining, and powder metallurgy techniques. Also included are coating and forming by the methods of electroplating, chemical and physical vapor deposition, and melt particle deposition.

  3. Luminogenic iridium azide complexes.

    PubMed

    Ohata, Jun; Vohidov, Farrukh; Aliyan, Amirhossein; Huang, Kewei; Martí, Angel A; Ball, Zachary T

    2015-10-21

    The synthesis and characterization of luminogenic, bioorthogonal iridium probes is described. These probes exhibit long photoluminescence lifetimes amenable to time-resolved applications. A simple, modular synthesis via 5-azidophenanthroline allows structural variation and allows optimization of cell labeling.

  4. Iridium Interfacial Stack (IRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spry, David James (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An iridium interfacial stack ("IrIS") and a method for producing the same are provided. The IrIS may include ordered layers of TaSi.sub.2, platinum, iridium, and platinum, and may be placed on top of a titanium layer and a silicon carbide layer. The IrIS may prevent, reduce, or mitigate against diffusion of elements such as oxygen, platinum, and gold through at least some of its layers.

  5. Iridium: failures & successes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, CarissaBryce; Beard, Suzette

    2001-03-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the Iridium business venture in terms of the challenges faced, the successes achieved, and the causes of the ultimate failure of the venture — bankruptcy and system de-orbit. The paper will address technical, business, and policy issues. The intent of the paper is to provide a balanced and accurate overview of the Iridium experience, to aid future decision-making by policy makers, the business community, and technical experts. Key topics will include the history of the program, the objectives and decision-making of Motorola, the market research and analysis conducted, partnering strategies and their impact, consumer equipment availability, and technical issues — target performance, performance achieved, technical accomplishments, and expected and unexpected technical challenges. The paper will use as sources trade media and business articles on the Iridium program, technical papers and conference presentations, Wall Street analyst's reports, and, where possible, interviews with participants and close observers.

  6. Luminogenic iridium azide complexes

    PubMed Central

    Ohata, Jun; Vohidov, Farrukh; Aliyan, Amirhossein; Huang, Kewei; Martí, Angel A.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of luminogenic, bioorthogonal iridium probes is described. These probes exhibit long fluorescent lifetimes amenable to time-resolved applications. A simple, modular synthesis via 5-azidophenanthroline allows structural variation and allows optimization of cell labeling. PMID:26325066

  7. Hydridomethyl iridium complex

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, R.G; Buchanan, J.M.; Stryker, J.M.; Wax, M.J.

    1989-07-18

    This patent describes a hydridomethyl complex of the formula: CpIr(P(R{sub 1}){sub 3})HMe. Cp represents a cyclopentadienyl or alkyl cyclopentadienyl radical; Ir represents an iridium atom; P represents a phosphorus atom; R{sub 1} represents an alkyl group; and Me represents a methyl group.

  8. Method for refining contaminated iridium

    DOEpatents

    Heshmatpour, Bahman; Heestand, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    Contaminated iridium is refined by alloying it with an alloying agent selected from the group consisting of manganese and an alloy of manganese and copper, and then dissolving the alloying agent from the formed alloy to provide a purified iridium powder.

  9. Method for refining contaminated iridium

    DOEpatents

    Heshmatpour, B.; Heestand, R.L.

    1982-08-31

    Contaminated iridium is refined by alloying it with an alloying agent selected from the group consisting of manganese and an alloy of manganese and copper, and then dissolving the alloying agent from the formed alloy to provide a purified iridium powder.

  10. Electrochemical deposition of iridium and iridium-nickel-alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Näther, J.; Köster, F.; Freudenberger, R.; Schöberl, C.; Lampke, T.

    2017-03-01

    To develop durable and reliable electronic contacts, precious metals are still very important for finish plating of contact surfaces. The lesser-known iridium might be an interesting alternative to substitute gold alloys, platinum or rhodium for applications with highest demands to wear and corrosion resistance such as sliding and plug contacts. As matters stand there is no commercial electrolyte for iridium plating. Initial investigation screened the parameter range for different iridium compounds when an iridium layer occurred on the substrates. This approach showed that the oxidation state of iridium is crucial to reach contenting deposits. Best results came from Ir(IV) electrolyte with high bromine concentration coming from the starting compound, while electrolytes made from Ir(III) compounds gave very poor deposits. In subsequent experiments different organic compounds were added to the electrolytes to improve plating efficiency and stability of the solutions. So found electrolytes gave crack-free deposits up to two microns with a micro-hardness of 600 HV. To reduce the iridium content in the layer, iridium-nickel-alloys were investigated, finding that a nickel-content of 10 wt% raised the layer hardness to more than 900 HV.

  11. Iridium at Kilauea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Trace-element anomalies observed in rocks located stratigraphically at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary are considered significant evidence that the boundary is a record of a large meteorite impact (Science, 208, 1095-1108, 1980). In particular, trace metals, including iridium and other members of the platinum metals group, are thought to be enriched in rocks alien to the earth's surface. These elements are indeed enriched in meteorites relative to earth crustal rocks, but new evidence from analyses of the January 1983 eruption of Kilauea suggest that the analogy may be invalid. W.H. Zoller, J.R. Parrington, and J.M. Phelan Kotra reported neutron activation analyses of airborne particulate matter collected at the Mauna Loa Observatory and found “strikingly” large concentrations of iridium in addition to element concentrations expected from volcanic emissions (Science, 222, 1118, 1983). The only other platinum-group trace metal analyzed was gold, which was also found to be anomalously high. They concede that they need more data of other platinum group elements and more data on other volcanos, but the implication is that the Cretacious-Tertiary boundary may well be volcanic, not due to a large meteorite impact.

  12. Iridium Satellite Signal Exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonough, Peter

    2010-03-01

    The Iridium Satellite constellation is unique to satellite communication networks in that it allows for transmission of data between satellites instead of relying on transmission by the bent pipe methodology. As such, this network is far more secure than other satellite communication networks, and forces interception to occur within the locale of the transmission from modem to satellite or within the locale of the downlink from the satellite other modem. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the security weaknesses within the Iridium protocol, showing that it was possible to track one of these satellites with a high gain antenna, resulting in the ability to anticipate transmission, to acquire the location of that transmission, and to uncover the content of that transmission. This project was completed as part of the summer student program at the Southwest Research Institute. The presentation will demonstrate the thought process used in chronological order, essentially demonstrating how I achieved the result from my point of view as the summer progressed.

  13. Hydridomethyl iridium complex

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Robert G.; Buchanan, J. Michael; Stryker, Jeffrey M.; Wax, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A process for functionalizing methane comprising: (a) reacting methane with a hydridoalkyl metal complex of the formula: CpIr[P(R.sub.1).sub.3 ]H(R.sub.2) wherein Cp represents a cyclopentadienyl or alkylcyclopentadienyl radical having from 1 to 5 carbon atoms; Ir represents an iridium atom; P represents a phosphorus atom; R.sub.1 represents an alkyl group; R.sub.2 represents an alkyl group having at least two carbon atoms; and H represents a hydrogen atom, in the presence of a liquid alkane R.sub.3 H having at least three carbon atoms to form a hydridomethyl complex of the formula: CpIr[P(R.sub.1).sub.3 ]HMe where Me represents a methyl radical. (b) reacting said hydridomethyl complex with an organic halogenating agent such as a tetrahalomethane or a haloform of the formulas: CX'X"X'"X"" or CHX'X"X'"; wherein X', X", X"', and X"" represent halogens selected from bromine, iodine and chlorine, to halomethyl complex of step (a) having the formula: CpIr[P(R.sub.1).sub.3 ]MeX: (c) reacting said halomethyl complex with a mercuric halide of the formula HgX.sub.2 to form a methyl mercuric halide of the formula HgMeX; and (d) reacting said methyl mercuric halide with a molecular halogen of the formula X.sub.2 to form methyl halide.

  14. Iridium in sea-water.

    PubMed

    Fresco, J; Weiss, H V; Phillips, R B; Askeland, R A

    1985-08-01

    Iridium in sea-water has been measured (after isolation from the saline matrix by reduction with magnesium) by neutron bombardment, radiochemical purification and high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. The concentration obtained in a Pacific coastal water was 1.02 +/- 0.26 x 10(-14) g per g of sea-water. At such extremely low concentrations, seawater is an extremely unlikely source for anomalously high iridium concentrations measured in the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary layer of deep-sea sediments.

  15. Iridium-Catalyzed Allylic Substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartwig, John F.; Pouy, Mark J.

    Iridium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitution has become a valuable method to prepare products from the addition of nucleophiles at the more substituted carbon of an allyl unit. The most active and selective catalysts contain a phosphoramidite ligand possessing at least one arylethyl substituent on the nitrogen atom of the ligand. In these systems, the active catalyst is generated by a base-induced cyclometalation at the methyl group of this substituent to generate an iridium metalacycle bound by the COD ligand of the [Ir(COD)Cl]2 precursor and one additional labile dative ligand. Such complexes catalyze the reactions of linear allylic esters with alkylamines, arylamines, phenols, alcohols, imides, carbamates, ammonia, enolates and enolate equivalents, as well as typical stabilized carbon nucleophiles generated from malonates and cyanoesters. Iridium catalysts for enantioselective allylic substitution have also been generated from phosphorus ligands with substituents bound by heteroatoms, and an account of the studies of such systems, along with a description of the development of iridium catalysts is included.

  16. IRIDIUM LINER FOR NASA 5 LBF CLASS MATERIAL TEST CHAMBER IRIDIUM LINER FOR ATLANTIC RESEARCH CORPORA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    IRIDIUM LINER FOR NASA 5 LBF CLASS MATERIAL TEST CHAMBER IRIDIUM LINER FOR ATLANTIC RESEARCH CORPORATION 5 LBF CLASS ROCKET CHAMBER 25 LBF CLASS 75 HFC 25 TAC CERAMIC COMPOSITE ROCKET CHAMBER FROM REFRACTURY COMPOSITES INC. PURCHASE ORDER C-551941-

  17. The crystal morphology effect of Iridium tris-acetylacetonate on MOCVD iridium coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jing; Hao, Yupeng; Yu, Xiaodong; Tan, Chengwen

    2017-07-01

    Iridium tris-acetylacetonate is the most commonly used precursor for the metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) of iridium coating. In this paper, the crystal morphology effect of iridium tris-acetylacetonate on iridium coatings prepared by MOCVD was studied. Two kinds of Ir(acac)3 crystalline powder were prepared. A precursor sublimation experiment in a fixed bed reactor and an iridium deposition experiment in a cold-wall atmospheric CVD reactor were designed. It is found that the volatility of the hexagonal columnar crystals is better than that of the tetragonal flake crystals under the experimental conditions. It’s due to the hexagonal columnar crystals exposed more crystal faces than the tetragonal flake crystals, increasing its contact area with the transport gas. An adequate supply of iridium tris-acetylacetonate during the pre-deposition period contributed to obtain an iridium coating with a smooth and uniform continuity surface.

  18. Iridium material for hydrothermal oxidation environments

    DOEpatents

    Hong, Glenn T.; Zilberstein, Vladimir A.

    1996-01-01

    A process for hydrothermal oxidation of combustible materials in which, during at least a part of the oxidation, corrosive material is present and makes contact with at least a portion of the apparatus over a contact area on the apparatus. At least a portion of the contact surface area comprises iridium, iridium oxide, an iridium alloy, or a base metal overlaid with an iridium coating. Iridium has been found to be highly resistant to environments encountered in the process of hydrothermal oxidation. Such environments typically contain greater than 50 mole percent water, together with oxygen, carbon dioxide, and a wide range of acids, bases and salts. Pressures are typically about 27.5 to about 1000 bar while temperatures range as high as 800.degree. C.

  19. TCP Performance Enhancement Over Iridium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgerson, Leigh; Hutcherson, Joseph; McKelvey, James

    2007-01-01

    In support of iNET maturation, NASA-JPL has collaborated with NASA-Dryden to develop, test and demonstrate an over-the-horizon vehicle-to-ground networking capability, using Iridium as the vehicle-to-ground communications link for relaying critical vehicle telemetry. To ensure reliability concerns are met, the Space Communications Protocol Standards (SCPS) transport protocol was investigated for its performance characteristics in this environment. In particular, the SCPS-TP software performance was compared to that of the standard Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) over the Internet Protocol (IP). This paper will report on the results of this work.

  20. TCP Performance Enhancement Over Iridium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgerson, Leigh; Hutcherson, Joseph; McKelvey, James

    2007-01-01

    In support of iNET maturation, NASA-JPL has collaborated with NASA-Dryden to develop, test and demonstrate an over-the-horizon vehicle-to-ground networking capability, using Iridium as the vehicle-to-ground communications link for relaying critical vehicle telemetry. To ensure reliability concerns are met, the Space Communications Protocol Standards (SCPS) transport protocol was investigated for its performance characteristics in this environment. In particular, the SCPS-TP software performance was compared to that of the standard Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) over the Internet Protocol (IP). This paper will report on the results of this work.

  1. On the dissolution of iridium by aluminum.

    SciTech Connect

    Hewson, John C.

    2009-08-01

    The potential for liquid aluminum to dissolve an iridium solid is examined. Substantial uncertainties exist in material properties, and the available data for the iridium solubility and iridium diffusivity are discussed. The dissolution rate is expressed in terms of the regression velocity of the solid iridium when exposed to the solvent (aluminum). The temperature has the strongest influence in the dissolution rate. This dependence comes primarily from the solubility of iridium in aluminum and secondarily from the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient. This dissolution mass flux is geometry dependent and results are provided for simplified geometries at constant temperatures. For situations where there is negligible convective flow, simple time-dependent diffusion solutions are provided. Correlations for mass transfer are also given for natural convection and forced convection. These estimates suggest that dissolution of iridium can be significant for temperatures well below the melting temperature of iridium, but the uncertainties in actual rates are large because of uncertainties in the physical parameters and in the details of the relevant geometries.

  2. Enantioselective, iridium-catalyzed monoallylation of ammonia.

    PubMed

    Pouy, Mark J; Stanley, Levi M; Hartwig, John F

    2009-08-19

    Highly enantioselective, iridium-catalyzed monoallylations of ammonia are reported. These reactions occur with electron-neutral, -rich, and -poor cinnamyl carbonates, alkyl and trityloxy-substituted allylic carbonates, and dienyl carbonates in moderate to good yields and excellent enantioselectivities. This process is enabled by the use of an iridium catalyst that does not require a Lewis acid for activation and that is stable toward a large excess of ammonia. This selective formation of primary allylic amines allows for one-pot syntheses of heterodiallylamines and allylic amides that are not otherwise accessible via iridium-catalyzed allylic amination without the use of blocking groups and protective group manipulations.

  3. Determining the Altitude of Iridium Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, James; Owe, Manfred

    1999-01-01

    Iridium flares have nothing to do with the element iridium. Iridium is also the name of a telecommunications company that has been launching satellites into low orbits around the Earth. These satellites are being used for a new type of wireless phone and paging service. Flares have been observed coming from these satellites. These flares have the potential, especially when the full fleet of satellites is in orbit, to disrupt astronomical observations. The paper reviews using simple trigonometry how to calculate the altitude of one of these satellites.

  4. Enantioselective, Iridium-Catalyzed Monoallylation of Ammonia

    PubMed Central

    Pouy, Mark J.; Stanley, Levi M.; Hartwig, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Highly enantioselective, iridium-catalyzed monoallylations of ammonia are reported. These reactions occur with electron-neutral, -rich, and -poor cinnamyl carbonates, alkyl and trityloxy-substituted allylic carbonates, and dienyl carbonates in moderate to good yields and excellent enantioselectivities. This process is enabled by the use of an iridium catalyst that does not require a Lewis acid for activation and that is stable toward a large excess of ammonia. This selective formation of primary allylic amines allows for one-pot syntheses of heterodiallylamines and allylic amides that are not otherwise accessible via iridium-catalyzed allylic amination without the use of blocking groups and protective group manipulations. PMID:19722644

  5. Determining the Altitude of Iridium Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, James; Owe, Manfred

    1999-01-01

    Iridium flares have nothing to do with the element iridium. Iridium is also the name of a telecommunications company that has been launching satellites into low orbits around the Earth. These satellites are being used for a new type of wireless phone and paging service. Flares have been observed coming from these satellites. These flares have the potential, especially when the full fleet of satellites is in orbit, to disrupt astronomical observations. The paper reviews using simple trigonometry how to calculate the altitude of one of these satellites.

  6. IRIDIUM (R): A Lockheed transition to commercial space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadano, Thomas N.

    1995-01-01

    At Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, the IRIDIUM commercial space program is dramatically revolutionizing spacecraft development and manufacturing processes to reduce cost while maintaining quality and reliability. This report includes the following sections: an overview of the IRIDIUM system, the Lockheed IRIDIUM project and challenges; cycle-time reduction through production reorganization; and design for manufacturing and quality.

  7. IRIDIUM (R): A Lockheed transition to commercial space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadano, Thomas N.

    1995-01-01

    At Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, the IRIDIUM commercial space program is dramatically revolutionizing spacecraft development and manufacturing processes to reduce cost while maintaining quality and reliability. This report includes the following sections: an overview of the IRIDIUM system, the Lockheed IRIDIUM project and challenges; cycle-time reduction through production reorganization; and design for manufacturing and quality.

  8. Laser Spectroscopy of Iridium Monochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linton, Colan; Adam, Allan G.; Foran, Samantha; Ma, Tongmei; Steimle, Timothy

    2016-06-01

    Iridium monochloride (IrCl) molecules have been produced in the gas phase using laser ablation sources at the University of New Brunswick (UNB) and Arizona State University (ASU). Low resolution laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra, obtained at UNB using a pulsed dye laser, showed three bands at 557, 545 and 534 nm which appeared to form an upper state vibrational progression. Dispersed fluorescence (DF) spectra, obtained by exciting each band at its band head frequency, showed a ground state vibrational progression extending from v=0 to 6. High resolution spectra (FWHM=0.006 wn), taken using a cw ring dye laser, showed resolved rotational lines, broadened by unresolved Ir (I=3/2) hyperfine structure, in both the 193Ir35Cl and 191Ir35Cl isotopologues. Vibrational assignments of 0-0, 1-0 and 2-0 for the three bands were determined from the isotope structure and the rotational analysis showed the transition to be ^3Φ_4 - ^3Φ_4, similar to that previously observed in IrF. Higher resolution spectra (FWHM=0.001 wn) of the 1-0 band, obtained at ASU, showed resolved hyperfine structure from which the magnetic and quadrupole hyperfine parameters in the ground and excited states were determined. The interpretation of the hyperfine parameters in terms of the electron configurations will be presented along with a comparison of the properties of IrCl and IrF.

  9. In vitro study of iridium electrodes for neural stimulation.

    PubMed

    Aryan, Naser Pour; Brendler, Christian; Rieger, Viola; Schleehauf, Sebastian; Heusel, Gerhard; Rothermel, Albrecht

    2012-01-01

    Iridium is one of the main electrode materials for applications like neural stimulation. Iridium has a higher charge injection capacity when activated and transformed into AIROF (activated iridium oxide film) using specific electrical signals. Activation is not possible in stimulating devices, if they do not include the necessary circuitry for activation. We introduce a method for iridium electrode activation requiring minimum additional on-chip hardware. In the main part, the lifetime behavior of iridium electrodes is investigated. These results may be interesting for applications not including on-chip activation hardware, and also because activation has drawbacks such as worse mechanical properties and reproducibility of AIROF.

  10. Annealing Increases Stability Of Iridium Thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Germain, Edward F.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Alderfer, David W.; Wright, Robert E.; Ahmed, Shaffiq

    1989-01-01

    Metallurgical studies carried out on samples of iridium versus iridium/40-percent rhodium thermocouples in condition received from manufacturer. Metallurgical studies included x-ray, macroscopic, resistance, and metallographic studies. Revealed large amount of internal stress caused by cold-working during manufacturing, and large number of segregations and inhomogeneities. Samples annealed in furnace at temperatures from 1,000 to 2,000 degree C for intervals up to 1 h to study effects of heat treatment. Wire annealed by this procedure found to be ductile.

  11. Annealing Increases Stability Of Iridium Thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Germain, Edward F.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Alderfer, David W.; Wright, Robert E.; Ahmed, Shaffiq

    1989-01-01

    Metallurgical studies carried out on samples of iridium versus iridium/40-percent rhodium thermocouples in condition received from manufacturer. Metallurgical studies included x-ray, macroscopic, resistance, and metallographic studies. Revealed large amount of internal stress caused by cold-working during manufacturing, and large number of segregations and inhomogeneities. Samples annealed in furnace at temperatures from 1,000 to 2,000 degree C for intervals up to 1 h to study effects of heat treatment. Wire annealed by this procedure found to be ductile.

  12. 12 CFR 174.6 - Procedural requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedural requirements. 174.6 Section 174.6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ACQUISITION OF CONTROL OF FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 174.6 Procedural requirements. (a) Form of notice. A notice required by § 174.3 of this part shall be filed on the form...

  13. 12 CFR 174.6 - Procedural requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedural requirements. 174.6 Section 174.6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ACQUISITION OF CONTROL OF FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 174.6 Procedural requirements. (a) Form of notice. A notice required by § 174.3 of this part shall be filed on the form...

  14. 7 CFR 993.174 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records. 993.174 Section 993.174 Agriculture... Administrative Rules and Regulations Reports and Books and Other Records § 993.174 Records. Each handler shall maintain such records as are necessary to furnish the reports required to be submitted to the Committee by...

  15. 7 CFR 993.174 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records. 993.174 Section 993.174 Agriculture... Administrative Rules and Regulations Reports and Books and Other Records § 993.174 Records. Each handler shall maintain such records as are necessary to furnish the reports required to be submitted to the Committee by...

  16. 50 CFR 300.174 - Logbook reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Logbook reports. 300.174 Section 300.174 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Albacore Tuna Fisheries § 300.174 Logbook reports. The owner of any U.S. vessel that fishes for...

  17. 50 CFR 300.174 - Logbook reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Logbook reports. 300.174 Section 300.174 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Albacore Tuna Fisheries § 300.174 Logbook reports. The owner of any U.S. vessel that fishes for...

  18. 50 CFR 300.174 - Logbook reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Logbook reports. 300.174 Section 300.174 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Albacore Tuna Fisheries § 300.174 Logbook reports. The owner of any U.S. vessel that fishes for...

  19. 50 CFR 300.174 - Logbook reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Logbook reports. 300.174 Section 300.174 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Albacore Tuna Fisheries § 300.174 Logbook reports. The owner of any U.S. vessel that fishes for...

  20. 50 CFR 300.174 - Logbook reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Logbook reports. 300.174 Section 300.174 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Albacore Tuna Fisheries § 300.174 Logbook reports. The owner of any U.S. vessel that fishes for...

  1. 12 CFR 174.4 - Control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control. 174.4 Section 174.4 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ACQUISITION OF CONTROL OF FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 174.4 Control. (a) Conclusive control. (1) An acquiror shall be deemed to have acquired control of a...

  2. 12 CFR 174.4 - Control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control. 174.4 Section 174.4 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ACQUISITION OF CONTROL OF FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 174.4 Control. (a) Conclusive control. (1) An acquiror shall be deemed to have acquired control of a...

  3. 32 CFR 174.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 174.5 Section 174.5 National... BASE CLOSURE COMMUNITIES AND ADDRESSING IMPACTS OF REALIGNMENT Policy § 174.5 Responsibilities. (a) The... implementation and shall monitor compliance with this part. All authorities and responsibilities of the...

  4. 32 CFR 174.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Responsibilities. 174.5 Section 174.5 National... BASE CLOSURE COMMUNITIES AND ADDRESSING IMPACTS OF REALIGNMENT Policy § 174.5 Responsibilities. (a) The... implementation and shall monitor compliance with this part. All authorities and responsibilities of the...

  5. 40 CFR 417.174 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true 417.174 Section 417.174 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergents by Dry Blending Subcategory § 417.174 ...

  6. 40 CFR 417.174 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 417.174 Section 417.174 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergents by Dry Blending Subcategory § 417.174 ...

  7. 40 CFR 417.174 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true 417.174 Section 417.174 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergents by Dry Blending Subcategory § 417.174 ...

  8. 40 CFR 417.174 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true 417.174 Section 417.174 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergents by Dry Blending Subcategory § 417.174 ...

  9. 40 CFR 417.174 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true 417.174 Section 417.174 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergents by Dry Blending Subcategory § 417.174 ...

  10. 19 CFR 174.32 - Publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Publication. 174.32 Section 174.32 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROTESTS Review and Disposition of Protests § 174.32 Publication. Within 120 days after issuing...

  11. 19 CFR 174.32 - Publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Publication. 174.32 Section 174.32 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROTESTS Review and Disposition of Protests § 174.32 Publication. Within 90 calendar days...

  12. 19 CFR 174.32 - Publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Publication. 174.32 Section 174.32 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROTESTS Review and Disposition of Protests § 174.32 Publication. Within 90 calendar days...

  13. 19 CFR 174.32 - Publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Publication. 174.32 Section 174.32 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROTESTS Review and Disposition of Protests § 174.32 Publication. Within 90 calendar days...

  14. 19 CFR 174.32 - Publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Publication. 174.32 Section 174.32 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROTESTS Review and Disposition of Protests § 174.32 Publication. Within 90 calendar days...

  15. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shipping papers. 174.24 Section 174.24... Requirements § 174.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by rail unless that person receives a shipping paper prepared in...

  16. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shipping papers. 174.24 Section 174.24... Requirements § 174.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by rail unless that person receives a shipping paper prepared in...

  17. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shipping papers. 174.24 Section 174.24... Requirements § 174.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by rail unless that person receives a shipping paper prepared in...

  18. 19 CFR 122.174 - Operational procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Operational procedures. 122.174 Section 122.174 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Air Carrier Smuggling Prevention Program § 122.174 Operational...

  19. 7 CFR 993.174 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records. 993.174 Section 993.174 Agriculture... Administrative Rules and Regulations Reports and Books and Other Records § 993.174 Records. Each handler shall maintain such records as are necessary to furnish the reports required to be submitted to the Committee...

  20. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shipping papers. 174.24 Section 174.24... Requirements § 174.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by rail unless that person receives a shipping paper prepared in...

  1. 46 CFR 174.335 - Watertight doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watertight doors. 174.335 Section 174.335 Shipping COAST... SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Hopper Dredges With Working Freeboard Assignments Design § 174.335 Watertight doors. (a) Each hopper dredge must have sliding watertight doors (Class 3) approved under § 170.270 of this...

  2. 46 CFR 174.335 - Watertight doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watertight doors. 174.335 Section 174.335 Shipping COAST... SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Hopper Dredges With Working Freeboard Assignments Design § 174.335 Watertight doors. (a) Each hopper dredge must have sliding watertight doors (Class 3) approved under § 170.270 of this...

  3. 13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174 Section 120.174 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Policies Applying to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake...

  4. 46 CFR 174.185 - Intact stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Intact stability. 174.185 Section 174.185 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Offshore Supply Vessels § 174.185 Intact stability. (a...

  5. 46 CFR 174.015 - Intact stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Intact stability. 174.015 Section 174.015 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Deck Cargo Barges § 174.015 Intact stability. (a) Except...

  6. 46 CFR 174.015 - Intact stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Intact stability. 174.015 Section 174.015 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Deck Cargo Barges § 174.015 Intact stability. (a) Except...

  7. 46 CFR 174.185 - Intact stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Intact stability. 174.185 Section 174.185 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Offshore Supply Vessels § 174.185 Intact stability. (a...

  8. 46 CFR 174.250 - Unrestricted service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unrestricted service. 174.250 Section 174.250 Shipping... PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Liftboats § 174.250 Unrestricted service. Each liftboat not limited to restricted service must comply with subpart C of this part in...

  9. 28 CFR 35.174 - Referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Referral. 35.174 Section 35.174 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Compliance Procedures § 35.174 Referral. If the public entity declines to enter into...

  10. 28 CFR 35.174 - Referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral. 35.174 Section 35.174 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Compliance Procedures § 35.174 Referral. If the public entity declines to enter into...

  11. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  12. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  13. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) [Reserved] (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned...

  14. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  15. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  16. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  17. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  18. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  19. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  20. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  1. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive... packages of Class 1 (explosive) materials are placed in a “magazine” box made of sound lumber not less...

  2. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive... packages of Class 1 (explosive) materials are placed in a “magazine” box made of sound lumber not less...

  3. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive... packages of Class 1 (explosive) materials are placed in a “magazine” box made of sound lumber not less...

  4. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive... packages of Class 1 (explosive) materials are placed in a “magazine” box made of sound lumber not less...

  5. 46 CFR 174.360 - Calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculations. 174.360 Section 174.360 Shipping COAST... SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Dry Cargo Ships § 174.360 Calculations. Each ship to... II-1, part B-1. Compliance with the applicable requirements must be demonstrated by calculations...

  6. 46 CFR 174.300 - Specific applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specific applicability. 174.300 Section 174.300 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Hopper Dredges With Working Freeboard Assignments § 174.300...

  7. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive... packages of Class 1 (explosive) materials are placed in a “magazine” box made of sound lumber not less than...

  8. Electronic Transitions of Iridium Monoboride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, A. S.-C.; Pang, H. F.; Ng, Y. W.; Chen, G.

    2010-06-01

    Laser induced fluorescence spectrum of iridium monoboride (IrB) in the spectral region between 420 and 480nm has been studied. New electronic transition system observed at 435nm has been assigned to be the [22.3] ^3Φ3 - X^3Δ3μ transition. Isotopic relationship confirmed the vibrational numbering. Molecular constants obtained will be reported. Resolved fluorescence spectrum of the [22.3] ^3Φ3 - X^3Δ3 transition showed that the ΔG1/2 of the X^3Δ3 state is 917 cm-1. Theoretical study using complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) calculations followed by MS-CASPT2 including scalar relativistic effect has been performed to the IrB molecule; molecular bond length, electronic configurations and relative energies of the ground and low-lying electronic states have been obtained. Our computed results indicated that the ground state of IrB is an inverted X^3Δ state with a bond length, r_0, equal to1.767 Å, which is in very good agreement with our experimental determination earlier. The electronic configuration giving rises to the ground state is 1σ^2 2σ^21π^4 3σ^11δ^3. Our calculations also showed that the earlier observed [16.5] ^3Π state and the [22.3] ^3Φ state in this work are the (2)^3Π and the (2)^3Φ states, respectively. The molecular properties obtained in our calculations agree reasonably well with those determined. Financial support from the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (Project No. HKU 701008P) is gratefully acknowledged

  9. Iridium emissions from Hawaiian volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finnegan, D. L.; Zoller, W. H.; Miller, T. M.

    1988-01-01

    Particle and gas samples were collected at Mauna Loa volcano during and after its eruption in March and April, 1984 and at Kilauea volcano in 1983, 1984, and 1985 during various phases of its ongoing activity. In the last two Kilauea sampling missions, samples were collected during eruptive activity. The samples were collected using a filterpack system consisting of a Teflon particle filter followed by a series of 4 base-treated Whatman filters. The samples were analyzed by INAA for over 40 elements. As previously reported in the literature, Ir was first detected on particle filters at the Mauna Loa Observatory and later from non-erupting high temperature vents at Kilauea. Since that time Ir was found in samples collected at Kilauea and Mauna Loa during fountaining activity as well as after eruptive activity. Enrichment factors for Ir in the volcanic fumes range from 10,000 to 100,000 relative to BHVO. Charcoal impregnated filters following a particle filter were collected to see if a significant amount of the Ir was in the gas phase during sample collection. Iridium was found on charcoal filters collected close to the vent, no Ir was found on the charcoal filters. This indicates that all of the Ir is in particulate form very soon after its release. Ratios of Ir to F and Cl were calculated for the samples from Mauna Loa and Kilauea collected during fountaining activity. The implications for the KT Ir anomaly are still unclear though as Ir was not found at volcanoes other than those at Hawaii. Further investigations are needed at other volcanoes to ascertain if basaltic volcanoes other than hot spots have Ir enrichments in their fumes.

  10. Iridium-Catalyzed Arylative Cyclization of Alkynones by 1,4-Iridium Migration**

    PubMed Central

    Partridge, Benjamin M; Solana González, Jorge; Lam, Hon Wai

    2014-01-01

    1,4-Metal migrations enable the remote functionalization of C—H bonds, and have been utilized in a wide variety of valuable synthetic methods. The vast majority of existing examples involve the 1,4-migration of palladium or rhodium. Herein, the stereoselective synthesis of complex polycycles by the iridium-catalyzed arylative cyclization of alkynones with arylboronic acids is described. To our knowledge, these reactions involve the first reported examples of 1,4-iridium migration. PMID:24842318

  11. Iridium-192 Production for Cancer Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Rostelato, M.E.C.M.; Silva, C.P.G.; Rela, P.R.; Zeituni, C.A.; Lepki, V.; Feher, A.

    2004-10-05

    The purpose of this work is to settle a laboratory for Iridium -192 sources production, that is, to determine a wire activation method and to build a hot cell for the wires manipulation, quality control and packaging. The paper relates, mainly, the wire activation method and its quality control. The wire activation is carried out in our nuclear reactor, IEA- R1m.

  12. Iridium-Coated Rhenium Combustion Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Tuffias, Robert H.; Rosenberg, Sanders D.

    1994-01-01

    Iridium-coated rhenium combustion chamber withstands operating temperatures up to 2,200 degrees C. Chamber designed to replace older silicide-coated combustion chamber in small rocket engine. Modified versions of newer chamber could be designed for use on Earth in gas turbines, ramjets, and scramjets.

  13. Osmium-191/iridium-191m radionuclide

    DOEpatents

    Knapp, Jr., Furn F.; Butler, Thomas A.; Brihaye, Claude

    1987-01-01

    A generator system to provide iridium-191m for clinical imaging applications comprises an activated carbon adsorbent loaded with a compound containing the parent nuclide, osmium-191. The generator, which has a shelf-life in excess of two weeks and does not require a scavenger column, can be eluted with physiologically compatible saline.

  14. Osmium-191/iridium-191m radionuclide

    DOEpatents

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Butler, T.A.; Brihaye, C.

    1985-08-26

    A generator system to provide iridium-191m for clinical imaging applications comprises an activated carbon adsorbent loaded with a compound containing the parent nuclide, osmium-191. The generator, which has a shelf-life in excess of two weeks and does not require a scavenger column, can be eluted with physiologically compatible saline. 4 figs. 3 tabs.

  15. Iridium-Coated Rhenium Combustion Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Tuffias, Robert H.; Rosenberg, Sanders D.

    1994-01-01

    Iridium-coated rhenium combustion chamber withstands operating temperatures up to 2,200 degrees C. Chamber designed to replace older silicide-coated combustion chamber in small rocket engine. Modified versions of newer chamber could be designed for use on Earth in gas turbines, ramjets, and scramjets.

  16. Note: Electrochemical etching of sharp iridium tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalanne, Jean-Benoît; Paul, William; Oliver, David; Grütter, Peter H.

    2011-11-01

    We describe an etching procedure for the production of sharp iridium tips with apex radii of 15-70 nm, as determined by scanning electron microscopy, field ion microscopy, and field emission measurements. A coarse electrochemical etch followed by zone electropolishing is performed in a relatively harmless calcium chloride solution with high success rate.

  17. Application of the Iridium Satellite System to Aeronautical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Meza, Mike; Gupta, Om

    2008-01-01

    The next generation air transportation system will require greater air-ground communications capacity to accommodate more air traffic with increased safety and efficiency. Communications will remain primarily terrestrially based, but satellite communications will have an increased role. Inmarsat s aeronautical services have been approved and are in use for aeronautical safety communications provided by geostationary satellites. More recently the approval process for the Iridium low earth orbit constellation is nearing completion. The current Iridium system will be able to provide basic air traffic services communications suitable for oceanic, remote and polar regions. The planned second generation of the Iridium system, called Iridium NEXT, will provide enhanced capabilities and enable a greater role in the future of aeronautical communications. This paper will review the potential role of satellite communications in the future of air transportation, the Iridium approval process and relevant system testing, and the potential role of Iridium NEXT.

  18. Iridium-coated rhenium thrusters by CVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, J. T.; Kazaroff, J. M.; Appel, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    Operation of spacecraft thrusters at increased temperature reduces propellant requirements. Inasmuch as propellant comprises the bulk of a satellite's mass, even a small percentage reduction makes possible a significant enhancement of the mission in terms of increased payload. Because of its excellent high temperature strength, rhenium is often the structural material of choice. It can be fabricated into free-standing shapes by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) onto an expendable mandrel. What rhenium lacks is oxidation resistance, but this can be provided by a coating of iridium, also by CVD. This paper describes the process used by Ultramet to fabricate 22-N (5-lbf) and, more recently, 445-N (100-lbf) Ir/Re thrusters; characterizes the CVD-deposited materials; and summarizes the materials effects of firing these thrusters. Optimal propellant mixture ratios can be employed because the materials withstand an oxidizing environment up to the melting temperature of iridium, 2400 C (4350 F).

  19. Iridium-coated rhenium thrusters by CVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, John T.; Kazaroff, John M.; Appel, Marshall A.

    1988-01-01

    Operation of spacecraft thrusters at increased temperature reduces propellant requirements. Inasmuch as propellant comprises the bulk of a satellite's mass, even a small percentage reduction makes possible a significant enhancement of the mission in terms of increased payload. Because of its excellent high temperature strength, rhenium is often the structural material of choice. It can be fabricated into free-standing shapes by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) onto an expendable mandrel. What rhenium lacks is oxidation resistance, but this can be provided by a coating of iridium, also by CVD. This paper describes the process used by Ultramet to fabricate 22-N (5-lbf) and, more recently, 445-N (100-lbf) Ir/Re thrusters; characterizes the CVD-deposited materials; and summarizes the materials effects of firing these thrusters. Optimal propellant mixture ratios can be employed because the materials withstand an oxidizing environment up to the meltimg temperature of iridium, 2400 C (4350 F).

  20. Iridium-coated rhenium thrusters by CVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, J. T.; Kazaroff, J. M.; Appel, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    Operation of spacecraft thrusters at increased temperature reduces propellant requirements. Inasmuch as propellant comprises the bulk of a satellite's mass, even a small percentage reduction makes possible a significant enhancement of the mission in terms of increased payload. Because of its excellent high temperature strength, rhenium is often the structural material of choice. It can be fabricated into free-standing shapes by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) onto an expendable mandrel. What rhenium lacks is oxidation resistance, but this can be provided by a coating of iridium, also by CVD. This paper describes the process used by Ultramet to fabricate 22-N (5-lbf) and, more recently, 445-N (100-lbf) Ir/Re thrusters; characterizes the CVD-deposited materials; and summarizes the materials effects of firing these thrusters. Optimal propellant mixture ratios can be employed because the materials withstand an oxidizing environment up to the melting temperature of iridium, 2400 C (4350 F).

  1. Iridium and Radio Astronomy in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, R. J.

    2004-06-01

    An account is given of the coordination of the Iridium mobile satellite system with the radio astronomy service in Europe, from the initial exploratory discussions at Jodrell Bank in 1991 to the signing of the so-called ``Interim Agreement'' in Paris in 1999. The technical issue of unwanted emissions from the Iridium downlink into the frequency band 1610.6-1613.8 MHz was not resolved, so the coordination agreement amounts to time sharing, albeit on more favourable terms for radio astronomy than agreements negotiated elsewhere. The European agreement fully recognizes the heavy use of the frequency band in European radio astronomy, and carries the promise that ``from 1 January 2006, European radioastronomers shall be able to collect measurement data consistent with the recommendation ITU-R RA.769-1.'' Some personal observations on the events are offered.

  2. Iridium versus Iridium: Nanocluster and Monometallic Catalysts Carrying the Same Ligand Behave Differently.

    PubMed

    Cano, Israel; Martínez-Prieto, Luis M; Chaudret, Bruno; van Leeuwen, Piet W N M

    2017-01-26

    A specific secondary phosphine oxide (SPO) ligand (tert-butyl(phenyl)phosphine oxide) was employed to generate two iridium catalysts, an Ir-SPO complex and IrNPs (iridium nanoparticles) ligated with SPO ligands, which were compared mutually and with several supported iridium catalysts with the aim to establish the differences in their catalytic properties. The Ir-SPO-based catalysts showed totally different activities and selectivities in the hydrogenation of various substituted aldehydes, in which H2 is likely cleaved by a metal-ligand cooperation, that is, the SPO ligand and a neighboring metal centre operate in tandem to activate the hydrogen molecule. In addition, the supported IrNPs behave very differently from both Ir-SPO catalysts. This study exemplifies perfectly the advantages and disadvantages related to the use of the main types of catalysts, and thus the dissimilarities between them.

  3. The Chemical Vapor Deposition of Iridium.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    accepted types are made of porous tungsten impregnated with barium calcium aluminates (Levi, 1955; Brodie and Jenkins, 1956). The emission capability of the...not only does the chemical composition of the pore ends and the bulk material undergo alteration, but the crystal structure of the tungsten (Maloney... hexafluoride to iridium metal or IrF 6 species. In our work, IrF 6 was prepared and stored in fluorine-passivated apparatus, and between runs maintained at

  4. Sputtered iridium oxide for stimulation electrode coatings.

    PubMed

    Mokwa, Wilfried; Wessling, Boerge; Schnakenberg, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    This work deals with the reactive RF-powered sputter deposition of iridium oxide for use as the active stimulation layer in functional medical implants. The oxygen gettered by the growing films is determined by an approach based on generic curves. Films deposited at different stages of oxygen integration show strong differences in electrochemical behaviour, caused by different morphologies. The dependence of electrochemical activity on morphology is further illustrated by RF sputtering onto heated substrates, as well as DC sputtering onto cold substrates.

  5. Handling System for Iridium-192 Seeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, W.; Wodicka, D.

    1973-01-01

    A complete system is proposed for safe handling of iridium-192 seeds used to internally irradiate malignant growths. A vibratory hopper feeds the seeds onto a transport system for deposit in a magazine or storage area. A circular magazine consisting of segmented plastic tubing with holes in the walls to accommodate the seeds seems feasible. The magazine is indexed to stop and release a seed for calibration and deposition.

  6. Facile cyclometallation of a mesitylsilylene: synthesis and preliminary catalytic activity of iridium(iii) and iridium(v) iridasilacyclopentenes.

    PubMed

    Cabeza, Javier A; García-Álvarez, Pablo; González-Álvarez, Laura

    2017-09-14

    Reactions of the mesityl-amidinato-silylene Si((t)Bu2bzam)Mes (1; (t)Bu2bzam = N,N'-bis(tert-butyl)benzamidinato; Mes = mesityl) with three different iridium precursors led, at room temperature, to two iridium(iii) and one iridium(v) complexes featuring one (Ir(III)) or two (Ir(V)) cyclometallated silylene ligands. The iridium(iii) complexes are active catalyst precursors for H/D exchange and dehydrogenative borylation of arene C-H bonds.

  7. Benzo annulated cycloheptatriene PCP pincer iridium complexes.

    PubMed

    Leis, Wolfgang; Wernitz, Sophie; Reichart, Benedikt; Ruckerbauer, David; Wielandt, Johannes Wolfram; Mayer, Hermann A

    2014-08-28

    The benzo annulated cycloheptatriene PCP pincer ligand was prepared in five steps. Treatment of with Ir(CO)3Cl gave the meridional cyclometalated chlorohydrido carbonyl iridium complexes which differ in their arrangement of the H, Cl, and CO ligands around iridium. Storing in THF led to isomerization processes. Hydrogen shifts from the sp(3)-CH carbon bound to iridium into the ligand backbone produced the three isomers . Reductive elimination of HCl from these complexes resulted in the square planar Ir(i) carbonyl complexes . Abstraction of the hydrogen from the sp(3)-CH-Ir fragment could be achieved either by treatment of with Ph3CBF4 or by the elimination of H2 which is initiated by CF3SO3H. The mass spectrometric characterisation of using fast atom bombardment reveals a complex fragmentation pattern. These different "fragment" ions were further investigated by electro-spray ionisation (tandem) mass spectrometry in high and low resolution. The identified compounds were attributed to structures by DFT calculations.

  8. 27 CFR 26.174 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Records. 26.174 Section 26... Eligible Articles From Puerto Rico § 26.174 Records. (a) General. Every person intending to file claim for drawback on eligible articles brought into the United States from Puerto Rico shall keep permanent records...

  9. 13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174... Applying to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake..., the construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (“NEHRP...

  10. 13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174... Applying to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake..., the construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (“NEHRP...

  11. 13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174... Applying to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake..., the construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (“NEHRP...

  12. 13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174... Applying to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake..., the construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (“NEHRP...

  13. 33 CFR 174.103 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administration. 174.103 Section 174.103 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED....103 Administration. The State casualty reporting system must be administered by a State agency that...

  14. 33 CFR 174.103 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Administration. 174.103 Section 174.103 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED....103 Administration. The State casualty reporting system must be administered by a State agency that...

  15. 43 CFR 17.4 - Assurances required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assurances required. 17.4 Section 17.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National...

  16. 43 CFR 17.4 - Assurances required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assurances required. 17.4 Section 17.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National...

  17. 43 CFR 17.4 - Assurances required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assurances required. 17.4 Section 17.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National...

  18. 27 CFR 26.174 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Records. 26.174 Section 26... Eligible Articles From Puerto Rico § 26.174 Records. (a) General. Every person intending to file claim for drawback on eligible articles brought into the United States from Puerto Rico shall keep permanent...

  19. 27 CFR 26.174 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records. 26.174 Section 26... Eligible Articles From Puerto Rico § 26.174 Records. (a) General. Every person intending to file claim for drawback on eligible articles brought into the United States from Puerto Rico shall keep permanent...

  20. 20 CFR 632.174 - Administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Administrative costs. 632.174 Section 632.174 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN... Administrative costs. Administrative costs for this subpart are limited to and shall not exceed 20 percent of...

  1. 19 CFR 174.0 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scope. 174.0 Section 174.0 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... applicable to Canadian and Mexican exporters and producers regarding administrative review and appeal...

  2. 19 CFR 174.0 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Scope. 174.0 Section 174.0 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... applicable to Canadian and Mexican exporters and producers regarding administrative review and appeal...

  3. 19 CFR 174.0 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 174.0 Section 174.0 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... applicable to Canadian and Mexican exporters and producers regarding administrative review and appeal...

  4. 19 CFR 174.0 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Scope. 174.0 Section 174.0 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... applicable to Canadian and Mexican exporters and producers regarding administrative review and appeal...

  5. 19 CFR 174.0 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Scope. 174.0 Section 174.0 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... applicable to Canadian and Mexican exporters and producers regarding administrative review and appeal...

  6. 34 CFR 668.174 - Past performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Past performance. 668.174 Section 668.174 Education... performance. (a) Past performance of an institution. An institution is not financially responsible if the... pursuant to subpart G or H of this part. (b) Past performance of persons affiliated with an institution....

  7. 28 CFR 35.174 - Referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Referral. 35.174 Section 35.174 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT... compliance negotiations or if negotiations are unsuccessful, the designated agency shall refer the matter to...

  8. 49 CFR 173.174 - Refrigerating machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Refrigerating machines. 173.174 Section 173.174 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Refrigerating machines. A refrigerating machine assembled for shipment and containing 7 kg (15 pounds) or...

  9. 49 CFR 173.174 - Refrigerating machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Refrigerating machines. 173.174 Section 173.174 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Refrigerating machines. A refrigerating machine assembled for shipment and containing 7 kg (15 pounds) or...

  10. 49 CFR 173.174 - Refrigerating machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Refrigerating machines. 173.174 Section 173.174 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Refrigerating machines. A refrigerating machine assembled for shipment and containing 7 kg (15 pounds) or...

  11. 49 CFR 173.174 - Refrigerating machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Refrigerating machines. 173.174 Section 173.174 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Refrigerating machines. A refrigerating machine assembled for shipment and containing 7 kg (15 pounds) or...

  12. 49 CFR 173.174 - Refrigerating machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refrigerating machines. 173.174 Section 173.174 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Refrigerating machines. A refrigerating machine assembled for shipment and containing 7 kg (15 pounds) or...

  13. Synthesis of benzimidazoles via iridium-catalyzed acceptorless dehydrogenative coupling.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiang; Lv, Xiao-Hui; Ye, Lin-Miao; Hu, Yu; Chen, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Xue-Jing; Yan, Ming

    2015-07-21

    Iridium-catalyzed acceptorless dehydrogenative coupling of tertiary amines and arylamines has been developed. A number of benzimidazoles were prepared in good yields. An iridium-mediated C-H activation mechanism is suggested. This finding represents a novel strategy for the synthesis of benzimidazoles.

  14. Variation of iridium in a differentiated tholeiitic dolerite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenland, L.P.

    1971-01-01

    Iridium has been determined in a drill core from the Great Lake (Tasmania) dolerite sheet. Iridium decreases systematically from the mafic dolerites (0.25 ppb) to the granophyres (0.006 ppb). The trend with differentiation closely parallels that of chromium. ?? 1971.

  15. Iridium enrichment in airborne particles from kilauea volcano: january 1983.

    PubMed

    Zoller, W H; Parrington, J R; Kotra, J M

    1983-12-09

    Airborne particulate matter from the January 1983 eruption of Kilauea volcano was inadvertently collected on air filters at Mauna Loa Observatory at a sampling station used to observe particles in global circulation. Analyses of affected samples revealed unusually large concentrations of selenium, arsenic, indium, gold, and sulfur, as expected for volcanic emissions. Strikingly large concentrations of iridium were also observed, the ratio of iridium to aluminum being 17,000 times its value in Hawaiian basalt. Since iridium enrichments have not previously been observed in volcanic emissions, the results for Kilauea suggest that it is part of an unusual volcanic system which may be fed by magma from the mantle. The iridium enrichment appears to be linked with the high fluorine content of the volcanic gases, which suggests that the iridium is released as a volatile IrF(6).

  16. Iridium/Rhenium Parts For Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Harding, John T.; Wooten, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Oxidation/corrosion of metals at high temperatures primary life-limiting mechanism of parts in rocket engines. Combination of metals greatly increases operating temperature and longevity of these parts. Consists of two transition-element metals - iridium and rhenium - that melt at extremely high temperatures. Maximum operating temperature increased to 2,200 degrees C from 1,400 degrees C. Increases operating lifetimes of small rocket engines by more than factor of 10. Possible to make hotter-operating, longer-lasting components for turbines and other heat engines.

  17. Iridium Film For Charge-Coupled Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, Michael H.

    1990-01-01

    Usability extended to different environments. Application of thin film of iridium to back surface of back-surface-illuminated charge-coupled device expected to increase and stabilize quantum efficiency at wavelengths less than 4,500 Angstrom. Enhances quantum efficiency according to principle discussed in "Metal Film Increases CCD Output" (NPO-16815). Does not react with hydrogen, so device need not be kept in oxygen: Advantage where high absorption of ultraviolet light by oxygen undesirable; for example, when device used to make astronomical observations from high altitudes.

  18. Iridium/Rhenium Parts For Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Harding, John T.; Wooten, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Oxidation/corrosion of metals at high temperatures primary life-limiting mechanism of parts in rocket engines. Combination of metals greatly increases operating temperature and longevity of these parts. Consists of two transition-element metals - iridium and rhenium - that melt at extremely high temperatures. Maximum operating temperature increased to 2,200 degrees C from 1,400 degrees C. Increases operating lifetimes of small rocket engines by more than factor of 10. Possible to make hotter-operating, longer-lasting components for turbines and other heat engines.

  19. Iridium Interfacial Stack - IrIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spry, David

    2012-01-01

    Iridium Interfacial Stack (IrIS) is the sputter deposition of high-purity tantalum silicide (TaSi2-400 nm)/platinum (Pt-200 nm)/iridium (Ir-200 nm)/platinum (Pt-200 nm) in an ultra-high vacuum system followed by a 600 C anneal in nitrogen for 30 minutes. IrIS simultaneously acts as both a bond metal and a diffusion barrier. This bondable metallization that also acts as a diffusion barrier can prevent oxygen from air and gold from the wire-bond from infiltrating silicon carbide (SiC) monolithically integrated circuits (ICs) operating above 500 C in air for over 1,000 hours. This TaSi2/Pt/Ir/Pt metallization is easily bonded for electrical connection to off-chip circuitry and does not require extra anneals or masking steps. There are two ways that IrIS can be used in SiC ICs for applications above 500 C: it can be put directly on a SiC ohmic contact metal, such as Ti, or be used as a bond metal residing on top of an interconnect metal. For simplicity, only the use as a bond metal is discussed. The layer thickness ratio of TaSi2 to the first Pt layer deposited thereon should be 2:1. This will allow Si from the TaSi2 to react with the Pt to form Pt2Si during the 600 C anneal carried out after all layers have been deposited. The Ir layer does not readily form a silicide at 600 C, and thereby prevents the Si from migrating into the top-most Pt layer during future anneals and high-temperature IC operation. The second (i.e., top-most) deposited Pt layer needs to be about 200 nm to enable easy wire bonding. The thickness of 200 nm for Ir was chosen for initial experiments; further optimization of the Ir layer thickness may be possible via further experimentation. Ir itself is not easily wire-bonded because of its hardness and much higher melting point than Pt. Below the iridium layer, the TaSi2 and Pt react and form desired Pt2Si during the post-deposition anneal while above the iridium layer remains pure Pt as desired to facilitate easy and strong wire-bonding to the Si

  20. Iridium Film For Charge-Coupled Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, Michael H.

    1990-01-01

    Usability extended to different environments. Application of thin film of iridium to back surface of back-surface-illuminated charge-coupled device expected to increase and stabilize quantum efficiency at wavelengths less than 4,500 Angstrom. Enhances quantum efficiency according to principle discussed in "Metal Film Increases CCD Output" (NPO-16815). Does not react with hydrogen, so device need not be kept in oxygen: Advantage where high absorption of ultraviolet light by oxygen undesirable; for example, when device used to make astronomical observations from high altitudes.

  1. Statistical gamma transitions in sup 174 Hf

    SciTech Connect

    Farris, L.P.; Cizewski, J.A.; Brinkman, M.J.; Henry, R.G.; Lee, C.S. ); Khoo, T.L.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Moore, E.F.; Carpenter, M.P.; Ahmad, I.; Lauritsen, T. ); Kolata, J.J.; Beard, K.B.; Ye, D.; Garg, U. ); Kaplan, M.S.; Saladin, J.X.; Winchell, D. (Pittsburgh Univ., PA (Un

    1992-01-01

    Statistical spectrum extracted from the {sup 172}Yb({alpha},2n){sup 174}Hf reaction was fit with Monte Carlo simulations using a modified GDR E1 strength function and several formulations of the level density.

  2. Statistical gamma transitions in {sup 174}Hf

    SciTech Connect

    Farris, L.P.; Cizewski, J.A.; Brinkman, M.J.; Henry, R.G.; Lee, C.S.; Khoo, T.L.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Moore, E.F.; Carpenter, M.P.; Ahmad, I.; Lauritsen, T.; Kolata, J.J.; Beard, K.B.; Ye, D.; Garg, U.; Kaplan, M.S.; Saladin, J.X.; Winchell, D.

    1992-08-01

    Statistical spectrum extracted from the {sup 172}Yb({alpha},2n){sup 174}Hf reaction was fit with Monte Carlo simulations using a modified GDR E1 strength function and several formulations of the level density.

  3. 46 CFR 160.174-1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-1 Scope. This subpart contains construction and performance requirements, and approval tests for thermal protective aids that are designed to...

  4. 46 CFR 160.174-1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-1 Scope. This subpart contains construction and performance requirements, and approval tests for thermal protective aids that are designed to...

  5. 46 CFR 174.030 - Specific applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.030 Specific applicability. Each mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) inspected under Subchapter IA of this...

  6. 46 CFR 174.030 - Specific applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.030 Specific applicability. Each mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) inspected under Subchapter IA of this...

  7. 32 CFR 174.17 - NEPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COMMUNITIES AND ADDRESSING IMPACTS OF REALIGNMENT Environmental Matters § 174.17 NEPA. At installations...), and 989 (for the Air Force). Nothing in this section shall be interpreted as releasing a Military...

  8. 32 CFR 174.17 - NEPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMMUNITIES AND ADDRESSING IMPACTS OF REALIGNMENT Environmental Matters § 174.17 NEPA. At installations...), and 989 (for the Air Force). Nothing in this section shall be interpreted as releasing a Military...

  9. 46 CFR 174.260 - Freeboard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Liftboats § 174.260 Freeboard. (a) Each liftboat not required to... continuation outwards of the upper surface of the weather deck and the outer surface of the shell....

  10. 46 CFR 174.010 - Specific applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Deck Cargo Barges § 174.010 Specific applicability. Each barge that carries cargo above the weather deck must comply with this subpart....

  11. Nuclear data sheets for A = 174

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, E.; Junde, H.

    1999-05-01

    This evaluation presents data for all nuclei with mass number A-174, which include level schemes deduced from radioactive decay and nuclear reaction studies. All data received by November 1998 were evaluated.

  12. Diminiode thermionic conversion with 111-iridium electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeger, E. W.; Bair, V. L.; Morris, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary data indicating thermionic-conversion potentialities for a 111-iridium emitter and collector spaced 0.2 mm apart are presented. These results comprise output densities of current and of power as functions of voltage for three sets of emitter, collector, and reservoir temperatures: 1553, 944, 561 K; 1605, 898, 533 K; and 1656, 1028, 586 K. For the 1605 K evaluation, estimates produced work-function values of 2.22 eV for the emitter and 1.63 eV for the collector with a 2.0-eV barrier index (collector work function plus interelectrode voltage drop) corresponding to the maximum output of 5.5 W/sq cm at 0.24 volt. The current, voltage curve for the 1656 K 111-iridium diminiode yields a 6.2 W/sq cm maximum at 0.25 volt and is comparable with the 1700 K envelope for a diode with an etched-rhenium emitter and a 0.025-mm electrode gap made by TECO and evaluated by NASA.

  13. Ab initio phase diagram of iridium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burakovsky, L.; Burakovsky, N.; Cawkwell, M. J.; Preston, D. L.; Errandonea, D.; Simak, S. I.

    2016-09-01

    The phase diagram of iridium is investigated using the Z methodology. The Z methodology is a technique for phase diagram studies that combines the direct Z method for the computation of melting curves and the inverse Z method for the calculation of solid-solid phase boundaries. In the direct Z method, the solid phases along the melting curve are determined by comparing the solid-liquid equilibrium boundaries of candidate crystal structures. The inverse Z method involves quenching the liquid into the most stable solid phase at various temperatures and pressures to locate a solid-solid boundary. Although excellent agreement with the available experimental data (to ≲65 GPa) is found for the equation of state (EOS) of Ir, it is the third-order Birch-Murnaghan EOS with B0'=5 rather than the more widely accepted B0'=4 that describes our ab initio data to higher pressure (P ) . Our results suggest the existence of a random-stacking hexagonal close-packed structure of iridium at high P . We offer an explanation for the 14-layer hexagonal structure observed in experiments by Cerenius and Dubrovinsky.

  14. Iridium wire grid polarizer fabricated using atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Weber, Thomas; Käsebier, Thomas; Szeghalmi, Adriana; Knez, Mato; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2011-10-25

    In this work, an effective multistep process toward fabrication of an iridium wire grid polarizer for UV applications involving a frequency doubling process based on ultrafast electron beam lithography and atomic layer deposition is presented. The choice of iridium as grating material is based on its good optical properties and a superior oxidation resistance. Furthermore, atomic layer deposition of iridium allows a precise adjustment of the structural parameters of the grating much better than other deposition techniques like sputtering for example. At the target wavelength of 250 nm, a transmission of about 45% and an extinction ratio of 87 are achieved.

  15. Phase control of iridium and iridium oxide thin films in atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung-Wook; Kwon, Se-Hun; Kwak, Dong-Kee; Kang, Sang-Won

    2008-01-15

    The atomic layer deposition of iridium (Ir) and iridium oxide (IrO{sub 2}) films was investigated using an alternating supply of (ethylcyclopentadienyl)(1,5-cyclooctadiene) iridium and oxygen gas at temperatures between 230 and 290 deg. C. The phase transition between Ir and IrO{sub 2} occurred at the critical oxygen partial pressure during the oxygen injection pulse. The oxygen partial pressure was controlled by the O{sub 2}/(Ar+O{sub 2}) ratio or deposition pressures. The resistivity of the deposited Ir and IrO{sub 2} films was about 9 and 120 {mu}{omega} cm, respectively. In addition, the critical oxygen partial pressure for the phase transition between Ir and IrO{sub 2} was increased with increasing the deposition temperature. Thus, the phase of the deposited film, either Ir or IrO{sub 2}, was controlled by the oxygen partial pressure and the deposition temperature. However, the formation of a thin Ir layer was detected between the IrO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} substrate. To remove this interfacial layer, the oxygen partial pressure is increased to a severe condition. And the impurity contents were below the detection limit of Auger electron spectroscopy in both Ir and IrO{sub 2} films.

  16. Monoalkylation of acetonitrile by primary alcohols catalyzed by iridium complexes.

    PubMed

    Anxionnat, Bruno; Pardo, Domingo Gomez; Ricci, Gino; Cossy, Janine

    2011-08-05

    The monoalkylation of acetonitrile by primary alcohols was achieved in a one-pot sequence in the presence of iridium catalysts. A diversity of nitriles has been obtained from aryl- and alkyl-methanols in excellent yield.

  17. Iridium abundances across the ordovician-silurian stratotype.

    PubMed

    Wilde, P; Berry, W B; Quinby-Hunt, M S; Orth, C J; Quintana, L R; Gilmore, J S

    1986-07-18

    Chemostratigraphic analyses in the Ordovician-Silurian boundary stratotype section, bracketing a major extinction event in the graptolitic shale section at Dob's Linn, Scotland, show persistently high iridium concentrations of 0.050 to 0.250 parts per billion. There is no iridiumn concentration spike in the boundary interval or elsewhere in the 13 graptolite zones examined encompassing about 20 million years. Iridium correlated with chromium, both elements showing a gradual decrease with time into the middle part of the Lower Silurian. The chromium-iridium ratio averages about 10(6). Paleogeographic and geologic reconstructions coupled with the occurrence of ophiolites and other deep crustal rocks in the source area suggest that the high iridium and chromium concentrations observed in the shales result from terrestrial erosion of exposed upper mantle ultramafic rocks rather than from a cataclysmic extraterrestrial event.

  18. Acute radiodermatitis from occupational exposure to iridium 192

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J.; Rosen, T. )

    1989-12-01

    Industrial radiography using the man-made radioisotope iridium 192 is commonplace in the southern states. Despite established procedures and safeguards, accidental exposure may result in typical acute radiodermatitis. We have presented a clinical example of this phenomenon.9 references.

  19. GPS/GNSS Interference from Iridium Data Transmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglund, H. T.; Blume, F.; Estey, L.; White, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Iridium satellite communication system broadcasts in the 1610 to 1626.5 MHz band. The L1 frequencies broadcast by GPS, Galileo and GLONASS satellites are 1575.42 MHz, 1575.42 MHz and 1602 MHz + n × 0.5625 MHz, respectively (each GLONASS satellite uses a unique frequency). The proximity of the Iridium frequency band with the L1 frequencies of the GPS, Galileo and GLONASS systems leaves GNSS receivers susceptible to interference from Iridium data transmissions. Interference from Iridium transmissions can cause cycle slips and loss of lock on the carrier and code phases, thereby degrading the quality of GNSS observations and position estimates. In 2008, UNAVCO staff members observed that the percent of slips vs. the number of observations increased as the distance between a GPS choke ring antenna (TRM29659.00) and an Iridium antenna decreased. From those observations they suggested that Iridium antennas and GPS antennas should be separated by >30 m to minimize cycle slips caused by the interference from Iridium data transmissions. A second test conducted in 2009 using a newer Trimble GNSS choke ring antenna (TRM59800.00) showed similar results to the previous test despite the wider frequency range of the newer antenna. More recent testing conducted to investigate the response of new receiver models to iridium transmissions has shown that many GNSS enabled models, when combined with GNSS enabled antennas, have increased sensitivity to interference when compared to older GPS-only models. The broader frequency spectrum of the Low Noise Amplifiers (LNA) installed in many newer GNSS antennas can increase the impact of near-band RF interference on tracking performance. Our testing has shown that the quality of data collected at sites collocated with iridium communications is highly degraded for antenna separations exceeding 100m. Using older GPS antenna models (e.g. TRM29659.00) with newer GNSS enabled receivers can reduce this effect. To mitigate the effects that

  20. Iridium{reg_sign} worldwide personal communication system

    SciTech Connect

    Helm, J.

    1997-01-01

    The IRIDIUM system is a personal worldwide communication system designed to support portable, low power subscriber units through the use of a constellation of satellites in low earth polar orbit. The satellites are networked together to form a system which provides continuous line-of-sight communications between the IRIDIUM system and any point within 30 km of the earth{close_quote}s surface. The system architecture and operation are described. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Synthesis and characterization of nitrides of iridium and palladiums

    SciTech Connect

    Crowhurst, Jonathan C.; Goncharov, Alexander F.; Sadigh, B.; Zaug, J.M.; Aberg, D.; Meng, Yue; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2008-08-14

    We describe the synthesis of nitrides of iridium and palladium using the laser-heated diamond anvil cell. We have used the in situ techniques of x-ray powder diffraction and Raman scattering to characterize these compounds and have compared our experimental findings where possible to the results of first-principles theoretical calculations. We suggest that palladium nitride is isostructural with pyrite, while iridium nitride has a monoclinic symmetry and is isostructural with baddeleyite.

  2. 46 CFR 174.065 - Damage stability requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.065... simultaneously to— (1) Damage causing flooding described in §§ 174.075 through 174.085; and (2) A wind heeling moment calculated in accordance with § 174.055(b) using a wind velocity of 50 knots (25.8 meters...

  3. 46 CFR 174.090 - Permeability of spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Permeability of spaces. 174.090 Section 174.090 Shipping... Permeability of spaces. When doing the calculations required in § 174.065— (a) The permeability of a floodable space, other than a machinery space, must be as listed in Table 174.090; and (b) Calculations in which a...

  4. 46 CFR 174.090 - Permeability of spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permeability of spaces. 174.090 Section 174.090 Shipping... Permeability of spaces. When doing the calculations required in § 174.065— (a) The permeability of a floodable space, other than a machinery space, must be as listed in Table 174.090; and (b) Calculations in which a...

  5. 46 CFR 174.090 - Permeability of spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Permeability of spaces. 174.090 Section 174.090 Shipping... Permeability of spaces. When doing the calculations required in § 174.065— (a) The permeability of a floodable space, other than a machinery space, must be as listed in Table 174.090; and (b) Calculations in which a...

  6. 46 CFR 174.090 - Permeability of spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Permeability of spaces. 174.090 Section 174.090 Shipping... Permeability of spaces. When doing the calculations required in § 174.065— (a) The permeability of a floodable space, other than a machinery space, must be as listed in Table 174.090; and (b) Calculations in which a...

  7. 46 CFR 174.090 - Permeability of spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Permeability of spaces. 174.090 Section 174.090 Shipping... Permeability of spaces. When doing the calculations required in § 174.065— (a) The permeability of a floodable space, other than a machinery space, must be as listed in Table 174.090; and (b) Calculations in which...

  8. On the Extreme Oxidation States of Iridium.

    PubMed

    Pyykkö, Pekka; Xu, Wen-Hua

    2015-06-22

    It has recently been suggested that the oxidation states of Ir run from the putative -III in the synthesized solid Na3 [Ir(CO)3 ] to the well-documented +IX in the species IrO4 (+) . Furthermore, [Ir(CO)3 ](3-) was identified as an 18-electron species. A closer DFT study now finds support for this picture: The orbitals spanned by the 6s,6p,5d orbitals of the iridium are all occupied. Although some have considerable ligand character, the deviations from 18 e leave the orbital symmetries unchanged. The isoelectronic systems from Os(-IV) to Au(-I) behave similarly, suggesting further possible species. To paraphrase Richard P. Feynmann "there is plenty of room at the bottom".

  9. Solventless synthesis of iridium(0) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redón, R.; Ramírez-Crescencio, F.; Fernández-Osorio, A. L.

    2011-11-01

    In this article, we present the results of a solvent-free synthesis of iridium(0) nanoparticles, both water washed and unwashed. IrCl3 and NaBH4, as starting materials, are mixed using an agate mortar and milled for 15 min until a black powder is obtained, which is heated in a nitrogen-controlled atmosphere oven at 200 °C for 2 h. If the product of the reaction is not washed before heating, NaBH4 and IrO2 impurities are observed. On the other hand, if the reaction product is washed before the heating, the obtained powder is free of impurities. We study the effect of the variation in reducing agent concentration and the annealing temperature used after the reaction. In all cases, the calculated particle size is less than 10 nm.

  10. Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectrum of Iridium Monophosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, H. F.; Liu, Anwen; Cheung, A. S.-C.

    2009-06-01

    Laser induced fluorescence spectrum of IrP in the spectral region between 380-600 nm has been studied. Reacting laser ablated iridium atoms with 1% PH_3 seeded in argon produced the IrP molecule. A few vibronic transitions have been recorded. Preliminary analysis of the rotational structure indicated that these vibronic bands are with Ω^' = 0 and Ω^'' = 0 and is likely to be ^{1}Σ - X ^{1}Σ transition. Vibrational separation of the excited state is estimated to be about 442 cm^{-1}. The ground state bond length is determined to be 1.766 Å. This work represents the first experimental investigation of the spectra of IrP.

  11. PURIFICATION OF IRIDIUM BY ELECTRON BEAM MELTING

    SciTech Connect

    Ohriner, Evan Keith

    2008-01-01

    The purification of iridium metal by electron beam melting has been characterized for 48 impurity elements. Chemical analysis was performed by glow discharge mass spectrographic (GDMS) analysis for all elements except carbon, which was analyzed by combustion. The average levels of individual elemental impurities in the starting powder varied from 37 g/g to 0.02 g/g. The impurity elements Li, Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pd, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Ce, Tl, Pb, and Bi were not detectable following the purification. No significant change in concentration of the elements Ti, V, Zr, Nb, Mo, and Re was found. The elements B, C, Al, Si, Cr, Fe, Ru, Rh, and Pt were partially removed by vaporization during electron beam melting. Langmuir's equation for ideal vaporization into a vacuum was used to calculate for each impurity element the expected ratio of impurity content after melting to that before melting. Equilibrium vapor pressures were calculated using Henry's law, with activity coefficients obtained from published data for the elements Fe, Ti, and Pt. Activity coefficients were estimated from enthalpy data for Al, Si, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zr, Nb, Mo, and Hf and an ideal solution model was used for the remaining elements. The melt temperature was determined from measured iridium weight loss. Excellent agreement was found between measured and calculated impurity ratios for all impurity elements. The results are consistent with some localized heating of the melt pool due to rastering of the electron beam, with an average vaporization temperature of 3100 K as compared to a temperature of 2965 K calculated for uniform heating of the melt pool. The results are also consistent with ideal mixing in the melt pool.

  12. Iridium NEXT: A Global access for your sensor needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, O. P.; Fish, C. S.

    2010-12-01

    The operational Iridium constellation is comprised of 66 satellites, used to primarily provide worldwide voice and data coverage to satellite phones, pagers and integrated transceivers. The satellites are in low Earth orbit at 781 km and inclination of 86.4 deg, resulting in unprecedented 24/7 coverage and real-time visibility of the entire globe. Recently, through funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF), Iridium has been utilized by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), with help from The Boeing Company, as an infrastructure for a comprehensive network for space environment measurements. Known as the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE), the Iridium-based system provides real-time magnetic field measurements using the satellites as part of a new observation network to forecast weather in space. In February 2007, Iridium announced Iridium NEXT, a novel design for a second-generation satellite constellation. Anticipated to begin launching in 2015, Iridium NEXT will maintain the existing Iridium constellation architecture of 66 cross-linked satellite LEO covering 100 percent of the globe. In the spirit of AMPERE, for commercial, government, and scientific organizations Iridium NEXT also plans to offer new earth and space observation opportunities through hosted hosted payloads on the 66 Iridium NEXT satellite network. To provide seamless support and access to this latest innovation in payload transportation, Iridium NEXT has teamed with Space Dynamics Laboratory - Utah State University which has delivered thousands of successful sensors and subsystems for over 400 space borne and aircraf based payloads. One such innovation called SensorPOD will offer unique benefits such as unprecedented spatial and temporal coverage, real-time relay of data to and from up to 5 Kg payloads in space, and access to space at a fraction of the cost of a dedicated missions such as 3U or larger Cubesats. In this

  13. Iridium complexes demonstrating broadband emission through controlled geometric distortion and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Li, Jian; Turner, Eric

    2016-04-12

    Iridium compounds and their uses are disclosed herein. For example, carbazole containing iridium compounds are disclosed. The compounds are useful in many devices, including, but not limited to, electroluminescent devices.

  14. DETERMINATION OF HETEROGENEOUS ELECTRON TRANSFER RATE CONSTANTS AT MICROFABRICATED IRIDIUM ELECTRODES. (R825511C022)

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been an increasing use of both solid metal and microfabricated iridium electrodes as substrates for various types of electroanalysis. However, investigations to determine heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants on iridium, especially at an electron beam evapor...

  15. DETERMINATION OF HETEROGENEOUS ELECTRON TRANSFER RATE CONSTANTS AT MICROFABRICATED IRIDIUM ELECTRODES. (R825511C022)

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been an increasing use of both solid metal and microfabricated iridium electrodes as substrates for various types of electroanalysis. However, investigations to determine heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants on iridium, especially at an electron beam evapor...

  16. 46 CFR 174.035 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.035 Definitions. (a... IA of this chapter: (1) Column stabilized unit. (2) Mobile offshore drilling unit. (3) Self-elevating... loaded or arranged for drilling, field transit, or ocean transit. (4) Severe storm condition means...

  17. 46 CFR 174.035 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.035 Definitions. (a... IA of this chapter: (1) Column stabilized unit. (2) Mobile offshore drilling unit. (3) Self-elevating... loaded or arranged for drilling, field transit, or ocean transit. (4) Severe storm condition means...

  18. 46 CFR 174.035 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.035 Definitions. (a... IA of this chapter: (1) Column stabilized unit. (2) Mobile offshore drilling unit. (3) Self-elevating... loaded or arranged for drilling, field transit, or ocean transit. (4) Severe storm condition means...

  19. 43 CFR 17.4 - Assurances required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Federal Government, the instrument effecting or recording the transfer shall contain a covenant running... Origin § 17.4 Assurances required. (a) General. (1) Every application for Federal financial assistance to... application for Federal financial assistance to provide a facility shall, as a condition to its approval and...

  20. 46 CFR 160.174-23 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-23 Marking. (a) Each thermal protective aid must be marked with the words “Thermal Protective Aid,” the name of the manufacturer, the... the Coast Guard approval number. (b) Each storage case must be marked with the words “Thermal...

  1. 46 CFR 160.174-15 - Instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-15 Instructions. (a) Each thermal protective aid must have instructions for its donning and use in an emergency. The instructions... thermal protective aid and visible through a transparent storage case. The instructions must also be...

  2. 46 CFR 160.174-23 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-23 Marking. (a) Each thermal protective aid must be marked with the words “Thermal Protective Aid,” the name of the manufacturer, the... the Coast Guard approval number. (b) Each storage case must be marked with the words “Thermal...

  3. 46 CFR 174.035 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.035 Definitions. (a... IA of this chapter: (1) Column stabilized unit. (2) Mobile offshore drilling unit. (3) Self-elevating... first opening through which downflooding can occur when subjected to a wind heeling moment...

  4. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to: Detergent...

  5. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to: Detergent...

  6. 32 CFR 174.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMMUNITIES AND ADDRESSING IMPACTS OF REALIGNMENT Policy § 174.4 Policy. It is DoD policy to: (a) Act... circumstances of the surrounding communities does not lend itself to a single universal solution, the Department... address growth. The Department will work with the surrounding community so that the public and...

  7. 40 CFR 174.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS General Provisions § 174.3 Definitions. Terms used in this part... living plant, or in the produce thereof, and the genetic material necessary for the production of such a... Agency or his/her delegate. Bridging crosses between plants means the utilization of an intermediate...

  8. 49 CFR 174.55 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and Loading Requirements § 174.55 General requirements. (a) Each package containing a hazardous...) Each package containing a hazardous material bearing package orientation markings prescribed in § 172... or transport vehicle may not be used to secure a load that includes a package containing a hazardous...

  9. 46 CFR 160.174-9 - Construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... material that meets the thermal insulation requirements in § 160.174-11(a). Each aid must be designed to... single thread lock stitch. (c) Seam strength. Each seam must have a strength of at least 225 Newtons...

  10. 46 CFR 160.174-9 - Construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... material that meets the thermal insulation requirements in § 160.174-11(a). Each aid must be designed to... single thread lock stitch. (c) Seam strength. Each seam must have a strength of at least 225 Newtons...

  11. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL General Operating Requirements § 174.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation...

  12. 20 CFR 655.174 - Public disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process for Temporary Agricultural Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) Post Certification § 655.174 Public disclosure. The Department will...

  13. 33 CFR 174.103 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 174.103 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... cause of casualties and accidents reported based on information available and indicates the apparent... problem area in boating safety peculiar to the State is determined, together, with corrective...

  14. 33 CFR 174.103 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 174.103 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... cause of casualties and accidents reported based on information available and indicates the apparent... problem area in boating safety peculiar to the State is determined, together, with corrective...

  15. 19 CFR 174.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Customs officers who did not participate directly in the decision which is the subject of the protest. ....S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROTESTS General Provisions § 174.1 Definitions. When used in this part, the following term...

  16. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  17. 40 CFR 80.174 - Addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.174 Addresses. (a) The detergent additive sample..., 2565 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. (b) Other detergent registration and certification data, and certain other information which may be specified in this subpart, shall be sent to:...

  18. Highly fluorescent and biocompatible iridium nanoclusters for cellular imaging.

    PubMed

    Vankayala, Raviraj; Gollavelli, Ganesh; Mandal, Badal Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Highly fluorescent iridium nanoclusters were synthesized and investigated its application as a potential intracellular marker. The iridium nanoclusters were prepared with an average size of ~2 nm. Further, these nanoclusters were refluxed with aromatic ligands, such as 2,2'-binaphthol (BINOL) in order to obtain fluorescence properties. The photophysical properties of these bluish-green emitting iridium nanoclusters were well characterized by using UV-Visible, fluorescence and lifetime decay measurements. The emission spectrum for these nanoclusters exhibit three characteristic peaks at 449, 480 and 515 nm. The fluorescence quantum yield of BINOL-Ir NCs were estimated to be 0.36 and the molar extinction co-efficients were in the order of 10(6) M(-1)cm(-1). In vitro cytotoxicity studies in HeLa cells reveal that iridium nanoclusters exhibited good biocompatibility with an IC50 value of ~100 μg/ml and also showed excellent co-localization and distribution throughout the cytoplasm region without entering into the nucleus. This research has opened a new window in developing the iridium nanoparticle based intracellular fluorescent markers and has wide scope to act as biomedical nanocarrier to carry many biological molecules and anticancer drugs.

  19. Characterization of Platinum and Iridium Oxyhydrate Surface Layers from Platinum and Iridium Foils.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Benjamin; Ranjan, Chinmoy; Greiner, Mark; Arrigo, Rosa; Schuster, Manfred Erwin; Höpfner, Britta; Gorgoi, Mihaela; Lauermann, Iver; Willinger, Marc; Knop-Gericke, Axel; Schlögl, Robert

    2016-07-07

    Platinum and iridium polycrystalline foils were oxidized electrochemically through anodization to create thin platinum and iridium hydrous oxide layers, which were analyzed through laboratory photoelectron spectroscopy during heating and time series (temperature-programmed spectroscopy). The films contain oxygen in the form of bound oxides, water, and hydroxides and were investigated by depth profiling with high-energy photoelectron spectroscopy. The Pt films are unstable and begin to degrade immediately after removal from the electrolyte to form core-shell structures with a metallic inner core and a hydrous oxide outer shell almost devoid of Pt. However, evidence was found for metastable intermediate states of degradation; therefore, it may be possible to manufacture PtOx phases with increased stability. Heating the film to even 100 °C causes accelerated degradation, which shows that stoichiometric oxides such as PtO2 or PtO are not the active species in the electrolyte. The Ir films exhibit increased stability and higher surface Ir content, and gentle heating at low temperatures leads to a decrease in defect density. Although both layers are based on noble metals, their surface structures are markedly different. The complexity of such hydrous oxide systems is discussed in detail with the goal of identifying the film composition more precisely. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. SO2 adsorption on silica supported iridium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounechada, Djamela; Anderson, David P.; Skoglundh, Magnus; Carlsson, Per-Anders

    2017-02-01

    The interaction of SO2 with Ir/SiO2 was studied by simultaneous in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, exposing the sample to different SO2 concentrations ranging from 10 to 50 ppm in the temperature interval 200-400 °C. Evidences of adsorption of sulfur species in both absence and presence of oxygen are found. For a pre-reduced sample in the absence of oxygen, SO2 disproportionates such that the iridium surface is rapidly saturated with adsorbed S while minor amounts of formed SO3 may adsorb on SiO2. Adding oxygen to the feed leads to the oxidation of sulfide species that either (i) desorb as SO2 and/or SO3, (ii) remain at metal sites in the form of adsorbed SO2, or (iii) spillover to the oxide support and form sulfates (SO42-). Notably, significant formation of sulfates on silica is possible only in the presence of both SO2 and O2, suggesting that SO2 oxidation to SO3 is a necessary first step in the mechanism of formation of sulfates on silica. During the formation of sulfates, a concomitant removal/rearrangement of surface silanol groups is observed. Finally, the interaction of SO2 with Ir/SiO2 depends primarily on the temperature and type of gas components but only to a minor extent on the inlet SO2 concentration.

  1. Experimental determination of the solubility of iridium in silicate melts: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borisov, Alexander; Dingwell, Donald B.; Oneill, Hugh ST.C.; Palme, Herbert

    1992-01-01

    Little is known of the geochemical behavior of iridium. Normally this element is taken to be chalcophile and/or siderophile so that during planetary differentiation processes, e.g., core formation, iridium is extracted from silicate phases into metallic phases. Experimental determination of the metal/silicate partition coefficient of iridium is difficult simply because it is so large. Also there are no data on the solubility behavior of iridium in silicate melts. With information on the solubility of iridium in silicate melts it is possible, in combination with experimental data for Fe-Ir alloys, to calculate the partition coefficient between a metallic phase and a silicate melt.

  2. Experimental determination of the solubility of iridium in silicate melts: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borisov, Alexander; Dingwell, Donald B.; Oneill, Hugh ST.C.; Palme, Herbert

    1992-01-01

    Little is known of the geochemical behavior of iridium. Normally this element is taken to be chalcophile and/or siderophile so that during planetary differentiation processes, e.g., core formation, iridium is extracted from silicate phases into metallic phases. Experimental determination of the metal/silicate partition coefficient of iridium is difficult simply because it is so large. Also there are no data on the solubility behavior of iridium in silicate melts. With information on the solubility of iridium in silicate melts it is possible, in combination with experimental data for Fe-Ir alloys, to calculate the partition coefficient between a metallic phase and a silicate melt.

  3. Field desorption of Na and Cs from graphene on iridium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernatskii, D. P.; Pavlov, V. G.

    2015-08-01

    Field electron and desorption microscopy has been used to study specific features of the field desorption of sodium and cesium ions adsorbed on the surface of iridium with graphene. It was found that adsorbed sodium atoms most strongly reduce the work function on graphene islands situated over densely packed faces of iridium. A strong electric field qualitatively similarly affects the sodium and cesium desorption processes from a field emitter to give two desorption phases and has no noticeable effect on the disintegration of the graphene layer.

  4. Iridium Complexes as a Roadblock for DNA Polymerase during Amplification.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Falguni; Kumar, Prashant; Tripathi, Suman Kumar; Patra, Srikanta; Koner, Apurba L

    2016-07-05

    Iridium-based metal complexes containing polypyridyl-pyrazine ligands show properties of DNA intercalation. They serve as roadblocks to DNA polymerase activity, thereby inhibiting the polymerization process. Upon the addition of increasing concentrations of these iridium complexes, a rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay reveals the selective inhibition of the DNA polymerization process. This label-free approach to study the inhibition of fundamental cellular processes via physical roadblock can offer an alternative route toward cancer therapy. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Corrosion-resistant iridium-platinum anode material for high polarization application in corrosive acids

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.; Summers, L.; Lewis, P.

    1993-09-08

    The present invention relates to highly corrosion resistant components for use in an electrochemical cell. Specifically, these components are resistant to corrosion under very extreme conditions such as exposure to aqua regia in the presence of a constant current density of 100mA/m{sup 2}. The components are comprised of an iridium-platinum alloy that comprises less than 30% iridium. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the iridium-platinum alloy comprises 15-20% iridium. In another preferred embodiment of the present invention, the iridium-platinum alloy is deposited on the surface of an electrochemical cell component by magnetron sputtering. The present invention also relates to a method for conducting an electrochemical reaction in the presence of highly corrosive acids under a high degree of polarization wherein the electrochemical cell comprises a component, preferably the anode, containing an iridium-platinum alloy that comprises less than 30% iridium.

  6. 33 CFR 174.21 - Contents of temporary certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contents of temporary certificate. 174.21 Section 174.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY STATE NUMBERING AND CASUALTY REPORTING SYSTEMS Numbering System Requirements § 174.21 Contents of temporary certificate. ...

  7. 46 CFR 160.174-5 - Independent laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independent laboratory. 160.174-5 Section 160.174-5...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-5 Independent laboratory. (a... laboratory accepted by the Coast Guard under subpart 159.010 of this chapter. (b)...

  8. 46 CFR 160.174-5 - Independent laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Independent laboratory. 160.174-5 Section 160.174-5...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-5 Independent laboratory. (a... laboratory accepted by the Coast Guard under subpart 159.010 of this chapter. (b)...

  9. 46 CFR 160.174-5 - Independent laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Independent laboratory. 160.174-5 Section 160.174-5...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-5 Independent laboratory. (a... laboratory accepted by the Coast Guard under subpart 159.010 of this chapter. (b)...

  10. 46 CFR 160.174-5 - Independent laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Independent laboratory. 160.174-5 Section 160.174-5...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-5 Independent laboratory. (a... laboratory accepted by the Coast Guard under subpart 159.010 of this chapter. (b)...

  11. 17 CFR 256.174 - Miscellaneous current and accrued assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... accrued assets. 256.174 Section 256.174 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 3. Current and Accrued Assets § 256.174 Miscellaneous current and accrued assets. This account shall include the cost of all other current and accrued assets...

  12. 46 CFR 160.174-5 - Independent laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Independent laboratory. 160.174-5 Section 160.174-5...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-5 Independent laboratory. (a... laboratory accepted by the Coast Guard under subpart 159.010 of this chapter. (b)...

  13. 19 CFR 174.11 - Matters subject to protest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Matters subject to protest. 174.11 Section 174.11... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROTESTS Protests § 174.11 Matters subject to protest. The following decisions of CBP... administrative decisions involving the following subject matters are subject to protest: (1) The appraised...

  14. 19 CFR 174.11 - Matters subject to protest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Matters subject to protest. 174.11 Section 174.11... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROTESTS Protests § 174.11 Matters subject to protest. The following decisions of CBP... administrative decisions involving the following subject matters are subject to protest: (1) The appraised...

  15. 19 CFR 174.11 - Matters subject to protest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Matters subject to protest. 174.11 Section 174.11... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROTESTS Protests § 174.11 Matters subject to protest. The following decisions of CBP... administrative decisions involving the following subject matters are subject to protest: (1) The appraised...

  16. 19 CFR 174.11 - Matters subject to protest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Matters subject to protest. 174.11 Section 174.11... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROTESTS Protests § 174.11 Matters subject to protest. The following decisions of CBP... administrative decisions involving the following subject matters are subject to protest: (1) The appraised...

  17. 19 CFR 174.11 - Matters subject to protest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Matters subject to protest. 174.11 Section 174.11 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROTESTS Protests § 174.11 Matters subject to protest. The following decisions of...

  18. 33 CFR 174.125 - Coast Guard address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coast Guard address. 174.125 Section 174.125 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY STATE NUMBERING AND CASUALTY REPORTING SYSTEMS State Reports § 174.125 Coast Guard address...

  19. 33 CFR 174.125 - Coast Guard address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coast Guard address. 174.125 Section 174.125 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY STATE NUMBERING AND CASUALTY REPORTING SYSTEMS State Reports § 174.125 Coast Guard address...

  20. 33 CFR 174.125 - Coast Guard address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coast Guard address. 174.125 Section 174.125 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY STATE NUMBERING AND CASUALTY REPORTING SYSTEMS State Reports § 174.125 Coast Guard address...

  1. 33 CFR 174.125 - Coast Guard address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coast Guard address. 174.125 Section 174.125 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY STATE NUMBERING AND CASUALTY REPORTING SYSTEMS State Reports § 174.125 Coast Guard address...

  2. 33 CFR 174.125 - Coast Guard address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coast Guard address. 174.125 Section 174.125 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY STATE NUMBERING AND CASUALTY REPORTING SYSTEMS State Reports § 174.125 Coast Guard address...

  3. 40 CFR 17.4 - Applicability to EPA proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability to EPA proceedings. 17.4 Section 17.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS General Provisions § 17.4 Applicability to EPA...

  4. 40 CFR 17.4 - Applicability to EPA proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability to EPA proceedings. 17.4 Section 17.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS General Provisions § 17.4 Applicability to EPA...

  5. 40 CFR 17.4 - Applicability to EPA proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability to EPA proceedings. 17.4 Section 17.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS General Provisions § 17.4 Applicability to EPA...

  6. 40 CFR 17.4 - Applicability to EPA proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability to EPA proceedings. 17.4 Section 17.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS General Provisions § 17.4 Applicability to EPA...

  7. 40 CFR 17.4 - Applicability to EPA proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability to EPA proceedings. 17.4 Section 17.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS General Provisions § 17.4 Applicability to EPA...

  8. 27 CFR 22.174 - Receipt of shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt of shipment. 22.174 Section 22.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... United States or Government Agency § 22.174 Receipt of shipment. On receipt of a shipment of tax-free...

  9. 27 CFR 22.174 - Receipt of shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Receipt of shipment. 22.174 Section 22.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... United States or Government Agency § 22.174 Receipt of shipment. On receipt of a shipment of tax-free...

  10. 27 CFR 22.174 - Receipt of shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Receipt of shipment. 22.174 Section 22.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... United States or Government Agency § 22.174 Receipt of shipment. On receipt of a shipment of tax-free...

  11. 27 CFR 22.174 - Receipt of shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Receipt of shipment. 22.174 Section 22.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... United States or Government Agency § 22.174 Receipt of shipment. On receipt of a shipment of tax-free...

  12. 27 CFR 22.174 - Receipt of shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Receipt of shipment. 22.174 Section 22.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... United States or Government Agency § 22.174 Receipt of shipment. On receipt of a shipment of tax-free...

  13. 46 CFR 160.174-13 - Storage case.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storage case. 160.174-13 Section 160.174-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-13 Storage case. Each thermal...

  14. 46 CFR 160.174-13 - Storage case.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storage case. 160.174-13 Section 160.174-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-13 Storage case. Each thermal...

  15. 26 CFR 1.174-3 - Treatment as expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment as expenses. 1.174-3 Section 1.174-3...) INCOME TAXES Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations (continued) § 1.174-3 Treatment as... taxable year in connection with his trade or business are deductible as expenses, and are not chargeable...

  16. 27 CFR 25.174 - Bond not sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond not sufficient. 25.174 Section 25.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.174 Bond not sufficient. When...

  17. 49 CFR 174.3 - Unacceptable hazardous materials shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unacceptable hazardous materials shipments. 174.3 Section 174.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL General Requirements § 174.3...

  18. 46 CFR 174.085 - Flooding on column stabilized units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flooding on column stabilized units. 174.085 Section 174.085 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... Units § 174.085 Flooding on column stabilized units. (a) Watertight compartments that are outboard of...

  19. 46 CFR 174.085 - Flooding on column stabilized units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flooding on column stabilized units. 174.085 Section 174.085 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... Units § 174.085 Flooding on column stabilized units. (a) Watertight compartments that are outboard of...

  20. 46 CFR 174.085 - Flooding on column stabilized units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flooding on column stabilized units. 174.085 Section 174.085 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... Units § 174.085 Flooding on column stabilized units. (a) Watertight compartments that are outboard of...

  1. 46 CFR 174.085 - Flooding on column stabilized units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flooding on column stabilized units. 174.085 Section 174.085 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... Units § 174.085 Flooding on column stabilized units. (a) Watertight compartments that are outboard of...

  2. 46 CFR 174.085 - Flooding on column stabilized units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flooding on column stabilized units. 174.085 Section 174.085 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... Units § 174.085 Flooding on column stabilized units. (a) Watertight compartments that are outboard of...

  3. 46 CFR 174.065 - Damage stability requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Damage stability requirements. 174.065 Section 174.065 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.065...

  4. 46 CFR 174.050 - Stability on bottom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stability on bottom. 174.050 Section 174.050 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.050...

  5. 46 CFR 160.174-25 - Production testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Production testing. 160.174-25 Section 160.174-25...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-25 Production testing. (a) Thermal protective aid production testing is conducted under the procedures in this section and...

  6. 46 CFR 160.174-25 - Production testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Production testing. 160.174-25 Section 160.174-25...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-25 Production testing. (a) Thermal protective aid production testing is conducted under the procedures in this section and...

  7. 27 CFR 25.174 - Bond not sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bond not sufficient. 25.174 Section 25.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.174 Bond not sufficient. When...

  8. 27 CFR 25.174 - Bond not sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bond not sufficient. 25.174 Section 25.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.174 Bond not sufficient. When...

  9. 27 CFR 25.174 - Bond not sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bond not sufficient. 25.174 Section 25.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.174 Bond not sufficient. When...

  10. 27 CFR 25.174 - Bond not sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bond not sufficient. 25.174 Section 25.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.174 Bond not sufficient. When...

  11. 49 CFR 174.26 - Notice to train crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notice to train crews. 174.26 Section 174.26... Requirements § 174.26 Notice to train crews. (a) The train crew must have a document that reflects the current position in the train of each rail car containing a hazardous material. The train crew must update the...

  12. 33 CFR 167.174 - Off Delaware Bay: Precautionary area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... area. 167.174 Section 167.174 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.174 Off Delaware Bay: Precautionary area. A precautionary area is established as follows: from 38°42.80′ N, 74°58.90′ W; then northerly by...

  13. 46 CFR 174.225 - Hull penetrations and shell connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull penetrations and shell connections. 174.225 Section 174.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... § 174.225 Hull penetrations and shell connections. Each overboard discharge and shell connection except...

  14. 7 CFR 1726.151-1726.174 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 1726.151-1726.174 Section 1726.151-1726.174 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Buildings §§ 1726.151-1726.174 ...

  15. 46 CFR 160.174-25 - Production testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Production testing. 160.174-25 Section 160.174-25...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-25 Production testing. (a) Thermal protective aid production testing is conducted under the procedures in this section and subpart...

  16. 46 CFR 160.174-25 - Production testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Production testing. 160.174-25 Section 160.174-25...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-25 Production testing. (a) Thermal protective aid production testing is conducted under the procedures in this section and subpart...

  17. 46 CFR 174.070 - General damage stability assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General damage stability assumptions. 174.070 Section 174.070 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... Units § 174.070 General damage stability assumptions. For the purpose of determining compliance with...

  18. 46 CFR 174.020 - Alternate intact stability criterion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternate intact stability criterion. 174.020 Section 174.020 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... Alternate intact stability criterion. A barge need not comply with § 174.015 and subparts C and E of part...

  19. 46 CFR 174.070 - General damage stability assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General damage stability assumptions. 174.070 Section 174.070 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... Units § 174.070 General damage stability assumptions. For the purpose of determining compliance with...

  20. 46 CFR 174.070 - General damage stability assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General damage stability assumptions. 174.070 Section 174.070 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... Units § 174.070 General damage stability assumptions. For the purpose of determining compliance with...

  1. 46 CFR 174.020 - Alternate intact stability criterion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternate intact stability criterion. 174.020 Section 174.020 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... Alternate intact stability criterion. A barge need not comply with § 174.015 and subparts C and E of part...

  2. 46 CFR 174.225 - Hull penetrations and shell connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hull penetrations and shell connections. 174.225 Section 174.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... § 174.225 Hull penetrations and shell connections. Each overboard discharge and shell connection except...

  3. 46 CFR 174.225 - Hull penetrations and shell connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull penetrations and shell connections. 174.225 Section 174.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... § 174.225 Hull penetrations and shell connections. Each overboard discharge and shell connection except...

  4. 46 CFR 174.225 - Hull penetrations and shell connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull penetrations and shell connections. 174.225 Section 174.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... § 174.225 Hull penetrations and shell connections. Each overboard discharge and shell connection except...

  5. 46 CFR 174.225 - Hull penetrations and shell connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hull penetrations and shell connections. 174.225 Section 174.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... § 174.225 Hull penetrations and shell connections. Each overboard discharge and shell connection except...

  6. 49 CFR 174.14 - Movements to be expedited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movements to be expedited. 174.14 Section 174.14 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Requirements § 174.14 Movements to be expedited. (a) A carrier must forward each shipment of hazardous...

  7. 46 CFR 174.065 - Damage stability requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.065 Damage stability requirements. (a) Each unit must be designed so that, while in each of its normal... simultaneously to— (1) Damage causing flooding described in §§ 174.075 through 174.085; and (2) A wind...

  8. 49 CFR 174.67 - Tank car unloading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tank car unloading. 174.67 Section 174.67... and Loading Requirements § 174.67 Tank car unloading. For transloading operations, the following rules... least one wheel to prevent movement in any direction. If multiple tank cars are coupled...

  9. 49 CFR 174.26 - Notice to train crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice to train crews. 174.26 Section 174.26... Requirements § 174.26 Notice to train crews. (a) The train crew must have a document that reflects the current position in the train of each rail car containing a hazardous material. The train crew must update...

  10. 33 CFR 167.174 - Off Delaware Bay: Precautionary area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... area. 167.174 Section 167.174 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.174 Off Delaware Bay: Precautionary area. A precautionary area is established as follows: from 38°42.80′ N, 74°58.90′ W; then northerly by...

  11. 22 CFR 17.4 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equity and good conscience. 17.4 Section 17.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL OVERPAYMENTS FROM THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND... PENSION SYSTEM (FSPS) § 17.4 Equity and good conscience. (a) Defined. Recovery is against equity and...

  12. 22 CFR 17.4 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Equity and good conscience. 17.4 Section 17.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL OVERPAYMENTS FROM THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND... PENSION SYSTEM (FSPS) § 17.4 Equity and good conscience. (a) Defined. Recovery is against equity and...

  13. 22 CFR 17.4 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Equity and good conscience. 17.4 Section 17.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL OVERPAYMENTS FROM THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND... PENSION SYSTEM (FSPS) § 17.4 Equity and good conscience. (a) Defined. Recovery is against equity and...

  14. 22 CFR 17.4 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Equity and good conscience. 17.4 Section 17.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL OVERPAYMENTS FROM THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND... PENSION SYSTEM (FSPS) § 17.4 Equity and good conscience. (a) Defined. Recovery is against equity and...

  15. 22 CFR 17.4 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Equity and good conscience. 17.4 Section 17.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL OVERPAYMENTS FROM THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND... PENSION SYSTEM (FSPS) § 17.4 Equity and good conscience. (a) Defined. Recovery is against equity and...

  16. 49 CFR 174.300 - Special handling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special handling requirements. 174.300 Section 174.300 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... Detailed Requirements for Class 3 (Flammable Liquid) Materials § 174.300 Special handling requirements....

  17. Homogeneous and heterogenized iridium water oxidation catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchioni, Alceo

    2014-10-01

    The development of an efficient catalyst for the oxidative splitting of water into molecular oxygen, protons and electrons is of key importance for producing solar fuels through artificial photosynthesis. We are facing the problem by means of a rational approach aimed at understanding how catalytic performance may be optimized by the knowledge of the reaction mechanism of water oxidation and the fate of the catalytic site under the inevitably harsh oxidative conditions. For the purposes of our study we selected iridium water oxidation catalysts, exhibiting remarkable performance (TOF > 5 s-1 and TON > 20000). In particular, we recently focused our attention on [Cp*Ir(N,O)X] (N,O = 2-pyridincarboxylate; X = Cl or NO3) and [IrCl(Hedta)]Na water oxidation catalysts. The former exhibited a remarkable TOF whereas the latter showed a very high TON. Furthermore, [IrCl(Hedta)]Na was heterogenized onto TiO2 taking advantage of the presence of a dandling -COOH functionality. The heterogenized catalyst maintained approximately the same catalytic activity of the homogeneous analogous with the advantage that could be reused many times. Mechanistic studies were performed in order to shed some light on the rate-determining step and the transformation of catalysts when exposed to "oxidative stress". It was found that the last oxidative step, preceding oxygen liberation, is the rate-determining step when a small excess of sacrificial oxidant is used. In addition, several intermediates of the oxidative transformation of the catalyst were intercepted and characterized by NMR, X-Ray diffractometry and ESI-MS.

  18. Mercury Underpotential Deposition to Determine Iridium and Iridium Oxide Electrochemical Surface Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Alia, Shaun M.; Hurst, Katherine E.; Kocha, Shyam S.; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2016-06-02

    Determining the surface areas of electrocatalysts is critical for separating the key properties of area-specific activity and electrochemical surface area from mass activity. Hydrogen underpotential deposition and carbon monoxide oxidation are typically used to evaluate iridium (Ir) surface areas, but are ineffective on oxides and can be sensitive to surface oxides formed on Ir metals. Mercury underpotential deposition is presented in this study as an alternative, able to produce reasonable surface areas on Ir and Ir oxide nanoparticles, and able to produce similar surface areas prior to and following characterization in oxygen evolution. Reliable electrochemical surface areas allow for comparative studies of different catalyst types and the characterization of advanced oxygen evolution catalysts. Lastly, they also enable the study of catalyst degradation in durability testing, both areas of increasing importance within electrolysis and electrocatalysis.

  19. Mercury Underpotential Deposition to Determine Iridium and Iridium Oxide Electrochemical Surface Areas

    DOE PAGES

    Alia, Shaun M.; Hurst, Katherine E.; Kocha, Shyam S.; ...

    2016-06-02

    Determining the surface areas of electrocatalysts is critical for separating the key properties of area-specific activity and electrochemical surface area from mass activity. Hydrogen underpotential deposition and carbon monoxide oxidation are typically used to evaluate iridium (Ir) surface areas, but are ineffective on oxides and can be sensitive to surface oxides formed on Ir metals. Mercury underpotential deposition is presented in this study as an alternative, able to produce reasonable surface areas on Ir and Ir oxide nanoparticles, and able to produce similar surface areas prior to and following characterization in oxygen evolution. Reliable electrochemical surface areas allow for comparativemore » studies of different catalyst types and the characterization of advanced oxygen evolution catalysts. Lastly, they also enable the study of catalyst degradation in durability testing, both areas of increasing importance within electrolysis and electrocatalysis.« less

  20. The Iridium (tm) system: Personal communications anytime, anyplace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatlelid, John E.; Casey, Larry

    1993-01-01

    The Iridium system is designed to provide handheld personal communications between diverse locations around the world at any time and without prior knowledge of the location of the personal units. This paper provides an overview of the system, the services it provides, its operation, and an overview of the commercial practices and relatively high volume satellite production techniques which will make the system cost effective. A constellation of 66 satellites will provide an orbiting, spherical-shell, infrastructure for this global calling capability. The satellites act as tall cellular towers and allow convenient operation for portable handheld telephones. The system will provide a full range of services including voice, paging, data, geolocation, and fax capabilities. Motorola is a world leader in the production of high volume, high quality, reliable telecommunications hardware. One of Iridium's goals is to apply these production techniques to high reliability space hardware. Concurrent engineering, high performance work teams, advanced manufacturing technologies, and improved assembly and test methods are some of the techniques that will keep the Iridium system cost effective. Mobile, global, flexible personal communications are coming that will allow anyone to call or receive a call from/to anyplace at anytime. The Iridium system will provide communications where none exist today. This connectivity will allow increased information transfer, open new markets for various business endeavors, and in general increase productivity and development.

  1. Achieving Zero Stress in Iridium, Chromium, and Nickle Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broadway, David M.; Weimer, Jeffrey; Gurgew, Danielle; Lis, Tomasz; Ramsey, Brian D.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Ames, A.; Bruni, R.

    2015-01-01

    We examine a method for achieving zero intrinsic stress in thin films of iridium, chromium, and nickel deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. The examination of the stress in these materials is motivated by efforts to advance the optical performance of light-weight x-ray space telescopes into the regime of sub-arc second resolution that rely on control of the film stress to values within 10-100 MPa. A characteristic feature of the intrinsic stress behavior in chromium and nickel is their sensitivity to the magnitude and sign of the intrinsic stress with argon gas pressure, including the existence of a critical pressure that results in zero film stress. This critical pressure scales linearly with the film's density. While the effect of stress reversal with argon pressure has been previously reported by Hoffman and others for nickel and chromium, we have discovered a similar behavior for iridium. Additionally, we have identified zero stress in iridium shortly after island coalescence. This feature of film growth is used for achieving a total internal stress of -2.89 MPa for a 15.8 nm thick iridium film. The surface roughness of this low-stress film was examined using scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and x-ray reflectivity (XRR) at CuKa and these results presented and discussed.

  2. Magnetostratigraphy, Late devonian iridium anomaly, and impact hypotheses

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, N.F.; Van der Voo, R. )

    1990-04-01

    Paleomagnetism, sedimentology, and fine-scale stratigraphy have been integrated to explain the origin of an iridium anomaly in the Late Devonian of Western Australia. Thermal demagnetization experiments were carried out on 93 specimens of marginal-slope limestone form the northern Canning Basin. Samples are from a condensed sequence of deep-water (> 100 m) Frutexites microstromatolites. Frutexites is a shrublike cyanobacterial organism that probably precipitated hematite, or a metastable precursor, from sea water. When plotted within the microstratigraphic framework for the study area, the observed characteristic directions from the sampled interval (14.5 cm thick) are in five discrete, layer-parallel, normal- and reversed-polarity zones. The measured northeast-southwest declinations and shallow inclinations probably record Late Devonian magnetostratigraphy on a centimetre scale. The Frutexites bed studied there occurs close to the Frasnian/Famennian (Late Devonian) boundary, a time of mass extinction of a wide variety of marine organisms throughout the world. Anomalously high iridium concentrations observed in the Frutexites bed have suggested to some authors that the mass extinction was caused by meteorite impact. This study concludes that iridium, which is present over the span of five layer-parallel magnetic reversals, was concentrated over a long period of time by biologic processes. Thus, the Canning Basin iridium anomaly may be unrelated to meteorite impact.

  3. Iridium Aluminide Coats For Protection Against Ox idation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Richard B.; Tuffias, Robert H.; La Ferla, Raffaele; Jang, Qin

    1996-01-01

    Iridium aluminide coats investigated for use in protecting some metallic substrates against oxidation at high temperatures. Investigation prompted by need for cost-effective anti-oxidation coats for walls of combustion chambers in rocket engines. Also useful in special terrestrial applications like laboratory combustion chambers and some chemical-processing chambers.

  4. The Iridium (tm) system: Personal communications anytime, anyplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatlelid, John E.; Casey, Larry

    The Iridium system is designed to provide handheld personal communications between diverse locations around the world at any time and without prior knowledge of the location of the personal units. This paper provides an overview of the system, the services it provides, its operation, and an overview of the commercial practices and relatively high volume satellite production techniques which will make the system cost effective. A constellation of 66 satellites will provide an orbiting, spherical-shell, infrastructure for this global calling capability. The satellites act as tall cellular towers and allow convenient operation for portable handheld telephones. The system will provide a full range of services including voice, paging, data, geolocation, and fax capabilities. Motorola is a world leader in the production of high volume, high quality, reliable telecommunications hardware. One of Iridium's goals is to apply these production techniques to high reliability space hardware. Concurrent engineering, high performance work teams, advanced manufacturing technologies, and improved assembly and test methods are some of the techniques that will keep the Iridium system cost effective. Mobile, global, flexible personal communications are coming that will allow anyone to call or receive a call from/to anyplace at anytime. The Iridium system will provide communications where none exist today. This connectivity will allow increased information transfer, open new markets for various business endeavors, and in general increase productivity and development.

  5. Iridium alloy Clad Vent Set manufacturing qualification studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, George B.

    Metallurgical qualification studies to demonstrate the manufacturing readiness of the iridium alloy Clad Vent Set (CVS) for the General Purpose Heat Source program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant are described. Microstructural data for various materials/test conditions are presented.

  6. Origins of Regioselectivity in Iridium Catalyzed Allylic Substitution.

    PubMed

    Madrahimov, Sherzod T; Li, Qian; Sharma, Ankit; Hartwig, John F

    2015-12-02

    Detailed studies on the origin of the regioselectivity for formation of branched products over linear products have been conducted with complexes containing the achiral triphenylphosphite ligand. The combination of iridium and P(OPh)3 was the first catalytic system shown to give high regioselectivity for the branched product with iridium and among the most selective for forming branched products among any combination of metal and ligand. We have shown the active catalyst to be generated from [Ir(COD)Cl]2 and P(OPh)3 by cyclometalation of the phenyl group on the ligand and have shown such species to be the resting state of the catalyst. A series of allyliridium complexes ligated by the resulting P,C ligand have been generated and shown to be competent intermediates in the catalytic system. We have assessed the potential impact of charge, metal-iridium bond length, and stability of terminal vs internal alkenes generated by attack at the branched and terminal positions of the allyl ligand, respectively. These factors do not distinguish the regioselectivity for attack on allyliridium complexes from that for attack on allylpalladium complexes. Instead, detailed computational studies suggest that a series of weak, attractive, noncovalent interactions, including interactions of H-bond acceptors with a vinyl C-H bond of the alkene ligand, favor formation of the branched product with the iridium catalyst. This conclusion underscores the importance of considering attractive interactions, as well as repulsive steric interactions, when seeking to rationalize selectivities.

  7. Iridium alloy clad vent set manufacturing qualification studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, G.B.

    1990-06-15

    In 1987 the Department of Energy-Office of Special Applications (DOE-OSA) decided to transfer the iridium alloy Clad Vent Set (CVS) manufacturing for the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) program from EG G Mound Applied Technologies, Inc. (EG G-MAT) to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems). The reason for this transfer was to consolidate the GPHS program iridium hardware manufacturing. The CVS starting stock of iridium powder, foil, and blanks were already being manufactured at another Energy Systems facility - the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Since 1987 CVS manufacturing technology transfer efforts have taken place between EG G-MAT and Energy Systems. EG G-MAT retained all of their tooling, but they supplied all the necessary product drawings, specifications, and procedures, as well as their tooling drawings. Most of the tooling designs and processing steps were duplicated at the Y-12 Plant. Minor changes were required in both tooling design and processing steps, to accommodate particular health, safety, environmental, and manufacturing requirements at the Y-12 Plant. In order to evaluate the effects of the key Y-12 Plant processing modifications, four joint Y-12 Plant/EG G-MAT iridium CVS manufacturing qualification studies were organized. The successful completion of these studies allowed the Y-12 Plant to commence pilot production of CVS components for the CRAF and CASSINI missions. The CVS cup metallurgical qualification work will be presented here.

  8. Iridium Aluminide Coats For Protection Against Ox idation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Richard B.; Tuffias, Robert H.; La Ferla, Raffaele; Jang, Qin

    1996-01-01

    Iridium aluminide coats investigated for use in protecting some metallic substrates against oxidation at high temperatures. Investigation prompted by need for cost-effective anti-oxidation coats for walls of combustion chambers in rocket engines. Also useful in special terrestrial applications like laboratory combustion chambers and some chemical-processing chambers.

  9. Remote Sensing Missions for Earth Observation on Iridium NEXT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, O. P.

    2009-12-01

    A unique opportunity exists to host up to 66 earth observation sensors on Iridium’s proposed NEXT LEO constellation in a manner that can revolutionize earth observation and weather predictions. A constellation approach to sensing, using the real-time communications backbone of Iridium, will enable unprecedented geospatial and temporal sampling for now-casting of weather on a global basis as well as global climate monitoring. The NEXT constellation, which, like Iridium’s current LEO constellation, is expected to consist of 66 interconnected satellites in 6 near polar orbiting planes, provides a unique platform for hosting a variety of earth observation missions. Several remote sensing missions were recommended by Group on Earth Observations (GEO), NASA, NOAA, and ESA for consideration by Iridium during 2008. These include GPS radio occultation sensors, earth radiation budget measurements, altimetry, ocean and land imaging, and troposphere and stratospheric winds measurements including polar winds measurements. These missions are also considered high priority climate missions by the Decadal Survey. Study teams consisting of Iridium, NASA/JPL and multiple industrial partners of Iridium have conducted detailed studies of these missions for compatibility with NEXT. These studies have established technical feasibility, unique benefits from a constellation approach, and cost effectiveness for these solutions on NEXT.

  10. Mononuclear iridium dinitrogen complexes bonded to zeolite HY

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Dong; Chen, Mingyang; Martinez-Macias, Claudia; Dixon, David A.; Gates, Bruce C.

    2014-11-07

    In this study, the adsorption of N2 on structurally well-defined dealuminated HY zeolite-supported iridium diethylene complexes was investigated. Iridium dinitrogen complexes formed when the sample was exposed to N2 in H2 at 298 K, as shown by infrared spectra recorded with isotopically labeled N2. Four supported species formed in various flowing gases: Ir(N2), Ir(N2)(N2), Ir(C2H5)(N2), and Ir(H)(N2). Their interconversions are summarized in a reaction network, showing, for example, that, in the presence of N2, Ir(N2) was the predominant dinitrogen species at temperatures of 273-373 K. Ir(CO)(N2) formed transiently in flowing CO, and in the presence of H2, rather stable iridium hydride complexes formed. Here, four structural models of each iridium complex bonded at the acidic sites of the zeolite were employed in a computational investigation, showing that the calculated vibrational frequencies agree well with experiment when full calculations are done at the level of density functional theory, independent of the size of the model of the zeolite.

  11. Electrodeposited iridium oxide for neural stimulation and recording electrodes.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R D; Cogan, S F; Nguyen, T H; Rauh, R D

    2001-03-01

    Iridium oxide films formed by electrodeposition onto noniridium metal substrates are compared with activated iridium oxide films (AIROFs) as a low impedance, high charge capacity coating for neural stimulation and recording electrodes. The electrodeposited iridium oxide films (EIROFs) were deposited on Au, Pt, PtIr, and 316 LVM stainless steel substrates from a solution of IrCl4, oxalic acid, and K2CO3. A deposition protocol involving 50 potential sweeps at 50 mV/s between limits of 0.0 V and 0.55 V (versus Ag AgCl) followed by potential pulsing between the same limits produced adherent films with a charge storage capacity of >25 mC/cm2. Characterization by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy revealed no differences in the electrochemical behavior of EIROF on non-Ir substrates and AIROF. The mechanical stability of the oxides was evaluated by ultrasonication in distilled water followed by dehydration and rehydration. Stability under charge injection was evaluated using 200 micros, 5.9 A/cm2 (1.2 mC/cm2) cathodal pulses. Loss of iridium oxide charge capacity was comparable for AIROFs and the EIROFs, ranging from 1% to 8% of the capacity immediately after activation or deposition. The EIROFs were deposited and evaluated on silicon microprobe electrodes and on metallized polyimide electrodes being developed for neural recording and stimulation applications.

  12. Discovery of tantalum, rhenium, osmium, and iridium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, R.; Thoennessen, M.

    2012-09-15

    Currently, thirty-eight tantalum, thirty-eight rhenium, thirty-nine osmium, and thirty-eight iridium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is described here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  13. Acid induced acetylacetonato replacement in biscyclometalated iridium(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanfang; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Ming

    2012-04-07

    Biscyclometalated iridium(III) complexes with an ancillary acetylacetone ligand, Ir(L)(2)(acac), (L = 2-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)pyridine (btp), 1-phenylisoquinoline (piq), 2-phenylbenzothiazole (bt), 2-phenylpyridine (ppy), acac = deprotonated acetylacetone), demonstrate spectroscopic changes in their UV-Vis absorption and luminescent emission under acidic conditions. Such changes were found to be the same as those observed when certain mercury salts exist in the systems. Because some iridium(III) complexes have sulfur-containing ligands (i.e., btp and bt), a question was then raised as for whether or not the spectroscopic changes are associated with the specific affinity of Hg(2+) to the sulfur atom. Extensive studies performed in this work unambiguously proved that the observed spectroscopic changes were solely the results of the acid induced departure of acac and the follow-up coordination of solvent acetonitrile to the iridium(III) center and that the generally anticipated Hg(2+)-S affinity and its effect on the photophysical properties of iridium(III) luminophores did not play a role.

  14. Utilization of Low Bandwidth Iridium Modems for Polar Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, T.

    2012-12-01

    Transmission of realtime seismic data is a desirable goal when a rapid response is needed. However, for many science applications sample waveform data, system state of health, and the ability to command and control the seismic station are operationally adequate. Determining the optimal telemetry requirements for a remote polar seismic experiment requires balancing science objective against the expensive, over-subscribed support available in the polar environments? For example there is a significant difference in the resources needed for a permanent "monitoring" effort versus a short-term experiment. We will describe IRIS/PASSCAL's successful approach to utilizing Iridium telemetry for short-term seismic experiments and suggest viable use of an Iridium RUDICs system for higher data-rate, permanent seismic stations such as a monitoring scenario. Most seismic stations are configured to record at a rate that exceeds twice the data rate of a single Iridium Internet modem. The power requirement to run continuous Iridium telemetry better than doubles that of a standalone seismic station. Doubling station power roughly doubles station logistics by requiring an increased number of support flights for installation and service. The tradeoffs between desirable and adequate telemetry requirements and the ramifications these requirements have on support services must be considered for a successful seismic station. We describe two Iridium telemetry systems, developed by the IRIS/PASSCAL Polar Program, for use with seismic stations in Antarctica and the Arctic. The first system uses an inexpensive Iridium 9602 modem based device and short burst data (SBD) transmission to monitor station performance, provide some command and control, and return a small amount of representative seismic data. Power requirements for this SBD system are approximately 10Ah per year for a daily message. The second system uses an Iridium 9522b modem based device the DOD RUDICs system for a 2400 Baud

  15. Structure, electrochemical properties and capacitance performance of polypyrrole electrodeposited onto 1-D crystals of iridium complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysocka-Żołopa, Monika; Winkler, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Composites of polypyrrole and one-dimensional iridium complex crystals [(C2H5)4N]0.55[IrCl2(CO)2] were prepared by in situ two-step electrodeposition. Initially, iridium complex crystals were formed during [IrCl2(CO)2]- complex oxidation. Next, pyrrole was electropolymerized on the surface of the iridium needles. The morphology of the composite was investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. At positive potentials, the iridium complex crystals and the polypyrrole were oxidized. In aprotic solvents, oxidation of the iridium complex crystals resulted in their dissolution. In water containing tetra(n-butyl)ammonium chlorides, the 1-D iridium complex crystals were reversibly oxidized. The product of the iridium complex oxidation remained on the electrode surface in crystalline form. The iridium complex needles significantly influenced the redox properties of the polymer. The polypyrrole involved electrode processes become more reversible in presence of crystals of iridium complex. The current of polypyrrole oxidation was higher compared to that of pure polypyrrole and the capacitance properties of the polymer were significantly enhanced. A specific capacitance as high as 590 F g-1 was obtained for a composite of polypyrrole and 1-D crystals of the iridium complex in water containing tetra(n-butyl)ammonium chloride. This value is approximately twice as high as the capacitance of the pure polymer deposited onto the electrode surface.

  16. Iridium-based electrocatalytic systems for the determination of insulin.

    PubMed

    Pikulski, M; Gorski, W

    2000-07-01

    Two electrochemical catalytic systems for the determination of insulin were developed. The homogeneous system was based on the oxidation of insulin by chloro complexes of iridium(IV). Kinetic studies revealed that the aquation of iridium complexes activated them toward the oxidation of insulin in acidic solutions; e.g., the rate constant was equal to 25, 900, and 8,400 L mol(-1) s(-1) for the oxidation of insulin by the IrCl62-, Ir(H2O)CI5-, and Ir(H2O)2Cl4 complexes, respectively. The inertness of the iridium complexes argued for the outer-sphere mechanism of the homogeneous oxidation reaction. Electroplating of aquated iridium complexes on the glassy carbon electrode resulted in the formation of the iridium oxide (IrOx) surface film, which was used in the heterogeneous detection system for insulin. The catalytic activity of the IrOx film toward insulin oxidation was ascribed to a combination of electron-transfer mediation and oxygen transfer which was related to the acid/base chemistry of the film. The IrOx film electrode was used as an amperometric detector for flow injection analysis of insulin in pH 7.40 phosphate buffer. Linear least-squares calibration curves over the range 0.05-0.50 microM (five points) had slopes of 35.2 +/- 0.4 nA microM(-1) and correlation coefficients of 0.999. The detection limit for insulin was 20 nM using the criterion of a signal of 3 times the peak-to-peak noise. The advantageous properties of the detector based on the IrOx film are its inherent stability at physiological pH, high catalytic activity toward insulin oxidation, and simplicity of preparation.

  17. Simulation of dose distribution for iridium-192 brachytherapy source type-H01 using MCNPX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwaningsih, Anik

    2014-09-01

    Dosimetric data for a brachytherapy source should be known before it used for clinical treatment. Iridium-192 source type H01 was manufactured by PRR-BATAN aimed to brachytherapy is not yet known its dosimetric data. Radial dose function and anisotropic dose distribution are some primary keys in brachytherapy source. Dose distribution for Iridium-192 source type H01 was obtained from the dose calculation formalism recommended in the AAPM TG-43U1 report using MCNPX 2.6.0 Monte Carlo simulation code. To know the effect of cavity on Iridium-192 type H01 caused by manufacturing process, also calculated on Iridium-192 type H01 if without cavity. The result of calculation of radial dose function and anisotropic dose distribution for Iridium-192 source type H01 were compared with another model of Iridium-192 source.

  18. Simulation of dose distribution for iridium-192 brachytherapy source type-H01 using MCNPX

    SciTech Connect

    Purwaningsih, Anik

    2014-09-30

    Dosimetric data for a brachytherapy source should be known before it used for clinical treatment. Iridium-192 source type H01 was manufactured by PRR-BATAN aimed to brachytherapy is not yet known its dosimetric data. Radial dose function and anisotropic dose distribution are some primary keys in brachytherapy source. Dose distribution for Iridium-192 source type H01 was obtained from the dose calculation formalism recommended in the AAPM TG-43U1 report using MCNPX 2.6.0 Monte Carlo simulation code. To know the effect of cavity on Iridium-192 type H01 caused by manufacturing process, also calculated on Iridium-192 type H01 if without cavity. The result of calculation of radial dose function and anisotropic dose distribution for Iridium-192 source type H01 were compared with another model of Iridium-192 source.

  19. Electrochemical synthesis of an iridium powder with a large specific surface area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaykov, Yu. P.; Isakov, A. V.; Apisarov, A. P.; Nikitina, A. O.

    2017-02-01

    The synthesis of iridium powder in a molten NaCl-KCl medium at 700°C is carried out for the first time. The influence of the ratio of the cathode to the anode current density ( i c/ i a) on the structure and the morphology of the iridium powder is investigated. Single-phase and polycrystalline iridium powders with a specific surface of 16.8 m2/g are produced. The phase composition and the surface texture of the deposits are studied. The specific surface and the particle size of iridium powders as functions of the ratio i c/ i a are analyzed.

  20. Iridium alloy clad vent set manufacturing qualification studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, George B.

    1991-01-01

    Qualification studies have been successfully conducted to demonstrate iridium alloy Clad Vent Set (CVS) manufacturing readiness for the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. These studies were joint comparison evaluations of both the Y-12 Plant and EG&G Mound G-MAT) products. Note: EG&G-MAT formerly manufactured the iridium alloy CVS. The comparison evaluations involved work in a number of areas; however, only the CVS cup metallurgical evalution will be presented here. The initial metallurgical comparisons in conjunction with follow-up metallurgical work showed the Y-12 Plant CVS product to be comparable to the fully qualified (for Galileo and Ulysses missions) EG&G-MAT product. This allowed the Y-12 Plant to commence pilot production of CVS components for potential use in the CRAF and CASSINI missions.

  1. Blistering during the atomic layer deposition of iridium

    SciTech Connect

    Genevée, Pascal E-mail: a.szeghalmi@uni-jena.de; Ahiavi, Ernest; Janunts, Norik; Pertsch, Thomas; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Szeghalmi, Adriana E-mail: a.szeghalmi@uni-jena.de; Oliva, Maria

    2016-01-15

    The authors report on the formation of blisters during the atomic layer deposition of iridium using iridium acetylacetonate and oxygen precursors. Films deposited on fused silica substrates led to sparsely distributed large blisters while in the case of silicon with native oxide additional small blisters with a high density was observed. It is found that the formation of blisters is favored by a higher deposition temperature and a larger layer thickness. Postdeposition annealing did not have a significant effect on the formation of blisters. Finally, changing purge duration during the film growth allowed us to avoid blistering and evidenced that impurities released from the film in gas phase were responsible for the formation of blisters.

  2. Iridium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shou-Fei; Zhou, Qi-Lin

    2017-04-04

    Chiral carboxylic acid moieties are widely found in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, flavors, fragrances, and health supplements. Although they can be synthesized straightforwardly by transition-metal-catalyzed enantioselective hydrogenation of unsaturated carboxylic acids, because the existing chiral catalysts have various disadvantages, the development of new chiral catalysts with high activity and enantioselectivity is an important, long-standing challenge. Ruthenium complexes with chiral diphosphine ligands and rhodium complexes with chiral monodentate or bidentate phosphorus ligands have been the predominant catalysts for asymmetric hydrogenation of unsaturated acids. However, the efficiency of these catalysts is highly substrate-dependent, and most of the reported catalysts require a high loading, high hydrogen pressure, or long reaction time for satisfactory results. Our recent studies have revealed that chiral iridium complexes with chiral spiro-phosphine-oxazoline ligands and chiral spiro-phosphine-benzylamine ligands exhibit excellent activity and enantioselectivity in the hydrogenation of α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acids, including α,β-disubstituted acrylic acids, trisubstituted acrylic acids, α-substituted acrylic acids, and heterocyclic α,β-unsaturated acids. On the basis of an understanding of the role of the carboxy group in iridium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation reactions, we developed a carboxy-group-directed strategy for asymmetric hydrogenation of olefins. Using this strategy, we hydrogenated several challenging olefin substrates, such as β,γ-unsaturated carboxylic acids, 1,1-diarylethenes, 1,1-dialkylethenes, and 1-alkyl styrenes in high yield and with excellent enantioselectivity. All these iridium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation reactions feature high turnover numbers (up to 10000) and turnover frequencies (up to 6000 h(-1)), excellent enantioselectivities (greater than 95% ee with few exceptions), low hydrogen pressure (<12 atm

  3. Iridium-catalyzed C-H borylation of pyridines.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Scott A; Tajuddin, Hazmi; Mkhalid, Ibraheem A I; Batsanov, Andrei S; Albesa-Jove, David; Cheung, Man Sing; Maxwell, Aoife C; Shukla, Lena; Roberts, Bryan; Blakemore, David C; Lin, Zhenyang; Marder, Todd B; Steel, Patrick G

    2014-10-07

    The iridium-catalysed C-H borylation is a valuable and attractive method for the preparation of aryl and heteroaryl boronates. However, application of this methodology for the preparation of pyridyl and related azinyl boronates can be challenged by low reactivity and propensity for rapid protodeborylation, particularly for a boronate ester ortho to the azinyl nitrogen. Competition experiments have revealed that the low reactivity is due to inhibition of the active catalyst through coordination of the azinyl nitrogen lone pair at the vacant site on the iridium. This effect can be overcome through the incorporation of a substituent at C-2. Moreover, when this is sufficiently electron-withdrawing protodeborylation is sufficiently slowed to permit isolation and purification of the C-6 boronate ester. Following functionalization, reduction of the directing C-2 substituent provides the product arising from formal ortho borylation of an unhindered pyridine ring.

  4. Water-soluble iridium phosphorescent complexes for OLED applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eum, Min-Sik; Yoon, Heekoo; Kim, Tae Hyung

    2012-09-01

    Newly prepared water-soluble iridium phosphorescent complexes, trans-[Ir(ppy)(PAr3)2(H)L]0,+ (ppy = bidentate 2-phenylpyridinato anionic ligand; L= Cl (1), CO (2), CN- (3); H being trans to the nitrogen of ppy ligand; PAr3 (TPPTS) = P(m-C6H4SO3Na)3), have been synthesized and characterized. Those complexes containing water-soluble phosphine ligands can emit any color region as altering cyclometalated ligands in aqueous media with high quantum efficiencies. Even though these water-soluble phosphorescent iridium complexes can be the sensing probe for toxic CO gas and CN anion, they will be capable of promising materials in the solution processible OLED applications.

  5. Circularly polarised phosphorescent photoluminescence and electroluminescence of iridium complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tian-Yi; Jing, Yi-Ming; Liu, Xuan; Zhao, Yue; Shi, Lin; Tang, Zhiyong; Zheng, You-Xuan; Zuo, Jing-Lin

    2015-10-01

    Nearly all the neutral iridium complexes widely used as dopants in PhOLEDs are racemic mixtures; however, this study observed that these complexes can be separated into stable optically active Λ and ∆ isomers and that their chirality is an intrinsic property. The circularly polarised phosphorescent photoluminescence (CPPPL) signals of Λ/Δ isomers are perfect mirror images with opposite polarisation and equal intensity exhibiting a “handedness” for the polarisation. For the first time, we applied the Λ/Δ iridium isomers as emitters in OLEDs, and the circularly polarised phosphorescent electroluminescence (CPPEL) spectra reveal completely positive or negative broad peaks consistent with the CPPPL spectra. The results demonstrate that the Λ/Δ isomers have potential application for 3D OLEDs because they can exhibit high efficiency and luminance, and 3D display technology based on circularly polarised light is the most comfortable for the eyes.

  6. Network flexibility of the IRIDIUM (R) Global Mobile Satellite System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Jonathan; Laurin, Mala

    1995-01-01

    The IRIDIUM system is a global personal communications system supported by a constellation of 66 low earth orbit (LEO) satellites and a collection of earth-based 'gateway' switching installations. Like traditional wireless cellular systems, coverage is achieved by a grid of cells in which bandwidth is reused for spectral efficiency. Unlike any cellular system ever built, the moving cells can be shared by multiple switching facilities. Noteworthy features of the IRIDIUM system include inter-satellite links, a GSM-based telephony architecture, and a geographically controlled system access process. These features, working in concert, permit flexible and reliable administration of the worldwide service area by gateway operators. This paper will explore this unique concept.

  7. Superconducting iridium thin films as transition edge sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogorin, Daniela F.

    Transition edge sensors are the detectors of choice for a wide range of applications; from dark matter search, neutrino search, to cosmic radiation detection from near infrared to millimeter wavelengths. We are developing transition edge sensors using superconducting iridium thin films and we are proposing their use for future dark matter and neutrino search experiments. Our Ir films are deposited using an radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and photolithographic techniques and measured using an adiabatic refrigerator capable of reaching temperatures of a few tens of mK. This thesis presents a detailed description of superconducting iridium thin films from the fabrication process to the characterization of the film properties at room temperature and low temperature. Alternative options for the bias circuit used to read out the TES signals will be discussed, we are proposing the use of RLC resonant circuits and transformers instead of SQUIDS.

  8. Network flexibility of the IRIDIUM (R) Global Mobile Satellite System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Jonathan; Laurin, Mala

    1995-01-01

    The IRIDIUM system is a global personal communications system supported by a constellation of 66 low earth orbit (LEO) satellites and a collection of earth-based 'gateway' switching installations. Like traditional wireless cellular systems, coverage is achieved by a grid of cells in which bandwidth is reused for spectral efficiency. Unlike any cellular system ever built, the moving cells can be shared by multiple switching facilities. Noteworthy features of the IRIDIUM system include inter-satellite links, a GSM-based telephony architecture, and a geographically controlled system access process. These features, working in concert, permit flexible and reliable administration of the worldwide service area by gateway operators. This paper will explore this unique concept.

  9. Prototyping iridium coated mirrors for x-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döhring, Thorsten; Probst, Anne-Catherine; Stollenwerk, Manfred; Emmerich, Florian; Stehlíková, Veronika; Inneman, Adolf

    2017-05-01

    X-ray astronomy uses space-based telescopes to overcome the disturbing absorption of the Eart&hacute;s atmosphere. The telescope mirrors are operating at grazing incidence angles and are coated with thin metal films of high-Z materials to get sufficient reflectivity for the high-energy radiation to be observed. In addition the optical payload needs to be light-weighted for launcher mass constrains. Within the project JEUMICO, an acronym for "Joint European Mirror Competence", the Aschaffenburg University of Applied Sciences and the Czech Technical University in Prague started a collaboration to develop mirrors for X-ray telescopes. The X-ray telescopes currently developed within this Bavarian- Czech project are of Lobster eye type optical design. Corresponding mirror segments use substrates of flat silicon wafers which are coated with thin iridium films, as this material is promising high reflectivity in the X-ray range of interest. The deposition of the iridium films is based on a magnetron sputtering process. Sputtering with different parameters, especially by variation of the argon gas pressure, leads to iridium films with different properties. In addition to investigations of the uncoated mirror substrates the achieved surface roughness has been studied. Occasional delamination of the iridium films due to high stress levels is prevented by chromium sublayers. Thereby the sputtering parameters are optimized in the context of the expected reflectivity of the coated X-ray mirrors. In near future measurements of the assembled mirror modules optical performances are planned at an X-ray test facility.

  10. Olefin oxygenation by water on an iridium center.

    PubMed

    Ghatak, Tapas; Sarkar, Mithun; Dinda, Shrabani; Dutta, Indranil; Rahaman, S M Wahidur; Bera, Jitendra K

    2015-05-20

    Oxygenation of 1,5-cyclooctadiene (COD) is achieved on an iridium center using water as a reagent. A hydrogen-bonding interaction with an unbound nitrogen atom of the naphthyridine-based ligand architecture promotes nucleophilic attack of water to the metal-bound COD. Irida-oxetane and oxo-irida-allyl compounds are isolated, products which are normally accessed from reactions with H2O2 or O2. DFT studies support a ligand-assisted water activation mechanism.

  11. Iridium-Catalyzed Regioselective and Enantioselective Allylation of Trimethylsiloxyfuran

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenyong; Hartwig, John F.

    2012-01-01

    We report the regioselective and enantioselective allylation of an ester enolate, trimethylsiloxyfuran. This enolate reacts in the 3-position with linear aromatic allylic carbonates or aliphatic allylic benzoates to form the branched substitution products in the presence of a metallacyclic iridium catalyst. This process provides access to synthetically important 3-substituted butenolides in enantioenriched form. Stoichiometric reactions of the allyliridium intermediate imply that the trimethylsiloxyfuran is activated by the carboxylate leaving group. PMID:22954355

  12. Iridium-Doped Ruthenium Oxide Catalyst for Oxygen Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, Thomas I.; Narayan, Sri R.; Billings, Keith J.

    2011-01-01

    NASA requires a durable and efficient catalyst for the electrolysis of water in a polymer-electrolyte-membrane (PEM) cell. Ruthenium oxide in a slightly reduced form is known to be a very efficient catalyst for the anodic oxidation of water to oxygen, but it degrades rapidly, reducing efficiency. To combat this tendency of ruthenium oxide to change oxidation states, it is combined with iridium, which has a tendency to stabilize ruthenium oxide at oxygen evolution potentials. The novel oxygen evolution catalyst was fabricated under flowing argon in order to allow the iridium to preferentially react with oxygen from the ruthenium oxide, and not oxygen from the environment. Nanoparticulate iridium black and anhydrous ruthenium oxide are weighed out and mixed to 5 18 atomic percent. They are then heat treated at 300 C under flowing argon (in order to create an inert environment) for a minimum of 14 hours. This temperature was chosen because it is approximately the creep temperature of ruthenium oxide, and is below the sintering temperature of both materials. In general, the temperature should always be below the sintering temperature of both materials. The iridium- doped ruthenium oxide catalyst is then fabricated into a PEM-based membrane- electrode assembly (MEA), and then mounted into test cells. The result is an electrolyzer system that can sustain electrolysis at twice the current density, and at the same efficiency as commercial catalysts in the range of 100-200 mA/sq cm. At 200 mA/sq cm, this new system operates at an efficiency of 85 percent, which is 2 percent greater than commercially available catalysts. Testing has shown that this material is as stable as commercially available oxygen evolution catalysts. This means that this new catalyst can be used to regenerate fuel cell systems in space, and as a hydrogen generator on Earth.

  13. DNA packaging intermediates of bacteriophage Φ174

    PubMed Central

    Music, Cynthia L; Cheng, R Holland; Bowen, Zorina; McKenna, Robert; Rossmann, Michael G; Baker, Timothy S; Incardona, Nino L

    2014-01-01

    Background Like many viruses, bacteriophage ΦX174 packages its I)NA genome into a procapsid that is assembled from structural intermediates and scaffolding proteins. The procapsid contains the structural proteins F, G and H, as well as the scaffolding proteins B and D. Provirions are formed by packaging of DNA together with the small internal J proteins, while losing at least some of the B scaffolding proteins. Eventually, loss of the I) scaffolding proteins and the remaining B proteins leads to the formation of mature virions. Results ΦX174 108S 'procapsids' have been purified in milligram quantities by removing 114S (mature virion) and 70S (abortive capsid) particles from crude lysates by differential precipitation with polyethylene glycol. 132S 'provirions' were purified on sucrose gradients in the presence of EDTA. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) was used to obtain reconstructions of procapsids and provirions. Although these are very similar to each other, their structures differ greatly from that of the virion. The F and G proteins, whose atomic structures in virions were previously determined from X-ray crystallography, were fitted into the cryo-EM reconstructions. This showed that the pentamer of G proteins on each five-fold vertex changes its conformation only slightly during DNA packaging and maturation, whereas major tertiary and quaternary structural changes occur in the F protein. The procapsids and provirions were found to contain 120 copies of the I) protein arranged as tetramers on the twofold axes. IDNA might enter procapsids through one of the 30 Å diameter holes on the icosahedral three-fold axes. Conclusions Combining cryo-EM image reconstruction and X-ray crystallography has revealed the major conformational changes that can occur in viral assembly. The function of the scaffolding proteins may be, in part, to support weak interactions between the structural proteins in the procapsids and to cover surfaces that are subsequently required for

  14. Sputtered iridium oxide films (SIROFs) for neural stimulation electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Ehrlich, Julia; Plante, Timothy D.; Smirnov, Anton; Shire, Douglas B.; Gingerich, Marcus; Rizzo, Joseph F.

    2009-01-01

    Sputtered iridium oxide films (SIROFs) deposited by DC reactive sputtering from an iridium metal target have been characterized in vitro for their potential as neural recording and stimulation electrodes. SIROFs were deposited over gold metallization on flexible multielectrode arrays fabricated on thin (15 µm) polyimide substrates. SIROF thickness and electrode areas of 200–1300 nm and 1960–125600 µm2, respectively, were investigated. The charge-injection capacities of the SIROFs were evaluated in an inorganic interstitial fluid model in response to charge-balanced, cathodal-first current pulses. Charge injection capacities were measured as a function of cathodal pulse width (0.2 – 1 ms) and potential bias in the interpulse period (0.0 to 0.7 V vs. Ag|AgCl). Depending on the pulse parameters and electrode area, charge-injection capacities ranged from 1–9 mC/cm2, comparable with activated iridium oxide films (AIROFs) pulsed under similar conditions. Other parameters relevant to the use of SIROF on nerve electrodes, including the thickness dependence of impedance (0.05–105 Hz) and the current necessary to maintain a bias in the interpulse region were also determined. PMID:17271216

  15. Mononuclear iridium dinitrogen complexes bonded to zeolite HY

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Dong; Chen, Mingyang; Martinez-Macias, Claudia; ...

    2014-11-07

    In this study, the adsorption of N2 on structurally well-defined dealuminated HY zeolite-supported iridium diethylene complexes was investigated. Iridium dinitrogen complexes formed when the sample was exposed to N2 in H2 at 298 K, as shown by infrared spectra recorded with isotopically labeled N2. Four supported species formed in various flowing gases: Ir(N2), Ir(N2)(N2), Ir(C2H5)(N2), and Ir(H)(N2). Their interconversions are summarized in a reaction network, showing, for example, that, in the presence of N2, Ir(N2) was the predominant dinitrogen species at temperatures of 273-373 K. Ir(CO)(N2) formed transiently in flowing CO, and in the presence of H2, rather stable iridiummore » hydride complexes formed. Here, four structural models of each iridium complex bonded at the acidic sites of the zeolite were employed in a computational investigation, showing that the calculated vibrational frequencies agree well with experiment when full calculations are done at the level of density functional theory, independent of the size of the model of the zeolite.« less

  16. Mono- and bis-tolylterpyridine iridium(III) complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkle, Lindsay M.; Young, Jr., Victor G.; Mann, Kent R.

    2012-01-20

    The first structure report of trichlorido[4'-(p-tolyl)-2,2':6',2{double_prime}-terpyridine]iridium(III) dimethyl sulfoxide solvate, [IrCl{sub 3}(C{sub 22}H{sub 17}N{sub 3})] {center_dot} C{sub 2}H{sub 6}OS, (I), is presented, along with a higher-symmetry setting of previously reported bis[4'-(p-tolyl)-2,2':6',2{double_prime}-terpyridine]iridium(III) tris(hexafluoridophosphate) acetonitrile disolvate, [Ir(C{sub 22}H{sub 17}N{sub 3})2](PF{sub 6}){sub 3} {center_dot} 2C{sub 2}H{sub 3}N, (II) [Yoshikawa, Yamabe, Kanehisa, Kai, Takashima & Tsukahara (2007). Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. pp. 1911-1919]. For (I), the data were collected with synchrotron radiation and the dimethyl sulfoxide solvent molecule is disordered over three positions, one of which is an inversion center. The previously reported structure of (II) is presented in the more appropriate C2/c space group. The iridium complex and one PF{sub 6}{sup -} anion lie on twofold axes in this structure, making half of the molecule unique.

  17. Evaluation of Molybdenum as a Surrogate for Iridium in the GPHS Weld Development

    SciTech Connect

    Stine, Andrew Martin; Pierce, Stanley W.; Moniz, Paul F.

    2015-10-17

    The welding equipment used for welding iridium containers (clads) at Los Alamos National Laboratory is twenty five years old and is undergoing an upgrade. With the upgrade, there is a requirement for requalification of the welding process, and the opportunity for process improvement. Testing of the new system and requalification will require several welds on iridium test parts and clads, and any efforts to improve the process will add to the need for iridium parts. The extreme high cost of iridium imposes a severe limitation on the extent of test welding that can be done. The 2 inch diameter, 0.027 inch thick, iridium blank disc that the clad cup is formed from, is useful for initial weld trials, but it costs $5000. The development clad sets needed for final tests and requalification cost $15,000 per set. A solution to iridium cost issue would be to do the majority of the weld development on a less expensive surrogate metal with similar weld characteristics. One such metal is molybdenum. Since its melting index (melting temperature x thermal conductivity) is closest to iridium, welds on molybdenum should be similar in size for a given weld power level. Molybdenum is inexpensive; a single 2 inch molybdenum disc costs only $9. In order to evaluate molybdenum as a surrogate for iridium, GTA welds were first developed to provide full penetration on 0.030 inch thick molybdenum discs at speeds of 20, 25, and 30 inches per minute (ipm). These weld parameters were then repeated on the standard 0.027 inch thick iridium blanks. The top surface and bottom surface (root) width and grain structure of the molybdenum and iridium welds were compared, and similarities were evident between the two metals. Due to material and thickness differences, the iridium welds were approximately 35% wider than the molybdenum welds. A reduction in iridium weld current of 35% produce welds slightly smaller than the molybdenum welds yet showed that current could be scaled according to molybdenum/iridium

  18. 46 CFR 174.207 - Damaged stability criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Permeability of spaces. The permeability of a floodable space must be as specified by Table 174.207(b) of this... centerline, at the level of the deepest load waterline. Table 174.207(b)—Permeability of Spaces Spaces and tanks Permeability Storerooms 60 percent. Accommodations 95 percent. Machinery 85 percent. Voids...

  19. 46 CFR 174.207 - Damaged stability criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Permeability of spaces. The permeability of a floodable space must be as specified by Table 174.207(b) of this... centerline, at the level of the deepest load waterline. Table 174.207(b)—Permeability of Spaces Spaces and tanks Permeability Storerooms 60 percent. Accommodations 95 percent. Machinery 85 percent. Voids...

  20. 40 CFR 60.174 - Standard for visible emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for visible emissions. 60.174 Section 60.174 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary Zinc...

  1. 46 CFR 154.174 - Transverse contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transverse contiguous hull structure. 154.174 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.174 Transverse contiguous hull structure. (a) The transverse contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the standards...

  2. 50 CFR 17.4 - Pre-Act wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pre-Act wildlife. 17.4 Section 17.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND...

  3. 40 CFR 141.174 - Filtration sampling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filtration sampling requirements. 141.174 Section 141.174 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection...

  4. 33 CFR 174.29 - Temporary certificate of number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temporary certificate of number. 174.29 Section 174.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY....29 Temporary certificate of number. A State may issue a temporary certificate of number that is...

  5. 33 CFR 174.29 - Temporary certificate of number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Temporary certificate of number. 174.29 Section 174.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY....29 Temporary certificate of number. A State may issue a temporary certificate of number that is...

  6. Triaxiality of the ground states in the 174W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ya, Tu; Chen, Y. S.; Liu, L.; Gao, Z. C.

    2016-05-01

    We have performed calculations for the ground states in 174W by using the projected total energy surface (PTES) calculations. Both the ground state (g.s.) band and its γ band reproduce the experimental data. Further discussion about the triaxiality in 174W has been made by transition quardrupole moment (Qt) and comparing between the PTES and TRS methods.

  7. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  8. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  9. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  10. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  11. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  12. 46 CFR 174.045 - Intact stability requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.045 Intact stability requirements. (a) Each unit must be designed so that the wind heeling moments (Hm) and... downflooding would occur, whichever angle is less; and (3) Area (B) is the area on GRAPH 174.045 under the...

  13. 7 CFR 1260.173-1260.174 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 1260.173-1260.174 Section 1260.173-1260.174 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH...

  14. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bulkheads in machinery spaces. 174.195 Section 174.195... in machinery spaces. (a) The bulkhead in each machinery space of each OSV must be watertight to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead in a machinery space must— (1) Be...

  15. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bulkheads in machinery spaces. 174.195 Section 174.195... in machinery spaces. (a) The bulkhead in each machinery space of each OSV must be watertight to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead in a machinery space must— (1) Be...

  16. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bulkheads in machinery spaces. 174.195 Section 174.195... in machinery spaces. (a) The bulkhead in each machinery space of each OSV must be watertight to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead in a machinery space must— (1) Be...

  17. 49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating speed. 174.86 Section 174.86 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY...

  18. 46 CFR 174.045 - Intact stability requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Intact stability requirements. 174.045 Section 174.045 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... Intact stability requirements. (a) Each unit must be designed so that the wind heeling moments (Hm) and...

  19. 46 CFR 174.045 - Intact stability requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Intact stability requirements. 174.045 Section 174.045 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... Intact stability requirements. (a) Each unit must be designed so that the wind heeling moments (Hm) and...

  20. 46 CFR 174.045 - Intact stability requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Intact stability requirements. 174.045 Section 174.045 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... Intact stability requirements. (a) Each unit must be designed so that the wind heeling moments (Hm) and...

  1. 46 CFR 174.045 - Intact stability requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Intact stability requirements. 174.045 Section 174.045 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... Intact stability requirements. (a) Each unit must be designed so that the wind heeling moments (Hm) and...

  2. 46 CFR 160.174-3 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Guarded-Hot-Plate Apparatus—160.174-17 ASTM C 518-91, Standard Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Heat Flow Meter Apparatus—160.174-17 ASTM D 975-98,...

  3. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments assumed flooded: general. 174.075 Section 174.075 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling...

  4. 46 CFR 174.070 - General damage stability assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General damage stability assumptions. 174.070 Section 174.070 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling...

  5. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compartments assumed flooded: general. 174.075 Section 174.075 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling...

  6. 46 CFR 174.070 - General damage stability assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General damage stability assumptions. 174.070 Section 174.070 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling...

  7. 46 CFR 174.020 - Alternate intact stability criterion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 174.020. (c) The maximum cargo height is 30 feet (9.25 meters) or a value equal to the depth of the barge amidships, whichever is less. Table 174.020 Category Beam/depth ratio Draft/depth ratio A 3.00 to...

  8. 46 CFR 174.020 - Alternate intact stability criterion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 174.020. (c) The maximum cargo height is 30 feet (9.25 meters) or a value equal to the depth of the barge amidships, whichever is less. Table 174.020 Category Beam/depth ratio Draft/depth ratio A 3.00 to...

  9. 49 CFR 174.201 - Class 2 (gases) material cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class 2 (gases) material cylinders. 174.201... RAIL Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Gases) Materials § 174.201 Class 2 (gases) material cylinders. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, cylinders containing Class 2...

  10. 49 CFR 174.201 - Class 2 (gases) material cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class 2 (gases) material cylinders. 174.201... RAIL Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Gases) Materials § 174.201 Class 2 (gases) material cylinders. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, cylinders containing Class 2...

  11. 49 CFR 174.201 - Class 2 (gases) material cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class 2 (gases) material cylinders. 174.201... RAIL Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Gases) Materials § 174.201 Class 2 (gases) material cylinders. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, cylinders containing Class 2...

  12. 49 CFR 174.201 - Class 2 (gases) material cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class 2 (gases) material cylinders. 174.201... RAIL Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Gases) Materials § 174.201 Class 2 (gases) material cylinders. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, cylinders containing Class 2...

  13. 49 CFR 174.201 - Class 2 (gases) material cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class 2 (gases) material cylinders. 174.201... RAIL Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Gases) Materials § 174.201 Class 2 (gases) material cylinders. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, cylinders containing Class 2...

  14. 46 CFR 174.210 - Watertight doors in watertight bulkheads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watertight doors in watertight bulkheads. 174.210... Vessels § 174.210 Watertight doors in watertight bulkheads. (a) This section applies to each vessel with watertight doors in bulkheads made watertight in compliance with this chapter. (b) Except as provided by...

  15. 46 CFR 174.210 - Watertight doors in watertight bulkheads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watertight doors in watertight bulkheads. 174.210... Vessels § 174.210 Watertight doors in watertight bulkheads. (a) This section applies to each vessel with watertight doors in bulkheads made watertight in compliance with this chapter. (b) Except as provided by...

  16. 40 CFR 429.174 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false New source performance standards (NSPS). 429.174 Section 429.174 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Furniture...

  17. 40 CFR 429.174 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New source performance standards (NSPS). 429.174 Section 429.174 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Furniture and...

  18. 40 CFR 429.174 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false New source performance standards (NSPS). 429.174 Section 429.174 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Furniture...

  19. 47 CFR 17.4 - Antenna structure registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna structure registration. 17.4 Section 17... ANTENNA STRUCTURES General Information § 17.4 Antenna structure registration. Link to an amendment... antenna structure that requires notice of proposed construction to the Federal Aviation...

  20. 47 CFR 17.4 - Antenna structure registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna structure registration. 17.4 Section 17... ANTENNA STRUCTURES General Information § 17.4 Antenna structure registration. (a) Effective July 1, 1996, the owner of any proposed or existing antenna structure that requires notice of proposed...

  1. 47 CFR 17.4 - Antenna structure registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna structure registration. 17.4 Section 17... ANTENNA STRUCTURES General Information § 17.4 Antenna structure registration. (a) Effective July 1, 1996, the owner of any proposed or existing antenna structure that requires notice of proposed...

  2. 47 CFR 17.4 - Antenna structure registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structure registration. 17.4 Section 17... ANTENNA STRUCTURES General Information § 17.4 Antenna structure registration. (a) Effective July 1, 1996, the owner of any proposed or existing antenna structure that requires notice of proposed...

  3. 19 CFR 174.27 - Disposition after further review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disposition after further review. 174.27 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROTESTS Review and Disposition of Protests § 174.27 Disposition after... review shall be returned to the port director together with directions for the disposition of the protest. ...

  4. 19 CFR 174.22 - Accelerated disposition of protest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accelerated disposition of protest. 174.22 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROTESTS Review and Disposition of Protests § 174.22 Accelerated disposition of protest. (a) Request for accelerated disposition. Accelerated disposition of a protest filed in...

  5. 19 CFR 174.22 - Accelerated disposition of protest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accelerated disposition of protest. 174.22 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROTESTS Review and Disposition of Protests § 174.22 Accelerated disposition of protest. (a) Request for accelerated disposition. Accelerated disposition of a protest filed in...

  6. 19 CFR 174.27 - Disposition after further review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition after further review. 174.27 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROTESTS Review and Disposition of Protests § 174.27 Disposition after... review shall be returned to the port director together with directions for the disposition of the protest. ...

  7. 33 CFR 174.29 - Temporary certificate of number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary certificate of number. 174.29 Section 174.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY....29 Temporary certificate of number. A State may issue a temporary certificate of number that is...

  8. 46 CFR 174.215 - Drainage of weather deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 174.215 Section 174.215 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... weather deck. The weather deck must have open rails to allow rapid clearing of water, or must have freeing...

  9. 46 CFR 174.215 - Drainage of weather deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 174.215 Section 174.215 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... weather deck. The weather deck must have open rails to allow rapid clearing of water, or must have freeing...

  10. 21 CFR 14.174 - Advice and recommendations in writing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advice and recommendations in writing. 14.174... § 14.174 Advice and recommendations in writing. Advice and recommendations given by a committee on a... of the advice and recommendations of the committee....

  11. 46 CFR 174.050 - Stability on bottom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stability on bottom. 174.050 Section 174.050 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... Stability on bottom. Each bottom bearing unit must be designed so that, while supported on the sea bottom...

  12. 46 CFR 174.050 - Stability on bottom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stability on bottom. 174.050 Section 174.050 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... Stability on bottom. Each bottom bearing unit must be designed so that, while supported on the sea bottom...

  13. 46 CFR 174.040 - Stability requirements: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stability requirements: general. 174.040 Section 174.040 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... Stability requirements: general. Each unit must be designed to have at least 2 inches (50mm) of positive...

  14. 46 CFR 174.040 - Stability requirements: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stability requirements: general. 174.040 Section 174.040 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... Stability requirements: general. Each unit must be designed to have at least 2 inches (50mm) of positive...

  15. 46 CFR 174.065 - Damage stability requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Damage stability requirements. 174.065 Section 174.065 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... Damage stability requirements. (a) Each unit must be designed so that, while in each of its normal...

  16. 46 CFR 174.145 - Intact stability requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Intact stability requirements. 174.145 Section 174.145 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... stability requirements. (a) In each condition of loading and operation, each vessel must be shown by design...

  17. 46 CFR 174.040 - Stability requirements: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stability requirements: general. 174.040 Section 174.040 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... Stability requirements: general. Each unit must be designed to have at least 2 inches (50mm) of positive...

  18. 21 CFR 14.174 - Advice and recommendations in writing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Advice and recommendations in writing. 14.174... § 14.174 Advice and recommendations in writing. Advice and recommendations given by a committee on a specific drug or a class of drugs are ordinarily in the form of a written report. The report may consist of...

  19. 21 CFR 14.174 - Advice and recommendations in writing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Advice and recommendations in writing. 14.174... § 14.174 Advice and recommendations in writing. Advice and recommendations given by a committee on a specific drug or a class of drugs are ordinarily in the form of a written report. The report may consist of...

  20. 21 CFR 14.174 - Advice and recommendations in writing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Advice and recommendations in writing. 14.174... § 14.174 Advice and recommendations in writing. Advice and recommendations given by a committee on a specific drug or a class of drugs are ordinarily in the form of a written report. The report may consist of...

  1. 42 CFR 84.174 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.174... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.174 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. (a) Except..., durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type of respirator it...

  2. 19 CFR 174.16 - Limitation on protests after reliquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitation on protests after reliquidation. 174.16 Section 174.16 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY.... A protest shall not be filed against the decision of the port director on reliquidation upon...

  3. 21 CFR 14.174 - Advice and recommendations in writing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advice and recommendations in writing. 14.174... § 14.174 Advice and recommendations in writing. Advice and recommendations given by a committee on a... of the advice and recommendations of the committee....

  4. 46 CFR 174.315 - Extent and character of damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... must assume the most disabling side penetration with the damage collision penetration provided by Table... provided by Table 174.315, the smaller damage collision penetration must be assumed. Table 174.315—Extent...

  5. 46 CFR 174.215 - Drainage of weather deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 174.215 Section 174.215 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... weather deck. The weather deck must have open rails to allow rapid clearing of water, or must have freeing...

  6. 46 CFR 174.215 - Drainage of weather deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 174.215 Section 174.215 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... weather deck. The weather deck must have open rails to allow rapid clearing of water, or must have freeing...

  7. 46 CFR 174.215 - Drainage of weather deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 174.215 Section 174.215 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... weather deck. The weather deck must have open rails to allow rapid clearing of water, or must have freeing...

  8. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bulkheads in machinery spaces. 174.195 Section 174.195... in machinery spaces. (a) The bulkhead in each machinery space of each OSV must be watertight to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead in a machinery space must— (1)...

  9. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulkheads in machinery spaces. 174.195 Section 174.195... in machinery spaces. (a) The bulkhead in each machinery space of each OSV must be watertight to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead in a machinery space must— (1)...

  10. 40 CFR 429.174 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New source performance standards (NSPS). 429.174 Section 429.174 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Furniture and...

  11. 50 CFR 17.4 - Pre-Act wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pre-Act wildlife. 17.4 Section 17.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED....4 Pre-Act wildlife. (a) The prohibitions defined in subparts C and D of this part 17 shall not...

  12. 50 CFR 17.4 - Pre-Act wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pre-Act wildlife. 17.4 Section 17.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED....4 Pre-Act wildlife. (a) The prohibitions defined in subparts C and D of this part 17 shall not...

  13. 50 CFR 17.4 - Pre-Act wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pre-Act wildlife. 17.4 Section 17.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED....4 Pre-Act wildlife. (a) The prohibitions defined in subparts C and D of this part 17 shall not...

  14. Rockot Launch Vehicle Commercial Operations for Grace and Iridium Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viertel, Y.; Kinnersley, M.; Schumacher, I.

    2002-01-01

    The GRACE mission and the IRIDIUM mission on ROCKOT launch vehicle are presented. Two identical GRACE satellites to measure in tandem the gravitational field of the earth with previously unattainable accuracy - it's called the Gravity Research and Climate Experiment, or and is a joint project of the U.S. space agency, NASA and the German Centre for Aeronautics and Space Flight, DLR. In order to send the GRACE twins into a 500x500 km , 89deg. orbit, the Rockot launch vehicle was selected. A dual launch of two Iridium satellites was scheduled for June 2002 using the ROCKOT launch vehicle from Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Northern Russia. This launch will inject two replacement satellites into a low earth orbit (LEO) to support the maintenance of the Iridium constellation. In September 2001, Eurockot successfully carried out a "Pathfinder Campaign" to simulate the entire Iridium mission cycle at Plesetsk. The campaign comprised the transport of simulators and related equipment to the Russian port-of-entry and launch site and also included the integration and encapsulation of the simulators with the actual Rockot launch vehicle at Eurockot's dedicated launch facilities at Plesetsk Cosmodrome. The pathfinder campaign lasted four weeks and was carried out by a joint team that also included Khrunichev, Russian Space Forces and Eurockot personnel on the contractors' side. The pathfinder mission confirmed the capability of Eurockot Launch Services to perform the Iridium launch on cost and on schedule at Plesetsk following Eurockot's major investment in international standard preparation, integration and launch facilities including customer facilities and a new hotel. In 2003, Eurockot will also launch the Japanese SERVI'S-1 satellite for USEF. The ROCKOT launch vehicle is a 3 stage liquid fuel rocket whose first 2 stages have been adapted from the Russian SS-19. A third stage, called "Breeze", can be repeatedly ignited and is extraordinarily capable of manoeuvre. Rockot can place

  15. N-H activation of hydrazines by iridium(I). Double N-H activation to form iridium aminonitrene complexes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zheng; Zhou, Jianrong Steve; Hartwig, John F

    2010-08-25

    Iridium(I) complexes of aromatic (PCP) and aliphatic (D(t)BPP) pincer ligands undergo single cleavage of the N-H bonds of hydrazine derivatives to form hydrazido complexes and geminal double cleavage to form unusual late transition metal aminonitrene complexes. In some cases, the cleavage of the N-N bond in the hydrazine is also observed. Oxidative additions of the N-H bonds of benzophenone hydrazone and 1-aminopiperidine to iridium(I) complexes give the corresponding hydridoiridium(III) hydrazido complexes within minutes. The complex containing an aromatic pincer ligand, (PCP)Ir(H)(NHNC(5)H(10)), slowly undergoes a second N-H bond cleavage at the alpha-N-H bond and elimination of hydrogen to generate an aminonitrene complex and dihydrogen in high yield. The reactions of the (PCP)Ir(I) fragment containing an aromatic pincer ligand with methyl-substituted hydrazines form a mixture of aminonitrene complexes, isocyanide iridium(III) dihydride complexes, and ammonia. The latter two products are likely formed by initial oxidative addition of the methyl C-H bond and the subsequent N-N bond cleavage. Reactions of the aminonitrene complex with CO or reagents that undergo oxidative addition (MeI and PhOH) lead to release of the "isodiazine" fragment to give tetrazene and tetrazine derivatives.

  16. Phosphorescent Imaging of Living Cells Using a Cyclometalated Iridium(III) Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dik-Lung; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Fu, Wai-Chung; Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Kwan, Hiu-Yee; Fong, Wang-Fun; Chung, Lai-Hon; Wong, Chun-Yuen; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2013-01-01

    A cell permeable cyclometalated iridium(III) complex has been developed as a phosphorescent probe for cell imaging. The iridium(III) solvato complex [Ir(phq)2(H2O]2)] preferentially stains the cytoplasm of both live and dead cells with a bright luminescence. PMID:23457478

  17. Development and Testing of High Surface Area Iridium Anodes for Molten Oxide Electrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shchetkovskiy, Anatoliy; McKechnie, Timothy; Sadoway, Donald R.; Paramore, James; Melendez, Orlando; Curreri, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lunar regolith into oxygen for habitat and propulsion is needed to support future space missions. Direct electrochemical reduction of molten regolith is an attractive method of processing, because no additional chemical reagents are needed. The electrochemical processing of molten oxides requires high surface area, inert anodes. Such electrodes need to be structurally robust at elevated temperatures (1400-1600?C), be resistant to thermal shock, have good electrical conductivity, be resistant to attack by molten oxide (silicate), be electrochemically stable and support high current density. Iridium with its high melting point, good oxidation resistance, superior high temperature strength and ductility is the most promising candidate for anodes in high temperature electrochemical processes. Several innovative concepts for manufacturing such anodes by electrodeposition of iridium from molten salt electrolyte (EL-Form? process) were evaluated. Iridium electrodeposition to form of complex shape components and coating was investigated. Iridium coated graphite, porous iridium structure and solid iridium anodes were fabricated. Testing of electroformed iridium anodes shows no visible degradation. The result of development, manufacturing and testing of high surface, inert iridium anodes will be presented.

  18. Development and Testing of High Surface Area Iridium Anodes for Molten Oxide Electrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shchetkovskiy, Anatoliy; McKechnie, Timothy; Sadoway, Donald R.; Paramore, James; Melendez, Orlando; Curreri, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lunar regolith into oxygen for habitat and propulsion is needed to support future space missions. Direct electrochemical reduction of molten regolith is an attractive method of processing, because no additional chemical reagents are needed. The electrochemical processing of molten oxides requires high surface area, inert anodes. Such electrodes need to be structurally robust at elevated temperatures (1400-1600 C), be resistant to thermal shock, have good electrical conductivity, be resistant to attack by molten oxide (silicate), be electrochemically stable and support high current density. Iridium with its high melting point, good oxidation resistance, superior high temperature strength and ductility is the most promising candidate for anodes in high temperature electrochemical processes. Several innovative concepts for manufacturing such anodes by electrodeposition of iridium from molten salt electrolyte (EL-Form process) were evaluated. Iridium electrodeposition to form of complex shape components and coating was investigated. Iridium coated graphite, porous iridium structure and solid iridium anodes were fabricated. Testing of electroformed iridium anodes shows no visible degradation. The result of development, manufacturing and testing of high surface, inert iridium anodes will be presented.

  19. Development and Testing of High Surface Area Iridium Anodes for Molten Oxide Electrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shchetkovskiy, Anatoliy; McKechnie, Timothy; Sadoway, Donald R.; Paramore, James; Melendez, Orlando; Curreri, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lunar regolith into oxygen for habitat and propulsion is needed to support future space missions. Direct electrochemical reduction of molten regolith is an attractive method of processing, because no additional chemical reagents are needed. The electrochemical processing of molten oxides requires high surface area, inert anodes. Such electrodes need to be structurally robust at elevated temperatures (1400-1600 C), be resistant to thermal shock, have good electrical conductivity, be resistant to attack by molten oxide (silicate), be electrochemically stable and support high current density. Iridium with its high melting point, good oxidation resistance, superior high temperature strength and ductility is the most promising candidate for anodes in high temperature electrochemical processes. Several innovative concepts for manufacturing such anodes by electrodeposition of iridium from molten salt electrolyte (EL-Form process) were evaluated. Iridium electrodeposition to form of complex shape components and coating was investigated. Iridium coated graphite, porous iridium structure and solid iridium anodes were fabricated. Testing of electroformed iridium anodes shows no visible degradation. The result of development, manufacturing and testing of high surface, inert iridium anodes will be presented.

  20. Real-Time Characterization of Formation and Breakup of Iridium Clusters in Highly Dealuminated Zeolite Y

    SciTech Connect

    Uzun, Alper; Gates, Bruce C.

    2009-01-15

    The chemistry of formation of iridium clusters from mononuclear iridium diethylene complexes anchored in dealuminated Y zeolite, and their subsequent breakup -- all including changes in the metal-metal, metal-support, and metal-ligand interactions -- is demonstrated by time-resolved EXAFS, XANES, and IR spectroscopy.

  1. Sensitized near-infrared emission from ytterbium(III) via direct energy transfer from iridium(III) in a heterometallic neutral complex.

    PubMed

    Mehlstäubl, Marita; Kottas, Gregg S; Colella, Silvia; De Cola, Luisa

    2008-05-14

    A tetrametallic iridium-ytterbium complex has been synthesised that shows sensitized near-infrared emission (lambda(max) = 976 nm) upon excitation of the iridium unit in the visible region (400 nm) due to efficient energy transfer from the iridium units to the Yb(III) ion. The iridium phosphorescence is quenched nearly quantitatively while the ytterbium ion emits brightly in the NIR.

  2. Iridium-based double perovskites for efficient water oxidation in acid media

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Morales, Oscar; Raaijman, Stefan; Kortlever, Ruud; Kooyman, Patricia J.; Wezendonk, Tim; Gascon, Jorge; Fu, W. T.; Koper, Marc T. M.

    2016-01-01

    The development of active, cost-effective and stable oxygen-evolving catalysts is one of the major challenges for solar-to-fuel conversion towards sustainable energy generation. Iridium oxide exhibits the best available compromise between catalytic activity and stability in acid media, but it is prohibitively expensive for large-scale applications. Therefore, preparing oxygen-evolving catalysts with lower amounts of the scarce but active and stable iridium is an attractive avenue to overcome this economical constraint. Here we report on a class of oxygen-evolving catalysts based on iridium double perovskites which contain 32 wt% less iridium than IrO2 and yet exhibit a more than threefold higher activity in acid media. According to recently suggested benchmarking criteria, the iridium double perovskites are the most active catalysts for oxygen evolution in acid media reported until now, to the best of our knowledge, and exhibit similar stability to IrO2. PMID:27498694

  3. Iridium-based double perovskites for efficient water oxidation in acid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Morales, Oscar; Raaijman, Stefan; Kortlever, Ruud; Kooyman, Patricia J.; Wezendonk, Tim; Gascon, Jorge; Fu, W. T.; Koper, Marc T. M.

    2016-08-01

    The development of active, cost-effective and stable oxygen-evolving catalysts is one of the major challenges for solar-to-fuel conversion towards sustainable energy generation. Iridium oxide exhibits the best available compromise between catalytic activity and stability in acid media, but it is prohibitively expensive for large-scale applications. Therefore, preparing oxygen-evolving catalysts with lower amounts of the scarce but active and stable iridium is an attractive avenue to overcome this economical constraint. Here we report on a class of oxygen-evolving catalysts based on iridium double perovskites which contain 32 wt% less iridium than IrO2 and yet exhibit a more than threefold higher activity in acid media. According to recently suggested benchmarking criteria, the iridium double perovskites are the most active catalysts for oxygen evolution in acid media reported until now, to the best of our knowledge, and exhibit similar stability to IrO2.

  4. Sputtered iridium oxide films (SIROFs) for low-impedance neural stimulation and recording electrodes.

    PubMed

    Cogan, S F; Plante, T D; Ehrlich, J

    2004-01-01

    Iridium oxide films formed by electrochemical activation of iridium metal (AIROF) or by electrochemical deposition (EIROF) are being evaluated as low-impedance charge-injection coatings for neural stimulation and recording. Iridium oxide may also be deposited by reactive sputtering from iridium metal in an oxidizing plasma. The characterization of sputtered iridium oxide films (SIROFs) as coatings for nerve electrodes is reported. SIROFs were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and potential transient measurements during charge-injection. The surface morphology of the SIROF transitions from smooth to highly nodular with increasing film thickness from 80 nm to 4600 nm. Charge-injection capacities exceed 0.75 mC/cm(2) with 0.75 ms current pulses in thicker films. The SIROF was deposited on both planar and non-planar substrates and photolithographically patterned by lift-off.

  5. 17-4 PH and 15-5 PH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Howard T.

    1995-01-01

    17-4 PH and 15-5 PH are extremely useful and versatile precipitation-hardening stainless steels. Armco 17-4 PH is well suited for the magnetic particle inspection requirements of Aerospace Material Specification. Armco 15-5 PH and 17-4 PH are produced in billet, plate, bar, and wire. Also, 15-5 PH is able to meet the stringent mechanical properties required in the aerospace and nuclear industries. Both products are easy to heat treat and machine, making them very useful in many applications.

  6. Mechanistically Driven Development of Iridium Catalysts for Asymmetric Allylic Substitution

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, John F.; Stanley, Levi M.

    2010-01-01

    Conspectus Enantioselective allylic substitution reactions comprise some of the most versatile methods for preparing enantiomerically enriched materials. These reactions form products that contain multiple functionalities by creating carbon–nitrogen, carbon–oxygen, carbon–carbon, and carbon–sulfur bonds. For many years, the development of catalysts for allylic substitution focused on palladium complexes. However, studies of complexes of other metals have revealed selectivities that often complement those of palladium systems. Most striking is the observation that reactions with unsymmetrical allylic electrophiles that typically occur with palladium catalysts at the less hindered site of an allylic electrophile occur at the more hindered site with catalysts based on other metals. In this Account, we describe an iridium precursor and a phosphoramidite ligand that catalyze reactions with a particularly broad scope of nucleophiles. The active form of this iridium catalyst is not generated by the simple binding of the phosphoramidite ligand to the metal precursor. Instead, the initial phosphoramidite and iridium precursor react in the presence of base to form a metallacyclic species that is the active catalyst. This species is generated either in situ or separately in isolated form by reactions with added base. The identification of the structure of the active catalyst led to the development of simplified catalysts as well as the most active form of the catalyst now available, which is stabilized by a loosely bound ethylene. Most recently, this structure was used to prepare intermediates containing allyl ligands, the structures of which provide a model for the enantioselectivities discussed here. Initial studies from our laboratory on the scope of iridium-catalyzed allylic substitution showed that reactions of primary and secondary amines, including alkylamines, benzylamines, and allylamines, and reactions of phenoxides and alkoxides occurred in high yields

  7. Bias-enhanced nucleation of diamond on iridium: A comprehensive study of the first stages by sequential surface analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavanne, A.; Arnault, J.-C.; Barjon, J.; Arabski, J.

    2011-03-01

    The chemical evolution of the iridium surface along the successive steps of BEN was investigated using electron spectroscopy techniques (XPS, AES). To this end, a sequential study was carried out in an UHV analysis chamber connected to a MPCVD reactor. First, experimental results were obtained on iridium surfaces exposed to a methane plasma without bias. They show a sp 2 carbon layer formation on iridium, probably due to the segregation during cooling of carbon solubilized at high temperature in iridium. In this scenario, the iridium surface would be uncovered by carbon as BEN starts. Then, the consequences of BEN were observed: (i) formation of a thicker carbon layer at the iridium surface due to carbon segregation and sub-implantation (ii) chemical modification of iridium neighboring within the first nanometers; (iii) diamond nucleation.

  8. Methanol dehydrogenation by iridium N-heterocyclic carbene complexes.

    PubMed

    Campos, Jesús; Sharninghausen, Liam S; Manas, Michael G; Crabtree, Robert H

    2015-06-01

    A series of homogeneous iridium bis(N-heterocyclic carbene) catalysts are active for three transformations involving dehydrogenative methanol activation: acceptorless dehydrogenation, transfer hydrogenation, and amine monoalkylation. The acceptorless dehydrogenation reaction requires base, yielding formate and carbonate, as well as 2-3 equivalents of H2. Of the few homogeneous systems known for this reaction, our catalysts tolerate air and employ simple ligands. Transfer hydrogenation of ketones and imines from methanol is also possible. Finally, N-monomethylation of anilines occurs through a "borrowing hydrogen" reaction. Notably, this reaction is highly selective for the monomethylated product.

  9. The solubility of hydrogen in rhodium, ruthenium, iridium and nickel.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclellan, R. B.; Oates, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    The temperature variation of the solubility of hydrogen in rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, and nickel in equilibrium with H2 gas at 1 atm pressure has been measured by a technique involving saturating the solvent metal with hydrogen, quenching, and analyzing in resultant solid solutions. The solubilities determined are small (atom fraction of H is in the range from 0.0005 to 0.00001, and the results are consistent with the simple quasi-regular model for dilute interstitial solid solutions. The relative partial enthalpy and excess entropy of the dissolved hydrogen atoms have been calculated from the solubility data and compared with well-known correlations between these quantities.

  10. Measurements of the hard-x-ray reflectivity of iridium

    SciTech Connect

    Romaine, S.; Bruni, R.; Gorenstein, P.; Zhong, Z

    2007-01-10

    In connection with the design of a hard-x-ray telescope for the Constellation X-Ray Observatory we measured the reflectivity of an iridium-coated zerodur substrate as a function of angle at 55, 60, 70, and 80 keV at the National Synchrotron Light Source of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The optical constants were derived from the reflectivity data. The real component of the index of refraction is in excellent agreement with theoretical values at all four energies. However, the imaginary component, which is related to the mass attenuation coefficient, is 50% to 70% larger at 55, 60, and 70 keV than theoretical values.

  11. Levitation of iridium and liquid mercury by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Xie, W J; Cao, C D; Lü, Y J; Wei, B

    2002-09-02

    Single-axis acoustic levitation of the heaviest solid (iridium, rho=22.6 g cm(-3)) and liquid (mercury, rho=13.6 g cm(-3) on the Earth is achieved by greatly enhancing both the levitation force and stability through optimizing the geometric parameters of the levitator. The acoustically levitated Pb-Sn eutectic alloy melt (rho=8.5 g cm(-3)) is highly undercooled by up to 38 K, which results in a microstructural transition of "lamellae-broken lamellae-dendrites." The drastic enhancement of levitation capability indicates a broader application range of single-axis acoustic levitation.

  12. Iridium-Catalyzed Kinetic Asymmetric Transformations of Racemic Allylic Benzoates

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Levi M.; Bai, Chen; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Hartwig, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Versatile methods for iridium-catalyzed, kinetic asymmetric substitution of racemic, branched allylic esters are reported. These reactions occur with a variety of aliphatic, aryl, and heteroaryl allylic benzoates to form the corresponding allylic substitution products in high yields (74–96%) with good to excellent enantioselectivity (84–98% ee) with a scope that encompasses a range of anionic carbon and heteroatom nucleophiles. These kinetic asymmetric processes occur with distinct stereochemical courses for racemic aliphatic and aromatic allylic benzoates, and the high reactivity of branched allylic benzoates enables enantioselective allylic substitutions that are slow or poorly selective with linear allylic electrophiles. PMID:20552969

  13. Luminescent cyclometallated iridium(III) complexes having acetylide ligands

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Mark E.; Bossi, Alberto; Djurovich, Peter Ivan

    2014-09-02

    The present invention relates to phosphorescent (triplet-emitting) organometallic materials. The phosphorescent materials of the present invention comprise Ir(III)cyclometallated alkynyl complexes for use as triplet light-emitting materials. The Ir(III)cyclometallated alkynyl complexes comprise at least one cyclometallating ligand and at least one alkynyl ligand bonded to the iridium. Also provided is an organic light emitting device comprising an anode, a cathode and an emissive layer between the anode and the cathode, wherein the emissive layer comprises a Ir(III)cyclometallated alkynyl complex as a triplet emitting material.

  14. Luminescent iridium(III) complexes as novel protein staining agents.

    PubMed

    Jia, Junli; Fei, Hao; Zhou, Ming

    2012-05-01

    This article reports a new class of luminescent metal complexes, biscyclometalated iridium(III) complexes with an ancillary bathophenanthroline disulfonate ligand, for staining protein bands that are separated by electrophoresis. The performances of these novel staining agents have been studied in comparison with tris(bathophenanthroline disulfonate) ruthenium(II) tetrasodium salt (i.e. RuBPS) using a commercially available imaging system. The staining agents showed different limits of detection, linear dynamic ranges, and protein-to-protein variations. The overall performances of all three stains were found to be better than or equivalent to RuBPS under the experimental conditions.

  15. Broadband iridium wire grid polarizer for UV applications.

    PubMed

    Weber, Thomas; Käsebier, Thomas; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2011-02-15

    In this Letter, we present an iridium wire grid polarizer with a large spectral working range from IR down to the UV spectral region. The required grating period of 100 nm for an application below a wavelength of 300 nm was realized using a spatial frequency doubling technique based on ultrafast electron beam writing. The optical performance of the polarizer at a wavelength of 300 nm is a transmittance of almost 60% and an extinction ratio of about 30 (15 dB). Furthermore, the oxidation resistance is discussed.

  16. Determination of iridium in mafic rocks by atomic absorption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimaldi, F.S.; Schnepfe, M.M.

    1970-01-01

    Iridium is determined in mineralized mafic rocks by atomic absorption after fire-assay concentration into a gold bead. Interelement interferences in the atomic-absorption determination are removed and Ir sensitivity is increased by buffering the solutions with a mixture of copper and sodium sulphates. Substantial amounts of Ag, Al, Au, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Ho, Hg, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Te, Ti, V, Y, Zn and platinum metals can be tolerated in the atomic-absorption determination. The sensitivity and detection limits are 3.2 and 0.25 ppm of Ir, respectively. ?? 1970.

  17. 46 CFR 174.220 - Hatches and coamings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Offshore Supply Vessels § 174.220 Hatches and... securing-devices; and (2) Be attached to the hatch frame or coaming by hinges, captive chains, or other...

  18. 46 CFR 160.174-7 - Approval procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-7 Approval procedures. (a) General. A thermal protective aid is approved by the Coast Guard under the procedures in subpart 159.005...

  19. 46 CFR 160.174-7 - Approval procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-7 Approval procedures. (a) General. A thermal protective aid is approved by the Coast Guard under the procedures in subpart 159.005...

  20. 46 CFR 174.050 - Stability on bottom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.050... subjected to the forces of wave and current and to wind blowing at the velocities described in §...

  1. 7 CFR 1.74 - Basis for special working relationships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Production of Television Films § 1.74 Basis for special working relationships. The Department and its agencies may lend special assistance on television films when it is clearly evident that public interests...

  2. 7 CFR 1.74 - Basis for special working relationships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Production of Television Films § 1.74 Basis for special working relationships. The Department and its agencies may lend special assistance on television films when it is clearly evident that public...

  3. 7 CFR 1.74 - Basis for special working relationships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Production of Television Films § 1.74 Basis for special working relationships. The Department and its agencies may lend special assistance on television films when it is clearly evident that public...

  4. 7 CFR 1.74 - Basis for special working relationships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Production of Television Films § 1.74 Basis for special working relationships. The Department and its agencies may lend special assistance on television films when it is clearly evident that public...

  5. 7 CFR 1.74 - Basis for special working relationships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Production of Television Films § 1.74 Basis for special working relationships. The Department and its agencies may lend special assistance on television films when it is clearly evident that public...

  6. 174. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WEST CORNER OF STORAGE AREA ADDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    174. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WEST CORNER OF STORAGE AREA ADDED AS PART OF 1905 ELEVATOR ADDITION. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  7. 46 CFR 174.040 - Stability requirements: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.040... draft for navigation, towing, or drilling afloat, or at a temporary draft when changing drafts. ...

  8. 46 CFR 174.040 - Stability requirements: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.040... draft for navigation, towing, or drilling afloat, or at a temporary draft when changing drafts. ...

  9. 37 CFR 1.74 - Reference to drawings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Specification § 1.74... specifying the numbers of the figures and to the different parts by use of reference letters or numerals...

  10. 37 CFR 1.74 - Reference to drawings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Specification § 1.74... specifying the numbers of the figures and to the different parts by use of reference letters or numerals...

  11. 49 CFR 174.50 - Nonconforming or leaking packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 174.50 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL... through telephonic or electronic means, with subsequent written confirmation provided within two...

  12. 49 CFR 174.5 - Carrier's materials and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements of this subchapter do not apply to railway torpedoes or fusees when carried in engines or rail cars. Railway torpedoes must be in closed metal boxes when not in use. [Amdt. 174-26B, 41 FR 57071, Dec...

  13. 46 CFR 174.020 - Alternate intact stability criterion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Deck Cargo Barges § 174.020... 170 of this chapter if it has the following characteristics: (a) The weather deck is watertight....

  14. 46 CFR 174.007 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... are: American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. ASTM F 1196-94, Standard Specification for Sliding Watertight Door Assemblies—174.100 ASTM F...

  15. Dynamic high-temperature characterization of an iridium alloy in tension

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Bo; Nelson, Kevin; Jin, Helena; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Bignell, John; Ulrich, G. B.; George, E. P.

    2015-09-01

    Iridium alloys have been utilized as structural materials for certain high-temperature applications, due to their superior strength and ductility at elevated temperatures. The mechanical properties, including failure response at high strain rates and elevated temperatures of the iridium alloys need to be characterized to better understand high-speed impacts at elevated temperatures. A DOP-26 iridium alloy has been dynamically characterized in compression at elevated temperatures with high-temperature Kolsky compression bar techniques. However, the dynamic high-temperature compression tests were not able to provide sufficient dynamic high-temperature failure information of the iridium alloy. In this study, we modified current room-temperature Kolsky tension bar techniques for obtaining dynamic tensile stress-strain curves of the DOP-26 iridium alloy at two different strain rates (~1000 and ~3000 s-1) and temperatures (~750°C and ~1030°C). The effects of strain rate and temperature on the tensile stress-strain response of the iridium alloy were determined. The DOP-26 iridium alloy exhibited high ductility in stress-strain response that strongly depended on both strain rate and temperature.

  16. Microindentation hardness evaluation of iridium alloy clad vent set cups

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, G.B.; DeRoos, L.F.; Stinnette, S.E. )

    1993-01-15

    An iridium alloy, DOP-26, is used as cladding for [sup 238]PuO[sub 2] fuel in radioisotope heat sources for space power systems. Presently, DOP-26 iridium alloy clad vent sets (CVS) are being manufactured at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for potential use in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cassini mission to Saturn. Wrought/ground/stress relieved blanks are warm formed into CVS cups. These cups are then annealed to recrystallize the material for subsequent fabrication/assembly operations as well as for final use. One of the cup manufacturing certification requirements is to test for Vickers microindentation hardness. New microindentation hardness specification limits, 210 to 310 HV, have been established for a test load of 1000 grams-force (gf). The original specification limits, 250 to 350 HV, were for 200 gf testing. The primary reason for switching to a higher test load was to reduce variability in the test data. The DOP-26 alloy exhibits microindentation hardness load dependence, therefore, new limits were needed for 1000 gf testing. The new limits were established by testing material from 15 CVS cups using 200 gf and 1000 gf loads and then statistically analyzing the data. Additional work using a Knoop indenter and a 10 gf load indicated that the DOP-26 alloy grain boundaries have higher hardnesses than the grain interiors.

  17. Microindentation hardness evaluation of iridium alloy clad vent set cups

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, G.B.; DeRoos, L.F.; Stinnette, S.E.

    1992-05-15

    An iridium alloy, DOP-26, is used as cladding for {sup 238}PuO{sup 2} fuel in radioisotope heat sources for space power systems. Presently, DOP-26 iridium alloy clad vent sets (CVS) are being manufactured at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for potential use in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration`s Cassini mission to Saturn. Wrought/ground/stress relieved blanks are warm formed into CVS cups. These cups are then annealed to recrystallize the material for subsequent fabrication/assembly operations as well as for final use. One of the cup manufacturing certification requirements is to test for Vickers microindentation hardness. New microindentation hardness specification limits, 210 to 310 HV, have been established for a test load of 1000 grams-force (gf). The original specification limits, 250 to 350 HV, were for 200 gf testing. The primary reason for switching to a higher test load was to reduce variability in the test data. The DOP-26 alloy exhibits microindentation hardness load dependence, therefore, new limits were needed for 1000 gf testing. The new limits were established by testing material from 15 CVS cups using 200 gf and 1000 gf loads and then statistically analyzing the data. Additional work using a Knoop indenter and a 10 gf load indicated that the DOP-26 alloy grain boundaries have higher hardnesses than the grain interiors.

  18. Microindentation hardness evaluation of iridium alloy clad vent set cups

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, G.B.; DeRoos, L.F.; Stinnette, S.E.

    1992-05-15

    An iridium alloy, DOP-26, is used as cladding for {sup 238}PuO{sup 2} fuel in radioisotope heat sources for space power systems. Presently, DOP-26 iridium alloy clad vent sets (CVS) are being manufactured at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for potential use in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cassini mission to Saturn. Wrought/ground/stress relieved blanks are warm formed into CVS cups. These cups are then annealed to recrystallize the material for subsequent fabrication/assembly operations as well as for final use. One of the cup manufacturing certification requirements is to test for Vickers microindentation hardness. New microindentation hardness specification limits, 210 to 310 HV, have been established for a test load of 1000 grams-force (gf). The original specification limits, 250 to 350 HV, were for 200 gf testing. The primary reason for switching to a higher test load was to reduce variability in the test data. The DOP-26 alloy exhibits microindentation hardness load dependence, therefore, new limits were needed for 1000 gf testing. The new limits were established by testing material from 15 CVS cups using 200 gf and 1000 gf loads and then statistically analyzing the data. Additional work using a Knoop indenter and a 10 gf load indicated that the DOP-26 alloy grain boundaries have higher hardnesses than the grain interiors.

  19. Microindentation hardness evaluation of iridium alloy clad vent set cups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, George B.; DeRoos, Larry F.; Stinnette, Samuel E.

    1993-01-01

    An iridium alloy, DOP-26, is used as cladding for 238PuO2 fuel in radioisotope heat sources for space power systems. Presently, DOP-26 iridium alloy clad vent sets (CVS) are being manufactured at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for potential use in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cassini mission to Saturn. Wrought/ground/stress relieved blanks are warm formed into CVS cups. These cups are then annealed to recrystallize the material for subsequent fabrication/assembly operations as well as for final use. One of the cup manufacturing certification requirements is to test for Vickers microindentation hardness. New microindentation hardness specification limits, 210 to 310 HV, have been established for a test load of 1000 grams-force (gf). The original specification limits, 250 to 350 HV, were for 200 gf testing. The primary reason for switching to a higher test load was to reduce variability in the test data. The DOP-26 alloy exhibits microindentation hardness load dependence, therefore, new limits were needed for 1000 gf testing. The new limits were established by testing material from 15 CVS cups using 200 gf and 1000 gf loads and then statistically analyzing the data. Additional work using a Knoop indenter and a 10 gf load indicated that the DOP-26 alloy grain boundaries have higher hardnesses than the grain interiors.

  20. Iridium and tantalum foils for spaceflight neutron dosimetry.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, R. A.; Liles, E. D.

    1972-01-01

    Description of a two-foil system of iridium and tantalum which can measure thermal and intermediate energy neutrons at flux densities of 1 neutron/sq cm-sec over a ten-day lunar mission (1,000,000 neutrons/sq cm). The foils are chemically inert and nontoxic, weigh less than 1 g each, and require only routine gamma pulse height analysis for activation measurement. Detection of fluences below 1,000,000 neutrons/sq cm are achieved for counts of foil activity made as late as two months following neutron exposure. Tantalum foils flown in Apollo 11 indicated a mean dose equivalent to the astronauts of less than 16 mrem from thermal plus intermediate energy neutrons, while nuclear emulsion track analysis indicated approximately 17 mrem from neutrons of energy greater than 0.6 MeV. Iridium foils flown on Apollo 12 indicated dose equivalents of 1.8 to 2.8 mrem from thermal neutrons, excluding tissue thermalized SNAP-27 neutrons.

  1. Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Isoxazolium Triflates with a Chiral Iridium Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Ryuhei; Kuwano, Ryoichi

    2016-06-13

    The iridium catalyst [IrCl(cod)]2 -phosphine-I2 (cod=1,5-cyclooctadiene) selectively reduced isoxazolium triflates to isoxazolines or isoxazolidines in the presence of H2 . The iridium-catalyzed hydrogenation proceeded in high-to-good enantioselectivity when an optically active phosphine-oxazoline ligand was used. The 3-substituted 5-arylisoxazolium salts were transformed into 4-isoxazolines with up to 95:5 enantiomeric ratio (e.r.). Chiral cis-isoxazolidines were obtained in up to 89:11 e.r., with no formation of their trans isomers, when the substrates had a primary alkyl substituent at the 5-position. The mechanistic studies indicate that the hydridoiridium(III) species prefers to deliver its hydride to the C5 atom of the isoxazole ring. The hydride attack leads to the formation of the chiral isoxazolidine via a 3-isoxazoline intermediate. Meanwhile, in the selective formation of 4-isoxazolines, hydride attack at the C5 atom may be obstructed by steric hindrance from the 5-aryl substituent. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Analysis and Consequences of the Iridium 33-Cosmos 2251 Collision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anz-Meador, P. D.; Liou, Jer-Chi

    2010-01-01

    The collision of Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251, on 10 February 2009, was the first known unintentional hypervelocity collision in space of intact satellites. Iridium 33 was an active commercial telecommunications satellite, while Cosmos 2251 was a derelict communication satellite of the Strela-2M class. The collision occurred at a relative velocity of 11.6 km/s at an altitude of approximately 790 km over the Great Siberian Plain and near the northern apex of Cosmos 2251 s orbit. This paper describes the physical and orbital characteristics of the relevant spacecraft classes and reports upon our analysis of the resulting debris clouds size, mass, area-to-mass ratio, and relative velocity/directionality distributions. We compare these distributions to those predicted by the NASA breakup model and notable recent fragmentation events; in particular, we compare the area-to-mass ratio distribution for each spacecraft to that exhibited by the FY-1C debris cloud for the purpose of assessing the relative contribution of modern aerospace materials to debris clouds resulting from energetic collisions. In addition, we examine the long-term consequences of this event for the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. Finally, we discuss "lessons learned", which may be incorporated into NASA s environmental models.

  3. Testing of Wrought Iridium/Chemical Vapor Deposition Rhenium Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian D.; Schneider, Steven J.

    1996-01-01

    A 22-N class, iridium/rhenium (Ir/Re) rocket chamber, composed of a thick (418 miocrometer) wrought iridium (Ir) liner and a rhenium substrate deposited via chemical vapor deposition, was tested over an extended period on gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen (GO2/GH2) propellants. The test conditions were designed to produce species concentrations similar to those expected in an Earth-storable propellant combustion environment. Temperatures attained in testing were significantly higher than those expected with Earth-storable propellants, both because of the inherently higher combustion temperature of GO2/GH2 propellants and because the exterior surface of the rocket was not treated with a high-emissivity coating that would be applied to flight class rockets. Thus the test conditions were thought to represent a more severe case than for typical operational applications. The chamber successfully completed testing (over 11 hr accumulated in 44 firings), and post-test inspections showed little degradation of the Ir liner. The results indicate that use of a thick, wrought Ir liner is a viable alternative to the Ir coatings currently used for Ir/Re rockets.

  4. Analysis of Abrasive Blasting of DOP-26 Iridium Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Ohriner, Evan Keith; Zhang, Wei; Ulrich, George B

    2012-01-01

    The effects of abrasive blasting on the surface geometry and microstructure of DOP-26 iridium alloy (Ir-0.3% W-0.006% Th 0.005% Al) have been investigated. Abrasive blasting has been used to control emissivity of components operating at elevated temperature. The effects of abrasive blasting conditions on surface morphology were investigated both experimentally and by numerical modeling. The simplified model, based on finite element analysis of a single angular particle impacting on Ir alloy disk, calculates the surface deformation and residual strain distribution. The experimental results and modeling results both indicate that the surface geometry is not sensitive to the abrasive blast process conditions of nozzle pressure and standoff distance considered in this study. On the other hand, the modeling results suggest that the angularity of the abrasive particle has an important role in determining surface geometry, which in turn, affects the emissivity. Abrasive blasting causes localized surface strains and localized recrystallization, but it does not affect grain size following extended exposure at elevated temperature. The dependence of emissivity of the DOP-26 alloy on mean surface slope follows a similar trend to that reported for pure iridium.

  5. Iridium thin films deposited via pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chenglin

    High purity Ir thin films for future applications as transition-edge sensors were deposited on Si (100) via pulsed laser deposition. The iridium deposition rate was investigated and found to have a high value with the pulsed laser power higher than 4.2×10 9 W/cm 2 . At this laser intensity range, the PLD Ir films were deposited at substrate temperature ranging from 100 to 700°C. Ir thin films' characteristics were investigated at both room temperature and low temperature with the emphasis on study of the effect of the substrate temperature during deposition on the structure and morphology of the films. The PLD films exhibited a (110) preferentially oriented polycrystalline structure. Their average grain size increased from about 30 to 110 nm as the deposition temperature was raised from 100 to 600°C. With a 700°C substrate temperature the grain size jumped to 500 nm. Iridium silicide was found in the film deposited at 700°C substrate temperature. This indicated a critical deposition temperature between 600 and 700°C. A 50 mK platform was built for low temperature measurements. At low temperature, the Residual Resistance Ratio (RRR) of the Ir thin films had a typical value of 1.50. A typical transition curve of the film showed a transition temperature higher and wider than expected.

  6. Phosphorescent Neutral Iridium (III) Complexes for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Bin Mohd Yusoff, Abd Rashid; Huckaba, Aron J; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2017-04-01

    The development of transition metal complexes for application in light-emitting devices is currently attracting significant research interest. Among phosphorescent emitters, those involving iridium (III) complexes have proven to be exceedingly useful due to their relatively short triplet lifetime and high phosphorescence quantum yields. The emission wavelength of iridium (III) complexes significantly depends on the ligands, and changing the electronic nature and the position of the ligand substituents can control the properties of the ligands. In this chapter, we discuss recent developments of phosphorescent transition metal complexes for organic light-emitting diode applications focusing solely on the development of iridium metal complexes.

  7. Formylated chloro-bridged iridium(III) dimers as OLED materials: opening up new possibilities.

    PubMed

    Wong, Michael Y; Xie, Guohua; Tourbillon, Clarisse; Sandroni, Martina; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Samuel, Ifor D W; Zysman-Colman, Eli

    2015-05-14

    In this study, a series of four formyl-substituted chloro-bridged iridium(iii) dimers were prepared. Their absorption, photophysical and electrochemical properties were studied in dichloromethane solution. It was found that as the formyl content increased on the cyclometalating ligands, emission unexpectedly became brighter. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were fabricated using each of these iridium dimers as the emitter. The OLED fabricated using the brightest of the series, 2b, as the dopant afforded a decent external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 2.6%. This suggests that chloro-bridged iridium dimers are potential candidates as solid-state emitters.

  8. Identification of an Iridium(III)-Based Inhibitor of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α.

    PubMed

    Kang, Tian-Shu; Mao, Zhifeng; Ng, Chan-Tat; Wang, Modi; Wang, Wanhe; Wang, Chunming; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Wang, Yitao; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2016-04-28

    The novel iridium(III) complex 1 was verified as a potent inhibitor of the TNF-α-TNFR protein-protein interaction in vitro and in cellulo. The iridium(III) center plays a critical role in organizing the structure of the bioactive metal complex, as the isolated ligands were found to be completely inactive. Both iridium enantiomers inhibited TNF-α-induced NF-κB activity and TNF-α-TNFR binding. 1 represents a promising scaffold for the further development of more potent organometallic TNF-α inhibitors.

  9. Iridium anomaly in the Cretaceous section of the Eastern Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savelyev, Dmitry; Savelyeva, Olga

    2010-05-01

    The origin of iridium anomalies is widely discussed with regard to massive fauna and flora extinction at several geologic boundaries. Two hypotheses are most popular, cosmogenic and volcanogenic. Anomalies of iridium are known at many stratigraphic levels, both at the geologic series borders and within geologic series. Our studies revealed increased content of iridium in a section of Cretaceous oceanic deposits on the Kamchatsky Mys Peninsula (Eastern Kamchatka, Russia). The investigated section (56°03.353´N, 163°00.376´E) includes interbedded jaspers and siliceous limestones overlaying pillow-basalts. These deposits belong to the Smagin Formation of the Albian-Cenomanian age. In the middle and upper parts of the section two beds of black carbonaceous rocks with sapropelic organic matter were observed. Their formation marked likely episodes of oxygen depletion of oceanic intermediate water (oceanic anoxic events). Our geochemical studies revealed an enrichment of the carbonaceous beds in a number of major and trace elements (Al2O3, TiO2, FeO, MgO, K2O, P2O5, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, V, Mo, Ba, Y, Zr, Nb, REE, U, Au, Pt etc.) in comparison with associating jaspers and limestones. There are likely different sources which contributed to the enrichment. It is possible however to correlate the excess of Al, Ti, Zr, Nb with volcanogenic admixture, which is absent in limestones and jaspers. A possible source of the volcanogenic material was local volcanism as suggested by the close association of the investigated section with volcanic rocks (basaltic lavas and hyaloclastites). The basalts of the Smagin Formation were previously proposed to originate during Cretaceous activity of the Hawaiian mantle plume (Portnyagin et al., Geology, 2008). Neutron activation analysis indicated increased up to 9 ppb concentration of Ir at the bottom of the lower carbonaceous bed (inorganic part of the sample was analyzed comprising 46% of the bulk rock). In other samples Ir content was below

  10. A preliminary study of factors affecting the calibration stability of the iridium versus iridium-40 percent rhodium thermocouple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Shaffiq; Germain, Edward F.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Alderfer, David W.; Wright, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    An iridium versus iridium-40% rhodium thermocouple was studied. Problems associated with the use of this thermocouple for high temperature applications (up to 2000 C) were investigated. The metallurgical studies included X-ray, macroscopic, resistance, and metallographic studies. The thermocouples in the as-received condition from the manufacturer revealed large amounts of internal stress caused by cold working during manufacturing. The thermocouples also contained a large amount of inhomogeneities and segregations. No phase transformations were observed in the alloy up to 1100 C. It was found that annealing the thermocouple at 1800 C for two hours, and then at 1400 C for 2 to 3 hours yielded a fine grain structure, relieving some of the strains, and making the wire more ductile. It was also found that the above annealing procedure stabilized the thermal emf behavior of the thermocouple for application below 1800 C (an improvement from + or - 1% to + or - 0.02% within the range of the test parameters used).

  11. Investigations of iridium-mediated reversible C-H bond cleavage: characterization of a 16-electron iridium(III) methyl hydride complex.

    PubMed

    Bernskoetter, Wesley H; Hanson, Susan Kloek; Buzak, Sara K; Davis, Zoe; White, Peter S; Swartz, Rodney; Goldberg, Karen I; Brookhart, Maurice

    2009-06-24

    New iridium complexes of a tridentate pincer ligand, 2,6-bis(di-tert-butylphosphinito)pyridine (PONOP), have been prepared and used in the study of hydrocarbon C-H bond activation. Intermolecular oxidative addition of a benzene C-H bond was directly observed with [(PONOP)Ir(I)(cyclooctene)][PF(6)] at ambient temperature, resulting in a cationic five-coordinate iridium(III) phenyl hydride product. Protonation of the (PONOP)Ir(I) methyl complex yielded the corresponding iridium(III) methyl hydride cation, a rare five-coordinate, 16-valence electron transition metal alkyl hydride species which was characterized by X-ray diffraction. Kinetic studies of C-H bond coupling and reductive elimination reactions from the five-coordinate complexes have been carried out. Exchange NMR spectroscopy measurements established a barrier of 17.8(4) kcal/mol (22 degrees C) for H-C(aryl) bond coupling in the iridium(III) phenyl hydride cation and of 9.3(4) kcal/mol (-105 degrees C) for the analogous H-C(alkyl) coupling in the iridium(III) methyl hydride cation. The origin of the higher barrier of H-C(aryl) relative to H-C(alkyl) bond coupling is proposed to be influenced by a hindered rotation about the Ir-C(aryl) bond, a result of the sterically demanding PONOP ligand.

  12. Triply Halide-Bridged Dinuclear Iridium(III) Complexes with Chiral Diphosphine Ligands as New Easy-to-Handle Iridium Catalysts for Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Imines and N-Heteroaromatics.

    PubMed

    Mashima, Kazushi; Higashida, Kosuke; Iimuro, Atsuhiro; Nagae, Haruki; Kita, Yusuke

    2016-12-01

    Iridium(III) complexes bearing chiral ligands have proved to be active species in asymmetric hydrogenation of C=N bonds, though there are only a few iridium(III) precursors. We prepared triply halide-bridged dinuclear iridium complexes bearing chiral diphosphine ligands by simple treatment of the iridium(I) precursor, chiral diphosphine, and aqueous hydrogen halide. The strong advantage of these dinuclear iridium complexes is that they are air and moisture stable, leading to easy handling in asymmetric synthesis. The dinuclear iridium complexes exhibited high catalytic activity toward asymmetric hydrogenation of imines and N-heteroaromatics. Moreover, we demonstrated the application of triply halide-bridged dinuclear ruthenium(II) and rhodium(III) catalyst precursors for the asymmetric hydrogenation of ketonic substrates and simple olefins, respectively. © 2016 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Neutral iridium catalysts with chiral phosphine-carboxy ligands for asymmetric hydrogenation of unsaturated carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuang; Che, Wen; Wu, Hui-Ling; Zhu, Shou-Fei; Zhou, Qi-Lin

    2017-03-01

    We developed neutral iridium catalysts with chiral spiro phosphine-carboxy ligands (SpiroCAP) for asymmetric hydrogenation of unsaturated carboxylic acids. Different from the cationic Crabtree-type catalysts, the iridium catalysts with chiral spiro phosphine-carboxy ligands are neutral and do not require the use of a tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate (BArF(-)) counterion, which is necessary for stabilizing cationic Crabtree-type catalysts. Another advantage of the neutral iridium catalysts is that they have high stability and have a long lifetime in air. The new iridium catalysts with chiral spiro phosphine-carboxy ligands exhibit unprecedented high enantioselectivity (up to 99.4% ee) in the asymmetric hydrogenations of various unsaturated carboxylic acids, particularly for 3-alkyl-3-methylenepropionic acids, which are challenging substrates for other chiral catalysts.

  14. Synthesis and luminescence properties of iridium(III) azide- and triazole-bisterpyridine complexes.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Daniel C; Peterson, Joshua R; Cheng, Yuen Yap; Clady, Raphael G C; Schmidt, Timothy W; Thordarson, Pall

    2013-07-26

    We describe here the synthesis of azide-functionalised iridium(III) bisterpyridines using the "chemistry on the complex" strategy. The resulting azide-complexes are then used in the copper(I)-catalysed azide-alkyne Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition "click chemistry" reaction to from the corresponding triazole-functionalised iridium(III) bisterpyridines. The photophysical characteristics, including lifetimes, of these compounds were also investigated. Interestingly, oxygen appears to have very little effect on the lifetime of these complexes in aqueous solutions. Unexpectedly, sodium ascorbate acid appears to quench the luminescence of triazole-functionalised iridium(III) bisterpyridines, but this effect can be reversed by the addition of copper(II) sulfate, which is known to oxidize ascorbate under aerobic conditions. The results demonstrate that iridium(III) bisterpyridines can be functionalized for use in "click chemistry" facilitating the use of these photophysically interesting complexes in the modification of polymers or surfaces, to highlight just two possible applications.

  15. Cyclometalated iridium(III) polypyridine dibenzocyclooctyne complexes as the first phosphorescent bioorthogonal probes.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kenneth Kam-Wing; Chan, Bruce Ting-Ngok; Liu, Hua-Wei; Zhang, Kenneth Yin; Li, Steve Po-Yam; Tang, Tommy Siu-Ming

    2013-05-14

    We report the synthesis, photophysical behavior, and biological properties of new cyclometalated iridium(iii) polypyridine complexes appended with a dibenzocyclooctyne (DIBO) moiety; these complexes have been utilized as the first phosphorescent bioorthogonal probes for azide-modified biomolecules.

  16. Iridium-catalyzed hydrogen transfer: synthesis of substituted benzofurans, benzothiophenes, and indoles from benzyl alcohols.

    PubMed

    Anxionnat, Bruno; Gomez Pardo, Domingo; Ricci, Gino; Rossen, Kai; Cossy, Janine

    2013-08-02

    An iridium-catalyzed hydrogen transfer has been developed in the presence of p-benzoquinone, allowing the synthesis of a diversity of substituted benzofurans, benzothiophenes, and indoles from substituted benzylic alcohols.

  17. Iridium-catalyst-based autonomous bubble-propelled graphene micromotors with ultralow catalyst loading.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Sofer, Zdeněk; Eng, Alex Yong Sheng; Pumera, Martin

    2014-11-10

    A novel concept of an iridium-based bubble-propelled Janus-particle-type graphene micromotor with very high surface area and with very low catalyst loading is described. The low loading of Ir catalyst (0.54 at %) allows for fast motion of graphene microparticles with high surface area of 316.2 m(2)  g(-1). The micromotor was prepared with a simple and scalable method by thermal exfoliation of iridium-doped graphite oxide precursor composite in hydrogen atmosphere. Oxygen bubbles generated from the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide at the iridium catalytic sites provide robust propulsion thrust for the graphene micromotor. The high surface area and low iridium catalyst loading of the bubble-propelled graphene motors offer great possibilities for dramatically enhanced cargo delivery. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Iridium-Catalyzed Selective Isomerization of Primary Allylic Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Li, Houhua; Mazet, Clément

    2016-06-21

    This Account presents the development of the iridium-catalyzed isomerization of primary allylic alcohols in our laboratory over the past 8 years. Our initial interest was driven by the long-standing challenge associated with the development of a general catalyst even for the nonasymmetric version of this seemingly simple chemical transformation. The added value of the aldehyde products and the possibility to rapidly generate molecular complexity from readily accessible allylic alcohols upon a redox-economical isomerization reaction were additional sources of motivation. Certainly influenced by the success story of the related isomerization of allylic amines, most catalysts developed for the selective isomerization of allylic alcohols were focused on rhodium as a transition metal of choice. Our approach has been based on the commonly accepted precept that hydrogenation and isomerization are often competing processes, with the latter being usually suppressed in favor of the former. The cationic iridium complexes [(Cy3P)(pyridine)Ir(cod)]X developed by Crabtree (X = PF6) and Pfaltz (X = BArF) are usually considered as the most versatile catalysts for the hydrogenation of allylic alcohols. Using molecular hydrogen to generate controlled amounts of the active form of these complexes but performing the reaction in the absence of molecular hydrogen enabled deviation from the typical hydrogenation manifold and favored exclusively the isomerization of allylic alcohols into aldehydes. Isotopic labeling and crossover experiments revealed the intermolecular nature of the process. Systematic variation of the ligand on the iridium center allowed us to identify the structural features beneficial for catalytic activity. Subsequently, three generations of chiral catalysts have been investigated and enabled us to reach excellent levels of enantioselectivity for a wide range of 3,3-disubstituted aryl/alkyl and alkyl/alkyl primary allylic alcohols leading to β-chiral aldehydes. The

  19. Analysis and Implications of the Iridium 33-Cosmos 2251 Collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, T. S.

    On 2009 February 10, Iridium 33--an operational US communications satellite in low-Earth orbit--was struck and destroyed by Cosmos 2251--a long-defunct Russian communications satellite. This is the first time since the dawn of the Space Age that two satellites have collided in orbit. To better understand the circumstances of this event and the ramifications for avoiding similar events in the future, this paper provides a detailed analysis of the predictions leading up to the collision, using various data sources, and looks in detail at the collision, the evolution of the debris clouds, and the long-term implications for satellite operations. The only publicly available system available to satellite operators for screening for close approaches, SOCRATES, did predict this close approach, but it certainly wasn't the closest approach predicted for the week of February 10. In fact, at the time of the collision, SOCRATES ranked this close approach 152 of the 11,428 within 5 km of any payload. A detailed breakdown is provided to help understand the limitations of screening for close approaches using the two-line orbital element sets. Information is also provided specifically for the Iridium constellation to provide an understanding of how these limitations affect decision making for satellite operators. Post-event analysis using high-accuracy orbital data sources will be presented to show how that information might have been used to prevent this collision, had it been available and used. Analysis of the collision event, along with the distribution of the debris relative to the original orbits, will be presented to help develop an understanding of the geometry of the collision and the near-term evolution of the resulting debris clouds. Additional analysis will be presented to show the long-term evolution of the debris clouds, including orbital lifetimes, and estimate the increased risk for operations conducted by Iridium and other satellite operators in the low-Earth orbit

  20. Inhibition of Beta-Amyloid Fibrillation by Luminescent Iridium(III) Complex Probes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lihua; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Wang, Modi; Ho, See-Lok; Li, Hung-Wing; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2015-01-01

    We report herein the application of kinetically inert luminescent iridium(III) complexes as dual inhibitors and probes of beta-amyloid fibrillogenesis. These iridium(III) complexes inhibited Aβ1–40 peptide aggregation in vitro, and protected against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in neuronal cells. Furthermore, the complexes differentiated between the aggregated and unaggregated forms of Aβ1–40 peptide on the basis of their emission response. PMID:26419607

  1. Concepts for Cost-Effective Enhanced Cryosat Continuity: Opportunity in the Iridium PRIME Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roy, Y.; Caubet, E.; Silverstrin, P.; Legrand, C.

    2016-08-01

    The Iridium-PRIME offer, recently initiated by the Iridium company, consists in hosting payloads on customized low cost Iridium-NEXT platforms on which the main telecom mission antenna (L-band) is removed. This leaves significant resources in terms of mass, volume and power consumption to host up to three payloads on these customized platforms. The Iridium-PRIME satellites will be inserted in the Iridium-NEXT constellation to take benefit of the low cost operation service (command, control and data telemetry through the life time of the Iridium-PRIME mission). Given the synergy between schedules of the Iridium-PRIME program (launches starting around 2020) and of a possible CryoSat Follow-On (FO) mission (launch around 2022) and the adequacy of the available on-board resources for such a mission, ESA tasked Thales Alenia Space, as responsible for the SIRAL radar instrument of the currently in-orbit CryoSat mission, to study the feasibility of a concept for enhanced continuity of CryoSat on an Iridium- PRIME satellite as potential low-cost fast-track solution. The study aimed to define a cost-effective topographic payload including not only the SIRAL radar but also the necessary sub-systems to retrieve the SIRAL antenna baseline attitude (star trackers) with high accuracy and to perform a Precise Orbit Determination (POD). All these aspects are presented in this paper. In addition, possible evolutions/improvements of the Ku-band radar instrument were analysed and are presented: adding a Ka-band nadir measurement capability and a Ku-band or Ka-band wide swath mode measurement capability. The transmission issue for the SIRAL science data is also discussed in the paper.

  2. Multidirectional Synthesis of Substituted Indazoles via Iridium-Catalyzed C-H Borylation.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Scott A; Hones, Andrew C; Roberts, Bryan; Blakemore, David; Marder, Todd B; Steel, Patrick G

    2015-05-15

    In the absence of a steric directing group, iridium-catalyzed C-H borylation of N-protected indazoles occurs rapidly and selectively at C-3 and the resulting boronate esters can be utilized in a range of downstream conversions. The functional group tolerance of the iridium-catalyzed C-H borylation reaction enables simple and efficient multidirectional syntheses of substituted indazoles to be realized.

  3. Inhibition of Beta-Amyloid Fibrillation by Luminescent Iridium(III) Complex Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Lihua; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Wang, Modi; Ho, See-Lok; Li, Hung-Wing; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2015-09-01

    We report herein the application of kinetically inert luminescent iridium(III) complexes as dual inhibitors and probes of beta-amyloid fibrillogenesis. These iridium(III) complexes inhibited Aβ1-40 peptide aggregation in vitro, and protected against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in neuronal cells. Furthermore, the complexes differentiated between the aggregated and unaggregated forms of Aβ1-40 peptide on the basis of their emission response.

  4. Inhibition of Beta-Amyloid Fibrillation by Luminescent Iridium(III) Complex Probes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lihua; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Wang, Modi; Ho, See-Lok; Li, Hung-Wing; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2015-09-30

    We report herein the application of kinetically inert luminescent iridium(III) complexes as dual inhibitors and probes of beta-amyloid fibrillogenesis. These iridium(III) complexes inhibited Aβ1-40 peptide aggregation in vitro, and protected against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in neuronal cells. Furthermore, the complexes differentiated between the aggregated and unaggregated forms of Aβ1-40 peptide on the basis of their emission response.

  5. Iridium NEXT partnership for Earth observation: exploiting global satellite constellations for new remote sensing capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Om P.

    2008-08-01

    A unique opportunity exists to host up to 66 earth observation sensors on the Iridium NEXT LEO constellation in a manner that can revolutionize earth observation and weather predictions. A constellation approach to sensing, using the real-time communications backbone of Iridium, will enable unprecedented geospatial and temporal sampling for now-casting of weather on a global basis as well as global climate monitoring. The Iridium NEXT constellation, with 66 interconnected satellites in 6 near polar orbiting planes, provides a unique platform for hosting a variety of earth observation missions. The opportunity is proposed as a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) allowing for the sharing of infrastructure by government agencies. This has the potential to augment current and planned climate and weather observation programs in a very cost effective manner not achievable in any other way. Iridium, with the assistance of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), NASA, NOAA, and ESA, has evaluated a number of sensing missions that would be a good fit to the Iridium NEXT constellation. These include GPS radio occultation sensors, earth radiation budget measurements, radio altimetry, tropospheric and stratospheric winds measurements including polar winds measurements, and atmospheric chemistry. Iridium NEXT launches start in 2013 and constellation operational life will extend beyond 2030. Detailed feasibility studies on specific missions are planned to begin later this year.

  6. Dynamic High-Temperature Characterization of an Iridium Alloy in Compression at High Strain Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Bo; Nelson, Kevin; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Bignell, John L.; Ulrich, G. B.; George, E. P.

    2014-06-01

    Iridium alloys have superior strength and ductility at elevated temperatures, making them useful as structural materials for certain high-temperature applications. However, experimental data on their high-temperature high-strain-rate performance are needed for understanding high-speed impacts in severe elevated-temperature environments. Kolsky bars (also called split Hopkinson bars) have been extensively employed for high-strain-rate characterization of materials at room temperature, but it has been challenging to adapt them for the measurement of dynamic properties at high temperatures. Current high-temperature Kolsky compression bar techniques are not capable of obtaining satisfactory high-temperature high-strain-rate stress-strain response of thin iridium specimens investigated in this study. We analyzed the difficulties encountered in high-temperature Kolsky compression bar testing of thin iridium alloy specimens. Appropriate modifications were made to the current high-temperature Kolsky compression bar technique to obtain reliable compressive stress-strain response of an iridium alloy at high strain rates (300 – 10000 s-1) and temperatures (750°C and 1030°C). Uncertainties in such high-temperature high-strain-rate experiments on thin iridium specimens were also analyzed. The compressive stress-strain response of the iridium alloy showed significant sensitivity to strain rate and temperature.

  7. Possibility to realize spin-orbit-induced correlated physics in iridium fluorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, M.; Retegan, M.; Giacobbe, C.; Fumagalli, R.; Efimenko, A.; Kulka, T.; Wohlfeld, K.; Gubanov, A. I.; Moretti Sala, M.

    2017-06-01

    Recent theoretical predictions of "unprecedented proximity" of the electronic ground state of iridium fluorides to the SU(2) symmetric jeff=1 /2 limit, relevant for superconductivity in iridates, motivated us to investigate their crystal and electronic structure. To this aim, we performed high-resolution x-ray powder diffraction, Ir L3-edge resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, and quantum chemical calculations on Rb2[IrF6] and other iridium fluorides. Our results are consistent with the Mott insulating scenario predicted by Birol and Haule [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 096403 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.096403], but we observe a sizable deviation of the jeff=1 /2 state from the SU(2) symmetric limit. Interactions beyond the first coordination shell of iridium are negligible, hence the iridium fluorides do not show any magnetic ordering down to at least 20 K. A larger spin-orbit coupling in iridium fluorides compared to oxides is ascribed to a reduction of the degree of covalency, with consequences on the possibility to realize spin-orbit-induced strongly correlated physics in iridium fluorides.

  8. Photochemical Oxidative Growth of Iridium Oxide Nanoparticles on CdSe@CdS Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Kalisman, Philip; Nakibli, Yifat; Amirav, Lilac

    2016-02-11

    We demonstrate a procedure for the photochemical oxidative growth of iridium oxide catalysts on the surface of seeded cadmium selenide-cadmium sulfide (CdSe@CdS) nanorod photocatalysts. Seeded rods are grown using a colloidal hot-injection method and then moved to an aqueous medium by ligand exchange. CdSe@CdS nanorods, an iridium precursor and other salts are mixed and illuminated. The deposition process is initiated by absorption of photons by the semiconductor particle, which results with formation of charge carriers that are used to promote redox reactions. To insure photochemical oxidative growth we used an electron scavenger. The photogenerated holes oxidize the iridium precursor, apparently in a mediated oxidative pathway. This results in the growth of high quality crystalline iridium oxide particles, ranging from 0.5 nm to about 3 nm, along the surface of the rod. Iridium oxide grown on CdSe@CdS heterostructures was studied by a variety of characterization methods, in order to evaluate its characteristics and quality. We explored means for control over particle size, crystallinity, deposition location on the CdS rod, and composition. Illumination time and excitation wavelength were found to be key parameters for such control. The influence of different growth conditions and the characterization of these heterostructures are described alongside a detailed description of their synthesis. Of significance is the fact that the addition of iridium oxide afforded the rods astounding photochemical stability under prolonged illumination in pure water (alleviating the requirement for hole scavengers).

  9. High-Pressure Synthesis and Characterization of Iridium Trihydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheler, Thomas; Marqués, Miriam; Konôpková, Zuzana; Guillaume, Christophe L.; Howie, Ross T.; Gregoryanz, Eugene

    2013-11-01

    We have performed in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies of the iridium-hydrogen system up to 125 GPa. At 55 GPa, a phase transition in the metal lattice from the fcc to a distorted simple cubic phase is observed. The new phase is characterized by a drastically increased volume per metal atom, indicating the formation of a metal hydride, and substantially decreased bulk modulus of 190 GPa (383 GPa for pure Ir). Ab initio calculations show that the hydrogen atoms occupy the face-centered positions in the metal matrix, making this the first known noninterstitial noble metal hydride and, with a stoichiometry of IrH3, the one with the highest volumetric hydrogen content. Computations also reveal that several energetically competing phases exist, which can all be seen as having distorted simple cubic lattices. Slow kinetics during decomposition at pressures as low as 6 GPa suggest that this material is metastable at ambient pressure and low temperatures.

  10. Intercalation of graphene on iridium with samarium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanas'eva, E. Yu.; Rut'kov, E. V.; Gall, N. R.

    2016-07-01

    Intercalation of graphene on Ir (111) with Sm atoms is studied by methods of thermal desorption spectroscopy and thermionic emission. It is shown that adsorption of samarium at T = 300 K on graphene to concentrations of N ≤ 6 × 1014 atoms cm-2 followed by heating of the substrate leads to practically complete escape of adsorbate underneath the graphene layer. At N > 6 × 1014 atoms cm-2 and increasing temperature, a fraction of adsorbate remains on graphene in the form of two-dimensional "gas" and samarium islands and are desorbed in the range of temperatures of 1000-1200 K. Samarium remaining under the graphene is desorbed from the surface in the temperature range 1200-2150 K. Model conceptions for the samarium-graphene-iridium system in a wide temperature range are developed.

  11. Comparative modelling of chemical ordering in palladium-iridium nanoalloys.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jack B A; Johnston, Roy L; Rubinovich, Leonid; Polak, Micha

    2014-12-14

    Chemical ordering in "magic-number" palladium-iridium nanoalloys has been studied by means of density functional theory (DFT) computations, and compared to those obtained by the Free Energy Concentration Expansion Method (FCEM) using derived coordination dependent bond energy variations (CBEV), and by the Birmingham Cluster Genetic Algorithm using the Gupta potential. Several compositions have been studied for 38- and 79-atom particles as well as the site preference for a single Ir dopant atom in the 201-atom truncated octahedron (TO). The 79- and 38-atom nanoalloy homotops predicted for the TO by the FCEM/CBEV are shown to be, respectively, the global minima and competitive low energy minima. Significant reordering of minima predicted by the Gupta potential is seen after reoptimisation at the DFT level.

  12. Cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes with deoxyribose substituents.

    PubMed

    Maity, Ayan; Choi, Jung-Suk; Teets, Thomas S; Deligonul, Nihal; Berdis, Anthony J; Gray, Thomas G

    2013-11-18

    Fundamental study of enzymatic nucleoside transport suffers for lack of optical probes that can be tracked noninvasively. Nucleoside transporters are integral membrane glycoproteins that mediate the salvage of nucleosides and their passage across cell membranes. The substrate recognition site is the deoxyribose sugar, often with little distinction among nucleobases. Reported here are nucleoside analogues in which emissive, cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes are "clicked" to C-1 of deoxyribose in place of canonical nucleobases. The resulting complexes show visible luminescence at room temperature and 77 K with microsecond-length triplet lifetimes. A representative complex is crystallographically characterized. Transport and luminescence are demonstrated in cultured human carcinoma (KB3-1) cells. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Iridium-alloy processing experience in FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Ohriner, E.K.

    1991-11-01

    Iridium-alloy blanks and foil are produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use as fuel cladding material in radioisotope thermoelectric generators for space power sources. Until 1984, the material was produced from small, 500-g drop castings. A new process has been developed in which consumable electrodes of about 10 kg are melted, extruded, and then rolled to produce the sheet products. The work performed during FY 1990 included the consumable-electrode arc melting of four ingots and the extruding and rolling to sheet of four billets. Significant improvements made in the extruding and arc-melting processes during FY 1989 have been demonstrated to dramatically increase the rate of blank acceptance in nondestructive evaluations. Efforts to improve the rolling practice and to better characterize intermetallic particle distributions in the sheet are also described.

  14. Iridium-alloy processing experience in FY 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Ohriner, E.K.

    1990-11-01

    Iridium-alloy blanks and foil are produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use as fuel cladding material in radioisotope thermoelectric generators for space power sources. Until 1984, the material was produced from small 500-g drop castings. A new process has been developed in which consumable electrodes of about 10 kg are arc melted, extruded, and then rolled to produce the sheet products. The work performed during FY 1989 included the arc melting of three electrodes and the extruding and rolling to sheet of three billets. Significant improvements have been made in the extruding and arc-melting processes. Preliminary results show that these improvements have had an important effect in increasing the rate of blank acceptance in nondestructive evaluations. 4 refs., 33 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Large Deformation Change in Iridium Isotopes from Laser Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    D. Verney; L. Cabaret; J. Crawford; H.T. Duong; J. Genevey; G. Hubert; F. Ibrahim; M. Krieg; F. Le Blanc; J.K.P. Lee; G. Le Scornet; D. Lunney; J. Obert; J. Oms; J. Pinard; J.C. Putaux; B. Roussiere; J. Sauvage; V. Sebastian

    1999-12-31

    Laser spectroscopy measurements have been performed on neutron-deficient iridium isotopes. The hyperfine structure and isotope shift of the optical Ir I transition 5d{sup 7}6s{sup 2} {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} {yields}5d{sup 7}6s6p {sup 6}F{sub 11/2} have been studied for the {sup 182-189}Ir, {sup 186}Ir{sup m} and {sup 191,193}Ir isotopes. The nuclear magnetic and quadrupole moments were obtained from the hyperfine splitting measurements and the changes of the mean square charge radii from the isotope shift measurements. A large deformation change between {sup 187}Ir and {sup 186}Ir and between {sup 186}Ir{sup m} and {sup 186}Ir{sup g} has been observed.

  16. Iridium abundance maxima in the Upper Cenomanian extinction interval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, C. J.; Attrep, M., Jr.; Mao, X. Y.; Kauffman, E. G.; Diner, R.

    1988-01-01

    Two iridium abundance peaks, both 0.11 ppb (whole-rock basis) over a local background of 0.017 ppb, have been found in Middle Cretaceous marine rocks near Pueblo, Colorado. They occur just below the 92-million-year-old Cenomanian-Turonian (C-T) stage boundary. No other peaks were found in 45 meters of strata (about 2.5 million years of deposition) above and below the boundary interval. The broad lower peak straddles the first in a series of extinctions of benthic and nektonic macrobiota which comprise the C-T extinction event. The sharp upper peak occurs stratigraphically about 1.2 meters above the lower peak. The excess Ir might be from meteoroid impacts.

  17. Comparative modelling of chemical ordering in palladium-iridium nanoalloys

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Jack B. A.; Johnston, Roy L.; Rubinovich, Leonid; Polak, Micha

    2014-12-14

    Chemical ordering in “magic-number” palladium-iridium nanoalloys has been studied by means of density functional theory (DFT) computations, and compared to those obtained by the Free Energy Concentration Expansion Method (FCEM) using derived coordination dependent bond energy variations (CBEV), and by the Birmingham Cluster Genetic Algorithm using the Gupta potential. Several compositions have been studied for 38- and 79-atom particles as well as the site preference for a single Ir dopant atom in the 201-atom truncated octahedron (TO). The 79- and 38-atom nanoalloy homotops predicted for the TO by the FCEM/CBEV are shown to be, respectively, the global minima and competitive low energy minima. Significant reordering of minima predicted by the Gupta potential is seen after reoptimisation at the DFT level.

  18. Iridium abundance maxima in the Upper Cenomanian extinction interval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, C. J.; Attrep, M., Jr.; Mao, X. Y.; Kauffman, E. G.; Diner, R.

    1988-01-01

    Two iridium abundance peaks, both 0.11 ppb (whole-rock basis) over a local background of 0.017 ppb, have been found in Middle Cretaceous marine rocks near Pueblo, Colorado. They occur just below the 92-million-year-old Cenomanian-Turonian (C-T) stage boundary. No other peaks were found in 45 meters of strata (about 2.5 million years of deposition) above and below the boundary interval. The broad lower peak straddles the first in a series of extinctions of benthic and nektonic macrobiota which comprise the C-T extinction event. The sharp upper peak occurs stratigraphically about 1.2 meters above the lower peak. The excess Ir might be from meteoroid impacts.

  19. Iridium-catalyzed reductive nitro-Mannich cyclization.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Alex W; Chambers, Alan; Hawkins, Alison; Jakubec, Pavol; Dixon, Darren J

    2015-01-02

    A new chemoselective reductive nitro-Mannich cyclization reaction sequence of nitroalkyl-tethered lactams has been developed. Relying on the rapid and chemoselective iridium(I)-catalyzed reduction of lactams to the corresponding enamine, subsequent nitro-Mannich cyclization of tethered nitroalkyl functionality provides direct access to important alkaloid natural-product-like structures in yields up to 81 % and in diastereoselectivities that are typically good to excellent. An in-depth understanding of the reaction mechanism has been gained through NMR studies and characterization of reaction intermediates. The new methodology has been applied to the total synthesis of (±)-epi-epiquinamide in four steps. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Feasibility Analysis on the Utilization of the Iridium Satellite Communications Network for Resident Space Objects in Low Earth Orbit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-21

    turquoise -colored plane (containing Iridium_68) and orange-colored plane (containing Iridium_40) compared to the spacing between the turquoise -colored...plane and the white-colored plane (containing Iridium_11). The turquoise -colored and orange-colored planes can be thought of as planes one and six...United States, the turquoise - colored plane is descending, or transiting north to south, and the orange-colored plane is ascending, or transiting

  1. Cytotoxic activity and protein binding through an unusual oxidative mechanism by an iridium(I)-NHC complex.

    PubMed

    Gothe, Y; Marzo, T; Messori, L; Metzler-Nolte, N

    2015-02-21

    A new NHC iridium(I) complex (1) showing significant antiproliferative properties in vitro is described here. Its crystal structure, solution behaviour and interactions with the model proteins cytochrome c (cyt c) and lysozyme were investigated. High resolution ESI-MS measurements suggest that this iridium(i) complex acts as a prodrug and binds cyt c tightly through an unusual "oxidative" mechanism. Eventually, an iridium(III)-NHC fragment is found associated to the protein.

  2. The Electric Dipole Moment of Iridium Monosilicide, IrSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Anh; Steimle, Timothy C.; Cheng, Lan; Stanton, John F.

    2013-06-01

    The optical spectrum of iridium monosilicide (IrSi) was recently observed using REMPI spectroscopy in the range 17200 to 23850 cm^{-1}. The observation was supported by an ab initio calculation which predicted a X^{2}Δ_{5/2} state. Here, we report on the analysis of the optical Stark effect for the X^{2}Δ_{5/2} and [16.0]1.5 (v=6) states. The (6,0)[16.0]1.5 - X^{2}Δ_{5/2} and the (7,0)[16.0]3.5- X^{2}Δ_{5/2} bands of IrSi have been recorded using high-resolution laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The observed optical Stark shifts for the ^{193}IrSi and ^{191}IrSi isotopologues were analyzed to produce the electric dipole moments of -0.4139(64)D and 0.7821(63)D for the X^{2}Δ_{5/2} and [16.0]1.5 (v=6) states, respectively. The negative sign of electric dipole moment of the X^{2}Δ_{5/2} state is supported by high-level quantum-chemical calculations employing all-electron scalar-relativistic CCSD(T) method augmented with spin-orbit corrections as well as corrections due to full triple excitations. In particular, electron-correlation effects have been shown to be essential in the prediction of the negative sign of the dipole moment. A comparison with other iridium containing molecules will be made. Maria A. Garcia, Carolin Vietz, Fernando Ruipérez, Michael D. Morse, and Ivan Infante, Kimika Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko. J. Chem. Phys., (submitted)

  3. Iridium-Coated Rhenium Radiation-Cooled Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian D.; Biaglow, James A.; Schneider, Steven J.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation-cooled rockets are used for a range of low-thrust propulsion functions, including apogee insertion, attitude control, and repositioning of satellites, reaction control of launch vehicles, and primary propulsion for planetary space- craft. The key to high performance and long lifetimes for radiation-cooled rockets is the chamber temperature capability. The material system that is currently used for radiation-cooled rockets, a niobium alloy (C103) with a fused silica coating, has a maximum operating temperature of 1370 C. Temperature limitations of C103 rockets force the use of fuel film cooling, which degrades rocket performance and, in some cases, imposes a plume contamination issue from unburned fuel. A material system composed of a rhenium (Re) substrate and an iridium (Ir) coating has demonstrated operation at high temperatures (2200 C) and for long lifetimes (hours). The added thermal margin afforded by iridium-coated rhenium (Ir/Re) allows reduction or elimination of fuel film cooling. This, in turn, leads to higher performance and cleaner spacecraft environments. There are ongoing government- and industry-sponsored efforts to develop flight Ir/ Re engines, with the primary focus on 440-N, apogee insertion engines. Complementing these Ir/Re engine development efforts is a program to address specific concerns and fundamental characterization of the Ir/Re material system, including (1) development of Ir/Re rocket fabrication methods, (2) establishment of critical Re mechanical properly data, (3) development of reliable joining methods, and (4) characterization of Ir/Re life-limiting mechanisms.

  4. New yellow-emitting phosphorescent cyclometalated iridium(III) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, P.; Tomova, R.; Petrova, P.; Stanimirov, S.; Petkov, I.

    2012-12-01

    We have synthesized a new yellow iridium complex Iridium(III) bis[2-phenylbenzothiazolato-N,C2']-(1-phenylicosane-1,3-dionate) (bt)2Ir(bsm), based on the benzothiazole derivative. The synthesized molecule was identified by 1H NMR and elemental analysis. The UV-Visible absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of (bt)Ir2(bsm) in CH2Cl2 solution were found at 273 nm and 559 nm, respectively. The complex was used as a dopant into a hole-transporting layer (HTL) in a multilayered organic light emitting device (OLED) structure: ITO/doped-HTL/EL/ETL/M. ITO was a transparent anode of In2O3:SnO2, M- a metallic Al cathode, HTL- 4,4'-bis(9H-carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) incorporated in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) matrix, EL- electroluminescent layer of bis(8-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline)-(4-phenylphenoxy)aluminum (BAlq) and ETL- electron-transporting layer of tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum (Alq3). The electroluminescent (EL) spectra of OLEDs were basically the sum of the emissions of BAlq at 496 nm and the emission of (bt)2Ir(bsm) at 559 nm. With increasing (bt)2Ir(bsm) concentration, the relative electroluminescent intensity of greenish-blue emission (at 496 nm) decreased, while the yellow (at 559 nm) - increased and CIE coordinates of the device shifted from (0.21, 0.33) at 0 wt % to (0.40, 0.48) at 8 wt % of the dopant. It was found that OLED with 0.5 wt % (bt)2Ir(bsm) had the best performance and stable color chromaticity at various voltages.

  5. 49 CFR 174.750 - Incidents involving leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... has been breakage, spillage, or suspected radioactive contamination involving Class 7 (radioactive... no significant removable radioactive surface contamination (see § 173.443 of this subchapter). (b... Detailed Requirements for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 174.750 Incidents involving leakage. (a) In...

  6. 46 CFR 160.174-25 - Production testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Thermal Protective Aids § 160.174-25 Production testing. (a) Thermal protective aid production testing is conducted under the procedures in this section and subpart 159.007 of this chapter. (b) One out of every 100 thermal protective aids produced must be given a...

  7. 33 CFR 174.23 - Form of number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Form of number. 174.23 Section... of number. (a) Each number must consist of two capital letters denoting the State of the issuing... numerals followed by not more than three capital letters (example: WN 567 EFG). (b) A number suffix must...

  8. 33 CFR 174.23 - Form of number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Form of number. 174.23 Section... of number. (a) Each number must consist of two capital letters denoting the State of the issuing... numerals followed by not more than three capital letters (example: WN 567 EFG). (b) A number suffix must...

  9. 49 CFR 174.300 - Special handling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Detailed Requirements for Class 3 (Flammable Liquid) Materials § 174.300 Special handling requirements. (a) Class 3 (flammable liquid) materials may not be loaded, transported, or stored in a rail car equipped... loaded with a Class 3 (flammable liquid) materials and equipped with a lighted heater or any automatic...

  10. 49 CFR 174.300 - Special handling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Detailed Requirements for Class 3 (Flammable Liquid) Materials § 174.300 Special handling requirements. (a) Class 3 (flammable liquid) materials may not be loaded, transported, or stored in a rail car equipped... loaded with a Class 3 (flammable liquid) materials and equipped with a lighted heater or any automatic...

  11. 46 CFR 174.065 - Damage stability requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units § 174.065... second). (b) Each unit must have a means to close off each pipe, ventilation system, and trunk in each...

  12. 47 CFR 17.4 - Antenna structure registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... information required on FCC Form 854 regarding ownership and contact information, geographic location, and... local notice shall contain all of the descriptive information as to geographic location, configuration... ANTENNA STRUCTURES General Information § 17.4 Antenna structure registration. (a) Effective July 1, 1996...

  13. 33 CFR 174.21 - Contents of temporary certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY STATE NUMBERING AND CASUALTY REPORTING SYSTEMS Numbering System Requirements § 174... owner, including ZIP code. (g) Signature of owner. (h) Date of issuance. (i) Notice to the owner that the temporary certificate is invalid after 60 days from the date of issuance. ...

  14. 19 CFR 174.14 - Amendment of protests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... under § 174.12(e). The amendment may assert additional claims pertaining to the administrative decision that is the subject of the protest, or may challenge an additional administrative decision relating to... additional grounds or arguments in support of a valid protest after the applicable protest period set forth...

  15. 33 CFR 174.123 - Annual report of numbered vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual report of numbered vessels... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY STATE NUMBERING AND CASUALTY REPORTING SYSTEMS State Reports § 174.123 Annual report of numbered vessels. Before March 1 of each year, each State that has an approved numbering...

  16. 40 CFR 174.21 - General qualifications for exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... tolerance would otherwise be required for the plant-incorporated protectant. (c) Any inert ingredient that... PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Exemptions § 174.21 General qualifications for exemptions. A plant-incorporated protectant is exempt from the requirements of FIFRA,...

  17. 40 CFR 174.700 - Scope and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS List of Approved Inert Ingredients § 174.700 Scope and purpose. This subpart lists the inert ingredients that have been exempted from FIFRA and FFDCA section 408 requirements and may be used in a plant-incorporated protectant listed in subpart B of...

  18. 46 CFR 154.174 - Transverse contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 154.174 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the standards of... barriers must be designed for a temperature that is: (1) Colder than the calculated temperature of...

  19. 46 CFR 154.174 - Transverse contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 154.174 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the standards of... barriers must be designed for a temperature that is: (1) Colder than the calculated temperature of...

  20. 46 CFR 154.174 - Transverse contiguous hull structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 154.174 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the standards of... barriers must be designed for a temperature that is: (1) Colder than the calculated temperature of...