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Sample records for iron age finland

  1. Aging fatherhood in Finland - first-time fathers in Finland from 1987 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Paavilainen, Miia; Bloigu, Aini; Hemminki, Elina; Gissler, Mika; Klemetti, Reija

    2016-06-01

    The increase in maternal age has been well documented in Western societies, but information on paternal age trends is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in age and other background characteristics of first-time fathers in Finland in the period 1987-2009. A random 60% sample of first-time fathers in each year from 1987 to 2009 was obtained from Statistics Finland (n=344,529). Five-year intervals were used (three years in 1987-1989). Sociodemographic characteristics of older first-time fathers (⩾40 years) were compared over time using logistic regression. In the logistic regression, immigrants were excluded from the study population as they may have had children before migrating to Finland. The mean age of first-time fathers increased from 28.7 to 30.4 years in 1987-2009. The change was greatest in the Capital Region and smallest in Northern and Eastern Finland. Fatherhood at the age of ⩾40 years doubled from 3.1% to 6.8%. From 2005 to 2009, men who lived in rural areas and the Capital Region, had a long education, were divorced or widowed, had been born in a rural area and were native Finnish speakers, were more likely than other men to be old when they became fathers. CONCLUSIONS DURING THE STUDY PERIOD, THE AVERAGE AGE OF FIRST-TIME FATHERS INCREASED BY TWO YEARS FURTHER STUDIES ARE NEEDED TO EXAMINE WHETHER DELAYS IN FIRST-TIME FATHERHOOD AFFECT FERTILITY, CHILD HEALTH AND THE USE OF SOCIAL AND HEALTH SERVICES. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  2. Finland.

    PubMed

    1986-10-01

    In 1985, Finland's population stood at 4,913,300, with an annual growth rate of 0.35%. The 1984 infant mortality rate was 6.6/1000 and life expectancy was 70.4 years for males and 78.8 years for females. Finland's literacy rate approaches 100%. Of the labor force of 2,437,000, 11.5% are engaged in agriculture; 45.5% are employed in industry, commerce, and finance; 28% are in the service sector; 5.1% work for the government; and 7.6% work in the transport sector. The gross domestic product (GDP) was US$54 billion in 1985, with an annual growth rate of 2.8% and a per capita income of $1,007. Industry accounts for 28% of the GDP. An extensive social welfare system, comprising 20% of the national income, includes a variety of pension and assistance programs and a comprehensive health insurance program covering the entire Finnish population. Finland's proportional representation system of government encourages a multitude of political parties and has resulted in several coalition governments. Finland's industrial economy is based on capital investment and new technology.

  3. Factors associated with active aging in Finland, Poland, and Spain.

    PubMed

    Perales, Jaime; Martin, Steven; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Chatterji, Somnath; Garin, Noe; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde; Miret, Marta; Moneta, Victoria; Olaya, Beatriz; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Haro, Josep Maria

    2014-08-01

    Continuous population aging has raised international policy interest in promoting active aging (AA). AA theoretical models have been defined from a biomedical or a psychosocial perspective. These models may be expanded including components suggested by lay individuals. This paper aims to study the correlates of AA in three European countries, namely, Spain, Poland, and Finland using four different definitions of AA. The EU COURAGE in Europe project was a cross-sectional general adult population survey conducted in a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized population of Finland, Poland, and Spain. Participants (10,800) lived in the community. This analysis focuses on individuals aged 50 years old and over (7,987). Four definitions (two biomedical, one psychosocial, and a complete definition including biomedical, psychosocial, and external variables) of AA were analyzed. Differences in AA were found for country, age, education, and occupation. Finland scored consistently the highest in AA followed by Spain and Poland. Younger age was associated with higher AA. Higher education and occupation was associated with AA. Being married or cohabiting was associated with better AA compared to being widowed or separated in most definitions. Gender and urbanicity were not associated with AA, with few exceptions. Men scored higher in AA only in Spain, whereas there was no gender association in the other two countries. Being widowed was only associated with lower AA in Poland and not being married was associated with lower AA in Poland and Finland but not Spain. Associations with education, marital status, and occupation suggest that these factors are the most important components of AA. These association patterns, however, seem to vary across the three countries. Actions to promote AA in these countries may be addressed at reducing inequalities in occupation and education or directly tackling the components of AA lacking in each country.

  4. Forensic age assessment of asylum seekers in Finland.

    PubMed

    Metsäniitty, Mari; Varkkola, Olli; Waltimo-Sirén, Janna; Ranta, Helena

    2017-01-01

    In Finland, forensic age assessment is strictly regulated by legislation. According to the Aliens Act (301/2004) and the amendment of the Act (549/2010), the police authorities, the frontier guard authorities, and the immigration authorities have the right to refer asylum seekers to the University of Helsinki, Department of Forensic Medicine, for age assessment. These assessments are especially performed to solve if the person is of major age, the cutoff being 18 completed years. The forensic age assessment is largely based on dental development, since the special permit of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to the Department of Forensic Medicine of the University of Helsinki, allowing the use of ionizing radiation for non-medical purposes, includes dental and hand X-rays. Forensic age assessment is always performed by two forensic odontologists. In 2015, the total number of forensic age assessment examinations was 149, and the countries of origin of the asylum seekers were most commonly Iraq, Afghanistan, and Somalia. The current legislation on forensic age assessment has been well received and approved. Radiological and other examinations can be performed in different parts of Finland, but the forensic odontologist at the University of Helsinki is always involved in the process and ensures joint quality standards for the forensic age assessment.

  5. Iron and ageing: an introduction to iron regulatory mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Cathy W; Tassabehji, Nadine M

    2004-07-01

    While there have been significant advances made in our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate iron absorption, transport, storage, and utilization, the effect of ageing on these mechanisms and the role of iron in the ageing process is not fully understood. Thus, this review will provide an overview of the iron regulatory mechanisms that may be a factor in the ageing process. Additional reviews in this volume represent an attempt to explore the very latest information on the regulation of iron with a particular emphasis on age-related pathology including mitochondrial function, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, and cardiovascular disease.

  6. Marine Mammal Train Oil Production Methods: Experimental Reconstructions of Norwegian Iron Age Slab-Lined Pits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Gørill

    2016-08-01

    Seal hunting and whaling have played an important part of people's livelihoods throughout prehistory as evidenced by rock carvings, remains of bones, artifacts from aquatic animals and hunting tools. This paper focuses on one of the more elusive resources relating to such activities: marine mammal blubber. Although marine blubber easily decomposes, the organic material has been documented from the Mesolithic Period onwards. Of particular interest in this article are the many structures in Northern Norway from the Iron Age and in Finland on Kökar, Åland, from both the Bronze and Early Iron Ages in which these periods exhibited traits interpreted as being related to oil rendering from marine mammal blubber. The article discusses methods used in this oil production activity based on historical sources, archaeological investigations and experimental reconstruction of Iron Age slab-lined pits from Northern Norway.

  7. Age and Meanings of Violence: Women's Experiences of Partner Violence in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piispa, Minna

    2004-01-01

    The first survey carried out in Finland specifically to study men's violence against women showed that partner violence is quite common in Finland and it is directed especially toward young women. The statistical findings don't support the idea that violence has become more widespread in Finland. Life situation factors that are usually viewed as…

  8. Genesis of Palaeoproterozoic iron skarns in the Misi region, northern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niiranen, Tero; Mänttäri, Irmeli; Poutiainen, Matti; Oliver, Nicholas H. S.; Miller, Jodie A.

    2005-03-01

    admixture of 13C depleted, possibly magmatic fluids with the marble wall rocks that show δ13Ccalcite values of 13‰ PDB. The SIMS U-Pb data on the zircons in the albitised gabbro next to the Raajärvi and Puro deposits suggest that intrusion of the gabbro took place at 2123±7 Ma and was accompanied by the formation of diopside skarn. The TIMS data on the metasomatic titanites related to sodic alteration yielded ages of 2062±3 and 2017±3 Ma. Iron was probably stripped from the mafic country rocks by sodic alteration between 2123 and 2017 Ma, driven by repeated brine influxes. Subsequently, the metal-rich brine was focused by a fault system and the iron was precipitated from this fluid by a combination of wall rock reaction, fluid mixing, and a drop in the temperature.

  9. Iron supplementation of breastfed infants from an early age.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Ekhard E; Nelson, Steven E; Jeter, Janice M

    2009-02-01

    In breastfed infants, iron deficiency at <6 mo of life, although uncommon, is observed in industrialized countries. Iron supplementation starting at an early age may prevent iron deficiency. The study assessed the effect of early iron supplementation of breastfed infants and tested the hypothesis that iron supplementation enhances iron status. Potential adverse effects (tolerance and growth) were monitored. The prospective, placebo-controlled study involved exclusively breastfed infants who were randomly assigned at 1 mo of age to iron (n = 37) or placebo (n = 38). Iron (7 mg/d as multivitamin preparation with ferrous sulfate) or placebo (multivitamin preparation without iron) was given from 1 to 5.5 mo of age. Complementary foods were allowed at >4 mo. Infants were followed to 18 mo. Blood concentrations of ferritin, transferrin receptor, hemoglobin, and red cell indexes were determined at bimonthly intervals. Stool consistency and color and feeding behavior were recorded. Iron supplementation caused modest augmentation of iron status during the intervention at 4 and 5.5 mo but not thereafter. Iron supplements were well tolerated and had no measurable effect on growth. One infant developed iron deficiency anemia by 5.5 mo of age. Plasma ferritin and hemoglobin tracked over time. Early iron supplementation of breastfed infants is feasible and transiently increases iron status but not hematologic status. Iron is tolerated by most infants. The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia is low (3%) among unsupplemented breastfed infants in the first 6 mo of life.

  10. Iron supplementation of breastfed infants from an early age123

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Ekhard E; Nelson, Steven E; Jeter, Janice M

    2009-01-01

    Background: In breastfed infants, iron deficiency at <6 mo of life, although uncommon, is observed in industrialized countries. Iron supplementation starting at an early age may prevent iron deficiency. Objective: The study assessed the effect of early iron supplementation of breastfed infants and tested the hypothesis that iron supplementation enhances iron status. Potential adverse effects (tolerance and growth) were monitored. Design: The prospective, placebo-controlled study involved exclusively breastfed infants who were randomly assigned at 1 mo of age to iron (n = 37) or placebo (n = 38). Iron (7 mg/d as multivitamin preparation with ferrous sulfate) or placebo (multivitamin preparation without iron) was given from 1 to 5.5 mo of age. Complementary foods were allowed at >4 mo. Infants were followed to 18 mo. Blood concentrations of ferritin, transferrin receptor, hemoglobin, and red cell indexes were determined at bimonthly intervals. Stool consistency and color and feeding behavior were recorded. Results: Iron supplementation caused modest augmentation of iron status during the intervention at 4 and 5.5 mo but not thereafter. Iron supplements were well tolerated and had no measurable effect on growth. One infant developed iron deficiency anemia by 5.5 mo of age. Plasma ferritin and hemoglobin tracked over time. Conclusion: Early iron supplementation of breastfed infants is feasible and transiently increases iron status but not hematologic status. Iron is tolerated by most infants. The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia is low (3%) among unsupplemented breastfed infants in the first 6 mo of life. PMID:19073791

  11. Iron and iron chelators: a review on potential effects on skin aging.

    PubMed

    Pouillot, Anne; Polla, Ada; Polla, Barbara S

    2013-12-01

    Similar to oxygen, iron is essential for aerobic life and energy production. Akin to oxygen, iron can be toxic and accelerate the aging process. Indeed, via the Fenton and Haber Weiss reactions, iron potentiates the generation of highly reactive oxygen free radicals such as hydroxyl radical, thus stimulating oxidative damage. The possibility that women's longer life span relates to a lower iron status due to iron loss during reproductive life has been considered as a valid hypothesis, while hemochromatosis has been proposed as a model of iron overload to examine the effects of iron on the aging process. Iron plays an aggravating role in many diseases in which iron deprivation has been shown to be beneficial including ischaemia-reperfusion injury, neurological disorders and muscle diseases such as Duchenne's muscular dystrophy. In the skin, excess iron combined with UV radiation exerts pro-oxidant effects while scavenging of free iron prevents or inhibits the toxic effects of UV radiation on both nude mice and human skin. In this review, we propose that iron chelators and/or iron deprivation might play a significant role in the prevention of aging- associated diseases and conditions, in particular in the skin, and increase quality of life. Controlled iron deprivation might be achieved by regular blood donation in which case the quality of life of both the donor and the recipient is improved. Increasing the frequency of blood donation may thus significantly contribute to both individual and social wellbeing. Furthermore, we propose the skin as an accessible model for the study of aging and the effects of iron / iron deprivation on the aging mechanisms. Finally, we suggest that the development of topical iron chelators might represent a novel and simple approach to prevent skin aging, when such prevention has proven an important factor in increasing an aging populations' quality of life.

  12. Age and weathering status of granite tors in Arctic Finland (~ 68° N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmody, R. G.; Thorn, C. E.; Seppälä, M.; Campbell, S. W.; Li, Y. K.; Harbor, J.

    2008-02-01

    Cold-based ice along the Fennoscandian glacial ice divide in northern Finland allowed preservation of old landscape features. Because there was little or no movement at the ice-land surface contact, erosion was at a minimum, and relict landscape features such as tors can be found. We investigated two such granitic tors located at Pyhä-Nattanen (68°07.335' N, 27°22.207' E, 508 m asl) and Riestovaara (68°02.613' N, 27°09.003' E, 390 m asl) in subarctic Finland. At Pyhä-Nattanen, the sampling sequence included bedrock material and grus taken from within horizontal cracks, which are so prevalent at the site as to make the tor resemble a stack of pancakes. At Riestovaara, where the outcrop is more subdued, in addition to bedrock and grus samples, soil samples were also extracted from a pit dug in an embryonic soil forming on the bedrock surface. Based on cosmogenic nuclide dating, both tors greatly predate recent glaciation. The tor at Pyhä-Nattanen, which is a more prominent landscape feature, had longer minimum 10Be and 26Al apparent exposure ages, 89.1 ± 6.7 kyr and 69.6 ± 6.4 kyr, respectively, than did the tor at Riestovaara, 55.8 ± 4.5 kyr and 46.5 ± 4.0 kyr, respectively. Both of them are significantly older than the regional last deglaciation age, indicating that both sites have survived multiple episodes of glaciation. Analyses of the 10Be and 26Al measurements in accordance with marine oxygen isotope records (DSDP 607) indicate that the tors have undergone a minimum estimated total exposure-burial durations of 997 kyr (Pyhä-Nattanen) and 858 kyr (Riestovaara) and survived at least 14-16 episodes of glaciation. Weathering, as measured by porosity determined with a microprobe, was somewhat more advanced in the Pyhä-Nattanen granite samples than in the Riestovaara granite. However, with both granites, rock porosity did not change to a depth of 4 cm below the rock surface or vary by lichen cover/noncovered surfaces, indicating that weathering had

  13. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain.

    PubMed

    Raggi, Alberto; Corso, Barbara; Minicuci, Nadia; Quintas, Rui; Sattin, Davide; De Torres, Laura; Chatterji, Somnath; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Haro, Josep Maria; Koskinen, Seppo; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Leonardi, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in a population study sample of persons aged 18-50 and 50+. In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately. Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4). The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation), chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6%) and a wide and rich social network (4.6%). Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics. Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could potentially increase QoL of ageing

  14. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Corso, Barbara; Minicuci, Nadia; Quintas, Rui; Sattin, Davide; De Torres, Laura; Chatterji, Somnath; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Haro, Josep Maria; Koskinen, Seppo; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Leonardi, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in a population study sample of persons aged 18–50 and 50+. Methods In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately. Results Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4). The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation), chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6%) and a wide and rich social network (4.6%). Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could

  15. Iron promotes protein insolubility and aging in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Klang, Ida M.; Schilling, Birgit; Sorensen, Dylan J.; Sahu, Alexandria K.; Kapahi, Pankaj; Andersen, Julie K.; Swoboda, Peter; Killilea, David W.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Lithgow, Gordon J.

    2014-01-01

    Many late-onset proteotoxic diseases are accompanied by a disruption in homeostasis of metals (metallostasis) including iron, copper and zinc. Although aging is the most prominent risk factor for these disorders, the impact of aging on metallostasis and its role in proteotoxic disease remain poorly understood. Moreover, it is not clear whether a loss of metallostasis influences normal aging. We have investigated the role of metallostasis in longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that calcium, copper, iron, and manganese levels increase as a function of age, while potassium and phosphorus levels tend to decrease. Increased dietary iron significantly accelerated the age-related accumulation of insoluble protein, a molecular pathology of aging. Proteomic analysis revealed widespread effects of dietary iron in multiple organelles and tissues. Pharmacological interventions to block accumulation of specific metals attenuated many models of proteotoxicity and extended normal lifespan. Collectively, these results suggest that a loss of metallostasis with aging contributes to age-related protein aggregation. PMID:25554795

  16. A Late Mesoproterozoic 40Ar/39Ar age for a melt breccia from the Keurusselkä impact structure, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, Martin; Jourdan, Fred; Moilanen, Jarmo; Buchner, Elmar; Öhman, Teemu

    2016-02-01

    Field investigations in the eroded central uplift of the ≤30 km Keurusselkä impact structure, Finland, revealed a thin, dark melt vein that intersects the autochthonous shatter cone-bearing target rocks near the homestead of Kirkkoranta, close to the center of the impact structure. The petrographic analysis of quartz in this melt breccia and the wall rock granite indicate weak shock metamorphic overprint not exceeding ~8-10 GPa. The mode of occurrence and composition of the melt breccia suggest its formation as some kind of pseudotachylitic breccia. 40Ar/39Ar dating of dark and clast-poor whole-rock chips yielded five concordant Late Mesoproterozoic miniplateau ages and one plateau age of 1151 ± 10 Ma [± 11 Ma] (2σ; MSWD = 0.11; P = 0.98), considered here as the statistically most robust age for the rock. The new 40Ar/39Ar age is incompatible with ~1.88 Ga Svecofennian tectonism and magmatism in south-central Finland and probably reflects the Keurusselkä impact, followed by impact-induced hydrothermal chloritization of the crater basement. In keeping with the crosscutting relationships in the outcrop and the possible influence of postimpact alteration, the Late Mesoproterozoic 40Ar/39Ar age of ~1150 Ma should be treated as a minimum age for the impact. The new 40Ar/39Ar results are consistent with paleomagnetic results that suggested a similar age for Keurusselkä, which is shown to be one of the oldest impact structures currently known in Europe and worldwide.

  17. Dental treatment need and dental general anesthetics among preschool-age children with cleft lip and palate in northern Finland.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Ville; Sándor, George K; Ylikontiola, Leena P; Koskinen, Sari; Pesonen, Paula; Harila, Virpi; Anttonen, Vuokko

    2015-08-01

    Cleft lip and palate incidence is high in northern Finland. This study aimed to investigate the proportion of children in need of restorative dental treatment among cleft lip and palate patients in northern Finland, as well as their need for dental treatment under general anesthesia. The records of 183 cleft lip and palate patients, treated in Oulu University Hospital from 1997 to 2013, were reviewed. Data on dental caries were analyzed in association with cleft type, considering also the presence of syndromes. The frequency of dental general anesthetic (DGA) use, and of treatments, were also analyzed. Dental treatment need was most frequently observed, in this rather limited study population, in patients with the most severe deformities, namely bilateral cleft lip and palate, of whom 60% had caries. Among the study population, 11.5% (n = 21) had a syndrome. Of those, 57.1% had dental caries at the age of 3 or 6 yr, and only four could be treated without a DGA. Dental treatment under general anesthesia was performed in 14.8% of cleft patients without a syndrome, but in 38.1% of those with a syndrome. General anaesthesia is required for the provision of dental care more often in cleft (17.5%) than in non-cleft (0.2%) patients, and especially for those with a syndrome. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  18. Gender and iron genes may modify associations between brain iron and memory in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Bartzokis, George; Lu, Po H; Tingus, Kathleen; Peters, Douglas G; Amar, Chetan P; Tishler, Todd A; Finn, J Paul; Villablanca, Pablo; Altshuler, Lori L; Mintz, Jim; Neely, Elizabeth; Connor, James R

    2011-06-01

    Brain iron increases with age and is abnormally elevated early in the disease process in several neurodegenerative disorders that impact memory including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Higher brain iron levels are associated with male gender and presence of highly prevalent allelic variants in genes encoding for iron metabolism proteins (hemochromatosis H63D (HFE H63D) and transferrin C2 (TfC2)). In this study, we examined whether in healthy older individuals memory performance is associated with increased brain iron, and whether gender and gene variant carrier (IRON+) vs noncarrier (IRON-) status (for HFE H63D/TfC2) modify the associations. Tissue iron deposited in ferritin molecules can be measured in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging utilizing the field-dependent relaxation rate increase (FDRI) method. FDRI was assessed in hippocampus, basal ganglia, and white matter, and IRON+ vs IRON- status was determined in a cohort of 63 healthy older individuals. Three cognitive domains were assessed: verbal memory (delayed recall), working memory/attention, and processing speed. Independent of gene status, worse verbal-memory performance was associated with higher hippocampal iron in men (r=-0.50, p=0.003) but not in women. Independent of gender, worse verbal working memory performance was associated with higher basal ganglia iron in IRON- group (r=-0.49, p=0.005) but not in the IRON+ group. Between-group interactions (p=0.006) were noted for both of these associations. No significant associations with white matter or processing speed were observed. The results suggest that in specific subgroups of healthy older individuals, higher accumulations of iron in vulnerable gray matter regions may adversely impact memory functions and could represent a risk factor for accelerated cognitive decline. Combining genetic and MRI biomarkers may provide opportunities to design primary prevention clinical trials that target high-risk groups.

  19. The association between social capital and loneliness in different age groups: a population-based study in Western Finland.

    PubMed

    Nyqvist, Fredrica; Victor, Christina R; Forsman, Anna K; Cattan, Mima

    2016-07-11

    Previous studies of loneliness have largely focused on establishing risk factors in specific age groups such as in later life or in young people. Researchers have paid less attention to the link between social capital and loneliness across different age groups. The aim of this study was to examine the association between social capital and experienced loneliness in different age groups in a Finnish setting. The data originates from a population-based cross-sectional survey conducted among 4618 people aged 15-80 in Western Finland in 2011. The response rate was 46.2 %. The association between social capital, measured by frequency of social contacts, participation in organisational activities, trust and sense of belonging to the neighbourhood and loneliness was tested by logistic regression analyses stratified by four age groups. Frequent loneliness (defined as experienced often or sometimes) was higher among younger people (39.5 %) compared to older people (27.3 %). Low levels of trust were linked to loneliness in all four age groups. The association between other aspects of social capital and loneliness varied across age groups. Frequent loneliness is common among the general adult population and could be seen as a public health issue. Our findings imply that low social capital, especially in terms of low trust, may be a risk factor for loneliness. However, further research is needed to assess the influence of poor health and reverse causality as explanations for the findings.

  20. Methamphetamine increases basal ganglia iron to levels observed in aging.

    PubMed

    Melega, William P; Laćan, Goran; Harvey, Dennis C; Way, Baldwin M

    2007-10-29

    Increases in basal ganglia iron are well documented for neurodegenerative diseases but have not been associated with methamphetamine (METH). In this study, vervet monkeys that received two doses of METH (2 mg/kg, intramuscularly, 6 h apart) showed at 1 month, iron increases in substantia nigra pars reticulata and globus pallidus, with concurrent increases of ferritin-immunoreactivity and decreases of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity in substantia nigra. At 1.5 years, substantia nigra tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity had recovered while iron and ferritin-immunoreactivity increases persisted. Globus pallidus and substantia nigra iron levels of the adult METH-exposed animals (age 5-9 years) were now comparable with those of drug-naive, aged animals (19-22 years), suggesting an aging-related condition that might render those regions more vulnerable to oxidative stress.

  1. The age of iron and iron source attribution in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, Mark; Frants, Marina; Pasquier, Benoît

    2016-10-01

    We use tracers to partition dissolved iron (dFe) into the contributions from each source within a numerical model of the iron cycle without perturbing the system. These contributions are further partitioned according to the time since injection into the ocean, which defines their iron-age spectrum and mean iron age. The utility of these diagnostics is illustrated for a family of inverse model estimates of the iron cycle, constrained by a data-assimilated circulation and available dFe measurements. The source contributions are compared with source anomalies defined as the differences between solutions with and without the source in question. We find that in the Southern Ocean euphotic zone, the hydrothermal and sediment contributions range from 15% to 30% of the total each, which the anomalies underestimate by a factor of ˜2 because of the nonlinearity of scavenging. The iron age is only reset by scavenging and attains a mean of several hundred years in the Southern Ocean euphotic zone, revealing that aeolian iron there is supplied primarily from depth as regenerated dFe. Tagging iron according to source region and pathways shows that 70-80% of the aeolian dFe in the euphotic zone near Antarctica is supplied from north of 46°S via paths that reach below 1 km depth. Hydrothermal iron has the oldest surface mean ages on the order of middepth ventilation times. A measure of uncertainty is provided by the systematic variations of our diagnostics across the family of iron cycle estimates, each member of which has a different aeolian source strength.

  2. Superconductivity at Dawn of the Iron Age

    SciTech Connect

    Tesanovic, Zlatko

    2010-03-03

    Superconductivity is a stunning quantum phenomenon and among the deepest paradigms in all of physics. From fundamental theories of the universe to strange goings-on in exotic materials to medical imaging and cell phones, its conceptual and practical dimensions span a reach as wide as anything in science. Twenty-odd years ago, the discovery of copper oxides ushered in a new era of high-temperature superconductivity, and the joyous exuberance that followed - with physicists throwing everything from fancy gauge theories to synchrotron radiation into its kitchen sink - only recently began to show any signs of waning. In the spring of 2008, as if on cue, a new family of iron pnictide high-temperature superconductors burst on the scene, hinting at an alternative route to room-temperature superconductivity and all of its momentous consequences. Fueled by genuine excitement - and a bit of hype - the iron-based superconductivity turned into a science blockbuster of 2009. I will present a pedagogical review of this new field, contrast the physics of iron- and copper-based systems, and speculate on the microscopic origins of the two types of high-temperature superconductivity.

  3. Superconductivity at Dawn of the Iron Age

    ScienceCinema

    Tesanovic, Zlatko [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

    2016-07-12

    Superconductivity is a stunning quantum phenomenon and among the deepest paradigms in all of physics. From fundamental theories of the universe to strange goings-on in exotic materials to medical imaging and cell phones, its conceptual and practical dimensions span a reach as wide as anything in science. Twenty-odd years ago, the discovery of copper oxides ushered in a new era of high-temperature superconductivity, and the joyous exuberance that followed - with physicists throwing everything from fancy gauge theories to synchrotron radiation into its kitchen sink - only recently began to show any signs of waning. In the spring of 2008, as if on cue, a new family of iron pnictide high-temperature superconductors burst on the scene, hinting at an alternative route to room-temperature superconductivity and all of its momentous consequences. Fueled by genuine excitement - and a bit of hype - the iron-based superconductivity turned into a science blockbuster of 2009. I will present a pedagogical review of this new field, contrast the physics of iron- and copper-based systems, and speculate on the microscopic origins of the two types of high-temperature superconductivity.

  4. Gender and Iron Genes May Modify Associations Between Brain Iron and Memory in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Bartzokis, George; Lu, Po H; Tingus, Kathleen; Peters, Douglas G; Amar, Chetan P; Tishler, Todd A; Finn, J Paul; Villablanca, Pablo; Altshuler, Lori L; Mintz, Jim; Neely, Elizabeth; Connor, James R

    2011-01-01

    Brain iron increases with age and is abnormally elevated early in the disease process in several neurodegenerative disorders that impact memory including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Higher brain iron levels are associated with male gender and presence of highly prevalent allelic variants in genes encoding for iron metabolism proteins (hemochromatosis H63D (HFE H63D) and transferrin C2 (TfC2)). In this study, we examined whether in healthy older individuals memory performance is associated with increased brain iron, and whether gender and gene variant carrier (IRON+) vs noncarrier (IRON−) status (for HFE H63D/TfC2) modify the associations. Tissue iron deposited in ferritin molecules can be measured in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging utilizing the field-dependent relaxation rate increase (FDRI) method. FDRI was assessed in hippocampus, basal ganglia, and white matter, and IRON+ vs IRON− status was determined in a cohort of 63 healthy older individuals. Three cognitive domains were assessed: verbal memory (delayed recall), working memory/attention, and processing speed. Independent of gene status, worse verbal-memory performance was associated with higher hippocampal iron in men (r=−0.50, p=0.003) but not in women. Independent of gender, worse verbal working memory performance was associated with higher basal ganglia iron in IRON− group (r=−0.49, p=0.005) but not in the IRON+ group. Between-group interactions (p=0.006) were noted for both of these associations. No significant associations with white matter or processing speed were observed. The results suggest that in specific subgroups of healthy older individuals, higher accumulations of iron in vulnerable gray matter regions may adversely impact memory functions and could represent a risk factor for accelerated cognitive decline. Combining genetic and MRI biomarkers may provide opportunities to design primary prevention clinical trials that target high-risk groups. PMID:21389980

  5. Farm environment during infancy and lung function at the age of 31: a prospective birth cohort study in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Lampi, Jussi; Koskela, Heikki; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Couto Alves, Alexessander; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Pekkanen, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Farming as an occupation is considered a risk factor for asthma and reduced lung function. By contrast, living on a farm during infancy has been reported to be associated with lower risk of asthma in adulthood. However, little is known about the association between farming environment during infancy and lung function in adulthood. We aimed to study the prospective longitudinal association between farming environment during infancy and lung function in adulthood. Design A prospective birth cohort study. Setting Northern Finland. Participants 5666 participants born in 1966 were followed up at the age of 31 years. Primary outcome measures Spirometry at the age of 31 years. Results To be born into a farmer’s family was associated with higher forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) (36 mL; 95% CI 6 to 67 mL) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (40 mL; 95% CI 5 to 75 mL) at the age of 31 years. Contact with farm animals during infancy was associated with higher FEV1. No associations were seen with FEV1/FVC (FEV1/FVC ratio). Having dogs in childhood revealed similar associations. There was a suggestive dose-dependent association with the number of animal species during childhood and higher FEV1 and FVC at adulthood, especially among women. Conclusions Farming environment in early life may have a positive impact on lung function in adulthood. PMID:26201721

  6. Disparity between dietary iron intake and iron status of children aged 10-12 years.

    PubMed

    Spodaryk, K

    1999-12-01

    Iron status was assessed in a representative sample of 188 adolescents living in a medium-sized city in Poland. Dietary intakes were evaluated using records of diet over a period of seven consecutive days. Subjects were considered to be iron deficient when two or more of the following parameters were abnormal: serum ferritin, transferrin saturation or mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. Based on this definition, the prevalence of iron deficiency in the investigated sample of children aged from ten to twelve years was 12.7%. Iron deficiency anaemia was defined using the following criteria: haemoglobin values less than 12.0 g. dl (-1) in girls or less than 12.2 g. dl(-1) in boys, combined with an iron deficiency. With such a definition, the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in all subjects was 6.3%. Four boys (3.9%) and six girls (6.8%) were diagnosed as anaemic. The values for Hb in the anaemic boys ranged from 10.9 to 12.2 g. dl (-1) and in anaemic girls from 8.7 to 12.0 g. (-1). It was found that the majority of the individuals studied had a dietary haem-iron intake lower than that recommended. No relationship was found between the level of serum ferritin and total iron and vitamin C dietary intake, but there was positive correlation between serum ferritin and intake of haem iron. A seven-day dietary history questionnaire correctly identified children at risk of iron deficiency anaemia.

  7. Infant iron status affects iron absorption in Peruvian breastfed infants at 2 and 5 mo of age.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Julia L; O'Brien, Kimberly O; Abrams, Steven A; Zavaleta, Nelly

    2013-12-01

    Effects of prenatal iron supplementation on maternal postpartum iron status and early infant iron homeostasis remain largely unknown. We examined iron absorption and growth in exclusively breastfed infants in relation to fetal iron exposure and iron status during early infancy. Longitudinal, paired iron-absorption (⁵⁸Fe) studies were conducted in 59 exclusively breastfed Peruvian infants at 2-3 mo of age (2M) and 5-6 mo of age (5M). Infants were born to women who received ≥ 5100 or ≤ 1320 mg supplemental prenatal Fe. Iron status was assessed in mothers and infants at 2M and 5M. Infant iron absorption from breast milk averaged 7.1% and 13.9% at 2M and 5M. Maternal iron status (at 2M) predicted infant iron deficiency (ID) at 5M. Although no infants were iron deficient at 2M, 28.6% of infants had depleted iron stores (ferritin concentration <12 μg/L) by 5M. Infant serum ferritin decreased (P < 0.0001), serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) increased (P < 0.0001), and serum iron decreased from 2M to 5M (P < 0.01). Higher infant sTfR (P < 0.01) and breast-milk copper (P < 0.01) predicted increased iron absorption at 5M. Prenatal iron supplementation had no effects on infant iron status or breast-milk nutrient concentrations at 2M or 5M. However, fetal iron exposure predicted increased infant length at 2M (P < 0.01) and 5M (P < 0.05). Fetal iron exposure affected early infant growth but did not significantly improve iron status or absorption. Young, exclusively breastfed infants upregulated iron absorption when iron stores were depleted at both 2M and 5M.

  8. Working Life and Retirement Expectancies at Age 50 by Social Class: Period and Cohort Trends and Projections for Finland.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, Taina; Martikainen, Pekka; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2015-11-11

    The balance between the amount of time spent in work and in retirement underlies the long-term sustainability of the social security system. We examined socioeconomic differences in how increasing longevity is distributed between labor market statuses in Finland. We used register data and the Sullivan method to analyze life expectancy at age 50 spent in different labor market statuses over the period 1989-2012 and across cohorts born in 1938-1953. We projected the future mortality and labor market participation rates of partially observed cohorts. Both working life expectancy at age 50 and the share of remaining life spent in work have increased across periods following the recession of the early 1990s, and across successive cohorts. The trends were similar across the social classes, but there were large differences in the numbers of years spent in various states: for the most recent period and the youngest cohort, we find that compared with upper non-manual employees, male and female manual workers were expected to spend 3.6-3.7 fewer years in work, 1.7-4.7 fewer years in statutory retirement, and 3.2-3.9 more years in other forms of nonemployment. Our finding that the share of remaining life at age 50 spent in work is increasing implies that pressure on the welfare system is not as severe as is commonly thought. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Towards interprofessional networking in medication management of the aged: current challenges and potential solutions in Finland.

    PubMed

    Kallio, Sonja; Kumpusalo-Vauhkonen, Anne; Järvensivu, Timo; Mäntylä, Antti; Pohjanoksa-Mäntylä, Marika; Airaksinen, Marja

    2016-12-01

    The Finnish Medicines Agency (Fimea) initiated a programme in 2012 for enhancing interprofessional networking in the medication management of the aged. The goal is to develop national guidelines for interprofessional collaboration with respect to medication management. This study aims to explore the challenges and potential solutions experienced by existing health care teams in managing medication of the aged: (1) at the individual and team level (micro level), (2) organisational level (meso level) and (3) structural level (macro level). Group discussions (n = 10), pair (n = 3) and individual interviews (n = 2). Abductive content analysis combining data and theory was applied. Networking was used as a theoretical framework. Meetings (n = 15) organised by Fimea in the formation phase of the interprofessional network in 2012. Health care professionals (n = 55). Challenges and solutions in the medication management of the aged at the micro, meso and macro levels. Challenges in interprofessional collaboration, problems with patient record systems, and the organisation of work and lack of resources were present at all the levels contributing to patients' medication problems. Participants suggested multiple potential solutions to improve interprofessional collaboration, sharing of tasks and responsibilities, better exploitation of pharmaceutical knowledge and developing tools as being the most commonly mentioned. Optimising medication use of the aged requires new systemic solutions within and between different system levels. The main challenges can be solved by clarifying responsibilities, enhancing communication and applying operational models that involve pharmacists and the use of information technology in medication management. KEY POINTS An interprofessional team approach has been suggested as a solution to promote rational medicine use among the aged. Fragmented health care system and lack of coordinated patient care are reasons for medication

  10. Towards interprofessional networking in medication management of the aged: current challenges and potential solutions in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Kallio, Sonja; Kumpusalo-Vauhkonen, Anne; Järvensivu, Timo; Mäntylä, Antti; Pohjanoksa-Mäntylä, Marika; Airaksinen, Marja

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Finnish Medicines Agency (Fimea) initiated a programme in 2012 for enhancing interprofessional networking in the medication management of the aged. The goal is to develop national guidelines for interprofessional collaboration with respect to medication management. This study aims to explore the challenges and potential solutions experienced by existing health care teams in managing medication of the aged: (1) at the individual and team level (micro level), (2) organisational level (meso level) and (3) structural level (macro level). Design Group discussions (n = 10), pair (n = 3) and individual interviews (n = 2). Abductive content analysis combining data and theory was applied. Networking was used as a theoretical framework. Setting Meetings (n = 15) organised by Fimea in the formation phase of the interprofessional network in 2012. Subjects Health care professionals (n = 55). Main outcome measures Challenges and solutions in the medication management of the aged at the micro, meso and macro levels. Results Challenges in interprofessional collaboration, problems with patient record systems, and the organisation of work and lack of resources were present at all the levels contributing to patients’ medication problems. Participants suggested multiple potential solutions to improve interprofessional collaboration, sharing of tasks and responsibilities, better exploitation of pharmaceutical knowledge and developing tools as being the most commonly mentioned. Conclusions Optimising medication use of the aged requires new systemic solutions within and between different system levels. The main challenges can be solved by clarifying responsibilities, enhancing communication and applying operational models that involve pharmacists and the use of information technology in medication management. KEY POINTSAn interprofessional team approach has been suggested as a solution to promote rational medicine use among the aged.Fragmented health

  11. Membership Finland

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Le DG C.Rubbia et la vice présidente du conseil du Cern souhaite la bienvenue à l'adhésion de la Finlande, comme 15me membre du Cern depuis le 1. janvier 1991 en présence du secrétaire generale et de l'ambassadeur

  12. Membership Finland

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-10

    Le DG C.Rubbia et la vice présidente du conseil du Cern souhaite la bienvenue à l'adhésion de la Finlande, comme 15me membre du Cern depuis le 1. janvier 1991 en présence du secrétaire generale et de l'ambassadeur

  13. Predictors of vitamin D biochemical status in a large sample of middle-aged male smokers in Finland.

    PubMed

    Brock, K E; Graubard, B I; Fraser, D R; Weinstein, S J; Stolzenberg-Solomon, R Z; Lim, U; Tangrea, J A; Virtamo, J; Ke, L; Snyder, K; Albanes, D

    2010-03-01

    As vitamin D deficiency is considered to be more common in regions with little solar ultraviolet (UV) light in winter, the aim of this study was to analyze predictors of vitamin D status by season within a large sample of male smokers from Finland, a country where there is negligible solar UV light in winter. Vitamin D (measured by 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) nmol/l) and other serum constituents were assayed. Measured anthropometry, and self-reported dietary intake and physical activity (PA) were obtained and analyzed using stepwise multiple linear and logistic regression in 2271 middle-aged Finnish male smokers. In all, 27% of the population in winter and 17% in summer had serum 25(OH)D levels of <25 nmol/l, respectively. In summer, in multiple logistic regression analyses with adjustment for confounding and other predictors, high vitamin D intake (odds ratios (OR) 3.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-8.5), some leisure time PA (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.3-3.1) and having a body mass index (BMI) of >or=21 kg/m(2) compared with <21 kg/m(2) (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.3-5.0), were associated with 25(OH)D >or=25 nmol/l. In winter, additional modifiable factors were occupational PA (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1-2.5) and high fish (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.7-6.2) or poultry consumption (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.2-2.5). Predictors from linear regression analyses of continuous levels of 25(OH)D were similar to the logistic regression analyses of 25(OH)D >or=25 nmol/l. In this Finnish sample more vitamin D intake, PA and having a BMI of >or=21 may have important modifiable roles in maintaining an adequate vitamin D status.

  14. Local geology controlled the feasibility of vitrifying Iron Age buildings

    PubMed Central

    Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Heap, Michael J.; Damby, David E.; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Najorka, Jens; Vasseur, Jérémie; Fahrner, Dominik; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2017-01-01

    During European prehistory, hilltop enclosures made from polydisperse particle-and-block stone walling were exposed to temperatures sufficient to partially melt the constituent stonework, leading to the preservation of glassy walls called ‘vitrified forts’. During vitrification, the granular wall rocks partially melt, sinter viscously and densify, reducing inter-particle porosity. This process is strongly dependent on the solidus temperature, the particle sizes, the temperature-dependence of the viscosity of the evolving liquid phase, as well as the distribution and longevity of heat. Examination of the sintering behaviour of 45 European examples reveals that it is the raw building material that governs the vitrification efficiency. As Iron Age forts were commonly constructed from local stone, we conclude that local geology directly influenced the degree to which buildings were vitrified in the Iron Age. Additionally, we find that vitrification is accompanied by a bulk material strengthening of the aggregates of small sizes, and a partial weakening of larger blocks. We discuss these findings in the context of the debate surrounding the motive of the wall-builders. We conclude that if wall stability by bulk strengthening was the desired effect, then vitrification represents an Iron Age technology that failed to be effective in regions of refractory local geology. PMID:28079121

  15. Local geology controlled the feasibility of vitrifying Iron Age buildings.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Fabian B; Heap, Michael J; Damby, David E; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Najorka, Jens; Vasseur, Jérémie; Fahrner, Dominik; Dingwell, Donald B

    2017-01-12

    During European prehistory, hilltop enclosures made from polydisperse particle-and-block stone walling were exposed to temperatures sufficient to partially melt the constituent stonework, leading to the preservation of glassy walls called 'vitrified forts'. During vitrification, the granular wall rocks partially melt, sinter viscously and densify, reducing inter-particle porosity. This process is strongly dependent on the solidus temperature, the particle sizes, the temperature-dependence of the viscosity of the evolving liquid phase, as well as the distribution and longevity of heat. Examination of the sintering behaviour of 45 European examples reveals that it is the raw building material that governs the vitrification efficiency. As Iron Age forts were commonly constructed from local stone, we conclude that local geology directly influenced the degree to which buildings were vitrified in the Iron Age. Additionally, we find that vitrification is accompanied by a bulk material strengthening of the aggregates of small sizes, and a partial weakening of larger blocks. We discuss these findings in the context of the debate surrounding the motive of the wall-builders. We conclude that if wall stability by bulk strengthening was the desired effect, then vitrification represents an Iron Age technology that failed to be effective in regions of refractory local geology.

  16. Local geology controlled the feasibility of vitrifying Iron Age buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabian B Wadsworth,; Michael J Heap,; Damby, David; Kai-Uwe Hess,; Jens Najorka,; Jérémie Vasseur,; Dominik Fahrner,; Donald B Dingwell,

    2017-01-01

    During European prehistory, hilltop enclosures made from polydisperse particle-and-block stone walling were exposed to temperatures sufficient to partially melt the constituent stonework, leading to the preservation of glassy walls called ‘vitrified forts’. During vitrification, the granular wall rocks partially melt, sinter viscously and densify, reducing inter-particle porosity. This process is strongly dependent on the solidus temperature, the particle sizes, the temperature-dependence of the viscosity of the evolving liquid phase, as well as the distribution and longevity of heat. Examination of the sintering behaviour of 45 European examples reveals that it is the raw building material that governs the vitrification efficiency. As Iron Age forts were commonly constructed from local stone, we conclude that local geology directly influenced the degree to which buildings were vitrified in the Iron Age. Additionally, we find that vitrification is accompanied by a bulk material strengthening of the aggregates of small sizes, and a partial weakening of larger blocks. We discuss these findings in the context of the debate surrounding the motive of the wall-builders. We conclude that if wall stability by bulk strengthening was the desired effect, then vitrification represents an Iron Age technology that failed to be effective in regions of refractory local geology.

  17. Biogerontology in Finland.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, Timo E; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes current biogerontology research in Finland especially in the universities with professorships in gerontology/geriatrics. If biogerontology is broadly taken to include all research in basic mechanisms of normal ageing as well as age-related diseases, the most prevalent current topics include basic research in genetics, mitochondrial function, musculoskeletal physiology, neurodegenerative and vascular diseases. The research activity of each institute and their international collaboration is briefly described with examples focused on recent publications in the field of biogerontology.

  18. Ancient Blacksmiths, The Iron Age, Damascus Steels, and Modern Metallurgy

    SciTech Connect

    Sherby, O.D.; Wadsworth, J.

    2000-09-11

    The history of iron and Damascus steels is described through the eyes of ancient blacksmiths. For example, evidence is presented that questions why the Iron Age could not have begun at about the same time as the early Bronze Age (i.e. approximately 7000 B.C.). It is also clear that ancient blacksmiths had enough information from their forging work, together with their observation of color changes during heating and their estimate of hardness by scratch tests, to have determined some key parts of the present-day iron-carbon phase diagram. The blacksmiths' greatest artistic accomplishments were the Damascus and Japanese steel swords. The Damascus sword was famous not only for its exceptional cutting edge and toughness, but also for its beautiful surface markings. Damascus steels are ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs) that contain from 1.0 to 2.1%. carbon. The modern metallurgical understanding of UHCSs has revealed that remarkable properties can be obtained in these hypereutectoid steels. The results achieved in UHCSs are attributed to the ability to place the carbon, in excess of the eutectoid composition, to do useful work that enhances the high temperature processing of carbon steels and that improves the low and intermediate temperature mechanical properties.

  19. Microstructural Features in Corroded Celtic Iron Age Sword Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiara, G.; Piccardo, P.; Campodonico, S.; Carnasciali, M. M.

    2014-05-01

    Archaeological artefacts made from iron and steel are often of critical importance for archaeometallurgical studies, which aim to understand the process of manufacturing, as the nearly complete alloy mineralization does not allow for any type of metallographic interpretation. In this study, three Iron Age sword blades dated from the second century BC (LaTène B2/D1) found in the archaeological site of Tintignac (Commune de Naves, Corrèze, France), were investigated. A multianalytical approach was employed to acquire a complete range of data from the partially or totally corroded objects. Analyses were carried out with the use of light optical microscopy, micro Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDXS). Remnants of metallographic features—ghost microstructure—in the corrosion layers of the blades were observed, allowing for a partial reconstruction of the manufacturing process.

  20. Al-26-Mg-26 ages of iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzog, G. F.; Souzis, A. E.; Xue, S.; Klein, J.; Juenemann, D.; Middleton, R.

    1993-01-01

    An exposure age for an iron meteorite can be calculated from measurements of a radioactive nuclide and a stable nuclide that are produced by similar sets of nuclear reactions, provided that the stable nuclide is present with low initial abundance. The standard methods rely on either K-40 (t(sub 1/2) = 1.26 Gy), K-39, and K-41 or on a shorter-lived radionuclide and a stable, noble gas isotope. Widely used pairs of this type include Cl-36/Ar-36 and Al-26/Ne-21. Other pairs that may serve the purpose for iron meteorites contain many stable isotopes besides those of K and the noble gases that are produced partly by cosmic rays. We consider here the calculation of exposure ages, t(sub 26), from measurements of Al-26 (t(sub 1/2) = 0.7 My) and (stable) Mg-26. Ages based on Al-26/Mg-26 ratios, like those based on Cl-36/Ar-36 ratios, are 'buffered' against changes in relative production rates due to shielding because decay of the radioactive nuclide accounts for a good part of the inventory of the stable nuclide.

  1. Synthesis of iron fertilization experiments: From the Iron Age in the Age of Enlightenment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Baar, Hein J. W.; Boyd, Philip W.; Coale, Kenneth H.; Landry, Michael R.; Tsuda, Atsushi; Assmy, Philipp; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Bozec, Yann; Barber, Richard T.; Brzezinski, Mark A.; Buesseler, Ken O.; Boyé, Marie; Croot, Peter L.; Gervais, Frank; Gorbunov, Maxim Y.; Harrison, Paul J.; Hiscock, William T.; Laan, Patrick; Lancelot, Christiane; Law, Cliff S.; Levasseur, Maurice; Marchetti, Adrian; Millero, Frank J.; Nishioka, Jun; Nojiri, Yukihiro; van Oijen, Tim; Riebesell, Ulf; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Saito, Hiroaki; Takeda, Shigenobu; Timmermans, Klaas R.; Veldhuis, Marcel J. W.; Waite, Anya M.; Wong, Chi-Shing

    2005-09-01

    Comparison of eight iron experiments shows that maximum Chl a, the maximum DIC removal, and the overall DIC/Fe efficiency all scale inversely with depth of the wind mixed layer (WML) defining the light environment. Moreover, lateral patch dilution, sea surface irradiance, temperature, and grazing play additional roles. The Southern Ocean experiments were most influenced by very deep WMLs. In contrast, light conditions were most favorable during SEEDS and SERIES as well as during IronEx-2. The two extreme experiments, EisenEx and SEEDS, can be linked via EisenEx bottle incubations with shallower simulated WML depth. Large diatoms always benefit the most from Fe addition, where a remarkably small group of thriving diatom species is dominated by universal response of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Significant response of these moderate (10-30 μm), medium (30-60 μm), and large (>60 μm) diatoms is consistent with growth physiology determined for single species in natural seawater. The minimum level of "dissolved" Fe (filtrate < 0.2 μm) maintained during an experiment determines the dominant diatom size class. However, this is further complicated by continuous transfer of original truly dissolved reduced Fe(II) into the colloidal pool, which may constitute some 75% of the "dissolved" pool. Depth integration of carbon inventory changes partly compensates the adverse effects of a deep WML due to its greater integration depths, decreasing the differences in responses between the eight experiments. About half of depth-integrated overall primary productivity is reflected in a decrease of DIC. The overall C/Fe efficiency of DIC uptake is DIC/Fe ˜ 5600 for all eight experiments. The increase of particulate organic carbon is about a quarter of the primary production, suggesting food web losses for the other three quarters. Replenishment of DIC by air/sea exchange tends to be a minor few percent of primary CO2 fixation but will continue well after observations have stopped. Export of

  2. Dissociation between iron accumulation and ferritin upregulation in the aged substantia nigra: attenuation by dietary restriction

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Thomas; Michaelides, Christos; Ekonomou, Antigoni; Geraki, Kalotina; Parkes, Harold G; Suessmilch, Maria; Herlihy, Amy H; Crum, William R; So, Po-Wah

    2016-01-01

    Despite regulation, brain iron increases with aging and may enhance aging processes including neuroinflammation. Increases in magnetic resonance imaging transverse relaxation rates, R2 and R2*, in the brain have been observed during aging. We show R2 and R2* correlate well with iron content via direct correlation to semi-quantitative synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence iron mapping, with age-associated R2 and R2* increases reflecting iron accumulation. Iron accumulation was concomitant with increased ferritin immunoreactivity in basal ganglia regions except in the substantia nigra (SN). The unexpected dissociation of iron accumulation from ferritin-upregulation in the SN suggests iron dyshomeostasis in the SN. Occurring alongside microgliosis and astrogliosis, iron dyshomeotasis may contribute to the particular vulnerability of the SN. Dietary restriction (DR) has long been touted to ameliorate brain aging and we show DR attenuated agerelated in vivo R2 increases in the SN over ages 7 – 19 months, concomitant with normal iron-induction of ferritin expression and decreased microgliosis. Iron is known to induce microgliosis and conversely, microgliosis can induce iron accumulation, which of these may be the initial pathological aging event warrants further investigation. We suggest iron chelation therapies and anti-inflammatory treatments may be putative ‘antibrain aging’ therapies and combining these strategies may be synergistic. PMID:27743512

  3. An investigation of age-related iron deposition using susceptibility weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Li, Wen-Bin; Wei, Xiao-Er; Li, Yue-Hua; Dai, Yong-Ming

    2012-01-01

    To quantify age-dependent iron deposition changes in healthy subjects using Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). In total, 143 healthy volunteers were enrolled. All underwent conventional MR and SWI sequences. Subjects were divided into eight groups according to age. Using phase images to quantify iron deposition in the head of the caudate nucleus and the lenticular nucleus, the angle radian value was calculated and compared between groups. ANOVA/Pearson correlation coefficient linear regression analysis and polynomial fitting were performed to analyze the relationship between iron deposition in the head of the caudate nucleus and lenticular nucleus with age. Iron deposition in the lenticular nucleus increased in individuals aged up to 40 years, but did not change in those aged over 40 years once a peak had been reached. In the head of the caudate nucleus, iron deposition peaked at 60 years (p<0.05). The correlation coefficients for iron deposition in the L-head of the caudate nucleus, R-head of the caudate nucleus, L-lenticular nucleus and R-lenticular nucleus with age were 0.67691, 0.48585, 0.5228 and 0.5228 (p<0.001, respectively). Linear regression analyses showed a significant correlation between iron deposition levels in with age groups. Iron deposition in the lenticular nucleus was found to increase with age, reaching a plateau at 40 years. Iron deposition in the head of the caudate nucleus also increased with age, reaching a plateau at 60 years.

  4. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Aging of Graphitic Cast Irons and Machinability

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Von L.

    2012-09-19

    The objective of this task was to determine whether ductile iron and compacted graphite iron exhibit age strengthening to a statistically significant extent. Further, this effort identified the mechanism by which gray iron age strengthens and the mechanism by which age-strengthening improves the machinability of gray cast iron. These results were then used to determine whether age strengthening improves the machinability of ductile iron and compacted graphite iron alloys in order to develop a predictive model of alloy factor effects on age strengthening. The results of this work will lead to reduced section sizes, and corresponding weight and energy savings. Improved machinability will reduce scrap and enhance casting marketability. Technical Conclusions: Age strengthening was demonstrated to occur in gray iron ductile iron and compacted graphite iron. Machinability was demonstrated to be improved by age strengthening when free ferrite was present in the microstructure, but not in a fully pearlitic microstructure. Age strengthening only occurs when there is residual nitrogen in solid solution in the Ferrite, whether the ferrite is free ferrite or the ferrite lamellae within pearlite. Age strengthening can be accelerated by Mn at about 0.5% in excess of the Mn/S balance Estimated energy savings over ten years is 13.05 trillion BTU, based primarily on yield improvement and size reduction of castings for equivalent service. Also it is estimated that the heavy truck end use of lighter castings for equivalent service requirement will result in a diesel fuel energy savings of 131 trillion BTU over ten years.

  5. Water consumption in Iron Age, Roman, and Early Medieval Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lightfoot, E; Slaus, M; O'Connell, T C

    2014-08-01

    Patterns of water consumption by past human populations are rarely considered, yet drinking behavior is socially mediated and access to water sources is often socially controlled. Oxygen isotope analysis of archeological human remains is commonly used to identify migrants in the archeological record, but it can also be used to consider water itself, as this technique documents water consumption rather than migration directly. Here, we report an oxygen isotope study of humans and animals from coastal regions of Croatia in the Iron Age, Roman, and Early Medieval periods. The results show that while faunal values have little diachronic variation, the human data vary through time, and there are wide ranges of values within each period. Our interpretation is that this is not solely a result of mobility, but that human behavior can and did lead to human oxygen isotope ratios that are different from that expected from consumption of local precipitation.

  6. Rhenium-osmium-isotope constraints on the age of iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, M. F.; Morgan, J. W.; Walker, R. J.; Grossman, J. N.

    1992-01-01

    Rhenium and osmium concentrations and the osmium isotopic compositions of iron meteorites were determined by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Data for the IIA iron meteorites define an isochron with an uncertainty of approximately +/-31 million years for meteorites about 4500 million years old. Although an absolute rhenium-osmium closure age for this iron group cannot be as precisely constrained because of uncertainty in the decay constant of Re-187, an age of 4460 million years ago is the minimum permitted by combined uncertainties. These age constraints imply that the parent body of the IIAB magmatic irons melted and subsequently cooled within 100 million years after the formation of the oldest portions of chondrites. Other iron meteorites plot above the IIA isochron, indicating that the planetary bodies represented by these iron groups may have cooled significantly later than the parent body of the IIA irons.

  7. Rhenium-osmium isotope constraints on the age of iron meteorites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horan, M.F.; Morgan, J.W.; Walker, R.J.; Grossman, J.N.

    1992-01-01

    Rhenium and osmium concentrations and the osmium isotopic compositions of iron meteorites were determined by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Data for the IIA iron meteorites define an isochron with an uncertainty of approximately ??31 million years for meteorites ???4500 million years old. Although an absolute rhenium-osmium closure age for this iron group cannot be as precisely constrained because of uncertainty in the decay constant of 187Re, an age of 4460 million years ago is the minimum permitted by combined uncertainties. These age constraints imply that the parent body of the IIAB magmatic irons melted and subsequently cooled within 100 million years after the formation of the oldest portions of chondrites. Other iron meteorites plot above the IIA isochron, indicating that the planetary bodies represented by these iron groups may have cooled significantly later than the parent body of the IIA irons.

  8. Rhenium-osmium-isotope constraints on the age of iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, M. F.; Morgan, J. W.; Walker, R. J.; Grossman, J. N.

    1992-01-01

    Rhenium and osmium concentrations and the osmium isotopic compositions of iron meteorites were determined by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Data for the IIA iron meteorites define an isochron with an uncertainty of approximately +/-31 million years for meteorites about 4500 million years old. Although an absolute rhenium-osmium closure age for this iron group cannot be as precisely constrained because of uncertainty in the decay constant of Re-187, an age of 4460 million years ago is the minimum permitted by combined uncertainties. These age constraints imply that the parent body of the IIAB magmatic irons melted and subsequently cooled within 100 million years after the formation of the oldest portions of chondrites. Other iron meteorites plot above the IIA isochron, indicating that the planetary bodies represented by these iron groups may have cooled significantly later than the parent body of the IIA irons.

  9. Bmp6 Regulates Retinal Iron Homeostasis and Has Altered Expression in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hadziahmetovic, Majda; Song, Ying; Wolkow, Natalie; Iacovelli, Jared; Kautz, Leon; Roth, Marie-Paule; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2011-01-01

    Iron-induced oxidative stress causes hereditary macular degeneration in patients with aceruloplasminemia. Similarly, retinal iron accumulation in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) may exacerbate the disease. The cause of retinal iron accumulation in AMD is poorly understood. Given that bone morphogenetic protein 6 (Bmp6) is a major regulator of systemic iron, we examined the role of Bmp6 in retinal iron regulation and in AMD pathogenesis. Bmp6 was detected in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a major site of pathology in AMD. In cultured RPE cells, Bmp6 was down-regulated by oxidative stress and up-regulated by iron. Intraocular Bmp6 protein injection in mice up-regulated retinal hepcidin, an iron regulatory hormone, and altered retinal labile iron levels. Bmp6−/− mice had age-dependent retinal iron accumulation and degeneration. Postmortem RPE from patients with early AMD exhibited decreased Bmp6 levels. Because oxidative stress is associated with AMD pathogenesis and down-regulates Bmp6 in cultured RPE cells, the diminished Bmp6 levels observed in RPE cells in early AMD may contribute to iron build-up in AMD. This may in turn propagate a vicious cycle of oxidative stress and iron accumulation, exacerbating AMD and other diseases with hereditary or acquired iron excess. PMID:21703414

  10. EFFECT OF PRESTRAIN TEMPERATURE ON THE STRAIN AGING OF ALPHA-IRON

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Yield point measurements were made on polycrystalline specimens of alpha - iron deformed various amounts at 77, 195 and 273 K; aged; and redeformed at...formation of dislocation barriers during the initial low temperature deformation. The aging kinetics of polycrystalline alpha - iron wires deformed at

  11. Low prevalence of iron deficiency anemia between 1981 and 2010 in Chilean women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Castillo, Israel; Brito, Alex; Olivares, Manuel; López-de Romaña, Daniel; Pizarro, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of anemia and iron status among Chilean women of childbearing age between 1981 and 2010. Calculation of the prevalence of anemia and iron status was based on multiple cross-sectional iron absorption studies performed in 888 women during this period of time. All studies included measurements of hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, zinc protoporphyrin, percentage of transferrin saturation and serum ferritin. Data were grouped by decade (1981-1990, 1991-2000, and 2001-2010). Prevalence of anemia for these decades was 9, 6 and 10%, respectively (p=NS). Iron deficiency anemia was the main cause of anemia in all periods (55, 85 and 75%, respectively; p=NS). A high prevalence of women with normal iron status was observed for all periods (64, 69, and 67, respectively; p=NS). Prevalence of iron deficiency without anemia in 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2010 was 7, 20 and 12%, respectively (p<0.05). Finally, prevalence of iron depleted stores was 20, 6 and 10%, respectively (p<0.05). Prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in Chilean women of childbearing age was mild between 1981 and 2010. More than 60% of childbearing age women presented normal iron status in all periods. However, prevalence of iron depleted stores was moderate during 1981-1990, and was mild during 1991-2000 and 2001-2010.

  12. Re-Os ages for Archean molybdenite and pyrite, Kuittila-Kivisuo, Finland and Proterozoic molybdenite, Kabeliai, Lithuania: Testing the chronometer in a metamorphic and metasomatic setting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stein, H.J.; Sundblad, K.; Markey, R.J.; Morgan, J.W.; Motuza, G.

    1998-01-01

    Seven 187Re-187Os ages were determined for molybdenite and pyrite samples from two well-dated Precambrian intrusions in Fennoscandia to examine the sustainability of the Re-Os chronometer in a metamorphic and metasomatic setting. Using a new 187Re decay constant (1.666 x 10-11y-1) with a much improved uncertainty (±0.31%), we determined replicate Re-Os ages for molybdenite and pyrite from the Kuittila and Kivisuo prospects in easternmost Finland and for molybdenite from the Kabeliai prospect in southernmost Lithuania. These two localities contain some of the oldest and youngest plutonic activity in Fennoscandia and are associated with newly discovered economic Au mineralization (Ilomantsi, Finland) and a Cu-Mo prospect (Kabeliai, Lithuania). Two Re-Os ages for veinhosted Kabeliai molybdenite average 1486 ± 5 Ma, in excellent agreement with a 1505 ± 11 Ma U-Pb zircon age for the hosting Kabeliai granite pluton. The slightly younger age suggests the introduction of Cu-Mo mineralization by a later phase of the Kabeliai magmatic system. Mean Re-Os ages of 2778 ± 8 Ma and 2781 ± 8 Ma for Kuittila and Kivisuo molybdenites, respectively, are in reasonable agreement with a 2753 ± 5 Ma weighted mean U-Pb zircon age for hosting Kuittila tonalite. These Re-Os ages agree well with less precise ages of 2789 ± 290 Ma for a Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron and 2771 ± 75 Ma for the average of six Sm-Nd T(DM) model ages for Kuittila tonalite. Three Re-Os analyses of a single pyrite mineral separate, from the same sample of Kuittila pluton that yielded a molybdenite separate, provide individual model ages of 2710 ± 27, 2777 ± 28, and 2830 ± 28 Ma (Re = 17.4, 12.1, and 8.4 ppb, respectively), with a mean value of 2770 ± 120 Ma in agreement with the Kuittila molybdenite age. The Re and 187Os abundances in these three pyrite splits are highly correlated (r = 0.9994), and provide a 187Re-187Os isochron age of 2607 ± 47 Ma with an intercept of 21 ppt 187Os (MSWD = 1.1). It appears

  13. Metabolic syndrome defined by modified International Diabetes Federation criteria and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk: a 9-year follow-up among the aged in Finland.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Marika; Kuoppamäki, Marikka; Vahlberg, Tero; Räihä, Ismo; Irjala, Kerttu; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to analyse the relationship between metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk among the aged. This was a prospective population-based study, with a 9-year follow-up. All subjects of the municipality of Lieto in Finland aged ≥64 in 1998-1999 with no type 2 diabetes mellitus at baseline (n=1117) were included. Hazard ratios for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus predicted by metabolic syndrome (defined by modified International Diabetes Federation criteria) were estimated. During the 9-year follow-up, a total of 69 participants (6.2%) developed type 2 diabetes mellitus. After multivariable adjustment (age, gender, smoking, frequency of exercise, cardiovascular disease and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol), type 2 diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval) (3.15, 1.89-5.25, p < 0.001) was more common in subjects with metabolic syndrome compared to subjects without it. Evaluating metabolic syndrome components individually, impaired fasting glucose (5.09, 2.64-9.82, p < 0.001) and obesity (1.71, 1.05-2.97, p = 0.034) predicted a higher incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our findings suggest that metabolic syndrome predicts onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus even in late life. Impaired fasting glucose and obesity should be targets for primary prevention of diabetes among the aged with metabolic syndrome.

  14. Evaluation of dental and bone age in iron-deficient anemic children of South India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinod; Haridas, Harish; Hunsigi, Prahlad; Farooq, Umar; Erugula, Sridhar R.; Ealla, Kranti K. R.

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Dental and bone age is very essential for the dental practitioner in planning treatments and is an extra source of information for the pediatrician, orthopedician, and endocrinologist. There are few published data regarding collation between dental age, bone age, and chronological age in iron-deficiency anemic children. This study has been undertaken to evaluate and compare dental age, bone age, and chronological age in children with iron-deficiency anemia. Materials and Methods: One hundred iron-deficiency anemic children were selected in the age group of 8–14 years. Chronological age of the child was recorded by asking birth date from parents or checking school records. Dental age was calculated by Demirjians method and bone age was evaluated using Bjork, Grave, and Brown's method. Unpaired student's t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient were the two statistical tests applied to compare dental, bone, and chronological age. Results: Dental and bone age was significantly lower (P < 0.001) compared to chronological age. The correlation between the three ages was positive in both sexes. Conclusion: Dental and bone age retardation was a significant feature in our sample of 100 iron-deficient anemic children. Bone age and dental age are valuable parameters in assessing the overall growth of the child. Further studies are required to corroborate our findings. PMID:27891309

  15. Age-Dependent Retinal Iron Accumulation and Degeneration in Hepcidin Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hadziahmetovic, Majda; Song, Ying; Ponnuru, Padmavathi; Iacovelli, Jared; Hunter, Allan; Haddad, Nadine; Beard, John; Connor, James R.; Vaulont, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Iron dysregulation can cause retinal disease, yet retinal iron regulatory mechanisms are incompletely understood. The peptide hormone hepcidin (Hepc) limits iron uptake from the intestine by triggering degradation of the iron transporter ferroportin (Fpn). Given that Hepc is expressed in the retina and Fpn is expressed in cells constituting the blood-retinal barrier, the authors tested whether the retina may produce Hepc to limit retinal iron import. Methods. Retinas of Hepc−/− mice were analyzed by histology, autofluorescence spectral analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, Perls' iron stain, and immunofluorescence to assess iron-handling proteins. Retinal Hepc mRNA was evaluated through qPCR after intravitreal iron injection. Mechanisms of retinal Hepc upregulation were tested by Western blot analysis. A retinal capillary endothelial cell culture system was used to assess the effect of exogenous Hepc on Fpn. Results. Hepc−/− mice experienced age-dependent increases in retinal iron followed by retinal degeneration with autofluorescent RPE, photoreceptor death, and subretinal neovascularization. Hepc−/− mice had increased Fpn immunoreactivity in vascular endothelial cells. Conversely, in cultured retinal capillary endothelial cells, exogenous Hepc decreased both Fpn levels and iron transport. The retina can sense increased iron levels, upregulating Hepc after phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinases. Conclusions. These findings indicate that Hepc is essential for retinal iron regulation. In the absence of Hepc, retinal degeneration occurs. Increases in Hepc mRNA levels after intravitreal iron injection combined with Hepc-mediated decreases in iron export from cultured retinal capillary endothelial cells suggest that the retina may use Hepc for its tissue-specific iron regulation. PMID:20811044

  16. Iron Biology, Immunology, Aging, and Obesity: Four Fields Connected by the Small Peptide Hormone Hepcidin12

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Maria Carlota; Meydani, Simin Nikbin

    2013-01-01

    Iron status and immune response become impaired in situations that involve chronic inflammation, such as obesity or aging. Little is known, however, about the additional burden that obesity may place on the iron status and immune response in the elderly. This question is relevant given the rising numbers of elderly obese (BMI >30 kg/m2) individuals and the high prevalence of iron deficiency worldwide. Iron is necessary for proper function of both the innate and adaptive immune system. Hepcidin, a peptide hormone that regulates cellular iron export, is essential for the maintenance of iron homeostasis. Therefore, since immune cells require iron for proper function hepcidin may also play an important role in immune response. In this review, we summarize the evidence for hepcidin as a link between the fields of gerontology, obesity, iron biology, and immunology. We also identify several gaps in knowledge and unanswered questions pertaining to iron homeostasis and immunity in obese populations. Finally, we review studies that have shown the impact of weight loss, focusing on calorie restriction, iron homeostasis, and immunity. These studies are important both in elucidating mechanistic links between obesity and health impairments and identifying possible approaches to target immune impairment and iron deficiency as comorbidities of obesity. PMID:24228190

  17. Impact of Fetal-Neonatal Iron Deficiency on Recognition Memory at 2 Months of Age.

    PubMed

    Geng, Fengji; Mai, Xiaoqin; Zhan, Jianying; Xu, Lin; Zhao, Zhengyan; Georgieff, Michael; Shao, Jie; Lozoff, Betsy

    2015-12-01

    To assess the effects of fetal-neonatal iron deficiency on recognition memory in early infancy. Perinatal iron deficiency delays or disrupts hippocampal development in animal models and thus may impair related neural functions in human infants, such as recognition memory. Event-related potentials were used in an auditory recognition memory task to compare 2-month-old Chinese infants with iron sufficiency or deficiency at birth. Fetal-neonatal iron deficiency was defined 2 ways: high zinc protoporphyrin/heme ratio (ZPP/H > 118 μmol/mol) or low serum ferritin (<75 μg/L) in cord blood. Late slow wave was used to measure infant recognition of mother's voice. Event related potentials patterns differed significantly for fetal-neonatal iron deficiency as defined by high cord ZPP/H but not low ferritin. Comparing 35 infants with iron deficiency (ZPP/H > 118 μmol/mol) to 92 with lower ZPP/H (iron-sufficient), only infants with iron sufficiency showed larger late slow wave amplitude for stranger's voice than mother's voice in frontal-central and parietal-occipital locations, indicating the recognition of mother's voice. Infants with iron sufficiency showed electrophysiological evidence of recognizing their mother's voice, whereas infants with fetal-neonatal iron deficiency did not. Their poorer auditory recognition memory at 2 months of age is consistent with effects of fetal-neonatal iron deficiency on the developing hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of fetal-neonatal iron deficiency on recognition memory at two months of age

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Fengji; Mai, Xiaoqin; Zhan, Jianying; Xu, Lin; Zhao, Zhengyan; Georgieff, Michael; Shao, Jie; Lozoff, Betsy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of fetal-neonatal iron deficiency on recognition memory in early infancy. Perinatal iron deficiency delays or disrupts hippocampal development in animal models and thus may impair related neural functions in human infants, such as recognition memory. Study design Event-related potentials were used in an auditory recognition memory task to compare 2-month-old Chinese infants with iron sufficiency or deficiency at birth. Fetal- neonatal iron deficiency was defined two ways: high zinc protoporphyrin/heme ratio (ZPP/H > 118 μmol/mol) or low serum ferritin (< 75 μg/l) in cord blood. Late slow wave (LSW) was used to measure infant recognition of mother’s voice. Results ERP patterns differed significantly for fetal-neonatal iron deficiency as defined by high cord ZPP/H but not low ferritin. Comparing 35 infants with iron deficiency (ZPP/H > 118 μmol/mol) to 92 with lower ZPP/H (iron-sufficient), only infants with iron sufficiency showed larger LSW amplitude for stranger’s voice than mother’s voice in frontal-central and parietal-occipital locations, indicating the recognition of mother’s voice. Conclusions Infants with iron sufficiency showed electrophysiological evidence of recognizing their mother’s voice, whereas infants with fetal-neonatal iron deficiency did not. Their poorer auditory recognition memory at two months of age is consistent with effects of fetal-neonatal iron deficiency on the developing hippocampus. PMID:26382625

  19. An Investigation of Age-Related Iron Deposition Using Susceptibility Weighted Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Li, Wen-Bin; Wei, Xiao-Er; Li, Yue-Hua; Dai, Yong-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Aim To quantify age-dependent iron deposition changes in healthy subjects using Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Materials and Methods In total, 143 healthy volunteers were enrolled. All underwent conventional MR and SWI sequences. Subjects were divided into eight groups according to age. Using phase images to quantify iron deposition in the head of the caudate nucleus and the lenticular nucleus, the angle radian value was calculated and compared between groups. ANOVA/Pearson correlation coefficient linear regression analysis and polynomial fitting were performed to analyze the relationship between iron deposition in the head of the caudate nucleus and lenticular nucleus with age. Results Iron deposition in the lenticular nucleus increased in individuals aged up to 40 years, but did not change in those aged over 40 years once a peak had been reached. In the head of the caudate nucleus, iron deposition peaked at 60 years (p<0.05). The correlation coefficients for iron deposition in the L-head of the caudate nucleus, R-head of the caudate nucleus, L-lenticular nucleus and R-lenticular nucleus with age were 0.67691, 0.48585, 0.5228 and 0.5228 (p<0.001, respectively). Linear regression analyses showed a significant correlation between iron deposition levels in with age groups. Conclusions Iron deposition in the lenticular nucleus was found to increase with age, reaching a plateau at 40 years. Iron deposition in the head of the caudate nucleus also increased with age, reaching a plateau at 60 years. PMID:23226360

  20. Relationship between blood donors' iron status and their age, body mass index and donation frequency.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Ali Malekshahi; Natanzi, Mahboobeh Mehrabani; Djalali, Mahmoud; Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Javanbakht, Mohammad Hassan; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali Akbar; Zareei, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Regular blood donation may decrease body iron storage and lead to anemia. The aim here was to evaluate the iron status of Iranian male blood donors and the impact of age, body mass index (BMI) and donation frequency over one year, on iron status indices. Cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study at Tehran Blood Transfusion Center, Tehran, Iran. Between July and September 2011, 117 male blood donors were selected and divided into four groups according to their frequency of blood donation. Thirty male non-donors were also recruited as controls after adjusting for age, weight, height, smoking habits and monthly income. Iron status indices and some criteria such as general health and dietary measurements were determined among all subjects. The values of the iron-related parameters were significantly lower among donors than among non-donors. Only total iron binding capacity (TIBC) was found to be significantly higher among different donor groups than in the controls. A significant positive correlation was observed between age and serum ferritin (SF) only among the donors who had donated once within the preceding year. The iron status indices did not show any significant relationship with BMI among donors or non-donors. A donation frequency of more than twice a year had a significant influence on iron-related parameters. Therefore, without annual measurement of these parameters, further phlebotomies may lead to iron deficiency and donor rejection in the future.

  1. Primary prevention and risk factor reduction in coronary heart disease mortality among working aged men and women in eastern Finland over 40 years: population based observational study.

    PubMed

    Jousilahti, Pekka; Laatikainen, Tiina; Peltonen, Markku; Borodulin, Katja; Männistö, Satu; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Harald, Kennet; Puska, Pekka; Vartiainen, Erkki

    2016-03-01

    To estimate how much changes in the main risk factors of cardiovascular disease (smoking prevalence, serum cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure) can explain the reduction in coronary heart disease mortality observed among working aged men and women in eastern Finland. Population based observational study. Eastern Finland. 34,525 men and women aged 30-59 years who participated in the national FINRISK studies between 1972 and 2012. Change in main cardiovascular risk factors through population based primary prevention. Predicted and observed age standardised mortality due to coronary heart disease. Predicted change was estimated with a logistic regression model using risk factor data collected in nine consecutive, population based, risk factor surveys conducted every five years since 1972. Data on observed mortality were obtained from the National Causes of Death Register. During the 40 year study period, levels of the three major cardiovascular risk factors decreased except for a small increase in serum cholesterol levels between 2007 and 2012. From years 1969-1972 to 2012, coronary heart disease mortality decreased by 82% (from 643 to 118 deaths per 100,000 people) and 84% (114 to 17) among men and women aged 35-64 years, respectively. During the first 10 years of the study, changes in these three target risk factors contributed to nearly all of the observed mortality reduction. Since the mid-1980s, the observed reduction in mortality has been larger than predicted. In the last 10 years of the study, about two thirds (69% in men and 66% in women) of the reduction could be explained by changes in the three main risk factors, and the remaining third by other factors. Reductions in disease burden and mortality due to coronary heart disease can be achieved through the use of population based primary prevention programmes. Secondary prevention among high risk individuals and treatment of acute events of coronary heart disease could confer additional benefit

  2. Dietary Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Delay Aging and Ameliorate Neurodegeneration in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Zhuyao; Li, Xiaojiao; Wang, Lu; Yin, Min; Wang, Lihua; Chen, Nan; Fan, Chunhai; Song, Haiyun

    2016-02-17

    Dietary iron oxide nanoparticles are shown to ameliorate neurodegeneration in a Drosophelia Alzheimer's disease model. Iron oxide nanoparticles can mimic catalase and can decompose reactive oxygen species (ROS). This has potential therapeutic uses for aging, metabolic disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases, in which increased production of ROS is closely implicated. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Iron biology, immunology, aging and obesity: four fields connected by the small peptide hormone, hepcidin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is well-known that obesity and aging have a negative impact on iron status and immune response, but little is known about the additional impact that obesity may have on iron homeostasis and immunity in the elderly. This question is relevant given the rising numbers of elderly obese individuals a...

  4. R2* mapping for brain iron: associations with cognition in normal aging.

    PubMed

    Ghadery, Christine; Pirpamer, Lukas; Hofer, Edith; Langkammer, Christian; Petrovic, Katja; Loitfelder, Marisa; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Seiler, Stephan; Duering, Marco; Jouvent, Eric; Schmidt, Helena; Fazekas, Franz; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Chabriat, Hugues; Dichgans, Martin; Ropele, Stefan; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2015-02-01

    Brain iron accumulates during aging and has been associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Magnetic resonance (MR)-based R2* mapping enables the in vivo detection of iron content in brain tissue. We investigated if during normal brain aging iron load relates to cognitive impairment in region-specific patterns in a community-dwelling cohort of 336 healthy, middle aged, and older adults from the Austrian Stroke Prevention Family Study. MR imaging and R2* mapping in the basal ganglia and neocortex were done at 3T. Comprehensive neuropsychological testing assessed memory, executive function, and psychomotor speed. We found the highest iron concentration in the globus pallidus, and pallidal and putaminal iron was significantly and inversely associated with cognitive performance in all cognitive domains, except memory. These associations were iron load dependent. Vascular brain lesions and brain volume did not mediate the relationship between iron and cognitive performance. We conclude that higher R2*-determined iron in the basal ganglia correlates with cognitive impairment during brain aging independent of concomitant brain abnormalities. The prognostic significance of this finding needs to be determined.

  5. Iron

    MedlinePlus

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  6. Iron deficiency among apparently healthy children aged 6 to 24 months in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Owa, Olufunke Tolulope; Brown, Biobele J; Adeodu, Oluwagbemiga O

    2016-08-01

    Iron deficiency remains a global public health challenge, with a higher burden in children in the tropics. When it occurs early in life, it may have long-term effects on neurodevelopment. The aims of this study were to assess the iron status of children aged 6-24 months, to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and its associated factors in Ibadan, Nigeria. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study between March and June 2014. A total of 202 apparently healthy children aged between 6 and 24 months attending 2 major immunization clinics in Ibadan were included. A questionnaire was used to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy and birth history, and nutritional history. Physical examination was carried out on all the subjects, and serum ferritin level was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Iron deficiency was defined using a cutoff value of <30 µg/L. Fifty-nine children (29.2%) had iron deficiency. No clinical features were found to be significantly associated with iron deficiency. Iron deficiency was associated with breastfeeding (P = .020) and younger age (P = .015) in the study population. One hundred and forty-three (70.8%) of the study participants had anemia, and 39 (19.3%) had iron deficiency anemia. The prevalence of iron deficiency among apparently healthy children aged 6-24 months in Ibadan, Nigeria, is high. There is the need for a national policy on routine screening for iron deficiency and iron supplementation for infants and young children as recommended by the World Health Organization.

  7. Iron Supplementation in Infancy Contributes to More Adaptive Behavior at 10 Years of Age1234

    PubMed Central

    Lozoff, Betsy; Castillo, Marcela; Clark, Katy M.; Smith, Julia B.; Sturza, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of behavioral/developmental effects of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) or iron supplementation in infancy have found social-emotional differences. Differences could relate to behavioral inhibition or lack of positive affect and altered response to reward. To determine long-term behavioral effects, the study was a follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of behavioral/developmental effects of preventing IDA in infancy. Healthy Chilean infants free of IDA at age 6 mo were randomly assigned to iron supplementation or no added iron (formula with iron/powdered cow milk, vitamins with/without iron) from ages 6 to 12 mo. At age 10 y, 59% (666 of 1123) and 68% (366 of 534) of iron-supplemented and no-added-iron groups were assessed. Social-emotional outcomes included maternal-reported behavior problems, self-reported behavior, examiner ratings, and video coding of a social stress task and gamelike paradigms. Examiners rated the iron-supplemented group as more cooperative, confident, persistent after failure, coordinated, and direct and reality-oriented in speech and working harder after praise compared with the no-added-iron group. In a task designed to elicit positive affect, supplemented children spent more time laughing and smiling together with their mothers and started smiling more quickly. In the social stress task they smiled and laughed more and needed less prompting to complete the task. All P values were <0.05; effect sizes were 0.14–0.36. There were no differences in behaviors related to behavioral inhibition, such as anxiety/depression or social problems. In sum, iron supplementation in infancy was associated with more adaptive behavior at age 10 y, especially in affect and response to reward, which may improve performance at school and work, mental health, and personal relationships. PMID:24717366

  8. Age-related accumulation of non-heme ferric and ferrous iron in mouse ovarian stroma visualized by sensitive non-heme iron histochemistry.

    PubMed

    Asano, Yoshiya

    2012-03-01

    Sensitive non-heme iron histochemistry--namely, the perfusion-Perls method and perfusion-Turnbull method--was applied to study the distribution and age-related accumulation of non-heme ferric iron and ferrous iron in mouse ovary. Light and electron microscopic studies revealed that non-heme ferric iron is distributed predominantly in stromal tissue, especially in macrophages. By contrast, the distribution of non-heme ferrous iron was restricted to a few ovoid macrophages. Aged ovaries exhibited remarkable non-heme iron accumulation in all stromal cells. In particular, non-heme ferrous iron level was increased in stromal tissue, suggestive of increased levels of redox-active iron, which can promote oxidative stress. Moreover, intense localization of both non-heme ferric and ferrous iron was observed in aggregated large stromal cells that were then characterized as ceroid-laden enlarged macrophages with frothy cytoplasm. Intraperitoneal iron overload in adult mice resulted in non-heme iron deposition in the entire stroma and generation of enlarged macrophages, suggesting that excessive iron accumulation induced macrophage morphological changes. The data indicated that non-heme iron accumulation in ovarian stromal tissue may be related to aging of the ovary due to increasing oxidative stress.

  9. Association between periodontal condition and hypertension in a non-smoking population aged 30-49 years: results of the Health 2000 Survey in Finland.

    PubMed

    Ollikainen, Emilia; Saxlin, Tuomas; Tervonen, Tellervo; Suominen, Anna Liisa; Knuuttila, Matti; Jula, Antti; Ylöstalo, Pekka

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether periodontal condition is associated with hypertension and systolic blood pressure. The study population consisted of dentate, non-diabetic, non-smoking individuals aged 30-49 years (n = 1296) in the national Health 2000 Survey in Finland. The number of teeth with deepened (≥4 mm) and deep (≥6 mm) periodontal pockets and the number of sextants with gingival bleeding were used as explanatory variables. Hypertension and systolic blood pressure were used as outcome variables. There was no consistent association between the number of teeth with deepened (≥4 mm) (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.95-1.01) or deep (≥6 mm) (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.90-1.12) periodontal pockets and hypertension after adjusting for confounding factors. Nor was there any essential association between the number of bleeding sextants and hypertension. Periodontal pocketing and gingival bleeding did not appear to be related to hypertension in non-diabetic, non-smoking individuals aged 30-49 years. Further studies using experimental study designs would be required to determine the role of infectious periodontal diseases in the development or progression of hypertension. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The role of hippocampal iron concentration and hippocampal volume in age-related differences in memory.

    PubMed

    Rodrigue, Karen M; Daugherty, Ana M; Haacke, E Mark; Raz, Naftali

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationships between 2 age-sensitive indices of brain integrity--volume and iron concentration--and the associated age differences in memory performance. In 113 healthy adults (age 19-83 years), we measured the volume and estimated iron concentration in the hippocampus (HC), caudate nucleus (Cd), and primary visual cortex (VC) in vivo with T2* relaxation times, and assessed memory performance with multiple tests. We applied structural equation modeling to evaluate the contribution of individual differences in 2 indices of integrity, volume and T2*, to age-related memory variance. The results show that in healthy adults, age differences in memory can be explained in part by individual differences in HC volume that in turn are associated with differences in HC iron concentration. Lower memory scores were linked to smaller HC and higher HC iron concentration. No such associations were noted for Cd and VC. We conclude that the association between age-related declines in memory and reduced hippocampal volume may reflect the impact of oxidative stress related to increase in free iron concentration. Longitudinal follow-up is needed to test whether altered iron homeostasis in the HC is an early marker for age-related cognitive decline.

  11. Age-related changes in laboratory values used in the diagnosis of anemia and iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yip, R; Johnson, C; Dallman, P R

    1984-03-01

    Laboratory results from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II) were used to define age-related changes in laboratory values that are related to the diagnosis of anemia and iron deficiency. Analyses included Hb, hematocrit, red blood cell count, red cell indices, iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, and erythrocyte protoporphyrin. Computation of median values and 95% ranges by age and sex for each laboratory test were performed on 15,093 subjects between 1 and 74 yr of age who had complete laboratory data on venous blood, after excluding those subjects with an abnormality in one or more of three other laboratory tests. Age-related changes in laboratory measurements, such as those described herein, must be taken into consideration in order to optimize the identification of individuals with anemia and iron deficiency.

  12. Appraising the Role of Iron in Brain Aging and Cognition: Promises and Limitations of MRI Methods

    PubMed Central

    Daugherty, Ana M; Raz, Naftali

    2015-01-01

    Age-related increase in frailty is accompanied by a fundamental shift in cellular iron homeostasis. By promoting oxidative stress, the intracellular accumulation of non-heme iron outside of binding complexes contributes to chronic inflammation and interferes with normal brain metabolism. In the absence of direct non-invasive biomarkers of brain oxidative stress, iron accumulation estimated in vivo may serve as its proxy indicator. Hence, developing reliable in vivo measurements of brain iron content via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is of significant interest in human neuroscience. To date, by estimating brain iron content through various MRI methods, significant age differences and age-related increases in iron content of the basal ganglia have been revealed across multiple samples. Less consistent are the findings that pertain to the relationship between elevated brain iron content and systemic indices of vascular and metabolic dysfunction. Only a handful of cross-sectional investigations have linked high iron content in various brain regions and poor performance on assorted cognitive tests. The even fewer longitudinal studies indicate that iron accumulation may precede shrinkage of the basal ganglia and thus predict poor maintenance of cognitive functions. This rapidly developing field will benefit from introduction of higher-field MRI scanners, improvement in iron-sensitive and -specific acquisition sequences and post-processing analytic and computational methods, as well as accumulation of data from long-term longitudinal investigations. This review describes the potential advantages and promises of MRI-based assessment of brain iron, summarizes recent findings and highlights the limitations of the current methodology. PMID:26248580

  13. Effect of gestational age and intrauterine nutrition on plasma transferrin and iron in the newborn.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, P H; Berger, H M; Kenward, C; Scott, P; Wharton, B A

    1975-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of transferrin and iron were measured in the cord blood of babies of varying gestational age and birthweight. Tranferrin and iron concentrations rose with gestational age; values in light-for-dates babies did not differ from those in babies of appropriate weight. In the last trimester of pregnancy plasma transferrin and iron concentrations in the fetus are affected by the maturity of the pregnancy but are independent of the nutritional status of the fetus. The low transferrin levels, particularly in preterm babies, may caution the use of iron especially by the parenteral route in the neonatal period, but we are wary of abandoning on this evidence alone the well tried clinical custom of giving oral iron to preterm babies who are not breast fed. PMID:1236569

  14. Modulation of iron metabolism in aging and in Alzheimer's disease: relevance of the choroid plexus

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Sandro D.; Ferreira, Ana C.; Sousa, João C.; Santos, Nadine C.; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Sousa, Nuno; Palha, Joana A.; Marques, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Iron is essential for mammalian cellular homeostasis. However, in excess, it promotes free radical formation and is associated with aging-related progressive deterioration and with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are no mechanisms to excrete iron, which makes iron homeostasis a very tightly regulated process at the level of the intestinal absorption. Iron is believed to reach the brain through receptor-mediated endocytosis of iron-bound transferrin by the brain barriers, the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier, formed by the choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cells and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) formed by the endothelial cells of the brain capillaries. Importantly, the CP epithelial cells are responsible for producing most of the CSF, the fluid that fills the brain ventricles and the subarachnoid space. Recently, the finding that the CP epithelial cells display all the machinery to locally control iron delivery into the CSF may suggest that the general and progressive senescence of the CP may be at the basis of the impairment of regional iron metabolism, iron-mediated toxicity, and the increase in inflammation and oxidative stress that occurs with aging and, particularly, in AD. PMID:22661928

  15. Low Prevalence of Iron and Vitamin A Deficiency among Cambodian Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Wieringa, Frank T.; Sophonneary, Prak; Whitney, Sophie; Mao, Bunsoth; Berger, Jacques; Conkle, Joel; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A.; Laillou, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Nearly half of women of reproductive age (WRA) in Cambodia are anemic. To guide interventions, national data on nutritional causes of anemia, including iron deficiency and vitamin A deficiency, are needed. In 2012, a national household survey in WRA on antibodies to routine vaccine-preventable disease immunity was performed. We used serum samples from this survey to estimate the prevalence of iron and vitamin A deficiency in 2112 Cambodian WRA, aged 15 to 39 years. Iron deficiency was classified as low or marginal iron stores (ferritin concentrations corrected for inflammation <15 μg/L and <50 μg/L respectively; Fer), iron deficient erythropoiesis (soluble transferrin receptor concentrations >8.3 mg/L; sTfR), or low total body iron (TBI) derived from Fer and sTfR concentrations (<0 mg/kg). Vitamin A status was classified using retinol binding protein (RBP) concentrations corrected for inflammation as deficient (<0.70 μmol/L) or marginal (<1.05 μmol/L. Overall, the prevalence of low iron stores, low TBI and iron deficient erythropoiesis was 8.1%, 5.0% and 9.3% respectively. Almost 40% of the women had marginal iron stores. Iron status was better in women living in urban areas compared to rural areas (p < 0.05 for TBI and sTfR). The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was <1%. These findings suggest that the contribution of iron and vitamin A deficiency to the high prevalence of anemia in Cambodian WRA may be limited. The etiology of anemia in Cambodia needs to be elucidated further to guide current policies on anemia. PMID:27043624

  16. Low Prevalence of Iron and Vitamin A Deficiency among Cambodian Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Wieringa, Frank T; Sophonneary, Prak; Whitney, Sophie; Mao, Bunsoth; Berger, Jacques; Conkle, Joel; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A; Laillou, Arnaud

    2016-04-01

    Nearly half of women of reproductive age (WRA) in Cambodia are anemic. To guide interventions, national data on nutritional causes of anemia, including iron deficiency and vitamin A deficiency, are needed. In 2012, a national household survey in WRA on antibodies to routine vaccine-preventable disease immunity was performed. We used serum samples from this survey to estimate the prevalence of iron and vitamin A deficiency in 2112 Cambodian WRA, aged 15 to 39 years. Iron deficiency was classified as low or marginal iron stores (ferritin concentrations corrected for inflammation <15 μg/L and <50 μg/L respectively; Fer), iron deficient erythropoiesis (soluble transferrin receptor concentrations >8.3 mg/L; sTfR), or low total body iron (TBI) derived from Fer and sTfR concentrations (<0 mg/kg). Vitamin A status was classified using retinol binding protein (RBP) concentrations corrected for inflammation as deficient (<0.70 μmol/L) or marginal (<1.05 μmol/L. Overall, the prevalence of low iron stores, low TBI and iron deficient erythropoiesis was 8.1%, 5.0% and 9.3% respectively. Almost 40% of the women had marginal iron stores. Iron status was better in women living in urban areas compared to rural areas (p < 0.05 for TBI and sTfR). The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was <1%. These findings suggest that the contribution of iron and vitamin A deficiency to the high prevalence of anemia in Cambodian WRA may be limited. The etiology of anemia in Cambodia needs to be elucidated further to guide current policies on anemia.

  17. Iron fertilization of the Subantarctic ocean during the last ice age.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Alfredo; Sigman, Daniel M; Ren, Haojia; Anderson, Robert F; Straub, Marietta; Hodell, David A; Jaccard, Samuel L; Eglinton, Timothy I; Haug, Gerald H

    2014-03-21

    John H. Martin, who discovered widespread iron limitation of ocean productivity, proposed that dust-borne iron fertilization of Southern Ocean phytoplankton caused the ice age reduction in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). In a sediment core from the Subantarctic Atlantic, we measured foraminifera-bound nitrogen isotopes to reconstruct ice age nitrate consumption, burial fluxes of iron, and proxies for productivity. Peak glacial times and millennial cold events are characterized by increases in dust flux, productivity, and the degree of nitrate consumption; this combination is uniquely consistent with Subantarctic iron fertilization. The associated strengthening of the Southern Ocean's biological pump can explain the lowering of CO2 at the transition from mid-climate states to full ice age conditions as well as the millennial-scale CO2 oscillations.

  18. High Prevalence of Skin Diseases and Need for Treatment in a Middle-Aged Population. A Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Study

    PubMed Central

    Sinikumpu, Suvi-Päivikki; Huilaja, Laura; Jokelainen, Jari; Koiranen, Markku; Auvinen, Juha; Hägg, Päivi M.; Wikström, Erika; Timonen, Markku; Tasanen, Kaisa

    2014-01-01

    To determine the overall prevalence of skin diseases a whole-body skin examination was performed for 1,932 members (46-years of age) of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC 1966), which is a comprehensive longitudinal research program (N = 12,058). A high prevalence of all skin diseases needing treatment was found (N = 1,158). Half of the cases of skin findings were evaluated to be serious enough to require diagnostic evaluation, treatment or follow-up either in a general health care, occupational health care or a secondary care setting. The remaining half were thought to be slight and self-treatment was advised. Males (70%) had more skin diseases needing treatment than females (52%) (P<0.001). The most common skin finding was a benign skin tumor, which was found in every cohort member. Skin infections (44%), eczemas (27%) and sebaceous gland diseases (27%) were the most common skin diseases in the cohort. Moreover, skin infections and eczemas were more commonly seen in the group with low education compared to those with high education (P<0.005). The results strengthen the postulate that skin diseases are common in an adult population. PMID:24911008

  19. High prevalence of skin diseases and need for treatment in a middle-aged population. A Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 study.

    PubMed

    Sinikumpu, Suvi-Päivikki; Huilaja, Laura; Jokelainen, Jari; Koiranen, Markku; Auvinen, Juha; Hägg, Päivi M; Wikström, Erika; Timonen, Markku; Tasanen, Kaisa

    2014-01-01

    To determine the overall prevalence of skin diseases a whole-body skin examination was performed for 1,932 members (46-years of age) of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC 1966), which is a comprehensive longitudinal research program (N = 12,058). A high prevalence of all skin diseases needing treatment was found (N = 1,158). Half of the cases of skin findings were evaluated to be serious enough to require diagnostic evaluation, treatment or follow-up either in a general health care, occupational health care or a secondary care setting. The remaining half were thought to be slight and self-treatment was advised. Males (70%) had more skin diseases needing treatment than females (52%) (P<0.001). The most common skin finding was a benign skin tumor, which was found in every cohort member. Skin infections (44%), eczemas (27%) and sebaceous gland diseases (27%) were the most common skin diseases in the cohort. Moreover, skin infections and eczemas were more commonly seen in the group with low education compared to those with high education (P<0.005). The results strengthen the postulate that skin diseases are common in an adult population.

  20. Gender-specific and age-specific differences in unstable angina pectoris admissions: a population-based registry study in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Kytö, Ville; Sipilä, Jussi; Rautava, Päivi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate gender-specific and age-specific differences in the occurrence of unstable angina pectoris (UAP) caused admissions. Design Population-based retrospective registry study in Finland. Participants All consecutive patients aged ≥30 years hospitalised with a primary diagnosis of UAP in 22 hospitals with a coronary catheterisation laboratory during 5/2000–10/2009. Primary outcome measures Gender-specific and age-specific differences and trends in occurrence of UAP admissions. Results The study period included 27 282 admissions caused primarily by UAP. Of these, 61.9% occurred to men and 38.1% to women with age-adjusted relative risk (RR) of 1.85 (CI 1.61 to 2.14) for the male gender (p<0.0001). The standardised incidence rate of UAP during the whole study was 92.8 (CI 91.8 to 93.9)/100 000 person-years. The incidence rate increased gradually from 1.3 in the population aged 30–34 years to 268.0/100 000 in the population aged 75–84 years. Men had a 2.4-fold risk for UAP admission compared with women in the general population (incidence rate ratio 2.39; CI 2.24 to 2.56; p<0.0001). Gender difference was present in all age groups. UAP caused 22.4% of acute coronary syndrome admissions and 4.7% of all cardiovascular admissions. UAP was more likely to be the cause of cardiovascular admission in male patients (RR=1.25; CI 1.21 to 1.30, p<0.0001 compared with female patients), but there was no gender difference in acute coronary syndrome admissions. The incidence rate of UAP hospitalisations in the general population declined by an estimated 8% per study-year (p<0.0001). Declining incidence was evident regardless of gender and age. Conclusions Men have a 2.4-fold overall RR for UAP admission compared to women in the general population. Admissions due to UAP have a declining incidence trend across the adult Finnish population. PMID:26474941

  1. Use of iron supplements in children aged 1-2 years with iron deficiency anemia: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sezik, Handan Atsiz; Can, Huseyin; Kurnaz, Mehmet Ali; Tuna, Mine; Ay, Zeynep

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common nutritional problem in the world and is the most common cause of childhood anemia. In this study, our aim was to find out about the state of usage of iron preparation, which is distributed free of charge by the Ministry of Health, for the infants between 4-12 months in our country, as well as detecting the awareness degree of families those who are informed about iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), prophylaxis of the drug and to determine the drug’s effectiveness. Methods: It was a cross-sectional survey. The laboratory values from the files of the children aged 1-2 those who visited our hospital’s department of pediatrics, between January 2010 to August 2013, were collected. The survey included families who have children diagnosed with IDA. Questions included about families’ sociodemographic characteristics, the state of the usage of the iron drug, how much information received in terms of the side effects- consumption period and dosage. Results: A total of 139 children were enrolled in our study. While 77.7% of the families who participated stated that (n = 108) iron medicine was prescribed other 43.2% of families stated (n = 60) was prescribed and they were informed about iron pills and IDA. 25.9% of families had received information about drug’s side effects, 74.8% of them had information about period of consumption and 77.7% said they were given information about the drug dose. The average duration of use of iron medicine was 6.98±4.52 (min: 1, max: 24) months. It has been noted that; parent’s education level, mother’s occupation, child’s gender, how the child was born and receiving information about how to use the medicine had no effects on usage of the drug in children. Nevertheless, it has been noticed that, when the families were given proper information the drug use increased and the patients compliance with medications also increased. Conclusion: We believe that, due to frequent diagnosis of

  2. Pregnancy outcomes in women aged 35 years or older with gestational diabetes - a registry-based study in Finland.

    PubMed

    Lamminpää, Reeta; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri; Gissler, Mika; Selander, Tuomas; Heinonen, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    To compare pregnancy outcomes of women ≥ 35 years to women <35 years with and without gestational diabetes. The data include 230,003 women <35 years and 53,321 women ≥ 35 years and their newborns from 2004 to 2008. In multivariate modeling, the main outcome measures were preterm delivery (<28, 28-31 and 32-36 weeks' gestation), Apgar scores <7 at 5 min, small for gestational age (SGA), fetal death, asphyxia, preeclampsia, admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), shoulder dystocia and large for gestational age (LGA). In comparison to women <35 with normal glucose tolerance, preeclampsia (OR 1.57, CI 1.30-1.88), admission to the NICU (OR 3.30, CI 2.94-3.69) and shoulder dystocia (OR 2.12, CI 1.05-4.30) were highest in insulin-treated women ≥ 35 years. In women ≥35, diet- and insulin-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increased the rates of preeclampsia, shoulder dystocia and admission to NICU (OR 3.07 CI 2.73-3.45). The effect of advanced maternal age was observed in very preterm delivery (<28 weeks), fetal death, preeclampsia and NICU. The increase in preeclampsia was statistically significant. GDM at advanced age is a high risk state and, more specifically, the risk caused by age and GDM appear to be increasing in preeclampsia.

  3. The interplay between mitochondrial protein and iron homeostasis and its possible role in ageing.

    PubMed

    Mallikarjun, Venkatesh; Sriram, Ashwin; Scialo, Filippo; Sanz, Alberto

    2014-08-01

    Free (labile or chelatable) iron is extremely redox-active and only represents a small fraction of the total mitochondrial iron population. Several studies have shown that the proportion of free iron increases with age, leading to increased Fenton chemistry in later life. It is not clear why free iron accumulates in mitochondria, but it does so in parallel with an inability to degrade and recycle damaged proteins that causes loss of mitochondrial protein homeostasis (proteostasis). The increase in oxidative damage that has been shown to occur with age might be explained by these two processes. While this accumulation of oxidative damage has often been cited as causative to ageing there are examples of model organisms that possess high levels of oxidative damage throughout their lives with no effect on lifespan. Interestingly, these same animals are characterised by an outstanding ability to maintain correct proteostasis during their entire life. ROS can damage critical components of the iron homeostasis machinery, while the efficacy of mitochondrial quality control mechanisms will determine how detrimental that damage is. Here we review the interplay between iron and organellar quality control in mitochondrial dysfunction and we suggest that a decline in mitochondrial proteostasis with age leaves iron homeostasis (where several key stages are thought to be dependent on proteostasis machinery) vulnerable to oxidative damage and other age-related stress factors. This will have severe consequences for the electron transport chain and TCA cycle (among other processes) where several components are acutely dependent on correct assembly, insertion and maintenance of iron-sulphur clusters, leading to energetic crisis and death.

  4. Health as a predictor of early retirement before and after introduction of a flexible statutory pension age in Finland.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, Taina; Laaksonen, Mikko; Chandola, Tarani; Martikainen, Pekka

    2016-06-01

    Little is known of how pension reforms affect the retirement decisions of people with different health statuses, although this is crucial for the understanding of the broader societal impact of pension policies and for future policy development. We assessed how the Finnish statutory pension age reform introduced in 2005 influenced the role of health as a predictor of retirement. We used register-based data and cox regression analysis to examine the association of health (measured by purchases of psychotropic medication, hospitalizations due to circulatory and musculoskeletal diseases, and the number of any prescription medications) with the risk of retirement at age 63-64 among those subject to the old pension system with fixed age limit at 65 (pre-reform group born in 1937-1941) and the new flexible system with 63 as the lower age limit (post-reform group born in 1941-1945) while controlling for socio-demographic factors. Retirement at age 63-64 was more likely among the post- than the pre-reform group (HR = 1.50; 95% CI 1.43-1.57). This reform-related increase in retirement was more pronounced among those without a history of psychotropic medication or hospitalizations due to circulatory and musculoskeletal diseases, as well as among those with below median level medication use. As a result, poor health became a weaker predictor of retirement after the reform. Contrary to the expectations of the Finnish pension reform aimed at extending working lives, offering choice with respect to the timing of retirement may actually encourage healthy workers to choose earlier retirement regardless of the provided economic incentives for continuing in work. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Infant iron status affects iron absorption in Peruvian breastfed infants at 2 and 5 mo of age

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Effects of prenatal iron supplementation on maternal postpartum iron status and early infant iron homeostasis remain largely unknown. We examined iron absorption and growth in exclusively breastfed infants in relation to fetal iron exposure and iron status during early infancy. Longitudinal, paired ...

  6. Helicobacter pylori infection in Finland.

    PubMed

    Rautelin, Hilpi; Kosunen, Timo U

    2004-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes chronic gastritis worldwide and it is the most important single factor in peptic ulcer disease. Up to half of H. pylori infected individuals develop atrophic gastritis over years and decades. H. pylori infection has also been classified as a class I carcinogen in human gastric cancer. Most infections are obtained in childhood, in Finland mainly before the age of 7 years but the exact transmission routes are not known. The infection shows an age-dependent pattern, the infection being rare among children but gradually becoming more prevalent among older age groups. As new infections are few in adults and the infection only rarely disappears without effective anti-microbial therapy, the occurrence of the infection in the old actually reflects the prevalence of the infection in their childhood. In developed countries, such as Finland, a rapid decline of H. pylori prevalence rate has been demonstrated. In order to speed up this natural decline of the infection, a unique population based 'screen and treat' project was started in Vammala, a semiurban south-western community in Finland. In this survey, young inhabitants were offered diagnosis and treatment for H. pylori.

  7. Adult Education in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, Radu

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the first ideas of national independence appeared in Finland, adult education has played an essential role in shaping the destiny of the Finns. With a history of almost 130 years, during which it has continuously increased in quality and quantity, the Finnish adult education system has ensured that Finland stays among the most…

  8. Adult Education in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, Radu

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the first ideas of national independence appeared in Finland, adult education has played an essential role in shaping the destiny of the Finns. With a history of almost 130 years, during which it has continuously increased in quality and quantity, the Finnish adult education system has ensured that Finland stays among the most…

  9. Finland's energy choices

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffs, E.

    1994-01-01

    In Finland, a decision on a fifth nuclear power plant is stalled for at least two years. This leaves the country with a difficult choice for meeting anticipated electricity demand in the years ahead. This article examines the various energy alternatives of Finland and the political aspects of their energy development.

  10. Iron and copper toxicity in diseases of aging, particularly atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Brewer, George J

    2007-02-01

    In this review, we point out that natural selection does not act to lessen human diseases after the reproductive and caregiving period and that normal levels of iron and copper that may be healthy during the reproductive years appear to be contributing to diseases of aging and possibly the aging process itself. It is clear that oxidant damage contributes to many of the diseases of aging, such as atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's diseases, diabetes, diseases of inflammation, diseases of fibrosis, diseases of autoimmunity, and so on. It is equally clear that both iron and copper can contribute to excess production of damaging reactive oxygen species through Fenton chemistry. Here, we examine the evidence that "normal" levels of iron and copper contribute to various diseases of aging.

  11. Maternal Risk of Breeding Failure Remained Low throughout the Demographic Transitions in Fertility and Age at First Reproduction in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghua; Rotkirch, Anna; Lummaa, Virpi

    2012-01-01

    Radical declines in fertility and postponement of first reproduction during the recent human demographic transitions have posed a challenge to interpreting human behaviour in evolutionary terms. This challenge has stemmed from insufficient evolutionary insight into individual reproductive decision-making and the rarity of datasets recording individual long-term reproductive success throughout the transitions. We use such data from about 2,000 Finnish mothers (first births: 1880s to 1970s) to show that changes in the maternal risk of breeding failure (no offspring raised to adulthood) underlay shifts in both fertility and first reproduction. With steady improvements in offspring survival, the expected fertility required to satisfy a low risk of breeding failure became lower and observed maternal fertility subsequently declined through an earlier age at last reproduction. Postponement of the age at first reproduction began when this risk approximated zero–even for mothers starting reproduction late. Interestingly, despite vastly differing fertility rates at different stages of the transitions, the number of offspring successfully raised to breeding per mother remained relatively constant over the period. Our results stress the importance of assessing the long-term success of reproductive strategies by including measures of offspring quality and suggest that avoidance of breeding failure may explain several key features of recent life-history shifts in industrialized societies. PMID:22529952

  12. In Vivo Assessment of Age-related Brain Iron Differences by Magnetic Field Correlation Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Adisetiyo, Vitria; Jensen, Jens H.; Ramani, Anita; Tabesh, Ali; Di Martino, Adriana; Fieremans, Els; Castellanos, Francisco X.; Helpern, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To assess a recently developed Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique called Magnetic Field Correlation (MFC) imaging along with a conventional imaging method, the transverse relaxation rate (R2), for estimating age-related brain iron concentration in adolescents and adults. Brain region measures were compared to non-heme iron concentrations (CPM) based on a prior postmortem study. Materials and Methods Asymmetric spin echo (ASE) images were acquired at 3T from 26 healthy individuals (16 adolescents, 10 adults). Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed in areas in which age-related iron content has been estimated post-mortem: globus pallidus (GP), putamen (PUT), caudate nucleus (CN), thalamus (THL) and frontal white matter (FWM). Regression and group analyses were conducted on ROI means. Results MFC and R2 displayed significant linear relationships to CPM when all regions were combined. Whereas MFC was significantly correlated with CPM for every individual region except FWM and detected significantly lower means in adolescents than adults for each region, R2 detected significant correlation and lower means for only PUT and CN. Conclusion Our results support the hypothesis that MFC is sensitive to brain iron in GM regions and detects age-related iron increases known to occur from adolescence to adulthood. MFC may be more sensitive than R2 to iron-related changes occurring within specific brain regions. PMID:22392846

  13. The end of the iron-core age.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyttleton, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The terrestrial planets aggregated essentially from small particles, to begin as solid cool bodies with the same general compositions, and there is no possibility of an iron-core developing within any of them at any stage. Their differing internal and surface properties receive ready explanation from their different masses which determine whether the pressures within are sufficient to bring about phase-changes. The claim that the terrestrial core can be identified by means of shock-wave data as nickel-iron is based on theoretical misconception, whereas the actual seismic data establish an uncompressed-density value much lower than any such mixture could have. The onset of the Ramsey phase-change in the earth takes the form of a rapid initial collapse to produce a large core in metallic state which thereafter continues to grow secularly as a result of radioactive heating and leads to reduction of surface-area at long last adequate to account for folded and thrusted mountain-building.

  14. [Dose-effect of the administration of ferrous fumarate in aged persons with iron deficiency].

    PubMed

    Lares-Asseff, I; Pérez, M G; López, M C; Romero, L; Camacho, G A; Toledo, A; Guillé, A J; Trujillo, F; Juárez, H; Flores, J

    1999-01-01

    Anemia is the most prevalent hematological problem in elderly persons, affecting 14% of the males and 6% of the females of the population over 60 years of age in Mexico City. To determine the effect produced by the prolonged administration of ferrous fumarate in elderly persons with iron deficiency. In a population of 178 subjects, aged between 65 to 100 years, iron deficiency was diagnosed in 51 (28.6%), who had serum iron concentrations below 80 micrograms/dL for men and 60 micrograms/dL for women, but only 21 patients (11.8%), accepted to participated in the study. The response to a 6 months oral administration of ferrous fumarate were studied with a daily oral dose of 5 mg/kg of elemental iron. The patients were classified in 3 groups according to the abnormal parameters of iron metabolism (group 1 = 10.9% anemia, group 2 = 28.0% and group 3 = 63.0% anemia). The efficacy of treatment was evaluated by quantification of the changes occurred in serum iron concentrations, hemoglobin, ferritin and transferrin saturation index, at 0, 30, 90 and 180 days of treatment. This study showed that the treatment of oral ferrous fumarate in elderly patients with iron deficiency, produces a quantifiable improvement in measures of iron parameters within 6 months. The results of this study suggest the usefulness of prolonged treatment with ferrous fumarate in elderly patients with iron deficiency, to avoid therapeutic failure as a consequence of non-compliance as is common in elderly patients.

  15. Association between smoking intensity and duration and tooth loss among Finnish middle-aged adults: The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Project.

    PubMed

    Similä, Toni; Virtanen, Jorma I

    2015-11-17

    Smoking is a risk factor for oral diseases and tooth loss. Our aim was to analyze the association between smoking intensity and duration and tooth loss among middle-aged Finnish adults who have enjoyed access to subsidized dental care since childhood. This study was based on the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966) Project, a representative sample of Finnish 46-year-olds. Altogether 1946 46-year-olds participated in a survey and comprehensive clinical oral examinations. We measured smoking exposure in pack-years (intensity) and years of smoking (duration) combined with recent smoking status (current, former, occasional or never). We used negative binomial regression models to estimate the unadjusted and adjusted relative risks (RR) with corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for tooth loss as an outcome. Gender, education, tooth brushing frequency, dental plaque, diabetes and alcohol use served as explanatory variables for the adjusted models. Smoking intensity associated with tooth loss in an exposure-dependent manner: those with a high number of pack-years had a significantly greater probability of tooth loss than never smokers: 11-20 pack-years (RR = 1.55, 95 % CI = 1.15-2.08) and 21 or more pack-years (RR = 1.78, 95 % CI = 1.36-2.33). Smoking duration also associated with tooth loss: those who had smoked for several years had a significantly higher probability of tooth loss than never smokers: 21-30 years of smoking (RR = 1.66, 95 % CI = 1.29-2.12) and 31 or more years of smoking (RR = 1.72, 95 % CI = 1.20-2.45). We found a clear intensity- and duration-dependent relation between smoking and tooth loss among adults with access to subsidized dental care and in good oral health.

  16. Age, gender, and hemispheric differences in iron deposition in the human brain: an in vivo MRI study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaojun; Wang, Qidong; Zhang, Minming

    2008-03-01

    It is well known that iron accumulates in the brains of patients with various neurodegenerative diseases. To better understand disease-related iron changes, it is necessary to know the physiological distribution and accumulation of iron in the human brain. Studies have shown that brain iron levels increase with aging. However, the effects of gender and hemispheric laterality on iron accumulation and distribution are not well established. In this study, we estimated the brain iron levels in vivo in 78 healthy adults ranging in age 22 to 78 years using magnetic susceptibility-weighted phase imaging. The effects of age, gender, and hemispheric location on brain iron levels were evaluated within the framework of a general linear model. We found that the left hemisphere had higher iron levels than the right in the putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, thalamus, and frontal white matter. We argue that the hemispheric asymmetry of iron content may underlie that of the dopaminergic system and may be related to motor lateralization in humans. In addition, significant age-related iron accumulation occurred in the putamen, red nucleus, and frontal white matter, but no gender-related differences in iron levels were detected. The results of this study extend our knowledge of the physiological distribution and accumulation of iron in the human brain.

  17. The Iron age of host–microbe interactions

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Miguel P; Weiss, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Microbes exert a major impact on human health and disease by either promoting or disrupting homeostasis, in the latter instance leading to the development of infectious diseases. Such disparate outcomes are driven by the ever-evolving genetic diversity of microbes and the countervailing host responses that minimize their pathogenic impact. Host defense strategies that limit microbial pathogenicity include resistance mechanisms that exert a negative impact on microbes, and disease tolerance mechanisms that sustain host homeostasis without interfering directly with microbes. While genetically distinct, these host defense strategies are functionally integrated, via mechanisms that remain incompletely defined. Here, we explore the general principles via which host adaptive responses regulating iron (Fe) metabolism impact on resistance and disease tolerance to infection. PMID:26474900

  18. Bronze and Iron Age Finds from Romuald's Cave, Istria: 2014 Excavation Season.

    PubMed

    Janković, Ivor; Ahern, James C M; Mihelić, Sanjin; Premuzić, Zrinka

    2015-12-01

    Archaeological excavations in Romuald's Cave (Lim Channel, Istria, Croatia) have yielded evidence of human activity stretching back to the Middle Palaeolithic. This paper reports on recent Bronze Age/Early Iron Age discoveries uncovered during excavations as part of the Croatian National Science Foundation funded project: "Archaeological Investigations into the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene of the Lim Channel, Istria". Fragmentary skeletal remains from at least two individuals were excavated, and a direct radiocarbon date from one of the remains is commensurate with a Bronze Age attribution. The recovered ceramics confirm this age attribution, although they range from the Middle Bronze Age to incipient Iron Age in character. Furthermore, the ceramics indicate that the human activities in Romuald's Cave were associated with the nearby settlements of Gradina and St. Martin.

  19. Micromorphology of past urban soils: method and results (France, Iron Age - Middle Age)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammas, Cécilia

    2014-05-01

    Urban soils in French protohistoric and Roman towns and present-day towns of roman origin are several meters thick accumulations, with great spatial and vertical variability due to long duration of occupation. In order to improve our knowledge of both sedimentary and pedological characteristics as well as formation processes of urban soils, micromorphological analysis was carried out on buried towns. The studied sites include Iron Age towns (floodplain sites: Lattes or Lattara, Le Cailar; oppidum: Pech-Maho in the south of France), a roman buried town (Famars or Fanum Martis, North of France), and various towns occupied from the Roman period until now (urban and periurban sites in Paris, Strasbourg, Mâcon… North and East of France). Original method and sampling strategy were elaborated in order to try to encompass both spatial and vertical variability as well as the "mitage" of the present-day cities. In Lattes, representative elementary urban areas such as streets, courtyard, and houses were sampled for micromorphology during extensive excavation. These analyses revealed specific microscopic features related to complex anthropogenic processes (craft and domestic activities discarding, trampling, backfill, building), moisture and heat, and biological activity, which defined each kind of area. Comparison between well preserved buried town and current cities of roman origin, where the sequence of past urban soils is preserved in few place ("mitage") help to identify past activities, building rhythms as well as specific building materials. For example, in Paris, compacted sandy backfills alternate with watertight hardfloors during the Roman period (soils similar to Technosols). At the opposite, various kinds of loose bioturbated laminated dark earth resulting from activities such as craft refuses, backfills, compost or trampled layers were discriminated for Early Medieval Period (soils similar to Cumulic Anthroposol). Moreover, biological activity is usually

  20. Age and Sex Related Differences in Subcortical Brain Iron Concentrations among Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Ninni; Wu, Jianlin; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Ting; Shen, Jing; Bao, Ruyi; Ni, Mingfei; Liu, Tian; Wang, Yi; Spincemaille, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Age and sex can influence brain iron levels. We studied the influence of these variables on deep gray matter magnetic susceptibilities. In 183 healthy volunteers (44.7 ± 14.2 years, range 20-69, ♀ 49%), in vivo Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) at 1.5T was performed to estimate brain iron accumulation in the following regions of interest (ROIs): caudate nucleus (Cd), putamen (Pt), globus pallidus (Gp), thalamus (Th), pulvinar (Pul), red nucleus (Rn), substantia nigra (Sn) and the cerebellar dentate nuclei (Dn). We gauged the influence of age and sex on magnetic susceptibility by specifying a series of Structural Equation Models. The distributions of susceptibility varied in degree across the structures, conforming to histologic findings (Hallgren & Sourander, 1958), with the highest degree of susceptibility in the Gp and the lowest in the Th. Iron increase correlated across several ROIs, which may reflect an underlying age-related process. Advanced age was associated with a particularly strong linear rise of susceptibility in the striatum. Nonlinear age trends were found in the Rn, where they were the most pronounced, followed by the Pul and Sn, while minimal nonlinear trends were observed for the Pt, Th, and Dn. Moreover, sex related variations were observed, so that women showed lower levels of susceptibility in the Sn after accounting for age. Regional susceptibility of the Pul increased linearly with age in men but exhibited a nonlinear association with age in women with a leveling off starting from midlife. Women expected to be post menopause (+51 years) showed lower total magnetic susceptibility in the subcortical gray matter. The current report is consistent with previous reports of age related variations of brain iron, but also adds to the current knowledge by reporting age-related changes in less studied, smaller subcortical nuclei. This is the first in-vivo report to show lower total subcortical brain iron levels selectively in women from

  1. Risk factors for low iron intake and poor iron status in a national sample of British young people aged 4-18 years.

    PubMed

    Thane, C W; Bates, C J; Prentice, A

    2003-08-01

    To examine the prevalence and dietary, sociodemographic and lifestyle risk factors of low iron intake and poor iron status in British young people. National Diet and Nutrition Survey of young people aged 4-18 years. Great Britain, 1997. In total, 1699 young people provided 7-day weighed dietary records, of which 11% were excluded because the participant reported being unwell with eating habits affected. Blood was obtained from 1193 participants, with iron status indicated by haemoglobin, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation. Iron intakes were generally adequate in most young people aged 4-18 years. However, low iron intakes (below the Lower Reference Nutrient Intake) occurred in 44% of adolescent girls (11-18 years), being less prevalent with high consumption of breakfast cereals. Low haemoglobin concentration (<115 g l-1, 4-12 years; <120 or <130 g l-1, 13+ years for girls and boys, respectively) was observed in 9% of children aged 4-6 years, pubertal boys (11-14 years) and older girls (15-18 years). Adolescent girls who were non-Caucasians or vegetarians had significantly poorer iron status than Caucasians or meat eaters, independent of other risk factors. The three iron status indices were correlated significantly with haem, but not non-haem, iron intake. Adolescent girls showed the highest prevalence of low iron intake and poor iron status, with the latter independently associated with non-Caucasian ethnicity and vegetarianism. Risk of poor iron status may be reduced by consuming (particularly lean red) meat or enhancers of non-haem iron absorption (e.g. fruit or fruit juice) in vegetarians.

  2. The Oral Iron Chelator, Deferasirox, Reverses the Age-Dependent Alterations in Iron and Amyloid-β Homeostasis in Rat Brain: Implications in the Therapy of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Priyanjalee; Sahoo, Arghyadip; Anand, Shruti; Bir, Aritri; Chakrabarti, Sasanka

    2016-01-01

    The altered metabolism of iron impacts the brain function in multiple deleterious ways during normal aging as well as in Alzheimer's disease. We have shown in this study that chelatable iron accumulates in the aged rat brain along with overexpression of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and ferritin, accompanied by significant alterations in amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide homeostasis in the aging brain, such as an increased production of the amyloid-β protein precursor, a decreased level of neprilysin, and increased accumulation of Aβ42. When aged rats are given daily the iron chelator, deferasirox, over a period of more than 4 months starting from the 18th month, the age-related accumulation of iron and overexpression of TfR1 and ferritin in the brain are significantly prevented. More interestingly, the chelator treatment also considerably reverses the altered Aβ peptide metabolism in the aging brain implying a significant role of iron in the latter phenomenon. Further, other results indicate that iron accumulation results in oxidative stress and the activation of NF-κB in the aged rat brain, which are also reversed by the deferasirox treatment. The analysis of the results together suggests that iron accumulation and oxidative stress interact at multiple levels that include transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms to bring about changes in the expression levels of TfR1 and ferritin and also alterations in Aβ peptide metabolism in the aging rat brain. The efficacy of deferasirox in preventing age-related changes in iron and Aβ peptide metabolism in the aging brain, as shown here, has obvious therapeutic implications for Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Iron Level and Myelin Content in the Ventral Striatum Predict Memory Performance in the Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Age-related memory impairments have been associated with structural changes in the dopaminergic system, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent work indicates that iron accumulation might be of particular relevance. As iron accumulates, a degeneration of myelin sheaths has been observed in the elderly, but the relationship between both and their impact on memory performance in healthy elderly humans remain important open questions. To address this issue, we combined an established behavioral paradigm to test memory performance [verbal learning memory test (VLMT)] with state of the art quantitative magnetic resonance imaging techniques allowing us to quantify the degree of myelination and iron accumulation via markers of tissue microstructure in a group of young (18–32 years) and healthy elderly humans (55–79 years). As expected, we observed a decrease in gray matter volume and myelin, and an increase of iron in the elderly relative to the young subjects within widespread brain regions, including the basal ganglia. Furthermore, higher levels of iron within the ventral striatum were accompanied by a negative correlation between myelin and iron specific for the elderly participants. Importantly, both markers of iron and myelin (and their ratio) predicted the performance of the elderly in the VLMT. This suggests that ventral striatum iron accumulation is linked to demyelination and impairments in declarative memory. Together, our data provide novel insights into underlying microstructural mechanisms of memory decline in the elderly. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Memory decline in healthy elderly is a common phenomenon, but the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. We used a novel approach that allowed us to combine behavior and whole-brain measures of iron, myelin, and gray matter in the participant's individual subspace to analyze structure–structure and structure–behavior interactions. We were able to show, that age-related high levels of iron

  4. Iron Level and Myelin Content in the Ventral Striatum Predict Memory Performance in the Aging Brain.

    PubMed

    Steiger, Tineke K; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Bunzeck, Nico

    2016-03-23

    Age-related memory impairments have been associated with structural changes in the dopaminergic system, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent work indicates that iron accumulation might be of particular relevance. As iron accumulates, a degeneration of myelin sheaths has been observed in the elderly, but the relationship between both and their impact on memory performance in healthy elderly humans remain important open questions. To address this issue, we combined an established behavioral paradigm to test memory performance [verbal learning memory test (VLMT)] with state of the art quantitative magnetic resonance imaging techniques allowing us to quantify the degree of myelination and iron accumulation via markers of tissue microstructure in a group of young (18-32 years) and healthy elderly humans (55-79 years). As expected, we observed a decrease in gray matter volume and myelin, and an increase of iron in the elderly relative to the young subjects within widespread brain regions, including the basal ganglia. Furthermore, higher levels of iron within the ventral striatum were accompanied by a negative correlation between myelin and iron specific for the elderly participants. Importantly, both markers of iron and myelin (and their ratio) predicted the performance of the elderly in the VLMT. This suggests that ventral striatum iron accumulation is linked to demyelination and impairments in declarative memory. Together, our data provide novel insights into underlying microstructural mechanisms of memory decline in the elderly. Memory decline in healthy elderly is a common phenomenon, but the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. We used a novel approach that allowed us to combine behavior and whole-brain measures of iron, myelin, and gray matter in the participant's individual subspace to analyze structure-structure and structure-behavior interactions. We were able to show, that age-related high levels of iron are accompanied by a negative

  5. Finland and the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromm, Hans

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the status of the humanities in Finland, beginning with the post World War II era. Comments on state-supported programs and the successes achieved in such areas as linguistics, philology, literature, and historical research. (JDH)

  6. Finland's Cleanup Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Finland has received a $20 million loan from the World Bank to attack its pollution problems, mainly water. Improved quality of life, as well as resource conservation are both motives and goals of that country's environmental programs. (BT)

  7. Aaland Archipelago, Finland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-27

    This image, acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft, is of the Aaland archipelago at the mouth of the Gulf of Bothnia which belongs to Finland, though it enjoys autonomy from Helsinki and locals speak Swedish.

  8. Iron concentrations and distributions in the parkinsonian substantia nigra of aged and young primate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, M. Q.; Xie, J. P.; Wang, X. S.; Ong, W. Y.; Leong, S. K.; Watt, F.

    2001-07-01

    in the SN with age. Since Parkinson's disease mainly occurs in the elderly, this may implicate iron as a factor in dopaminergic cell death through iron-catalysed free radical production.

  9. Finland to Join ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    Finland will become the eleventh member state of the European Southern Observatory. In a ceremony at the ESO Headquarters in Garching on 9 February 2004, an Agreement to this effect was signed by the Finnish Minister of Education and Science, Ms. Tuula Haatainen and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, in the presence of other high officials from Finland and the ESO member states.

  10. Youth Suicide Trends in Finland, 1969-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahti, Anniina; Rasanen, Pirkko; Riala, Kaisa; Keranen, Sirpa; Hakko, Helina

    2011-01-01

    Background: There are only a few recent studies on secular trends in child and adolescent suicides. We examine here trends in rates and methods of suicide among young people in Finland, where suicide rates at these ages are among the highest in the world. Methods: The data, obtained from Statistics Finland, consisted of all suicides (n = 901)…

  11. Youth Suicide Trends in Finland, 1969-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahti, Anniina; Rasanen, Pirkko; Riala, Kaisa; Keranen, Sirpa; Hakko, Helina

    2011-01-01

    Background: There are only a few recent studies on secular trends in child and adolescent suicides. We examine here trends in rates and methods of suicide among young people in Finland, where suicide rates at these ages are among the highest in the world. Methods: The data, obtained from Statistics Finland, consisted of all suicides (n = 901)…

  12. The Quality and Effectiveness of Confirmation Classes in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemela, Kati

    2006-01-01

    Every year some 90% of 15-year-olds in Finland attend confirmation classes in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, which is greater than the percentage of that age group belonging to the Church. What is behind the popularity of Finnish confirmation classes? This article scrutinizes the quality and effectiveness of confirmation classes.…

  13. The Quality and Effectiveness of Confirmation Classes in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemela, Kati

    2006-01-01

    Every year some 90% of 15-year-olds in Finland attend confirmation classes in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, which is greater than the percentage of that age group belonging to the Church. What is behind the popularity of Finnish confirmation classes? This article scrutinizes the quality and effectiveness of confirmation classes.…

  14. Depleted iron stores and iron deficiency anemia associated with reduced ferritin and hepcidin and elevated soluble transferrin receptors in a multiethnic group of preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Hope A; Jean-Philippe, Sonia; Cohen, Tamara R; Vanstone, Catherine A; Agellon, Sherry

    2015-09-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is prevalent in subgroups of the Canadian population. The objective of this study was to examine iron status and anemia in preschool-age children. Healthy children (n = 430, 2-5 years old, Montreal, Quebec, Canada) were sampled from randomly selected daycares. Anthropometry, demographics, and diet were assessed. Biochemistry included hemoglobin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), ferritin index, markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)), and hepcidin. Iron deficiency and anemia cutoffs conformed to the World Health Organization criteria. Differences among categories were tested using mixed-model ANOVA or χ(2) tests. Children were 3.8 ± 1.0 years of age, with a body mass index z score of 0.48 ± 0.97, and 51% were white. Adjusted intakes of iron indicated <1% were at risk for deficiency. Hemoglobin was higher in white children, whereas ferritin was higher with greater age and female sex. Inflammatory markers and hepcidin did not vary with any demographic variable. The prevalence of iron deficiency was 16.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 13.0-20.0). Three percent (95% CI, 1.4-4.6) of children had iron deficiency anemia and 12.8% (95% CI, 9.6-16.0) had unexplained anemia. Children with iron deficiency, with and without anemia, had lower plasma ferritin and hepcidin but higher sTfR, ferritin index, and IL-6, whereas those with unexplained anemia had elevated TNFα. We conclude that iron deficiency anemia is not very common in young children in Montreal. While iron deficiency without anemia is more common than iron deficiency with anemia, the correspondingly reduced circulating hepcidin would have enabled heightened absorption of dietary iron in support of erythropoiesis.

  15. Community mobilization and social marketing to promote weekly iron-folic acid supplementation in women of reproductive age in Vietnam: impact on anemia and iron status.

    PubMed

    Berger, Jacques; Thanh, Hoang Thi Kim; Cavalli-Sforza, Tommaso; Smitasiri, Suttilak; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Milani, Silvano; Hoa, Pham Thuy; Quang, Nguyen Dinh; Viteri, Fernando

    2005-12-01

    The community mobilization and social marketing program promoting a preventive approach of weekly iron-folic acid supplementation in women of reproductive age improved iron status of non-pregnant women in Vietnam. Three to six months of weekly pre-pregnancy supplementation and regular weekly intake of supplements during pregnancy allowed women to achieve good iron and hemoglobin status during the two first trimesters of pregnancy. In the third trimester, iron deficiency and anemia were notably present but low birth weight prevalence was low. This demonstrates the effectiveness and safety of the preventive approach as implemented here to prevent and control iron deficiency and anemia in women of reproductive age before and during pregnancy.

  16. Red iron-ore beds of Silurian age in northeastern Alabama, northwestern Georgia, and eastern Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitlow, Jesse W.

    1962-01-01

    Geological studies have determined the lithology and approximate extent of the red iron ores of Silurian age in the Southeast. Detailed investigations have been made by private companies and government agencies. Most of this work has been in the Birmingham, Ala., district, and the remainder of the region has relatively little study in recent years. 

  17. Cranial trauma in iron age Samnite agriculturists, Alfedena, Italy: implications for biocultural and economic stress.

    PubMed

    Paine, R R; Mancinelli, D; Ruggieri, M; Coppa, A

    2007-01-01

    The Samnites are an Iron Age protohistoric people from the central region of Italy. The skeletal remains are from the Alfedena necropolis, 6th through 5th centuries B.C. Macchiarelli et al. (Antropologia Contemporanea 4 (1981) 239-243) were the first to report on cranial trauma for this population, presenting four cases with extreme injuries. We re-examined this well documented skeletal population for additional examples of trauma. Previously unexamined remains from Alfedena, excavated at the turn of the 20th century, are also included in our analysis (Mariani. 1901. "Aufidena", ricerche archeologiche e storiche del Sannio settentrionale. Roma: Acc Naz Dei Lincei). Of the 209 adult crania examined, 12.9% of them exhibited trauma. Analysis of location and frequency of cranial trauma revealed that cranial injuries to the head appear to originate from all directions. The high rate of cranial trauma underscores the violent circumstances experienced during the Iron Age protohistoric period of central Italy. Males are much more likely to exhibit cranial injury than females (P = 0.009). We conclude that the injuries received by Samnite male farmer-warriors occurred while defending pastoral-agricultural resources. Trauma rates are similar for some Iron Age populations and not for others. Behavior associated with violence during the Iron Age period can not be generalized for all populations found in Italy. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  18. Effectiveness of zinc protoporphyrin/heme ratio for screening iron deficiency in preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kyeong Hee

    2011-02-01

    Hemoglobin and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) tests are commonly used to screen for iron deficiency, but little research has been done to systematically evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of these two tests. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of zinc protoporphyrin/heme (ZPP/H) ratio as a point-of-service screening test for iron deficiency among preschool-aged children by comparing the sensitivity and specificity of hemoglobin, ZPP/H ratio, and serum ferritin (SF). Also completed were assessments for the prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) with indicators of ferritin models. This study was carried out with 95 children ages 3 to 6 y. Anthropometric measurements were assessed, and blood samples were analyzed for hemoglobin, SF, transferrin saturation (TS), and ZPP. Anemia was common and the prevalences of anemia, ID, and IDA were 14.7%, 12.6%, and 5.2%, respectively. The ZPP/H ratio was strongly and significantly correlated with hemoglobin. And ZPP/H ratio was a more sensitive test for ID than hemoglobin or SF measurement, correctly identifying more than twice as many iron-deficient children (sensitivity of 91.7%, compared to 41.7% for hemoglobin and SF). However, ZPP/H ratio had lower specificity (60.2%, compared to 89.1% for hemoglobin or 96.4% for SF) and resulted in the false identification of more subjects who actually were not iron deficient than did hemoglobin or SF. Low hemoglobin concentration is a late-stage indicator of ID, but ZPP/H ratio can detect ID at early stages and can be performed easily at a relatively low cost. Therefore, ZPP/H ratio can serve as a potential screening test for pre-anemic iron deficiency in community pediatric practices.

  19. A prospective study of iron status in exclusively breastfed term infants up to 6 months of age.

    PubMed

    Raj, Shashi; Faridi, Mma; Rusia, Usha; Singh, Om

    2008-03-01

    Can exclusive breastfeeding until six months of age maintain optimum iron status in term babies? We evaluated iron status of exclusively breastfed term infants in relation to breast milk iron and lactoferrin. In this prospective study in Delhi, India, during the period 2003-2004 normally delivered babies of non-anemic [(Hemoglobin (Hb) = 11 g/dl, n = 68] and anemic (Hb 7 - 10.9 g/dl, n = 61) mothers were followed until 6 months of age. Iron parameters were measured in the cord blood at 14 weeks and 6 months. Breast milk iron and lactoferrin were measured at the same intervals. Iron parameters in babies of both groups were within normal limits at birth, 14 weeks and 6 months. Mean breast milk iron and lactoferrin in non-anemic (day 1: 0.89, 6 months: 0.26 mg/l; day 1: 12.02, 6 months: 5.85 mg/ml) and anemic mothers (day 1: 0.86, 6 months: 0.27 mg/l; day 1: 12.91, 6 months: 6.37 mg/ml) were not different on day one or at other times. No relationship was found between breast milk iron, lactoferrin and iron status of the babies. Exclusively breastfed infants of non-anemic and anemic mothers did not develop iron deficiency or iron deficiency anemia by six months of age.

  20. A prospective study of iron status in exclusively breastfed term infants up to 6 months of age

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Shashi; Faridi, MMA; Rusia, Usha; Singh, Om

    2008-01-01

    Background Can exclusive breastfeeding until six months of age maintain optimum iron status in term babies? We evaluated iron status of exclusively breastfed term infants in relation to breast milk iron and lactoferrin. Methods In this prospective study in Delhi, India, during the period 2003–2004 normally delivered babies of non-anemic [(Hemoglobin (Hb) = 11 g/dl, n = 68] and anemic (Hb 7 – 10.9 g/dl, n = 61) mothers were followed until 6 months of age. Iron parameters were measured in the cord blood at 14 weeks and 6 months. Breast milk iron and lactoferrin were measured at the same intervals. Results Iron parameters in babies of both groups were within normal limits at birth, 14 weeks and 6 months. Mean breast milk iron and lactoferrin in non-anemic (day 1: 0.89, 6 months: 0.26 mg/l; day 1: 12.02, 6 months: 5.85 mg/ml) and anemic mothers (day 1: 0.86, 6 months: 0.27 mg/l; day 1: 12.91, 6 months: 6.37 mg/ml) were not different on day one or at other times. No relationship was found between breast milk iron, lactoferrin and iron status of the babies. Conclusion Exclusively breastfed infants of non-anemic and anemic mothers did not develop iron deficiency or iron deficiency anemia by six months of age. PMID:18312681

  1. Eclampsia in Finland; 2006 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Jaatinen, Noora; Ekholm, Eeva

    2016-07-01

    Eclampsia is a rare but serious threat to maternal and fetal well-being. Magnesium sulfate was introduced in Finland as management of eclampsia in the late 1990s. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of eclampsia in Finland after the increased use of magnesium sulfate. Eclampsia diagnoses in Finland during 2006 to 2010 were retrieved from the national Medical Birth Register and the Care Register for Health Care. Medical records were reviewed. In 2006-10, 295 447 deliveries were registered in Finland and 46 women with eclampsia were identified. Hence, the incidence of eclampsia was 1.5 per 10 000 deliveries. The median gestational age at the time of eclampsia was 38 gestational weeks. There were no maternal deaths due to eclampsia, but 46% of the women had severe complications. Eighty-seven per cent received magnesium sulfate for treatment and 7% for prevention of eclampsia. The perinatal mortality rate was 8%. Thirty-four per cent of the newborns were preterm and 15% were small-for-gestational-age. The incidence of eclampsia in Finland was very low. Increased use of magnesium sulfate probably contributed to the low incidence, as well as to the low number of recurrent seizures and prolonged complications. However, some women at risk of eclampsia still remain undetected and untreated. Seven percent had magnesium sulfate for prevention of eclampsia. Increased use of prophylactic magnesium sulfate might further reduce the incidence of eclampsia. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Age-related iron deposition in the basal ganglia of controls and Alzheimer disease patients quantified using susceptibility weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Li, Yan-Ying; Luo, Jian-Hua; Li, Yue-Hua

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate age-related iron deposition changes in healthy subjects and Alzheimer disease patients using susceptibility weighted imaging. The study recruited 182 people, including 143 healthy volunteers and 39 Alzheimer disease patients. All underwent conventional magnetic resonance imaging and susceptibility weighted imaging sequences. The groups were divided according to age. Phase images were used to investigate iron deposition in the bilateral head of the caudate nucleus, globus pallidus and putamen, and the angle radian value was calculated. We hypothesized that age-related iron deposition changes may be different between Alzheimer disease patients and controls of the same age, and that susceptibility weighted imaging would be a more sensitive method of iron deposition quantification. The results revealed that iron deposition in the globus pallidus increased with age, up to 40 years. In the head of the caudate nucleus, iron deposition peaked at 60 years. There was a general increasing trend with age in the putamen, up to 50-70 years old. There was significant difference between the control and Alzheimer disease groups in the bilateral globus pallidus in both the 60-70 and 70-80 year old group comparisons. In conclusion, iron deposition increased with age in the globus pallidus, the head of the caudate nucleus and putamen, reaching a plateau at different ages. Furthermore, comparisons between the control and Alzheimer disease group revealed that iron deposition changes were more easily detected in the globus pallidus.

  3. Iron fertilization of the Subantarctic Ocean during the last ice age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Garcia, A.

    2015-12-01

    Dust has the potential to modify global climate by influencing the radiative balance of the atmosphere and by supplying iron and other essential limiting micronutrients to the ocean. The scarcity of iron limits marine productivity and carbon uptake in one-quarter of the world ocean where the concentration of major nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen) is perennially high. The Southern Ocean is the region where variations in iron availability can have the largest effect on Earth's carbon cycle through its fertilizing effect on marine ecosystems. Paleoceanographic records from the Subantarctic Atlantic have revealed a remarkable correlation between phytoplankton productivity and aeolian iron flux during glacial periods supporting the iron fertilization hypothesis. In addition, a recent study has shown that peak glacial times and millennial cold events were nearly universally associated not only with increases in dust flux and export production, but also with an increase in nutrient consumption (the last indicated by higher foraminifera-bound δ15N) (Martinez-Garcia et al. 2014). This combination of changes is uniquely consistent with ice age iron fertilization of the Subantarctic Atlantic. The strengthening of the biological pump associated with the observed increase in Subantarctic nutrient consumption during the high-dust intervals of the last two ice ages can explain up to ~40 ppm of the CO2 decrease that characterizes the transitions from mid-climate states to full ice age conditions. However, the impact of iron fertilization in other sectors of the Southern Ocean characterized by lower ice age dust fluxes than the Atlantic remains unclear. A series of recently published records from the Subantarctic Pacific indicate that dust deposition and marine export production were three times higher during glacial periods than during interglacials (Lamy et al. 2014). Here we present new measurements of foraminifera-bound nitrogen isotopes in a sediment core located in the

  4. Preschool-Aged Children with Iron Deficiency Anemia Show Altered Affect and Behavior1,2

    PubMed Central

    Lozoff, Betsy; Corapci, Feyza; Burden, Matthew J.; Kaciroti, Niko; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa; Sazawal, Sunil; Black, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This study compared social looking and response to novelty in preschool-aged children (47–68 mo) with or without iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Iron status of the participants from a low-income community in New Delhi, India, was based on venous hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, and red cell distribution width. Children’s social looking toward adults, affect, and wary or hesitant behavior in response to novelty were assessed in a semistructured paradigm during an in-home play observation. Affect and behavior were compared as a function of iron status: IDA (n = 74) vs. nonanemic (n = 164). Compared with nonanemic preschoolers, preschoolers with IDA displayed less social looking toward their mothers, moved close to their mothers more quickly, and were slower to display positive affect and touch novel toys for the first time. These results indicate that IDA in the preschool period has affective and behavioral effects similar to those reported for IDA in infancy. PMID:17311960

  5. Effects of maternal education on diet, anemia, and iron deficiency in Korean school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We investigated the relationship among socioeconomic status factors, the risk of anemia, and iron deficiency among school-aged children in Korea. Methods The sample consisted of fourth-grade students aged 10 y recruited from nine elementary schools in Korean urban areas in 2008 (n = 717). Anthropometric and blood biochemistry data were obtained for this cross-sectional observational study. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels lower than 11.5 g/dl. Iron deficiency was defined as serum iron levels lower than 40 ug/dl. We also obtained data on parental education from questionnaires and on children's diets from 3-day food diaries. Parental education was categorized as low or high, with the latter representing an educational level beyond high school. Results Children with more educated mothers were less likely to develop anemia (P = 0.0324) and iron deficiency (P = 0.0577) than were those with less educated mothers. This group consumed more protein (P = 0.0004) and iron (P = 0.0012) from animal sources than did the children of less educated mothers, as reflected by their greater consumption of meat, poultry, and derivatives (P < 0.0001). Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant inverse relationship between maternal education and the prevalence of anemia (odds ratio: 0.52; 95% confidence interval: 0.32, 0.85). Conclusions As a contributor to socioeconomic status, maternal education is important in reducing the risk of anemia and iron deficiency and in increasing children's consumption of animal food sources. PMID:22087564

  6. Women in physics in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banzuzi, Kukka

    2013-03-01

    The representation of women in physics and related fields of study in Finland, career advancement of female physicists in Finland, and the actions carried out in recent years to improve the situation are summarized.

  7. Children's Early Numeracy in Finland and Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aunio, Pirjo; Korhonen, Johan; Bashash, Laaya; Khoshbakht, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates similarities and differences in young children's early numeracy skills related to age, nationality and gender. The participants were five- to seven-year-old children from Finland and Iran. Early numeracy was investigated by using tasks measuring number-related relational skills (e.g. comparison, one-to-one…

  8. Children's Early Numeracy in Finland and Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aunio, Pirjo; Korhonen, Johan; Bashash, Laaya; Khoshbakht, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates similarities and differences in young children's early numeracy skills related to age, nationality and gender. The participants were five- to seven-year-old children from Finland and Iran. Early numeracy was investigated by using tasks measuring number-related relational skills (e.g. comparison, one-to-one…

  9. Archaeomagnetic Records from Early Bronze to Iron Age Mediterranean Settlements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertepinar, Pinar; Hammond, Megan; Hill, Mimi; Biggin, Andy; Langereis, Cor; Yener, Aslihan; Akar, Murat; Greaves, Alan; Gates, Mary; Harrison, Timothy; Özgen, Ilknur

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies on the geomagnetic field variations over the Middle East have started to take particular attention due to the presence of numerous high intensity periods proposed by various authors. Considering the recent volume of papers focused on archaeomagnetism in this region, the lack of published work centered in Turkey and Cyprus is surprising since both regions have a long cultural heritage and history of trade and immigration from neighboring countries. Here we present a large dataset of directions and intensities from seven archaeological sites in the Mediterranean with 21 subsets of directional and 40 subsets of intensity data covering a long sequence of levels from 3300 to 700 BCE. The sample sets are composed of both ex-situ potsherds and in-situ features such as mud-bricks, basalts and an ash layer. The results from the rock magnetic experiments run on at least three samples from each set indicate that the magnetic mineral assemblage is composed mostly of pseudo-single domain grain magnetite or titano-magnetite with various Ti content. The majority of the demagnetization diagrams are single component and 14 out of 21 sets have a well-defined characteristic remanent magnetization direction. The directional results show a swing of 37.6° in declination and 26.9° in inclination within an age interval of 2000 years. The archaeointensity experiments involved both microwave and thermal methods. To avoid the anisotropy effects, the applied field is either set parallel to the samples NRM or the angle between the pTRM acquired at the last step used for the best-fit segment and the applied field direction, γ, was checked and found to be less than 7.5°. For the samples that are measured in random directions with respect to their NRM, prior to the intensity experiments, the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility was individually measured and the anisotropy degree is found to be less than 2.5%. For all the potsherds, one or two samples from each set are

  10. Sensory integration in Finland.

    PubMed

    Slavik, B A

    1992-01-01

    This article describes the development and organization of a sensory integration training course given in Finland. Facts that impact on the success of international health education are discussed in relation to thc model used for this course. In addition, cultural differences (e.g, language, customs, health care, and education systems) are discussed as they relate to this teaching experlence and to occupational therapy practice in Finland. The summary highlights examples of how teaching and/or working in another culture can impact on professional development.

  11. Breastfeeding, Mixed, or Formula Feeding at 9 Months of Age and the Prevalence of Iron Deficiency and Iron Deficiency Anemia in Two Cohorts of Infants in China.

    PubMed

    Clark, Katy M; Li, Ming; Zhu, Bingquan; Liang, Furong; Shao, Jie; Zhang, Yueyang; Ji, Chai; Zhao, Zhengyan; Kaciroti, Niko; Lozoff, Betsy

    2017-02-01

    To assess associations between breastfeeding and iron status at 9 months of age in 2 samples of Chinese infants. Associations between feeding at 9 months of age (breastfed as sole milk source, mixed fed, or formula fed) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA), iron deficiency, and iron sufficiency were determined in infants from Zhejiang (n = 142) and Hebei (n= 813) provinces. Iron deficiency was defined as body iron < 0 mg/kg, and IDA as iron deficiency + hemoglobin < 110 g/L. Multiple logistic regression assessed associations between feeding pattern and iron status. Breastfeeding was associated with iron status (P < .001). In Zhejiang, 27.5% of breastfed infants had IDA compared with 0% of formula-fed infants. The odds of iron deficiency/IDA were increased in breastfed and mixed-fed infants compared with formula-fed infants: breastfed vs formula-fed OR, 28.8 (95% CI, 3.7-226.4) and mixed-fed vs formula-fed OR, 11.0 (95% CI, 1.2-103.2). In Hebei, 44.0% of breastfed infants had IDA compared with 2.8% of formula-fed infants. With covariable adjustment, odds of IDA were increased in breastfed and mixed-fed groups: breastfed vs formula-fed OR, 78.8 (95% CI, 27.2-228.1) and mixed-fed vs formula-fed OR, 21.0 (95% CI, 7.3-60.9). In both cohorts, the odds of iron deficiency/IDA at 9 months of age were increased in breastfed and mixed-fed infants, and iron deficiency/IDA was common. Although the benefits of breastfeeding are indisputable, these findings add to the evidence that breastfeeding in later infancy identifies infants at risk for iron deficiency/IDA in many settings. Protocols for detecting and preventing iron deficiency/IDA in breastfed infants are needed. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00642863 and NCT00613717. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Iron Age and Anglo-Saxon genomes from East England reveal British migration history.

    PubMed

    Schiffels, Stephan; Haak, Wolfgang; Paajanen, Pirita; Llamas, Bastien; Popescu, Elizabeth; Loe, Louise; Clarke, Rachel; Lyons, Alice; Mortimer, Richard; Sayer, Duncan; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Cooper, Alan; Durbin, Richard

    2016-01-19

    British population history has been shaped by a series of immigrations, including the early Anglo-Saxon migrations after 400 CE. It remains an open question how these events affected the genetic composition of the current British population. Here, we present whole-genome sequences from 10 individuals excavated close to Cambridge in the East of England, ranging from the late Iron Age to the middle Anglo-Saxon period. By analysing shared rare variants with hundreds of modern samples from Britain and Europe, we estimate that on average the contemporary East English population derives 38% of its ancestry from Anglo-Saxon migrations. We gain further insight with a new method, rarecoal, which infers population history and identifies fine-scale genetic ancestry from rare variants. Using rarecoal we find that the Anglo-Saxon samples are closely related to modern Dutch and Danish populations, while the Iron Age samples share ancestors with multiple Northern European populations including Britain.

  13. Iron Age and Anglo-Saxon genomes from East England reveal British migration history

    PubMed Central

    Schiffels, Stephan; Haak, Wolfgang; Paajanen, Pirita; Llamas, Bastien; Popescu, Elizabeth; Loe, Louise; Clarke, Rachel; Lyons, Alice; Mortimer, Richard; Sayer, Duncan; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Cooper, Alan; Durbin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    British population history has been shaped by a series of immigrations, including the early Anglo-Saxon migrations after 400 CE. It remains an open question how these events affected the genetic composition of the current British population. Here, we present whole-genome sequences from 10 individuals excavated close to Cambridge in the East of England, ranging from the late Iron Age to the middle Anglo-Saxon period. By analysing shared rare variants with hundreds of modern samples from Britain and Europe, we estimate that on average the contemporary East English population derives 38% of its ancestry from Anglo-Saxon migrations. We gain further insight with a new method, rarecoal, which infers population history and identifies fine-scale genetic ancestry from rare variants. Using rarecoal we find that the Anglo-Saxon samples are closely related to modern Dutch and Danish populations, while the Iron Age samples share ancestors with multiple Northern European populations including Britain. PMID:26783965

  14. Ancestry and demography and descendants of Iron Age nomads of the Eurasian Steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unterländer, Martina; Palstra, Friso; Lazaridis, Iosif; Pilipenko, Aleksandr; Hofmanová, Zuzana; Groß, Melanie; Sell, Christian; Blöcher, Jens; Kirsanow, Karola; Rohland, Nadin; Rieger, Benjamin; Kaiser, Elke; Schier, Wolfram; Pozdniakov, Dimitri; Khokhlov, Aleksandr; Georges, Myriam; Wilde, Sandra; Powell, Adam; Heyer, Evelyne; Currat, Mathias; Reich, David; Samashev, Zainolla; Parzinger, Hermann; Molodin, Vyacheslav I.; Burger, Joachim

    2017-03-01

    During the 1st millennium before the Common Era (BCE), nomadic tribes associated with the Iron Age Scythian culture spread over the Eurasian Steppe, covering a territory of more than 3,500 km in breadth. To understand the demographic processes behind the spread of the Scythian culture, we analysed genomic data from eight individuals and a mitochondrial dataset of 96 individuals originating in eastern and western parts of the Eurasian Steppe. Genomic inference reveals that Scythians in the east and the west of the steppe zone can best be described as a mixture of Yamnaya-related ancestry and an East Asian component. Demographic modelling suggests independent origins for eastern and western groups with ongoing gene-flow between them, plausibly explaining the striking uniformity of their material culture. We also find evidence that significant gene-flow from east to west Eurasia must have occurred early during the Iron Age.

  15. Ancestry and demography and descendants of Iron Age nomads of the Eurasian Steppe

    PubMed Central

    Unterländer, Martina; Palstra, Friso; Lazaridis, Iosif; Pilipenko, Aleksandr; Hofmanová, Zuzana; Groß, Melanie; Sell, Christian; Blöcher, Jens; Kirsanow, Karola; Rohland, Nadin; Rieger, Benjamin; Kaiser, Elke; Schier, Wolfram; Pozdniakov, Dimitri; Khokhlov, Aleksandr; Georges, Myriam; Wilde, Sandra; Powell, Adam; Heyer, Evelyne; Currat, Mathias; Reich, David; Samashev, Zainolla; Parzinger, Hermann; Molodin, Vyacheslav I.; Burger, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    During the 1st millennium before the Common Era (BCE), nomadic tribes associated with the Iron Age Scythian culture spread over the Eurasian Steppe, covering a territory of more than 3,500 km in breadth. To understand the demographic processes behind the spread of the Scythian culture, we analysed genomic data from eight individuals and a mitochondrial dataset of 96 individuals originating in eastern and western parts of the Eurasian Steppe. Genomic inference reveals that Scythians in the east and the west of the steppe zone can best be described as a mixture of Yamnaya-related ancestry and an East Asian component. Demographic modelling suggests independent origins for eastern and western groups with ongoing gene-flow between them, plausibly explaining the striking uniformity of their material culture. We also find evidence that significant gene-flow from east to west Eurasia must have occurred early during the Iron Age. PMID:28256537

  16. Intermittent iron supplementation for improving nutrition and development in children under 12 years of age

    PubMed Central

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Jefferds, Maria Elena D; Sylvetsky, Allison C; Dowswell, Therese

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 600 million children of preschool and school age are anaemic worldwide. It is estimated that half of the cases are due to iron deficiency. Consequences of iron deficiency anaemia during childhood include growth retardation, reduced school achievement, impaired motor and cognitive development, and increased morbidity and mortality. The provision of daily iron supplements is a widely used strategy for improving iron status in children but its effectiveness has been limited due to its side effects, which can include nausea, constipation or staining of the teeth. As a consequence, intermittent iron supplementation (one, two or three times a week on nonconsecutive days) has been proposed as an effective and safer alternative to daily supplementation. Objectives To assess the effects of intermittent iron supplementation, alone or in combination with other vitamins and minerals, on nutritional and developmental outcomes in children from birth to 12 years of age compared with a placebo, no intervention or daily supplementation. Search methods We searched the following databases on 24 May 2011: CENTRAL (2011, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1948 to May week 2, 2011), EMBASE (1980 to 2011 Week 20), CINAHL (1937 to current), POPLINE (all available years) and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). On 29 June 2011 we searched all available years in the following databases: SCIELO, LILACS, IBECS and IMBIOMED. We also contacted relevant organisations (on 3 July 2011) to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised trials with either individual or cluster randomisation. Participants were children under the age of 12 years at the time of intervention with no specific health problems. The intervention assessed was intermittent iron supplementation compared with a placebo, no intervention or daily supplementation. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies

  17. Intermittent iron supplementation for improving nutrition and development in children under 12 years of age.

    PubMed

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Jefferds, Maria Elena D; Sylvetsky, Allison C; Dowswell, Therese

    2011-12-07

    Approximately 600 million children of preschool and school age are anaemic worldwide. It is estimated that half of the cases are due to iron deficiency. Consequences of iron deficiency anaemia during childhood include growth retardation, reduced school achievement, impaired motor and cognitive development, and increased morbidity and mortality. The provision of daily iron supplements is a widely used strategy for improving iron status in children but its effectiveness has been limited due to its side effects, which can include nausea, constipation or staining of the teeth. As a consequence, intermittent iron supplementation (one, two or three times a week on non-consecutive days) has been proposed as an effective and safer alternative to daily supplementation. To assess the effects of intermittent iron supplementation, alone or in combination with other vitamins and minerals, on nutritional and developmental outcomes in children from birth to 12 years of age compared with a placebo, no intervention or daily supplementation. We searched the following databases on 24 May 2011: CENTRAL (2011, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1948 to May week 2, 2011), EMBASE (1980 to 2011 Week 20), CINAHL (1937 to current), POPLINE (all available years) and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). On 29 June 2011 we searched all available years in the following databases: SCIELO, LILACS, IBECS and IMBIOMED. We also contacted relevant organisations (on 3 July 2011) to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials with either individual or cluster randomisation. Participants were children under the age of 12 years at the time of intervention with no specific health problems. The intervention assessed was intermittent iron supplementation compared with a placebo, no intervention or daily supplementation. Two authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria, extracted data from included studies and assessed

  18. Ca-41 in iron falls, Grant and Estherville - Production rates and related exposure age calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, D.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.; Vogt, S.; Herzog, G. F.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented of the first phase of a Ca-41 cosmogenic studies program aimed at establishing baseline concentrations and trends in selected meteorites and the use of Ca-41 in estimating exposure ages and preatmospheric meteorite radii. The average Ca-41 saturation activity recorded in four small iron falls is 24 +/-1 dpm/kg. This finding, together with measurements at the center and surface of the large iron Grant, indicates that production of Ca-41 from spallation on iron is weakly dependent on shielding to depths as large as 250 g/sq cm. The (K-41)-Ca-41 exposure age of Grant is estimated at 330 +/-50 My, and an upper limit to its terrestrial age of 43 +/-15 ky. A comparison of the Ca-41 contents of stony and metallic material separated from the mesosiderite Estherville identifies low-energy neutron capture on native Ca as a second important channel of production. It is found that the Ca-41 signal in the stone phase from three meteorites correlates with their size, and that the inferred low-energy neutron fluxes vary by a factor of at least 20.

  19. Ca-41 in iron falls, Grant and Estherville - Production rates and related exposure age calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, D.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.; Vogt, S.; Herzog, G. F.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented of the first phase of a Ca-41 cosmogenic studies program aimed at establishing baseline concentrations and trends in selected meteorites and the use of Ca-41 in estimating exposure ages and preatmospheric meteorite radii. The average Ca-41 saturation activity recorded in four small iron falls is 24 +/-1 dpm/kg. This finding, together with measurements at the center and surface of the large iron Grant, indicates that production of Ca-41 from spallation on iron is weakly dependent on shielding to depths as large as 250 g/sq cm. The (K-41)-Ca-41 exposure age of Grant is estimated at 330 +/-50 My, and an upper limit to its terrestrial age of 43 +/-15 ky. A comparison of the Ca-41 contents of stony and metallic material separated from the mesosiderite Estherville identifies low-energy neutron capture on native Ca as a second important channel of production. It is found that the Ca-41 signal in the stone phase from three meteorites correlates with their size, and that the inferred low-energy neutron fluxes vary by a factor of at least 20.

  20. Sami Education in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskitalo, Pigga; Maatta, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is, first, to describe Sami children's education and its status in the Finnish education system and, secondly, to contemplate its development in Finland. The core of the article is intertwined with issues concerning the status, language, and culture of indigenous peoples. According to the article, the western school…

  1. Sami Education in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskitalo, Pigga; Maatta, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is, first, to describe Sami children's education and its status in the Finnish education system and, secondly, to contemplate its development in Finland. The core of the article is intertwined with issues concerning the status, language, and culture of indigenous peoples. According to the article, the western school…

  2. Children's Books in Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuivasmaki, Riitta

    1984-01-01

    Discusses influence of Finnish Institute for Children's Literature (SNI) on writing, illustrating, translating, and marketing of children's books in Finland, and notes efforts of Finnish Section of International Board on Books for Young People to make children's literature and connected research better known to public. Publications of SNI are…

  3. Theatre nursing in Finland.

    PubMed

    Lipp, A

    2000-09-01

    As part of the Socrates exchange system three students from the School of Care Sciences, University of Glamorgan visited Finland for a 15-week placement. They were based in two areas Hameenlinna and Kuopio. As part of the exchange I visited the students, did some teaching and observed some of the clinical areas.

  4. Modelling the long-term performance of zero-valent iron using a spatio-temporal approach for iron aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouznetsova, Irina; Bayer, Peter; Ebert, Markus; Finkel, Michael

    2007-02-01

    Zero-valent iron (ZVI) permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) have become popular for the degradation of chlorinated ethenes (CEs) in groundwater. However, a knowledge gap exists pertaining to the longevity of ZVI. The present investigation addresses this situation by suggesting a numerical simulation model that is intended to be used in conjunction with field or column tests in order to describe long-term ZVI performance at individual sites. As ZVI aging processes are not yet completely understood and are still subject to research, we propose a phenomenological modelling technique instead of a common process-based approach. We describe ZVI aging by parameters that characterise the extent and rate of ZVI reactivity change depending on the propagation of the precipitation front through ZVI. We approximate degradation of CEs by pseudo-first order kinetics accounting for the formation of partially dechlorinated products, and describe ZVI reactivity change by scaling the degradation rate constants. Three independent modelling studies were carried out to test the suitability of the conceptual and numerical model to describe the observations of accelerated column tests. All three tests indicated that ZVI reactivity declined with an increasing number of exchanged pore volumes. Measured and modelled concentrations showed good agreement, thereby proving that resolving spatial as well as temporal changes in ZVI reactivity is reasonable.

  5. Palaeoclimatological and palaeolimnological records from fossil midges and tree-rings: the role of the North Atlantic Oscillation in eastern Finland through the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luoto, Tomi P.; Helama, Samuli

    2010-08-01

    Hydrological changes and air temperature variability are reconstructed from the sediments of Lake Pieni-Kauro, eastern Finland during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA) using transfer functions derived from midge (Insecta: Nematocera)-based calibration models. The reconstructions are compared with a regional tree-ring chronology and sediment physical properties are determined to track depositional changes. An objective of the study is to examine the long-term relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and climate (temperature, precipitation). Our results show that the MCA was characterized by warm and dry summer conditions, which were accompanied by changes in the sediment magnetic susceptibility values most likely representing major forest fires during the tree-ring indicated MCA megadrought. However, the midge-based stream flow reconstruction shows increased values during the MCA, thus implying enhanced spring floods after snowy winters. During the LIA, the tree-ring data indicate that a generally wetter climate prevailed during summers, but the stream flow reconstruction indicates less snowy winters. In the terms of long-term climatology, the present results show support to the concept that the NAO has a positive correlation between winter precipitation and annual temperature and a negative correlation between summer precipitation in eastern Finland. Thus, the results may serve as important background data for global change assessments.

  6. [Characteristics of the wetland soil iron under different ages of reclamation].

    PubMed

    Zou, Yuan-Chun; Lü, Xian-Guo; Jiang, Ming

    2008-03-01

    The temporal-spatial trends of soil total iron concentration (Fet), free degree (Fed/Fet), activation degree (Feo/Fed) and complex degree (Fep/Fed) of soil iron oxides after reclamation were studied in Sanjiang Plain Wetlands. The result suggests that Fet in the upper tillage layers (0 - 20 cm) are influenced by reclamation more significantly than that in the lower ones (20 - 100 cm), and so does the early ages (0 - 1 years) than the late ages (1 - 25 years). Fet is negatively correlated with organic matter extremely significantly (R = - 0.62), while that with total phosphorus and pH are not significant. Fet of soil layer I (0 - 10 cm) increases obviously during the first 7 years after reclamation, and tends to become stable after 13 years, while those ages of soil layer II (10 - 20 cm) are 8 years and 15 years respectively. Soil layer I shows shorter responding time and better regularity than layer II. Fed/Fet increases rapidly after reclamation, decreases later and then increases again. Feo/Fed indicates exponential decrease with the reclamation ages as well as Fep/Fed. Feo/Fed of layer I decreases radically during the first 4 years after reclamation and tends to become stable after 13 years, while that of layer II decreases dramatically within the first year and keeps stable henceforth. The counterparts of Fep/Fed are 6 years, 14 years, and 2 years respectively. With the fitted experimental equations of Fet, Feo/Fed, and Fep/Fed, the ages of reclamation can be deduced reversely, which indicates the implication of iron on the shifts of soil environment.

  7. Government-industry partnership in weekly iron-folic acid supplementation for women of reproductive age in the Philippines: impact on iron status.

    PubMed

    Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda; Paulino, Lourdes S; Ramos, Adelisa C; Etorma, Unita Marie; Cavalli-Sforza, Tommaso; Milani, Silvano

    2005-12-01

    The effectiveness of weekly iron-folic acid supplements promoted through a government-industry partnership was assessed in pregnant and non-pregnant women in the Philippines. Compliance to both weekly and daily supplementation increased during the year-long study period, but was highest with weekly supplementation. Serum ferritin and hematocrit increased significantly, whereas the hemoglobin level showed minimal change, probably because of lack of other heme-forming nutrients such as vitamin A. Serum ferritin increments were significantly higher in women taking the iron-folic acid supplements for more than 6 weeks. Weekly iron-folic acid supplementation should be recommended as a preventive strategy to control iron deficiency among reproductive-age women in the Philippines.

  8. Anaemia in relation to low bioavailability of dietary iron among school-aged children in the Aral Sea region, Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, M; Shimoda, T; Sasaki, S; Kunii, O; Caypil, W; Dauletbaev, D; Chiba, M

    2004-02-01

    This study investigates anaemia related to the sufficiency of dietary iron intake of school-aged children in the Kzyl-Orda region of Kazakhstan. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 97 school-aged children living in Kzyl-Orda. Blood samples were collected for measuring haemoglobin. Dietary intake data were obtained from 24-h dietary recalls. Iron bioavailability was estimated with algorithms adjusting for absorption enhancers (meat, fish and poultry, and vitamin C) and inhibitors (tea and phytates) consumed in the same meal. The median total iron intakes were adequate compared with the median basal iron requirement; however, the median bioavailable iron intakes were well below the median absorbed iron requirement. Available iron was 6.9-7.2% of the total iron intake after adjusting for the absorption enhancers, and was reduced by 3.1-4.4% after adjusting for both enhancers and inhibitors. After adjustment for energy intake, higher iron intake was significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of anaemia (odds ratio, 0.39; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.93; P=0.034). Some evidence suggested an association between bioavailable iron intake after adjustment of absorption enhancers and inhibitors (odds ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-1.01; P=0.053). In conclusion, low bioavailability of dietary iron seems related to anaemia in the region. Although iron fortification or supplementation programmes can be useful for promoting the anaemia prevention control programme, further efforts for nutritional education suited for family level dietary practice are necessary.

  9. Iron, zinc, copper and magnesium nutritional status in Mexican children aged 1 to 11 years.

    PubMed

    Morales-Ruán, Ma del Carmen; Villalpando, Salvador; García-Guerra, Armando; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Robledo-Pérez, Ricardo; Avila-Arcos, Marco Antonio; Rivera, Juan A

    2012-01-01

    To describe the micronutrient nutritional status of a national sample of 1-11 year old Mexican children surveyed in 2006 in National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2006) and their association with dietary and sociodemographic factors. Serum samples were used (n=5 060) to measure the concentrations of ferritin, transferrin receptor, zinc, copper and magnesium. Prevalence of deficiencies in 1-4 and 5-11y old children were for iron (using low ferritin) 26.0 and 13.0%; zinc, 28.1 and 25.8%, respectively; and copper, ≈30% in both age groups. Magnesium low serum concentrations (MLSC), were found in 12.0% and 28.4% of the children, respectively. Being beneficiary of Liconsa (OR=0.32; C.I.95%, 0.17-0.61) or belonging to higher socioeconomic status (OR=0.63; C.I.95%, 0.41-0.97) were protective against iron deficiency. Increasing age (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 1.19-1.32) and living in the Central Region (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 0.36-0.97) were protective against MLSC. Deficiencies of iron and zinc are serious public health problems in Mexican children.

  10. No iron fertilization in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during the last ice age.

    PubMed

    Costa, K M; McManus, J F; Anderson, R F; Ren, H; Sigman, D M; Winckler, G; Fleisher, M Q; Marcantonio, F; Ravelo, A C

    2016-01-28

    The equatorial Pacific Ocean is one of the major high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions in the global ocean. In such regions, the consumption of the available macro-nutrients such as nitrate and phosphate is thought to be limited in part by the low abundance of the critical micro-nutrient iron. Greater atmospheric dust deposition could have fertilized the equatorial Pacific with iron during the last ice age--the Last Glacial Period (LGP)--but the effect of increased ice-age dust fluxes on primary productivity in the equatorial Pacific remains uncertain. Here we present meridional transects of dust (derived from the (232)Th proxy), phytoplankton productivity (using opal, (231)Pa/(230)Th and excess Ba), and the degree of nitrate consumption (using foraminifera-bound δ(15)N) from six cores in the central equatorial Pacific for the Holocene (0-10,000 years ago) and the LGP (17,000-27,000 years ago). We find that, although dust deposition in the central equatorial Pacific was two to three times greater in the LGP than in the Holocene, productivity was the same or lower, and the degree of nitrate consumption was the same. These biogeochemical findings suggest that the relatively greater ice-age dust fluxes were not large enough to provide substantial iron fertilization to the central equatorial Pacific. This may have been because the absolute rate of dust deposition in the LGP (although greater than the Holocene rate) was very low. The lower productivity coupled with unchanged nitrate consumption suggests that the subsurface major nutrient concentrations were lower in the central equatorial Pacific during the LGP. As these nutrients are today dominantly sourced from the Subantarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean, we propose that the central equatorial Pacific data are consistent with more nutrient consumption in the Subantarctic Zone, possibly owing to iron fertilization as a result of higher absolute dust fluxes in this region. Thus, ice-age iron fertilization in the

  11. Silica, silicosis and cancer in Finland.

    PubMed

    Partanen, T; Jaakkola, J; Tossavainen, A

    1995-01-01

    Approximately 100 000 Finnish workers are currently employed in jobs and tasks that may involve exposure to airborne silica dust. The major industries involved are mining and quarrying; production of glass, ceramics, bricks and other building materials; metal industry, particularly iron and steel founding; and construction. Over 1500 cases of silicosis have occurred in Finland since 1935. Tuberculosis has been a frequent complication of silicosis. Results of studies from several countries strongly suggest that silica dust also causes lung cancer. The results of the relevant Finnish epidemiologic and industrial hygiene studies addressing cancer risk and exposure to quartz dust are summarized.

  12. Effects of dissolved oxygen and iron aging on the reduction of trichloronitromethane, trichloracetonitrile, and trichloropropanone.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Yub; Hozalski, Raymond M; Arnold, William A

    2007-02-01

    Iron metal (Fe(0)) is a potent reductant capable of reducing a wide variety of halogenated organic compounds including disinfection byproducts (DBPs). These reduction reactions may play a role in DBP fate in iron water mains and potentially could be exploited to remove DBPs from drinking water or wastewater in a packed-bed configuration. Oxidants (i.e., dissolved oxygen (DO) and chlorine) present in the water, however, may decrease the DBP degradation rate by competing for reactive sites and rapidly aging or corroding the iron surface. Thus, batch experiments were performed to investigate the effect of DO on the degradation rates of selected DBPs by Fe(0). Experiments were performed under anaerobic conditions, in initially oxygen saturated buffer without DO control, and under controlled DO (approximately 4.0 or 8.0 mg l(-1)) conditions. The effect of short-term (25-105 min) iron aging in DO-containing buffer on DBP degradation rate also was investigated in separate experiments. For fresh Fe(0), the degradation rates of trichloronitromethane (TCNM) and trichloroacetonitrile (TCAN) in initially oxygen saturated buffer were similar to their respective rates under anaerobic conditions. The degradation rate of 1,1,1-trichloropropanone (1,1,1-TCP), however, decreased significantly in the presence of DO and the effect was proportional to DO concentration in the controlled DO experiments. For a DO concentration of 4 mg l(-1), the degradation rate of the three DBPs was greater for longer aging times as compared to their respective rates after 25 min, suggesting the formation of a mineral phase that increased reactivity. For a DO concentration of 8 mg l(-1), the effects of increasing aging time were mixed. TCNM degradation rates were stable for all aging times and comparable to that under anaerobic conditions. The TCAN and 1,1,1-TCP degradation rates, however, tended to decrease with increasing aging time. These results suggest that the reduction of highly reactive DBPs by

  13. No iron fertilization in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during the last ice age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, K. M.; McManus, J. F.; Anderson, R. F.; Ren, H.; Sigman, D. M.; Winckler, G.; Fleisher, M. Q.; Marcantonio, F.; Ravelo, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The equatorial Pacific Ocean is one of the major high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions in the global ocean. In such regions, the consumption of the available macro-nutrients such as nitrate and phosphate is thought to be limited in part by the low abundance of the critical micro-nutrient iron. Greater atmospheric dust deposition could have fertilized the equatorial Pacific with iron during the last ice age—the Last Glacial Period (LGP)—but the effect of increased ice-age dust fluxes on primary productivity in the equatorial Pacific remains uncertain. Here we present meridional transects of dust (derived from the 232Th proxy), phytoplankton productivity (using opal, 231Pa/230Th and excess Ba), and the degree of nitrate consumption (using foraminifera-bound δ15N) from six cores in the central equatorial Pacific for the Holocene (0-10,000 years ago) and the LGP (17,000-27,000 years ago). We find that, although dust deposition in the central equatorial Pacific was two to three times greater in the LGP than in the Holocene, productivity was the same or lower, and the degree of nitrate consumption was the same. These biogeochemical findings suggest that the relatively greater ice-age dust fluxes were not large enough to provide substantial iron fertilization to the central equatorial Pacific. This may have been because the absolute rate of dust deposition in the LGP (although greater than the Holocene rate) was very low. The lower productivity coupled with unchanged nitrate consumption suggests that the subsurface major nutrient concentrations were lower in the central equatorial Pacific during the LGP. As these nutrients are today dominantly sourced from the Subantarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean, we propose that the central equatorial Pacific data are consistent with more nutrient consumption in the Subantarctic Zone, possibly owing to iron fertilization as a result of higher absolute dust fluxes in this region. Thus, ice-age iron fertilization in the

  14. Iron fortification of whole wheat flour reduces iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia and increases body iron stores in Indian school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Muthayya, Sumithra; Thankachan, Prashanth; Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Amalrajan, Vani; Thomas, Tinku; Lubree, Himangi; Agarwal, Dhiraj; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Hurrell, Richard F; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Kurpad, Anura V

    2012-11-01

    Wheat is the primary staple food for nearly one-third of the world's population. NaFeEDTA is the only iron (Fe) compound suitable for fortifying high extraction flours. We tested the hypothesis that NaFeEDTA-fortified, whole wheat flour reduces Fe deficiency (ID) and improves body Fe stores (BIS) and cognitive performance in Indian children. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled, school feeding trial, 6- to 15-y-old, Fe-depleted children (n = 401) were randomly assigned to either a daily wheat-based lunch meal fortified with 6 mg of Fe as NaFeEDTA or an otherwise identical unfortified control meal. Hemoglobin (Hb) and Fe status were measured at baseline, 3.5 mo, and 7 mo. Cognitive performance was evaluated at baseline and 7 mo in children (n = 170) at one of the study sites. After 7 mo, the prevalence of ID and ID anemia in the treatment group significantly decreased from 62 to 21% and 18 to 9%, respectively. There was a time x treatment interaction for Hb, serum ferritin, transferrin receptor, zinc protoporphyrin, and BIS (all P < 0.0001). Changes in BIS differed between the groups; it increased in the treatment group (0.04 ± 0.04 mmol/kg body weight) and decreased in the control group (-0.02 ± 0.04 mmol/kg body weight) (P < 0.0001). In sensory tests, NaFeEDTA-fortified flour could not be differentiated from unfortified flour. There were no significant differences in cognitive performance tests between the groups. NaFeEDTA-fortified wheat flour markedly improved BIS and reduced ID in Fe-depleted children. It may be recommended for wider use in national school feeding programs.

  15. Iron and zinc status of young women aged 14 to 19 years consuming vegetarian and omnivorous diets.

    PubMed

    Donovan, U M; Gibson, R S

    1995-10-01

    To assess the iron and zinc status of young females, aged 14 to 19 years, consuming vegetarian and omnivorous diets. Dietary intakes (via 3-day weighed food records), BMI, and laboratory indices of iron and zinc status were compared in a convenience sample of 79 lacto-ovo-vegetarians (LOV), 16 semi-vegetarians (SV), and 29 omnivorous (OM) females. Twenty-nine percent LOV, 44% SV, and 17% OM had low iron stores (i.e., plasma ferritin < 12 micrograms/L); only 3% had anemia. As well, 24% LOV, 33% SV, and 18% OM had serum zinc < 10.71 mumol/L and 14% LOV, 14% SV, and 17% OM had hair zinc < 1.68 mumol/g. Intakes of iron and ascorbic acid from the weighed food records were associated with serum iron (p < 0.04) and total iron binding capacity (negatively; p < 0.02), respectively, whereas Phy:Zn molar ratios were associated with serum zinc (negatively; p < 0.04). Z-scores for BMI were associated with serum zinc (p < 0.02) and diet type (p < 0.001); serum AP activity was associated with age (p < 0.0001) and oral contraceptive use (p < 0.04). Suboptimal iron and zinc status was attributed to low intakes of poorly available iron and zinc in all dietary groups.

  16. Settlement and landscape history of the Northern Franconian Jura during the Bronze and Iron Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothieringer, Katja; Lambers, Karsten; Seregély, Timo; Schäfer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the results of initial archaeological and geoarchaeological fieldwork in the Northern Franconian Jura between the cities of Bayreuth and Bamberg. Our research aims at the reconstruction of settlement patterns and strategies of land use during the Metal Ages (Bronze Age and Iron Age) in the catchment area of the river Weismain. The project is designed as a case study for research into the settlement and landscape history of a rural region of the Central German Uplands during the last two millennia before our era. During the Bronze Age and Iron Age (about 2.100 BC to 30 BC), the Northern Franconian Jura must have been densely populated, as evidenced by numerous burial monuments, prominent hillforts like the Staffelberg, and ritual places on the Jurassic plateau. However, little is known about small rural settlements and hamlets which would have accounted for most of the settlement activity in the region. Thus, we lack the most important element for understanding the cultural history and development of the region as well as the consequences of human impact on the landscape. This impact must have induced changes in vegetation and subsequent erosion processes, leading to the formation of geoarchives like colluvial layers. During our initial fieldwork we identified such colluvial layers in depressions on the Jurassic plateau or at footslope positions. As radiocarbon datings of charcoal fragments showed, some of them date from the Metal Ages. The type is wood of these charcoal fragments is oak, which recently only occurs sporadically in mixed forests with beeches. The quantification of the shift of sediments from the plateau to the valleys will be the next important step of geoarchaeological research. Thus, investigations both on the plateau and in the river valleys will accompany archaeological survey. Apart from landscape reconstruction, they will also provide information on the state of preservation and the conditions for identifying archaeological

  17. Impact of Oxidative Stress in Premature Aging and Iron Overload in Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Ortiz, Blanca; Ramírez Emiliano, Joel; Hernández Vázquez, Wendy Ivett; Martínez-Garza, Sandra; Solorio-Meza, Sergio; Albarrán-Tamayo, Froylán; Ramos-Rodríguez, Edna; Benítez-Bribiesca, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background. Increased oxidative stress is a well described feature of patients in hemodialysis. Their need for multiple blood transfusions and supplemental iron causes a significant iron overload that has recently been associated with increased oxidation of polyunsaturated lipids and accelerated aging due to DNA damage caused by telomere shortening. Methods. A total of 70 patients were evaluated concomitantly, 35 volunteers with ferritin levels below 500 ng/mL (Group A) and 35 volunteers with ferritin levels higher than 500 ng/mL (Group B). A sample of venous blood was taken to extract DNA from leukocytes and to measure relative telomere length by real-time PCR. Results. Patients in Group B had significantly higher plasma TBARS (p = 0.008), carbonyls (p = 0.0004), and urea (p = 0.02) compared with those in Group A. Telomeres were significantly shorter in Group B, 0.66 (SD, 0.051), compared with 0.75 (SD, 0.155) in Group A (p = 0.0017). We observed a statistically significant association between relative telomere length and ferritin levels (r = -0.37, p = 0.001). Relative telomere length was inversely related to time on hemodialysis (r = -0.27, p = 0.02). Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate that iron overload was associated with increased levels of oxidative stress and shorter relative telomere length.

  18. Impact of Oxidative Stress in Premature Aging and Iron Overload in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hernández Vázquez, Wendy Ivett; Solorio-Meza, Sergio; Albarrán-Tamayo, Froylán; Ramos-Rodríguez, Edna; Benítez- Bribiesca, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background. Increased oxidative stress is a well described feature of patients in hemodialysis. Their need for multiple blood transfusions and supplemental iron causes a significant iron overload that has recently been associated with increased oxidation of polyunsaturated lipids and accelerated aging due to DNA damage caused by telomere shortening. Methods. A total of 70 patients were evaluated concomitantly, 35 volunteers with ferritin levels below 500 ng/mL (Group A) and 35 volunteers with ferritin levels higher than 500 ng/mL (Group B). A sample of venous blood was taken to extract DNA from leukocytes and to measure relative telomere length by real-time PCR. Results. Patients in Group B had significantly higher plasma TBARS (p = 0.008), carbonyls (p = 0.0004), and urea (p = 0.02) compared with those in Group A. Telomeres were significantly shorter in Group B, 0.66 (SD, 0.051), compared with 0.75 (SD, 0.155) in Group A (p = 0.0017). We observed a statistically significant association between relative telomere length and ferritin levels (r = −0.37, p = 0.001). Relative telomere length was inversely related to time on hemodialysis (r = −0.27, p = 0.02). Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate that iron overload was associated with increased levels of oxidative stress and shorter relative telomere length. PMID:27800120

  19. Weekly iron-folic acid supplementation to improve iron status and prevent pregnancy anemia in Filipino women of reproductive age: the Philippine experience through government and private partnership.

    PubMed

    Paulino, Lourdes S; Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda; Etorma, Unita Mari M; Ramos, Adelisa C; Cavalli-Sforza, Tommaso

    2005-12-01

    With the participation of the government and private sectors in the Philippines, weekly iron-folic acid supplementation introduced within a social marketing framework and a social mobilization campaign successfully improved knowledge and practice of buying and regularly taking supplements by women of reproductive age, both pregnant and non-pregnant. Adolescent girls in school were also active participants.

  20. Remote population-based intervention for disruptive behavior at age four: study protocol for a randomized trial of Internet-assisted parent training (Strongest Families Finland-Canada)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is characterized by angry and noncompliant behaviour. It is the most common disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD), with prevalence estimates of 6-9% for preschoolers and is closely linked to several long-term difficulties, including disorders of conduct, mood, anxiety, impulse-control, and substance abuse. ODD in children is related to parental depression, family dysfunction, and impairments in parental work performance. Children displaying early DBDs exhibit more symptoms of greater severity, more frequent offences, and commit more serious crimes later in life. The goal of the Strongest Families™ Finland Canada (SFFC) Smart Website intervention research program is to develop and evaluate an affordable, accessible, effective secondary prevention parent training program for disruptive behaviour in preschoolers to prevent the negative sequelae of ODD. Strongest Families is an 11-session program with two booster sessions that focuses on teaching skills to: strengthen parent–child relationships; reinforce positive behaviour; reduce conflict; manage daily transitions; plan for potentially problematic situations; promote emotional regulation and pro-social behaviour and decrease antisocial behaviour. Methods/design This protocol paper describes an ongoing population-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) of high-risk 4 year-olds attending well-child clinics in Turku, Finland and environs to examine the effectiveness of the Strongest Families Smart Website intervention compared to an Education Control condition. Randomization consists of a 1:1 ratio for intervention versus the education group, stratified by the child’s sex. The participants randomized to the intervention group receive access to the Strongest Families Smart Website and weekly telephone coaching sessions. The participants randomized to the Education Control condition receive access to a static website with parenting tips. Children are followed using

  1. Remote population-based intervention for disruptive behavior at age four: study protocol for a randomized trial of Internet-assisted parent training (Strongest Families Finland-Canada).

    PubMed

    McGrath, Patrick J; Sourander, Andre; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia; Ristkari, Terja; Cunningham, Charles; Huttunen, Jukka; Filbert, Katharine; Aromaa, Minna; Corkum, Penny; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Kinnunen, Malin; Lampi, Katja; Penttinen, Anne; Sinokki, Atte; Unruh, Anita; Vuorio, Jenni; Watters, Carolyn

    2013-10-21

    Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is characterized by angry and noncompliant behaviour. It is the most common disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD), with prevalence estimates of 6-9% for preschoolers and is closely linked to several long-term difficulties, including disorders of conduct, mood, anxiety, impulse-control, and substance abuse. ODD in children is related to parental depression, family dysfunction, and impairments in parental work performance. Children displaying early DBDs exhibit more symptoms of greater severity, more frequent offences, and commit more serious crimes later in life. The goal of the Strongest Families Finland Canada (SFFC) Smart Website intervention research program is to develop and evaluate an affordable, accessible, effective secondary prevention parent training program for disruptive behaviour in preschoolers to prevent the negative sequelae of ODD. Strongest Families is an 11-session program with two booster sessions that focuses on teaching skills to: strengthen parent-child relationships; reinforce positive behaviour; reduce conflict; manage daily transitions; plan for potentially problematic situations; promote emotional regulation and pro-social behaviour and decrease antisocial behaviour. This protocol paper describes an ongoing population-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) of high-risk 4 year-olds attending well-child clinics in Turku, Finland and environs to examine the effectiveness of the Strongest Families Smart Website intervention compared to an Education Control condition. Randomization consists of a 1:1 ratio for intervention versus the education group, stratified by the child's sex. The participants randomized to the intervention group receive access to the Strongest Families Smart Website and weekly telephone coaching sessions. The participants randomized to the Education Control condition receive access to a static website with parenting tips. Children are followed using parental and daycare teacher measures

  2. Mössbauer Spectra of Mouse Hearts Reveal Age-dependent Changes in Mitochondrial and Ferritin Iron Levels.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Joshua D; Chakrabarti, Mrinmoy; Lindahl, Paul A

    2017-03-31

    Cardiac function requires continuous high levels of energy, and so iron, a critical player in mitochondrial respiration, is an important component of the heart. Hearts from (57)Fe-enriched mice were evaluated by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Spectra consisted of a sextet and two quadrupole doublets. One doublet was due to residual blood, whereas the other was due to [Fe4S4](2+) clusters and low-spin Fe(II) hemes, most of which were associated with mitochondrial respiration. The sextet was due to ferritin; there was no evidence of hemosiderin, a ferritin decomposition product. Iron from ferritin was nearly absent in young hearts, but increased steadily with age. EPR spectra exhibited signals similar to those of brain, liver, and human cells. No age-dependent EPR trends were apparent. Hearts from HFE(-/-) mice with hemochromatosis contained slightly more iron overall than controls, including more ferritin and less mitochondrial iron; these differences typify slightly older hearts, perhaps reflecting the burden due to this disease. HFE(-/-) livers were overloaded with ferritin but had low mitochondrial iron levels. IRP2(-/-) hearts contained less ferritin than controls but normal levels of mitochondrial iron. Hearts of young mice born to an iron-deficient mother contained normal levels of mitochondrial iron and no ferritin; the heart from the mother contained low ferritin and normal levels of mitochondrial iron. High-spin Fe(II) ions were nearly undetectable in heart samples; these were evident in brains, livers, and human cells. Previous Mössbauer spectra of unenriched diseased human hearts lacked mitochondrial and blood doublets and included hemosiderin features. This suggests degradation of iron-containing species during sample preparation. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Community, identity, and conflict: Iron Age warfare in the Iberian Northwest.

    PubMed

    Sastre, Inés

    2008-12-01

    This paper proposes a new view of conflict in European Iron Age societies: considering isolationism as an alternative to warfare. Study of the castros (fortified settlements) of the Iberian Northwest suggests the organization of production as a main explanatory element in the emergence of identities based on exclusion and the imposition of communal structures of power. The relationship between these communities must have been one of conflict, and the unequal productive success of domestic units and the requirement of external marriage interchanges created realms of interaction in which internal conflict surely arose. These tendencies were kept in check by controlling settlement growth. Although a conflict-prone situation is documented in the archaeological record, there is no evidence that warfare as an endemic reality created groups of warriors. Warfare-related activity in these Iron Age societies was neither heroic nor hierarchical. Warfare did not determine the form of society but rather was related to the productive and reproductive organization of the societies that engaged in it.

  4. Concordant 3,676 MYR U-Pb formation age for the Kodaikanal iron meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopel, C.; Manhes, G.; Allegre, C. J.

    1985-09-01

    The results of U-Pb isotope analyses on a silicate inclusion from the Kodaikanal iron meteorite, which contains evidence of intensive chemical activity occurring about 800 Myr after the formation of the solar system, are reported. Leaching experiments on the two major phases, clinopyroxene and alkali-rich glass, indicate a contamination by terrestrial Pb attributable to previous curatorial cutting of this meteorite. The leached minerals define concordant U-Pb ages that validate the precise Pb-Pb age of 3676 + or - 3 Myr. The absence of initial Pb indicates a fast cooling of the silicate material. This has already been established for the metal phase, and a collisional origin for Kodaikanal is favored.

  5. Trepanation in the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age in Armenia.

    PubMed

    Khudaverdyan, A Yu

    2016-12-01

    In this study, trepanations in ancient Armenia are discussed. In total, 10 cases were studied. Seven were male, 1 female and 2 were children. Age of the individuals ranged from 6 to 65 years. Among nine cases of surgical trepanations four had possible healing signs. In these cases the individuals showed evidence of previous trauma to the skull or infection (mastoiditis, tuberculosis), suggesting that the operation had been carried out for therapeutic purposes. This provides further support for the suggestion that trepanation (or trephination) was performed primarily for therapeutic purposes, and because of cranial infection or injury. In one case, a symbolic trepanation could imitate real penetration into the skull cavity. This study shows that archaeological sites of Armenia and anthropological materials have a potential to supply essential information on ancient history of the Armenian people and the region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of age and caloric restriction on bleomycin-chelatable and nonheme iron in different tissues of C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Sohal, R S; Wennberg-Kirch, E; Jaiswal, K; Kwong, L K; Forster, M J

    1999-08-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the widely observed age-associated increase in the amounts of macromolecular oxidative damage is due to an elevation in the availability of redox-active iron, that is believed to catalyze the scission of H2O2 to generate the highly reactive hydroxyl radical. Concentrations of bleomycin-chelatable iron and nonheme iron were measured in various tissues and different regions of the brain of mice fed on ad libitum (AL) or a calorically restricted (to 60% of AL) diet at different ages. The concentrations of these two pools of iron varied markedly as a function of tissue, age, and caloric intake. There was no consistent ratio between the amounts of nonheme and the bleomycin-chelatable iron pools across these conditions. Nonheme iron concentration increased with age in the liver, kidney, heart, striatum, hippocampus, midbrain and cerebellum of AL animals, whereas bleomycin-chelatable iron increased significantly with age only in the liver. Amounts of both nonheme and bleomycin-chelatable iron remained unaltered during aging in the cerebral cortex and hindbrain of AL mice. Caloric restriction had no effect on iron concentration in the brain or heart, but caused a marked increase in the concentration of both bleomycin-chelatable and nonheme iron in the liver and the kidney. The results do not support the hypothesis that accumulation of oxidative damage with age, or its attenuation by CR, are associated with corresponding variations in redox-active iron.

  7. Combined 238U/235U and Pb Isotopics of Planetary Core Material: The Absolute Age of the IVA Iron Muonionalusta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennecka, G. A.; Amelin, Y.; Kleine, T.

    2016-08-01

    We report a measured 238U/235U for the IVA iron Muonionalusta. This measured value requires an age correction of ~7 Myr to the previously published Pb-Pb age. This has major implications for our understanding of planetary core formation and cooling.

  8. Behavioral and Neurochemical Deficits in Aging Rats with Increased Neonatal Iron Intake: Silibinin’s Neuroprotection by Maintaining Redox Balance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hanqing; Wang, Xijin; Wang, Meihua; Yang, Liu; Yan, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yuhong; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a critical risk factor for Parkinson’s disease. Silibinin, a major flavonoid in Silybum marianum, has been suggested to display neuroprotective properties against various neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we observed that neonatal iron (120 μg/g body weight) supplementation resulted in significant abnormality of behavior and depletion of striatal dopamine (DA) in the aging male and female rats while it did not do so in the young male and female rats. No significant change in striatal serotonin content was observed in the aging male and female rats with neonatal supplementation of the same dose of iron. Furthermore, we found that the neonatal iron supplementation resulted in significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and decrease in glutathione (GSH) in the substantia nigra (SN) of the aging male and female rats. No significant change in content of MDA and GSH was observed in the cerebellum of the aging male and female rats with the neonatal iron supplementation. Interestingly, silibinin (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) treatment significantly and dose-dependently attenuated depletion of striatal DA and improved abnormality of behavior in the aging male and female rats with the neonatal iron supplementation. Moreover, silibinin significantly reduced MDA content and increased GSH content in the SN of the aging male and female rats. Taken together, our results indicate that elevated neonatal iron supplementation may result in neurochemical and behavioral deficits in the male and female rats with aging and silibinin may exert dopaminergic neuroprotection by maintaining redox balance. PMID:26578951

  9. Aqueous Aggregation Behavior of Engineered Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Effects of Oxidative Surface Aging.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenlu; Lee, Seung Soo; Mittelman, Anjuliee M; Liu, Di; Wu, Jiewei; Hinton, Carl H; Abriola, Linda M; Pennell, Kurt D; Fortner, John D

    2016-12-06

    For successful aqueous-based applications, it is necessary to fundamentally understand and control nanoparticle dispersivity and stability over a range of dynamic conditions, including variable ionic strengths/types, redox chemistries, and surface ligand reactivity/degradation states (i.e., surface aging). Here, we quantitatively describe the behavior of artificially aged, oleic acid (OA) bilayer coated iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) under different scenarios. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), used here as a model oxidant under both dark and light ultraviolet (UVA) conditions, was employed to "age" materials, to varying degrees, without increasing ionic strength. Short-term stability experiments indicate that OA-IONPs, while stable in the dark, are effectively destabilized when exposed to UVA/H2O2/•OH based oxidation processes. Compared to bicarbonate, phosphate (1.0 mM) has a net stabilizing effect on OA-IONPs under oxidative conditions, which can be attributed to (surface-based) functional adsorption. Corresponding aggregation kinetics in the presence of monovalent (Na(+)) and divalent cations (Ca(2+)) show that attachment efficiencies (α) are strongly dependent on the cation concentrations/types and degree of surface aging. Taken together, our findings directly highlight the need to understand the critical role of particle surface transformation(s), via oxidative aging, among other routes, with regard to the ultimate stability and environmental fate of surface functionalized engineered nanoparticles.

  10. Teachers as Leaders in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlberg, Pasi

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, thousands of visitors have flocked to Finland--now a leader in education rankings--to uncover this small Nordic country's secret to its education success. In this article, Finnish educator and scholar Pasi Sahlberg explains how Finland has managed such a feat. A rigorous graduate degree and at least five years of full-time…

  11. Teachers as Leaders in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlberg, Pasi

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, thousands of visitors have flocked to Finland--now a leader in education rankings--to uncover this small Nordic country's secret to its education success. In this article, Finnish educator and scholar Pasi Sahlberg explains how Finland has managed such a feat. A rigorous graduate degree and at least five years of full-time…

  12. Iron status biomarkers and C-reactive protein in children aged 19 to 72 months in Chile.

    PubMed

    Brito, Alex; Hertrampf, Eva; Olivares, Manuel

    2013-03-01

    The Chilean Ministry of Health has combated iron deficiency through the delivery of fortified milk by the National Complementary Feeding Program (NCFP). To assess iron status and associations between biomarkers of iron status and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) in 218 beneficiaries of the NCFP aged 19 to 72 months in Santiago and Valparaiso, Chile. Blood was collected from a cross-sectional representative sample. Iron status (measured by hemoglobin, zinc protoporphyrin, and serum ferritin levels) and inflammation (according to CRP level) were determined. Serum CRP level was positively associated with serum ferritin and zinc protoporphyrin levels (r = 0.16 and r = 0.15; p = .0168 and p = .0290, respectively). Serum ferritin was higher among children with high CRP (> 10 mg/dL) than among those with low CRP (< or = 10 mg/dL) (p = .003). After adjustment for 10, 6, and 5 mg/L CRP, the prevalence of low serum ferritin changed from 56.4% without adjustment to 60.6%, 61.5%, and 42.7%, respectively, and the prevalence of high zinc protoporphyrin changed from 22.9% to 21.6%, 17.4%, and 17.9%, respectively. There were no differences between regions in biomarkers of iron status. There was no association between consumption of fortified milk and the prevalence of abnormal serum ferritin (< 15 microg/L) after adjustment for sex, age, and breastfeeding (OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.01; p = .288). After adjustment for 10 mg/L CRP, 5.5% were classified as having iron-deficiency anemia, 42.7% as having iron-deficiency erythropoiesis, 17.9% as having depleted iron stores, and 35.8% as having normal iron status. CONCLUSIONS. CRP level was positively associated with: serum ferritin and zinc protoporphyrin levels. Chilean children aged 19 to 72 months from Santiago and Valparaiso who were beneficiaries of the NCFP had a low prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia, a high prevalence of iron-deficiency erythropoiesis, and a moderate prevalence of depleted iron stores.

  13. Long-term effects of smoking on tooth loss after cessation among middle-aged Finnish adults: the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Study.

    PubMed

    Similä, Toni; Auvinen, Juha; Timonen, Markku; Virtanen, Jorma I

    2016-08-24

    Despite smoking cessation efforts, cigarette smoking remains a serious general and oral health problem. We aimed to investigate the putative benefits of smoking cessation on dentition and to analyse whether the time elapsed since smoking cessation associated positively with the remaining number of teeth. This cross-sectional study analyses data from the 46-year follow-up of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study 1966 (NFBC1966). A total of 5 540 subjects participated in this cross-sectional study, which utilises both clinical dental examinations and mailed questionnaires. We used the following information on smoking: status (current, former, never), years of smoking (current, former) and years elapsed since smoking cessation (former). Self-reported and clinically measured number of teeth (including third molars) served as alternative outcomes. We used binary logistic regression models to analyse the dichotomised number of teeth ('0-27', '28-32') and then calculated unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the smoking variables (never smoker as the reference). Gender, education, tooth brushing frequency, diabetes and alcohol use served as confounders for the adjusted models. Ten years or more of smoking associated with tooth loss; this effect was the strongest among men who reported having an ongoing smoking habit (self-reported outcome: adjusted OR = 1.74, CI = 1.40-2.16) and the weakest among women classified as former smokers (self-reported outcome: adjusted OR = 1.27, CI = 1.00-1.62). This study shows that smoking has long-term effects on tooth loss even after cessation. The findings support smoking cessation efforts to reduce oral health risks.

  14. Chilean complementary feeding program reduces anemia and improves iron status in children aged 11 to 18 months.

    PubMed

    Brito, Alex; Olivares, Manuel; Pizarro, Tito; Rodríguez, Lorena; Hertrampf, Eva

    2013-12-01

    Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in the world, primarily affecting infants, young children, and women of childbearing age. To evaluate the impact of the National Complementary Feeding Program (NCFP) on anemia and iron status in Chilean children aged 11 to 18 months. Two studies were performed. The first study was performed at one public outpatient health center in Santiago, using data collected in 1999 (n = 128) and 2000 (n = 125), before and after the national introduction of iron-fortified milk. Subsequently, a study of a representative sample (n = 320) from the two most populated areas of the country was performed in 2009. One year after fortification, the prevalence of anemia was 9%; significantly lower (p < .001) than the 27% prevalence observed 1 year before. Ten years after fortification, 14% of children were anemic and 77% of children with anemia (12% of all children) suffered from iron-deficiency anemia. In 2009, 11% of children consuming iron-fortified milk delivered by the NCFP (73%) were anemic, significantly lower (p = .028) than the 21% prevalence of anemia observed in children without consumption. Consumption of iron-fortified milk was positively associated with hemoglobin concentration (r = 0.28, p = .022) and was associated with a lower prevalence of anemia after adjusting for confounding factors (odds ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.96). In Chile, the NCFP has had an impact on the reduction of anemia and improved the iron status of children aged 11 to 18 months. Increasing the consumption of this iron-fortified milk could enhance the impact of the NCFP.

  15. Finland to Join ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-02-01

    Finland will become the eleventh member state of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) [1]. Today, during a ceremony at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), a corresponding Agreement was signed by the Finnish Minister of Education and Science, Ms. Tuula Haatainen and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, in the presence of other high officials from Finland and the ESO member states (see Video Clip 02/04 below). Following subsequent ratification by the Finnish Parliament of the ESO Convention and the associated protocols [2], it is foreseen that Finland will formally join ESO on July 1, 2004. Uniting European Astronomy ESO PR Photo 03/04 ESO PR Photo 03/04 Caption : Signing of the Finland-ESO Agreement on February 9, 2004, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany). At the table, the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Finnish Minister of Education and Science, Ms. Tuula Haatainen . [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 499 pix - 52k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 997 pix - 720k] [Full Res - JPEG: 2126 x 2649 pix - 2.9M] The Finnish Minister of Education and Science, Ms. Tuula Haatainen, began her speech with these words: "On behalf of Finland, I am happy and proud that we are now joining the European Southern Observatory, one of the most successful megaprojects of European science. ESO is an excellent example of the potential of European cooperation in science, and along with the ALMA project, more and more of global cooperation as well." She also mentioned that besides science ESO offers many technological challenges and opportunities. And she added: "In Finland we will try to promote also technological and industrial cooperation with ESO, and we hope that the ESO side will help us to create good working relations. I am confident that Finland's membership in ESO will be beneficial to both sides." Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, ESO Director General, warmly welcomed the Finnish intention to join ESO. "With the accession of their country to ESO, Finnish

  16. Infrared technology in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartikainen, Jari A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the main actors in the Finnish infrared research community in the Defense Forces, the civilian research institutes and industry. Within the Defence Forces, the Defence Forces Research Centre (PvTT) has a key role as the most important research institute dealing with military technology in Finland and as an integrator of civilian expertise. The basic research strategy of the Finnish Defense Forces is to rely on external research institutes (either domestic or foreign) and to concentrate its own resources only on the areas where external expertise is not available. Accordingly, the research focus of PvTT is on the signature research and the environmental conditions affecting the performance of infrared sensors. The paper also describes the work done at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and at various universities. The role of the Finnish defense industry has been fairly modest, but both its own products and recent technology transfer agreements may change the situation in the long run.

  17. Geophysical prospection on an Early Iron Age Cult Site near Frankfurt/Oder, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, Burkart; Kaufmann, Georg; Beilke-Voigt, Ines

    2010-05-01

    The Free University of Berlin and the Humboldt University of Berlin hosts the excellence cluster 264 Topoi, "The Formation and Transformation of Space and Knowledge in Ancient Civilizations". The Excellence Cluster pursues the goal of researching the interdependence of space and knowledge in the civilizations of the Ancient Near East, the Mediterranean, and Black Sea region and parts of the Eurasian steppe from the 6th millennium BC to around AD 500. Within this excellence cluster, the project A-I-11 "Lossow near Frankfurt/Oder - An Early Iron Age Cult Site of the Ancient Peripheral Zone" examines the evolution of an important cult site in Central Europe. The castle mound of Lossow was built as a fortified settlement in the late Bronze Age (10th century B.C.). After a phase of around 200 years, a supra-regionally significant, early Iron Age cult centre developed on this site (8th-6th century B.C.). Several pieces of evidence indicate that the locality had a central-site character. Typical for the site are well-shapes shafts, filled with large amounts of human and animal bones. The shafts with a diameter of about 1 meter and a depth of about 5 to 7 meters are a great challenge to near surface geophysics. Here, geophysical methods (geomagnetic gradiometry, geoelectric imaging, georadar survey) have been used to obtain a large-scale conclusive picture of the sub-surface both within the castle mount and around the perimeter. While the magnetic results reveal numerous archaeological artefacts, geoelectric imaging decipers the subsurface structure of the site.

  18. Disentangling in vivo the effects of iron content and atrophy on the ageing human brain.

    PubMed

    Lorio, S; Lutti, A; Kherif, F; Ruef, A; Dukart, J; Chowdhury, R; Frackowiak, R S; Ashburner, J; Helms, G; Weiskopf, N; Draganski, B

    2014-12-01

    Evidence from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies shows that healthy aging is associated with profound changes in cortical and subcortical brain structures. The reliable delineation of cortex and basal ganglia using automated computational anatomy methods based on T1-weighted images remains challenging, which results in controversies in the literature. In this study we use quantitative MRI (qMRI) to gain an insight into the microstructural mechanisms underlying tissue ageing and look for potential interactions between ageing and brain tissue properties to assess their impact on automated tissue classification. To this end we acquired maps of longitudinal relaxation rate R1, effective transverse relaxation rate R2* and magnetization transfer - MT, from healthy subjects (n=96, aged 21-88 years) using a well-established multi-parameter mapping qMRI protocol. Within the framework of voxel-based quantification we find higher grey matter volume in basal ganglia, cerebellar dentate and prefrontal cortex when tissue classification is based on MT maps compared with T1 maps. These discrepancies between grey matter volume estimates can be attributed to R2* - a surrogate marker of iron concentration, and further modulation by an interaction between R2* and age, both in cortical and subcortical areas. We interpret our findings as direct evidence for the impact of ageing-related brain tissue property changes on automated tissue classification of brain structures using SPM12. Computational anatomy studies of ageing and neurodegeneration should acknowledge these effects, particularly when inferring about underlying pathophysiology from regional cortex and basal ganglia volume changes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Nutritional status of iron in children from 6 to 59 months of age and its relation to vitamin A deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sales, Márcia Cristina; Paiva, Adriana de Azevedo; de Queiroz, Daiane; Araújo França Costa, Renata; Lins da Cunha, Maria Auxiliadora; Figueroa Pedraza, Dixis

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the iron nutritional status of children from 6 to 59 months of age and its relation to vitamin A deficiency. Cross-sectional study involving 100 children, living in nine cities in the state of Paraíba, which were selected for convenience to form two study groups: children with vitamin A deficiency (serum retinol < 0.70 μmol/L; n = 50) and children without vitamin A deficiency (serum retinol ≥ 0.70 μmol/L; n = 50). The iron nutritional status was evaluated by biochemical, haematological and hematimetric indices. The cases of subclinical infection (C-Reactive Protein ≥ 6 mg/L) were excluded. Children with vitamin A deficiency had serum iron values statistically lower than the corresponding values in children without deficiency. The other iron nutritional status indices showed no statistical difference according to presence/absence of vitamin A deficiency. The interaction between iron and vitamin A deficiencies was evidenced in the case of circulating iron deficiency (serum iron), suggesting failure in the transport mechanisms of the mineral in children with vitamin A deficiency. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Chemical transformations during aging of zerovalent iron nanoparticles in the presence of common groundwater dissolved constituents.

    PubMed

    Reinsch, Brian C; Forsberg, Brady; Penn, R Lee; Kim, Christopher S; Lowry, Gregory V

    2010-05-01

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) that was aged in simulated groundwater was evaluated for alterations in composition and speciation over 6 months to understand the possible transformations NZVI could undergo in natural waters. NZVI was exposed to 10 mN of various common groundwater anions (Cl(-), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), HPO(4)(2-), and HCO(3)(-)) or to dissolved oxygen (saturated, approximately 9 mg/L). Fresh and exposed NZVI samples, along with Fe-oxide model compounds, were then analyzed using synchrotron radiation X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to yield both relative oxidation state, using the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), and quantitative speciation information regarding the types and proportions of mineral species present, from analysis of the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). Over 1 month of aging the dissolved anions inhibited the oxidation of the NZVI to varying degrees. Aging for 6 months, however, resulted in average oxidation states that were similar to each other regardless of the anion used, except for nitrate. Nitrate passivated the NZVI surface such that even after 6 months of aging the particles retained nearly the same mineral and Fe(0) content as fresh NZVI. Linear least-squares combination fitting (LCF) of the EXAFS spectra for 1 month-aged samples indicated that the oxidized particles remain predominantly a binary phase system containing Fe(0) and Fe(3)O(4), while the 6 month aged samples contained additional mineral phases such as vivianite (Fe(3)(PO(4))(2).8H(2)O) and iron sulfate species, possibly schwertmannite (Fe(3+)(16)O(16)(OH,SO(4))(12-13).10-12H(2)O). The presence of these additional mineral species was confirmed using synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (XRD). NZVI exposed to water saturated with dissolved oxygen showed a rapid (<24 h) loss of Fe(0) and evolved both magnetite and maghemite (gamma-Fe(2)O(3)) within the oxide layer. These findings have implications toward the eventual fate, transport

  1. In rats gestational iron deficiency does not change body fat or hepatic mitochondria in the aged offspring.

    PubMed

    Rees, W D; Hay, S M; Hayes, H E; Birgovan, C; McArdle, H J

    2017-09-05

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and resulting changes in adiposity have been observed in the offspring of animals fed a high fat (HF) diet. As iron is an important component of the mitochondria, we have studied the offspring of female rats fed complete (Con) or iron-deficient (FeD) rations for the duration of gestation to test for similar effects. The FeD offspring were ~12% smaller at weaning and remained so because of a persistent reduction in lean tissue mass. The offspring were fed a complete (stock) diet until 52 weeks of age after which some animals from each litter were fed a HF diet for a further 12 weeks. The HF diet increased body fat when compared with animals fed the stock diet, however, prenatal iron deficiency did not change the ratio of fat:lean in either the stock or HF diet groups. The HF diet caused triglyceride to accumulate in the liver, however, there was no effect of prenatal iron deficiency. The activity of the mitochondrial electron transport complexes was similar in all groups including those challenged with a HF diet. HF feeding increased the number of copies of mitochondrial DNA and the prevalence of the D-loop mutation, however, neither parameter was affected by prenatal iron deficiency. This study shows that the effects of prenatal iron deficiency differ from other models in that there is no persistent effect on hepatic mitochondria in aged animals exposed to an increased metabolic load.

  2. Iron-deficiency anemia in infancy and poorer cognitive inhibitory control at age 10 years

    PubMed Central

    ALGARÍN, CECILIA; NELSON, CHARLES A; PEIRANO, PATRICIO; WESTERLUND, ALISSA; REYES, SUSSANNE; LOZOFF, BETSY

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to assess the effects of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy on executive functioning at age 10 years, specifically inhibitory control on the Go/No-Go task. We predicted that children who had IDA in infancy would show poorer inhibitory control. Method We assessed cognitive inhibitory control in 132 Chilean children (mean [SD] age 10y 0mo [1mo]): 69 children had IDA in infancy (45 males, 24 females) and 63 comparison children who did not have IDA (26 males, 37 females). Participants performed the Go/No-Go task with event-related potentials. Group differences in behavioral (accuracy, reaction time) and electrophysiological outcomes (N2 and P300 components) were analyzed using repeated-measures analyses of variance. N2 and P300 are interpreted to reflect attention and resource allocation respectively. Results Relative to comparison participants, children who had IDA in infancy showed slower reaction time (mean [SE], 528.7ms [14.2] vs 485.0ms [15.0], 95% confidence interval [CI] for difference between groups 0.9–86.5); lower accuracy (95.4% [0.5] vs 96.9% [0.6], 95% CI −3.0 to −0.1); longer latency to N2 peak (378.9ms [4.9] vs 356.9ms [5.0], 95% CI 7.5–36.6); and smaller P300 amplitude (4.5μV [0.8] vs 7.6μV [0.9], 95% CI–5.5 to −0.5). Interpretation IDA in infancy was associated with slower reaction times and poorer inhibitory control 8 to 9 years after iron therapy. These findings are consistent with the long-lasting effects of early IDA on myelination and/or prefrontal–striatal circuits where dopamine is the major neurotransmitter. PMID:23464736

  3. Effect of physical activity and age on plasma copper, zinc, iron, and magnesium concentration in physically active healthy males.

    PubMed

    Rakhra, Gurseen; Masih, Daisy; Vats, Annu; Verma, Saroj K; Singh, Vijay K; Rana, Rashmi Tomar; Kirar, Vandana; Singh, Som Nath

    The concentration of nutritionally important minerals in circulation is under tight homeostatic control, however, physical activity and aging influence their body stores and nutritional requirement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of both physical activity and age on plasma concentrations of copper, zinc, iron, and magnesium. Stratified cluster sampling was used for selection of study participants (N = 360) belonging to three physical activity groups: sedentary, moderately active, and highly active on the basis of their physical activity levels as 1.53, 1.8, and 2.3, respectively. They were also divided into six different age groups (18-20, 21-25, 26-30, 31-35, 36-40, and 41-45 y). We assessed nutritional status by determining their body composition using bioelectrical impedance method and measuring intake levels. Fasting blood samples were taken to separate plasma for analysis of copper, zinc, magnesium, and iron. There was a major difference (P < 0.001) in the mean value of plasma copper, zinc, magnesium, and iron for the three activity groups. The plasma copper and iron concentrations were higher in the moderately active group (copper: 1.59 ± 0.05 mg/L, iron: 0.79 ± 0.22 mg/L) whereas zinc concentration was higher in the sedentary group (2.37 ± 0.29 mg/L). Both the highly and moderately active groups had higher plasma magnesium levels compared with the sedentary group. Plasma copper, zinc, magnesium, and iron levels also were influenced by age in a different pattern with respect to physical activity. Physical activity-related energy expenditure and age play a remarkable role in deciphering the plasma mineral levels in the healthy individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of cerebral iron deposition in aged patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease using susceptibility-weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yin; Liu, Jun; Liu, Huanghui; Liao, Yunjie; Cao, Lu; Ye, Bin; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate focal iron deposition level in the brain in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease and its correlation with cerebral small vessel disease imaging markers. Seventy-four patients with first-ever transient ischemic attack (median age: 69 years; 30 males and 44 females) and 77 patients with positive ischemic stroke history (median age: 72 years; 43 males and 34 females) were studied retrospectively. On phase image of susceptibility-weighted imaging and regions of interest were manually drawn at the bilateral head of the caudate nucleus, lenticular nucleus (LN), thalamus (TH), frontal white matter, and occipital white matter. The correlation between iron deposition level and the clinical and imaging variables was also investigated. Iron deposition level at LN was significantly higher in patients with previous stroke history. It linearly correlated with the presence and number of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) but not with white matter hyperintensity and lacunar infarct. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that deep structure CMBs were the most relevant in terms of iron deposition at LN. Iron deposition at LN may increase in cases of more severe ischemia in aged patients with transient ischemic attack, and it may be an imaging marker for CMB of ischemic origin.

  5. Investigation of cerebral iron deposition in aged patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease using susceptibility-weighted imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yin; Liu, Jun; Liu, Huanghui; Liao, Yunjie; Cao, Lu; Ye, Bin; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate focal iron deposition level in the brain in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease and its correlation with cerebral small vessel disease imaging markers. Patients and methods Seventy-four patients with first-ever transient ischemic attack (median age: 69 years; 30 males and 44 females) and 77 patients with positive ischemic stroke history (median age: 72 years; 43 males and 34 females) were studied retrospectively. On phase image of susceptibility-weighted imaging and regions of interest were manually drawn at the bilateral head of the caudate nucleus, lenticular nucleus (LN), thalamus (TH), frontal white matter, and occipital white matter. The correlation between iron deposition level and the clinical and imaging variables was also investigated. Results Iron deposition level at LN was significantly higher in patients with previous stroke history. It linearly correlated with the presence and number of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) but not with white matter hyperintensity and lacunar infarct. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that deep structure CMBs were the most relevant in terms of iron deposition at LN. Conclusion Iron deposition at LN may increase in cases of more severe ischemia in aged patients with transient ischemic attack, and it may be an imaging marker for CMB of ischemic origin. PMID:27574434

  6. Preschool iron-folic acid and zinc supplementation in children exposed to iron-folic acid in utero confers no added cognitive benefit in early school-age.

    PubMed

    Christian, Parul; Morgan, Mary E; Murray-Kolb, Laura; LeClerq, Steven C; Khatry, Subarna K; Schaefer, Barbara; Cole, Pamela M; Katz, Joanne; Tielsch, James M

    2011-11-01

    In Nepal, antenatal iron-folic acid supplementation improved aspects of intellectual, executive, and fine motor function among school-age children. We examined the impact of added zinc to the maternal antenatal supplement (M-IFAZn) and preschool supplementation from 12 to 36 mo with iron-folic acid (C-IFA) ± zinc (C-IFAZn) on cognitive outcomes compared to maternal iron-folic acid (M-IFA) alone. Children 7-9 y old (n = 780) who participated in early childhood micronutrient supplementation trial during 2001-2004 and whose mothers participated in an antenatal micronutrient supplementation between 1999 and 2001 were followed for cognitive assessments in 2007-2009. Using multivariate analysis of variance and adjusting for confounders, M-IFA with child supplementation (either C-IFA or C-IFAZn) did not impact scores on the tests of general intelligence (Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test), and executive function (Stroop and go/no go tests) relative to the M-IFA alone. However, children in the C-IFAZn group had slightly lower scores on the backward digit span (-0.29, 95% CI: -0.55, -0.04) and Movement Assessment Battery for Children (1.33, 95% CI: 0.26, 2.40) relative to the referent group, whereas both C-IFA (-1.92, 95% CI: -3.12, -0.71) and C-IFAZn (-1.78, 95% CI: -2.63, -0.92) produced somewhat lower finger tapping test scores (fine motor skills). The combination of M-IFAZn and C-IFA or C-IFAZn did not lead to any outcome differences relative to M-IFA alone. Preschool iron-folic acid ± zinc to children exposed to iron-folic acid in utero or addition of zinc to maternal iron-folic acid conferred no additional benefit to cognitive outcomes assessed in early school age. The late timing of supplementation during preschool may explain the lack of impact of iron and/or zinc.

  7. Echinococcus granulosus in Finland.

    PubMed

    Hirvelä-Koski, Varpu; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Kilpelä, Seija-Sisko; Nylund, Minna; Koski, Perttu

    2003-02-13

    Echinococcus granulosus is shown to occur in eastern Finland in a sylvatic cycle involving wolves (Canis lupus) as the definitive host and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and probably also elk (Alces alces) and the wild forest reindeer (Rangifer tarandus fennicus) as intermediate hosts. Even though the prevalence of E. granulosus in reindeer has increased in recent years, it is still very low (<0.013%). The results suggest, however, that the reindeer is a good sentinel animal to show the contamination of soil with Echinococcus eggs. This is the first report of wolves acting as a definitive host for E. granulosus in northern Europe. The parasite seems to be quite common in the Finnish wolf population, with a prevalence of approximately 30% in both intestinal and faecal samples. The present results and previous ones indicate that E. granulosus infection has not spread to dogs in the reindeer herding area.

  8. Ironic Technology: Old Age and the implantable cardioverter defibrillator in US health care

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Sharon R.; Mueller, Paul S.; Ottenberg, Abigale L.; Koenig, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    We take the example of cardiac devices, specifically the implantable cardioverter defibrillator, or ICD, to explore the complex cultural role of technology in medicine today. We focus on persons age 80 and above, for whom ICD use is growing in the U.S. We highlight an ironic feature of this device. While it postpones death and ‘saves’ life by thwarting a lethal heart rhythm, it also prolongs living in a state of dying from heart failure. In that regard the ICD is simultaneously a technology of life extension and dying. We explore that irony among the oldest age group -- those whose considerations of medical interventions are framed by changing societal assumptions of what constitutes premature death, the appropriate time for death and medicine’s goals in an aging society. Background to the rapidly growing use of this device among the elderly is the ‘technological imperative’ in medicine, bolstered today by the value given to evidence-based studies. We show how evidence contributes to standards of care and to the expansion of Medicare reimbursement criteria. Together, those factors shape the ethical necessity of physicians offering and patients accepting the ICD in late life. Two ethnographic examples document the ways in which those factors are lived in treatment discussions and in expectations about death and longevity. PMID:21126815

  9. Ironic technology: Old age and the implantable cardioverter defibrillator in US health care.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Sharon R; Mueller, Paul S; Ottenberg, Abigale L; Koenig, Barbara A

    2011-01-01

    We take the example of cardiac devices, specifically the implantable cardioverter defibrillator, or ICD, to explore the complex cultural role of technology in medicine today. We focus on persons age 80 and above, for whom ICD use is growing in the U.S. We highlight an ironic feature of this device. While it postpones death and 'saves' life by thwarting a lethal heart rhythm, it also prolongs living in a state of dying from heart failure. In that regard the ICD is simultaneously a technology of life extension and dying. We explore that irony among the oldest age group -- those whose considerations of medical interventions are framed by changing societal assumptions of what constitutes premature death, the appropriate time for death and medicine's goals in an aging society. Background to the rapidly growing use of this device among the elderly is the 'technological imperative' in medicine, bolstered today by the value given to evidence-based studies. We show how evidence contributes to standards of care and to the expansion of Medicare reimbursement criteria. Together, those factors shape the ethical necessity of physicians offering and patients accepting the ICD in late life. Two ethnographic examples document the ways in which those factors are lived in treatment discussions and in expectations about death and longevity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Leucocytozoonosis and trypanosomiasis in redstarts in Finland.

    PubMed

    Rintamäki, P T; Huhta, E; Jokimäki, J; Squires-Parsons, D

    1999-07-01

    Leucocytozoon spp. and Trypanosoma spp. blood parasites in the redstart (Phoenicurus phoenicurus) were studied during spring migration 1994 in southern Finland (53 individuals) and the breeding season 1992-1994 in northern Finland (69). Parasite prevalence was higher during the breeding season (48%) than during the migration period (13%), with no age or sex differences in the breeding site birds. In both periods, redstarts were infected by the same blood parasites Leucocytozoon shaartusicum (46% prevalence at the breeding site and 71% during the migration period) and Trypanosoma avium, complex (58% and 43%, respectively). One individual at the breeding site had contracted L. dubreuili and one at the stop-over site had T. everetti. Our results may support the assumption that tissue-hidden parasites relapse during the breeding season when birds may have diminished immune response related to egg production and brood rearing. Another explanation could be that the high abundance of ornithophilic vectors enhance parasite transmission during breeding season in northern Finland.

  11. Swedish Immersion in the Early Years in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björklund, Siv; Mård-Miettinen, Karita; Savijärvi, Marjo

    2014-01-01

    Immersion education in Finland is a one-way (monolingual) early total Swedish programme for Finnish-speaking students. This immersion provision is offered at kindergarten level (ages 3-5), at preschool (age 6) and at primary levels (grades 1-9). Here, a brief synthesis of Finnish research studies on the early years in Swedish immersion is first…

  12. Iron status of children aged 9-36 months in an urban slum Integrated Child Development Services project in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Deeksha; Agarwal, Kailash N; Sharma, Sushma; Kela, Kusum; Kaur, Iqbal

    2002-02-01

    To assess the magnitude/severity and possible etiology of anemia and iron deficiency among children 9-36 months of age. A population-based study on the prevalence, etiology of anemia and iron status in 545 children, 9-36 months of age, was conducted in an urban slum ICDS (Integrated Child Development Services) project in North-East Delhi. Hemoglobin and serum ferritin was estimated and information on socio-economic, demographic, parasitic infection/infestation and dietary intake was collected. Prevalence of anemia (using WHO cut-off values of Hb >11.0 g/dl) among children, 9-36 months of age, was 64%, of these 7.8% had severe anemia (Hb >7.0 g/dl). Using 10.0 g/dl as the Hb cut-off point 44% children less than 18 months of age in the present study population were anemic. On a sub-sample study, 88% children were estimated to be iron deficient, with serum ferritin concentration less than 12 microg/L. The peripheral smear red cell morphology showed 33.9% as microcytic-hypochromic and 37.1% as dimorphic. Dimorphic anemia was 55% in moderate anemia group. The energy and iron intakes were 56% and 45%, respectively of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA). The parasitic infestation/infection was not related to the prevalence or severity of anemia. In Delhi, high prevalence of moderate to severe anemia and iron deficiency with vitamins folate and/or B12 among children under 3 years of age in an ICDS block in operation for 20 years is of concern. Dietary origin was the main cause of anemia in this age group.

  13. [Fortification of fluid milk for the prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children under 4 years of age].

    PubMed

    Torres, M A; Lobo, N F; Sato, K; Queiroz, S de S

    1996-08-01

    The effectiveness of the use of chelate amino acid iron fortified fluid milk in the treatment of iron deficiency in children under four years of age was studied. The 269 children included in this trial received 1 liter/day of fluid milk fortified with 3 mg of chelate amino acid iron and were evaluated at six monthly intervals. At the beginning of the study 62.3% of the children presented anemia. After 6 months, this percentage had decreased to 41.8% and at the end of one year to 26.4%. The greatest decreases occurred in the groups comprising the subjects who were of 12 to 23 months of age and those under one year of age. Among the children who presented initial hemoglobin levels under 9.5 g/dl, 59.3% were free of anemia after one year of follow-up. Of those presenting initial hemoglobin levels between 9.5 and 10.9 g/dl, 66.7% recovered from their anemia. There was also greater hematological improvement in the children that ingested over 750 ml/day of fortified milk in those families that did not share the supply of supplement among their other members and in those families that had only one child under five years of age. These findings led to the conclusion that the fortification of fluid milk is a viable and effective method for the treatment of iron deficiency in pre-school children.

  14. The role of iron and copper molecules in the neuronal vulnerability of locus coeruleus and substantia nigra during aging.

    PubMed

    Zecca, Luigi; Stroppolo, Antonella; Gatti, Alberto; Tampellini, Davide; Toscani, Marco; Gallorini, Mario; Giaveri, Giuseppe; Arosio, Paolo; Santambrogio, Paolo; Fariello, Ruggero G; Karatekin, Erdem; Kleinman, Mark H; Turro, Nicholas; Hornykiewicz, Oleh; Zucca, Fabio A

    2004-06-29

    In this study, a comparative analysis of metal-related neuronal vulnerability was performed in two brainstem nuclei, the locus coeruleus (LC) and substantia nigra (SN), known targets of the etiological noxae in Parkinson's disease and related disorders. LC and SN pars compacta neurons both degenerate in Parkinson's disease and other Parkinsonisms; however, LC neurons are comparatively less affected and with a variable degree of involvement. In this study, iron, copper, and their major molecular forms like ferritins, ceruloplasmin, neuromelanin (NM), manganese-superoxide dismutase (SOD), and copper/zinc-SOD were measured in LC and SN of normal subjects at different ages. Iron content in LC was much lower than that in SN, and the ratio heavy-chain ferritin/iron in LC was higher than in the SN. The NM concentration was similar in LC and SN, but the iron content in NM of LC was much lower than SN. In both regions, heavy- and light-chain ferritins were present only in glia and were not detectable in neurons. These data suggest that in LC neurons, the iron mobilization and toxicity is lower than that in SN and is efficiently buffered by NM. The bigger damage occurring in SN could be related to the higher content of iron. Ferritins accomplish the same function of buffering iron in glial cells. Ceruloplasmin levels were similar in LC and SN, but copper was higher in LC. However, the copper content in NM of LC was higher than that of SN, indicating a higher copper mobilization in LC neurons. Manganese-SOD and copper/zinc-SOD had similar age trend in LC and SN. These results may explain at least one of the reasons underlying lower vulnerability of LC compared to SN in Parkinsonian syndromes.

  15. Monitoring of Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barriers: Electrical Properties and Barrier Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrecque, D. J.; Adkins, P. L.; Slater, L. D.; Versteeg, R.; Sharpe, R.

    2007-12-01

    An innovative method of groundwater remediation invented in the 1990"s, Permeable Reactive Barriers, use sand-sized grains of scrap iron placed in trenches or injected under pressure to remediate a number of organic and inorganic contaminants. Monitoring the aging of these barriers becomes increasingly important as many of these barriers approach their predicted life spans. In-situ resistivity and induced polarization studies have been conducted at six barriers at four different sites: Monticello, Utah; the Denver Federal Center; Kansas City, Missouri; and East Helena, Montana. As some barriers tend to age dramatically faster than others, for this study we consider low permeability barriers as of greater age, as "old" barriers tend to loose permeability rather than exhaust reactive materials. One complicating factor is that two of the barriers studied appear to have issues related to installation. One site, the former Asarco Smelter Site near East Helena, Montana, has been instrumented with an autonomous monitoring system allowing continuous monitoring of the evolution of a relatively new (less than three years old) barrier. The barrier showed surprisingly rapid evolution over the first year of monitoring with changes in both resistivity and chargeability of tens of percent per month. In general, the electrical properties of all of the barriers studied follow a pattern. New barriers are fairly resistive with in-situ conductivity only a few times background (outside the barrier) values. Older barriers get increasingly conductive, with failed barriers showing values of over 100 S/m. The induced polarization response is more complicated. Chargeability values increase over time for young barriers, are largest for healthy barriers in the middle of their lifespan, and decrease as the barrier ages.

  16. Improving tribological performance of gray cast iron by laser peening in dynamic strain aging temperature regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xu; Zhou, Jianzhong; Mei, Yufen; Huang, Shu; Sheng, Jie; Zhu, Weili

    2015-09-01

    A high and stable brake disc friction coefficient is needed for automobile safety, while the coefficient degrades due to elevated temperature during the braking process. There is no better solution except changes in material composition and shape design optimization. In the dynamic strain aging(DSA) temperature regime of gray cast iron, micro-dimples with different dimple depth over diameter and surface area density are fabricated on the material surface by laser peening(LP) which is an LST method. Friction behavior and wear mechanism are investigated to evaluate the effects of surface texturing on the tribological performance of specimens under dry conditions. Through LP impacts assisted by DSA, the friction coefficients of the LPed specimens increase noticeably both at room temperature and elevated temperature in comparison to untreated specimens. Moreover, the coefficient of specimen with dimple depth over diameter of 0.03 and surface area density of 30% is up to 0.351 at room temperature, which dramatically rises up to 1.33 times that of untextured specimen and the value is still up to 0.3305 at 400°C with an increasing ratio of 35% compared to that of untreated specimen. The surface of textured specimen shows better wear resistance compared to untreated specimen. Wear mechanism includes adhesive wear, abrasive wear and oxidation wear. It is demonstrated that LP assisted by DSA can substantially improve wear resistance, raise the friction coefficient as well as its stability of gray cast iron under elevated temperatures. Heat fade and premature wear can be effectively relieved by this surface modification method.

  17. Recent PCB accidents in Finland.

    PubMed Central

    Elo, O; Vuojolahti, P; Janhunen, H; Rantanen, J

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-eight polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accidents were recorded during a 1-year period in Finland. They comprised leaks, fires or explosions of capacitors. Some of the explosions and fires gave rise to high concentrations of PCBs in air and of PCBs and tetrachlorodibenzofurans (TCDFs), including 2,3,7,8-TCDF, on surfaces. One large explosion is described in detail, and biomedical data and findings of this case are compared with those of smaller accidents in Finland. PMID:3928359

  18. [Prevalence of deficiency and dietary intake of iron, zinc and copper in Chilean childbearing age women].

    PubMed

    Mujica-Coopman, María F; Borja, Angélica; Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate anemia, the biochemical status and dietary adequacy of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), in Chilean childbearing age women. We studied a convenience sample of 86 women aged 18 to 48 years from Santiago, Chile. We determined anemia and the micronutrient status through hemoglobin (Hb) mean corpuscular volume, transferrin saturation, zinc protoporphyrin, serum ferritin (SF), serum Zn and Cu. Dietary adequacy was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Of all women, 4.7% had Fe deficiency (ID) anemia, 21 % ID without anemia, 26 % depleted Fe stores and 48.3% normal Fe status. Obese women had higher SF (p<0.01) compared with those classified as having normal BMI. Also, showed higher Hb (p<0.05) concentrations compared with overweight and normal weight women. Partidipants showed 3.5 % and 2.3 % of Zn and Cu deficiency, respectively. Also, 95 %, 94 % and 99 % had adequate intake of Fe, Zn and Cu respectively, according to EAR cut points. There were no significant differences in micronutrients intake across different nutritional status. There was a low prevalence of anemia, Fe, Zn and Cu deficiency. A high percentage of women reached micronutrient adequacy. However, 47% of women had ID without anemia and Fe depleted stores.

  19. Heavy metal release due to aging effect during zero valent iron nanoparticles remediation.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Blanca; Fullana, Andres

    2015-10-15

    Zero valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) represent a promising agent for environmental remediation. Nevertheless, their application presents some limitations regarding their rapid oxidation and aggregation in the media. The aim of this study was to determine the effect that nZVI aging has in heavy metal remediation in water. Contaminants studied were Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu and Cr, which are typical elements found in ground and wastewater. Results show a high contaminant removal capacity by the nZVI in the first 2 h of reaction. Nevertheless, for longer reaction times, some of the metal ions that had already been adsorbed in the nZVI were delivered to the water. Cd and Ni show the maximum delivery percentages (65 and 27% respectively after 21 days of contact time). The starting delivery time was shortened when applying lower nZVI amounts. No re-dissolution of Cr was observed in any circumstance because it was the only element incorporated into the nanoparticles core, as TEM images showed. Contaminant release from nZVI is probably due to nanoparticles oxidation caused by aging, which produced a pH decrease and nZVI surface crystallization.

  20. Aging behavior of lithium iron phosphate based 18650-type cells studied by in situ neutron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Neelima; Wandt, Johannes; Seidlmayer, Stefan; Schebesta, Sebastian; Mühlbauer, Martin J.; Dolotko, Oleksandr; Gasteiger, Hubert A.; Gilles, Ralph

    2017-03-01

    The aging behavior of commercially produced 18650-type Li-ion cells consisting of a lithium iron phosphate (LFP) based cathode and a graphite anode based on either mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) or needle coke (NC) is studied by in situ neutron diffraction and standard electrochemical techniques. While the MCMB cells showed an excellent cycle life with only 8% relative capacity loss (i.e., referenced to the capacity after formation) after 4750 cycles and showed no capacity loss on storage for two years, the needle coke cells suffered a 23% relative capacity loss after cycling and a 11% loss after storage. Based on a combination of neutron diffraction and electrochemical characterization, it is shown that the entire capacity loss for both cell types is dominated by the loss of active lithium; no other aging mechanisms like structural degradation of anode or cathode active materials or deactivation of active material could be found, highlighting the high structural stability of the active material and the excellent quality of the investigated cells.

  1. Hemisphere, gender and age-related effects on iron deposition in deep gray matter revealed by quantitative susceptibility mapping.

    PubMed

    Gong, Nan-Jie; Wong, Chun-Sing; Hui, Edward S; Chan, Chun-Chung; Leung, Lam-Ming

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effects of hemispheric location, gender and age on susceptibility value, as well as the association between susceptibility value and diffusional metrics, in deep gray matter. Iron content was estimated in vivo using quantitative susceptibility mapping. Microstructure was probed using diffusional kurtosis imaging. Regional susceptibility and diffusional metrics were measured for the putamen, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, thalamus, substantia nigra and red nucleus in 42 healthy adults (age range 25-78 years). Susceptibility value was significantly higher in the left than the right side of the caudate nucleus (P = 0.043) and substantia nigra (P < 0.001). Women exhibited lower susceptibility values than men in the thalamus (P < 0.001) and red nucleus (P = 0.032). Significant age-related increases of susceptibility were observed in the putamen (P < 0.001), red nucleus (P < 0.001), substantia nigra (P = 0.004), caudate nucleus (P < 0.001) and globus pallidus (P = 0.017). The putamen exhibited the highest rate of iron accumulation with aging (slope of linear regression = 0.73 × 10(-3) ppm/year), which was nearly twice those in substantia nigra (slope = 0.40 × 10(-3) ppm/year) and caudate nucleus (slope = 0.39 × 10(-3) ppm/year). Significant positive correlations between the susceptibility value and diffusion measurements were observed for fractional anisotropy (P = 0.045) and mean kurtosis (P = 0.048) in the putamen without controlling for age. Neither correlation was significant after controlling for age. Hemisphere, gender and age-related differences in iron measurements were observed in deep gray matter. Notably, the putamen exhibited the highest rate of increase in susceptibility with aging. Correlations between susceptibility value and microstructural measurements were inconclusive. These findings could provide new clues for unveiling mechanisms underlying iron-related neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright

  2. Iron deficiency and anemia are associated with low retinol levels in children aged 1 to 5 years.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Bárbara C A; Soares, Michele C C; Santos, Luana C dos; Pereira, Simone C L; Horta, Paula M

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the occurrence of anemia and iron deficiency in children aged 1 to 5 years and the association of these events and retinol deficiency. This was an observational analytic cross-sectional study conducted in Vitoria, ES, Brazil, between April and August of 2008, with healthy children aged 1 to 5 years (n=692) that lived in areas covered by primary healthcare services. Sociodemographic and economic conditions, dietary intake (energy, protein, iron, and vitamin A ingestion), anthropometric data (body mass index-for-age and height-for-age), and biochemical parameters (ferritin, hemoglobin, and retinol serum) were collected. The prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and retinol deficiency was 15.7%, 28.1%, and 24.7%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed a higher prevalence of anemia (PR: 4.62, 95% CI: 3.36, 6.34, p<0.001) and iron deficiency (PR: 4.51, 95% CI: 3.30, 6.17, p<0.001) among children with retinol deficiency. The same results were obtained after adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic conditions, dietary intake, and anthropometric variables. There was a positive association between ferritin vs. retinol serum (r=0.597; p<0.001) and hemoglobin vs. retinol serum (r=0.770; p<0.001). Anemia and iron deficiency were associated with low levels of serum retinol in children aged 1 to 5 years, and a positive correlation was verified between serum retinol and serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels. These results indicate the importance of initiatives encouraging the development of new treatments and further research regarding retinol deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Looking into the demography of an iron age population in the western Mediterranean. I. Mortality.

    PubMed

    Alesan, A; Malgosa, A; Simó, C

    1999-11-01

    In this paper, we attempt to reconstruct the mortality pattern of the population buried in S'Illot des Porros (Majorca), an Iron Age necropolis in the western Mediterranean, by means of paleodemographic analysis. The skeletal sample consists of 285 individuals, 93 subadults (under 20 years old) and 192 adults. The aim of this study is twofold: first, to identify and to evaluate the structural anomalies of the skeletal sample, and second, to obtain a possible and realistic description of the biological dynamics of this population, with special reference to its mortality pattern. The study uses current demographic methodology and several demographic models (for comparison). An abridged life table was built to estimate the mortality parameters. To evaluate the likelihood of the estimated data, an indirect analysis, which consisted of a comparison of our results with different population models (Weiss [1973] American Antiquity 38; Coale and Demeny [1996] Regional Model Life Tables and Stable Populations. Princeton: Princeton University Press; Ledermann [1969] Nouvelles tables-types de mortalité. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France), was carried out. An important bias was identified in the case of children, mostly affecting infants but also children between the ages of 1 and 5. This was interpreted as a census error due to taphonomic reasons and to an excluding differential funeral rite. A life expectancy at birth of approximately 28 years was estimated from the observed data. When this bias was removed, the estimated life expectancy at birth dropped to 23 years. The use of the Brass logit system allowed us to sketch a possible mortality profile for this population: low life expectancy, high infant mortality and hard life conditions, which were the cause of the low levels of survivorship in old ages. Am J Phys Anthropol 110:285-301, 1999.

  4. In vivo assessment of iron content of the cerebral cortex in healthy aging using 7-Tesla T2*-weighted phase imaging.

    PubMed

    Buijs, Mathijs; Doan, Nhat Trung; van Rooden, Sanneke; Versluis, Maarten J; van Lew, Baldur; Milles, Julien; van der Grond, Jeroen; van Buchem, Mark A

    2016-09-15

    Accumulation of brain iron has been suggested as a biomarker of neurodegeneration. Increased iron has been seen in the cerebral cortex in postmortem studies of neurodegenerative diseases and healthy aging. Until recently, the diminutive thickness of the cortex and its relatively low iron content have hampered in vivo study of cortical iron accumulation. Using phase images of a T2*-weighted sequence at ultrahigh field strength (7 Tesla), we examined the iron content of 22 cortical regions in 70 healthy subjects aged 22-80 years. The cortex was automatically segmented and parcellated, and phase shift was analyzed using an in-house developed method. We found a significant increase in phase shift with age in 20 of 22 cortical regions, concurrent with current understanding of cortical iron accumulation. Our findings suggest that increased cortical iron content can be assessed in healthy aging in vivo. The high spatial resolution and sensitivity to iron of our method make it a potentially useful tool for studying cortical iron accumulation in healthy aging and neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. International report Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The Valentin Shashin, the world's first dynamically positioned ice-class drillship for Arctic conditions, has been completed by Rauma-Repola Oy's Mantyluoto Works in Pori, Finland and delivered to V/O Sudoimport, the Soviet Union. This drillship is the first of three such vessels ordered by the Soviet Union in 1979 for oil exploration in Russia's Arctic waters. All three drillships will be capable of operating in water depths to 300 m and of drilling to 20,000 ft in winds of 23 m/sec, in significant wave heights to 4.7 m and currents to 1 m/sec. Since the vessels are to be used in hostile Arctic conditions, the design incorporates a great deal of sophisticated equipment for operating in heavy seas and avoiding hazards, such as icebergs, that may exist in the drilling area. Included is a quick disconnect system that will allow the ship to detach from the drilling mode in approximately three minutes.

  6. Implementing preventive iron-folic acid supplementation among women of reproductive age in some Western Pacific countries: possibilities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Smitasiri, Suttilak; Solon, Florentino S

    2005-12-01

    Lack of effective implementation mechanisms is identified as a major obstacle in the prevention and control of iron-deficiency anemia. This paper discusses experiences gained from implementing iron-folic acid supplementation in the Philippines, Vietnam, and Cambodia. The understanding of contextual elements is proposed as a foundation for planning interventions. Moreover, it is suggested that a social marketing framework should provide a way of thinking about how to influence related behaviors. The application of a social marketing framework applied using a "5 P's" approach: public relations and collaboration, product, price, place, and promotion, is described, as well as enabling factors (possibilities) and inhibiting factors (challenges) of this approach. Although a program to improve iron nutrition among women of reproductive age may not be simple to implement, it is essential to enhancing health, human development, and economic advancement in developing countries.

  7. [Changes in iron levels in non-anemic women 18-58 years of age].

    PubMed

    Baptista González, H A; Rosenfeld, M F; Peñuela Olaya, M A; Sorroza Martínez, M A; Tello Nielsen, J

    1999-10-01

    The objective was to describe changes in serum ferritin (SF) in women residents in Mexico City. We evaluated prospectively, three groups of non-anemic, non-pregnant women (< 20, 21-40 y 40-58 years old). Sociodemographic variables, hemoglobin (Hb) and erythrocyte index and SF values were registered. We included 252 women in the study. There were no differences in Hb values (15.0, 14.6 and 14.7 g/dL) or erythrocyte index between the three groups of women. We found significative differences (p < 0.001) in mean values of (32 and 34 micrograms/L), for group 1 and 2, with group 3 (SF 54 micrograms/L). In global sample, we observed low SF store, a normal or higher in 76 cases (30.2%), 163 (64.6%) and 13 cases (5.2%), respectively. The women with SF lower than 20 micrograms/L were in proportion 0.54, 0.32 and 0.16. Elevated values in SF were found in a proportion 0.04, 0.18 and 0.13, for groups 1, 2 and 3, with significative differences (p < 0.001). We observed that non-anemic women in Mexico City, showed increase in SF concentrations beginning at 41 years of age, without any major variation in their erythocyte indexes. The prevalence in moderate-severe iron deficiency between 18 to 40 years of years, decreasing progressively.

  8. Combining Hf-W Ages, Cooling Rates, and Thermal Models to Estimate the Accretion Time of Iron Meteorite Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, L.; Dauphas, N.; Wadhwa, M.; Masarik, J.; Janney, P. E.

    2007-12-01

    The 182Hf-182W short-lived chronometer has been widely used to date metal-silicate differentiation processes in the early Solar System. However the presence of cosmogenic effects from exposure to GCR can potentially hamper the use of this system for chronology purposes (e.g. [1,2]). These effects must be corrected for in order to calculate metal-silicate differentiation ages. In this study, high-precision W isotope measurements are presented for 32 iron meteorites from 8 magmatic and 2 non-magmatic groups. Exposure ages and pre- atmospheric size estimates are available for most of these samples [3]. Our precision is better than or comparable to the currently most precise literature data and our results agree with previous work [4]. All magmatic irons have ɛ182W equal within error to or more negative than the Solar System initial derived from a CAI isochron [5]. Iron meteorites from the same magmatic groups show variations in ɛ182W. These are most easily explained by exposure to cosmic rays in space. A correction method was developed to estimate pre-exposure ɛ182W for individual iron meteorite groups. Metal-silicate differentiation in most iron meteorite parent bodies must have occurred within 2 Myr of formation of refractory inclusions. For the first time, we combine 182Hf-182W ages with parent body sizes inferred from metallographic cooling rates in a thermal model to constrain the accretion time of iron meteorite parent bodies. The estimated accretion ages are within 1.5 Myr for most magmatic groups, and could be as early as 0.2 Myr after CAI formation. This is consistent with the study of Bottke et al. [6] who argued that iron meteorite parent bodies could represent an early generation of planetesimals formed in the inner region of the Solar System. [1] Masarik J. (1997) EPSL 152, 181-185. [2] Markowski A. et al. (2006) EPSL 250,104-115. [3] Voshage H. (1984) EPSL 71, 181-194. [4] Markowski A. et al. (2006) EPSL 242, 1-15. [5] Kleine T. et al. (2005) GCA 69

  9. Iron supplementation benefits physical performance in women of reproductive age: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Low, Michael; Thompson, Jane; Farrell, Ann; De-Regil, Luz-Maria

    2014-06-01

    Animal and human observational studies suggest that iron deficiency impairs physical exercise performance, but findings from randomized trials on the effects of iron are equivocal. Iron deficiency and anemia are especially common in women of reproductive age (WRA). Clear evidence of benefit from iron supplementation would inform clinical and public health guidelines. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of iron supplementation compared with control on exercise performance in WRA. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials, MEDLINE, Scopus (comprising Embase and MEDLINE), WHO regional databases, and other sources in July 2013. Randomized controlled trials that measured exercise outcomes in WRA randomized to daily oral iron supplementation vs. control were eligible. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to calculate mean differences (MDs) and standardized MDs (SMDs). Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Of 6757 titles screened, 24 eligible studies were identified, 22 of which contained extractable data. Only 3 studies were at overall low risk of bias. Iron supplementation improved both maximal exercise performance, demonstrated by an increase in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) [for relative VO2 max, MD: 2.35 mL/(kg ⋅ min); 95% CI: 0.82, 3.88; P = 0.003, 18 studies; for absolute VO2 max, MD: 0.11 L/min; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.20; P = 0.01, 9 studies; for overall VO2 max, SMD: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.62; P = 0.005, 20 studies], and submaximal exercise performance, demonstrated by a lower heart rate (MD: -4.05 beats per minute; 95% CI: -7.25, -0.85; P = 0.01, 6 studies) and proportion of VO2 max (MD: -2.68%; 95% CI: -4.94, -0.41; P = 0.02, 6 studies) required to achieve defined workloads. Daily iron supplementation significantly improves maximal and submaximal exercise performance in WRA, providing a rationale to prevent and treat iron deficiency in this group. This trial was

  10. Socioeconomic differences in health check-ups and medically certified sickness absence: a 10-year follow-up among middle-aged municipal employees in Finland.

    PubMed

    Piha, Kustaa; Sumanen, Hilla; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2017-04-01

    There is contradictory evidence on the association between health check-ups and future morbidity. Among the general population, those with high socioeconomic position participate more often in health check-ups. The main aims of this study were to analyse if attendance to health check-ups are socioeconomically patterned and affect sickness absence over a 10-year follow-up. This register-based follow-up study included municipal employees of the City of Helsinki. 13 037 employees were invited to age-based health check-up during 2000-2002, with a 62% attendance rate. Education, occupational class and individual income were used to measure socioeconomic position. Medically certified sickness absence of 4 days or more was measured and controlled for at the baseline and used as an outcome over follow-up. The mean follow-up time was 7.5 years. Poisson regression was used. Men and employees with lower socioeconomic position participated more actively in health check-ups. Among women, non-attendance to health check-up predicted higher sickness absence during follow-up (relative risk =1.26, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.37) in the fully adjusted model. Health check-ups were not effective in reducing socioeconomic differences in sickness absence. Age-based health check-ups reduced subsequent sickness absence and should be promoted. Attendance to health check-ups should be as high as possible. Contextual factors need to be taken into account when applying the results in interventions in other settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. A micronutrient powder with low doses of highly absorbable iron and zinc reduces iron and zinc deficiency and improves weight-for-age Z-scores in South African children.

    PubMed

    Troesch, Barbara; van Stuijvenberg, Martha E; van Stujivenberg, Martha E; Smuts, Cornelius M; Kruger, H Salomè; Biebinger, Ralf; Hurrell, Richard F; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2011-02-01

    Micronutrient powders (MNP) are often added to complementary foods high in inhibitors of iron and zinc absorption. Most MNP therefore include high amounts of iron and zinc, but it is no longer recommended in malarial areas to use untargeted MNP that contain the Reference Nutrient Intake for iron in a single serving. The aim was to test the efficacy of a low-iron and -zinc (each 2.5 mg) MNP containing iron as NaFeEDTA, ascorbic acid (AA), and an exogenous phytase active at gut pH. In a double-blind controlled trial, South African school children with low iron status (n = 200) were randomized to receive either the MNP or the unfortified carrier added just before consumption to a high-phytate maize porridge 5 d/wk for 23 wk; primary outcomes were iron and zinc status and a secondary outcome was somatic growth. Compared with the control, the MNP increased serum ferritin (P < 0.05), body iron stores (P < 0.01) and weight-for-age Z-scores (P < 0.05) and decreased transferrin receptor (P < 0.05). The prevalence of iron deficiency fell by 30.6% (P < 0.01) and the prevalence of zinc deficiency decreased by 11.8% (P < 0.05). Absorption of iron from the MNP was estimated to be 7-8%. Inclusion of an exogenous phytase combined with NaFeEDTA and AA may allow a substantial reduction in the iron dose from existing MNP while still delivering adequate iron and zinc. In addition, the MNP is likely to enhance absorption of the high native iron content of complementary foods based on cereals and/or legumes.

  12. Internal Migration and Mortality: The Case of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Saarela, Jan; Finnäs, Fjalar

    2008-01-01

    In light of possibilities and limitations of data from the Finnish population register, and the general demographic development of Finland, this paper illuminates the complex interrelation between internal migration and mortality. We explore the roles played by health selection, birth region, and migration as a potentially harmful event. A five per cent random sample from a longitudinal data file that contains deaths for a period of 24 years is used. The focus is on people aged 40–59 years living in Southern Finland, who are defined by birth region and time since immigration. We find some indications of a healthy-migrant effect, but also that migrants may have integration difficulties or that they are negatively selected with regard to health behaviours and lifestyles. In line with previous studies on Finland, birth region is found to be a very decisive mortality determinant. PMID:21572826

  13. First measurements of reactive α-dicarbonyl concentrations on PM2.5 aerosol over the Boreal forest in Finland during HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 - source apportionment and links to aerosol aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampf, C. J.; Corrigan, A. L.; Johnson, A. M.; Song, W.; Keronen, P.; Königstedt, R.; Williams, J.; Russell, L. M.; Petäjä, T.; Fischer, H.; Hoffmann, T.

    2012-07-01

    The first dataset for summertime boreal forest concentrations of two atmospherically relevant α-dicarbonyl compounds, glyoxal (Gly) and methylglyoxal (Mgly) on PM2.5 aerosol was obtained during the HUMPPA-COPEC-2010 field measurement intensive in Hyytiälä, Finland. Anthropogenic influences over the course of the campaign were identified using trace gas signatures and aerosol particle chemical composition analysis. The data evaluation allowed the identification of different events such as urban pollution plumes, biomass burning and sawmill emissions as sources of high Gly and Mgly concentrations. Mean aerosol concentrations during periods of biogenic influence were 0.81 ng m-3 for Gly and 0.31 ng m-3 for Mgly. Mgly was generally less abundant in PM2.5, probably due to its shorter photolysis lifetime and less effective partitioning into the particle phase due to its smaller effective Henry's Law constant compared to Gly. This is in contrast with previous urban studies which show significantly more Mgly than Gly. Peak concentrations for Gly coincided with nearby sources, e.g. high VOC emissions from nearby sawmills, urban pollution plumes from the city of Tampere located 50 km southwest of the sampling site and biomass burning emissions from wildfires. Calculated ratios of Gly in PM2.5 and total organic matter in PM1 aerosols indicate higher values in less aged aerosols. Irreversible processing of Gly in the particle phase, e.g. via oxidation by OH radicals, organo sulfate or imidazole formation are processes currently discussed in the literature which could likely explain these findings.

  14. First measurements of reactive α-dicarbonyl concentrations on PM2.5 aerosol over the boreal forest in Finland during HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 - source apportionment and links to aerosol aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampf, C. J.; Corrigan, A. L.; Johnson, A. M.; Song, W.; Keronen, P.; Königstedt, R.; Williams, J.; Russell, L. M.; Petäjä, T.; Fischer, H.; Hoffmann, T.

    2012-01-01

    The first dataset for summertime boreal forest concentrations of two atmospherically relevant α-dicarbonyl compounds, glyoxal (Gly) and methylglyoxal (Mgly) on PM2.5 aerosol was obtained during the HUMPPA-COPEC-2010 field measurement intensive in Hyytiälä, Finland. Identification of anthropogenic influences over the course of the campaign, using trace gas signatures and aerosol particle chemical composition analysis, allowed the identification of different events such as urban pollution plumes, biomass burning and sawmill emissions as sources of high Gly and Mgly concentrations. Mean aerosol concentrations during periods of biogenic influence were 0.81 ng m-3 for Gly and 0.31 ng m-3 for Mgly. Mgly was generally less abundant in PM2.5, probably due to its shorter photolysis lifetime and less effective partitioning into the particle phase due to its smaller effective Henry's Law constant compared to Gly. This is in contrast with previous urban studies which show significantly more Mgly than Gly. Peak concentrations for Gly coincided with nearby sources, e.g. high VOC emissions from nearby sawmills, urban pollution plumes from the city of Tampere located 50 km southwest of the sampling site and biomass burning emissions from wildfires. Calculated ratios of Gly in PM2.5 and total organic matter in PM1 aerosols indicate higher values in less aged aerosols. Irreversible processing of Gly in the particle phase, e.g. via oxidation by OH radicals, organo sulfate or imidazole formation are processes currently discussed in the literature which could likely explain these findings.

  15. MicroRNA miR-29 controls a compensatory response to limit neuronal iron accumulation during adult life and aging.

    PubMed

    Ripa, Roberto; Dolfi, Luca; Terrigno, Marco; Pandolfini, Luca; Savino, Aurora; Arcucci, Valeria; Groth, Marco; Terzibasi Tozzini, Eva; Baumgart, Mario; Cellerino, Alessandro

    2017-02-13

    A widespread modulation of gene expression occurs in the aging brain, but little is known as to the upstream drivers of these changes. MicroRNAs emerged as fine regulators of gene expression in many biological contexts and they are modulated by age. MicroRNAs may therefore be part of the upstream drivers of the global gene expression modulation correlated with aging and aging-related phenotypes. Here, we show that microRNA-29 (miR-29) is induced during aging in short-lived turquoise killifish brain and genetic antagonism of its function induces a gene-expression signature typical of aging. Mechanicistically, we identified Ireb2 (a master gene for intracellular iron delivery that encodes for IRP2 protein), as a novel miR-29 target. MiR-29 is induced by iron loading and, in turn, it reduces IRP2 expression in vivo, therefore limiting intracellular iron delivery in neurons. Genetically modified fish with neuro-specific miR-29 deficiency exhibit increased levels of IRP2 and transferrin receptor, increased iron content, and oxidative stress. Our results demonstrate that age-dependent miR-29 upregulation is an adaptive mechanism that counteracts the expression of some aging-related phenotypes and its anti-aging activity is primarily exerted by regulating intracellular iron homeostasis limiting excessive iron-exposure in neurons.

  16. Enhanced methods for assessment of the trace element composition of Iron Age bone.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Martin M; Siker, Malika; Overdier, Joel T; Ramsl, Peter C; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Farrell, Philip M

    2008-08-15

    Modern, ultra-trace, analytical methods, coupled with magnetic sector ICP-MS (HR-ICP-MS), were applied to the determination of a large suite of major and trace elements in Iron Age bones. The high sensitivity and un-paralleled signal-to-noise characteristics of HR-ICP-MS enabled the accurate measurement of Ag, Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Pt, Rb, Sr, U, V, and Zn in small bone sections (<75 mg). Critically, the HR-ICP-MS effectively addressed molecular interferences, which would likely have compromised data generated with quadrupole-based ICP-MS instruments. Contamination and diagenetic alteration of ancient bone are grave concerns, which if not properly addressed, may result in serious misinterpretation of data from bone archives. Analytical procedures and several chemical and statistical methods (Principal Components Analysis - PCA) were studied to assess their utility in identifying and correcting bone contamination and diagenetic alteration. Uncertainties in bone (femur) sampling were characterized for each element and longitudinal variation was found to be the dominant source of sampling variability. However the longitudinal variation in most trace elements levels was relatively modest, ranging between 9 and 17% RSD. Bone surface contamination was evaluated using sequential acid leaching. Calcium-normalized metal levels in brief, timed, dilute nitric acid leaches were compared with similarly normalized interior core metal levels to assess the degree of surface enrichment. A select group of metals (Mn, Co, Ni, Ag, Cd, and Pt) were observed to be enriched by up to a factor of 10 in the bone surface, indicating that that these elements may have a higher contamination component. However, the results of sequential acid leaching experiments indicated that the single acid leaching step was effective in removing most surface-enriched contaminants. While the leaching protocol was effective in removing contaminants associated with

  17. Ironic effects of repetition: measuring age-related differences in memory.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, L L

    1999-01-01

    Four experiments examined ironic effects of repetition, effects opposite to those desired (cf. D. M. Wegner, 1994). For an exclusion task, participants were to respond "yes" to words heard earlier but "no" to words that were read earlier. Results from young adults given adequate time to respond showed that false alarms to earlier-read words decreased with their repetition. An opposite, ironic effect of repetition was found for elderly adults--false alarms to earlier-read words increased with repetition. Younger adults forced to respond quickly or to perform a secondary task while reading words showed the same ironic effect of repetition as did elderly adults. The process-dissociation procedure (L. L. Jacoby, 1991, 1998) was used to show that factors that produce ironic effects do so by reducing recollection while leaving effects of repetition on familiarity unchanged.

  18. Canadian Art Partnership Program in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketovuori, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    This article is about a multidisciplinary R&D project in which a Canadian Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) program was imported to Finland in 2003-2004. Cultural differences in arts education in Finland and Canada are discussed. While Finland has a national school curriculum with all the arts included. Canada relies more on partnerships to…

  19. Membership Contests: Encountering Immigrant Youth in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harinen, Paivi; Suurpaa, Leena; Hoikkala, Tommi; Hautaniemi, Petri; Perho, Sini; Keskisalo, Anne-Mari; Kuure, Tapio; Kunnapuu, Krista

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses different aspects of social and societal membership, when minority groups of young immigrants living in Finland are under consideration. During its history, Finland has mainly been a country of emigration. In the 1990s the direction of moving turned to the contrary and the amount of immigrants in Finland increased relatively…

  20. Further evidence of the Levantine Iron Age geomagnetic anomaly from Georgian pottery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaar, Ron; Tauxe, Lisa; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Devidze, Marina; Licheli, Vakhtang

    2017-03-01

    Recent archaeomagnetic data from ancient Israel revealed the existence of a so-called "Levantine Iron Age geomagnetic anomaly" (LIAA) which spanned the first 350 years of the first millennium before the Common Era (B.C.E.) and was characterized by a high averaged geomagnetic field (virtual axial dipole moments, VADM > 140 Z Am2, nearly twice of today's field), short decadal-scale geomagnetic spikes (VADM of 160-185 Z Am2), fast field variations, and substantial deviation from dipole field direction. The geographic constraints of the LIAA have remained elusive due to limited high-quality paleointensity data in surrounding locations. Here we report archaeointensity data from Georgia showing high field values (VADM > 150 Z Am2) in the tenth or ninth century B.C.E., low field values (VADM < 60 Z Am2) in the twelfth century B.C.E., and fast field variation in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C.E. High field values in the time frame of LIAA have been observed so far only in three localities near the Levant: Eastern Anatolia, Turkmenistan, and now Georgia, all located east of longitude 30°E. West of this, in the Balkans, field values in the same time are moderate to low. These constraints put geographic limits on the extent of the LIAA and support the hypothesis of an unusually intense regional geomagnetic anomaly during the beginning of the first half of the first millennium B.C.E., comparable in area and magnitude (but of opposite sign) to the presently active South Atlantic anomaly.

  1. Nutritional guidelines for older people in Finland.

    PubMed

    Suominen, M H; Jyvakorpi, S K; Pitkala, K H; Finne-Soveri, H; Hakala, P; Mannisto, S; Soini, H; Sarlio-Lahteenkorva, S

    2014-12-01

    Ageing is associated with an increased risk of malnutrition, decreased nutrient intake, unintentional weight loss and sarcopenia, which lead to frailty, functional disabilities and increased mortality. Nutrition combined with exercise is important in supporting older people's health, functional capacity and quality of life. To identify nutritional needs in various groups of older individuals and to present the nutritional guidelines for older people in Finland. A review of the existing literature on older people's nutritional needs and problems. The draft guidelines were written by a multidisciplinary expert panel; they were then revised, based on comments by expert organisations. The guidelines were approved by the National Nutritional Council in Finland. The heterogeneity of the older population is highlighted. The five key guidelines are: 1. The nutritional needs in different age and disability groups should be considered. 2. The nutritional status and food intake of older individuals should be assessed regularly. 3. An adequate intake of energy, protein, fiber, other nutrients and fluids should be guaranteed. 4. The use of a vitamin D supplement (20 μg per day) recommended. 5. The importance of physical activity is highlighted. In addition, weight changes, oral health, constipation, obesity, implementing nutritional care are highlighted. Owing to the impact that good nutrition has on health and well-being in later life, nutrition among older people should be given more attention. These nutritional guidelines are intended to improve the nutrition and nutritional care of the older population.

  2. Age, beta thalassaemia trait, and iron-deficient anaemia significantly affect reticulocyte indices in pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Chouliaras, Giorgos L; Stamoulakatou, Alexandra; Tsiftis, George; Perissaki, Georgia; Premetis, Evangelos; Lycopoulou, Lilia

    2010-09-01

    Reticulocyte indices are easy to obtain, low cost parameters and have gained interest in the field of diagnosing anaemias of childhood. We assessed distribution, age and gender variation, relation to indices of iron metabolism and diagnostic performance of reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CHr), percentage of microcytic reticulocytes (micro_r), percentage of hypochromic reticulocytes (hypo_r), and percentage of reticulocytes with low CHr (low_CHr) in 386 pre-school children classified in four groups: healthy, iron deficiency (ID), iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), and beta-thalassaemia carriers (beta-thal). Age had a positive effect in CHr (Spearman's rho = 0.21) and a negative effect in hypo_r (Spearman's rho = -0.2) in healthy children. CHr and low_CHr were related to ferritin in the IDA group (Spearman's rho 0.55 and -0.53, respectively). In the beta-thal group, HbA(2) is strongly related to all reticulocyte indices. micro_r and CHr performed best in discriminating between IDA and beta-thal heterozygosity (ROC analysis, area under the curve (AUC): 0.76 and 0.74, respectively). CHr achieved the best AUC (0.58) in identifying ID among children without anaemia. Age, IDA and beta-thal significantly affect reticulocyte indices. CHr and micro_r may have a role as screening tools in discriminating between IDA and beta-thal heterozygosity.

  3. "Off-Target" (18)F-AV-1451 Binding in the Basal Ganglia Correlates with Age-Related Iron Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Yong; Cho, Hanna; Ahn, Sung Jun; Lee, Jae Hoon; Ryu, Young Hoon; Lee, Myung Sik; Lyoo, Chul Hyoung

    2017-08-03

    Backgrounds: "Off-target" binding in the basal ganglia is commonly observed in the (18)F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography (PET) studies of the elderly. We sought to investigate the relationship between this phenomenon in the basal ganglia and iron accumulation using iron-sensitive R2(*) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Methods: 59 healthy controls and 61 patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment (AD/MCI) underwent (18)F-AV-1451 PET and R2(*) MR imaging studies. A correlation analysis was performed for age, (18)F-AV-1451 binding, and R2(*) values. Results: There was an age-related increase in both (18)F-AV-1451 binding in the basal ganglia and R2(*) values in the putamen in both the controls and AD/MCI patients. (18)F-AV-1451 binding in the basal ganglia increased with R2(*) values. Conclusion: "Off-target" (18)F-AV-1451 binding in the basal ganglia is associated with the age-related increases in iron accumulation. Postmortem studies are required to further investigate the nature of this association. Copyright © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  4. [Study of vitamin A nutritional status and the correlation of vitamin A and iron in school-age children].

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoming; Liu, Xiangye; Long, Zhu; Shen, Xiaoyi

    2003-01-01

    To understand the VA status, the detectable rate of the sub-clinical VA deficiency and the correlation of VA and iron in the rural school-age children of Beijing Mountain Area. In the dietary survey, blood samples were collected by venopunction and serum VA, and hematological index were determined in 305 children 7-13 years. The intakes of dietary energy, protein and iron were > 85% of the RNI and AI, but dietary intake of VA were (513.7 +/- 286.1) microgram to be 59.7% of the RNI; The average concentration of serum VA was (1.01 +/- 0.29) mumol/L, 59.0% of subjects have serum VA lower than 1.05 mumol/L, in which, 12.8% of them were lower than 0.70 mumol/L, and only 41.0% of subjects were normal levels of serum. With aggravation of iron deficiency from ID to IDA phase, the average serum VA concentrations were descending from 1.02 mumol/L in ID phase to 0.97 mumol/L in IDA phase. But the trend has no statistical significance. The results showed that sub-clinical VA deficiency was 59.0% in the rural school-age children, so VA deficiency was a main nutritional problem in rural school-age children of Beijing mountain area.

  5. Effect of Transport and Aging Processes on Metal Speciation in Iron Oxyhydroxide Aggregates, Tar Creek Superfund Site, Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estes, E. R.; Schaider, L. A.; Shine, J. P.; Brabander, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    Following the cessation of mining activity in the late 20th century, Tar Creek Superfund Site was left highly contaminated by Pb, Zn, and Cd. Tar Creek, which flows through the site and into the Neosho River, has been studied extensively because of its potential to transport metals from the mining site to downstream communities. Previous research identified aggregated iron oxyhydroxide material, which forms when mine seepage mixes with Tar Creek surface water, as a major transport vector of metals. Frequent flooding in Tar Creek deposits aggregates on downstream floodplains, where wetting and drying processes alter the speciation of iron and other metals. This study seeks to better quantify those changes and to determine how transport and aging affects the human and ecological health risk. Sequential extractions of aggregate samples collected from the creek demonstrate that Fe is present in both amorphous (10-35% of Fe extracted) and more crystalline (8-23% of Fe extracted) phases. Substantial portions of heavy metals sorb to amorphous iron oxyhydroxide phases (accounting for 10-30% of Pb and Zn extracted) but are not associated with more crystalline iron oxide phases (representing only 1% or less of the Pb and Zn extracted). Samples have a high organic matter content (18-25% mass loss on ignition), but only Fe was significantly extracted by the oxidizing step targeting organic matter (1-2% of Pb and Zn extracted, but 10-26% of Fe extracted). The majority of metals were extracted by the soluble or residual steps. If metals and organic matter inhibit transformation of amorphous iron oxyhydroxide material to nano and crystalline iron oxides, then a steady-state volume of amorphous iron oxyhydroxide material with a high total sorption capacity may exist within Tar Creek, enhancing the metal flux accommodated by this transport mechanism. Once transported downstream and deposited on floodplains, however, it is hypothesized that repeated changes in soil matrix

  6. Body height, birth cohort and social background in Finland and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Silventoinen, K; Lahelma, E; Lundberg, O; Rahkonen, O

    2001-06-01

    Poor childhood living conditions are associated with short stature. Before the Second World War Finland had much lower living standards than Sweden, but this gap had largely disappeared by the 1970s. Body height differences were examined by birth cohort, economic difficulties in childhood and adult socioeconomic position in Finland and Sweden. Two nationally representative data sets were used (n = 7,300 in Finland and n = 4,551 in Sweden). Three indicators of social background were included, i.e. economic difficulties in childhood, education and occupational class. The methods used were direct age-standardisation, index of dissimilarity and regression analysis. In the cohort born in 1920-1929 body height was taller in Sweden (175.8 cm among men and 163.7 cm among women) than in Finland (173.9 and 161.2 cm respectively). Body height by birth cohort increased faster in Finland, with the result that, in the cohort born in 1960-1969, the gap between the countries had narrowed to 0.8 cm among men and 0.3 cm among women. Body height differences by social background were larger in Finland than in Sweden. Socioeconomic body height differences have remained largely stable over the birth cohorts in both countries. The results suggest that differential economic development is partly seen in the narrowing of body height differences between Finland and Sweden. However, socioeconomic differences in body height have remained largely similar over the birth cohorts studied and between Finland and Sweden.

  7. An Animal-Source Food Supplement Increases Micronutrient Intakes and Iron Status among Reproductive-Age Women in Rural Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hall, Andrew G; Ngu, Tu; Nga, Hoang T; Quyen, Phi N; Hong Anh, Pham T; King, Janet C

    2017-06-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the impact of local animal-source foods (ASFs) on the nutritional status of reproductive-age women in developing countries.Objective: We hypothesized that a midmorning snack of local ASF for 6 mo would reduce dietary micronutrient deficiencies [usual intake less than the estimated average requirement (EAR)] and improve blood biomarkers of iron, zinc, and vitamins A and B-12 status among nonpregnant, reproductive-age women in rural Vietnam.Methods: One hundred seventeen women, 18-30 y old, were randomly assigned to receive either an ASF (mean: 144 kcal, 8.9 mg Fe, 2.7 mg Zn, 1050 μg retinoic acid equivalent vitamin A, and 5.5 μg vitamin B-12) or a control snack (mean: 150 kcal, 2.0 mg Fe, 0.9 mg Zn, 0 μg retinoic acid equivalent vitamin A, and 0 μg vitamin B-12) 5 d/wk for 6 mo. Usual nutrient intakes were estimated by repeated 24-h dietary recalls. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 3 and 6 mo. Because of the relation between nutritional status and inflammation, serum C-reactive protein, α-1-acid-glycoprotein, and urinary tract infections (UTIs) were also monitored.Results: Eighty-nine women (47 in the ASF group and 42 controls) completed the study. In the ASF group, intakes of iron and vitamins A and B-12 below the EAR were eliminated, and the prevalence of a low zinc intake was reduced to 9.6% compared with 64.7% in controls (P < 0.001). At 6 mo, a modest increase (P < 0.05) in hemoglobin and iron status occurred in the ASF group compared with the control group, but plasma zinc, retinol, and serum vitamin B-12 concentrations did not differ. UTI relative risk was 3.9 (P < 0.05) among women assigned to the ASF group who had a low whole-body iron status at baseline.Conclusions: Adding a small amount of locally produced ASF to the diets of reproductive-age Vietnamese women improved micronutrient intakes and iron status. However, the increased UTI incidence in women in the ASF group with initially lower iron stores

  8. Unemployment at municipality level is associated with an increased risk of small for gestational age births--a multilevel analysis of all singleton births during 2005-2010 in Finland.

    PubMed

    Räisänen, Sari; Kramer, Michael R; Gissler, Mika; Saari, Juho; Heinonen, Seppo

    2014-10-18

    Neighbourhood level deprivation has been shown to influence adverse perinatal outcomes independent of individual level socioeconomic status (SES) in countries with high income inequality, such as the United States. The present study evaluates whether municipality level deprivation defined based on education (proportion of inhabitants with university level education), income (mean income per capita) and unemployment were associated with the prevalence of preterm birth (<37 weeks) and small for gestational age (SGA, birth weight <2 standard deviations) after adjustment for individual level socio-demographics (age, parity, prior preterm births, smoking during pregnancy and SES defined based on maternal occupation at birth) in Finland. The study design was cross-sectional. The data gathered from the Medical Birth Register included all singleton births (n = 345,952) in 2005-2010. We fitted Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) models to account for correlation of preterm birth and SGA clustering within municipality. Of all the women with singleton pregnancies, 4.5% (n = 15,615) gave birth preterm and 3.8% (n = 13,111) of their newborns were classified as SGA. Individual level SES and smoking were important risk factors for each outcome in adjusted models. Controlling for individual level factors, women living in intermediate and high unemployment class municipalities were 6.0% (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.12) and 13.0% (aOR = 1.13; 95% CI 1.06-1.20), respectively, more likely to give birth to an SGA newborn than women living in low unemployment class municipalities. After adjustment for individual level socio-demographics, the prevalence of SGA was around 6-13% higher in municipalities with an intermediate or high unemployment rate than municipalities with the lowest unemployment rate. The results suggested that the unemployment rate has an important public health effect with clinical implications since SGA

  9. An 8-week course of 45 mg of carbonyl iron daily reduces iron deficiency in female whole blood donors aged 18 to 45 years: results of a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Marks, Denese C; Speedy, Joanna; Robinson, Kathryn L; Brama, Tania; Capper, Hugh R; Mondy, Phillip; Keller, Anthony J

    2014-03-01

    Blood donation is known to contribute to iron deficiency in regular blood donors. This study investigated the safety and efficacy of postdonation iron replacement to mitigate iron deficiency in blood donors. A total of 282 female whole blood donors aged 18 to 45 were prospectively randomized in a double-blinded placebo controlled trial to receive an 8-week postdonation course of carbonyl iron (45 mg daily) or placebo. The primary endpoint was prevalence of iron deficiency (ferritin < 15 ng/mL) at 12 weeks postdonation. Secondary endpoints were eligibility to donate based on capillary hemoglobin (Hb) and incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) complaints. Ferritin levels at Week 12 were significantly higher in donors receiving carbonyl iron (17.0 ± 10.9 ng/mL) compared with those receiving placebo (10.6 ± 8.4 ng/mL; p < 0.001). The proportion of iron-deficient donors was significantly lower in the carbonyl iron group (51.9%) compared to the placebo (80.5%; p < 0.001). The mean Hb level in the carbonyl iron group (134.6 ± 8.7 g/L) was significantly higher than in the placebo arm (130.0 ± 9.9 g/L; p < 0.001), significantly improving eligibility to donate at Week 12. Significantly more donors receiving carbonyl iron had at least one GI side effect (p < 0.001). Importantly, 86.7% of donors receiving carbonyl iron indicated that they would take iron on an ongoing basis. An 8-week postdonation course of 45 mg of carbonyl iron significantly reduced iron deficiency and was well tolerated in female whole blood donors. Postdonation iron replacement may have a role in a broader strategy to optimize donor iron status. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  10. Low-Level Toxic Metal Exposure in Healthy Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Dietary Intake, and Iron Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jungil; Chang, Ju Young; Hong, Jeana; Shin, Sue; Park, Jeong Su; Oh, Sohee

    2017-04-06

    Even low levels of toxic metal exposure (As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) in infancy might be harmful to children's development. This study investigated toxic metal exposure on healthy weaning-age infants and its relationship with growth, diet, and iron/anemia status. The weight, height, head circumference, whole blood levels of four toxic metals, hemoglobin, and serum ferritin of healthy infants was measured. Among 210 infants with a median age of 11.4 months (interquartile range: 10.5-12.0), the median levels of As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were 1.2 μg/L, 0.05 μg/L, 0.8 μg/L, and 0.83 μg/dL, respectively. In adjusted linear regression models, post-birth weight gain (Pb) and current head circumference (As, Pb) were negatively associated with toxic metal levels. In multiple linear regression or logistic regression analysis, the duration of breastfeeding (all four metals), perceived adequacy of rice-based food intake (As), regular fish intake (As, Hg), and iron deficiency with/without anemia (Cd, Pb) were associated with increased toxic metal levels. Although levels of toxic metals may not usually be high in this population, individual exposure risk may need to be assessed after considering the type of feeding or intake of complementary foods and the iron/anemia status while evaluating growth status during late infancy.

  11. Effects of daily iron supplementation in primary-school–aged children: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Low, Michael; Farrell, Ann; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Pasricha, Sant-Rayn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anemia is an important public health and clinical problem. Observational studies have linked iron deficiency and anemia in children with many poor outcomes, including impaired cognitive development; however, iron supplementation, a widely used preventive and therapeutic strategy, is associated with adverse effects. Primary-school–aged children are at a critical stage in intellectual development, and optimization of their cognitive performance could have long-lasting individual and population benefits. In this study, we summarize the evidence for the benefits and safety of daily iron supplementation in primary-school–aged children. Methods: We searched electronic databases (including MEDLINE and Embase) and other sources (July 2013) for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials involving daily iron supplementation in children aged 5–12 years. We combined the data using random effects meta-analysis. Results: We identified 16 501 studies; of these, we evaluated 76 full-text papers and included 32 studies including 7089 children. Of the included studies, 31 were conducted in low- or middle-income settings. Iron supplementation improved global cognitive scores (standardized mean difference 0.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.11 to 0.90, p = 0.01), intelligence quotient among anemic children (mean difference 4.55, 95% CI 0.16 to 8.94, p = 0.04) and measures of attention and concentration. Iron supplementation also improved age-adjusted height among all children and age-adjusted weight among anemic children. Iron supplementation reduced the risk of anemia by 50% and the risk of iron deficiency by 79%. Adherence in the trial settings was generally high. Safety data were limited. Interpretation: Our analysis suggests that iron supplementation safely improves hematologic and nonhematologic outcomes among primary-school–aged children in low- or middle-income settings and is well-tolerated. PMID:24130243

  12. Cosmic ray exposure ages of iron meteorites, complex irradiation and the constancy of cosmic ray flux in the past

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marti, K.; Lavielle, B.; Regnier, S.

    1984-01-01

    While previous calculations of potassium ages assumed a constant cosmic ray flux and a single stage (no change in size) exposure of iron meteorites, present calculations relaxed these constancy assumptions and the results reveal multistage irradiations for some 25% of the meteorites studied, implying multiple breakup in space. The distribution of exposure ages suggests several major collisions (based on chemical composition and structure), although the calibration of age scales is not yet complete. It is concluded that shielding-corrected (corrections which depend on size and position of sample) production rates are consistent for the age bracket of 300 to 900 years. These production rates differ in a systematic way from those calculated for present day fluxes of cosmic rays (such as obtained for the last few million years).

  13. Iron and Carbon Dynamics during Aging and Reductive Transformation of Biogenic Ferrihydrite.

    PubMed

    Cismasu, A Cristina; Williams, Kenneth H; Nico, Peter S

    2016-01-05

    Natural organic matter is often associated with Fe(III) oxyhydroxides, and may be stabilized as a result of coprecipitation or sorption to their surfaces. However, the significance of this association in relation to Fe and C dynamics and biogeochemical cycling, and the mechanisms responsible for organic matter stabilization as a result of interaction with minerals under various environmental conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, etc.) are not entirely understood. The preservation of mineral-bound OM may be affected by OM structure and mineral identity, and bond types between OM and minerals may be central to influencing the stability, transformation and composition of both organic and mineral components under changing environmental conditions. Here we use bulk and submicron-scale spectroscopic synchrotron methods to examine the in situ transformation of OM-bearing, biogenic ferrihydrite stalks (Gallionella ferruginea-like), which formed following injection of oxygenated groundwater into a saturated alluvial aquifer at the Rifle, CO field site. A progression from oxidizing to reducing conditions during an eight-month period triggered the aging and reductive transformation of Gallionella-like ferrihydrite stalks to Fe (hydroxy)carbonates and Fe sulfides, as well as alteration of the composition and amount of OM. Spectromicroscopic measurements showed a gradual decrease in reduced carbon forms (aromatic/alkene, aliphatic C), a relative increase in amide/carboxyl functional groups and a significant increase in carbonate in the stalk structures, and the appearance of organic globules not associated with stalk structures. Biogenic stalks lost ∼30% of their initial organic carbon content. Conversely, a significant increase in bulk organic matter accompanied these transformations. The character of bulk OM changed in parallel with mineralogical transformations, showing an increase in aliphatic, aromatic and amide functional groups. These changes likely occurred as a result of an

  14. Geochemical features of glass beads excavated from the Iron Age archaeological sites, Eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.

    2016-12-01

    The uses of metallic artifacts began 2500-2000 years ago in Taiwan; in the meanwhile glass beads have also been as a common ornament by the prehistoric people. Glass, as the earliest artificial ornament, is made by a mixture of quartz sands and flux which were heated to more than one thousand Celsius degrees. Therefore, the production processes, raw material provenance and exchange systems could be revealed by the chemical compositions of glass artifacts. The chemical composition of glass beads studies from four archaeological sites (PL, PN, CHL and TL sites) in early Iron Age are reported in this study. By the producing in drawn method and limited ranges of colors with various hue, all the studied glass beads here should be classified as Indo-Pacific glass beads. As these ancient glass beads are unique and precious, a non-destructive analytical method is always considered at the initial stage. Therefore, we use the best known and most widely-used of the surface analytical techniques SEM/EDX to get the surface and quantitative elemental information of glass beads. According to the analytical results, the PL and PN glass beads all belong to potassium silica glass and those coexisting with so-called Kueishan sherds excavated from CHL and TL sites should be classified as sodium-calcium glass which is the most general composition of Indo-Pacific glass beads. Not only the different flux using between potassium and sodium glass, the variation in the aluminum contents between potassium and sodium glass also exhibits different provenances of glass-making raw materials. As lack of glass-making remains in Taiwan, these ancient glass beads were considered as a precious and trading artifact to Taiwan from overseas and introduced into prehistoric societies via various sources and paths. Although the trading/exchange routes of ancient glass beads are still debatable, we find that compositional analyses can help answer such questions as what types of glass were used for their

  15. Fertility and mortality in Finland since 1750.

    PubMed

    Turpeinen, O

    1979-03-01

    Summary In this paper the development of fertility and mortality in Finland, and their interrelations with each other and with economic factors is discussed. An analysis by individual years shows that rises and falls in mortality and fertility rates did not always coincide with poor and good harvests. Fertility in Finland decreased slightly at the turn of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, but fell sharply over the period 1876-1925. This fall corresponded closely to changes in the death rate, especially for infants, and appears to justify the conclusion that the changes were connected. These population shifts have been called the first and second demographic transitions, of which the latter was the more dramatic. Factors tending to reduce mortality among infants and in other age groups during the second demographic transition are obvious; those underlying the first demographic transition are less clear. In this connection, the importance of breast feeding and campaigns designed to favour the practice are stressed. These helped to reduce infant mortality and were one of the main reasons for the first demographic transition. Finnish material also suggests that some kind of family planning existed during the pre-industrial period; it is only by making this assumption that the various figures can be made compatible.

  16. Probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum 299v increases iron absorption from an iron-supplemented fruit drink: a double-isotope cross-over single-blind study in women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Michael; Önning, Gunilla; Berggren, Anna; Hulthén, Lena

    2015-10-28

    Iron deficiency is common, especially among young women. Adding probiotics to foods could be one way to increase iron absorption. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that non-haem iron absorption from a fruit drink is improved by adding Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Lp299v). Iron absorption was studied in healthy women of reproductive age using a single-blind cross-over design in two trials applying the double-isotope (55Fe and 59Fe) technique. In Trial 1, iron absorption from a fruit drink containing 109 colony-forming units (CFU) Lp299v was compared with that from a control drink without Lp299v. Trial 2 had the same design but 1010 CFU were used. The test and control drinks contained approximately 5 mg of iron as ferrous lactate and were labelled with 59Fe (B) and 55Fe (A), respectively, and consumed on 4 consecutive days in the order AABB. Retention of the isotopes was measured with whole-body counting and in blood. Mean iron absorption from the drink containing 109 CFU Lp299v (28·6(sd 12·5) %) was significantly higher than from the control drink (18·5(sd 5·8) %), n 10, P<0·028). The fruit drink with 1010 CFU Lp299v gave a mean iron absorption of 29·1(sd 17·0) %, whereas the control drink gave an absorption of (20·1(sd 6·4) %) (n 11, P<0·080). The difference in iron absorption between the 109 CFU Lp299v and the 1010 CFU Lp299v drinks was not significant (P=0·941). In conclusion, intake of probiotics can increase iron absorption by approximately 50 % from a fruit drink having an already relatively high iron bioavailability.

  17. Toxicity of iron-based nanoparticles to green algae: Effects of particle size, crystal phase, oxidation state and environmental aging.

    PubMed

    Lei, Cheng; Zhang, Luqing; Yang, Kun; Zhu, Lizhong; Lin, Daohui

    2016-11-01

    With the increasing environmental application and discharge of iron-based nanoparticles (NPs), a comprehensive understanding of their fate and ecotoxicological effect in the aquatic environment is very urgent. In this study, toxicities of 4 zero-valent iron NPs (nZVI) of different sizes, 2 Fe2O3 NPs of different crystal phases, and 1 type of Fe3O4 NPs to a green alga (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) were investigated, with a focus on the effects of particle size, crystal phase, oxidation state, and environmental aging. Results show that the algal growth inhibition of nZVI increased significantly with decreasing particle size; with similar particle sizes (20-30 nm), the algal growth inhibition decreased with oxidation of the NPs with an order of nZVI > Fe3O4 NPs > Fe2O3 NPs, and α-Fe2O3 NPs presented significantly higher toxicity than γ-Fe2O3 NPs. The NP-induced oxidative stress was the main toxic mechanism, which could explain the difference in algal toxicity of the NPs. The NP-cell heteroagglomeration and physical interactions also contributed to the nanotoxicity, whereas the effect of NP dissolution was negligible. The aging in distilled water and 3 surface water samples for 3 months increased surface oxidation of the iron-based NPs especially nZVI, which decreased the toxicity to algae. These findings will be helpful for the understanding of the fate and toxicity of iron-based NPs in the aquatic environment.

  18. Prevalence of anaemia and iron deficiency in urban Haïtian children two to five years of age.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, T A; Kuvibidila, S; Gatewood, L C; Metzinger, A B; Frempong, K O

    1998-06-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of anaemia and iron deficiency (ID) in 305 urban Haïtian children, 142 boys and 163 girls from low socioeconomic class, ranging in age from 2 to 5 years. Haemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin (FERR), serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation (TS), and red blood cell indices were measured by standard techniques. Although the means of these indices were within normal range, 58.4 per cent of children had at least one of the measurements in the abnormal range (FERR < 12 micrograms/l, TS < 12, HB < 10.7 g/l in 2 year old and < 10.9 g/dl in 3-5 year old children). The overall prevalence of anaemia (40 per cent) was slightly higher in boys (42 per cent) than in girls (36 per cent). Approximately 45 and 31 per cent of children had FERR < 12 micrograms/l TS < 12 per cent, respectively, with no difference between boys and girls. Despite the decrease in the prevalence of anaemia and ID with age, about one-third of the 5 year old children were either anaemic or iron deficient. Hypochromia and microcytosis were present in 60 and 66 per cent of children respectively. Although ID was the major cause of anaemia, protein-energy malnutrition as judged by low TIBC contributed to the high prevalence of anaemia. Megaloblastic anaemia and haemoglobinopathies did not significantly contribute to the high prevalence of anaemia. The frequency of fruit consumption, hence vitamin C, was lower in anaemic than non-anaemic children. We conclude that the eradication of anaemia and ID in this population will require improvement in overall nutritional status.

  19. Mineralogy and Ar-Ar Age of the Tarahumara IIE Iron, with Reference to the Origin of Alkali-Rich Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Bogard, Donald D.; Otsuki, Mayumi; Ishii, Teruaki

    2003-01-01

    Silicate inclusions in nine known IIE irons show diversity in mineralogy, and Colomera, Kodaikanal, Elga and Miles contain alkali-rich silicate inclusions. Bogard et al. showed evidence of a complex parent body evolution for IIE irons based on Ar-39-Ar-40 ages. Colomera contained a sanidine-rich surface inclusion and the K-enrichment trends in the Na-rich inclusions are different from those of other IIEs. To elucidate the origin of K-rich materials, we studied the mineralogy and Ar-Ar age of silicate inclusions from the Tarahumara IIE iron meteorite.

  20. Continuity or conquest? A multi-isotope approach to investigating identity in the Early Iron Age of the Southern Levant.

    PubMed

    Gregoricka, Lesley A; Sheridan, Susan Guise

    2017-01-01

    Across the Mediterranean and Near East, the transition from the Late Bronze Age (ca. 1550-1200 BC) to the Early Iron Age (ca. 1200-900 BC) was accompanied by profound cultural change. While this transformation was initially attributed to invasion or conquest, more recent, nuanced interpretations of archaeological and biological data now emphasize the decline of palatial economies, a shift away from centralized political authority, and internal social restructuring amidst rapid climate change in lieu of "collapse." Correspondingly, the hypothesis that Early Iron Age populations in Palestine represent the same ethnic group whose culture nevertheless underwent considerable change by actively adapting to internal and external forces was tested using biogeochemical data from individuals interred within an Early Iron Age tomb at the site of Tell Dothan. Human dental enamel from molars (n = 43) recovered from Tomb I at Tell Dothan was analyzed for radiogenic strontium isotope ratios and stable oxygen and carbon (VPDB) isotope values. Strontium (mean = 0.70816 ± 0.00005, 1σ) isotope ratios, as well as oxygen (mean = -2.3 ± 0.7‰, 1σ) and carbon (mean = -11.9 ± 0.5‰, 1σ) isotope values, all display little variability. The absence of non-locals at Tell Dothan indicates that population replacement does not adequately explain the sociopolitical changes observed in the archaeological record. Further, homogeneity among isotope values is indicative of a community that was not highly mobile, suggesting that decentralization and a corresponding transition to a more mobile lifestyle may not accurately reflect the adaptive strategies of all human groups during this period as a mechanism to cope with social and environmental change. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2011-07-15

    Background: Cadmium is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant associated with increased risk of leading causes of mortality and morbidity in women, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Iron deficiency increases absorption of dietary cadmium, rendering women, who tend to have lower iron stores than men, more susceptible to cadmium uptake. We used body iron, a measure that incorporates both serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, as recommended by the World Health Organization, to evaluate the relationships between iron status and urine and blood cadmium. Methods: Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, urine and blood cadmium values in never-smoking, non-pregnant, non-lactating, non-menopausal women aged 20-49 years (n=599) were obtained from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, and iron deficiency defined as body iron <0 mg/kg. Robust linear regression was used to evaluate the relationships between body iron and blood and urine cadmium, adjusted for age, race, poverty, body mass index, and parity. Results: Per incremental (mg/kg) increase in body iron, urine cadmium decreased by 0.003 {mu}g/g creatinine and blood cadmium decreased by 0.014 {mu}g/L. Iron deficiency was associated with 0.044 {mu}g/g creatinine greater urine cadmium (95% CI=0.020, 0.069) and 0.162 {mu}g/L greater blood cadmium (95% CI=0.132, 0.193). Conclusions: Iron deficiency is a risk factor for increased blood and urine cadmium among never-smoking, pre-menopausal, non-pregnant US women, independent of age, race, poverty, body mass index and parity. Expanding programs to detect and correct iron deficiency among non-pregnant women merits consideration as a potential means to reduce the risk of cadmium associated diseases. - Highlights: {yields} Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. {yields} Body iron was inversely associated with blood

  2. Prevention of Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Infants and Children of Preschool Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fomon, Samuel J.

    Iron-deficiency anemia is almost certainly the most prevalent nutritional disorder among infants and young children in the United States. Anemia is frequently seen among children of low socioeconomic status but is probably also the most frequent nutritional deficiency disease seen among children cared for by private doctors. Possible reasons for…

  3. Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal diversity in ancient populations of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in Finland: comparison with contemporary sheep breeds.

    PubMed

    Niemi, Marianna; Bläuer, Auli; Iso-Touru, Terhi; Nyström, Veronica; Harjula, Janne; Taavitsainen, Jussi-Pekka; Storå, Jan; Lidén, Kerstin; Kantanen, Juha

    2013-01-22

    Several molecular and population genetic studies have focused on the native sheep breeds of Finland. In this work, we investigated their ancestral sheep populations from Iron Age, Medieval and Post-Medieval periods by sequencing a partial mitochondrial DNA D-loop and the 5'-promoter region of the SRY gene. We compared the maternal (mitochondrial DNA haplotypes) and paternal (SNP oY1) genetic diversity of ancient sheep in Finland with modern domestic sheep populations in Europe and Asia to study temporal changes in genetic variation and affinities between ancient and modern populations. A 523-bp mitochondrial DNA sequence was successfully amplified for 26 of 36 sheep ancient samples i.e. five, seven and 14 samples representative of Iron Age, Medieval and Post-Medieval sheep, respectively. Genetic diversity was analyzed within the cohorts. This ancient dataset was compared with present-day data consisting of 94 animals from 10 contemporary European breeds and with GenBank DNA sequence data to carry out a haplotype sharing analysis. Among the 18 ancient mitochondrial DNA haplotypes identified, 14 were present in the modern breeds. Ancient haplotypes were assigned to the highly divergent ovine haplogroups A and B, haplogroup B being the major lineage within the cohorts. Only two haplotypes were detected in the Iron Age samples, while the genetic diversity of the Medieval and Post-Medieval cohorts was higher. For three of the ancient DNA samples, Y-chromosome SRY gene sequences were amplified indicating that they originated from rams. The SRY gene of these three ancient ram samples contained SNP G-oY1, which is frequent in modern north-European sheep breeds. Our study did not reveal any sign of major population replacement of native sheep in Finland since the Iron Age. Variations in the availability of archaeological remains may explain differences in genetic diversity estimates and patterns within the cohorts rather than demographic events that occurred in the past

  4. Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal diversity in ancient populations of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in Finland: comparison with contemporary sheep breeds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several molecular and population genetic studies have focused on the native sheep breeds of Finland. In this work, we investigated their ancestral sheep populations from Iron Age, Medieval and Post-Medieval periods by sequencing a partial mitochondrial DNA D-loop and the 5’-promoter region of the SRY gene. We compared the maternal (mitochondrial DNA haplotypes) and paternal (SNP oY1) genetic diversity of ancient sheep in Finland with modern domestic sheep populations in Europe and Asia to study temporal changes in genetic variation and affinities between ancient and modern populations. Results A 523-bp mitochondrial DNA sequence was successfully amplified for 26 of 36 sheep ancient samples i.e. five, seven and 14 samples representative of Iron Age, Medieval and Post-Medieval sheep, respectively. Genetic diversity was analyzed within the cohorts. This ancient dataset was compared with present-day data consisting of 94 animals from 10 contemporary European breeds and with GenBank DNA sequence data to carry out a haplotype sharing analysis. Among the 18 ancient mitochondrial DNA haplotypes identified, 14 were present in the modern breeds. Ancient haplotypes were assigned to the highly divergent ovine haplogroups A and B, haplogroup B being the major lineage within the cohorts. Only two haplotypes were detected in the Iron Age samples, while the genetic diversity of the Medieval and Post-Medieval cohorts was higher. For three of the ancient DNA samples, Y-chromosome SRY gene sequences were amplified indicating that they originated from rams. The SRY gene of these three ancient ram samples contained SNP G-oY1, which is frequent in modern north-European sheep breeds. Conclusions Our study did not reveal any sign of major population replacement of native sheep in Finland since the Iron Age. Variations in the availability of archaeological remains may explain differences in genetic diversity estimates and patterns within the cohorts rather than demographic

  5. [Changes in consumption of blood products in Finland from 2007 to 2014].

    PubMed

    Ihalainen, Jarkko; Lauronen, Jouni; Syrjälä, Martti

    2016-01-01

    The Finnish Red Cross Blood Service (FRCBS) collects and distributes all cellular blood products in Finland. The use of red cells in Finland follows neither the aging of the Finnish population nor morbidity. The use of red blood cells has diminished 34% during the last 20 years and half of this decrease has taken place during the last three years. Use of platelet preparations per inhabitant in Finland clearly exceeds European median. An enhanced IT support for the blood supply chain is needed to maximize the effectiveness of use of blood products.

  6. Large geomagnetic field anomalies revealed in Bronze to Iron Age archeomagnetic data from Tel Megiddo and Tel Hazor, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaar, Ron; Tauxe, Lisa; Ron, Hagai; Ebert, Yael; Zuckerman, Sharon; Finkelstein, Israel; Agnon, Amotz

    2016-05-01

    Geomagnetic field measurements from the past few centuries show heightened secular variation activity in the southern hemisphere associated with the south Atlantic anomaly (SAA). It is uncertain whether geomagnetic anomalies at a similar scale have existed in the past owing to limited coverage and uncertainties in the paleomagnetic database. Here we provide new evidence from archaeological sources in the Levant suggesting a large positive northern hemisphere anomaly, similar in magnitude to the SAA during the 9th-8th centuries BCE, called ;Levantine Iron Age anomaly;. We also report an additional geomagnetic spike in the 8th century. The new dataset comprises 73 high precision paleointensity estimates from ca. 3000 BCE to 732 BCE, and five directional measurements between the 14th and the 9th centuries BCE. Well-dated pottery and cooking ovens were collected from twenty archaeological strata in two large contemporaneous stratigraphical mounds (tells) in Israel: Tel Megiddo and Tel Hazor. The new data are combined with previously published data and interpreted automatically using the PmagPy Thellier GUI program. The Tel Megiddo and Tel Hazor data sets demonstrate excellent internal consistency and remarkable agreement with published data from Mesopotamia (Syria). The data illustrate the evolution of an extreme geomagnetic high that culminated in at least two spikes between the 11th and the 8th centuries BCE (Iron Age in the Levant). The paleomagnetic directional data of the 9th century BCE show positive inclination anomalies, and deviations of up to 22° from the averaged geocentric axial dipole (GAD) direction. From comparison of the Levantine archaeomagnetic data with IGRF model for 2015 we infer the ;Levantine Iron Age anomaly; between the 10th and the 8th centuries BCE is a local positive anomaly. The eastward extent of the anomaly is currently unknown.

  7. Shifting diet, shifting culture? A bioarchaeological approach to island dietary development on Iron-Age Öland, Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmson, Helene

    2017-06-01

    The diet and subsistence in Iron-Age Öland is debated as earlier studies and different archaeological sources seemingly provide conflicting interpretations. The objectives of this study are therefore to: (i) add new insights on diet and (ii) investigate the chronological variation in detail. It is common in studies of diet to investigate differences between datasets defined by archaeological periods (determined by artefact typology), but it is rare to explore whether these dietary changes are, in fact, well correlated with these temporal categories or not. Stable isotope analysis of 108 individuals and 25 animals was used to interpret diet in comparison with data from earlier studies. Different values of TLE (Trophic Level Effect) for δ(15) N were compared for interpretations of diet. Of the 108 individuals, 42 were subjected to (14) C analysis in this study. The isotopes from Iron-Age animals on Öland indicate that the local, contemporary ecology is specific. The human isotope values show chronological development both when pooled in chronological groups by typology and by more specific (14) C chronology. The new samples of animals as well as the use of 5‰ TLE for δ(15) N values results in the diet reinterpreted as mainly domesticate-based, with at least two shifts in diet occurring in the Iron Age. The use of (14) C dates in connection with the stable isotope results indicates a dietary transition occurring between 200 BC and AD 200, a date range that spans two typologically determined time periods. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Geology, alteration, age, and origin of iron oxide-apatite deposits in Upper Eocene quartz monzonite, Zanjan district, NW Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabatian, Ghasem; Ghaderi, Majid; Corfu, Fernando; Neubauer, Franz; Bernroider, Manfred; Prokofiev, Vsevolod; Honarmand, Maryam

    2014-02-01

    Iron oxide-apatite deposits are present in Upper Eocene pyroxene-quartz monzonitic rocks of the Zanjan district, northwestern Iran. Mineralization occurred in five stages: (1) deposition of disseminated magnetite and apatite in the host rock; (2) mineralization of massive and banded magnetite ores in veins and stockwork associated with minor brecciation and calcic alteration of host rocks; (3) deposition of sulfide ores together with potassic alteration; (4) formation of quartz and carbonate veins and sericite, chlorite, epidote, silica, carbonate, and tourmaline alteration; and (5) supergene alteration and weathering. U-Pb dating of monazite inclusions in the apatite indicates an age of 39.99 ± 0.24 Ma, which is nearly coeval with the time of emplacement of the host quartz monzonite, supporting the genetic connection. Fluid inclusions in the apatite have homogenization temperatures of about 300 °C and oxygen isotopic compositions of the magnetite support precipitation from magmatic fluids. Late-stage quartz resulted from the introduction of a cooler, less saline, and isotopically depleted fluid. The iron oxide-apatite deposits in the Tarom area of the Zanjan district are typical of a magmatic-hydrothermal origin and are similar to the Kiruna-type deposits with respect to mineral assemblages, fabric and structure of the iron ores, occurrence of the ore bodies, and wall rock alteration.

  9. Micronutrient supplementation adherence and influence on the prevalences of anemia and iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies in preemies with a corrected age of six months

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Brunnella Alcantara Chagas; Lima, Luciana Moreira; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Henriques, Bruno David; Carlos, Carla Fernanda Lisboa Valente; Sabino, Jusceli Souza Nogueira; do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze adherence to the recommended iron, zinc and multivitamin supplementation guidelines for preemies, the factors associated with this adherence, and the influence of adherence on the occurrence of anemia and iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies. METHODS: This prospective cohort study followed 58 preemies born in 2014 until they reached six months corrected age. The preemies were followed at a referral secondary health service and represented 63.7% of the preterm infants born that year. Outcomes of interest included high or low adherence to iron, zinc and multivitamin supplementation guidelines; prevalence of anemia; and prevalences of iron, zinc, and vitamin A deficiencies. The prevalence ratios were calculated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: Thirty-eight (65.5%) preemies presented high adherence to micronutrient supplementation guidelines. At six months of corrected age, no preemie had vitamin A deficiency. The prevalences of anemia, iron deficiency and zinc deficiency were higher in the low-adherence group but also concerning in the high-adherence group. Preemies with low adherence to micronutrient supplementation guidelines were 2.5 times more likely to develop anemia and 3.1 times more likely to develop zinc deficiency. Low maternal education level increased the likelihood of nonadherence to all three supplements by 2.2 times. CONCLUSIONS: Low maternal education level was independently associated with low adherence to iron, zinc and vitamin A supplementation guidelines in preemies, which impacted the prevalences of anemia and iron and zinc deficiencies at six months of corrected age. PMID:27626474

  10. In situ transmission electron microscopy He+ implantation and thermal aging of nanocrystalline iron

    DOE PAGES

    Muntifering, Brittany R.; Fang, Youwu; Leff, Asher C.; ...

    2016-10-04

    Due to their high density of interfaces, nanostructured material are hypothesized to show a higher tolerance to radiation damage compared to conventional coarse-grained materials and are on interest for use in future nuclear reactors. In order to investigate the roles of vacancies, self-interstitials, and helium during defect accumulation, and the thermal evolution of such defects, a complex set of in situ TEM experiments were performed in nanocrystalline iron.

  11. Late Holocene geoarchaeological investigation of the Middle Thames floodplain at Dorney, Buckinghamshire, UK: An evaluation of the Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman and Saxon landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Adrian G.; Lucas, Alex S.; Walden, John; Goudie, Andrew S.; Robinson, Mark A.; Allen, Tim G.

    2008-10-01

    Large-scale floodplain excavations at Dorney in the Middle Thames valley have revealed organic-rich Holocene palaeochannels as well as a rich archaeological record. High-resolution (decadal) palaeobotanical and sedimentological analyses from a Late Holocene palaeochannel have enabled detailed reconstruction of the landscape spanning from ca. 2850 C 14 yr BP (Late Bronze Age), through the Iron Age, Roman and Saxon periods and into the Medieval period ( ca. 450 C 14 yr BP). The application of sedimentological, palaeovegetation and mineral magnetic analyses coupled with the use of simultaneous R- and Q-mode factor analysis helps to underpin phases of active channel flow, phases of channel 'ponding', and alluviation. These phases developed in response to human activity and land use within the region that resulted from deforestation, changes from pastoral to arable practice, burning and the associated destabilisation and inwash of soils into the channel. A series of wooden bridges and timber structures were constructed across this channel between the Middle Bronze Age and Late Iron Age which influenced local sedimentation patterns, fluvial energy and competency within the channel. A number of erosive events coupled with inwashing from the clearance of the last vestiges of woodland for agriculture into an active channel were identified. During the Roman period, flow along the Thames channel ceased, resulting in a pond-like feature in which peaty silts rapidly accumulated. This phase of ponding was punctuated by renewed channel activity in which inorganic carbonate sediments rich in ferrimagnetic minerals were deposited. This coincides with a major peak in cereal cultivation and related catchment disturbance of soils because of ploughing with associated runoff and inwash of soils associated with flooding.

  12. [Folate and iron in fertile age women from a Venezuelan community affected by incidence of neural tube defects].

    PubMed

    Mariela, Montilva; Jham, Papale; Nieves, García-Casal María; Yelitza, Berné; Yudith, Ontiveros; Lourdes, Durán

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this transversal study was to determine folate and iron nutritional status of women in fertile age from Municipio Jiménez, Lara State, Venezuela. The sampling was probabilistic by conglomerates from the urban and rural areas, selecting 15 conglomerates from which women between 12 and 45 years (269), were studied. After signing informed consent, participating were interviewed for personal data, antecedents related to folate and iron, socioeconomic data (Graffar-Mendez Castellano method and unsatisfied basic needs). In blood sample was determined Hemoglobin, and Erythrocytic Folate (FE). Serum was obtained to determine Ferritin and Serum Folate (FS). 53.53% of the sample presented low FS levels, 10.78% were FS deficient. Severe FE deficiency was present in 80.7% of the cases, moderate deficiency affected 5.9%. For both tests, median was higher for women in treatment with Acido Fólico or pregnant (p = 0.000), median for FE was higher for adults (p = 0.001) and in non poor women (p = 0.011). There were no significant differences for coffee, alcohol, anticonceptive consumption, urban or rural resident or socioeconomic strata. The prevalence of anemia was 11.2% being significantly more frequent in adults than in adolescents (p = 0.029) and in urban women (p = 0.042). Low ferritin were found in 37.3% of the sample, the effect of different variables was not statistically significant. In conclusion, there is a high prevalence of iron and folate deficiencies in women of fertile age from Municipio Jiménez, which could constitute a conditioning factor for the appearance of neural tube defects.

  13. Iron deficiency, an independent risk factor for isolated hypothyroxinemia in pregnant and nonpregnant women of childbearing age in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaohui; Shan, Zhongyan; Li, Chenyan; Mao, Jinyuan; Wang, Weiwei; Xie, Xiaochen; Liu, Aihua; Teng, Xiaochun; Zhou, Weiwei; Li, Chenyang; Xu, Bin; Bi, Lihua; Meng, Tao; Du, Jianling; Zhang, Shaowei; Gao, Zhengnan; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yang, Liu; Fan, Chenling; Teng, Weiping

    2015-04-01

    Isolated hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy may irreversibly damage the neurodevelopment of offspring. However, the causes are not well clarified. To explore the association of iron deficiency (ID) with hypothyroid function of women in early pregnancy and nonpregnant women. A total of 7953 pregnant women of ≤ 12 weeks gestation and 2000 childbearing-aged women were recruited. A subpopulation including 3340 pregnant women and 1052 nonpregnant women with sufficient iodine intake and negative thyroid peroxidase antibody were studied. Mild and severe cases of hypothyroxinemia were defined as free T4 levels below the 10th percentile and the 5th percentile, respectively, with normal TSH. Total body iron, serum ferritin, and serum transferrin receptor were used as indicators for iron nutrition. Serum free T4 levels were significantly lower in both pregnant and nonpregnant women with ID compared with the corresponding groups without ID (both P < .05). The prevalence of mild and severe hypothyroxinemia was markedly higher in women with ID than those without, in both pregnant and nonpregnant women (all P < .01). Logistic regression indicated that ID was an independent risk factor for both mild and severe hypothyroxinemia in pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] = 2.440, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.324-4.496, P = .004; and OR = 3.278, 95% CI: 1.443-7.446, P = .005, respectively) and nonpregnancy (OR = 2.662, 95% CI: 1.330-5.329, P = .006; and OR = 3.254, 95% CI: 1.375-7.700, P = .007, respectively). An association between ID and isolated hypothyroxinemia was found in both pregnant and nonpregnant childbearing-aged women, independent of the effects of iodine and thyroid autoimmunity. We speculate that ID may be a pathogenic factor for hypothyroxinemia, even in pregnant women during the first trimester.

  14. STUDY INSTRUMENTS: SECOND WAVE BRAZIL AND FINLAND,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    POLITICAL SCIENCE, PUBLIC OPINION), (*PUBLIC OPINION, POLITICAL SCIENCE), FOREIGN POLICY, ATTITUDES(PSYCHOLOGY), SAMPLING, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, SOCIOLOGY, TEST METHODS, PROBABILITY, COMMUNISM, BRAZIL , FINLAND

  15. Influence of diet, menstruation and genetic factors on iron status: a cross-sectional study in Spanish women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Toxqui, Laura; López-Parra, Ana M; Baeza-Richer, Carlos; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2014-03-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate the combined influence of diet, menstruation and genetic factors on iron status in Spanish menstruating women (n = 142). Dietary intake was assessed by a 72-h detailed dietary report and menstrual blood loss by a questionnaire, to determine a Menstrual Blood Loss Coefficient (MBLC). Five selected SNPs were genotyped: rs3811647, rs1799852 (Tf gene); rs1375515 (CACNA2D3 gene); and rs1800562 and rs1799945 (HFE gene, mutations C282Y and H63D, respectively). Iron biomarkers were determined and cluster analysis was performed. Differences among clusters in dietary intake, menstrual blood loss parameters and genotype frequencies distribution were studied. A categorical regression was performed to identify factors associated with cluster belonging. Three clusters were identified: women with poor iron status close to developing iron deficiency anemia (Cluster 1, n = 26); women with mild iron deficiency (Cluster 2, n = 59) and women with normal iron status (Cluster 3, n = 57). Three independent factors, red meat consumption, MBLC and mutation C282Y, were included in the model that better explained cluster belonging (R2 = 0.142, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the combination of high red meat consumption, low menstrual blood loss and the HFE C282Y mutation may protect from iron deficiency in women of childbearing age. These findings could be useful to implement adequate strategies to prevent iron deficiency anemia.

  16. Community mobilization and social marketing to promote weekly iron-folic acid supplementation: a new approach toward controlling anemia among women of reproductive age in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nguyen Cong; Thanh, Hoang Thi Kim; Berger, Jacques; Hoa, Pham Thuy; Quang, Nguyen Dinh; Smitasiri, Suttilak; Cavalli-Sforza, Tommaso

    2005-12-01

    Community-based social marketing and mobilization increased knowledge and participation in preventive weekly iron-folic acid supplementation among women of reproductive age in Vietnam. Rates of buying and taking the weekly supplement containing 60 mg elemental iron and 3.5 mg folic acid among non-pregnant women of reproductive age was between 55% and 92%. Free distribution to pregnant women of the weekly supplement containing 120 mg iron and 3.5 mg folic acid covered almost all pregnant women during the project. In developing countries where community women's groups and health networks are strong, preventive supplementation can be successfully promoted to encourage active participation in the prevention and control of iron-deficiency anemia.

  17. Eastern Mediterranean Mobility in the Bronze and Early Iron Ages: Inferences from Ancient DNA of Pigs and Cattle.

    PubMed

    Meiri, Meirav; Stockhammer, Philipp W; Marom, Nimrod; Bar-Oz, Guy; Sapir-Hen, Lidar; Morgenstern, Peggy; Macheridis, Stella; Rosen, Baruch; Huchon, Dorothée; Maran, Joseph; Finkelstein, Israel

    2017-04-06

    The Late Bronze of the Eastern Mediterranean (1550-1150 BCE) was a period of strong commercial relations and great prosperity, which ended in collapse and migration of groups to the Levant. Here we aim at studying the translocation of cattle and pigs during this period. We sequenced the first ancient mitochondrial and Y chromosome DNA of cattle from Greece and Israel and compared the results with morphometric analysis of the metacarpal in cattle. We also increased previous ancient pig DNA datasets from Israel and extracted the first mitochondrial DNA for samples from Greece. We found that pigs underwent a complex translocation history, with links between Anatolia with southeastern Europe in the Bronze Age, and movement from southeastern Europe to the Levant in the Iron I (ca. 1150-950 BCE). Our genetic data did not indicate movement of cattle between the Aegean region and the southern Levant. We detected the earliest evidence for crossbreeding between taurine and zebu cattle in the Iron IIA (ca. 900 BCE). In light of archaeological and historical evidence on Egyptian imperial domination in the region in the Late Bronze Age, we suggest that Egypt attempted to expand dry farming in the region in a period of severe droughts.

  18. Changes in skeletal robusticity in an iron age agropastoral group: the Samnites from the Alfedena necropolis (Abruzzo, Central Italy).

    PubMed

    Sparacello, V S; Pearson, O M; Coppa, A; Marchi, D

    2011-01-01

    Cross-sectional geometrical (CSG) properties of an Iron Age Samnite group from the Alfedena necropolis (Abruzzo, Italy, 2600-2400 B.P.) are compared with a Ligurian Neolithic sample (6000-5500 B.P.). In the period under examination, Samnites were organized in a tribal confederation led by patrilinear aristocracies, indicating incipient social stratification. In comparison, Neolithic society lacked clear signs of social hierarchy. The subsistence of both groups was mainly based on pastoralism and agriculture, but changes in habitual behavior are expected due to the socio-economic transformations that characterized the Iron Age. The Samnites' warlike ideology suggests that unimanual weapon-use and training would have become frequent for males. The intensification of agriculture and the adoption of transhumant pastoralism, performed by a smaller subset of the population, likely led to a lower average level of logistic mobility. The strongly genderized ideology of the period suggests a strict sexual division of labor, with women primarily performing sedentary tasks. CSG properties based on periosteal contours were calculated for humeri, femora, and tibiae (N = 61). Results corroborated the expectations: Alfedena males show substantial humeral bilateral asymmetry, indicating prevalent use of one arm, likely due to weapon training. In both sexes lower limb results indicate reduced mobility with respect to the Neolithic group. Sexual dimorphism is significant in both humeral asymmetry and lower limb indicators of mobility. Although both groups could be broadly defined as agropastoral based on archeological and historical evidence, CSG analysis confirmed important differences in habitual behavior.

  19. An iron-deficient diet during development induces oxidative stress in relation to age and gender in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Vieyra-Reyes, Patricia; Millán-Aldaco, Diana; Palomero-Rivero, Marcela; Jiménez-Garcés, Clementina; Hernández-González, Margarita; Caballero-Villarraso, Javier

    2017-02-01

    Iron is a trace element and a structural part of antioxidant enzymes, and its requirements vary according to age and gender. We hypothesized that iron deficiency (ID) leads to an increase in free radicals which mainly affect the brain, and the severity of damage would therefore be dependent on age and gender. Two groups of Wistar rats were evaluated evolutionarily: 100 rats (50 males; 50 females) with ID diet and 100 rats (50 males; 50 females) with standard diet. Both groups were offspring from mothers who were previously under the same dietary intervention. The ages studied roughly correspond to stages of human development: birth (0 postnatal day "PND" in rats), childhood (21 PND), early adolescence (42 PND), late adolescence (56 PND), and adulthood (70 PND). The following biomarkers in the brain, blood, and liver were analyzed: lipid peroxidation products (LPO), protein carbonyl content and activity of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. It was demonstrated that ID subjects are born with high levels of LPO in the brain and low antioxidant activity, the damage being more severe in males. After birth, antioxidant defense focuses on the central level (brain) in ID females and on the peripheral level (blood and liver) in ID males. In two critical stages of development, birth and late adolescence, antioxidant protection is insufficient to counteract oxidative damage in ID subjects. Moreover, we observed that the variability of results in the literature on oxidative stress and ID comes from gender and age of the subjects under study. With this, we can establish patterns and exact moments to carry out studies or treatments.

  20. Bat rabies surveillance in Finland.

    PubMed

    Nokireki, Tiina; Huovilainen, Anita; Lilley, Thomas; Kyheröinen, Eeva-Maria; Ek-Kommonen, Christine; Sihvonen, Liisa; Jakava-Viljanen, Miia

    2013-09-08

    In 1985, a bat researcher in Finland died of rabies encephalitis caused by European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2), but an epidemiological study in 1986 did not reveal EBLV-infected bats. In 2009, an EBLV-2-positive Daubenton's bat was detected. The EBLV-2 isolate from the human case in 1985 and the isolate from the bat in 2009 were genetically closely related. In order to assess the prevalence of EBLVs in Finnish bat populations and to gain a better understanding of the public health risk that EBLV-infected bats pose, a targeted active surveillance project was initiated. Altogether, 1156 bats of seven species were examined for lyssaviruses in Finland during a 28-year period (1985-2012), 898 in active surveillance and 258 in passive surveillance, with only one positive finding of EBLV-2 in a Daubenton's bat in 2009. In 2010-2011, saliva samples from 774 bats of seven species were analyzed for EBLV viral RNA, and sera from 423 bats were analyzed for the presence of bat lyssavirus antibodies. Antibodies were detected in Daubenton's bats in samples collected from two locations in 2010 and from one location in 2011. All seropositive locations are in close proximity to the place where the EBLV-2 positive Daubenton's bat was found in 2009. In active surveillance, no EBLV viral RNA was detected. These data suggest that EBLV-2 may circulate in Finland, even though the seroprevalence is low. Our results indicate that passive surveillance of dead or sick bats is a relevant means examine the occurrence of lyssavirus infection, but the number of bats submitted for laboratory analysis should be higher in order to obtain reliable information on the lyssavirus situation in the country.

  1. Bat rabies surveillance in Finland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1985, a bat researcher in Finland died of rabies encephalitis caused by European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2), but an epidemiological study in 1986 did not reveal EBLV-infected bats. In 2009, an EBLV-2-positive Daubenton’s bat was detected. The EBLV-2 isolate from the human case in 1985 and the isolate from the bat in 2009 were genetically closely related. In order to assess the prevalence of EBLVs in Finnish bat populations and to gain a better understanding of the public health risk that EBLV-infected bats pose, a targeted active surveillance project was initiated. Results Altogether, 1156 bats of seven species were examined for lyssaviruses in Finland during a 28–year period (1985–2012), 898 in active surveillance and 258 in passive surveillance, with only one positive finding of EBLV-2 in a Daubenton’s bat in 2009. In 2010–2011, saliva samples from 774 bats of seven species were analyzed for EBLV viral RNA, and sera from 423 bats were analyzed for the presence of bat lyssavirus antibodies. Antibodies were detected in Daubenton’s bats in samples collected from two locations in 2010 and from one location in 2011. All seropositive locations are in close proximity to the place where the EBLV-2 positive Daubenton’s bat was found in 2009. In active surveillance, no EBLV viral RNA was detected. Conclusions These data suggest that EBLV-2 may circulate in Finland, even though the seroprevalence is low. Our results indicate that passive surveillance of dead or sick bats is a relevant means examine the occurrence of lyssavirus infection, but the number of bats submitted for laboratory analysis should be higher in order to obtain reliable information on the lyssavirus situation in the country. PMID:24011337

  2. Direct in vivo imaging of ferrous iron dyshomeostasis in ageing Caenorhabditis elegans † †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc00233h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    James, Simon A.; Roberts, Blaine R.; Hare, Dominic J.; de Jonge, Martin D.; Birchall, Ian E.; Jenkins, Nicole L.; Cherny, Robert A.; Bush, Ashley I.

    2015-01-01

    Iron is essential for eukaryotic biochemistry. Systematic trafficking and storage is required to maintain supply of iron while preventing it from catalysing unwanted reactions, particularly the generation of oxidising reactive species. Iron dyshomeostasis has been implicated in major age-associated diseases including cancers, neurodegeneration and heart disease. Here, we employ population-level X-ray fluorescence imaging and native-metalloproteomic analysis to determine that altered iron coordination and distribution is a pathological imperative of ageing in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. Our approach provides a method to simultaneously study iron metabolism across different scales of biological organisation, from populations to cells. Here we report how and where iron homeostasis is lost during C. elegans ageing, and its relationship to the age-related elevation of damaging reactive oxygen species. We find that wild types utilise ferritin to sustain longevity, buffering against exogenous iron and showing rapid ageing if ferritin is ablated. After reproduction, escape of iron from safe-storage in ferritin raised cellular Fe2+ load in the ageing C. elegans, and increased generation of reactive species. These findings support the hypothesis that iron-mediated processes drive senescence. We propose that loss of iron homeostasis may be a fundamental and inescapable consequence of ageing that could represent a critical target for therapeutic strategies to improve health outcomes in ageing. PMID:28706676

  3. Reasons for raising the maximum acceptable daily intake of EDTA and the benefits for iron fortification of foods for children 6–24 months of age

    PubMed Central

    Wreesmann, Carel Theo Jozef

    2014-01-01

    The current maximum acceptable daily intake (ADI) of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) of 1.9 mg day−1 per kilogram bodyweight (mg day−1 kgbw−1) limits the daily intake of iron as iron EDTA [ferric sodium EDTA; sodium iron(III) EDTA] to approximately 2–2.5 mg day−1 for children 6–24 months of age. This limit was defined by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 1973 based on data from an animal-feed study published in 1963. Other animal studies indicate that this limit can be raised to 4.4 or possibly up to 21.7 mg day−1 kgbw−1, which is 2.3–11.4 times higher than the current value. For nearly 50 years, iron EDTA has been used in France in medicinal syrup for infants 1–6 months of age. The maximum recommended dosage of this drug is 37 times higher than the maximum ADI of EDTA. No adverse health effects have been reported as a result of this medicinal consumption of iron EDTA. Raising the maximum ADI of EDTA to only 4.4 mg day−1 kgbw−1 would enable iron EDTA, an iron fortificant with proven bioavailability in phytate-rich meals, to be added in adequate amounts to cereal-based meals for children 6–24 months of age, who are at risk of iron deficiency. PMID:24521261

  4. Reasons for raising the maximum acceptable daily intake of EDTA and the benefits for iron fortification of foods for children 6-24 months of age.

    PubMed

    Wreesmann, Carel Theo Jozef

    2014-10-01

    The current maximum acceptable daily intake (ADI) of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) of 1.9 mg day(-1) per kilogram bodyweight (mg day(-1)  kgbw(-1) ) limits the daily intake of iron as iron EDTA [ferric sodium EDTA; sodium iron(III) EDTA] to approximately 2-2.5 mg day(-1) for children 6-24 months of age. This limit was defined by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 1973 based on data from an animal-feed study published in 1963. Other animal studies indicate that this limit can be raised to 4.4 or possibly up to 21.7 mg day(-1)  kgbw(-1) , which is 2.3-11.4 times higher than the current value. For nearly 50 years, iron EDTA has been used in France in medicinal syrup for infants 1-6 months of age. The maximum recommended dosage of this drug is 37 times higher than the maximum ADI of EDTA. No adverse health effects have been reported as a result of this medicinal consumption of iron EDTA. Raising the maximum ADI of EDTA to only 4.4 mg day(-1)  kgbw(-1) would enable iron EDTA, an iron fortificant with proven bioavailability in phytate-rich meals, to be added in adequate amounts to cereal-based meals for children 6-24 months of age, who are at risk of iron deficiency.

  5. Maternal iron levels early in pregnancy are not associated with offspring IQ score at age 8, findings from a Mendelian randomization study.

    PubMed

    Lewis, S J; Bonilla, C; Brion, M-J; Lawlor, D A; Gunnell, D; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Ness, A; Smith, G D

    2014-04-01

    Iron is fundamental to many basic biological functions, and animal studies suggest that iron deficiency early in life can have a lasting impact on the developing brain. We used a population-based cohort of mothers and their children to assess the effect of iron status among pregnant women on the cognitive ability of their offspring. But to avoid the inherent confounding that occurs within observational epidemiology studies we examined the association of maternal genotype at single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes HFE (rs1799945) and (rs1800562), TF (rs3811647) and TMPRSS6 (rs1800562), which are related to iron, haemoglobin or transferrin levels, on their child's cognitive test scores at age 8. We found strong associations between HFE and TMPRSS6 genotypes and mother's haemoglobin levels early in pregnancy (P-values are all ≤ 4.1 × 10(-5)) and a genetic score comprised of alleles at these loci was even more strongly associated with haemoglobin levels (P=3.0 × 10(-18)), suggesting that this was a good instrument to use to look at the effect of prenatal iron levels on offspring cognition. However, mother's genotype at the above loci was not associated with offspring IQ at age 8. We therefore concluded that there is no evidence of an effect of exposure to low levels of iron (within the normal range) in pregnancy on offspring cognition at age 8. However, pregnant women in the UK with low haemoglobin levels are prescribed iron supplements and so we were unable to look at the effect of iron deficiency in our study.

  6. Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and the Platelet Count in Iron-deficient Children Aged 0.5-3 Years.

    PubMed

    Akkermans, M D; Uijterschout, L; Vloemans, J; Teunisse, P P; Hudig, F; Bubbers, S; Verbruggen, S; Veldhorst, M; de Leeuw, T G; van Goudoever, J B; Brus, F

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in young children is important to prevent impaired neurodevelopment. Unfortunately, many biomarkers of ID are influenced by infection, thus limiting their usefulness. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and the platelet count for detecting ID(A) among otherwise healthy children. A multicenter prospective observational study was conducted in the Netherlands to investigate the prevalence of ID(A) in 400 healthy children aged 0.5-3 years. ID was defined as serum ferritin (SF) <12 μg/L in the absence of infection (C-reactive protein [CRP] <5 mg/L) and IDA as hemoglobin <110 g/L combined with ID. RDW (%) and the platelet count were determined in the complete blood cell count. RDW was inversely correlated with SF and not associated with CRP. Calculated cutoff values for RDW to detect ID and IDA gave a relatively low sensitivity (53.1% and 57.1%, respectively) and specificity (64.7% and 69.9%, respectively). Anemic children with a RDW >14.3% had a 2.7 higher odds (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-6.3) to be iron deficient, compared with anemic children with a RDW <14.3%. The platelet count showed a large range in both ID and non-ID children. In conclusion, RDW can be helpful for identifying ID as the cause of anemia in 0.5- to 3-year-old children, but not as primary biomarker of ID(A). RDW values are not influenced by the presence of infection. There appears to be no role for the platelet count in diagnosing ID(A) in this group of children.

  7. Iron deficiency in older people: interactions between food and nutrient intakes with biochemical measures of iron; further analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of people aged 65 years and over.

    PubMed

    Doyle, W; Crawley, H; Robert, H; Bates, C J

    1999-07-01

    To quantitatively investigate relationships between food consumption, nutrient intake and biochemical markers of iron status in a population of older people. National Diet and Nutrition Survey: cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative population of men and women aged 65 y and over. Mainland Great Britain 1268 participants (651 men and 617 women) who provided both dietary intake and blood biochemistry. 986 were living in private households and 282 were living in residential or nursing homes. Intakes of alcohol, vitamin C, protein, haem and non-haem iron and fibre were positively associated with iron status. Consumption of meat, poultry and fish were positively associated with six measures of iron status, and vegetables and potatoes with four measures. Calcium, dairy foods and tea generally had a negative association with most measures of iron status. A varied diet containing meat, poultry and fish, vegetables and fruit, with a moderate intake of alcohol will make a positive contribution to the iron status of elderly people.

  8. Contemporary Issues of Occupational Education in Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.; Stenstrom, Marja-Leena, Ed.

    This book contains 28 papers about the current status of occupational education in Finland, with special emphasis on context factors, structural and pedagogical reform, and quality management. The following papers are included: "Introduction of Educational Structure in Finland" (Johanna Lasonen, Marja-Leena Stenstrom); "Vocational…

  9. Teaching Physics to Engineering Students in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, James F.

    2001-10-01

    The author was responsible for University Physics courses at Arcada Polytechnic Institute in Espoo, Finland during the Spring Semester of 2001. Experiences will be shared and some similarities and differences between the educational systems of the US and Finland will be discussed. Slides of the students and the institution will also be shown.

  10. Dielectric properties and aging effects of manganese modified lead iron tungstate relaxor ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, L.; Vilarinho, P.M.; Baptista, J.L.

    1996-06-01

    Mn-doped samples were used to study the effects of Mn dopant on the dielectric properties of PFW ceramics, especially on its aging behavior, since they could add some knowledge on the role of lattice defects on the aging mechanisms of this relaxor ferroelectric. Mn doping does not cause marked changes in the maximum of permittivity ({var_epsilon}{sub rmax}), transition temperature (T{sub 0}), and diffuseness coefficient ({delta}) under the solubility limit, whereas the resistivity increases significantly with increasing the Mn content. Mn-modified PFW ceramics exhibit evident aging behavior and its level increases with the increase in Mn content. The aging shows strong dependence on the frequency and has a log-linear function of aging time. Probable lattice defects in the ceramics are discussed and it is suggested that the acceptor Mn ions are dominantly compensated by oxygen vacancies, providing reorientable dipole pairs which are responsible for the aging process of Mn-modified PFW ceramics.

  11. In situ Transmission Electron Microscopy He+ implantation and thermal aging of nanocrystalline iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntifering, Brittany; Fang, Youwu; Leff, Asher C.; Dunn, Aaron; Qu, Jianmin; Taheri, Mitra L.; Dingreville, Remi; Hattar, Khalid

    2016-12-01

    The high density of interfaces in nanostructured materials are hypothesized to improve radiation tolerance compared to coarse-grained materials. In order to investigate the roles of vacancies, self-interstitials, and helium, both room temperature in situ TEM He+ implantation and annealing, as well as high temperature He+ implantation was performed on nanocrystalline iron. Dislocation loops are formed by the accumulation of mobile point defects rather than by displacement cascades at intermediate temperatures. Around 600 °C, loops disappeared through gradual shrinking, which is hypothesized to correspond to the annihilation of self-interstitial atoms by mobile vacancies that also resulted in cavity formation. The room temperature implantation resulted in cavities evenly distributed throughout the grain after annealing, whereas cavities were predominately observed at grain boundaries for the elevated temperature implantation. This difference is associated with the formation of stable helium-vacancy complexes in the grains during room temperature implantation, which is not present during high temperature implantation.

  12. Effect of High Temperature Aging on the Corrosion Resistance of Iron Based Amorphous Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Day, S D; Haslam, J J; Farmer, J C; Rebak, R B

    2007-08-10

    Iron-based amorphous alloys can be more resistant to corrosion than polycrystalline materials of similar compositions. However, when the amorphous alloys are exposed to high temperatures they may recrystallize (or devitrify) thus losing their resistance to corrosion. Four different types of amorphous alloys melt spun ribbon specimens were exposed to several temperatures for short periods of time. The resulting corrosion resistance was evaluated in seawater at 90 C and compared with the as-prepared ribbons. Results show that the amorphous alloys can be exposed to 600 C for 1-hr. without losing the corrosion resistance; however, when the ribbons were exposed at 800 C for 1-hr. their localized corrosion resistance decreased significantly.

  13. Optimizing hemoglobin thresholds for detection of iron deficiency among reproductive-age women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, Deepa L; Kunselman, Allen R; Chuang, Cynthia H; Paul, Ian M

    2017-02-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) affects 9%-16% of US women with well-documented morbidity in academic performance, mood, and concentration. Current ID screening depends on the detection of low hemoglobin (ie, anemia, <12.0 g/dL). However, anemia is a late-stage indicator of ID. The study hypothesis was that using higher hemoglobin thresholds would optimize ID screening. The objective was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of hemoglobin to detect ID among nonpregnant, reproductive-age women of 12-49 years and to determine if psychometric characteristics varied by age and race. This cross-sectional study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2010 data. ID was defined as body iron, calculated using ferritin and transferrin receptors. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to model the predictive probability of ID by hemoglobin values. ID prevalence by body iron was 11.5% (n = 6602). Using <12.0 g/dL, hemoglobin had a sensitivity of 42.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 39.4%, 46.4%) and specificity of 95.5% (95% CI = 95.0%, 96.0%) for ID. The ROC curve was optimized at the hemoglobin threshold of <12.8 g/dL with the sensitivity and specificity of 71.3% (95% CI = 68.0%, 74.5%) and 79.3% (95% CI = 78.2%, 80.3%), respectively. The probability of ID at this threshold was 13.5% (95% CI = 11.3%, 15.9%). Hemoglobin better predicted ID among older (22-49 years) vs younger (12-21 years) women (c-index 0.87 vs 0.77, P < 0.001). Among nonpregnant, reproductive-age women, current hemoglobin thresholds are insufficient to exclude ID. A threshold of <12.8 g/dL improves the detection of ID. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Combined cobalamin and iron deficiency anemia: a diagnostic approach using a model based on age and homocysteine assessment.

    PubMed

    Remacha, Angel F; Sardà, M P; Canals, C; Queraltò, J M; Zapico, E; Remacha, J; Carrascosa, C

    2013-04-01

    Macrocytosis, the hallmark of cobalamin/folate deficiency anemia, is frequently absent. Clinicians have to be aware of coexisting conditions that can mask the macrocytosis expression of megaloblastic anemia, especially iron deficiency. The objective of this work was to investigate the degree of overlap between iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and cobalamin deficiency and to develop a predictive model for differentiating IDA from combined deficiency. A prospective case and control study was carried out to investigate vitamin B12 and folate status in iron deficiency anemia. A total of 658 patients were recruited, 41 of whom (6.2 %) were excluded. The remaining 617 subjects consisted of 130 controls and 487 with IDA. Low vitamin B12 (LB12) was considered when serum vitamin B12 was ≤200 pmol/L. High serum homocysteine (Hcy) was defined by Hcy >17 μM/L. A multivariate analysis (including a logistic regression) was performed to develop a diagnostic model. Low vitamin B12 levels were found in 17.8 % of IDA subjects. Ten out of 11 subjects (91 %) with IDA and serum vitamin B12 (B12) ≤100 pmol/L showed vitamin B12 deficiency. Moreover, vitamin B12 deficiency was demonstrated in 48 % of cases with IDA and B12 between 101 and 150 pmol/L and in 40 % with IDA and B12 between 151 and 200 pmol/, respectively. As a result of multivariate logistic analysis, neutrophil counts and age predicted subjects with vitamin B12 ≤200 and Hcy >17 μmol/L, [Formula: see text]. Using the age of 60 as a cutoff, sensitivity was 91 % (39 out of the 43 patients with vitamin B12 deficiency and IDA were identified). In summary, low vitamin B12 was found in 18 % of patients with IDA. Vitamin B12 deficiency was demonstrated in many patients with LB12 and IDA. Age over 60 years was used to separate patients with combined deficiency (sensitivity 91 %). Therefore, for a diagnostic purpose, serum vitamin B12 should be evaluated in IDA patients over 60 years. This diagnostic model needs to

  15. Iron overload accelerates bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women and middle-aged men: a 3-year retrospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom-Jun; Ahn, Seong Hee; Bae, Sung Jin; Kim, Eun Hee; Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Choe, Jae Won; Koh, Jung-Min; Kim, Ghi Su

    2012-11-01

    Despite extensive experimental and animal evidence about the detrimental effects of iron and its overload on bone metabolism, there have been no clinical studies relating iron stores to bone loss, especially in nonpathologic conditions. In the present study, we performed a large longitudinal study to evaluate serum ferritin concentrations in relation to annualized changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy Koreans. A total of 1729 subjects (940 postmenopausal women and 789 middle-aged men) aged 40 years or older who had undergone comprehensive routine health examinations with an average 3 years of follow-up were enrolled. BMD in proximal femur sites (ie, the total femur, femur neck, and trochanter) was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry using the same equipment at baseline and follow-up. The mean age of women and men in this study was 55.8 ± 6.0 years and 55.5 ± 7.8 years, respectively, and serum ferritin levels were significantly higher in men than in women (p < 0.001). The overall mean annualized rates of bone loss in the total femur, femur neck, and trochanter were -1.14%/year, -1.17%/year, and -1.51%/year, respectively, in women, and -0.27%/year, -0.34%/year, and -0.41%/year, respectively, in men. After adjustment for potential confounders, the rates of bone loss in all proximal femur sites in both genders were significantly accelerated in a dose-response fashion across increasing ferritin quartile categories (p for trend = 0.043 to <0.001). Consistently, compared with subjects in the lowest ferritin quartile category, those in the third and/or highest ferritin quartile category showed significantly faster bone loss in the total femur and femur neck in both genders (p = 0.023 to <0.001). In conclusion, these data provide the first clinical evidence that increased total body iron stores could be an independent risk factor for accelerated bone loss, even in healthy populations.

  16. Microstructural behavior of iron and bismuth added Sn-1Ag-Cu solder under elevated temperature aging

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Bakhtiar Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd Jauhari, Iswadi

    2016-07-19

    An extensive study was done to investigate the microstructural behavior of iron (Fe) and bismuth (Bi) added Sn-1Ag-0.5Cu (SAC105) under severe thermal aging conditions. The isothermal aging was done at 200 °C for 100 h, 200 h, and 300 h. Optical microscopy with cross-polarized light revealed that the grain size significantly reduces with Fe/Bi addition to the base alloy SAC105 and remains literally the same after thermal aging. The micrographs of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with backscattered electron detector and their further analysis via imageJ software indicated that Fe/Bi added SAC105 showed a significant reduction in the IMCs size (Ag{sub 3}Sn and Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5}), especially the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} IMCs, as well as β-Sn matrix and a refinement in the microstructure, which is due to the presence of Bi in the alloys. Moreover, their microstructure remains much more stable under severe thermal aging conditions, which is because of the presence of both Fe and Bi in the alloy. The microstructural behavior suggests that Fe/Bi modified SAC105 would have much improved reliability under severe thermal environments. These modified alloys also have relatively low melting temperature and low cost.

  17. Microstructural behavior of iron and bismuth added Sn-1Ag-Cu solder under elevated temperature aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Bakhtiar; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd; Jauhari, Iswadi

    2016-07-01

    An extensive study was done to investigate the microstructural behavior of iron (Fe) and bismuth (Bi) added Sn-1Ag-0.5Cu (SAC105) under severe thermal aging conditions. The isothermal aging was done at 200 °C for 100 h, 200 h, and 300 h. Optical microscopy with cross-polarized light revealed that the grain size significantly reduces with Fe/Bi addition to the base alloy SAC105 and remains literally the same after thermal aging. The micrographs of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with backscattered electron detector and their further analysis via imageJ software indicated that Fe/Bi added SAC105 showed a significant reduction in the IMCs size (Ag3Sn and Cu6Sn5), especially the Cu6Sn5 IMCs, as well as β-Sn matrix and a refinement in the microstructure, which is due to the presence of Bi in the alloys. Moreover, their microstructure remains much more stable under severe thermal aging conditions, which is because of the presence of both Fe and Bi in the alloy. The microstructural behavior suggests that Fe/Bi modified SAC105 would have much improved reliability under severe thermal environments. These modified alloys also have relatively low melting temperature and low cost.

  18. Iron deficiency anemia among Jewish and Arab infants at 6 and 12 months of age in Hadera, Israel.

    PubMed

    Lavon, B; Tulchinsky, T H; Preger, M; Said, R; Kaufman, S

    1985-02-01

    Infants attending six Family Health Centers of the Israel Ministry of Health in various Jewish and Arab localities in the Hadera subdistrict were examined for hemoglobin levels at 6 and 12 months of age. The prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin less than 11 g/dl) among Jewish infants rose from a total of 44.7 to 60% from 6 to 12 months. For the Arab infants, the prevalence of anemia increased from a total of 43.7% at 6 months to 71.0% at 12. The prevalence of severe anemia (less than 10 g/dl) for the Jewish infants rose from 4.5 to 13.1% and for the Arab infants from 7.7 to 19.6%. Of the Jewish infants with a hemoglobin level less than 10 g/dl at 6 months, 50% were still less than 10 g/dl at 12 months. Of the Arab infants less than 10 g/dl at 6 months, 36.4% were still at that level at 12 months. The lack of routine iron supplementation as a preventive procedure and the routine use of cow's milk for infant feeding are the probable causes of this high prevalence of iron deficiency anemia.

  19. [Historiography of diseases in Finland].

    PubMed

    Vuorinen, H S

    1998-01-01

    The 19th century was a period of comprehensive, "big" histories of diseases. German historiographers of diseases were especially prominent. World-famous is August Hirsch's Handbuch der historisch-geographischen Pathologie (the second edition appeared in three volumes in 1881-1886). The first volume of the Finn Immanuel Ilmoni's (1797-1856) Bidrag till Nordens sjukdoms-historia (A History of Diseases in the Nordic Countries) was published in 1846, the second volume in 1849 and the third in 1853. In this book Ilmoni treated the history of disease up to the year 1800. He planned a fourth volume, dealing with the 19th century, but this book was never published. Ilmoni was strongly influenced by the ideas of Thomas Sydenham and the German exponents of Naturphilosophie. Ilmoni's "ontological" concept of disease was rejected by Erik Alexander Ingman, a contemporary Finnish representative of "modern" medical ideas. After Ilmoni, nobody has attempted to write a comprehensive history of diseases in Finland, but histories of cholera (Carl Qvist, 1872) lepra (Lars Fagerlund, 1886), malaria (Richard Sievers, 1891) and pulmonary tuberculosis (Woldemar Backman and Severi Savonen, 1934) have been published. Diseases in Finland received very little attention in the "world histories" of diseases. After Hirsch only one comprehensive "world history" of diseases has been published (1993).

  20. Mortality among forensic psychiatric patients in Finland.

    PubMed

    Ojansuu, Ilkka; Putkonen, Hanna; Tiihonen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Both mental illness and criminality are associated with higher risk of early death, yet the mortality among forensic psychiatric patients who are affected by both mental illness and criminal behaviour has scarcely been studied. To analyse the mortality among all patients who were committed to a compulsory forensic psychiatric hospital treatment in Finland between 1980 and 2009. Mortality was analysed according to the age when the patient was committed to forensic treatment. A total of 1253 patients were included, of which 153 were females and 1100 were males. The mean follow-up time in this study was 15.1 years, and 351 (28%) had died during the follow-up period. The standardized mortality rate (SMR) for the whole study group was 2.97 (95% CI 2.67-3.29). Among females the SMR was 3.62 (95% CI 2.57-5.09), and among males 2.91 (95% CI 2.61-3.25). The SMRs were higher when patients were committed to forensic treatment before the age of 40 years. This study showed an increased mortality among forensic psychiatric patients compared with the general population and the mortality was inversely proportional to the age when the treatment had begun. In contrast to the earlier studies, the mortality in this study was lower indicating that prolonged treatment may have an overall protective effect on forensic psychiatric patients.

  1. Synchrotron radiation-based x-ray analysis of bronze artifacts from an Iron Age site in the Judean hills.

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, E. S.; Brody, A. J.; Young, M. L.; Almer, J. D.; Serge, C. U.; Mini, S. M.; IIT; Pacific School of Religion; Northwestern Univ.; Northern Illinois Univ.

    2008-07-01

    Seven bronze bangles from Tell en-Nasbeh, northern Judah, were investigated to understand the phase composition and manufacturing process of the artifacts, and possibly suggest a provenance for their origin. Synchrotron x-ray radiation diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence (XRF) were used in the analysis to avoid any destructive sampling and at the same time penetrate through the surface into the core metal. These techniques enabled us to determine that the bangles were not just tin bronze, but leaded tin bronze. Based on excavation reports, it is unlikely that the metal objects were manufactured locally at Tell en-Nasbeh; rather, preliminary XRD and XRF data point towards the neighboring region of Edom as their origin. Despite their political enmity during the Iron Age II, the data suggest that Judahite social demands for bronze may have fostered a strong economic relationship between these two polities.

  2. Monetary alloys in Iron Age Armorica (Finistère, France): The singular case of the Osismi tribe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, M. F.; Abollivier, Ph.

    2016-06-01

    The analysis by PIXE and PAA of 64 coins struck in Iron Age Armorica by the Osismi tribe revealed the use of a different system from the usual Celtic Gaul tri-metallic system. The gold-based alloy (Au-Ag-Cu) firstly issued is debased over time to become a silver-based alloy (Ag-Cu-Sn). Based on the analytical data, two chronological phases were defined and dates of issuing could be ascribed to the coin-types. The presence of Sn and Sb in the alloys and the low contents of Pb were used in the attribution of 9 specimens of unknown origin to the Osismi monetary system. Considerations on the mints supplies could also be provided.

  3. A Place Along the Way: Contextualising Findings from the Iron Age Post Enclosure at Lismullin, Co. Meath, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prendergast, Frank

    2015-05-01

    The discovery of an Early Iron Age timber-built post enclosure at Lismullin is arguably the most significant Irish archaeological discovery in recent times. When found, it was immediately evident that a site of major importance and cultural significance had been located. The enclosure complex was constructed from a large number of small wooden posts set out in the form of a three ring structure with an easterly facing avenue accentuated by a four-post entrance feature. This paper summarises the analysis of the geospatial data obtained at the site, and addresses three lines of enquiry relating to the construction method and structural orientation. The cultural significance of the discovery and the findings arising from the data analysis are considered.

  4. Acute Human Inkoo and Chatanga Virus Infections, Finland.

    PubMed

    Putkuri, Niina; Kantele, Anu; Levanov, Lev; Kivistö, Ilkka; Brummer-Korvenkontio, Markus; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2016-05-01

    Inkoo virus (INKV) and Chatanga virus (CHATV), which are circulating in Finland, are mosquitoborne California serogroup orthobunyaviruses that have a high seroprevalence among humans. Worldwide, INKV infection has been poorly described, and CHATV infection has been unknown. Using serum samples collected in Finland from 7,961 patients suspected of having viral neurologic disease or Puumala virus infection during the summers of 2001-2013, we analyzed the samples to detect California serogroup infections. IgM seropositivity revealed 17 acute infections, and cross-neutralization tests confirmed presence of INKV or CHATV infections. All children (<16 years of age) with INKV infection were hospitalized; adults were outpatients with mild disease, except for 1 who was hospitalized with CHATV infection. Symptoms included fever, influenza-like illness, nausea or vomiting, disorientation, nuchal rigidity, headache, drowsiness, and seizures. Although many INKV and CHATV infections appear to be subclinical, these viruses can cause more severe disease, especially in children.

  5. Acute Human Inkoo and Chatanga Virus Infections, Finland

    PubMed Central

    Kantele, Anu; Levanov, Lev; Kivistö, Ilkka; Brummer-Korvenkontio, Markus; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2016-01-01

    Inkoo virus (INKV) and Chatanga virus (CHATV), which are circulating in Finland, are mosquitoborne California serogroup orthobunyaviruses that have a high seroprevalence among humans. Worldwide, INKV infection has been poorly described, and CHATV infection has been unknown. Using serum samples collected in Finland from 7,961 patients suspected of having viral neurologic disease or Puumala virus infection during the summers of 2001–2013, we analyzed the samples to detect California serogroup infections. IgM seropositivity revealed 17 acute infections, and cross-neutralization tests confirmed presence of INKV or CHATV infections. All children (<16 years of age) with INKV infection were hospitalized; adults were outpatients with mild disease, except for 1 who was hospitalized with CHATV infection. Symptoms included fever, influenza-like illness, nausea or vomiting, disorientation, nuchal rigidity, headache, drowsiness, and seizures. Although many INKV and CHATV infections appear to be subclinical, these viruses can cause more severe disease, especially in children. PMID:27088268

  6. Re-imagining dementia in the fourth age: the ironic fictions of Alice Munro.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Marlene

    2017-02-01

    This paper analyses two stories by Alice Munro to explore how her fiction interrogates the prevailing social imaginary of the fourth age. Drawing on the theory of Gilleard and Higgs, I show how Munro's stories rely on irony and surreal imagery to subvert the logic that engenders and normalises the opposition between the third and fourth ages, and, by extension, the social death of people coping with later-life dementia. Ultimately, I argue that Munro's fiction does not so much reveal the Truth about the fourth age, as expose the reader's complicity in the construction of the prevailing gothic social imaginary. © 2016 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA Reveals the Trace of the Ancient Settlers of a Violently Devastated Late Bronze and Iron Ages Village

    PubMed Central

    Núñez, Carolina; Baeta, Miriam; Cardoso, Sergio; Palencia-Madrid, Leire; García-Romero, Noemí; Llanos, Armando; M. de Pancorbo, Marian

    2016-01-01

    La Hoya (Alava, Basque Country) was one of the most important villages of the Late Bronze and Iron Ages of the north of the Iberian Peninsula, until it was violently devastated around the 4th century and abandoned in the 3rd century B.C. Archaeological evidences suggest that descendants from La Hoya placed their new settlement in a nearby hill, which gave rise to the current village of Laguardia. In this study, we have traced the genetic imprints of the extinct inhabitants of La Hoya through the analysis of maternal lineages. In particular, we have analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of 41 human remains recovered from the archaeological site for comparison with a sample of 51 individuals from the geographically close present-day population of Laguardia, as well as 56 individuals of the general population of the province of Alava, where the archaeological site and Laguardia village are located. MtDNA haplotypes were successfully obtained in 25 out of 41 ancient samples, and 14 different haplotypes were identified. The major mtDNA subhaplogroups observed in La Hoya were H1, H3, J1 and U5, which show a distinctive frequency pattern in the autochthonous populations of the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Approximate Bayesian Computation analysis was performed to test the most likely model for the local demographic history. The results did not sustain a genealogical continuity between Laguardia and La Hoya at the haplotype level, although factors such as sampling effects, recent admixture events, and genetic bottlenecks need to be considered. Likewise, the highly similar subhaplogroup composition detected between La Hoya and Laguardia and Alava populations do not allow us to reject a maternal genetic continuity in the human groups of the area since at least the Iron Age to present times. Broader analyses, based on a larger collection of samples and genetic markers, would be required to study fine-scale population events in these human groups. PMID

  8. Mitochondrial DNA Reveals the Trace of the Ancient Settlers of a Violently Devastated Late Bronze and Iron Ages Village.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Carolina; Baeta, Miriam; Cardoso, Sergio; Palencia-Madrid, Leire; García-Romero, Noemí; Llanos, Armando; M de Pancorbo, Marian

    2016-01-01

    La Hoya (Alava, Basque Country) was one of the most important villages of the Late Bronze and Iron Ages of the north of the Iberian Peninsula, until it was violently devastated around the 4th century and abandoned in the 3rd century B.C. Archaeological evidences suggest that descendants from La Hoya placed their new settlement in a nearby hill, which gave rise to the current village of Laguardia. In this study, we have traced the genetic imprints of the extinct inhabitants of La Hoya through the analysis of maternal lineages. In particular, we have analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of 41 human remains recovered from the archaeological site for comparison with a sample of 51 individuals from the geographically close present-day population of Laguardia, as well as 56 individuals of the general population of the province of Alava, where the archaeological site and Laguardia village are located. MtDNA haplotypes were successfully obtained in 25 out of 41 ancient samples, and 14 different haplotypes were identified. The major mtDNA subhaplogroups observed in La Hoya were H1, H3, J1 and U5, which show a distinctive frequency pattern in the autochthonous populations of the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Approximate Bayesian Computation analysis was performed to test the most likely model for the local demographic history. The results did not sustain a genealogical continuity between Laguardia and La Hoya at the haplotype level, although factors such as sampling effects, recent admixture events, and genetic bottlenecks need to be considered. Likewise, the highly similar subhaplogroup composition detected between La Hoya and Laguardia and Alava populations do not allow us to reject a maternal genetic continuity in the human groups of the area since at least the Iron Age to present times. Broader analyses, based on a larger collection of samples and genetic markers, would be required to study fine-scale population events in these human groups.

  9. Heritability of body height and educational attainment in an international context: comparison of adult twins in Minnesota and Finland.

    PubMed

    Silventoinen, Karri; Krueger, Robert F; Bouchard, Thomas J; Kaprio, Jaakko; McGue, Matt

    2004-01-01

    We studied the effect of genetic and environmental factors on the association between self-reported height and education in Minnesota and Finland. Our data included 1,598 twin pairs in Minnesota and 5,454 twin pairs in Finland born between 1936 and 1955. Correlations between education and height were found in Minnesota (r = 0.09 in men and 0.11 in women) and in Finland (r = 0.17 and 0.14, respectively) after adjustment for age. This trait correlation was mainly because of the correlation between shared environmental factors in Minnesota (r(C) = 0.38 and 0.36, respectively) and in Finland (r(C) = 0.74 and 0.37, respectively). An unshared environmental correlation was found only in Finland (r(E) = 0.13 and 0.06, respectively). Our results indicate that the association between body height and education is overwhelmingly due to the correlation of the shared environmental factors affecting these two traits. The differences between Minnesota and Finland are possibly associated with average higher education in Minnesota, which decreases the effect of the childhood environment on education, seen as a weaker correlation between height and education. Nonfamilial factors affecting education are possibly different in Minnesota than in Finland, since in Finland they are partly associated with the factors affecting height.

  10. Age-related changes of brain iron load changes in the frontal cortex in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Xian-hui, Dong; Wei-juan, Gao; Tie-mei, Shao; Hong-lin, Xie; Jiang-tao, Bai; Jing-yi, Zhao; Xi-qing, Chai

    2015-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a neurodegenerative brain disorder is a devastating pathology leading to disastrous cognitive impairments and dementia, associated with major social and economic costs to society. Iron can catalyze damaging free radical reactions. With age, iron accumulates in brain frontal cortex regions and may contribute to the risk of AD. In this communication, we investigated the age-related brain iron load changes in the frontal cortex of 6- and 12-month-old C57BL/6J (C57) and APPswe/PS1ΔE9 (APP/PS1) double transgenic mouse by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and Perls' reaction. In the present study, we also evaluated the age-related changes of DMT1 and FPN1 by using Western blot and qPCR. We found that compared with 6-month-old APP/PS1 mice and the 12-month-old C57 mice, the 12-month-old APP/PS1 mice had increased iron load in the frontal cortex. The levels of DMT1 were significantly increased and the FPN1 were significantly reduced in the frontal cortex of the 12-month-old APP/PS1 mice than that in the 6-month-old APP/PS1 mice and 12-month-old C57 mice. We conclude that in AD damage occurs in conjunction with iron accumulation, and the brain iron load associated with loss control of the brain iron metabolism related protein DMT1 and FPN1 expressions.

  11. The Secret to Finland's Success: Educating Teachers. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlberg, Pasi

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, Finland has emerged as the leading OECD country in educational achievement. In examining the sources of Finland's dramatic rise to the top, research shows one key element that has impacted Finland's success above all others: excellent teachers. This policy brief details the key elements of Finland's successful system, examining…

  12. The Secret to Finland's Success: Educating Teachers. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlberg, Pasi

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, Finland has emerged as the leading OECD country in educational achievement. In examining the sources of Finland's dramatic rise to the top, research shows one key element that has impacted Finland's success above all others: excellent teachers. This policy brief details the key elements of Finland's successful system, examining…

  13. Paleobiology, palaeopathology and necrophobic practices in early Iron Age burials (IX-VII century BC) in Capo Colonna, Trani, Apulia, southern Italy--the state of health of a small sample from Iron Age.

    PubMed

    Sublimi Saponetti, Sandro; Scattarella, Fabio; De Lucia, Amelia; Scattarella, Vito

    2007-03-01

    In this palaeobiological and palaeopathological study of skeletal remains, we attempt to define the physical characteristics, living conditions and the state of health of a small sample from two early Iron Age (IX-VIII century BC) graves at Capo Colonna, Trani (Bari, Apulia, southern Italy). In the thoraco-lumbar segment (T11-L1) of the vertebral column of an adult male 35 years old, we found wedge-shaped deformation of the anterior part of T12 with kyphosis of the affected tract. Digital radiography and volumetric reconstruction by 3D CT indicated that the alteration did not result from an infectious process (Pott's disease). Instead, it was a traumatic lesion probably caused by falling from a height. The archaeological investigation revealed extraordinary arrangements of the bodies in the graves: they were buried with a boulder placed on the coffin. This practice has been seen in similar graves in the Balkan area, particularly in Greece, from the Neolithic to the Early Middle Ages. The most likely explanation is a funeral ritual characterized by necrophobia, the purpose of which was to prevent the deceased from returning to terrorize the living.

  14. Changes in Alcohol-Related Problems After Alcohol Policy Changes in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden*

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, Kim; Wicki, Matthias; Gustafsson, Nina-Katri; Mäkelä, Pia; Room, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: European Union travelers' allowances for alcohol import to Denmark, Sweden, and Finland were abolished in 2004. In addition, excise taxes on alcohol were lowered in 2003 and 2005 in Denmark, and in 2004 in Finland. Using northern Sweden as a control site, this study examines whether levels of reported alcohol problems have changed in Denmark, Finland, and southern Sweden as a consequence of these policy changes. Method: Annual cross-sectional surveys were conducted in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden from 2003 to 2006. Five dependency items and seven extrinsic alcohol-related problems were examined. Changes were analyzed within each country/region with logistic regressions and tested for short- and long-term changes. Differential change was also tested between each country and the control site, northern Sweden. Results: Prevalence of alcohol problems decreased over the study period. Only in selected subgroups did problems increase. This mainly occurred in the samples for northern Sweden and Finland, and mostly among older age groups and men. In relation to the control site, however, no increases in problem prevalence were found. Conclusions: Our findings on a decline in reported alcohol problems largely agree with published reports on alcohol consumption over the same period in the study countries. They do not agree, however, with findings on changes in health and social statistics in Finland and Denmark, where some significant increases in alcohol-related harm have been found. PMID:20105411

  15. Uranium distribution and 'excessive' U-He ages in iron meteoritic troilite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    Fission tracking techniques were used to measure the uranium distribution in meteoritic troilite and graphite. The obtained fission tracking data showed a heterogeneous distribution of tracks with a significant portion of track density present in the form of uranium clusters at least 10 microns in size. The matrix containing the clusters was also heterogeneous in composition with U concentrations of about 0.2-4.7 ppb. U/He ages could not be estimated on the basis of the heterogeneous U distributions, so previously reported estimates of U/He ages in the presolar range are probably invalid.

  16. Calorie restriction down-regulates expression of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin in normal and D-galactose-induced aging mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shougang; Shi, Wenli; Li, Man; Gao, Qian

    2014-02-01

    It has been shown that iron progressively accumulates in the brain with age. Calorie restriction (CR) may allay many of the adverse effects of aging on the brain, yet the underlying mechanisms, in particular in relation to brain iron metabolism, remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of CR in the regulation of cerebral cellular iron homeostasis. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups of eight. The control group was fed a conventional diet ad libitum; the CR group received 70% of the calories of the control mouse intake per day; the D-galactose (D-gal) group received subcutaneous injection of D-gal at a dose of 100 mg/kg once daily to produce mouse model of aging; the D-gal plus CR group received both of the two interventions for 14 weeks. The Morris water maze (MWM) was employed to test the cognitive performance of all animals, and the expression of iron regulatory genes, ferroportin and hepcidin, in the cortex and hippocampus were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Compared to the controls, the D-gal group mice showed significant spatial reference memory deficits in the MWM test, whereas the D-gal-CR group mice exhibited almost normal cognitive function, indicating that CR protects against D-gal-induced learning and memory impairment. Hepcidin mRNA expression was increased in the D-gal group, decreased in the CR group, and was basically unchanged in the D-gal-CR group. There was no statistical difference in the transmembrane iron exporter ferroportin expression between control and any of the experimental groups. The results suggest that the anti-aging effects of CR might partially lie in its capacity to reduce or avoid age-related iron accumulation in the brain through down-regulating expression of brain hepcidin--the key negative regulator for intracellular iron efflux--and that facilitating the balance of brain iron metabolism may be a promising anti-aging measure.

  17. ESO Welcomes Finland as Eleventh Member State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesarsky, C.

    2004-09-01

    In early July, Finland joined ESO as the eleventh member state, following the completion of the formal accession procedure. Before this event, however, Finland and ESO had been in contact for a long time. Under an agreement with Sweden, Finnish astronomers had for quite a while enjoyed access to the SEST at La Silla. Finland had also been a very active participant in ESO's educational activities since they began in 1993. It became clear, that science and technology, as well as education, were priority areas for the Finnish government.

  18. Aging of Iron Nanoparticles in Aqueous Solution: Effects on Structure and Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Sarathy, Vaishnavi; Tratnyek, Paul G.; Nurmi, James; Baer, Donald R.; Amonette, James E.; Chun, Chan Lan; Penn, Ryland L.; Reardon, Eric J.

    2008-02-21

    Aging (or longevity) is one of the most important and potentially limiting factors in the use of nano-Fe0 to reduce groundwater contaminants. We investigated the aging of FeH2 (Toda RNIP-10DS) in water with a focus on changes in (i) the composition and structure of the particles (by XPS, XRD, TEM, and bulk Fe0 content), and (ii) the reactivity of the particles (by carbon tetrachloride reaction kinetics and electrochemical corrosion potentials). Our results show that the FeH2 becomes more reactive between 0 and ~2 days aging, and then gradually loses reactivity over the next few hundred days. These changes in reactivity correlate with evidence for rapid destruction of the original Fe(III) oxide film on FeH2 during immersion and the subsequent formation of a new passivating mixed-valence Fe(II)-Fe(III) oxide shell. The behavior of “unaged” nano-Fe0 in the laboratory may be similar to that in field-scale applications for source-zone treatment due to the short reaction times involved. Long-term aged FeH2 acquires properties that are relatively stable over weeks or even months.

  19. Structural evolution of Pd-doped nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) in aqueous media and implications for particle aging and reactivity.

    PubMed

    Yan, Weile; Herzing, Andrew A; Li, Xiao-qin; Kiely, Christopher J; Zhang, Wei-xian

    2010-06-01

    Palladized zero-valent iron nanoparticles have been frequently employed to achieve enhanced treatment of halogenated organic compounds; however, no detailed study has been published on their structures, especially the location and distribution of palladium within the nanoparticles. In this work, the structural evolution of palladized nanoscale iron particles (Pd-nZVI, with 1.5 wt % Pd) was examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) techniques. The STEM-XEDS technique enables direct visualization of the nanoscale structural and compositional changes of the bimetallic particles. For a freshly made Pd-nZVI sample, the particles consist of a metallic iron core and a thin amorphous oxide shell, and Pd is observed to form 2-5 nm islands decorating the outer surface of the nanoparticles. Upon exposure to water, Pd-nZVI undergoes substantial morphological and structural changes. STEM-XEDS elemental maps show that Pd infiltrates through the oxide layer to the metallic iron interface, which is accompanied by oxidation and outward diffusion of the iron species. Within a 24 h period, Pd is completely buried underneath an extensive iron oxide matrix, and a fraction of the nanoparticles exhibits a hollowed-out morphology with no metallic iron remaining. The microstructural variations observed concur with the reactivity data, which shows that the aged bimetallic particles display an 80% decrease in dechlorination rate of trichloroethene (TCE) compared to that of the fresh particles. These findings shed new light on the function of palladium in hydrodechlorination reactions, nZVI aging and deactivation, and the longevity of Pd-nZVI nanoparticles for in situ remediation.

  20. Age constraints on the hydrothermal history of the Prominent Hill iron oxide copper-gold deposit, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Bryan; Fraser, Geoff; Davidson, Garry J.; Meffre, Sebastien; Skirrow, Roger; Bull, Stuart; Thompson, Jay

    2016-12-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Prominent Hill iron-oxide copper-gold deposit lies on the fault-bound southern edge of the Mt Woods Domain, Gawler Craton, South Australia. Chalcocite-bornite-chalcopyrite ores occur in a hematitic breccia complex that has similarities to the Olympic Dam deposit, but were emplaced in a shallow water clastic-carbonate package overlying a thick andesite-dacite pile. The sequence has been overturned against the major, steep, east-west, Hangingwall Fault, beyond which lies the clastic to potentially evaporitic Blue Duck Metasediments. Immediately north of the deposit, these metasediments have been intruded by dacite porphyry and granitoid and metasomatised to form magnetite-calc-silicate skarn ± pyrite-chalcopyrite. The hematitic breccia complex is strongly sericitised and silicified, has a large sericite ± chlorite halo, and was intruded by dykes during and after sericitisation. This paper evaluates the age of sericite formation in the mineralised breccias and provides constraints on the timing of granitoid intrusion and skarn formation in the terrain adjoining the mineralisation. The breccia complex contains fragments of granitoid and porphyry that are found here to be part of the Gawler Range Volcanics/Hiltaba Suite magmatic event at 1600-1570 Ma. This indicates that some breccia formation post-dated granitoid intrusion. Monazite and apatite in Fe-P-REE-albite metasomatised granitoid, paragenetically linked with magnetite skarn formation north of the Hangingwall Fault, grew soon after granitoid intrusion, although the apatite experienced U-Pb-LREE loss during later fluid-mineral interaction; this accounts for its calculated age of 1544 ± 39 Ma. To the south of the fault, within the breccia, 40Ar-39Ar ages yield a minimum age of sericitisation (+Cu+Fe+REE) of dykes and volcanics of ˜1575 Ma, firmly placing Prominent Hill ore formation as part of the Gawler Range Volcanics/Hiltaba Suite magmatic event within the Olympic Cu-Au province of the

  1. Age constraints on the hydrothermal history of the Prominent Hill iron oxide copper-gold deposit, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Bryan; Fraser, Geoff; Davidson, Garry J.; Meffre, Sebastien; Skirrow, Roger; Bull, Stuart; Thompson, Jay

    2017-08-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Prominent Hill iron-oxide copper-gold deposit lies on the fault-bound southern edge of the Mt Woods Domain, Gawler Craton, South Australia. Chalcocite-bornite-chalcopyrite ores occur in a hematitic breccia complex that has similarities to the Olympic Dam deposit, but were emplaced in a shallow water clastic-carbonate package overlying a thick andesite-dacite pile. The sequence has been overturned against the major, steep, east-west, Hangingwall Fault, beyond which lies the clastic to potentially evaporitic Blue Duck Metasediments. Immediately north of the deposit, these metasediments have been intruded by dacite porphyry and granitoid and metasomatised to form magnetite-calc-silicate skarn ± pyrite-chalcopyrite. The hematitic breccia complex is strongly sericitised and silicified, has a large sericite ± chlorite halo, and was intruded by dykes during and after sericitisation. This paper evaluates the age of sericite formation in the mineralised breccias and provides constraints on the timing of granitoid intrusion and skarn formation in the terrain adjoining the mineralisation. The breccia complex contains fragments of granitoid and porphyry that are found here to be part of the Gawler Range Volcanics/Hiltaba Suite magmatic event at 1600-1570 Ma. This indicates that some breccia formation post-dated granitoid intrusion. Monazite and apatite in Fe-P-REE-albite metasomatised granitoid, paragenetically linked with magnetite skarn formation north of the Hangingwall Fault, grew soon after granitoid intrusion, although the apatite experienced U-Pb-LREE loss during later fluid-mineral interaction; this accounts for its calculated age of 1544 ± 39 Ma. To the south of the fault, within the breccia, 40Ar-39Ar ages yield a minimum age of sericitisation (+Cu+Fe+REE) of dykes and volcanics of ˜1575 Ma, firmly placing Prominent Hill ore formation as part of the Gawler Range Volcanics/Hiltaba Suite magmatic event within the Olympic Cu-Au province of the

  2. Effects of aging and oxidation of palladized iron embedded in activated carbon on the dechlorination of 2-chlorobiphenyl

    SciTech Connect

    Hyeok Choi; Souhail R. Al-Abed; Shirish Agarwal

    2009-06-15

    Reactive activated carbon (RAC) impregnated with palladized iron has been developed to effectively treat polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment by coupling adsorption and dechlorination of PCBs. In this study, we addressed the dechlorination reactivity and capacity of RAC toward aqueous 2-chlorobiphenyl (2-ClBP), and its aging and longevity under various oxidizing environments. RAC containing 14.4% Fe and 0.68% Pd used in this study could adsorb 122.6 mg 2-ClBP/g RAC, and dechlorinate 56.5 mg 2-ClBP/g RAC which corresponds to 12% (yield) of its estimated dechlorination capacity. Due to Fe0 oxidation to form oxide passivating layers, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (oxide-water interface) and FeOOH/FeO (oxide-metal interface), RAC reactivity decreased progressively over aging under N{sub 2} < H{sub 2}O + N{sub 2} < H{sub 2}O + O{sub 2} conditions. Considering nanoscale Fe/Pd corrosion chemistry, the decline was quite slow at only 5.6%, 19.5%, and 32.5% over one year, respectively. Dissolved oxygen played a crucial role in enhancing 2-ClBP adsorption but inhibiting its dechlorination. The reactivity change could be explained with the properties of the aged RAC including surface area, Fe0 content, and Fe species. During the aging and oxidation, the RAC showed limited dissolution of Fe and Pd. Finally, implementation issues regarding application of RAC system to contaminated sites are discussed. 25 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Epidemiology of early-onset Parkinson's disease in Finland.

    PubMed

    Ylikotila, Pauli; Tiirikka, Timo; Moilanen, Jukka S; Kääriäinen, Helena; Marttila, Reijo; Majamaa, Kari

    2015-08-01

    The contribution of genetic causes to Parkinson's disease (PD) is strongest in early-onset cases. We ascertained a nationwide cohort of patients in order to study the genetic epidemiology of early-onset PD (EOPD) in Finland. By means of a search in a national database we ascertained all patients with EOPD. These patients had become eligible for reimbursement of PD drugs between the years 1995-2006 and were <55 years of age at the time of PD diagnosis. A total of 441 patients consented and provided clinical and genealogical information. The incidence of EOPD increased 1.7-fold between the years 1995-2006, the mean annual incidence being 3.3/100,000. Fifty-two patients (11.8%) reported an affected first-degree relative. The birthplaces of patients with PD among first-degree relatives were clustered in certain regions in the southwestern and western coastal provinces of Finland and in the eastern province of Savo. Furthermore, the distance between the birthplaces of the patients' parents was smaller for patients, who had first-degree relatives with PD than for patients with no family history of PD. Our data suggest that the incidence of EOPD is increasing. The birthplaces of patients with PD among first-degree relatives were clustered in certain provinces of Finland suggesting that monogenic forms of PD or genetic susceptibility of PD are present in the population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. University Mergers in Finland: Mediating Global Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Välimaa, Jussi; Aittola, Helena; Ursin, Jani

    2014-01-01

    University mergers have become a common strategy for increasing global competitiveness. In this chapter, the authors analyze the implementation of mergers in Finnish universities from the perspective of social justice as conceived within Finland and other Nordic countries.

  5. University Mergers in Finland: Mediating Global Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Välimaa, Jussi; Aittola, Helena; Ursin, Jani

    2014-01-01

    University mergers have become a common strategy for increasing global competitiveness. In this chapter, the authors analyze the implementation of mergers in Finnish universities from the perspective of social justice as conceived within Finland and other Nordic countries.

  6. Age-associated variation in sensory perception of iron in drinking water and the potential for overexposure in the human population.

    PubMed

    Mirlohi, Susan; Dietrich, Andrea M; Duncan, Susan E

    2011-08-01

    Humans interact with their environment through the five senses, but little is known about population variability in the ability to assess contaminants. Sensory thresholds and biochemical indicators of metallic flavor perception in humans were evaluated for ferrous (Fe(2+)) iron in drinking water; subjects aged 19-84 years participated. Metallic flavor thresholds for individuals and subpopulations based on age were determined. Oral lipid oxidation and oral pH were measured in saliva as potential biochemical indicators. Individual thresholds were 0.007-14.14 mg/L Fe(2+) and the overall population threshold was 0.17 mg/L Fe(2+) in reagent water. Average thresholds for individuals younger and older than 50 years of age (grouped by the daily recommended nutritional guidelines for iron intake) were significantly different (p = 0.013); the population thresholds for each group were 0.045 mg/L Fe(2+) and 0.498 mg/L Fe(2+), respectively. Many subjects >50 and a few subjects <50 years were insensitive to metallic flavor. There was no correlation between age, oral lipid oxidation, and oral pH. Standardized olfactory assessment found poor sensitivity for Fe(2+) corresponded with conditions of mild, moderate, and total anosmia. The findings demonstrate an age-dependent sensitivity to iron indicating as people age they are less sensitive to metallic perception.

  7. Banded iron-formations of late Proterozoic age in the central eastern desert, Egypt: geology and tectonic setting.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sims, P.K.; James, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    Iron-formation occurs as stratigraphic units within a layered andesite-basalt sequence. The sequence is metamorphosed to greenschist facies, intruded by syntectonic granodiorite and post-tectonic granite, and complexly deformed and grossly fragmented; the rocks are allochthonous along thrust faults. The iron deposits are chemical precipitates, accumulated during lulls in volcanism, apparently in an intraoceanic island-arc environment. The deposits are of the Algoma type of iron-formation.-G.J.N.

  8. An interdisciplinary tillage erosion experiment: establishing a new field in grassland with reconstructed ard plough of the Bronze Age - Iron Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavelka, Jan; Smetanová, Anna; Rejman, Jerzy; Kováčik, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Despite recognising the role of tillage erosion in landforms evolution, little research has documented its effects in prehistoric times. Herein, an interdisciplinary archaeological-geomorphological experiment with reconstructed tillage tools and management was conducted in order to measure tillage erosion when a new field in grasslands was established in the Bronze Age-Iron Age. Three wooden ards were reconstructed based on archaeological findings. They were tested in a cross-tillage experiment, consisting of a tillage pass perpendicular to the primary slope (6.5-9.7%), and a second tillage pass parallel to the primary slope of a convex-convex ridge with mowed grass (0.2 m high, vegetation cover >90%). The standard sole ard proved to be the most effective, with a mean tillage depth of 0.12 m, a mean tillage speed of 3.8 km h-1, and a mean distance between furrows of 0.20-0.25 m. Only 13% of the 264 tracers placed on 6 transects were displaced, and the mean tracers displacement parallel to the primary slope was 0.04 ± 0.17 m. Contour tillage perpendicular to primary slope created V or U shaped furrows with a mean depth of 0.1-0.12 m, a mean width of 0.05-0.1 m, and incision under the main root zone. Only soil in direct contact with the ard was displaced, with a mean translocation distance of 0.06 ± 0.2 m parallel and 0.06 ± 0.3 m perpendicular to the primary slope. During tillage parallel to slope, soil clods of 0.20 x 0.25 x 0.10 m were created and slightly disturbed or turned over one another. The tracers moved within the furrows and with the soil clods. Loose soil, resembling a seedbed, was not covered by soil clods. Mean displacement during the second pass was 0.03 ± 0.19 m parallel and 0.00 ± 0.15 m perpendicular to primary slope. The displacement from cross-tillage with a wooden ard in permanent grasslands was lower than many previously measured values of traditional animal-powered metal ploughs in permanent fields. No relationship between mean soil

  9. Definition and prevalence of anemia in Bolivian women of childbearing age living at high altitudes: the effect of iron-folate supplementation.

    PubMed

    Berger, J; Aguayo, V M; San Miguel, J L; Lujan, C; Tellez, W; Traissac, P

    1997-06-01

    This paper discusses the effect that high altitudes have on iron metabolism and summarizes the results of an iron-folate supplementation trial. The two main objectives of the trial were to determine hemoglobin cut-off values for the diagnosis of anemia in Bolivian women of childbearing age living at high altitudes, and to estimate the prevalence of anemia in this population. The study showed that nutritional anemia is an important public health problem in such populations and that many methods of assessing it lead to an underestimation of prevalence. The cut-off values defined through this study, one of the few iron supplementation trials conducted at high altitudes, confirm the need to establish revised hemoglobin values for the diagnosis of anemia in populations living at high altitudes.

  10. Effect of delayed vs early umbilical cord clamping on iron status and neurodevelopment at age 12 months: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Ola; Domellöf, Magnus; Andersson, Dan; Hellström-Westas, Lena

    2014-06-01

    Prevention of iron deficiency in infancy may promote neurodevelopment. Delayed cord clamping (DCC) can prevent iron deficiency during the first 6 months of life. However, no data are available on long-term effects on infant outcomes in relation to time for umbilical cord clamping. To investigate effects of DCC, as compared with early cord clamping (ECC), on infant iron status and neurodevelopment at age 12 months in a European setting. Randomized clinical trial of 382 full-term infants born after a low-risk pregnancy at a Swedish county hospital. Follow-up at 12 months included evaluation of iron status (ferritin level, transferrin saturation, transferrin receptor level, reticulocyte hemoglobin level, and mean cell volume) and parental assessment of neurodevelopment by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, second edition (ASQ). Infants were randomized to DCC (≥180 seconds after delivery) or ECC (≤10 seconds after delivery). The main outcome was iron status at age 12 months; the secondary outcome was ASQ score. In total, 347 of 382 infants (90.8%) were assessed. The DCC and ECC groups did not differ in iron status (mean ferritin level, 35.4 vs 33.6 ng/mL, respectively; P = .40) or neurodevelopment (mean ASQ total score, 229.6 vs 233.1, respectively; P = .42) at age 12 months. Predictors of ferritin levels were infant sex and ferritin in umbilical cord blood. Predictors of ASQ score were infant sex and breastfeeding within 1 hour after birth. For both outcomes, being a boy was associated with lower results. Interaction analysis showed that DCC was associated with an ASQ score 5 points higher among boys (mean [SD] score, 229 [43] for DCC vs 224 [39] for ECC) but 12 points lower among girls (mean [SD] score, 230 [39] for DCC vs 242 [36] for ECC), out of a maximum of 300 points (P = .04 for the interaction term). Delayed cord clamping did not affect iron status or neurodevelopment at age 12 months in a selected population of healthy term-born infants

  11. A Novel Approach to Evaluating the Iron and Folate Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Uzbekistan after 3 Years of Flour Fortification with Micronutrients

    PubMed Central

    Hund, Lauren; Northrop-Clewes, Christine A.; Nazario, Ronald; Suleymanova, Dilora; Mirzoyan, Lusine; Irisova, Munira; Pagano, Marcello; Valadez, Joseph J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Uzbekistan 1996 Demographic Health Survey reported 60.4% of women of reproductive age (WRA) had low hemoglobin concentrations (<120 g/L), and anemia was an important public health problem. Fortification of wheat flour was identified as an appropriate intervention to address anemia due to the ubiquitous consumption of wheat flour. A National Flour Fortification Program (NFFP) was implemented in 2005. Methodology/Principal Findings After 3-years of the NFFP, a national survey using large country-lot quality assurance sampling was carried out to assess iron, folate, hemoglobin and inflammation status of WRA; the coverage and knowledge of the fortified first grade UzDonMakhsulot (UDM) flour/grey loaf program; and consumption habits of women to investigate the dietary factors associated with anemia. Estimated anemia prevalence was 34.4% (95% CI: 32.0, 36.7), iron depletion 47.5% (95% CI: 45.1, 49.9) and folate deficiency 28.8% (95% CI: 26.8, 30.8); the effect of inflammation was minimal (4% with CRP >5 mg/L). Severe anemia was more prevalent among folate deficient than iron depleted WRA. Presence of UDM first grade flour or the grey loaf was reported in 71.3% of households. Among WRA, 32.1% were aware of UDM fortification; only 3.7% mentioned the benefits of fortification and 12.5% understood causes of anemia. Consumption of heme iron-containing food (91%) and iron absorption enhancers (97%) was high, as was the consumption of iron absorption inhibitors (95%). Conclusions/Significance The NFFP coincided with a substantial decline in the prevalence of anemia. Folate deficiency was a stronger predictor of severe anemia than iron depletion. However, the prevalence of iron depletion was high, suggesting that women are not eating enough iron or iron absorption is inhibited. Fortified products were prevalent throughout Uzbekistan, though UDM flour must be adequately fortified and monitored in the future. Knowledge of fortification and anemia was low, suggesting

  12. Effects of weaning cereals with different phytate contents on hemoglobin, iron stores, and serum zinc: a randomized intervention in infants from 6 to 12 mo of age.

    PubMed

    Lind, Torbjörn; Lönnerdal, Bo; Persson, Lars-Ake; Stenlund, Hans; Tennefors, Catharina; Hernell, Olle

    2003-07-01

    Weaning foods frequently contain phytate, an inhibitor of iron and zinc absorption, which may contribute to the high prevalence of iron and zinc deficiency seen in infancy. The objective was to investigate whether either an extensive reduction in the phytate content of infant cereals or the use of milk-based, iron-fortified infant formula would improve iron and zinc status in infants. In a double-blind design, infants (n = 300) were randomly assigned to 3 cereal groups from 6 to 12 mo of age: commercial milk-based cereal drink (MCD) and porridge (CC group), phytate-reduced MCD and phytate-reduced porridge (PR group), or milk-based infant formula and porridge with the usual phytate content (IF group). Venous blood samples were collected at 6 and 12 mo. Dietary intake was recorded monthly. After the intervention, 267 infants remained in the analysis. Hemoglobin concentrations of < 110 g/L, serum ferritin concentrations of < 12 microg/L, and serum zinc concentrations of < 10.7 micromol/L had overall prevalences at baseline and 12 mo of 28% and 15%, 9% and 18%, and 22% and 27%, respectively. After the intervention, there were no significant differences in any measure of iron or zinc status between the CC and the PR groups. However, hemoglobin was significantly higher (120 g/L compared with 117 g/L; P = 0.012) and the prevalence of anemia was lower (13% compared with 23%; P = 0.06) in the PR group than in the IF group, which could be explained by differences in daily iron intake between the 2 groups. Extensive reduction in the phytate content of weaning cereals had little long-term effect on the iron and zinc status of Swedish infants.

  13. Endogenous Retroviral Insertions Indicate a Secondary Introduction of Domestic Sheep Lineages to the Caucasus and Central Asia between the Bronze and Iron Age.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Oskar; Benecke, Norbert; Frölich, Kai; Peng, Zuogang; Kaniuth, Kai; Sverchkov, Leonid; Reinhold, Sabine; Belinskiy, Andrey; Ludwig, Arne

    2017-06-20

    Sheep were one of the first livestock species domesticated by humans. After initial domestication in the Middle East they were spread across Eurasia. The modern distribution of endogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus insertions in domestic sheep breeds suggests that over the course of millennia, successive introductions of improved lineages and selection for wool quality occurred in the Mediterranean region and most of Asia. Here we present a novel ancient DNA approach using data of endogenous retroviral insertions in Bronze and Iron Age domestic sheep from the Caucasus and Pamir mountain areas. Our findings support a secondary introduction of wool sheep from the Middle East between the Late Bronze Age and Iron Age into most areas of Eurasia.

  14. Endogenous Retroviral Insertions Indicate a Secondary Introduction of Domestic Sheep Lineages to the Caucasus and Central Asia between the Bronze and Iron Age

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Oskar; Benecke, Norbert; Frölich, Kai; Peng, Zuogang; Kaniuth, Kai; Sverchkov, Leonid; Reinhold, Sabine; Belinskiy, Andrey; Ludwig, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Sheep were one of the first livestock species domesticated by humans. After initial domestication in the Middle East they were spread across Eurasia. The modern distribution of endogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus insertions in domestic sheep breeds suggests that over the course of millennia, successive introductions of improved lineages and selection for wool quality occurred in the Mediterranean region and most of Asia. Here we present a novel ancient DNA approach using data of endogenous retroviral insertions in Bronze and Iron Age domestic sheep from the Caucasus and Pamir mountain areas. Our findings support a secondary introduction of wool sheep from the Middle East between the Late Bronze Age and Iron Age into most areas of Eurasia. PMID:28632161

  15. The influence of storage age on iron status, oxidative stress and antioxidant protection in paediatric packed cell units.

    PubMed

    Collard, Keith; White, Desley; Copplestone, Adrian

    2014-04-01

    Receipt of blood transfusions is associated with the major consequences of prematurity such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Transfusion-mediated (iron-induced) oxidative damage, coupled with the limited ability of the premature baby to deal with enhanced iron and oxidative load may contribute to this. Adverse effects of transfusion may be related to duration of storage. This study examined the influence of storage on iron and oxidative status in paediatric packed red blood cell units. Paediatric packed red blood cell units were sampled 3 days post-donation, then at 7 days and weekly until day 35. The extracellular medium was separated and the following measured: total iron concentration, total iron binding capacity, non-transferrin-bound iron, haemoglobin, total and reduced ascorbate, glutathione and malondialdehyde. Measurable total and non-transferrin bound iron were present in the extracellular fluid of paediatric packs on day 3. Both parameters rose almost linearly to maximal values at 35 days. Haemoglobin and malondialdehyde levels rose gradually from day 3 to day 21, then more steeply to day 35. Ascorbate existed mainly in the oxidised form and fell rapidly towards the end of storage. Intracellular GSH fell throughout the period of storage. Strong correlations existed between biomarkers of oxidative damage and iron parameters. These data suggest that iron released following the initial preparation of packed red blood cell units may derive from free radical-mediated oxidative damage to the red blood cells and haemoglobin, rather than from extracellular haemoglobin. Iron continues to be released during storage as antioxidant protection declines. A cycle of free radical-mediated damage may initiate and then further exacerbate iron release during storage which, in turn, may mediate further free radical-mediated cellular damage. The potential consequences to recipients of older stored blood may be significant.

  16. The influence of storage age on iron status, oxidative stress and antioxidant protection in paediatric packed cell units

    PubMed Central

    Collard, Keith; White, Desley; Copplestone, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Background Receipt of blood transfusions is associated with the major consequences of prematurity such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Transfusion-mediated (iron-induced) oxidative damage, coupled with the limited ability of the premature baby to deal with enhanced iron and oxidative load may contribute to this. Adverse effects of transfusion may be related to duration of storage. This study examined the influence of storage on iron and oxidative status in paediatric packed red blood cell units. Materials and methods Paediatric packed red blood cell units were sampled 3 days post-donation, then at 7 days and weekly until day 35. The extracellular medium was separated and the following measured: total iron concentration, total iron binding capacity, non-transferrin-bound iron, haemoglobin, total and reduced ascorbate, glutathione and malondialdehyde. Results Measurable total and non-transferrin bound iron were present in the extracellular fluid of paediatric packs on day 3. Both parameters rose almost linearly to maximal values at 35 days. Haemoglobin and malondialdehyde levels rose gradually from day 3 to day 21, then more steeply to day 35. Ascorbate existed mainly in the oxidised form and fell rapidly towards the end of storage. Intracellular GSH fell throughout the period of storage. Strong correlations existed between biomarkers of oxidative damage and iron parameters. Discussion These data suggest that iron released following the initial preparation of packed red blood cell units may derive from free radical-mediated oxidative damage to the red blood cells and haemoglobin, rather than from extracellular haemoglobin. Iron continues to be released during storage as antioxidant protection declines. A cycle of free radical-mediated damage may initiate and then further exacerbate iron release during storage which, in turn, may mediate further free radical-mediated cellular damage. The potential consequences to recipients of older stored blood may be significant

  17. Preschool Iron-Folic Acid and Zinc Supplementation in Children Exposed to Iron-Folic Acid in Utero Confers No Added Cognitive Benefit in Early School-Age123

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Parul; Morgan, Mary E.; Murray-Kolb, Laura; LeClerq, Steven C.; Khatry, Subarna K.; Schaefer, Barbara; Cole, Pamela M.; Katz, Joanne; Tielsch, James M.

    2011-01-01

    In Nepal, antenatal iron-folic acid supplementation improved aspects of intellectual, executive, and fine motor function among school-age children. We examined the impact of added zinc to the maternal antenatal supplement (M-IFAZn) and preschool supplementation from 12 to 36 mo with iron-folic acid (C-IFA) ± zinc (C-IFAZn) on cognitive outcomes compared to maternal iron-folic acid (M-IFA) alone. Children 7–9 y old (n = 780) who participated in early childhood micronutrient supplementation trial during 2001–2004 and whose mothers participated in an antenatal micronutrient supplementation between 1999 and 2001 were followed for cognitive assessments in 2007–2009. Using multivariate analysis of variance and adjusting for confounders, M-IFA with child supplementation (either C-IFA or C-IFAZn) did not impact scores on the tests of general intelligence (Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test), and executive function (Stroop and go/no go tests) relative to the M-IFA alone. However, children in the C-IFAZn group had slightly lower scores on the backward digit span (−0.29, 95% CI: −0.55, −0.04) and Movement Assessment Battery for Children (1.33, 95% CI: 0.26, 2.40) relative to the referent group, whereas both C-IFA (−1.92, 95% CI: −3.12, −0.71) and C-IFAZn (−1.78, 95% CI: −2.63, −0.92) produced somewhat lower finger tapping test scores (fine motor skills). The combination of M-IFAZn and C-IFA or C-IFAZn did not lead to any outcome differences relative to M-IFA alone. Preschool iron-folic acid ± zinc to children exposed to iron-folic acid in utero or addition of zinc to maternal iron-folic acid conferred no additional benefit to cognitive outcomes assessed in early school age. The late timing of supplementation during preschool may explain the lack of impact of iron and/or zinc. PMID:21956955

  18. Prevalence of iron and zinc deficiencies among preschool children ages 3 to 5 y in Vhembe district, Limpopo province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Motadi, Selekane Ananias; Mbhenyane, Xikombiso G; Mbhatsani, Hlekani V; Mabapa, Ngoako S; Mamabolo, Ramoteme L

    2015-03-01

    Children under the age of 5 y constitute the most vulnerable group for iron and zinc deficiencies and their nutritional status is a sensitive indicator of community health and nutrition. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of zinc and iron deficiency among preschool children aged 3 to 5 y in Vhembe district, Limpopo province, South Africa. This study included 349 preschool children recruited from two municipalities of Vhembe district, Limpopo province, South Africa. Municipalities were purposively selected and simple random sampling was used to choose children. Body weight and height were measured using standard techniques. Serum zinc, iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation, transferrin and C-reactive protein levels were also assessed, as were hemoglobin levels. The prevalence of wasting, stunting, and underweight was 1.4%, 18.6%, and 0.3%, respectively; whereas 20.9% of the children were overweight and 9.7% were obese. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was 42.6% and anemia was 28%; both were higher in girls than in boys. When using serum ferritin and transferrin saturation 7 (2%) of the children had iron-deficiency anemia. Combined iron and zinc deficiencies using ferritin was found in 8 (2.3%) of the children; when using transferrin saturation these deficiencies were found in 42 (12%) of the children. Iron and zinc deficiencies as well as anemia, accompanied by high prevalence of stunting; and overweight and obesity, were common in preschool children. The results observed here call for interventions to combat the escalating problem of child malnutrition in the form of nutritional education for mothers and food handlers at preschools to ensure food diversification in these children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Diverse origin of mitochondrial lineages in Iron Age Black Sea Scythians

    PubMed Central

    Juras, Anna; Krzewińska, Maja; Nikitin, Alexey G.; Ehler, Edvard; Chyleński, Maciej; Łukasik, Sylwia; Krenz-Niedbała, Marta; Sinika, Vitaly; Piontek, Janusz; Ivanova, Svetlana; Dabert, Miroslawa; Götherström, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Scythians were nomadic and semi-nomadic people that ruled the Eurasian steppe during much of the first millennium BCE. While having been extensively studied by archaeology, very little is known about their genetic identity. To fill this gap, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from Scythians of the North Pontic Region (NPR) and successfully retrieved 19 whole mtDNA genomes. We have identified three potential mtDNA lineage ancestries of the NPR Scythians tracing back to hunter-gatherer and nomadic populations of east and west Eurasia as well as the Neolithic farming expansion into Europe. One third of all mt lineages in our dataset belonged to subdivisions of mt haplogroup U5. A comparison of NPR Scythian mtDNA linages with other contemporaneous Scythian groups, the Saka and the Pazyryks, reveals a common mtDNA package comprised of haplogroups H/H5, U5a, A, D/D4, and F1/F2. Of these, west Eurasian lineages show a downward cline in the west-east direction while east Eurasian haplogroups display the opposite trajectory. An overall similarity in mtDNA lineages of the NPR Scythians was found with the late Bronze Age Srubnaya population of the Northern Black Sea region which supports the archaeological hypothesis suggesting Srubnaya people as ancestors of the NPR Scythians. PMID:28266657

  20. Intestinal blood loss as an aggravating factor of iron deficiency in infants aged 9 to 12 months fed whole cow's milk.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Sandra Maria Rodrigues; de Morais, Mauro Batista; Amancio, Olga Maria Silverio

    2008-02-01

    To verify the occurrence of occult intestinal blood loss and iron deficiency in infants aged 9 to 12 months. A consecutive sample of 98 infants of the Pediatric Public Health Primary Care Unit in the town of Arapongas, Parana State, Brazil was involved in this cross-sectional study. Dietary history, hemoglobin, serum iron, transferrin saturation, ferritin, and an occult fecal blood loss investigation, by the immune chromatographic method specific for human hemoglobin were performed. Presence of occult intestinal blood occurred in 8/23 of the breast-fed (plus complementary feed) infants and in 30/64 of the infants who were fed with cow's milk (plus complementary feed) (P=0.449). The comparison of body iron indicators in accordance to positive or negative occult fecal blood, did not show any significant difference in the 23 breast-fed infants. Serum ferritin (median=4.2 ng/mL) was significantly lower (P=0.004) in infants who received whole cow's milk and had positive occult fecal blood, than in those infants who received whole cow's milk but were without occult fecal blood (median=12.1 ng/mL). In breast-fed infants with negative occult fecal blood, iron deficiency severity is not greater than in those with positive results. In infants fed whole cow's milk, occult fecal blood loss is an aggravating factor of iron deficiency.

  1. Occupational eye injuries in Finland.

    PubMed

    Saari, K M; Parvi, V

    1984-01-01

    In Finland 11.9% of all industrial accidents in 1973 were eye injuries including superficial eye injuries (79.2%), ultraviolet burns of the cornea (3.9%), eye burns (3.6%), blunt ocular trauma (2,5%), wounds (2.4%), and post-traumatic infections (5.8%). Eye injuries constituted 34.3% of all industrial accidents which needed only ambulatory treatment and 17.5% of all industrial accidents causing an absence for 1-2 days. In 1981 2.1% of all compensated industrial accidents (incapacity for work 3 days or more) were eye injuries. Most compensated eye injuries occurred in manufacturing and in construction work (80.4%) and 8.5% occurred in agriculture. The annual incidence rates of compensated accidents to the eyes (accidents X 1 000/number of employees) were highest in several branches of metal industry (4.96-6.88), excavating and foundation work (6.88), and in logging (5.64). Compensated eye injuries were caused by machines (32.8%), hand tools (25.6%), other equipment and constructions (4.8%), work environment (23.6%), chemical substances (10.8%), and other accidents (2.3%).

  2. Geomorphological and sedimentary record from Poseidi, N. Greece and relationship with Late Bronze and Iron age settlements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psomiadis, David; Parashou, Theodoros; Albanakis, Konstantinos; Dotsika, Elissavet; Zisi, Nikoleta

    2010-05-01

    Coastal geomorphological features from Poseidi, Chalkidiki, N. Greece have been studied in order to classify the Late Pleistocene and Holocene formations that prevail across the coastal zone of Cape Poseidi. Carbonate cementation in the littoral shelf (beachrocks) indicates phases of coastal instability. The adjacent conglomerate formation and the stratigraphical characteristics of the backshore sedimentary sequence define the geomorphological setting of the human occupation in the area that dates back to 3500 BP. Eretrians settled the area (Pallini peninsula) during the Iron age, while Poseidi was already used for ritual ceremonies of god Neptune. Although ancient Mendi was built on an approximately 100m-high hill, its so-called "Suburb" by Thucydides was reaching the shoreline, and its cemetery was excavated in the beach sediments. Palaeo-shorelines have been reconstructed using bathymetry data and submerged fossil coastlines. The submerged beachrock horizons are spotted northwards at 1m, 1.7m, 2.4m and 3.6m depth as well as the formation occupies the swashzone at two subsequent separated beaches southwards near ancient Mendi. Tectonic movements were also evaluated and reconsidered in relation to coastal archaeological sites for the reconstruction of the geomorphological setting. The dynamic wave regime at Cape Poseidi and the sedimentary characteristics seem to have played a prominent role during stages of relatively stable sea level and influenced the human occupation in the area.

  3. Multi-isotopic analysis reveals individual mobility and diet at the Early Iron Age monumental tumulus of Magdalenenberg, Germany.

    PubMed

    Oelze, Vicky M; Koch, Julia K; Kupke, Katharina; Nehlich, Olaf; Zäuner, Steve; Wahl, Joachim; Weise, Stephan M; Rieckhoff, Sabine; Richards, Michael P

    2012-07-01

    For the Early Iron Age western Hallstatt culture, which includes the site of Magdalenenberg in southwest Germany, it has been proposed that people were mobile and maintained far reaching social and trading networks throughout Europe. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing multiple isotopes (strontium, oxygen, sulfur, carbon, and nitrogen) of the preserved skeletons from the Magdalenenberg elite cemetery to determine diets and to look for evidence of mobility. The analysis of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotope ratios in collagen of humans (n = 50) and associated domestic fauna (n = 10) indicates a terrestrial-based diet. There was a heterogeneous range of isotope values in both strontium (0.70725 to 0.71923, n = 76) and oxygen (13.4‰ to 18.5‰, n = 78) measured in tooth enamel. Although many of the individuals had values consistent with being from Hallstatt culture sites within southwest Germany, some individuals likely originated from further afield. Possible areas include the Alps of Switzerland and Austria or even locations in Italy. Our study strongly supports the assumption of far reaching social and economic networks in the western Hallstatt culture.

  4. Towards an absolute chronology for the Aegean iron age: new radiocarbon dates from Lefkandi, Kalapodi and Corinth.

    PubMed

    Toffolo, Michael B; Fantalkin, Alexander; Lemos, Irene S; Felsch, Rainer C S; Niemeier, Wolf-Dietrich; Sanders, Guy D R; Finkelstein, Israel; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    The relative chronology of the Aegean Iron Age is robust. It is based on minute stylistic changes in the Submycenaean, Protogeometric and Geometric styles and their sub-phases. Yet, the absolute chronology of the time-span between the final stages of Late Helladic IIIC in the late second millennium BCE and the archaic colonization of Italy and Sicily toward the end of the 8(th) century BCE lacks archaeological contexts that can be directly related to events carrying absolute dates mentioned in Egyptian/Near Eastern historical sources, or to well-dated Egyptian/Near Eastern rulers. The small number of radiocarbon dates available for this time span is not sufficient to establish an absolute chronological sequence. Here we present a new set of short-lived radiocarbon dates from the sites of Lefkandi, Kalapodi and Corinth in Greece. We focus on the crucial transition from the Submycenaean to the Protogeometric periods. This transition is placed in the late 11(th) century BCE according to the Conventional Aegean Chronology and in the late 12(th) century BCE according to the High Aegean Chronology. Our results place it in the second half of the 11(th) century BCE.

  5. Towards an Absolute Chronology for the Aegean Iron Age: New Radiocarbon Dates from Lefkandi, Kalapodi and Corinth

    PubMed Central

    Toffolo, Michael B.; Fantalkin, Alexander; Lemos, Irene S.; Felsch, Rainer C. S.; Niemeier, Wolf-Dietrich; Sanders, Guy D. R.; Finkelstein, Israel; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    The relative chronology of the Aegean Iron Age is robust. It is based on minute stylistic changes in the Submycenaean, Protogeometric and Geometric styles and their sub-phases. Yet, the absolute chronology of the time-span between the final stages of Late Helladic IIIC in the late second millennium BCE and the archaic colonization of Italy and Sicily toward the end of the 8th century BCE lacks archaeological contexts that can be directly related to events carrying absolute dates mentioned in Egyptian/Near Eastern historical sources, or to well-dated Egyptian/Near Eastern rulers. The small number of radiocarbon dates available for this time span is not sufficient to establish an absolute chronological sequence. Here we present a new set of short-lived radiocarbon dates from the sites of Lefkandi, Kalapodi and Corinth in Greece. We focus on the crucial transition from the Submycenaean to the Protogeometric periods. This transition is placed in the late 11th century BCE according to the Conventional Aegean Chronology and in the late 12th century BCE according to the High Aegean Chronology. Our results place it in the second half of the 11th century BCE. PMID:24386150

  6. An unusual double supernumerary maxillary mesiodens in a Middle Iron Age skeleton from South Uist, Western Isles, Scotland.

    PubMed

    Ives, Rachel

    2014-06-01

    Bilaterally occurring and fully erupted mesiodens occur infrequently in the modern population and have been little documented from past populations. This research presents an unusual case of a double maxillary mesiodens in the permanent dentition occurring in skeletal remains dating to the Middle Iron Age (250-410 AD) from South Uist, Western Isles of Scotland. Osteological analysis of an adult male included the inventory of teeth present/absent and analysis of dental pathologies (caries, calculus, periodontal disease, ante-mortem tooth loss, periapical abscesses), developmental defects and orthodontic anomalies (enamel hypoplastic defects, malposition, rotation, crowding, agenesis and supernumerary teeth). An unusual expression of double, fully erupted, mesiodens in the anterior permanent maxillary dentition representing supernumerary central incisors exists. The complete eruption had contributed to anterior displacement of one central incisor alveolar socket similar to documented modern clinical cases. Shallow sockets also implied an associated stunted development of the original central maxillary incisor roots. Occlusal enamel wear indicated the mesiodens had been abraded during mastication. Current clinical data suggest there is a much higher tendency for single mesiodens to exist rather than double and examples often fail to fully erupt into the dentition. This relative rarity may account for the few previous reports of this dental anomaly from past human remains and especially of this date. The fully erupted double example from South Uist contributes to the known evidence for orthodontic anomalies in the past. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Productive Aging: A Question of Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicker, Martin; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "The Paradox of Productive Aging" (Sicker); "Beyond Productive Aging" (Riley, Riley); "Changing Concepts; Visionary or Short-Sighted" (Holstein); "Making Aging Meaningful" (Glanz, Neikrug); and "Perspectives on Productive Aging from Austria, Bolivia, Denmark, Finland, Japan, Venezuela."…

  8. Conformity in diversity? Isotopic investigations of infant feeding practices in two iron age populations from Southern Öland, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Howcroft, Rachel; Eriksson, Gunilla; Lidén, Kerstin

    2012-10-01

    This article presents the results of a study of infant diet at two Iron Age sites on the island of Öland, Sweden. The cemetery at Bjärby contained a large number of subadults who had survived the earliest years of life, whereas most individuals at Triberga had died by 6 months of age. To investigate whether differences in infant feeding could explain the different mortality rates, the carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur stable isotope ratios of bone and tooth dentin collagen from the two sites were analyzed. Twenty-two samples from Triberga and 102 from Bjärby yielded data that could be included in the carbon and nitrogen analysis. Twelve samples from Triberga and 42 from Bjärby were included in the sulfur analysis. The results for carbon (δ(13) C: Triberga X = -18.8, s.d. = 1.1; Bjärby X = -19.8, s.d. = 0.4), nitrogen (δ(15) N: Triberga X = 12.9, s.d. = 1.5; Bjärby X = 13.4, s.d. = 1.4), and sulfur (δ(34) S: Triberga X = 8.1, s.d. = 1.1; Bjärby X = 5.8, s.d. = 1.3) suggest that diet was broadly similar at both sites and based on terrestrial resources. At Bjärby, females and high-status individuals consumed higher-trophic level protein than other males from early childhood onward. There was some indication that the contribution of marine resources to the diet may also have differed between the sexes at Triberga. No consistent differences in breast milk intake were observed between the two sites, but there was substantial variation at each. This variation may reflect an influence of gender and social status on infant feeding decisions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Dietary habits, nutrient intake and biomarkers for folate, vitamin D, iodine and iron status among women of childbearing age in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Wulf; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Nälsén, Cecilia; Warensjö Lemming, Eva; Öhrvik, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Background Dietary intake and nutritional status are important for pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. Dietary advice on folate, targeted to women of childbearing age, aims at preventing neural tube defects in the offspring. Aim To describe food and nutrient intake and nutritional status among women of childbearing age in Sweden in relation to current nutrition recommendations. Methods Dietary intake was assessed using a web-based four-day consecutive food record among adults aged 18–80 years—‘Riksmaten 2010–11 adults’. In a subsample, biomarkers of folate, vitamin D, iodine, and iron status were assessed. Results Women of childbearing age had lower intakes of fruit and vegetables, fish, and whole grains, but higher intakes of soft drinks. Macronutrient composition was generally in line with the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, except for a lower intake of fibre, a higher intake of saturated fatty acids, and added sugars. Mean intakes of vitamin D, folate, and iron were below recommended intakes (RI). Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 74 μg/L, 20% had insufficient vitamin D status, and 3% low folate concentrations with no age differences. Furthermore, 29% of women 18–44 years of age had depleted iron stores. Conclusions The dietary pattern among women of childbearing age (18–44 years) was less favourable compared to older women. Intakes of some micronutrients were below RI, but no differences in vitamin D, folate, or iodine status between age groups were observed. However, improvements of folate and iodine status among women of childbearing age are warranted. This can be achieved by following dietary guidelines including use of folic acid-containing supplements. PMID:27560303

  10. Creep-rupture behavior of seven iron-base alloys after long term aging at 760 deg in low pressure hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzke, W. R.; Stephens, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Seven candidate iron-base alloys for heater tube application in the Stirling automotive engine were aged for 3500 hours at 760 C in argon and hydrogen. Aging degraded the tensile and creep-rupture properties. The presence of hydrogen during aging caused additional degradiation of the rupture strength in fine grain alloys. Based on current design criteria for the Mod 1 Stirling engine, N-155 and 19-9DL are considered the only alloys in this study with strengths adequate for heater tube service at 760 C.

  11. A study to establish whether food-based approaches can improve serum iron levels in child-bearing aged women.

    PubMed

    Bokhari, F; Derbyshire, E; Li, W; Brennan, C S; Stojceska, V

    2012-02-01

    Iron-deficiency anaemia is particularly prevalent in pregnancy. The present study aimed to determine whether functional bread containing teff flour (i.e. naturally rich in iron) could be an alternative way of improving iron status. However, before testing whether its consumption can improve pregnancy iron status, the bio-availability of iron was determined in a sample of nonpregnant women. Fifty-eight women (20-50 years) were recruited from the University. Blood samples were taken at baseline to assess iron status and participants were screened to account for other factors affecting iron status. Twenty-four participants (haemoglobin 9.5-14.0g dL(-1) ) were recruited to take part in the intervention and allocated to five groups: (i) control bread (CB); (ii) teff bread (TB); (iii) TB+level 1 phytase (TB+P1); (iv) TB+level 2 phytase (TB+P2); or (v) a supplement containing 10 mg of ferrous sulphate. Venous blood samples were taken before the intervention and after 180-210min, aiming to determine changes in serum iron. Consuming three or four slices of TB provided statistically significantly more iron (7.6mg) than CB (5.1mg) (P<0.001). Because participants were fasted, serum iron levels declined in all bread groups (average -1.5μm), although the smallest reduction was observed in the TB+P2 group (-0.3 μm). The area-under-the-curve from baseline to 210min was lower in the TB+P2 (-78.8μmol min L(-1) ) group compared to the other bread interventions, indicating higher levels of iron absorption in this group. The results obtained in the present study show that TB consumption may help to maintain serum iron levels, especially when phytase is added. The findings from the study also demonstrate there may be potential to further improve the bio-availability of iron from non-haem food sources. © 2011 Manchester Metropolitan University. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  12. Iron deficiency was not the major cause of anemia in rural women of reproductive age in Sidama zone, southern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gebreegziabher, Tafere; Stoecker, Barbara J

    2017-01-01

    Anemia, which has many etiologies, is a moderate/severe public health problem in young children and women of reproductive age in many developing countries. The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence of iron deficiency, anemia, and iron deficiency anemia using multiple biomarkers and to evaluate their association with food insecurity and food consumption patterns in non-pregnant women from a rural area of southern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 202 rural women of reproductive age in southern Ethiopia. Anthropometrics and socio-demographic data were collected. A venipuncture blood sample was analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb) and for biomarkers of iron status. Biomarkers were skewed and were log transformed before analysis. Mean, median, Pearson's correlations and ordinary least-squares regressions were calculated. Median (IQR) Hb was 138 (127, 151) g/L. Based on an altitude-adjusted (1708 m) cutoff of 125 g/L for Hb, 21.3% were anemic. Plasma ferritin was <15 μg/L in 18.6% of the women. Only one woman had α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) >1.0 g/L; four women (2%) had > 5 mg/L of C-reactive protein (CRP). Of the 43 women who were anemic, 23.3% (10 women) had depleted iron stores based on plasma ferritin. Three of these had elevated soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR). Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was negatively correlated with sTfR (r = -0.24, p = 0.001), and positively correlated with ferritin (r = 0.17, p = 0.018), plasma iron (r = 0.15, p = 0.046), transferrin saturation (TfS) (r = 0.15, p = 0.04) and body iron (r = 0.14, p = 0.05). Overall prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was only 5%. Iron deficiency anemia was not prevalent in the study population, despite the fact that anemia would be classified as a moderate public health problem.

  13. Elective caesarean: does delay in cord clamping for 30 s ensure sufficient iron stores at 4 months of age? A historical cohort control study

    PubMed Central

    Hellström-Westas, Lena; Domellöf, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare iron stores in infants born after elective caesarean section (CS) and a 30 s delay of umbilical cord clamping with those born vaginally after early (≤10 s) or delayed (≥180 s) cord clamping. Design Prospective observational study with historical control. Setting Swedish county hospital. Population 64 infants born after elective CS were compared with a historical control of 166 early clamped and 168 delayed clamped after vaginal birth. Methods Blood and iron status were measured in blood samples collected at birth, 48–96 hours after birth, 4 and 12 months of age. Primary and secondary outcome measures Ferritin at 4 months of age was the primary outcome, second outcome measures were other indicators of iron status, and haemoglobin, at 4 and 12 months of age, as well as respiratory distress at 1 and 6 hours after birth. Results At 4 months infants born by elective CS had better iron status than those born vaginally subjected to early cord clamping, shown by higher adjusted mean difference of ferritin concentration (39 µg/L (95% CI 10 to 60)) and mean cell volume (1.8 fL (95% CI 0.6 to 3.0)); and lower levels of transferrin receptors (−0.39 mg/L (95% CI −0.69 to −0.08)). No differences were seen between infants born after elective CS and delayed clamped vaginally born infants at 4 months. No differences were found between groups at 12 months of age. Conclusions Waiting to clamp the umbilical cord for 30 s after elective CS results in higher iron stores at 4 months of age compared with early cord clamping after vaginal birth, and seems to ensure iron status comparable with those achieved after 180 s delayed cord clamping after vaginal birth. PMID:27807089

  14. Elective caesarean: does delay in cord clamping for 30 s ensure sufficient iron stores at 4 months of age? A historical cohort control study.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Ola; Hellström-Westas, Lena; Domellöf, Magnus

    2016-11-02

    To compare iron stores in infants born after elective caesarean section (CS) and a 30 s delay of umbilical cord clamping with those born vaginally after early (≤10 s) or delayed (≥180 s) cord clamping. Prospective observational study with historical control. Swedish county hospital. 64 infants born after elective CS were compared with a historical control of 166 early clamped and 168 delayed clamped after vaginal birth. Blood and iron status were measured in blood samples collected at birth, 48-96 hours after birth, 4 and 12 months of age. Ferritin at 4 months of age was the primary outcome, second outcome measures were other indicators of iron status, and haemoglobin, at 4 and 12 months of age, as well as respiratory distress at 1 and 6 hours after birth. At 4 months infants born by elective CS had better iron status than those born vaginally subjected to early cord clamping, shown by higher adjusted mean difference of ferritin concentration (39 µg/L (95% CI 10 to 60)) and mean cell volume (1.8 fL (95% CI 0.6 to 3.0)); and lower levels of transferrin receptors (-0.39 mg/L (95% CI -0.69 to -0.08)). No differences were seen between infants born after elective CS and delayed clamped vaginally born infants at 4 months. No differences were found between groups at 12 months of age. Waiting to clamp the umbilical cord for 30 s after elective CS results in higher iron stores at 4 months of age compared with early cord clamping after vaginal birth, and seems to ensure iron status comparable with those achieved after 180 s delayed cord clamping after vaginal birth. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Vibration exposure and prevention in Finland.

    PubMed

    Starck, J; Pyykkö, I; Koskimies, K; Pekkarinen, J

    1994-05-01

    The number of annually compensated occupational diseases due to exposure to hand-arm vibration (HAV) has decreased during the last 15 years. The number of exposed workers has been declining in Finland, especially in forestry work, as harvesters have increasingly replaced manual chain saw operations. During the entire 1970s, forest work caused more cases of vibration-induced occupational diseases than all industrial branches together. The decrease is mainly due to the technical development of chain saws, but also to the effective health care services in Finland. Other factors such as warm transport, warm rest cabins in which to take pauses at work, warm meals, adequate protective clothing, and vocationally adjusted early medical rehabilitation have helped to cut down health hazards, especially in forest work. The number of new cases has been decreasing in Finland not only in forestry but also in other industries. In Finland a considerable amount of research has been conducted to hand-arm vibration, resulting in the increased awareness of the health risks related to certain occupations. This has helped to carry out the Primary Health Care Act (1972) followed by the Occupational Health Care Act (1979) which obligates employers to arrange occupational health care for their employees. We believe that the research activity has contributed significantly to achieving the present health in Finnish work places. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the cases of occupational exposure to HAV, and the effectiveness of different preventive measures in Finland.

  16. Effects Of Aging And Oxidation Of Palladized Iron Embedded In Activated Carbon On The Dechlorination Of 2-Chlorobiphenyl

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reactive activated carbon (RAC) impregnated with palladized iron has been developed to effectively treat polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment by coupling adsorption and dechlorination of PCBs. In this study, we addressed the dechlorination reactivity and capacity ...

  17. Effects Of Aging And Oxidation Of Palladized Iron Embedded In Activated Carbon On The Dechlorination Of 2-Chlorobiphenyl

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reactive activated carbon (RAC) impregnated with palladized iron has been developed to effectively treat polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment by coupling adsorption and dechlorination of PCBs. In this study, we addressed the dechlorination reactivity and capacity ...

  18. A bioarchaeological approach to the reconstruction of changes in military organization among Iron Age Samnites (Vestini) From Abruzzo, Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Sparacello, Vitale Stefano; d'Ercole, Vincenzo; Coppa, Alfredo

    2015-03-01

    The Samnites were an Iron Age population that shifted from warlike mountain dwellers to the largest sociopolitical unit of central Italy, able to dispute with Rome the domination over the peninsula. Archaeological and historical evidence suggests that this major shift in the scale of conflict may have involved a reorganization of the military system, which changed from an elite militia to a conscript or standing army from the Orientalizing-Archaic (800-500 BC) to Hellenistic times (400-27 BC). We propose a bioarchaeological framework jointly analyzing skeletal properties and funerary treatment in male Samnites to investigate on this shift in military organization. We anticipated that, when Samnites had an elite militia, the warring force was constituted by the wealthier segments of the society. Conversely, we expected the warring force of the standing/conscript army to be mainly drawn from the lower social strata. We considered high asymmetry in J, a measure of humeral torsional rigidity (calculated via cross-sectional geometry, CSG) as a proxy for pre- and peri-adolescent-onset weapon training. The social standing of the individual was approximated via funerary treatment analysis (Status Index). Results show that in the Orientalizing-Archaic period, humeral asymmetry and Status Index are positively correlated, and the high-status subsample shows significantly higher asymmetry than the low-status subsample. Among Hellenistic Samnites, no correlation between Status Index and humeral asymmetry is present, and the low-status subsample is the most lateralized. Results support the use of CSG in a strong theoretical framework to investigate past changes in military organization and their correlates in terms of sociopolitical development, alterations of power relationships, and warfare. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Environmental exposure of lead and iron deficit anemia in children age ranged 1-5 years: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Faheem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Shah, Abdul Qadir

    2010-10-15

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is the most common nutritional problem among children and lead (Pb) toxicity is the most common environmental health threat to children all over the world. The objective of this study was to determine blood lead (BPb) levels and prevalence of Fe deficient anemia among 1 to 5year old children attending day care clinic in pediatric ward of civil hospital Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 340 children of both genders participating in this study, were screened for anemia. Among them 215 were anemic and 125 non-anemic. The anemic group was further divided in two groups on the basis of % hemoglobin (Hb), mild (Hb <10g/dL) and severe anemic group (Hb <8g/dL), while non-anemic as referent children (Hb >10g/dL). The blood samples were analysed for Pb and Fe, along with hematological parameters. The result indicated that anemic children had a higher mean values of Pb in blood than referent children with Hb >10g/dL. The Pb levels <100μg/L were detected in 40% referent children while 60% of them had >10μg/dL. The BPb concentration in severe anemic children (53%) was found in the range of 100-200μg/L, whereas 47% had >200μg/L. The significant negative correlations of BPb level with % Hb (r=-0.514 and r=-0.685) and Fe contents (r=-0.522, r=-0.762, p<0.001) were observed in mild and severe anemic children respectively. While positive correlation was observed between BPb and age of both group and genders (r=0.69, p<0.01). The BPb levels were significantly associated with biochemical indices in the blood which have the potential to be used as biomarkers of Pb intoxication and Fe deficient anemia.

  20. Curriculum Reform and Primary Geography in Finland: A Gap between Theory and Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tani, Sirpa

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines geographical education for children under 13 years of age in Finland in the present situation, in which geography is taught as part of "Environmental and Natural Studies", the school subject integrating biology, geography, environmental studies, civics, physics and chemistry. In the content analysis of school…

  1. Chromium in the environment of Finland.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, A B

    1998-06-30

    This paper focuses upon the use, import and release of chromium to the environment of Finland. In addition, the behavior of trivalent and hexavalent chromium in soils has been briefly reviewed. In Finland, consumption of chromium compounds occurs in the following pattern: stainless steel > leather tanning > metal plating > chemicals. The emission of chromium has decreased from 114 t in 1979 to 28 t in 1995. The highest release of chromium continues to be from ferrochromium and stainless steel plants. From these facilities, 85% of slag and dusts are used by a secondary facility to recover valuable metal. In the industrial areas, the oxidizing behavior of chromium (III) is still unknown. In this study, the leachability of chromium (VI) to ground water and its effects on terrestrial and aquatic species in Finland are discussed.

  2. Internal Rb-Sr Age and Initial Sr-87/Sr-86 of a Silicate Inclusion from the Campo Del Cielo Iron Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Y.; Nyquist, L.; Wiesmann, H.; Shih, C.; Schwandt, C.; Takeda, H.

    2003-01-01

    The largest group of iron meteorites, IAB, is distinguished by the presence of diverse silicate inclusions. In principle, Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd radiometric dating of these silicate inclusions by internal isochron techniques can determine both the times of melting and parent/daughter ratios in the precursor materials via initial Sr-87/Sr-86 and Nd-143/Nd-144 ratios. The Sr-87/Sr-86 and Nd-143/Nd-144 ratios could distinguish chondritic precursors from already differentiated silicates. We reported Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd internal ischron ages of 4.52+/-0.03 Ga and 4.50+/-0.04 Ga, respectively, for plagioclase-diopside-rich material in the Caddo County IAB iron meteorite. These results are essentially identical to literature values of its Ar-Ar age of 4.520+/-0.005 Ga and its Sm-Nd age of 4.53+/-0.02 Ga. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the formation and evolution of silicate inclusions in IAB iron meteorites by determination of their initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios combined with higher-resolution chronology and mineralogical and geochemical studies.

  3. Investigation on corrosion stratigraphy and morphology in some Iron Age bronze alloys vessels by OM, XRD and SEM-EDS methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudbashi, Omid; Hasanpour, Ata; Davami, Parviz

    2016-04-01

    The recently study of the corrosion in some bronze artefacts from the Sangtarashan Iron Age site, western Iran, was established to identify corrosion morphology and mechanism in these objects. The corrosion layers in 22 samples were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. The results showed that a thin corrosion crust has formed on the surface of bronzes with a triple-layer structure, including two internal and one external corrosion layers. The formation of these layers is due to copper leaching from the bronze surface. The internal corrosion part has been a compact, tin-rich corrosion/oxidation product (noble patina) with some evidences from original metallurgical aspects of the bronze as well as a very thin layer beneath the tin-rich layer. External corrosion products have been identified as basic copper carbonates, malachite and azurite. Based on the results, the corrosion morphology in the Sangtarashan Iron Age bronzes is due to long-term burial in an appropriate environment in a moderately corrosive soil. Although it is the first time to investigate Iron Age bronzes from Iran, this corrosion morphology is partially similar to type I corrosion morphology observed in archaeological bronze objects; nevertheless, some deviations are visible in comparison with previously established patterns.

  4. Changes in Ice Age Nitrate Consumption, Productivity, and Biological Pump Efficiency can be Explained by the Internal Cycling of Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafter, P. A.; Sigman, D. M.; Mackey, K. R.

    2016-12-01

    The biological pump—the surface-to-deep transport of marine organic carbon—is linked to "new" primary production fueled by upwelled nutrients such as nitrate, and incomplete nitrate consumption in High Nutrient, Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) regions limits the biological pump to 50% of its potential strength. Recent work shows that the intensity and temporal variability of nitrate consumption in iron-limited HNLC regions cannot be explained by the supply of iron or the iron-to-nitrate supply ratio. Instead, this nitrate consumption must be supported by vigorous iron recycling within the euphotic zone. Iron recycling explains observed variability in HNLC nitrate consumption as a function of upwelling water residence time, with slower upwelling rates allowing for more iron recycling. Applying these findings to sediment proxy records answers some outstanding questions about nitrate consumption, productivity, and biological pump efficiency in the equatorial Pacific and Southern Ocean HNLC regions. For example, we will discuss how variable upwelling strength explains changes in equatorial Pacific and Antarctic Zone nitrate consumption and productivity during the last glacial period.

  5. Perspectives on nutritional iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, L

    2001-01-01

    Nutritional iron deficiency (ID) is caused by an intake of dietary iron insufficient to cover physiological iron requirements. Studies on iron absorption from whole diets have examined relationships between dietary iron bioavailability/absorption, iron losses, and amounts of stored iron. New insights have been obtained into regulation of iron absorption and expected rates of changes of iron stores or hemoglobin iron deficits when bioavailability or iron content of the diet has been modified and when losses of iron occur. Negative effects of ID are probably related to age, up to about 20 years, explaining some of earlier controversies. Difficulties in establishing the prevalence of mild ID are outlined. The degree of underestimation of the prevalence of mild ID when using multiple diagnostic criteria is discussed. It is suggested that current low-energy lifestyles are a common denominator for the current high prevalence not only of ID but also of obesity, diabetes, and osteoporosis.

  6. Finland Becomes Eleventh ESO Member State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    Finland has become the eleventh member state of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) [1]. The formal accession procedure was carried through as planned and has now been completed. Following the signing of the corresponding Agreement earlier this year (ESO PR 02/04), acceptance by the Finnish Parliament and ratification by the Finnish President of the Agreement as well as the ESO Convention and the associated protocols in June [2] and the deposit of the instruments of accession today, Finland has now officially joined ESO. ESO warmly welcomes the new member country and its scientific community that is renowned for their expertise in many frontline areas. The related opportunities will contribute to strenghtening of pioneering research with the powerful facilities at ESO's observatories, to the benefit of Astronomy and Astrophysics as well as European science in general. ESO also looks forward to collaboration with the Finnish high-tech industry. For Finland, the membership in ESO is motivated by scientific and technological objectives as well as by the objective of improving the public understanding of science. The Finnish Government is committed to increasing the public research funding in order to improve the quality, impact and internationalisation of research. Membership in ESO offers unique facilities for astronomical research which would not otherwise be available for Finnish astronomers. Finland is also very interested in taking part in technological development projects in fields like ICT, optics and instrumentation. For young scientists and engineers, ESO is a challenging, international working and learning environment. Finland has already taken part in the educational programmes of ESO, and as a member this activity will be broadened and intensified. In Finland there are also several science journalists and a large community of amateur astronomers who will be very happy to take part in ESO's outreach activities.

  7. Perspectives on iron absorption.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, Leif; Hulthén, Lena

    2002-01-01

    Newly established relationships between dietary iron absorption and serum ferritin and between serum ferritin and iron stores permit calculation of amounts of stored iron under different conditions at steady states when absorption equals losses. The rate of growth of stores can also be calculated. All calculations are based on observations and require no model assumptions. Present analyses demonstrated an effective control of iron absorption preventing development of iron overload in otherwise healthy subjects even if the diet is fortified with iron and even if meat intake is high. There are strong relationships between iron requirements, bioavailability of dietary iron, and amounts of stored iron. Our observations that a reduction in iron stores and a calculated decrease of hemoglobin iron had the same increasing effect on iron absorption suggest that the control of iron absorption is mediated from a common cell, which may register both size of iron stores and hemoglobin iron deficit. We suggest that the hepatocyte is that cell. Nutritional iron deficiency is especially critical in menstruating women, in the latter third of pregnancy, during adolescence for both girls and boys, and in the weaning period from 4 to 6 months to 2 years of age. The body possesses remarkable, potential control systems of probable very ancient origin capable of preventing both iron deficiency and iron overload. Present problems with iron deficiency being the most frequent deficiency disorder are related to nonbiological changes in our societies over the most recent 10,000 years. This perspective on iron homeostasis or iron balance is mainly based on studies in humans of clinical and epidemiological observations, trying to understand why iron deficiency is the most frequent deficiency disorder in the world in spite of the ingenious mechanisms in the body that should prevent it. Withdrawal of iron fortification of flour in Sweden in 1994 led to a significant increase in iron deficiency

  8. How Do Preschool Children Engage Each Other in Dialogue in Finland, Estonia and Sweden?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryggvason, Marja-Terttu; Tulviste, Tiia; De Geer, Boel

    2008-01-01

    The present study compares preschool children in Finland, Estonia and Sweden regarding linguistic structures with which children in dyads elicited talk from each other in a naturalistic play activity. Nineteen Finnish (mean age 5.1), 19 Estonian (mean age 5.4) and 17 Swedish (mean age 5.1) same-sex pairs were video-recorded by a native researcher.…

  9. How Do Preschool Children Engage Each Other in Dialogue in Finland, Estonia and Sweden?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryggvason, Marja-Terttu; Tulviste, Tiia; De Geer, Boel

    2008-01-01

    The present study compares preschool children in Finland, Estonia and Sweden regarding linguistic structures with which children in dyads elicited talk from each other in a naturalistic play activity. Nineteen Finnish (mean age 5.1), 19 Estonian (mean age 5.4) and 17 Swedish (mean age 5.1) same-sex pairs were video-recorded by a native researcher.…

  10. Update on women in physics in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miikkulainen, Kukka; Vapaavuori, Jaana

    2015-12-01

    Despite Finland's role as a forerunner in many areas of gender equality, in the field of physics, the advancement of females to reach the full gender equality has been stagnated for the past decade, and no significant improvements since 2011 can be reported. However, a few interesting PhD theses have focused on gaining a better understanding of the phenomena, and a few seminars on the topic have been organized. However, good, systematically collected statistics on the numbers and salaries of female researches in Finland are still lacking.

  11. Biomass burning smoke episodes in Finland from Eastern European wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leino, Katri E.; Riuttanen, Laura; Nieminen, Tuomo; Dal Maso, Miikka; Väänänen, Riikka; Pohja, Toivo; Keronen, Petri; Järvi, Leena; Aalto, Pasi P.; Virkkula, Aki; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    Biomass burning emissions from Eastern Europe are occasionally observed in Finland. In spring of 2006 and the late summers of 2006 and 2010, smoke plumes were transported to large parts of Finland. By combining multiple methods we were able to study the horizontal and vertical properties of long-range transported smoke plume, as well as time evolution of particle number size distributions in an aged biomass burning smoke. In this study we used trace gas and aerosol particle number size distribution measurements at three SMEAR stations (Station for Measuring Forest Ecosystem - Atmosphere Relations; Ruuskanen et al., 2003; Hari & Kulmala, 2005; Järvi et al., 2009). Vertical distribution of the smoke was studied by a small aircraft, Cessna FR172F, instrumented with Ultrafine Condensation Particle Counter and CO2/H2O -gas analyser. The airborne measurements were compared with vertical profiles from a polarization-sensitive, two-wavelength lidar (CALIOP; the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization; Winker et al., 2009) onboard the CALIPSO satellite (the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation). HYSPLIT 4 (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model; Draxler, 1999) backward trajectories as well as MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Terra thermal anomalies data (MOD14A1) were used together with synoptic analyses to study the transport and the horizontal distribution of the smoke. In the spring 2006, there was a blocking high pressure system in Eastern Europe and smoke from the Eastern European fires was transported far to the north-west. The smoke episode in Finland lasted for two weeks. In summers of 2006 and 2010 the smoke came to Finland in a warm sector of a low-pressure system and the episodes lasted for less than two days. Smoke plumes had elevated concentrations of aerosol particles, black carbon and CO, and varying concentrations of CO2, SO2, O3 and NOx. The difference to the background air

  12. Sharable EHR systems in Finland.

    PubMed

    Harno, Kari; Ruotsalainen, Pekka

    2006-01-01

    In Finland, the shared record is a virtual electronic health record (EHR). It consists of health data generated, maintained and preserved by different health care service providers. Two different kinds of technologies for integrating regional EHR-systems are applied, but mainly by using a common middleware. Services provided by this middleware are EHR location services using a link repository and combining EHR-viewing services with security management services including consent management and identification services for health professionals. The Regional Health Information Organization (UUMA) approach is based on a stepwise implementation of integrated regional healthcare services to create a virtually borderless healthcare organization--a patient centered virtual workspace. In the virtual workspace multi-professional teams and patients collaborate and share information regardless of time and place. Presently the regional health information network (RHIN) is comprised of three integrated services between primary, secondary and tertiary care within the county of Uusimaa. The regional healthcare modules consist of an (1) eReferral network, (2) integrated EHR service between health care professionals and (3) PACS system. The eReferral between primary and secondary care not only speeds up the transfer, but also offers an option for communication in the form of eConsultation between general practitioners and hospital specialists. By sharing information and knowledge remote eConsultations create a new working environment for integrated delivery of eServices between the health care providers. Over 100,000 eReferral messages (40 %) were transferred between health care providers. Interactive eConsultations enable supervised care leading to the reduction of outpatient visits and more timely appointments. One third (10/31) of the municipal health centers are connected to the clinics in the Helsinki University Central Hospital by the eReferral system. The link directory

  13. The AMS 14C dating of Iron Age rice chaff ceramic temper from Ban Non Wat, Thailand: First results and its interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higham, Charles F. W.; Kuzmin, Yaroslav V.; Burr, G. S.

    2010-04-01

    Pottery tempered with rice chaff from the early Iron Age cemetery of Ban Non Wat site, northeast Thailand, has been subjected to direct AMS 14C dating, using low temperature combustion with oxygen as originally developed by authors. The carbon yield (0.2-0.5%) testifies the suitability of this pottery for dating. However, not all the results are in agreement with expected archaeological ages and other 14C dates from the studied site and neighboring site of Noen U-Loke. This calls for a thorough analysis and interpretation of pottery temper dates from the region.

  14. Lower systolic blood pressure at age 7 y in low-birth-weight children who received iron supplements in infancy: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Josefine; Norman, Mikael; Westrup, Björn; Domellöf, Magnus; Berglund, Staffan K

    2017-08-01

    Background: Low birth weight (LBW) (≤2500 g) is associated with iron deficiency in infancy and high blood pressure (BP) later in life.Objective: We investigated the effect of iron supplementation that was given to LBW infants on midchildhood BP.Design: The study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial that included 285 marginally LBW (2000-2500-g) infants at 2 Swedish centers between May 2004 and November 2007. The infants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or 1 or 2 mg Fe · kg(-1) · d(-1) from 6 wk to 6 mo of age. In secondary analyses at the age of 7 y, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and the prevalence of children with BP within the hypertensive range (>90th percentile) were compared between the groups.Results: BP was analyzed via intention to treat in 189 children (66%). The mean ± SD SBP was 103 ± 8.1, 101 ± 7.5, and 101 ± 7.8 mm Hg in children who had received the placebo (n = 70), 1 mg Fe · kg(-1) · d(-1) (n = 54), or 2 mg Fe · kg(-1) · d(-1) (n = 65), respectively. When the iron-supplemented groups were combined in covariate-adjusted analyses, the mean SBP in LBW children who had received iron supplementation in infancy was 2.2 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.3, 4.2 mm Hg) lower than in those who were unsupplemented (P = 0.026). Multivariate logistic regression showed that iron supplementation in infancy reduced the odds of having an SBP within the hypertensive range at 7 y of age (OR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.96). For DBP, there were no significant differences between the intervention groups.Conclusions: LBW children who receive iron supplementation (1 or 2 mg Fe · kg(-1) · d(-1)) in infancy have lower SBP at 7 y. This (to our knowledge) novel observation suggests that the increased risk of hypertension that is observed in children and adults who are born small might be reduced with early micronutrient interventions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00558454. © 2017 American Society for

  15. Breastfeeding and Red Meat Intake Are Associated with Iron Status in Healthy Korean Weaning-age Infants.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jeana; Chang, Ju Young; Shin, Sue; Oh, Sohee

    2017-06-01

    The present study investigated risk factors for iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) during late infancy, including feeding type and complementary feeding (CF) practice. Healthy term Korean infants (8-15 months) were weighed, and questionnaires regarding delivery, feeding, and weaning were completed by their caregivers. We also examined levels of hemoglobin, serum iron/total iron-binding capacity, serum ferritin, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Among 619 infants, ID and IDA were present in 174 infants (28.1%) and 87 infants (14.0%), respectively. The 288 infants with exclusively/mostly breastfeeding until late infancy (BFL) were most likely to exhibit ID (53.1%) and IDA (28.1%). The risk of ID was independently associated with BFL (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 47.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 18.3-122.9), male sex (aOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-2.9), fold weight gain (aOR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.5-4.6), and perceived inadequacy of red meat intake (aOR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.7). In addition to the risk factors for ID, Cesarean section delivery (aOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.2) and low parental CF-related knowledge (aOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.5-5.2) were risk factors for IDA. In conclusion, prolonged breastfeeding and perceived inadequacy of red meat intake may be among the important feeding-related risk factors of ID and IDA. Therefore, more meticulous education and monitoring of iron-rich food intake, such as red meat, with iron supplementation or iron status testing during late infancy if necessary, should be considered for breastfed Korean infants, especially for those with additional risk factors for ID or IDA. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  16. Breastfeeding and Red Meat Intake Are Associated with Iron Status in Healthy Korean Weaning-age Infants

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated risk factors for iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) during late infancy, including feeding type and complementary feeding (CF) practice. Healthy term Korean infants (8–15 months) were weighed, and questionnaires regarding delivery, feeding, and weaning were completed by their caregivers. We also examined levels of hemoglobin, serum iron/total iron-binding capacity, serum ferritin, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Among 619 infants, ID and IDA were present in 174 infants (28.1%) and 87 infants (14.0%), respectively. The 288 infants with exclusively/mostly breastfeeding until late infancy (BFL) were most likely to exhibit ID (53.1%) and IDA (28.1%). The risk of ID was independently associated with BFL (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 47.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 18.3–122.9), male sex (aOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2–2.9), fold weight gain (aOR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.5–4.6), and perceived inadequacy of red meat intake (aOR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0–2.7). In addition to the risk factors for ID, Cesarean section delivery (aOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1–3.2) and low parental CF-related knowledge (aOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.5–5.2) were risk factors for IDA. In conclusion, prolonged breastfeeding and perceived inadequacy of red meat intake may be among the important feeding-related risk factors of ID and IDA. Therefore, more meticulous education and monitoring of iron-rich food intake, such as red meat, with iron supplementation or iron status testing during late infancy if necessary, should be considered for breastfed Korean infants, especially for those with additional risk factors for ID or IDA. PMID:28480656

  17. How iron controls iron.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Lukas C

    2009-12-01

    Cells regulate iron homeostasis by posttranscriptional regulation of proteins responsible for iron uptake and storage. This requires RNA-binding activity of iron-regulatory proteins, IRP1 and IRP2. Two studies recently published in Science by Vashisht et al. (2009) and Salahudeen et al. (2009) reveal how cells adjust IRP2 activity.

  18. Towards a healthier Gulf of Finland - results of the International Gulf of Finland Year 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrberg, Kai; Lips, Urmas; Orlova, Marina

    2017-07-01

    The international collaboration to protect the marine environment of the Gulf of Finland (GoF) dates back to 1968. Since then, Finland and the Soviet Union, and later on, Estonia, Finland, and Russia have collaborated trilaterally in the environmental front with a vision of a healthier GoF. The first Gulf of Finland Year organized in 1996 was a major step forward in trilateral cooperation and GoF research. It produced comprehensive scientific reports on different aspects of the GoF environment (Sarkkula, 1997), including an updated review of the physical oceanography of the Gulf (Alenius et al., 1998; Soomere et al., 2008) and recognition of the internal nutrient fluxes as a factor counteracting the decrease in external load (Pitkänen et al., 2001).

  19. Intravenous Iron Sucrose for Children with Iron Deficiency Failing to Respond to Oral Iron Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Crary, Shelley E.; Hall, Katherine; Buchanan, George R.

    2010-01-01

    Background For decades parenteral iron has been used in patients with iron deficiency unresponsive to oral iron therapy and in hemodialysis-dependent patients receiving erythropoietin. Newer intravenous (IV) iron formulations such as iron sucrose have replaced high molecular weight iron dextran in dialysis patients; however, the use of parenteral iron in children without renal disease has not been well defined. Procedure Pharmacy records were reviewed on children (≤ 18 yrs of age) who received IV iron sucrose at Children's Medical Center Dallas between January 1, 2004 and June 30, 2009. Patients who received iron sucrose for chronic renal disease were excluded from analysis. Results Thirty-eight children received iron sucrose for non-renal indications, 13 with iron deficiency refractory to oral iron therapy, 13 with iron malabsorption or dependence on parenteral nutrition, 7 for chronic gastrointestinal blood loss, and 5 for miscellaneous indications. Among these 38 children, who received a total of 510 doses of IV iron sucrose, there were only 6 adverse reactions. Patients in all categories had a good response to the iron sucrose, with a median hemoglobin rise of 1.9 – 3.1 g/dl depending on the indication. Conclusions Parenteral iron is a safe and effective means to treat iron deficiency in children who cannot receive or do not respond to oral iron due to intolerance, poor adherence or iron malabsorption. PMID:21298748

  20. How Finland Serves Gifted and Talented Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Kirsi; Kuusisto, Elina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the ways gifted and talented pupils are served in Finland. The trend toward individualism and freedom of choice as well as national policy affecting gifted education are discussed. Empirical research on Finnish teachers' attitudes toward gifted education with respect to the national…

  1. Deep drilling for geothermal energy in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukkonen, Ilmo

    2016-04-01

    There is a societal request to find renewable CO2-free energy resources. One of the biggest such resources is provided by geothermal energy. In addition to shallow ground heat already extensively used in Finland, deep geothermal energy provides an alternative so far not exploited. Temperatures are high at depth, but the challenge is, how to mine the heat? In this presentation, the geological and geophysical conditions for deep geothermal energy production in Finland are discussed as well as challenges for drilling and conditions at depth for geothermal energy production. Finland is located on ancient bedrock with much lower temperatures than geologically younger volcanically and tectonically active areas. In order to reach sufficiently high temperatures drilling to depths of several kilometres are needed. Further, mining of the heat with, e.g., the principle of Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) requires high hydraulic conductivity for efficient circulation of fluid in natural or artificial fractures of the rock. There are many issues that must be solved and/or improved: Drilling technology, the EGS concept, rock stress and hydraulic fracturing, scale formation, induced seismicity and ground movements, possible microbial activity, etc. An industry-funded pilot project currently in progress in southern Finland is shortly introduced.

  2. Mathematics Lessons from Finland and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaberg, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    In many ways, mathematics classrooms in Finland and Sweden are very similar to what would be considered traditional classrooms in the United States. Classes begin with checking homework and questions, followed by the teacher giving instruction in the new material, and end with students working on their new assignment. There are also interesting…

  3. Equality and Cooperation: Finland's Path to Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarjala, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    For the past decade, Finland has been lauded for consistently being a top performer on international assessments of student achievement. Having spent 25 years in the Ministry of Education, and then another 8 as director general of the National Board of Education, the author was heartened by these accomplishment--but he is also concerned about how…

  4. School-Parent Relations in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risku, Mika; Bjork, Lars G.; Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia

    2012-01-01

    This article provides insight into the nature and scope of home-school cooperation in Finland. Situating the study is a brief overview of the Finnish education system and a discussion of the Programme for International Student Assessment reports that place Finnish student outcomes at the top of rankings among industrialized nations for the past…

  5. The Professional Educator: Lessons from Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlberg, Pasi

    2011-01-01

    Since Finland emerged in 2000 as the top-scoring Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) nation on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), researchers have been pouring into the country to study the so-called "Finnish miracle." How did a country with an undistinguished education system in the…

  6. Mathematics Lessons from Finland and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaberg, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    In many ways, mathematics classrooms in Finland and Sweden are very similar to what would be considered traditional classrooms in the United States. Classes begin with checking homework and questions, followed by the teacher giving instruction in the new material, and end with students working on their new assignment. There are also interesting…

  7. Vocational Education and Training Trends in Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasonen, Johanna L.

    Vocational education and training in Finland consists of prevocational education at the preprimary and comprehensive school levels and formal vocational training at the secondary and postsecondary levels. Prevocational education aims to foster children's harmonious personality development by integrating handicraft and practical subjects teaching…

  8. Research on Spoken Interaction in Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakulinen, Auli; Sorjonen, Marja-Leena

    1993-01-01

    Topics addressed in this review include ethnology and traditional dialect study, philology, linguistic conversion analysis, and interaction within the social sciences. Finland's size affects these research activities and research on spoken interaction is shifting to group projects with a common focus. (Contains 68 references.) (JP)

  9. Temporal-spatial distribution of archaeological sites in the Nihewan-Huliu Basin during the Paleolithic-Neolithic and Iron Age in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. X.; Wang, X. Y.; Yang, R. X.; Li, X. Z.; Zhang, W.

    2016-11-01

    The Nihewan-Huliu Basin is one of the great regions of human evolution, located in geographical transition zone. This study reveals the temporal-spatial distribution of archaeological sites based on the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data, and analyses the changes for four periods (Paleolithic-Neolithic transition, Neolithic Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age). These sites expanded from the Sanggan River to the Huliu River and from the central and lower Huliu River to its upper reaches. The population and cultural development in the Nihewan Basin gradually lagged behind the Huliu River Baisin after the Paleolithic-Neolithic transition Age, because of the environmental impacts. The results may aid the understanding and study of the cultural heritage and civilization evolution in northern China.

  10. Determinants of Iron Deficiency Anemia in a Cohort of Children Aged 6-71 Months Living in the Northeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zanin, Francisca Helena Calheiros; da Silva, Camilo Adalton Mariano; Bonomo, Élido; Teixeira, Romero Alves; Pereira, Cíntia Aparecida de Jesus; dos Santos, Karina Benatti; Fausto, Maria Arlene; Negrão-Correa, Deborah Aparecida; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common nutritional disorders worldwide. The aim was to identify the prevalence and incidence of anemia in children and to identify predictors of this condition, including intestinal parasites, social, nutritional and environmental factors, and comorbidities. A population-based cohort study was conducted in a sample of 414 children aged 6-71 months living in Novo Cruzeiro in the Minas Gerais State. Data were collected in 2008 and 2009 by interview and included socio-economic and demographic information about the children and their families. Blood samples were collected for testing of hemoglobin, ferritin and C-reactive protein. Anthropometric measurements and parasitological analyses of fecal samples were performed. To identify risk factors associated with anemia multivariate analyses were performed using the generalized estimating equations (GEE). In 2008 and 2009, respectively, the prevalence rates of anemia were 35.9% (95%CI 31.2-40.8) and 9.8% (95%CI 7.2-12.9), the prevalence rates of iron deficiency were 18.4% (95%CI 14.7-22.6) and 21.8% (95%CI 17.8-26.2), and the incidence rates of anemia and iron deficiency were 3.2% and 21.8%. The following risk factors associated with anemia were: iron deficiency (OR = 3.2; 95%CI 2.0-.5.3), parasitic infections (OR = 1.9; 95%CI 1.2-2.8), being of risk of or being a low length/height-for-age (OR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.4-3.2), and lower retinol intake (OR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.1-2.7), adjusted over time. Nutritional factors, parasitic infections and chronic malnutrition were identified as risk factors for anemia. These factors can be verified in a chronic process and have been classically described as risk factors for these conditions.

  11. Smoking patterns among ninth-grade adolescents in the Pitkäranta district (Russia) and in eastern Finland.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, Ulla; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Vartiainen, Erkki; Pantelejev, Vladimir; Puska, Pekka

    2002-01-01

    This study describes how ninth-grade adolescents' smoking behavior in the Pitkäranta district (Russia) differs from their eastern Finland counterparts. Cross-sectional data from the second North Karelia Youth Study and the Pitkäranta Youth Study were used. Subjects were all (n=385) ninth-grade students in 10 comprehensive schools in Pitkäranta and all (n=2098) students of the same age in 24 comprehensive schools in eastern Finland. Students were asked about their smoking status, intentions to smoke, smoking situations, acquisition of tobacco products, and opportunity to smoke in the school area. The results showed very large differences in the smoking prevalence between Pitkäranta and eastern Finland. For boys, the prevalence of daily smoking was 29% and 19% in Pitkäranta and eastern Finland, respectively. The differences in girls were adverse: 7% and 21% of girls in Pitkäranta and eastern Finland, respectively, were daily smokers. However, as many as one third of the nonsmoking girls in Pitkäranta stated that they may experiment or start smoking later. Boys in Pitkäranta had vaguer attitudes about remaining nonsmokers than boys in eastern Finland. This situation anticipates worsening of the smoking epidemic in Pitkäranta and requires an effective prevention policy and cooperation between different groups in society.

  12. Silicate-bearing IIE Irons: Early Mixing and Differentiation in a Core-Mantle Environment and Shock Resetting of Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, T. J.

    1995-09-01

    The small group of IIE irons [1] are important since many contain silicate inclusions. A wide variety of inclusions occur in Netscha vo [2], Techado [3], Watson [4], Elga, Kodaikanal, Weekeroo Station, and Colomera [5,6]. Miles contains uncharacterized silicate inclusions [7]. Most siderophile elements do not follow fractional crystallization trends, suggesting formation by impact [1]. Ages from 3.67-4.51 Ga [see 8] are taken by some authors [4] as the time of silicate-metal mixing. I have conducted petrographic studies on silicate inclusions of all silicate-bearing IIE's except Elga and propose an alternative history of heating, melting, silicate differentiation and metal-silicate mixing ~4.55 Ga ago in a core-mantle environment followed by shock heating and chronometer resetting. The chondritic IIE precursor was probably not identical to H chondrites [1,3]. Mafic silicate compositions in "primitive" IIE's (Netschaevo, Techado) and Delta 17O in all silicate-bearing IIE's (0.59+/-0.08 [3,4,9,10]) are less than or overlap H chondrites. The IIE body was heated to >=900 degrees C, metamorphosing and partially melting the mantle and forming a small Fe,Ni-FeS core ~4.55 Ga ago. Slow metallographic cooling rates (1-100 degrees C/Ma [1,3]) for IIE's with unaltered metal (e.g., Techado, Weekeroo Station, Miles) and fractional crystallization trends for some elements (e.g., Au-Ni) support a core origin, not a near-surface, impact model. Comparison of other siderophile element trends in IAB, IIICD and IIE indicate similar origins [1], but IAB and IIICD may also have originated in cores [11,12]. Silicates differentiated in the mantle and/or after mixing with metal. The degree of differentiation increases from Netschaevo (unmelted, chondritic clasts [2]) to Techado (unmelted silicates; Fe,Ni-FeS melting [3]) to Watson (nearly-total melting; no silicate differentiation; Fe,Ni-FeS lost [4]) to Miles and Weekeroo Station (opx-cpx-plag partial melts [5]) to Kodaikanal, Colomera

  13. Bifunctional drug derivatives of MAO-B inhibitor rasagiline and iron chelator VK-28 as a more effective approach to treatment of brain ageing and ageing neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Youdim, Moussa B H; Fridkin, Mati; Zheng, Hailin

    2005-02-01

    Degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons and cholinergic cortical neurones are the main pathological features of Parkinson's disease (PD) and for the cognitive deficit in dementia of the Alzheimer' type (AD) and in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), respectively. Many PD and DLB subjects have dementia and depression resulting from possible degeneration of cholinergic and noradrenergic and serotonergic neurons. On the other hand, AD patients may also develop extrapyramidal features as well as depression. In both PD and AD there is, respectively, accumulation of iron within the melanin containing dopamine neurons of pars compacta and with in the plaques and tangle. It has been suggested that iron accumulation may contribute to the oxidative stress induced apoptosis reported in both diseases. This may result from increased glia hydrogen peroxide producing monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity that can generate of reactive hydroxyl radical formed from interaction of iron and hydrogen peroxide. We have therefore prepared a series of novel bifunctional drugs from the neuroprotective-antiapoptotic antiparkinson monoamine oxidase B inhibitor, rasagiline, by introducing a carbamate cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitory moiety into it. Ladostigil (TV-3326, N-propargyl-3R-aminoindan-5yl)-ethyl methylcarbamate), has both ChE and MAO-AB inhibitory activity, as potential treatment of AD and DLB or PD subjects with dementia Being a brain selective MAO-AB inhibitor it has limited potentiation of the pressor response to oral tyramine and exhibits antidepressant activity similar to classical non-selective MAO inhibitor antidepressants by increasing brain serotonin and noradrenaline. Ladostigil inhibits brain acetyl and butyrylcholinesterase in rats and antagonizes scopolamine-induced inhibition of spatial learning. Ladostigil like MAO-B inhibitor it prevents MPTP Parkinsonism in mice model and retains the in vitro and in vivo neuroprotective activity of rasagiline. Ladostigil, rasagiline

  14. Influence of solution composition and column aging on the reduction of nitroaromatic compounds by zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Klausen, J; Ranke, J; Schwarzenbach, R P

    2001-08-01

    Granular iron is used in reactive permeable barriers for the reductive treatment of organic and inorganic groundwater contaminants. The technology is well established, however, its long-term performance and the importance of the groundwater composition are not yet well understood. Here, the influence of chloride, nitrate, silicate, and Aldrich humic acid on the reactivity of Master Builder iron was studied under anoxic conditions using small packed columns and 2-nitrotoluene (2-NT) as a model contaminant. After initially complete reduction of 2-NT to 2-aminotoluene (2-AT) in the column, possibly under mass-transfer controlled conditions, the reactivity of the iron was found to decrease substantially. In the presence of chloride, this decrease was slowed while exposure to silicate resulted in a very quick loss of iron reactivity. Nitrate was found to interfere strongly with the effect of chloride. These observations are interpreted in terms of corrosion inhibition/promotion and competition. Our results suggest that reactive barrier performance may be strongly affected by the composition of the treated groundwater.

  15. Iron Chelation

    MedlinePlus

    ... iron overload and need treatment. What is iron overload? Iron chelation therapy is used when you have ... may want to perform: How quickly does iron overload happen? This is different for each person. It ...

  16. Daily supplementation with iron plus folic acid, zinc, and their combination is not associated with younger age at first walking unassisted in malnourished preschool children from a deficient population in rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Katz, Joanne; Khatry, Subarna K; Leclerq, Steven C; Mullany, Luke C; Yanik, Elizabeth L; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Siegel, Emily H; Tielsch, James M

    2010-07-01

    A community-based, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled trial of daily zinc and/or iron+folic acid supplementation was conducted in rural southern Nepal to examine motor milestone attainment among 3264 children 1-36 mo of age between 2001 and 2006. Treatment groups included placebo, zinc (10 mg), iron+folic acid (12.5 mg iron + 50 microg folic acid), and zinc+iron+folic acid (10 mg zinc + 12.5 mg iron + 50 microg folic acid). Infants received half of these doses. The iron arms were stopped November 2003 by recommendation of the Data Safety and Monitoring Board; zinc and placebo continued until January 2006. A total of 2457 children had not walked at the time of entry into the trial and 1775 were followed through 36 mo. Mean age at first walking unassisted did not differ among groups and was 444 +/- 81 d (mean +/- SD) in the placebo group, 444 +/- 81 d in the zinc group, 464 +/- 85 d in the iron+folic acid group, and 446 +/- 87 d in the iron+folic acid+zinc group. Results were similar after adjustment for age at enrollment, asset ownership, maternal literacy, and prior child deaths in the household and in children who consumed at least 60 tablets. Compared with placebo, iron+folic acid was associated with an adjusted mean delay of 28.0 d (95% CI: 11.3, 44.7) in time to walking among infants and the delay was more pronounced with mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) < 9.5 cm [60.6 d, (95% CI: 28.5, 92.6)]. Risks and benefits of universal iron+folic acid supplementation of infants beyond improved hematologic status deserve further consideration.

  17. Assessing the Influence of Age and Ethnicity on the Association Between Iron Status and Lead Concentration in Blood: Results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2011).

    PubMed

    Ngueta, Gerard

    2016-06-01

    Inverse association has been reported between iron intake and blood lead concentration (PbB) in epidemiological studies. Data on this association at a low dose of lead exposure are scarce, and the potential influence of ethnicity and age has not been previously reported. This study aimed to estimate the relation between serum ferritin, haemoglobin, haematocrit, and mean corpuscular volume and PbB among 6-18-year-old individuals. Data from Canadian Health and Measures Survey (CHMS), cycle 1 (2007-2009) and cycle 2 (2009-2011), were accessed. A household interview followed by a physical examination (including collection of blood) was performed. The quantification of lead and trace elements in blood was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The mean PbB was 0.79 μg/dL (95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.75-0.82). Except for haemoglobin levels, no association was found between PbB and any of the parameters of iron status, independently of age. A significant interaction was observed between ferritin levels and ethnicity in relation to PbB (p = 0.07). We found a little evidence of an association between iron status and PbB in the whole sample of subjects aged 6-18 years exposed to low levels of environmental lead. The significant interaction observed between ferritin levels and ethnicity in relation to BPb suggests that the influence of ferritin levels on lead uptake may change by ethnicity, even at low exposure.

  18. Towards the Gulf of Finland Year 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrberg, K.; Vesikko, L.

    2012-04-01

    The trilateral co-operation between Russia, Estonia and Finland was initiated in 1992 to protect the marine environment of the GoF . In 1996 the first Gulf of Finland Year was organized with the support of the responsible ministries in all three countries. At present the joint activity aims at supporting the implementation of the Ecosystem Approach to the Management of the Human Activities, more specifically HELCOM BSAP as a "sub-regional" activity. Currently, the second Gulf of Finland Year is planned to be held in 2014 and the preparations are under way. It is crucial that the best available scientific information is provided into the environmental decision making process to guarantee the sound decision-making. Thus, we need up-to-date information concerning the pressures on and state of the marine ecosystem of the GoF and how to focus optimally our resources for the protection and restoration of the sea in the future. The organizing of the second Gulf of Finland Year originates from the scientific community which finds, taking into account the specific and vulnerable nature of the sea, the GoF Year 2014 to give additional value for the protection and restoration of its environment in terms of the enhanced political presence, as well as through the communication and interaction with private sector, environmental decision-makers, politicians and ordinary citizens. The GoF Year 2014 brings scientists together to make extensive process-oriented studies leading to high-quality data sets, which will produce new and topical data and information in more detail than ever before by using e.g. modern observation techniques and ecosystem modeling as examples of advanced tool. The trilateral co-operation between Estonia, Finland and Russia ensures the new achievements in marine research will be translated to reach the environmental decision-making efficiently. Consequently, a Gulf of Finland declaration is given in 2014 where the necessary actions to improve state the marine

  19. Serum hepcidin measured by immunochemical and mass-spectrometric methods and their correlation with iron status indicators in healthy children aged 0.5-3 y.

    PubMed

    Uijterschout, Lieke; Swinkels, Dorine W; Domellöf, Magnus; Lagerqvist, Carina; Hudig, Cisca; Tjalsma, Harrold; Vos, Rimke; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Brus, Frank

    2014-10-01

    The diagnostic use of hepcidin is limited by the absence of standardization and lack of age-specific reference ranges in children in particular. The aim of this study was to determine reference ranges of serum hepcidin in healthy children aged 0.5-3 y using mass spectometry (MS) and a commercial immunochemical (IC) assay, and to investigate its association with other indicators of iron status and inflammation. We included 400 healthy children aged 0.5-3 y. We constructed reference ranges for MS-hepcidin and IC-hepcidin concentrations using the median, P2.5, and P97.5 in a normative population of 219 children with no anemia, no infection and/or inflammation, and no iron deficiency. Median concentrations (P2.5-P97.5) of MS-hepcidin and IC-hepcidin were 3.6 nmol/l (0.6-13.9 nmol/l) and 7.9 nmol/l (1.9-28.6 nmol/l), respectively. We found a good correlation between both methods. However, MS-hepcidin was consistently lower than IC-hepcidin. Hepcidin correlated with ferritin and C-reactive protein. We provide reference ranges for hepcidin for an MS and commercial IC method. Absolute values between assays differed significantly, but hepcidin concentrations obtained by MS and IC methods correlate with each other, and both correlate with ferritin and CRP.

  20. Land use history, floodplain development, and soil erosion in the vicinity of a millstone production center since the Iron Age in the Segbachtal near Mayen (eastern Eifel, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotterweich, Markus; Wenzel, Stefan; Schreg, Rainer; Fülling, Alexander; Engel, Max

    2015-04-01

    In Roman times, the stone and pottery production near Mayen in western Germany reached a very high intensity which would have satisfied the needs of a much wider area. The rate and volume of production was unprecedented and never reached the same level thereafter. The Segbach valley study site with an area of only a few square kilometres offers a very special geoarchaeological archive. The Roman land use structures were completely preserved under a 2 meter thick layer of sediment and are now partially exposed in a gully due to erosion. Pedological, sedimentological and geophysical studies at the colluvium and floodplain sediments as well as relict field structures showed that in the last 2500 years there has been a considerable human impact on both water and sediment budgets. This also had various implications on the further development of water courses, soils and relief. Evidence for the development of flood plain sediments can be traced as far back as the late La Tène period, the Roman Iron Age, and since the Middle Ages. On one particular south-facing slope we found evidence of recultivation measures on a former quarry tailing heap dating from the Middle Ages. This and other human construction activities and land uses lead to a significant change in erosion and sedimentation patterns. It is surprising that sedimentation in flood plains was largely absent during the Roman Iron Age despite intensive land use. Evidence shows that flash flood events with intensive accumulation of soil matter in flood plains only occurred during the High Middle Ages. Sediments from the late Middle ages and the Modern Times are largely missing. The research undertaken in Segbach valley not only offers new insights into specific local historical land uses and land use changes but also fundamental knowledge about the principles and impacts of long-term human-environment interactions.

  1. Nutritional Iron Deficiency Anemia: Magnitude and Its Predictors among School Age Children, Southwest Ethiopia: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Desalegn, Amare; Mossie, Andualem; Gedefaw, Lealem

    2014-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a global public health problem among school age children, which retards psychomotor development and impairs cognitive performance. There is limited data on prevalence and risk factors for IDA. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, severity, and predictors of nutritional IDA in school age children in Southwest Ethiopia. Methodology A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia from April to July 2013. A total of 616 school children aged 6 to 12 years were included in the study using multistage sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data. Five milliliter venous blood was collected from each child for hematological examinations. Anemia was defined as a hemoglobin level lower than 11.5 g/dl and 12 g/dl for age group of 5–11 years and 12–15 years, respectively. Iron deficiency anemia was defined when serum iron and ferritin levels are below 10 µmol/l and 15 µg/dl, respectively. Moreover, fresh stool specimen was collected for diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infection. Stained thick and thin blood films were examined for detection of Plasmodium infection and study of red blood cell morphology. Dietary patterns of the study subjects were assessed using food frequency questionnaire and anthropometric measurements were done. Data were analyzed using SPSS V-20.0 for windows. Result Overall, prevalence of anemia was 43.7%, and that of IDA was 37.4%. Not-consuming protein source foods [AOR = 2.30, 95%CI(1.04,5.14)], not-consuming dairy products [AOR = 1.83, 95%CI(1.14,5.14)], not-consuming discretionary calories [AOR = 2.77, 95%CI(1.42,5.40)], low family income [AOR = 6.14, 95%CI(2.90,12.9)] and intestinal parasitic infections [AOR = 1.45, 95%CI(1.23, 5. 27)] were predictors of IDA. Conclusion Iron deficiency anemia is a moderate public health problem in the study site. Dietary deficiencies and

  2. Nutritional iron deficiency anemia: magnitude and its predictors among school age children, southwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Desalegn, Amare; Mossie, Andualem; Gedefaw, Lealem

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a global public health problem among school age children, which retards psychomotor development and impairs cognitive performance. There is limited data on prevalence and risk factors for IDA. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, severity, and predictors of nutritional IDA in school age children in Southwest Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia from April to July 2013. A total of 616 school children aged 6 to 12 years were included in the study using multistage sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data. Five milliliter venous blood was collected from each child for hematological examinations. Anemia was defined as a hemoglobin level lower than 11.5 g/dl and 12 g/dl for age group of 5-11 years and 12-15 years, respectively. Iron deficiency anemia was defined when serum iron and ferritin levels are below 10 µmol/l and 15 µg/dl, respectively. Moreover, fresh stool specimen was collected for diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infection. Stained thick and thin blood films were examined for detection of Plasmodium infection and study of red blood cell morphology. Dietary patterns of the study subjects were assessed using food frequency questionnaire and anthropometric measurements were done. Data were analyzed using SPSS V-20.0 for windows. Overall, prevalence of anemia was 43.7%, and that of IDA was 37.4%. Not-consuming protein source foods [AOR = 2.30, 95%CI(1.04,5.14)], not-consuming dairy products [AOR = 1.83, 95%CI(1.14,5.14)], not-consuming discretionary calories [AOR = 2.77, 95%CI(1.42,5.40)], low family income [AOR = 6.14, 95%CI(2.90,12.9)] and intestinal parasitic infections [AOR = 1.45, 95%CI(1.23, 5. 27)] were predictors of IDA. Iron deficiency anemia is a moderate public health problem in the study site. Dietary deficiencies and intestinal parasitic infections were predictors of IDA

  3. Paediatric ICU burns in Finland 1994-2004.

    PubMed

    Papp, Anthony; Rytkönen, Tanja; Koljonen, Virve; Vuola, Jyrki

    2008-05-01

    The paediatric burn population requiring intensive care in Finland has never been examined before. The aim of this study was firstly to determine the aetiology, incidence and prognosis of paediatric burns requiring intensive care in Finland and secondly to compare the possible differences between the two national burn centres. All burn patients' charts were retrospectively reviewed in two national burn centres from an 11-year-period. Patients whose ICU stay was more than 48h, were included. Forty-five children who were hospitalized in the two burn centres during the study period met the inclusion criteria. They represent 2.4% (45/1898) of all burns victims hospitalized in these burn centres during that time giving an incidence of 0.1/100,000 per year in Finland. The median age was 5 years, every third patient was 0-2 years old and 75.6% were male. Most burns were scalds (42.2%), which caused all burns (100%) in age group 0-2 years. Flame burns were most frequent (83%) in the age group 6-10 years. In the 11-16 years old patients, high voltage/electric burns caused 50% of all burns and flame the other 50%. The overall median TBSA in all burns was 26%. The median (range) hospital stay was 12 days (2-193) (0.88 days/% burned) and the median (range) ICU days was 7 (2-64) (0.29 days/%). Intubation and respirator therapy was needed in 31 (46%) patients. There were no patients who needed haemofiltration or haemodialysis and no mortality. Only six patients (13%) were treated conservatively and 39 (87%) surgically. Dressing changes under general anaesthesia were preferred in Helsinki (37 times) and especially in the paediatric hospital (32 times) compared to Kuopio (7 times). Allografts were used only in Helsinki in 4 patients whereas artificial skin was used only in Kuopio in 15 patients. The overall cost of care was very similar in both centres being 1292-1425 euros per hospital day. There were some small differences between the two burn centres in treatment policies. Most

  4. Weekly Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation with Regular Deworming Is Cost-Effective in Preventing Anaemia in Women of Reproductive Age in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Susan E.; Phuc, Tran Q.; Phu, Luong B.; Thach, Dang T.; Dai, Tran C.; Fattore, Giovanni; Montresor, Antonio; Biggs, Beverley-A.

    2011-01-01

    Background To estimate the cost and cost-effectiveness of a project administering de-worming and weekly iron-folic acid supplementation to control anaemia in women of reproductive age in Yen Bai province, Vietnam. Methods and Findings Cost effectiveness was evaluated using data on programmatic costs based on two surveys in 2006 and 2009 and impact on anaemia and iron status collected in 2006, 2007, and 2008. Data on initial costs for training and educational materials were obtained from the records of the National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology and the Yen Bai Malaria Control Program. Structured questionnaires for health workers at district, commune and village level were used to collect ongoing distribution and monitoring costs, and for participants to collect transport and loss of earnings costs. The cost per woman treated (defined as consuming at least 75% of the recommended intake) was USD0.76 per annum. This estimate includes financial costs (for supplies, training), and costs of health care workers' time. Prevalence of anaemia fell from 38% at baseline, to 20% after 12 months. Thus, the cost-effectiveness of the project is assessed at USD 4.24 per anaemia case prevented per year. Based on estimated productivity gains for adult women, the benefit:cost ratio is 6.7∶1. Cost of the supplements and anthelminthics was 47% of the total, while costs of training, monitoring, and health workers' time accounted for 53%. Conclusion The study shows that weekly iron-folic acid supplementation and regular de-worming is a low-cost and cost-effective intervention and would be appropriate for population-based introduction in settings with a high prevalence of anaemia and iron deficiency and low malaria infection rates. PMID:21931611

  5. Motor Activity and Intra-Individual Variability According to Sleep-wake States in Preschool-aged Children with Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Angulo-Barroso, R.M.; Peirano, P.; Algarin, C.; Kaciroti, N.; Lozoff, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background A chronic or acute insult may affect the regulatory processes that guide motor and behavioral performance, leading to increased intra-individual variability (IIV). Increased variability is often interpreted as an indication of regulatory dysfunction. Iron plays an important role in the regulatory processes of the nervous system and affects motor activity. To our knowledge, no study has examined the long-lasting patterns and IIV of motor activity following iron-deficiency anemia in human infants. Aims This study compared 48-hour motor activity and variability in preschool-aged children with or without iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy. Methods Motor activity was recorded through actigraphs during two week-days in 47 4-year-old Chilean children (23 former IDA and 24 non-anemic in infancy). All were given oral iron as infants. Sleep-wake states were identified by means of automated software. The frequency of movement units per minute was determined for each waking/sleep state during the individual day and night periods; data were examined in blocks of 15 minutes. Analyses of mean frequency and duration and intra-individual variability were conducted using multivariate mixed models. Results For daytime sleep, former IDA children were more active without a difference in the total duration. They also spent less time awake throughout the individual day period. Motor activity intra-individual variability was higher in former IDA children. Conclusions The findings suggest that IDA in infancy sets the stage for long lasting dysfunction in the neural processes regulating sleep-wake states and spontaneous motor activity patterns. PMID:24041817

  6. Motor activity and intra-individual variability according to sleep-wake states in preschool-aged children with iron-deficiency anemia in infancy.

    PubMed

    Angulo-Barroso, R M; Peirano, P; Algarin, C; Kaciroti, N; Lozoff, B

    2013-12-01

    A chronic or acute insult may affect the regulatory processes that guide motor and behavioral performance, leading to increased intra-individual variability (IIV). Increased variability is often interpreted as an indication of regulatory dysfunction. Iron plays an important role in the regulatory processes of the nervous system and affects motor activity. To our knowledge, no study has examined the long-lasting patterns and IIV of motor activity following iron-deficiency anemia in human infants. This study compared 48-h motor activity and variability in preschool-aged children with or without iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy. Motor activity was recorded through actigraphs during two week-days in 47 4-year-old Chilean children (23 former IDA and 24 non-anemic in infancy). All were given oral iron as infants. Sleep-wake states were identified by means of automated software. The frequency of movement units per minute was determined for each waking/sleep state during the individual day and night periods; data were examined in blocks of 15 min. Analyses of mean frequency and duration and intra-individual variability were conducted using multivariate mixed models. For daytime sleep, former IDA children were more active without a difference in the total duration. They also spent less time awake throughout the individual day period. Motor activity intra-individual variability was higher in former IDA children. The findings suggest that IDA in infancy sets the stage for long lasting dysfunction in the neural processes regulating sleep-wake states and spontaneous motor activity patterns. © 2013.

  7. In situ transmission electron microscopy He+ implantation and thermal aging of nanocrystalline iron

    SciTech Connect

    Muntifering, Brittany R.; Fang, Youwu; Leff, Asher C.; Dunn, Aaron; Qu, Jianmin; Taheri, Mitra L.; Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel

    2016-10-04

    Due to their high density of interfaces, nanostructured material are hypothesized to show a higher tolerance to radiation damage compared to conventional coarse-grained materials and are on interest for use in future nuclear reactors. In order to investigate the roles of vacancies, self-interstitials, and helium during defect accumulation, and the thermal evolution of such defects, a complex set of in situ TEM experiments were performed in nanocrystalline iron.

  8. In situ transmission electron microscopy He+ implantation and thermal aging of nanocrystalline iron

    SciTech Connect

    Muntifering, Brittany R.; Fang, Youwu; Leff, Asher C.; Dunn, Aaron; Qu, Jianmin; Taheri, Mitra L.; Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel

    2016-10-04

    Due to their high density of interfaces, nanostructured material are hypothesized to show a higher tolerance to radiation damage compared to conventional coarse-grained materials and are on interest for use in future nuclear reactors. In order to investigate the roles of vacancies, self-interstitials, and helium during defect accumulation, and the thermal evolution of such defects, a complex set of in situ TEM experiments were performed in nanocrystalline iron.

  9. Lung parasites of least weasels in Finland.

    PubMed

    Laakkonen, J; Sundell, J; Soveri, T

    1998-10-01

    Because of their constant exposure to normal rodent definitive hosts, least weasels (Mustela nivalis) were trapped in southern Finland in late fall 1994 and examined for lung parasites. Histological examination showed that 46% of the weasels (n = 46) were infected with adiaspores identified as Chrysosporium sp. Granulomas surrounding the adiaspores consisted of mostly unorganized layers of mononuclear cells. The adiaspores from least weasels were much smaller than those reported from their prey animals. Infection with Pneumocystis carinii also was found in two weasels.

  10. Pregnancy outcomes after liver transplantation in Finland.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Mirjami; Kemppainen, Helena; Isoniemi, Helena; Polo-Kantola, Päivi

    2017-09-01

    Pregnancy after liver transplantation is possible but associated with increased risk of obstetrical complications. We report here for the first time the pregnancy outcomes after liver transplantation in Finland. All of the 25 pregnancies ending in deliveries after liver transplantation in Finland in 1998-2015 were analyzed. The data were collected from the mothers' medical records. The main outcome measures included pregnancy complications and the mode of delivery. Neonatal outcome measures were birthweight, 5-min Apgar score and umbilical artery pH. Twenty-six infants were born. Of all deliveries, 76% occurred at the ≥37 weeks of gestation and the average birthweight was 3040 g. Apgar scores were ≥7 in 25/26 (96%) of the infants and cases of birth asphyxia (umbilical artery pH ≤ 7.05) were not detected. Cesarean section rate was 32%. Preeclampsia occurred in 12% of the women and the preterm delivery rate was 24%. Co-morbidities (hypertension, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, Hodgkin's disease, colitis ulcerosa, epileptic attacks, cholangitis, splenic artery rupture, renal insufficiency and graft rejection) complicated 52% of pregnancies. Pregnancies after liver transplantation in Finland result in good perinatal outcome with healthy, mostly full-term, normally grown offspring; however, serious maternal complications related to underlying liver pathology, transplant surgery and immunosuppressive medication occur frequently. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Iron deficiency anaemia.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Anthony; Cacoub, Patrice; Macdougall, Iain C; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2016-02-27

    Anaemia affects roughly a third of the world's population; half the cases are due to iron deficiency. It is a major and global public health problem that affects maternal and child mortality, physical performance, and referral to health-care professionals. Children aged 0-5 years, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women are particularly at risk. Several chronic diseases are frequently associated with iron deficiency anaemia--notably chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Measurement of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum soluble transferrin receptors, and the serum soluble transferrin receptors-ferritin index are more accurate than classic red cell indices in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia. In addition to the search for and treatment of the cause of iron deficiency, treatment strategies encompass prevention, including food fortification and iron supplementation. Oral iron is usually recommended as first-line therapy, but the most recent intravenous iron formulations, which have been available for nearly a decade, seem to replenish iron stores safely and effectively. Hepcidin has a key role in iron homoeostasis and could be a future diagnostic and therapeutic target. In this Seminar, we discuss the clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and acute management of iron deficiency anaemia, and outstanding research questions for treatment.

  12. Association between health behaviour and self-reported health in Estonia, Finland, Latvia and Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Kasmel, Anu; Helasoja, Ville; Lipand, Andrus; Prättälä, Ritva; Klumbiene, Jurate; Pudule, Iveta

    2004-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the associations of the selected health behaviours (daily smoking, frequent strong alcohol use, consumption of fresh vegetables less than 3 days a week and leisure time physical activity less than two/three times a week) to the self-assessed health after adjustment to the age and education in Estonia, Finland, Latvia and Lithuania. Data from cross-sectional surveys carried out in all the above-mentioned countries were used. The methodology and questionnaires of the surveys were standardized between the participating countries within the Finbalt Health Monitor System. Logistic regression was used to assess the effect of self-perceived health status on prevalence of health behaviours. In Finland both women and men rated their health better than both genders in all the Baltic countries. In Finland self-assessment of health is significantly associated with most health behaviours, but in the Baltic counties the associations are weak or unstable. The results suggest that in Finland as in many other stable countries self-assessed health status was related to health behaviours and can be used as an indicator of health behaviours. In the Baltic countries, factors other than health behaviours may be more relevant to the self assessment of health status.

  13. Zinc, Iron and Vitamins A, C and E Are Associated with Obesity, Inflammation, Lipid Profile and Insulin Resistance in Mexican School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    García, Olga Patricia; Ronquillo, Dolores; Caamaño, María del Carmen; Martínez, Guadalupe; Camacho, Mariela; López, Viridiana; Rosado, Jorge L.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between micronutrient status and obesity, lipids, insulin resistance and chronic inflammation in children. Weight, height, waist circumference and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)) were determined in 197 school-aged children. Lipids, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), zinc, iron and vitamins A, C and E were analyzed in blood. Vitamin C and vitamin E:lipids were negatively associated with Body Mass Index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHR) and body and abdominal fat (p < 0.05). Vitamin A was positively associated with BMI, BMI-for-age, WHR and abdominal fat (p < 0.05). Iron and vitamin E:lipids were negatively associated with insulin (p < 0.05). Vitamins A, C and E and iron were negatively associated with CRP (p < 0.05). Interaction analysis showed that children who were overweight and obese who also had low concentrations of vitamin A had higher CRP and lower triglycerides (p < 0.1), children with low vitamin E had significantly lower glucose and triglycerides (p < 0.1) and higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentrations (p < 0.05), and children with low zinc concentrations had higher insulin resistance compared with children with adequate weight (p < 0.05). In conclusion, low vitamin C concentration and vitamin E:lipids were associated with obesity. Furthermore, low concentrations of zinc, vitamins A and E in children who were overweight and obese were associated with lipids, inflammation and insulin resistance. PMID:24335710

  14. Zinc, iron and vitamins A, C and e are associated with obesity, inflammation, lipid profile and insulin resistance in Mexican school-aged children.

    PubMed

    García, Olga Patricia; Ronquillo, Dolores; del Carmen Caamaño, María; Martínez, Guadalupe; Camacho, Mariela; López, Viridiana; Rosado, Jorge L

    2013-12-10

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between micronutrient status and obesity, lipids, insulin resistance and chronic inflammation in children. Weight, height, waist circumference and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)) were determined in 197 school-aged children. Lipids, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), zinc, iron and vitamins A, C and E were analyzed in blood. Vitamin C and vitamin E:lipids were negatively associated with Body Mass Index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHR) and body and abdominal fat (p < 0.05). Vitamin A was positively associated with BMI, BMI-for-age, WHR and abdominal fat (p < 0.05). Iron and vitamin E:lipids were negatively associated with insulin (p < 0.05). Vitamins A, C and E and iron were negatively associated with CRP (p < 0.05). Interaction analysis showed that children who were overweight and obese who also had low concentrations of vitamin A had higher CRP and lower triglycerides (p < 0.1), children with low vitamin E had significantly lower glucose and triglycerides (p < 0.1) and higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentrations (p < 0.05), and children with low zinc concentrations had higher insulin resistance compared with children with adequate weight (p < 0.05). In conclusion, low vitamin C concentration and vitamin E:lipids were associated with obesity. Furthermore, low concentrations of zinc, vitamins A and E in children who were overweight and obese were associated with lipids, inflammation and insulin resistance.

  15. Influence of chemical weathering and aging of iron oxides on the potential iron solubility of Saharan dust during simulated atmospheric processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zongbo; Krom, Michael D.; Bonneville, Steeve; Baker, Alex R.; Bristow, Charlie; Drake, Nick; Mann, Graham; Carslaw, Ken; McQuaid, James B.; Jickells, Tim; Benning, Liane G.

    2011-06-01

    The flux of bioavailable Fe from mineral dust to the surface ocean is controlled not only by the processes in the atmosphere but also by the nature and source of the dust. In this study, we investigated how the nature of Fe minerals in the dust affects its potential Fe solubility (Fepsol) employing traditional and modern geochemical, mineralogical, and microscopic techniques. The chemical and mineralogical compositions, particularly Fe mineralogy, in soil samples as dust precursors collected from North African dust source regions were determined. The Fepsol was measured after 3 days of contact with sulfuric acid at pH 2 to simulate acid processes in the atmosphere. Fepsol of the soil dust samples were compared with calculated predictions of Fepsol based on the amount of individual Fe-bearing minerals present in the samples and Fe solubilities of corresponding standard minerals. The calculated Fepsol deviated significantly from the measured Fepsol of the soil dust samples. We attributed this to the variability in properties of Fe minerals (e.g., size of Fe oxides and heterogeneity of chemical compositions of clay minerals) in soil dusts in comparison to the standard minerals. There were, however, clear relationships between the degree of chemical weathering of North African soils and Fepsol. The Parker index and ratio of ascorbate plus dithionite Fe to total Fe ((FeA+FeD)/FeT) are positively and negatively correlated with Fepsol, respectively. In addition, the ratio of FeA/(FeA+FeD), which decreases with aging of the Fe oxides, was found to be positively correlated with Fepsol in the soil dusts. Overall, our results indicate that there is a significant regional variability in the chemical and Fe mineralogical compositions of dusts across North African sources, as a result of the differences in chemical weathering and aging of Fe oxides. Furthermore, the indices for these weathering processes can provide an estimate of the fraction of Fe which can be solubilized if

  16. Determinants of Iron Deficiency Anemia in a Cohort of Children Aged 6-71 Months Living in the Northeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Zanin, Francisca Helena Calheiros; da Silva, Camilo Adalton Mariano; Bonomo, Élido; Teixeira, Romero Alves; Pereira, Cíntia Aparecida de Jesus; dos Santos, Karina Benatti; Fausto, Maria Arlene; Negrão-Correa, Deborah Aparecida; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common nutritional disorders worldwide. The aim was to identify the prevalence and incidence of anemia in children and to identify predictors of this condition, including intestinal parasites, social, nutritional and environmental factors, and comorbidities. A population-based cohort study was conducted in a sample of 414 children aged 6–71 months living in Novo Cruzeiro in the Minas Gerais State. Data were collected in 2008 and 2009 by interview and included socio-economic and demographic information about the children and their families. Blood samples were collected for testing of hemoglobin, ferritin and C-reactive protein. Anthropometric measurements and parasitological analyses of fecal samples were performed. To identify risk factors associated with anemia multivariate analyses were performed using the generalized estimating equations (GEE). In 2008 and 2009, respectively, the prevalence rates of anemia were 35.9% (95%CI 31.2–40.8) and 9.8% (95%CI 7.2–12.9), the prevalence rates of iron deficiency were 18.4% (95%CI 14.7–22.6) and 21.8% (95%CI 17.8–26.2), and the incidence rates of anemia and iron deficiency were 3.2% and 21.8%. The following risk factors associated with anemia were: iron deficiency (OR = 3.2; 95%CI 2.0-.5.3), parasitic infections (OR = 1.9; 95%CI 1.2–2.8), being of risk of or being a low length/height-for-age (OR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.4–3.2), and lower retinol intake (OR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.1–2.7), adjusted over time. Nutritional factors, parasitic infections and chronic malnutrition were identified as risk factors for anemia. These factors can be verified in a chronic process and have been classically described as risk factors for these conditions. PMID:26445270

  17. Socioeconomic differences in self-rated health among women: a comparison of St. Petersburg to Estonia and Finland.

    PubMed

    Dubikaytis, Tatiana; Härkänen, Tommi; Regushevskaya, Elena; Hemminki, Elina; Haavio-Mannila, Elina; Laanpere, Made; Kuznetsova, Olga; Koskinen, Seppo

    2014-05-17

    Social determinants of health have not been intensively studied in Russia, even though the health divide has been clearly demonstrated by an increased mortality rate among those with low education. A comparative analysis of social health determinants in countries with different historical and economic backgrounds may provide useful evidence for addressing health inequalities. We aimed to assess socioeconomic determinants of self-rated health in St. Petersburg as compared to Estonia and Finland. Data for women aged 18-44 were extracted from existing population-based surveys and analysed. In St. Petersburg the data were originally collected in 2003 (response rate 68%), in Estonia in 2004-2005 (54%), and in Finland in 2000-2001 (86%). The study samples comprised 865 women in St. Petersburg, 2141 in Estonia and 1897 in Finland. Self-rated health was much poorer in St. Petersburg than in Estonia or Finland. High education was negatively associated with poor self-rated health in all the studied populations; it was (partially) mediated via health behaviour and limiting long-term illness only in Estonia and Finland, but not in St. Petersburg. High personal income and employment did not associate with poor self-rated health among St. Petersburg women, as it did in Estonia and Finland. In St. Petersburg housewives rather than employed women had better self-rated health, unlike the two other areas. Women's self-rated health in St. Petersburg varied similarly by education but differently by income and employment as compared to Estonia and Finland. Education is likely the most meaningful dimension of women's socioeconomic position in St. Petersburg. More research is needed to further clarify the pathways between socioeconomic position and health in Russia.

  18. A comparative study of educational inequality in the risk of stillbirth in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden 1981-2000.

    PubMed

    Rom, Ane L; Mortensen, Laust H; Cnattingius, Sven; Arntzen, Annett; Gissler, Mika; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2012-03-01

    The stillbirth rates in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are among the lowest in the world, but socioeconomic disparities in stillbirth still exist. This study examined the educational patterns in the risk of stillbirth in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden from 1981 to 2000. From the national birth registries, all singleton live births and stillbirths with a gestational age of at least 28 weeks were selected in Denmark (n=1 182 888), Finland (n=419 729), Norway (n=1 006 767) and Sweden (n=1 974 101). The births were linked with individual data on parental socioeconomic factors from various national registers. Linear and logistic regression were used to calculate RR and risk differences for stillbirth according to maternal educational attainment. The risk of stillbirth was lowest in Finland and highest in Denmark. The risk decreased over time in Denmark, Norway and Finland, but remained stable in Sweden. Educational gradients were found in all countries in all time periods under study. In Denmark, the gradient remained stable over time. In Norway the gradient decreased slightly during the 1990s, whereas the gradient increased in Sweden. The gradient in Finland was relatively stable. There were persisting educational inequalities in stillbirth in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in the 1980s and 1990s. Inequalities were stable or decreasing except in Sweden, where an increase in inequality was observed. This increase was not solely attributable to a decreasing absolute risk of stillbirth as both the relative and absolute measures of inequality increased.

  19. 2-Oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases are sensors of energy metabolism, oxygen availability, and iron homeostasis: potential role in the regulation of aging process.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Antero; Kauppinen, Anu; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the members of an ancient family of nonheme Fe(2+)/2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-OGDO) are involved in the functions associated with the aging process. 2-Oxoglutarate and O2 are the obligatory substrates and Fe(2+) a cofactor in the activation of 2-OGDO enzymes, which can induce the hydroxylation of distinct proteins and the demethylation of DNA and histones. For instance, ten-eleven translocation 1-3 (TET1-3) are the demethylases of DNA, whereas Jumonji C domain-containing histone lysine demethylases (KDM2-7) are the major epigenetic regulators of chromatin landscape, known to be altered with aging. The functions of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylases (PHD1-3) as well as those of collagen hydroxylases are associated with age-related degeneration. Moreover, the ribosomal hydroxylase OGFOD1 controls mRNA translation, which is known to decline with aging. 2-OGDO enzymes are the sensors of energy metabolism, since the Krebs cycle intermediate 2-oxoglutarate is an activator whereas succinate and fumarate are the potent inhibitors of 2-OGDO enzymes. In addition, O2 availability and iron redox homeostasis control the activities of 2-OGDO enzymes in tissues. We will briefly elucidate the catalytic mechanisms of 2-OGDO enzymes and then review the potential functions of the above-mentioned 2-OGDO enzymes in the control of the aging process.

  20. 75 FR 57815 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... COMMISSION Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY: United... antidumping duty orders on purified carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden... antidumping duty orders on purified carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden...

  1. Consumption of healthy foods and associated socio-demographic factors among Russian, Somali and Kurdish immigrants in Finland.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, Folasade A; Itkonen, Suvi T; Koponen, Päivikki; Prättälä, Ritva; Härkänen, Tommi; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel; Erkkola, Maijaliisa

    2017-05-01

    We evaluated the consumption of healthy foods among Russian, Somali and Kurdish immigrants in Finland, and examined the relationship between socio-demographic factors and food consumption. We used data from the Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study (Maamu), a population-based health interview and examination survey in six different municipalities in Finland between 2010 and 2012. Altogether, 635 men and 737 women, aged 18-64 years, of Russian ( n = 527), Somali ( n = 337) and Kurdish ( n = 508) origin were included. The important socio-demographic determinants of healthy food consumption - sex, age, education, place of residence and household size - were assessed by logistic regression. Based on the consumption frequencies of recommended healthy foods - fruits, berries, vegetables, fish and rye bread - immigrants of Russian origin had higher consumption of healthy foods than their peers of Kurdish and Somali origin. Low consumption of fresh vegetables, fruits and berries was found among Somali immigrants. Sex and age were the most important determinants of healthy food consumption, as women and older age groups had diets closer to the national nutrition recommendations. High educational level was also positively associated with healthy food consumption. We found ethnic differences in the consumption of healthy foods among the immigrant groups of Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin in Finland. Socio-demographic factors, especially age, sex and education, seem to also play an important role in immigrants' food consumption. Further studies examining the consumption of fruits, berries and fresh vegetables among Somali immigrants in Finland are needed.

  2. Educational variations in the consumption of foods containing fat in Finland and the Baltic countries.

    PubMed

    Petkeviciene, Janina; Klumbiene, Jurate; Prättälä, Ritva; Paalanen, Laura; Pudule, Iveta; Kasmel, Anu

    2007-05-01

    To examine educational differences among people who consume foods containing fat in Finland and the Baltic countries. Data were collected from cross-sectional postal Finbalt Health Monitor surveys that were carried out in 1998, 2000 and 2002. Estonia, Finland, Latvia and Lithuania. For each survey, nationally representative random samples of adults aged 20-64 years were drawn from population registers (Estonia, n = 3656; Finland, n = 9354, Latvia, n = 6015; Lithuania, n = 5944). Differences were revealed between the countries in the consumption of foods that contain fat. Finnish people consumed butter on bread, high-fat milk, meat and meat products, and vegetable oil for cooking less frequently than people in the Baltic countries. Cheese was most popular in Finland. Educational differences in fat-related food habits were examined by applying logistic regression analysis. A positive association was found between level of education and consumption of vegetable oil used in food preparation. Drinking high-fat milk was associated with low education in all countries. People with higher education tended to consume cheese more often. Educational patterns in the consumption of butter on bread and in the consumption of meat and meat products differed between countries. The consumption of foods containing fat was related to educational levels in all four countries. The diet of better-educated people was closer to recommendations for the consumption of saturated and unsaturated fats than the diet of people with lower level of education. The educational gradient was more consistent in Finland than in the Baltic countries. These existing educational differences in sources of fat consumed should be taken into account in the development of national cardiovascular disease prevention programmes.

  3. The hazards of iron loading.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Eugene D

    2010-11-01

    Excessive or misplaced tissue iron now is recognized to pose a substantial health risk for an extensive array of endocrinological, gastrointestinal, infectious, neoplasmic, neurodegenerative, obstetric, ophthalmic, orthopedic, pulmonary and vascular diseases. Ingested, injected, inhaled and decompartmentalized iron contributes not only to disease, but also to aging and mortality. Iron is dangerous by catalyzing free radical formation and by serving as an essential nutrient for microbial and neoplasmic cell invaders. Our body cells exhibit wide variation in sensitivity to iron toxicity. Efficacy of our iron withholding defense system is modulated by numerous environmental, behavioral and genetic factors. A notable variety of methods for prevention and therapy of iron toxicity are now becoming available.

  4. Etiological Survey on Intellectual Disability in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikura, Ulla; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Olsen, Paivi; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Taanila, Anja; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2005-01-01

    The etiology of intellectual disability was studied both in incident (n = 9,432) and prevalent (n = 9,351) populations in a one-year birth cohort born in Northern Finland in 1985-1986. Data from multiple sources were used to follow the children until the age of 11.5 years. Of the incident cases (n = 119) with intellectual disabilities, 66.4% had…

  5. Iron Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... are used together to detect and help diagnose iron deficiency or iron overload. In people with anemia , these ... help determine whether the condition is due to iron deficiency or another cause, such as chronic blood loss ...

  6. Isotopic Analysis of OS and RE with Negative Thermal Ion Mass Spectrometry and Application to the Age and Evolution of Iron Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creaser, R. A.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1992-07-01

    The ^187Re-^187Os isotope system has long been recognized as a method by which the age of iron meteorites can be directly determined (Herr et al., 1961). Pioneering work by Luck and Allegre (1983) established a whole-rock isochron for iron meteorites and the results, were used to determine indirectly the half-life of ^187Re. We have developed: a) high ionization efficiency mass spectrometry techniques for platinum group elements, including both Re and Os separated from iron meteorites (Creaser et al., 1991, 1992); b) low filament loading blanks for both Re and Os (<0.1 picogram, each); c) high yield and low blanks for the chemical separation techniques (yields 70-80%; blanks 1 pg for Os, <10 pg for Re). We have developed a new method for the rapid, clean and efficient separation of Os and Re from 10^-2 g samples of iron meteorites. This will permit taking advantage of variations of Re/Os on a small scale. The chemical separation scheme involves acid dissolution, preconcentration of Os and Re from Fe-Ni, oxidative solvent extraction of Os and ion exchange chromatography to recover Re. We have established that Os and Re thus chemically separated from iron meteorites show the same ionization efficiency as Os and Re from standard solutions, namely ~20% for each element. Of primary importance is the degree of isotope exchange and equilibration between sample and spike for Os. By analyzing the isotopic composition of Os at different stages of the chemical separation we are able to demonstrate that isotopic equilibration can be achieved to the level of +-1o/oo. However, this is not yet a routinely resolved issue. We believe, based on experience during the development of this technique, that isotope equilibration for Os prior to chemical separation is a critical issue that needs further attention. The results we have obtained so far from iron meteorites are given in Table 1. We have started analyses of the large magmatic group of IIA irons, which are little shocked and

  7. Geochemical baseline studies of soil in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2017-04-01

    The soil element concentrations regionally vary a lot in Finland. Mostly this is caused by the different bedrock types, which are reflected in the soil qualities. Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is carrying out geochemical baseline studies in Finland. In the previous phase, the research is focusing on urban areas and mine environments. The information can, for example, be used to determine the need for soil remediation, to assess environmental impacts or to measure the natural state of soil in industrial areas or mine districts. The field work is done by taking soil samples, typically at depth between 0-10 cm. Sampling sites are chosen to represent the most vulnerable areas when thinking of human impacts by possible toxic soil element contents: playgrounds, day-care centers, schools, parks and residential areas. In the mine districts the samples are taken from the areas locating outside the airborne dust effected areas. Element contents of the soil samples are then analyzed with ICP-AES and ICP-MS, Hg with CV-AAS. The results of the geochemical baseline studies are published in the Finnish national geochemical baseline database (TAPIR). The geochemical baseline map service is free for all users via internet browser. Through this map service it is possible to calculate regional soil baseline values using geochemical data stored in the map service database. Baseline data for 17 elements in total is provided in the map service and it can be viewed on the GTK's web pages (http://gtkdata.gtk.fi/Tapir/indexEN.html).

  8. Relationship between daylength and suicide in Finland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many previous studies have documented seasonal variation in suicides globally. We re-assessed the seasonal variation of suicides in Finland and tried to relate it to the seasonal variation in daylength and ambient temperature and in the discrepancy between local time and solar time. Methods The daily data of all suicides from 1969 to 2003 in Finland (N = 43,393) were available. The calendar year was divided into twelve periods according to the length of daylight and the routinely changing time difference between sun time and official time. The daily mean of suicide mortality was calculated for each of these periods and the 95% confidence intervals of the daily means were used to evaluate the statistical significance of the means. In addition, daily changes in sunshine hours and mean temperature were compared to the daily means of suicide mortality in two locations during these afore mentioned periods. Results A significant peak of the daily mean value of suicide mortality occurred in Finland between May 15th and July 25th, a period that lies symmetrically around the solstice. Concerning the suicide mortality among men in the northern location (Oulu), the peak was postponed as compared with the southern location (Helsinki). The daily variation in temperature or in sunshine did not have significant association with suicide mortality in these two locations. Conclusions The period with the longest length of the day associated with the increased suicide mortality. Furthermore, since the peak of suicide mortality seems to manifest later during the year in the north, some other physical or biological signals, besides the variation in daylight, may be involved. In order to have novel means for suicide prevention, the assessment of susceptibility to the circadian misalignment might help. PMID:21943377

  9. Iron status in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Wawer, Anna A; Gillings, Rachel; Jennings, Amy; Myint, Phyo K

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is prevalent in older age, particularly after the age of 80. Serum ferritin concentrations also decline, although there is no evidence to suggest that changes in iron stores are an inevitable consequence of ageing. Chronic inflammation is a common condition in older people, making the measurement of iron status difficult, and it is likely that elevated levels of circulating hepcidin are responsible for changes in iron metabolism that result in systemic iron depletion. Other contributory factors are poor diet and some medications, such as aspirin. Anaemia in older age has undesirable health outcomes, including increased susceptibility to falling and depression. However, there are concerns about possible adverse effects of iron supplements, either in relation to pro-inflammatory effects in the gut or inappropriate tissue iron deposition. Brain iron levels are increased with age-related degenerative diseases, but it is not known if this is the cause or a consequence of the disease, and genetic factors are likely to play a role. In order to maintain body iron within the normal range a personalised approach is required, taking into account all of the factors that may affect iron metabolism and the available strategies for preventing iron deficiency or overload.

  10. Iron status in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Fairweather-Tait, Susan J.; Wawer, Anna A.; Gillings, Rachel; Jennings, Amy; Myint, Phyo K.

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is prevalent in older age, particularly after the age of 80. Serum ferritin concentrations also decline, although there is no evidence to suggest that changes in iron stores are an inevitable consequence of ageing. Chronic inflammation is a common condition in older people, making the measurement of iron status difficult, and it is likely that elevated levels of circulating hepcidin are responsible for changes in iron metabolism that result in systemic iron depletion. Other contributory factors are poor diet and some medications, such as aspirin. Anaemia in older age has undesirable health outcomes, including increased susceptibility to falling and depression. However, there are concerns about possible adverse effects of iron supplements, either in relation to pro-inflammatory effects in the gut or inappropriate tissue iron deposition. Brain iron levels are increased with age-related degenerative diseases, but it is not known if this is the cause or a consequence of the disease, and genetic factors are likely to play a role. In order to maintain body iron within the normal range a personalised approach is required, taking into account all of the factors that may affect iron metabolism and the available strategies for preventing iron deficiency or overload. PMID:24275120

  11. Genetic polymorphism of the iron-regulatory protein-1 and -2 genes in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Synowiec, Ewelina; Pogorzelska, Magdalena; Blasiak, Janusz; Szaflik, Jerzy; Szaflik, Jacek Pawel

    2012-06-01

    Iron can be involved in the pathogenesis of AMD through the oxidative stress because it may catalyze the Haber-Weiss and Fenton reactions converting hydrogen peroxide to free radicals, which can induce cellular damage. We hypothesized that genetic polymorphism in genes related to iron metabolism may predispose individuals to the development of AMD and therefore we checked for an association between the g.32373708 G>A polymorphism (rs867469) of the IRP1 gene and the g.49520870 G>A (rs17483548) polymorphism of the IRP2 gene and AMD risk as well as the modulation of this association by some environmental and life-style factors. Genotypes were determined in DNA from blood of 269 AMD patients and 116 controls by the allele-specific oligonucleotide-restriction fragment length polymorphism and the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. An association between AMD, dry and wet forms of AMD and the G/G genotype of the g.32373708 G>A-IRP1 polymorphism was found (OR 3.40, 4.15, and 2.75). On the other hand, the G/A genotype reduced the risk of AMD as well as its dry or wet form (OR 0.23, 0.21, 0.26). Moreover, the G allele of the g.49520870 G>A-IRP2 polymorphism increased the risk of the dry form of the disease (OR 1.51) and the A/A genotype and the A allele decreased such risk (OR 0.43 and 0.66). Our data suggest that the g.32373708 G>A-IRP1 and g.49520870 G>A-IRP2 polymorphisms may be associated with increased risk for AMD.

  12. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J.; Aguayo, Victor M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011) was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77–0.97). Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64–0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used. PMID:26828515

  13. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J; Aguayo, Victor M

    2016-01-27

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011) was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77-0.97). Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64-0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used.

  14. New mathematical formula for differentiating thalassemia trait and iron deficiency anemia in thalassemia prevalent area: a study in healthy school-age children.

    PubMed

    Sirachainan, Nongnuch; Iamsirirak, Pornchanok; Charoenkwan, Pimlak; Kadegasem, Praguywan; Wongwerawattanakoon, Pakawan; Sasanakul, Werasak; Chansatitporn, Natkamol; Chuansumrit, Ampaiwan

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and thalassemias are common diseases especially in the Mediterranean, Middle East and Asian regions. Both conditions show the same clinical findings of hypochromic and microcytic red blood cells. Although previous studies have devised mathematical formulae to differentiate between these two conditions, the prevalence of alpha- and beta-thalassemias among the affected populations may undermine the accuracy of these formulae. This study generated a new formula that was able to differentiate IDA and thalassemia traits and to determine the incidence rates of IDA and thalassemia traits. A total of 345 healthy Thai children with a mean age (+/- SD) of 11.3 (+/- 1.7) years were enrolled. Complete blood count, iron status, hemoglobin typing and DNA for alpha-1 thalassemia identification were investigated. Discriminant analysis was used to create a new mathematical formula containing significant variables to differentiate between IDA and thalassemia traits. The new formula of (1.5 Hb-0.05 MCV >14) had a receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.92 in differentiating thalassemia traits from IDA, with sensitivity and specificity of 84.6 and 87.5%, respectively. The incidence of IDA and thalassemia traits in the study group was 12% and 32%, respectively. This formula should be useful as a screening tool to differentiate between these two conditions.

  15. New aspects about reduced LCF-life time of spherical ductile cast iron due to dynamic strain aging at intermediate temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouri, Hayato; Wunderlich, Wilfried; Hayashi, Morihito

    2009-06-01

    Spherical ductile cast iron (FCD400) is widely used as container material in nuclear energy processing line due to its superior mechanical properties and low price. Fatigue properties in low cycle fatigue (LCF) can be described well by the Manson-Coffin-Basquin's rule. However, at intermediate temperature range between 453 and 723 K the elongation-temperature-diagram shows a significantly 20-10% reduced elongation and an increase in yield stress in tensile test experiments. These non-linear deviations and the phenomenon of less ductility at intermediate temperatures are known for a long time [1] [K. Chijiiwa, M. Hayashi, Mechanical properties of ductile cast iron at temperature in the region of room temperature to liquid, Imono 51 (7) (2004) 395-400]. But the following explanation is presented for the first time. In the same temperature range as the reduced fatigue life time dynamic strain ageing (DSA) also known as Portevin-le-Chartelier effect with the formation of visible serrations occurs. Both phenomena are explained by interaction effects between carbon diffusion and dislocation velocity which have at this temperature the same order of magnitude. However, this phenomenon shows interesting behavior at intermediate temperature range. During the low cycle fatigue test, DSA phenomenon disappeared, but mechanical properties show clear evidence of DSA phenomenon. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to study the correlation of DSA occurrence, LCF and mechanical properties.

  16. Family dynamics in the United States, Finland and Iceland.

    PubMed

    White, Marjorie A; Elder, Jennifer H; Paavilainen, Eija; Joronen, Katja; Helgadóttir, Helga L; Seidl, Ann

    2010-03-01

    Understanding the dynamics of contemporary, postmodern families and how these relate to health is critically important to nurses and other health care providers throughout the world. Much can be learned by studying not only one's own culture but also other countries. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare family dynamics of families in the United States, Finland and Iceland. To date relatively little has been published related to families in these Nordic countries. Six family dimensions in Barnhill's Family Health Cycle served as the theoretical framework. Adult respondents (n = 567) purposively selected from varied community groups, completed the Family Dynamics Measure II (FDM II) and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Main findings from the three countries were positive family dynamics, with mutuality contributing the strongest factor to partially confirm the theoretical propositions in Barnhill's Family Health Cycle. Respondents from all countries reported (1) clear communication and flexibility that contribute to mutuality; (2) younger age of respondents and increased education that were associated with more positive family dynamics; and (3) larger families associated with more negative dynamics. Mixed reports occurred according to gender, with Nordic men tending to perceive some negative dimensions. Marriage was important for more positive family dynamics only in the United States. Families in the United States and in Iceland had in common more negative family dynamics during illnesses. Problems and changes affected mostly families in the United States. In general, families in Finland and Iceland had greater strengths than in the United States. This benchmark study offers information for health practitioners to assist families, as well as contribute to the improvement of family social policies, especially in the United States.

  17. Radon Policy in Finland, Achievements and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Arvela, Hannu; Maekelaeinen, Ilona; Reisbacka, Heikki

    2008-08-07

    Finland is a country of high indoor radon concentrations. Since 1980 the authority regulations, guidance, radon mapping and research work supporting decision making have been developed continuously. Clear regulations directed to citizens and authorities form the basis for radon policy. Active mapping work and measurement ordered by private home owners has resulted in 100.000 houses measured. National indoor radon data base forms a good basis for decision making, communication and research. The number of new houses provided with radon preventive constructions has increased remarkably. New radon campaigns has increased measurement and mitigation activity. Furher increasing of public awareness is the key challenge.

  18. Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in women.

    PubMed

    Coad, Jane; Pedley, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional problems in the world and disproportionately affects women and children. Stages of iron deficiency can be characterized as mild deficiency where iron stores become depleted, marginal deficiency where the production of many iron-dependent proteins is compromised but hemoglobin levels are normal and iron deficiency anemia where synthesis of hemoglobin is decreased and oxygen transport to the tissues is reduced. Iron deficiency anemia is usually assessed by measuring hemoglobin levels but this approach lacks both specificity and sensitivity. Failure to identify and treat earlier stages of iron deficiency is concerning given the neurocognitive implications of iron deficiency without anemia. Most of the daily iron requirement is derived from recycling of senescent erythrocytes by macrophages; only 5-10 % comes from the diet. Iron absorption is affected by inhibitors and enhancers of iron absorption and by the physiological state. Inflammatory conditions, including obesity, can result in iron being retained in the enterocytes and macrophages causing hypoferremia as a strategic defense mechanism to restrict iron availability to pathogens. Premenopausal women usually have low iron status because of iron loss in menstrual blood. Conditions which further increase iron loss, compromise absorption or increase demand, such as frequent blood donation, gastrointestinal lesions, athletic activity and pregnancy, can exceed the capacity of the gastrointestinal tract to upregulate iron absorption. Women of reproductive age are at particularly high risk of iron deficiency and its consequences however there is a controversial argument that evolutionary pressures have resulted in an iron deficient phenotype which protects against infection.

  19. Associations between School-Related Factors and Depressive Symptoms among Children: A Comparative Study, Finland and Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minkkinen, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    This study compares school-related associations in depressive symptoms among children aged between 9-13 years from four schools in Finland and Norway. A total of 523 pupils participated in the cross-sectional survey. The connections between depressive symptoms and school factors were analysed using hierarchical regression analyses. School…

  20. How Do Early Childhood Education Teachers Perceive Their Expertise? A Qualitative Study of Child Care Providers in Lapland, Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happo, Iiris; Maatta, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2013-01-01

    Every preschool age child in Finland has the right to child care. Well-educated staff consists of all-round experts who work in versatile contexts with various children in a multi-professional collaboration. This staff is one of the strengths of the Finnish child care system. The aim of this article is to clarify the expertise of those early…

  1. Attitudes toward Business Ethics and Degree of Opinion Leadership of Future Managers In the United States, Finland, and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comegys, Charles; Vaisanen, Jaani; Lupton, Robert A.; Rawlinson, David R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the attitudes towards business ethics of future managers in three countries: the United State, Finland, and China, and determine whether business ethics attitudes differed by the student's major, class year, GPA, gender, age, and the number of ethics and religious studies courses completed. Additionally the…

  2. Attitudes toward Business Ethics and Degree of Opinion Leadership of Future Managers In the United States, Finland, and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comegys, Charles; Vaisanen, Jaani; Lupton, Robert A.; Rawlinson, David R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the attitudes towards business ethics of future managers in three countries: the United State, Finland, and China, and determine whether business ethics attitudes differed by the student's major, class year, GPA, gender, age, and the number of ethics and religious studies courses completed. Additionally the…

  3. Associations between School-Related Factors and Depressive Symptoms among Children: A Comparative Study, Finland and Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minkkinen, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    This study compares school-related associations in depressive symptoms among children aged between 9-13 years from four schools in Finland and Norway. A total of 523 pupils participated in the cross-sectional survey. The connections between depressive symptoms and school factors were analysed using hierarchical regression analyses. School…

  4. How Do Early Childhood Education Teachers Perceive Their Expertise? A Qualitative Study of Child Care Providers in Lapland, Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happo, Iiris; Maatta, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2013-01-01

    Every preschool age child in Finland has the right to child care. Well-educated staff consists of all-round experts who work in versatile contexts with various children in a multi-professional collaboration. This staff is one of the strengths of the Finnish child care system. The aim of this article is to clarify the expertise of those early…

  5. Brief report: Sex differences in suicide rates and suicide methods among adolescents in South Korea, Japan, Finland, and the US.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin

    2015-04-01

    Sex differences in suicide rates and suicide methods was compared among adolescents in South Korea, Japan, Finland, and the United States. This study analyzed suicide rates and suicide methods of adolescents aged 15-19 years in four countries, using the World Health Organization mortality database. Among both male and female adolescents, the most common method of suicide was jumping from heights in South Korea and hanging in Japan. In Finland, jumping in front of moving objects and firearms were frequently used by males, but not by females. In the United States, males were more likely to use firearms, and females were more likely to use poison. The male to female ratio of suicide rates was higher in the United States (3.8) and Finland (3.6) than in Korea (1.3) and Japan (1.9). Sex differences in suicide methods may contribute to differences in the suicide rates among males and female adolescents in different countries.

  6. The Discourse on Multicultural Education in Finland: Education for Whom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Gunilla; Londen, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Finland is experiencing increased immigration and therefore increased cultural diversity in its schools. This paper examines the multicultural education discourse in Finland by analysing the national and municipal curricula for the comprehensive school, educational policy documents and teacher education curricula. The focus is on how multicultural…

  7. ADHD in Finland and Types of Scandinavian Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapper, Marie-Louise; Michelsson, Katarina

    This paper reviews the history and current status of services to children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Finland. It notes the availability of free or almost free health services in Finland and the resulting very low infant mortality rate. The history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), termed "minimal brain…

  8. Steady Work: Finland Builds a Strong Teaching and Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author briefly describes how Finland built a strong educational system, nearly from the ground up. Finland was not succeeding educationally in the 1970s, when the United States was the unquestioned education leader in the world. Yet this country created a productive teaching and learning system by expanding access while…

  9. The Discourse on Multicultural Education in Finland: Education for Whom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Gunilla; Londen, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Finland is experiencing increased immigration and therefore increased cultural diversity in its schools. This paper examines the multicultural education discourse in Finland by analysing the national and municipal curricula for the comprehensive school, educational policy documents and teacher education curricula. The focus is on how multicultural…

  10. Intravenous Iron Sucrose for Children With Iron Deficiency Anemia.

    PubMed

    Kaneva, Kristiyana; Chow, Erika; Rosenfield, Cathy G; Kelly, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional deficiency in children. Most children with IDA are treated with oral iron preparations. However, intravenous (IV) iron is an alternative for children with severe IDA who have difficulty in adhering to or absorbing oral iron. We sought to describe the safety and effectiveness of IV iron sucrose for treatment of IDA in children. Pharmacy records of children who received IV iron sucrose at a children's hospital between 2004 and 2014 were reviewed. Laboratory markers of anemia and iron studies were obtained and preinfusion and postinfusion values were compared. Records were also reviewed for adverse reactions. A total of 142 patients received IV iron sucrose over 10 years. The mean age was 11 years, 9 months. One patient of 142 developed cough and wheezing during the infusion. No other adverse events were found. IV iron sucrose resulted in a statistically significant and clinically meaningful increase in hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, serum iron, ferritin, and % iron saturation, with a corresponding decrease in total iron binding capacity. The use of IV iron sucrose in pediatric patients with IDA is safe and leads to a moderate increase in hemoglobin and substantial improvement in iron studies.

  11. Influence of Chemical Composition on Rupture Properties at 1200 Degrees F. of Forged Chromium-Cobalt-Nickel-Iron Base Alloys in Solution-Treated and Aged Condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, E E; Freeman, J W; White, A E

    1951-01-01

    The influence of systematic variations of chemical composition on rupture properties at 1200 degrees F. was determined for 62 modifications of a basic alloy containing 20 percent chromium, 20 percent nickel, 20 percent cobalt, 3 percent molybdenum, 2 percent tungsten, 1 percent columbium, 0.15 percent carbon, 1.7 percent manganese, 0.5 percent silicon, 0.12 percent nitrogen and the balance iron. These modifications included individual variations of each of 10 elements present and simultaneous variations of molybdenum, tungsten, and columbium. Laboratory induction furnace heats were hot-forged to round bar stock, solution-treated at 2200 degrees F., and aged at 1400 degrees F. The melting and fabrication conditions were carefully controlled in order to minimize all variable effects on properties except chemical composition. Information is presented which indicates that melting and hot-working conditions play an important role in high-temperature properties of alloys of the type investigated.

  12. Eastern Mediterranean Economic Exchange during the Iron Age: Portable X-Ray Fluorescence and Neutron Activation Analysis of Cypriot-Style Pottery in the Amuq Valley, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Two markers of regional exchange in the Eastern Mediterranean during the first millennium BCE are the White Painted and Bichrome Wares from Cyprus’s Cypro-Geometric and Cypro-Archaic periods. Although these ceramics are often assumed to be imports from Cyprus, excavations in southern Turkey at sites such as Tarsus-Gözlükule, Kilise Tepe, Sirkeli Höyük, and Kinet Höyük suggest that at least some of this pottery was produced locally, requiring a major revision of our understanding of economic interaction in the Eastern Mediterranean. We employ a combination of portable x-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analysis to investigate the White Painted and Bichrome Wares recovered from Tell Tayinat, Çatal Höyük, and Tell Judaidah, three sites in the Amuq Valley of southeastern Anatolia. Our results demonstrate that a clear geochemical distinction exists between imported and local versions of this pottery. Through comparison with legacy datasets, we locate the likely origin of the imported pottery in the Circum-Troodos sediments of central and southern Cyprus. The secondary and tertiary settlements of Çatal Höyük and Tell Judaidah had access only to this imported material. In contrast, the inhabitants of Tell Tayinat, capital city of the region, consumed both imported and locally produced White Painted and Bichrome Wares. This pattern cannot be explained in purely economic terms whereby the frequency of imports decreases as distance from the point of production increases. Instead, we suggest that elite feasting practices drove demand, resulting in either local potters producing Cypriot-style pottery or Cypriot potters settling in the vicinity of Tell Tayinat. These findings offer new insights into the relationship between historically attested Iron Age kingdoms in southern Turkey and Cyprus and complicate our understanding of exchange in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Iron Age. PMID:27902729

  13. Eastern Mediterranean Economic Exchange during the Iron Age: Portable X-Ray Fluorescence and Neutron Activation Analysis of Cypriot-Style Pottery in the Amuq Valley, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karacic, Steven; Osborne, James F

    2016-01-01

    Two markers of regional exchange in the Eastern Mediterranean during the first millennium BCE are the White Painted and Bichrome Wares from Cyprus's Cypro-Geometric and Cypro-Archaic periods. Although these ceramics are often assumed to be imports from Cyprus, excavations in southern Turkey at sites such as Tarsus-Gözlükule, Kilise Tepe, Sirkeli Höyük, and Kinet Höyük suggest that at least some of this pottery was produced locally, requiring a major revision of our understanding of economic interaction in the Eastern Mediterranean. We employ a combination of portable x-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analysis to investigate the White Painted and Bichrome Wares recovered from Tell Tayinat, Çatal Höyük, and Tell Judaidah, three sites in the Amuq Valley of southeastern Anatolia. Our results demonstrate that a clear geochemical distinction exists between imported and local versions of this pottery. Through comparison with legacy datasets, we locate the likely origin of the imported pottery in the Circum-Troodos sediments of central and southern Cyprus. The secondary and tertiary settlements of Çatal Höyük and Tell Judaidah had access only to this imported material. In contrast, the inhabitants of Tell Tayinat, capital city of the region, consumed both imported and locally produced White Painted and Bichrome Wares. This pattern cannot be explained in purely economic terms whereby the frequency of imports decreases as distance from the point of production increases. Instead, we suggest that elite feasting practices drove demand, resulting in either local potters producing Cypriot-style pottery or Cypriot potters settling in the vicinity of Tell Tayinat. These findings offer new insights into the relationship between historically attested Iron Age kingdoms in southern Turkey and Cyprus and complicate our understanding of exchange in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Iron Age.

  14. It takes nine days to iron a shirt: the development of cognitive estimation skills in school age children.

    PubMed

    Harel, Brian T; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Fein, Deborah A; Bullard, Sarah E; Aviv, Alyson

    2007-07-01

    Data are presented for 315 elementary school-aged children (K-11) who took the Biber Cognitive Estimation Test, a 20-item test with five estimation questions in each of four domains: quantity, time/duration, weight, and distance/length. Performance showed significant development yearly until around the age of nine years, with much slower development subsequently. No gender effects were found. Age and fund of knowledge correlated with overall test performance. Fund of information accounted for a large proportion of the variance in estimation skills for children 8 years and under, but not for children 9 years and older. Since estimation skills require retrieval and manipulation of relevant knowledge and inhibition of impulsive responding and are necessary in many everyday tasks, it was anticipated that this test may provide a useful measure of judgment and estimations and may correlate with other executive skills in school-aged children.

  15. Lagrangian Timescales in the Gulf of Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viikmäe, Bert; Torsvik, Tomas

    2017-04-01

    Many applications, such as environmental monitoring, offshore commercial operations and safety of shipping, rely on accurate prediction of currents in the ocean surface layer. Although numerical models can be used for such predictions, observational data of currents is still scarce for many sea areas. In this study we use observational data from field experiments carried out in the Gulf of Finland, in the Baltic Sea in order to determine Lagrangian timescales for our study area. We carried out several field experiments during 2014, involving passive surface drifters. We used a total of 20 passive drifters with 5 different deployments in spring, summer and autumn months. The idea is to look at the ratio between the acceleration and velocity time scales y = Ta / Tv to separate Lagrangian trajectories in homogeneous classes in order to determine if motion can be represented as a typical advection-diffusion problem (the classical approach) or if there is an evolution of the gflow on intermediate scale that should be accounted for. It has been observed in the surface drifters data in the world's ocean basins, that trajectories having different values of y are characterized by different shapes, correlation, and dispersal properties. If the trajectories have similar values of Ta and Tv, this is an indication of the influence of eddies. The results indicate the underlying surface current fields are extremely complex in the Gulf of Finland and give us indication what scales must be resolved in numerical models for parameterisation of eddy diffusivity in order to obtain reliable current predictions.

  16. Risk Assessment in Finland: Theory and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2010-01-01

    The Finnish risk assessment practice is based on the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act aiming to improve working conditions in order maintain the employees' work ability, and to prevent occupational accidents and diseases. In practice there are hundreds of risk assessment methods in use. A simple method is used in small and medium sized enterprises and more complex risk evaluation methods in larger work places. Does the risk management function in the work places in Finland? According to our experience something more is needed. That is, understanding of common and company related benefits of risk management. The wider conclusion is that commitment for risk assessment in Finland is high enough. However, in those enterprises where OSH management was at an acceptable level or above it, there were also more varied and more successfully accomplished actions to remove or reduce the risks than in enterprises, where OSH management was in lower level. In risk assessment it is important to process active technical prevention and exact communication, increase work place attraction and increase job satisfaction and motivation. Investments in OSH are also good business. Low absenteeism due to illness or accidents increases directly the production results by improved quality and quantity of the product. In general Finnish studies have consistently shown that the return of an invested euro is three to seven-old. In national level, according to our calculations the savings could be even 20% of our gross national product. PMID:22953157

  17. Risk assessment in Finland: theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Anttonen, Hannu; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2010-09-01

    The Finnish risk assessment practice is based on the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act aiming to improve working conditions in order maintain the employees' work ability, and to prevent occupational accidents and diseases. In practice there are hundreds of risk assessment methods in use. A simple method is used in small and medium sized enterprises and more complex risk evaluation methods in larger work places. Does the risk management function in the work places in Finland? According to our experience something more is needed. That is, understanding of common and company related benefits of risk management. The wider conclusion is that commitment for risk assessment in Finland is high enough. However, in those enterprises where OSH management was at an acceptable level or above it, there were also more varied and more successfully accomplished actions to remove or reduce the risks than in enterprises, where OSH management was in lower level. In risk assessment it is important to process active technical prevention and exact communication, increase work place attraction and increase job satisfaction and motivation. Investments in OSH are also good business. Low absenteeism due to illness or accidents increases directly the production results by improved quality and quantity of the product. In general Finnish studies have consistently shown that the return of an invested euro is three to seven-old. In national level, according to our calculations the savings could be even 20% of our gross national product.

  18. History of cosmic ray research in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usoskin, I. G.; Valtonen, E.; Vainio, R.; Tanskanen, P. J.; Aurela, A. M.

    2009-11-01

    The history of cosmic ray research in Finland can be traced back to the end of 1950s, when first ground-based cosmic ray measurements started in Turku. The first cosmic ray station was founded in Oulu in 1964 performing measurements of cosmic rays by a muon telescope, which was later complemented by a neutron monitor. Since the 1990s, several research centers and universities, such as The Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki University of Technology, University of Oulu, University of Turku and University of Helsinki have been involved in space science projects, such as SOHO, AMS, Cluster, Cassini, BepiColombo, etc. At the same time, ground-based cosmic ray measurements have reached a new level, including a fully automatic on-line database in Oulu and a new muon measuring underground site in Pyhäsalmi. Research groups in Helsinki, Oulu and Turku have also extensive experience in theoretical investigations of different aspects of cosmic ray physics. Cosmic ray research has a 50-year long history in Finland, covering a wide range from basic long-running ground-based observations to high-technology space-borne instrumentation and sophisticated theoretical studies. Several generations of researchers have been involved in the study ensuring transfer of experience and building the recognized Finnish research school of cosmic ray studies.

  19. Puumala virus infections in Finland: increased occupational risk for farmers.

    PubMed

    Vapalahti, K; Paunio, M; Brummer-Korvenkontio, M; Vaheri, A; Vapalahti, O

    1999-06-15

    Puumala hantavirus, transmitted by bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus), causes a mild-type hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. The disease is common in Finland and is considered an occupational hazard for farmers, but the actual risk has not been assessed by analytical studies. Data on 5,132 serologically confirmed Puumala virus infections during 1989-1994 were analyzed, and cases among farmers and the population living in similar conditions were compared. The farmers contracted the disease earlier and more often than did the comparison group. In the province of Mikkeli with the highest incidence (70/100,000), the risk ratio was 5.1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0-8.4) for 20- to 29-year-old farmers; in the older age groups, the risk was still increased but the risk ratios were lower. The peak incidence in the comparison group was 10 years later (age group 30-39 years). For the whole country, the result was similar although less marked. The average risk ratio adjusted by age, sex, and geographic variation was 1.7 (95% CI 1.5-1.8) for the whole country and 1.9 (95% CI 1.5-2.3) for the Mikkeli province, where 80% of Puumala virus infections among young farmers could be estimated to be attributable to occupation.

  20. Low temperature aging mechanism identification and lithium deposition in a large format lithium iron phosphate battery for different charge profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Minggao; Chu, Zhengyu; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu; Han, Xuebing; Feng, Xuning; Liu, Guangming

    2015-07-01

    Charging procedures at low temperatures severely shorten the cycle life of lithium ion batteries due to lithium deposition on the negative electrode. In this paper, cycle life tests are conducted to reveal the influence of the charging current rate and the cut-off voltage limit on the aging mechanisms of a large format LiFePO4 battery at a low temperature (-10 °C). The capacity degradation rates accelerate rapidly after the charging current reaches 0.25 C or the cut-off voltage reaches 3.55 V. Therefore the scheduled current and voltage during low-temperature charging should be reconsidered to avoid capacity degradation. Lithium deposition contributes to low-temperature aging mechanisms, as something needle-like which might be deposited lithium is observed on the surface of the negative electrode after disassembling the aged battery cell. To confirm our explanation, incremental capacity analysis (ICA) is performed to identify the characteristics of the lithium deposition induced battery aging mechanisms. Furthermore, the aging mechanism is quantified using a mechanistic model, whose parameters are estimated with the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO). The loss of reversible lithium originating from secondary SEI formation and dead lithium is confirmed as the cause of the aging.

  1. Formation, reactivity, and aging of ferric oxide particles formed from Fe(II) and Fe(III) sources: Implications for iron bioavailability in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bligh, Mark W.; Waite, T. David

    2011-12-01

    Freshly formed amorphous ferric oxides (AFO) in the water column are potentially highly reactive, but with reactivity declining rapidly with age, and have the capacity to partake in reactions with dissolved species and to be a significant source of bioavailable iron. However, the controls on reactivity in aggregated oxides are not well understood. Additionally, the mechanism by which early rapid aging occurs is not clear. Aging is typically considered in terms of changes in crystallinity as the structure of an iron oxide becomes more stable and ordered with time thus leading to declining reactivity. However, there has been recognition of the role that aggregation can play in determining reactivity, although it has received limited attention. Here, we have formed AFO in seawater in the laboratory from either an Fe(II) or Fe(III) source to produce either AFO(II) or AFO(III). The changes in reactivity of these two oxides following formation was measured using both ligand-promoted dissolution (LPD) and reductive dissolution (RD). The structure of the two oxides was examined using light scattering and X-ray adsorption techniques. The dissolution rate of AFO(III) was greater than that of AFO(II), as measured by both dissolution techniques, and could be attributed to both the less ordered molecular structure and smaller primary particle size of AFO(III). From EXAFS analysis shortly (90 min) following formation, AFO(II) and AFO(III) were shown to have the same structure as aged lepidocrocite and ferrihydrite respectively. Both oxides displayed a rapid decrease in dissolution rate over the first hours following formation in a pattern that was very similar when normalised. The early establishment and little subsequent change of crystal structure for both oxides undermined the hypothesis that increasing crystallinity was responsible for early rapid aging. Also, an aging model describing this proposed process could only be fitted to the data with kinetic parameters that were

  2. Does Organizational Justice Modify the Association Between Job Involvement and Retirement Intentions of Nurses in Finland?

    PubMed

    Sulander, Juhani; Sinervo, Timo; Elovainio, Marko; Heponiemi, Tarja; Helkama, Klaus; Aalto, Anna-Mari

    2016-10-01

    Given the growing aging population in Finland, retaining health staff to care for them is important. In an exploration of predictors of quitting before the typical retirement age, which ranges from 63 to 68 years in Finland, we examined whether organizational justice moderated the association between job involvement and retirement intentions among nurses 50 years and over. The sample was 446 nurses (70% practical nurses) working in 134 assisted living facilities providing 24-hour care for older residents in Finland. Job involvement was measured with the Job Involvement Questionnaire, and organizational justice with a scale that tapped its three dimensions: distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice. In covariance analyses, low organizational justice and low job involvement were associated with a higher likelihood of retirement intention. Both interactional justice and procedural justice moderated the association of job involvement with retirement intentions. Among nurses with low job involvement, those who experienced unjust treatment, that is, low interactional justice, and evaluated organizational procedures as unjust had significantly stronger retirement intentions than nurses with high levels of interactional and procedural justice. Distributive justice was associated with retirement intentions in both high and low job-involved respondents. Organizational justice may act as a buffer against retirement intention as one consequence of nurses' low job involvement. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Dental anomalies associated with cleft lip and palate in Northern Finland.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, V; Anttonen, V; Ylikontiola, L P; Koskinen, S; Pesonen, P; Sándor, G K

    2015-12-01

    Despite the reported occurrence of dental anomalies of cleft lip and palate, little is known about their prevalence in children from Northern Finland with cleft lip and palate. The aim was to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies among patients with different types of clefts in Northern Finland. Design and Statistics: patient records of 139 subjects aged three years and older (with clefts treated in Oulu University Hospital, Finland during the period 1996-2010 (total n. 183) were analysed for dental anomalies including the number of teeth, morphological and developmental anomalies and their association with the cleft type. The analyses were carried out using Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Differences between the groups were considered statistically significant at p values < 0.05. More than half of the patients had clefts of the hard palate, 18% of the lip and palate, and 13% of the lip. At least one dental anomaly was detected in 47% of the study population. Almost one in three (26.6%) subjects had at least one anomaly and 17.9% had two or three anomalies. The most common type of anomaly in permanent teeth were missing teeth followed by supernumerary teeth. Supernumerary teeth were significantly more apparent when the lip was involved in the cleft compared with palatal clefts. Missing teeth were less prevalent among those 5 years or younger. The prevalence of different anomalies was significantly associated with the cleft type in both age groups. Dental anomalies are more prevalent among cleft children than in the general population in Finland. The most prevalent anomalies associated with cleft were missing and supernumerary teeth.

  4. Iron starvation and culture age activate metacaspases and programmed cell death in the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    PubMed

    Bidle, Kay D; Bender, Sara J

    2008-02-01

    In the modern ocean, phytoplankton maintain extremely high primary production/biomass ratios, indicating that they bloom, die, and are replaced weekly. The molecular mechanisms regulating cellular mortality and turnover are largely unknown, even though they effectively short-circuit carbon export to the deep ocean and channel primary productivity to microbial food webs. Here, we present morphological, biochemical, and molecular evidence of caspase-mediated, autocatalytic programmed cell death (PCD) in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana in response to iron starvation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed internal degradation of nuclear, chloroplastic, and mitochondrial organelles, all while the plasma membranes remained intact. Cellular degradation was concomitant with dramatic decreases in photosynthetic efficiency, externalization of phosphatidylserine, and significantly elevated caspase-specific activity, with the addition of a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor rescuing cells from death. A search of the T. pseudonana genome identified six distinct putative metacaspases containing a conserved caspase domain structure. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed differential gene and protein expression of T. pseudonana metacaspases, some of which correlated with physiological stress and caspase activity. Taken together with the recent discovery of the metacaspase-mediated viral infection of phytoplankton (K. D. Bidle, L. Haramaty, J. Barcelos-Ramos, and P. G. Falkowski, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:6049-6054, 2007), our findings reveal a key role for metacaspases in the turnover of phytoplankton biomass in the oceans. Furthermore, given that Fe is required for photosynthetic electron transfer and is chronically limiting in a variety of oceanic systems, including high-nutrient low-chlorophyll regions, our findings provide a potential ecological context for PCD in these unicellular photoautotrophs.

  5. Iron deficiency anemia in children.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Girish; Girish, Meenakshi

    2015-06-01

    Iron deficiency is not just anemia; it can be responsible for a long list of other manifestations. This topic is of great importance, especially in infancy and early childhood, for a variety of reasons. Firstly, iron need is maximum in this period. Secondly, diet in infancy is usually deficient in iron. Thirdly and most importantly, iron deficiency at this age can result in neurodevelopmental and cognitive deficits, which may not be reversible. Hypochromia and microcytosis in a complete blood count (CBC) makes iron deficiency anemia (IDA) most likely diagnosis. Absence of response to iron should make us look for other differential diagnosis like β thalassemia trait and anemia of chronic disease. Celiac disease is the most important cause of true IDA not responding to oral iron therapy. While oral ferrous sulphate is the cheapest and most effective therapy for IDA, simple nonpharmacological and pharmacological measures can go a long way in prevention of iron deficiency.

  6. Brain iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Moos, Torben

    2002-11-01

    [125I]transferrin in the brain. Some of the 59Fe was detected in CSF in a fraction less than 30 kDa (III). It was estimated that the iron-binding capacity of transferrin in CSF was exceeded, suggesting that iron is transported into the brain in a quantity that exceeds that of transferrin. Accordingly, it was concluded that the paramount iron transport across the BBB is the result of receptor-mediated endocytosis of iron-containing transferrin by capillary endothelial cells, followed by recycling of transferrin to the blood and transport of non-transferrin-bound iron into the brain. It was found that retrograde axonal transport in a cranial motor nerve is age-dependent, varying from almost negligible in the neonatal brain to high in the adult brain. The principle sources of extracellular transferrin in the brain are hepatocytes, oligodendrocytes, and the choroid plexus. As the passage of liver-derived transferrin into the brain is restricted due to the BBB, other candidates for binding iron in the interstitium should be considered. In vitro studies have revealed secretion of transferrin from the choroid plexus and oligodendrocytes. The second part of the thesis encompasses the circulation of iron in the extracellular fluids of the brain, i.e. the brain interstitial fluid and the CSF. As the latter receives drainage from the interstitial fluid, the CSF of the ventricles can be considered a mixture of these fluids, which may allow for analysis of CSF in matters that relate to the brain interstitial fluid. As the choroid plexus is known to synthesize transferrin, a key question is whether transferrin of the CSF might play a role for iron homeostasis by diffusing from the ventricles and subarachnoid space to the brain interstitium. Intracerebroventricular injection of [59Fe125I]transferrin led to a higher accumulation of 59Fe than of [125I]transferrin in the brain. Except for uptake and axonal transport by certain neurons with access to the ventricular CSF, both iron and

  7. Using the accumulation of CBD-extractable iron and clay content to estimate soil age on stable surfaces and nearby slopes, Front Range, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethier, David P.; Birkeland, Peter W.; McCarthy, James A.

    2012-11-01

    In many transport-limited environments, morphology, pedogenic iron and clay content provide a basis for estimating the exposure age of soils and associated landforms. We measured citrate-buffered dithionite (CBD)-extractable Fe (Fed) and clay concentration in fresh rock, saprolite, morainal and colluvial materials, and soil horizons from stable surfaces and hillslopes in the Colorado Front Range. Fresh igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks contain < 1% Fed and 1 to 5% clay. As bedrock and surficial deposits age, Fed and clay accumulate from weathering and dustfall. Late Holocene regolith at warm, dry sites contains small amounts of Fed and clay, but relatively moist soils developed on early Holocene cirque deposits contain as much as 1.5% Fed and 8% clay. Concentrations and total profile accumulation of Fed and clay increase with age in soils developed on stable surfaces of glacial deposits as old as ~ 130 kyr. On stable sites, Fed and clay accumulation from weathering and dust is ~ 0.02 g cm- 2 kyr- 1 and ~ 0.2 g cm- 2 kyr- 1, respectively. We used the Fed and clay inventory in soil profiles at dated, stable Front Range surfaces to calculate accumulation functions, which allowed us to estimate soil age at hillslope sites. Heterogeneous parent material, particularly on hillslopes, and climate-related effects add to variability in measured relations. Mobile regolith in Gordon Gulch, one of the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) catchments, yields profile ages from about 0.5 to 5 × 104 yr, comparable to values measured using other techniques. Calculated profile ages are older on a north- vs. south-facing slope and increase from the drainage divide to the footslope. Ages calculated for stabilized colluvium and well-developed buried profiles at nearby hillslope sites (Lefthand, Ward and Rollinsville) suggest that these soils have stabilized over periods > 105 yr. In the absence of radiometric ages, the accumulation of Fed and clay in soils on stable

  8. [Mental health in Chile and Finland: Challenges and lessons].

    PubMed

    Retamal C, Pedro; Markkula, Niina; Peña, Sebastián

    2016-07-01

    This article analyses and compares the epidemiology of mental disorders and relevant public policies in Chile and Finland. In Chile, a specific mental health law is still lacking. While both countries highlight the role of primary care, Finland places more emphasis on participation and recovery of service users. Comprehensive mental health policies from Finland, such as a successful suicide prevention program, are presented. Both countries have similar prevalence of mental disorders, high alcohol consumption and high suicide rates. In Chile, the percentage of total disease burden due to psychiatric disorders is 13% and in Finland 14%. However, the resources to address these issues are very different. Finland spends 4.5% of its health budget on mental health, while in Chile the percentage is 2.2%. This results in differences in human resources and service provision. Finland has five times more psychiatric outpatient visits, four times more psychiatrists, triple antidepressant use and twice more clinical guidelines for different psychiatric conditions. In conclusion, both countries have similar challenges but differing realities. This may help to identify gaps and potential solutions for public health challenges in Chile. Finland’s experience demonstrates the importance of political will and long-term vision in the construction of mental health policies.

  9. Changes in rates of arthroscopy due to degenerative knee disease and traumatic meniscal tears in Finland and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Ville M; Sihvonen, Raine; Paloneva, Juha; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2016-02-01

    Knee arthroscopy is commonly performed to treat degenerative knee disease symptoms and traumatic meniscal tears. We evaluated whether the recent high-quality randomized control trials not favoring arthroscopic surgery for degenerative knee disease affected the procedure incidence and trends in Finland and Sweden. We conducted a bi-national registry-based study including all adult (aged ≥18 years) inpatient and outpatient arthroscopic surgeries performed for degenerative knee disease (osteoarthritis (OA) and degenerative meniscal tears) and traumatic meniscal tears in Finland between 1997 and 2012, and in Sweden between 2001 and 2012. In Finland, the annual number of operations was 16,389 in 1997, reached 20,432 in 2007, and declined to 15,018 in 2012. In Sweden, the number of operations was 9,944 in 2001, reached 11,711 in 2008, and declined to 8,114 in 2012. The knee arthroscopy incidence for OA was 124 per 10(5) person-years in 2012 in Finland and it was 51 in Sweden. The incidence of knee arthroscopies for meniscal tears coded as traumatic steadily increased in Finland from 64 per 10(5) person-years in 1997 to 97 per 10(5) person-years in 2012, but not in Sweden. The incidence of arthroscopies for degenerative knee disease declined after 2008 in both countries. Remarkably, the incidence of arthroscopy for degenerative knee disease and traumatic meniscal tears is 2 to 4 times higher in Finland than in Sweden. Efficient implementation of new high-quality evidence in clinical practice could reduce the number of ineffective surgeries.

  10. [Prevalence of iron deficiency].

    PubMed

    Dupont, C

    2017-05-01

    Studies of prévalence in iron deficiency separate iron depletion (defined as decreased blood ferritin) and iron deficiency anemia (defined as blood decrease in both ferritin and hemoglobin). In Europe, most studies are outdated. Prevalence of iron depletion varies from 7 to 18 % and 24 to 36% in toddlers and adolescents, respectively. Prevalence of iron deficiency anemia varies from 2 to 8.5% and 7 to 10% in toddlers and adolescents. In French speaking African countries, Demography Health Surveys show that 80% of children aged 0 to 2 years are anemic, severely for 5 to 9% of them. © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.

  11. Social networks of older adults living with HIV in Finland.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Nuno Ribeiro; Kylmä, Jari; Kirsi, Tapio; Pereira, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the social networks of older adults living with HIV. Interviews were conducted with nine individuals aged 50 or older living with HIV in Helsinki, Finland. Analysis of transcripts was analysed by inductive qualitative content analysis. Results indicated that these participants' networks tended to be large, including those both aware and unaware of the participants' health status. Analysis identified three main themes: large multifaceted social networks, importance of a support group, and downsizing of social networks. Support received appeared to be of great importance in coping with their health condition, especially since the time of diagnosis. Friends and family were the primary source of informal support. The majority of participants relied mostly on friends, some of whom were HIV-positive. Formal support came primarily from the HIV organisation's support group. In this study group, non-disclosure did not impact participants' well-being. In years to come, social networks of older adults living with HIV may shrink due to personal reasons other than HIV-disclosure. What is of primary importance is that healthcare professionals become knowledgeable about psychosocial issues of older adults living with HIV, identifying latent problems and developing adequate interventions in the early stages of the disease; this would help prevent social isolation and foster successful ageing with HIV.

  12. Smoking and leanness: evidence for change in Finland.

    PubMed Central

    Marti, B.; Tuomilehto, J.; Korhonen, H. J.; Kartovaara, L.; Vartiainen, E.; Pietinen, P.; Puska, P.

    1989-01-01

    Many studies have shown smokers to weigh less than non-smokers, which is plausible given the metabolic effects of cigarette smoke. The interrelation between smoking and relative body weight and its change over time were analysed by using data from Finnish population based surveys from 1982 and 1987. Among both men and women the inverse association between smoking and body mass index was clearly weakened between 1982 and 1987. In 1987 among men aged 25-44 smoking was positively related to body mass index. Moreover, the relation between smoking and waist to hip girth ratio was positive in both sexes at all ages. Years of smoking was nevertheless confirmed as a significant inverse predictor of relative weight. A cluster of unfavourable health habits, including high consumption of alcohol and saturated fats, especially emerged among younger smokers. This may have been due to different selection of smokers in Finland, where smoking increasingly seems to be a form of deviant or risk taking behaviour. It is concluded that at a population level the metabolic effects of smoking seem to be increasingly overridden by several other unfavourable health behaviours of smokers. PMID:2500198

  13. Prevalence and Predictors of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Children under Five Years of Age in Pakistan, A Secondary Analysis of National Nutrition Survey Data 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Muhammad Atif; Black, Kirsten; Soofi, Sajid Bashir; Hussain, Imtiaz; Bhatti, Zaid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Raynes-Greenow, Camille

    2016-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency Anemia (IDA) in children is a recognized public health problem that impacts adversely on child morbidity, mortality and impairs cognitive development. In Pakistan information on the true prevalence and predictors of IDA is limited. This study sought to investigate IDA in children under five years of age using data from a nationally representative stratified cross-sectional survey. Methods Secondary analysis was performed on the National Nutrition Survey in Pakistan 2011–2012. We used a pre-structured instrument to collect socio demographic and nutritional data on mothers and children. We also collected Anthropometric measurements and blood samples for micronutrient deficiencies. IDA was defined as having both haemoglobin levels of <110 g/L and ferritin levels of < 12 μg/L. Data analysis was performed by applying univariate and multivariate techniques using logistic regression through SPSS. Findings A total of 7138 children aged between 6–59 months were included in the analysis. The prevalence of IDA was 33.2%. In multivariate regression analysis adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were calculated. Age < 24 months (AOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.18–1.55 p <0.05), stunting (AOR 1.42 CI 1.23–1.63 p<0.05), presence of clinical anemia (AOR 5.69 CI 4.93–6.56 p<0.05), having a mother with IDA (AOR 1.72 CI 1.47–2.01 p<0.05) and household food insecurity (AOR 1.20 CI 1.10–1.40 P<0.05) were associated with IDA. Living in a rural area (AOR 0.77 CI 0.65–0.90 p<0.05) and being a female child (AOR 0.87 CI 0.76–0.98 p<0.05) were associated with reduced odds of IDA. Conclusion The prevalence of IDA amongst Pakistani children represents a moderate burden that disproportionately affects the youngest, growth retarded children, affected children are more likely to have mothers with IDA and live in areas where food security is lacking. National efforts to alleviate the burden of IDA should involve both short term vertical programs such as iron supplementation

  14. Correlations in distribution and concentration of calcium, copper and iron with zinc in isolated extracellular deposits associated with age-related macular degeneration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flinn, Jane M; Kakalec, Peter; Tappero, Ryan; Jones, Blair F.; Lengyel, Imre

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is abundantly enriched in sub-retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) deposits, the hallmarks of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and is thought to play a role in the formation of these deposits. However, it is not known whether Zn is the only metal relevant for sub-RPE deposit formation. Because of their involvement in the pathogenesis of AMD, we determined the concentration and distribution of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) and compared these with Zn in isolated and sectioned macular (MSD), equatorial (PHD) and far peripheral (FPD) sub-RPE deposits from an 86 year old donor eye with post mortem diagnosis of early AMD. The sections were mounted on Zn free microscopy slides and analyzed by microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (μSXRF). Metal concentrations were determined using spiked sectioned sheep brain matrix standards, prepared the same way as the samples. The heterogeneity of metal distributions was examined using pixel by pixel comparison. The orders of metal concentrations were Ca ⋙ Zn > Fe in all three types of deposits but Cu levels were not distinguishable from background values. Zinc and Ca were consistently present in all deposits but reached highest concentration in MSD. Iron was present in some but not all deposits and was especially enriched in FPD. Correlation analysis indicated considerable variation in metal distribution within and between sub-RPE deposits. The results suggest that Zn and Ca are the most likely contributors to deposit formation especially in MSD, the characteristic risk factor for the development of AMD in the human eye.

  15. Concurrent iron and zinc deficiencies in lactating mothers and their children 6-23 months of age in two agro-ecological zones of rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Roba, Kedir Teji; O'Connor, Thomas P; Belachew, Tefera; O'Brien, Nora M

    2016-12-09

    The aim of this study is to examine the co-occurrences of low serum ferritin and zinc and anaemia among mothers and their children in two agro-ecological zones of rural Ethiopia. Data were collected from 162 lactating mothers and their breast fed children aged 6-23 months. The data were collected via a structured interview, anthropometric measurements, and blood tests for zinc, ferritin and anaemia. Correlation, Chi-square and multivariable analysis were used to determine the association between nutritional status of mothers and children, and agro-ecological zones. Low serum levels of iron and zinc, anaemia and iron deficiency anaemia were found in 44.4, 72.2, 52.5 and 29.6% of children and 19.8, 67.3, 21.8, 10.5% of mothers, respectively. There was a strong correlation between the micronutrient status of the mothers and the children for ferritin, zinc and anaemia (p < 0.005). Deficiency in both zinc and ferritin and one of the two was observed in 19.1, and 53.7% of the mothers and 32.7 and 46.3%, of their children, respectively. In the 24 h before the survey, 82.1% of mothers and 91.9% of their infants consumed foods that can decrease zinc bioavailability while only 2.5% of mothers and 3.7% of their infants consumed flesh foods. This study shows that micronutrient deficiencies were prevalent among lactating mothers and their children, with variation in prevalence across the agro-ecological zones. This finding calls for a need to design effective preventive public health nutrition programs to address both the mothers' and their children's needs.

  16. Operator-related aspects in endodontic malpractice claims in Finland.

    PubMed

    Vehkalahti, Miira M; Swanljung, Outi

    2017-04-01

    We analyzed operator-related differences in endodontic malpractice claims in Finland. Data comprised the endodontic malpractice claims handled at the Patient Insurance Centre (PIC) in 2002-2006 and 2011-2013. Two dental advisors at the PIC scrutinized the original documents of the cases (n = 1271). The case-related information included patient's age and gender, type of tooth, presence of radiographs, and methods of instrumentation and apex location. As injuries, we recorded broken instrument, perforation, injuries due to root canal irrigants/medicaments, and miscellaneous injuries. We categorized the injuries according to the PIC decisions as avoidable, unavoidable, or no injury. Operator-related information included dentist's age, gender, specialization, and service sector. We assessed level of patient documentation as adequate, moderate, or poor. Chi-squared tests, t-tests, and logistic regression modelling served in statistical analyses. Patients' mean age was 44.7 (range 8-85) years, and 71% were women. The private sector constituted 54% of claim cases. Younger patients, female dentists, and general practitioners predominated in the public sector. We found no sector differences in patients' gender, dentists' age, or type of injured tooth. PIC advisors confirmed no injury in 24% of claim cases; the advisors considered 65% of injury cases (n = 970) as avoidable and 35% as unavoidable. We found no operator-related differences in these figures. Working methods differed by operator's age and gender. Adequate patient documentation predominated in the public sector and among female, younger, or specialized dentists. Operator-related factors had no impact on endodontic malpractice claims.

  17. Randomised control trial showed that delayed cord clamping and milking resulted in no significant differences in iron stores and physical growth parameters at one year of age.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shivam; Jaiswal, Vijay; Singh, Dharamveer; Jaiswal, Prateek; Garg, Amit; Upadhyay, Amit

    2016-11-01

    Placental redistribution has been shown to improve haematological outcomes in the immediate neonatal period and early infancy. This study compared the effects of delayed cord clamping (DCC) and umbilical cord milking (UCM) on haematological and growth parameters at 12 months of age. This was a follow-up study of a randomised control trial, conducted in a tertiary care paediatric centre from August 2013 to August 2014. We studied 200 apparently healthy Indian infants randomised at birth to receive DCC for 60-90 seconds or UCM. The outcome measures were iron status and physical growth parameters at 12 months. Of the 200 babies, 161 completed the follow-up and baseline characteristics were comparable in both groups. The mean haemoglobin in the DCC group (102.2 (17.2) g/L and serum ferritin 16.44 (2.77) μg/L) showed no significant differences to the UCM group (98.6 (17.1) g/L and 18.2 (2.8) μg/L) at one year. In addition, there were no significant differences in weight, height and mid-upper arm circumference in the two groups. Term-born Indian infants who had DCC at 60-90 seconds or UCM showed no significant differences in ferritin and haemoglobin levels and growth parameters at 12 months of age. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Foramen Tympanicum or Foramen of Huschke: A Bioarchaeological Study on Human Skeletons from an Iron Age Cemetery at Tabriz Kabud Mosque Zone

    PubMed Central

    Rezaian, Jafar; Namavar, Mohammad Reza; Vahdati Nasab, Hamed; Hojabri Nobari, Ali Reza; Abedollahi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The foramen tympanicum is an anatomical variation that is created in the tympanic plate of temporal bone during the first year of life. The tympanic plate grows and foramen tympanicum is gradually closed by about the fifth postnatal year. However, due to a defect in normal ossification, foramen tympanicum sporadically remains throughout life. The construction of a shopping center in Tabriz, northwest of Iran, led to the discovery of an Iron Age cemetery (1500-500 BC). Several tombs have been uncovered below one meter of sterile soil so far and a thick level of architectural debris from the medieval city has been discovered. Up to now, no bioarchaeological data has been gathered about the burials in this area. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of foramen tympanicum in this area. In this study, 45 skeletons were studied and the prevalence of this foramen was about 4.4% bilaterally. We also reported on two babies with fused and un-fused squamotympanic fissure. The persistence of this foramen is a possible risk factor for otologic complications after arthroscopy of the temporomandibular joint and salivary gland fistula through this foramen. The closure of this foramen could be also used for age estimation in sub-adult individuals. The incidence of this trait in this study was similar to other available studies on modern skeletons. PMID:26170525

  19. Trends in occupational hygiene in Finland.

    PubMed

    Pääkkönen, Rauno; Koponen, Milja

    2017-04-13

    The aim of this work is to evaluate and describe the current status of, and prospects for, the future of occupational hygiene in Finland. The main sources of information include a seminar held in the annual meeting of Finnish Occupational Hygiene Society and interviews with different stakeholders. Nanotechnology and other new materials, changing work environments, circular economy including green jobs, new medical methods and advances of construction methods were recognized as future challenges. Future work opportunities for occupational hygiene experts included exposure assessments in indoor air surveys, private consulting and entrepreneurship in general, international activities and product safety issues. Unclear topics needing more attention in the future were thought to be in new exposures, sensitive persons, combined effects, skin exposures and applicability of personal protective equipment. Occupational hygiene should broaden its view; occupational hygienists should have to cooperate with other specialists and grasp new challenges.

  20. Radon measurement and mitigation activity in Finland.

    PubMed

    Valmari, T; Arvela, H; Reisbacka, H; Holmgren, O

    2014-07-01

    Radon prevention, measurement and mitigation activities have been increasing in Finland during the 2000s. Nowadays, many municipal authorities, especially those located in high-radon areas, require radon prevention measures. This has activated radon measurements. Owners of new houses having radon piping installed under the floor slab are the most active group to measure and reduce the found high-radon values. Their radon awareness is apparently better than on the average, and the existing piping makes it easier and cheaper to reduce the radon levels. Local campaigns involving invitation flyers mailed to the residents have been a cost-effective means to activate measurements of older houses. So far 116,611 dwellings in low-rise residential buildings have been measured. At least 15% of the 16,860 dwellings found to exceed the reference level of 400 Bq m(-3) had their indoor radon level reduced below that.

  1. Information sources in science and technology in Finland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haarala, Arja-Riitta

    1994-01-01

    Finland poses some problems to be overcome in the field of scientific and technical information: a small user community which makes domestic systems costly; great distances within the country between users and suppliers of information; great distances to international data systems and large libraries abroad; and inadequate collections of scientific and technical information. The national bibliography Fennica includes all books and journals published in Finland. Data base services available in Finland include: reference data bases in science and technology; data banks for decision making such as statistical time series or legal proceedings; national bibliographies; and library catalogs.

  2. Chernobyl fallout and cancer incidence in Finland.

    PubMed

    Auvinen, Anssi; Seppä, Karri; Pasanen, Kari; Kurttio, Päivi; Patama, Toni; Pukkala, Eero; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Arvela, Hannu; Verkasalo, Pia; Hakulinen, Timo

    2014-05-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since the Chernobyl accident, but its health consequences remain to be well established. Finland was one of the most heavily affected countries by the radioactive fallout outside the former Soviet Union. We analyzed the relation of the estimated external radiation exposure from the fallout to cancer incidence in Finland in 1988-2007. The study cohort comprised all ∼ 3.8 million Finns who had lived in the same dwelling for 12 months following the accident (May 1986-April 1987). Radiation exposure was estimated using data from an extensive mobile dose rate survey. Cancer incidence data were obtained for the cohort divided into four exposure categories (the lowest with the first-year committed dose <0.1 mSv and the highest ≥ 0.5 mSv) allowing for a latency of 5 years for leukemia and thyroid cancer, and 10 years for other cancers. Of the eight predefined cancer sites regarded as radiation-related from earlier studies, only colon cancer among women showed an association with exposure from fallout [excess rate ratio per increment in exposure category 0.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02-0.11]. No such effect was observed for men, or other cancer sites. Our analysis of a large cohort over two decades did not reveal an increase in cancer incidence following the Chernobyl accident, with the possible exception of colon cancer among women. The largely null findings are consistent with extrapolation from previous studies suggesting that the effect is likely to remain too small to be empirically detectable and of little public health impact.