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Sample records for iron age finland

  1. Forensic age assessment of asylum seekers in Finland.

    PubMed

    Metsäniitty, Mari; Varkkola, Olli; Waltimo-Sirén, Janna; Ranta, Helena

    2017-01-01

    In Finland, forensic age assessment is strictly regulated by legislation. According to the Aliens Act (301/2004) and the amendment of the Act (549/2010), the police authorities, the frontier guard authorities, and the immigration authorities have the right to refer asylum seekers to the University of Helsinki, Department of Forensic Medicine, for age assessment. These assessments are especially performed to solve if the person is of major age, the cutoff being 18 completed years. The forensic age assessment is largely based on dental development, since the special permit of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to the Department of Forensic Medicine of the University of Helsinki, allowing the use of ionizing radiation for non-medical purposes, includes dental and hand X-rays. Forensic age assessment is always performed by two forensic odontologists. In 2015, the total number of forensic age assessment examinations was 149, and the countries of origin of the asylum seekers were most commonly Iraq, Afghanistan, and Somalia. The current legislation on forensic age assessment has been well received and approved. Radiological and other examinations can be performed in different parts of Finland, but the forensic odontologist at the University of Helsinki is always involved in the process and ensures joint quality standards for the forensic age assessment.

  2. Iron and ageing: an introduction to iron regulatory mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Cathy W; Tassabehji, Nadine M

    2004-07-01

    While there have been significant advances made in our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate iron absorption, transport, storage, and utilization, the effect of ageing on these mechanisms and the role of iron in the ageing process is not fully understood. Thus, this review will provide an overview of the iron regulatory mechanisms that may be a factor in the ageing process. Additional reviews in this volume represent an attempt to explore the very latest information on the regulation of iron with a particular emphasis on age-related pathology including mitochondrial function, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, and cardiovascular disease.

  3. Marine Mammal Train Oil Production Methods: Experimental Reconstructions of Norwegian Iron Age Slab-Lined Pits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Gørill

    2016-08-01

    Seal hunting and whaling have played an important part of people's livelihoods throughout prehistory as evidenced by rock carvings, remains of bones, artifacts from aquatic animals and hunting tools. This paper focuses on one of the more elusive resources relating to such activities: marine mammal blubber. Although marine blubber easily decomposes, the organic material has been documented from the Mesolithic Period onwards. Of particular interest in this article are the many structures in Northern Norway from the Iron Age and in Finland on Kökar, Åland, from both the Bronze and Early Iron Ages in which these periods exhibited traits interpreted as being related to oil rendering from marine mammal blubber. The article discusses methods used in this oil production activity based on historical sources, archaeological investigations and experimental reconstruction of Iron Age slab-lined pits from Northern Norway.

  4. Age and Meanings of Violence: Women's Experiences of Partner Violence in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piispa, Minna

    2004-01-01

    The first survey carried out in Finland specifically to study men's violence against women showed that partner violence is quite common in Finland and it is directed especially toward young women. The statistical findings don't support the idea that violence has become more widespread in Finland. Life situation factors that are usually viewed as…

  5. Genesis of Palaeoproterozoic iron skarns in the Misi region, northern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niiranen, Tero; Mänttäri, Irmeli; Poutiainen, Matti; Oliver, Nicholas H. S.; Miller, Jodie A.

    2005-03-01

    admixture of 13C depleted, possibly magmatic fluids with the marble wall rocks that show δ13Ccalcite values of 13‰ PDB. The SIMS U-Pb data on the zircons in the albitised gabbro next to the Raajärvi and Puro deposits suggest that intrusion of the gabbro took place at 2123±7 Ma and was accompanied by the formation of diopside skarn. The TIMS data on the metasomatic titanites related to sodic alteration yielded ages of 2062±3 and 2017±3 Ma. Iron was probably stripped from the mafic country rocks by sodic alteration between 2123 and 2017 Ma, driven by repeated brine influxes. Subsequently, the metal-rich brine was focused by a fault system and the iron was precipitated from this fluid by a combination of wall rock reaction, fluid mixing, and a drop in the temperature.

  6. Age and weathering status of granite tors in Arctic Finland (~ 68° N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmody, R. G.; Thorn, C. E.; Seppälä, M.; Campbell, S. W.; Li, Y. K.; Harbor, J.

    2008-02-01

    Cold-based ice along the Fennoscandian glacial ice divide in northern Finland allowed preservation of old landscape features. Because there was little or no movement at the ice-land surface contact, erosion was at a minimum, and relict landscape features such as tors can be found. We investigated two such granitic tors located at Pyhä-Nattanen (68°07.335' N, 27°22.207' E, 508 m asl) and Riestovaara (68°02.613' N, 27°09.003' E, 390 m asl) in subarctic Finland. At Pyhä-Nattanen, the sampling sequence included bedrock material and grus taken from within horizontal cracks, which are so prevalent at the site as to make the tor resemble a stack of pancakes. At Riestovaara, where the outcrop is more subdued, in addition to bedrock and grus samples, soil samples were also extracted from a pit dug in an embryonic soil forming on the bedrock surface. Based on cosmogenic nuclide dating, both tors greatly predate recent glaciation. The tor at Pyhä-Nattanen, which is a more prominent landscape feature, had longer minimum 10Be and 26Al apparent exposure ages, 89.1 ± 6.7 kyr and 69.6 ± 6.4 kyr, respectively, than did the tor at Riestovaara, 55.8 ± 4.5 kyr and 46.5 ± 4.0 kyr, respectively. Both of them are significantly older than the regional last deglaciation age, indicating that both sites have survived multiple episodes of glaciation. Analyses of the 10Be and 26Al measurements in accordance with marine oxygen isotope records (DSDP 607) indicate that the tors have undergone a minimum estimated total exposure-burial durations of 997 kyr (Pyhä-Nattanen) and 858 kyr (Riestovaara) and survived at least 14-16 episodes of glaciation. Weathering, as measured by porosity determined with a microprobe, was somewhat more advanced in the Pyhä-Nattanen granite samples than in the Riestovaara granite. However, with both granites, rock porosity did not change to a depth of 4 cm below the rock surface or vary by lichen cover/noncovered surfaces, indicating that weathering had

  7. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Corso, Barbara; Minicuci, Nadia; Quintas, Rui; Sattin, Davide; De Torres, Laura; Chatterji, Somnath; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Haro, Josep Maria; Koskinen, Seppo; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Leonardi, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in a population study sample of persons aged 18–50 and 50+. Methods In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately. Results Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4). The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation), chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6%) and a wide and rich social network (4.6%). Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could

  8. Iron promotes protein insolubility and aging in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Klang, Ida M.; Schilling, Birgit; Sorensen, Dylan J.; Sahu, Alexandria K.; Kapahi, Pankaj; Andersen, Julie K.; Swoboda, Peter; Killilea, David W.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Lithgow, Gordon J.

    2014-01-01

    Many late-onset proteotoxic diseases are accompanied by a disruption in homeostasis of metals (metallostasis) including iron, copper and zinc. Although aging is the most prominent risk factor for these disorders, the impact of aging on metallostasis and its role in proteotoxic disease remain poorly understood. Moreover, it is not clear whether a loss of metallostasis influences normal aging. We have investigated the role of metallostasis in longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that calcium, copper, iron, and manganese levels increase as a function of age, while potassium and phosphorus levels tend to decrease. Increased dietary iron significantly accelerated the age-related accumulation of insoluble protein, a molecular pathology of aging. Proteomic analysis revealed widespread effects of dietary iron in multiple organelles and tissues. Pharmacological interventions to block accumulation of specific metals attenuated many models of proteotoxicity and extended normal lifespan. Collectively, these results suggest that a loss of metallostasis with aging contributes to age-related protein aggregation. PMID:25554795

  9. Gender and iron genes may modify associations between brain iron and memory in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Bartzokis, George; Lu, Po H; Tingus, Kathleen; Peters, Douglas G; Amar, Chetan P; Tishler, Todd A; Finn, J Paul; Villablanca, Pablo; Altshuler, Lori L; Mintz, Jim; Neely, Elizabeth; Connor, James R

    2011-06-01

    Brain iron increases with age and is abnormally elevated early in the disease process in several neurodegenerative disorders that impact memory including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Higher brain iron levels are associated with male gender and presence of highly prevalent allelic variants in genes encoding for iron metabolism proteins (hemochromatosis H63D (HFE H63D) and transferrin C2 (TfC2)). In this study, we examined whether in healthy older individuals memory performance is associated with increased brain iron, and whether gender and gene variant carrier (IRON+) vs noncarrier (IRON-) status (for HFE H63D/TfC2) modify the associations. Tissue iron deposited in ferritin molecules can be measured in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging utilizing the field-dependent relaxation rate increase (FDRI) method. FDRI was assessed in hippocampus, basal ganglia, and white matter, and IRON+ vs IRON- status was determined in a cohort of 63 healthy older individuals. Three cognitive domains were assessed: verbal memory (delayed recall), working memory/attention, and processing speed. Independent of gene status, worse verbal-memory performance was associated with higher hippocampal iron in men (r=-0.50, p=0.003) but not in women. Independent of gender, worse verbal working memory performance was associated with higher basal ganglia iron in IRON- group (r=-0.49, p=0.005) but not in the IRON+ group. Between-group interactions (p=0.006) were noted for both of these associations. No significant associations with white matter or processing speed were observed. The results suggest that in specific subgroups of healthy older individuals, higher accumulations of iron in vulnerable gray matter regions may adversely impact memory functions and could represent a risk factor for accelerated cognitive decline. Combining genetic and MRI biomarkers may provide opportunities to design primary prevention clinical trials that target high-risk groups.

  10. Methamphetamine increases basal ganglia iron to levels observed in aging.

    PubMed

    Melega, William P; Laćan, Goran; Harvey, Dennis C; Way, Baldwin M

    2007-10-29

    Increases in basal ganglia iron are well documented for neurodegenerative diseases but have not been associated with methamphetamine (METH). In this study, vervet monkeys that received two doses of METH (2 mg/kg, intramuscularly, 6 h apart) showed at 1 month, iron increases in substantia nigra pars reticulata and globus pallidus, with concurrent increases of ferritin-immunoreactivity and decreases of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity in substantia nigra. At 1.5 years, substantia nigra tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity had recovered while iron and ferritin-immunoreactivity increases persisted. Globus pallidus and substantia nigra iron levels of the adult METH-exposed animals (age 5-9 years) were now comparable with those of drug-naive, aged animals (19-22 years), suggesting an aging-related condition that might render those regions more vulnerable to oxidative stress.

  11. The age of iron and iron source attribution in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, Mark; Frants, Marina; Pasquier, Benoît

    2016-10-01

    We use tracers to partition dissolved iron (dFe) into the contributions from each source within a numerical model of the iron cycle without perturbing the system. These contributions are further partitioned according to the time since injection into the ocean, which defines their iron-age spectrum and mean iron age. The utility of these diagnostics is illustrated for a family of inverse model estimates of the iron cycle, constrained by a data-assimilated circulation and available dFe measurements. The source contributions are compared with source anomalies defined as the differences between solutions with and without the source in question. We find that in the Southern Ocean euphotic zone, the hydrothermal and sediment contributions range from 15% to 30% of the total each, which the anomalies underestimate by a factor of ˜2 because of the nonlinearity of scavenging. The iron age is only reset by scavenging and attains a mean of several hundred years in the Southern Ocean euphotic zone, revealing that aeolian iron there is supplied primarily from depth as regenerated dFe. Tagging iron according to source region and pathways shows that 70-80% of the aeolian dFe in the euphotic zone near Antarctica is supplied from north of 46°S via paths that reach below 1 km depth. Hydrothermal iron has the oldest surface mean ages on the order of middepth ventilation times. A measure of uncertainty is provided by the systematic variations of our diagnostics across the family of iron cycle estimates, each member of which has a different aeolian source strength.

  12. Farm environment during infancy and lung function at the age of 31: a prospective birth cohort study in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Lampi, Jussi; Koskela, Heikki; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Couto Alves, Alexessander; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Pekkanen, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Farming as an occupation is considered a risk factor for asthma and reduced lung function. By contrast, living on a farm during infancy has been reported to be associated with lower risk of asthma in adulthood. However, little is known about the association between farming environment during infancy and lung function in adulthood. We aimed to study the prospective longitudinal association between farming environment during infancy and lung function in adulthood. Design A prospective birth cohort study. Setting Northern Finland. Participants 5666 participants born in 1966 were followed up at the age of 31 years. Primary outcome measures Spirometry at the age of 31 years. Results To be born into a farmer’s family was associated with higher forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) (36 mL; 95% CI 6 to 67 mL) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (40 mL; 95% CI 5 to 75 mL) at the age of 31 years. Contact with farm animals during infancy was associated with higher FEV1. No associations were seen with FEV1/FVC (FEV1/FVC ratio). Having dogs in childhood revealed similar associations. There was a suggestive dose-dependent association with the number of animal species during childhood and higher FEV1 and FVC at adulthood, especially among women. Conclusions Farming environment in early life may have a positive impact on lung function in adulthood. PMID:26201721

  13. Superconductivity at Dawn of the Iron Age

    SciTech Connect

    Tesanovic, Zlatko

    2010-03-03

    Superconductivity is a stunning quantum phenomenon and among the deepest paradigms in all of physics. From fundamental theories of the universe to strange goings-on in exotic materials to medical imaging and cell phones, its conceptual and practical dimensions span a reach as wide as anything in science. Twenty-odd years ago, the discovery of copper oxides ushered in a new era of high-temperature superconductivity, and the joyous exuberance that followed - with physicists throwing everything from fancy gauge theories to synchrotron radiation into its kitchen sink - only recently began to show any signs of waning. In the spring of 2008, as if on cue, a new family of iron pnictide high-temperature superconductors burst on the scene, hinting at an alternative route to room-temperature superconductivity and all of its momentous consequences. Fueled by genuine excitement - and a bit of hype - the iron-based superconductivity turned into a science blockbuster of 2009. I will present a pedagogical review of this new field, contrast the physics of iron- and copper-based systems, and speculate on the microscopic origins of the two types of high-temperature superconductivity.

  14. Superconductivity at Dawn of the Iron Age

    ScienceCinema

    Tesanovic, Zlatko [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

    2016-07-12

    Superconductivity is a stunning quantum phenomenon and among the deepest paradigms in all of physics. From fundamental theories of the universe to strange goings-on in exotic materials to medical imaging and cell phones, its conceptual and practical dimensions span a reach as wide as anything in science. Twenty-odd years ago, the discovery of copper oxides ushered in a new era of high-temperature superconductivity, and the joyous exuberance that followed - with physicists throwing everything from fancy gauge theories to synchrotron radiation into its kitchen sink - only recently began to show any signs of waning. In the spring of 2008, as if on cue, a new family of iron pnictide high-temperature superconductors burst on the scene, hinting at an alternative route to room-temperature superconductivity and all of its momentous consequences. Fueled by genuine excitement - and a bit of hype - the iron-based superconductivity turned into a science blockbuster of 2009. I will present a pedagogical review of this new field, contrast the physics of iron- and copper-based systems, and speculate on the microscopic origins of the two types of high-temperature superconductivity.

  15. Disparity between dietary iron intake and iron status of children aged 10-12 years.

    PubMed

    Spodaryk, K

    1999-12-01

    Iron status was assessed in a representative sample of 188 adolescents living in a medium-sized city in Poland. Dietary intakes were evaluated using records of diet over a period of seven consecutive days. Subjects were considered to be iron deficient when two or more of the following parameters were abnormal: serum ferritin, transferrin saturation or mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. Based on this definition, the prevalence of iron deficiency in the investigated sample of children aged from ten to twelve years was 12.7%. Iron deficiency anaemia was defined using the following criteria: haemoglobin values less than 12.0 g. dl (-1) in girls or less than 12.2 g. dl(-1) in boys, combined with an iron deficiency. With such a definition, the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in all subjects was 6.3%. Four boys (3.9%) and six girls (6.8%) were diagnosed as anaemic. The values for Hb in the anaemic boys ranged from 10.9 to 12.2 g. dl (-1) and in anaemic girls from 8.7 to 12.0 g. (-1). It was found that the majority of the individuals studied had a dietary haem-iron intake lower than that recommended. No relationship was found between the level of serum ferritin and total iron and vitamin C dietary intake, but there was positive correlation between serum ferritin and intake of haem iron. A seven-day dietary history questionnaire correctly identified children at risk of iron deficiency anaemia.

  16. Towards interprofessional networking in medication management of the aged: current challenges and potential solutions in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Kallio, Sonja; Kumpusalo-Vauhkonen, Anne; Järvensivu, Timo; Mäntylä, Antti; Pohjanoksa-Mäntylä, Marika; Airaksinen, Marja

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Finnish Medicines Agency (Fimea) initiated a programme in 2012 for enhancing interprofessional networking in the medication management of the aged. The goal is to develop national guidelines for interprofessional collaboration with respect to medication management. This study aims to explore the challenges and potential solutions experienced by existing health care teams in managing medication of the aged: (1) at the individual and team level (micro level), (2) organisational level (meso level) and (3) structural level (macro level). Design Group discussions (n = 10), pair (n = 3) and individual interviews (n = 2). Abductive content analysis combining data and theory was applied. Networking was used as a theoretical framework. Setting Meetings (n = 15) organised by Fimea in the formation phase of the interprofessional network in 2012. Subjects Health care professionals (n = 55). Main outcome measures Challenges and solutions in the medication management of the aged at the micro, meso and macro levels. Results Challenges in interprofessional collaboration, problems with patient record systems, and the organisation of work and lack of resources were present at all the levels contributing to patients’ medication problems. Participants suggested multiple potential solutions to improve interprofessional collaboration, sharing of tasks and responsibilities, better exploitation of pharmaceutical knowledge and developing tools as being the most commonly mentioned. Conclusions Optimising medication use of the aged requires new systemic solutions within and between different system levels. The main challenges can be solved by clarifying responsibilities, enhancing communication and applying operational models that involve pharmacists and the use of information technology in medication management. KEY POINTSAn interprofessional team approach has been suggested as a solution to promote rational medicine use among the aged.Fragmented health

  17. Membership Finland

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Le DG C.Rubbia et la vice présidente du conseil du Cern souhaite la bienvenue à l'adhésion de la Finlande, comme 15me membre du Cern depuis le 1. janvier 1991 en présence du secrétaire generale et de l'ambassadeur

  18. Membership Finland

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-10

    Le DG C.Rubbia et la vice présidente du conseil du Cern souhaite la bienvenue à l'adhésion de la Finlande, comme 15me membre du Cern depuis le 1. janvier 1991 en présence du secrétaire generale et de l'ambassadeur

  19. Local geology controlled the feasibility of vitrifying Iron Age buildings

    PubMed Central

    Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Heap, Michael J.; Damby, David E.; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Najorka, Jens; Vasseur, Jérémie; Fahrner, Dominik; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2017-01-01

    During European prehistory, hilltop enclosures made from polydisperse particle-and-block stone walling were exposed to temperatures sufficient to partially melt the constituent stonework, leading to the preservation of glassy walls called ‘vitrified forts’. During vitrification, the granular wall rocks partially melt, sinter viscously and densify, reducing inter-particle porosity. This process is strongly dependent on the solidus temperature, the particle sizes, the temperature-dependence of the viscosity of the evolving liquid phase, as well as the distribution and longevity of heat. Examination of the sintering behaviour of 45 European examples reveals that it is the raw building material that governs the vitrification efficiency. As Iron Age forts were commonly constructed from local stone, we conclude that local geology directly influenced the degree to which buildings were vitrified in the Iron Age. Additionally, we find that vitrification is accompanied by a bulk material strengthening of the aggregates of small sizes, and a partial weakening of larger blocks. We discuss these findings in the context of the debate surrounding the motive of the wall-builders. We conclude that if wall stability by bulk strengthening was the desired effect, then vitrification represents an Iron Age technology that failed to be effective in regions of refractory local geology. PMID:28079121

  20. Local geology controlled the feasibility of vitrifying Iron Age buildings.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Fabian B; Heap, Michael J; Damby, David E; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Najorka, Jens; Vasseur, Jérémie; Fahrner, Dominik; Dingwell, Donald B

    2017-01-12

    During European prehistory, hilltop enclosures made from polydisperse particle-and-block stone walling were exposed to temperatures sufficient to partially melt the constituent stonework, leading to the preservation of glassy walls called 'vitrified forts'. During vitrification, the granular wall rocks partially melt, sinter viscously and densify, reducing inter-particle porosity. This process is strongly dependent on the solidus temperature, the particle sizes, the temperature-dependence of the viscosity of the evolving liquid phase, as well as the distribution and longevity of heat. Examination of the sintering behaviour of 45 European examples reveals that it is the raw building material that governs the vitrification efficiency. As Iron Age forts were commonly constructed from local stone, we conclude that local geology directly influenced the degree to which buildings were vitrified in the Iron Age. Additionally, we find that vitrification is accompanied by a bulk material strengthening of the aggregates of small sizes, and a partial weakening of larger blocks. We discuss these findings in the context of the debate surrounding the motive of the wall-builders. We conclude that if wall stability by bulk strengthening was the desired effect, then vitrification represents an Iron Age technology that failed to be effective in regions of refractory local geology.

  1. Local geology controlled the feasibility of vitrifying Iron Age buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabian B Wadsworth,; Michael J Heap,; Damby, David; Kai-Uwe Hess,; Jens Najorka,; Jérémie Vasseur,; Dominik Fahrner,; Donald B Dingwell,

    2017-01-01

    During European prehistory, hilltop enclosures made from polydisperse particle-and-block stone walling were exposed to temperatures sufficient to partially melt the constituent stonework, leading to the preservation of glassy walls called ‘vitrified forts’. During vitrification, the granular wall rocks partially melt, sinter viscously and densify, reducing inter-particle porosity. This process is strongly dependent on the solidus temperature, the particle sizes, the temperature-dependence of the viscosity of the evolving liquid phase, as well as the distribution and longevity of heat. Examination of the sintering behaviour of 45 European examples reveals that it is the raw building material that governs the vitrification efficiency. As Iron Age forts were commonly constructed from local stone, we conclude that local geology directly influenced the degree to which buildings were vitrified in the Iron Age. Additionally, we find that vitrification is accompanied by a bulk material strengthening of the aggregates of small sizes, and a partial weakening of larger blocks. We discuss these findings in the context of the debate surrounding the motive of the wall-builders. We conclude that if wall stability by bulk strengthening was the desired effect, then vitrification represents an Iron Age technology that failed to be effective in regions of refractory local geology.

  2. Ancient Blacksmiths, The Iron Age, Damascus Steels, and Modern Metallurgy

    SciTech Connect

    Sherby, O.D.; Wadsworth, J.

    2000-09-11

    The history of iron and Damascus steels is described through the eyes of ancient blacksmiths. For example, evidence is presented that questions why the Iron Age could not have begun at about the same time as the early Bronze Age (i.e. approximately 7000 B.C.). It is also clear that ancient blacksmiths had enough information from their forging work, together with their observation of color changes during heating and their estimate of hardness by scratch tests, to have determined some key parts of the present-day iron-carbon phase diagram. The blacksmiths' greatest artistic accomplishments were the Damascus and Japanese steel swords. The Damascus sword was famous not only for its exceptional cutting edge and toughness, but also for its beautiful surface markings. Damascus steels are ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs) that contain from 1.0 to 2.1%. carbon. The modern metallurgical understanding of UHCSs has revealed that remarkable properties can be obtained in these hypereutectoid steels. The results achieved in UHCSs are attributed to the ability to place the carbon, in excess of the eutectoid composition, to do useful work that enhances the high temperature processing of carbon steels and that improves the low and intermediate temperature mechanical properties.

  3. Al-26-Mg-26 ages of iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzog, G. F.; Souzis, A. E.; Xue, S.; Klein, J.; Juenemann, D.; Middleton, R.

    1993-01-01

    An exposure age for an iron meteorite can be calculated from measurements of a radioactive nuclide and a stable nuclide that are produced by similar sets of nuclear reactions, provided that the stable nuclide is present with low initial abundance. The standard methods rely on either K-40 (t(sub 1/2) = 1.26 Gy), K-39, and K-41 or on a shorter-lived radionuclide and a stable, noble gas isotope. Widely used pairs of this type include Cl-36/Ar-36 and Al-26/Ne-21. Other pairs that may serve the purpose for iron meteorites contain many stable isotopes besides those of K and the noble gases that are produced partly by cosmic rays. We consider here the calculation of exposure ages, t(sub 26), from measurements of Al-26 (t(sub 1/2) = 0.7 My) and (stable) Mg-26. Ages based on Al-26/Mg-26 ratios, like those based on Cl-36/Ar-36 ratios, are 'buffered' against changes in relative production rates due to shielding because decay of the radioactive nuclide accounts for a good part of the inventory of the stable nuclide.

  4. Dissociation between iron accumulation and ferritin upregulation in the aged substantia nigra: attenuation by dietary restriction

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Thomas; Michaelides, Christos; Ekonomou, Antigoni; Geraki, Kalotina; Parkes, Harold G; Suessmilch, Maria; Herlihy, Amy H; Crum, William R; So, Po-Wah

    2016-01-01

    Despite regulation, brain iron increases with aging and may enhance aging processes including neuroinflammation. Increases in magnetic resonance imaging transverse relaxation rates, R2 and R2*, in the brain have been observed during aging. We show R2 and R2* correlate well with iron content via direct correlation to semi-quantitative synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence iron mapping, with age-associated R2 and R2* increases reflecting iron accumulation. Iron accumulation was concomitant with increased ferritin immunoreactivity in basal ganglia regions except in the substantia nigra (SN). The unexpected dissociation of iron accumulation from ferritin-upregulation in the SN suggests iron dyshomeostasis in the SN. Occurring alongside microgliosis and astrogliosis, iron dyshomeotasis may contribute to the particular vulnerability of the SN. Dietary restriction (DR) has long been touted to ameliorate brain aging and we show DR attenuated agerelated in vivo R2 increases in the SN over ages 7 – 19 months, concomitant with normal iron-induction of ferritin expression and decreased microgliosis. Iron is known to induce microgliosis and conversely, microgliosis can induce iron accumulation, which of these may be the initial pathological aging event warrants further investigation. We suggest iron chelation therapies and anti-inflammatory treatments may be putative ‘antibrain aging’ therapies and combining these strategies may be synergistic. PMID:27743512

  5. Synthesis of iron fertilization experiments: From the Iron Age in the Age of Enlightenment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Baar, Hein J. W.; Boyd, Philip W.; Coale, Kenneth H.; Landry, Michael R.; Tsuda, Atsushi; Assmy, Philipp; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Bozec, Yann; Barber, Richard T.; Brzezinski, Mark A.; Buesseler, Ken O.; Boyé, Marie; Croot, Peter L.; Gervais, Frank; Gorbunov, Maxim Y.; Harrison, Paul J.; Hiscock, William T.; Laan, Patrick; Lancelot, Christiane; Law, Cliff S.; Levasseur, Maurice; Marchetti, Adrian; Millero, Frank J.; Nishioka, Jun; Nojiri, Yukihiro; van Oijen, Tim; Riebesell, Ulf; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Saito, Hiroaki; Takeda, Shigenobu; Timmermans, Klaas R.; Veldhuis, Marcel J. W.; Waite, Anya M.; Wong, Chi-Shing

    2005-09-01

    Comparison of eight iron experiments shows that maximum Chl a, the maximum DIC removal, and the overall DIC/Fe efficiency all scale inversely with depth of the wind mixed layer (WML) defining the light environment. Moreover, lateral patch dilution, sea surface irradiance, temperature, and grazing play additional roles. The Southern Ocean experiments were most influenced by very deep WMLs. In contrast, light conditions were most favorable during SEEDS and SERIES as well as during IronEx-2. The two extreme experiments, EisenEx and SEEDS, can be linked via EisenEx bottle incubations with shallower simulated WML depth. Large diatoms always benefit the most from Fe addition, where a remarkably small group of thriving diatom species is dominated by universal response of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Significant response of these moderate (10-30 μm), medium (30-60 μm), and large (>60 μm) diatoms is consistent with growth physiology determined for single species in natural seawater. The minimum level of "dissolved" Fe (filtrate < 0.2 μm) maintained during an experiment determines the dominant diatom size class. However, this is further complicated by continuous transfer of original truly dissolved reduced Fe(II) into the colloidal pool, which may constitute some 75% of the "dissolved" pool. Depth integration of carbon inventory changes partly compensates the adverse effects of a deep WML due to its greater integration depths, decreasing the differences in responses between the eight experiments. About half of depth-integrated overall primary productivity is reflected in a decrease of DIC. The overall C/Fe efficiency of DIC uptake is DIC/Fe ˜ 5600 for all eight experiments. The increase of particulate organic carbon is about a quarter of the primary production, suggesting food web losses for the other three quarters. Replenishment of DIC by air/sea exchange tends to be a minor few percent of primary CO2 fixation but will continue well after observations have stopped. Export of

  6. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Aging of Graphitic Cast Irons and Machinability

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Von L.

    2012-09-19

    The objective of this task was to determine whether ductile iron and compacted graphite iron exhibit age strengthening to a statistically significant extent. Further, this effort identified the mechanism by which gray iron age strengthens and the mechanism by which age-strengthening improves the machinability of gray cast iron. These results were then used to determine whether age strengthening improves the machinability of ductile iron and compacted graphite iron alloys in order to develop a predictive model of alloy factor effects on age strengthening. The results of this work will lead to reduced section sizes, and corresponding weight and energy savings. Improved machinability will reduce scrap and enhance casting marketability. Technical Conclusions: Age strengthening was demonstrated to occur in gray iron ductile iron and compacted graphite iron. Machinability was demonstrated to be improved by age strengthening when free ferrite was present in the microstructure, but not in a fully pearlitic microstructure. Age strengthening only occurs when there is residual nitrogen in solid solution in the Ferrite, whether the ferrite is free ferrite or the ferrite lamellae within pearlite. Age strengthening can be accelerated by Mn at about 0.5% in excess of the Mn/S balance Estimated energy savings over ten years is 13.05 trillion BTU, based primarily on yield improvement and size reduction of castings for equivalent service. Also it is estimated that the heavy truck end use of lighter castings for equivalent service requirement will result in a diesel fuel energy savings of 131 trillion BTU over ten years.

  7. Water consumption in Iron Age, Roman, and Early Medieval Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lightfoot, E; Slaus, M; O'Connell, T C

    2014-08-01

    Patterns of water consumption by past human populations are rarely considered, yet drinking behavior is socially mediated and access to water sources is often socially controlled. Oxygen isotope analysis of archeological human remains is commonly used to identify migrants in the archeological record, but it can also be used to consider water itself, as this technique documents water consumption rather than migration directly. Here, we report an oxygen isotope study of humans and animals from coastal regions of Croatia in the Iron Age, Roman, and Early Medieval periods. The results show that while faunal values have little diachronic variation, the human data vary through time, and there are wide ranges of values within each period. Our interpretation is that this is not solely a result of mobility, but that human behavior can and did lead to human oxygen isotope ratios that are different from that expected from consumption of local precipitation.

  8. Rhenium-osmium-isotope constraints on the age of iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, M. F.; Morgan, J. W.; Walker, R. J.; Grossman, J. N.

    1992-01-01

    Rhenium and osmium concentrations and the osmium isotopic compositions of iron meteorites were determined by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Data for the IIA iron meteorites define an isochron with an uncertainty of approximately +/-31 million years for meteorites about 4500 million years old. Although an absolute rhenium-osmium closure age for this iron group cannot be as precisely constrained because of uncertainty in the decay constant of Re-187, an age of 4460 million years ago is the minimum permitted by combined uncertainties. These age constraints imply that the parent body of the IIAB magmatic irons melted and subsequently cooled within 100 million years after the formation of the oldest portions of chondrites. Other iron meteorites plot above the IIA isochron, indicating that the planetary bodies represented by these iron groups may have cooled significantly later than the parent body of the IIA irons.

  9. Rhenium-osmium isotope constraints on the age of iron meteorites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horan, M.F.; Morgan, J.W.; Walker, R.J.; Grossman, J.N.

    1992-01-01

    Rhenium and osmium concentrations and the osmium isotopic compositions of iron meteorites were determined by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Data for the IIA iron meteorites define an isochron with an uncertainty of approximately ??31 million years for meteorites ???4500 million years old. Although an absolute rhenium-osmium closure age for this iron group cannot be as precisely constrained because of uncertainty in the decay constant of 187Re, an age of 4460 million years ago is the minimum permitted by combined uncertainties. These age constraints imply that the parent body of the IIAB magmatic irons melted and subsequently cooled within 100 million years after the formation of the oldest portions of chondrites. Other iron meteorites plot above the IIA isochron, indicating that the planetary bodies represented by these iron groups may have cooled significantly later than the parent body of the IIA irons.

  10. Re-Os ages for Archean molybdenite and pyrite, Kuittila-Kivisuo, Finland and Proterozoic molybdenite, Kabeliai, Lithuania: Testing the chronometer in a metamorphic and metasomatic setting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stein, H.J.; Sundblad, K.; Markey, R.J.; Morgan, J.W.; Motuza, G.

    1998-01-01

    Seven 187Re-187Os ages were determined for molybdenite and pyrite samples from two well-dated Precambrian intrusions in Fennoscandia to examine the sustainability of the Re-Os chronometer in a metamorphic and metasomatic setting. Using a new 187Re decay constant (1.666 x 10-11y-1) with a much improved uncertainty (±0.31%), we determined replicate Re-Os ages for molybdenite and pyrite from the Kuittila and Kivisuo prospects in easternmost Finland and for molybdenite from the Kabeliai prospect in southernmost Lithuania. These two localities contain some of the oldest and youngest plutonic activity in Fennoscandia and are associated with newly discovered economic Au mineralization (Ilomantsi, Finland) and a Cu-Mo prospect (Kabeliai, Lithuania). Two Re-Os ages for veinhosted Kabeliai molybdenite average 1486 ± 5 Ma, in excellent agreement with a 1505 ± 11 Ma U-Pb zircon age for the hosting Kabeliai granite pluton. The slightly younger age suggests the introduction of Cu-Mo mineralization by a later phase of the Kabeliai magmatic system. Mean Re-Os ages of 2778 ± 8 Ma and 2781 ± 8 Ma for Kuittila and Kivisuo molybdenites, respectively, are in reasonable agreement with a 2753 ± 5 Ma weighted mean U-Pb zircon age for hosting Kuittila tonalite. These Re-Os ages agree well with less precise ages of 2789 ± 290 Ma for a Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron and 2771 ± 75 Ma for the average of six Sm-Nd T(DM) model ages for Kuittila tonalite. Three Re-Os analyses of a single pyrite mineral separate, from the same sample of Kuittila pluton that yielded a molybdenite separate, provide individual model ages of 2710 ± 27, 2777 ± 28, and 2830 ± 28 Ma (Re = 17.4, 12.1, and 8.4 ppb, respectively), with a mean value of 2770 ± 120 Ma in agreement with the Kuittila molybdenite age. The Re and 187Os abundances in these three pyrite splits are highly correlated (r = 0.9994), and provide a 187Re-187Os isochron age of 2607 ± 47 Ma with an intercept of 21 ppt 187Os (MSWD = 1.1). It appears

  11. EFFECT OF PRESTRAIN TEMPERATURE ON THE STRAIN AGING OF ALPHA-IRON

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Yield point measurements were made on polycrystalline specimens of alpha - iron deformed various amounts at 77, 195 and 273 K; aged; and redeformed at...formation of dislocation barriers during the initial low temperature deformation. The aging kinetics of polycrystalline alpha - iron wires deformed at

  12. Bmp6 Regulates Retinal Iron Homeostasis and Has Altered Expression in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hadziahmetovic, Majda; Song, Ying; Wolkow, Natalie; Iacovelli, Jared; Kautz, Leon; Roth, Marie-Paule; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2011-01-01

    Iron-induced oxidative stress causes hereditary macular degeneration in patients with aceruloplasminemia. Similarly, retinal iron accumulation in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) may exacerbate the disease. The cause of retinal iron accumulation in AMD is poorly understood. Given that bone morphogenetic protein 6 (Bmp6) is a major regulator of systemic iron, we examined the role of Bmp6 in retinal iron regulation and in AMD pathogenesis. Bmp6 was detected in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a major site of pathology in AMD. In cultured RPE cells, Bmp6 was down-regulated by oxidative stress and up-regulated by iron. Intraocular Bmp6 protein injection in mice up-regulated retinal hepcidin, an iron regulatory hormone, and altered retinal labile iron levels. Bmp6−/− mice had age-dependent retinal iron accumulation and degeneration. Postmortem RPE from patients with early AMD exhibited decreased Bmp6 levels. Because oxidative stress is associated with AMD pathogenesis and down-regulates Bmp6 in cultured RPE cells, the diminished Bmp6 levels observed in RPE cells in early AMD may contribute to iron build-up in AMD. This may in turn propagate a vicious cycle of oxidative stress and iron accumulation, exacerbating AMD and other diseases with hereditary or acquired iron excess. PMID:21703414

  13. Evaluation of dental and bone age in iron-deficient anemic children of South India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinod; Haridas, Harish; Hunsigi, Prahlad; Farooq, Umar; Erugula, Sridhar R.; Ealla, Kranti K. R.

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Dental and bone age is very essential for the dental practitioner in planning treatments and is an extra source of information for the pediatrician, orthopedician, and endocrinologist. There are few published data regarding collation between dental age, bone age, and chronological age in iron-deficiency anemic children. This study has been undertaken to evaluate and compare dental age, bone age, and chronological age in children with iron-deficiency anemia. Materials and Methods: One hundred iron-deficiency anemic children were selected in the age group of 8–14 years. Chronological age of the child was recorded by asking birth date from parents or checking school records. Dental age was calculated by Demirjians method and bone age was evaluated using Bjork, Grave, and Brown's method. Unpaired student's t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient were the two statistical tests applied to compare dental, bone, and chronological age. Results: Dental and bone age was significantly lower (P < 0.001) compared to chronological age. The correlation between the three ages was positive in both sexes. Conclusion: Dental and bone age retardation was a significant feature in our sample of 100 iron-deficient anemic children. Bone age and dental age are valuable parameters in assessing the overall growth of the child. Further studies are required to corroborate our findings. PMID:27891309

  14. Age-Dependent Retinal Iron Accumulation and Degeneration in Hepcidin Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hadziahmetovic, Majda; Song, Ying; Ponnuru, Padmavathi; Iacovelli, Jared; Hunter, Allan; Haddad, Nadine; Beard, John; Connor, James R.; Vaulont, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Iron dysregulation can cause retinal disease, yet retinal iron regulatory mechanisms are incompletely understood. The peptide hormone hepcidin (Hepc) limits iron uptake from the intestine by triggering degradation of the iron transporter ferroportin (Fpn). Given that Hepc is expressed in the retina and Fpn is expressed in cells constituting the blood-retinal barrier, the authors tested whether the retina may produce Hepc to limit retinal iron import. Methods. Retinas of Hepc−/− mice were analyzed by histology, autofluorescence spectral analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, Perls' iron stain, and immunofluorescence to assess iron-handling proteins. Retinal Hepc mRNA was evaluated through qPCR after intravitreal iron injection. Mechanisms of retinal Hepc upregulation were tested by Western blot analysis. A retinal capillary endothelial cell culture system was used to assess the effect of exogenous Hepc on Fpn. Results. Hepc−/− mice experienced age-dependent increases in retinal iron followed by retinal degeneration with autofluorescent RPE, photoreceptor death, and subretinal neovascularization. Hepc−/− mice had increased Fpn immunoreactivity in vascular endothelial cells. Conversely, in cultured retinal capillary endothelial cells, exogenous Hepc decreased both Fpn levels and iron transport. The retina can sense increased iron levels, upregulating Hepc after phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinases. Conclusions. These findings indicate that Hepc is essential for retinal iron regulation. In the absence of Hepc, retinal degeneration occurs. Increases in Hepc mRNA levels after intravitreal iron injection combined with Hepc-mediated decreases in iron export from cultured retinal capillary endothelial cells suggest that the retina may use Hepc for its tissue-specific iron regulation. PMID:20811044

  15. Impact of fetal-neonatal iron deficiency on recognition memory at two months of age

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Fengji; Mai, Xiaoqin; Zhan, Jianying; Xu, Lin; Zhao, Zhengyan; Georgieff, Michael; Shao, Jie; Lozoff, Betsy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of fetal-neonatal iron deficiency on recognition memory in early infancy. Perinatal iron deficiency delays or disrupts hippocampal development in animal models and thus may impair related neural functions in human infants, such as recognition memory. Study design Event-related potentials were used in an auditory recognition memory task to compare 2-month-old Chinese infants with iron sufficiency or deficiency at birth. Fetal- neonatal iron deficiency was defined two ways: high zinc protoporphyrin/heme ratio (ZPP/H > 118 μmol/mol) or low serum ferritin (< 75 μg/l) in cord blood. Late slow wave (LSW) was used to measure infant recognition of mother’s voice. Results ERP patterns differed significantly for fetal-neonatal iron deficiency as defined by high cord ZPP/H but not low ferritin. Comparing 35 infants with iron deficiency (ZPP/H > 118 μmol/mol) to 92 with lower ZPP/H (iron-sufficient), only infants with iron sufficiency showed larger LSW amplitude for stranger’s voice than mother’s voice in frontal-central and parietal-occipital locations, indicating the recognition of mother’s voice. Conclusions Infants with iron sufficiency showed electrophysiological evidence of recognizing their mother’s voice, whereas infants with fetal-neonatal iron deficiency did not. Their poorer auditory recognition memory at two months of age is consistent with effects of fetal-neonatal iron deficiency on the developing hippocampus. PMID:26382625

  16. Iron biology, immunology, aging and obesity: four fields connected by the small peptide hormone, hepcidin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is well-known that obesity and aging have a negative impact on iron status and immune response, but little is known about the additional impact that obesity may have on iron homeostasis and immunity in the elderly. This question is relevant given the rising numbers of elderly obese individuals a...

  17. R2* mapping for brain iron: associations with cognition in normal aging.

    PubMed

    Ghadery, Christine; Pirpamer, Lukas; Hofer, Edith; Langkammer, Christian; Petrovic, Katja; Loitfelder, Marisa; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Seiler, Stephan; Duering, Marco; Jouvent, Eric; Schmidt, Helena; Fazekas, Franz; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Chabriat, Hugues; Dichgans, Martin; Ropele, Stefan; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2015-02-01

    Brain iron accumulates during aging and has been associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Magnetic resonance (MR)-based R2* mapping enables the in vivo detection of iron content in brain tissue. We investigated if during normal brain aging iron load relates to cognitive impairment in region-specific patterns in a community-dwelling cohort of 336 healthy, middle aged, and older adults from the Austrian Stroke Prevention Family Study. MR imaging and R2* mapping in the basal ganglia and neocortex were done at 3T. Comprehensive neuropsychological testing assessed memory, executive function, and psychomotor speed. We found the highest iron concentration in the globus pallidus, and pallidal and putaminal iron was significantly and inversely associated with cognitive performance in all cognitive domains, except memory. These associations were iron load dependent. Vascular brain lesions and brain volume did not mediate the relationship between iron and cognitive performance. We conclude that higher R2*-determined iron in the basal ganglia correlates with cognitive impairment during brain aging independent of concomitant brain abnormalities. The prognostic significance of this finding needs to be determined.

  18. Iron Supplementation in Infancy Contributes to More Adaptive Behavior at 10 Years of Age1234

    PubMed Central

    Lozoff, Betsy; Castillo, Marcela; Clark, Katy M.; Smith, Julia B.; Sturza, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of behavioral/developmental effects of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) or iron supplementation in infancy have found social-emotional differences. Differences could relate to behavioral inhibition or lack of positive affect and altered response to reward. To determine long-term behavioral effects, the study was a follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of behavioral/developmental effects of preventing IDA in infancy. Healthy Chilean infants free of IDA at age 6 mo were randomly assigned to iron supplementation or no added iron (formula with iron/powdered cow milk, vitamins with/without iron) from ages 6 to 12 mo. At age 10 y, 59% (666 of 1123) and 68% (366 of 534) of iron-supplemented and no-added-iron groups were assessed. Social-emotional outcomes included maternal-reported behavior problems, self-reported behavior, examiner ratings, and video coding of a social stress task and gamelike paradigms. Examiners rated the iron-supplemented group as more cooperative, confident, persistent after failure, coordinated, and direct and reality-oriented in speech and working harder after praise compared with the no-added-iron group. In a task designed to elicit positive affect, supplemented children spent more time laughing and smiling together with their mothers and started smiling more quickly. In the social stress task they smiled and laughed more and needed less prompting to complete the task. All P values were <0.05; effect sizes were 0.14–0.36. There were no differences in behaviors related to behavioral inhibition, such as anxiety/depression or social problems. In sum, iron supplementation in infancy was associated with more adaptive behavior at age 10 y, especially in affect and response to reward, which may improve performance at school and work, mental health, and personal relationships. PMID:24717366

  19. High Prevalence of Skin Diseases and Need for Treatment in a Middle-Aged Population. A Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Study

    PubMed Central

    Sinikumpu, Suvi-Päivikki; Huilaja, Laura; Jokelainen, Jari; Koiranen, Markku; Auvinen, Juha; Hägg, Päivi M.; Wikström, Erika; Timonen, Markku; Tasanen, Kaisa

    2014-01-01

    To determine the overall prevalence of skin diseases a whole-body skin examination was performed for 1,932 members (46-years of age) of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC 1966), which is a comprehensive longitudinal research program (N = 12,058). A high prevalence of all skin diseases needing treatment was found (N = 1,158). Half of the cases of skin findings were evaluated to be serious enough to require diagnostic evaluation, treatment or follow-up either in a general health care, occupational health care or a secondary care setting. The remaining half were thought to be slight and self-treatment was advised. Males (70%) had more skin diseases needing treatment than females (52%) (P<0.001). The most common skin finding was a benign skin tumor, which was found in every cohort member. Skin infections (44%), eczemas (27%) and sebaceous gland diseases (27%) were the most common skin diseases in the cohort. Moreover, skin infections and eczemas were more commonly seen in the group with low education compared to those with high education (P<0.005). The results strengthen the postulate that skin diseases are common in an adult population. PMID:24911008

  20. Appraising the Role of Iron in Brain Aging and Cognition: Promises and Limitations of MRI Methods

    PubMed Central

    Daugherty, Ana M; Raz, Naftali

    2015-01-01

    Age-related increase in frailty is accompanied by a fundamental shift in cellular iron homeostasis. By promoting oxidative stress, the intracellular accumulation of non-heme iron outside of binding complexes contributes to chronic inflammation and interferes with normal brain metabolism. In the absence of direct non-invasive biomarkers of brain oxidative stress, iron accumulation estimated in vivo may serve as its proxy indicator. Hence, developing reliable in vivo measurements of brain iron content via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is of significant interest in human neuroscience. To date, by estimating brain iron content through various MRI methods, significant age differences and age-related increases in iron content of the basal ganglia have been revealed across multiple samples. Less consistent are the findings that pertain to the relationship between elevated brain iron content and systemic indices of vascular and metabolic dysfunction. Only a handful of cross-sectional investigations have linked high iron content in various brain regions and poor performance on assorted cognitive tests. The even fewer longitudinal studies indicate that iron accumulation may precede shrinkage of the basal ganglia and thus predict poor maintenance of cognitive functions. This rapidly developing field will benefit from introduction of higher-field MRI scanners, improvement in iron-sensitive and -specific acquisition sequences and post-processing analytic and computational methods, as well as accumulation of data from long-term longitudinal investigations. This review describes the potential advantages and promises of MRI-based assessment of brain iron, summarizes recent findings and highlights the limitations of the current methodology. PMID:26248580

  1. Iron fertilization of the Subantarctic ocean during the last ice age.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Alfredo; Sigman, Daniel M; Ren, Haojia; Anderson, Robert F; Straub, Marietta; Hodell, David A; Jaccard, Samuel L; Eglinton, Timothy I; Haug, Gerald H

    2014-03-21

    John H. Martin, who discovered widespread iron limitation of ocean productivity, proposed that dust-borne iron fertilization of Southern Ocean phytoplankton caused the ice age reduction in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). In a sediment core from the Subantarctic Atlantic, we measured foraminifera-bound nitrogen isotopes to reconstruct ice age nitrate consumption, burial fluxes of iron, and proxies for productivity. Peak glacial times and millennial cold events are characterized by increases in dust flux, productivity, and the degree of nitrate consumption; this combination is uniquely consistent with Subantarctic iron fertilization. The associated strengthening of the Southern Ocean's biological pump can explain the lowering of CO2 at the transition from mid-climate states to full ice age conditions as well as the millennial-scale CO2 oscillations.

  2. Modulation of iron metabolism in aging and in Alzheimer's disease: relevance of the choroid plexus

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Sandro D.; Ferreira, Ana C.; Sousa, João C.; Santos, Nadine C.; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Sousa, Nuno; Palha, Joana A.; Marques, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Iron is essential for mammalian cellular homeostasis. However, in excess, it promotes free radical formation and is associated with aging-related progressive deterioration and with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are no mechanisms to excrete iron, which makes iron homeostasis a very tightly regulated process at the level of the intestinal absorption. Iron is believed to reach the brain through receptor-mediated endocytosis of iron-bound transferrin by the brain barriers, the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier, formed by the choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cells and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) formed by the endothelial cells of the brain capillaries. Importantly, the CP epithelial cells are responsible for producing most of the CSF, the fluid that fills the brain ventricles and the subarachnoid space. Recently, the finding that the CP epithelial cells display all the machinery to locally control iron delivery into the CSF may suggest that the general and progressive senescence of the CP may be at the basis of the impairment of regional iron metabolism, iron-mediated toxicity, and the increase in inflammation and oxidative stress that occurs with aging and, particularly, in AD. PMID:22661928

  3. Iron

    MedlinePlus

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  4. Low Prevalence of Iron and Vitamin A Deficiency among Cambodian Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Wieringa, Frank T.; Sophonneary, Prak; Whitney, Sophie; Mao, Bunsoth; Berger, Jacques; Conkle, Joel; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A.; Laillou, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Nearly half of women of reproductive age (WRA) in Cambodia are anemic. To guide interventions, national data on nutritional causes of anemia, including iron deficiency and vitamin A deficiency, are needed. In 2012, a national household survey in WRA on antibodies to routine vaccine-preventable disease immunity was performed. We used serum samples from this survey to estimate the prevalence of iron and vitamin A deficiency in 2112 Cambodian WRA, aged 15 to 39 years. Iron deficiency was classified as low or marginal iron stores (ferritin concentrations corrected for inflammation <15 μg/L and <50 μg/L respectively; Fer), iron deficient erythropoiesis (soluble transferrin receptor concentrations >8.3 mg/L; sTfR), or low total body iron (TBI) derived from Fer and sTfR concentrations (<0 mg/kg). Vitamin A status was classified using retinol binding protein (RBP) concentrations corrected for inflammation as deficient (<0.70 μmol/L) or marginal (<1.05 μmol/L. Overall, the prevalence of low iron stores, low TBI and iron deficient erythropoiesis was 8.1%, 5.0% and 9.3% respectively. Almost 40% of the women had marginal iron stores. Iron status was better in women living in urban areas compared to rural areas (p < 0.05 for TBI and sTfR). The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was <1%. These findings suggest that the contribution of iron and vitamin A deficiency to the high prevalence of anemia in Cambodian WRA may be limited. The etiology of anemia in Cambodia needs to be elucidated further to guide current policies on anemia. PMID:27043624

  5. Adult Education in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, Radu

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the first ideas of national independence appeared in Finland, adult education has played an essential role in shaping the destiny of the Finns. With a history of almost 130 years, during which it has continuously increased in quality and quantity, the Finnish adult education system has ensured that Finland stays among the most…

  6. Use of iron supplements in children aged 1-2 years with iron deficiency anemia: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sezik, Handan Atsiz; Can, Huseyin; Kurnaz, Mehmet Ali; Tuna, Mine; Ay, Zeynep

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common nutritional problem in the world and is the most common cause of childhood anemia. In this study, our aim was to find out about the state of usage of iron preparation, which is distributed free of charge by the Ministry of Health, for the infants between 4-12 months in our country, as well as detecting the awareness degree of families those who are informed about iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), prophylaxis of the drug and to determine the drug’s effectiveness. Methods: It was a cross-sectional survey. The laboratory values from the files of the children aged 1-2 those who visited our hospital’s department of pediatrics, between January 2010 to August 2013, were collected. The survey included families who have children diagnosed with IDA. Questions included about families’ sociodemographic characteristics, the state of the usage of the iron drug, how much information received in terms of the side effects- consumption period and dosage. Results: A total of 139 children were enrolled in our study. While 77.7% of the families who participated stated that (n = 108) iron medicine was prescribed other 43.2% of families stated (n = 60) was prescribed and they were informed about iron pills and IDA. 25.9% of families had received information about drug’s side effects, 74.8% of them had information about period of consumption and 77.7% said they were given information about the drug dose. The average duration of use of iron medicine was 6.98±4.52 (min: 1, max: 24) months. It has been noted that; parent’s education level, mother’s occupation, child’s gender, how the child was born and receiving information about how to use the medicine had no effects on usage of the drug in children. Nevertheless, it has been noticed that, when the families were given proper information the drug use increased and the patients compliance with medications also increased. Conclusion: We believe that, due to frequent diagnosis of

  7. The interplay between mitochondrial protein and iron homeostasis and its possible role in ageing.

    PubMed

    Mallikarjun, Venkatesh; Sriram, Ashwin; Scialo, Filippo; Sanz, Alberto

    2014-08-01

    Free (labile or chelatable) iron is extremely redox-active and only represents a small fraction of the total mitochondrial iron population. Several studies have shown that the proportion of free iron increases with age, leading to increased Fenton chemistry in later life. It is not clear why free iron accumulates in mitochondria, but it does so in parallel with an inability to degrade and recycle damaged proteins that causes loss of mitochondrial protein homeostasis (proteostasis). The increase in oxidative damage that has been shown to occur with age might be explained by these two processes. While this accumulation of oxidative damage has often been cited as causative to ageing there are examples of model organisms that possess high levels of oxidative damage throughout their lives with no effect on lifespan. Interestingly, these same animals are characterised by an outstanding ability to maintain correct proteostasis during their entire life. ROS can damage critical components of the iron homeostasis machinery, while the efficacy of mitochondrial quality control mechanisms will determine how detrimental that damage is. Here we review the interplay between iron and organellar quality control in mitochondrial dysfunction and we suggest that a decline in mitochondrial proteostasis with age leaves iron homeostasis (where several key stages are thought to be dependent on proteostasis machinery) vulnerable to oxidative damage and other age-related stress factors. This will have severe consequences for the electron transport chain and TCA cycle (among other processes) where several components are acutely dependent on correct assembly, insertion and maintenance of iron-sulphur clusters, leading to energetic crisis and death.

  8. Iron and copper toxicity in diseases of aging, particularly atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Brewer, George J

    2007-02-01

    In this review, we point out that natural selection does not act to lessen human diseases after the reproductive and caregiving period and that normal levels of iron and copper that may be healthy during the reproductive years appear to be contributing to diseases of aging and possibly the aging process itself. It is clear that oxidant damage contributes to many of the diseases of aging, such as atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's diseases, diabetes, diseases of inflammation, diseases of fibrosis, diseases of autoimmunity, and so on. It is equally clear that both iron and copper can contribute to excess production of damaging reactive oxygen species through Fenton chemistry. Here, we examine the evidence that "normal" levels of iron and copper contribute to various diseases of aging.

  9. Infant iron status affects iron absorption in Peruvian breastfed infants at 2 and 5 mo of age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of prenatal iron supplementation on maternal postpartum iron status and early infant iron homeostasis remain largely unknown. We examined iron absorption and growth in exclusively breastfed infants in relation to fetal iron exposure and iron status during early infancy. Longitudinal, paired ...

  10. Bronze and Iron Age Finds from Romuald's Cave, Istria: 2014 Excavation Season.

    PubMed

    Janković, Ivor; Ahern, James C M; Mihelić, Sanjin; Premuzić, Zrinka

    2015-12-01

    Archaeological excavations in Romuald's Cave (Lim Channel, Istria, Croatia) have yielded evidence of human activity stretching back to the Middle Palaeolithic. This paper reports on recent Bronze Age/Early Iron Age discoveries uncovered during excavations as part of the Croatian National Science Foundation funded project: "Archaeological Investigations into the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene of the Lim Channel, Istria". Fragmentary skeletal remains from at least two individuals were excavated, and a direct radiocarbon date from one of the remains is commensurate with a Bronze Age attribution. The recovered ceramics confirm this age attribution, although they range from the Middle Bronze Age to incipient Iron Age in character. Furthermore, the ceramics indicate that the human activities in Romuald's Cave were associated with the nearby settlements of Gradina and St. Martin.

  11. Age, gender, and hemispheric differences in iron deposition in the human brain: an in vivo MRI study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaojun; Wang, Qidong; Zhang, Minming

    2008-03-01

    It is well known that iron accumulates in the brains of patients with various neurodegenerative diseases. To better understand disease-related iron changes, it is necessary to know the physiological distribution and accumulation of iron in the human brain. Studies have shown that brain iron levels increase with aging. However, the effects of gender and hemispheric laterality on iron accumulation and distribution are not well established. In this study, we estimated the brain iron levels in vivo in 78 healthy adults ranging in age 22 to 78 years using magnetic susceptibility-weighted phase imaging. The effects of age, gender, and hemispheric location on brain iron levels were evaluated within the framework of a general linear model. We found that the left hemisphere had higher iron levels than the right in the putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, thalamus, and frontal white matter. We argue that the hemispheric asymmetry of iron content may underlie that of the dopaminergic system and may be related to motor lateralization in humans. In addition, significant age-related iron accumulation occurred in the putamen, red nucleus, and frontal white matter, but no gender-related differences in iron levels were detected. The results of this study extend our knowledge of the physiological distribution and accumulation of iron in the human brain.

  12. Youth Suicide Trends in Finland, 1969-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahti, Anniina; Rasanen, Pirkko; Riala, Kaisa; Keranen, Sirpa; Hakko, Helina

    2011-01-01

    Background: There are only a few recent studies on secular trends in child and adolescent suicides. We examine here trends in rates and methods of suicide among young people in Finland, where suicide rates at these ages are among the highest in the world. Methods: The data, obtained from Statistics Finland, consisted of all suicides (n = 901)…

  13. The Quality and Effectiveness of Confirmation Classes in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemela, Kati

    2006-01-01

    Every year some 90% of 15-year-olds in Finland attend confirmation classes in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, which is greater than the percentage of that age group belonging to the Church. What is behind the popularity of Finnish confirmation classes? This article scrutinizes the quality and effectiveness of confirmation classes.…

  14. The Iron age of host–microbe interactions

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Miguel P; Weiss, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Microbes exert a major impact on human health and disease by either promoting or disrupting homeostasis, in the latter instance leading to the development of infectious diseases. Such disparate outcomes are driven by the ever-evolving genetic diversity of microbes and the countervailing host responses that minimize their pathogenic impact. Host defense strategies that limit microbial pathogenicity include resistance mechanisms that exert a negative impact on microbes, and disease tolerance mechanisms that sustain host homeostasis without interfering directly with microbes. While genetically distinct, these host defense strategies are functionally integrated, via mechanisms that remain incompletely defined. Here, we explore the general principles via which host adaptive responses regulating iron (Fe) metabolism impact on resistance and disease tolerance to infection. PMID:26474900

  15. Finland's Cleanup Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Finland has received a $20 million loan from the World Bank to attack its pollution problems, mainly water. Improved quality of life, as well as resource conservation are both motives and goals of that country's environmental programs. (BT)

  16. Age and Sex Related Differences in Subcortical Brain Iron Concentrations among Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Ninni; Wu, Jianlin; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Ting; Shen, Jing; Bao, Ruyi; Ni, Mingfei; Liu, Tian; Wang, Yi; Spincemaille, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Age and sex can influence brain iron levels. We studied the influence of these variables on deep gray matter magnetic susceptibilities. In 183 healthy volunteers (44.7 ± 14.2 years, range 20-69, ♀ 49%), in vivo Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) at 1.5T was performed to estimate brain iron accumulation in the following regions of interest (ROIs): caudate nucleus (Cd), putamen (Pt), globus pallidus (Gp), thalamus (Th), pulvinar (Pul), red nucleus (Rn), substantia nigra (Sn) and the cerebellar dentate nuclei (Dn). We gauged the influence of age and sex on magnetic susceptibility by specifying a series of Structural Equation Models. The distributions of susceptibility varied in degree across the structures, conforming to histologic findings (Hallgren & Sourander, 1958), with the highest degree of susceptibility in the Gp and the lowest in the Th. Iron increase correlated across several ROIs, which may reflect an underlying age-related process. Advanced age was associated with a particularly strong linear rise of susceptibility in the striatum. Nonlinear age trends were found in the Rn, where they were the most pronounced, followed by the Pul and Sn, while minimal nonlinear trends were observed for the Pt, Th, and Dn. Moreover, sex related variations were observed, so that women showed lower levels of susceptibility in the Sn after accounting for age. Regional susceptibility of the Pul increased linearly with age in men but exhibited a nonlinear association with age in women with a leveling off starting from midlife. Women expected to be post menopause (+51 years) showed lower total magnetic susceptibility in the subcortical gray matter. The current report is consistent with previous reports of age related variations of brain iron, but also adds to the current knowledge by reporting age-related changes in less studied, smaller subcortical nuclei. This is the first in-vivo report to show lower total subcortical brain iron levels selectively in women from

  17. Micromorphology of past urban soils: method and results (France, Iron Age - Middle Age)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammas, Cécilia

    2014-05-01

    Urban soils in French protohistoric and Roman towns and present-day towns of roman origin are several meters thick accumulations, with great spatial and vertical variability due to long duration of occupation. In order to improve our knowledge of both sedimentary and pedological characteristics as well as formation processes of urban soils, micromorphological analysis was carried out on buried towns. The studied sites include Iron Age towns (floodplain sites: Lattes or Lattara, Le Cailar; oppidum: Pech-Maho in the south of France), a roman buried town (Famars or Fanum Martis, North of France), and various towns occupied from the Roman period until now (urban and periurban sites in Paris, Strasbourg, Mâcon… North and East of France). Original method and sampling strategy were elaborated in order to try to encompass both spatial and vertical variability as well as the "mitage" of the present-day cities. In Lattes, representative elementary urban areas such as streets, courtyard, and houses were sampled for micromorphology during extensive excavation. These analyses revealed specific microscopic features related to complex anthropogenic processes (craft and domestic activities discarding, trampling, backfill, building), moisture and heat, and biological activity, which defined each kind of area. Comparison between well preserved buried town and current cities of roman origin, where the sequence of past urban soils is preserved in few place ("mitage") help to identify past activities, building rhythms as well as specific building materials. For example, in Paris, compacted sandy backfills alternate with watertight hardfloors during the Roman period (soils similar to Technosols). At the opposite, various kinds of loose bioturbated laminated dark earth resulting from activities such as craft refuses, backfills, compost or trampled layers were discriminated for Early Medieval Period (soils similar to Cumulic Anthroposol). Moreover, biological activity is usually

  18. Iron Level and Myelin Content in the Ventral Striatum Predict Memory Performance in the Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Age-related memory impairments have been associated with structural changes in the dopaminergic system, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent work indicates that iron accumulation might be of particular relevance. As iron accumulates, a degeneration of myelin sheaths has been observed in the elderly, but the relationship between both and their impact on memory performance in healthy elderly humans remain important open questions. To address this issue, we combined an established behavioral paradigm to test memory performance [verbal learning memory test (VLMT)] with state of the art quantitative magnetic resonance imaging techniques allowing us to quantify the degree of myelination and iron accumulation via markers of tissue microstructure in a group of young (18–32 years) and healthy elderly humans (55–79 years). As expected, we observed a decrease in gray matter volume and myelin, and an increase of iron in the elderly relative to the young subjects within widespread brain regions, including the basal ganglia. Furthermore, higher levels of iron within the ventral striatum were accompanied by a negative correlation between myelin and iron specific for the elderly participants. Importantly, both markers of iron and myelin (and their ratio) predicted the performance of the elderly in the VLMT. This suggests that ventral striatum iron accumulation is linked to demyelination and impairments in declarative memory. Together, our data provide novel insights into underlying microstructural mechanisms of memory decline in the elderly. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Memory decline in healthy elderly is a common phenomenon, but the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. We used a novel approach that allowed us to combine behavior and whole-brain measures of iron, myelin, and gray matter in the participant's individual subspace to analyze structure–structure and structure–behavior interactions. We were able to show, that age-related high levels of iron

  19. Iron concentrations and distributions in the parkinsonian substantia nigra of aged and young primate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, M. Q.; Xie, J. P.; Wang, X. S.; Ong, W. Y.; Leong, S. K.; Watt, F.

    2001-07-01

    in the SN with age. Since Parkinson's disease mainly occurs in the elderly, this may implicate iron as a factor in dopaminergic cell death through iron-catalysed free radical production.

  20. Cranial trauma in iron age Samnite agriculturists, Alfedena, Italy: implications for biocultural and economic stress.

    PubMed

    Paine, R R; Mancinelli, D; Ruggieri, M; Coppa, A

    2007-01-01

    The Samnites are an Iron Age protohistoric people from the central region of Italy. The skeletal remains are from the Alfedena necropolis, 6th through 5th centuries B.C. Macchiarelli et al. (Antropologia Contemporanea 4 (1981) 239-243) were the first to report on cranial trauma for this population, presenting four cases with extreme injuries. We re-examined this well documented skeletal population for additional examples of trauma. Previously unexamined remains from Alfedena, excavated at the turn of the 20th century, are also included in our analysis (Mariani. 1901. "Aufidena", ricerche archeologiche e storiche del Sannio settentrionale. Roma: Acc Naz Dei Lincei). Of the 209 adult crania examined, 12.9% of them exhibited trauma. Analysis of location and frequency of cranial trauma revealed that cranial injuries to the head appear to originate from all directions. The high rate of cranial trauma underscores the violent circumstances experienced during the Iron Age protohistoric period of central Italy. Males are much more likely to exhibit cranial injury than females (P = 0.009). We conclude that the injuries received by Samnite male farmer-warriors occurred while defending pastoral-agricultural resources. Trauma rates are similar for some Iron Age populations and not for others. Behavior associated with violence during the Iron Age period can not be generalized for all populations found in Italy.

  1. Red iron-ore beds of Silurian age in northeastern Alabama, northwestern Georgia, and eastern Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitlow, Jesse W.

    1962-01-01

    Geological studies have determined the lithology and approximate extent of the red iron ores of Silurian age in the Southeast. Detailed investigations have been made by private companies and government agencies. Most of this work has been in the Birmingham, Ala., district, and the remainder of the region has relatively little study in recent years. 

  2. Age-related iron deposition in the basal ganglia of controls and Alzheimer disease patients quantified using susceptibility weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Li, Yan-Ying; Luo, Jian-Hua; Li, Yue-Hua

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate age-related iron deposition changes in healthy subjects and Alzheimer disease patients using susceptibility weighted imaging. The study recruited 182 people, including 143 healthy volunteers and 39 Alzheimer disease patients. All underwent conventional magnetic resonance imaging and susceptibility weighted imaging sequences. The groups were divided according to age. Phase images were used to investigate iron deposition in the bilateral head of the caudate nucleus, globus pallidus and putamen, and the angle radian value was calculated. We hypothesized that age-related iron deposition changes may be different between Alzheimer disease patients and controls of the same age, and that susceptibility weighted imaging would be a more sensitive method of iron deposition quantification. The results revealed that iron deposition in the globus pallidus increased with age, up to 40 years. In the head of the caudate nucleus, iron deposition peaked at 60 years. There was a general increasing trend with age in the putamen, up to 50-70 years old. There was significant difference between the control and Alzheimer disease groups in the bilateral globus pallidus in both the 60-70 and 70-80 year old group comparisons. In conclusion, iron deposition increased with age in the globus pallidus, the head of the caudate nucleus and putamen, reaching a plateau at different ages. Furthermore, comparisons between the control and Alzheimer disease group revealed that iron deposition changes were more easily detected in the globus pallidus.

  3. Effectiveness of zinc protoporphyrin/heme ratio for screening iron deficiency in preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kyeong Hee

    2011-02-01

    Hemoglobin and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) tests are commonly used to screen for iron deficiency, but little research has been done to systematically evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of these two tests. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of zinc protoporphyrin/heme (ZPP/H) ratio as a point-of-service screening test for iron deficiency among preschool-aged children by comparing the sensitivity and specificity of hemoglobin, ZPP/H ratio, and serum ferritin (SF). Also completed were assessments for the prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) with indicators of ferritin models. This study was carried out with 95 children ages 3 to 6 y. Anthropometric measurements were assessed, and blood samples were analyzed for hemoglobin, SF, transferrin saturation (TS), and ZPP. Anemia was common and the prevalences of anemia, ID, and IDA were 14.7%, 12.6%, and 5.2%, respectively. The ZPP/H ratio was strongly and significantly correlated with hemoglobin. And ZPP/H ratio was a more sensitive test for ID than hemoglobin or SF measurement, correctly identifying more than twice as many iron-deficient children (sensitivity of 91.7%, compared to 41.7% for hemoglobin and SF). However, ZPP/H ratio had lower specificity (60.2%, compared to 89.1% for hemoglobin or 96.4% for SF) and resulted in the false identification of more subjects who actually were not iron deficient than did hemoglobin or SF. Low hemoglobin concentration is a late-stage indicator of ID, but ZPP/H ratio can detect ID at early stages and can be performed easily at a relatively low cost. Therefore, ZPP/H ratio can serve as a potential screening test for pre-anemic iron deficiency in community pediatric practices.

  4. Community mobilization and social marketing to promote weekly iron-folic acid supplementation in women of reproductive age in Vietnam: impact on anemia and iron status.

    PubMed

    Berger, Jacques; Thanh, Hoang Thi Kim; Cavalli-Sforza, Tommaso; Smitasiri, Suttilak; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Milani, Silvano; Hoa, Pham Thuy; Quang, Nguyen Dinh; Viteri, Fernando

    2005-12-01

    The community mobilization and social marketing program promoting a preventive approach of weekly iron-folic acid supplementation in women of reproductive age improved iron status of non-pregnant women in Vietnam. Three to six months of weekly pre-pregnancy supplementation and regular weekly intake of supplements during pregnancy allowed women to achieve good iron and hemoglobin status during the two first trimesters of pregnancy. In the third trimester, iron deficiency and anemia were notably present but low birth weight prevalence was low. This demonstrates the effectiveness and safety of the preventive approach as implemented here to prevent and control iron deficiency and anemia in women of reproductive age before and during pregnancy.

  5. A prospective study of iron status in exclusively breastfed term infants up to 6 months of age

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Shashi; Faridi, MMA; Rusia, Usha; Singh, Om

    2008-01-01

    Background Can exclusive breastfeeding until six months of age maintain optimum iron status in term babies? We evaluated iron status of exclusively breastfed term infants in relation to breast milk iron and lactoferrin. Methods In this prospective study in Delhi, India, during the period 2003–2004 normally delivered babies of non-anemic [(Hemoglobin (Hb) = 11 g/dl, n = 68] and anemic (Hb 7 – 10.9 g/dl, n = 61) mothers were followed until 6 months of age. Iron parameters were measured in the cord blood at 14 weeks and 6 months. Breast milk iron and lactoferrin were measured at the same intervals. Results Iron parameters in babies of both groups were within normal limits at birth, 14 weeks and 6 months. Mean breast milk iron and lactoferrin in non-anemic (day 1: 0.89, 6 months: 0.26 mg/l; day 1: 12.02, 6 months: 5.85 mg/ml) and anemic mothers (day 1: 0.86, 6 months: 0.27 mg/l; day 1: 12.91, 6 months: 6.37 mg/ml) were not different on day one or at other times. No relationship was found between breast milk iron, lactoferrin and iron status of the babies. Conclusion Exclusively breastfed infants of non-anemic and anemic mothers did not develop iron deficiency or iron deficiency anemia by six months of age. PMID:18312681

  6. Depleted iron stores and iron deficiency anemia associated with reduced ferritin and hepcidin and elevated soluble transferrin receptors in a multiethnic group of preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Hope A; Jean-Philippe, Sonia; Cohen, Tamara R; Vanstone, Catherine A; Agellon, Sherry

    2015-09-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is prevalent in subgroups of the Canadian population. The objective of this study was to examine iron status and anemia in preschool-age children. Healthy children (n = 430, 2-5 years old, Montreal, Quebec, Canada) were sampled from randomly selected daycares. Anthropometry, demographics, and diet were assessed. Biochemistry included hemoglobin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), ferritin index, markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)), and hepcidin. Iron deficiency and anemia cutoffs conformed to the World Health Organization criteria. Differences among categories were tested using mixed-model ANOVA or χ(2) tests. Children were 3.8 ± 1.0 years of age, with a body mass index z score of 0.48 ± 0.97, and 51% were white. Adjusted intakes of iron indicated <1% were at risk for deficiency. Hemoglobin was higher in white children, whereas ferritin was higher with greater age and female sex. Inflammatory markers and hepcidin did not vary with any demographic variable. The prevalence of iron deficiency was 16.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 13.0-20.0). Three percent (95% CI, 1.4-4.6) of children had iron deficiency anemia and 12.8% (95% CI, 9.6-16.0) had unexplained anemia. Children with iron deficiency, with and without anemia, had lower plasma ferritin and hepcidin but higher sTfR, ferritin index, and IL-6, whereas those with unexplained anemia had elevated TNFα. We conclude that iron deficiency anemia is not very common in young children in Montreal. While iron deficiency without anemia is more common than iron deficiency with anemia, the correspondingly reduced circulating hepcidin would have enabled heightened absorption of dietary iron in support of erythropoiesis.

  7. Children's Early Numeracy in Finland and Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aunio, Pirjo; Korhonen, Johan; Bashash, Laaya; Khoshbakht, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates similarities and differences in young children's early numeracy skills related to age, nationality and gender. The participants were five- to seven-year-old children from Finland and Iran. Early numeracy was investigated by using tasks measuring number-related relational skills (e.g. comparison, one-to-one…

  8. Iron fertilization of the Subantarctic Ocean during the last ice age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Garcia, A.

    2015-12-01

    Dust has the potential to modify global climate by influencing the radiative balance of the atmosphere and by supplying iron and other essential limiting micronutrients to the ocean. The scarcity of iron limits marine productivity and carbon uptake in one-quarter of the world ocean where the concentration of major nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen) is perennially high. The Southern Ocean is the region where variations in iron availability can have the largest effect on Earth's carbon cycle through its fertilizing effect on marine ecosystems. Paleoceanographic records from the Subantarctic Atlantic have revealed a remarkable correlation between phytoplankton productivity and aeolian iron flux during glacial periods supporting the iron fertilization hypothesis. In addition, a recent study has shown that peak glacial times and millennial cold events were nearly universally associated not only with increases in dust flux and export production, but also with an increase in nutrient consumption (the last indicated by higher foraminifera-bound δ15N) (Martinez-Garcia et al. 2014). This combination of changes is uniquely consistent with ice age iron fertilization of the Subantarctic Atlantic. The strengthening of the biological pump associated with the observed increase in Subantarctic nutrient consumption during the high-dust intervals of the last two ice ages can explain up to ~40 ppm of the CO2 decrease that characterizes the transitions from mid-climate states to full ice age conditions. However, the impact of iron fertilization in other sectors of the Southern Ocean characterized by lower ice age dust fluxes than the Atlantic remains unclear. A series of recently published records from the Subantarctic Pacific indicate that dust deposition and marine export production were three times higher during glacial periods than during interglacials (Lamy et al. 2014). Here we present new measurements of foraminifera-bound nitrogen isotopes in a sediment core located in the

  9. Women in physics in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banzuzi, Kukka

    2013-03-01

    The representation of women in physics and related fields of study in Finland, career advancement of female physicists in Finland, and the actions carried out in recent years to improve the situation are summarized.

  10. Effects of maternal education on diet, anemia, and iron deficiency in Korean school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We investigated the relationship among socioeconomic status factors, the risk of anemia, and iron deficiency among school-aged children in Korea. Methods The sample consisted of fourth-grade students aged 10 y recruited from nine elementary schools in Korean urban areas in 2008 (n = 717). Anthropometric and blood biochemistry data were obtained for this cross-sectional observational study. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels lower than 11.5 g/dl. Iron deficiency was defined as serum iron levels lower than 40 ug/dl. We also obtained data on parental education from questionnaires and on children's diets from 3-day food diaries. Parental education was categorized as low or high, with the latter representing an educational level beyond high school. Results Children with more educated mothers were less likely to develop anemia (P = 0.0324) and iron deficiency (P = 0.0577) than were those with less educated mothers. This group consumed more protein (P = 0.0004) and iron (P = 0.0012) from animal sources than did the children of less educated mothers, as reflected by their greater consumption of meat, poultry, and derivatives (P < 0.0001). Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant inverse relationship between maternal education and the prevalence of anemia (odds ratio: 0.52; 95% confidence interval: 0.32, 0.85). Conclusions As a contributor to socioeconomic status, maternal education is important in reducing the risk of anemia and iron deficiency and in increasing children's consumption of animal food sources. PMID:22087564

  11. Sami Education in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskitalo, Pigga; Maatta, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is, first, to describe Sami children's education and its status in the Finnish education system and, secondly, to contemplate its development in Finland. The core of the article is intertwined with issues concerning the status, language, and culture of indigenous peoples. According to the article, the western school…

  12. Palaeoclimatological and palaeolimnological records from fossil midges and tree-rings: the role of the North Atlantic Oscillation in eastern Finland through the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luoto, Tomi P.; Helama, Samuli

    2010-08-01

    Hydrological changes and air temperature variability are reconstructed from the sediments of Lake Pieni-Kauro, eastern Finland during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA) using transfer functions derived from midge (Insecta: Nematocera)-based calibration models. The reconstructions are compared with a regional tree-ring chronology and sediment physical properties are determined to track depositional changes. An objective of the study is to examine the long-term relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and climate (temperature, precipitation). Our results show that the MCA was characterized by warm and dry summer conditions, which were accompanied by changes in the sediment magnetic susceptibility values most likely representing major forest fires during the tree-ring indicated MCA megadrought. However, the midge-based stream flow reconstruction shows increased values during the MCA, thus implying enhanced spring floods after snowy winters. During the LIA, the tree-ring data indicate that a generally wetter climate prevailed during summers, but the stream flow reconstruction indicates less snowy winters. In the terms of long-term climatology, the present results show support to the concept that the NAO has a positive correlation between winter precipitation and annual temperature and a negative correlation between summer precipitation in eastern Finland. Thus, the results may serve as important background data for global change assessments.

  13. Ancestry and demography and descendants of Iron Age nomads of the Eurasian Steppe

    PubMed Central

    Unterländer, Martina; Palstra, Friso; Lazaridis, Iosif; Pilipenko, Aleksandr; Hofmanová, Zuzana; Groß, Melanie; Sell, Christian; Blöcher, Jens; Kirsanow, Karola; Rohland, Nadin; Rieger, Benjamin; Kaiser, Elke; Schier, Wolfram; Pozdniakov, Dimitri; Khokhlov, Aleksandr; Georges, Myriam; Wilde, Sandra; Powell, Adam; Heyer, Evelyne; Currat, Mathias; Reich, David; Samashev, Zainolla; Parzinger, Hermann; Molodin, Vyacheslav I.; Burger, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    During the 1st millennium before the Common Era (BCE), nomadic tribes associated with the Iron Age Scythian culture spread over the Eurasian Steppe, covering a territory of more than 3,500 km in breadth. To understand the demographic processes behind the spread of the Scythian culture, we analysed genomic data from eight individuals and a mitochondrial dataset of 96 individuals originating in eastern and western parts of the Eurasian Steppe. Genomic inference reveals that Scythians in the east and the west of the steppe zone can best be described as a mixture of Yamnaya-related ancestry and an East Asian component. Demographic modelling suggests independent origins for eastern and western groups with ongoing gene-flow between them, plausibly explaining the striking uniformity of their material culture. We also find evidence that significant gene-flow from east to west Eurasia must have occurred early during the Iron Age. PMID:28256537

  14. Ancestry and demography and descendants of Iron Age nomads of the Eurasian Steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unterländer, Martina; Palstra, Friso; Lazaridis, Iosif; Pilipenko, Aleksandr; Hofmanová, Zuzana; Groß, Melanie; Sell, Christian; Blöcher, Jens; Kirsanow, Karola; Rohland, Nadin; Rieger, Benjamin; Kaiser, Elke; Schier, Wolfram; Pozdniakov, Dimitri; Khokhlov, Aleksandr; Georges, Myriam; Wilde, Sandra; Powell, Adam; Heyer, Evelyne; Currat, Mathias; Reich, David; Samashev, Zainolla; Parzinger, Hermann; Molodin, Vyacheslav I.; Burger, Joachim

    2017-03-01

    During the 1st millennium before the Common Era (BCE), nomadic tribes associated with the Iron Age Scythian culture spread over the Eurasian Steppe, covering a territory of more than 3,500 km in breadth. To understand the demographic processes behind the spread of the Scythian culture, we analysed genomic data from eight individuals and a mitochondrial dataset of 96 individuals originating in eastern and western parts of the Eurasian Steppe. Genomic inference reveals that Scythians in the east and the west of the steppe zone can best be described as a mixture of Yamnaya-related ancestry and an East Asian component. Demographic modelling suggests independent origins for eastern and western groups with ongoing gene-flow between them, plausibly explaining the striking uniformity of their material culture. We also find evidence that significant gene-flow from east to west Eurasia must have occurred early during the Iron Age.

  15. Iron Age and Anglo-Saxon genomes from East England reveal British migration history.

    PubMed

    Schiffels, Stephan; Haak, Wolfgang; Paajanen, Pirita; Llamas, Bastien; Popescu, Elizabeth; Loe, Louise; Clarke, Rachel; Lyons, Alice; Mortimer, Richard; Sayer, Duncan; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Cooper, Alan; Durbin, Richard

    2016-01-19

    British population history has been shaped by a series of immigrations, including the early Anglo-Saxon migrations after 400 CE. It remains an open question how these events affected the genetic composition of the current British population. Here, we present whole-genome sequences from 10 individuals excavated close to Cambridge in the East of England, ranging from the late Iron Age to the middle Anglo-Saxon period. By analysing shared rare variants with hundreds of modern samples from Britain and Europe, we estimate that on average the contemporary East English population derives 38% of its ancestry from Anglo-Saxon migrations. We gain further insight with a new method, rarecoal, which infers population history and identifies fine-scale genetic ancestry from rare variants. Using rarecoal we find that the Anglo-Saxon samples are closely related to modern Dutch and Danish populations, while the Iron Age samples share ancestors with multiple Northern European populations including Britain.

  16. Iron Age and Anglo-Saxon genomes from East England reveal British migration history

    PubMed Central

    Schiffels, Stephan; Haak, Wolfgang; Paajanen, Pirita; Llamas, Bastien; Popescu, Elizabeth; Loe, Louise; Clarke, Rachel; Lyons, Alice; Mortimer, Richard; Sayer, Duncan; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Cooper, Alan; Durbin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    British population history has been shaped by a series of immigrations, including the early Anglo-Saxon migrations after 400 CE. It remains an open question how these events affected the genetic composition of the current British population. Here, we present whole-genome sequences from 10 individuals excavated close to Cambridge in the East of England, ranging from the late Iron Age to the middle Anglo-Saxon period. By analysing shared rare variants with hundreds of modern samples from Britain and Europe, we estimate that on average the contemporary East English population derives 38% of its ancestry from Anglo-Saxon migrations. We gain further insight with a new method, rarecoal, which infers population history and identifies fine-scale genetic ancestry from rare variants. Using rarecoal we find that the Anglo-Saxon samples are closely related to modern Dutch and Danish populations, while the Iron Age samples share ancestors with multiple Northern European populations including Britain. PMID:26783965

  17. Ca-41 in iron falls, Grant and Estherville - Production rates and related exposure age calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, D.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.; Vogt, S.; Herzog, G. F.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented of the first phase of a Ca-41 cosmogenic studies program aimed at establishing baseline concentrations and trends in selected meteorites and the use of Ca-41 in estimating exposure ages and preatmospheric meteorite radii. The average Ca-41 saturation activity recorded in four small iron falls is 24 +/-1 dpm/kg. This finding, together with measurements at the center and surface of the large iron Grant, indicates that production of Ca-41 from spallation on iron is weakly dependent on shielding to depths as large as 250 g/sq cm. The (K-41)-Ca-41 exposure age of Grant is estimated at 330 +/-50 My, and an upper limit to its terrestrial age of 43 +/-15 ky. A comparison of the Ca-41 contents of stony and metallic material separated from the mesosiderite Estherville identifies low-energy neutron capture on native Ca as a second important channel of production. It is found that the Ca-41 signal in the stone phase from three meteorites correlates with their size, and that the inferred low-energy neutron fluxes vary by a factor of at least 20.

  18. Intermittent iron supplementation for improving nutrition and development in children under 12 years of age

    PubMed Central

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Jefferds, Maria Elena D; Sylvetsky, Allison C; Dowswell, Therese

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 600 million children of preschool and school age are anaemic worldwide. It is estimated that half of the cases are due to iron deficiency. Consequences of iron deficiency anaemia during childhood include growth retardation, reduced school achievement, impaired motor and cognitive development, and increased morbidity and mortality. The provision of daily iron supplements is a widely used strategy for improving iron status in children but its effectiveness has been limited due to its side effects, which can include nausea, constipation or staining of the teeth. As a consequence, intermittent iron supplementation (one, two or three times a week on nonconsecutive days) has been proposed as an effective and safer alternative to daily supplementation. Objectives To assess the effects of intermittent iron supplementation, alone or in combination with other vitamins and minerals, on nutritional and developmental outcomes in children from birth to 12 years of age compared with a placebo, no intervention or daily supplementation. Search methods We searched the following databases on 24 May 2011: CENTRAL (2011, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1948 to May week 2, 2011), EMBASE (1980 to 2011 Week 20), CINAHL (1937 to current), POPLINE (all available years) and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). On 29 June 2011 we searched all available years in the following databases: SCIELO, LILACS, IBECS and IMBIOMED. We also contacted relevant organisations (on 3 July 2011) to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised trials with either individual or cluster randomisation. Participants were children under the age of 12 years at the time of intervention with no specific health problems. The intervention assessed was intermittent iron supplementation compared with a placebo, no intervention or daily supplementation. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies

  19. [Characteristics of the wetland soil iron under different ages of reclamation].

    PubMed

    Zou, Yuan-Chun; Lü, Xian-Guo; Jiang, Ming

    2008-03-01

    The temporal-spatial trends of soil total iron concentration (Fet), free degree (Fed/Fet), activation degree (Feo/Fed) and complex degree (Fep/Fed) of soil iron oxides after reclamation were studied in Sanjiang Plain Wetlands. The result suggests that Fet in the upper tillage layers (0 - 20 cm) are influenced by reclamation more significantly than that in the lower ones (20 - 100 cm), and so does the early ages (0 - 1 years) than the late ages (1 - 25 years). Fet is negatively correlated with organic matter extremely significantly (R = - 0.62), while that with total phosphorus and pH are not significant. Fet of soil layer I (0 - 10 cm) increases obviously during the first 7 years after reclamation, and tends to become stable after 13 years, while those ages of soil layer II (10 - 20 cm) are 8 years and 15 years respectively. Soil layer I shows shorter responding time and better regularity than layer II. Fed/Fet increases rapidly after reclamation, decreases later and then increases again. Feo/Fed indicates exponential decrease with the reclamation ages as well as Fep/Fed. Feo/Fed of layer I decreases radically during the first 4 years after reclamation and tends to become stable after 13 years, while that of layer II decreases dramatically within the first year and keeps stable henceforth. The counterparts of Fep/Fed are 6 years, 14 years, and 2 years respectively. With the fitted experimental equations of Fet, Feo/Fed, and Fep/Fed, the ages of reclamation can be deduced reversely, which indicates the implication of iron on the shifts of soil environment.

  20. Silica, silicosis and cancer in Finland.

    PubMed

    Partanen, T; Jaakkola, J; Tossavainen, A

    1995-01-01

    Approximately 100 000 Finnish workers are currently employed in jobs and tasks that may involve exposure to airborne silica dust. The major industries involved are mining and quarrying; production of glass, ceramics, bricks and other building materials; metal industry, particularly iron and steel founding; and construction. Over 1500 cases of silicosis have occurred in Finland since 1935. Tuberculosis has been a frequent complication of silicosis. Results of studies from several countries strongly suggest that silica dust also causes lung cancer. The results of the relevant Finnish epidemiologic and industrial hygiene studies addressing cancer risk and exposure to quartz dust are summarized.

  1. No iron fertilization in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during the last ice age.

    PubMed

    Costa, K M; McManus, J F; Anderson, R F; Ren, H; Sigman, D M; Winckler, G; Fleisher, M Q; Marcantonio, F; Ravelo, A C

    2016-01-28

    The equatorial Pacific Ocean is one of the major high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions in the global ocean. In such regions, the consumption of the available macro-nutrients such as nitrate and phosphate is thought to be limited in part by the low abundance of the critical micro-nutrient iron. Greater atmospheric dust deposition could have fertilized the equatorial Pacific with iron during the last ice age--the Last Glacial Period (LGP)--but the effect of increased ice-age dust fluxes on primary productivity in the equatorial Pacific remains uncertain. Here we present meridional transects of dust (derived from the (232)Th proxy), phytoplankton productivity (using opal, (231)Pa/(230)Th and excess Ba), and the degree of nitrate consumption (using foraminifera-bound δ(15)N) from six cores in the central equatorial Pacific for the Holocene (0-10,000 years ago) and the LGP (17,000-27,000 years ago). We find that, although dust deposition in the central equatorial Pacific was two to three times greater in the LGP than in the Holocene, productivity was the same or lower, and the degree of nitrate consumption was the same. These biogeochemical findings suggest that the relatively greater ice-age dust fluxes were not large enough to provide substantial iron fertilization to the central equatorial Pacific. This may have been because the absolute rate of dust deposition in the LGP (although greater than the Holocene rate) was very low. The lower productivity coupled with unchanged nitrate consumption suggests that the subsurface major nutrient concentrations were lower in the central equatorial Pacific during the LGP. As these nutrients are today dominantly sourced from the Subantarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean, we propose that the central equatorial Pacific data are consistent with more nutrient consumption in the Subantarctic Zone, possibly owing to iron fertilization as a result of higher absolute dust fluxes in this region. Thus, ice-age iron fertilization in the

  2. Government-industry partnership in weekly iron-folic acid supplementation for women of reproductive age in the Philippines: impact on iron status.

    PubMed

    Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda; Paulino, Lourdes S; Ramos, Adelisa C; Etorma, Unita Marie; Cavalli-Sforza, Tommaso; Milani, Silvano

    2005-12-01

    The effectiveness of weekly iron-folic acid supplements promoted through a government-industry partnership was assessed in pregnant and non-pregnant women in the Philippines. Compliance to both weekly and daily supplementation increased during the year-long study period, but was highest with weekly supplementation. Serum ferritin and hematocrit increased significantly, whereas the hemoglobin level showed minimal change, probably because of lack of other heme-forming nutrients such as vitamin A. Serum ferritin increments were significantly higher in women taking the iron-folic acid supplements for more than 6 weeks. Weekly iron-folic acid supplementation should be recommended as a preventive strategy to control iron deficiency among reproductive-age women in the Philippines.

  3. Settlement and landscape history of the Northern Franconian Jura during the Bronze and Iron Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothieringer, Katja; Lambers, Karsten; Seregély, Timo; Schäfer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the results of initial archaeological and geoarchaeological fieldwork in the Northern Franconian Jura between the cities of Bayreuth and Bamberg. Our research aims at the reconstruction of settlement patterns and strategies of land use during the Metal Ages (Bronze Age and Iron Age) in the catchment area of the river Weismain. The project is designed as a case study for research into the settlement and landscape history of a rural region of the Central German Uplands during the last two millennia before our era. During the Bronze Age and Iron Age (about 2.100 BC to 30 BC), the Northern Franconian Jura must have been densely populated, as evidenced by numerous burial monuments, prominent hillforts like the Staffelberg, and ritual places on the Jurassic plateau. However, little is known about small rural settlements and hamlets which would have accounted for most of the settlement activity in the region. Thus, we lack the most important element for understanding the cultural history and development of the region as well as the consequences of human impact on the landscape. This impact must have induced changes in vegetation and subsequent erosion processes, leading to the formation of geoarchives like colluvial layers. During our initial fieldwork we identified such colluvial layers in depressions on the Jurassic plateau or at footslope positions. As radiocarbon datings of charcoal fragments showed, some of them date from the Metal Ages. The type is wood of these charcoal fragments is oak, which recently only occurs sporadically in mixed forests with beeches. The quantification of the shift of sediments from the plateau to the valleys will be the next important step of geoarchaeological research. Thus, investigations both on the plateau and in the river valleys will accompany archaeological survey. Apart from landscape reconstruction, they will also provide information on the state of preservation and the conditions for identifying archaeological

  4. Remote population-based intervention for disruptive behavior at age four: study protocol for a randomized trial of Internet-assisted parent training (Strongest Families Finland-Canada)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is characterized by angry and noncompliant behaviour. It is the most common disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD), with prevalence estimates of 6-9% for preschoolers and is closely linked to several long-term difficulties, including disorders of conduct, mood, anxiety, impulse-control, and substance abuse. ODD in children is related to parental depression, family dysfunction, and impairments in parental work performance. Children displaying early DBDs exhibit more symptoms of greater severity, more frequent offences, and commit more serious crimes later in life. The goal of the Strongest Families™ Finland Canada (SFFC) Smart Website intervention research program is to develop and evaluate an affordable, accessible, effective secondary prevention parent training program for disruptive behaviour in preschoolers to prevent the negative sequelae of ODD. Strongest Families is an 11-session program with two booster sessions that focuses on teaching skills to: strengthen parent–child relationships; reinforce positive behaviour; reduce conflict; manage daily transitions; plan for potentially problematic situations; promote emotional regulation and pro-social behaviour and decrease antisocial behaviour. Methods/design This protocol paper describes an ongoing population-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) of high-risk 4 year-olds attending well-child clinics in Turku, Finland and environs to examine the effectiveness of the Strongest Families Smart Website intervention compared to an Education Control condition. Randomization consists of a 1:1 ratio for intervention versus the education group, stratified by the child’s sex. The participants randomized to the intervention group receive access to the Strongest Families Smart Website and weekly telephone coaching sessions. The participants randomized to the Education Control condition receive access to a static website with parenting tips. Children are followed using

  5. Impact of Oxidative Stress in Premature Aging and Iron Overload in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hernández Vázquez, Wendy Ivett; Solorio-Meza, Sergio; Albarrán-Tamayo, Froylán; Ramos-Rodríguez, Edna; Benítez- Bribiesca, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background. Increased oxidative stress is a well described feature of patients in hemodialysis. Their need for multiple blood transfusions and supplemental iron causes a significant iron overload that has recently been associated with increased oxidation of polyunsaturated lipids and accelerated aging due to DNA damage caused by telomere shortening. Methods. A total of 70 patients were evaluated concomitantly, 35 volunteers with ferritin levels below 500 ng/mL (Group A) and 35 volunteers with ferritin levels higher than 500 ng/mL (Group B). A sample of venous blood was taken to extract DNA from leukocytes and to measure relative telomere length by real-time PCR. Results. Patients in Group B had significantly higher plasma TBARS (p = 0.008), carbonyls (p = 0.0004), and urea (p = 0.02) compared with those in Group A. Telomeres were significantly shorter in Group B, 0.66 (SD, 0.051), compared with 0.75 (SD, 0.155) in Group A (p = 0.0017). We observed a statistically significant association between relative telomere length and ferritin levels (r = −0.37, p = 0.001). Relative telomere length was inversely related to time on hemodialysis (r = −0.27, p = 0.02). Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate that iron overload was associated with increased levels of oxidative stress and shorter relative telomere length. PMID:27800120

  6. Impact of Oxidative Stress in Premature Aging and Iron Overload in Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Ortiz, Blanca; Ramírez Emiliano, Joel; Hernández Vázquez, Wendy Ivett; Martínez-Garza, Sandra; Solorio-Meza, Sergio; Albarrán-Tamayo, Froylán; Ramos-Rodríguez, Edna; Benítez-Bribiesca, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background. Increased oxidative stress is a well described feature of patients in hemodialysis. Their need for multiple blood transfusions and supplemental iron causes a significant iron overload that has recently been associated with increased oxidation of polyunsaturated lipids and accelerated aging due to DNA damage caused by telomere shortening. Methods. A total of 70 patients were evaluated concomitantly, 35 volunteers with ferritin levels below 500 ng/mL (Group A) and 35 volunteers with ferritin levels higher than 500 ng/mL (Group B). A sample of venous blood was taken to extract DNA from leukocytes and to measure relative telomere length by real-time PCR. Results. Patients in Group B had significantly higher plasma TBARS (p = 0.008), carbonyls (p = 0.0004), and urea (p = 0.02) compared with those in Group A. Telomeres were significantly shorter in Group B, 0.66 (SD, 0.051), compared with 0.75 (SD, 0.155) in Group A (p = 0.0017). We observed a statistically significant association between relative telomere length and ferritin levels (r = -0.37, p = 0.001). Relative telomere length was inversely related to time on hemodialysis (r = -0.27, p = 0.02). Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate that iron overload was associated with increased levels of oxidative stress and shorter relative telomere length.

  7. Weekly iron-folic acid supplementation to improve iron status and prevent pregnancy anemia in Filipino women of reproductive age: the Philippine experience through government and private partnership.

    PubMed

    Paulino, Lourdes S; Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda; Etorma, Unita Mari M; Ramos, Adelisa C; Cavalli-Sforza, Tommaso

    2005-12-01

    With the participation of the government and private sectors in the Philippines, weekly iron-folic acid supplementation introduced within a social marketing framework and a social mobilization campaign successfully improved knowledge and practice of buying and regularly taking supplements by women of reproductive age, both pregnant and non-pregnant. Adolescent girls in school were also active participants.

  8. Iron fortification of whole wheat flour reduces iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia and increases body iron stores in Indian school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Muthayya, Sumithra; Thankachan, Prashanth; Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Amalrajan, Vani; Thomas, Tinku; Lubree, Himangi; Agarwal, Dhiraj; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Hurrell, Richard F; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Kurpad, Anura V

    2012-11-01

    Wheat is the primary staple food for nearly one-third of the world's population. NaFeEDTA is the only iron (Fe) compound suitable for fortifying high extraction flours. We tested the hypothesis that NaFeEDTA-fortified, whole wheat flour reduces Fe deficiency (ID) and improves body Fe stores (BIS) and cognitive performance in Indian children. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled, school feeding trial, 6- to 15-y-old, Fe-depleted children (n = 401) were randomly assigned to either a daily wheat-based lunch meal fortified with 6 mg of Fe as NaFeEDTA or an otherwise identical unfortified control meal. Hemoglobin (Hb) and Fe status were measured at baseline, 3.5 mo, and 7 mo. Cognitive performance was evaluated at baseline and 7 mo in children (n = 170) at one of the study sites. After 7 mo, the prevalence of ID and ID anemia in the treatment group significantly decreased from 62 to 21% and 18 to 9%, respectively. There was a time x treatment interaction for Hb, serum ferritin, transferrin receptor, zinc protoporphyrin, and BIS (all P < 0.0001). Changes in BIS differed between the groups; it increased in the treatment group (0.04 ± 0.04 mmol/kg body weight) and decreased in the control group (-0.02 ± 0.04 mmol/kg body weight) (P < 0.0001). In sensory tests, NaFeEDTA-fortified flour could not be differentiated from unfortified flour. There were no significant differences in cognitive performance tests between the groups. NaFeEDTA-fortified wheat flour markedly improved BIS and reduced ID in Fe-depleted children. It may be recommended for wider use in national school feeding programs.

  9. Acidification in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Kauppi, P.; Kenttamies, K.; Anttila, P. )

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on the acidic deposition issue in Finland, representing the main research report of the Finnish Acidification Research Program (HAPRO), designed to support research in this field between 1985 and 1989 with a total budget of about 50 million FIM (about 11 million USD). This overview focuses on a wide selection of acidic deposition topics from an analytical perspective, detailing the background, materials, methods and results of different individual studies. Reports include emission inventories, deposition studies, forest vegetation studies, forest soil investigations, lake chemistry surveys, etc.

  10. Teachers as Leaders in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlberg, Pasi

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, thousands of visitors have flocked to Finland--now a leader in education rankings--to uncover this small Nordic country's secret to its education success. In this article, Finnish educator and scholar Pasi Sahlberg explains how Finland has managed such a feat. A rigorous graduate degree and at least five years of full-time…

  11. Mössbauer Spectra of Mouse Hearts reveal age-dependent changes in mitochondrial and ferritin iron levels.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Joshua D; Chakrabarti, Mrinmoy; Lindahl, Paul Alan

    2017-02-15

    Cardiac function requires continuous high levels of energy, and so iron, a critical player in mitochondrial respiration, is an important component of the heart. Hearts from (57)Fe-enriched mice were evaluated by Mossbauer spectroscopy. Spectra consisted of a sextet and two quadrupole doublets. One doublet was due to residual blood while the other was due to [Fe4S4](2+) clusters and Fe(II) hemes, most of which were associated with mitochondrial respiration. The sextet was due to ferritin; there was no evidence of hemosiderin, a ferritin decomposition product. Iron from ferritin was nearly absent in young hearts, but increased steadily with age. EPR spectra exhibited signals similar to those of brain, liver, and human cells. No age-dependent EPR trends were apparent. Hearts from HFE(-/-) mice with hemochromatosis contained slightly more iron overall than controls, including more ferritin and less mitochondrial iron; these differences typify slightly older hearts, perhaps reflecting the burden due to this disease. HFE(-/-) livers were overloaded with ferritin but had low mitochondrial iron levels. IRP2(-/-) hearts contained less ferritin than controls but normal levels of mitochondrial iron. Hearts of young mice born to an iron-deficient mother contained normal levels of mitochondrial iron and no ferritin; the mothers heart contained low ferritin and normal levels of mitochondrial iron. High-spin Fe(II) ions were nearly undetectable in heart samples; these were evident in brains, livers, and human cells. Previous Mossbauer spectra of unenriched diseased human hearts lacked mitochondrial and blood doublets, and included hemosiderin features. This suggests degradation of iron-containing species during sample preparation.

  12. Concordant 3,676 MYR U-Pb formation age for the Kodaikanal iron meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopel, C.; Manhes, G.; Allegre, C. J.

    1985-09-01

    The results of U-Pb isotope analyses on a silicate inclusion from the Kodaikanal iron meteorite, which contains evidence of intensive chemical activity occurring about 800 Myr after the formation of the solar system, are reported. Leaching experiments on the two major phases, clinopyroxene and alkali-rich glass, indicate a contamination by terrestrial Pb attributable to previous curatorial cutting of this meteorite. The leached minerals define concordant U-Pb ages that validate the precise Pb-Pb age of 3676 + or - 3 Myr. The absence of initial Pb indicates a fast cooling of the silicate material. This has already been established for the metal phase, and a collisional origin for Kodaikanal is favored.

  13. Community, identity, and conflict: Iron Age warfare in the Iberian Northwest.

    PubMed

    Sastre, Inés

    2008-12-01

    This paper proposes a new view of conflict in European Iron Age societies: considering isolationism as an alternative to warfare. Study of the castros (fortified settlements) of the Iberian Northwest suggests the organization of production as a main explanatory element in the emergence of identities based on exclusion and the imposition of communal structures of power. The relationship between these communities must have been one of conflict, and the unequal productive success of domestic units and the requirement of external marriage interchanges created realms of interaction in which internal conflict surely arose. These tendencies were kept in check by controlling settlement growth. Although a conflict-prone situation is documented in the archaeological record, there is no evidence that warfare as an endemic reality created groups of warriors. Warfare-related activity in these Iron Age societies was neither heroic nor hierarchical. Warfare did not determine the form of society but rather was related to the productive and reproductive organization of the societies that engaged in it.

  14. Combined 238U/235U and Pb Isotopics of Planetary Core Material: The Absolute Age of the IVA Iron Muonionalusta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennecka, G. A.; Amelin, Y.; Kleine, T.

    2016-08-01

    We report a measured 238U/235U for the IVA iron Muonionalusta. This measured value requires an age correction of ~7 Myr to the previously published Pb-Pb age. This has major implications for our understanding of planetary core formation and cooling.

  15. Effect of age and caloric restriction on bleomycin-chelatable and nonheme iron in different tissues of C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Sohal, R S; Wennberg-Kirch, E; Jaiswal, K; Kwong, L K; Forster, M J

    1999-08-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the widely observed age-associated increase in the amounts of macromolecular oxidative damage is due to an elevation in the availability of redox-active iron, that is believed to catalyze the scission of H2O2 to generate the highly reactive hydroxyl radical. Concentrations of bleomycin-chelatable iron and nonheme iron were measured in various tissues and different regions of the brain of mice fed on ad libitum (AL) or a calorically restricted (to 60% of AL) diet at different ages. The concentrations of these two pools of iron varied markedly as a function of tissue, age, and caloric intake. There was no consistent ratio between the amounts of nonheme and the bleomycin-chelatable iron pools across these conditions. Nonheme iron concentration increased with age in the liver, kidney, heart, striatum, hippocampus, midbrain and cerebellum of AL animals, whereas bleomycin-chelatable iron increased significantly with age only in the liver. Amounts of both nonheme and bleomycin-chelatable iron remained unaltered during aging in the cerebral cortex and hindbrain of AL mice. Caloric restriction had no effect on iron concentration in the brain or heart, but caused a marked increase in the concentration of both bleomycin-chelatable and nonheme iron in the liver and the kidney. The results do not support the hypothesis that accumulation of oxidative damage with age, or its attenuation by CR, are associated with corresponding variations in redox-active iron.

  16. Behavioral and Neurochemical Deficits in Aging Rats with Increased Neonatal Iron Intake: Silibinin’s Neuroprotection by Maintaining Redox Balance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hanqing; Wang, Xijin; Wang, Meihua; Yang, Liu; Yan, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yuhong; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a critical risk factor for Parkinson’s disease. Silibinin, a major flavonoid in Silybum marianum, has been suggested to display neuroprotective properties against various neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we observed that neonatal iron (120 μg/g body weight) supplementation resulted in significant abnormality of behavior and depletion of striatal dopamine (DA) in the aging male and female rats while it did not do so in the young male and female rats. No significant change in striatal serotonin content was observed in the aging male and female rats with neonatal supplementation of the same dose of iron. Furthermore, we found that the neonatal iron supplementation resulted in significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and decrease in glutathione (GSH) in the substantia nigra (SN) of the aging male and female rats. No significant change in content of MDA and GSH was observed in the cerebellum of the aging male and female rats with the neonatal iron supplementation. Interestingly, silibinin (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) treatment significantly and dose-dependently attenuated depletion of striatal DA and improved abnormality of behavior in the aging male and female rats with the neonatal iron supplementation. Moreover, silibinin significantly reduced MDA content and increased GSH content in the SN of the aging male and female rats. Taken together, our results indicate that elevated neonatal iron supplementation may result in neurochemical and behavioral deficits in the male and female rats with aging and silibinin may exert dopaminergic neuroprotection by maintaining redox balance. PMID:26578951

  17. Aqueous Aggregation Behavior of Engineered Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Effects of Oxidative Surface Aging.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenlu; Lee, Seung Soo; Mittelman, Anjuliee M; Liu, Di; Wu, Jiewei; Hinton, Carl H; Abriola, Linda M; Pennell, Kurt D; Fortner, John D

    2016-12-06

    For successful aqueous-based applications, it is necessary to fundamentally understand and control nanoparticle dispersivity and stability over a range of dynamic conditions, including variable ionic strengths/types, redox chemistries, and surface ligand reactivity/degradation states (i.e., surface aging). Here, we quantitatively describe the behavior of artificially aged, oleic acid (OA) bilayer coated iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) under different scenarios. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), used here as a model oxidant under both dark and light ultraviolet (UVA) conditions, was employed to "age" materials, to varying degrees, without increasing ionic strength. Short-term stability experiments indicate that OA-IONPs, while stable in the dark, are effectively destabilized when exposed to UVA/H2O2/•OH based oxidation processes. Compared to bicarbonate, phosphate (1.0 mM) has a net stabilizing effect on OA-IONPs under oxidative conditions, which can be attributed to (surface-based) functional adsorption. Corresponding aggregation kinetics in the presence of monovalent (Na(+)) and divalent cations (Ca(2+)) show that attachment efficiencies (α) are strongly dependent on the cation concentrations/types and degree of surface aging. Taken together, our findings directly highlight the need to understand the critical role of particle surface transformation(s), via oxidative aging, among other routes, with regard to the ultimate stability and environmental fate of surface functionalized engineered nanoparticles.

  18. Disentangling in vivo the effects of iron content and atrophy on the ageing human brain.

    PubMed

    Lorio, S; Lutti, A; Kherif, F; Ruef, A; Dukart, J; Chowdhury, R; Frackowiak, R S; Ashburner, J; Helms, G; Weiskopf, N; Draganski, B

    2014-12-01

    Evidence from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies shows that healthy aging is associated with profound changes in cortical and subcortical brain structures. The reliable delineation of cortex and basal ganglia using automated computational anatomy methods based on T1-weighted images remains challenging, which results in controversies in the literature. In this study we use quantitative MRI (qMRI) to gain an insight into the microstructural mechanisms underlying tissue ageing and look for potential interactions between ageing and brain tissue properties to assess their impact on automated tissue classification. To this end we acquired maps of longitudinal relaxation rate R1, effective transverse relaxation rate R2* and magnetization transfer - MT, from healthy subjects (n=96, aged 21-88 years) using a well-established multi-parameter mapping qMRI protocol. Within the framework of voxel-based quantification we find higher grey matter volume in basal ganglia, cerebellar dentate and prefrontal cortex when tissue classification is based on MT maps compared with T1 maps. These discrepancies between grey matter volume estimates can be attributed to R2* - a surrogate marker of iron concentration, and further modulation by an interaction between R2* and age, both in cortical and subcortical areas. We interpret our findings as direct evidence for the impact of ageing-related brain tissue property changes on automated tissue classification of brain structures using SPM12. Computational anatomy studies of ageing and neurodegeneration should acknowledge these effects, particularly when inferring about underlying pathophysiology from regional cortex and basal ganglia volume changes.

  19. Geophysical prospection on an Early Iron Age Cult Site near Frankfurt/Oder, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, Burkart; Kaufmann, Georg; Beilke-Voigt, Ines

    2010-05-01

    The Free University of Berlin and the Humboldt University of Berlin hosts the excellence cluster 264 Topoi, "The Formation and Transformation of Space and Knowledge in Ancient Civilizations". The Excellence Cluster pursues the goal of researching the interdependence of space and knowledge in the civilizations of the Ancient Near East, the Mediterranean, and Black Sea region and parts of the Eurasian steppe from the 6th millennium BC to around AD 500. Within this excellence cluster, the project A-I-11 "Lossow near Frankfurt/Oder - An Early Iron Age Cult Site of the Ancient Peripheral Zone" examines the evolution of an important cult site in Central Europe. The castle mound of Lossow was built as a fortified settlement in the late Bronze Age (10th century B.C.). After a phase of around 200 years, a supra-regionally significant, early Iron Age cult centre developed on this site (8th-6th century B.C.). Several pieces of evidence indicate that the locality had a central-site character. Typical for the site are well-shapes shafts, filled with large amounts of human and animal bones. The shafts with a diameter of about 1 meter and a depth of about 5 to 7 meters are a great challenge to near surface geophysics. Here, geophysical methods (geomagnetic gradiometry, geoelectric imaging, georadar survey) have been used to obtain a large-scale conclusive picture of the sub-surface both within the castle mount and around the perimeter. While the magnetic results reveal numerous archaeological artefacts, geoelectric imaging decipers the subsurface structure of the site.

  20. Echinococcus granulosus in Finland.

    PubMed

    Hirvelä-Koski, Varpu; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Kilpelä, Seija-Sisko; Nylund, Minna; Koski, Perttu

    2003-02-13

    Echinococcus granulosus is shown to occur in eastern Finland in a sylvatic cycle involving wolves (Canis lupus) as the definitive host and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and probably also elk (Alces alces) and the wild forest reindeer (Rangifer tarandus fennicus) as intermediate hosts. Even though the prevalence of E. granulosus in reindeer has increased in recent years, it is still very low (<0.013%). The results suggest, however, that the reindeer is a good sentinel animal to show the contamination of soil with Echinococcus eggs. This is the first report of wolves acting as a definitive host for E. granulosus in northern Europe. The parasite seems to be quite common in the Finnish wolf population, with a prevalence of approximately 30% in both intestinal and faecal samples. The present results and previous ones indicate that E. granulosus infection has not spread to dogs in the reindeer herding area.

  1. Leucocytozoonosis and trypanosomiasis in redstarts in Finland.

    PubMed

    Rintamäki, P T; Huhta, E; Jokimäki, J; Squires-Parsons, D

    1999-07-01

    Leucocytozoon spp. and Trypanosoma spp. blood parasites in the redstart (Phoenicurus phoenicurus) were studied during spring migration 1994 in southern Finland (53 individuals) and the breeding season 1992-1994 in northern Finland (69). Parasite prevalence was higher during the breeding season (48%) than during the migration period (13%), with no age or sex differences in the breeding site birds. In both periods, redstarts were infected by the same blood parasites Leucocytozoon shaartusicum (46% prevalence at the breeding site and 71% during the migration period) and Trypanosoma avium, complex (58% and 43%, respectively). One individual at the breeding site had contracted L. dubreuili and one at the stop-over site had T. everetti. Our results may support the assumption that tissue-hidden parasites relapse during the breeding season when birds may have diminished immune response related to egg production and brood rearing. Another explanation could be that the high abundance of ornithophilic vectors enhance parasite transmission during breeding season in northern Finland.

  2. Investigation of cerebral iron deposition in aged patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease using susceptibility-weighted imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yin; Liu, Jun; Liu, Huanghui; Liao, Yunjie; Cao, Lu; Ye, Bin; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate focal iron deposition level in the brain in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease and its correlation with cerebral small vessel disease imaging markers. Patients and methods Seventy-four patients with first-ever transient ischemic attack (median age: 69 years; 30 males and 44 females) and 77 patients with positive ischemic stroke history (median age: 72 years; 43 males and 34 females) were studied retrospectively. On phase image of susceptibility-weighted imaging and regions of interest were manually drawn at the bilateral head of the caudate nucleus, lenticular nucleus (LN), thalamus (TH), frontal white matter, and occipital white matter. The correlation between iron deposition level and the clinical and imaging variables was also investigated. Results Iron deposition level at LN was significantly higher in patients with previous stroke history. It linearly correlated with the presence and number of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) but not with white matter hyperintensity and lacunar infarct. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that deep structure CMBs were the most relevant in terms of iron deposition at LN. Conclusion Iron deposition at LN may increase in cases of more severe ischemia in aged patients with transient ischemic attack, and it may be an imaging marker for CMB of ischemic origin. PMID:27574434

  3. Preschool iron-folic acid and zinc supplementation in children exposed to iron-folic acid in utero confers no added cognitive benefit in early school-age.

    PubMed

    Christian, Parul; Morgan, Mary E; Murray-Kolb, Laura; LeClerq, Steven C; Khatry, Subarna K; Schaefer, Barbara; Cole, Pamela M; Katz, Joanne; Tielsch, James M

    2011-11-01

    In Nepal, antenatal iron-folic acid supplementation improved aspects of intellectual, executive, and fine motor function among school-age children. We examined the impact of added zinc to the maternal antenatal supplement (M-IFAZn) and preschool supplementation from 12 to 36 mo with iron-folic acid (C-IFA) ± zinc (C-IFAZn) on cognitive outcomes compared to maternal iron-folic acid (M-IFA) alone. Children 7-9 y old (n = 780) who participated in early childhood micronutrient supplementation trial during 2001-2004 and whose mothers participated in an antenatal micronutrient supplementation between 1999 and 2001 were followed for cognitive assessments in 2007-2009. Using multivariate analysis of variance and adjusting for confounders, M-IFA with child supplementation (either C-IFA or C-IFAZn) did not impact scores on the tests of general intelligence (Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test), and executive function (Stroop and go/no go tests) relative to the M-IFA alone. However, children in the C-IFAZn group had slightly lower scores on the backward digit span (-0.29, 95% CI: -0.55, -0.04) and Movement Assessment Battery for Children (1.33, 95% CI: 0.26, 2.40) relative to the referent group, whereas both C-IFA (-1.92, 95% CI: -3.12, -0.71) and C-IFAZn (-1.78, 95% CI: -2.63, -0.92) produced somewhat lower finger tapping test scores (fine motor skills). The combination of M-IFAZn and C-IFA or C-IFAZn did not lead to any outcome differences relative to M-IFA alone. Preschool iron-folic acid ± zinc to children exposed to iron-folic acid in utero or addition of zinc to maternal iron-folic acid conferred no additional benefit to cognitive outcomes assessed in early school age. The late timing of supplementation during preschool may explain the lack of impact of iron and/or zinc.

  4. Monitoring of Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barriers: Electrical Properties and Barrier Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrecque, D. J.; Adkins, P. L.; Slater, L. D.; Versteeg, R.; Sharpe, R.

    2007-12-01

    An innovative method of groundwater remediation invented in the 1990"s, Permeable Reactive Barriers, use sand-sized grains of scrap iron placed in trenches or injected under pressure to remediate a number of organic and inorganic contaminants. Monitoring the aging of these barriers becomes increasingly important as many of these barriers approach their predicted life spans. In-situ resistivity and induced polarization studies have been conducted at six barriers at four different sites: Monticello, Utah; the Denver Federal Center; Kansas City, Missouri; and East Helena, Montana. As some barriers tend to age dramatically faster than others, for this study we consider low permeability barriers as of greater age, as "old" barriers tend to loose permeability rather than exhaust reactive materials. One complicating factor is that two of the barriers studied appear to have issues related to installation. One site, the former Asarco Smelter Site near East Helena, Montana, has been instrumented with an autonomous monitoring system allowing continuous monitoring of the evolution of a relatively new (less than three years old) barrier. The barrier showed surprisingly rapid evolution over the first year of monitoring with changes in both resistivity and chargeability of tens of percent per month. In general, the electrical properties of all of the barriers studied follow a pattern. New barriers are fairly resistive with in-situ conductivity only a few times background (outside the barrier) values. Older barriers get increasingly conductive, with failed barriers showing values of over 100 S/m. The induced polarization response is more complicated. Chargeability values increase over time for young barriers, are largest for healthy barriers in the middle of their lifespan, and decrease as the barrier ages.

  5. [Fortification of fluid milk for the prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children under 4 years of age].

    PubMed

    Torres, M A; Lobo, N F; Sato, K; Queiroz, S de S

    1996-08-01

    The effectiveness of the use of chelate amino acid iron fortified fluid milk in the treatment of iron deficiency in children under four years of age was studied. The 269 children included in this trial received 1 liter/day of fluid milk fortified with 3 mg of chelate amino acid iron and were evaluated at six monthly intervals. At the beginning of the study 62.3% of the children presented anemia. After 6 months, this percentage had decreased to 41.8% and at the end of one year to 26.4%. The greatest decreases occurred in the groups comprising the subjects who were of 12 to 23 months of age and those under one year of age. Among the children who presented initial hemoglobin levels under 9.5 g/dl, 59.3% were free of anemia after one year of follow-up. Of those presenting initial hemoglobin levels between 9.5 and 10.9 g/dl, 66.7% recovered from their anemia. There was also greater hematological improvement in the children that ingested over 750 ml/day of fortified milk in those families that did not share the supply of supplement among their other members and in those families that had only one child under five years of age. These findings led to the conclusion that the fortification of fluid milk is a viable and effective method for the treatment of iron deficiency in pre-school children.

  6. Aging behavior of lithium iron phosphate based 18650-type cells studied by in situ neutron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Neelima; Wandt, Johannes; Seidlmayer, Stefan; Schebesta, Sebastian; Mühlbauer, Martin J.; Dolotko, Oleksandr; Gasteiger, Hubert A.; Gilles, Ralph

    2017-03-01

    The aging behavior of commercially produced 18650-type Li-ion cells consisting of a lithium iron phosphate (LFP) based cathode and a graphite anode based on either mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) or needle coke (NC) is studied by in situ neutron diffraction and standard electrochemical techniques. While the MCMB cells showed an excellent cycle life with only 8% relative capacity loss (i.e., referenced to the capacity after formation) after 4750 cycles and showed no capacity loss on storage for two years, the needle coke cells suffered a 23% relative capacity loss after cycling and a 11% loss after storage. Based on a combination of neutron diffraction and electrochemical characterization, it is shown that the entire capacity loss for both cell types is dominated by the loss of active lithium; no other aging mechanisms like structural degradation of anode or cathode active materials or deactivation of active material could be found, highlighting the high structural stability of the active material and the excellent quality of the investigated cells.

  7. Heavy metal release due to aging effect during zero valent iron nanoparticles remediation.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Blanca; Fullana, Andres

    2015-10-15

    Zero valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) represent a promising agent for environmental remediation. Nevertheless, their application presents some limitations regarding their rapid oxidation and aggregation in the media. The aim of this study was to determine the effect that nZVI aging has in heavy metal remediation in water. Contaminants studied were Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu and Cr, which are typical elements found in ground and wastewater. Results show a high contaminant removal capacity by the nZVI in the first 2 h of reaction. Nevertheless, for longer reaction times, some of the metal ions that had already been adsorbed in the nZVI were delivered to the water. Cd and Ni show the maximum delivery percentages (65 and 27% respectively after 21 days of contact time). The starting delivery time was shortened when applying lower nZVI amounts. No re-dissolution of Cr was observed in any circumstance because it was the only element incorporated into the nanoparticles core, as TEM images showed. Contaminant release from nZVI is probably due to nanoparticles oxidation caused by aging, which produced a pH decrease and nZVI surface crystallization.

  8. Improving tribological performance of gray cast iron by laser peening in dynamic strain aging temperature regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xu; Zhou, Jianzhong; Mei, Yufen; Huang, Shu; Sheng, Jie; Zhu, Weili

    2015-09-01

    A high and stable brake disc friction coefficient is needed for automobile safety, while the coefficient degrades due to elevated temperature during the braking process. There is no better solution except changes in material composition and shape design optimization. In the dynamic strain aging(DSA) temperature regime of gray cast iron, micro-dimples with different dimple depth over diameter and surface area density are fabricated on the material surface by laser peening(LP) which is an LST method. Friction behavior and wear mechanism are investigated to evaluate the effects of surface texturing on the tribological performance of specimens under dry conditions. Through LP impacts assisted by DSA, the friction coefficients of the LPed specimens increase noticeably both at room temperature and elevated temperature in comparison to untreated specimens. Moreover, the coefficient of specimen with dimple depth over diameter of 0.03 and surface area density of 30% is up to 0.351 at room temperature, which dramatically rises up to 1.33 times that of untextured specimen and the value is still up to 0.3305 at 400°C with an increasing ratio of 35% compared to that of untreated specimen. The surface of textured specimen shows better wear resistance compared to untreated specimen. Wear mechanism includes adhesive wear, abrasive wear and oxidation wear. It is demonstrated that LP assisted by DSA can substantially improve wear resistance, raise the friction coefficient as well as its stability of gray cast iron under elevated temperatures. Heat fade and premature wear can be effectively relieved by this surface modification method.

  9. The role of iron and copper molecules in the neuronal vulnerability of locus coeruleus and substantia nigra during aging.

    PubMed

    Zecca, Luigi; Stroppolo, Antonella; Gatti, Alberto; Tampellini, Davide; Toscani, Marco; Gallorini, Mario; Giaveri, Giuseppe; Arosio, Paolo; Santambrogio, Paolo; Fariello, Ruggero G; Karatekin, Erdem; Kleinman, Mark H; Turro, Nicholas; Hornykiewicz, Oleh; Zucca, Fabio A

    2004-06-29

    In this study, a comparative analysis of metal-related neuronal vulnerability was performed in two brainstem nuclei, the locus coeruleus (LC) and substantia nigra (SN), known targets of the etiological noxae in Parkinson's disease and related disorders. LC and SN pars compacta neurons both degenerate in Parkinson's disease and other Parkinsonisms; however, LC neurons are comparatively less affected and with a variable degree of involvement. In this study, iron, copper, and their major molecular forms like ferritins, ceruloplasmin, neuromelanin (NM), manganese-superoxide dismutase (SOD), and copper/zinc-SOD were measured in LC and SN of normal subjects at different ages. Iron content in LC was much lower than that in SN, and the ratio heavy-chain ferritin/iron in LC was higher than in the SN. The NM concentration was similar in LC and SN, but the iron content in NM of LC was much lower than SN. In both regions, heavy- and light-chain ferritins were present only in glia and were not detectable in neurons. These data suggest that in LC neurons, the iron mobilization and toxicity is lower than that in SN and is efficiently buffered by NM. The bigger damage occurring in SN could be related to the higher content of iron. Ferritins accomplish the same function of buffering iron in glial cells. Ceruloplasmin levels were similar in LC and SN, but copper was higher in LC. However, the copper content in NM of LC was higher than that of SN, indicating a higher copper mobilization in LC neurons. Manganese-SOD and copper/zinc-SOD had similar age trend in LC and SN. These results may explain at least one of the reasons underlying lower vulnerability of LC compared to SN in Parkinsonian syndromes.

  10. International report Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The Valentin Shashin, the world's first dynamically positioned ice-class drillship for Arctic conditions, has been completed by Rauma-Repola Oy's Mantyluoto Works in Pori, Finland and delivered to V/O Sudoimport, the Soviet Union. This drillship is the first of three such vessels ordered by the Soviet Union in 1979 for oil exploration in Russia's Arctic waters. All three drillships will be capable of operating in water depths to 300 m and of drilling to 20,000 ft in winds of 23 m/sec, in significant wave heights to 4.7 m and currents to 1 m/sec. Since the vessels are to be used in hostile Arctic conditions, the design incorporates a great deal of sophisticated equipment for operating in heavy seas and avoiding hazards, such as icebergs, that may exist in the drilling area. Included is a quick disconnect system that will allow the ship to detach from the drilling mode in approximately three minutes.

  11. Looking into the demography of an iron age population in the western Mediterranean. I. Mortality.

    PubMed

    Alesan, A; Malgosa, A; Simó, C

    1999-11-01

    In this paper, we attempt to reconstruct the mortality pattern of the population buried in S'Illot des Porros (Majorca), an Iron Age necropolis in the western Mediterranean, by means of paleodemographic analysis. The skeletal sample consists of 285 individuals, 93 subadults (under 20 years old) and 192 adults. The aim of this study is twofold: first, to identify and to evaluate the structural anomalies of the skeletal sample, and second, to obtain a possible and realistic description of the biological dynamics of this population, with special reference to its mortality pattern. The study uses current demographic methodology and several demographic models (for comparison). An abridged life table was built to estimate the mortality parameters. To evaluate the likelihood of the estimated data, an indirect analysis, which consisted of a comparison of our results with different population models (Weiss [1973] American Antiquity 38; Coale and Demeny [1996] Regional Model Life Tables and Stable Populations. Princeton: Princeton University Press; Ledermann [1969] Nouvelles tables-types de mortalité. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France), was carried out. An important bias was identified in the case of children, mostly affecting infants but also children between the ages of 1 and 5. This was interpreted as a census error due to taphonomic reasons and to an excluding differential funeral rite. A life expectancy at birth of approximately 28 years was estimated from the observed data. When this bias was removed, the estimated life expectancy at birth dropped to 23 years. The use of the Brass logit system allowed us to sketch a possible mortality profile for this population: low life expectancy, high infant mortality and hard life conditions, which were the cause of the low levels of survivorship in old ages. Am J Phys Anthropol 110:285-301, 1999.

  12. In vivo assessment of iron content of the cerebral cortex in healthy aging using 7-Tesla T2*-weighted phase imaging.

    PubMed

    Buijs, Mathijs; Doan, Nhat Trung; van Rooden, Sanneke; Versluis, Maarten J; van Lew, Baldur; Milles, Julien; van der Grond, Jeroen; van Buchem, Mark A

    2016-09-15

    Accumulation of brain iron has been suggested as a biomarker of neurodegeneration. Increased iron has been seen in the cerebral cortex in postmortem studies of neurodegenerative diseases and healthy aging. Until recently, the diminutive thickness of the cortex and its relatively low iron content have hampered in vivo study of cortical iron accumulation. Using phase images of a T2*-weighted sequence at ultrahigh field strength (7 Tesla), we examined the iron content of 22 cortical regions in 70 healthy subjects aged 22-80 years. The cortex was automatically segmented and parcellated, and phase shift was analyzed using an in-house developed method. We found a significant increase in phase shift with age in 20 of 22 cortical regions, concurrent with current understanding of cortical iron accumulation. Our findings suggest that increased cortical iron content can be assessed in healthy aging in vivo. The high spatial resolution and sensitivity to iron of our method make it a potentially useful tool for studying cortical iron accumulation in healthy aging and neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. First measurements of reactive α-dicarbonyl concentrations on PM2.5 aerosol over the Boreal forest in Finland during HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 - source apportionment and links to aerosol aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampf, C. J.; Corrigan, A. L.; Johnson, A. M.; Song, W.; Keronen, P.; Königstedt, R.; Williams, J.; Russell, L. M.; Petäjä, T.; Fischer, H.; Hoffmann, T.

    2012-07-01

    The first dataset for summertime boreal forest concentrations of two atmospherically relevant α-dicarbonyl compounds, glyoxal (Gly) and methylglyoxal (Mgly) on PM2.5 aerosol was obtained during the HUMPPA-COPEC-2010 field measurement intensive in Hyytiälä, Finland. Anthropogenic influences over the course of the campaign were identified using trace gas signatures and aerosol particle chemical composition analysis. The data evaluation allowed the identification of different events such as urban pollution plumes, biomass burning and sawmill emissions as sources of high Gly and Mgly concentrations. Mean aerosol concentrations during periods of biogenic influence were 0.81 ng m-3 for Gly and 0.31 ng m-3 for Mgly. Mgly was generally less abundant in PM2.5, probably due to its shorter photolysis lifetime and less effective partitioning into the particle phase due to its smaller effective Henry's Law constant compared to Gly. This is in contrast with previous urban studies which show significantly more Mgly than Gly. Peak concentrations for Gly coincided with nearby sources, e.g. high VOC emissions from nearby sawmills, urban pollution plumes from the city of Tampere located 50 km southwest of the sampling site and biomass burning emissions from wildfires. Calculated ratios of Gly in PM2.5 and total organic matter in PM1 aerosols indicate higher values in less aged aerosols. Irreversible processing of Gly in the particle phase, e.g. via oxidation by OH radicals, organo sulfate or imidazole formation are processes currently discussed in the literature which could likely explain these findings.

  14. First measurements of reactive α-dicarbonyl concentrations on PM2.5 aerosol over the boreal forest in Finland during HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 - source apportionment and links to aerosol aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampf, C. J.; Corrigan, A. L.; Johnson, A. M.; Song, W.; Keronen, P.; Königstedt, R.; Williams, J.; Russell, L. M.; Petäjä, T.; Fischer, H.; Hoffmann, T.

    2012-01-01

    The first dataset for summertime boreal forest concentrations of two atmospherically relevant α-dicarbonyl compounds, glyoxal (Gly) and methylglyoxal (Mgly) on PM2.5 aerosol was obtained during the HUMPPA-COPEC-2010 field measurement intensive in Hyytiälä, Finland. Identification of anthropogenic influences over the course of the campaign, using trace gas signatures and aerosol particle chemical composition analysis, allowed the identification of different events such as urban pollution plumes, biomass burning and sawmill emissions as sources of high Gly and Mgly concentrations. Mean aerosol concentrations during periods of biogenic influence were 0.81 ng m-3 for Gly and 0.31 ng m-3 for Mgly. Mgly was generally less abundant in PM2.5, probably due to its shorter photolysis lifetime and less effective partitioning into the particle phase due to its smaller effective Henry's Law constant compared to Gly. This is in contrast with previous urban studies which show significantly more Mgly than Gly. Peak concentrations for Gly coincided with nearby sources, e.g. high VOC emissions from nearby sawmills, urban pollution plumes from the city of Tampere located 50 km southwest of the sampling site and biomass burning emissions from wildfires. Calculated ratios of Gly in PM2.5 and total organic matter in PM1 aerosols indicate higher values in less aged aerosols. Irreversible processing of Gly in the particle phase, e.g. via oxidation by OH radicals, organo sulfate or imidazole formation are processes currently discussed in the literature which could likely explain these findings.

  15. [Changes in iron levels in non-anemic women 18-58 years of age].

    PubMed

    Baptista González, H A; Rosenfeld, M F; Peñuela Olaya, M A; Sorroza Martínez, M A; Tello Nielsen, J

    1999-10-01

    The objective was to describe changes in serum ferritin (SF) in women residents in Mexico City. We evaluated prospectively, three groups of non-anemic, non-pregnant women (< 20, 21-40 y 40-58 years old). Sociodemographic variables, hemoglobin (Hb) and erythrocyte index and SF values were registered. We included 252 women in the study. There were no differences in Hb values (15.0, 14.6 and 14.7 g/dL) or erythrocyte index between the three groups of women. We found significative differences (p < 0.001) in mean values of (32 and 34 micrograms/L), for group 1 and 2, with group 3 (SF 54 micrograms/L). In global sample, we observed low SF store, a normal or higher in 76 cases (30.2%), 163 (64.6%) and 13 cases (5.2%), respectively. The women with SF lower than 20 micrograms/L were in proportion 0.54, 0.32 and 0.16. Elevated values in SF were found in a proportion 0.04, 0.18 and 0.13, for groups 1, 2 and 3, with significative differences (p < 0.001). We observed that non-anemic women in Mexico City, showed increase in SF concentrations beginning at 41 years of age, without any major variation in their erythocyte indexes. The prevalence in moderate-severe iron deficiency between 18 to 40 years of years, decreasing progressively.

  16. Combining Hf-W Ages, Cooling Rates, and Thermal Models to Estimate the Accretion Time of Iron Meteorite Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, L.; Dauphas, N.; Wadhwa, M.; Masarik, J.; Janney, P. E.

    2007-12-01

    The 182Hf-182W short-lived chronometer has been widely used to date metal-silicate differentiation processes in the early Solar System. However the presence of cosmogenic effects from exposure to GCR can potentially hamper the use of this system for chronology purposes (e.g. [1,2]). These effects must be corrected for in order to calculate metal-silicate differentiation ages. In this study, high-precision W isotope measurements are presented for 32 iron meteorites from 8 magmatic and 2 non-magmatic groups. Exposure ages and pre- atmospheric size estimates are available for most of these samples [3]. Our precision is better than or comparable to the currently most precise literature data and our results agree with previous work [4]. All magmatic irons have ɛ182W equal within error to or more negative than the Solar System initial derived from a CAI isochron [5]. Iron meteorites from the same magmatic groups show variations in ɛ182W. These are most easily explained by exposure to cosmic rays in space. A correction method was developed to estimate pre-exposure ɛ182W for individual iron meteorite groups. Metal-silicate differentiation in most iron meteorite parent bodies must have occurred within 2 Myr of formation of refractory inclusions. For the first time, we combine 182Hf-182W ages with parent body sizes inferred from metallographic cooling rates in a thermal model to constrain the accretion time of iron meteorite parent bodies. The estimated accretion ages are within 1.5 Myr for most magmatic groups, and could be as early as 0.2 Myr after CAI formation. This is consistent with the study of Bottke et al. [6] who argued that iron meteorite parent bodies could represent an early generation of planetesimals formed in the inner region of the Solar System. [1] Masarik J. (1997) EPSL 152, 181-185. [2] Markowski A. et al. (2006) EPSL 250,104-115. [3] Voshage H. (1984) EPSL 71, 181-194. [4] Markowski A. et al. (2006) EPSL 242, 1-15. [5] Kleine T. et al. (2005) GCA 69

  17. Canadian Art Partnership Program in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketovuori, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    This article is about a multidisciplinary R&D project in which a Canadian Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) program was imported to Finland in 2003-2004. Cultural differences in arts education in Finland and Canada are discussed. While Finland has a national school curriculum with all the arts included. Canada relies more on partnerships to…

  18. Enhanced methods for assessment of the trace element composition of Iron Age bone.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Martin M; Siker, Malika; Overdier, Joel T; Ramsl, Peter C; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Farrell, Philip M

    2008-08-15

    Modern, ultra-trace, analytical methods, coupled with magnetic sector ICP-MS (HR-ICP-MS), were applied to the determination of a large suite of major and trace elements in Iron Age bones. The high sensitivity and un-paralleled signal-to-noise characteristics of HR-ICP-MS enabled the accurate measurement of Ag, Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Pt, Rb, Sr, U, V, and Zn in small bone sections (<75 mg). Critically, the HR-ICP-MS effectively addressed molecular interferences, which would likely have compromised data generated with quadrupole-based ICP-MS instruments. Contamination and diagenetic alteration of ancient bone are grave concerns, which if not properly addressed, may result in serious misinterpretation of data from bone archives. Analytical procedures and several chemical and statistical methods (Principal Components Analysis - PCA) were studied to assess their utility in identifying and correcting bone contamination and diagenetic alteration. Uncertainties in bone (femur) sampling were characterized for each element and longitudinal variation was found to be the dominant source of sampling variability. However the longitudinal variation in most trace elements levels was relatively modest, ranging between 9 and 17% RSD. Bone surface contamination was evaluated using sequential acid leaching. Calcium-normalized metal levels in brief, timed, dilute nitric acid leaches were compared with similarly normalized interior core metal levels to assess the degree of surface enrichment. A select group of metals (Mn, Co, Ni, Ag, Cd, and Pt) were observed to be enriched by up to a factor of 10 in the bone surface, indicating that that these elements may have a higher contamination component. However, the results of sequential acid leaching experiments indicated that the single acid leaching step was effective in removing most surface-enriched contaminants. While the leaching protocol was effective in removing contaminants associated with

  19. Effect of Transport and Aging Processes on Metal Speciation in Iron Oxyhydroxide Aggregates, Tar Creek Superfund Site, Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estes, E. R.; Schaider, L. A.; Shine, J. P.; Brabander, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    Following the cessation of mining activity in the late 20th century, Tar Creek Superfund Site was left highly contaminated by Pb, Zn, and Cd. Tar Creek, which flows through the site and into the Neosho River, has been studied extensively because of its potential to transport metals from the mining site to downstream communities. Previous research identified aggregated iron oxyhydroxide material, which forms when mine seepage mixes with Tar Creek surface water, as a major transport vector of metals. Frequent flooding in Tar Creek deposits aggregates on downstream floodplains, where wetting and drying processes alter the speciation of iron and other metals. This study seeks to better quantify those changes and to determine how transport and aging affects the human and ecological health risk. Sequential extractions of aggregate samples collected from the creek demonstrate that Fe is present in both amorphous (10-35% of Fe extracted) and more crystalline (8-23% of Fe extracted) phases. Substantial portions of heavy metals sorb to amorphous iron oxyhydroxide phases (accounting for 10-30% of Pb and Zn extracted) but are not associated with more crystalline iron oxide phases (representing only 1% or less of the Pb and Zn extracted). Samples have a high organic matter content (18-25% mass loss on ignition), but only Fe was significantly extracted by the oxidizing step targeting organic matter (1-2% of Pb and Zn extracted, but 10-26% of Fe extracted). The majority of metals were extracted by the soluble or residual steps. If metals and organic matter inhibit transformation of amorphous iron oxyhydroxide material to nano and crystalline iron oxides, then a steady-state volume of amorphous iron oxyhydroxide material with a high total sorption capacity may exist within Tar Creek, enhancing the metal flux accommodated by this transport mechanism. Once transported downstream and deposited on floodplains, however, it is hypothesized that repeated changes in soil matrix

  20. Cosmic ray exposure ages of iron meteorites, complex irradiation and the constancy of cosmic ray flux in the past

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marti, K.; Lavielle, B.; Regnier, S.

    1984-01-01

    While previous calculations of potassium ages assumed a constant cosmic ray flux and a single stage (no change in size) exposure of iron meteorites, present calculations relaxed these constancy assumptions and the results reveal multistage irradiations for some 25% of the meteorites studied, implying multiple breakup in space. The distribution of exposure ages suggests several major collisions (based on chemical composition and structure), although the calibration of age scales is not yet complete. It is concluded that shielding-corrected (corrections which depend on size and position of sample) production rates are consistent for the age bracket of 300 to 900 years. These production rates differ in a systematic way from those calculated for present day fluxes of cosmic rays (such as obtained for the last few million years).

  1. [Changes in consumption of blood products in Finland from 2007 to 2014].

    PubMed

    Ihalainen, Jarkko; Lauronen, Jouni; Syrjälä, Martti

    2016-01-01

    The Finnish Red Cross Blood Service (FRCBS) collects and distributes all cellular blood products in Finland. The use of red cells in Finland follows neither the aging of the Finnish population nor morbidity. The use of red blood cells has diminished 34% during the last 20 years and half of this decrease has taken place during the last three years. Use of platelet preparations per inhabitant in Finland clearly exceeds European median. An enhanced IT support for the blood supply chain is needed to maximize the effectiveness of use of blood products.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal diversity in ancient populations of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in Finland: comparison with contemporary sheep breeds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several molecular and population genetic studies have focused on the native sheep breeds of Finland. In this work, we investigated their ancestral sheep populations from Iron Age, Medieval and Post-Medieval periods by sequencing a partial mitochondrial DNA D-loop and the 5’-promoter region of the SRY gene. We compared the maternal (mitochondrial DNA haplotypes) and paternal (SNP oY1) genetic diversity of ancient sheep in Finland with modern domestic sheep populations in Europe and Asia to study temporal changes in genetic variation and affinities between ancient and modern populations. Results A 523-bp mitochondrial DNA sequence was successfully amplified for 26 of 36 sheep ancient samples i.e. five, seven and 14 samples representative of Iron Age, Medieval and Post-Medieval sheep, respectively. Genetic diversity was analyzed within the cohorts. This ancient dataset was compared with present-day data consisting of 94 animals from 10 contemporary European breeds and with GenBank DNA sequence data to carry out a haplotype sharing analysis. Among the 18 ancient mitochondrial DNA haplotypes identified, 14 were present in the modern breeds. Ancient haplotypes were assigned to the highly divergent ovine haplogroups A and B, haplogroup B being the major lineage within the cohorts. Only two haplotypes were detected in the Iron Age samples, while the genetic diversity of the Medieval and Post-Medieval cohorts was higher. For three of the ancient DNA samples, Y-chromosome SRY gene sequences were amplified indicating that they originated from rams. The SRY gene of these three ancient ram samples contained SNP G-oY1, which is frequent in modern north-European sheep breeds. Conclusions Our study did not reveal any sign of major population replacement of native sheep in Finland since the Iron Age. Variations in the availability of archaeological remains may explain differences in genetic diversity estimates and patterns within the cohorts rather than demographic

  3. Iron and Carbon Dynamics during Aging and Reductive Transformation of Biogenic Ferrihydrite.

    PubMed

    Cismasu, A Cristina; Williams, Kenneth H; Nico, Peter S

    2016-01-05

    Natural organic matter is often associated with Fe(III) oxyhydroxides, and may be stabilized as a result of coprecipitation or sorption to their surfaces. However, the significance of this association in relation to Fe and C dynamics and biogeochemical cycling, and the mechanisms responsible for organic matter stabilization as a result of interaction with minerals under various environmental conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, etc.) are not entirely understood. The preservation of mineral-bound OM may be affected by OM structure and mineral identity, and bond types between OM and minerals may be central to influencing the stability, transformation and composition of both organic and mineral components under changing environmental conditions. Here we use bulk and submicron-scale spectroscopic synchrotron methods to examine the in situ transformation of OM-bearing, biogenic ferrihydrite stalks (Gallionella ferruginea-like), which formed following injection of oxygenated groundwater into a saturated alluvial aquifer at the Rifle, CO field site. A progression from oxidizing to reducing conditions during an eight-month period triggered the aging and reductive transformation of Gallionella-like ferrihydrite stalks to Fe (hydroxy)carbonates and Fe sulfides, as well as alteration of the composition and amount of OM. Spectromicroscopic measurements showed a gradual decrease in reduced carbon forms (aromatic/alkene, aliphatic C), a relative increase in amide/carboxyl functional groups and a significant increase in carbonate in the stalk structures, and the appearance of organic globules not associated with stalk structures. Biogenic stalks lost ∼30% of their initial organic carbon content. Conversely, a significant increase in bulk organic matter accompanied these transformations. The character of bulk OM changed in parallel with mineralogical transformations, showing an increase in aliphatic, aromatic and amide functional groups. These changes likely occurred as a result of an

  4. Mineralogy and Ar-Ar Age of the Tarahumara IIE Iron, with Reference to the Origin of Alkali-Rich Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Bogard, Donald D.; Otsuki, Mayumi; Ishii, Teruaki

    2003-01-01

    Silicate inclusions in nine known IIE irons show diversity in mineralogy, and Colomera, Kodaikanal, Elga and Miles contain alkali-rich silicate inclusions. Bogard et al. showed evidence of a complex parent body evolution for IIE irons based on Ar-39-Ar-40 ages. Colomera contained a sanidine-rich surface inclusion and the K-enrichment trends in the Na-rich inclusions are different from those of other IIEs. To elucidate the origin of K-rich materials, we studied the mineralogy and Ar-Ar age of silicate inclusions from the Tarahumara IIE iron meteorite.

  5. Toxicity of iron-based nanoparticles to green algae: Effects of particle size, crystal phase, oxidation state and environmental aging.

    PubMed

    Lei, Cheng; Zhang, Luqing; Yang, Kun; Zhu, Lizhong; Lin, Daohui

    2016-11-01

    With the increasing environmental application and discharge of iron-based nanoparticles (NPs), a comprehensive understanding of their fate and ecotoxicological effect in the aquatic environment is very urgent. In this study, toxicities of 4 zero-valent iron NPs (nZVI) of different sizes, 2 Fe2O3 NPs of different crystal phases, and 1 type of Fe3O4 NPs to a green alga (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) were investigated, with a focus on the effects of particle size, crystal phase, oxidation state, and environmental aging. Results show that the algal growth inhibition of nZVI increased significantly with decreasing particle size; with similar particle sizes (20-30 nm), the algal growth inhibition decreased with oxidation of the NPs with an order of nZVI > Fe3O4 NPs > Fe2O3 NPs, and α-Fe2O3 NPs presented significantly higher toxicity than γ-Fe2O3 NPs. The NP-induced oxidative stress was the main toxic mechanism, which could explain the difference in algal toxicity of the NPs. The NP-cell heteroagglomeration and physical interactions also contributed to the nanotoxicity, whereas the effect of NP dissolution was negligible. The aging in distilled water and 3 surface water samples for 3 months increased surface oxidation of the iron-based NPs especially nZVI, which decreased the toxicity to algae. These findings will be helpful for the understanding of the fate and toxicity of iron-based NPs in the aquatic environment.

  6. Probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum 299v increases iron absorption from an iron-supplemented fruit drink: a double-isotope cross-over single-blind study in women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Michael; Önning, Gunilla; Berggren, Anna; Hulthén, Lena

    2015-10-28

    Iron deficiency is common, especially among young women. Adding probiotics to foods could be one way to increase iron absorption. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that non-haem iron absorption from a fruit drink is improved by adding Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Lp299v). Iron absorption was studied in healthy women of reproductive age using a single-blind cross-over design in two trials applying the double-isotope (55Fe and 59Fe) technique. In Trial 1, iron absorption from a fruit drink containing 109 colony-forming units (CFU) Lp299v was compared with that from a control drink without Lp299v. Trial 2 had the same design but 1010 CFU were used. The test and control drinks contained approximately 5 mg of iron as ferrous lactate and were labelled with 59Fe (B) and 55Fe (A), respectively, and consumed on 4 consecutive days in the order AABB. Retention of the isotopes was measured with whole-body counting and in blood. Mean iron absorption from the drink containing 109 CFU Lp299v (28·6(sd 12·5) %) was significantly higher than from the control drink (18·5(sd 5·8) %), n 10, P<0·028). The fruit drink with 1010 CFU Lp299v gave a mean iron absorption of 29·1(sd 17·0) %, whereas the control drink gave an absorption of (20·1(sd 6·4) %) (n 11, P<0·080). The difference in iron absorption between the 109 CFU Lp299v and the 1010 CFU Lp299v drinks was not significant (P=0·941). In conclusion, intake of probiotics can increase iron absorption by approximately 50 % from a fruit drink having an already relatively high iron bioavailability.

  7. The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2011-07-15

    Background: Cadmium is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant associated with increased risk of leading causes of mortality and morbidity in women, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Iron deficiency increases absorption of dietary cadmium, rendering women, who tend to have lower iron stores than men, more susceptible to cadmium uptake. We used body iron, a measure that incorporates both serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, as recommended by the World Health Organization, to evaluate the relationships between iron status and urine and blood cadmium. Methods: Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, urine and blood cadmium values in never-smoking, non-pregnant, non-lactating, non-menopausal women aged 20-49 years (n=599) were obtained from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, and iron deficiency defined as body iron <0 mg/kg. Robust linear regression was used to evaluate the relationships between body iron and blood and urine cadmium, adjusted for age, race, poverty, body mass index, and parity. Results: Per incremental (mg/kg) increase in body iron, urine cadmium decreased by 0.003 {mu}g/g creatinine and blood cadmium decreased by 0.014 {mu}g/L. Iron deficiency was associated with 0.044 {mu}g/g creatinine greater urine cadmium (95% CI=0.020, 0.069) and 0.162 {mu}g/L greater blood cadmium (95% CI=0.132, 0.193). Conclusions: Iron deficiency is a risk factor for increased blood and urine cadmium among never-smoking, pre-menopausal, non-pregnant US women, independent of age, race, poverty, body mass index and parity. Expanding programs to detect and correct iron deficiency among non-pregnant women merits consideration as a potential means to reduce the risk of cadmium associated diseases. - Highlights: {yields} Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. {yields} Body iron was inversely associated with blood

  8. Prevention of Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Infants and Children of Preschool Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fomon, Samuel J.

    Iron-deficiency anemia is almost certainly the most prevalent nutritional disorder among infants and young children in the United States. Anemia is frequently seen among children of low socioeconomic status but is probably also the most frequent nutritional deficiency disease seen among children cared for by private doctors. Possible reasons for…

  9. Large geomagnetic field anomalies revealed in Bronze to Iron Age archeomagnetic data from Tel Megiddo and Tel Hazor, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaar, Ron; Tauxe, Lisa; Ron, Hagai; Ebert, Yael; Zuckerman, Sharon; Finkelstein, Israel; Agnon, Amotz

    2016-05-01

    Geomagnetic field measurements from the past few centuries show heightened secular variation activity in the southern hemisphere associated with the south Atlantic anomaly (SAA). It is uncertain whether geomagnetic anomalies at a similar scale have existed in the past owing to limited coverage and uncertainties in the paleomagnetic database. Here we provide new evidence from archaeological sources in the Levant suggesting a large positive northern hemisphere anomaly, similar in magnitude to the SAA during the 9th-8th centuries BCE, called ;Levantine Iron Age anomaly;. We also report an additional geomagnetic spike in the 8th century. The new dataset comprises 73 high precision paleointensity estimates from ca. 3000 BCE to 732 BCE, and five directional measurements between the 14th and the 9th centuries BCE. Well-dated pottery and cooking ovens were collected from twenty archaeological strata in two large contemporaneous stratigraphical mounds (tells) in Israel: Tel Megiddo and Tel Hazor. The new data are combined with previously published data and interpreted automatically using the PmagPy Thellier GUI program. The Tel Megiddo and Tel Hazor data sets demonstrate excellent internal consistency and remarkable agreement with published data from Mesopotamia (Syria). The data illustrate the evolution of an extreme geomagnetic high that culminated in at least two spikes between the 11th and the 8th centuries BCE (Iron Age in the Levant). The paleomagnetic directional data of the 9th century BCE show positive inclination anomalies, and deviations of up to 22° from the averaged geocentric axial dipole (GAD) direction. From comparison of the Levantine archaeomagnetic data with IGRF model for 2015 we infer the ;Levantine Iron Age anomaly; between the 10th and the 8th centuries BCE is a local positive anomaly. The eastward extent of the anomaly is currently unknown.

  10. Micronutrient supplementation adherence and influence on the prevalences of anemia and iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies in preemies with a corrected age of six months

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Brunnella Alcantara Chagas; Lima, Luciana Moreira; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Henriques, Bruno David; Carlos, Carla Fernanda Lisboa Valente; Sabino, Jusceli Souza Nogueira; do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze adherence to the recommended iron, zinc and multivitamin supplementation guidelines for preemies, the factors associated with this adherence, and the influence of adherence on the occurrence of anemia and iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies. METHODS: This prospective cohort study followed 58 preemies born in 2014 until they reached six months corrected age. The preemies were followed at a referral secondary health service and represented 63.7% of the preterm infants born that year. Outcomes of interest included high or low adherence to iron, zinc and multivitamin supplementation guidelines; prevalence of anemia; and prevalences of iron, zinc, and vitamin A deficiencies. The prevalence ratios were calculated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: Thirty-eight (65.5%) preemies presented high adherence to micronutrient supplementation guidelines. At six months of corrected age, no preemie had vitamin A deficiency. The prevalences of anemia, iron deficiency and zinc deficiency were higher in the low-adherence group but also concerning in the high-adherence group. Preemies with low adherence to micronutrient supplementation guidelines were 2.5 times more likely to develop anemia and 3.1 times more likely to develop zinc deficiency. Low maternal education level increased the likelihood of nonadherence to all three supplements by 2.2 times. CONCLUSIONS: Low maternal education level was independently associated with low adherence to iron, zinc and vitamin A supplementation guidelines in preemies, which impacted the prevalences of anemia and iron and zinc deficiencies at six months of corrected age. PMID:27626474

  11. Geology, alteration, age, and origin of iron oxide-apatite deposits in Upper Eocene quartz monzonite, Zanjan district, NW Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabatian, Ghasem; Ghaderi, Majid; Corfu, Fernando; Neubauer, Franz; Bernroider, Manfred; Prokofiev, Vsevolod; Honarmand, Maryam

    2014-02-01

    Iron oxide-apatite deposits are present in Upper Eocene pyroxene-quartz monzonitic rocks of the Zanjan district, northwestern Iran. Mineralization occurred in five stages: (1) deposition of disseminated magnetite and apatite in the host rock; (2) mineralization of massive and banded magnetite ores in veins and stockwork associated with minor brecciation and calcic alteration of host rocks; (3) deposition of sulfide ores together with potassic alteration; (4) formation of quartz and carbonate veins and sericite, chlorite, epidote, silica, carbonate, and tourmaline alteration; and (5) supergene alteration and weathering. U-Pb dating of monazite inclusions in the apatite indicates an age of 39.99 ± 0.24 Ma, which is nearly coeval with the time of emplacement of the host quartz monzonite, supporting the genetic connection. Fluid inclusions in the apatite have homogenization temperatures of about 300 °C and oxygen isotopic compositions of the magnetite support precipitation from magmatic fluids. Late-stage quartz resulted from the introduction of a cooler, less saline, and isotopically depleted fluid. The iron oxide-apatite deposits in the Tarom area of the Zanjan district are typical of a magmatic-hydrothermal origin and are similar to the Kiruna-type deposits with respect to mineral assemblages, fabric and structure of the iron ores, occurrence of the ore bodies, and wall rock alteration.

  12. STUDY INSTRUMENTS: SECOND WAVE BRAZIL AND FINLAND,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    POLITICAL SCIENCE, PUBLIC OPINION), (*PUBLIC OPINION, POLITICAL SCIENCE), FOREIGN POLICY, ATTITUDES(PSYCHOLOGY), SAMPLING, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, SOCIOLOGY, TEST METHODS, PROBABILITY, COMMUNISM, BRAZIL , FINLAND

  13. Late Holocene geoarchaeological investigation of the Middle Thames floodplain at Dorney, Buckinghamshire, UK: An evaluation of the Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman and Saxon landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Adrian G.; Lucas, Alex S.; Walden, John; Goudie, Andrew S.; Robinson, Mark A.; Allen, Tim G.

    2008-10-01

    Large-scale floodplain excavations at Dorney in the Middle Thames valley have revealed organic-rich Holocene palaeochannels as well as a rich archaeological record. High-resolution (decadal) palaeobotanical and sedimentological analyses from a Late Holocene palaeochannel have enabled detailed reconstruction of the landscape spanning from ca. 2850 C 14 yr BP (Late Bronze Age), through the Iron Age, Roman and Saxon periods and into the Medieval period ( ca. 450 C 14 yr BP). The application of sedimentological, palaeovegetation and mineral magnetic analyses coupled with the use of simultaneous R- and Q-mode factor analysis helps to underpin phases of active channel flow, phases of channel 'ponding', and alluviation. These phases developed in response to human activity and land use within the region that resulted from deforestation, changes from pastoral to arable practice, burning and the associated destabilisation and inwash of soils into the channel. A series of wooden bridges and timber structures were constructed across this channel between the Middle Bronze Age and Late Iron Age which influenced local sedimentation patterns, fluvial energy and competency within the channel. A number of erosive events coupled with inwashing from the clearance of the last vestiges of woodland for agriculture into an active channel were identified. During the Roman period, flow along the Thames channel ceased, resulting in a pond-like feature in which peaty silts rapidly accumulated. This phase of ponding was punctuated by renewed channel activity in which inorganic carbonate sediments rich in ferrimagnetic minerals were deposited. This coincides with a major peak in cereal cultivation and related catchment disturbance of soils because of ploughing with associated runoff and inwash of soils associated with flooding.

  14. 75 FR 30431 - Carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... COMMISSION Carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY: United States... on carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden. SUMMARY: The Commission... carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden would be likely to lead to continuation...

  15. In situ transmission electron microscopy He+ implantation and thermal aging of nanocrystalline iron

    DOE PAGES

    Muntifering, Brittany R.; Fang, Youwu; Leff, Asher C.; ...

    2016-10-04

    Due to their high density of interfaces, nanostructured material are hypothesized to show a higher tolerance to radiation damage compared to conventional coarse-grained materials and are on interest for use in future nuclear reactors. In order to investigate the roles of vacancies, self-interstitials, and helium during defect accumulation, and the thermal evolution of such defects, a complex set of in situ TEM experiments were performed in nanocrystalline iron.

  16. [Folate and iron in fertile age women from a Venezuelan community affected by incidence of neural tube defects].

    PubMed

    Mariela, Montilva; Jham, Papale; Nieves, García-Casal María; Yelitza, Berné; Yudith, Ontiveros; Lourdes, Durán

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this transversal study was to determine folate and iron nutritional status of women in fertile age from Municipio Jiménez, Lara State, Venezuela. The sampling was probabilistic by conglomerates from the urban and rural areas, selecting 15 conglomerates from which women between 12 and 45 years (269), were studied. After signing informed consent, participating were interviewed for personal data, antecedents related to folate and iron, socioeconomic data (Graffar-Mendez Castellano method and unsatisfied basic needs). In blood sample was determined Hemoglobin, and Erythrocytic Folate (FE). Serum was obtained to determine Ferritin and Serum Folate (FS). 53.53% of the sample presented low FS levels, 10.78% were FS deficient. Severe FE deficiency was present in 80.7% of the cases, moderate deficiency affected 5.9%. For both tests, median was higher for women in treatment with Acido Fólico or pregnant (p = 0.000), median for FE was higher for adults (p = 0.001) and in non poor women (p = 0.011). There were no significant differences for coffee, alcohol, anticonceptive consumption, urban or rural resident or socioeconomic strata. The prevalence of anemia was 11.2% being significantly more frequent in adults than in adolescents (p = 0.029) and in urban women (p = 0.042). Low ferritin were found in 37.3% of the sample, the effect of different variables was not statistically significant. In conclusion, there is a high prevalence of iron and folate deficiencies in women of fertile age from Municipio Jiménez, which could constitute a conditioning factor for the appearance of neural tube defects.

  17. Community mobilization and social marketing to promote weekly iron-folic acid supplementation: a new approach toward controlling anemia among women of reproductive age in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nguyen Cong; Thanh, Hoang Thi Kim; Berger, Jacques; Hoa, Pham Thuy; Quang, Nguyen Dinh; Smitasiri, Suttilak; Cavalli-Sforza, Tommaso

    2005-12-01

    Community-based social marketing and mobilization increased knowledge and participation in preventive weekly iron-folic acid supplementation among women of reproductive age in Vietnam. Rates of buying and taking the weekly supplement containing 60 mg elemental iron and 3.5 mg folic acid among non-pregnant women of reproductive age was between 55% and 92%. Free distribution to pregnant women of the weekly supplement containing 120 mg iron and 3.5 mg folic acid covered almost all pregnant women during the project. In developing countries where community women's groups and health networks are strong, preventive supplementation can be successfully promoted to encourage active participation in the prevention and control of iron-deficiency anemia.

  18. Changes in skeletal robusticity in an iron age agropastoral group: the Samnites from the Alfedena necropolis (Abruzzo, Central Italy).

    PubMed

    Sparacello, V S; Pearson, O M; Coppa, A; Marchi, D

    2011-01-01

    Cross-sectional geometrical (CSG) properties of an Iron Age Samnite group from the Alfedena necropolis (Abruzzo, Italy, 2600-2400 B.P.) are compared with a Ligurian Neolithic sample (6000-5500 B.P.). In the period under examination, Samnites were organized in a tribal confederation led by patrilinear aristocracies, indicating incipient social stratification. In comparison, Neolithic society lacked clear signs of social hierarchy. The subsistence of both groups was mainly based on pastoralism and agriculture, but changes in habitual behavior are expected due to the socio-economic transformations that characterized the Iron Age. The Samnites' warlike ideology suggests that unimanual weapon-use and training would have become frequent for males. The intensification of agriculture and the adoption of transhumant pastoralism, performed by a smaller subset of the population, likely led to a lower average level of logistic mobility. The strongly genderized ideology of the period suggests a strict sexual division of labor, with women primarily performing sedentary tasks. CSG properties based on periosteal contours were calculated for humeri, femora, and tibiae (N = 61). Results corroborated the expectations: Alfedena males show substantial humeral bilateral asymmetry, indicating prevalent use of one arm, likely due to weapon training. In both sexes lower limb results indicate reduced mobility with respect to the Neolithic group. Sexual dimorphism is significant in both humeral asymmetry and lower limb indicators of mobility. Although both groups could be broadly defined as agropastoral based on archeological and historical evidence, CSG analysis confirmed important differences in habitual behavior.

  19. Bat rabies surveillance in Finland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1985, a bat researcher in Finland died of rabies encephalitis caused by European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2), but an epidemiological study in 1986 did not reveal EBLV-infected bats. In 2009, an EBLV-2-positive Daubenton’s bat was detected. The EBLV-2 isolate from the human case in 1985 and the isolate from the bat in 2009 were genetically closely related. In order to assess the prevalence of EBLVs in Finnish bat populations and to gain a better understanding of the public health risk that EBLV-infected bats pose, a targeted active surveillance project was initiated. Results Altogether, 1156 bats of seven species were examined for lyssaviruses in Finland during a 28–year period (1985–2012), 898 in active surveillance and 258 in passive surveillance, with only one positive finding of EBLV-2 in a Daubenton’s bat in 2009. In 2010–2011, saliva samples from 774 bats of seven species were analyzed for EBLV viral RNA, and sera from 423 bats were analyzed for the presence of bat lyssavirus antibodies. Antibodies were detected in Daubenton’s bats in samples collected from two locations in 2010 and from one location in 2011. All seropositive locations are in close proximity to the place where the EBLV-2 positive Daubenton’s bat was found in 2009. In active surveillance, no EBLV viral RNA was detected. Conclusions These data suggest that EBLV-2 may circulate in Finland, even though the seroprevalence is low. Our results indicate that passive surveillance of dead or sick bats is a relevant means examine the occurrence of lyssavirus infection, but the number of bats submitted for laboratory analysis should be higher in order to obtain reliable information on the lyssavirus situation in the country. PMID:24011337

  20. An iron-deficient diet during development induces oxidative stress in relation to age and gender in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Vieyra-Reyes, Patricia; Millán-Aldaco, Diana; Palomero-Rivero, Marcela; Jiménez-Garcés, Clementina; Hernández-González, Margarita; Caballero-Villarraso, Javier

    2017-02-01

    Iron is a trace element and a structural part of antioxidant enzymes, and its requirements vary according to age and gender. We hypothesized that iron deficiency (ID) leads to an increase in free radicals which mainly affect the brain, and the severity of damage would therefore be dependent on age and gender. Two groups of Wistar rats were evaluated evolutionarily: 100 rats (50 males; 50 females) with ID diet and 100 rats (50 males; 50 females) with standard diet. Both groups were offspring from mothers who were previously under the same dietary intervention. The ages studied roughly correspond to stages of human development: birth (0 postnatal day "PND" in rats), childhood (21 PND), early adolescence (42 PND), late adolescence (56 PND), and adulthood (70 PND). The following biomarkers in the brain, blood, and liver were analyzed: lipid peroxidation products (LPO), protein carbonyl content and activity of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. It was demonstrated that ID subjects are born with high levels of LPO in the brain and low antioxidant activity, the damage being more severe in males. After birth, antioxidant defense focuses on the central level (brain) in ID females and on the peripheral level (blood and liver) in ID males. In two critical stages of development, birth and late adolescence, antioxidant protection is insufficient to counteract oxidative damage in ID subjects. Moreover, we observed that the variability of results in the literature on oxidative stress and ID comes from gender and age of the subjects under study. With this, we can establish patterns and exact moments to carry out studies or treatments.

  1. Dielectric properties and aging effects of manganese modified lead iron tungstate relaxor ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, L.; Vilarinho, P.M.; Baptista, J.L.

    1996-06-01

    Mn-doped samples were used to study the effects of Mn dopant on the dielectric properties of PFW ceramics, especially on its aging behavior, since they could add some knowledge on the role of lattice defects on the aging mechanisms of this relaxor ferroelectric. Mn doping does not cause marked changes in the maximum of permittivity ({var_epsilon}{sub rmax}), transition temperature (T{sub 0}), and diffuseness coefficient ({delta}) under the solubility limit, whereas the resistivity increases significantly with increasing the Mn content. Mn-modified PFW ceramics exhibit evident aging behavior and its level increases with the increase in Mn content. The aging shows strong dependence on the frequency and has a log-linear function of aging time. Probable lattice defects in the ceramics are discussed and it is suggested that the acceptor Mn ions are dominantly compensated by oxygen vacancies, providing reorientable dipole pairs which are responsible for the aging process of Mn-modified PFW ceramics.

  2. Acute Human Inkoo and Chatanga Virus Infections, Finland.

    PubMed

    Putkuri, Niina; Kantele, Anu; Levanov, Lev; Kivistö, Ilkka; Brummer-Korvenkontio, Markus; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2016-05-01

    Inkoo virus (INKV) and Chatanga virus (CHATV), which are circulating in Finland, are mosquitoborne California serogroup orthobunyaviruses that have a high seroprevalence among humans. Worldwide, INKV infection has been poorly described, and CHATV infection has been unknown. Using serum samples collected in Finland from 7,961 patients suspected of having viral neurologic disease or Puumala virus infection during the summers of 2001-2013, we analyzed the samples to detect California serogroup infections. IgM seropositivity revealed 17 acute infections, and cross-neutralization tests confirmed presence of INKV or CHATV infections. All children (<16 years of age) with INKV infection were hospitalized; adults were outpatients with mild disease, except for 1 who was hospitalized with CHATV infection. Symptoms included fever, influenza-like illness, nausea or vomiting, disorientation, nuchal rigidity, headache, drowsiness, and seizures. Although many INKV and CHATV infections appear to be subclinical, these viruses can cause more severe disease, especially in children.

  3. Acute Human Inkoo and Chatanga Virus Infections, Finland

    PubMed Central

    Kantele, Anu; Levanov, Lev; Kivistö, Ilkka; Brummer-Korvenkontio, Markus; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2016-01-01

    Inkoo virus (INKV) and Chatanga virus (CHATV), which are circulating in Finland, are mosquitoborne California serogroup orthobunyaviruses that have a high seroprevalence among humans. Worldwide, INKV infection has been poorly described, and CHATV infection has been unknown. Using serum samples collected in Finland from 7,961 patients suspected of having viral neurologic disease or Puumala virus infection during the summers of 2001–2013, we analyzed the samples to detect California serogroup infections. IgM seropositivity revealed 17 acute infections, and cross-neutralization tests confirmed presence of INKV or CHATV infections. All children (<16 years of age) with INKV infection were hospitalized; adults were outpatients with mild disease, except for 1 who was hospitalized with CHATV infection. Symptoms included fever, influenza-like illness, nausea or vomiting, disorientation, nuchal rigidity, headache, drowsiness, and seizures. Although many INKV and CHATV infections appear to be subclinical, these viruses can cause more severe disease, especially in children. PMID:27088268

  4. Microstructural behavior of iron and bismuth added Sn-1Ag-Cu solder under elevated temperature aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Bakhtiar; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd; Jauhari, Iswadi

    2016-07-01

    An extensive study was done to investigate the microstructural behavior of iron (Fe) and bismuth (Bi) added Sn-1Ag-0.5Cu (SAC105) under severe thermal aging conditions. The isothermal aging was done at 200 °C for 100 h, 200 h, and 300 h. Optical microscopy with cross-polarized light revealed that the grain size significantly reduces with Fe/Bi addition to the base alloy SAC105 and remains literally the same after thermal aging. The micrographs of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with backscattered electron detector and their further analysis via imageJ software indicated that Fe/Bi added SAC105 showed a significant reduction in the IMCs size (Ag3Sn and Cu6Sn5), especially the Cu6Sn5 IMCs, as well as β-Sn matrix and a refinement in the microstructure, which is due to the presence of Bi in the alloys. Moreover, their microstructure remains much more stable under severe thermal aging conditions, which is because of the presence of both Fe and Bi in the alloy. The microstructural behavior suggests that Fe/Bi modified SAC105 would have much improved reliability under severe thermal environments. These modified alloys also have relatively low melting temperature and low cost.

  5. Reasons for raising the maximum acceptable daily intake of EDTA and the benefits for iron fortification of foods for children 6-24 months of age.

    PubMed

    Wreesmann, Carel Theo Jozef

    2014-10-01

    The current maximum acceptable daily intake (ADI) of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) of 1.9 mg day(-1) per kilogram bodyweight (mg day(-1)  kgbw(-1) ) limits the daily intake of iron as iron EDTA [ferric sodium EDTA; sodium iron(III) EDTA] to approximately 2-2.5 mg day(-1) for children 6-24 months of age. This limit was defined by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 1973 based on data from an animal-feed study published in 1963. Other animal studies indicate that this limit can be raised to 4.4 or possibly up to 21.7 mg day(-1)  kgbw(-1) , which is 2.3-11.4 times higher than the current value. For nearly 50 years, iron EDTA has been used in France in medicinal syrup for infants 1-6 months of age. The maximum recommended dosage of this drug is 37 times higher than the maximum ADI of EDTA. No adverse health effects have been reported as a result of this medicinal consumption of iron EDTA. Raising the maximum ADI of EDTA to only 4.4 mg day(-1)  kgbw(-1) would enable iron EDTA, an iron fortificant with proven bioavailability in phytate-rich meals, to be added in adequate amounts to cereal-based meals for children 6-24 months of age, who are at risk of iron deficiency.

  6. Reasons for raising the maximum acceptable daily intake of EDTA and the benefits for iron fortification of foods for children 6–24 months of age

    PubMed Central

    Wreesmann, Carel Theo Jozef

    2014-01-01

    The current maximum acceptable daily intake (ADI) of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) of 1.9 mg day−1 per kilogram bodyweight (mg day−1 kgbw−1) limits the daily intake of iron as iron EDTA [ferric sodium EDTA; sodium iron(III) EDTA] to approximately 2–2.5 mg day−1 for children 6–24 months of age. This limit was defined by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 1973 based on data from an animal-feed study published in 1963. Other animal studies indicate that this limit can be raised to 4.4 or possibly up to 21.7 mg day−1 kgbw−1, which is 2.3–11.4 times higher than the current value. For nearly 50 years, iron EDTA has been used in France in medicinal syrup for infants 1–6 months of age. The maximum recommended dosage of this drug is 37 times higher than the maximum ADI of EDTA. No adverse health effects have been reported as a result of this medicinal consumption of iron EDTA. Raising the maximum ADI of EDTA to only 4.4 mg day−1 kgbw−1 would enable iron EDTA, an iron fortificant with proven bioavailability in phytate-rich meals, to be added in adequate amounts to cereal-based meals for children 6–24 months of age, who are at risk of iron deficiency. PMID:24521261

  7. Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and the Platelet Count in Iron-deficient Children Aged 0.5-3 Years.

    PubMed

    Akkermans, M D; Uijterschout, L; Vloemans, J; Teunisse, P P; Hudig, F; Bubbers, S; Verbruggen, S; Veldhorst, M; de Leeuw, T G; van Goudoever, J B; Brus, F

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in young children is important to prevent impaired neurodevelopment. Unfortunately, many biomarkers of ID are influenced by infection, thus limiting their usefulness. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and the platelet count for detecting ID(A) among otherwise healthy children. A multicenter prospective observational study was conducted in the Netherlands to investigate the prevalence of ID(A) in 400 healthy children aged 0.5-3 years. ID was defined as serum ferritin (SF) <12 μg/L in the absence of infection (C-reactive protein [CRP] <5 mg/L) and IDA as hemoglobin <110 g/L combined with ID. RDW (%) and the platelet count were determined in the complete blood cell count. RDW was inversely correlated with SF and not associated with CRP. Calculated cutoff values for RDW to detect ID and IDA gave a relatively low sensitivity (53.1% and 57.1%, respectively) and specificity (64.7% and 69.9%, respectively). Anemic children with a RDW >14.3% had a 2.7 higher odds (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-6.3) to be iron deficient, compared with anemic children with a RDW <14.3%. The platelet count showed a large range in both ID and non-ID children. In conclusion, RDW can be helpful for identifying ID as the cause of anemia in 0.5- to 3-year-old children, but not as primary biomarker of ID(A). RDW values are not influenced by the presence of infection. There appears to be no role for the platelet count in diagnosing ID(A) in this group of children.

  8. Heritability of body height and educational attainment in an international context: comparison of adult twins in Minnesota and Finland.

    PubMed

    Silventoinen, Karri; Krueger, Robert F; Bouchard, Thomas J; Kaprio, Jaakko; McGue, Matt

    2004-01-01

    We studied the effect of genetic and environmental factors on the association between self-reported height and education in Minnesota and Finland. Our data included 1,598 twin pairs in Minnesota and 5,454 twin pairs in Finland born between 1936 and 1955. Correlations between education and height were found in Minnesota (r = 0.09 in men and 0.11 in women) and in Finland (r = 0.17 and 0.14, respectively) after adjustment for age. This trait correlation was mainly because of the correlation between shared environmental factors in Minnesota (r(C) = 0.38 and 0.36, respectively) and in Finland (r(C) = 0.74 and 0.37, respectively). An unshared environmental correlation was found only in Finland (r(E) = 0.13 and 0.06, respectively). Our results indicate that the association between body height and education is overwhelmingly due to the correlation of the shared environmental factors affecting these two traits. The differences between Minnesota and Finland are possibly associated with average higher education in Minnesota, which decreases the effect of the childhood environment on education, seen as a weaker correlation between height and education. Nonfamilial factors affecting education are possibly different in Minnesota than in Finland, since in Finland they are partly associated with the factors affecting height.

  9. Iron overload accelerates bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women and middle-aged men: a 3-year retrospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom-Jun; Ahn, Seong Hee; Bae, Sung Jin; Kim, Eun Hee; Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Choe, Jae Won; Koh, Jung-Min; Kim, Ghi Su

    2012-11-01

    Despite extensive experimental and animal evidence about the detrimental effects of iron and its overload on bone metabolism, there have been no clinical studies relating iron stores to bone loss, especially in nonpathologic conditions. In the present study, we performed a large longitudinal study to evaluate serum ferritin concentrations in relation to annualized changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy Koreans. A total of 1729 subjects (940 postmenopausal women and 789 middle-aged men) aged 40 years or older who had undergone comprehensive routine health examinations with an average 3 years of follow-up were enrolled. BMD in proximal femur sites (ie, the total femur, femur neck, and trochanter) was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry using the same equipment at baseline and follow-up. The mean age of women and men in this study was 55.8 ± 6.0 years and 55.5 ± 7.8 years, respectively, and serum ferritin levels were significantly higher in men than in women (p < 0.001). The overall mean annualized rates of bone loss in the total femur, femur neck, and trochanter were -1.14%/year, -1.17%/year, and -1.51%/year, respectively, in women, and -0.27%/year, -0.34%/year, and -0.41%/year, respectively, in men. After adjustment for potential confounders, the rates of bone loss in all proximal femur sites in both genders were significantly accelerated in a dose-response fashion across increasing ferritin quartile categories (p for trend = 0.043 to <0.001). Consistently, compared with subjects in the lowest ferritin quartile category, those in the third and/or highest ferritin quartile category showed significantly faster bone loss in the total femur and femur neck in both genders (p = 0.023 to <0.001). In conclusion, these data provide the first clinical evidence that increased total body iron stores could be an independent risk factor for accelerated bone loss, even in healthy populations.

  10. Iron deficiency anemia among Jewish and Arab infants at 6 and 12 months of age in Hadera, Israel.

    PubMed

    Lavon, B; Tulchinsky, T H; Preger, M; Said, R; Kaufman, S

    1985-02-01

    Infants attending six Family Health Centers of the Israel Ministry of Health in various Jewish and Arab localities in the Hadera subdistrict were examined for hemoglobin levels at 6 and 12 months of age. The prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin less than 11 g/dl) among Jewish infants rose from a total of 44.7 to 60% from 6 to 12 months. For the Arab infants, the prevalence of anemia increased from a total of 43.7% at 6 months to 71.0% at 12. The prevalence of severe anemia (less than 10 g/dl) for the Jewish infants rose from 4.5 to 13.1% and for the Arab infants from 7.7 to 19.6%. Of the Jewish infants with a hemoglobin level less than 10 g/dl at 6 months, 50% were still less than 10 g/dl at 12 months. Of the Arab infants less than 10 g/dl at 6 months, 36.4% were still at that level at 12 months. The lack of routine iron supplementation as a preventive procedure and the routine use of cow's milk for infant feeding are the probable causes of this high prevalence of iron deficiency anemia.

  11. In situ Transmission Electron Microscopy He+ implantation and thermal aging of nanocrystalline iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntifering, Brittany; Fang, Youwu; Leff, Asher C.; Dunn, Aaron; Qu, Jianmin; Taheri, Mitra L.; Dingreville, Remi; Hattar, Khalid

    2016-12-01

    The high density of interfaces in nanostructured materials are hypothesized to improve radiation tolerance compared to coarse-grained materials. In order to investigate the roles of vacancies, self-interstitials, and helium, both room temperature in situ TEM He+ implantation and annealing, as well as high temperature He+ implantation was performed on nanocrystalline iron. Dislocation loops are formed by the accumulation of mobile point defects rather than by displacement cascades at intermediate temperatures. Around 600 °C, loops disappeared through gradual shrinking, which is hypothesized to correspond to the annihilation of self-interstitial atoms by mobile vacancies that also resulted in cavity formation. The room temperature implantation resulted in cavities evenly distributed throughout the grain after annealing, whereas cavities were predominately observed at grain boundaries for the elevated temperature implantation. This difference is associated with the formation of stable helium-vacancy complexes in the grains during room temperature implantation, which is not present during high temperature implantation.

  12. Effect of High Temperature Aging on the Corrosion Resistance of Iron Based Amorphous Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Day, S D; Haslam, J J; Farmer, J C; Rebak, R B

    2007-08-10

    Iron-based amorphous alloys can be more resistant to corrosion than polycrystalline materials of similar compositions. However, when the amorphous alloys are exposed to high temperatures they may recrystallize (or devitrify) thus losing their resistance to corrosion. Four different types of amorphous alloys melt spun ribbon specimens were exposed to several temperatures for short periods of time. The resulting corrosion resistance was evaluated in seawater at 90 C and compared with the as-prepared ribbons. Results show that the amorphous alloys can be exposed to 600 C for 1-hr. without losing the corrosion resistance; however, when the ribbons were exposed at 800 C for 1-hr. their localized corrosion resistance decreased significantly.

  13. Monetary alloys in Iron Age Armorica (Finistère, France): The singular case of the Osismi tribe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, M. F.; Abollivier, Ph.

    2016-06-01

    The analysis by PIXE and PAA of 64 coins struck in Iron Age Armorica by the Osismi tribe revealed the use of a different system from the usual Celtic Gaul tri-metallic system. The gold-based alloy (Au-Ag-Cu) firstly issued is debased over time to become a silver-based alloy (Ag-Cu-Sn). Based on the analytical data, two chronological phases were defined and dates of issuing could be ascribed to the coin-types. The presence of Sn and Sb in the alloys and the low contents of Pb were used in the attribution of 9 specimens of unknown origin to the Osismi monetary system. Considerations on the mints supplies could also be provided.

  14. A Place Along the Way: Contextualising Findings from the Iron Age Post Enclosure at Lismullin, Co. Meath, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prendergast, Frank

    2015-05-01

    The discovery of an Early Iron Age timber-built post enclosure at Lismullin is arguably the most significant Irish archaeological discovery in recent times. When found, it was immediately evident that a site of major importance and cultural significance had been located. The enclosure complex was constructed from a large number of small wooden posts set out in the form of a three ring structure with an easterly facing avenue accentuated by a four-post entrance feature. This paper summarises the analysis of the geospatial data obtained at the site, and addresses three lines of enquiry relating to the construction method and structural orientation. The cultural significance of the discovery and the findings arising from the data analysis are considered.

  15. Synchrotron radiation-based x-ray analysis of bronze artifacts from an Iron Age site in the Judean hills.

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, E. S.; Brody, A. J.; Young, M. L.; Almer, J. D.; Serge, C. U.; Mini, S. M.; IIT; Pacific School of Religion; Northwestern Univ.; Northern Illinois Univ.

    2008-07-01

    Seven bronze bangles from Tell en-Nasbeh, northern Judah, were investigated to understand the phase composition and manufacturing process of the artifacts, and possibly suggest a provenance for their origin. Synchrotron x-ray radiation diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence (XRF) were used in the analysis to avoid any destructive sampling and at the same time penetrate through the surface into the core metal. These techniques enabled us to determine that the bangles were not just tin bronze, but leaded tin bronze. Based on excavation reports, it is unlikely that the metal objects were manufactured locally at Tell en-Nasbeh; rather, preliminary XRD and XRF data point towards the neighboring region of Edom as their origin. Despite their political enmity during the Iron Age II, the data suggest that Judahite social demands for bronze may have fostered a strong economic relationship between these two polities.

  16. The Secret to Finland's Success: Educating Teachers. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlberg, Pasi

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, Finland has emerged as the leading OECD country in educational achievement. In examining the sources of Finland's dramatic rise to the top, research shows one key element that has impacted Finland's success above all others: excellent teachers. This policy brief details the key elements of Finland's successful system, examining…

  17. Mitochondrial DNA Reveals the Trace of the Ancient Settlers of a Violently Devastated Late Bronze and Iron Ages Village

    PubMed Central

    Núñez, Carolina; Baeta, Miriam; Cardoso, Sergio; Palencia-Madrid, Leire; García-Romero, Noemí; Llanos, Armando; M. de Pancorbo, Marian

    2016-01-01

    La Hoya (Alava, Basque Country) was one of the most important villages of the Late Bronze and Iron Ages of the north of the Iberian Peninsula, until it was violently devastated around the 4th century and abandoned in the 3rd century B.C. Archaeological evidences suggest that descendants from La Hoya placed their new settlement in a nearby hill, which gave rise to the current village of Laguardia. In this study, we have traced the genetic imprints of the extinct inhabitants of La Hoya through the analysis of maternal lineages. In particular, we have analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of 41 human remains recovered from the archaeological site for comparison with a sample of 51 individuals from the geographically close present-day population of Laguardia, as well as 56 individuals of the general population of the province of Alava, where the archaeological site and Laguardia village are located. MtDNA haplotypes were successfully obtained in 25 out of 41 ancient samples, and 14 different haplotypes were identified. The major mtDNA subhaplogroups observed in La Hoya were H1, H3, J1 and U5, which show a distinctive frequency pattern in the autochthonous populations of the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Approximate Bayesian Computation analysis was performed to test the most likely model for the local demographic history. The results did not sustain a genealogical continuity between Laguardia and La Hoya at the haplotype level, although factors such as sampling effects, recent admixture events, and genetic bottlenecks need to be considered. Likewise, the highly similar subhaplogroup composition detected between La Hoya and Laguardia and Alava populations do not allow us to reject a maternal genetic continuity in the human groups of the area since at least the Iron Age to present times. Broader analyses, based on a larger collection of samples and genetic markers, would be required to study fine-scale population events in these human groups. PMID

  18. Mitochondrial DNA Reveals the Trace of the Ancient Settlers of a Violently Devastated Late Bronze and Iron Ages Village.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Carolina; Baeta, Miriam; Cardoso, Sergio; Palencia-Madrid, Leire; García-Romero, Noemí; Llanos, Armando; M de Pancorbo, Marian

    2016-01-01

    La Hoya (Alava, Basque Country) was one of the most important villages of the Late Bronze and Iron Ages of the north of the Iberian Peninsula, until it was violently devastated around the 4th century and abandoned in the 3rd century B.C. Archaeological evidences suggest that descendants from La Hoya placed their new settlement in a nearby hill, which gave rise to the current village of Laguardia. In this study, we have traced the genetic imprints of the extinct inhabitants of La Hoya through the analysis of maternal lineages. In particular, we have analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of 41 human remains recovered from the archaeological site for comparison with a sample of 51 individuals from the geographically close present-day population of Laguardia, as well as 56 individuals of the general population of the province of Alava, where the archaeological site and Laguardia village are located. MtDNA haplotypes were successfully obtained in 25 out of 41 ancient samples, and 14 different haplotypes were identified. The major mtDNA subhaplogroups observed in La Hoya were H1, H3, J1 and U5, which show a distinctive frequency pattern in the autochthonous populations of the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Approximate Bayesian Computation analysis was performed to test the most likely model for the local demographic history. The results did not sustain a genealogical continuity between Laguardia and La Hoya at the haplotype level, although factors such as sampling effects, recent admixture events, and genetic bottlenecks need to be considered. Likewise, the highly similar subhaplogroup composition detected between La Hoya and Laguardia and Alava populations do not allow us to reject a maternal genetic continuity in the human groups of the area since at least the Iron Age to present times. Broader analyses, based on a larger collection of samples and genetic markers, would be required to study fine-scale population events in these human groups.

  19. Age-related changes of brain iron load changes in the frontal cortex in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Xian-hui, Dong; Wei-juan, Gao; Tie-mei, Shao; Hong-lin, Xie; Jiang-tao, Bai; Jing-yi, Zhao; Xi-qing, Chai

    2015-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a neurodegenerative brain disorder is a devastating pathology leading to disastrous cognitive impairments and dementia, associated with major social and economic costs to society. Iron can catalyze damaging free radical reactions. With age, iron accumulates in brain frontal cortex regions and may contribute to the risk of AD. In this communication, we investigated the age-related brain iron load changes in the frontal cortex of 6- and 12-month-old C57BL/6J (C57) and APPswe/PS1ΔE9 (APP/PS1) double transgenic mouse by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and Perls' reaction. In the present study, we also evaluated the age-related changes of DMT1 and FPN1 by using Western blot and qPCR. We found that compared with 6-month-old APP/PS1 mice and the 12-month-old C57 mice, the 12-month-old APP/PS1 mice had increased iron load in the frontal cortex. The levels of DMT1 were significantly increased and the FPN1 were significantly reduced in the frontal cortex of the 12-month-old APP/PS1 mice than that in the 6-month-old APP/PS1 mice and 12-month-old C57 mice. We conclude that in AD damage occurs in conjunction with iron accumulation, and the brain iron load associated with loss control of the brain iron metabolism related protein DMT1 and FPN1 expressions.

  20. Paleobiology, palaeopathology and necrophobic practices in early Iron Age burials (IX-VII century BC) in Capo Colonna, Trani, Apulia, southern Italy--the state of health of a small sample from Iron Age.

    PubMed

    Sublimi Saponetti, Sandro; Scattarella, Fabio; De Lucia, Amelia; Scattarella, Vito

    2007-03-01

    In this palaeobiological and palaeopathological study of skeletal remains, we attempt to define the physical characteristics, living conditions and the state of health of a small sample from two early Iron Age (IX-VIII century BC) graves at Capo Colonna, Trani (Bari, Apulia, southern Italy). In the thoraco-lumbar segment (T11-L1) of the vertebral column of an adult male 35 years old, we found wedge-shaped deformation of the anterior part of T12 with kyphosis of the affected tract. Digital radiography and volumetric reconstruction by 3D CT indicated that the alteration did not result from an infectious process (Pott's disease). Instead, it was a traumatic lesion probably caused by falling from a height. The archaeological investigation revealed extraordinary arrangements of the bodies in the graves: they were buried with a boulder placed on the coffin. This practice has been seen in similar graves in the Balkan area, particularly in Greece, from the Neolithic to the Early Middle Ages. The most likely explanation is a funeral ritual characterized by necrophobia, the purpose of which was to prevent the deceased from returning to terrorize the living.

  1. Uranium distribution and 'excessive' U-He ages in iron meteoritic troilite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    Fission tracking techniques were used to measure the uranium distribution in meteoritic troilite and graphite. The obtained fission tracking data showed a heterogeneous distribution of tracks with a significant portion of track density present in the form of uranium clusters at least 10 microns in size. The matrix containing the clusters was also heterogeneous in composition with U concentrations of about 0.2-4.7 ppb. U/He ages could not be estimated on the basis of the heterogeneous U distributions, so previously reported estimates of U/He ages in the presolar range are probably invalid.

  2. Productive Aging: A Question of Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicker, Martin; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "The Paradox of Productive Aging" (Sicker); "Beyond Productive Aging" (Riley, Riley); "Changing Concepts; Visionary or Short-Sighted" (Holstein); "Making Aging Meaningful" (Glanz, Neikrug); and "Perspectives on Productive Aging from Austria, Bolivia, Denmark, Finland, Japan, Venezuela."…

  3. Calorie restriction down-regulates expression of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin in normal and D-galactose-induced aging mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shougang; Shi, Wenli; Li, Man; Gao, Qian

    2014-02-01

    It has been shown that iron progressively accumulates in the brain with age. Calorie restriction (CR) may allay many of the adverse effects of aging on the brain, yet the underlying mechanisms, in particular in relation to brain iron metabolism, remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of CR in the regulation of cerebral cellular iron homeostasis. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups of eight. The control group was fed a conventional diet ad libitum; the CR group received 70% of the calories of the control mouse intake per day; the D-galactose (D-gal) group received subcutaneous injection of D-gal at a dose of 100 mg/kg once daily to produce mouse model of aging; the D-gal plus CR group received both of the two interventions for 14 weeks. The Morris water maze (MWM) was employed to test the cognitive performance of all animals, and the expression of iron regulatory genes, ferroportin and hepcidin, in the cortex and hippocampus were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Compared to the controls, the D-gal group mice showed significant spatial reference memory deficits in the MWM test, whereas the D-gal-CR group mice exhibited almost normal cognitive function, indicating that CR protects against D-gal-induced learning and memory impairment. Hepcidin mRNA expression was increased in the D-gal group, decreased in the CR group, and was basically unchanged in the D-gal-CR group. There was no statistical difference in the transmembrane iron exporter ferroportin expression between control and any of the experimental groups. The results suggest that the anti-aging effects of CR might partially lie in its capacity to reduce or avoid age-related iron accumulation in the brain through down-regulating expression of brain hepcidin--the key negative regulator for intracellular iron efflux--and that facilitating the balance of brain iron metabolism may be a promising anti-aging measure.

  4. Aging of Iron Nanoparticles in Aqueous Solution: Effects on Structure and Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Sarathy, Vaishnavi; Tratnyek, Paul G.; Nurmi, James; Baer, Donald R.; Amonette, James E.; Chun, Chan Lan; Penn, Ryland L.; Reardon, Eric J.

    2008-02-21

    Aging (or longevity) is one of the most important and potentially limiting factors in the use of nano-Fe0 to reduce groundwater contaminants. We investigated the aging of FeH2 (Toda RNIP-10DS) in water with a focus on changes in (i) the composition and structure of the particles (by XPS, XRD, TEM, and bulk Fe0 content), and (ii) the reactivity of the particles (by carbon tetrachloride reaction kinetics and electrochemical corrosion potentials). Our results show that the FeH2 becomes more reactive between 0 and ~2 days aging, and then gradually loses reactivity over the next few hundred days. These changes in reactivity correlate with evidence for rapid destruction of the original Fe(III) oxide film on FeH2 during immersion and the subsequent formation of a new passivating mixed-valence Fe(II)-Fe(III) oxide shell. The behavior of “unaged” nano-Fe0 in the laboratory may be similar to that in field-scale applications for source-zone treatment due to the short reaction times involved. Long-term aged FeH2 acquires properties that are relatively stable over weeks or even months.

  5. Age constraints on the hydrothermal history of the Prominent Hill iron oxide copper-gold deposit, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Bryan; Fraser, Geoff; Davidson, Garry J.; Meffre, Sebastien; Skirrow, Roger; Bull, Stuart; Thompson, Jay

    2016-12-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Prominent Hill iron-oxide copper-gold deposit lies on the fault-bound southern edge of the Mt Woods Domain, Gawler Craton, South Australia. Chalcocite-bornite-chalcopyrite ores occur in a hematitic breccia complex that has similarities to the Olympic Dam deposit, but were emplaced in a shallow water clastic-carbonate package overlying a thick andesite-dacite pile. The sequence has been overturned against the major, steep, east-west, Hangingwall Fault, beyond which lies the clastic to potentially evaporitic Blue Duck Metasediments. Immediately north of the deposit, these metasediments have been intruded by dacite porphyry and granitoid and metasomatised to form magnetite-calc-silicate skarn ± pyrite-chalcopyrite. The hematitic breccia complex is strongly sericitised and silicified, has a large sericite ± chlorite halo, and was intruded by dykes during and after sericitisation. This paper evaluates the age of sericite formation in the mineralised breccias and provides constraints on the timing of granitoid intrusion and skarn formation in the terrain adjoining the mineralisation. The breccia complex contains fragments of granitoid and porphyry that are found here to be part of the Gawler Range Volcanics/Hiltaba Suite magmatic event at 1600-1570 Ma. This indicates that some breccia formation post-dated granitoid intrusion. Monazite and apatite in Fe-P-REE-albite metasomatised granitoid, paragenetically linked with magnetite skarn formation north of the Hangingwall Fault, grew soon after granitoid intrusion, although the apatite experienced U-Pb-LREE loss during later fluid-mineral interaction; this accounts for its calculated age of 1544 ± 39 Ma. To the south of the fault, within the breccia, 40Ar-39Ar ages yield a minimum age of sericitisation (+Cu+Fe+REE) of dykes and volcanics of ˜1575 Ma, firmly placing Prominent Hill ore formation as part of the Gawler Range Volcanics/Hiltaba Suite magmatic event within the Olympic Cu-Au province of the

  6. Effects of aging and oxidation of palladized iron embedded in activated carbon on the dechlorination of 2-chlorobiphenyl

    SciTech Connect

    Hyeok Choi; Souhail R. Al-Abed; Shirish Agarwal

    2009-06-15

    Reactive activated carbon (RAC) impregnated with palladized iron has been developed to effectively treat polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment by coupling adsorption and dechlorination of PCBs. In this study, we addressed the dechlorination reactivity and capacity of RAC toward aqueous 2-chlorobiphenyl (2-ClBP), and its aging and longevity under various oxidizing environments. RAC containing 14.4% Fe and 0.68% Pd used in this study could adsorb 122.6 mg 2-ClBP/g RAC, and dechlorinate 56.5 mg 2-ClBP/g RAC which corresponds to 12% (yield) of its estimated dechlorination capacity. Due to Fe0 oxidation to form oxide passivating layers, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (oxide-water interface) and FeOOH/FeO (oxide-metal interface), RAC reactivity decreased progressively over aging under N{sub 2} < H{sub 2}O + N{sub 2} < H{sub 2}O + O{sub 2} conditions. Considering nanoscale Fe/Pd corrosion chemistry, the decline was quite slow at only 5.6%, 19.5%, and 32.5% over one year, respectively. Dissolved oxygen played a crucial role in enhancing 2-ClBP adsorption but inhibiting its dechlorination. The reactivity change could be explained with the properties of the aged RAC including surface area, Fe0 content, and Fe species. During the aging and oxidation, the RAC showed limited dissolution of Fe and Pd. Finally, implementation issues regarding application of RAC system to contaminated sites are discussed. 25 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. University Mergers in Finland: Mediating Global Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Välimaa, Jussi; Aittola, Helena; Ursin, Jani

    2014-01-01

    University mergers have become a common strategy for increasing global competitiveness. In this chapter, the authors analyze the implementation of mergers in Finnish universities from the perspective of social justice as conceived within Finland and other Nordic countries.

  8. Age-associated variation in sensory perception of iron in drinking water and the potential for overexposure in the human population.

    PubMed

    Mirlohi, Susan; Dietrich, Andrea M; Duncan, Susan E

    2011-08-01

    Humans interact with their environment through the five senses, but little is known about population variability in the ability to assess contaminants. Sensory thresholds and biochemical indicators of metallic flavor perception in humans were evaluated for ferrous (Fe(2+)) iron in drinking water; subjects aged 19-84 years participated. Metallic flavor thresholds for individuals and subpopulations based on age were determined. Oral lipid oxidation and oral pH were measured in saliva as potential biochemical indicators. Individual thresholds were 0.007-14.14 mg/L Fe(2+) and the overall population threshold was 0.17 mg/L Fe(2+) in reagent water. Average thresholds for individuals younger and older than 50 years of age (grouped by the daily recommended nutritional guidelines for iron intake) were significantly different (p = 0.013); the population thresholds for each group were 0.045 mg/L Fe(2+) and 0.498 mg/L Fe(2+), respectively. Many subjects >50 and a few subjects <50 years were insensitive to metallic flavor. There was no correlation between age, oral lipid oxidation, and oral pH. Standardized olfactory assessment found poor sensitivity for Fe(2+) corresponded with conditions of mild, moderate, and total anosmia. The findings demonstrate an age-dependent sensitivity to iron indicating as people age they are less sensitive to metallic perception.

  9. Occupational eye injuries in Finland.

    PubMed

    Saari, K M; Parvi, V

    1984-01-01

    In Finland 11.9% of all industrial accidents in 1973 were eye injuries including superficial eye injuries (79.2%), ultraviolet burns of the cornea (3.9%), eye burns (3.6%), blunt ocular trauma (2,5%), wounds (2.4%), and post-traumatic infections (5.8%). Eye injuries constituted 34.3% of all industrial accidents which needed only ambulatory treatment and 17.5% of all industrial accidents causing an absence for 1-2 days. In 1981 2.1% of all compensated industrial accidents (incapacity for work 3 days or more) were eye injuries. Most compensated eye injuries occurred in manufacturing and in construction work (80.4%) and 8.5% occurred in agriculture. The annual incidence rates of compensated accidents to the eyes (accidents X 1 000/number of employees) were highest in several branches of metal industry (4.96-6.88), excavating and foundation work (6.88), and in logging (5.64). Compensated eye injuries were caused by machines (32.8%), hand tools (25.6%), other equipment and constructions (4.8%), work environment (23.6%), chemical substances (10.8%), and other accidents (2.3%).

  10. Banded iron-formations of late Proterozoic age in the central eastern desert, Egypt: geology and tectonic setting.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sims, P.K.; James, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    Iron-formation occurs as stratigraphic units within a layered andesite-basalt sequence. The sequence is metamorphosed to greenschist facies, intruded by syntectonic granodiorite and post-tectonic granite, and complexly deformed and grossly fragmented; the rocks are allochthonous along thrust faults. The iron deposits are chemical precipitates, accumulated during lulls in volcanism, apparently in an intraoceanic island-arc environment. The deposits are of the Algoma type of iron-formation.-G.J.N.

  11. Definition and prevalence of anemia in Bolivian women of childbearing age living at high altitudes: the effect of iron-folate supplementation.

    PubMed

    Berger, J; Aguayo, V M; San Miguel, J L; Lujan, C; Tellez, W; Traissac, P

    1997-06-01

    This paper discusses the effect that high altitudes have on iron metabolism and summarizes the results of an iron-folate supplementation trial. The two main objectives of the trial were to determine hemoglobin cut-off values for the diagnosis of anemia in Bolivian women of childbearing age living at high altitudes, and to estimate the prevalence of anemia in this population. The study showed that nutritional anemia is an important public health problem in such populations and that many methods of assessing it lead to an underestimation of prevalence. The cut-off values defined through this study, one of the few iron supplementation trials conducted at high altitudes, confirm the need to establish revised hemoglobin values for the diagnosis of anemia in populations living at high altitudes.

  12. Dietary habits, nutrient intake and biomarkers for folate, vitamin D, iodine and iron status among women of childbearing age in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Wulf; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Nälsén, Cecilia; Warensjö Lemming, Eva; Öhrvik, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Background Dietary intake and nutritional status are important for pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. Dietary advice on folate, targeted to women of childbearing age, aims at preventing neural tube defects in the offspring. Aim To describe food and nutrient intake and nutritional status among women of childbearing age in Sweden in relation to current nutrition recommendations. Methods Dietary intake was assessed using a web-based four-day consecutive food record among adults aged 18–80 years—‘Riksmaten 2010–11 adults’. In a subsample, biomarkers of folate, vitamin D, iodine, and iron status were assessed. Results Women of childbearing age had lower intakes of fruit and vegetables, fish, and whole grains, but higher intakes of soft drinks. Macronutrient composition was generally in line with the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, except for a lower intake of fibre, a higher intake of saturated fatty acids, and added sugars. Mean intakes of vitamin D, folate, and iron were below recommended intakes (RI). Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 74 μg/L, 20% had insufficient vitamin D status, and 3% low folate concentrations with no age differences. Furthermore, 29% of women 18–44 years of age had depleted iron stores. Conclusions The dietary pattern among women of childbearing age (18–44 years) was less favourable compared to older women. Intakes of some micronutrients were below RI, but no differences in vitamin D, folate, or iodine status between age groups were observed. However, improvements of folate and iodine status among women of childbearing age are warranted. This can be achieved by following dietary guidelines including use of folic acid-containing supplements. PMID:27560303

  13. Diverse origin of mitochondrial lineages in Iron Age Black Sea Scythians

    PubMed Central

    Juras, Anna; Krzewińska, Maja; Nikitin, Alexey G.; Ehler, Edvard; Chyleński, Maciej; Łukasik, Sylwia; Krenz-Niedbała, Marta; Sinika, Vitaly; Piontek, Janusz; Ivanova, Svetlana; Dabert, Miroslawa; Götherström, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Scythians were nomadic and semi-nomadic people that ruled the Eurasian steppe during much of the first millennium BCE. While having been extensively studied by archaeology, very little is known about their genetic identity. To fill this gap, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from Scythians of the North Pontic Region (NPR) and successfully retrieved 19 whole mtDNA genomes. We have identified three potential mtDNA lineage ancestries of the NPR Scythians tracing back to hunter-gatherer and nomadic populations of east and west Eurasia as well as the Neolithic farming expansion into Europe. One third of all mt lineages in our dataset belonged to subdivisions of mt haplogroup U5. A comparison of NPR Scythian mtDNA linages with other contemporaneous Scythian groups, the Saka and the Pazyryks, reveals a common mtDNA package comprised of haplogroups H/H5, U5a, A, D/D4, and F1/F2. Of these, west Eurasian lineages show a downward cline in the west-east direction while east Eurasian haplogroups display the opposite trajectory. An overall similarity in mtDNA lineages of the NPR Scythians was found with the late Bronze Age Srubnaya population of the Northern Black Sea region which supports the archaeological hypothesis suggesting Srubnaya people as ancestors of the NPR Scythians. PMID:28266657

  14. Towards an absolute chronology for the Aegean iron age: new radiocarbon dates from Lefkandi, Kalapodi and Corinth.

    PubMed

    Toffolo, Michael B; Fantalkin, Alexander; Lemos, Irene S; Felsch, Rainer C S; Niemeier, Wolf-Dietrich; Sanders, Guy D R; Finkelstein, Israel; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    The relative chronology of the Aegean Iron Age is robust. It is based on minute stylistic changes in the Submycenaean, Protogeometric and Geometric styles and their sub-phases. Yet, the absolute chronology of the time-span between the final stages of Late Helladic IIIC in the late second millennium BCE and the archaic colonization of Italy and Sicily toward the end of the 8(th) century BCE lacks archaeological contexts that can be directly related to events carrying absolute dates mentioned in Egyptian/Near Eastern historical sources, or to well-dated Egyptian/Near Eastern rulers. The small number of radiocarbon dates available for this time span is not sufficient to establish an absolute chronological sequence. Here we present a new set of short-lived radiocarbon dates from the sites of Lefkandi, Kalapodi and Corinth in Greece. We focus on the crucial transition from the Submycenaean to the Protogeometric periods. This transition is placed in the late 11(th) century BCE according to the Conventional Aegean Chronology and in the late 12(th) century BCE according to the High Aegean Chronology. Our results place it in the second half of the 11(th) century BCE.

  15. Towards an Absolute Chronology for the Aegean Iron Age: New Radiocarbon Dates from Lefkandi, Kalapodi and Corinth

    PubMed Central

    Toffolo, Michael B.; Fantalkin, Alexander; Lemos, Irene S.; Felsch, Rainer C. S.; Niemeier, Wolf-Dietrich; Sanders, Guy D. R.; Finkelstein, Israel; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    The relative chronology of the Aegean Iron Age is robust. It is based on minute stylistic changes in the Submycenaean, Protogeometric and Geometric styles and their sub-phases. Yet, the absolute chronology of the time-span between the final stages of Late Helladic IIIC in the late second millennium BCE and the archaic colonization of Italy and Sicily toward the end of the 8th century BCE lacks archaeological contexts that can be directly related to events carrying absolute dates mentioned in Egyptian/Near Eastern historical sources, or to well-dated Egyptian/Near Eastern rulers. The small number of radiocarbon dates available for this time span is not sufficient to establish an absolute chronological sequence. Here we present a new set of short-lived radiocarbon dates from the sites of Lefkandi, Kalapodi and Corinth in Greece. We focus on the crucial transition from the Submycenaean to the Protogeometric periods. This transition is placed in the late 11th century BCE according to the Conventional Aegean Chronology and in the late 12th century BCE according to the High Aegean Chronology. Our results place it in the second half of the 11th century BCE. PMID:24386150

  16. Creep-rupture behavior of seven iron-base alloys after long term aging at 760 deg in low pressure hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzke, W. R.; Stephens, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Seven candidate iron-base alloys for heater tube application in the Stirling automotive engine were aged for 3500 hours at 760 C in argon and hydrogen. Aging degraded the tensile and creep-rupture properties. The presence of hydrogen during aging caused additional degradiation of the rupture strength in fine grain alloys. Based on current design criteria for the Mod 1 Stirling engine, N-155 and 19-9DL are considered the only alloys in this study with strengths adequate for heater tube service at 760 C.

  17. Preschool Iron-Folic Acid and Zinc Supplementation in Children Exposed to Iron-Folic Acid in Utero Confers No Added Cognitive Benefit in Early School-Age123

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Parul; Morgan, Mary E.; Murray-Kolb, Laura; LeClerq, Steven C.; Khatry, Subarna K.; Schaefer, Barbara; Cole, Pamela M.; Katz, Joanne; Tielsch, James M.

    2011-01-01

    In Nepal, antenatal iron-folic acid supplementation improved aspects of intellectual, executive, and fine motor function among school-age children. We examined the impact of added zinc to the maternal antenatal supplement (M-IFAZn) and preschool supplementation from 12 to 36 mo with iron-folic acid (C-IFA) ± zinc (C-IFAZn) on cognitive outcomes compared to maternal iron-folic acid (M-IFA) alone. Children 7–9 y old (n = 780) who participated in early childhood micronutrient supplementation trial during 2001–2004 and whose mothers participated in an antenatal micronutrient supplementation between 1999 and 2001 were followed for cognitive assessments in 2007–2009. Using multivariate analysis of variance and adjusting for confounders, M-IFA with child supplementation (either C-IFA or C-IFAZn) did not impact scores on the tests of general intelligence (Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test), and executive function (Stroop and go/no go tests) relative to the M-IFA alone. However, children in the C-IFAZn group had slightly lower scores on the backward digit span (−0.29, 95% CI: −0.55, −0.04) and Movement Assessment Battery for Children (1.33, 95% CI: 0.26, 2.40) relative to the referent group, whereas both C-IFA (−1.92, 95% CI: −3.12, −0.71) and C-IFAZn (−1.78, 95% CI: −2.63, −0.92) produced somewhat lower finger tapping test scores (fine motor skills). The combination of M-IFAZn and C-IFA or C-IFAZn did not lead to any outcome differences relative to M-IFA alone. Preschool iron-folic acid ± zinc to children exposed to iron-folic acid in utero or addition of zinc to maternal iron-folic acid conferred no additional benefit to cognitive outcomes assessed in early school age. The late timing of supplementation during preschool may explain the lack of impact of iron and/or zinc. PMID:21956955

  18. How Do Preschool Children Engage Each Other in Dialogue in Finland, Estonia and Sweden?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryggvason, Marja-Terttu; Tulviste, Tiia; De Geer, Boel

    2008-01-01

    The present study compares preschool children in Finland, Estonia and Sweden regarding linguistic structures with which children in dyads elicited talk from each other in a naturalistic play activity. Nineteen Finnish (mean age 5.1), 19 Estonian (mean age 5.4) and 17 Swedish (mean age 5.1) same-sex pairs were video-recorded by a native researcher.…

  19. Elective caesarean: does delay in cord clamping for 30 s ensure sufficient iron stores at 4 months of age? A historical cohort control study

    PubMed Central

    Hellström-Westas, Lena; Domellöf, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare iron stores in infants born after elective caesarean section (CS) and a 30 s delay of umbilical cord clamping with those born vaginally after early (≤10 s) or delayed (≥180 s) cord clamping. Design Prospective observational study with historical control. Setting Swedish county hospital. Population 64 infants born after elective CS were compared with a historical control of 166 early clamped and 168 delayed clamped after vaginal birth. Methods Blood and iron status were measured in blood samples collected at birth, 48–96 hours after birth, 4 and 12 months of age. Primary and secondary outcome measures Ferritin at 4 months of age was the primary outcome, second outcome measures were other indicators of iron status, and haemoglobin, at 4 and 12 months of age, as well as respiratory distress at 1 and 6 hours after birth. Results At 4 months infants born by elective CS had better iron status than those born vaginally subjected to early cord clamping, shown by higher adjusted mean difference of ferritin concentration (39 µg/L (95% CI 10 to 60)) and mean cell volume (1.8 fL (95% CI 0.6 to 3.0)); and lower levels of transferrin receptors (−0.39 mg/L (95% CI −0.69 to −0.08)). No differences were seen between infants born after elective CS and delayed clamped vaginally born infants at 4 months. No differences were found between groups at 12 months of age. Conclusions Waiting to clamp the umbilical cord for 30 s after elective CS results in higher iron stores at 4 months of age compared with early cord clamping after vaginal birth, and seems to ensure iron status comparable with those achieved after 180 s delayed cord clamping after vaginal birth. PMID:27807089

  20. Chromium in the environment of Finland.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, A B

    1998-06-30

    This paper focuses upon the use, import and release of chromium to the environment of Finland. In addition, the behavior of trivalent and hexavalent chromium in soils has been briefly reviewed. In Finland, consumption of chromium compounds occurs in the following pattern: stainless steel > leather tanning > metal plating > chemicals. The emission of chromium has decreased from 114 t in 1979 to 28 t in 1995. The highest release of chromium continues to be from ferrochromium and stainless steel plants. From these facilities, 85% of slag and dusts are used by a secondary facility to recover valuable metal. In the industrial areas, the oxidizing behavior of chromium (III) is still unknown. In this study, the leachability of chromium (VI) to ground water and its effects on terrestrial and aquatic species in Finland are discussed.

  1. Biomass burning smoke episodes in Finland from Eastern European wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leino, Katri E.; Riuttanen, Laura; Nieminen, Tuomo; Dal Maso, Miikka; Väänänen, Riikka; Pohja, Toivo; Keronen, Petri; Järvi, Leena; Aalto, Pasi P.; Virkkula, Aki; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    Biomass burning emissions from Eastern Europe are occasionally observed in Finland. In spring of 2006 and the late summers of 2006 and 2010, smoke plumes were transported to large parts of Finland. By combining multiple methods we were able to study the horizontal and vertical properties of long-range transported smoke plume, as well as time evolution of particle number size distributions in an aged biomass burning smoke. In this study we used trace gas and aerosol particle number size distribution measurements at three SMEAR stations (Station for Measuring Forest Ecosystem - Atmosphere Relations; Ruuskanen et al., 2003; Hari & Kulmala, 2005; Järvi et al., 2009). Vertical distribution of the smoke was studied by a small aircraft, Cessna FR172F, instrumented with Ultrafine Condensation Particle Counter and CO2/H2O -gas analyser. The airborne measurements were compared with vertical profiles from a polarization-sensitive, two-wavelength lidar (CALIOP; the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization; Winker et al., 2009) onboard the CALIPSO satellite (the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation). HYSPLIT 4 (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model; Draxler, 1999) backward trajectories as well as MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Terra thermal anomalies data (MOD14A1) were used together with synoptic analyses to study the transport and the horizontal distribution of the smoke. In the spring 2006, there was a blocking high pressure system in Eastern Europe and smoke from the Eastern European fires was transported far to the north-west. The smoke episode in Finland lasted for two weeks. In summers of 2006 and 2010 the smoke came to Finland in a warm sector of a low-pressure system and the episodes lasted for less than two days. Smoke plumes had elevated concentrations of aerosol particles, black carbon and CO, and varying concentrations of CO2, SO2, O3 and NOx. The difference to the background air

  2. Finland Becomes Eleventh ESO Member State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    Finland has become the eleventh member state of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) [1]. The formal accession procedure was carried through as planned and has now been completed. Following the signing of the corresponding Agreement earlier this year (ESO PR 02/04), acceptance by the Finnish Parliament and ratification by the Finnish President of the Agreement as well as the ESO Convention and the associated protocols in June [2] and the deposit of the instruments of accession today, Finland has now officially joined ESO. ESO warmly welcomes the new member country and its scientific community that is renowned for their expertise in many frontline areas. The related opportunities will contribute to strenghtening of pioneering research with the powerful facilities at ESO's observatories, to the benefit of Astronomy and Astrophysics as well as European science in general. ESO also looks forward to collaboration with the Finnish high-tech industry. For Finland, the membership in ESO is motivated by scientific and technological objectives as well as by the objective of improving the public understanding of science. The Finnish Government is committed to increasing the public research funding in order to improve the quality, impact and internationalisation of research. Membership in ESO offers unique facilities for astronomical research which would not otherwise be available for Finnish astronomers. Finland is also very interested in taking part in technological development projects in fields like ICT, optics and instrumentation. For young scientists and engineers, ESO is a challenging, international working and learning environment. Finland has already taken part in the educational programmes of ESO, and as a member this activity will be broadened and intensified. In Finland there are also several science journalists and a large community of amateur astronomers who will be very happy to take part in ESO's outreach activities.

  3. Update on women in physics in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miikkulainen, Kukka; Vapaavuori, Jaana

    2015-12-01

    Despite Finland's role as a forerunner in many areas of gender equality, in the field of physics, the advancement of females to reach the full gender equality has been stagnated for the past decade, and no significant improvements since 2011 can be reported. However, a few interesting PhD theses have focused on gaining a better understanding of the phenomena, and a few seminars on the topic have been organized. However, good, systematically collected statistics on the numbers and salaries of female researches in Finland are still lacking.

  4. Sharable EHR systems in Finland.

    PubMed

    Harno, Kari; Ruotsalainen, Pekka

    2006-01-01

    In Finland, the shared record is a virtual electronic health record (EHR). It consists of health data generated, maintained and preserved by different health care service providers. Two different kinds of technologies for integrating regional EHR-systems are applied, but mainly by using a common middleware. Services provided by this middleware are EHR location services using a link repository and combining EHR-viewing services with security management services including consent management and identification services for health professionals. The Regional Health Information Organization (UUMA) approach is based on a stepwise implementation of integrated regional healthcare services to create a virtually borderless healthcare organization--a patient centered virtual workspace. In the virtual workspace multi-professional teams and patients collaborate and share information regardless of time and place. Presently the regional health information network (RHIN) is comprised of three integrated services between primary, secondary and tertiary care within the county of Uusimaa. The regional healthcare modules consist of an (1) eReferral network, (2) integrated EHR service between health care professionals and (3) PACS system. The eReferral between primary and secondary care not only speeds up the transfer, but also offers an option for communication in the form of eConsultation between general practitioners and hospital specialists. By sharing information and knowledge remote eConsultations create a new working environment for integrated delivery of eServices between the health care providers. Over 100,000 eReferral messages (40 %) were transferred between health care providers. Interactive eConsultations enable supervised care leading to the reduction of outpatient visits and more timely appointments. One third (10/31) of the municipal health centers are connected to the clinics in the Helsinki University Central Hospital by the eReferral system. The link directory

  5. Investigation on corrosion stratigraphy and morphology in some Iron Age bronze alloys vessels by OM, XRD and SEM-EDS methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudbashi, Omid; Hasanpour, Ata; Davami, Parviz

    2016-04-01

    The recently study of the corrosion in some bronze artefacts from the Sangtarashan Iron Age site, western Iran, was established to identify corrosion morphology and mechanism in these objects. The corrosion layers in 22 samples were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. The results showed that a thin corrosion crust has formed on the surface of bronzes with a triple-layer structure, including two internal and one external corrosion layers. The formation of these layers is due to copper leaching from the bronze surface. The internal corrosion part has been a compact, tin-rich corrosion/oxidation product (noble patina) with some evidences from original metallurgical aspects of the bronze as well as a very thin layer beneath the tin-rich layer. External corrosion products have been identified as basic copper carbonates, malachite and azurite. Based on the results, the corrosion morphology in the Sangtarashan Iron Age bronzes is due to long-term burial in an appropriate environment in a moderately corrosive soil. Although it is the first time to investigate Iron Age bronzes from Iran, this corrosion morphology is partially similar to type I corrosion morphology observed in archaeological bronze objects; nevertheless, some deviations are visible in comparison with previously established patterns.

  6. Internal Rb-Sr Age and Initial Sr-87/Sr-86 of a Silicate Inclusion from the Campo Del Cielo Iron Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Y.; Nyquist, L.; Wiesmann, H.; Shih, C.; Schwandt, C.; Takeda, H.

    2003-01-01

    The largest group of iron meteorites, IAB, is distinguished by the presence of diverse silicate inclusions. In principle, Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd radiometric dating of these silicate inclusions by internal isochron techniques can determine both the times of melting and parent/daughter ratios in the precursor materials via initial Sr-87/Sr-86 and Nd-143/Nd-144 ratios. The Sr-87/Sr-86 and Nd-143/Nd-144 ratios could distinguish chondritic precursors from already differentiated silicates. We reported Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd internal ischron ages of 4.52+/-0.03 Ga and 4.50+/-0.04 Ga, respectively, for plagioclase-diopside-rich material in the Caddo County IAB iron meteorite. These results are essentially identical to literature values of its Ar-Ar age of 4.520+/-0.005 Ga and its Sm-Nd age of 4.53+/-0.02 Ga. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the formation and evolution of silicate inclusions in IAB iron meteorites by determination of their initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios combined with higher-resolution chronology and mineralogical and geochemical studies.

  7. Environmental exposure of lead and iron deficit anemia in children age ranged 1-5 years: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Faheem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Shah, Abdul Qadir

    2010-10-15

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is the most common nutritional problem among children and lead (Pb) toxicity is the most common environmental health threat to children all over the world. The objective of this study was to determine blood lead (BPb) levels and prevalence of Fe deficient anemia among 1 to 5year old children attending day care clinic in pediatric ward of civil hospital Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 340 children of both genders participating in this study, were screened for anemia. Among them 215 were anemic and 125 non-anemic. The anemic group was further divided in two groups on the basis of % hemoglobin (Hb), mild (Hb <10g/dL) and severe anemic group (Hb <8g/dL), while non-anemic as referent children (Hb >10g/dL). The blood samples were analysed for Pb and Fe, along with hematological parameters. The result indicated that anemic children had a higher mean values of Pb in blood than referent children with Hb >10g/dL. The Pb levels <100μg/L were detected in 40% referent children while 60% of them had >10μg/dL. The BPb concentration in severe anemic children (53%) was found in the range of 100-200μg/L, whereas 47% had >200μg/L. The significant negative correlations of BPb level with % Hb (r=-0.514 and r=-0.685) and Fe contents (r=-0.522, r=-0.762, p<0.001) were observed in mild and severe anemic children respectively. While positive correlation was observed between BPb and age of both group and genders (r=0.69, p<0.01). The BPb levels were significantly associated with biochemical indices in the blood which have the potential to be used as biomarkers of Pb intoxication and Fe deficient anemia.

  8. A bioarchaeological approach to the reconstruction of changes in military organization among Iron Age Samnites (Vestini) From Abruzzo, Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Sparacello, Vitale Stefano; d'Ercole, Vincenzo; Coppa, Alfredo

    2015-03-01

    The Samnites were an Iron Age population that shifted from warlike mountain dwellers to the largest sociopolitical unit of central Italy, able to dispute with Rome the domination over the peninsula. Archaeological and historical evidence suggests that this major shift in the scale of conflict may have involved a reorganization of the military system, which changed from an elite militia to a conscript or standing army from the Orientalizing-Archaic (800-500 BC) to Hellenistic times (400-27 BC). We propose a bioarchaeological framework jointly analyzing skeletal properties and funerary treatment in male Samnites to investigate on this shift in military organization. We anticipated that, when Samnites had an elite militia, the warring force was constituted by the wealthier segments of the society. Conversely, we expected the warring force of the standing/conscript army to be mainly drawn from the lower social strata. We considered high asymmetry in J, a measure of humeral torsional rigidity (calculated via cross-sectional geometry, CSG) as a proxy for pre- and peri-adolescent-onset weapon training. The social standing of the individual was approximated via funerary treatment analysis (Status Index). Results show that in the Orientalizing-Archaic period, humeral asymmetry and Status Index are positively correlated, and the high-status subsample shows significantly higher asymmetry than the low-status subsample. Among Hellenistic Samnites, no correlation between Status Index and humeral asymmetry is present, and the low-status subsample is the most lateralized. Results support the use of CSG in a strong theoretical framework to investigate past changes in military organization and their correlates in terms of sociopolitical development, alterations of power relationships, and warfare.

  9. Effects Of Aging And Oxidation Of Palladized Iron Embedded In Activated Carbon On The Dechlorination Of 2-Chlorobiphenyl

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reactive activated carbon (RAC) impregnated with palladized iron has been developed to effectively treat polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment by coupling adsorption and dechlorination of PCBs. In this study, we addressed the dechlorination reactivity and capacity ...

  10. The AMS 14C dating of Iron Age rice chaff ceramic temper from Ban Non Wat, Thailand: First results and its interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higham, Charles F. W.; Kuzmin, Yaroslav V.; Burr, G. S.

    2010-04-01

    Pottery tempered with rice chaff from the early Iron Age cemetery of Ban Non Wat site, northeast Thailand, has been subjected to direct AMS 14C dating, using low temperature combustion with oxygen as originally developed by authors. The carbon yield (0.2-0.5%) testifies the suitability of this pottery for dating. However, not all the results are in agreement with expected archaeological ages and other 14C dates from the studied site and neighboring site of Noen U-Loke. This calls for a thorough analysis and interpretation of pottery temper dates from the region.

  11. How Finland Serves Gifted and Talented Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Kirsi; Kuusisto, Elina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the ways gifted and talented pupils are served in Finland. The trend toward individualism and freedom of choice as well as national policy affecting gifted education are discussed. Empirical research on Finnish teachers' attitudes toward gifted education with respect to the national…

  12. Vocational Education and Training Trends in Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasonen, Johanna L.

    Vocational education and training in Finland consists of prevocational education at the preprimary and comprehensive school levels and formal vocational training at the secondary and postsecondary levels. Prevocational education aims to foster children's harmonious personality development by integrating handicraft and practical subjects teaching…

  13. Mathematics Lessons from Finland and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaberg, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    In many ways, mathematics classrooms in Finland and Sweden are very similar to what would be considered traditional classrooms in the United States. Classes begin with checking homework and questions, followed by the teacher giving instruction in the new material, and end with students working on their new assignment. There are also interesting…

  14. The Professional Educator: Lessons from Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlberg, Pasi

    2011-01-01

    Since Finland emerged in 2000 as the top-scoring Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) nation on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), researchers have been pouring into the country to study the so-called "Finnish miracle." How did a country with an undistinguished education system in the…

  15. Equality and Cooperation: Finland's Path to Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarjala, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    For the past decade, Finland has been lauded for consistently being a top performer on international assessments of student achievement. Having spent 25 years in the Ministry of Education, and then another 8 as director general of the National Board of Education, the author was heartened by these accomplishment--but he is also concerned about how…

  16. Deep drilling for geothermal energy in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukkonen, Ilmo

    2016-04-01

    There is a societal request to find renewable CO2-free energy resources. One of the biggest such resources is provided by geothermal energy. In addition to shallow ground heat already extensively used in Finland, deep geothermal energy provides an alternative so far not exploited. Temperatures are high at depth, but the challenge is, how to mine the heat? In this presentation, the geological and geophysical conditions for deep geothermal energy production in Finland are discussed as well as challenges for drilling and conditions at depth for geothermal energy production. Finland is located on ancient bedrock with much lower temperatures than geologically younger volcanically and tectonically active areas. In order to reach sufficiently high temperatures drilling to depths of several kilometres are needed. Further, mining of the heat with, e.g., the principle of Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) requires high hydraulic conductivity for efficient circulation of fluid in natural or artificial fractures of the rock. There are many issues that must be solved and/or improved: Drilling technology, the EGS concept, rock stress and hydraulic fracturing, scale formation, induced seismicity and ground movements, possible microbial activity, etc. An industry-funded pilot project currently in progress in southern Finland is shortly introduced.

  17. Smoking patterns among ninth-grade adolescents in the Pitkäranta district (Russia) and in eastern Finland.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, Ulla; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Vartiainen, Erkki; Pantelejev, Vladimir; Puska, Pekka

    2002-01-01

    This study describes how ninth-grade adolescents' smoking behavior in the Pitkäranta district (Russia) differs from their eastern Finland counterparts. Cross-sectional data from the second North Karelia Youth Study and the Pitkäranta Youth Study were used. Subjects were all (n=385) ninth-grade students in 10 comprehensive schools in Pitkäranta and all (n=2098) students of the same age in 24 comprehensive schools in eastern Finland. Students were asked about their smoking status, intentions to smoke, smoking situations, acquisition of tobacco products, and opportunity to smoke in the school area. The results showed very large differences in the smoking prevalence between Pitkäranta and eastern Finland. For boys, the prevalence of daily smoking was 29% and 19% in Pitkäranta and eastern Finland, respectively. The differences in girls were adverse: 7% and 21% of girls in Pitkäranta and eastern Finland, respectively, were daily smokers. However, as many as one third of the nonsmoking girls in Pitkäranta stated that they may experiment or start smoking later. Boys in Pitkäranta had vaguer attitudes about remaining nonsmokers than boys in eastern Finland. This situation anticipates worsening of the smoking epidemic in Pitkäranta and requires an effective prevention policy and cooperation between different groups in society.

  18. Temporal-spatial distribution of archaeological sites in the Nihewan-Huliu Basin during the Paleolithic-Neolithic and Iron Age in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. X.; Wang, X. Y.; Yang, R. X.; Li, X. Z.; Zhang, W.

    2016-11-01

    The Nihewan-Huliu Basin is one of the great regions of human evolution, located in geographical transition zone. This study reveals the temporal-spatial distribution of archaeological sites based on the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data, and analyses the changes for four periods (Paleolithic-Neolithic transition, Neolithic Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age). These sites expanded from the Sanggan River to the Huliu River and from the central and lower Huliu River to its upper reaches. The population and cultural development in the Nihewan Basin gradually lagged behind the Huliu River Baisin after the Paleolithic-Neolithic transition Age, because of the environmental impacts. The results may aid the understanding and study of the cultural heritage and civilization evolution in northern China.

  19. Iron Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... detect and help diagnose iron deficiency or iron overload. In people with anemia , these tests can help ... also be ordered when iron deficiency or iron overload is suspected. Early iron deficiency often goes unnoticed. ...

  20. Perspectives on nutritional iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, L

    2001-01-01

    Nutritional iron deficiency (ID) is caused by an intake of dietary iron insufficient to cover physiological iron requirements. Studies on iron absorption from whole diets have examined relationships between dietary iron bioavailability/absorption, iron losses, and amounts of stored iron. New insights have been obtained into regulation of iron absorption and expected rates of changes of iron stores or hemoglobin iron deficits when bioavailability or iron content of the diet has been modified and when losses of iron occur. Negative effects of ID are probably related to age, up to about 20 years, explaining some of earlier controversies. Difficulties in establishing the prevalence of mild ID are outlined. The degree of underestimation of the prevalence of mild ID when using multiple diagnostic criteria is discussed. It is suggested that current low-energy lifestyles are a common denominator for the current high prevalence not only of ID but also of obesity, diabetes, and osteoporosis.

  1. Determinants of Iron Deficiency Anemia in a Cohort of Children Aged 6-71 Months Living in the Northeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zanin, Francisca Helena Calheiros; da Silva, Camilo Adalton Mariano; Bonomo, Élido; Teixeira, Romero Alves; Pereira, Cíntia Aparecida de Jesus; dos Santos, Karina Benatti; Fausto, Maria Arlene; Negrão-Correa, Deborah Aparecida; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common nutritional disorders worldwide. The aim was to identify the prevalence and incidence of anemia in children and to identify predictors of this condition, including intestinal parasites, social, nutritional and environmental factors, and comorbidities. A population-based cohort study was conducted in a sample of 414 children aged 6-71 months living in Novo Cruzeiro in the Minas Gerais State. Data were collected in 2008 and 2009 by interview and included socio-economic and demographic information about the children and their families. Blood samples were collected for testing of hemoglobin, ferritin and C-reactive protein. Anthropometric measurements and parasitological analyses of fecal samples were performed. To identify risk factors associated with anemia multivariate analyses were performed using the generalized estimating equations (GEE). In 2008 and 2009, respectively, the prevalence rates of anemia were 35.9% (95%CI 31.2-40.8) and 9.8% (95%CI 7.2-12.9), the prevalence rates of iron deficiency were 18.4% (95%CI 14.7-22.6) and 21.8% (95%CI 17.8-26.2), and the incidence rates of anemia and iron deficiency were 3.2% and 21.8%. The following risk factors associated with anemia were: iron deficiency (OR = 3.2; 95%CI 2.0-.5.3), parasitic infections (OR = 1.9; 95%CI 1.2-2.8), being of risk of or being a low length/height-for-age (OR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.4-3.2), and lower retinol intake (OR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.1-2.7), adjusted over time. Nutritional factors, parasitic infections and chronic malnutrition were identified as risk factors for anemia. These factors can be verified in a chronic process and have been classically described as risk factors for these conditions.

  2. Towards the Gulf of Finland Year 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrberg, K.; Vesikko, L.

    2012-04-01

    The trilateral co-operation between Russia, Estonia and Finland was initiated in 1992 to protect the marine environment of the GoF . In 1996 the first Gulf of Finland Year was organized with the support of the responsible ministries in all three countries. At present the joint activity aims at supporting the implementation of the Ecosystem Approach to the Management of the Human Activities, more specifically HELCOM BSAP as a "sub-regional" activity. Currently, the second Gulf of Finland Year is planned to be held in 2014 and the preparations are under way. It is crucial that the best available scientific information is provided into the environmental decision making process to guarantee the sound decision-making. Thus, we need up-to-date information concerning the pressures on and state of the marine ecosystem of the GoF and how to focus optimally our resources for the protection and restoration of the sea in the future. The organizing of the second Gulf of Finland Year originates from the scientific community which finds, taking into account the specific and vulnerable nature of the sea, the GoF Year 2014 to give additional value for the protection and restoration of its environment in terms of the enhanced political presence, as well as through the communication and interaction with private sector, environmental decision-makers, politicians and ordinary citizens. The GoF Year 2014 brings scientists together to make extensive process-oriented studies leading to high-quality data sets, which will produce new and topical data and information in more detail than ever before by using e.g. modern observation techniques and ecosystem modeling as examples of advanced tool. The trilateral co-operation between Estonia, Finland and Russia ensures the new achievements in marine research will be translated to reach the environmental decision-making efficiently. Consequently, a Gulf of Finland declaration is given in 2014 where the necessary actions to improve state the marine

  3. Influence of solution composition and column aging on the reduction of nitroaromatic compounds by zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Klausen, J; Ranke, J; Schwarzenbach, R P

    2001-08-01

    Granular iron is used in reactive permeable barriers for the reductive treatment of organic and inorganic groundwater contaminants. The technology is well established, however, its long-term performance and the importance of the groundwater composition are not yet well understood. Here, the influence of chloride, nitrate, silicate, and Aldrich humic acid on the reactivity of Master Builder iron was studied under anoxic conditions using small packed columns and 2-nitrotoluene (2-NT) as a model contaminant. After initially complete reduction of 2-NT to 2-aminotoluene (2-AT) in the column, possibly under mass-transfer controlled conditions, the reactivity of the iron was found to decrease substantially. In the presence of chloride, this decrease was slowed while exposure to silicate resulted in a very quick loss of iron reactivity. Nitrate was found to interfere strongly with the effect of chloride. These observations are interpreted in terms of corrosion inhibition/promotion and competition. Our results suggest that reactive barrier performance may be strongly affected by the composition of the treated groundwater.

  4. Land use history, floodplain development, and soil erosion in the vicinity of a millstone production center since the Iron Age in the Segbachtal near Mayen (eastern Eifel, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotterweich, Markus; Wenzel, Stefan; Schreg, Rainer; Fülling, Alexander; Engel, Max

    2015-04-01

    In Roman times, the stone and pottery production near Mayen in western Germany reached a very high intensity which would have satisfied the needs of a much wider area. The rate and volume of production was unprecedented and never reached the same level thereafter. The Segbach valley study site with an area of only a few square kilometres offers a very special geoarchaeological archive. The Roman land use structures were completely preserved under a 2 meter thick layer of sediment and are now partially exposed in a gully due to erosion. Pedological, sedimentological and geophysical studies at the colluvium and floodplain sediments as well as relict field structures showed that in the last 2500 years there has been a considerable human impact on both water and sediment budgets. This also had various implications on the further development of water courses, soils and relief. Evidence for the development of flood plain sediments can be traced as far back as the late La Tène period, the Roman Iron Age, and since the Middle Ages. On one particular south-facing slope we found evidence of recultivation measures on a former quarry tailing heap dating from the Middle Ages. This and other human construction activities and land uses lead to a significant change in erosion and sedimentation patterns. It is surprising that sedimentation in flood plains was largely absent during the Roman Iron Age despite intensive land use. Evidence shows that flash flood events with intensive accumulation of soil matter in flood plains only occurred during the High Middle Ages. Sediments from the late Middle ages and the Modern Times are largely missing. The research undertaken in Segbach valley not only offers new insights into specific local historical land uses and land use changes but also fundamental knowledge about the principles and impacts of long-term human-environment interactions.

  5. How iron controls iron.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Lukas C

    2009-12-01

    Cells regulate iron homeostasis by posttranscriptional regulation of proteins responsible for iron uptake and storage. This requires RNA-binding activity of iron-regulatory proteins, IRP1 and IRP2. Two studies recently published in Science by Vashisht et al. (2009) and Salahudeen et al. (2009) reveal how cells adjust IRP2 activity.

  6. Daily supplementation with iron plus folic acid, zinc, and their combination is not associated with younger age at first walking unassisted in malnourished preschool children from a deficient population in rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Katz, Joanne; Khatry, Subarna K; Leclerq, Steven C; Mullany, Luke C; Yanik, Elizabeth L; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Siegel, Emily H; Tielsch, James M

    2010-07-01

    A community-based, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled trial of daily zinc and/or iron+folic acid supplementation was conducted in rural southern Nepal to examine motor milestone attainment among 3264 children 1-36 mo of age between 2001 and 2006. Treatment groups included placebo, zinc (10 mg), iron+folic acid (12.5 mg iron + 50 microg folic acid), and zinc+iron+folic acid (10 mg zinc + 12.5 mg iron + 50 microg folic acid). Infants received half of these doses. The iron arms were stopped November 2003 by recommendation of the Data Safety and Monitoring Board; zinc and placebo continued until January 2006. A total of 2457 children had not walked at the time of entry into the trial and 1775 were followed through 36 mo. Mean age at first walking unassisted did not differ among groups and was 444 +/- 81 d (mean +/- SD) in the placebo group, 444 +/- 81 d in the zinc group, 464 +/- 85 d in the iron+folic acid group, and 446 +/- 87 d in the iron+folic acid+zinc group. Results were similar after adjustment for age at enrollment, asset ownership, maternal literacy, and prior child deaths in the household and in children who consumed at least 60 tablets. Compared with placebo, iron+folic acid was associated with an adjusted mean delay of 28.0 d (95% CI: 11.3, 44.7) in time to walking among infants and the delay was more pronounced with mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) < 9.5 cm [60.6 d, (95% CI: 28.5, 92.6)]. Risks and benefits of universal iron+folic acid supplementation of infants beyond improved hematologic status deserve further consideration.

  7. Assessing the Influence of Age and Ethnicity on the Association Between Iron Status and Lead Concentration in Blood: Results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2011).

    PubMed

    Ngueta, Gerard

    2016-06-01

    Inverse association has been reported between iron intake and blood lead concentration (PbB) in epidemiological studies. Data on this association at a low dose of lead exposure are scarce, and the potential influence of ethnicity and age has not been previously reported. This study aimed to estimate the relation between serum ferritin, haemoglobin, haematocrit, and mean corpuscular volume and PbB among 6-18-year-old individuals. Data from Canadian Health and Measures Survey (CHMS), cycle 1 (2007-2009) and cycle 2 (2009-2011), were accessed. A household interview followed by a physical examination (including collection of blood) was performed. The quantification of lead and trace elements in blood was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The mean PbB was 0.79 μg/dL (95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.75-0.82). Except for haemoglobin levels, no association was found between PbB and any of the parameters of iron status, independently of age. A significant interaction was observed between ferritin levels and ethnicity in relation to PbB (p = 0.07). We found a little evidence of an association between iron status and PbB in the whole sample of subjects aged 6-18 years exposed to low levels of environmental lead. The significant interaction observed between ferritin levels and ethnicity in relation to BPb suggests that the influence of ferritin levels on lead uptake may change by ethnicity, even at low exposure.

  8. Intravenous Iron Sucrose for Children with Iron Deficiency Failing to Respond to Oral Iron Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Crary, Shelley E.; Hall, Katherine; Buchanan, George R.

    2010-01-01

    Background For decades parenteral iron has been used in patients with iron deficiency unresponsive to oral iron therapy and in hemodialysis-dependent patients receiving erythropoietin. Newer intravenous (IV) iron formulations such as iron sucrose have replaced high molecular weight iron dextran in dialysis patients; however, the use of parenteral iron in children without renal disease has not been well defined. Procedure Pharmacy records were reviewed on children (≤ 18 yrs of age) who received IV iron sucrose at Children's Medical Center Dallas between January 1, 2004 and June 30, 2009. Patients who received iron sucrose for chronic renal disease were excluded from analysis. Results Thirty-eight children received iron sucrose for non-renal indications, 13 with iron deficiency refractory to oral iron therapy, 13 with iron malabsorption or dependence on parenteral nutrition, 7 for chronic gastrointestinal blood loss, and 5 for miscellaneous indications. Among these 38 children, who received a total of 510 doses of IV iron sucrose, there were only 6 adverse reactions. Patients in all categories had a good response to the iron sucrose, with a median hemoglobin rise of 1.9 – 3.1 g/dl depending on the indication. Conclusions Parenteral iron is a safe and effective means to treat iron deficiency in children who cannot receive or do not respond to oral iron due to intolerance, poor adherence or iron malabsorption. PMID:21298748

  9. Area Handbook Series: Finland: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    by the Roman Catholic Church and soon afterward began missionary activities in Finland. Most Finns were converted to the Roman Catholic Church by...drawn into a different religious and cultural orbit from Swedish-ruled, Roman Catholic Finns in the west. About 1240, Rome sanctioned two crusades in an...aristocracy, to break the political power of the Roman Catholic Church, which had stood in the way of his desire for a stronger centralized state. The

  10. Lung parasites of least weasels in Finland.

    PubMed

    Laakkonen, J; Sundell, J; Soveri, T

    1998-10-01

    Because of their constant exposure to normal rodent definitive hosts, least weasels (Mustela nivalis) were trapped in southern Finland in late fall 1994 and examined for lung parasites. Histological examination showed that 46% of the weasels (n = 46) were infected with adiaspores identified as Chrysosporium sp. Granulomas surrounding the adiaspores consisted of mostly unorganized layers of mononuclear cells. The adiaspores from least weasels were much smaller than those reported from their prey animals. Infection with Pneumocystis carinii also was found in two weasels.

  11. Weekly Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation with Regular Deworming Is Cost-Effective in Preventing Anaemia in Women of Reproductive Age in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Susan E.; Phuc, Tran Q.; Phu, Luong B.; Thach, Dang T.; Dai, Tran C.; Fattore, Giovanni; Montresor, Antonio; Biggs, Beverley-A.

    2011-01-01

    Background To estimate the cost and cost-effectiveness of a project administering de-worming and weekly iron-folic acid supplementation to control anaemia in women of reproductive age in Yen Bai province, Vietnam. Methods and Findings Cost effectiveness was evaluated using data on programmatic costs based on two surveys in 2006 and 2009 and impact on anaemia and iron status collected in 2006, 2007, and 2008. Data on initial costs for training and educational materials were obtained from the records of the National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology and the Yen Bai Malaria Control Program. Structured questionnaires for health workers at district, commune and village level were used to collect ongoing distribution and monitoring costs, and for participants to collect transport and loss of earnings costs. The cost per woman treated (defined as consuming at least 75% of the recommended intake) was USD0.76 per annum. This estimate includes financial costs (for supplies, training), and costs of health care workers' time. Prevalence of anaemia fell from 38% at baseline, to 20% after 12 months. Thus, the cost-effectiveness of the project is assessed at USD 4.24 per anaemia case prevented per year. Based on estimated productivity gains for adult women, the benefit:cost ratio is 6.7∶1. Cost of the supplements and anthelminthics was 47% of the total, while costs of training, monitoring, and health workers' time accounted for 53%. Conclusion The study shows that weekly iron-folic acid supplementation and regular de-worming is a low-cost and cost-effective intervention and would be appropriate for population-based introduction in settings with a high prevalence of anaemia and iron deficiency and low malaria infection rates. PMID:21931611

  12. In situ transmission electron microscopy He+ implantation and thermal aging of nanocrystalline iron

    SciTech Connect

    Muntifering, Brittany R.; Fang, Youwu; Leff, Asher C.; Dunn, Aaron; Qu, Jianmin; Taheri, Mitra L.; Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel

    2016-10-04

    Due to their high density of interfaces, nanostructured material are hypothesized to show a higher tolerance to radiation damage compared to conventional coarse-grained materials and are on interest for use in future nuclear reactors. In order to investigate the roles of vacancies, self-interstitials, and helium during defect accumulation, and the thermal evolution of such defects, a complex set of in situ TEM experiments were performed in nanocrystalline iron.

  13. Zinc, iron and vitamins A, C and e are associated with obesity, inflammation, lipid profile and insulin resistance in Mexican school-aged children.

    PubMed

    García, Olga Patricia; Ronquillo, Dolores; del Carmen Caamaño, María; Martínez, Guadalupe; Camacho, Mariela; López, Viridiana; Rosado, Jorge L

    2013-12-10

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between micronutrient status and obesity, lipids, insulin resistance and chronic inflammation in children. Weight, height, waist circumference and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)) were determined in 197 school-aged children. Lipids, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), zinc, iron and vitamins A, C and E were analyzed in blood. Vitamin C and vitamin E:lipids were negatively associated with Body Mass Index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHR) and body and abdominal fat (p < 0.05). Vitamin A was positively associated with BMI, BMI-for-age, WHR and abdominal fat (p < 0.05). Iron and vitamin E:lipids were negatively associated with insulin (p < 0.05). Vitamins A, C and E and iron were negatively associated with CRP (p < 0.05). Interaction analysis showed that children who were overweight and obese who also had low concentrations of vitamin A had higher CRP and lower triglycerides (p < 0.1), children with low vitamin E had significantly lower glucose and triglycerides (p < 0.1) and higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentrations (p < 0.05), and children with low zinc concentrations had higher insulin resistance compared with children with adequate weight (p < 0.05). In conclusion, low vitamin C concentration and vitamin E:lipids were associated with obesity. Furthermore, low concentrations of zinc, vitamins A and E in children who were overweight and obese were associated with lipids, inflammation and insulin resistance.

  14. Iron Chelation

    MedlinePlus

    ... iron overload and need treatment. What is iron overload? Iron chelation therapy is used when you have ... may want to perform: How quickly does iron overload happen? This is different for each person. It ...

  15. 75 FR 57815 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... COMMISSION Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY: United... antidumping duty orders on purified carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden... antidumping duty orders on purified carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden...

  16. Influence of chemical weathering and aging of iron oxides on the potential iron solubility of Saharan dust during simulated atmospheric processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zongbo; Krom, Michael D.; Bonneville, Steeve; Baker, Alex R.; Bristow, Charlie; Drake, Nick; Mann, Graham; Carslaw, Ken; McQuaid, James B.; Jickells, Tim; Benning, Liane G.

    2011-06-01

    The flux of bioavailable Fe from mineral dust to the surface ocean is controlled not only by the processes in the atmosphere but also by the nature and source of the dust. In this study, we investigated how the nature of Fe minerals in the dust affects its potential Fe solubility (Fepsol) employing traditional and modern geochemical, mineralogical, and microscopic techniques. The chemical and mineralogical compositions, particularly Fe mineralogy, in soil samples as dust precursors collected from North African dust source regions were determined. The Fepsol was measured after 3 days of contact with sulfuric acid at pH 2 to simulate acid processes in the atmosphere. Fepsol of the soil dust samples were compared with calculated predictions of Fepsol based on the amount of individual Fe-bearing minerals present in the samples and Fe solubilities of corresponding standard minerals. The calculated Fepsol deviated significantly from the measured Fepsol of the soil dust samples. We attributed this to the variability in properties of Fe minerals (e.g., size of Fe oxides and heterogeneity of chemical compositions of clay minerals) in soil dusts in comparison to the standard minerals. There were, however, clear relationships between the degree of chemical weathering of North African soils and Fepsol. The Parker index and ratio of ascorbate plus dithionite Fe to total Fe ((FeA+FeD)/FeT) are positively and negatively correlated with Fepsol, respectively. In addition, the ratio of FeA/(FeA+FeD), which decreases with aging of the Fe oxides, was found to be positively correlated with Fepsol in the soil dusts. Overall, our results indicate that there is a significant regional variability in the chemical and Fe mineralogical compositions of dusts across North African sources, as a result of the differences in chemical weathering and aging of Fe oxides. Furthermore, the indices for these weathering processes can provide an estimate of the fraction of Fe which can be solubilized if

  17. 2-Oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases are sensors of energy metabolism, oxygen availability, and iron homeostasis: potential role in the regulation of aging process.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Antero; Kauppinen, Anu; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the members of an ancient family of nonheme Fe(2+)/2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-OGDO) are involved in the functions associated with the aging process. 2-Oxoglutarate and O2 are the obligatory substrates and Fe(2+) a cofactor in the activation of 2-OGDO enzymes, which can induce the hydroxylation of distinct proteins and the demethylation of DNA and histones. For instance, ten-eleven translocation 1-3 (TET1-3) are the demethylases of DNA, whereas Jumonji C domain-containing histone lysine demethylases (KDM2-7) are the major epigenetic regulators of chromatin landscape, known to be altered with aging. The functions of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylases (PHD1-3) as well as those of collagen hydroxylases are associated with age-related degeneration. Moreover, the ribosomal hydroxylase OGFOD1 controls mRNA translation, which is known to decline with aging. 2-OGDO enzymes are the sensors of energy metabolism, since the Krebs cycle intermediate 2-oxoglutarate is an activator whereas succinate and fumarate are the potent inhibitors of 2-OGDO enzymes. In addition, O2 availability and iron redox homeostasis control the activities of 2-OGDO enzymes in tissues. We will briefly elucidate the catalytic mechanisms of 2-OGDO enzymes and then review the potential functions of the above-mentioned 2-OGDO enzymes in the control of the aging process.

  18. Associations between School-Related Factors and Depressive Symptoms among Children: A Comparative Study, Finland and Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minkkinen, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    This study compares school-related associations in depressive symptoms among children aged between 9-13 years from four schools in Finland and Norway. A total of 523 pupils participated in the cross-sectional survey. The connections between depressive symptoms and school factors were analysed using hierarchical regression analyses. School…

  19. Attitudes toward Business Ethics and Degree of Opinion Leadership of Future Managers In the United States, Finland, and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comegys, Charles; Vaisanen, Jaani; Lupton, Robert A.; Rawlinson, David R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the attitudes towards business ethics of future managers in three countries: the United State, Finland, and China, and determine whether business ethics attitudes differed by the student's major, class year, GPA, gender, age, and the number of ethics and religious studies courses completed. Additionally the…

  20. How Do Early Childhood Education Teachers Perceive Their Expertise? A Qualitative Study of Child Care Providers in Lapland, Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happo, Iiris; Maatta, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2013-01-01

    Every preschool age child in Finland has the right to child care. Well-educated staff consists of all-round experts who work in versatile contexts with various children in a multi-professional collaboration. This staff is one of the strengths of the Finnish child care system. The aim of this article is to clarify the expertise of those early…

  1. Determinants of Iron Deficiency Anemia in a Cohort of Children Aged 6-71 Months Living in the Northeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Zanin, Francisca Helena Calheiros; da Silva, Camilo Adalton Mariano; Bonomo, Élido; Teixeira, Romero Alves; Pereira, Cíntia Aparecida de Jesus; dos Santos, Karina Benatti; Fausto, Maria Arlene; Negrão-Correa, Deborah Aparecida; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common nutritional disorders worldwide. The aim was to identify the prevalence and incidence of anemia in children and to identify predictors of this condition, including intestinal parasites, social, nutritional and environmental factors, and comorbidities. A population-based cohort study was conducted in a sample of 414 children aged 6–71 months living in Novo Cruzeiro in the Minas Gerais State. Data were collected in 2008 and 2009 by interview and included socio-economic and demographic information about the children and their families. Blood samples were collected for testing of hemoglobin, ferritin and C-reactive protein. Anthropometric measurements and parasitological analyses of fecal samples were performed. To identify risk factors associated with anemia multivariate analyses were performed using the generalized estimating equations (GEE). In 2008 and 2009, respectively, the prevalence rates of anemia were 35.9% (95%CI 31.2–40.8) and 9.8% (95%CI 7.2–12.9), the prevalence rates of iron deficiency were 18.4% (95%CI 14.7–22.6) and 21.8% (95%CI 17.8–26.2), and the incidence rates of anemia and iron deficiency were 3.2% and 21.8%. The following risk factors associated with anemia were: iron deficiency (OR = 3.2; 95%CI 2.0-.5.3), parasitic infections (OR = 1.9; 95%CI 1.2–2.8), being of risk of or being a low length/height-for-age (OR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.4–3.2), and lower retinol intake (OR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.1–2.7), adjusted over time. Nutritional factors, parasitic infections and chronic malnutrition were identified as risk factors for anemia. These factors can be verified in a chronic process and have been classically described as risk factors for these conditions. PMID:26445270

  2. Family dynamics in the United States, Finland and Iceland.

    PubMed

    White, Marjorie A; Elder, Jennifer H; Paavilainen, Eija; Joronen, Katja; Helgadóttir, Helga L; Seidl, Ann

    2010-03-01

    Understanding the dynamics of contemporary, postmodern families and how these relate to health is critically important to nurses and other health care providers throughout the world. Much can be learned by studying not only one's own culture but also other countries. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare family dynamics of families in the United States, Finland and Iceland. To date relatively little has been published related to families in these Nordic countries. Six family dimensions in Barnhill's Family Health Cycle served as the theoretical framework. Adult respondents (n = 567) purposively selected from varied community groups, completed the Family Dynamics Measure II (FDM II) and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Main findings from the three countries were positive family dynamics, with mutuality contributing the strongest factor to partially confirm the theoretical propositions in Barnhill's Family Health Cycle. Respondents from all countries reported (1) clear communication and flexibility that contribute to mutuality; (2) younger age of respondents and increased education that were associated with more positive family dynamics; and (3) larger families associated with more negative dynamics. Mixed reports occurred according to gender, with Nordic men tending to perceive some negative dimensions. Marriage was important for more positive family dynamics only in the United States. Families in the United States and in Iceland had in common more negative family dynamics during illnesses. Problems and changes affected mostly families in the United States. In general, families in Finland and Iceland had greater strengths than in the United States. This benchmark study offers information for health practitioners to assist families, as well as contribute to the improvement of family social policies, especially in the United States.

  3. Brief report: Sex differences in suicide rates and suicide methods among adolescents in South Korea, Japan, Finland, and the US.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin

    2015-04-01

    Sex differences in suicide rates and suicide methods was compared among adolescents in South Korea, Japan, Finland, and the United States. This study analyzed suicide rates and suicide methods of adolescents aged 15-19 years in four countries, using the World Health Organization mortality database. Among both male and female adolescents, the most common method of suicide was jumping from heights in South Korea and hanging in Japan. In Finland, jumping in front of moving objects and firearms were frequently used by males, but not by females. In the United States, males were more likely to use firearms, and females were more likely to use poison. The male to female ratio of suicide rates was higher in the United States (3.8) and Finland (3.6) than in Korea (1.3) and Japan (1.9). Sex differences in suicide methods may contribute to differences in the suicide rates among males and female adolescents in different countries.

  4. Iron deficiency anaemia.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Anthony; Cacoub, Patrice; Macdougall, Iain C; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2016-02-27

    Anaemia affects roughly a third of the world's population; half the cases are due to iron deficiency. It is a major and global public health problem that affects maternal and child mortality, physical performance, and referral to health-care professionals. Children aged 0-5 years, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women are particularly at risk. Several chronic diseases are frequently associated with iron deficiency anaemia--notably chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Measurement of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum soluble transferrin receptors, and the serum soluble transferrin receptors-ferritin index are more accurate than classic red cell indices in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia. In addition to the search for and treatment of the cause of iron deficiency, treatment strategies encompass prevention, including food fortification and iron supplementation. Oral iron is usually recommended as first-line therapy, but the most recent intravenous iron formulations, which have been available for nearly a decade, seem to replenish iron stores safely and effectively. Hepcidin has a key role in iron homoeostasis and could be a future diagnostic and therapeutic target. In this Seminar, we discuss the clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and acute management of iron deficiency anaemia, and outstanding research questions for treatment.

  5. Relationship between daylength and suicide in Finland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many previous studies have documented seasonal variation in suicides globally. We re-assessed the seasonal variation of suicides in Finland and tried to relate it to the seasonal variation in daylength and ambient temperature and in the discrepancy between local time and solar time. Methods The daily data of all suicides from 1969 to 2003 in Finland (N = 43,393) were available. The calendar year was divided into twelve periods according to the length of daylight and the routinely changing time difference between sun time and official time. The daily mean of suicide mortality was calculated for each of these periods and the 95% confidence intervals of the daily means were used to evaluate the statistical significance of the means. In addition, daily changes in sunshine hours and mean temperature were compared to the daily means of suicide mortality in two locations during these afore mentioned periods. Results A significant peak of the daily mean value of suicide mortality occurred in Finland between May 15th and July 25th, a period that lies symmetrically around the solstice. Concerning the suicide mortality among men in the northern location (Oulu), the peak was postponed as compared with the southern location (Helsinki). The daily variation in temperature or in sunshine did not have significant association with suicide mortality in these two locations. Conclusions The period with the longest length of the day associated with the increased suicide mortality. Furthermore, since the peak of suicide mortality seems to manifest later during the year in the north, some other physical or biological signals, besides the variation in daylight, may be involved. In order to have novel means for suicide prevention, the assessment of susceptibility to the circadian misalignment might help. PMID:21943377

  6. Radon Policy in Finland, Achievements and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Arvela, Hannu; Maekelaeinen, Ilona; Reisbacka, Heikki

    2008-08-07

    Finland is a country of high indoor radon concentrations. Since 1980 the authority regulations, guidance, radon mapping and research work supporting decision making have been developed continuously. Clear regulations directed to citizens and authorities form the basis for radon policy. Active mapping work and measurement ordered by private home owners has resulted in 100.000 houses measured. National indoor radon data base forms a good basis for decision making, communication and research. The number of new houses provided with radon preventive constructions has increased remarkably. New radon campaigns has increased measurement and mitigation activity. Furher increasing of public awareness is the key challenge.

  7. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J.; Aguayo, Victor M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011) was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77–0.97). Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64–0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used. PMID:26828515

  8. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J; Aguayo, Victor M

    2016-01-27

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011) was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77-0.97). Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64-0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used.

  9. Puumala virus infections in Finland: increased occupational risk for farmers.

    PubMed

    Vapalahti, K; Paunio, M; Brummer-Korvenkontio, M; Vaheri, A; Vapalahti, O

    1999-06-15

    Puumala hantavirus, transmitted by bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus), causes a mild-type hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. The disease is common in Finland and is considered an occupational hazard for farmers, but the actual risk has not been assessed by analytical studies. Data on 5,132 serologically confirmed Puumala virus infections during 1989-1994 were analyzed, and cases among farmers and the population living in similar conditions were compared. The farmers contracted the disease earlier and more often than did the comparison group. In the province of Mikkeli with the highest incidence (70/100,000), the risk ratio was 5.1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0-8.4) for 20- to 29-year-old farmers; in the older age groups, the risk was still increased but the risk ratios were lower. The peak incidence in the comparison group was 10 years later (age group 30-39 years). For the whole country, the result was similar although less marked. The average risk ratio adjusted by age, sex, and geographic variation was 1.7 (95% CI 1.5-1.8) for the whole country and 1.9 (95% CI 1.5-2.3) for the Mikkeli province, where 80% of Puumala virus infections among young farmers could be estimated to be attributable to occupation.

  10. The Discourse on Multicultural Education in Finland: Education for Whom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Gunilla; Londen, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Finland is experiencing increased immigration and therefore increased cultural diversity in its schools. This paper examines the multicultural education discourse in Finland by analysing the national and municipal curricula for the comprehensive school, educational policy documents and teacher education curricula. The focus is on how multicultural…

  11. ADHD in Finland and Types of Scandinavian Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapper, Marie-Louise; Michelsson, Katarina

    This paper reviews the history and current status of services to children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Finland. It notes the availability of free or almost free health services in Finland and the resulting very low infant mortality rate. The history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), termed "minimal brain…

  12. Isotopic Analysis of OS and RE with Negative Thermal Ion Mass Spectrometry and Application to the Age and Evolution of Iron Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creaser, R. A.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1992-07-01

    The ^187Re-^187Os isotope system has long been recognized as a method by which the age of iron meteorites can be directly determined (Herr et al., 1961). Pioneering work by Luck and Allegre (1983) established a whole-rock isochron for iron meteorites and the results, were used to determine indirectly the half-life of ^187Re. We have developed: a) high ionization efficiency mass spectrometry techniques for platinum group elements, including both Re and Os separated from iron meteorites (Creaser et al., 1991, 1992); b) low filament loading blanks for both Re and Os (<0.1 picogram, each); c) high yield and low blanks for the chemical separation techniques (yields 70-80%; blanks 1 pg for Os, <10 pg for Re). We have developed a new method for the rapid, clean and efficient separation of Os and Re from 10^-2 g samples of iron meteorites. This will permit taking advantage of variations of Re/Os on a small scale. The chemical separation scheme involves acid dissolution, preconcentration of Os and Re from Fe-Ni, oxidative solvent extraction of Os and ion exchange chromatography to recover Re. We have established that Os and Re thus chemically separated from iron meteorites show the same ionization efficiency as Os and Re from standard solutions, namely ~20% for each element. Of primary importance is the degree of isotope exchange and equilibration between sample and spike for Os. By analyzing the isotopic composition of Os at different stages of the chemical separation we are able to demonstrate that isotopic equilibration can be achieved to the level of +-1o/oo. However, this is not yet a routinely resolved issue. We believe, based on experience during the development of this technique, that isotope equilibration for Os prior to chemical separation is a critical issue that needs further attention. The results we have obtained so far from iron meteorites are given in Table 1. We have started analyses of the large magmatic group of IIA irons, which are little shocked and

  13. New aspects about reduced LCF-life time of spherical ductile cast iron due to dynamic strain aging at intermediate temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouri, Hayato; Wunderlich, Wilfried; Hayashi, Morihito

    2009-06-01

    Spherical ductile cast iron (FCD400) is widely used as container material in nuclear energy processing line due to its superior mechanical properties and low price. Fatigue properties in low cycle fatigue (LCF) can be described well by the Manson-Coffin-Basquin's rule. However, at intermediate temperature range between 453 and 723 K the elongation-temperature-diagram shows a significantly 20-10% reduced elongation and an increase in yield stress in tensile test experiments. These non-linear deviations and the phenomenon of less ductility at intermediate temperatures are known for a long time [1] [K. Chijiiwa, M. Hayashi, Mechanical properties of ductile cast iron at temperature in the region of room temperature to liquid, Imono 51 (7) (2004) 395-400]. But the following explanation is presented for the first time. In the same temperature range as the reduced fatigue life time dynamic strain ageing (DSA) also known as Portevin-le-Chartelier effect with the formation of visible serrations occurs. Both phenomena are explained by interaction effects between carbon diffusion and dislocation velocity which have at this temperature the same order of magnitude. However, this phenomenon shows interesting behavior at intermediate temperature range. During the low cycle fatigue test, DSA phenomenon disappeared, but mechanical properties show clear evidence of DSA phenomenon. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to study the correlation of DSA occurrence, LCF and mechanical properties.

  14. Does Organizational Justice Modify the Association Between Job Involvement and Retirement Intentions of Nurses in Finland?

    PubMed

    Sulander, Juhani; Sinervo, Timo; Elovainio, Marko; Heponiemi, Tarja; Helkama, Klaus; Aalto, Anna-Mari

    2016-10-01

    Given the growing aging population in Finland, retaining health staff to care for them is important. In an exploration of predictors of quitting before the typical retirement age, which ranges from 63 to 68 years in Finland, we examined whether organizational justice moderated the association between job involvement and retirement intentions among nurses 50 years and over. The sample was 446 nurses (70% practical nurses) working in 134 assisted living facilities providing 24-hour care for older residents in Finland. Job involvement was measured with the Job Involvement Questionnaire, and organizational justice with a scale that tapped its three dimensions: distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice. In covariance analyses, low organizational justice and low job involvement were associated with a higher likelihood of retirement intention. Both interactional justice and procedural justice moderated the association of job involvement with retirement intentions. Among nurses with low job involvement, those who experienced unjust treatment, that is, low interactional justice, and evaluated organizational procedures as unjust had significantly stronger retirement intentions than nurses with high levels of interactional and procedural justice. Distributive justice was associated with retirement intentions in both high and low job-involved respondents. Organizational justice may act as a buffer against retirement intention as one consequence of nurses' low job involvement. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Risk Assessment in Finland: Theory and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2010-01-01

    The Finnish risk assessment practice is based on the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act aiming to improve working conditions in order maintain the employees' work ability, and to prevent occupational accidents and diseases. In practice there are hundreds of risk assessment methods in use. A simple method is used in small and medium sized enterprises and more complex risk evaluation methods in larger work places. Does the risk management function in the work places in Finland? According to our experience something more is needed. That is, understanding of common and company related benefits of risk management. The wider conclusion is that commitment for risk assessment in Finland is high enough. However, in those enterprises where OSH management was at an acceptable level or above it, there were also more varied and more successfully accomplished actions to remove or reduce the risks than in enterprises, where OSH management was in lower level. In risk assessment it is important to process active technical prevention and exact communication, increase work place attraction and increase job satisfaction and motivation. Investments in OSH are also good business. Low absenteeism due to illness or accidents increases directly the production results by improved quality and quantity of the product. In general Finnish studies have consistently shown that the return of an invested euro is three to seven-old. In national level, according to our calculations the savings could be even 20% of our gross national product. PMID:22953157

  16. History of cosmic ray research in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usoskin, I. G.; Valtonen, E.; Vainio, R.; Tanskanen, P. J.; Aurela, A. M.

    2009-11-01

    The history of cosmic ray research in Finland can be traced back to the end of 1950s, when first ground-based cosmic ray measurements started in Turku. The first cosmic ray station was founded in Oulu in 1964 performing measurements of cosmic rays by a muon telescope, which was later complemented by a neutron monitor. Since the 1990s, several research centers and universities, such as The Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki University of Technology, University of Oulu, University of Turku and University of Helsinki have been involved in space science projects, such as SOHO, AMS, Cluster, Cassini, BepiColombo, etc. At the same time, ground-based cosmic ray measurements have reached a new level, including a fully automatic on-line database in Oulu and a new muon measuring underground site in Pyhäsalmi. Research groups in Helsinki, Oulu and Turku have also extensive experience in theoretical investigations of different aspects of cosmic ray physics. Cosmic ray research has a 50-year long history in Finland, covering a wide range from basic long-running ground-based observations to high-technology space-borne instrumentation and sophisticated theoretical studies. Several generations of researchers have been involved in the study ensuring transfer of experience and building the recognized Finnish research school of cosmic ray studies.

  17. Risk assessment in Finland: theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Anttonen, Hannu; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2010-09-01

    The Finnish risk assessment practice is based on the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act aiming to improve working conditions in order maintain the employees' work ability, and to prevent occupational accidents and diseases. In practice there are hundreds of risk assessment methods in use. A simple method is used in small and medium sized enterprises and more complex risk evaluation methods in larger work places. Does the risk management function in the work places in Finland? According to our experience something more is needed. That is, understanding of common and company related benefits of risk management. The wider conclusion is that commitment for risk assessment in Finland is high enough. However, in those enterprises where OSH management was at an acceptable level or above it, there were also more varied and more successfully accomplished actions to remove or reduce the risks than in enterprises, where OSH management was in lower level. In risk assessment it is important to process active technical prevention and exact communication, increase work place attraction and increase job satisfaction and motivation. Investments in OSH are also good business. Low absenteeism due to illness or accidents increases directly the production results by improved quality and quantity of the product. In general Finnish studies have consistently shown that the return of an invested euro is three to seven-old. In national level, according to our calculations the savings could be even 20% of our gross national product.

  18. Genetic polymorphism of the iron-regulatory protein-1 and -2 genes in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Synowiec, Ewelina; Pogorzelska, Magdalena; Blasiak, Janusz; Szaflik, Jerzy; Szaflik, Jacek Pawel

    2012-06-01

    Iron can be involved in the pathogenesis of AMD through the oxidative stress because it may catalyze the Haber-Weiss and Fenton reactions converting hydrogen peroxide to free radicals, which can induce cellular damage. We hypothesized that genetic polymorphism in genes related to iron metabolism may predispose individuals to the development of AMD and therefore we checked for an association between the g.32373708 G>A polymorphism (rs867469) of the IRP1 gene and the g.49520870 G>A (rs17483548) polymorphism of the IRP2 gene and AMD risk as well as the modulation of this association by some environmental and life-style factors. Genotypes were determined in DNA from blood of 269 AMD patients and 116 controls by the allele-specific oligonucleotide-restriction fragment length polymorphism and the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. An association between AMD, dry and wet forms of AMD and the G/G genotype of the g.32373708 G>A-IRP1 polymorphism was found (OR 3.40, 4.15, and 2.75). On the other hand, the G/A genotype reduced the risk of AMD as well as its dry or wet form (OR 0.23, 0.21, 0.26). Moreover, the G allele of the g.49520870 G>A-IRP2 polymorphism increased the risk of the dry form of the disease (OR 1.51) and the A/A genotype and the A allele decreased such risk (OR 0.43 and 0.66). Our data suggest that the g.32373708 G>A-IRP1 and g.49520870 G>A-IRP2 polymorphisms may be associated with increased risk for AMD.

  19. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  20. It takes nine days to iron a shirt: the development of cognitive estimation skills in school age children.

    PubMed

    Harel, Brian T; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Fein, Deborah A; Bullard, Sarah E; Aviv, Alyson

    2007-07-01

    Data are presented for 315 elementary school-aged children (K-11) who took the Biber Cognitive Estimation Test, a 20-item test with five estimation questions in each of four domains: quantity, time/duration, weight, and distance/length. Performance showed significant development yearly until around the age of nine years, with much slower development subsequently. No gender effects were found. Age and fund of knowledge correlated with overall test performance. Fund of information accounted for a large proportion of the variance in estimation skills for children 8 years and under, but not for children 9 years and older. Since estimation skills require retrieval and manipulation of relevant knowledge and inhibition of impulsive responding and are necessary in many everyday tasks, it was anticipated that this test may provide a useful measure of judgment and estimations and may correlate with other executive skills in school-aged children.

  1. Influence of Chemical Composition on Rupture Properties at 1200 Degrees F. of Forged Chromium-Cobalt-Nickel-Iron Base Alloys in Solution-Treated and Aged Condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, E E; Freeman, J W; White, A E

    1951-01-01

    The influence of systematic variations of chemical composition on rupture properties at 1200 degrees F. was determined for 62 modifications of a basic alloy containing 20 percent chromium, 20 percent nickel, 20 percent cobalt, 3 percent molybdenum, 2 percent tungsten, 1 percent columbium, 0.15 percent carbon, 1.7 percent manganese, 0.5 percent silicon, 0.12 percent nitrogen and the balance iron. These modifications included individual variations of each of 10 elements present and simultaneous variations of molybdenum, tungsten, and columbium. Laboratory induction furnace heats were hot-forged to round bar stock, solution-treated at 2200 degrees F., and aged at 1400 degrees F. The melting and fabrication conditions were carefully controlled in order to minimize all variable effects on properties except chemical composition. Information is presented which indicates that melting and hot-working conditions play an important role in high-temperature properties of alloys of the type investigated.

  2. The hazards of iron loading.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Eugene D

    2010-11-01

    Excessive or misplaced tissue iron now is recognized to pose a substantial health risk for an extensive array of endocrinological, gastrointestinal, infectious, neoplasmic, neurodegenerative, obstetric, ophthalmic, orthopedic, pulmonary and vascular diseases. Ingested, injected, inhaled and decompartmentalized iron contributes not only to disease, but also to aging and mortality. Iron is dangerous by catalyzing free radical formation and by serving as an essential nutrient for microbial and neoplasmic cell invaders. Our body cells exhibit wide variation in sensitivity to iron toxicity. Efficacy of our iron withholding defense system is modulated by numerous environmental, behavioral and genetic factors. A notable variety of methods for prevention and therapy of iron toxicity are now becoming available.

  3. Low temperature aging mechanism identification and lithium deposition in a large format lithium iron phosphate battery for different charge profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Minggao; Chu, Zhengyu; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu; Han, Xuebing; Feng, Xuning; Liu, Guangming

    2015-07-01

    Charging procedures at low temperatures severely shorten the cycle life of lithium ion batteries due to lithium deposition on the negative electrode. In this paper, cycle life tests are conducted to reveal the influence of the charging current rate and the cut-off voltage limit on the aging mechanisms of a large format LiFePO4 battery at a low temperature (-10 °C). The capacity degradation rates accelerate rapidly after the charging current reaches 0.25 C or the cut-off voltage reaches 3.55 V. Therefore the scheduled current and voltage during low-temperature charging should be reconsidered to avoid capacity degradation. Lithium deposition contributes to low-temperature aging mechanisms, as something needle-like which might be deposited lithium is observed on the surface of the negative electrode after disassembling the aged battery cell. To confirm our explanation, incremental capacity analysis (ICA) is performed to identify the characteristics of the lithium deposition induced battery aging mechanisms. Furthermore, the aging mechanism is quantified using a mechanistic model, whose parameters are estimated with the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO). The loss of reversible lithium originating from secondary SEI formation and dead lithium is confirmed as the cause of the aging.

  4. Eastern Mediterranean Economic Exchange during the Iron Age: Portable X-Ray Fluorescence and Neutron Activation Analysis of Cypriot-Style Pottery in the Amuq Valley, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Two markers of regional exchange in the Eastern Mediterranean during the first millennium BCE are the White Painted and Bichrome Wares from Cyprus’s Cypro-Geometric and Cypro-Archaic periods. Although these ceramics are often assumed to be imports from Cyprus, excavations in southern Turkey at sites such as Tarsus-Gözlükule, Kilise Tepe, Sirkeli Höyük, and Kinet Höyük suggest that at least some of this pottery was produced locally, requiring a major revision of our understanding of economic interaction in the Eastern Mediterranean. We employ a combination of portable x-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analysis to investigate the White Painted and Bichrome Wares recovered from Tell Tayinat, Çatal Höyük, and Tell Judaidah, three sites in the Amuq Valley of southeastern Anatolia. Our results demonstrate that a clear geochemical distinction exists between imported and local versions of this pottery. Through comparison with legacy datasets, we locate the likely origin of the imported pottery in the Circum-Troodos sediments of central and southern Cyprus. The secondary and tertiary settlements of Çatal Höyük and Tell Judaidah had access only to this imported material. In contrast, the inhabitants of Tell Tayinat, capital city of the region, consumed both imported and locally produced White Painted and Bichrome Wares. This pattern cannot be explained in purely economic terms whereby the frequency of imports decreases as distance from the point of production increases. Instead, we suggest that elite feasting practices drove demand, resulting in either local potters producing Cypriot-style pottery or Cypriot potters settling in the vicinity of Tell Tayinat. These findings offer new insights into the relationship between historically attested Iron Age kingdoms in southern Turkey and Cyprus and complicate our understanding of exchange in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Iron Age. PMID:27902729

  5. Iron status in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Fairweather-Tait, Susan J.; Wawer, Anna A.; Gillings, Rachel; Jennings, Amy; Myint, Phyo K.

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is prevalent in older age, particularly after the age of 80. Serum ferritin concentrations also decline, although there is no evidence to suggest that changes in iron stores are an inevitable consequence of ageing. Chronic inflammation is a common condition in older people, making the measurement of iron status difficult, and it is likely that elevated levels of circulating hepcidin are responsible for changes in iron metabolism that result in systemic iron depletion. Other contributory factors are poor diet and some medications, such as aspirin. Anaemia in older age has undesirable health outcomes, including increased susceptibility to falling and depression. However, there are concerns about possible adverse effects of iron supplements, either in relation to pro-inflammatory effects in the gut or inappropriate tissue iron deposition. Brain iron levels are increased with age-related degenerative diseases, but it is not known if this is the cause or a consequence of the disease, and genetic factors are likely to play a role. In order to maintain body iron within the normal range a personalised approach is required, taking into account all of the factors that may affect iron metabolism and the available strategies for preventing iron deficiency or overload. PMID:24275120

  6. Iron status in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Wawer, Anna A; Gillings, Rachel; Jennings, Amy; Myint, Phyo K

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is prevalent in older age, particularly after the age of 80. Serum ferritin concentrations also decline, although there is no evidence to suggest that changes in iron stores are an inevitable consequence of ageing. Chronic inflammation is a common condition in older people, making the measurement of iron status difficult, and it is likely that elevated levels of circulating hepcidin are responsible for changes in iron metabolism that result in systemic iron depletion. Other contributory factors are poor diet and some medications, such as aspirin. Anaemia in older age has undesirable health outcomes, including increased susceptibility to falling and depression. However, there are concerns about possible adverse effects of iron supplements, either in relation to pro-inflammatory effects in the gut or inappropriate tissue iron deposition. Brain iron levels are increased with age-related degenerative diseases, but it is not known if this is the cause or a consequence of the disease, and genetic factors are likely to play a role. In order to maintain body iron within the normal range a personalised approach is required, taking into account all of the factors that may affect iron metabolism and the available strategies for preventing iron deficiency or overload.

  7. Formation, reactivity, and aging of ferric oxide particles formed from Fe(II) and Fe(III) sources: Implications for iron bioavailability in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bligh, Mark W.; Waite, T. David

    2011-12-01

    Freshly formed amorphous ferric oxides (AFO) in the water column are potentially highly reactive, but with reactivity declining rapidly with age, and have the capacity to partake in reactions with dissolved species and to be a significant source of bioavailable iron. However, the controls on reactivity in aggregated oxides are not well understood. Additionally, the mechanism by which early rapid aging occurs is not clear. Aging is typically considered in terms of changes in crystallinity as the structure of an iron oxide becomes more stable and ordered with time thus leading to declining reactivity. However, there has been recognition of the role that aggregation can play in determining reactivity, although it has received limited attention. Here, we have formed AFO in seawater in the laboratory from either an Fe(II) or Fe(III) source to produce either AFO(II) or AFO(III). The changes in reactivity of these two oxides following formation was measured using both ligand-promoted dissolution (LPD) and reductive dissolution (RD). The structure of the two oxides was examined using light scattering and X-ray adsorption techniques. The dissolution rate of AFO(III) was greater than that of AFO(II), as measured by both dissolution techniques, and could be attributed to both the less ordered molecular structure and smaller primary particle size of AFO(III). From EXAFS analysis shortly (90 min) following formation, AFO(II) and AFO(III) were shown to have the same structure as aged lepidocrocite and ferrihydrite respectively. Both oxides displayed a rapid decrease in dissolution rate over the first hours following formation in a pattern that was very similar when normalised. The early establishment and little subsequent change of crystal structure for both oxides undermined the hypothesis that increasing crystallinity was responsible for early rapid aging. Also, an aging model describing this proposed process could only be fitted to the data with kinetic parameters that were

  8. Social networks of older adults living with HIV in Finland.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Nuno Ribeiro; Kylmä, Jari; Kirsi, Tapio; Pereira, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the social networks of older adults living with HIV. Interviews were conducted with nine individuals aged 50 or older living with HIV in Helsinki, Finland. Analysis of transcripts was analysed by inductive qualitative content analysis. Results indicated that these participants' networks tended to be large, including those both aware and unaware of the participants' health status. Analysis identified three main themes: large multifaceted social networks, importance of a support group, and downsizing of social networks. Support received appeared to be of great importance in coping with their health condition, especially since the time of diagnosis. Friends and family were the primary source of informal support. The majority of participants relied mostly on friends, some of whom were HIV-positive. Formal support came primarily from the HIV organisation's support group. In this study group, non-disclosure did not impact participants' well-being. In years to come, social networks of older adults living with HIV may shrink due to personal reasons other than HIV-disclosure. What is of primary importance is that healthcare professionals become knowledgeable about psychosocial issues of older adults living with HIV, identifying latent problems and developing adequate interventions in the early stages of the disease; this would help prevent social isolation and foster successful ageing with HIV.

  9. Smoking and leanness: evidence for change in Finland.

    PubMed Central

    Marti, B.; Tuomilehto, J.; Korhonen, H. J.; Kartovaara, L.; Vartiainen, E.; Pietinen, P.; Puska, P.

    1989-01-01

    Many studies have shown smokers to weigh less than non-smokers, which is plausible given the metabolic effects of cigarette smoke. The interrelation between smoking and relative body weight and its change over time were analysed by using data from Finnish population based surveys from 1982 and 1987. Among both men and women the inverse association between smoking and body mass index was clearly weakened between 1982 and 1987. In 1987 among men aged 25-44 smoking was positively related to body mass index. Moreover, the relation between smoking and waist to hip girth ratio was positive in both sexes at all ages. Years of smoking was nevertheless confirmed as a significant inverse predictor of relative weight. A cluster of unfavourable health habits, including high consumption of alcohol and saturated fats, especially emerged among younger smokers. This may have been due to different selection of smokers in Finland, where smoking increasingly seems to be a form of deviant or risk taking behaviour. It is concluded that at a population level the metabolic effects of smoking seem to be increasingly overridden by several other unfavourable health behaviours of smokers. PMID:2500198

  10. [Mental health in Chile and Finland: Challenges and lessons].

    PubMed

    Retamal C, Pedro; Markkula, Niina; Peña, Sebastián

    2016-07-01

    This article analyses and compares the epidemiology of mental disorders and relevant public policies in Chile and Finland. In Chile, a specific mental health law is still lacking. While both countries highlight the role of primary care, Finland places more emphasis on participation and recovery of service users. Comprehensive mental health policies from Finland, such as a successful suicide prevention program, are presented. Both countries have similar prevalence of mental disorders, high alcohol consumption and high suicide rates. In Chile, the percentage of total disease burden due to psychiatric disorders is 13% and in Finland 14%. However, the resources to address these issues are very different. Finland spends 4.5% of its health budget on mental health, while in Chile the percentage is 2.2%. This results in differences in human resources and service provision. Finland has five times more psychiatric outpatient visits, four times more psychiatrists, triple antidepressant use and twice more clinical guidelines for different psychiatric conditions. In conclusion, both countries have similar challenges but differing realities. This may help to identify gaps and potential solutions for public health challenges in Chile. Finland’s experience demonstrates the importance of political will and long-term vision in the construction of mental health policies.

  11. Using the accumulation of CBD-extractable iron and clay content to estimate soil age on stable surfaces and nearby slopes, Front Range, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethier, David P.; Birkeland, Peter W.; McCarthy, James A.

    2012-11-01

    In many transport-limited environments, morphology, pedogenic iron and clay content provide a basis for estimating the exposure age of soils and associated landforms. We measured citrate-buffered dithionite (CBD)-extractable Fe (Fed) and clay concentration in fresh rock, saprolite, morainal and colluvial materials, and soil horizons from stable surfaces and hillslopes in the Colorado Front Range. Fresh igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks contain < 1% Fed and 1 to 5% clay. As bedrock and surficial deposits age, Fed and clay accumulate from weathering and dustfall. Late Holocene regolith at warm, dry sites contains small amounts of Fed and clay, but relatively moist soils developed on early Holocene cirque deposits contain as much as 1.5% Fed and 8% clay. Concentrations and total profile accumulation of Fed and clay increase with age in soils developed on stable surfaces of glacial deposits as old as ~ 130 kyr. On stable sites, Fed and clay accumulation from weathering and dust is ~ 0.02 g cm- 2 kyr- 1 and ~ 0.2 g cm- 2 kyr- 1, respectively. We used the Fed and clay inventory in soil profiles at dated, stable Front Range surfaces to calculate accumulation functions, which allowed us to estimate soil age at hillslope sites. Heterogeneous parent material, particularly on hillslopes, and climate-related effects add to variability in measured relations. Mobile regolith in Gordon Gulch, one of the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) catchments, yields profile ages from about 0.5 to 5 × 104 yr, comparable to values measured using other techniques. Calculated profile ages are older on a north- vs. south-facing slope and increase from the drainage divide to the footslope. Ages calculated for stabilized colluvium and well-developed buried profiles at nearby hillslope sites (Lefthand, Ward and Rollinsville) suggest that these soils have stabilized over periods > 105 yr. In the absence of radiometric ages, the accumulation of Fed and clay in soils on stable

  12. Radon measurement and mitigation activity in Finland.

    PubMed

    Valmari, T; Arvela, H; Reisbacka, H; Holmgren, O

    2014-07-01

    Radon prevention, measurement and mitigation activities have been increasing in Finland during the 2000s. Nowadays, many municipal authorities, especially those located in high-radon areas, require radon prevention measures. This has activated radon measurements. Owners of new houses having radon piping installed under the floor slab are the most active group to measure and reduce the found high-radon values. Their radon awareness is apparently better than on the average, and the existing piping makes it easier and cheaper to reduce the radon levels. Local campaigns involving invitation flyers mailed to the residents have been a cost-effective means to activate measurements of older houses. So far 116,611 dwellings in low-rise residential buildings have been measured. At least 15% of the 16,860 dwellings found to exceed the reference level of 400 Bq m(-3) had their indoor radon level reduced below that.

  13. Autopsy rate in suicide is low among elderly in Denmark compared with Finland.

    PubMed

    Ylijoki-Sørensen, Seija; Boldsen, Jesper Lier; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup; Bøggild, Henrik; Lalu, Kaisa; Sajantila, Antti

    2014-11-01

    National differences in the legislation on cause and manner of death investigation are reflected in a high autopsy rate in suicides in Finland and a low corresponding rate in Denmark. The consequences for mortality statistics of these different investigation practices on deaths classified as suicides in Denmark and Finland, respectively, are not known in detail. The aim of this article was to analyse autopsy rates in deaths classified as suicides, and to identify any differences in investigation practices in deaths with a comparable cause of death, but classified as unnatural deaths other than suicide. Data from the mortality registries were summarised for the years 2000, 2005 and 2010. Autopsy rates (total, forensic and medical) were analysed with regard to deaths classified as suicide, and they were compared for three age groups (1-50 years, 51-70 years and ≥71 years) and for causes of death. Deaths classified as suicide were compared with other unnatural classifications, and comparable causes of death were coded into six subgroups: poisonings, suffocations/strangulations, firearm discharges, drowning/submersions, explosions/flames and other/unspecified causes. The total autopsy rate for suicides was 99.8% in Finland and 13.2% in Denmark. Almost all of these autopsies were conducted as forensic autopsies. In the age group ≥71 years, Danish suicides outnumbered Finnish suicides (410 versus 283). The total autopsy rate was lower in the more senior age group in Denmark (19.5%, 9.9%, 5.6%), whereas it was consistently high in Finland (99.8%, 99.9%, 99.6%). Among Danish deaths due to poisonings, the autopsy rate was 89.5% when these were classified as accidents, but only 20.7% for cases classified as suicides. The number of deaths in the two Danish subgroups was comparable (550 versus 553). In Denmark, the decision regarding the need, if any, for a forensic autopsy is made during the external forensic examination of the body. Our study showed that the limited use

  14. Chernobyl fallout and cancer incidence in Finland.

    PubMed

    Auvinen, Anssi; Seppä, Karri; Pasanen, Kari; Kurttio, Päivi; Patama, Toni; Pukkala, Eero; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Arvela, Hannu; Verkasalo, Pia; Hakulinen, Timo

    2014-05-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since the Chernobyl accident, but its health consequences remain to be well established. Finland was one of the most heavily affected countries by the radioactive fallout outside the former Soviet Union. We analyzed the relation of the estimated external radiation exposure from the fallout to cancer incidence in Finland in 1988-2007. The study cohort comprised all ∼ 3.8 million Finns who had lived in the same dwelling for 12 months following the accident (May 1986-April 1987). Radiation exposure was estimated using data from an extensive mobile dose rate survey. Cancer incidence data were obtained for the cohort divided into four exposure categories (the lowest with the first-year committed dose <0.1 mSv and the highest ≥ 0.5 mSv) allowing for a latency of 5 years for leukemia and thyroid cancer, and 10 years for other cancers. Of the eight predefined cancer sites regarded as radiation-related from earlier studies, only colon cancer among women showed an association with exposure from fallout [excess rate ratio per increment in exposure category 0.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02-0.11]. No such effect was observed for men, or other cancer sites. Our analysis of a large cohort over two decades did not reveal an increase in cancer incidence following the Chernobyl accident, with the possible exception of colon cancer among women. The largely null findings are consistent with extrapolation from previous studies suggesting that the effect is likely to remain too small to be empirically detectable and of little public health impact.

  15. Information sources in science and technology in Finland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haarala, Arja-Riitta

    1994-01-01

    Finland poses some problems to be overcome in the field of scientific and technical information: a small user community which makes domestic systems costly; great distances within the country between users and suppliers of information; great distances to international data systems and large libraries abroad; and inadequate collections of scientific and technical information. The national bibliography Fennica includes all books and journals published in Finland. Data base services available in Finland include: reference data bases in science and technology; data banks for decision making such as statistical time series or legal proceedings; national bibliographies; and library catalogs.

  16. Iron starvation and culture age activate metacaspases and programmed cell death in the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    PubMed

    Bidle, Kay D; Bender, Sara J

    2008-02-01

    In the modern ocean, phytoplankton maintain extremely high primary production/biomass ratios, indicating that they bloom, die, and are replaced weekly. The molecular mechanisms regulating cellular mortality and turnover are largely unknown, even though they effectively short-circuit carbon export to the deep ocean and channel primary productivity to microbial food webs. Here, we present morphological, biochemical, and molecular evidence of caspase-mediated, autocatalytic programmed cell death (PCD) in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana in response to iron starvation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed internal degradation of nuclear, chloroplastic, and mitochondrial organelles, all while the plasma membranes remained intact. Cellular degradation was concomitant with dramatic decreases in photosynthetic efficiency, externalization of phosphatidylserine, and significantly elevated caspase-specific activity, with the addition of a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor rescuing cells from death. A search of the T. pseudonana genome identified six distinct putative metacaspases containing a conserved caspase domain structure. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed differential gene and protein expression of T. pseudonana metacaspases, some of which correlated with physiological stress and caspase activity. Taken together with the recent discovery of the metacaspase-mediated viral infection of phytoplankton (K. D. Bidle, L. Haramaty, J. Barcelos-Ramos, and P. G. Falkowski, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:6049-6054, 2007), our findings reveal a key role for metacaspases in the turnover of phytoplankton biomass in the oceans. Furthermore, given that Fe is required for photosynthetic electron transfer and is chronically limiting in a variety of oceanic systems, including high-nutrient low-chlorophyll regions, our findings provide a potential ecological context for PCD in these unicellular photoautotrophs.

  17. First report of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti in rodents in Finland.

    PubMed

    Kallio, Eva R; Begon, Michael; Birtles, Richard J; Bown, Kevin J; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio; Watts, Phillip C

    2014-06-01

    Tick-borne diseases pose an increasingly important public health problem in Europe. Rodents are the reservoir host for many tick-transmitted pathogens, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti, which can cause human granulocytic anaplasmosis and babesiosis, respectively. To estimate the presence of these pathogens in rodents in Finland, we examined blood samples from 151 bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and demonstrate, for the first time, that A. phagocytophilum and B. microti commonly infect bank voles (in 22% and 40% of animals, respectively) in Finland. Sequence analysis of a fragment of 18S rRNA showed that the B. microti strain isolated was identical to the Munich strain, which is considered to be nonzoonotic. The A. phagocytophilum strain (based on a fragment of the msp4 gene) was identical to one found earlier in rodents in the United Kingdom that is transmitted by the tick Ixodes trianguliceps, all the life stages of which feed on small mammals. The infection probability of B. microti in the bank voles was the greater the older the individual was, and males were more often infected than females. A. phagocytophilum infection probability first increased and then decreased with the age of individual without any difference between sexes. While these pathogens presumably pose a limited zoonotic risk to humans in Finland, they might have important interactions with other rodent pathogens and therefore affect infection dynamics of, for example, zoonotic pathogens.

  18. GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND MOLECULAR DIVERSITY OF BARTONELLA SPP. INFECTIONS IN MOOSE (ALCES ALCES) IN FINLAND.

    PubMed

    Pérez Vera, Cristina; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Spillmann, Thomas; Vapalahti, Olli; Sironen, Tarja

    2016-04-28

    Moose, Alces alces (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in Finland are heavily infested with deer keds, Lipoptena cervi (Diptera: Hippoboschidae). The deer ked, which carries species of the genus Bartonella, has been proposed as a vector for the transmission of bartonellae to animals and humans. Previously, bartonella DNA was found in deer keds as well as in moose blood collected in Finland. We investigated the prevalence and molecular diversity of Bartonella spp. infection from blood samples collected from free-ranging moose. Given that the deer ked is not present in northernmost Finland, we also investigated whether there were geographic differences in the prevalence of bartonella infection in moose. The overall prevalence of bartonella infection was 72.9% (108/148). Geographically, the prevalence was highest in the south (90.6%) and lowest in the north (55.9%). At least two species of bartonellae were identified by multilocus sequence analysis. Based on logistic regression analysis, there was no significant association between bartonella infection and either age or sex; however, moose from outside the deer ked zone were significantly less likely to be infected (P<0.015) than were moose hunted within the deer ked zone.

  19. First Report of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti in Rodents in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Begon, Michael; Birtles, Richard J.; Bown, Kevin J.; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio; Watts, Phillip C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tick-borne diseases pose an increasingly important public health problem in Europe. Rodents are the reservoir host for many tick-transmitted pathogens, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti, which can cause human granulocytic anaplasmosis and babesiosis, respectively. To estimate the presence of these pathogens in rodents in Finland, we examined blood samples from 151 bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and demonstrate, for the first time, that A. phagocytophilum and B. microti commonly infect bank voles (in 22% and 40% of animals, respectively) in Finland. Sequence analysis of a fragment of 18S rRNA showed that the B. microti strain isolated was identical to the Munich strain, which is considered to be nonzoonotic. The A. phagocytophilum strain (based on a fragment of the msp4 gene) was identical to one found earlier in rodents in the United Kingdom that is transmitted by the tick Ixodes trianguliceps, all the life stages of which feed on small mammals. The infection probability of B. microti in the bank voles was the greater the older the individual was, and males were more often infected than females. A. phagocytophilum infection probability first increased and then decreased with the age of individual without any difference between sexes. While these pathogens presumably pose a limited zoonotic risk to humans in Finland, they might have important interactions with other rodent pathogens and therefore affect infection dynamics of, for example, zoonotic pathogens. PMID:24848684

  20. [The Dynamics of the Composition of mtDNA Haplotypes of the Ancient Population of the Altai Mountains from the Early Bronze Age (3rd Millennium BC) to the Iron Age (2nd-1st Centuries BC)].

    PubMed

    Gubina, M A; Kulikov, I V; Babenko, V N; Chikisheva, T A; Romaschenko, A G; Voevoda, M I; Molodin, V I

    2016-01-01

    The mtDNA polymorphism in representatives of various archaeological cultures of the Developed Bronze Age, Early Scythian, and Hunnish-Sarmatian periods was analyzed (N = 34). It detected the dominance of Western-Eurasian haplotypes (70.6%) in mtDNA samples from the representatives of the ancient population of the Early Bronze Age--Iron Age on the territory of Altai Mountains. Since the 8th to the 7th centuries BC, a sharp increase was revealed in the Eastern-Eurasian haplogroups A, D, C, andZ (43.75%) as compared to previous cultures (16.7%). The presence of haplotype 223-242-290-319 of haplogroup A8 in Dolgans, Itelmens, Evens, Koryaks, and Yakuts indicates the possible long-term presence of its carriers in areas inhabited by these populations. The prevalence of Western-Eurasian haplotypes is observed not only in the Altai Mountains but also in Central Asia (Kazakhstan) and the South of the Krasnoyarsk Krai. All of the three studied samples from the Western-Eurasian haplogroups were revealed to contain U, H, T, and HV. The ubiquitous presence of haplotypes of haplogroup H and some haplogroups of cluster U (U5al, U4, U2e, and K) in the vast territory from the Yenisei River basin to the Atlantic Ocean may indicate the direction of human settlement, which most likely occurred in the Paleolithic Period from Central Asia.

  1. Prevalence and Predictors of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Children under Five Years of Age in Pakistan, A Secondary Analysis of National Nutrition Survey Data 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Muhammad Atif; Black, Kirsten; Soofi, Sajid Bashir; Hussain, Imtiaz; Bhatti, Zaid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Raynes-Greenow, Camille

    2016-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency Anemia (IDA) in children is a recognized public health problem that impacts adversely on child morbidity, mortality and impairs cognitive development. In Pakistan information on the true prevalence and predictors of IDA is limited. This study sought to investigate IDA in children under five years of age using data from a nationally representative stratified cross-sectional survey. Methods Secondary analysis was performed on the National Nutrition Survey in Pakistan 2011–2012. We used a pre-structured instrument to collect socio demographic and nutritional data on mothers and children. We also collected Anthropometric measurements and blood samples for micronutrient deficiencies. IDA was defined as having both haemoglobin levels of <110 g/L and ferritin levels of < 12 μg/L. Data analysis was performed by applying univariate and multivariate techniques using logistic regression through SPSS. Findings A total of 7138 children aged between 6–59 months were included in the analysis. The prevalence of IDA was 33.2%. In multivariate regression analysis adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were calculated. Age < 24 months (AOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.18–1.55 p <0.05), stunting (AOR 1.42 CI 1.23–1.63 p<0.05), presence of clinical anemia (AOR 5.69 CI 4.93–6.56 p<0.05), having a mother with IDA (AOR 1.72 CI 1.47–2.01 p<0.05) and household food insecurity (AOR 1.20 CI 1.10–1.40 P<0.05) were associated with IDA. Living in a rural area (AOR 0.77 CI 0.65–0.90 p<0.05) and being a female child (AOR 0.87 CI 0.76–0.98 p<0.05) were associated with reduced odds of IDA. Conclusion The prevalence of IDA amongst Pakistani children represents a moderate burden that disproportionately affects the youngest, growth retarded children, affected children are more likely to have mothers with IDA and live in areas where food security is lacking. National efforts to alleviate the burden of IDA should involve both short term vertical programs such as iron supplementation

  2. Epidemiology and emm types of invasive group A streptococcal infections in Finland, 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Smit, P W; Lindholm, L; Lyytikäinen, O; Jalava, J; Pätäri-Sampo, A; Vuopio, J

    2015-10-01

    Invasive Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus, GAS) infections are a major global cause of morbidity and mortality. We analysed the surveillance data on invasive GAS and the microbiological characteristics of corresponding isolates to assess the incidence and emm type distribution of invasive GAS infections in Finland. Cases defined as patients with isolations of blood and cerebrospinal fluid S. pyogenes are mandatorily notified to the National Infectious Disease Registry and sent to the national reference laboratory for emm typing. Antimicrobial data were collected through the network including all clinical microbiology laboratories. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis was performed to assess clonality. In total, 1165 cases of invasive GAS were reported in Finland during 2008-2013; the median age was 52 years (range, 0-100) and 54% were male. The overall day 7 case fatality rate was 5.1% (59 cases). The average annual incidence was 3.6 cases per 100,000 population. A total of 1122 invasive GAS isolates (96%) were analysed by emm typing; 72 different emm types were identified, of which emm28 (297 isolates, 26%), emm89 (193 isolates, 12%) and emm1 (132 isolates, 12%) were the most common types. During 2008-2013, an increase of erythromycin resistance (1.9% to 8.7%) and clindamycin (0.9% to 9.2%) was observed. This resistance increase was in parallel with the introduction of a novel clone emm33 into Finland. The overall incidence of invasive GAS infections remained stable over the study period in Finland. We identified clonal spread of macrolide-resistant invasive emm33 GAS type, highlighting the importance of molecular surveillance.

  3. Foramen Tympanicum or Foramen of Huschke: A Bioarchaeological Study on Human Skeletons from an Iron Age Cemetery at Tabriz Kabud Mosque Zone

    PubMed Central

    Rezaian, Jafar; Namavar, Mohammad Reza; Vahdati Nasab, Hamed; Hojabri Nobari, Ali Reza; Abedollahi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The foramen tympanicum is an anatomical variation that is created in the tympanic plate of temporal bone during the first year of life. The tympanic plate grows and foramen tympanicum is gradually closed by about the fifth postnatal year. However, due to a defect in normal ossification, foramen tympanicum sporadically remains throughout life. The construction of a shopping center in Tabriz, northwest of Iran, led to the discovery of an Iron Age cemetery (1500-500 BC). Several tombs have been uncovered below one meter of sterile soil so far and a thick level of architectural debris from the medieval city has been discovered. Up to now, no bioarchaeological data has been gathered about the burials in this area. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of foramen tympanicum in this area. In this study, 45 skeletons were studied and the prevalence of this foramen was about 4.4% bilaterally. We also reported on two babies with fused and un-fused squamotympanic fissure. The persistence of this foramen is a possible risk factor for otologic complications after arthroscopy of the temporomandibular joint and salivary gland fistula through this foramen. The closure of this foramen could be also used for age estimation in sub-adult individuals. The incidence of this trait in this study was similar to other available studies on modern skeletons. PMID:26170525

  4. Correlations in distribution and concentration of calcium, copper and iron with zinc in isolated extracellular deposits associated with age-related macular degeneration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flinn, Jane M; Kakalec, Peter; Tappero, Ryan; Jones, Blair F.; Lengyel, Imre

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is abundantly enriched in sub-retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) deposits, the hallmarks of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and is thought to play a role in the formation of these deposits. However, it is not known whether Zn is the only metal relevant for sub-RPE deposit formation. Because of their involvement in the pathogenesis of AMD, we determined the concentration and distribution of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) and compared these with Zn in isolated and sectioned macular (MSD), equatorial (PHD) and far peripheral (FPD) sub-RPE deposits from an 86 year old donor eye with post mortem diagnosis of early AMD. The sections were mounted on Zn free microscopy slides and analyzed by microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (μSXRF). Metal concentrations were determined using spiked sectioned sheep brain matrix standards, prepared the same way as the samples. The heterogeneity of metal distributions was examined using pixel by pixel comparison. The orders of metal concentrations were Ca ⋙ Zn > Fe in all three types of deposits but Cu levels were not distinguishable from background values. Zinc and Ca were consistently present in all deposits but reached highest concentration in MSD. Iron was present in some but not all deposits and was especially enriched in FPD. Correlation analysis indicated considerable variation in metal distribution within and between sub-RPE deposits. The results suggest that Zn and Ca are the most likely contributors to deposit formation especially in MSD, the characteristic risk factor for the development of AMD in the human eye.

  5. Checklist of the Empidoidea of Finland (Insecta, Diptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract An updated checklist of the Atelestidae, Brachystomatidae, Dolichopodidae, Empididae and Hybotidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented. The genera with uncertain placement within superfamily Empidoidea (= the Iteaphila group) are also included in this paper. PMID:25337016

  6. Benchmark Study of Industrial Needs for Additive Manufacturing in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindqvist, Markku; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a modern way to produce parts for industrial use. Even though the technical knowledge and research of AM processes are strong in Finland, there are only few industrial applications. Aim of this study is to collect practical knowledge of companies who are interested in industrial use of AM, especially in South-Eastern Finland. Goal of this study is also to investigate demands and requirements of applications for industrial use of AM in this area of Finland. It was concluded, that two of the reasons prohibiting wider industrial use of AM in Finland, are wrong expectations against this technology as well as lack of basic knowledge of possibilities of the technology. Especially, it was noticed that strong 3D-hype is even causing misunderstandings. Nevertheless, the high-level industrial know-how in the area, built around Finnish lumber industry is a strong foundation for the additive manufacturing technology.

  7. Prevalence of anemia and deficiency of iron, folic acid, and zinc in children younger than 2 years of age who use the health services provided by the Mexican Social Security Institute

    PubMed Central

    Duque, Ximena; Flores-Hernández, Sergio; Flores-Huerta, Samuel; Méndez-Ramírez, Ignacio; Muñoz, Sergio; Turnbull, Bernardo; Martínez-Andrade, Gloria; Ramos, Rosa I; González-Unzaga, Marco; Mendoza, María E; Martínez, Homero

    2007-01-01

    Background In Mexico, as in other developing countries, micronutrient deficiencies are common in infants between 6 and 24 months of age and are an important public health problem. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and of iron, folic acid, and zinc deficiencies in Mexican children under 2 years of age who use the health care services provided by the Mexican Institute for Social Security (IMSS). Methods A nationwide survey was conducted with a representative sample of children younger than 2 years of age, beneficiaries, and users of health care services provided by IMSS through its regular regimen (located in urban populations) and its Oportunidades program (services offered in rural areas). A subsample of 4,955 clinically healthy children was studied to determine their micronutrient status. A venous blood sample was drawn to determine hemoglobin, serum ferritin, percent of transferrin saturation, zinc, and folic acid. Descriptive statistics include point estimates and 95% confidence intervals for the sample and projections for the larger population from which the sample was drawn. Results Twenty percent of children younger than 2 years of age had anemia, and 27.8% (rural) to 32.6% (urban) had iron deficiency; more than 50% of anemia was not associated with low ferritin concentrations. Iron stores were more depleted as age increased. Low serum zinc and folic acid deficiencies were 28% and 10%, respectively, in the urban areas, and 13% and 8%, respectively, in rural areas. The prevalence of simultaneous iron and zinc deficiencies was 9.2% and 2.7% in urban and rural areas. Children with anemia have higher percentages of folic acid deficiency than children with normal iron status. Conclusion Iron and zinc deficiencies constitute the principal micronutrient deficiencies in Mexican children younger than 2 years old who use the health care services provided by IMSS. Anemia not associated with low ferritin values was more prevalent than

  8. Evolutionary demography of agricultural expansion in preindustrial northern Finland.

    PubMed

    Helle, Samuli; Brommer, Jon E; Pettay, Jenni E; Lummaa, Virpi; Enbuske, Matti; Jokela, Jukka

    2014-11-07

    A shift from nomadic foraging to sedentary agriculture was a major turning point in human evolutionary history, increasing our population size and eventually leading to the development of modern societies. We however lack understanding of the changes in life histories that contributed to the increased population growth rate of agriculturalists, because comparable individual-based reproductive records of sympatric populations of agriculturalists and foragers are rarely found. Here, we compared key life-history traits and population growth rate using comprehensive data from the seventieth to nineteenth century Northern Finland: indigenous Sami were nomadic hunter-fishers and reindeer herders, whereas sympatric agricultural Finns relied predominantly on animal husbandry. We found that agriculture-based families had higher lifetime fecundity, faster birth spacing and lower maternal mortality. Furthermore, agricultural Finns had 6.2% higher annual population growth rate than traditional Sami, which was accounted by differences between the subsistence modes in age-specific fecundity but not in mortality. Our results provide, to our knowledge, the most detailed demonstration yet of the demographic changes and evolutionary benefits that resulted from agricultural revolution.

  9. Cooperation and competition between dentists and denturists in Finland.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Risto

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate cooperation between dentists and denturists in Finland, particularly in relation to perceived competition between the two professions. From a representative sample of 350 private dentists and 253 denturists, 68% returned acceptably filled-in questionnaires dealing with competition and cooperation with other healthcare professionals. Dentists referred their patients significantly (P < 0.001) less often to denturists (26.2%) than denturists did to dentists (94.1%). Those who referred their patients to members of the other profession also received patients from the other profession significantly (P< 0.001) more often than those who did not (60.7% vs 16.7% among dentists; 90.0% vs 44.4% among denturists). Denturists saw themselves as competing with dentists (56.0%) significantly (P< 0.001) more often than dentists did with denturists (29.2%). Dentists practicing in small towns or rural areas cooperated more often with denturists than did those practicing in more urban areas. Among denturists, the likelihood of referring patients to dentists was associated with younger age and fewer clinical working hours. It was concluded that cooperation between dentists and denturists was common. Oral healthcare professionals who referred their patients to the other profession also benefited by receiving more patients on referral from them. Dental services provided by denturists are limited, which may explain their greater willingness to cooperate with dentists.

  10. Perceived competition in private dental practice in Finland.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, R; Palmujoki, J

    2000-10-01

    A questionnaire study was conducted among 350 private dentists in Finland to investigate their perception of competition and how this associated with practice characteristics. The questionnaire comprised 46 questions dealing with perceptions of competition, marketing, and collegiality, respondents' personal and practice characteristics, including age, sex, area of main practice location, weekly hours in private practice, functioning in solo or in joint practice, cooperation with other dentists, and whether practicing in more than one location. The majority of these private dental practitioners perceived much competition between themselves. Almost all (96%) of those feeling much competition today expected it to be more intense after 5 years, compared to 60% of those not perceiving much competition today (P < 0.001). Private practitioners perceiving much competition also felt it from public health centers significantly (P < 0.001) more often (46%) than others (24%). Logistic regression models revealed that those with a practice in more than one location were over 7 times more likely not to perceive competition. Those practicing outside metropolitan Helsinki area had 3.6 times the odds of not perceiving competition, and for women overall the odds ratio was 2.5. Increasing competition in private practice is a widely felt concern, and it may diminish the willingness of new graduates to attempt penetration of the market and establish their clinics.

  11. Age-dependent effects of microglial inhibition in vivo on Alzheimer’s disease neuropathology using bioactive-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tau dysfunction is believed to be the primary cause of neurodegenerative disorders referred to as tauopathies, including Alzheimer’s disease, Pick’s disease, frontotemporal dementia and Parkinsonism. The role of microglial cells in the pathogenesis of tauopathies is still unclear. The activation of microglial cells has been correlated with neuroprotective effects through the release of neurotrophic factors and through clearance of cell debris and phagocytosis of cells with intracellular inclusions. In contrast, microglial activation has also been linked with chronic neuroinflammation contributing to the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as tauopathies. Microglial activation has been recently reported to precede tangle formation and the attenuation of tau pathology occurs after immunosuppression of transgenic mice. Methods Here we report the specific inhibition of microglial cells in rTg4510 tau-mutant mice by using fibrin γ377-395 peptide conjugated to iron oxide (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles of 21 ± 3.5 nm diameter. Results Stabilization of the peptide by its covalent conjugation to the γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles significantly decreased the number of the microglial cells compared to the same concentration of the free peptide. The specific microglial inhibition induces different effects on tau pathology in an age dependent manner. The reduction of activation of microglial cells at an early age increases the number of neurons with hyperphosphorylated tau in transgenic mice. In contrast, reduction of activation of microglial cells reduced the severity of the tau pathology in older mice. The number of neurons with hyperphosphorylated tau and the number of neurons with tangles are reduced than those in animals not receiving the fibrin γ377-395 peptide-nanoparticle conjugate. Conclusions These results demonstrate a differential effect of microglial activity on tau pathology using the fibrin γ377-395 peptide-nanoparticle conjugate, depending on

  12. Aging of aluminum/iron-based drinking water treatment residuals in lake water and their association with phosphorus immobilization capability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhui; Yuan, Nannan; Pei, Yuansheng; Jiang, He-Long

    2015-08-15

    Aluminum and Fe-based drinking water treatment residuals (DWTRs) have shown a high potential for use by geoengineers in internal P loading control in lakes. In this study, aging of Al/Fe-based DWTRs in lake water under different pH and redox conditions associated with their P immobilization capability was investigated based on a 180-day incubation test. The results showed that the DWTRs before and after incubation under different conditions have similar structures, but their specific surface area and pore volume, especially mesopores with radius at 2.1-5.0 nm drastically decreased. The oxalate extractable Al contents changed little although a small amount of Al transformed from oxidizable to residual forms. The oxalate extractable Fe contents also decreased by a small amount, but the transformation from oxidizable to residual forms were remarkable, approximately by 14.6%. However, the DWTRs before and after incubation had similar P immobilization capabilities in solutions and lake sediments. Even the maximum P adsorption capacity estimated by the Langmuir model increased after incubation. Therefore, it was not necessary to give special attention to the impact of Al and Fe aging on the effectiveness of DWTRs for geoengineering in lakes.

  13. Mineral composition of two populations of leaves - green and iron chlorotic - of the same age all from the same tree

    SciTech Connect

    Procopiou, J.; Wallace, A.

    1981-01-01

    Since carefully washed Fe chlorotic leaves often contain more total Fe on the dry weight basis than do green leaves, a population of leaves of the same age representing chlorotic leaves from each of two lemon trees and green leaves also of the same age and from the same two trees were analyzed individually for mineral elements to determine, especially, the frequency distribution of Fe in the various groups of leaves (n = 47, 48, 71, 48). The chlorotic leaves from one tree had mineral composition typical of lime-induced chlorosis. The chlorotic leaves for this tree were, on the average, higher in P, K, and Fe and lower in Ca than the green leaves. For the other tree the chlorotic leaves appeared to be truly Fe deficient; P was not higher in these leaves but the mean K and Ca showed the same pattern as in the first tree. Zinc was higher in the deficient leaves than in the green ones on this tree which can be expected for true Fe deficiency. Mean zinc levels were below the critical levels. Mean manganese was below the critical level for all groups. The coefficient of variation for each element in each group was usually around 30%. Maximum-minimum data indicated that many individual leaves did not fit the patterns just described. Correlation coefficients indicated that most major patterns were consistent in spite of the variability, although there were some differences. The frequency distribution for each of most elements was much like a normal curve with usually a three-fold range for each of the elements. Many of the Fe-deficient leaves had more Fe than some of the green leaves. Analysis of an individual leaf, therefore, cannot result in accurate description of lime-induced chlorosis.

  14. Brain iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Moos, Torben

    2002-11-01

    [125I]transferrin in the brain. Some of the 59Fe was detected in CSF in a fraction less than 30 kDa (III). It was estimated that the iron-binding capacity of transferrin in CSF was exceeded, suggesting that iron is transported into the brain in a quantity that exceeds that of transferrin. Accordingly, it was concluded that the paramount iron transport across the BBB is the result of receptor-mediated endocytosis of iron-containing transferrin by capillary endothelial cells, followed by recycling of transferrin to the blood and transport of non-transferrin-bound iron into the brain. It was found that retrograde axonal transport in a cranial motor nerve is age-dependent, varying from almost negligible in the neonatal brain to high in the adult brain. The principle sources of extracellular transferrin in the brain are hepatocytes, oligodendrocytes, and the choroid plexus. As the passage of liver-derived transferrin into the brain is restricted due to the BBB, other candidates for binding iron in the interstitium should be considered. In vitro studies have revealed secretion of transferrin from the choroid plexus and oligodendrocytes. The second part of the thesis encompasses the circulation of iron in the extracellular fluids of the brain, i.e. the brain interstitial fluid and the CSF. As the latter receives drainage from the interstitial fluid, the CSF of the ventricles can be considered a mixture of these fluids, which may allow for analysis of CSF in matters that relate to the brain interstitial fluid. As the choroid plexus is known to synthesize transferrin, a key question is whether transferrin of the CSF might play a role for iron homeostasis by diffusing from the ventricles and subarachnoid space to the brain interstitium. Intracerebroventricular injection of [59Fe125I]transferrin led to a higher accumulation of 59Fe than of [125I]transferrin in the brain. Except for uptake and axonal transport by certain neurons with access to the ventricular CSF, both iron and

  15. Retinal iron homeostasis in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Song, Delu; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2013-01-01

    Iron is essential for life, but excess iron can be toxic. As a potent free radical creator, iron generates hydroxyl radicals leading to significant oxidative stress. Since iron is not excreted from the body, it accumulates with age in tissues, including the retina, predisposing to age-related oxidative insult. Both hereditary and acquired retinal diseases are associated with increased iron levels. For example, retinal degenerations have been found in hereditary iron overload disorders, like aceruloplasminemia, Friedreich's ataxia, and pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. Similarly, mice with targeted mutation of the iron exporter ceruloplasmin and its homolog hephaestin showed age-related retinal iron accumulation and retinal degeneration with features resembling human age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Post mortem AMD eyes have increased levels of iron in retina compared to age-matched healthy donors. Iron accumulation in AMD is likely to result, in part, from inflammation, hypoxia, and oxidative stress, all of which can cause iron dysregulation. Fortunately, it has been demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo studies that iron in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and retina is chelatable. Iron chelation protects photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) in a variety of mouse models. This has therapeutic potential for diminishing iron-induced oxidative damage to prevent or treat AMD. PMID:23825457

  16. Phenology cameras observing boreal ecosystems of Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltoniemi, Mikko; Böttcher, Kristin; Aurela, Mika; Kolari, Pasi; Tanis, Cemal Melih; Linkosalmi, Maiju; Loehr, John; Metsämäki, Sari; Nadir Arslan, Ali

    2016-04-01

    Cameras have become useful tools for monitoring seasonality of ecosystems. Low-cost cameras facilitate validation of other measurements and allow extracting some key ecological features and moments from image time series. We installed a network of phenology cameras at selected ecosystem research sites in Finland. Cameras were installed above, on the level, or/and below the canopies. Current network hosts cameras taking time lapse images in coniferous and deciduous forests as well as at open wetlands offering thus possibilities to monitor various phenological and time-associated events and elements. In this poster, we present our camera network and give examples of image series use for research. We will show results about the stability of camera derived color signals, and based on that discuss about the applicability of cameras in monitoring time-dependent phenomena. We will also present results from comparisons between camera-derived color signal time series and daily satellite-derived time series (NVDI, NDWI, and fractional snow cover) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) at selected spruce and pine forests and in a wetland. We will discuss the applicability of cameras in supporting phenological observations derived from satellites, by considering the possibility of cameras to monitor both above and below canopy phenology and snow.

  17. [The plague in Finland in 1710].

    PubMed

    Engström, N G

    1994-01-01

    In the autumn of 1710 Helsinki was struck by the so-called oriental plague during four months. The infection was transferred by black rats which harboured fleas. The flea-bites caused boils. It was believed that the plague was air-borne, and the air was very humid that autumn. Big fires were lit in order to reduce the humidity, the purpose being to make it easier for the infected to breathe. Attempts were also made to dissect the boils. The carriers of the contamination came as refugees from Estland over the Gulf of Finland. The infection had spread from Turkey to Poland and Balticum after the defeat of the Finnish-Swedish army in the summer of 1709 at Poltava in Ucraine. Helsingfors (Helsinki) was struck extremely hard. About two-thirds of the inhabitants died of the pestilence. Some escaped by fleeing to the countryside. The plague spread through the country as far north as to Uleåborg (Oulu) and Cajana (Kajaani). Marketplaces became important centres of infection. With the advent of the frost in December the plague dwindled. At that time Helsinki was practically a dead town.

  18. An Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry and Monte Carlo simulation study of Iron-Age Nuragic small bronzes ("Navicelle") from Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavon, Nick; de Palmas, Anna; Bulla, Claudio; Piga, Giampaolo; Brunetti, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    A spectrometric protocol combining Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry with Monte Carlo simulations of experimental spectra using the XRMC code package has been applied for the first time to characterize the elemental composition of a series of famous Iron Age small scale archaeological bronze replicas of ships (known as the ;Navicelle;) from the Nuragic civilization in Sardinia, Italy. The proposed protocol is a useful, nondestructive and fast analytical tool for Cultural Heritage sample. In Monte Carlo simulations, each sample was modeled as a multilayered object composed by two or three layers depending on the sample: when all present, the three layers are the original bronze substrate, the surface corrosion patina and an outermost protective layer (Paraloid) applied during past restorations. Monte Carlo simulations were able to account for the presence of the patina/corrosion layer as well as the presence of the Paraloid protective layer. It also accounted for the roughness effect commonly found at the surface of corroded metal archaeological artifacts. In this respect, the Monte Carlo simulation approach adopted here was, to the best of our knowledge, unique and enabled to determine the bronze alloy composition together with the thickness of the surface layers without the need for previously removing the surface patinas, a process potentially threatening preservation of precious archaeological/artistic artifacts for future generations.

  19. Brief communication: Two and three-dimensional analysis of bone mass and microstructure in a bog body from the Iron Age.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Arndt F; Kummer, Tobias; Marshall, Robert P; Bauerochse, Andreas; Jopp, Eilin; Pueschel, Klaus; Amling, Michael

    2008-04-01

    Human remains from peat bogs, called "bog bodies," have yielded valuable insights into human history because of their excellent preservation of soft tissue. On the other hand, the acidic environment of the peat leads to an extensive demineralization of skeletal elements, complicating their analysis. We studied the skeleton of the bog body "Moora" dated to approximately 650 B.C. Nondestructive evaluation of the bone was made using contact X-rays, peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) analysis, multislice computed tomography (CT) and high resolution micro computed tomography (microCT) imaging. Two thousand seven hundred years in the acidic environment of the bog led to a loss of 92.7% of bone mineral density. Despite this demineralization and in contrast to other bog bodies, the spatial structure of the bones of "Moora" is exceptionally well preserved. We found Harris lines and were able to obtain the first three-dimensional data on the trabecular microstructure of the bone of a young woman from the early Iron Age.

  20. KEY ITEMS OF INNOVATION MANAGEMENT IN THE PRIMARY HEALTHCARE CENTRES CASE STUDY: FINLAND.

    PubMed

    Aslani, Alireza; Zolfagharzadeh, Mohammad Mahdi; Naaranoja, Marja

    2015-09-01

    Trends such as aging populations, excess costs, rising public expectations, and progress in medical science and technologies point out the necessity of adaptation and development of innovation in the healthcare systems particularly in developed countries. The main objective of this article is to review diffusion of innovation in the healthcare sector. Different types of innovation, diffusion characteristics, and adoption mechanisms are the subjects that are discussed in the selected case study, Finland. Finally, the key items of innovation management in the Finnish health system are introduced. The results can be implemented in other countries as well.

  1. Iron behavior in the ozonation and filtration of groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Sallanko, J.; Lakso, E.; Ropelinen, J.

    2006-08-15

    In Finnish groundwater, the main substances that require treatment are iron and manganese. In addition to this, groundwaters are soft and acidic. Iron removal is usually relatively effective by oxidizing dissolved iron into an insoluble form, either by aeration or chemical oxidation and removing the formed precipitate by sand filtration. Sometimes, if the untreated water contains high amounts of organic matter, problems may arise for iron removal. In Finland, it is quite common that groundwater contains high levels of both iron and natural organic matter, mainly as humic substances. The groundwater of the Kukkala intake plant in Liminka has been found to be problematic, due to its high level of natural organic matter. This research studied the removal of iron from this water by means of oxidation with ozone and filtration. While the oxidation of iron by ozone was rapid, the precipitate particles formed were small, and thus could not be removed by sand and anthracite filtration, and the iron residue in the treated water was more than 2 mg L{sup -1}. And while the filtration was able to remove iron well without the feed of ozone, the iron residue in the treated water was only 0.30 mg L{sup -1}. In this case, iron was led to the filter in a bivalent dissolved form. So, the result of iron removal was the best when the sand/anthracite filter functioned largely as an adsorption filter.

  2. Checklist of tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda) of vertebrates in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Haukisalmi, Voitto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of tapeworms (Cestoda) of vertebrates (fishes, birds and mammals) in Finland is presented, based on published observations, specimens deposited in the collections of the Finnish Museum of Natural History (Helsinki) and the Zoological Museum of the University of Turku, and additional specimens identified by the present author. The checklist includes 170 tapeworm species from 151 host species, comprising 447 parasite species/host species combinations. Thirty of the tapeworm species and 96 of the parasite/host species combinations have not been previously reported from Finland. The total number of tapeworm species in Finland (170 spp.) is significantly lower than the corresponding figure for the Iberian Peninsula (257 spp.), Slovakia (225 spp.) and Poland (279 spp.). The difference between Finland and the other three regions is particularly pronounced for anseriform, podicipediform, charadriiform and passeriform birds, reflecting inadequate and/or biased sampling of these birds in Finland. It is predicted that there are actually ca. 270 species of tapeworms in Finland, assuming that true number of bird tapeworms in Finland corresponds to that in other European countries with more comprehensive knowledge of the local tapeworm fauna. The other main pattern emerging from the present data is the seemingly unexplained absence in (northern) Fennoscandia of several mammalian tapeworms that otherwise have extensive distributions in the Holarctic region or in Eurasia, including the northern regions. Previously unknown type specimens, that is, the holotype of Bothrimonus nylandicus Schneider, 1902 (a junior synonym of Diplocotyle olrikii Krabbe, 1874) (MZH 127096) and the syntypes of Caryophyllaeides fennica (Schneider, 1902) (MZH 127097) were located in the collections of the Finnish Museum of Natural History. PMID:26668540

  3. Checklist of tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda) of vertebrates in Finland.

    PubMed

    Haukisalmi, Voitto

    2015-01-01

    A checklist of tapeworms (Cestoda) of vertebrates (fishes, birds and mammals) in Finland is presented, based on published observations, specimens deposited in the collections of the Finnish Museum of Natural History (Helsinki) and the Zoological Museum of the University of Turku, and additional specimens identified by the present author. The checklist includes 170 tapeworm species from 151 host species, comprising 447 parasite species/host species combinations. Thirty of the tapeworm species and 96 of the parasite/host species combinations have not been previously reported from Finland. The total number of tapeworm species in Finland (170 spp.) is significantly lower than the corresponding figure for the Iberian Peninsula (257 spp.), Slovakia (225 spp.) and Poland (279 spp.). The difference between Finland and the other three regions is particularly pronounced for anseriform, podicipediform, charadriiform and passeriform birds, reflecting inadequate and/or biased sampling of these birds in Finland. It is predicted that there are actually ca. 270 species of tapeworms in Finland, assuming that true number of bird tapeworms in Finland corresponds to that in other European countries with more comprehensive knowledge of the local tapeworm fauna. The other main pattern emerging from the present data is the seemingly unexplained absence in (northern) Fennoscandia of several mammalian tapeworms that otherwise have extensive distributions in the Holarctic region or in Eurasia, including the northern regions. Previously unknown type specimens, that is, the holotype of Bothrimonus nylandicus Schneider, 1902 (a junior synonym of Diplocotyle olrikii Krabbe, 1874) (MZH 127096) and the syntypes of Caryophyllaeides fennica (Schneider, 1902) (MZH 127097) were located in the collections of the Finnish Museum of Natural History.

  4. Tobacco industry strategy to undermine tobacco control in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Hiilamo, H

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify and explain tobacco industry strategy in undermining tobacco control measures in Finland and results of these interferences in tobacco policy development during the 1980s and early 1990s. Methods: Tobacco industry documents, which have been publicly available on the internet as a result of litigation in the USA, were analysed. Documents were sought by Finland and by names of organisations and tobacco control activists. Documents were accessed and assessed between September 2000 and November 2002. Tactics of the tobacco industry activities were categorised as presented by Saloojee and Dagli. Results: The international tobacco companies utilised similar strategies in Finland as in other industrial markets to fight tobacco control and legislation, the health advocacy movement, and litigation. These activities slowed down the development and implementation of the Tobacco Act in Finland. However, despite the extensive pressure, the industry was not able to prevent the most progressive tobacco legislation in Europe from being passed and coming into force in Finland in 1977 and in 1995. Conclusion: Denying the health hazards caused by tobacco—despite indisputable scientific evidence—decreased the credibility of the tobacco industry. Strategy of denial was falsely chosen, as health advocacy groups were active both in society and the parliamentary system. The strong influence of the tobacco industry may have in fact increased the visibility of tobacco control in Finland as the litigation process was also drawing attention to negative health effects of tobacco. Therefore the tobacco industry did not manage to convince public opinion. However, the tobacco industry did obtain experience in Finland in how to object to tobacco control measures. PMID:14660780

  5. Hepcidin Suppresses Brain Iron Accumulation by Downregulating Iron Transport Proteins in Iron-Overloaded Rats.

    PubMed

    Du, Fang; Qian, Zhong-Ming; Luo, Qianqian; Yung, Wing-Ho; Ke, Ya

    2015-08-01

    Iron accumulates progressively in the brain with age, and iron-induced oxidative stress has been considered as one of the initial causes for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Based on the role of hepcidin in peripheral organs and its expression in the brain, we hypothesized that this peptide has a role to reduce iron in the brain and hence has the potential to prevent or delay brain iron accumulation in iron-associated neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we investigated the effects of hepcidin expression adenovirus (ad-hepcidin) and hepcidin peptide on brain iron contents, iron transport across the brain-blood barrier, iron uptake and release, and also the expression of transferrin receptor-1 (TfR1), divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), and ferroportin 1 (Fpn1) in cultured microvascular endothelial cells and neurons. We demonstrated that hepcidin significantly reduced brain iron in iron-overloaded rats and suppressed transport of transferrin-bound iron (Tf-Fe) from the periphery into the brain. Also, the peptide significantly inhibited expression of TfR1, DMT1, and Fpn1 as well as reduced Tf-Fe and non-transferrin-bound iron uptake and iron release in cultured microvascular endothelial cells and neurons, while downregulation of hepcidin with hepcidin siRNA retrovirus generated opposite results. We concluded that, under iron-overload, hepcidin functions to reduce iron in the brain by downregulating iron transport proteins. Upregulation of brain hepcidin by ad-hepcidin emerges as a new pharmacological treatment and prevention for iron-associated neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. Association of restaurant smoking ban and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Sipilä, Jussi Olli Tapani; Gunn, Jarmo Mikael; Kauko, Tommi; Rautava, Päivi; Kytö, Ville

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the changes in nationwide acute myocardial infarction (AMI) incidence following the implementation of a law banning smoking indoors in restaurants on 1 June 2007. Methods Retrospective registry study of all hospitalisations for AMI in Finland. All 34 887 hospitalisations for AMI between 1 June 2005 and 31 May 2009 were identified from the Care Register for Health Care (CRHC) and statistics for tobacco consumption were obtained from the National Institute for Health and Welfare. Comorbidities for individual hospitalisations were searched from the CRHC. Results The incidence rate of AMI was reduced by 6.3% (95% CI 4.1% to 8.6%; p<0.0001) in the latter half of the study period following the smoking ban when adjusted for age, gender and overall population prevalence of smoking. Short-term incidence of AMI (6-month prior vs 6 months after the smoking ban) was also reduced (4.5%, 95% CI 0.2% to 9.0%; p=0.0399) and was largest in the working middle-aged group (40–50 years) but observed also in the oldest age group (>70 years). The incidence rates declined similarly for men and women. Conclusions Banning indoor tobacco smoking in restaurants was associated with a mild additional reduction in AMI incidence on a nationwide level in Finland. PMID:26826146

  7. Model estimates of the impact of bioirrigation activity of MARENZELLERIA spp. on the trophic state of the Gulf of Finland ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, Alexey; Eremina, Tatjana; Savchuk, Oleg; Ryabchenko, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Since the end of the 2000s, a sparcely populated soft bottom area in the deeps of the Eastern Gulf of Finland has been affected by invasive species Marenzelleria spp. The burrow flushing of sediments by Marenzelleria results in deeper penetration of oxygen into the sediments with corresponding redox alterations of nutrient cycling. In oxic conditions, a lager fraction of mineralized phosphates is transformed into particulate form due to formation of iron-humate complexes, thus increasing sediment phosphorus retention and burial. On the contrary, increased oxygen availability reduces nitrogen removal by denitrification, thus leading to larger release of nitrate into the water column. Indeed, as was revealed by long-term observations, the large-scale invasion of Marenzelleria spp. into the Eastern Gulf of Finland was accompanied by significant increase of the N:P ratio (Maximov et al., 2014). For a quantitative assessment of the bioirrigation activity of Marenzelleria spp., sediment parameterizations in SPBEM (St. Petersburg Baltic eutrophication model) have been modified as follows. Intensified burrow flushing is considered as the enlarged water-sediment contact area between water and sediments and described with the coefficient of bioirrigation determined by the abundance of polychaete and radius of their burrows. These parameterizations have been applied for simulation of the Gulf of Finland nutrient dynamics during 2010-2040. Preliminary results of simulations showed that vital activity of invasive Marenzelleria spp. might lead to slowdown or decrease of eutrophication in the Gulf of Finland due to reduction of cyanobacterial blooms

  8. Serum iron, total iron binding capacity, plasma copper and hemoglobin types in anemic and poikilocytic calves.

    PubMed Central

    McGillivray, S R; Searcy, G P; Hirsch, V M

    1985-01-01

    Ninety-eight calves were studied to determine if anemia and poikilocytosis were related to iron or copper status or hemoglobin type. No significant differences were found in serum iron, total iron binding capacity, marrow iron, plasma copper or hemoglobin type between affected and normal calves. Poikilocytes were strongly inversely correlated (-0.9177) with age. Calves less than six weeks of age had more poikilocytes, lower serum iron, higher total iron binding capacity, less adult hemoglobin and more neonatal and fetal hemoglobin than calves greater than six weeks of age. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2412677

  9. Absorption and loss of iron in toddlers are highly correlated.

    PubMed

    Fomon, Samuel J; Nelson, Steven E; Serfass, Robert E; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2005-04-01

    For estimating the requirements for dietary iron, it is important to know the amount of iron that is lost from the body. Inevitable losses of iron have been determined in adult humans but not in infants or children. We administered (58)Fe, the least abundant stable isotope of iron, to free-living infants at 168 d of age (5.6 mo) and followed them to age 26 mo. There was no dietary restriction after isotope administration. Blood was obtained at regular intervals for determination of isotopic enrichment and indices of iron status. We estimated the quantity of circulating iron, noncirculating active iron, and storage iron at each age. The administered isotope equilibrated with total body iron by 13 mo of age. From 13 to 26 mo of age, we estimated inevitable loss and absorption of iron from the change in tracer abundance in circulating iron. The rate of decrease of tracer abundance was proportional to addition of tracee, i.e., absorption of iron. Conversely, the rate of decrease in quantity of tracer was proportional to removal of tracee, i.e., loss of iron. From 13 to 26 mo of age, iron absorption was (mean +/- SD) 0.49 +/- 0.13 mg/d and inevitable iron loss was 0.25 +/- 0.12 mg/d. Intersubject variability of iron loss and iron absorption was high, and iron loss and absorption were highly correlated (r = 0.789, P < 0.001). Iron stores were low throughout the study and decreased significantly from 13 to 26 mo of age, suggesting that iron absorption from the diet was inadequate to maintain or increase iron nutritional status. The data suggest that, in this cohort, which may be representative, the intake of bioavailable iron from 13 to 26 mo of age was insufficient to maintain iron nutritional status.

  10. Aquifer Properties in Hepokangas, Northern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihlaja, M. Sc.

    2012-04-01

    Hepokangas study area is located in northern Finland, app. 60 km north-east of the city of Oulu. It consists of an esker ridge which ranges in elevation from 95 to 105 m.a.s.l. Consequently, all Quaternary deposits in the area have been influenced by erosional and depositional processes during two Baltic Sea stages (Ancylus Lake and Littorina Sea). Therefore, raised beaches are found on the esker slopes and fine grained sediments on the lowlands. The studied aquifer, the Hepokangas esker is part of an discontinuous chain of eskers which, in total, is about 100 km long and is elongated from north-west to south-east. The direction indicates that the esker was deposited by the melt waters during the latest phase of Weichselian glaciation. The primary part of the esker is located in the western segment of the area and a delta-like expansion of an esker is in the eastern part of the study area . Level of the ground water table (GWT) was measured at 14 ground water pipes which were located in varying parts of the Hepokangas formation. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were conducted on the primary part of the esker in order to determine internal structures and estimate permeability of the formation. Ground water flow directions were interpreted based on these measurements. The GWT varies from 91.91 to 97.98 m.a.s.l. Since the Hepokangas formation is surrounded by mires the height of the GWT decreased towards them. There was a water pumping station on the primary part of the formation, but no clear effect to the GWT could be seen to be caused by that. From the GPR results, some locations of the coarse grain sediments with high permeability were found.

  11. Upgrading the Northern Finland Seismological Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narkilahti, Janne; Kozlovskaya, Elena; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Hurskainen, Riitta; Nevalainen, Jouni

    2016-04-01

    The Finnish National Seismic Network (FNSN) comprises national Helsinki University Seismological network (HE) ISUH and the Northern Finland Seismological Network (FN) hosted by the Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (SGO) of the University of Oulu. The FN network currently consists of four real-time permanent stations equipped with Streckeisen STS-2 broad band seismometers that are recording continuous digital seismic data. At present, the network is a part of GEOFON Extended Virtual Network and of the ORFEUS Virtual European Broadband Seismograph Network. In the future, the network will be the part of EPOS-European Plate Observing System research infrastructure. As a part of EPOS project activities, the SGO started to upgrade their own network in 2014. The main target of the network upgrade is to increase the permanent station coverage in the European Arctic region, particularly behind the Polar Circle. Another target is to transform the network into a broadband seismic array capable to detect long-period seismic signals originating from seismic events in the Arctic. The first upgrade phase started in 2014, when two new stations were installed and now are working in the test regime. These stations are used as prototypes for testing seismic equipment and technical solutions for real-time data transmission and vault construction under cold climate conditions. The first prototype station is installed in a surface vault and equipped with Nanometrics Trillium 120P sensor, while the other one is installed in a borehole and equipped with Trillium Posthole seismometer. These prototype stations have provided to us valuable experience on the downhole and surface deployment of broadband seismic instruments. We also have been able to compare the capabilities and performance of high sensitivity broadband sensor deployed in borehole with that deployed in surface vault. The results of operation of prototype stations will be used in site selection and installation of four new

  12. The development of railway safety in Finland.

    PubMed

    Silla, Anne; Kallberg, Veli-Pekka

    2012-03-01

    This study reviews the development of railway safety in Finland from 1959 to 2008. The results show that the level of safety has greatly improved over the past five decades. The total number of railway fatalities did not show any obvious decreasing or increasing trend during the first decade, but since the early 1970s the annual number of fatalities has decreased from about 100 to 20. The estimated overall annual reduction per year from 1970 to 2008 was 5.4% (with a 95% confidence interval from -8.2% to -2.6%). The reduction in subcategories per million train-kilometres from 1959 to 2008 was 4.4% per year for passengers, 8.3% for employees, 5.0% for road users at level crossings and 3.6% for others (mainly trespassers). The safety improvement for passengers and staff was probably influenced by the introduction of central locking of doors in passenger cars and improved procedures to protect railway employees working on the tracks. The number of road users killed at level crossings has fallen due to the installation of barriers and the construction of overpasses and underpasses at crossings with dense traffic, removal of level crossings, and an improvement of conditions such as visibility at crossings. The number of trespasser fatalities has seen the least decline. Key plans for the future include further reduction of the number of level crossings on the state railway network from the current roughly 3500-2200 by 2025, and involving communities in safety work related to railway trespassers.

  13. Multiple-Micronutrient Fortified Non-Dairy Beverage Interventions Reduce the Risk of Anemia and Iron Deficiency in School-Aged Children in Low-Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (i-iv).

    PubMed

    Aaron, Grant J; Dror, Daphna K; Yang, Zhenyu

    2015-05-21

    Multiple-micronutrient (MMN) fortification of beverages may be an effective option to deliver micronutrients to vulnerable populations. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the nutritional impacts of MMN fortified beverages in the context of low-middle income countries. A systematic search of published literature yielded 1022 citations, of which 10 randomized controlled trials (nine in school-aged children and one in pregnant women) met inclusion criteria. Results of school-aged children were included in the meta-analysis. Compared to iso-caloric controls, children who received MMN fortified beverages for 8 weeks to 6 months showed significant improvements in hemoglobin (+2.76 g/L, 95% CI [1.19, 4.33], p = 0.004; 8 studies) and serum ferritin (+15.42 pmol/L, [5.73, 25.12], p = 0.007; 8 studies); and reduced risk of anemia (RR 0.58 [0.29, 0.88], p = 0.005; 6 studies), iron deficiency (RR 0.34 [0.21, 0.55], p = 0.002; 7 studies), and iron deficiency anemia (RR 0.17 [0.06, 0.53], p = 0.02; 3 studies). MMN fortified beverage interventions could have major programmatic implications for reducing the burden of anemia and iron deficiency in school-aged children in low-middle income countries. Additional research is needed to investigate effects on other biochemical outcomes and population subgroups.

  14. Neuroprotective and neurorestorative activities of a novel iron chelator-brain selective monoamine oxidase-A/monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor in animal models of Parkinson's disease and aging.

    PubMed

    Bar-Am, Orit; Amit, Tamar; Kupershmidt, Lana; Aluf, Yuval; Mechlovich, Danit; Kabha, Hoda; Danovitch, Lena; Zurawski, Vincent R; Youdim, Moussa B H; Weinreb, Orly

    2015-03-01

    Recently, we have designed and synthesized a novel multipotent, brain-permeable iron-chelating drug, VAR10303 (VAR), possessing both propargyl and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitory moieties. The present study was undertaken to determine the multiple pharmacological activities of VAR in neurodegenerative preclinical models. We demonstrate that VAR affords iron chelating/iron-induced lipid-peroxidation inhibitory potency and brain selective MAO-A and MAO-B inhibitory effects, with only limited tyramine-cardiovascular potentiation of blood pressure. The results show that in 6-hydroxydopamine rat (neuroprotection) and in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse (neurorescue) Parkinson's disease models, VAR significantly attenuated the loss of striatal dopamine levels, markedly reduced dopamine turnover, and increased tyrosine-hydroxylase levels. Furthermore, chronic systemic treatment of aged rats with VAR improved cognitive behavior deficits and enhanced the expression levels of neurotrophic factors (e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor, and nerve growth factor), Bcl-2 family members and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Our study indicates that the multitarget compound VAR exerted neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects in animal models of Parkinson's disease and aging, further suggesting that a drug that can regulate multiple brain targets could be an ideal treatment-strategy for age-associated neurodegenerative disorders.

  15. 77 FR 14733 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland and the Netherlands: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland and the Netherlands: Extension..., inter alia, purified carboxymethylcellulose from Finland and the Netherlands covering the period July...

  16. Checklist of the leaf-mining flies (Diptera, Agromyzidae) of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the Agromyzidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented. 279 (or 280) species are currently known from the country. Phytomyza linguae Lundqvist, 1947 is recorded as new to Finland. PMID:25337025

  17. Quantifying climate changes of the Common Era for Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luoto, Tomi P.; Nevalainen, Liisa

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we aim to quantify summer air temperatures from sediment records from Southern, Central and Northern Finland over the past 2000 years. We use lake sediment archives to estimate paleotemperatures applying fossil Chironomidae assemblages and the transfer function approach. The used enhanced Chironomidae-based temperature calibration set was validated in a 70-year high-resolution sediment record against instrumentally measured temperatures. Since the inferred and observed temperatures showed close correlation, we deduced that the new calibration model is reliable for reconstructions beyond the monitoring records. The 700-year long temperature reconstructions from three sites at multi-decadal temporal resolution showed similar trends, although they had differences in timing of the cold Little Ice Age (LIA) and the initiation of recent warming. The 2000-year multi-centennial reconstructions from three different sites showed resemblance with each other having clear signals of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and LIA, but with differences in their timing. The influence of external forcing on climate of the southern and central sites appeared to be complex at the decadal scale, but the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) was closely linked to the temperature development of the northern site. Solar activity appears to be synchronous with the temperature fluctuations at the multi-centennial scale in all the sites. The present study provides new insights into centennial and decadal variability in air temperature dynamics in Northern Europe and on the external forcing behind these trends. These results are particularly useful in comparing regional responses and lags of temperature trends between different parts of Scandinavia.

  18. Screening for late-onset Pompe disease in Finland.

    PubMed

    Palmio, Johanna; Auranen, Mari; Kiuru-Enari, Sari; Löfberg, Mervi; Bodamer, Olaf; Udd, Bjarne

    2014-11-01

    Pompe disease (glycogen storage disease type II) is caused by autosomal recessive mutations in GAA gene. The estimated frequency of late-onset Pompe disease is around 1:60,000. However, only two infantile and one late-onset Pompe patients have been reported in Finland with a population of 5 million. We screened for late-onset Pompe disease in a cohort of undetermined myopathy patients with proximal muscle weakness and/or elevated serum creatine kinase values. Acid α-glucosidase (GAA) activity in dried blood spots was measured and clinical data collected in 108 patients. Four patients had low normal GAA activity; all the others had activities well within the normal range. Re-analyses of these patients did not reveal new Pompe patients. Our findings suggest that Pompe disease is extremely rare in Finland. Finland is an example of an isolated population with enrichment of certain mutations for genetic disorders and low occurrence of some autosomal recessive diseases.

  19. Iron homeostasis and eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Allison; Hadziahmetovic, Majda; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Iron is necessary for life, but excess iron can be toxic to tissues. Iron is thought to damage tissues primarily by generating oxygen free radicals through the Fenton reaction. We present an overview of the evidence supporting iron's potential contribution to a broad range of eye disease using an anatomical approach. Firstly, iron can be visualized in the cornea as iron lines in the normal aging cornea as well as in diseases like keratoconus and pterygium. In the lens, we present the evidence for the role of oxidative damage in cataractogenesis. Also, we review the evidence that iron may play a role in the pathogenesis of the retinal disease age-related macular degeneration. Although currently there is no direct link between excess iron and development of optic neuropathies, ferrous iron's ability to form highly reactive oxygen species may play a role in optic nerve pathology. Lastly, we discuss recent advances in prevention and therapeutics for eye disease with antioxidants and iron chelators,. PMID:19059309

  20. Sex, age, and tissue specific accumulation of eight metals, arsenic, and selenium in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus).

    PubMed

    Rautio, Anni; Kunnasranta, Mervi; Valtonen, Anu; Ikonen, Mirva; Hyvärinen, Heikki; Holopainen, Ismo J; Kukkonen, Jussi V K

    2010-11-01

    Many insectivores have been shown to be sensitive to heavy metals and therefore suitable for biomonitoring purposes. In Finland, the hibernation period of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) is long, and during hibernation the stress caused by environmental toxins may be crucial. Concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and selenium (Se) were measured in a population of hedgehogs in the town of Joensuu in eastern Finland during the summers of 2004 and 2005. The analyzed tissues were kidney, liver, hair, and spine. The sampled hedgehogs (n = 65) were mainly road-killed animals. As expected, the concentrations of heavy metals were low because the hedgehogs were living in a comparatively unpolluted area. Significant increases with age were found in Cd concentrations (kidney, liver, and spine) and some essential elements (Se in spine, kidney, and liver; Mo in kidney and liver; Cu in spine; Fe in liver; and Mn in spine). Age accumulation and correlations between Se and Cd and between Mo and Cd may indicate the protective roles of Se and Mo against Cd toxicity in hedgehogs, in which Cd is already at comparatively low concentrations. Sex had no significant effect on concentrations of the elements studied. In conclusion, age is an important parameter to be taken into account when studying heavy-metal concentrations in hedgehogs and other insectivores.

  1. Fallout from Chernobyl and incidence of childhood leukaemia in Finland, 1976-92.

    PubMed Central

    Auvinen, A.; Hakama, M.; Arvela, H.; Hakulinen, T.; Rahola, T.; Suomela, M.; Söderman, B.; Rytömaa, T.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess effects of fallout from Chernobyl on incidence of childhood leukaemia in Finland. DESIGN--Nationwide cohort study. External exposure measured for 455 Finnish municipalities with instruments driven 19,000 km throughout the country. Values specific to municipalities corrected for shielding due to houses and fallout from A bomb testing. Internal exposure estimated from whole body measurements on a random sample of 81 children. Mean effective dose for two years after incident calculated from these measurements. Data on childhood leukaemia obtained from Finnish cancer registry and verified through hospitals treating childhood cancers. SETTING--Finland, one of the countries most heavily contaminated by the Chernobyl accident; the population was divided into fifths by exposure. SUBJECTS--Children aged 0-14 years in 1976-92. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Standardised incidence ratio of childhood leukaemia and relative excess risk of childhood leukaemia per mSv. From incidence data of Finnish cancer registry for 1976-85, expected numbers specific to sex and age group (0-4, 5-9, and 10-14 years) were calculated for each municipality for three periods (1976-85, 1986-8, and 1989-92) and pooled as exposure fifths. Dose response was estimated as regression slope of standardised incidence ratios on mean doses for fifths for each period. RESULTS--Population weighted mean effective doses for first two years after the accident were 410 microSv for the whole country and 970 microSv for the population fifth with the highest dose. In all Finland the incidence of childhood leukaemia did not increase 1976-92. The relative excess risk 1989-92 was not significantly different from zero (7% per mSv; 95% confidence interval -27% to 41%). CONCLUSIONS--An important increase in childhood leukaemia can be excluded. Any effect is smaller than eight extra cases per million children per year in Finland. The results are consistent with the magnitude of effect expected. PMID:8044092

  2. Tooth wear and dental pathology of the Bronze-Iron Age people in Xinjiang, Northwest China: Implications for their diet and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Liu, W; Zhang, Q C; Wu, X J; Zhu, H

    2010-04-01

    Tooth wear and dental pathology related to diet and lifestyle were investigated in the human dental remains unearthed from three archaeological sites of Bronze Age and Iron Age in Xinjiang of northwest China, and in comparative samples from two Neolithic sites in Henan and Shanxi in central China along the Yellow River. Our results indicate that the average tooth wear on most tooth types in the three Xinjiang sites was close to those of the Neolithic samples from central China. The variation within the Xinjiang samples was also explored. Some special wear patterns such as severe wear on the first molar and relatively heavy wear of anterior teeth were observed on the specimens from the Xinjiang sites. Obvious differences in caries and antemortem tooth loss were found between Xinjiang and comparative samples with higher frequencies of caries observed in samples from central China and higher antemortem tooth loss in samples from the Xinjiang sites. Strongly developed exostoses (tori) were also identified on mandibles and maxillae of the specimens from Xinjiang. The authors believe that the differences in tooth wear and dental pathology between Xinjiang and central China were caused by differences in diet and lifestyle. Food of a harder texture was consumed by the people who lived in Xinjiang than by the people in Henan and Shanxi of central China. The higher occurrence of heavily worn anterior teeth and some other special wear patterns, antemortem tooth loss and presence of exostoses on jaw bones in Xinjiang suggest that the people in Xinjiang lived in a relatively harsh environment, frequently gnawing hard objects, or using teeth as some kind of tools. All these activities put masticatory organs under a heavy load. The differences in caries frequencies between the frontier and central areas of China indicate that food richer in carbohydrates was consumed by the people in the central areas. It is proposed that about 3000-2000 years BP in many areas of frontier

  3. Control of typhus fever in Finland during World War II.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Helene

    2009-12-01

    The article describes the measures taken against the threat of typhus epidemic in Finland during the Second World War. Comparisons between countries at war and their different typhus prevention methods are made. The main method of typhus prevention in Finland consisted of regular sauna bathing, which was culturally acceptable and very efficient when combined with heating of the clothing. The Finnish troops remained virtually louse-free by ecological and traditional methods, and thus the spread of typhus fever in the army could be prevented.

  4. Mortality and causes of death among incident cases of systemic lupus erythematosus in Finland 2000-2008.

    PubMed

    Elfving, P; Puolakka, K; Kautiainen, H; Virta, L J; Pohjolainen, T; Kaipiainen-Seppänen, O

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate mortality and causes of death in patients with recent-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Finland. Data for patients with SLE for the study were collected (2000-2007) from the nationwide register on decisions of special reimbursements for drugs, maintained by the Social Insurance Institution (SII) in Finland. Data on deaths of the patients were obtained from the official death certificate statistics of Statistics Finland until the end of 2008. Of the 566 incident SLE patients, median follow-up time was 5.4 (IQR 3.3, 7.1) years, and 30 patients (23 females, seven males) died in the years 2000 through 2008. Mean age at death was 67.8 ± 17.2 years for females and 62.3 ± 15.2 years for males. The 5-year survival rates were 94.8% (95%CI 92.0-96.6%) and 88.2% (95%CI 76.5-94.3%), respectively. The age- and sex-adjusted standardized mortality ratio was 1.48 (95%CI 1.01-2.12). Primary causes of death were cardiovascular diseases, malignancy and SLE itself. In conclusion, survival of the patients with SLE was inferior to that of the general population. Cardiovascular diseases were responsible for 37% of deaths.

  5. Cross-cultural Temperamental Differences in Infants, Children, and Adults in the United States of America and Finland

    PubMed Central

    Gaias, Larissa M.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Fisher, Philip A.; Putnam, Samuel P.; Räikkönen, Katri; Komsi, Niina

    2012-01-01

    Cross-cultural differences in temperament were investigated between infants (n = 131, 84 Finns), children (n = 653, 427 Finns), and adults (n = 759, 538 Finns) from the United States of America and Finland. Participants from both cultures completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire, Childhood Behavior Questionnaire, and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire. Across all ages, Americans received higher ratings on temperamental fearfulness than Finnish individuals, and also demonstrated higher levels of other negative affects at several time points. During infancy and adulthood, Finns tended to score higher on positive affect and elements of temperamental effortful control. Gender differences consistent with prior studies emerged cross-culturally, and were found to be more pronounced in the U.S. during childhood and in Finland during adulthood. PMID:22428997

  6. Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in Finland, 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Smit, Pieter Willem; Haanperä, Marjo; Rantala, Pirre; Couvin, David; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Rastogi, Nalin; Ruutu, Petri; Soini, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    In industrialized countries the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases are linked to immigration. In Finland, most cases are still Finnish born but the number of foreign born cases is steadily increasing. In this 4-year population based study, the TB situation in Finland was characterized by a genotypic analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. A total of 1048 M. tuberculosis isolates (representing 99.4% of all culture positive cases) were analyzed by spoligotyping and MIRU. Spoligotype lineages belonging to the Euro-American family were predominant among the Finnish isolates, particularly T (n=346, 33.0%) and Haarlem (n=237, 22.6%) strains. The lineage signature was unknown for 130 (12.4%) isolates. Out of the 17 multi-drug resistant TB strains, 10 (58.8%) belonged to the Beijing lineage. In total, 23 new SIT designations were given and 51 orphan strains were found, of which 58 patterns were unique to Finland. Phylogeographical TB mapping as compared to neighboring countries showed that the population structure in Finland most closely resembled that observed in Sweden. By combining spoligotyping and MIRU results, 98 clusters comprising 355 isolates (33.9%) were found. Only 10 clusters contained both Finnish and foreign born cases. In conclusion, a large proportion of the M. tuberculosis isolates were from Finnish born elderly patients. Moreover, many previously unidentified spoligotype profiles and isolates belonging to unknown lineages were encountered.

  7. Evaluating the Quality of the Child Care in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hujala, Eeva; Fonsen, Elina; Elo, Janniina

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examine parents' and teachers' perceptions of the early childhood education and care (ECEC) quality in Finland. The study is based on the paradigm of inclusionary quality and the assessment is based on the quality evaluation model. The parents and teachers assess the quality to be good. The strength of the quality was the effect…

  8. Thematic Review on Adult Learning: Finland. Background Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    In international comparisons, participation in adult learning in Finland is high. Work or career development is the main reason for participation. Persons starting with greater educational attainment participate in adult learning opportunities more. Roots of adult education and training (AET) lie in liberal education; those of occupational AET in…

  9. School Autonomy, Leadership and Student Achievement: Reflections from Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarivirta, Toni; Kumpulainen, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide national information on school autonomy, leadership and student achievements in Finland. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is a literature review on Finnish studies focusing on school autonomy, leadership and student achievement. The studies have been reviewed on the basis of a content…

  10. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Bacteremia, Finland, 1995–2004

    PubMed Central

    Vähäkuopus, Susanna; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Vuento, Risto; Syrjänen, Jaana

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective population-based study of 140 episodes of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia occurring in Finland during 1995–2004. Rare emm types were associated with more severe disease and increased mortality rates. Skin and soft tissue infections were more frequent clinical signs among cases caused by common emm types. PMID:20409380

  11. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Bacteremia, Finland, 1995-2004.

    PubMed

    Rantala, Sari; Vahakuopus, Susanna; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Vuento, Risto; Syrjanen, Jaana

    2010-05-01

    We conducted a retrospective population-based study of 140 episodes of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia occurring in Finland during 1995-2004. Rare emm types were associated with more severe disease and increased mortality rates. Skin and soft tissue infections were more frequent clinical signs among cases caused by common emm types.

  12. Young Children's Number Sense in Finland, Hong Kong and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aunio, Pirjo; Ee, Jessie; Lim, Swee Eng Audrey; Hautamaki, Jarkko; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines young children's number sense in subjects from Finland (n =254), Hong Kong (n =246), and Singapore (n =130). Chinese, English and Finnish versions of the Early Numeracy Test (ENT; Van Luit et al., 1994) were used. Two highly correlated aspects of number sense were measured, one reflecting children's abilities to organize and…

  13. Teaching Popular Music in Finland: What's Up, What's Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakeva, Lauri

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the history and current situation of popular music pedagogy in Finland. While popular music is widely accepted in the curriculum, there are differences in its application in the comprehensive schools and music institutions. Popular styles were first introduced into Finnish music education by secondary school music teachers;…

  14. Bear attack--A unique fatality in Finland.

    PubMed

    De Giorgio, Fabio; Rainio, Juha; Pascali, Vincenzo; Lalu, Kaisa

    2007-11-15

    Fatalities due to animal bites, the vast majority of which are associated with dogs and big cats, are relatively uncommon and rarely described in the literature. Especially rare are fatal bear attacks on humans. We herein present a forensic investigation of a fatal assault, involving numerous bites on a 42-year-old man in Finland by an European brown bear (Ursus arctos arctos).

  15. Surveying Supported Employment in Finland: A Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saloviita, Timo; Pirttimaa, Raija

    2007-01-01

    The longitudinal status of supported employment in Finland was examined via a 2003 nationwide survey sent to job coaches involved in supporting workers with intellectual and other disabilities. Sustained supported employment, defined as "paid work in integrated settings with ongoing supports that contained at least two on-site visits per…

  16. Marital Status as a Predictor of Perinatal Outcome in Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manderbacka, Kristiina; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined association between mother's marital status and perinatal outcome among single births in Finland in 1987 (n=56,595 infants). Found that perinatal deaths, low birthweight, and preterm infants were more common among single mothers than among married mothers. Results for cohabiting mothers were more similar to those of married than to those…

  17. Needs for Rural Research in the Northern Finland Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muilu, Toivo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the needs and demands which rural research faces at the interface between research and development. The case study area is northern Finland, which constitutes the most remote and sparsely populated areas of the European Union. This paper is based on the tradition of rural research since the 1980s in connection…

  18. Problematizing Finland's Pursuit of Intercultural (Kindergarten) Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layne, Heidi; Dervin, Fred

    2016-01-01

    The argument that teachers should become ethical intercultural teachers is increasingly recognized as legitimate. This article presents a case study in kindergarten teacher education in Finland, a country that has been at the center of global discussions about quality education. The authors question the agenda for studying and teaching in an…

  19. My Lifelong Learning Realm: An Autoethnography Experiential Learning in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh

    2011-01-01

    My journey to write autoethnography report started with inclination to learn cultural and social phenomena in Finland. This was my realm of learning through experiential learning. The ontological philosophy was perceived through objectivistic and subjectivistic approaches. The lifelong experiential learning realm was a benchmark for me to perceive…

  20. Learning Practices of Femininity through Gendered Craft Education in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokko, Sirpa

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the processes and practices that link crafts and gender in the upbringing and education of girls. The paper is based on a study conducted among female primary school trainee teachers in Finland. The data are comprised of their experiences with crafts as schoolgirls. The methods of the study were memory work and writing of…

  1. Teacher Education in Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostinelli, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a brief analysis of teacher education in five European countries: Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland. In the post-industrial world, the sense of teaching has profoundly changed, influenced by a rapidly evolving socio-economic context. The responses given by each country are different, but two tendencies emerge: on…

  2. Interaction of Language Policy and Assessment in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarnanen, Mirja; Huhta, Ari

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews developments and future challenges in language policy, planning and assessment in Finland, where several important changes in legislation, curricula and assessment systems have recently taken place. Language proficiency requirement of immigrants and civil servants have been redefined, school curricula have been revised and new…

  3. Adults' Numeracy in Finland: What Do We Know about It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassi, Marja-Liisa; Hannula, Aino; Salo i Nevado, Laia

    2008-01-01

    Adult education has become a significant aspect of Finnish educational and developmental policy as well as of Finnish labor and social policies. Such factors as the need for occupational proficiency, employment, and economic growth have strongly influenced adult education in Finland. Besides the development of personality and support for the life…

  4. Thematic Review on Adult Learning: Finland. Country Note. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This country note analyzes main issues concerning adult learning and policy responses in Finland. Section 2 describes the political, economic, and social context in which adult learning fits. Sections 3-6 follow these four themes impinging on adult participation in learning: inadequate incentives and motivations; complex pathways between learning…

  5. Teaching Russian as a Heritage Language in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protassova, Ekaterina

    2008-01-01

    Originating from many different sources, Russian as a heritage language in Finland displays a spectrum of developmental tendencies: both attrition and maintenance can be observed in various degrees. The Finnish educational system allows for the organization of bilingual pre-schools and schools when there are sufficient numbers of potential pupils.…

  6. Children as Consumers of Historical Culture in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rantala, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    The article examines the reception of history by 7-10-year-old children in Finland and the role of historical culture in the formation of children's conceptions of the past. It scrutinizes how history is used to build individual and collective identities and bring significance to the past in children's everyday lives. Interviews with 174 pupils in…

  7. Career Burnout and Its Relationship to Couple Burnout in Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laes, Timo; Laes, Tuula

    This study is part of cross cultural research on the relationship between career and couple burnout in six countries (England, Finland, Israel, Portugal, Spain, and the USA.) This pilot study presents first results of Finnish data. Female elementary school teachers (N=56) and male students (N=70) in academic professional education completed the…

  8. Cystic fibrosis in Finland: a molecular and genealogical study.

    PubMed

    Kere, J; Norio, R; Savilahti, E; Estivill, X; de la Chapelle, A

    1989-08-01

    The incidence of cystic fibrosis (CF) in Finland is one tenth that in other Caucasian populations. To study the genetics of CF in Finland, we used a combined molecular and genealogical approach. Out of the 20 Finnish families with a living CF patient, 19 were typed for eight closely linked restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) at the MET, D7S8, and D7S23 loci. The birthplaces of the parents and grandparents were traced using population registries. Allele and haplotype frequencies in Finland are similar to those of other European and North American populations, but are modified by sampling: two regional CF gene clusters, evidently the results of a founder effect, were identified. Generally, the gene was evenly distributed over the population, carrier frequency being estimated at approximately 1.3%. We conclude that CF in Finland is caused by the common Caucasian mutation(s), and that the low frequency of the gene can be explained by a negative sampling effect and genetic drift.

  9. Segregation, Integration, Inclusion--The Ideology and Reality in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivirauma, Joel; Klemela, Kirsi; Rinne, Risto

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we try to examine the classical sociological points of special education, especially the organizational form of special education, social background of students and the minority status of students. The material of the study was collected mostly during 2003 from one large city in Finland. This city has more than a 100-year-long…

  10. Students' Attitudes towards Craft and Technology in Iceland and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorsteinsson, Gísli; Ólafsson, Brynjar; Autio, Ossi

    2012-01-01

    Craft education in both Finland and Iceland originated over 140 years ago and was influenced by the Scandinavian Sloyd pedagogy. Since then, the subject has moved away from craft and towards technology, with the aim being to increase students' technological abilities. In the beginning, the subject largely focused on the students copying artefacts,…

  11. Teaching Linear Equations: Case Studies from Finland, Flanders and Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Paul; Sayers, Judy

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we compare how three teachers, one from each of Finland, Flanders and Hungary, introduce linear equations to grade 8 students. Five successive lessons were videotaped and analysed qualitatively to determine how teachers, each of whom was defined against local criteria as effective, addressed various literature-derived…

  12. Holocene development of the eastern Gulf of Finland coastal zone (Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchuk, Daria; Sergeev, Alexander; Gusentsova, Tatiana; Gerasimov, Dmitry; Zhamoida, Vladimir; Amantov, Aleksey; Kulkova, Marianna; Sorokin, Peter

    2014-05-01

    In 2011-2013 geoarcheological and marine geological research of the eastern Gulf of Finland coasts and near-shore bottom were undertaken. Researches were concentrated within several key-areas (Sestroretskaya Lowland, Narva-Luga Klint Bay and southern coastal zone of the Gulf (near Bolshaya Izhora village). Study areas can provide important information about Gulf of Finland Holocene coastal development as since Ancylus time (about 10000 cal.BP). Development of numerous sand accretion forms (spits, bars, dunes) of different shape, age and genesis caused formation of lagoon systems, situated now on-land due to land uplift. Coasts of lagoons in Sestroretskaya Lowland and Narva-Luga Klint Bay were inhabited by Neolithic and Early Metal people. Analysis of coastal morphology and results of geological research (GIS relief analyses, ground penetrating radar, drilling, grain-size analyses, radiocarbon dating) and geoarcheological studies allowed to reconstruct the mechanism of large accretion bodies (bars and spits) and lagoon systems formation during last 8000 years. Geoarcheological studies carried out within eastern Gulf of Finland coasts permitted to find some features of the Neolithic - Early Metal settlements distribution. Another important features of the eastern Gulf of Finland coastal zone relief are the series of submarine terraces found in the Gulf bottom (sea water depths 10 to 2 m). Analyses of the submarine terraces morphology and geology (e.g. grain-size distribution, pollen analyses and organic matter dating) allow to suppose that several times during Holocene (including preAncylus (11000 cal.BP) and preLittorina (8500 cal.BP) regressions) the sea-water level was lower than nowadays. During the maximal stage of the Littorina transgression (7600-7200 cal. BP) several open bays connected with the Littorina Sea appeared in this area. The lagoon systems and sand accretion bodies (spits and bars) were formed during the following decreasing of the sea level. Late

  13. Acid sulfate soils are an environmental hazard in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2016-04-01

    Acid sulfate soils (ASS) create significant threats to the environment on coastal regions of the Baltic Sea in Finland. The sediments were deposited during the ancient Litorina Sea phase of the Baltic Sea about 7500-4500 years ago. Finland has larger spatial extent of the ASS than any other European country. Mostly based on anthropogenic reasons (cultivation, trenching etc.) ASS deposits are currently being exposed to oxygen which leads to chemical reaction creating sulfuric acid. The acidic waters then dissolve metals form the soil. Acidic surface run off including the metals are then leached into the water bodies weakening the water quality and killing fish or vegetation. In constructed areas acidic waters may corrode building materials. Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is mapping ASS deposits in Finland. The goal is to map a total of 5 million hectares of the potentially ASS affected region. It has been estimated that the problematic Litorina Sea deposits, which are situated 0-100 m above the recent Baltic Sea shoreline, cover 500 000 hectares area. There are several phases in mapping. The work begins at the office with gathering the existing data, interpreting airborne geophysical data and compiling a field working plan. In the field, quality of the soil is studied and in uncertain cases samples are taken to laboratory analyses. Also electrical conductivity and pH of soil and water are measured in the field. Laboratory methods include multielemental determinations with ICP-OES, analyses of grain size and humus content (LOI), and incubation. So far, approximately 60 % of the potential ASS affected regions in Finland are mapped. Over 15 000 sites have been studied in the field and 4000 laboratory analyses are done. The spatial database presented in the scale of 1: 250 000 can be viewed at the GTK's web pages (http://gtkdata.gtk.fi/hasu/index.html).

  14. Changes in premature deaths in Finland: successful long-term prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Puska, P.; Vartiainen, E.; Tuomilehto, J.; Salomaa, V.; Nissinen, A.

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the long-term consequences of successful cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and its influence on premature mortality in Finland, with special reference to North Karelia. Active community-based CVD prevention began in 1972 in the province of North Karelia (population, 180,000). Since 1977, active preventive work has been carried out nationwide, taking advantage of the experience from North Karelia, which continued as a demonstration area for integrated prevention of noncommunicable diseases. Comprehensive community-based interventions as part of WHO interhealth and CINDI programmes in North Karelia and nationwide aimed at changing the target risk factors and health behaviours (serum cholesterol, blood pressure, smoking, diet) at the population level. Age-adjusted mortality rates for CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disease, all cancers, lung cancer, accidents and violence, and all causes in the population aged 35-64 years from the pre-programme period (1969-71) to 1995 were the main measures of the outcome. Among men there was a great reduction in deaths from CHD, CVD, cancer, and all causes in the whole country. From 1969-71 to 1995 the age-standardized CHD mortality (per 100,000) decreased in North Karelia by 73% (from 672 to 185) and nationwide by 65% (from 465 to 165). The reduction in CVD mortality was of the same magnitude. Among men, CHD mortality decreased in the 1970s, as did lung cancer mortality in the 1980s and 1990s, significantly more in North Karelia than in all of Finland. Among women there was a great reduction in CVD (including CHD and stroke) mortality and all-causes mortality, but only a small reduction in cancer mortality. These results show that a major reduction in CVD mortality among the working-age population can take place in association with active reduction of major risk factors, with a favourable impact on cancer and all-causes mortality. PMID:9803593

  15. The Genetics of Sexuality and Aggression (GSA) twin samples in Finland.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ada; Jern, Patrick; Santtila, Pekka; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Eriksson, Elias; Westberg, Lars; Nyman, Henrik; Pensar, Johan; Corander, Jukka; Sandnabba, N Kenneth

    2013-02-01

    The Genetics of Sexuality and Aggression (GSA) project was launched at the Abo Akademi University in Turku, Finland in 2005 and has so far undertaken two major population-based data collections involving twins and siblings of twins. To date, it consists of about 14,000 individuals (including 1,147 informative monozygotic twin pairs, 1,042 informative same-sex dizygotic twin pairs, 741 informative opposite-sex dizygotic twin pairs). Participants have been recruited through the Central Population Registry of Finland and were 18-49 years of age at the time of the data collections. Saliva samples for DNA genotyping (n = 4,278) and testosterone analyses (n = 1,168) were collected in 2006. The primary focus of the data collections has been on sexuality (both sexual functioning and sexual behavior) and aggressive behavior. This paper provides an overview of the data collections as well as an outline of the phenotypes and biological data assembled within the project. A detailed overview of publications can be found at the project's Web site: http://www.cebg.fi/.

  16. Measurement invariance of the Driver Behavior Questionnaire across samples of young drivers from Finland and Ireland.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Markus; Fearghal, O'Brien; Lajunen, Timo; Gormley, Michael; Summala, Heikki

    2015-05-01

    This article investigates the factor structure of the 27-item Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) in two samples of young drivers (18-25 years of age); one from Finland and the other from Ireland. We compare the two-, three-, and four-factor solutions using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and show that the four-factor model (with the latent variables rule violations, aggressive violations, slips and lapses) fits the data from the two countries best. Next, we compare the fit of this model across samples by the means of a measurement invariance analysis in the CFA framework. The analysis shows that the four-factor model fails to fit both samples equally well. This is mainly because the socially-oriented latent variables (rule violations and aggressive violations) are different in nature in the two samples. The cognitively-oriented latent variables (slips and lapses) are, however, similar across countries and the mean values of slips can be compared using latent variable models. However, the common practice of calculating sum scores to represent the four latent DBQ variables and comparing them across subgroups of respondents is unfounded, at least when comparing young respondents from Finland and Ireland.

  17. Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia

    PubMed Central

    De Falco, Luigia; Sanchez, Mayka; Silvestri, Laura; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Iolascon, Achille; Gouya, Laurent; Camaschella, Clara; Beaumont, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is a hereditary recessive anemia due to a defect in the TMPRSS6 gene encoding Matriptase-2. This protein is a transmembrane serine protease that plays an essential role in down-regulating hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis. Hallmarks of this disease are microcytic hypochromic anemia, low transferrin saturation and normal/high serum hepcidin values. The anemia appears in the post-natal period, although in some cases it is only diagnosed in adulthood. The disease is refractory to oral iron treatment but shows a slow response to intravenous iron injections and partial correction of the anemia. To date, 40 different Matriptase-2 mutations have been reported, affecting all the functional domains of the large ectodomain of the protein. In vitro experiments on transfected cells suggest that Matriptase-2 cleaves Hemojuvelin, a major regulator of hepcidin expression and that this function is altered in this genetic form of anemia. In contrast to the low/undetectable hepcidin levels observed in acquired iron deficiency, in patients with Matriptase-2 deficiency, serum hepcidin is inappropriately high for the low iron status and accounts for the absent/delayed response to oral iron treatment. A challenge for the clinicians and pediatricians is the recognition of the disorder among iron deficiency and other microcytic anemias commonly found in pediatric patients. The current treatment of iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is based on parenteral iron administration; in the future, manipulation of the hepcidin pathway with the aim of suppressing it might become an alternative therapeutic approach. PMID:23729726

  18. AMT survey in the Outokumpu ore Belt, Eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahti, Ilkka; Kontinen, Asko; Aatos, Soile; Smirnov, Maxim

    2015-04-01

    The Outokumpu ore belt comprises Paleoroterozoic turbiditic deep-water sediments enclosing fault-bound ophiolitic slices composed dominantly of serpentinites derived from oceanic upper mantle peridotites. These together form the allochthonous Outokumpu suite that was emplaced onto the Karelian Craton margin during the early stages of the Svecofennian Orogeny. The area which has been over 100 years among the most important mining regions in Finland is still supporting active mining and exploration. The main prospectivity is for polymetallic (Cu-Co-Zn-Ni-Ag-Au) sulfide ores that are hosted by carbonate, calc-silicate and quartz rocks fringing serpentinite bodies embedded in extensive formations of electrically conductive iron sulfide and graphite-bearing black schists that are showing no geochemical vectors to the ores (e.g. Peltonen et al., 2008). The presence of conductive schists makes also electromagnetic exploration of the sulfide ores challenging. However, the detection of the black schists at depth would be useful in locating new environments with potential for the serpentinites and prospective Outokumpu rock assemblage. Audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) data has been recently collected to image subsurface conductivity structure of the belt. These data were acquired along five profiles transecting several key-features, including the Miihkali serpentinite, Archean Sotkuma gneiss window and the area SE from the Outokumpu mine. Altogether 91 sites were measured with the site spacing of 300 m - 2 km. AMT data (f = 1 - 10 000 Hz) were acquired during daytime whereas night-recordings enabled to obtain data at the frequency range of 0.01 - 10 000 Hz. Measurements were done using two Metronix 24bit ADU-07e broadband electromagnetic acquisition systems. Robust remote reference processing yielded mostly good data quality, particularly for data recorded during night-time. The survey area is favorable for 2-D modeling as it is characterized by thin, laterally extensive

  19. Multiple-Micronutrient Fortified Non-Dairy Beverage Interventions Reduce the Risk of Anemia and Iron Deficiency in School-Aged Children in Low-Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (i–iv)

    PubMed Central

    Aaron, Grant J.; Dror, Daphna K.; Yang, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-micronutrient (MMN) fortification of beverages may be an effective option to deliver micronutrients to vulnerable populations. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the nutritional impacts of MMN fortified beverages in the context of low-middle income countries. A systematic search of published literature yielded 1022 citations, of which 10 randomized controlled trials (nine in school-aged children and one in pregnant women) met inclusion criteria. Results of school-aged children were included in the meta-analysis. Compared to iso-caloric controls, children who received MMN fortified beverages for 8 weeks to 6 months showed significant improvements in hemoglobin (+2.76 g/L, 95% CI [1.19, 4.33], p = 0.004; 8 studies) and serum ferritin (+15.42 pmol/L, [5.73, 25.12], p = 0.007; 8 studies); and reduced risk of anemia (RR 0.58 [0.29, 0.88], p = 0.005; 6 studies), iron deficiency (RR 0.34 [0.21, 0.55], p = 0.002; 7 studies), and iron deficiency anemia (RR 0.17 [0.06, 0.53], p = 0.02; 3 studies). MMN fortified beverage interventions could have major programmatic implications for reducing the burden of anemia and iron deficiency in school-aged children in low-middle income countries. Additional research is needed to investigate effects on other biochemical outcomes and population subgroups. PMID:26007336

  20. Surveillance of patients with acute flaccid paralysis in Finland: report of a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Hovi, T.; Stenvik, M.

    2000-01-01

    WHO recommends that surveillance of patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) be used to demonstrate the eradication of wild poliovirus. In this article we report the results of a study to assess the frequency of AFP patients referred to Finnish hospitals and whether virological diagnostic coverage could be improved by repeated reminders and active feedback. For this purpose, we sent monthly questionnaires to all neurological and paediatric neurological units in Finland, requesting retrospective reporting on investigated paralytic patients with defined clinically relevant diagnoses, rather than AFP. Reminder letters included a pre-paid return envelope. Virological investigations were offered cost free. Of the 492 reporting forms sent, 415 (84%) were returned, evenly covering both the population and the study period (July 1997 to June 1998). Of the 90 patients reported, 83 were evaluable. The apparent incidences of the diagnoses covered were 1.6 per 100,000 at any age, and 1.0 per 100,000 for under--15-year-olds. Guillain-Barré syndrome was the most common diagnosis (0.80 per 100,000). The two faecal specimens required were virologically investigated in nine out of the 10 patients under 15 years of age, but in only 46% of all patients. Four adenovirus strains, but no polioviruses or other enteroviruses, were isolated. We conclude that a satisfactory monthly reporting system was readily established and that a sufficient number of patients with diagnoses resembling AFP are being referred to Finnish hospitals. Active feedback did not increase the proportion of virologically investigated patients to an acceptable level in all age groups. It is clear that other approaches must be used to quantify the circulation of poliovirus in Finland. PMID:10812725

  1. The temporal variation of Mesoarchaean volcanism in the Suomussalmi greenstone belt, Karelia Province, Eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtonen, E.; Heilimo, E.; Halkoaho, T.; Hölttä, P.; Huhma, H.

    2017-03-01

    This study concentrates in the Kiannanniemi area, situated in the Archaean Suomussalmi greenstone belt, the Karelia Province, Fennoscandian Shield. A zircon U-Pb geochronological study from this area shows that ages of the volcanic rocks are between ca. 2.94 and 2.82 Ga. The results indicate multiphase felsic and intermediate volcanism in three episodes at ca. 2.94, 2.84 and 2.82 Ga, of which the 2.84 Ga event has not been reported earlier from the Suomussalmi greenstone belt. The youngest zircon population in a sedimentary rock sample suggests a depositional age of ≤2.82-2.81 Ga, and the sample contains also ≥2.96 Ga old zircon grains. Based on both new and previously published geochronological data from the volcanic rocks, we propose a chronostratigraphic model for the whole Suomussalmi greenstone belt, dividing it into four units based on their age: Luoma, Tormua, Ahvenlahti, and Mesa-aho. The youngest volcanic rocks in the Suomussalmi greenstone belt are contemporaneous with some of the volcanic rocks recorded from the Kuhmo and Tipasjärvi greenstone belts of the Karelia Province, Finland. The age group ca. 2.94 Ga, however, has not been so far recorded elsewhere. Conversely, in the Suomussalmi greenstone belt, volcanic rocks with an age of ca. 2.80 Ga and sedimentary rocks with depositional ages of <2.75 Ga, frequently found from the Kuhmo and Tipasjärvi greenstone belts, are unknown.

  2. Formation of biofilms in drinking water distribution networks, a case study in two cities in Finland and Latvia.

    PubMed

    Lehtola, Markku J; Juhna, Tālis; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Vartiainen, Terttu; Martikainen, Pertti J

    2004-12-01

    The formation of biofilms in drinking water distribution networks is a significant technical, aesthetic and hygienic problem. In this study, the effects of assimilable organic carbon, microbially available phosphorus (MAP), residual chlorine, temperature and corrosion products on the formation of biofilms were studied in two full-scale water supply systems in Finland and Latvia. Biofilm collectors consisting of polyvinyl chloride pipes were installed in several waterworks and distribution networks, which were supplied with chemically precipitated surface waters and groundwater from different sources. During a 1-year study, the biofilm density was measured by heterotrophic plate counts on R2A-agar, acridine orange direct counting and ATP-analyses. A moderate level of residual chlorine decreased biofilm density, whereas an increase of MAP in water and accumulated cast iron corrosion products significantly increased biofilm density. This work confirms, in a full-scale distribution system in Finland and Latvia, our earlier in vitro finding that biofilm formation is affected by the availability of phosphorus in drinking water.

  3. Lifelong Learning in Finland: The Extent to Which Vocational Education and Training Policy Is Nurturing Lifelong Learning in Finland. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyyssola, Kari; Hamalainen, Kimmo

    The extent to which vocational education and training policy is nurturing lifelong learning in Finland was examined. The analysis focused on the following issues: the political and structural framework of education in Finland; mechanisms supporting lifelong learning; and pedagogical solutions and learning environments facilitating lifelong…

  4. Knowledge and Life-Experiences: Finland Seen through Its Libraries and Information Services = Kunskap och Upplevelser: Finland som BDI-land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laaksovirta, Tuula H.; Haavisto, Tuula

    This illustrated publication, printed in both English and Finnish, describes Finland's libraries and information services. Topics covered include: (1) library users; (2) the conceptual role of the library; (3) the growth and development of the library system through Finland's agrarian, industrial, and budding infotech social phases; (4) the…

  5. Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Breymann, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Anemia is a common problem in obstetrics and perinatal care. Any hemoglobin below 10.5 g/dL can be regarded as true anemia regardless of gestational age. Reasons for anemia in pregnancy are mainly nutritional deficiencies, parasitic and bacterial diseases, and inborn red blood cell disorders such as thalassemias. The main cause of anemia in obstetrics is iron deficiency, which has a worldwide prevalence between estimated 20%-80% and consists of a primarily female population. Stages of iron deficiency are depletion of iron stores, iron-deficient erythropoiesis without anemia, and iron deficiency anemia, the most pronounced form of iron deficiency. Pregnancy anemia can be aggravated by various conditions such as uterine or placental bleedings, gastrointestinal bleedings, and peripartum blood loss. In addition to the general consequences of anemia, there are specific risks during pregnancy for the mother and the fetus such as intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, feto-placental miss ratio, and higher risk for peripartum blood transfusion. Besides the importance of prophylaxis of iron deficiency, the main therapy options for the treatment of pregnancy anemia are oral iron and intravenous iron preparations.

  6. Double-blind cluster randomised controlled trial of wheat flour chapatti fortified with micronutrients on the status of vitamin A and iron in school-aged children in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ahmed S; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ahmed, Faiz; Alam, Mohammad S; Wahed, Mohammad A; Sack, David A

    2015-12-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective and sustainable strategy to prevent or correct micronutrient deficiencies. A double-blind cluster (bari) randomised controlled trial was conducted in a rural community in Bangladesh to evaluate the impact of consumption of chapatti made of micronutrient-fortified wheat flour for 6 months by school-aged children on their vitamin A, haemoglobin and iron status. A total of 43 baris (group of households) were randomly selected. The baris were randomly assigned to either intervention or control group. The intervention group received wheat flour fortified with added micronutrients (including 66 mg hydrogen-reduced elemental iron and 3030 μg retinol equivalent as retinyl palmitate per kilogram of flour), while the control group received wheat flour without added micronutrients. A total of 352 children were enrolled in the trial, 203 in the intervention group and 149 in the control group. Analyses were carried out on children who completed the study (191 in the intervention group and 143 in the control group). Micronutrient-fortified wheat flour chapatti significantly increased serum retinol concentration at 6 months by 0.12 μmol L(-1) [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.06, 0.19; P < 0.01]. The odds of vitamin A deficiency was significantly lower for children in the intervention group at 3 months [odds ratio (OR) = 0.26; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.07, 0.89; P < 0.05] and 6 months (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.68; P < 0.01). No demonstrable effect of fortified chapatti consumption on iron status, haemoglobin levels or anaemia was observed. Consumption of fortified chapattis demonstrated a significant improvement in the vitamin A status, but not in iron, haemoglobin or anaemia status.

  7. Cosmogenic Nuclides Study of Large Iron Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutzler, A.; Smith, T.; Rochette, P.; Bourles, D. L.; Leya, I.; Gattacceca, J.

    2014-09-01

    Six large iron meteorites were selected (Saint-Aubin, Mont-Dieu, Caille, Morasko, Agoudal, and Gebel Kamil). We measured stable and radiogenic cosmogenic nuclides, to study pre-atmospheric size, cosmic-ray exposure ages and terrestrial ages.

  8. Economic hardship and suicide mortality in Finland, 1875-2010.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Marko; Puhakka, Mikko; Viren, Matti

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the determinants of suicide in Finland using annual data for consumption and suicides from 1860 to 2010. Instead of using some ad hoc measures of cyclical movements of the economy, we build our analysis on a more solid economic theory. A key feature is the habit persistence in preferences, which provides a way to measure individual well-being and predict suicide. We estimate time series of habit levels and develop an indicator (the hardship index) to describe the economic hardship of consumers. The higher the level of the index, the worse off consumers are. As a rational response to such a bad situation, some consumers might commit suicide. We employ the autoregressive distributed lags cointegration method and find that our index works well in explaining the long-term behavior of people committing suicide in Finland.

  9. Heat Wave-Associated Vibriosis, Sweden and Finland, 2014.

    PubMed

    Baker-Austin, Craig; Trinanes, Joaquin A; Salmenlinna, Saara; Löfdahl, Margareta; Siitonen, Anja; Taylor, Nick G H; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2016-07-01

    During summer 2014, a total of 89 Vibrio infections were reported in Sweden and Finland, substantially more yearly infections than previously have been reported in northern Europe. Infections were spread across most coastal counties of Sweden and Finland, but unusually, numerous infections were reported in subarctic regions; cases were reported as far north as 65°N, ≈100 miles (160 km) from the Arctic Circle. Most infections were caused by non-O1/O139 V. cholerae (70 cases, corresponding to 77% of the total, all strains were negative for the cholera toxin gene). An extreme heat wave in northern Scandinavia during summer 2014 led to unprecedented high sea surface temperatures, which appear to have been responsible for the emergence of Vibrio bacteria at these latitudes. The emergence of vibriosis in high-latitude regions requires improved diagnostic detection and clinical awareness of these emerging pathogens.

  10. Occupational exposures of nuclear power plant workers in Finland.

    PubMed

    Alm-Lytz, K; Riihiluoma, V; Hyvönen, H

    2001-01-01

    In Finland, the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) maintains a central dose register where all occupational doses of radiation workers are recorded. The computerised register enables easy control of personal doses, including annual, 5 year and lifetime doses. The type of radiation work is also recorded in the dose register. Finland was one of the first countries in the world to introduce dose limits based on the recommendations of ICRP 60. In this article, the radiation dose data of the Finnish nuclear power plant workers are analysed. The majority of the radiation doses are received during the maintenance outages. The trend of the 5 year doses and their distribution are presented. Doses received during different work assignments were averaged over the years 1996-1999 and they are also discussed in this article.

  11. Nuclear energy: Its strengths, weaknesses and role in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruuskanen, A.

    Nuclear energy has, in principle, various strengths as an energy form. In spite of the drawbacks of nuclear power, the benefits exceed its cost. That is why power companies in Finland have decided to apply for the construction, of the fifth nuclear power plant during Spring 1991. Electricity consumption is increasing, and new power producing capacity will be needed. Nuclear power is seen as the best alternative for producing baseload power in Finnish conditions.

  12. Application of Arrhenius law to DP and zero-span tensile strength measurements taken on iron gall ink impregnated papers: relevance of artificial ageing protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouchon, Véronique; Belhadj, Oulfa; Duranton, Maroussia; Gimat, Alice; Massiani, Pascale

    2016-08-01

    Iron gall inks (IGI) were largely used for writing until the nineteenth century. Under certain circumstances, they provoke a substantial degradation of their cellulosic support. It was shown in a previous works that combination of oxygen and iron largely impacts cellulose chain breaking occurring in acidic conditions (pH 3-4). The present study aims to study the kinetic of this degradation. It assesses the validity of Arrhenius law between 20 and 90 °C taking advantage of the fast depolymerization of IGI impregnated papers at room temperature and using two complementary tools: DP measurements and zero-span tensile strength. The first one is sensitive enough to measure degradation at its very beginning, while the second is more appropriate for advanced stage of degradation. Similar activation energies (97 ± 2 kJ mol-1) were found via DP and zero-span measurements, and reaction rates of IGI impregnated papers were 1-2 orders of magnitude above available data related to lignin-free acidic papers. These observations suggest a dominant hydrolytic mechanism that involves directly or indirectly oxygen and iron.

  13. The association between education and induced abortion for three cohorts of adults in Finland.

    PubMed

    Väisänen, Heini

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores whether the likelihood of abortion by education changed over time in Finland, where comprehensive family planning services and sexuality education have been available since the early 1970s. This subject has not previously been studied longitudinally with comprehensive and reliable data. A unique longitudinal set of register data of more than 250,000 women aged 20-49 born in 1955-59, 1965-69, and 1975-79 was analysed, using descriptive statistics, concentration curves, and discrete-time event-history models. Women with basic education had a higher likelihood of abortion than others and the association grew stronger for later cohorts. Selection into education may explain this phenomenon: although it was fairly common to have only basic education in the 1955-59 cohort, it became increasingly unusual over time. Thus, even though family planning services were easily available, socio-economic differences in the likelihood of abortion remained.

  14. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in southwestern Finland.

    PubMed

    Sormunen, Jani J; Penttinen, Ritva; Klemola, Tero; Vesterinen, Eero J; Hänninen, Jari

    2016-12-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the causative agent of an emerging tick-borne disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis. While the bacterium has been reported from questing ticks in neighboring Sweden, Norway and Russia, the few surveys regarding questing ticks in Finland have thus far been negative. In the current study, the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in Ixodes ricinus populations was evaluated in several study localities around southwestern Finland during 2013-2014. Some of these populations were previously screened and found negative for A. phagocytophilum in 2000. A total of 3158 I. ricinus collected by blanket dragging were screened for Anaplasma spp. using qPCR. Anaplasma were detected in 9.2% of adult ticks (n = 87) and 3.1% of nymphs (n = 979). All larval samples were negative for infection. All Anaplasma-positive samples were identified as A. phagocytophilum by sequencing. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of the pathogen from questing ticks in Finland. Furthermore, the pathogen was detected from several localities found negative during the previous screening 13 years earlier.

  15. Increasing nuclear power at liberalised energy markets- case Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syri, S.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Satka, V.

    2012-10-01

    Several Finnish projections for future electricity demand and the need for peak load capacity indicate a demand growth of about 2 GW from the present to the year 2030. The retirement of existing fossil fuel plants and old nuclear power plants will cause increased net import needs during 2020's, even when assuming additional energy efficiency measures and the commissioning of two new nuclear power plants recently approved by the Finnish Parliament. By the year 2030, the need for additional new capacity will be about 6 GW. The increased dependence on import is in contradiction with the official Government targets. This situation is not unique to Finland, but rather is likely to be the case in many other European countries as well. Both the energy company Fortum and energy-intensive industry in Finland see nuclear energy as a viable future generation technology. We describe the « Mankala » concept which is successfully used to build new nuclear capacity at liberalised electricity market in Finland.

  16. Green energy products in the United Kingdom, Germany and Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hast, Aira; McDermott, Liisa; Järvelä, Marja; Syri, Sanna

    2014-12-01

    In liberalized electricity markets, suppliers are offering several kinds of voluntary green electricity products marketed as environmentally friendly. This paper focuses on the development of these voluntary markets at household level in the UK, Germany and Finland. Since there are already existing renewable energy policies regulating and encouraging the use of renewable energy, it is important to consider whether voluntary products offer real additional benefits above these policies. Problems such as double counting or re-marketing hydropower produced in existing plants are identified. According to our study, the demand varies between countries: in Germany the number of green electricity customers has increased and is also higher than in the UK or Finland. Typically the average additional cost to consumer from buying green electricity product instead of standard electricity product is in the range of 0-5% in all studied countries, although the level of price premium depends on several factors like electricity consumption. Case study of Finland and literature show that the impacts of green energy are not solely environmental. Renewable energy can benefit local public policy.

  17. Childhood cancer survival in Finland (1953-2010): a nation-wide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Madanat-Harjuoja, L M; Pokhrel, A; Kivivuori, S M; Saarinen-Pihkala, U M

    2014-11-01

    Population based survival studies are critical in monitoring changes in anticancer therapy, evaluating effectiveness of new treatments as well as identifying possibilities for further improvement. The previous report on cancer survival in Finland covered patients diagnosed in 1953-1995. Data on survival in the European and Nordic pediatric populations have been published with follow-up ending in 2002. We describe population-based survival of childhood cancer patients (n = 8270, age 0-14 years) in Finland overall and by disease category with follow-up extending from 1953 to 2010 and focusing on the modern treatment era. Data were collected from the Finnish Cancer Registry. Age-standardised observed survival proportions (rates) were calculated using the actuarial (or life-table) method. Trends in observed survival rates were studied over six diagnostic periods: 1953-1960, 1961-1970, 1971-1980, 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2010. The overall 5-year survival reached 82.1% (95% CI 80.0-84.2) in the most recent period. In most diagnostic categories, the biggest leap in survival was seen between 1961-1970 and 1981-1990, after which slight improvements occurred between 1981-1990 and 1991-2000, with no significant increase thereafter. In analyses by diagnostic group, positive trends in survival over the last three decades were seen for leukemia (p = 0.000), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (p = 0.002) and CNS tumours (p = 0.02). Although survival of childhood cancer patients overall has significantly improved from 1953 to 2000, improvement thereafter has been marginal. Future treatment efforts should be directed at bone tumours, soft-tissue sarcoma, neuroblastoma and malignant brain tumours as well as high-risk leukemia.

  18. Welfare state retrenchment and increasing mental health inequality by educational credentials in Finland: a multicohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kokkinen, Lauri; Muntaner, Carles; Kouvonen, Anne; Koskinen, Aki; Varje, Pekka; Väänänen, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Epidemiological studies have shown an association between educational credentials and mental disorders, but have not offered any explanation for the varying strength of this association in different historical contexts. In this study, we investigate the education-specific trends in hospitalisation due to psychiatric disorders in Finnish working-age men and women between 1976 and 2010, and offer a welfare state explanation for the secular trends found. Setting Population-based setting with a 25% random sample of the population aged 30–65 years in 7 independent consecutive cohorts (1976–1980, 1981–1985, 1986–1990, 1991–1995, 1996–2000, 2001–2005, 2006–2010). Participants Participants were randomly selected from the Statistics Finland population database (n=2 865 746). These data were linked to diagnosis-specific records on hospitalisations, drawn from the National Hospital Discharge Registry using personal identification numbers. Employment rates by educational credentials were drawn from the Statistics Finland employment database. Primary and secondary outcome measures Hospitalisation and employment. Results We found an increasing trend in psychiatric hospitalisation rates among the population with only an elementary school education, and a decreasing trend in those with higher educational credentials. The employment rate of the population with only an elementary school education decreased more than that of those with higher educational credentials. Conclusions We propose that restricted employment opportunities are the main mechanism behind the increased educational inequality in hospitalisation for psychiatric disorders, while several secondary mechanisms (lack of outpatient healthcare services, welfare cuts, decreased alcohol duty) further accelerated the diverging long-term trends. All of these inequality-increasing mechanisms were activated by welfare state retrenchment, which included the liberalisation of financial markets and

  19. Evaluation of status of zinc, copper, and iron levels in biological samples of normal children and children with night blindness with age groups of 3-7 and 8-12 years.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Kazi, Naveed; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Shah, Faheem; Jamali, Mohammad Khan; Arain, Mohammad Balal; Sirajuddin

    2011-09-01

    The causes of night blindness in children are multifactorial, and particular consideration has been given to childhood nutritional deficiency, which is the most common problem found in underdeveloped countries. Such deficiency can result in physiological and pathological processes that in turn influence hair composition. This study was designed to compare the levels of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe) in scalp hair, blood, and urine of both genders of children with night blindness with age range of 3-7 and 8-12 years, comparing them to sex- and age-matched controls. A microwave-assisted wet acid digestion procedure was developed as a sample pretreatment, for the determination of zinc, copper, and iron in biological samples of children with night blindness. The proposed method was validated by using conventional wet digestion and certified reference samples of hair, blood, and urine. The digests of all biological samples were analyzed for Cu, Fe, and Zn by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using an air/acetylene flame. The results indicated significantly lower levels of Fe, Cu, and Zn in the biological samples (blood and scalp hair) of male and female children with night blindness, compared with control subjects of both genders. These data present guidance to clinicians and other professionals investigating the deficiency of essential trace metals in biological samples (scalp hair and blood) of children with night blindness.

  20. A new approach to the study of Romanization in Britain: a regional perspective of cultural change in late Iron Age and Roman Dorset using the Siler and Gompertz-Makeham models of mortality

    PubMed Central

    Redfern, Rebecca C.; DeWitte, Sharon N.

    2011-01-01

    This is the first study of Romanization to use the Siler and Gompertz-Makeham models of mortality in order to investigate the health consequences of the 43 AD conquest of Britain. The study examined late Iron Age and Romano-British populations (N=518) from Dorset, England, which is the only region of Britain to display continuity in inhumation burial practice and cemetery use throughout the two periods. Skeletal evidence for frailty was assessed using cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis, periosteal lesions, enamel hypoplasia, dental caries, tuberculosis, and rickets. These health variables were chosen for analysis because they are reliable indicators of general health for diachronic comparison (Steckel and Rose 2002) and are associated with the introduction of urbanism in Britain during the Roman period (Redfern 2007; Redfern 2008b; Roberts and Cox 2003). The results show that levels of frailty and mortality were lower in the late Iron Age period, and no sex differences in mortality were present. However, post-conquest, mortality risk increased for children and the elderly, and particularly for males. The latter finding challenges received wisdom concerning the benefits of Romanization and the higher status of the male body in the Roman world. Therefore, we conclude that the consequences of urbanism, changes in diet and increased population heterogeneity negatively impacted health, to the extent that the enhanced cultural buffering of males did not out-weigh underlying sex differences in biology that advantage females. PMID:20925081

  1. Lead Toxicity and Iron Deficiency in Utah Migrant Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliffe, Stephen D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Determines the frequency of presumptive iron deficiency and lead toxicity in 198 Utah migrant children, aged 9-72 months. There were no confirmed cases of lead toxicity. Thirteen percent of all children tested, and 30 percent of those aged 9-23 months, were iron deficient. Hematocrit determination is an insensitive screen for iron deficiency.…

  2. Serum ferritin and total iron-binding capacity to estimate iron storage in pigs.

    PubMed

    Smith, J E; Moore, K; Boyington, D; Pollmann, D S; Schoneweis, D

    1984-11-01

    The inability to accurately determine storage iron in baby pigs limits the development of new treatment programs. In pigs treated neonatally with iron dextran, serum ferritin had increased dramatically at ten days of age and then returned to near preinjection levels by 50 days of age. In contrast, serum ferritin in untreated pigs declined until they were offered creep feed at 21 days of age. When serum ferritin, serum iron, serum total iron-binding capacity, erythrocyte number, packed cell volume, and blood hemoglobin were measured in three-week-old pigs, serum ferritin combined with serum total iron-binding capacity correlated significantly with the total nonheme iron in the liver and spleen. The nonheme iron (in mg) could be predicted (r2 = 0.71) by the following expression: 8.7 + 0.6 (ferritin in ng/ml).

  3. Iron intake, haemoglobin and risk of gestational diabetes: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Helin, Annika; Kinnunen, Tarja Inkeri; Raitanen, Jani; Ahonen, Suvi; Virtanen, Suvi M; Luoto, Riitta

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possible association between total daily iron intake during pregnancy, haemoglobin in early pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in women at increased risk of GDM. Design A prospective cohort study (based on a cluster-randomised controlled trial, where the intervention and the usual care groups were combined). Setting Primary healthcare maternity clinics in 14 municipalities in south-western Finland. Participants 399 Pregnant women who were at increased risk of GDM participated in a GDM prevention trial and were followed throughout pregnancy. Main outcome measurements The main outcome was GDM diagnosed with oral glucose tolerance test at 26–28 weeks’ gestation or based on a diagnosis recorded in the Finnish Medical Birth registry. Data on iron intake was collected using a 181-item food frequency questionnaire and separate questions for supplement use at 26–28 weeks’ gestation. Results GDM was diagnosed in 72 women (18.1%) in the study population. The OR for total iron intake as a continuous variable was 1.006 (95% CI 1.000 to 1.011; p=0.038) after adjustment for body mass index, age, diabetes in first-degree or second-degree relatives, GDM or macrosomia in earlier pregnancy, total energy intake, dietary fibre, saturated fatty acids and total gestational weight gain. Women in the highest fifth of total daily iron intake had an adjusted OR of 1.66 (95% CI 0.84 to 3.30; p=0.15) for GDM. After excluding participants with low haemoglobin levels (≤120 g/l) already in early pregnancy the adjusted OR was 2.35 (95% CI 1.13 to 4.92; p=0.023). Conclusions Our results suggest that high iron intake during pregnancy increases the risk of GDM especially in women who are not anaemic in early pregnancy and who are at increased risk of GDM. These findings suggest that routine iron supplementation should be reconsidered in this risk group of women. PMID:23015603

  4. Dynamics of positional warfare malaria: Finland and Korea compared

    PubMed Central

    Huldén, Lena; Huldén, Larry

    2008-01-01

    Background A sudden outbreak of vivax malaria among Finnish troops in SE-Finland and along the front line in Hanko peninsula in the southwest occurred in 1941 during World War II. The common explanation has been an invasion of infective Anopheles mosquitoes from the Russian troops crossing the front line between Finland and Soviet Union. A revised explanation is presented based on recent studies of Finnish malaria. Methods The exact start of the epidemic and the phenology of malaria cases among the Finnish soldiers were reanalyzed. The results were compared with the declining malaria in Finland. A comparison with a corresponding situation starting in the 1990's in Korea was performed. Results and discussion The malaria cases occurred in July in 1941 when it was by far too early for infective mosquitoes to be present. The first Anopheles mosquitoes hatched at about the same time as the first malaria cases were observed among the Finnish soldiers. It takes about 3 – 6 weeks for the completion of the sporogony in Finland. The new explanation is that soldiers in war conditions were suddenly exposed to uninfected mosquitoes and those who still were carriers of hypnozoites developed relapses triggered by these mosquitoes. It is estimated that about 0.5% of the Finnish population still were carriers of hypnozoites in the 1940's. A corresponding outbreak of vivax malaria in Korea in the 1990's is similarly interpreted as relapses from activated hypnozoites among Korean soldiers. The significance of the mosquito induced relapses is emphasized by two benefits for the Plasmodium. There is a synchronous increase of gametocytes when new mosquitoes emerge. It also enables meiotic recombination between different strains of the Plasmodium. Conclusion The malaria peak during the positional warfare in the 1940's was a short outbreak during the last phase of declining indigenous malaria in Finland. The activation of hypnozoites among a large number of soldiers and subsequent

  5. Impacts of peatland forestation on regional climate conditions in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yao; Markkanen, Tiina; Backman, Leif; Henttonen, Helena M.; Pietikäinen, Joni-Pekka; Laaksonen, Ari

    2014-05-01

    Climate response to anthropogenic land cover change happens more locally and occurs on a shorter time scale than the global warming due to increased GHGs. Over the second half of last Century, peatlands were vastly drained in Finland to stimulate forest growth for timber production. In this study, we investigate the biophysical effects of peatland forestation on near-surface climate conditions in Finland. For this, the regional climate model REMO, developed in Max Plank Institute (currently in Climate Service Center, Germany), provides an effective way. Two sets of 15-year climate simulations were done by REMO, using the historic (1920s; The 1st Finnish National Forest Inventory) and present-day (2000s; the 10th Finnish National Forest Inventory) land cover maps, respectively. The simulated surface air temperature and precipitation were then analyzed. In the most intensive peatland forestation area in Finland, the differences in monthly averaged daily mean surface air temperature show a warming effect around 0.2 to 0.3 K in February and March and reach to 0.5 K in April, whereas a slight cooling effect, less than 0.2 K, is found from May till October. Consequently, the selected snow clearance dates in model gridboxes over that area are advanced 0.5 to 4 days in the mean of 15 years. The monthly averaged precipitation only shows small differences, less than 10 mm/month, in a varied pattern in Finland from April to September. Furthermore, a more detailed analysis was conducted on the peatland forestation area with a 23% decrease in peatland and a 15% increase in forest types. 11 day running means of simulated temperature and energy balance terms, as well as snow depth were averaged over 15 years. Results show a positive feedback induced by peatland forestation between the surface air temperature and snow depth in snow melting period. This is because the warmer temperature caused by lower surface albedo due to more forest in snow cover period leads to a quicker and

  6. Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellinen, Terhi; Huuskonen-Snicker, Eeva; Olkkonen, Martta-Kaisa; Eskelinen, Pekka

    2014-05-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been used in Finland since 1980's for civil engineering applications. First applications in this field were road surveys and dam inspections. Common GPR applications in road surveys include the thickness evaluation of the pavement, subgrade soil evaluation and evaluation of the soil moisture and frost susceptibility. Since the 1990's, GPR has been used in combination with other non-destructive testing (NDT) methods in road surveys. Recently, more GPR applications have been adopted, such as evaluating bridges, tunnels, railways and concrete elements. Nowadays, compared with other countries GPR is relatively widely used in Finland for road surveys. Quite many companies, universities and research centers in Finland have their own GPR equipment and are involved in the teaching and research of the GPR method. However, further research and promotion of the GPR techniques are still needed since GPR could be used more routinely. GPR has been used to evaluate the air void content of asphalt pavements for years. Air void content is an important quality measure of pavement condition for both the new and old asphalt pavements. The first Finnish guideline was released in 1999 for the method. Air void content is obtained from the GPR data by measuring the dielectric value as continuous record. To obtain air void content data, few pavement cores must be taken for calibration. Accuracy of the method is however questioned because there are other factors that affect the dielectric value of the asphalt layer, in addition to the air void content. Therefore, a research project is currently carried out at Aalto University in Finland. The overall objective is to investigate if the existing GPR technique used in Finland is accurate enough to be used as QC/QA tool in assessing the compaction of asphalt pavements. The project is funded by the Finnish Transport Agency. Further research interests at Aalto University include developing new microwave asphalt

  7. METABOLISM OF IRON STORES

    PubMed Central

    SAITO, HIROSHI

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Remarkable progress was recently achieved in the studies on molecular regulators of iron metabolism. Among the main regulators, storage iron, iron absorption, erythropoiesis and hepcidin interact in keeping iron homeostasis. Diseases with gene-mutations resulting in iron overload, iron deficiency, and local iron deposition have been introduced in relation to the regulators of storage iron metabolism. On the other hand, the research on storage iron metabolism has not advanced since the pioneering research by Shoden in 1953. However, we recently developed a new method for determining ferritin iron and hemosiderin iron by computer-assisted serum ferritin kinetics. Serum ferritin increase or decrease curves were measured in patients with normal storage iron levels (chronic hepatitis C and iron deficiency anemia treated by intravenous iron injection), and iron overload (hereditary hemochromatosis and transfusion dependent anemia). We thereby confirmed the existence of two iron pathways where iron flows followed the numbered order (1) labile iron, (2) ferritin and (3) hemosiderin in iron deposition and mobilization among many previously proposed but mostly unproven routes. We also demonstrated the increasing and decreasing phases of ferritin iron and hemosiderin iron in iron deposition and mobilization. The author first demonstrated here the change in proportion between pre-existing ferritin iron and new ferritin iron synthesized by removing iron from hemosiderin in the course of iron removal. In addition, the author disclosed the cause of underestimation of storage iron turnover rate which had been reported by previous investigators in estimating storage iron turnover rate of normal subjects. PMID:25741033

  8. Iron status of women is associated with the iron concentration of potable groundwater in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Rebecca D; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Ali, Hasmot; Jahan, Nusrat; Labrique, Alain B; Schulze, Kerry; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P

    2011-05-01

    Women of reproductive age are at a high risk of iron deficiency, often as a result of diets low in bioavailable iron. In some settings, the iron content of domestic groundwater sources is high, yet its contribution to iron intake and status has not been examined. In a rural Bangladeshi population of women deficient in dietary iron, we evaluated the association between groundwater iron intake and iron status. In 2008, participants (n = 209 with complete data) were visited to collect data on 7-d food frequency, 7-d morbidity history, 24-h drinking water intake, and rice preparation, and to measure the groundwater iron concentration. Blood was collected to assess iron and infection status. Plasma ferritin (μg/L) and body iron (mg/kg) concentrations were [median (IQR)] 67 (46, 99) and 10.4 ± 2.6, respectively, and the prevalence of iron deficiency (ferritin < 12 μg/L) was 0%. Daily iron intake from water [42 mg (18, 71)] was positively correlated with plasma ferritin (r = 0.36) and total body iron (r = 0.35) (P < 0.001 for both). In adjusted linear regression analyses, plasma ferritin increased by 6.1% (95% CI: 3.8, 8.4%) and body iron by 0.3 mg/kg (0.2, 0.4) for every 10-mg increase in iron intake from water (P < 0.001). In this rural area of northern Bangladesh, women of reproductive age had no iron deficiency likely attributable to iron consumed from drinking groundwater, which contributed substantially to dietary intake. These findings suggest that iron intake from water should be included in dietary assessments in such settings.

  9. Ironing out a midlife crisis.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Sandra Viviana; Thiele, Dennis J

    2009-06-26

    There is a strong correlation between age, genomic instability, and the development of cancer. Working in yeast, Veatch et al. (2009) now propose that defects in the biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters arising as a consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to the increase in genomic instability as cells age.

  10. Is early-life iron exposure critical in neurodegeneration?

    PubMed

    Hare, Dominic J; Arora, Manish; Jenkins, Nicole L; Finkelstein, David I; Doble, Philip A; Bush, Ashley I

    2015-09-01

    The effects of iron deficiency are well documented, but relatively little is known about the long-term implications of iron overload during development. High levels of redox-active iron in the brain have been associated with neurodegenerative disorders, most notably Parkinson disease, yet a gradual increase in brain iron seems to be a feature of normal ageing. Increased brain iron levels might result from intake of infant formula that is excessively fortified with iron, thereby altering the trajectory of brain iron uptake and amplifying the risk of iron-associated neurodegeneration in later life. In this Perspectives article, we discuss the potential long-term implications of excessive iron intake in early life, propose the analysis of iron deposits in teeth as a method for retrospective determination of iron exposure during critical developmental windows, and call for evidence-based optimization of the chemical composition of infant dietary supplements.

  11. The two Suvasvesi impact structures, Finland: Argon isotopic evidence for a "false" impact crater doublet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, Martin; Schwarz, Winfried H.; Trieloff, Mario; Buchner, Elmar; Hopp, Jens; Tohver, Eric; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Lehtinen, Martti; Moilanen, Jarmo; Werner, Stephanie C.; Öhman, Teemu

    2016-05-01

    The two neighboring Suvasvesi North and South impact structures in central-east Finland have been discussed as a possible impact crater doublet produced by the impact of a binary asteroid. This study presents 40Ar/39Ar geochronologic data for impact melt rocks recovered from the drilling into the center of the Suvasvesi North impact structure and melt rock from glacially transported boulders linked to Suvasvesi South. 40Ar/39Ar step-heating analysis yielded two essentially flat age spectra indicating a Late Cretaceous age of ~85 Ma for the Suvasvesi North melt rock, whereas the Suvasvesi South melt sample gave a Neoproterozoic minimum (alteration) age of ~710 Ma. Although the statistical likelihood for two independent meteorite strikes in close proximity to each other is rather low, the remarkable difference in 40Ar/39Ar ages of >600 Myr for the two Suvasvesi impact melt samples is interpreted as evidence for two temporally separate, but geographically closely spaced, impacts into the Fennoscandian Shield. The Suvasvesi North and South impact structures are, thus, interpreted as a "false" crater doublet, similar to the larger East and West Clearwater Lake impact structures in Québec, Canada, recently shown to be unrelated. Our findings have implications for the reliable recognition of impact crater doublets and the apparent rate of binary asteroid impacts on Earth and other planetary bodies in the inner solar system.

  12. Maternal care and birth outcomes among ethnic minority women in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Malin, Maili; Gissler, Mika

    2009-01-01

    Background Care during pregnancy and labour is of great importance in every culture. Studies show that people of migrant origin have barriers to obtaining accessible and good quality care compared to people in the host society. The aim of this study is to compare the access to and use of maternity services, and their outcomes among ethnic minority women having a singleton birth in Finland. Methods The study is based on data from the Finnish Medical Birth Register in 1999–2001 linked with the information of Statistics Finland on woman's country of birth, citizenship and mother tongue. Our study data included 6,532 women of foreign origin (3.9% of all singletons) giving singleton birth in Finland during 1999–2001 (compared to 158,469 Finnish origin singletons). Results Most women have migrated during the last fifteen years, mainly from Russia, Baltic countries, Somalia and East Europe. Migrant origin women participated substantially in prenatal care. Interventions performed or needed during pregnancy and childbirth varied between ethnic groups. Women of African and Somali origin had most health problems resulted in the highest perinatal mortality rates. Women from East Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and Somalia had a significant risk of low birth weight and small for gestational age newborns. Most premature newborns were found among women from the Middle East, North Africa and South Asia. Primiparous women from Africa, Somalia and Latin America and Caribbean had most caesarean sections while newborns of Latin American origin had more interventions after birth. Conclusion Despite good general coverage of maternal care among migrant origin women, there were clear variations in the type of treatment given to them or needed by them. African origin women had the most health problems during pregnancy and childbirth and the worst perinatal outcomes indicating the urgent need of targeted preventive and special care. These study results do not confirm either

  13. Parasitism of the deer ked, Lipoptena cervi, on the moose, Alces alces, in eastern Finland.

    PubMed

    Paakkonen, T; Mustonen, A-M; Roininen, H; Niemelä, P; Ruusila, V; Nieminen, P

    2010-12-01

    The deer ked, Lipoptena cervi L. (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), is an ectoparasitic fly that spread to Finland in the early 1960s from the southeast across the Soviet border. It is currently a common parasite of the moose, Alces alces (Artiodactyla: Cervidae), in the southern part of the country and its area of distribution is gradually spreading to Finnish Lapland, where it will come into contact with another potential cervid host, the semi-domesticated reindeer, Rangifer tarandus tarandus. The aim of this study was to determine the intensity of deer ked parasitism on the moose in eastern Finland. Whole skins of 23 moose were examined for the presence of deer keds, which were extracted and their total numbers estimated. The intensity of deer ked parasitism was correlated to the age, sex, skin area and anatomical region of the host. Bulls had the highest total number of keds (10616 ± 1375) and the highest deer ked density (35.7 ± 4.4 keds/dm(2) of skin). Cows had a higher total number of keds than calves (3549 ± 587 vs. 1730 ± 191), but ked densities on cows and calves were roughly equal (11.8 ± 1.7 vs. 9.4 ± 1.1 keds/dm(2) of skin). The density of keds was highest on the anterior back, followed by the posterior back, front limbs, abdomen, head and hind limbs. The sex ratio of deer keds was close to equal (male : female, 1.0 : 1.1). After they had consumed blood, male keds were heavier than females. As the total numbers and densities of deer keds were higher than reported previously on moose or for any other louse fly species, the effects of parasitism on the health of the host species should be determined.

  14. Iron Sucrose Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Iron sucrose injection is used treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells due ... and may cause the kidneys to stop working). Iron sucrose injection is in a class of medications called iron ...

  15. Detection of Francisella tularensis in voles in Finland.

    PubMed

    Rossow, Heidi; Sissonen, Susanna; Koskela, Katja A; Kinnunen, Paula M; Hemmilä, Heidi; Niemimaa, Jukka; Huitu, Otso; Kuusi, Markku; Vapalahti, Olli; Henttonen, Heikki; Nikkari, Simo

    2014-03-01

    Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent intracellular bacterium causing the zoonotic disease tularemia. It recurrently causes human and animal outbreaks in northern Europe, including Finland. Although F. tularensis infects several mammal species, only rodents and lagomorphs seem to have importance in its ecology. Peak densities of rodent populations may trigger tularemia outbreaks in humans; however, it is still unclear to which extent rodents or other small mammals maintain F. tularensis in nature. The main objective of this study was to obtain information about the occurrence of F. tularensis in small mammals in Finland. We snap-trapped 547 wild small mammals representing 11 species at 14 locations around Finland during 6 years and screened them for the presence of F. tularensis DNA using PCR analysis. High copy number of F. tularensis-specific DNA was detected in tissue samples of five field voles (Microtus agrestis) originating from one location and 2 years. According to DNA sequences of the bacterial 23S ribosomal RNA gene amplified from F. tularensis-infected voles, the infecting agent belongs to the subspecies holarctica. To find out the optimal tissue for tularemia screening in voles, we compared the amounts of F. tularensis DNA in lungs, liver, spleen, and kidney of the infected animals. F. tularensis DNA was detectable in high levels in all four organs except for one animal, whose kidney was F. tularensis DNA-negative. Thus, at least liver, lung, and spleen seem suitable for F. tularensis screening in voles. Thus, liver, lung, and spleen all seem suitable for F. tularensis screening in voles. In conclusion, field voles can be heavily infected with F. tularensis subsp. holarctica and thus potentially serve as the source of infection in humans and other mammals.

  16. Detection of Francisella tularensis in Voles in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Sissonen, Susanna; Koskela, Katja A.; Kinnunen, Paula M.; Hemmilä, Heidi; Niemimaa, Jukka; Huitu, Otso; Kuusi, Markku; Vapalahti, Olli; Henttonen, Heikki; Nikkari, Simo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent intracellular bacterium causing the zoonotic disease tularemia. It recurrently causes human and animal outbreaks in northern Europe, including Finland. Although F. tularensis infects several mammal species, only rodents and lagomorphs seem to have importance in its ecology. Peak densities of rodent populations may trigger tularemia outbreaks in humans; however, it is still unclear to which extent rodents or other small mammals maintain F. tularensis in nature. The main objective of this study was to obtain information about the occurrence of F. tularensis in small mammals in Finland. We snap-trapped 547 wild small mammals representing 11 species at 14 locations around Finland during 6 years and screened them for the presence of F. tularensis DNA using PCR analysis. High copy number of F. tularensis-specific DNA was detected in tissue samples of five field voles (Microtus agrestis) originating from one location and 2 years. According to DNA sequences of the bacterial 23S ribosomal RNA gene amplified from F. tularensis–infected voles, the infecting agent belongs to the subspecies holarctica. To find out the optimal tissue for tularemia screening in voles, we compared the amounts of F. tularensis DNA in lungs, liver, spleen, and kidney of the infected animals. F. tularensis DNA was detectable in high levels in all four organs except for one animal, whose kidney was F. tularensis DNA-negative. Thus, at least liver, lung, and spleen seem suitable for F. tularensis screening in voles. Thus, liver, lung, and spleen all seem suitable for F. tularensis screening in voles. In conclusion, field voles can be heavily infected with F. tularensis subsp. holarctica and thus potentially serve as the source of infection in humans and other mammals. PMID:24575824

  17. The impact of generic substitution on price competition in Finland.

    PubMed

    Aalto-Setälä, Ville

    2008-05-01

    Generic substitution by pharmacists was introduced in April 2003 in Finnish pharmaceutical markets. This article examines the impact of generic substitution on price development. This study examined all of the 2,100 substitutable drugs in Finland. The impact of generic substitution on price competition was significant. The average price of substitutable drugs decreased by more than 10%. However, the price development was uneven; some prices increased whereas others decreased by more than 50%. The most important factors that influenced the price development were the number of competitors, whether the drug was originator or generic and the width of the price band.

  18. Changing notions of lone motherhood in twentieth-century Finland.

    PubMed

    May, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Through written life stories of lone mothers, this article examines changes in lone motherhood in twentieth-century Finland. While the older life-story writers' narratives are clearly influenced by an 'ethos of survival' and the regulation of female sexuality, the younger writers relate their experiences with the help of scripts on gender equality and the psychological importance of 'good' parenting. These narrative shifts point to important changes in cultural scripts on women's positions in families, on the labour market, and in society.

  19. Iron and alloys of iron. [lunar resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastri, Sankar

    1992-01-01

    All lunar soil contains iron in the metallic form, mostly as an iron-nickel alloy in concentrations of a few tenths of 1 percent. Some of this free iron can be easily separated by magnetic means. It is estimated that the magnetic separation of 100,000 tons of lunar soil would yield 150-200 tons of iron. Agglutinates contain metallic iron which could be extracted by melting and made into powder metallurgy products. The characteristics and potential uses of the pure-iron and iron-alloy lunar products are discussed. Processes for working iron that might be used in a nonterrestrial facility are also addressed.

  20. Iron nutritional status in preterm infants fed formulas fortified with iron

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, I.; Cooke, R.; Reid, M.; McCormick, K.; Smith, J.

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To prospectively evaluate the iron nutritional status of preterm infants fed either a term (0.5 mg/dl iron) or preterm (0.9mg/dl) formulas fortified with iron after hospital discharge.
METHODS—Healthy low birthweight preterm infants were randomly assigned into three groups at the time of hospital discharge. Group A were fed an iron fortified preterm formula (0.9 mg/dl iron) until 6 months corrected age; group B, a fortified term formula (0.5 mg/l iron) until 6 months corrected age group C, the preterm formula between hospital discharge and term, then the term formula until 6 months corrected age.
RESULTS—Seventy eight infants were followed up to 6 months corrected age. Iron intake from formula differed significantly between the groups (A, 1.17 mg/kg/day (SD 0.32) > C, 0.86 mg/kg/day (SD 0.40) = B, 0.81 mg/kg/day (SD 0.23); p < 0.0001). Haemoglobin concentrations were similar to those of iron sufficient preterm infants of the same postnatal age, and term infants of the same postmenstrual age (after 3 months of age). There were no significant differences in haemoglobin concentration (p = 0.391), plasma ferritin (A vs B, p = 0.322), or in the incidence of iron deficiency (A vs B, p = 0.534).
CONCLUSIONS—Iron fortified formulas containing between 0.5 and 0.9 mg/dl iron seem to meet the iron nutritional needs of preterm infants after hospital discharge.

 PMID:10375362

  1. A Recipe for Success: A Comparative View of Mathematics Teacher Education in Finland and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gísladóttir, Berglind; Jóhannsdóttir, Björg

    2010-01-01

    Finland and Singapore are both nations that have excelled in mathematics on international assessments, such as the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Evidence of Finland's educational success emerged with the outcome of the first PISA study in 2000. Since…

  2. Assessment in Finland: A Scholarly Reflection on One Country's Use of Formative, Summative, and Evaluative Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Katie A.

    2012-01-01

    Finland's high test scores have prompted international comparisons of educational policy. This article explores the use of assessment in Finland, particularly the intended use of student assessment and evaluation of schools as described in the National Curriculum. This article explores Finnish educational policy through the lens of formative and…

  3. The Use of Address Pronouns among Finnish and Finland-Swedish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyblom, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the use and choice of address pronouns among Finnish and Finland-Swedish students in various situations. The study is based on a questionnaire on address usage distributed to university students in the city of Vaasa in Finland. The aim of the study is to investigate potential differences between the use of T and V in Finnish…

  4. A Model Lesson: Finland Shows Us What Equal Opportunity Looks Like

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlberg, Pasi

    2012-01-01

    International indicators show that Finland has one of the most educated citizenries in the world, provides educational opportunities in an egalitarian manner, and makes efficient use of resources. But at the beginning of the 1990s, education in Finland was nothing special in international terms. The performance of Finnish students on international…

  5. Comparative Study of Teaching Content in Teacher Education Programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in selected teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in, on the one hand, Canada, Finland and Singapore, all of which…

  6. Environmental Education in Finland--A Case Study of Environmental Education in Nature Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeronen, Eila; Jeronen, Juha; Raustia, Hanna

    2009-01-01

    The article aims to introduce Environmental Education (EE) in Finland and to discuss how it has been taken into account in Finnish nature schools. Firstly, we present EE models used in Finland. Thereafter we describe a qualitative case study on EE in nature schools (NS). The aim of the study was to get information for the development of EE. The…

  7. Discourses about School-Based Mathematics Teacher Education in Finland and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryve, Andreas; Hemmi, Kirsti; Borjesson, Mats

    2013-01-01

    In this cross-case study we focus on school-based teacher education in Sweden and Finland. Through the use of focus-group interviews with mathematics teacher educators in Finland and Sweden, the study shows that there are substantial differences in how school-based teacher education is introduced and portrayed in the discourse about teacher…

  8. 76 FR 29191 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland and the Netherlands: Continuation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... Antidumping Duty Orders: Purified Carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, the Netherlands and Sweden, 70... Netherlands, and Sweden: Final Results of the Expedited First Sunset Reviews of the Antidumping Duty Orders... Finland, Mexico, Netherlands and Sweden, 76 FR 27663 (May 12, 2011), and USITC Publication 4225 (May...

  9. Consultation in Special Needs Education in Sweden and Finland: A Comparative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundqvist, Christel; von Ahlefeld Nisser, Désirée; Ström, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    The article compares the conditions and implementation of special education professionals' consulting task in Sweden and Finland. The article first describes the background of the consulting teacher role and special education in Sweden and in Finland. Two different perspectives in the continuum on consultation are presented, followed by a…

  10. 75 FR 39207 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... International Trade Administration Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland: Extension of Time Limit for... 30, 2010. See Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary... Time Limits for Preliminary Results Section 751(a)(3)(A) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the...

  11. The University-Innovation Nexus in Finland. Go8 Backgrounder 29

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabert, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this "backgrounder" is to better understand the contributions of universities to innovation in Finland, as a means of widening the consideration of policy options in Australia. Finland is a small but advanced industrial economy with limited resources and markets, dependent on external trade and the internationalisation…

  12. State-Based Curriculum-Making: Approaches to Local Curriculum Work in Norway and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mølstad, Christina Elde

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates how state authorities in Norway and Finland design national curriculum to provide different policy conditions for local curriculum work in municipalities and schools. The topic is explored by comparing how national authorities in Norway and Finland create a scope for local curriculum. The data consist of interviews with…

  13. The Many Faces of Special Education within RTI Frameworks in the United States and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björn, Piia M.; Aro, Mikko T.; Koponen, Tuire K.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    Response to intervention (RTI) can be considered an everyday practice in many parts of the United States, whereas, in Finland, only recently has a new framework for support in learning taken shape. Choosing Finland as the comparative partner for this policy paper is justified as its educational system has been widely referenced on the basis of…

  14. Finnish Lessons: What Can the World Learn from Educational Change in Finland? Series on School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlberg, Pasi

    2011-01-01

    "Finnish Lessons" is a first-hand, comprehensive account of how Finland built a world-class education system during the past three decades. The author traces the evolution of education policies in Finland and highlights how they differ from the United States and other industrialized countries. He shows how rather than relying on…

  15. Comparative Study of University and Polytechnic Graduates in Finland: Implications of Higher Education on Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xia, Belle Selene; Liitiainen, Elia; Rekola, Mika

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the implications of higher education on earnings in Finland. The challenges as well as opportunities of obtaining a university degree as compared to graduating from polytechnics are evaluated using the REFLEX (The Flexible Professional in the Knowledge Society) data. As a Nordic country, Finland is known for its educated…

  16. Analysis of Primary School Curriculum of Turkey, Finland, and Ireland in Terms of Media Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanriverdi, Belgin; Apak, Ozlem

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the implications of Media Literacy Education (MLE) in Turkey by analyzing the Primary School Curricula in terms of MLE comparatively in Turkey, Ireland and Finland. In this study, the selection of Finland and Ireland curricula is related with those countries' being the pioneering countries in MLE and the…

  17. Changing Missions: The Role of Open University Education in the Field of Higher Education in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halttunen, Nina

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the history of open university education in Finland and its position in the field of higher education is investigated. Open university education started in Finland as a small-scale regional activity in the beginning of the 1970s. When the Ministry of Education at the turn of 1980s took charge of open university education it was…

  18. Market-Oriented School Reform in England and Finland: School Choice, Finance and Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Anne; Ylonen, Annamari

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the introduction of market-oriented reforms into school-based education in England and Finland. The contexts into which reforms were introduced differed, with a fully comprehensive system being in place in Finland but not in England; the motives were also different; and different trajectories have since been followed. Whilst…

  19. Myocardial infarction events and cardiovascular risk factor levels in Finnish- and Swedish-speaking populations of Finland.

    PubMed

    Lammintausta, Aino; Immonen-Räihä, Pirjo; Lehtonen, Aapo; Räihä, Ismo; Harald, Kennet; Torppa, Jorma; Airaksinen, Juhani K E; Salomaa, Veikko

    2011-11-01

    BACKGROUND. The Swedish-speaking minority of Finland is unique, because it has a higher socioeconomic status (SES) and longer life expectancy than the Finnish-speaking majority. We hypothesized that this minority may have a lower attack rate of coronary events and analysed whether this could be explained by their higher SES. METHODS. The population-based myocardial infarction (MI) registers recorded 4,845 MI events in Turku during 1988-1998. Individual-level indicators of SES were obtained from Statistics Finland. The population-based FINRISK surveys recorded cardiovascular risk factors and native languages of 10,432 people in 1987, 1997, and 2002. RESULTS. The age-standardized attack rate of MI was lower among the 35-64-year-old Swedish-speaking men than among Finnish-speaking men (rate ratio 0.66; 95% confidence interval 0.47-0.85) and the difference remained significant after adjustment for SES. The Swedish-speaking inhabitants had higher age-, sex-, and SES-adjusted high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and lower triglycerides, body mass index, and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion. The Swedish-speaking inhabitants of Turku had lower MI morbidity and coronary mortality than the Finnish-speaking inhabitants. After controlling for SES, these differences remained significant among men, suggesting that other factors, such as differences in the risk factor profiles may also play a role.

  20. A new approach to the study of Romanization in Britain: a regional perspective of cultural change in late iron age and roman dorset using the siler and gompertz-makeham models of mortality.

    PubMed

    Redfern, Rebecca C; Dewitte, Sharon N

    2011-02-01

    This is the first study of health in the Roman Empire to use the Siler and Gompertz-Makeham models of mortality to investigate the health consequences of the 43 AD conquest of Britain. The study examined late Iron Age and Romano-British populations (N = 518) from Dorset, England, which is the only region of Britain to display continuity in inhumation burial practice and cemetery use throughout the two periods. Skeletal evidence for frailty was assessed using cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis, periosteal lesions, enamel hypoplasia, dental caries, tuberculosis, and rickets. These health variables were chosen for analysis because they are reliable indicators of general health for diachronic comparison (Steckel and Rose: The backbone of history: health and nutrition in the western hemisphere (2002)) and are associated with the introduction of urbanism in Britain during the Roman period (Redfern: J Rom Archaeol Supp Series 64 (2007) 171-194; Redfern: Britannia 39 (2008a) 161-191; Roberts and Cox: Health and disease in Britain: from prehistory to the present day (2003)). The results show that levels of frailty and mortality were lower in the late Iron Age period, and no sex differences in mortality was present. However, post-conquest, mortality risk increased for children and the elderly, and particularly for men. The latter finding challenges received wisdom concerning the benefits of incorporation into the Empire and the higher status of the male body in the Roman world. Therefore, we conclude that the consequences of urbanism, changes in diet, and increased population heterogeneity negatively impacted health, to the extent that the enhanced cultural buffering of men did not outweigh underlying sex differences in biology that advantage women.

  1. Iron and iron derived radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fastexclamation Think smallexclamation In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Mineralogy, Petrology, Chemistry, and Ar-39 - Ar-40 and Ages of the Caddo County IAB Iron: Evidence for Early Partial Melt Segregation of a Gabbro Area Rich in Plagioclase-Diopside

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Bogard, Donald D.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Garrison, Daniel H.

    2000-01-01

    We found coarse-grained gabbroic material rich in plagioclase and diopside in the Caddo County IAB iron meteorite. The polished thin sections studied were made from areas rich in Al and Ca detected by a micro-focus X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping technique. The gabbro is not a clast within a breccia, but rather this area is located mainly at silicate-metal boundaries only a few cm away from an area with fine-grained, ultramafic silicate similar to winonaites. Medium-grained orthopyroxene and olivine are found in transitional areas showing no disturbance of their crystalline textures. A vein-like region, starting at the area rich in fine-grained mafic silicate, extends towards the gabbroic area with a gradual increase in abundance of plagioclase and diopside. This texture and our accumulated knowledge of the formation mechanism of IAB/winonaltes meteorites, suggest that the gabbroic materials were formed by inhomogeneous segregation of partial melts of chondritic source materials. Compositional data on two mineralogically distinct samples of the gabbro-rich portion of the inclusion were obtained by INAA. Compared to an average of LAB silicate inclusions or winonaites, the Caddo County gabbro is enriched in the incompatible lithophile elements Na, Ca, Sc, REE and Hf, which is consistent with a melt origin for the gabbro. The cosmogenic space exposure age of Caddo County (511 Ma) is significantly younger than exposure ages of some other IAB meteorites, An 39Ar-40Ar age determination of the gabbroic material indicates a series of upward steps in age from 4.516 Ga to 4.523 Ga, with a few high temperature ages up to 4.54 Ga. The older age could approximate the primary recrystallization age of silicates. The stepped Ar age spectrum may indicate differences in Ar closure temperatures during slow cooling of -2-20'C/Myr in the parent body. Alternatively, the younger Ar-Ar ages may date a shock event which occurred while Caddo County was hot and which also created textures

  3. The C9ORF72 expansion sizes in patients with psychosis: a population-based study on the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

    PubMed

    Solje, Eino; Miettunen, Jouko; Marttila, Riikka; Helisalmi, Seppo; Laitinen, Marjo; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Isohanni, Matti; Hiltunen, Mikko; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Remes, Anne M

    2016-04-01

    Patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) have many psychotic symptoms, especially at the onset of the disease. The C9ORF72 expansion is the most common genetic etiology observed with bvFTD and the prevalence of the expansion is notably high among Finnish bvFTD patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the C9ORF72 expansion among the clearly characterized patients with psychosis, mainly schizophrenia, in early midlife. The C9ORF72 repeat sizes were analyzed in 130 (48% women) patients with psychosis from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (N=11,017), the mean onset age being 27.9 (SD 7.0) years. Despite the high frequency of psychiatric symptoms in bvFTD patients and the extremely high prevalence of the C9ORF72 expansion in Finland, pathogenic expansion (>40 repeats) was not detected among the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 individuals with psychosis, indicating that these disorders, especially schizophrenia before the age of 43 years, may not be associated with the C9ORF72 expansion. However, we identified four cases with intermediate size repeats (17-26), but the role of the intermediate repeats in the etiology of psychosis is unknown.

  4. Application of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Karvonen, Anne M.; Reponen, Tiina; Hyvärinen, Anne; Vesper, Stephen; Pekkanen, Juha

    2015-01-01

    The environmental relative moldiness index (ERMI) metric was previously developed to quantify mold contamination in U.S. homes. This study determined the applicability of the ERMI for quantifying mold and moisture damage in Finnish residences. Homes of the LUKAS2 birth cohort in Finland were visually inspected for moisture damage and mold, and vacuumed floor dust samples were collected. An ERMI analysis including 36 mold-specific quantitative PCR assays was performed on the dust samples (n = 144), and the ERMI metric was analyzed against inspection-based observations of moisture damage and mold. Our results show that the ERMI was significantly associated with certain observations of visible mold in Finnish homes but not with moisture damage. Several mold species occurred more frequently and at higher levels in Finnish than in U.S. homes. Modification of the ERMI toward Finnish conditions, using a subsample of LUKAS2 homes with and without moisture damage, resulted in a simplified metric based on 10 mold species. The Finnish ERMI (FERMI) performed substantially better in quantifying moisture and mold damage in Finnish homes, showing significant associations with various observations of visible mold, strongest when the damage was located in the child's main living area, as well as with mold odor and moisture damage. As shown in Finland, the ERMI as such is not equally well usable in different climates and geographic regions but may be remodeled to account for local outdoor and indoor fungal conditions as well as for moisture damage characteristics in a given country. PMID:26546428

  5. Atmospheric pressure and suicide attempts in Helsinki, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, Laura; Ruuhela, Reija; Ostamo, Aini; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Suominen, Kirsi; Partonen, Timo

    2012-11-01

    The influence of weather on mood and mental health is commonly debated. Furthermore, studies concerning weather and suicidal behavior have given inconsistent results. Our aim was to see if daily weather changes associate with the number of suicide attempts in Finland. All suicide attempts treated in the hospitals in Helsinki, Finland, during two separate periods, 8 years apart, were included. Altogether, 3,945 suicide attempts were compared with daily weather parameters and analyzed with a Poisson regression. We found that daily atmospheric pressure correlated statistically significantly with the number of suicide attempts, and for men the correlation was negative. Taking into account the seasonal normal value during the period 1971-2000, daily temperature, global solar radiation and precipitation did not associate with the number of suicide attempts on a statistically significant level in our study. We concluded that daily atmospheric pressure may have an impact on suicidal behavior, especially on suicide attempts of men by violent methods ( P < 0.001), and may explain the clustering of suicide attempts. Men seem to be more vulnerable to attempt suicide under low atmospheric pressure and women under high atmospheric pressure. We show only statistical correlations, which leaves the exact mechanisms of interaction between weather and suicidal behavior open. However, suicidal behavior should be assessed from the point of view of weather in addition to psychiatric and social aspects.

  6. Atmospheric pressure and suicide attempts in Helsinki, Finland.

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, Laura; Ruuhela, Reija; Ostamo, Aini; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Suominen, Kirsi; Partonen, Timo

    2012-11-01

    The influence of weather on mood and mental health is commonly debated. Furthermore, studies concerning weather and suicidal behavior have given inconsistent results. Our aim was to see if daily weather changes associate with the number of suicide attempts in Finland. All suicide attempts treated in the hospitals in Helsinki, Finland, during two separate periods, 8 years apart, were included. Altogether, 3,945 suicide attempts were compared with daily weather parameters and analyzed with a Poisson regression. We found that daily atmospheric pressure correlated statistically significantly with the number of suicide attempts, and for men the correlation was negative. Taking into account the seasonal normal value during the period 1971-2000, daily temperature, global solar radiation and precipitation did not associate with the number of suicide attempts on a statistically significant level in our study. We concluded that daily atmospheric pressure may have an impact on suicidal behavior, especially on suicide attempts of men by violent methods (P < 0.001), and may explain the clustering of suicide attempts. Men seem to be more vulnerable to attempt suicide under low atmospheric pressure and women under high atmospheric pressure. We show only statistical correlations, which leaves the exact mechanisms of interaction between weather and suicidal behavior open. However, suicidal behavior should be assessed from the point of view of weather in addition to psychiatric and social aspects.

  7. [Tuberculosis in Scandinavia--Finland families' black sheep].

    PubMed

    Tala, E

    1990-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis in the Nordic countries is one of the lowest in the world: Denmark 5.1, Iceland 6.4, Norway 6.9 and Sweden 6.5; whereas in Finland it is around the mean for Europe, 28.9 per 100,000 (1988). The immigrants are the risk group because they usually come from countries with a high prevalence. The BCG-vaccination at birth is still used in Finland. Other Nordic countries vaccinate mainly the risk groups. Revaccination is no longer indicated. After the discontinuation of the BCG at birth in 1975 the sensitivity to environmental mycobacteria has increased in Sweden. The screening programmes have been phased out but there is reason to take tuberculosis into account at pre-employment examinations, and to perform meticulous contract tracing of the smear-positives. Effective short course chemotherapy is given in all the countries. The Nordic countries must continue to keep accurate tuberculosis registers, to maintain the high diagnostic level and successfully apply the latest high technology and know-how for the eradication of tuberculosis which, however, will persist into the next generation.

  8. Geomorphological aspects of road construction in a cold environment, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seppälä, Matti

    1999-12-01

    Traditionally, road alignments followed easy landscapes and suitable landforms. When traffic and the size and weight of vehicles increased and higher speeds were used, straighter roads were required; the easygoing relief could not always be used, and problems arose. Road contractors could save money in building and maintenance costs by considering the geomorphic facts. The examples from Finland document why road construction is very expensive in the conditions generated by severe winters. In Finland, more paved roads cross the Arctic Circle than in the whole of North America. This paper gives examples of geomorphic elements affecting road construction in a cold environment: eskers, drumlins, plains of late and postglacial glaciolacustrine and marine sediments, mires, steep rock cliffs, river channels and ice-dams, fluvial erosion, and palsas. Solutions to these problems include removal of frost sensible materials and replacement by more favorable sediments. Road surfaces, kept snow-free in the wintertime, are subjected to deep freezing. The maintenance of roads can be supported with some solutions that affect snowdrift and icing problems, avoidance of geomorphic factors that cause problems, and by using natural processes to help people. Some examples of how road construction affects geomorphic processes and vice versa are provided. For example, bridges block moving river ice, and on special occasions, road banks cause icing.

  9. The iron status at birth of neonates with risk factors for developing iron deficiency: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    MacQueen, BC; Christensen, RD; Ward, DM; Bennett, ST; O’Brien, EA; Sheffield, MJ; Baer, VL; Snow, GL; Lewis, KA Weaver; Fleming, RE; Kaplan, J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates, infants of diabetic mothers (IDM) and very-low-birth weight premature neonates (VLBW) are reported to have increased risk for developing iron deficiency and possibly associated neurocognitive delays. STUDY DESIGN We conducted a pilot study to assess iron status at birth in at-risk neonates by measuring iron parameters in umbilical cord blood from SGA, IDM, VLBW and comparison neonates. RESULTS Six of the 50 infants studied had biochemical evidence of iron deficiency at birth. Laboratory findings consistent with iron deficiency were found in one SGA, one IDM, three VLBW, and one comparison infant. None of the infants had evidence of iron deficiency anemia. CONCLUSIONS Evidence of biochemical iron deficiency at birth was found in 17% of screened neonates. Studies are needed to determine whether these infants are at risk for developing iron-limited erythropoiesis, iron deficiency anemia or iron-deficient neurocognitive delay. PMID:27977019

  10. Falling clothes irons rarely cause burns.

    PubMed

    Allasio, David; Shanti, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Children's Hospital of Michigan's Burn Center treats approximately three pediatric contact burns annually related to clothes irons, which involve the face, torso, and extremities. These burns leave well-demarcated burn patterns, including the steam holes from the heat plate of the iron. The average age of these children is 15 months. The history given by the parent is that the child pulled the cord of an iron that was on an ironing board or high shelf. It seemed unlikely to the investigators that a falling iron would produce such demarcated burns. A free-standing shelf unit was built with shelf heights of 36, 60, and 72 inches (the height of an ironing board and shelves at home). Three irons of different weights were put in three different positions on each shelf, with the cord dangling. A doll the approximate size of a 15-month old was positioned in front of the shelf. The dangling cord was pulled, and the falling iron was videotaped. The video was edited in freeze frame at the point at which the iron hit the doll. Two hundred seventy falls were recorded. The flat heat plate of the iron never hit the doll. The linear edge of the heat plate hit the doll on only seven falls. This study demonstrates that it is very unlikely for the flat heat plate of a falling iron to contact a toddler-sized doll. Children who allegedly sustain demarcated burns in this manner need to be investigated for nonaccidental injury.

  11. 21 CFR 522.1182 - Iron injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... follows: (i) For prevention of iron deficiency anemia, inject 100 mg (1 mL) by intramuscular injection at 2 to 4 days of age. (ii) For treatment of iron deficiency anemia, inject 100 mg (1 mL) by... described in paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section as follows: (i) For the prevention of anemia due to...

  12. 21 CFR 522.1182 - Iron injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... follows: (i) For prevention of iron deficiency anemia, inject 100 mg (1 mL) by intramuscular injection at 2 to 4 days of age. (ii) For treatment of iron deficiency anemia, inject 100 mg (1 mL) by... described in paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section as follows: (i) For the prevention of anemia due to...

  13. 21 CFR 522.1182 - Iron injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... follows: (i) For prevention of iron deficiency anemia, inject 100 mg (1 mL) by intramuscular injection at 2 to 4 days of age. (ii) For treatment of iron deficiency anemia, inject 100 mg (1 mL) by... described in paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section as follows: (i) For the prevention of anemia due to...

  14. Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA).

    PubMed

    Heeney, Matthew M; Finberg, Karin E

    2014-08-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is a common global problem whose etiology is typically attributed to acquired inadequate dietary intake and/or chronic blood loss. However, in several kindreds multiple family members are affected with iron deficiency anemia that is unresponsive to oral iron supplementation and only partially responsive to parenteral iron therapy. The discovery that many of these cases harbor mutations in the TMPRSS6 gene led to the recognition that they represent a single clinical entity: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA). This article reviews clinical features of IRIDA, recent genetic studies, and insights this disorder provides into the regulation of systemic iron homeostasis.

  15. CD1 Mouse Retina Is Shielded From Iron Overload Caused by a High Iron Diet

    PubMed Central

    Bhoiwala, Devang L.; Song, Ying; Cwanger, Alyssa; Clark, Esther; Zhao, Liang-liang; Wang, Chenguang; Li, Yafeng; Song, Delu; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose High RPE iron levels have been associated with age-related macular degeneration. Mutation of the ferroxidase ceruloplasmin leads to RPE iron accumulation and degeneration in patients with aceruloplasminemia; mice lacking ceruloplasmin and its homolog hephaestin have a similar RPE degeneration. To determine whether a high iron diet (HID) could cause RPE iron accumulation, possibly contributing to RPE oxidative stress in AMD, we tested the effect of dietary iron on mouse RPE iron. Methods Male CD1 strain mice were fed either a standard iron diet (SID) or the same diet with extra iron added (HID) for either 3 months or 10 months. Mice were analyzed with immunofluorescence and Perls' histochemical iron stain to assess iron levels. Levels of ferritin, transferrin receptor, and oxidative stress gene mRNAs were measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in neural retina (NR) and isolated RPE. Morphology was assessed in plastic sections. Results Ferritin immunoreactivity demonstrated a modest increase in the RPE in 10-month HID mice. Analysis by qPCR showed changes in mRNA levels of iron-responsive genes, indicating moderately increased iron in the RPE of 10-month HID mice. However, even by age 18 months, there was no Perls' signal in the retina or RPE and no retinal degeneration. Conclusions These findings indicate that iron absorbed from the diet can modestly increase the level of iron deposition in the wild-type mouse RPE without causing RPE or retinal degeneration. This suggests regulation of retinal iron uptake at the blood-retinal barriers. PMID:26275132

  16. Regional differences in the incidence of rheumatoid arthritis in Finland in 1995

    PubMed Central

    Kaipiainen-Seppan..., O; Aho, K; Nikkarinen, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate regional differences in the incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
METHODS—Those subjects entitled to receive drug reimbursement for chronic inflammatory joint diseases in 11/21 central hospital districts (population base about 1.8 million adults) in Finland during 1995 were studied. The incidence rates from these central hospital districts were compared.
RESULTS—A total of 1213 subjects were entitled to drug reimbursement for chronic inflammatory joint disease which had started at the age of 16 or over. Of these, 598 subjects satisfied the American Rheumatism Association 1987 criteria for RA. The age adjusted incidence of RA was 31.7/100 000 (95% CI 29.2 to 34.4) and varied significantly (p<0.001) among the central hospital districts, ranging from 16.3 to 44.8/100 000.
CONCLUSION—There are regional differences in the incidence of RA. The reasons for these are probably environmental rather than genetic.

 PMID:11156545

  17. Oral self-care and periodontal health indicators among adults with diabetes in Finland.

    PubMed

    Karikoski, A; Ilanne-Parikka, P; Murtomaa, H

    2001-12-01

    We assessed the effects of oral self-care on periodontal health indicators among adults with diabetes. The sample consisted of 120 dentate individuals, all of whom were regular patients at the Salo Regional Hospital Diabetes Clinic in southwest Finland. Clinical periodontal examination included identification of visible plaque, the presence of calculus, and use of the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). A questionnaire focused on self-treatment, self-prevention, and self-diagnosis of oral diseases, utilization of dental services, and patients' knowledge and attitudes towards oral health. The New Century model of oral health promotion was used as a theoretical framework for analysis of determinants of oral self-care. Although individuals aged 40 years or older were more frequent interdental cleaners, significantly better oral health indicators were found among younger patients. Women reported brushing their teeth more frequently, and differences in plaque and calculus indices were significantly lower than those of men. Self-reported good oral condition was strongly associated with frequent dental visits and less plaque and calculus. No missing teeth and age less than 40 years were predictors of lower plaque, calculus, and CPITN scores. A significant association was found only between frequent dental visits and reduced amount of calculus. Self-reported frequency of oral health habits among adults with diabetes seemed to have little effect on periodontal health indicators. Adults with diabetes should benefit from comprehensive oral self-care, and more attention is needed for improving the quality and outcome of these habits.

  18. Active commuting to school in Finland, the potential for physical activity increase in different seasons

    PubMed Central

    Kallio, Jouni; Turpeinen, Salla; Hakonen, Harto; Tammelin, Tuija

    2016-01-01

    Background Active commuting to school (ACS) can be a significant source of physical activity and provide many health benefits. Objective This study identified the potential to increase physical activity levels by promoting ACS in Finnish schools and evaluated the effects of season, distance and age on ACS. Design Data were collected with a questionnaire from 5,107 students, aged 10–16, in 45 comprehensive schools in Finland. The distance and the mode of transport to school in different seasons were self-reported. Results The prevalence of ACS was over 80% during spring/fall for those living 0–5 km from school. ACS was inversely associated with the distance to school and was lower in winter compared to spring and fall. Cycling is less common in winter, especially among girls and younger students. The potential for increasing students’ physical activity levels via ACS seems to be largest in winter, especially among students living 1–5 km from school. The variation in the prevalence of ACS between schools was large, especially in winter. Conclusions When planning interventions to promote ACS, one is encouraged to acknowledge and evaluate the potential in the selected target schools in different seasons. The potential varies largely between schools and seasons and is highly dependent on students’ commuting distances. PMID:27924739

  19. Respiratory symptoms increase health care consumption and affect everyday life – a cross-sectional population-based study from Finland, Estonia, and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Axelsson, Malin; Lindberg, Anne; Kainu, Annette; Rönmark, Eva; Jansson, Sven-Arne

    2016-01-01

    Background Even though respiratory symptoms are common in the adult population, there is limited research describing their impact on everyday life and association with health care consumption. Aim The main objective of this population-based study was to estimate and compare the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among adults in Finland, Estonia, and Sweden in relation to health care consumption and to identify factors influencing health care consumption. A secondary aim was to assess to which extent the presence of respiratory symptoms affect everyday life. Method In the population-based FinEsS studies consisting of random samples of subjects aged 20 to 69 years from Finland (n=1,337), Estonia (n=1,346), and Sweden (n=1,953), data on demographics, respiratory health, and health care consumption were collected by structured interviews. Prevalence was compared and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Respiratory symptoms were significantly more common in Finland (66.0%) and Estonia (65.2%) than in Sweden (54.1%). Among subjects with respiratory symptoms, the proportion reporting outpatient care during the past year was fairly similar in the three countries, while specialist consultations were more common in Finland (19.1%), and hospitalisations more common in Estonia (15.0%). Finnish and Estonian residency, female sex, and BMI>25 increased the risk for outpatient care consumption. Wheeze and attacks of shortness of breath in the past 12 months, recurrent sputum production, and cough were associated with an increased risk for health care consumption. Increasing number of respiratory symptoms increased the risk for consuming health care. A larger proportion of subjects in Estonia and Sweden experienced their everyday life being affected by respiratory symptoms compared with subjects in Finland. Conclusion Respiratory symptoms are common in Finland, Estonia, and Sweden and contribute to a negative impact on everyday life as well as increased

  20. Iron therapy in the pediatric hemodialysis population.

    PubMed

    Warady, Bradley A; Kausz, Annamaria; Lerner, Gary; Brewer, Eileen D; Chadha, Vimal; Brugnara, Carlo; Dahl, Naomi V; Watkins, Sandra L

    2004-06-01

    Iron therapy maintains iron stores and optimizes the response to recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO) in patients with end-stage renal failure. Information is limited, however, regarding the preferential route of iron administration in pediatric patients receiving hemodialysis. Therefore, we prospectively randomized 35 iron-replete patients (aged >1 to <20 years) to receive up to 16 weeks of maintenance i.v. ( n=17) or daily oral ( n=18) iron. Eligible patients had received hemodialysis for >2 months, had a baseline transferrin saturation [TSAT] >20%, and were receiving maintenance r-HuEPO. Treatment arms were evenly distributed with respect to baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, with no statistically significant differences in baseline hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), reticulocyte Hb content (CHr), serum ferritin (SF), TSAT, or r-HuEPO dose. In the 35 patients, i.v. iron dextran and not oral iron was associated with a significant increase (138.5 to 259.1 ng/ml, P=0.003) in SF. A comparison of the change in SF between the i.v. iron group and the oral iron group was also significant ( P=0.001). Whereas only i.v. iron was associated with a significant decrease in the dose of r-HuEPO (234.0 to 157.6 U/kg per week, P=0.046) and an increase of the CHr (29.2 to 30.1 pg, P=0.049), these changes were not significantly different from those experienced by patients in the oral iron group. In both groups, the Hct remained stable and in neither group was there a significant change in the TSAT. In summary, although both oral and i.v. iron maintained patients in an iron-replete state in this short-term study, only i.v. therapy allowed for a significant improvement in iron stores.

  1. [Control of iron deficiency in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Berger, Jacques; Dillon, Jean-Claude

    2002-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional disorder worldwide, especially in developing countries. It occurs when iron absorption cannot compensate iron requirements and losses. Requirements are especially high in pregnant women, infants, young children and adolescents who run a higher risk of being iron-deficient. In developing countries, the main cause of iron deficiency is the low iron bioavailability of the diet. The consequences of iron deficiency are many and serious, affecting not only individuals' health but also the development of societies and countries. The prevention and the control of iron deficiency and anemia in all groups of a population with different iron requirements imply to coordinate different interventions. Iron fortification of staple foods or condiments directed to the whole population is a sustainable and low cost-effective approach. However, at some periods of life, especially during pregnancy and in children from the age of 6 months, iron requirements are high. For pregnant women, the current approach favours the daily iron-folate supplementation during pregnancy but the results in terms of public health are disappointing. The preventive weekly iron-folate supplementation of women during their reproductive life, whose efficacy is recognized, offers a promising alternative; its impact in terms of public health is under current evaluation. For infants and young children, iron fortification of complementary food is effective but this food is generally imported and economically inaccessible to populations with limited resources. The production, by small private units from local products, of complementary foods of low viscosity, good nutritional quality, fortified with vitamins and minerals, and of low cost is at hand in several countries. When complementary foods are not available, the preventive iron supplementation from 6 to 18 months of age has to be advised. This approach should be strengthened by the advantages of the weekly

  2. Transdermal iron replenishment therapy.

    PubMed

    Modepalli, Naresh; Shivakumar, H N; Kanni, K L Paranjothy; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is one of the major nutritional deficiency disorders. Iron deficiency anemia occurs due to decreased absorption of iron from diet, chronic blood loss and other associated diseases. The importance of iron and deleterious effects of iron deficiency anemia are discussed briefly in this review followed by the transdermal approaches to deliver iron. Transdermal delivery of iron would be able to overcome the side effects associated with conventional oral and parenteral iron therapy and improves the patient compliance. During preliminary investigations, ferric pyrophosphate and iron dextran were selected as iron sources for transdermal delivery. Different biophysical techniques were explored to assess their efficiency in delivering iron across the skin, and in vivo studies were carried out using anemic rat model. Transdermal iron delivery is a promising approach that could make a huge positive impact on patients suffering with iron deficiency.

  3. [Iron dysregulation and anemias].

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Katsuya

    2015-10-01

    Most iron in the body is utilized as a component of hemoglobin that delivers oxygen to the entire body. Under normal conditions, the iron balance is tightly regulated. However, iron dysregulation does occasionally occur; total iron content reductions cause iron deficiency anemia and overexpression of the iron regulatory peptide hepcidin disturbs iron utilization resulting in anemia of chronic disease. Conversely, the presence of anemia may ultimately lead to iron overload; for example, thalassemia, a common hereditary anemia worldwide, often requires transfusion, but long-term transfusions cause iron accumulation that leads to organ damage and other poor outcomes. On the other hand, there is a possibility that iron overload itself can cause anemia; iron chelation therapy for the post-transfusion iron overload observed in myelodysplastic syndrome or aplastic anemia improves dependency on transfusions in some cases. These observations reflect the extremely close relationship between anemias and iron metabolism.

  4. Pharmacology of iron transport.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Shaina L; Krishnamurthy, Divya; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating the molecular basis for the regulation of iron uptake, storage, and distribution is necessary to understand iron homeostasis. Pharmacological tools are emerging to identify and distinguish among different iron transport pathways. Stimulatory or inhibitory small molecules with effects on iron uptake can help characterize the mechanistic elements of iron transport and the roles of the transporters involved in these processes. In particular, iron chelators can serve as potential pharmacological tools to alleviate diseases of iron overload. This review focuses on the pharmacology of iron transport, introducing iron transport membrane proteins and known inhibitors.

  5. Pharmacology of Iron Transport

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Shaina L.; Krishnamurthy, Divya; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating the molecular basis for the regulation of iron uptake, storage, and distribution is necessary to understand iron homeostasis. Pharmacological tools are emerging to identify and distinguish among different iron transport pathways. Stimulatory or inhibitory small molecules with effects on iron uptake can help characterize the mechanistic elements of iron transport and the roles of the transporters involved in these processes. In particular, iron chelators can serve as potential pharmacological tools to alleviate diseases of iron overload. This review focuses on the pharmacology of iron transport, introducing iron transport membrane proteins and known inhibitors. PMID:23020294

  6. Hospitalisation Utilisation and Costs in Schizophrenia Patients in Finland before and after Initiation of Risperidone Long-Acting Injection

    PubMed Central

    Asseburg, Christian; Willis, Michael; Löthgren, Mickael; Seppälä, Niko; Hakala, Mika; Persson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Quantify changes in hospital resource use in Finland following initiation of risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI). Materials and Methods. A retrospective multi-center chart review (naturalistic setting) was used to compare annual hospital bed-days and hospital episodes for 177 schizophrenia patients (mean age 47.1 years, 52% female, 72% hospitalized) before and after initiation of RLAI (between January 2004 and June 2005) using the within-patient “mirror-image” study design. The base case analytical approach allocated hospital episodes overlapping the start date entirely to the preinitiation period. In order to investigate the impact of inpatient care ongoing at baseline, the change in bed-days was also estimated using an alternative analytical approached related to economic modelling. Results. In the conventional analysis, the mean annual hospitalisation costs declined by €11,900 and the number of bed-days was reduced by 40%, corresponding to 0.19 fewer hospital episodes per year. The reductions in bed-days per patient-year were similar for patients switched to RLAI as inpatients and as outpatients. In the modelling-based analysis, an 8% reduction in bed-days per year was observed. Conclusion. Despite uncertainty in the choice of analytic approach for allocating inpatient episodes that overlapping this initiation, consistent reductions in resource use are associated with the initiation of RLAI in Finland. PMID:22966445

  7. Epidemiology of Sindbis virus infections in Finland 1981-96: possible factors explaining a peculiar disease pattern.

    PubMed Central

    Brummer-Korvenkontio, M.; Vapalahti, O.; Kuusisto, P.; Saikku, P.; Manni, T.; Koskela, P.; Nygren, T.; Brummer-Korvenkontio, H.; Vaheri, A.

    2002-01-01

    Pogosta disease (PD), an epidemic rash-arthritis occurring in late summer is caused by Sindbis virus (SINV) and is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. Altogether 2183 PD cases were serologically confirmed 1981-96 in Finland, with an annual incidence of 2.7/100000 (18 in the most endemic area of Northern Karelia). The annual average was 136 (varying from 1 to 1282) with epidemics occurring in August-September with a 7-year interval. Studies on 6320 patients with suspected rubella (1973-89) revealed 107 PD cases. The depth of snow cover and the temperature in May-July seemed to predict the number of cases. The morbidity was highest in 45- to 65-year-old females and lowest in children. Subclinical SINV infections were 17 times more common than the clinical ones. The SINV-antibody prevalence in fertile-age females was 0.6% in 1992; the estimated seroprevalence in Finland is about 2%. Among game animals the tetraonids (black grouse and capercaillie) had the highest seroprevalence (65%) in the epidemic year of 1981. PMID:12403109

  8. Corrosion of ductile iron piping

    SciTech Connect

    Szeliga, M.

    1995-12-31

    A compilation of 20 classic NACE papers on the subject, dating from 1957 to 1994. Papers include: Corrosion of Municipal Iron Watermains, Protecting Water Pipelines with Pipeline Coatings Conforming to American Water Works Association Coating Standards, Analysis of Aged Water Distribution Systems, and many more.

  9. Arctic wilderness policy in the United States and Finland.

    PubMed

    Gladden, J N

    2001-03-01

    The United States and Finland have passed laws to classify and manage Arctic wilderness areas, but their national policies are based on different nature ideologies. Finns tend to perceive wilderness as a human-centered idea, while Americans are inclined to see the same land from a nature-based point of view. Rural residents in the Arctic, and especially indigenous peoples, use motorized vehicles for hunting and gathering in wilderness areas. Attempts of southern-based environmental groups to restrict motor use by imposing a nature-based ideology on rural residents in northern Alaska will result in high levels of political conflict. Alaska land managers need to respect the minority rights of rural residents and a study of wilderness policies in Finnish Lapland is instructive toward this end.

  10. Ultrastructure of Frenkelia sp. from a Norwegian lemming in Finland.

    PubMed

    Laakkonen, J; Henttonen, H

    2000-04-01

    An apparently healthy Norwegian lemming (Lemmus lemmus) caught in northern Finland was observed to have a whitish body 0.5 to 1.0 mm in diameter in the external layer of the cerebral cortex. By light microscopy a highly lobulated cyst of Frenkelia sp. was observed. By transmission electron microscopy lemmus) collected in the cyst wall was seen consisting of a parasitophorous vacuolar membrane, an underlying electron-dense layer and a granular layer. The membrane was only slightly convoluted. The protrusions of the cyst wall appeared round but were often not distinctive. A very thin septum divided the interior of the cyst into compartments packed with bradyzoites and maturing zoites. The bradyzoites were elongate measuring 5-8 x 1.5-2 microm. This is the first electron microscopical study of Frenkelia sp. from L. lemmus.

  11. Comparing Consumer Resistance to Mobile Banking in Finland and Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laukkanen, Tommi; Cruz, Pedro

    This study compares two distinct European countries namely Finland and Portugal in terms of consumer resistance to mobile banking services. We explored how the five adoption barriers namely usage, value, risk, tradition and image, derived from the earlier literature, differ between these two countries. Using an Internet questionnaire a total of 3.597 usable responses was collected. A confirmatory factor analysis was implemented with SEM to build the constructs’ latent score levels. Using non-parametric difference tests we concluded that the resistance is significantly lower among the Portuguese online bank customers in terms of four out of the five barriers. The results can be used for a better understanding and enhancement of adoption of this specific case of mobile communication.

  12. Patient exposure levels in radiotherapy CT simulations in Finland.

    PubMed

    Toroi, P; Kaijaluoto, S; Bly, R

    2015-12-01

    Computed tomography (CT)-based simulation is an essential part of the radiotherapy treatment process. Patient exposure levels in CT simulations were collected from 15 CT systems from all 13 Finnish radiation therapy centres. A large standard deviation up to 56 % in dose levels between CT systems was noticed. Average volumetric CT dose indexes (in body phantom) were 24, 18 and 29 mGy for prostate, resection breast and head and neck treatment targets, respectively, and 70 mGy (in head phantom) for whole brain. These average dose indexes were much higher than those in corresponding diagnostic imaging in Finland. Dose levels in simulations with some devices were even over 3-fold higher than the diagnostic reference level for the same area of interest. Moreover, large variations in other exposure parameters, such as pitch and slice thickness, were seen. The results were discussed nationally, and general guidance to optimise dose levels was shared.

  13. Atmospheric sulfur deposition and streamwater quality in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahermo, P. W.; Tarvainen, T.; Tuovinen, J.-P.

    1994-10-01

    The correlation between sulfate concentrations in Finnish headwater streams and atmospheric sulfate deposition has been studied by using data from the streamwater chemistry in August September 1990 and computed S deposition from the anthropogenic emissions. The sulfate concentrations and acidity in water are interpolated and smoothed into a deposition model grid. These data are compared with geological and pedogeochemical (glacial till) background information. The areas where the streamwater SO4 concentrations are mainly controlled by either anthropogenic S deposition or sulfur in till is estimated by applying the fuzzy Gustafsson-Kessel algorithm, which provides a soft clustering suitable for overlapping control factors. Residual areas can be well explained by the SO4-rich Littorina clay deposits. The higher overall background SO4 concentrations in streams in south Finland compared with central and northern Finland are an indisputable consequence of the heavier S deposition load in the south. However, anthropogenic sulfur deposition has a clear correlation with the sulfates in streamwaters only in northeastern Lapland impacted by the large industrial emissions in the Kola Peninsula. The secondary sulfide and sulfate minerals of marine Littorina sediments are dominating sources in the broad coastal belts, as are the primary sulfide minerals locally in the Pori-Vammala area, at the eastern end of the main sulfide ore belt between Lake Ladoga and the Gulf of Bothnia, in the Outokumpu area, and in the Peräpohja and central Lapland schist belts. Consequently, in addition to the anthropogenic deposition, there are natural sources of sulfur which cause acidity of streamwaters.

  14. The uncertainty of modeled soil carbon stock change for Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtonen, Aleksi; Heikkinen, Juha

    2013-04-01

    Countries should report soil carbon stock changes of forests for Kyoto Protocol. Under Kyoto Protocol one can omit reporting of a carbon pool by verifying that the pool is not a source of carbon, which is especially tempting for the soil pool. However, verifying that soils of a nation are not a source of carbon in given year seems to be nearly impossible. The Yasso07 model was parametrized against various decomposition data using MCMC method. Soil carbon change in Finland between 1972 and 2011 were simulated with Yasso07 model using litter input data derived from the National Forest Inventory (NFI) and fellings time series. The uncertainties of biomass models, litter turnoverrates, NFI sampling and Yasso07 model were propagated with Monte Carlo simulations. Due to biomass estimation methods, uncertainties of various litter input sources (e.g. living trees, natural mortality and fellings) correlate strongly between each other. We show how original covariance matrices can be analytically combined and the amount of simulated components reduce greatly. While doing simulations we found that proper handling correlations may be even more essential than accurate estimates of standard errors. As a preliminary results, from the analysis we found that both Southern- and Northern Finland were soil carbon sinks, coefficient of variations (CV) varying 10%-25% when model was driven with long term constant weather data. When we applied annual weather data, soils were both sinks and sources of carbon and CVs varied from 10%-90%. This implies that the success of soil carbon sink verification depends on the weather data applied with models. Due to this fact IPCC should provide clear guidance for the weather data applied with soil carbon models and also for soil carbon sink verification. In the UNFCCC reporting carbon sinks of forest biomass have been typically averaged for five years - similar period for soil model weather data would be logical.

  15. Economic valuation of urban forest benefits in Finland.

    PubMed

    Tyrväinen, L

    2001-05-01

    Urban development projects may cause loss of amenity values of green areas, which should be taken into consideration in planning. Therefore, quantitative information on residents' valuation concerning urban forests is needed for assessing urban land use. The purpose of this investigation was to study the valuation of urban forests in two different urban environments Joensuu and Salo, Finland. The aims were to study the attitudes towards and benefits related to the use of urban forests and, in particular, to measure the valuations in monetary terms using contingent valuation, i.e. measure the residents' willingness-to-pay for larger wooded recreation areas and for small forested parks. Urban forests were seen in both towns as clearly producing positive benefits rather than causing negative effects. The negative features of forests were related to the management of the areas rather than their existence. The main values were related to nature and social functions of forests. In contrast, timber production achieved a distinctively low priority in both study towns. The results stress the importance of defining urban forest policies for municipalities in Finland. More than two-thirds of the respondents were willing to pay for the use of recreation areas. Good location and active management raised the average WTP. Moreover, approximately half of the respondents were willing to pay for preventing construction in urban forests. The results also show that the monetary value of amenity benefits in recreation areas is much higher than the present maintenance costs. The examples concerning the advantageousness of construction on green areas suggest that a limit could be found where the infill of housing areas is not worthwhile from the point of view of society, if the losses of green space benefits are taken into account.

  16. Challenging C. P. Snow: Active Interaction between Arts, Cultural Heritage and the Universe in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markkanen, T.

    2010-10-01

    Many events in Finland during the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) clearly demonstrated that there can be real interactions between the arts, humanities and science. We have found the 50-year-old concept, introduced by C. P. Snow, of two cultures unable to engage in a dialogue to be irrelevant. In Finland, astronomy has always been popular. The IYA2009 was celebrated in Finland with many local, national and international events. Altogether there were more than 400 events of all sizes. Arts and cultural activities were essential parts of many of these events.

  17. New developments and controversies in iron metabolism and iron chelation therapy.

    PubMed

    Kontoghiorghe, Christina N; Kontoghiorghes, George J

    2016-03-26

    Iron is essential for all organisms including microbial, cancer and human cells. More than a quarter of the human population is affected by abnormalities of iron metabolism, mainly from iron deficiency and iron overload. Iron also plays an important role in free radical pathology and oxidative damage which is observed in almost all major diseases, cancer and ageing. New developments include the complete treatment of iron overload and reduction of morbidity and mortality in thalassaemia using deferiprone and selected deferiprone/deferoxamine combinations and also the use of the maltol iron complex in the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia. There is also a prospect of using deferiprone as a universal antioxidant in non iron overloaded diseases such as neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, renal, infectious diseases and cancer. New regulatory molecules of iron metabolism such as endogenous and dietary chelating molecules, hepcidin, mitochondrial ferritin and their role in health and disease is under evaluation. Similarly, new mechanisms of iron deposition, removal, distribution and toxicity have been identified using new techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging increasing our understanding of iron metabolic processes and the targeted treatment of related diseases. The uniform distribution of iron in iron overload between organs and within each organ is no longer valid. Several other controversies such as the toxicity impact of non transferrin bound iron vs injected iron, the excess levels of iron in tissues causing toxicity and the role of chelation on iron absorption need further investigation. Commercial interests of pharmaceutical companies and connections to leading journals are playing a crucial role in shaping worldwide medical opinion on drug sales and use but also patients' therapeutic outcome and safety. Major controversies include the selection criteria and risk/benefit assessment in the use of deferasirox in thalassaemia and more so in idiopathic

  18. New developments and controversies in iron metabolism and iron chelation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kontoghiorghe, Christina N; Kontoghiorghes, George J

    2016-01-01

    Iron is essential for all organisms including microbial, cancer and human cells. More than a quarter of the human population is affected by abnormalities of iron metabolism, mainly from iron deficiency and iron overload. Iron also plays an important role in free radical pathology and oxidative damage which is observed in almost all major diseases, cancer and ageing. New developments include the complete treatment of iron overload and reduction of morbidity and mortality in thalassaemia using deferiprone and selected deferiprone/deferoxamine combinations and also the use of the maltol iron complex in the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia. There is also a prospect of using deferiprone as a universal antioxidant in non iron overloaded diseases such as neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, renal, infectious diseases and cancer. New regulatory molecules of iron metabolism such as endogenous and dietary chelating molecules, hepcidin, mitochondrial ferritin and their role in health and disease is under evaluation. Similarly, new mechanisms of iron deposition, removal, distribution and toxicity have been identified using new techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging increasing our understanding of iron metabolic processes and the targeted treatment of related diseases. The uniform distribution of iron in iron overload between organs and within each organ is no longer valid. Several other controversies such as the toxicity impact of non transferrin bound iron vs injected iron, the excess levels of iron in tissues causing toxicity and the role of chelation on iron absorption need further investigation. Commercial interests of pharmaceutical companies and connections to leading journals are playing a crucial role in shaping worldwide medical opinion on drug sales and use but also patients’ therapeutic outcome and safety. Major controversies include the selection criteria and risk/benefit assessment in the use of deferasirox in thalassaemia and more so in idiopathic

  19. Cancer Incidence among Patients with Anorexia Nervosa from Sweden, Denmark and Finland.

    PubMed

    Mellemkjaer, Lene; Papadopoulos, Fotios C; Pukkala, Eero; Ekbom, Anders; Gissler, Mika; Christensen, Jane; Olsen, Jørgen H

    2015-01-01

    A diet with restricted energy content reduces the occurrence of cancer in animal experiments. It is not known if the underlying mechanism also exists in human beings. To determine whether cancer incidence is reduced among patients with anorexia nervosa who tend to have a low intake of energy, we carried out a retrospective cohort study of 22 654 women and 1678 men diagnosed with anorexia nervosa at ages 10-50 years during 1968-2010 according to National Hospital Registers in Sweden, Denmark and Finland. The comparison group consisted of randomly selected persons from population registers who were similar to the anorexia nervosa patients in respect to sex, year of birth and place of residence. Patients and population comparisons were followed for cancer by linkage to Cancer Registries. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated using Poisson models. In total, 366 cases of cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) were seen among women with anorexia nervosa, and the IRR for all cancer sites was 0.97 (95% CI = 0.87-1.08) adjusted for age, parity and age at first child. There were 76 breast cancers corresponding to an adjusted IRR of 0.61 (95% CI = 0.49-0.77). Significantly increased IRRs were observed for esophageal, lung, and liver cancer. Among men with anorexia nervosa, there were 23 cases of cancer (age-adjusted IRR = 1.08; 95% CI = 0.71-1.66). There seems to be no general reduction in cancer occurrence among patients with anorexia nervosa, giving little support to the energy restriction hypothesis.

  20. Lead poisoning and trace elements in common eiders Somateria mollissima from Finland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; Franson, J.C.; Poppenga, R.H.; Hario, Martti; Kilpi, Mikael

    1998-01-01

    We collected carcasses of 52 common eider Somateria mollissima adults and ducklings and blood samples from 11 nesting eider hens in the Gulf of Finland near Helsinki in 1994, 1995 and 1996. Samples of liver tissue were analysed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium and zinc. Blood was analysed for lead, mercury and selenium. Most of the 21 adults examined at necropsy were emaciated with empty gizzards, and no ingested shotgun pellets or other metal were found in any of the birds. Three adult females had a combination of lesions and tissue lead residues characteristic of lead poisoning. Two of these birds had acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal epithelial cells and high concentrations of lead (73.4 and 73.3 ppm; all liver residues reported on dry weight basis) in their livers. The third was emaciated with a liver lead concentration of 47.9 ppm. An adult male had a liver lead concentration of 81.7 ppm, which is consistent with severe clinical poisoning. Two other adults, one male and one female, had liver lead concentrations of 14.2 and 8.03 ppm, respectively. Lead concentrations in the blood of hens ranged from 0.11 to 0.63 ppm wet weight. Selenium residues of A?60 ppm were found in the livers of five adult males. Selenium concentrations in the blood of hens ranged from 1.18 to 3.39 ppm wet weight. Arsenic concentrations of 27.5-38.5 ppm were detected in the livers of four adult females. Detectable concentrations of selenium, mercury and molybdenum were found more frequently in the livers of adult males arriving on the breeding grounds than in incubating females, while the reverse was true for arsenic, lead and chromium. Mean concentrations of selenium, copper and molybdenum were higher in the livers of arriving males than in the livers of incubating hens, but hens had greater concentrations of iron and magnesium. Concentrations of trace elements were lower in the livers of ducklings than

  1. Like a pig out of water: seaborne spread of domestic pigs in Southern Italy and Sardinia during the Bronze and Iron Ages.

    PubMed

    Lega, C; Fulgione, D; Genovese, A; Rook, L; Masseti, M; Meiri, M; Cinzia Marra, A; Carotenuto, F; Raia, P

    2017-02-01

    Southern Italy has a long history of human occupation and passage of different cultures since the Early Holocene. Repeated, ancient introductions of pigs in several geographic areas in Europe make it difficult to understand pig translocation and domestication in Italy. The archeozoological record may provide fundamental information on this, hence shedding light on peopling and on trading among different ancient cultures in the Mediterranean. Yet, because of the scanty nature of the fossil record, ancient remains from human-associated animals are somewhat rare. Fortunately, ancient DNA analysis as applied to domestic species proved to be a powerful tool in revealing human migrations. Herein, we analyzed 80-bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA control region from 27 Sus scrofa ancient samples retrieved from Southern Italian and Sardinian archeological sites, spanning in age from the Mesolithic to the Roman period. Our results surprisingly indicate the presence of the Near Eastern haplotype Y1 on both Italy's major islands (Sardinia and Sicily) during the Bronze Age, suggesting the seaborne transportation of domestic pigs by humans at least during 1600-1300 BC. The presence of the Italian E2 clade in domestic contexts shows that the indigenous wild boar was effectively domesticated or incorporated into domestic stocks in Southern Italy during the Bronze Age, although the E2 haplotype has never been found in modern domestic breeds. Pigs belonging to the endemic E2 clade were thus traded between the Peninsula and Sardinia by the end of the second millennium BC and this genetic signature is still detected in Sardinian feral pigs.

  2. Filicide in Austria and Finland - A register-based study on all filicide cases in Austria and Finland 1995-2005

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Filicide is the tragic crime of murdering one's own child. Previous research has found that the offending parents are commonly depressed and that suicide is often associated as an actual act or an intention. Yet, filicide is an underreported crime and previous studies have been strained with methodological problems. No comprehensive international studies on filicide have been presented in the literature until now. Methods This was a descriptive, comprehensive, register-based study of all filicides in Austria and Finland during 1995-2005. Filicide-suicide cases were also included. Results Most of the perpetrators were the biological mothers; in Austria 72%, in Finland 52%. Suicide followed filicide either as an attempt or a fulfilled act in 32% and 54% of the cases in Austria and Finland, respectively. Psychotic mood disorders were diagnosed for 10% of the living perpetrators in Austria, and 12% in Finland. Non-psychotic depression was diagnosed in 9% of surviving perpetrators in Austria, 35% in Finland. Conclusion The data from the two countries demonstrated that filicide is such a multifaceted and rare phenomenon that national data from individual countries seldom offer sufficient scope for its thorough study. Further analyses are needed to produce a complete picture of filicide. PMID:19930581

  3. A high serum iron level causes mouse retinal iron accumulation despite an intact blood-retinal barrier.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liangliang; Li, Yafeng; Song, Delu; Song, Ying; Theurl, Milan; Wang, Chenguang; Cwanger, Alyssa; Su, Guanfang; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2014-11-01

    The retina can be shielded by the blood-retinal barrier. Because photoreceptors are damaged by excess iron, it is important to understand whether the blood-retinal barrier protects against high serum iron levels. Bone morphogenic protein 6 (Bmp6) knockout mice have serum iron overload. Herein, we tested whether the previously documented retinal iron accumulation in Bmp6 knockout mice might result from the high serum iron levels or, alternatively, low levels of retinal hepcidin, an iron regulatory hormone whose transcription can be up-regulated by Bmp6. Furthermore, to determine whether increases in serum iron can elevate retinal iron levels, we i.v. injected iron into wild-type mice. Retinas were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence to assess the levels of iron-regulated genes/proteins and oxidative stress. Retinal hepcidin mRNA levels in Bmp6 knockout retinas were the same as, or greater than, those in age-matched wild-type retinas, indicating that Bmp6 knockout does not cause retinal hepcidin deficiency. Changes in mRNA levels of L ferritin and transferrin receptor indicated increased retinal iron levels in i.v. iron-injected wild-type mice. Oxidative stress markers were elevated in photoreceptors of mice receiving i.v. iron. These findings suggest that elevated serum iron levels can overwhelm local retinal iron regulatory mechanisms.

  4. Iron and aluminum soil/paleosol extractions as age/environment indicators: Some examples from a catchment in southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaney, William C.; Hancock, Ronald G. V.; Somelar, Peeter; Milan, Alison

    2016-10-01

    Various chemical extractions of Fe and Al from bulk soil samples, including Na-pyrophosphate (Fep, Alp), acid ammonium oxalate (Feo, Alo), and Na-dithionite (Fed, Ald), have been used over the last half century to distinguish soil ages over varying time frames from 102 to 106 years and even as far into antiquity as the Oligocene (30 × 106) years. Problems with mineral/chemical uniformity of sediments, free drainage of open system profiles, and variable climate over long time frames have produced problems and uncertainties as to just what each extraction removes from the bulk material analyzed. Some problems have been resolved by the work of Parfitt and Childs (1988); but some persist, especially with respect to the solubility of some extractant forms and the actual composition of others, particularly Alp, Alo, and Ald. A recent test of soils and paleosols in a fluvial chronosequence in southern Ontario illustrates the soil-paleosol evolutionary time trend over a period of ~ 11 ky, essentially post-Iroquois time in the Ontario basin (Jackson et al., 2000). This work highlights the importance of isolated, free draining weathering systems, mineral uniformity, and new relationships between secondary forms of Fed and Ald, the latter previously considered of little importance in age relationship quests.

  5. Iron and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... get iron by eating foods like meat and dark green leafy vegetables. Iron is also added to ... tofu dried beans and peas dried fruits leafy dark green vegetables iron-fortified breakfast cereals, breads, and ...

  6. Iron metabolism and toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Papanikolaou, G.; Pantopoulos, K. . E-mail: kostas.pantopoulos@mcgill.ca

    2005-01-15

    Iron is an essential nutrient with limited bioavailability. When present in excess, iron poses a threat to cells and tissues, and therefore iron homeostasis has to be tightly controlled. Iron's toxicity is largely based on its ability to catalyze the generation of radicals, which attack and damage cellular macromolecules and promote cell death and tissue injury. This is lucidly illustrated in diseases of iron overload, such as hereditary hemochromatosis or transfusional siderosis, where excessive iron accumulation results in tissue damage and organ failure. Pathological iron accumulation in the liver has also been linked to the development of hepatocellular cancer. Here we provide a background on the biology and toxicity of iron and the basic concepts of iron homeostasis at the cellular and systemic level. In addition, we provide an overview of the various disorders of iron overload, which are directly linked to iron's toxicity. Finally, we discuss the potential role of iron in malignant transformation and cancer.

  7. Dietary pattern and 20 year mortality in elderly men in Finland, Italy, and The Netherlands: longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Huijbregts, P.; Feskens, E.; Räsänen, L.; Fidanza, F.; Nissinen, A.; Menotti, A.; Kromhout, D.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of dietary pattern and mortality in international data. DESIGN: Cohort study with 20 years' follow up of mortality. SETTING: Five cohorts in Finland, the Netherlands, and Italy. SUBJECTS: Population based random sample of 3045 men aged 50-70 years in 1970. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Food intake was estimated using a cross check dietary history. In this dietary survey method, the usual food consumption pattern in the 6-12 months is estimated. A healthy diet indicator was calculated for the dietary pattern, using the World Health Organisation's guidelines for the prevention of chronic diseases. Vital status was verified after 20 years of follow up, and death rates were calculated. RESULTS: Dietary intake varied greatly in 1970 between the three countries. In Finland and the Netherlands the intake of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol was high and the intake of alcohol was low; in Italy the opposite was observed. In total 1796 men (59%) died during 20 years of follow up. The healthy diet indicator was inversely associated with mortality (P for trend < 0.05). After adjustment for age, smoking, and alcohol consumption, the relative risk in the group with the healthiest diet indicator compared with the group with the least healthy was 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.77 to 0.98). Estimated relative risks were essentially similar within each country. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary intake of men aged 50-70 is associated with a 20 year, all cause mortality in different cultures. The healthy diet indicator is useful in evaluating the relation of mortality to dietary patterns. PMID:9233319

  8. Genetics Home Reference: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... refractory iron deficiency anemia iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia is one of many types of anemia , which ...

  9. Parenteral iron therapy options.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Scott B; Rodgers, George M

    2004-05-01

    Parenteral iron therapy is occasionally necessary for patients intolerant or unresponsive to oral iron therapy, for receiving recombinant erythropoietin therapy, or for use in treating functional iron deficiency. There are now three parenteral iron products available: iron dextran, ferric gluconate, and iron sucrose. We summarize the advantages and disadvantages of each product, including risk of anaphylaxis and hypersensitivity, dosage regimens, and costs. The increased availability of multiple parenteral iron preparations should decrease the need to use red cell transfusions in patients with iron-deficiency anemia.

  10. 76 FR 3159 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject reviews. DATES:...

  11. The Transforming Peripheries of Vocational Education: Reflections from the Case of Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkinen, Anja

    2001-01-01

    Compares Finland to "third-world" countries in order to examine the meaning of being peripheral in vocational education. Discusses how centers and peripheries are changing, requiring more cultural sensitivity in vocational education research. Contains 55 references. (SK)

  12. Checklist of the superfamilies Conopoidea, Diopsoidea and Nerioidea of Finland (Insecta, Diptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere; Stuke, Jens-Hermann

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the Diptera superfamilies Conopoidea (Conopidae), Nerioidea (Micropezidae, Pseudopomyzidae) and Diopsoidea (Megamerinidae, Psilidae, Strongylophthalmyiidae, Tanypezidae) from Finland in presented. Myopa vicaria Walker, 1849 is formally recorded for the first time from the country. PMID:25337021

  13. 75 FR 3444 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department...

  14. Checklist of the superfamilies Oestroidea and Hippoboscoidea of Finland (Insecta, Diptera)

    PubMed Central

    Pohjoismäki, Jaakko; Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract An updated checklist of the superfamilies Oestroidea and Hippoboscoidea recorded from Finland is presented. The checklist covers the following families: Calliphoridae, Rhiniidae, Sarcophagidae, Rhinophoridae, Tachinidae, Oestridae and Hippoboscidae. PMID:25337034

  15. The 'iron salute' in haemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Romas, Evange

    2009-03-01

    The presentation of haemochromatosis is typified by abdominal pain, arthralgia and fatigue or weakness. Arthropathy may be the major presenting feature. The detection of an osteoarthritis-like process involving the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and wrist joints in middle aged men should signal the possibility of under lying haemochromatosis. Other joints such as the shoulder, hip,knee or ankle may be affected. However, the preferential involvement of the second and third MCP joints is striking and may provide the opportunity for early identification of iron overload disease. The "iron salut" can be an efficient screening tool for this MCP joint arthropathy but it is not well known by clinicians.

  16. Relation of historical quarrying, material utilization and performance on buildings in Eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luodes, Nike M.; Pirinen, Heikki

    2016-04-01

    Finland might seem to have lower stone heritage compared to other southern European countries, but it has been the main exporter of dimension stone to the majestic buildings that made St.Petersburg a recognized cultural heritage. In Finland, though, the stone seems undervalued. The only dramatic and predominant stone buildings are those of agencies and administrations located in the towns, where the stone has been used to impress and symbolize value. Romantic style used massive bossy stone in building's full height and created fine traditional carvings. Otherwise the communities have mainly built settlements in contact with the nature, with materials easily available and of low cost, following architectonical trends of the periods and producing interesting stone details. During the past years, research has been conducted on historical buildings interconnecting scientific and artistic approach to evaluate material durability and cultural relevance of the artifacts. Generally until mid 20th century the stone has been traditionally used massive for basements and walls. The materials still present good mechanical characteristics and most often the weathering level after hundreds of years of exposure had reached only the first millimeters from the curst. Instead the old methodology for deposit exploitation has left visible signs on the buildings. Some examples are visible from Kuopio. The exploitation of small, easy-to-reach surface deposits, even if planned by local experts, has affected quality and appearance of historical buildings. As an example the excavation of shallow quarries where also weathered crop was kept as a product has characterized the basement of the Niirala school that presents change in colors due to original material more than to weathering on site. Fissuring is also visible on a couple of blocks while marks on the rocks depict the old excavation method. Most often the deposits had been in the vicinities, frequently hidden by further construction

  17. AGATE as an indicator of impact structures: an example from Saaksjarvi, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinnunen, Kari A.; Lindqvist, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    Mineralogical, petrographical and chemical determinations were made for 743 agate (banded variety of chalcedonic quartz) nodules (diameters from 5 mm to 5 cm) formed during post-impact, low-temperature hydrothermal activity as vesicle fillings in the melt rocks of the Saaksjarvi meteorite impact structure (diameter 5 km) in SW-Finland. Other hydrothermal vesicle fillings in the impact melt rocks include chlorite, mordenite, smectite and kaolinite. The agates were classified into two types, whose mineralogical properties and chemical compositions fall within the range of volcanic agates (basaltic and rhyolitic host rocks). The relatively high age (about 510 Ma) of the Saaksjarvi impact melt rocks, however, is reflected by the presence of recrystallization textures, which are rare in younger volcanic agates. The Saaksjarvi structure was initially located after following the fortuitous discovery of agate "path-finders" in the glacial overburden. It is recommended that wherever volcanic type agates are found as float in Precambrian shield areas devoid of younger volcanic rocks, the possible presence of impact (or volcanic) craters in the vicinity should be considered.

  18. Heredity of food allergies in an unselected child population: an epidemiological survey from Finland.

    PubMed

    Pyrhönen, Kaisa; Hiltunen, Liisa; Kaila, Minna; Näyhä, Simo; Läärä, Esa

    2011-02-01

    The heredity of food allergies (FA) has not previously been addressed in a large unselected child population. Our target population comprised all children born from April 2001 to March 2006 resident in one province of South-East Finland (n c. 6000), as identified from the national population register. In a questionnaire survey conducted in 2005-2006, data were obtained on allergic manifestations (FA symptoms, atopic rash, allergic asthma, hay fever/pollen allergy, or animal allergy) in the biologic parents of 3800 children (64% of the total). Concurrently with the survey but independently of it, results of specific immunoglobulin E antibodies (sIgE), skin prick tests (SPT), and open food challenges (OFC) in the offspring were collected from patient records throughout the province. Up to the age of 4 yr, the incidences of any positive FA test, a positive SPT or sIgE for food items, and a positive OFC in these children were threefold higher if both parents reported having an allergic manifestation and twofold higher if either mother or father had such a manifestation when compared with children whose parents did not report any of these conditions. The estimated risk of any positive FA test increased by a factor of 1.3 (95% CI 1.2-1.4) for each additional allergic manifestation in the parents. Positive FA tests in the offspring were relatively strongly associated with the reports of allergic phenotypes and the number of these phenotypes in their biologic parents.

  19. Unaltered cosmic spherules in a 1.4-Gyr-old sandstone from Finland.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, A; Greshake, A; Pesonen, L J; Pihlaja, P

    1998-09-10

    Micrometeorites-submillimetre-sized particles derived from asteroids and comets-occur in significant quantities in deep sea sediments, and the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica. The most abundant micrometeorites are cosmic spherules, which contain nickel-rich spinels that were crystallized and oxidized during atmospheric entry, therefore recording the oxygen content in the uppermost atmosphere. But the use of micrometeorites for detecting past changes in the flux of incoming extraterrestrial matter, and as probes of the evolution of the atmosphere, has been hampered by the fact that most objects with depositional ages higher than 0.5 Myr show severe chemical alteration. Here we report the discovery of unaltered cosmic spherules in a 1.4-Gyr-old sandstone (red bed) from Finland. From this we infer that red beds, a common lithology in the Earth's history, may contain substantial unbiased populations of fossil micrometeorites. The study of such populations would allow systematic research on variations in the micrometeorite flux from the early Proterozoic era to recent times (a time span of about 2.5 Gyr), and could help to better constrain the time when the atmospheric oxygen content was raised to its present level.

  20. Spinal cord injuries in ice hockey in Finland and Sweden from 1980 to 1996.

    PubMed

    Mölsä, J J; Tegner, Y; Alaranta, H; Myllynen, P; Kujala, U M

    1999-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) in the cervical or thoracic region is one of the most catastrophic types of sport injuries. This study was designed to determine incidence and mechanisms of major SCI in ice hockey in Finland and Sweden from 1980 to 1996 in order to find possibilities for prevention. Retrospective analysis of injury occurrence were carried out. Medical case records were reviewed and injured players were interviewed to complete the data. From 1980 to 1996, there were 16 accidents involving spinal cord injury with permanent disability. All players were male. The mean age was 21.1 years (range = 14 to 33 yr). In 50% of the cases the mechanism was body checking from behind and a blow to the head from the boards. In 69% of the cases the vertebral injury was fracture or/and luxation between C5 and C7. The neurological endstate was tetraplegia/paresis in 10 cases and paraplegia/paresis of the lower extremities in 6 cases. Ice hockey is one of the most popular sports in Europe, and the number of participants is still increasing. The typical mechanism in SCI is body checking from behind, falling down and a head-first blow from the boards. These serious injuries may be prevented by changing the rules (banning body checking near the boards) with strict refereeing and education of trainers and players.

  1. Use of antiepileptic or benzodiazepine medication and suicidal ideation--The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, I; Jääskeläinen, E; Isohanni, M; Koponen, H; Ansakorpi, H; Miettunen, J

    2015-05-01

    Both antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and benzodiazepines (BZDs) have previously been associated with an increased risk of suicidality. Our aim was to study the association between the use of conventional AEDs and BZDs and suicidal ideation in a large population-based cohort. Information on the medications used in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 was collected from the subjects at the age of 31 years, using a postal questionnaire (N=8211). The presence of suicidal ideation and other symptoms of depression and anxiety was assessed via the Hopkins Symptom Checklist - 25 questionnaire. The associations between medications and suicidal ideation were studied in different diagnostic groups and adjusted for symptoms of depression and anxiety. No difference was observed in suicidal ideation between AED users (n=54) and nonusers (n=8157). Subjects using BZDs (n=147) had greater suicidal ideation compared with nonusers (n=8064). Antiepileptic drug and benzodiazepine users more often exhibited other depression and anxiety symptoms. After adjustment for these symptoms, both AED and BZD users had less suicidal ideation compared with nonusers. In conclusion, in this population-based cohort, neither the use of AEDs nor that of BZDs was found to be associated with increased suicidal ideation when the symptoms of depression and anxiety were taken into account.

  2. Physical Limitations, Walkability, Perceived Environmental Facilitators and Physical Activity of Older Adults in Finland.

    PubMed

    Portegijs, Erja; Keskinen, Kirsi E; Tsai, Li-Tang; Rantanen, Taina; Rantakokko, Merja

    2017-03-22

    The aim was to study objectively assessed walkability of the environment and participant perceived environmental facilitators for outdoor mobility as predictors of physical activity in older adults with and without physical limitations. 75-90-year-old adults living independently in Central Finland were interviewed (n = 839) and reassessed for self-reported physical activity one or two years later (n = 787). Lower-extremity physical limitations were defined as Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤9. Number of perceived environmental facilitators was calculated from a 16-item checklist. Walkability index (land use mix, street connectivity, population density) of the home environment was calculated from geographic information and categorized into tertiles. Accelerometer-based step counts were registered for one week (n = 174). Better walkability was associated with higher numbers of perceived environmental facilitators (p < 0.001) and higher physical activity (self-reported p = 0.021, step count p = 0.010). Especially among those with physical limitations, reporting more environmental facilitators was associated with higher odds for reporting at least moderate physical activity (p < 0.001), but not step counts. Perceived environmental facilitators only predicted self-reported physical activity at follow-up. To conclude, high walkability of the living environment provides opportunities for physical activity in old age, but among those with physical limitations especially, awareness of environmental facilitators may be needed to promote physical activity.

  3. Favorite green, waterside and urban environments, restorative experiences and perceived health in Finland.

    PubMed

    Korpela, Kalevi M; Ylén, Matti; Tyrväinen, Liisa; Silvennoinen, Harri

    2010-06-01

    The study investigated restorative experiences in relation to respondents' everyday favorite places and analysed the associations between the use of favorite places, restorative experiences, their determinants and aspects of self-rated health. A simple random sample of 1273 inhabitants, aged between 15 and 75 years, of two major cities in Finland (Helsinki and Tampere) completed a postal questionnaire. A subsample of the answers from inhabitants with a self-reported distance from home to a favorite place of 15 km or less (n = 1089) was analysed. Restorative experiences in favorite exercise and activity outdoor areas, waterside environments and extensively managed natural settings (mainly urban woodlands) were stronger than in favorite places in built urban settings or green spaces in urban settings (mostly parks). The results revealed a link between the need for restoration (worries and stress), the use of environmental self-regulation strategies (favorite places) and restorative outcomes. The more worries about money and work (during the last month) a person had, the more stressed a person had felt during the last year, the less energetic s/he had felt, the lower was the number of visits to the favorite place (during the last 6 months) and the lower the typical level of restorative experiences. Inconsistently, the direct path suggested that the more worries about money and work, the higher the typical level of restorative experiences. The findings increase knowledge of health-enhancing environments and have implications for stress and work recovery research.

  4. Production costs of biodiversity zones on field and forest margins: a case study in Finland.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, Antti; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Mäkinen, Antti

    2012-07-30

    This paper estimates and compares the costs incurred to a private landowner from establishing and managing 25-m wide biodiversity zones on field and forest margins in southern Finland. Crop and timber prices being at their long-term averages, current agricultural support paid and the real discount rate 3%, the average annual net costs per hectare of field and forest biodiversity zones were €30 ha(-1) and €108 ha(-1), respectively, the field zones being the less costly alternative in 95% of cases. This result is mainly due to the poor productivity of field cultivation relative to timber production under boreal climate conditions. In addition to soil quality, the initial stand structure affects the costs of both biodiversity zone types. It is less costly for a landowner to establish biodiversity zones in forests where no final felling is imminent but which already contain some tree volume. In field biodiversity zones, costs are slightly lower on fields where forest shading is great. Uneven-aged management practiced in forest biodiversity zones was found to lead to a 3-32% reduction in the net present value of forest land compared to conventional forest management. An increase in the real discount rate increases the relative efficiency of forest biodiversity zones.

  5. Free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) as host of Toxoplasma gondii in Finland.

    PubMed

    Jokelainen, Pikka; Deksne, Gunita; Holmala, Katja; Näreaho, Anu; Laakkonen, Juha; Kojola, Ilpo; Sukura, Antti

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the presence of Toxoplasma gondii infections in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Finland by analyzing samples from 337 lynx that were legally hunted during the 2010-2011 season and by performing a retrospective nationwide database search of postmortem toxoplasmosis diagnoses in this species. We detected specific anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies in 290 (86.1%) of the 337 lynx. The method used was a direct agglutination test, and samples positive at the used dilution 1:40 were defined as antibody positive. Older lynx had 14.3 times higher odds of being antibody-positive than did lynx of the presumed age of 7-10 mo, and lynx weighing >15 kg had 16.7 times higher odds of being antibody positive than did those ≤ 15 kg. Lynx from the southwest were more often antibody positive, with an odds ratio 6.3, than lynx from the northeast. None of the 332 fecal samples available was positive for the presence of T. gondii-like oocysts with a quantitative MgSO4 flotation technique, and none of the 167 free-ranging Eurasian lynx examined postmortem by veterinary pathologists from January 2000 to May 2010 had died from toxoplasmosis. Although Finnish lynx were confirmed to commonly encounter T. gondii, we found no evidence of an ongoing contribution to the environmental oocyst burden nor of the lynx dying from the infection.

  6. Fire-related injuries with inpatient care in Finland: a 10-year nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Haikonen, Kari; Lillsunde, Pirjo M; Lunetta, Philippe; Lounamaa, Anne; Vuola, Jyrki

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine fire-related injuries leading to inpatient care in Finland. The Finnish National Hospital Discharge Register (2000-2009) and a sample of 222 patients from the Helsinki Burn Centre who sustained flame burns was used. During the 10-years study period, the incidence of fire-related injuries with inpatient care was approximately 5.6 per 100000 persons-years (n=295; males 74%, females 26%). Approximately three quarters involved burns and the remaining cases were mostly combustion gas poisonings. Burns declined from 5.4 in 2000 to 4.0 per 100000 person-years in 2009. The decline was accounted for by young people primarily. Socio-economic features and smoking habits differ between the injured and general population. House fire victims were mainly middle aged and older, while injures involving flammable substances, campfires, etc., were mostly associated with young people. House fires caused the worst damage in terms of Total Body Surface Area burned and inhalation burns. Significantly more people die on the scene of the incident than during the hospital care. Targeting preventive measures in particular at older people and those with a tendency for alcohol abuse and smoking could potentially reduce the burden of the most severe flame burns.

  7. Prevalence of asthma among inhabitants in the vicinity of a polyurethane factory in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Nuorteva, P.; Assmuth, T.; Haahtela, T.; Ahti, J.; Kurvonen, E.; Nieminen, T.; Saarainen, T.; Seppaelae, K.Ve.; Veide, P.; Viholainen, S.

    1987-08-01

    Because toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is a strong sensitizer for asthma among workers in polyurethane factories, it is mostly extracted from the factory premises. The influence of such emissions on the prevalence of asthma among the people living in the vicinity of a polyurethane factory in Kouvola, Southern Finland, was studied through a questionnaire survey sent to 6807 persons living around the factory and in a control area; of these 4182 (61%) responded. In the study area near the factory there were 68 cases of asthma out of 3153 respondents (2.2%). In the control area there were 25 cases out of 1029 respondents (2.4%). The difference is insignificant (chi 2 = 0.27). Among the middle-aged the prevalence was significantly higher in the control area (chi 2 = 6.8). There was some indication of a lower asthma prevalence in the zone nearest to the factory, possibly due to its psychologically repellent effect on asthmatics, causing them to move away. Serum samples from 62 asthma patients out of 68 contacted (91%) were received and analyzed for TDI, HDI, and MDI. A positive result for the isocyanates was observed in only one patient who had been exposed in his occupation outside the factory. It was concluded that the polyurethane factory did not have a noticeable influence upon the prevalence of asthma in its surroundings.

  8. Physical Limitations, Walkability, Perceived Environmental Facilitators and Physical Activity of Older Adults in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Portegijs, Erja; Keskinen, Kirsi E.; Tsai, Li-Tang; Rantanen, Taina; Rantakokko, Merja

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to study objectively assessed walkability of the environment and participant perceived environmental facilitators for outdoor mobility as predictors of physical activity in older adults with and without physical limitations. 75–90-year-old adults living independently in Central Finland were interviewed (n = 839) and reassessed for self-reported physical activity one or two years later (n = 787). Lower-extremity physical limitations were defined as Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤9. Number of perceived environmental facilitators was calculated from a 16-item checklist. Walkability index (land use mix, street connectivity, population density) of the home environment was calculated from geographic information and categorized into tertiles. Accelerometer-based step counts were registered for one week (n = 174). Better walkability was associated with higher numbers of perceived environmental facilitators (p < 0.001) and higher physical activity (self-reported p = 0.021, step count p = 0.010). Especially among those with physical limitations, reporting more environmental facilitators was associated with higher odds for reporting at least moderate physical activity (p < 0.001), but not step counts. Perceived environmental facilitators only predicted self-reported physical activity at follow-up. To conclude, high walkability of the living environment provides opportunities for physical activity in old age, but among those with physical limitations especially, awareness of environmental facilitators may be needed to promote physical activity. PMID:28327543

  9. Dental fear, tobacco use and alcohol use among university students in Finland: a national survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco- and alcohol use are associated with psychological problems. Individuals with high dental fear also more often report other psychological problems than do those with lower level of dental fear. We evaluated the association between dental fear and tobacco- and alcohol use while controlling for age, gender, general mood and feelings in social situations. Methods The data (n = 8514) were collected from all universities in Finland with an electronic inquiry sent to all first-year university students. Dental fear was measured with the question: “How afraid are you of visiting a dentist?” with reply alternatives “Not at all”, “Somewhat” and “Very”. Regularity of tobacco use was determined with the question: “Do you smoke or use snuff?”, with reply alternatives “Not at all”, “Occasionally” and “Daily”. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used for determination of alcohol use; an AUDIT sum score of 8 or more indicated hazardous, harmful or dependent alcohol use. The statistical tests used were Chi-square tests and Multiple logistic regression analyses. Results When controlled for age, gender, alcohol use, general mood and feelings in social situations, those who used tobacco regularly were more likely to have high dental fear than were those who used tobacco occasionally or not at all. When controlled for age, gender, general mood and feelings in social situations, those with hazardous, harmful or dependent alcohol use were more likely to have high dental fear than were those with low-risk of alcohol use, the association between alcohol use and dental fear was not strong. When tobacco use was added into this model, alcohol use was no longer statistically significantly associated with dental fear. Conclusions The findings of this study support the suggestion that some people may have common vulnerability factors linked to tobacco use, alcohol use, and dental fear. PMID:25012119

  10. Comparison of treatment costs and outcome in public orthodontic services in Finland.

    PubMed

    Pietilä, I; Pietilä, T; Svedström-Oristo, A-L; Varrela, J; Alanen, P

    2013-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to compare the costs and outcome of orthodontic treatment in eight municipal health centres in Finland. A random sample of the age groups of 16- and 18-year-olds (n = 1109) living in these municipalities was clinically examined by two calibrated orthodontists. The acceptability of the morphology and function of the occlusion were assessed with the Occlusal Morphology and Function Index (OMFI). The data concerning previous orthodontic treatment were collected from the patient records of all subjects (n = 608) who reported previous or ongoing orthodontic treatment or who could not recall if they had received orthodontic treatment. The health centres were grouped into an early and a late timing group according to the mean age of starting the treatment. The mean age for starting orthodontic treatment was 8.0 years (SD 1.9) in the early group and 10.7 years (SD 2.3) in the late group. The visit costs and the costs of orthodontic appliances without overheads comprised the operating costs. The cost-effectiveness of orthodontic services was measured by estimating how much each health centre had to have paid for one per cent unit of acceptable morphology and acceptable function of occlusion. The mean appliance costs were higher in the late timing group and the mean visit costs higher in the early timing group. The mean operating costs per case were €720 in the early and €649 in the late timing group. However, there was a great variation within both groups. The cost of one per cent unit of acceptable morphology was the same in the two timing groups, while the cost of one per cent unit of acceptable function was lower in the early timing group. The low operating costs as such did not totally explain the better cost-effectiveness of orthodontic care. Furthermore, the cost-effectiveness was not directly connected with the timing of treatment.

  11. [Iron deficiency anemia. Guideline for diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    2009-08-01

    Iron deficiency is the most important cause of anemia. Preschooler children are particularly vulnerable; a recent analysis reported a prevalence rate higher than 35% among children below 2 year of age. Its early detection, right treatment, and suitable prophylaxis is currently a priority in our country. This guideline establishes the definition of anemia in relation to chronological age, gestational age, and habitat, reviews principal aspects of iron metabolism, enumerates main causes of iron deficiency, and set guidelines for diagnosis, detection, differential diagnosis, treatment and prevention of iron deficiency anemia.

  12. Respiratory diphtheria in an asylum seeker from Afghanistan arriving to Finland via Sweden, December 2015.

    PubMed

    Sane, Jussi; Sorvari, Tiina; Widerström, Micael; Kauma, Heikki; Kaukoniemi, Ulla; Tarkka, Eveliina; Puumalainen, Taneli; Kuusi, Markku; Salminen, Mika; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2016-01-01

    In December 2015, an asylum seeker originating from Afghanistan was diagnosed with respiratory diphtheria in Finland. He arrived in Finland from Sweden where he had already been clinically suspected and tested for diphtheria. Corynebacterium diphtheriae was confirmed in Sweden and shown to be genotypically and phenotypically toxigenic. The event highlights the importance of early case detection, rapid communication within the country and internationally as well as preparedness plans of diphtheria antitoxin availability.

  13. Iron deficiency, but not anemia, upregulates iron absorption in breast-fed peruvian infants.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Penni D; Zavaleta, Nelly; Chen, Zhensheng; Abrams, Steven A; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2006-09-01

    Iron absorption in adults is regulated by homeostatic mechanisms that decrease absorption when iron status is high. There are few data, however, regarding the existence of a similar homeostatic regulation in infants. We studied 2 groups of human milk-fed infants using (57)Fe (given as ferrous sulfate without any milk) and (58)Fe (given at the time of a breast-milk feeding) stable isotopes to determine whether healthy infants at risk for iron deficiency would regulate their iron absorption based on their iron status. We studied 20 Peruvian infants at 5-6 mo of age and 18 infants at 9-10 mo of age. We found no effect of infant hemoglobin concentration on iron absorption with 5-6 mo-old infants absorbing 19.2 +/- 2.1% and 9- to 10-mo-old infants absorbing 25.8 +/- 2.6% of the (57)Fe dose. For (58)Fe, 5- to 6-mo-old infants absorbed 42.6 +/- 5.0% and 9 to 10-mo-old infants absorbed 51.9 +/- 10.3%. Following log transformation, iron absorption from (57)Fe (r = -0.61, P = < 0.001) and (58)Fe (r = -0.61, P = < 0.001) were inversely correlated to serum ferritin (S-Ft). For both the (57)Fe and (58)Fe doses, infants with S-Ft <12 mg/L (n = 11) had significantly higher iron absorption than those with S-Ft >12 mg/L. We concluded that iron absorption in infants is related to iron status as assessed by serum ferritin but not hemoglobin concentration. Infants with low iron status upregulate iron absorption from breast milk at both 5-6 and 9-10 mo of age.

  14. Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz Keskin, Ebru; Yenicesu, İdil

    2015-03-05

    Iron is essential for life because it is indispensable for several biological reactions, such as oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and cell proliferation. Over the past few years, our understanding of iron metabolism and its regulation has changed dramatically. New disorders of iron metabolism have emerged, and the role of iron as a cofactor in other disorders has begun to be recognized. The study of genetic conditions such as hemochromatosis and iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA) has provided crucial insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling iron homeostasis. In the future, these advances may be exploited to improve treatment of both genetic and acquired iron disorders. IRIDA is caused by mutations in TMPRSS6, the gene encoding matriptase-2, which downregulates hepcidin expression under conditions of iron deficiency. The typical features of this disorder are hypochromic, microcytic anemia with a very low mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes, low transferrin saturation, no (or inadequate) response to oral iron, and only a partial response to parenteral iron. In contrast to classic iron deficiency anemia, serum ferritin levels are usually low-normal, and serum or urinary hepcidin levels are inappropriately high for the degree of anemia. Although the number of cases reported thus far in the literature does not exceed 100, this disorder is considered the most common of the "atypical" microcytic anemias. The aim of this review is to share the current knowledge on IRIDA and increase awareness in this field.

  15. Iron-Refractory Iron Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz Keskin, Ebru; Yenicesu, İdil

    2015-01-01

    Iron is essential for life because it is indispensable for several biological reactions, such as oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and cell proliferation. Over the past few years, our understanding of iron metabolism and its regulation has changed dramatically. New disorders of iron metabolism have emerged, and the role of iron as a cofactor in other disorders has begun to be recognized. The study of genetic conditions such as hemochromatosis and iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA) has provided crucial insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling iron homeostasis. In the future, these advances may be exploited to improve treatment of both genetic and acquired iron disorders. IRIDA is caused by mutations in TMPRSS6, the gene encoding matriptase-2, which downregulates hepcidin expression under conditions of iron deficiency. The typical features of this disorder are hypochromic, microcytic anemia with a very low mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes, low transferrin saturation, no (or inadequate) response to oral iron, and only a partial response to parenteral iron. In contrast to classic iron deficiency anemia, serum ferritin levels are usually low-normal, and serum or urinary hepcidin levels are inappropriately high for the degree of anemia. Although the number of cases reported thus far in the literature does not exceed 100, this disorder is considered the most common of the “atypical” microcytic anemias. The aim of this review is to share the current knowledge on IRIDA and increase awareness in this field. PMID:25805669

  16. Aging is not programmed

    PubMed Central

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2013-01-01

    Aging is not and cannot be programmed. Instead, aging is a continuation of developmental growth, driven by genetic pathways such as mTOR. Ironically, this is often misunderstood as a sort of programmed aging. In contrast, aging is a purposeless quasi-program or, figuratively, a shadow of actual programs. “The brightest flame casts the darkest shadow.” -George Martin PMID:24240128

  17. Lead toxicity and iron deficiency in Utah migrant children

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, S.D.; Lee, J.; Lutz, L.J.; Woolley, F.R.; Baxter, S. ); Civish, F. ); Johnson, M. )

    1989-05-01

    The authors determined the frequency of presumptive iron deficiency and lead toxicity in 198 Utah migrant children, ages 9-72 months, during the summer of 1985. There were no confirmed cases of lead toxicity, 13% of those tested and 30% of the children ages 9-23 months were iron deficient. Hematocrit determinations accurately predicted iron deficiency in only 35% of the children confirmed to have this disorder via erythrocyte protoporphyrin screening.

  18. Lead toxicity and iron deficiency in Utah migrant children.

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliffe, S D; Lee, J; Lutz, L J; Woolley, F R; Baxter, S; Civish, F; Johnson, M

    1989-01-01

    We determined the frequency of presumptive iron deficiency and lead toxicity in 198 Utah migrant children, ages 9-72 months, during the summer of 1985. There were no confirmed cases of lead toxicity. Thirteen per cent of those tested and 30 per cent of the children ages 9-23 months were iron deficient. Hematocrit determinations accurately predicted iron deficiency in only 35 per cent of the children confirmed to have this disorder via erythrocyte protoporphyrin screening. PMID:2650572

  19. Iron Indices in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)

    PubMed Central

    Mazzaro, Lisa M; Johnson, Shawn P; Fair, Patricia A; Bossart, Greg; Carlin, Kevin P; Jensen, Eric D; Smith, Cynthia R; Andrews, Gordon A; Chavey, Patricia S; Venn-Watson, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins can have iron overload (that is, hemochromatosis), and managed populations of dolphins may be more susceptible to this disease than are wild dolphins. Serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation, and ferritin were measured in 181 samples from 141 dolphins in 2 managed collections and 2 free-ranging populations. Although no iron indices increased with age among free-ranging dolphins, ferritin increased with age in managed collections. Dolphins from managed collections had higher iron, ferritin, and transferrin saturation values than did free-ranging dolphins. Dolphins with high serum iron (exceeding 300 μg/dL) were more likely to have elevated ferritin but not ceruloplasmin or haptoglobin, demonstrating that high serum levels of iron are due to a true increase in total body iron. A time-series study of 4 dolphins with hemochromatosis that were treated with phlebotomy demonstrated significant decreases in serum ferritin, iron, and TIBC between pre- and posttreatment samples; transferrin saturation initially fell but returned to prephlebotomy levels by 6 mo after treatment. Compared with those in managed collections, wild dolphins were 15 times more likely to have low serum iron (100 μg/dL or less), and this measure was associated with lower haptoglobin. In conclusion, bottlenose dolphins in managed collections are more likely to have greater iron stores than are free-ranging dolphins. Determining why this situation occurs among some dolphin populations and not others may improve the treatment of hemochromatosis in dolphins and provide clues to causes of nonhereditary hemochromatosis in humans. PMID:23561885

  20. Perinatal iron deficiency and neurocognitive development

    PubMed Central

    Radlowski, Emily C.; Johnson, Rodney W.

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common form of nutrient deficiency worldwide. It is highly prevalent due to the limited availability of high quality food in developing countries and poor dietary habits in industrialized countries. According to the World Health Organization, it affects nearly 2 billion people and up to 50% of women who are pregnant. Maternal anemia during pregnancy is especially burdensome to healthy neurodevelopment in the fetus because iron is needed for proper neurogenesis, development, and myelination. Maternal anemia also increases the risk of low birth weight, either due to premature birth or fetal growth restriction, which is associated with delayed neurocognitive development and even psychiatric illness. As rapid neurodevelopment continues after birth infants that received sufficient iron in utero, but that receive a low iron diet after 6 months of age, also show deficits in neurocognitive development, including impairments in learning and memory. Unfortunately, the neurocognitive complications of iron deficiency during critical pre- and postnatal periods of brain development are difficult to remedy, persisting into adulthood. Thus, preventing iron deficiency in the pre- and postnatal periods is critical as is devising new means to recapture cognitive function in individuals who experienced early iron deficiency. This review will discuss the prevalence of pre- and postnatal iron deficiency, the mechanism, and effects of iron deficiency on brain and cognitive development. PMID:24065908

  1. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-06-22

    Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

  2. A lactic acid-fermented oat gruel increases non-haem iron absorption from a phytate-rich meal in healthy women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Bering, Stine; Suchdev, Seema; Sjøltov, Laila; Berggren, Anna; Tetens, Inge; Bukhave, Klaus

    2006-07-01

    Lactic acid-fermented foods have been shown to increase Fe absorption in human subjects, possibly by lowering pH, activation of phytases, and formation of soluble complexes of Fe and organic acids. We tested the effect of an oat gruel fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on non-haem Fe absorption from a low-Fe bioavailability meal compared with a pasteurised, fermented oat gruel and non-fermented oat gruels. In a cross-over trial twenty-four healthy women with a mean age of 25 (sd 4) years were served (A) fermented gruel, (B) pasteurised fermented gruel, (C) pH-adjusted non-fermented gruel, and (D) non-fermented gruel with added organic acids. The meals were extrinsically labelled with 55Fe or 59Fe and consumed on 4 consecutive days, for example, in the order ABBA or BAAB followed by CDDC or DCCD in a second period. Fe absorption was determined from isotope activities in blood samples. The fermented gruel with live L. plantarum 299v increased Fe absorption significantly (P < 0.0001) compared with the pasteurised and non-fermented gruels. The lactic acid concentration in the fermented gruel was 19 % higher than in the pasteurised gruel, but the Fe absorption was increased by 50 %. In the gruel with organic acids, the lactic acid concentration was 52 % lower than in the pasteurised gruel, with no difference in Fe absorption. The fermented gruel increased non-haem Fe absorption from a phytate-rich meal in young women, indicating a specific effect of live L. plantarum 299v and not only an effect of the organic acids.

  3. Coding ill-defined and unknown cause of death is 13 times more frequent in Denmark than in Finland.

    PubMed

    Ylijoki-Sørensen, Seija; Sajantila, Antti; Lalu, Kaisa; Bøggild, Henrik; Boldsen, Jesper Lier; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup

    2014-11-01

    Exact cause and manner of death determination improves legislative safety for the individual and for society and guides aspects of national public health. In the International Classification of Diseases, codes R00-R99 are used for "symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified" designated as "ill-defined" or "with unknown etiology". The World Health Organisation recommends avoiding the use of ill-defined and unknown causes of death in the death certificate as this terminology does not give any information concerning the possible conditions that led to the death. Thus, the aim of the study was, firstly, to analyse the frequencies of R00-R99-coded deaths in mortality statistics in Finland and in Denmark and, secondly, to compare these and the methods used to investigate the cause of death. To do so, we extracted a random 90% sample of the Finnish death certificates and 100% of the Danish certificates from the national mortality registries for 2000, 2005 and 2010. Subsequently, we analysed the frequencies of forensic and medical autopsies and external clinical examinations of the bodies in R00-R99-coded deaths. The use of R00-R99 codes was significantly higher in Denmark than in Finland; OR 18.6 (95% CI 15.3-22.4; p<0.001) for 2000, OR 9.5 (95% CI 8.0-11.3; p<0.001) for 2005 and OR 13.2 (95% CI 11.1-15.7; p<0.001) for 2010. More than 80% of Danish deaths with R00-R99 codes were over 70 years of age at the time of death. Forensic autopsy was performed in 88.3% of Finnish R00-R99-coded deaths, whereas only 3.5% of Danish R00-R99-coded deaths were investigated with forensic or medical autopsy. The codes that were most used in both countries were R96-R99, meaning "unknown cause of death". In Finland, all of these deaths were investigated with a forensic autopsy. Our study suggests that if all deaths in all age groups with unclear cause of death were systematically investigated with a forensic autopsy, only 2-3/1000 deaths per year

  4. Information and communication technology among undergraduate dental students in Finland.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Jorma I; Nieminen, Pentti

    2002-11-01

    Use of information and communication technology (ICT) is rapidly increasing in medical and dental education. The aim of the present study was to determine the knowledge, skills and opinions of dental undergraduate students regarding ICT and to analyze possible shifts in the acquisition of these resources. For these purposes a survey of all undergraduate dental students at the University of Oulu, Finland, was conducted during the spring term 2000. All the students in the 5 years of study (n = 140) were asked to answer a questionnaire presented during a lecture or demonstration. An overall response rate of 95% was achieved. The frequencies and percentage distributions of the items were analyzed separately for each year (1-5). All the students in the faculty are provided with personal e-mail addresses at the beginning of their studies and special emphasis has been laid on the utilization of their ICT knowledge and skills. An overwhelming majority of the students, more than 95%, judged themselves to have good or satisfactory skills in word processing, but only a slight majority considered that they could manage some advanced operating system functions. Use of ICT services was high, as about 60% of the students used e-mail and one-third WWW services daily. Literature retrieval was widely employed, so that almost 80% of the students had used literature databases (including Ovid Medline and collections of electronic full-text articles), which were introduced and provided by the Medical Library when the students were in their second year. More than 50% had received educational material in electronic form often or sometimes, and almost 80% had communicated by e-mail with a faculty teacher. A clear trend (P < 0.05) was found for the younger students to use ICT services in general and for educational purposes more often than the older ones. In conclusion, e-mail and WWW have been widely adopted for both private and educational purposes by dental students in Finland and are

  5. Geochemistry and migration of anthropogenic arsenic emissions in Yara Siilinjärvi industrial site, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turunen, Kaisa; Backnäs, Soile; Pasanen, Antti

    2013-04-01

    Arsenic is a problematic element due to its relatively high mobility over a wide range of redox-conditions and its toxicity to humans, animals and plants. In extractive and industrial minerals arsenic is a common element and cannot be eluded in mining and quarrying activities. Therefore, mining and industrial activities are one of the most serious arsenic polluters at local scale. In assessing environmental effects, it is important to compare anthropogenic arsenic load to geological background. The aim of this study was to characterize environmental effects and risks of the arsenic bearing calcinate tailings to the surrounding environment. Yara Finland industrial site in Siilinjärvi, Eastern Finland produces mainly fertilizers and phosphoric acid, but also 250 000 t/a iron calcinate is recovered as by-product at the sulphuric acid plant. The tailings area is located about 200 m from Lake Kuuslahti and surrounded by double ditches collecting runoff and seepage waters to seepage ponds. Some seepage water migrates to a bedrock fracture zone under the tailings area and contaminant transport from the fracture zone is controlled by pumping the water back to seepage ponds. The arsenic content (500 mg/kg) of the calcinate tailings is very high considering that the natural arsenic concentrations of the local bedrock and soil are low (<2 mg/kg). A total of 55 soil and sediment samples were analyzed for hot aqua regia, ammonium oxalate and acetate extractable arsenic representing total, chemically adsorbed and bioavailable fractions. In addition 14 water samples were analyzed for total and soluble metal and metalloid concentrations, anions, DOC, TOC, pH, redox and alkalinity. The metal speciation in surface and ground waters was modeled by PhreeqC. According to the results main arsenic pathways from the tailings to environment and into the Lake Kuuslahti are by dust and surface runoff. Close to the tailings arsenic concentrations are high and exceed the Finnish threshold

  6. Restorative treatment and use of local anesthesia in free and subsidized public dental services in Helsinki, Finland.

    PubMed

    Palotie, Ulla; Vehkalahti, Miira

    2003-08-01

    Our aim was to evaluate restorative treatment and the use of local anesthetics in free and subsidized public dental care in Helsinki, Finland. Public dental clinics are open to all patients under the age of 36, and to some specific groups above that age. Patients up to age 19 receive all treatment free of charge and others at highly subsidized rates. Data were collected in May 2001 during a maximum 2-week period covering all public dental clinics in Helsinki. A one-page questionnaire was sent to all dentists (n = 140) in clinical fields. The data requested included the patient's gender and year of birth, and details on restorations: which tooth and which surfaces were filled, the reason for placement or replacement, the material used, and use of local anesthetic. The response rate was 96%. Of all restorations (n = 3057) placed, 14% were in primary teeth and in permanent teeth: 17% in premolars, 17% in incisors, and 52% in molars; the restorative material most often used was composite resin (69%). Glass-ionomer/compomers dominated in the primary teeth. Local anesthetic was used least (35%) in patients under 13 years of age. Replacements of restorations accounted for 10% of all in the free service (under 20 years of age) and 46% in subsidized dental care (20 and older). The major reasons for replacement were secondary caries (41%) and fractured or lost restoration (40%).

  7. Cannabis findings in drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs in Finland from 2006 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Blencowe, Tom; Pehrsson, Anna; Mykkänen, Sirpa; Gunnar, Teemu; Lillsunde, Pirjo

    2012-04-10

    The authors examined driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) cases which were found to be positive in whole blood for cannabis in Finland from 2006 to 2008. Factors studied were the number of cases positive for any combination of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the metabolites 11-hydroxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH). Concurrent use of amphetamines, benzodiazepines and/or alcohol was also recorded, as well as the drivers' age and gender. Altogether 2957 cannabis positive cases were retrieved from the database of the Alcohol and Drug Analytics Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare. Drug findings were examined in relation to the zero-tolerance policy operated towards DUID in Finland. The number of cannabis positive cases in each year was approximately 1000 and the main demographic of cases was males aged 20-30 years. In the majority of cases (51.6%) the inactive metabolite THC-COOH was the only indication of cannabis use, however, associated use of amphetamines (58.8% of all cases) and/or benzodiazepines (63.9%) in cannabis positive drivers was very common. Detections for amphetamines and/or benzodiazepines were especially common in drivers with THC-COOH only (92.8% of these cases). Combined use of alcohol (25.7%) was also prevalent. Suspect DUID cases generally arise from suspicion on behalf of the police and the zero-tolerance policy offers an expedient means to deal with the challenges presented in DUID, particularly in view of the high incidence of multiple drug use - the legislation is not unduly punitive when enforced in this manner.

  8. Iron and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... sure to teach kids that iron is an important part of a healthy diet. Foods rich in iron include: beef, pork, poultry, and seafood tofu dried beans and peas dried fruits leafy dark green vegetables iron-fortified breakfast cereals, breads, and pastas (Note: Iron from animal ...

  9. Iron stress in plants.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Erin L; Guerinot, Mary

    2002-07-30

    Although iron is an essential nutrient for plants, its accumulation within cells can be toxic. Plants, therefore, respond to both iron deficiency and iron excess by inducing expression of different gene sets. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of iron homeostasis in plants gained through functional genomic approaches

  10. Assessing Security of Supply: Three Methods Used in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivonen, Hannu

    Public Private Partnership (PPP) has an important role in securing supply in Finland. Three methods are used in assessing the level of security of supply. First, in national expert groups, a linear mathematical model has been used. The model is based on interdependency estimates. It ranks societal functions or its more detailed components, such as items in the food supply chain, according to the effect and risk pertinent to the interdependencies. Second, the security of supply is assessed in industrial branch committees (clusters and pools) in the form of indicators. The level of security of supply is assessed against five generic factors (dimension 1) and tens of business branch specific functions (dimension 2). Third, in two thousand individual critical companies, the maturity of operational continuity management is assessed using Capability Maturity Model (CMM) in an extranet application. The pool committees and authorities obtain an anonymous summary. The assessments are used in allocating efforts for securing supply. The efforts may be new instructions, training, exercising, and in some cases, investment and regulation.

  11. The mutual shaping of life insurance and medicine in Finland.

    PubMed

    Jauho, Mikko

    2015-08-01

    This article examines the mutual shaping of medicine and private life insurance in Finland before the Second World War. Based on historical texts and archival material, it shows the important effects that the involvement of medicine in client selection for life insurance companies had on medical knowledge and practice. The analysis focuses on the tensions between the main actors in life insurance underwriting--candidates, insurance agents, examining physicians and the central office--as well as the medical examination as the key site of these tensions. The article shows how the introduction of a set of procedural and technical innovations reshaped the medical examination and helped to stabilize the fraught network of life insurance underwriting. These innovations re-scripted medical work. They stressed objective measurable knowledge over the personal skill and clinical acumen of the examining physician, propagated the physical examination and the use of diagnostic technologies and vital standards, multiplied medicine's administrative tasks, and contributed to the introduction of a risk factor approach to medicine. Moreover, the social organization of life insurance promoted the spread of these objects, practices and tasks to other fields of medicine. The case displays how medical innovations are developed through the situated interplay of multiple actors that cuts across the science-society boundary.

  12. Exploring nurse education in Canada, Finland and the United States.

    PubMed

    Thobaben, Marshelle; Roberts, Deborah; French, Susan E; Tallberg, Marianne

    2005-12-01

    A global registered nursing (RN) shortage has caused an increase in migration and international recruitment of nurses. There is growing interest among some countries of having common standards and competencies for entry-level registered nurses to guide future registered nurse agreements between countries or multi-country licensure programs. Nursing education in one country may not be accepted as equivalent for a nurse to become licensed in another country. An exploratory study was conducted to gain a better understanding of how nurses are educated in various countries. Nurse researchers sent a nursing education questionnaire to nurse educators in eleven countries inviting them to participate in the study. Nurse educators from six countries agreed to participate in the study. They provided information about their country's nursing history, types of nursing programs, use of national nursing licensing examination, and political influences on nursing education. The People's Republic of China, Japan and Turkey nurse educators' responses were the first to be analyzed and the results were published in the July/August 2005 issue of Contemporary Nurse (volume 19/1-2). This second article (in Contemporary Nurse volume 20/2) provides information about and a comparison of nursing programs in Canada, Finland and the United States.

  13. Hypolactasia in Saami subpopulations of Russia and Finland.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, A; Lisitsyn, D

    1997-12-01

    Primary hypolactasia is a gene attributed condition of the inability of adult individuals to consume whole milk. Subpopulations of the Russia (Kildin) and Finland Saami are characterized by a large variability of the LAC*R (lactase restriction) gene frequencies (0.50-0.77). The distribution of primary hypolactasia among the Saami is ranging from 25% to 60%. The intensive reindeer breeding was developed by the Saami only 300-400 years ago. Reindeer milk is poor in lactose (2.4%) and is consumed by the Saami in small amounts. Thus, "milk behaviour" connected with reindeer breeding could not have influenced the trait evolution too much. The large between-group differences of the LAC*R gene frequencies in the Saami seem to reflect the level of genetic influence of neighbouring non-Saami populations. The role of gene inflow in reducing the level of primary hypolactasia in various Saami subpopulations is confirmed by historic data of various ethnoterritorial groups as well as by the reduction of the number of traditional family name bearers and the change of the AB0 blood group gene frequencies among the Kildin Saami in the last 30 years.

  14. Minimum visual requirements in different occupations in Finland.

    PubMed

    Aine, E

    1984-01-01

    In Finland the employers can individually fix the minimum visual requirements for their personnel in almost every occupation. In transportation, in police and national defence proper eyesight is regarded so important that strict visual requirements for these have been fixed by the Government. The regulations are often more close when accepting the person to the occupation than later on when working. The minimum requirements are mostly stated for visual acuity, colour perception and visual fields. In some occupations the regulations concern also the refractive error of the eyes and possible eye diseases. In aviation the regulations have been stated by the International Civil Aviation Organization ( ICAO ). The minimum visual requirements for a driving license in highway traffic are classed according to the types of motor vehicles. In railways , maritime commerce and national defence the task of the worker determines the specified regulations. The policeman must have a distant visual acuity of 0.5 without eyeglasses in both eyes and nearly normal colour perception when starting the training course.

  15. Finland Validation of the New Blended Snow Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, E. J.; Casey, K. A.; Hallikainen, M. T.; Foster, J. L.; Hall, D. K.; Riggs, G. A.

    2008-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to validate satellite remote sensing snow products for the recentlydeveloped U.S. Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) - NASA blended snow product, Satellite and in-situ data for snow extent and snow water equivalent (SWE) are evaluated in Finland for the 2006-2007 snow season Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) daily weather station data and Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) bi-monthly snow course data are used as ground truth. Initial comparison results display positive agreement between the AFWA NASA Snow Algorithm (ANSA) snow extent and SWE maps and in situ data, with discrepancies in accordance with known AMSR-E and MODIS snow mapping limitations. Future ANSA product improvement plans include additional validation and inclusion of fractional snow cover in the ANSA data product. Furthermore, the AMSR-E 19 GHz (horizontal channel) with the difference between ascending and descending satellite passes (Diurnal Amplitude Variations, DAV) will be used to detect the onset of melt, and QuikSCAT scatterometer data (14 GHz) will be used to map areas of actively melting snow.

  16. Raman lidar observations at Finland, South Africa and India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannakaki, Elina; Filioglou, Maria; Baars, Holger; Komppula, Mika

    2016-04-01

    The Raman lidar PollyXT has participated in two long-term aerosol experimental campaigns, one close to New Delhi in India (March 2008 - March 2009) and one at Elandsfontein about 150 km from Johannesburg in South Africa (December 2009 - January 2011). Since November 2012, the lidar has performed measurement at Kuopio, Finland. PollyXT is operated automated and continuous for 24/7 observations of clouds and aerosols. The observations are processed in near-real time without manual intervention, and are presented online at http://polly.tropos.de. The three measurement sites cover a wide range of pure aerosol types (biomass burning, volcanic ash, urban, desert dust, rural aerosols); as well as a mixture of these aerosol types. We retrieve the vertical profiles of the aerosol optical properties, i.e. extinction and backscatter coefficients, Ångström exponents, lidar ratio and depolarization ratio. We also study the seasonal variability of the intensive and extensive aerosol properties. Our results reveal typical and extraordinary aerosol conditions as well as seasonal differences at the three observational sites.

  17. Endoparasites of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Finland.

    PubMed

    Deksne, Gunita; Laakkonen, Juha; Näreaho, Anu; Jokelainen, Pikka; Holmala, Katja; Kojola, Ilpo; Sukura, Antti

    2013-04-01

    We sampled 339 fecal samples, 296 intestines, and 82 lungs from 371 lynx hunted during the 2010-2011 season in Finland. The fecal samples were analyzed for endoparasites by a quantitative flotation method, and helminths from intestines were studied morphologically, while lungs were investigated for pulmonary parasites. From fecal samples, eggs and oocysts of at least 6 different endoparasite species were identified, with a mean of 1.5 (range 0-4) parasite species per host. In the intestines, at least 4 different helminth species were found, with the mean of 2.0 (range 1-4) species per infected host. The prevalence of eggs in feces and the prevalence of worms in intestines were 71% and 93% for Toxocara cati , 29% and 68% for Taenia spp., and 5% and 2% for Diphyllobothrium sp., respectively. Only eggs were detected for Capillaria sp. (46%) and Uncinaria sp. (0.6%) nematodes, and only adults were detected for Mesocestoides sp. cestodes (0.3%). Significant positive correlations were evident between the number of T. cati (r = 0.664; P = 0.01) and Diphyllobothrium sp. (r = 0.645; P = 0.01) eggs per gram of feces and adult worms detected in intestine. In addition to the metazoan parasites, protozoan Isospora sp. oocysts were also found (0.6%). Pulmonary samples were all negative for parasites. These data demonstrate that lynx commonly harbor various endoparasites, some of which are zoonotic.

  18. Tuberculosis in immigrants in Finland, 1995-2013.

    PubMed

    Räisänen, P E; Soini, H; Vasankari, T; Smit, P W; Nuorti, J P; Ollgren, J; Ruutu, P; Lyytikäinen, O

    2016-01-01

    Increasing immigration from high tuberculosis (TB) incidence countries is a challenge for surveillance and control in Finland. Here, we describe the epidemiology of TB in immigrants by using national surveillance data. During 1995-2013, 7030 (84·7%) native and 1199 (14·4%) immigrant cases were identified. The proportion of immigrant cases increased from 5·8% in 1995 to 32·1% in 2013, consistent with increasing immigrant population (2·1-5·6%) and decreasing incidence of TB in the native population (from 12·1 to 3·5/100 000). TB cases in immigrants were significantly younger, more often female, and had extrapulmonary TB more often than native cases (P < 0·01 for all comparisons); multidrug resistance was also more common in immigrants than natives (P < 0·01). Immigrant cases were born in 82 different countries; most commonly in Somalia and the former Soviet Union/Russia. During 2008-2013, 433 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from immigrants were submitted for spoligotyping; 10 different clades were identified. Clades were similar to those found in the case's country of birth. Screening immigrants from high-incidence countries and raising awareness of common characteristics and symptoms of TB is important to ensure early diagnosis and to prevent transmission.

  19. Parenteral iron dextran therapy.

    PubMed

    Kumpf, V J; Holland, E G

    1990-02-01

    Parenteral iron therapy is indicated in patients with iron-deficiency anemia associated with conditions that interfere with the ingestion or absorption of oral iron. Replacement doses of iron required to replenish iron stores are based on body weight and the observed hemoglobin value. Methods of administering iron dextran are reviewed, including intramuscular and intravenous injections of the undiluted drug, intravenous infusion of a diluted preparation, and as an addition to parenteral nutrition solutions. The overall incidence of adverse reactions associated with the parenteral administration of iron is low, but the potential for an anaphylactic reaction requires that an initial test dose be given followed by careful patient observation.

  20. Parenteral iron supplementation.

    PubMed

    Kumpf, V J

    1996-08-01

    Indications for the use of parenteral iron are limited to conditions in which the oral supplementation of iron is not possible or fails. An overview of iron balance and iron requirements is presented to describe situations in which iron supplementation may be required. When parenteral iron supplementation is required, careful attention to proper dosing and administration is necessary to optimize efficacy and safety. The purpose of this article is to review the literature regarding the clinical use of parenteral iron therapy and provide guidelines on dosing and administration. Methods of iron dextran administration, including the IV and intramuscular injection of undiluted drug and total dose infusion, are compared. Complications associated with the use of parenteral iron are also be reviewed. Finally, the use of iron supplementation in patients receiving parenteral nutrition care explored.