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  1. METABOLISM OF IRON STORES

    PubMed Central

    SAITO, HIROSHI

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Remarkable progress was recently achieved in the studies on molecular regulators of iron metabolism. Among the main regulators, storage iron, iron absorption, erythropoiesis and hepcidin interact in keeping iron homeostasis. Diseases with gene-mutations resulting in iron overload, iron deficiency, and local iron deposition have been introduced in relation to the regulators of storage iron metabolism. On the other hand, the research on storage iron metabolism has not advanced since the pioneering research by Shoden in 1953. However, we recently developed a new method for determining ferritin iron and hemosiderin iron by computer-assisted serum ferritin kinetics. Serum ferritin increase or decrease curves were measured in patients with normal storage iron levels (chronic hepatitis C and iron deficiency anemia treated by intravenous iron injection), and iron overload (hereditary hemochromatosis and transfusion dependent anemia). We thereby confirmed the existence of two iron pathways where iron flows followed the numbered order (1) labile iron, (2) ferritin and (3) hemosiderin in iron deposition and mobilization among many previously proposed but mostly unproven routes. We also demonstrated the increasing and decreasing phases of ferritin iron and hemosiderin iron in iron deposition and mobilization. The author first demonstrated here the change in proportion between pre-existing ferritin iron and new ferritin iron synthesized by removing iron from hemosiderin in the course of iron removal. In addition, the author disclosed the cause of underestimation of storage iron turnover rate which had been reported by previous investigators in estimating storage iron turnover rate of normal subjects. PMID:25741033

  2. The complex interplay of iron metabolism, reactive oxygen species, and reactive nitrogen species: insights into the potential of various iron therapies to induce oxidative and nitrosative stress.

    PubMed

    Koskenkorva-Frank, Taija S; Weiss, Günter; Koppenol, Willem H; Burckhardt, Susanna

    2013-12-01

    Production of minute concentrations of superoxide (O2(*-)) and nitrogen monoxide (nitric oxide, NO*) plays important roles in several aspects of cellular signaling and metabolic regulation. However, in an inflammatory environment, the concentrations of these radicals can drastically increase and the antioxidant defenses may become overwhelmed. Thus, biological damage may occur owing to redox imbalance-a condition called oxidative and/or nitrosative stress. A complex interplay exists between iron metabolism, O2(*-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and NO*. Iron is involved in both the formation and the scavenging of these species. Iron deficiency (anemia) (ID(A)) is associated with oxidative stress, but its role in the induction of nitrosative stress is largely unclear. Moreover, oral as well as intravenous (iv) iron preparations used for the treatment of ID(A) may also induce oxidative and/or nitrosative stress. Oral administration of ferrous salts may lead to high transferrin saturation levels and, thus, formation of non-transferrin-bound iron, a potentially toxic form of iron with a propensity to induce oxidative stress. One of the factors that determine the likelihood of oxidative and nitrosative stress induced upon administration of an iv iron complex is the amount of labile (or weakly-bound) iron present in the complex. Stable dextran-based iron complexes used for iv therapy, although they contain only negligible amounts of labile iron, can induce oxidative and/or nitrosative stress through so far unknown mechanisms. In this review, after summarizing the main features of iron metabolism and its complex interplay with O2(*-), H2O2, NO*, and other more reactive compounds derived from these species, the potential of various iron therapies to induce oxidative and nitrosative stress is discussed and possible underlying mechanisms are proposed. Understanding the mechanisms, by which various iron formulations may induce oxidative and nitrosative stress, will help us

  3. Physiology of Iron Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Waldvogel-Abramowski, Sophie; Waeber, Gérard; Gassner, Christoph; Buser, Andreas; Frey, Beat M.; Favrat, Bernard; Tissot, Jean-Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Summary A revolution occurred during the last decade in the comprehension of the physiology as well as in the physiopathology of iron metabolism. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent knowledge that has accumulated, allowing a better comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in iron homeostasis. Iron metabolism is very fine tuned. The free molecule is very toxic; therefore, complex regulatory mechanisms have been developed in mammalian to insure adequate intestinal absorption, transportation, utilization, and elimination. ‘Ironomics’ certainly will be the future of the understanding of genes as well as of the protein-protein interactions involved in iron metabolism. PMID:25053935

  4. Proanthocyanidin Protects Human Embryo Hepatocytes from Fluoride-Induced Oxidative Stress by Regulating Iron Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Niu, Qiang; Mu, Lati; Li, Shugang; Xu, Shangzhi; Ma, Ruling; Guo, Shuxia

    2016-02-01

    To investigate whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) antagonizes fluoride-induced oxidative injury by regulating iron metabolism, human embryo hepatic cells (L-02) were incubated with sodium fluoride (NaF, 80 mg/L) and/or GSPE (100 μmol/L) for 24 h. Results showed the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) level of the NaF group were significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.05), while malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased in the NaF group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Moreover, the indexes mentioned above showed opposite changes in the NaF + GSPE group. In addition, iron content significantly increased in the NaF group compared to the control group(P < 0.05) and significantly decreased in the NaF + GSPE group compared to the NaF group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, hepcidin (coded by HAMP) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression significantly increased in the NaF group compared to the control group(P < 0.05) and significantly decreased in the NaF + GSPE group compared to the NaF group (P < 0.05). Ferroportin 1 (coded by FPN1) mRNA expression significantly decreased in the NaF group compared to the control group (P < 0.05) and significantly increased in the NaF + GSPE group compared to the NaF group (P < 0.05). These results indicate that GSPE provides significant cellular protection against oxidative stress induced by excessive fluoride via the iron metabolism regulation.

  5. Discovering the role of mitochondria in the iron deficiency-induced metabolic responses of plants.

    PubMed

    Vigani, Gianpiero

    2012-01-01

    In plants, iron (Fe) deficiency-induced chlorosis is a major problem, affecting both yield and quality of crops. Plants have evolved multifaceted strategies, such as reductase activity, proton extrusion, and specialised storage proteins, to mobilise Fe from the environment and distribute it within the plant. Because of its fundamental role in plant productivity, several issues concerning Fe homeostasis in plants are currently intensively studied. The activation of Fe uptake reactions requires an overall adaptation of the primary metabolism because these activities need the constant supply of energetic substrates (i.e., NADPH and ATP). Several studies concerning the metabolism of Fe-deficient plants have been conducted, but research focused on mitochondrial implications in adaptive responses to nutritional stress has only begun in recent years. Mitochondria are the energetic centre of the root cell, and they are strongly affected by Fe deficiency. Nevertheless, they display a high level of functional flexibility, which allows them to maintain the viability of the cell. Mitochondria represent a crucial target of studies on plant homeostasis, and it might be of interest to concentrate future research on understanding how mitochondria orchestrate the reprogramming of root cell metabolism under Fe deficiency. In this review, I summarise what it is known about the effect of Fe deficiency on mitochondrial metabolism and morphology. Moreover, I present a detailed view of the possible roles of mitochondria in the development of plant responses to Fe deficiency, integrating old findings with new and discussing new hypotheses for future investigations.

  6. Acetylcholinesterase-independent protective effects of huperzine A against iron overload-induced oxidative damage and aberrant iron metabolism signaling in rat cortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Ling-xue; Huang, Xiao-tian; Chen, Yu-ting; Tang, Xi-can; Zhang, Hai-yan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Iron dyshomeostasis is one of the primary causes of neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Huperzine A (HupA), a natural inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), is a licensed anti-AD drug in China and a nutraceutical in the United Sates. Here, we investigated the protective effects of HupA against iron overload-induced injury in neurons. Methods: Rat cortical neurons were treated with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC), and cell viability was assessed with MTT assays. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assays were performed to assess mitochondrial function. The labile iron pool (LIP) level, cytosolic-aconitase (c-aconitase) activity and iron uptake protein expression were measured to determine iron metabolism changes. The modified Ellman's method was used to evaluate AChE activity. Results: HupA significantly attenuated the iron overload-induced decrease in neuronal cell viability. This neuroprotective effect of HupA occurred concurrently with a decrease in ROS and an increase in ATP. Moreover, HupA treatment significantly blocked the upregulation of the LIP level and other aberrant iron metabolism changes induced by iron overload. Additionally, another specific AChE inhibitor, donepezil (Don), at a concentration that caused AChE inhibition equivalent to that of HupA negatively, influenced the aberrant changes in ROS, ATP or LIP that were induced by excessive iron. Conclusion: We provide the first demonstration of the protective effects of HupA against iron overload-induced neuronal damage. This beneficial role of HupA may be attributed to its attenuation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction and elevation of LIP, and these effects are not associated with its AChE-inhibiting effect. PMID:27498774

  7. Iron metabolism and toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Papanikolaou, G.; Pantopoulos, K. . E-mail: kostas.pantopoulos@mcgill.ca

    2005-01-15

    Iron is an essential nutrient with limited bioavailability. When present in excess, iron poses a threat to cells and tissues, and therefore iron homeostasis has to be tightly controlled. Iron's toxicity is largely based on its ability to catalyze the generation of radicals, which attack and damage cellular macromolecules and promote cell death and tissue injury. This is lucidly illustrated in diseases of iron overload, such as hereditary hemochromatosis or transfusional siderosis, where excessive iron accumulation results in tissue damage and organ failure. Pathological iron accumulation in the liver has also been linked to the development of hepatocellular cancer. Here we provide a background on the biology and toxicity of iron and the basic concepts of iron homeostasis at the cellular and systemic level. In addition, we provide an overview of the various disorders of iron overload, which are directly linked to iron's toxicity. Finally, we discuss the potential role of iron in malignant transformation and cancer.

  8. Regulation of cellular iron metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Pantopoulos, Kostas

    2011-01-01

    Iron is an essential but potentially hazardous biometal. Mammalian cells require sufficient amounts of iron to satisfy metabolic needs or to accomplish specialized functions. Iron is delivered to tissues by circulating transferrin, a transporter that captures iron released into the plasma mainly from intestinal enterocytes or reticuloendothelial macrophages. The binding of iron-laden transferrin to the cell-surface transferrin receptor 1 results in endocytosis and uptake of the metal cargo. Internalized iron is transported to mitochondria for the synthesis of haem or iron–sulfur clusters, which are integral parts of several metalloproteins, and excess iron is stored and detoxified in cytosolic ferritin. Iron metabolism is controlled at different levels and by diverse mechanisms. The present review summarizes basic concepts of iron transport, use and storage and focuses on the IRE (iron-responsive element)/IRP (iron-regulatory protein) system, a well known post-transcriptional regulatory circuit that not only maintains iron homoeostasis in various cell types, but also contributes to systemic iron balance. PMID:21348856

  9. Iron metabolism: current facts and future directions.

    PubMed

    Tandara, Leida; Salamunic, Ilza

    2012-01-01

    Iron metabolism has been intensively examined over the last decade and there are many new players in this field which are worth to be introduced. Since its discovery many studies confirmed role of liver hormone hepcidin as key regulator of iron metabolism and pointed out liver as the central organ of system iron homeostasis. Liver cells receive multiple signals related to iron balance and respond by transcriptional regulation of hepcidin expression. This liver hormone is negative regulator of iron metabolism that represses iron efflux from macrophages, hepatocytes and enterocytes by its binding to iron export protein ferroportin. Ferroportin degradation leads to cellular iron retention and decreased iron availability. At level of a cell IRE/IRP (iron responsive elements/iron responsive proteins) system allows tight regulation of iron assimilation that prevents an excess of free intracellular iron which could lead to oxidative stress and damage of DNA, proteins and lipid membranes by ROS (reactive oxygen species). At the same time IRE/IRP system provides sufficient iron in order to meet the metabolic needs. Recently a significant progress in understanding of iron metabolism has been made and new molecular participants have been characterized. Article gives an overview of the current understanding of iron metabolism: absorption, distribution, cellular uptake, release, and storage. We also discuss mechanisms underlying systemic and cellular iron regulation with emphasis on central regulatory hormone hepcidin.

  10. Iron metabolism: current facts and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Tandara, Leida; Salamunic, Ilza

    2012-01-01

    Iron metabolism has been intensively examined over the last decade and there are many new players in this field which are worth to be introduced. Since its discovery many studies confirmed role of liver hormone hepcidin as key regulator of iron metabolism and pointed out liver as the central organ of system iron homeostasis. Liver cells receive multiple signals related to iron balance and respond by transcriptional regulation of hepcidin expression. This liver hormone is negative regulator of iron metabolism that represses iron efflux from macrophages, hepatocytes and enterocytes by its binding to iron export protein ferroportin. Ferroportin degradation leads to cellular iron retention and decreased iron availability. At level of a cell IRE/IRP (iron responsive elements/iron responsive proteins) system allows tight regulation of iron assimilation that prevents an excess of free intracellular iron which could lead to oxidative stress and damage of DNA, proteins and lipid membranes by ROS (reactive oxygen species). At the same time IRE/IRP system provides sufficient iron in order to meet the metabolic needs. Recently a significant progress in understanding of iron metabolism has been made and new molecular participants have been characterized. Article gives an overview of the current understanding of iron metabolism: absorption, distribution, cellular uptake, release, and storage. We also discuss mechanisms underlying systemic and cellular iron regulation with emphasis on central regulatory hormone hepcidin. PMID:23092063

  11. A delicate balance: Iron metabolism and diseases of the brain

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Dominic; Ayton, Scott; Bush, Ashley; Lei, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Iron is the most abundant transition metal within the brain, and is vital for a number of cellular processes including neurotransmitter synthesis, myelination of neurons, and mitochondrial function. Redox cycling between ferrous and ferric iron is utilized in biology for various electron transfer reactions essential to life, yet this same chemistry mediates deleterious reactions with oxygen that induce oxidative stress. Consequently, there is a precise and tightly controlled mechanism to regulate iron in the brain. When iron is dysregulated, both conditions of iron overload and iron deficiencies are harmful to the brain. This review focuses on how iron metabolism is maintained in the brain, and how an alteration to iron and iron metabolism adversely affects neurological function. PMID:23874300

  12. Formate Dehydrogenase, an Enzyme of Anaerobic Metabolism, Is Induced by Iron Deficiency in Barley Roots1

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kazuya; Itai, Reiko; Suzuki, Koichiro; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko-Kishi; Yoshimura, Etsuro; Mori, Satoshi

    1998-01-01

    To identify the proteins induced by Fe deficiency, we have compared the proteins of Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) roots by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Peptide sequence analysis of induced proteins revealed that formate dehydrogenase (FDH), adenine phosphoribosyltransferase, and the Ids3 gene product (for Fe deficiency-specific) increased in Fe-deficient roots. FDH enzyme activity was detected in Fe-deficient roots but not in Fe-sufficient roots. A cDNA encoding FDH (Fdh) was cloned and sequenced. Fdh expression was induced by Fe deficiency. Fdh was also expressed under anaerobic stress and its expression was more rapid than that induced by Fe deficiency. Thus, the expression of Fdh observed in Fe-deficient barley roots appeared to be a secondary effect caused by oxygen deficiency in Fe-deficient plants. PMID:9489019

  13. A Systems Biology Approach to Iron Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Chifman, J.; Laubenbacher, R.; Torti, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    Iron is critical to the survival of almost all living organisms. However, inappropriately low or high levels of iron are detrimental and contribute to a wide range of diseases. Recent advances in the study of iron metabolism have revealed multiple intricate pathways that are essential to the maintenance of iron homeostasis. Further, iron regulation involves processes at several scales, ranging from the subcellular to the organismal. This complexity makes a systems biology approach crucial, with its enabling technology of computational models based on a mathematical description of regulatory systems. Systems biology may represent a new strategy for understanding imbalances in iron metabolism and their underlying causes. PMID:25480643

  14. In vivo iron metabolism by IRMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron isotopes are used in both biological and geological investigations. Three low-abundance stable isotopes are available for human studies. They have been widely used to study iron metabolism. They have provided valuable insights into iron deficiency, one of the most common micronutrient deficienc...

  15. Melatonin exerts a more potent effect than S-adenosyl-l-methionine against iron metabolism disturbances, oxidative stress and tissue injury induced by obstructive jaundice in rats.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Castañeda, Juan R; Túnez, Isaac; Herencia, Carmen; Ranchal, Isidora; González, Raúl; Ramírez, Luz M; Arjona, Alvaro; Barcos, Montserrat; Espejo, Isabel; Cruz, Adolfo; Montilla, Pedro; Padillo, Francisco J; Muntané, Jordi

    2008-07-30

    Melatonin and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAMe) prevent oxidative stress and tissue dysfunction in obstructive jaundice (OJ). Lipid peroxidation is exacerbated in the presence of trace amounts of iron (Fe). The study investigated the regulation by melatonin and SAMe the induction of oxidative stress, iron metabolism disturbances and tissue injury in an experimental model of OJ. Different parameters of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status, tissue injury and Fe metabolism were determined in liver and blood. OJ induced Fe accumulation in liver, and increased transferrin (Tf) saturation and loosely bound Fe content in blood. Melatonin, and SAMe at lesser extent, enhanced protein Tf content in liver and blood, that reduced loosely bound Fe content in blood. Melatonin and SAMe did not affect ferritin (FT) and Tf mRNA expression, but reduced Tf receptor (TfR) mRNA expression in liver. In conclusion, the effect of melatonin and SAMe on Fe metabolism may be included in the beneficial properties of these agents on lipid peroxidation and tissue injury induced by OJ.

  16. Metabolic Remodeling in Iron-deficient Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Philpott, Caroline C.; Leidgens, Sebastien; Frey, Avery G.

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells contain dozens, perhaps hundreds, of iron-dependent proteins, which perform critical functions in nearly every major cellular process. Nutritional iron is frequently available to cells in only limited amounts; thus, unicellular and higher eukaryotes have evolved mechanisms to cope with iron scarcity. These mechanisms have been studied at the molecular level in the model eukaryotes Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, as well as in some pathogenic fungi. Each of these fungal species exhibits metabolic adaptations to iron deficiency that serve to reduce the cell’s reliance on iron. However, the regulatory mechanisms that accomplish these adaptations differ greatly between fungal species. PMID:22306284

  17. Dysregulated Erythropoietin, Hepcidin, and Bone Marrow Iron Metabolism Contribute to Interferon-Induced Anemia in Hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    van Rijnsoever, Marius; Galhenage, Sumedha; Mollison, Lindsay; Gummer, Joel; Trengove, Robert; Olynyk, John K

    2016-11-01

    Anemia is a complication of interferon-containing hepatitis C treatments. We characterized effects of interferon-based therapy on hepcidin and erythropoietin (EPO) production, iron metabolism, hemolysis, and hematopoiesis. Standard hemopoiesis [reticulocyte hemoglobin (Hb), reticulocyte production index (RPI), free Hb, and haptoglobin], iron biochemistry, hepcidin, and EPO levels were measured in 10 subjects over 12 weeks. There was a rapid decline in Hb during treatment, from a mean pretreatment (t = 0 weeks) Hb of 158.6 to 125.2 g/L at week 4 (P = 0.003) and 122.8 g/L at week 12 (P = 0.005). Paradoxically, the RPI (a measure of bone marrow responsiveness to EPO) decreased on initiation of hepatitis C virus treatment from 0.78% to 0.53% (P = 0.04). Despite worsening anemia, there was no significant increase in EPO levels. Hepcidin levels increased to >20 nM in 3 subjects from 5.8 to 27.5 nM (P = 0.009) compared with 9.6 to 12.3 nM (P = 0.5) for the remainder of subjects. Hepcidin levels peaked at week 1 before returning to baseline levels at week 4. Subjects who responded with a rise in serum hepcidin levels to >20 nM had a significantly greater drop in Hb (27.2 g/L, P = 0.008) and reticulocyte Hb (-1.4 g/L, P = 0.013) compared with the subjects who did not exhibit any change in hepcidin production. In conclusion, 30% of subjects treated with interferon exhibited significant transient increase in serum hepcidin levels, which was associated with more extreme anemia and decreased iron availability as evidenced by decreased reticulocyte Hb. In addition, there was a failure to upregulate EPO production in response to anemia and hemolysis ( https://clinicaltrials.gov trial NCT01726400).

  18. New rat models of iron sucrose-induced iron overload.

    PubMed

    Vu'o'ng Lê, Bá; Khorsi-Cauet, Hafida; Villegier, Anne-Sophie; Bach, Véronique; Gay-Quéheillard, Jérôme

    2011-07-01

    The majority of murine models of iron sucrose-induced iron overload were carried out in adult subjects. This cannot reflect the high risk of iron overload in children who have an increased need for iron. In this study, we developed four experimental iron overload models in young rats using iron sucrose and evaluated different markers of iron overload, tissue oxidative stress and inflammation as its consequences. Iron overload was observed in all iron-treated rats, as evidenced by significant increases in serum iron indices, expression of liver hepcidin gene and total tissue iron content compared with control rats. We also showed that total tissue iron content was mainly associated with the dose of iron whereas serum iron indices depended essentially on the duration of iron administration. However, no differences in tissue inflammatory and antioxidant parameters from controls were observed. Furthermore, only rats exposed to daily iron injection at a dose of 75 mg/kg body weight for one week revealed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation in iron-treated rats compared with their controls. The present results suggest a correlation between iron overload levels and the dose of iron, as well as the duration and frequency of iron injection and confirm that iron sucrose may not play a crucial role in inflammation and oxidative stress. This study provides important information about iron sucrose-induced iron overload in rats and may be useful for iron sucrose therapy for iron deficiency anemia as well as for the prevention and diagnosis of iron sucrose-induced iron overload in pediatric patients.

  19. Diversity and Evolutionary History of Iron Metabolism Genes in Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Groussman, Ryan D.; Parker, Micaela S.; Armbrust, E. Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Ferroproteins arose early in Earth’s history, prior to the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and the subsequent reduction of bioavailable iron. Today, iron availability limits primary productivity in about 30% of the world’s oceans. Diatoms, responsible for nearly half of oceanic primary production, have evolved molecular strategies for coping with variable iron concentrations. Our understanding of the evolutionary breadth of these strategies has been restricted by the limited number of species for which molecular sequence data is available. To uncover the diversity of strategies marine diatoms employ to meet cellular iron demands, we analyzed 367 newly released marine microbial eukaryotic transcriptomes, which include 47 diatom species. We focused on genes encoding proteins previously identified as having a role in iron management: iron uptake (high-affinity ferric reductase, multi-copper oxidase, and Fe(III) permease); iron storage (ferritin); iron-induced protein substitutions (flavodoxin/ferredoxin, and plastocyanin/cytochrome c6) and defense against reactive oxygen species (superoxide dismutases). Homologs encoding the high-affinity iron uptake system components were detected across the four diatom Classes suggesting an ancient origin for this pathway. Ferritin transcripts were also detected in all Classes, revealing a more widespread utilization of ferritin throughout diatoms than previously recognized. Flavodoxin and plastocyanin transcripts indicate possible alternative redox metal strategies. Predicted localization signals for ferredoxin identify multiple examples of gene transfer from the plastid to the nuclear genome. Transcripts encoding four superoxide dismutase metalloforms were detected, including a putative nickel-coordinating isozyme. Taken together, our results suggest that the majority of iron metabolism genes in diatoms appear to be vertically inherited with functional diversity achieved via possible neofunctionalization of paralogs. This

  20. Diversity and Evolutionary History of Iron Metabolism Genes in Diatoms.

    PubMed

    Groussman, Ryan D; Parker, Micaela S; Armbrust, E Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Ferroproteins arose early in Earth's history, prior to the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and the subsequent reduction of bioavailable iron. Today, iron availability limits primary productivity in about 30% of the world's oceans. Diatoms, responsible for nearly half of oceanic primary production, have evolved molecular strategies for coping with variable iron concentrations. Our understanding of the evolutionary breadth of these strategies has been restricted by the limited number of species for which molecular sequence data is available. To uncover the diversity of strategies marine diatoms employ to meet cellular iron demands, we analyzed 367 newly released marine microbial eukaryotic transcriptomes, which include 47 diatom species. We focused on genes encoding proteins previously identified as having a role in iron management: iron uptake (high-affinity ferric reductase, multi-copper oxidase, and Fe(III) permease); iron storage (ferritin); iron-induced protein substitutions (flavodoxin/ferredoxin, and plastocyanin/cytochrome c6) and defense against reactive oxygen species (superoxide dismutases). Homologs encoding the high-affinity iron uptake system components were detected across the four diatom Classes suggesting an ancient origin for this pathway. Ferritin transcripts were also detected in all Classes, revealing a more widespread utilization of ferritin throughout diatoms than previously recognized. Flavodoxin and plastocyanin transcripts indicate possible alternative redox metal strategies. Predicted localization signals for ferredoxin identify multiple examples of gene transfer from the plastid to the nuclear genome. Transcripts encoding four superoxide dismutase metalloforms were detected, including a putative nickel-coordinating isozyme. Taken together, our results suggest that the majority of iron metabolism genes in diatoms appear to be vertically inherited with functional diversity achieved via possible neofunctionalization of paralogs. This

  1. Nitric oxide induces hypoxia ischemic injury in the neonatal brain via the disruption of neuronal iron metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qing; Harris, Valerie A.; Rafikov, Ruslan; Sun, Xutong; Kumar, Sanjiv; Black, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    We have recently shown that increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation is involved in hypoxia–ischemia (HI)-mediated neonatal brain injury. H2O2 can react with free iron to form the hydroxyl radical, through Fenton Chemistry. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine if there was a role for the hydroxyl radical in neonatal HI brain injury and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Our data demonstrate that HI increases the deposition of free iron and hydroxyl radical formation, in both P7 hippocampal slice cultures exposed to oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD), and the neonatal rat exposed to HI. Both these processes were found to be nitric oxide (NO) dependent. Further analysis demonstrated that the NO-dependent increase in iron deposition was mediated through increased transferrin receptor expression and a decrease in ferritin expression. This was correlated with a reduction in aconitase activity. Both NO inhibition and iron scavenging, using deferoxamine administration, reduced hydroxyl radical levels and neuronal cell death. In conclusion, our results suggest that increased NO generation leads to neuronal cell death during neonatal HI, at least in part, by altering iron homeostasis and hydroxyl radical generation. PMID:26209813

  2. Ferritin couples iron and fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bu, Weiming; Liu, Renyu; Cheung-Lau, Jasmina C; Dmochowski, Ivan J; Loll, Patrick J; Eckenhoff, Roderic G

    2012-06-01

    A physiological relationship between iron, oxidative injury, and fatty acid metabolism exists, but transduction mechanisms are unclear. We propose that the iron storage protein ferritin contains fatty acid binding sites whose occupancy modulates iron uptake and release. Using isothermal microcalorimetry, we found that arachidonic acid binds ferritin specifically and with 60 μM affinity. Arachidonate binding by ferritin enhanced iron mineralization, decreased iron release, and protected the fatty acid from oxidation. Cocrystals of arachidonic acid and horse spleen apoferritin diffracted to 2.18 Å and revealed specific binding to the 2-fold intersubunit pocket. This pocket shields most of the fatty acid and its double bonds from solvent but allows the arachidonate tail to project well into the ferrihydrite mineralization site on the ferritin L-subunit, a structural feature that we implicate in the effects on mineralization by demonstrating that the much shorter saturated fatty acid, caprylate, has no significant effects on mineralization. These combined effects of arachidonate binding by ferritin are expected to lower both intracellular free iron and free arachidonate, thereby providing a previously unrecognized mechanism for limiting lipid peroxidation, free radical damage, and proinflammatory cascades during times of cellular stress.

  3. Mitochondrial iron metabolism and sideroblastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Sheftel, Alex D; Richardson, Des R; Prchal, Josef; Ponka, Prem

    2009-01-01

    Sideroblastic anemias are a heterogeneous group of disorders, characterized by mitochondrial iron overload in developing red blood cells. The unifying characteristic of all sideroblastic anemias is the ring sideroblast, which is a pathological erythroid precursor containing excessive deposits of non-heme iron in mitochondria with perinuclear distribution creating a ring appearance. Sideroblastic anemias may be hereditary or acquired. Hereditary sideroblastic anemias are caused by defects in genes present on the X chromosome (mutations in the ALAS2, ABCB7, or GRLX5 gene), genes on autosomal chromosomes, or mitochondrial genes. Acquired sideroblastic anemias are either primary (refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts, RARS, representing one subtype of the myelodysplastic syndrome) or secondary due to some drugs, toxins, copper deficiency, or chronic neoplastic disease. The pathogenesis of mitochondrial iron loading in developing erythroblasts is diverse. Ring sideroblasts can develop as a result of a heme synthesis defect in erythroblasts (ALAS2 mutations), a defect in iron-sulfur cluster assembly, iron-sulfur protein precursor release from mitochondria (ABCB7 mutations), or by a defect in intracellular iron metabolism in erythroid cells (e.g. RARS).

  4. Chloroquine-induced inhibition of the production of TNF, but not of IL-6, is affected by disruption of iron metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Picot, S; Peyron, F; Donadille, A; Vuillez, J P; Barbe, G; Ambroise-Thomas, P

    1993-01-01

    There is now considerable evidence that cerebral malaria may be related to the over-production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF). Nevertheless, our knowledge is very poor concerning the biological events which lead up to this TNF over-production. Furthermore, interleukin-6 (IL-6) is produced in large amounts during malaria infection and seems to have inhibitory action on TNF production. Anti-malarial drugs were investigated for their ability to interfere with TNF and IL-6 secretion by human non-immune macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or Plasmodium falciparum culture supernatant. Macrophages were pretreated with chloroquine, quinine, proguanil, mefloquine or halofantrine before stimulation. TNF and IL-6 production were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner when macrophages were treated with chloroquine, but not with other anti-malarial drugs. Considering that chloroquine probably acts via lysosomotropic mechanisms, and that iron metabolism may interfere with the non-specific immune response, we focused our attention on these biochemical events in order to investigate the mechanisms by which chloroquine inhibits cytokine production. Our results demonstrated that chloroquine-induced inhibition of TNF and IL-6 production is not mediated through a lysosomotropic mechanism, and that chloroquine probably acts on TNF secretion by disrupting iron homeostasis. Inhibition of IL-6 production seems not to be mediated through these pathways. These observations suggest that chloroquine may help to prevent cerebral malaria whatever the drug sensitivity of the parasite strain, and may provide new tools for an anti-disease therapy regardless of the emergence of parasite multi-drug resistance. PMID:8244453

  5. Recent advances in iron metabolism and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Camaschella, Clara; Strati, Paolo

    2010-10-01

    Iron is essential for life, because it is indispensable for several biological reactions such as oxygen transport, DNA synthesis and cell proliferation, but is toxic if present in excess since it causes cellular damage through free radical formation. Either cellular or systemic iron regulation can be disrupted in disorders of iron metabolism. In the past few years, our understanding of iron metabolism and its regulation has dramatically changed. New disorders of iron metabolism have emerged and the role of iron has started to be recognized as a cofactor of other disorders. The study of genetic conditions such as hemochromatosis and iron-refractory-iron-deficiency anemia (IRIDA) has provided crucial insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling iron homeostasis. In the future, these advances may be exploited for a more effective treatment of both genetic and acquired iron disorders.

  6. Copper's influence on iron metabolism in K562 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Percival, S.S.; Armstrong, E. )

    1991-03-15

    Copper deficiency is associated with a cellular defect in iron metabolism that results in poor hemoglobin synthesis. In order to determine this mechanisms, K562 cells, a human erythroleukemic cell line, were incubated with 1 mM bethocuproine disulfonic acid (BCS) to produce a copper deficiency or were supplemented with 8 {mu}M copper. Hemoglobin was simultaneously induced in some cells by the addition of 25 {mu}M hemin to the culture medium. Incubation with BCS resulted in a 30 to 40% reduction in intracellular Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase activity while supplementation resulted in a 20 to 50% increase in activity. The authors then examined the effect of these copper manipulations on {sup 59}Fe uptake from transferrin, on ferritin levels and on hemoglobin levels. Hemoglobin was only slightly affected by the copper treatments. In both noninduced cells and induced cells, copper supplementation resulted in a greater level of intracellular iron, a greater level of immunoreactive ferritin, and an enhanced uptake of {sup 59}Fe from transferrin. In BCS-incubated cells, intracellular iron, ferritin and {sup 59}Fe uptake from transferrin were reduced by at least 50%. Because the ferritin levels were reduced, intracellular iron mobilization did not appear to be impaired in copper deficiency. The results suggest that copper deficiency impairs the transport of iron by transferrin into the cell.

  7. Update on iron metabolism and molecular perspective of common genetic and acquired disorder, hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Yun, Seongseok; Vincelette, Nicole D

    2015-07-01

    Iron is an essential component of erythropoiesis and its metabolism is tightly regulated by a variety of internal and external cues including iron storage, tissue hypoxia, inflammation and degree of erythropoiesis. There has been remarkable improvement in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of iron metabolism past decades. The classical model of iron metabolism with iron response element/iron response protein (IRE/IRP) is now extended to include hepcidin model. Endogenous and exogenous signals funnel down to hepcidin via wide range of signaling pathways including Janus Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (JAK/STAT3), Bone Morphogenetic Protein/Hemojuvelin/Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog (BMP/HJV/SMAD), and Von Hippel Lindau/Hypoxia-inducible factor/Erythropoietin (VHL/HIF/EPO), then relay to ferroportin, which directly regulates intra- and extracellular iron levels. The successful molecular delineation of iron metabolism further enhanced our understanding of common genetic and acquired disorder, hemochromatosis. The majority of the hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) patients are now shown to have mutations in the genes coding either upstream or downstream proteins of hepcidin, resulting in iron overload. The update on hepcidin centered mechanisms of iron metabolism and their clinical perspective in hemochromatosis will be discussed in this review.

  8. METABOLIC CAPACITY REGULATES IRON HOMEOSTATIS IN ENDOTHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sensitivity of endothelial cells to oxidative stress and the high concentrations of iron in mitochondria led us to test the hypotheses that (1) changes in respiratory capacity alter iron homeostasis, and (2) lack of aerobic metabolism decreases labile iron stores and attenuat...

  9. Iron uptake and metabolism in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Louise L; Suryo Rahmanto, Yohan; Richardson, Des R

    2007-02-01

    Iron is an essential element for metabolic processes intrinsic to life, and yet the properties that make iron a necessity also make it potentially deleterious. To avoid harm, iron homeostasis is achieved through iron transport, storage and regulatory proteins. The functions of some of these molecules are well described, for example transferrin and transferrin receptor-1, whereas the roles of others, such as the transferrin homolog melanotransferrin, remain unclear. The past decade has seen the identification of new molecules involved in iron metabolism, such as divalent metal transporter-1, ferroportin-1, hepcidin, hemojuvelin and heme carrier protein-1. Here, we focus on these intriguing new molecules and the insights gained from them into cellular iron uptake and the regulation of iron metabolism.

  10. Alginate-Iron Speciation and Its Effect on In Vitro Cellular Iron Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Horniblow, Richard D; Dowle, Miriam; Iqbal, Tariq H; Latunde-Dada, Gladys O; Palmer, Richard E; Pikramenou, Zoe; Tselepis, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Alginates are a class of biopolymers with known iron binding properties which are routinely used in the fabrication of iron-oxide nanoparticles. In addition, alginates have been implicated in influencing human iron absorption. However, the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles employs non-physiological pH conditions and whether nanoparticle formation in vivo is responsible for influencing cellular iron metabolism is unclear. Thus the aims of this study were to determine how alginate and iron interact at gastric-comparable pH conditions and how this influences iron metabolism. Employing a range of spectroscopic techniques under physiological conditions alginate-iron complexation was confirmed and, in conjunction with aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticles were observed. The results infer a nucleation-type model of iron binding whereby alginate is templating the condensation of iron-hydroxide complexes to form iron oxide centred nanoparticles. The interaction of alginate and iron at a cellular level was found to decrease cellular iron acquisition by 37% (p < 0.05) and in combination with confocal microscopy the alginate inhibits cellular iron transport through extracellular iron chelation with the resulting complexes not internalised. These results infer alginate as being useful in the chelation of excess iron, especially in the context of inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer where excess unabsorbed luminal iron is thought to be a driver of disease.

  11. Alginate-Iron Speciation and Its Effect on In Vitro Cellular Iron Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Horniblow, Richard D.; Dowle, Miriam; Iqbal, Tariq H.; Latunde-Dada, Gladys O.; Palmer, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Alginates are a class of biopolymers with known iron binding properties which are routinely used in the fabrication of iron-oxide nanoparticles. In addition, alginates have been implicated in influencing human iron absorption. However, the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles employs non-physiological pH conditions and whether nanoparticle formation in vivo is responsible for influencing cellular iron metabolism is unclear. Thus the aims of this study were to determine how alginate and iron interact at gastric-comparable pH conditions and how this influences iron metabolism. Employing a range of spectroscopic techniques under physiological conditions alginate-iron complexation was confirmed and, in conjunction with aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticles were observed. The results infer a nucleation-type model of iron binding whereby alginate is templating the condensation of iron-hydroxide complexes to form iron oxide centred nanoparticles. The interaction of alginate and iron at a cellular level was found to decrease cellular iron acquisition by 37% (p < 0.05) and in combination with confocal microscopy the alginate inhibits cellular iron transport through extracellular iron chelation with the resulting complexes not internalised. These results infer alginate as being useful in the chelation of excess iron, especially in the context of inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer where excess unabsorbed luminal iron is thought to be a driver of disease. PMID:26378798

  12. Recent Advances in Iron Metabolism: Relevance for Health, Exercise, and Performance.

    PubMed

    Buratti, Paolo; Gammella, Elena; Rybinska, Ilona; Cairo, Gaetano; Recalcati, Stefania

    2015-08-01

    Iron is necessary for physiological processes essential for athletic performance, such as oxygen transport, energy production, and cell division. However, an excess of "free" iron is toxic because it produces reactive hydroxyl radicals that damage biological molecules, thus leading to cell and tissue injury. Therefore, iron homeostasis is strictly regulated; and in recent years, there have been important advancements in our knowledge of the underlying processes. Hepcidin is the central regulator of systemic iron homeostasis and exerts its function by controlling the presence of the iron exporter ferroportin on the cell membrane. Hepcidin binding induces ferroportin degradation, thus leading to cellular iron retention and decreased levels of circulating iron. As iron is required for hemoglobin synthesis, the tight link between erythropoiesis and iron metabolism is particularly relevant to sports physiology. The iron needed for hemoglobin synthesis is ensured by inhibiting hepcidin to increase ferroportin activity and iron availability and hence to make certain that efficient blood oxygen transport occurs for aerobic exercise. However, hepcidin expression is also affected by exercise-associated conditions, such as iron deficiency, anemia or hypoxia, and, particularly, inflammation, which can play a role in the pathogenesis of sports anemia. Here, we review recent advances showing the relevance of iron for physical exercise and athletic performance. Low body iron levels can cause anemia and thus limit the delivery of oxygen to exercising muscle, but tissue iron deficiency may also affect performance by, for example, hampering muscle oxidative metabolism. Accordingly, a hemoglobin-independent effect of iron on exercise capacity has been demonstrated in animal models and humans. Here, we review recent advances showing the relevance of iron for physical exercise and athletic performance.

  13. Iron regulatory proteins and their role in controlling iron metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Lukas C

    2015-02-01

    Cellular iron homeostasis is regulated by post-transcriptional feedback mechanisms, which control the expression of proteins involved in iron uptake, release and storage. Two cytoplasmic proteins with mRNA-binding properties, iron regulatory proteins 1 and 2 (IRP1 and IRP2) play a central role in this regulation. Foremost, IRPs regulate ferritin H and ferritin L translation and thus iron storage, as well as transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) mRNA stability, thereby adjusting receptor expression and iron uptake via receptor-mediated endocytosis of iron-loaded transferrin. In addition splice variants of iron transporters for import and export at the plasma-membrane, divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin are regulated by IRPs. These mechanisms have probably evolved to maintain the cytoplasmic labile iron pool (LIP) at an appropriate level. In certain tissues, the regulation exerted by IRPs influences iron homeostasis and utilization of the entire organism. In intestine, the control of ferritin expression limits intestinal iron absorption and, thus, whole body iron levels. In bone marrow, erythroid heme biosynthesis is coordinated with iron availability through IRP-mediated translational control of erythroid 5-aminolevulinate synthase mRNA. Moreover, the translational control of HIF2α mRNA in kidney by IRP1 coordinates erythropoietin synthesis with iron and oxygen supply. Besides IRPs, body iron absorption is negatively regulated by hepcidin. This peptide hormone, synthesized and secreted by the liver in response to high serum iron, downregulates ferroportin at the protein level and thereby limits iron absorption from the diet. Hepcidin will not be discussed in further detail here.

  14. Iron metabolism in athletes--achieving a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Latunde-Dada, Gladys O

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an important mineral element required for diverse life processes. Its metabolism is almost synonymous to erythrocyte maintenance, erythropoiesis and erythrophagocytosis. Consequently, exercise exertion impacts significantly on red cell haematology. Here, the interactions between exercise and erythropoiesis are explored. Hepcidin, the peptide hormone that regulates systemic iron metabolism, decreases in response to erythropoiesis by facilitating increased iron efflux from ferroportin into circulation. However, during exercise, there is an alarming increase in the expression of hepcidin resulting in a negative iron balance in athletes. In this review, the confounding cause and effect scenarios of exercise, athlete training and haematology and hepcidin interactions are discussed.

  15. Mild copper deficiency alters gene expression of proteins involved in iron metabolism.

    PubMed

    Auclair, Sylvain; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Coudray, Charles; Schneider, Susanne; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Mazur, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    Iron and copper homeostasis share common proteins and are therefore closely linked to each other. For example, copper-containing proteins like ceruloplasmin and hephaestin oxidize Fe(2+) during cellular export processes for transport in the circulation bound to transferrin. Indeed, copper deficiency provokes iron metabolism disorders leading to anemia and liver iron accumulation. The aim of the present work was to understand the cross-talk between copper status and iron metabolism. For this purpose we have established dietary copper deficiency in C57BL6 male mice during twelve weeks. Hematological parameters, copper and iron status were evaluated. cDNA microarray studies were performed to investigate gene expression profiles of proteins involved in iron metabolism in the liver, duodenum and spleen. Our results showed that copper deficiency induces microcytic and hypochromic anemia as well as liver iron overload. Gene expression profiles, however, indicate that hepatic and intestinal mRNA expression neither compensates for hepatic iron overload nor the anemia observed in this mouse model. Instead, major modifications of gene expression occurred in the spleen. We observed increased mRNA levels of the transferrin receptors 1 and 2 and of several proteins involved in the heme biosynthesis pathway (ferrochelatase, UroD, UroS,...). These results suggest that copper-deficient mice respond to the deficiency induced anemia by an adaptation leading to an increase in erythrocyte synthesis.

  16. Molecular and Cellular Bases of Iron Metabolism in Humans.

    PubMed

    Milto, I V; Suhodolo, I V; Prokopieva, V D; Klimenteva, T K

    2016-06-01

    Iron is a microelement with the most completely studied biological functions. Its wide dissemination in nature and involvement in key metabolic pathways determine the great importance of this metal for uni- and multicellular organisms. The biological role of iron is characterized by its indispensability in cell respiration and various biochemical processes providing normal functioning of cells and organs of the human body. Iron also plays an important role in the generation of free radicals, which under different conditions can be useful or damaging to biomolecules and cells. In the literature, there are many reviews devoted to iron metabolism and its regulation in pro- and eukaryotes. Significant progress has been achieved recently in understanding molecular bases of iron metabolism. The purpose of this review is to systematize available data on mechanisms of iron assimilation, distribution, and elimination from the human body, as well as on its biological importance and on the major iron-containing proteins. The review summarizes recent ideas about iron metabolism. Special attention is paid to mechanisms of iron absorption in the small intestine and to interrelationships of cellular and extracellular pools of this metal in the human body.

  17. Regulation of Iron Metabolism by Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yixuan; Kumar, Sunil; Menon, Angeli L.; Scott, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential element for the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and many of its iron-containing enzymes have been characterized. How iron assimilation is regulated, however, is unknown. The genome sequence contains genes encoding two putative iron-responsive transcription factors, DtxR and Fur. Global transcriptional profiles of the dtxR deletion mutant (ΔDTXR) and the parent strain under iron-sufficient and iron-limited conditions indicated that DtxR represses the expression of the genes encoding two putative iron transporters, Ftr1 and FeoAB, under iron-sufficient conditions. Under iron limitation, DtxR represses expression of the gene encoding the iron-containing enzyme aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase and a putative ABC-type transporter. Analysis of the dtxR gene sequence indicated an incorrectly predicted translation start site, and the corrected full-length DtxR protein, in contrast to the truncated version, specifically bound to the promoters of ftr1 and feoAB, confirming its role as a transcription regulator. Expression of the gene encoding Ftr1 was dramatically upregulated by iron limitation, but no phenotype was observed for the ΔFTR1 deletion mutant under iron-limited conditions. The intracellular iron concentrations of ΔFTR1 and the parent strain were similar, suggesting that under the conditions tested, Ftr1 is not an essential iron transporter despite its response to iron. In contrast to DtxR, the Fur protein appears not to be a functional regulator in P. furiosus, since it did not bind to the promoters of any of the iron-regulated genes and the deletion mutant (ΔFUR) revealed no transcriptional responses to iron availability. DtxR is therefore the key iron-responsive transcriptional regulator in P. furiosus. PMID:23504018

  18. Disorders of iron metabolism. Part 1: molecular basis of iron homoeostasis.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Manuel; García-Erce, José Antonio; Remacha, Angel Francisco

    2011-04-01

    IRON FUNCTIONS: Iron is an essential micronutrient, as it is required for satisfactory erythropoietic function, oxidative metabolism and cellular immune response. IRON PHYSIOLOGY: Absorption of dietary iron (1-2 mg/day) is tightly regulated and just balanced against iron loss because there are no active iron excretory mechanisms. Dietary iron is found in haem (10%) and non-haem (ionic, 90%) forms, and their absorption occurs at the apical surface of duodenal enterocytes via different mechanisms. Iron is exported by ferroportin 1 (the only putative iron exporter) across the basolateral membrane of the enterocyte into the circulation (absorbed iron), where it binds to transferrin and is transported to sites of use and storage. Transferrin-bound iron enters target cells-mainly erythroid cells, but also immune and hepatic cells-via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Senescent erythrocytes are phagocytosed by reticuloendothelial system macrophages, haem is metabolised by haem oxygenase, and the released iron is stored as ferritin. Iron will be later exported from macrophages to transferrin. This internal turnover of iron is essential to meet the requirements of erythropoiesis (20-30 mg/day). As transferrin becomes saturated in iron-overload states, excess iron is transported to the liver, the other main storage organ for iron, carrying the risk of free radical formation and tissue damage. REGULATION OF IRON HOMOEOSTASIS: Hepcidin, synthesised by hepatocytes in response to iron concentrations, inflammation, hypoxia and erythropoiesis, is the main iron-regulatory hormone. It binds ferroportin on enterocytes, macrophages and hepatocytes triggering its internalisation and lysosomal degradation. Inappropriate hepcidin secretion may lead to either iron deficiency or iron overload.

  19. The Role of Hepcidin in Iron Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Elizabeta; Ganz, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    Hepcidin is the central regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. Dysregulation of hepcidin production results in a variety of iron disorders. Hepcidin deficiency is the cause of iron overload in hereditary hemochromatosis, iron-loading anemias, and hepatitis C. Hepcidin excess is associated with anemia of inflammation, chronic kidney disease and iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia. Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of this new knowledge are beginning to emerge. Dr. Ernest Beutler played a significant role in advancing our understanding of the function of hepcidin. This review is dedicated to his memory. PMID:19907144

  20. Metabolic crossroads of iron and copper

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James F; Prohaska, Joseph R; Knutson, Mitchell D

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between the essential dietary metals, iron and copper, have been known for many years. This review highlights recent advances in iron-copper interactions with a focus on tissues and cell types important for regulating whole-body iron and copper homeostasis. Cells that mediate dietary assimilation (enterocytes) and storage and distribution (hepatocytes) of iron and copper are considered, along with the principal users (erythroid cells) and recyclers of red cell iron (reticuloendothelial macrophages). Interactions between iron and copper in the brain are also discussed. Many unanswered questions regarding the role of these metals and their interactions in health and disease emerge from this synopsis, highlighting extensive future research opportunities. PMID:20384844

  1. Drug-Induced Metabolic Acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Amy Quynh Trang; Xu, Li Hao Richie; Moe, Orson W.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis could emerge from diseases disrupting acid-base equilibrium or from drugs that induce similar derangements. Occurrences are usually accompanied by comorbid conditions of drug-induced metabolic acidosis, and clinical outcomes may range from mild to fatal. It is imperative that clinicians not only are fully aware of the list of drugs that may lead to metabolic acidosis but also understand the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. In this review, we categorized drug-induced metabolic acidosis in terms of pathophysiological mechanisms, as well as individual drugs’ characteristics. PMID:26918138

  2. Catecholamines promote Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae growth by regulating iron metabolism.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Chen, Zhaohui; Bei, Weicheng; Su, Zhipeng; Huang, Qi; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Huanchun; Zhou, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Catecholamines are host stress hormones that can induce the growth of many bacteria by facilitating iron utilization and/or regulate the expression of virulence genes through specific hormone receptors. Whether these two responsive pathways are interconnected is unknown. In our previous study, it was found that catecholamines can regulate the expression of a great number of genes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important swine respiratory pathogen. However, bacterial growth was not affected by catecholamines in rich medium. In this study, it was discovered that catecholamines affected A. pleuropneumoniae growth in chemically defined medium (CDM). We found that serum inhibited A. pleuropneumoniae growth in CDM, while epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine promoted A. pleuropneumoniae growth in the CDM containing serum. The known bacterial hormone receptor QseC didn't play roles in this process. Ion-supplementation and transcriptome analysis indicated that serum addition resulted in iron-restricted conditions which were alleviated by the addition of catecholamines. Transferrin, one of the components in serum, inhibited the growth of A. pleuropneumoniae in CDM, an effect reversed by addition of catecholamines in a TonB2-dependent manner. Our data demonstrate that catecholamines promote A. pleuropneumoniae growth by regulating iron-acquisition and metabolism, which is independent of the adrenergic receptor QseC.

  3. Current status of iron metabolism: Clinical and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Conde Diez, Susana; de Las Cuevas Allende, Ricardo; Conde García, Eulogio

    2017-03-03

    Hepcidin is the main regulator of iron metabolism and a pathogenic factor in iron disorders. Hepcidin deficiency causes iron overload, whereas hepcidin excess causes or contributes to the development of iron-restricted anaemia in chronic inflammatory diseases. We know the mechanisms involved in the synthesis of hepcidin and, under physiological conditions, there is a balance between activating signals and inhibitory signals that regulate its synthesis. The former include those related to plasmatic iron level and also those related to chronic inflammatory diseases. The most important inhibitory signals are related to active erythropoiesis and to matriptase-2. Knowing how hepcidin is synthesised has helped design new pharmacological treatments whose main target is the hepcidin. In the near future, there will be effective treatments aimed at correcting the defect of many of these iron metabolism disorders.

  4. Metabolic response in roots of Prunus rootstocks submitted to iron chlorosis.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Sergio; Ollat, Nathalie; Deborde, Catherine; Maucourt, Mickaël; Rellán-Álvarez, Rubén; Moreno, María Ángeles; Gogorcena, Yolanda

    2011-03-15

    Iron deficiency induces several responses to iron shortage in plants. Metabolic changes occur to sustain the increased iron uptake capacity of Fe-deficient plants. We evaluated the metabolic changes of three Prunus rootstocks submitted to iron chlorosis and their different responses for tolerance using measurements of metabolites and enzymatic activities. The more tolerant rootstocks Adesoto (Prunus insititia) and GF 677 (Prunus amygdalus×Prunus persica), and the more sensitive Barrier (P. persica×Prunus davidiana) were grown hydroponically in iron-sufficient and -deficient conditions over two weeks. Sugar, organic and amino acid concentrations of root tips were determined after two weeks of iron shortage by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of extracts. Complementary analyses of organic acids were performed by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The major soluble sugars found were glucose and sucrose. The major organic acids were malic and citric acids, and the major amino acid was asparagine. Iron deficiency increased root sucrose, total organic and amino acid concentrations and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity. After two weeks of iron deficiency, the malic, citric and succinic acid concentrations increased in the three rootstocks, although no significant differences were found among genotypes with different tolerance to iron chlorosis. The tolerant rootstock Adesoto showed higher total organic and amino acid concentrations. In contrast, the susceptible rootstock Barrier showed lower total amino acid concentration and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity values. These results suggest that the induction of this enzyme activity under iron deficiency, as previously shown in herbaceous plants, indicates the tolerance level of rootstocks to iron chlorosis. The analysis of other metabolic parameters, such as organic and amino acid concentrations, provides complementary information for selection of genotypes tolerant to iron

  5. New developments and controversies in iron metabolism and iron chelation therapy.

    PubMed

    Kontoghiorghe, Christina N; Kontoghiorghes, George J

    2016-03-26

    Iron is essential for all organisms including microbial, cancer and human cells. More than a quarter of the human population is affected by abnormalities of iron metabolism, mainly from iron deficiency and iron overload. Iron also plays an important role in free radical pathology and oxidative damage which is observed in almost all major diseases, cancer and ageing. New developments include the complete treatment of iron overload and reduction of morbidity and mortality in thalassaemia using deferiprone and selected deferiprone/deferoxamine combinations and also the use of the maltol iron complex in the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia. There is also a prospect of using deferiprone as a universal antioxidant in non iron overloaded diseases such as neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, renal, infectious diseases and cancer. New regulatory molecules of iron metabolism such as endogenous and dietary chelating molecules, hepcidin, mitochondrial ferritin and their role in health and disease is under evaluation. Similarly, new mechanisms of iron deposition, removal, distribution and toxicity have been identified using new techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging increasing our understanding of iron metabolic processes and the targeted treatment of related diseases. The uniform distribution of iron in iron overload between organs and within each organ is no longer valid. Several other controversies such as the toxicity impact of non transferrin bound iron vs injected iron, the excess levels of iron in tissues causing toxicity and the role of chelation on iron absorption need further investigation. Commercial interests of pharmaceutical companies and connections to leading journals are playing a crucial role in shaping worldwide medical opinion on drug sales and use but also patients' therapeutic outcome and safety. Major controversies include the selection criteria and risk/benefit assessment in the use of deferasirox in thalassaemia and more so in idiopathic

  6. New developments and controversies in iron metabolism and iron chelation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kontoghiorghe, Christina N; Kontoghiorghes, George J

    2016-01-01

    Iron is essential for all organisms including microbial, cancer and human cells. More than a quarter of the human population is affected by abnormalities of iron metabolism, mainly from iron deficiency and iron overload. Iron also plays an important role in free radical pathology and oxidative damage which is observed in almost all major diseases, cancer and ageing. New developments include the complete treatment of iron overload and reduction of morbidity and mortality in thalassaemia using deferiprone and selected deferiprone/deferoxamine combinations and also the use of the maltol iron complex in the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia. There is also a prospect of using deferiprone as a universal antioxidant in non iron overloaded diseases such as neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, renal, infectious diseases and cancer. New regulatory molecules of iron metabolism such as endogenous and dietary chelating molecules, hepcidin, mitochondrial ferritin and their role in health and disease is under evaluation. Similarly, new mechanisms of iron deposition, removal, distribution and toxicity have been identified using new techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging increasing our understanding of iron metabolic processes and the targeted treatment of related diseases. The uniform distribution of iron in iron overload between organs and within each organ is no longer valid. Several other controversies such as the toxicity impact of non transferrin bound iron vs injected iron, the excess levels of iron in tissues causing toxicity and the role of chelation on iron absorption need further investigation. Commercial interests of pharmaceutical companies and connections to leading journals are playing a crucial role in shaping worldwide medical opinion on drug sales and use but also patients’ therapeutic outcome and safety. Major controversies include the selection criteria and risk/benefit assessment in the use of deferasirox in thalassaemia and more so in idiopathic

  7. Oxidative Stress and the Homeodynamics of Iron Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bresgen, Nikolaus; Eckl, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Iron and oxygen share a delicate partnership since both are indispensable for survival, but if the partnership becomes inadequate, this may rapidly terminate life. Virtually all cell components are directly or indirectly affected by cellular iron metabolism, which represents a complex, redox-based machinery that is controlled by, and essential to, metabolic requirements. Under conditions of increased oxidative stress—i.e., enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)—however, this machinery may turn into a potential threat, the continued requirement for iron promoting adverse reactions such as the iron/H2O2-based formation of hydroxyl radicals, which exacerbate the initial pro-oxidant condition. This review will discuss the multifaceted homeodynamics of cellular iron management under normal conditions as well as in the context of oxidative stress. PMID:25970586

  8. Microcytic anemia with iron malabsorption: an inherited disorder of iron metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hartman, K R; Barker, J A

    1996-04-01

    Two siblings were identified with severe hypoproliferative microcytic anemia and iron malabsorption, in the absence of any gastrointestinal disorder or blood loss. These children had severe microcytosis (MCV 48 fl, hemoglobin 7.5 g/dl) with decreased serum iron, elevated serum TIBC, and decreased serum ferritin, despite prolonged treatment with oral iron. An iron challenge study with an oral dose of 2 mg/kg elemental iron as ferrous sulfate documented iron malabsorption. After treatment with intravenous iron dextran, there was an absence of the expected reticulocytosis and only a partial correction of the hemoglobin, hematocrit, and microcytosis. The bone marrow was hypocellular with abnormal iron incorporation into erythroid precursor cells. This appears to be a rare form of inherited anemia characterized by iron malabsorption and disordered iron metabolism that only partially corrects after the administration of parenteral iron. These features resemble those found in the microcytic mouse (mk/mk), which also has severe microcytic anemia and iron malabsorption that partially responds to parenteral iron.

  9. Alleviation of iron induced oxidative stress by the grape fruit flavanone naringin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Reddy, Tiyagura Koti

    2011-04-25

    Iron is an essential element that participates in several metabolic activities of cells; however, excess iron is a major cause of iron-induced oxidative stress and several human diseases. The protective effect of naringin, a grape fruit flavanone, was studied in iron overloaded isolated mouse liver mitochondria, where the isolated mitochondrial fraction was incubated with various concentrations of naringin before ferric ion loading. Iron overloading of mitochondrial fraction resulted in an increase in lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA damage, whereas iron overload reduced the glutathione (GSH) concentration, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Pretreatment of mitochondrial fraction with naringin inhibited iron-induced lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA damage. Conversely, naringin supplementation arrested iron-induced depletion in the GSH contents, GSHPx, GST, SOD and catalase activities significantly. Ferric iron reduction assay revealed that naringin could not reduce ferric iron into ferrous iron indicating that it did not exhibit prooxidant activity. Iron free coordination site assay indicated that naringin was unable to occupy all the active sites of iron indicating that naringin did not completely chelate iron. Our study demonstrates that naringin was able to share the burden of endogenous oxidants by inhibiting the iron-induced depletion of all important antioxidant enzymes as well as GSH and may act as a good antioxidant.

  10. Heme and iron induce protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Travassos, Leonardo H; Vasconcellos, Luiz R C; Bozza, Marcelo T; Carneiro, Leticia A M

    2017-03-04

    Heme is an essential molecule expressed in many tissues where it plays key roles as the prosthetic group of several proteins involved in vital physiological and metabolic processes such as gas and electron transport. Structurally, heme is a tetrapyrrole ring containing an atom of iron (Fe) in its center. When released into the extracellular milieu, heme exerts several deleterious effects, which make it an important player in infectious and noninfectious hemolytic diseases where large amounts of free heme are observed such as malaria, dengue fever, β-thalassemia, sickle cell disease and ischemia-reperfusion. Our recent work has uncovered an unappreciated cellular response triggered by heme or Fe, one of its degradation products, on macrophages, which is the formation of protein aggregates known as aggresome-like induced structres (ALIS). This response was shown to be fully dependent on ROS production and the activation of the transcription factor NFE2L2/NRF2. In addition, we have demonstrated that heme degradation by HMOX1/HO-1 (heme oxygenase 1) is required and that Fe is essential for the formation of ALIS, as heme analogs lacking the central atom of Fe are not able to induce these structures. ALIS formation is also observed in vivo, in a model of phenylhydrazine (PHZ)-induced hemolysis, indicating that it is an integral part of the host response to excessive free heme and that it may play a role in cellular homeostasis.

  11. Effects of iron replenishment on iron, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium metabolism in iron-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Pallarés, I; López-Aliaga, I; Lisbona, F; Moratalla, A; Gómez-Ayala, A E; Barrionuevo, M; Hartiti, S; Alférez, M J; Campos, M S

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Fe deficiency on the nutritive utilization of Fe, Ca, P and Mg in rats. Aside from the well known depletion of Fe in liver, femur and sternum with low values of Hb, Fe deficiency impaired Ca, P and Mg metabolism at different degrees. Iron deficiency altered Mg absorption, lowered the concentration of Ca in the liver, femur and sternum, raised the concentration of P and Mg in the liver, and decreased P in the femur. The altered status was not completely rectified by iron supplementation as the animals were still slightly anemic at the end of the study. The second purpose of the study was to evaluate the ability of three iron compounds (ferric citrate, ferrous sulfate and ferrous ascorbate) to correct the undesirable effects of Fe deficiency. Ten days after treatment with these diets, Fe-deficient rats still had reduced Mg absorption, especially those fed ferric citrate. The concentrations of hemoglobin approached normal values in all groups; however, serum Fe remained low, indicating that Fe reserves were still depleted. Hepatic and femoral Fe concentrations were also lower in all Fe-deficient groups regardless of the diet given, compared with their respective controls, whereas Fe concentrations in the sternum increased significantly with all three diets, suggesting an increase in erythropoiesis. The concentration of Ca, P and Mg in liver approached normal values, and appeared to normalize in the femur, except that Ca and P concentrations remained low with the citrate diet. In the sternum, a site assumed to have higher requirements for these minerals, the concentrations of Ca, P and Mg also increased. These findings indicate that Fe is involved in the bone mineralization, and that in physiological terms, Fe interacts favorably with Ca, P and Mg metabolism, since Fe deficiency altered the status of these metals. These findings also suggest that ferrous ascorbate and ferrous sulfate were more effectively absorbed than was ferric citrate.

  12. Vitamin A deficiency modulates iron metabolism via ineffective erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Marcela S B; Siqueira, Egle M A; Trindade, Luciano S; Arruda, Sandra F

    2014-10-01

    Vitamin A modulates inflammatory status, iron metabolism and erythropoiesis. Given that these factors modulate the expression of the hormone hepcidin (Hamp), we investigated the effect of vitamin A deficiency on molecular biomarkers of iron metabolism, the inflammatory response and the erythropoietic system. Five groups of male Wistar rats were treated: control (AIN-93G), the vitamin A-deficient (VAD) diet, the iron-deficient (FeD) diet, the vitamin A- and iron-deficient (VAFeD) diet or the diet with 12 mg atRA/kg diet replacing all-trans-retinyl palmitate by all-trans retinoic acid (atRA). Vitamin A deficiency reduced serum iron and transferrin saturation levels, increased spleen iron concentrations, reduced hepatic Hamp and kidney erythropoietin messenger RNA (mRNA) levels and up-regulated hepatic and spleen heme oxygenase-1 gene expression while reducing the liver HO-1 specific activity compared with the control. The FeD and VAFeD rats exhibited lower levels of serum iron and transferrin saturation, lower iron concentrations in tissues and lower hepatic Hamp mRNA levels compared with the control. The treatment with atRA resulted in lower serum iron and transferrin concentrations, an increased iron concentration in the liver, a decreased iron concentration in the spleen and in the gut, and decreased hepatic Hamp mRNA levels. In summary, these findings suggest that vitamin A deficiency leads to ineffective erythropoiesis by the down-regulation of renal erythropoietin expression in the kidney, resulting in erythrocyte malformation and the consequent accumulation of the heme group in the spleen. Vitamin A deficiency indirectly modulates systemic iron homeostasis by enhancing erythrophagocytosis of undifferentiated erythrocytes.

  13. Hephaestin and ceruloplasmin facilitate iron metabolism in the mouse kidney

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bo; Liu, Guohao; Zheng, Jiashuo; Chen, Mengxia; Maimaitiming, Zaitunamu; Chen, Min; Liu, Shunli; Jiang, Ruiwei; Fuqua, Brie K.; Dunaief, Joshua L.; Vulpe, Chris D.; Anderson, Gregory J.; Wang, Hongwei; Chen, Huijun

    2016-01-01

    Multicopper ferroxidases (MCFs) play an important role in cellular iron homeostasis. However, the role of MCFs in renal metabolism remains unclear. We used Hephaestin (Heph) and Ceruloplasmin (Cp) single or double (Heph/Cp) knockout (KO) mice to study the roles of MCFs in the kidney. Renal iron levels and the expression of iron metabolism genes were examined. The non-heme iron content both in the renal cortex and medulla of Heph/Cp KO mice was significantly increased. Perls’ Prussian blue staining showed iron accumulation on the apical side of renal tubular cells in Heph/Cp KO mice. A significant increase in ferritin protein expression was also observed in the renal medulla and cortex of Heph/Cp KO mice. Both DMT1 and TfR1 protein expression were significantly decreased in the renal medulla of Heph/Cp KO mice, while the expression of DMT1 protein was significantly increased in the renal cortex of these animals. Significant increase in proteinuria and total urinary iron was observed in the double knockout mice, and this was associated with compromised structural integrity. These results suggest that KO of both the HEPH and CP genes leads to kidney iron deposition and toxicity, MCFs could protect kidney against a damage from iron excess. PMID:27991585

  14. Iron medication-induced gastric mucosal injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuchen; Ouyang, Jie; Wieczorek, Rosemary; DeSoto, Fidelina

    2009-01-01

    Severe gastrointestinal erosion, ulcer, necrosis and strictures after an acute iron overdose are well described. However, gastric mucosal injury in patients receiving therapeutic iron has received only scant recognition despite its wide use. We report a case of iron medication-induced gastric mucosal injury in a 76-year-old male who presented with iron deficiency anemia and had been taking ferrous sulfate tablet for 4 years. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed a pale, villous appearing flat lesion along the lesser curvature of gastric body. Histopathologic examination of EGD biopsies of the flat lesion showed brown crystalline materials deposited in the lamina propria of gastric mucosa, which was accompanied with fibrosis, chronic inflammation, and foreign body reaction. The crystalline materials were covered and admixed with gastric epithelium. Prussian blue iron stain confirmed that the brown crystalline materials were iron. The iron and hemosiderin accumulation was also seen in cytoplasm of epithelial cells and lumen of fundic gastric glands. The recognition and reporting by pathologists of iron-induced changes in EGD biopsies will alert clinicians to this underrecognized but easily correctable complication by alternative forms of iron therapy, such as liquid preparation.

  15. New perspectives on the molecular basis of the interaction between oxygen homeostasis and iron metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Recalcati, Stefania; Gammella, Elena; Cairo, Gaetano

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen and iron are two elements closely related from a (bio)chemical point of view. Moreover, they share the characteristic of being indispensable for life, while also being potentially toxic. Therefore, their level is strictly monitored, and sophisticated pathways have evolved to face variations in either element. In addition, the expression of proteins involved in iron and oxygen metabolism is mainly controlled by a complex interplay of proteins that sense both iron levels and oxygen availability (ie, prolyl hydroxylases, hypoxia inducible factors, and iron regulatory proteins), and in turn activate feedback mechanisms to re-establish homeostasis. In this review, we describe how cells and organisms utilize these intricate networks to regulate responses to changes in oxygen and iron levels. We also explore the role of these pathways in some pathophysiological settings. PMID:27774486

  16. Proteomic analysis of iron acquisition, metabolic and regulatory responses of Yersinia pestis to iron starvation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of the bubonic plague. Efficient iron acquisition systems are critical to the ability of Y. pestis to infect, spread and grow in mammalian hosts, because iron is sequestered and is considered part of the innate host immune defence against invading pathogens. We used a proteomic approach to determine expression changes of iron uptake systems and intracellular consequences of iron deficiency in the Y. pestis strain KIM6+ at two physiologically relevant temperatures (26°C and 37°C). Results Differential protein display was performed for three Y. pestis subcellular fractions. Five characterized Y. pestis iron/siderophore acquisition systems (Ybt, Yfe, Yfu, Yiu and Hmu) and a putative iron/chelate outer membrane receptor (Y0850) were increased in abundance in iron-starved cells. The iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster assembly system Suf, adapted to oxidative stress and iron starvation in E. coli, was also more abundant, suggesting functional activity of Suf in Y. pestis under iron-limiting conditions. Metabolic and reactive oxygen-deactivating enzymes dependent on Fe-S clusters or other iron cofactors were decreased in abundance in iron-depleted cells. This data was consistent with lower activities of aconitase and catalase in iron-starved vs. iron-rich cells. In contrast, pyruvate oxidase B which metabolizes pyruvate via electron transfer to ubiquinone-8 for direct utilization in the respiratory chain was strongly increased in abundance and activity in iron-depleted cells. Conclusions Many protein abundance differences were indicative of the important regulatory role of the ferric uptake regulator Fur. Iron deficiency seems to result in a coordinated shift from iron-utilizing to iron-independent biochemical pathways in the cytoplasm of Y. pestis. With growth temperature as an additional variable in proteomic comparisons of the Y. pestis fractions (26°C and 37°C), there was little evidence for

  17. The Interface Between Iron Metabolism and Gene-Based Iron Contrast for MRI.

    PubMed

    Goldhawk, Donna E; Gelman, Neil; Sengupta, Anindita; Prato, Frank S

    2015-01-01

    Using a gene-based approach to track cellular and molecular activity with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has many advantages. The strong correlation between transverse relaxation rates and total cellular iron content provides a basis for developing sensitive and quantitative detection of MRI reporter gene expression. In addition to biophysical concepts, general features of mammalian iron regulation add valuable context for interpreting molecular MRI predicated on gene-based iron labeling. With particular reference to the potential of magnetotactic bacterial gene expression as a magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent for mammalian cell tracking, studies in different cell culture models highlight the influence of intrinsic iron regulation on the MRI signal. The interplay between dynamic regulation of mammalian iron metabolism and expression systems designed to sequester iron biominerals for MRI is presented from the perspective of their potential influence on MR image interpretation.

  18. The Interface Between Iron Metabolism and Gene-Based Iron Contrast for MRI

    PubMed Central

    Goldhawk, Donna E.; Gelman, Neil; Sengupta, Anindita; Prato, Frank S.

    2015-01-01

    Using a gene-based approach to track cellular and molecular activity with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has many advantages. The strong correlation between transverse relaxation rates and total cellular iron content provides a basis for developing sensitive and quantitative detection of MRI reporter gene expression. In addition to biophysical concepts, general features of mammalian iron regulation add valuable context for interpreting molecular MRI predicated on gene-based iron labeling. With particular reference to the potential of magnetotactic bacterial gene expression as a magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent for mammalian cell tracking, studies in different cell culture models highlight the influence of intrinsic iron regulation on the MRI signal. The interplay between dynamic regulation of mammalian iron metabolism and expression systems designed to sequester iron biominerals for MRI is presented from the perspective of their potential influence on MR image interpretation. PMID:26483608

  19. Orphan nuclear receptor SHP regulates iron metabolism through inhibition of BMP6-mediated hepcidin expression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Don-Kyu; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Jung, Yoon Seok; Kim, Ki-Sun; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Lee, Yong-Soo; Yuk, Jae-Min; Oh, Byung-Chul; Choy, Hyon E.; Dooley, Steven; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Lee, Chul-Ho; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Small heterodimer partner (SHP) is a transcriptional corepressor regulating diverse metabolic processes. Here, we show that SHP acts as an intrinsic negative regulator of iron homeostasis. SHP-deficient mice maintained on a high-iron diet showed increased serum hepcidin levels, decreased expression of the iron exporter ferroportin as well as iron accumulation compared to WT mice. Conversely, overexpression of either SHP or AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a metabolic sensor inducing SHP expression, suppressed BMP6-induced hepcidin expression. In addition, an inhibitory effect of AMPK activators metformin and AICAR on BMP6-mediated hepcidin gene expression was significantly attenuated by ablation of SHP expression. Interestingly, SHP physically interacted with SMAD1 and suppressed BMP6-mediated recruitment of the SMAD complex to the hepcidin gene promoter by inhibiting the formation of SMAD1 and SMAD4 complex. Finally, overexpression of SHP and metformin treatment of BMP6 stimulated mice substantially restored hepcidin expression and serum iron to baseline levels. These results reveal a previously unrecognized role for SHP in the transcriptional control of iron homeostasis. PMID:27688041

  20. Modulation of iron metabolism by iron chelation regulates intracellular calcium and increases sensitivity to doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Yalcintepe, Leman; Halis, Emre

    2016-01-01

    Increased intracellular iron levels can both promote cell proliferation and death, as such; iron has a “two-sided effect” in the delicate balance of human health. Though the role of iron in the development of cancer remains unclear, investigations of iron chelators as anti-tumor agents have revealed promising results. Here, we investigated the influence of iron and desferrioxamine (DFO), the iron chelating agent on intracellular calcium in a human leukemia cell line, K562. Iron uptake is associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Therefore, we showed that iron also caused dose-dependent ROS generation in K562 cells. The measurement of intracellular calcium was determined using Furo-2 with a fluorescence spectrophotometer. The iron delivery process to the cytoplasmic iron pool was examined by monitoring the fluorescence of cells loaded with calcein-acetoxymethyl. Our data showed that iron increased intracellular calcium, and this response was 8 times higher when cells were incubated with DFO. K562 cells with DFO caused a 3.5 times increase of intracellular calcium in the presence of doxorubicin (DOX). In conclusion, DFO induces intracellular calcium and increases their sensitivity to DOX, a chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:26773173

  1. Medicinal iron-induced hepatic cirrhosis: reversal by phlebotomy: studies on pathogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Wheby, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    A patient with no underlying hematologic or iron metabolic disorder developed iron induced hepatic cirrhosis as a consequence of long term medicinal iron ingestion. Marked improvement in liver histology followed removal of 28 grams of iron by phlebotomy. Radioautographic studies in rats showed a periportal hepatocyte concentration of radioiron absorbed from the intestine while plasma transferrin was saturated. Based on these and other observations an hypothesis is proposed to explain liver damage in disorders of iron overload. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:617015

  2. Dysregulation of cellular iron metabolism in Friedreich ataxia: from primary iron-sulfur cluster deficit to mitochondrial iron accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Martelli, Alain; Puccio, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is the most common recessive ataxia in the Caucasian population and is characterized by a mixed spinocerebellar and sensory ataxia frequently associating cardiomyopathy. The disease results from decreased expression of the FXN gene coding for the mitochondrial protein frataxin. Early histological and biochemical study of the pathophysiology in patient's samples revealed that dysregulation of iron metabolism is a key feature of the disease, mainly characterized by mitochondrial iron accumulation and by decreased activity of iron-sulfur cluster enzymes. In the recent past years, considerable progress in understanding the function of frataxin has been provided through cellular and biochemical approaches, pointing to the primary role of frataxin in iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis. However, why and how the impact of frataxin deficiency on this essential biosynthetic pathway leads to mitochondrial iron accumulation is still poorly understood. Herein, we review data on both the primary function of frataxin and the nature of the iron metabolism dysregulation in FRDA. To date, the pathophysiological implication of the mitochondrial iron overload in FRDA remains to be clarified. PMID:24917819

  3. Diet-induced metabolic acidosis.

    PubMed

    Adeva, María M; Souto, Gema

    2011-08-01

    The modern Western-type diet is deficient in fruits and vegetables and contains excessive animal products, generating the accumulation of non-metabolizable anions and a lifespan state of overlooked metabolic acidosis, whose magnitude increases progressively with aging due to the physiological decline in kidney function. In response to this state of diet-derived metabolic acidosis, the kidney implements compensating mechanisms aimed to restore the acid-base balance, such as the removal of the non-metabolizable anions, the conservation of citrate, and the enhancement of kidney ammoniagenesis and urinary excretion of ammonium ions. These adaptive processes lower the urine pH and induce an extensive change in urine composition, including hypocitraturia, hypercalciuria, and nitrogen and phosphate wasting. Low urine pH predisposes to uric acid stone formation. Hypocitraturia and hypercalciuria are risk factors for calcium stone disease. Even a very mild degree of metabolic acidosis induces skeletal muscle resistance to the insulin action and dietary acid load may be an important variable in predicting the metabolic abnormalities and the cardiovascular risk of the general population, the overweight and obese persons, and other patient populations including diabetes and chronic kidney failure. High dietary acid load is more likely to result in diabetes and systemic hypertension and may increase the cardiovascular risk. Results of recent observational studies confirm an association between insulin resistance and metabolic acidosis markers, including low serum bicarbonate, high serum anion gap, hypocitraturia, and low urine pH.

  4. [Iron metabolism in breast cancer: knowledge and future].

    PubMed

    Durigova, Anna; Jacot, William; Pouderoux, Stéphane; Roques, Sylvie; Montels, Frédéric; Lamy, Pierre-Jean

    2012-01-01

    Iron plays a fundamental role in biology and its concentration in living organisms is regulated very precisely. Many molecules of storage and transportation are used to maintain the intracellular homeostasis. Cancer cells have alterations in this balance. Recent studies have shown that breast cancer cells present abnormal expression of several proteins such as hepcidin and ferroportin. A prognostic impact of these alterations has been reported in patients with breast cancer. Regulatory molecules of iron metabolism could become therapeutic targets. This is an innovative approach that has emerged for treating a cancer which, despite advances in treatment and the emergence of targeted therapies, remains the leading cause of cancer death in women.

  5. Metabolism of manganese, iron, copper, and selenium in calves

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, S.Y.

    1981-01-01

    Sixteen male Holstein calves were used to study manganese and iron metabolism. The calves were fed one of the following diets for 18 days: control, control + iron, control + manganese, and control + iron and manganese. All calves were dosed orally with manganese-54. Tissue concentrations of manganese, iron and manganese-54 were determined. Small intestinal iron was lower in calves fed the high manganese diet than in controls. Tissue manganese-54 was lower in calves fed a high manganese diet. Fecal manganese content increased in calves fed both high manganese and high manganese-high iron diets. Serum total iron was not affected by the dietary treatments. To study the effects of high dietary levels of copper and selenium on the intracellular distributions of these two elements in liver and kidney cytosol, calves were fed one of four diets for 15 days. These were 0 and 100 ppM supplemental copper and 0 and 1 ppM added selenium. The control diet containing 0.1 ppM of selenium and 15 ppM of copper. All calves were orally dosed 48 hrs prior to sacrifice with selenium-75. A high copper diet increased copper concentrations in all intracellular liver fractions and most kidney fractions. Only the effects in the liver were significant. Less copper was found in the mitochondria fractions in liver and kidney of calves fed a high selenium diet. Three major copper-binding protein peaks were separated from the soluble fractions of calf liver and kidney. Peak 1 appeared to be the major copper-binding protein in liver and kidney cytosol of copper-loaded animals. Added selenium alone or in combination with copper accentuated the copper accumulation in this peak. Most of selenium-75 was recovered in the same peak as the copper. The results of this experiment indicated that the large molecular proteins in liver and kidney cytosol of calves play an important role in copper and selenium-75 metabolism. (ERB)

  6. Dietary Iron Controls Circadian Hepatic Glucose Metabolism Through Heme Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Simcox, Judith A.; Mitchell, Thomas Creighton; Gao, Yan; Just, Steven F.; Cooksey, Robert; Cox, James; Ajioka, Richard; Jones, Deborah; Lee, Soh-hyun; King, Daniel; Huang, Jingyu

    2015-01-01

    The circadian rhythm of the liver maintains glucose homeostasis, and disruption of this rhythm is associated with type 2 diabetes. Feeding is one factor that sets the circadian clock in peripheral tissues, but relatively little is known about the role of specific dietary components in that regard. We assessed the effects of dietary iron on circadian gluconeogenesis. Dietary iron affects circadian glucose metabolism through heme-mediated regulation of the interaction of nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group d member 1 (Rev-Erbα) with its cosuppressor nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCOR). Loss of regulated heme synthesis was achieved by aminolevulinic acid (ALA) treatment of mice or cultured cells to bypass the rate-limiting enzyme in hepatic heme synthesis, ALA synthase 1 (ALAS1). ALA treatment abolishes differences in hepatic glucose production and in the expression of gluconeogenic enzymes seen with variation of dietary iron. The differences among diets are also lost with inhibition of heme synthesis with isonicotinylhydrazine. Dietary iron modulates levels of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a transcriptional activator of ALAS1, to affect hepatic heme. Treatment of mice with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine diminishes PGC-1α variation observed among the iron diets, suggesting that iron is acting through reactive oxygen species signaling. PMID:25315005

  7. Iron-induced nickel deficiency in pecan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Economic loss due to nickel (Ni) deficiency can occur in horticultural and agronomic crops. This study assesses impact of excessive iron (Fe) on expression of Ni deficiency in pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. Field and greenhouse experiments found Ni deficiency to be inducible by ei...

  8. Iron retention in preterm infants fed low iron intakes: a metabolic balance study.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Ian; Cooke, Richard J

    2010-07-01

    There is little data on iron retention in healthy preterm infants. Twenty-four metabolic balance studies were carried out in 13 preterm infants between 17 and 63 days of age, in 11 cases 2 balance were carried out 7d apart. Iron intake was 1.11 mg/kg/day (SD 0.06), less than the 2 mg/kg/d typically recommended for preterm infants. Iron retention was positive in the majority (3/13) of the first balances, and in all 11 of the second balances. Iron retention increased significantly between the two balances (from 0.095 mg/kg/d (SD 0.178) to 0.270 (SD 0.209)). Iron retention was significantly related to the time that the infant had been on enteral feeds at the time the balance was carried out. Iron retention was significantly greater than the requirement estimated to be needed to meet the needs for growth and expansion of the circulating red cell mass. Iron intakes of about 1mg/kg/d seem to be adequate to support the requirements for growth in preterm infants during this time period, but are significantly less than the estimated in utero accretion rate of the fetus.

  9. Uptake and metabolism of iron oxide nanoparticles in brain cells.

    PubMed

    Petters, Charlotte; Irrsack, Ellen; Koch, Michael; Dringen, Ralf

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are used for various applications in biomedicine, for example as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging, for cell tracking and for anti-tumor treatment. However, IONPs are also known for their toxic effects on cells and tissues which are at least in part caused by iron-mediated radical formation and oxidative stress. The potential toxicity of IONPs is especially important concerning the use of IONPs for neurobiological applications as alterations in brain iron homeostasis are strongly connected with human neurodegenerative diseases. Since IONPs are able to enter the brain, potential adverse consequences of an exposure of brain cells to IONPs have to be considered. This article describes the pathways that allow IONPs to enter the brain and summarizes the current knowledge on the uptake, the metabolism and the toxicity of IONPs for the different types of brain cells in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Estrogen contributes to regulating iron metabolism through governing ferroportin signaling via an estrogen response element.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yi; Yin, Chunyang; Chen, Yue; Zhang, Shuping; Jiang, Li; Wang, Fudi; Zhao, Meirong; Liu, Sijin

    2015-05-01

    Ferroportin (FPN) is the only known iron exporter in mammalian cells, and is universally expressed in most types of cells. FPN signaling plays a crucial role in maintaining iron homeostasis through governing the level of intracellular iron. Serum iron storage is conversely related with the estrogen level in the female bodies, and women in post-menopause are possibly subjected to iron retention. However, the potential effects of estrogen on iron metabolism are not clearly understood. Here, FPN mRNA transcription in all selected estrogen receptor positive (ER+) cells was significantly reduced upon 17β-estradiol (E2) treatment; and this inhibitory effect could be attenuated by ER antagonist tamoxifen. Likewise, in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), FPN reduction with elevated intracellular iron (reflected by increased ferritin) was observed in response to E2; however, ferritin level barely responded to E2 in FPN-null BMDMs. The observation of inhibition of FPN mRNA expression was not replicated in ER(-) cells upon E2. A functional estrogen response element (ERE) was identified within the promoter of FPN, and this ERE was responsible for the suppressive effect of E2 on FPN expression. Moreover, ovariectomized (OVX) and sham-operated (SHAM) mice were used to further confirm the in vitro finding. The expression of hepatic FPN was induced in OVX mice, compared to that in the SHAM mice. Taken together, our results demonstrated that estrogen is involved in regulating FPN expression through a functional ERE on its promoter, providing additional insights into a vital role of estrogen in iron metabolism.

  11. Human macrophage hemoglobin-iron metabolism in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, G.; Balcerzak, S.; Rinehart, J.

    1982-01-01

    An entirely in vitro technique was employed to characterize hemoglobin-iron metabolism by human macrophages obtained by culture of blood monocytes and pulmonary alveolar macrophages. Macrophages phagocytized about three times as many erythrocytes as monocytes and six times as many erythrocytes as pulmonary alveolar macrophages. The rate of subsequent release of /sup 59/Fe to the extracellular transferrin pool was two- to fourfold greater for macrophages as compared to the other two cell types. The kinetics of /sup 59/Fe-transferrin release were characterized by a relatively rapid early phase (hours 1-4) followed by a slow phase (hours 4-72) for all three cell types. Intracellular movement of iron was characterized by a rapid shift from hemoglobin to ferritin that was complete with the onset of the slow phase of extracellular release. A transient increase in /sup 59/Fe associated with an intracellular protein eluting with transferrin was also observed within 1 hour after phagocytosis. The process of hemoglobin-iron release to extracellular transferrin was inhibited at 4 degrees C but was unaffected by inhibitory of protein synthesis, glycolysis, microtubule function, and microfilament function. These data emphasize the rapidity of macrophage hemoglobin iron metabolism, provide a model for characterization of this process in vitro, and in general confirm data obtained utilizing in vivo animal models.

  12. Altered erythropoiesis and iron metabolism in carriers of thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Jacqueline S.; Cominal, Juçara G.; Silva-Pinto, Ana Cristina; Olbina, Gordana; Ginzburg, Yelena Z.; Nandi, Vijay; Westerman, Mark; Rivella, Stefano; de Souza, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    The thalassemia syndromes (α- and β-thalassemia) are the most common and frequent disorders associated with ineffective erythropoiesis. Imbalance of α- or β-globin chain production results in impaired red blood cell synthesis, anemia and more erythroid progenitors in the blood stream. While patients affected by these disorders show definitive altered parameters related to erythropoiesis, the relationship between the degree of anemia, altered erythropoiesis and dysfunctional iron metabolism have not been investigated in both α-thalassemia carriers (ATC) and β-thalassemia carriers (BTC). Here we demonstrate that ATC have a significantly reduced hepcidin and increased soluble transferrin receptor levels but relatively normal hematological findings. In contrast, BTC have several hematological parameters significantly different from controls, including increased soluble transferrin receptor and erythropoietin levels. These changings in both groups suggest an altered balance between erythropoiesis and iron metabolism. The index sTfR/log ferrin and (hepcidin/ferritin)/sTfR are respectively increased and reduced relative to controls, proportional to the severity of each thalassemia group. In conclusion, we showed in this study, for the first time in the literature, that thalassemia carriers have altered iron metabolism and erythropoiesis. PMID:25307880

  13. [Effect of hepcidin on iron metabolism in athletes].

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Raúl; Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel Vicente; Maté-Muñoz, José Luis

    2014-12-01

    The role of iron in the human body is essential, and athletes must always try to keep an adequate iron status. Hepcidin is proposed as the main hormone responsible for the control of iron reserves in the body, given its ability to induce degradation of ferroportin. The action of hepcidin on ferroportin leads to a decreased dietary iron absorption, as well as to a decrease in macrophages. Several factors such as the iron status, the amount of dietary iron, the inflammation, the hypoxia, the testosterone and the physical exercise have been pointed out as affecting the synthesis of hepcidin. This study has aimed at analysing the researches on hepcidin response to exercise, as well as designing a specific strategy to prevent a potential ferropenic status in athletes. The main findings are an association between exercise at an intensity over 65% VO2max and transient increases in the synthesis of hepcidin, and a possible regulatory effect of intermittent hypoxic stimuli in the early post-exercise recovery. Other factors such as the training volume, sex, kind of exercise or the type of surface where the training takes place do not seem to affect the response of hepcidin to exercise.

  14. Regulators of Iron Homeostasis: New Players in Metabolism, Cell Death, and Disease.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, Alexander R; Miyazawa, Masaki; Hashimoto, Kazunori; Tsuji, Yoshiaki

    2016-03-01

    Iron is necessary for life, but can also cause cell death. Accordingly, cells evolved a robust, tightly regulated suite of genes for maintaining iron homeostasis. Previous mechanistic studies on iron homeostasis have granted insight into the role of iron in human health and disease. We highlight new regulators of iron metabolism, including iron-trafficking proteins [solute carrier family 39, SLC39, also known as ZRT/IRT-like protein, ZIP; and poly-(rC)-binding protein, PCBP] and a cargo receptor (NCOA4) that is crucial for release of ferritin-bound iron. We also discuss emerging roles of iron in apoptosis and a novel iron-dependent cell death pathway termed 'ferroptosis', the dysregulation of iron metabolism in human pathologies, and the use of iron chelators in cancer therapy.

  15. Co-regulation of Iron Metabolism and Virulence Associated Functions by Iron and XibR, a Novel Iron Binding Transcription Factor, in the Plant Pathogen Xanthomonas.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sheo Shankar; Patnana, Pradeep Kumar; Lomada, Santosh Kumar; Tomar, Archana; Chatterjee, Subhadeep

    2016-11-01

    Abilities of bacterial pathogens to adapt to the iron limitation present in hosts is critical to their virulence. Bacterial pathogens have evolved diverse strategies to coordinately regulate iron metabolism and virulence associated functions to maintain iron homeostasis in response to changing iron availability in the environment. In many bacteria the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) functions as transcription factor that utilize ferrous form of iron as cofactor to regulate transcription of iron metabolism and many cellular functions. However, mechanisms of fine-tuning and coordinated regulation of virulence associated function beyond iron and Fur-Fe2+ remain undefined. In this study, we show that a novel transcriptional regulator XibR (named Xanthomonas iron binding regulator) of the NtrC family, is required for fine-tuning and co-coordinately regulating the expression of several iron regulated genes and virulence associated functions in phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc). Genome wide expression analysis of iron-starvation stimulon and XibR regulon, GUS assays, genetic and functional studies of xibR mutant revealed that XibR positively regulates functions involved in iron storage and uptake, chemotaxis, motility and negatively regulates siderophore production, in response to iron. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by quantitative real-time PCR indicated that iron promoted binding of the XibR to the upstream regulatory sequence of operon's involved in chemotaxis and motility. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that purified XibR bound ferric form of iron. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that iron positively affected the binding of XibR to the upstream regulatory sequences of the target virulence genes, an effect that was reversed by ferric iron chelator deferoxamine. Taken together, these data revealed that how XibR coordinately regulates virulence associated and iron metabolism functions in Xanthomonads in

  16. Different iron sources to study the physiology and biochemistry of iron metabolism in marine micro-algae.

    PubMed

    Botebol, Hugo; Sutak, Robert; Scheiber, Ivo F; Blaiseau, Pierre-Louis; Bouget, François-Yves; Camadro, Jean-Michel; Lesuisse, Emmanuel

    2014-02-01

    We compared ferric EDTA, ferric citrate and ferrous ascorbate as iron sources to study iron metabolism in Ostreococcus tauri, Phaeodactlylum tricornutum and Emiliania huxleyi. Ferric EDTA was a better iron source than ferric citrate for growth and chlorophyll levels. Direct and indirect experiments showed that iron was much more available to the cells when provided as ferric citrate as compared to ferric EDTA. As a consequence, growth media with iron concentration in the range 1-100 nM were rapidly iron-depleted when ferric citrate-but not ferric EDTA was the iron source. When cultured together, P. tricornutum cells overgrew the two other species in iron-sufficient conditions, but E. huxleyi was able to compete other species in iron-deficient conditions, and when iron was provided as ferric citrate instead of ferric EDTA, which points out the critical influence of the chemical form of iron on the blooms of some phytoplankton species. The use of ferric citrate and ferrous ascorbate allowed us to unravel a kind of regulation of iron uptake that was dependent on the day/night cycles and to evidence independent uptake systems for ferrous and ferric iron, which can be regulated independently and be copper-dependent or independent. The same iron sources also allowed one to identify molecular components involved in iron uptake and storage in marine micro-algae. Characterizing the mechanisms of iron metabolism in the phytoplankton constitutes a big challenge; we show here that the use of iron sources more readily available to the cells than ferric EDTA is critical for this task.

  17. Oral iron treatment has a positive effect on iron metabolism in elite soccer players.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Jesús; Soria, Marisol; González-Haro, Carlos; Ezquerra, Laura; Nieto, José L; Escanero, Jesús F

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of oral iron supplementation on hematological and iron metabolism in elite soccer players. Thirty-five members of the Real Zaragoza SAD soccer team took part in this study: group A (GA, n = 24; Spanish Premier League) took an oral iron supplement of 80 mg day(-1) for 3 weeks, and group B (GB, n = 11; Spanish Third Division League) did not receive any supplementation. In GA, the parameters were measured before and after giving the iron supplements, while in GB, measurements were only made at the time of collecting the second set of data from GA. After supplementation, GA showed an increase in serum iron (SI) (P < 0.05), serum ferritin (Ftn) (P < 0.01), and transferrin saturation (Sat) (P < 0.01) with respect to the basal values. In addition, GA showed higher values of hematocrit (P < 0.01), mean corpuscular volume (P < 0.01), Ftn (P < 0.01), and Sat (P < 0.01) than GB. No significant differences were found in any other parameters. More specifically, a higher percentage of players had Ftn levels above upper limits in GA vs. GB (P < 0.05), and GB had a higher incidence of Ftn below lower limits with respect to subjects in GA (P < 0.01). Further, after treatment, 58.3% of GA had >800 mg of SI, while all players in GB presented levels below the lower limits. In conclusion, iron supplementation with 80 mg·day(-1) for 3 weeks, before the start of the soccer season, can be recommended for elite soccer players.

  18. Mitochondrial mayhem: the mitochondrion as a modulator of iron metabolism and its role in disease.

    PubMed

    Huang, Michael Li-Hsuan; Lane, Darius J R; Richardson, Des R

    2011-12-15

    The mitochondrion plays vital roles in various aspects of cellular metabolism, ranging from energy transduction and apoptosis to the synthesis of important molecules such as heme. Mitochondria are also centrally involved in iron metabolism, as exemplified by disruptions in mitochondrial proteins that lead to perturbations in whole-cell iron processing. Recent investigations have identified a host of mitochondrial proteins (e.g., mitochondrial ferritin; mitoferrins 1 and 2; ABCBs 6, 7, and 10; and frataxin) that may play roles in the homeostasis of mitochondrial iron. These mitochondrial proteins appear to participate in one or more processes of iron storage, iron uptake, and heme and iron-sulfur cluster synthesis. In this review, we present and critically discuss the evidence suggesting that the mitochondrion may contribute to the regulation of whole-cell iron metabolism. Further, human diseases that arise from a dysregulation of these mitochondrial molecules reveal the ability of the mitochondrion to communicate with cytosolic iron metabolism to coordinate whole-cell iron processing and to fulfill the high demands of this organelle for iron. This review highlights new advances in understanding iron metabolism in terms of novel molecular players and diseases associated with its dysregulation.

  19. Insights into the Structure and Metabolic Function of Microbes That Shape Pelagic Iron-Rich Aggregates (“Iron Snow”)

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shipeng; Chourey, Karuna; Reiche, Marco; Nietzsche, Sandor; Shah, Manesh B.; Neu, Thomas R.; Hettich, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial ferrous iron [Fe(II)] oxidation leads to the formation of iron-rich macroscopic aggregates (“iron snow”) at the redoxcline in a stratified lignite mine lake in east-central Germany. We aimed to identify the abundant Fe-oxidizing and Fe-reducing microorganisms likely to be involved in the formation and transformation of iron snow present in the redoxcline in two basins of the lake that differ in their pH values. Nucleic acid- and lipid-stained microbial cells of various morphologies detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy were homogeneously distributed in all iron snow samples. The dominant iron mineral appeared to be schwertmannite, with shorter needles in the northern than in the central basin samples. Total bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies ranged from 5.0 × 108 copies g (dry weight)−1 in the acidic central lake basin (pH 3.3) to 4.0 × 1010 copies g (dry weight)−1 in the less acidic (pH 5.9) northern basin. Total RNA-based quantitative PCR assigned up to 61% of metabolically active microbial communities to Fe-oxidizing- and Fe-reducing-related bacteria, indicating that iron metabolism was an important metabolic strategy. Molecular identification of abundant groups suggested that iron snow surfaces were formed by chemoautotrophic iron oxidizers, such as Acidimicrobium, Ferrovum, Acidithiobacillus, Thiobacillus, and Chlorobium, in the redoxcline and were rapidly colonized by heterotrophic iron reducers, such as Acidiphilium, Albidiferax-like, and Geobacter-like groups. Metaproteomics yielded 283 different proteins from northern basin iron snow samples, and protein identification provided a glimpse into some of their in situ metabolic processes, such as primary production (CO2 fixation), respiration, motility, and survival strategies. PMID:23645202

  20. Insights into the structure and metabolic function of microbes that shape pelagic iron-rich aggregates ("iron snow").

    PubMed

    Lu, Shipeng; Chourey, Karuna; Reiche, Marco; Nietzsche, Sandor; Shah, Manesh B; Neu, Thomas R; Hettich, Robert L; Küsel, Kirsten

    2013-07-01

    Microbial ferrous iron [Fe(II)] oxidation leads to the formation of iron-rich macroscopic aggregates ("iron snow") at the redoxcline in a stratified lignite mine lake in east-central Germany. We aimed to identify the abundant Fe-oxidizing and Fe-reducing microorganisms likely to be involved in the formation and transformation of iron snow present in the redoxcline in two basins of the lake that differ in their pH values. Nucleic acid- and lipid-stained microbial cells of various morphologies detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy were homogeneously distributed in all iron snow samples. The dominant iron mineral appeared to be schwertmannite, with shorter needles in the northern than in the central basin samples. Total bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies ranged from 5.0 × 10(8) copies g (dry weight)(-1) in the acidic central lake basin (pH 3.3) to 4.0 × 10(10) copies g (dry weight)(-1) in the less acidic (pH 5.9) northern basin. Total RNA-based quantitative PCR assigned up to 61% of metabolically active microbial communities to Fe-oxidizing- and Fe-reducing-related bacteria, indicating that iron metabolism was an important metabolic strategy. Molecular identification of abundant groups suggested that iron snow surfaces were formed by chemoautotrophic iron oxidizers, such as Acidimicrobium, Ferrovum, Acidithiobacillus, Thiobacillus, and Chlorobium, in the redoxcline and were rapidly colonized by heterotrophic iron reducers, such as Acidiphilium, Albidiferax-like, and Geobacter-like groups. Metaproteomics yielded 283 different proteins from northern basin iron snow samples, and protein identification provided a glimpse into some of their in situ metabolic processes, such as primary production (CO2 fixation), respiration, motility, and survival strategies.

  1. Sleep disorders: A review of the interface between restless legs syndrome and iron metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Daubian-Nosé, Paulo; Frank, Miriam K.; Esteves, Andrea Maculano

    2014-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is characterized by unpleasant sensations mainly in the legs. 43% of RLS-associated conditions have also been associated with systemic iron deficiency. The objective of this study was to review in the literature the relationship between iron metabolism and RLS. With an initial search using the keywords combination “Iron Metabolism OR Iron Deficiency AND Restless Legs Syndrome,” 145 articles were screened, and 20 articles were selected. Few studies were found for this review in the period of 2001–2014, however, the correlation between RLS and iron was evident. PMID:26483934

  2. Chromosomal intrachanges induced by swift iron ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horstmann, M.; Durante, M.; Johannes, C.; Obe, G.

    We measured the induction of structural aberrations in human chromosome 5 induced by iron ions using the novel technique of multicolor banding in situ hybridization (mBAND). Human lymphocytes isolated from whole blood were exposed in vitro to 500 MeV/n (LET = 200 keV/μm, doses 1 or 4 Gy) Fe nuclei at the HIMAC accelerator in Chiba (Japan). Chromosomes were prematurely condensed by calyculin A after 48 h in culture and slides were painted by mBAND. We found a frequency of 0.11 and 0.57 residual breakpoints per chromosome 5 after 1 and 4 Gy Fe-ions, respectively. Inter-chromosomal exchanges were the prevalent aberration type measured at both doses, followed by terminal deletions, and by intra-chromosomal exchanges. Among intra-chromosomal exchanges, intra-arm events were more frequent than inter-arm, but a significant number of intra-changes was associated to inter-changes involving the same chromosome after 4 Gy of iron ions. These events show that the complexity of chromosomal exchanges induced by heavy ions can be higher than expected by previous FISH studies.

  3. Recent advances in disorders of iron metabolism: mutations, mechanisms and modifiers.

    PubMed

    Roy, C N; Andrews, N C

    2001-10-01

    The spectrum of known disorders of iron metabolism has expanded dramatically over the past few years. Identification of HFE, the gene most commonly mutated in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis, has allowed molecular diagnosis and paved the way for identification of other genes, such as TFR2, that are important in non-HFE-associated iron overload. There are clearly several other, unidentified, iron overload disease genes yet to be found. In parallel, our understanding of iron transport has expanded through identification of Fpn1/Ireg1/MTP1, Sfxn1 and DCYTB: Ongoing studies of Friedreich's ataxia, sideroblastic anemia, aceruloplasminemia and neurodegeneration with brain-iron accumulation are clarifying the role for iron in the nervous system. Finally, as the number of known iron metabolic genes increases and their respective functions are ascertained, new opportunities have arisen to identify genetic modifiers of iron homeostasis.

  4. Prion Protein (PrP) Knock-Out Mice Show Altered Iron Metabolism: A Functional Role for PrP in Iron Uptake and Transport

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajay; Kong, Qingzhong; Luo, Xiu; Petersen, Robert B.; Meyerson, Howard; Singh, Neena

    2009-01-01

    Despite overwhelming evidence implicating the prion protein (PrP) in prion disease pathogenesis, the normal function of this cell surface glycoprotein remains unclear. In previous reports we demonstrated that PrP mediates cellular iron uptake and transport, and aggregation of PrP to the disease causing PrP-scrapie (PrPSc) form results in imbalance of iron homeostasis in prion disease affected human and animal brains. Here, we show that selective deletion of PrP in transgenic mice (PrPKO) alters systemic iron homeostasis as reflected in hematological parameters and levels of total iron and iron regulatory proteins in the plasma, liver, spleen, and brain of PrPKO mice relative to matched wild type controls. Introduction of radiolabeled iron (59FeCl3) to Wt and PrPKO mice by gastric gavage reveals inefficient transport of 59Fe from the duodenum to the blood stream, an early abortive spike of erythropoiesis in the long bones and spleen, and eventual decreased 59Fe content in red blood cells and all major organs of PrPKO mice relative to Wt controls. The iron deficient phenotype of PrPKO mice is reversed by expressing Wt PrP in the PrPKO background, demonstrating a functional role for PrP in iron uptake and transport. Since iron is required for essential metabolic processes and is also potentially toxic if mismanaged, these results suggest that loss of normal function of PrP due to aggregation to the PrPSc form induces imbalance of brain iron homeostasis, resulting in disease associated neurotoxicity. PMID:19568430

  5. Like iron in the blood of the people: the requirement for heme trafficking in iron metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Korolnek, Tamara; Hamza, Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Heme is an iron-containing porphyrin ring that serves as a prosthetic group in proteins that function in diverse metabolic pathways. Heme is also a major source of bioavailable iron in the human diet. While the synthesis of heme has been well-characterized, the pathways for heme trafficking remain poorly understood. It is likely that heme transport across membranes is highly regulated, as free heme is toxic to cells. This review outlines the requirement for heme delivery to various subcellular compartments as well as possible mechanisms for the mobilization of heme to these compartments. We also discuss how these trafficking pathways might function during physiological events involving inter- and intra-cellular mobilization of heme, including erythropoiesis, erythrophagocytosis, heme absorption in the gut, as well as heme transport pathways supporting embryonic development. Lastly, we aim to question the current dogma that heme, in toto, is not mobilized from one cell or tissue to another, outlining the evidence for these pathways and drawing parallels to other well-accepted paradigms for copper, iron, and cholesterol homeostasis. PMID:24926267

  6. Co-regulation of Iron Metabolism and Virulence Associated Functions by Iron and XibR, a Novel Iron Binding Transcription Factor, in the Plant Pathogen Xanthomonas

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sheo Shankar; Patnana, Pradeep Kumar; Lomada, Santosh Kumar; Tomar, Archana; Chatterjee, Subhadeep

    2016-01-01

    Abilities of bacterial pathogens to adapt to the iron limitation present in hosts is critical to their virulence. Bacterial pathogens have evolved diverse strategies to coordinately regulate iron metabolism and virulence associated functions to maintain iron homeostasis in response to changing iron availability in the environment. In many bacteria the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) functions as transcription factor that utilize ferrous form of iron as cofactor to regulate transcription of iron metabolism and many cellular functions. However, mechanisms of fine-tuning and coordinated regulation of virulence associated function beyond iron and Fur-Fe2+ remain undefined. In this study, we show that a novel transcriptional regulator XibR (named Xanthomonas iron binding regulator) of the NtrC family, is required for fine-tuning and co-coordinately regulating the expression of several iron regulated genes and virulence associated functions in phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc). Genome wide expression analysis of iron-starvation stimulon and XibR regulon, GUS assays, genetic and functional studies of xibR mutant revealed that XibR positively regulates functions involved in iron storage and uptake, chemotaxis, motility and negatively regulates siderophore production, in response to iron. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by quantitative real-time PCR indicated that iron promoted binding of the XibR to the upstream regulatory sequence of operon’s involved in chemotaxis and motility. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that purified XibR bound ferric form of iron. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that iron positively affected the binding of XibR to the upstream regulatory sequences of the target virulence genes, an effect that was reversed by ferric iron chelator deferoxamine. Taken together, these data revealed that how XibR coordinately regulates virulence associated and iron metabolism functions in Xanthomonads in

  7. Multiple-shocks induced nanocrystallization in iron

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, Tomoki; Hirose, Akio; Sano, Tomokazu; Arakawa, Kazuto

    2014-07-14

    We found that multiple shots of femtosecond laser-driven shock pulses changed coarse crystalline iron grains with a size of 140 μm into nanocrystals with a high density of dislocations, which had never been observed in conventional shock processes. We performed metallurgical microstructure observations using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and hardness measurements using nanoindentation on cross-sections of shocked iron. TEM images showed that grains with sizes from 10 nm through 1 μm exist within 2 μm of the surface, where the dislocation density reached 2 × 10{sup 15 }m{sup −2}. Results of the hardness measurements showed a significant increase in hardness in the nanocrystallized region. We suggest that the formation of a high density of dislocations, which is produced by a single shock, induces local three-dimensional pile-up by the multiple-shocks, which causes grain refinement at the nanoscale.

  8. Oxidation inhibits iron-induced blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, Etheresia; Bester, Janette; Vermeulen, Natasha; Lipinski, Boguslaw

    2013-01-01

    Blood coagulation under physiological conditions is activated by thrombin, which converts soluble plasma fibrinogen (FBG) into an insoluble clot. The structure of the enzymatically-generated clot is very characteristic being composed of thick fibrin fibers susceptible to the fibrinolytic degradation. However, in chronic degenerative diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, cancer, and neurological disorders, fibrin clots are very different forming dense matted deposits (DMD) that are not effectively removed and thus create a condition known as thrombosis. We have recently shown that trivalent iron (ferric ions) generates hydroxyl radicals, which subsequently convert FBG into abnormal fibrin clots in the form of DMDs. A characteristic feature of DMDs is their remarkable and permanent resistance to the enzymatic degradation. Therefore, in order to prevent thrombotic incidences in the degenerative diseases it is essential to inhibit the iron-induced generation of hydroxyl radicals. This can be achieved by the pretreatment with a direct free radical scavenger (e.g. salicylate), and as shown in this paper by the treatment with oxidizing agents such as hydrogen peroxide, methylene blue, and sodium selenite. Although the actual mechanism of this phenomenon is not yet known, it is possible that hydroxyl radicals are neutralized by their conversion to the molecular oxygen and water, thus inhibiting the formation of dense matted fibrin deposits in human blood.

  9. Drug-induced metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Marion R; King, Deborah S; Harrell, T Kristopher

    2006-02-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Based on data from 1988 to 1994, it is estimated that 24% of adults in the United States meet the criteria for diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome. The use of certain medications may increase the risk of the metabolic syndrome by either promoting weight gain or altering lipid or glucose metabolism. Health providers should recognize and understand the risk associated with certain medications and appropriately monitor for changes related to the metabolic syndrome. Careful attention to drug choices should be paid in patients who are overweight or have other risk factors for diabetes or cardiovascular disease.

  10. Deciphering Fur transcriptional regulatory network highlights its complex role beyond iron metabolism in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sang Woo; Kim, Donghyuk; Latif, Haythem; O'Brien, Edward J; Szubin, Richard; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2014-09-15

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) plays a critical role in the transcriptional regulation of iron metabolism. However, the full regulatory potential of Fur remains undefined. Here we comprehensively reconstruct the Fur transcriptional regulatory network in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 in response to iron availability using genome-wide measurements. Integrative data analysis reveals that a total of 81 genes in 42 transcription units are directly regulated by three different modes of Fur regulation, including apo- and holo-Fur activation and holo-Fur repression. We show that Fur connects iron transport and utilization enzymes with negative-feedback loop pairs for iron homeostasis. In addition, direct involvement of Fur in the regulation of DNA synthesis, energy metabolism and biofilm development is found. These results show how Fur exhibits a comprehensive regulatory role affecting many fundamental cellular processes linked to iron metabolism in order to coordinate the overall response of E. coli to iron availability.

  11. Duodenal Cytochrome b (DCYTB) in Iron Metabolism: An Update on Function and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Darius J. R.; Bae, Dong-Hun; Merlot, Angelica M.; Sahni, Sumit; Richardson, Des R.

    2015-01-01

    Iron and ascorbate are vital cellular constituents in mammalian systems. The bulk-requirement for iron is during erythropoiesis leading to the generation of hemoglobin-containing erythrocytes. Additionally, both iron and ascorbate are required as co-factors in numerous metabolic reactions. Iron homeostasis is controlled at the level of uptake, rather than excretion. Accumulating evidence strongly suggests that in addition to the known ability of dietary ascorbate to enhance non-heme iron absorption in the gut, ascorbate regulates iron homeostasis. The involvement of ascorbate in dietary iron absorption extends beyond the direct chemical reduction of non-heme iron by dietary ascorbate. Among other activities, intra-enterocyte ascorbate appears to be involved in the provision of electrons to a family of trans-membrane redox enzymes, namely those of the cytochrome b561 class. These hemoproteins oxidize a pool of ascorbate on one side of the membrane in order to reduce an electron acceptor (e.g., non-heme iron) on the opposite side of the membrane. One member of this family, duodenal cytochrome b (DCYTB), may play an important role in ascorbate-dependent reduction of non-heme iron in the gut prior to uptake by ferrous-iron transporters. This review discusses the emerging relationship between cellular iron homeostasis, the emergent “IRP1-HIF2α axis”, DCYTB and ascorbate in relation to iron metabolism. PMID:25835049

  12. Fixing frataxin: ‘ironing out’ the metabolic defect in Friedreich's ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Anzovino, A; Lane, D J R; Huang, M L-H; Richardson, D R

    2014-01-01

    The metabolically active and redox-active mitochondrion appears to play a major role in the cellular metabolism of the transition metal, iron. Frataxin, a mitochondrial matrix protein, has been identified as playing a key role in the iron metabolism of this organelle due to its iron-binding properties and is known to be essential for iron–sulphur cluster formation. However, the precise function of frataxin remains elusive. The decrease in frataxin expression, as seen in the inherited disorder Friedreich's ataxia, markedly alters cellular and mitochondrial iron metabolism in both the mitochondrion and the cell. The resulting dysregulation of iron trafficking damages affects tissues leading to neuro-and cardiodegeneration. This disease underscores the importance of iron homeostasis in the redox-active environment of the mitochondrion and the molecular players involved. Unravelling the mechanisms of altered iron metabolism in Friedreich's ataxia will help elucidate a biochemical function for frataxin. Consequently, this will enable the development of more effective and rationally designed treatments. This review will focus on the emerging function of frataxin in relation to the observed alterations in mitochondrial iron metabolism in Friedreich's ataxia. Tissue-specific alterations due to frataxin loss will also be discussed, as well as current and emerging therapeutic strategies. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:24138602

  13. Searching iron sensors in plants by exploring the link among 2′-OG-dependent dioxygenases, the iron deficiency response and metabolic adjustments occurring under iron deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Vigani, Gianpiero; Morandini, Piero; Murgia, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge accumulated on the regulation of iron (Fe) homeostasis, its intracellular trafficking and transport across various cellular compartments and organs in plants; storage proteins, transporters and transcription factors involved in Fe metabolism have been analyzed in detail in recent years. However, the key sensor(s) of cellular plant “Fe status” triggering the long-distance shoot–root signaling and leading to the root Fe deficiency responses is (are) still unknown. Local Fe sensing is also a major task for roots, for adjusting the internal Fe requirements to external Fe availability: how such sensing is achieved and how it leads to metabolic adjustments in case of nutrient shortage, is mostly unknown. Two proteins belonging to the 2′-OG-dependent dioxygenases family accumulate several folds in Fe-deficient Arabidopsis roots. Such proteins require Fe(II) as enzymatic cofactor; one of their subgroups, the HIF-P4H (hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl 4-hydroxylase), is an effective oxygen sensor in animal cells. We envisage here the possibility that some members of the 2′-OG dioxygenase family may be involved in the Fe deficiency response and in the metabolic adjustments to Fe deficiency or even in sensing Fe, in plant cells. PMID:23755060

  14. Searching iron sensors in plants by exploring the link among 2'-OG-dependent dioxygenases, the iron deficiency response and metabolic adjustments occurring under iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vigani, Gianpiero; Morandini, Piero; Murgia, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge accumulated on the regulation of iron (Fe) homeostasis, its intracellular trafficking and transport across various cellular compartments and organs in plants; storage proteins, transporters and transcription factors involved in Fe metabolism have been analyzed in detail in recent years. However, the key sensor(s) of cellular plant "Fe status" triggering the long-distance shoot-root signaling and leading to the root Fe deficiency responses is (are) still unknown. Local Fe sensing is also a major task for roots, for adjusting the internal Fe requirements to external Fe availability: how such sensing is achieved and how it leads to metabolic adjustments in case of nutrient shortage, is mostly unknown. Two proteins belonging to the 2'-OG-dependent dioxygenases family accumulate several folds in Fe-deficient Arabidopsis roots. Such proteins require Fe(II) as enzymatic cofactor; one of their subgroups, the HIF-P4H (hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl 4-hydroxylase), is an effective oxygen sensor in animal cells. We envisage here the possibility that some members of the 2'-OG dioxygenase family may be involved in the Fe deficiency response and in the metabolic adjustments to Fe deficiency or even in sensing Fe, in plant cells.

  15. Model of reticuloendothelial iron metabolism in humans: Abnormal behavior in idiopathic hemochromatosis and in inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Fillet, G.; Beguin, Y.; Baldelli, L. )

    1989-08-01

    Iron transport in the reticuloendothelial (RE) system plays a central role in iron metabolism, but its regulation has not been characterized physiologically in vivo in humans. In particular, why serum iron is elevated and RE cells are much less iron-loaded than parenchymal cells in idiopathic hemochromatosis is not known. The processing of erythrocyte iron by the RE system was studied after intravenous (IV) injection of 59Fe heat-damaged RBCs (HDRBCs) and 55Fe transferrin in normal subjects and in patients with iron deficiency, idiopathic hemochromatosis, inflammation, marrow aplasia, or hyperplastic erythropoiesis. Early release of 59Fe by the RE system was calculated from the plasma iron turnover and the 59Fe plasma reappearance curve. Late release was calculated from the ratio of 59Fe/55Fe RBC utilization in 2 weeks. The partitioning of iron between the early (release from heme catabolism) and late (release from RE stores) phases depended on the size of RE iron stores, as illustrated by the inverse relationship observed between early release and plasma ferritin (P less than .001). There was a strong correlation between early release and the rate of change of serum iron levels during the first three hours in normal subjects (r = .85, P less than .001). Inflammation produced a blockade of the early release phase, whereas in idiopathic hemochromatosis early release was considerably increased as compared with subjects with similar iron stores. Based on these results, we describe a model of RE iron metabolism in humans. We conclude that the RE system appears to determine the diurnal fluctuations in serum iron levels through variations in the immediate output of heme iron. In idiopathic hemochromatosis, a defect of the RE cell in withholding iron freed from hemoglobin could be responsible for the high serum iron levels and low RE iron stores.

  16. A General Map of Iron Metabolism and Tissue-specific Subnetworks

    PubMed Central

    Hower, Valerie; Mendes, Pedro; Torti, Frank M.; Laubenbacher, Reinhard; Akman, Steven; Shulaev, Vladmir; Torti, Suzy V.

    2009-01-01

    Iron is required for survival of mammalian cells. Recently, understanding of iron metabolism and trafficking has increased dramatically, revealing a complex, interacting network largely unknown just a few years ago. This provides an excellent model for systems biology development and analysis. The first step in such an analysis is the construction of a structural network of iron metabolism, which we present here. This network was created using CellDesigner version 3.5.2 and includes reactions occurring in mammalian cells of numerous tissue types. The iron metabolic network contains 151 chemical species and 107 reactions and transport steps. Starting from this general model, we construct iron networks for specific tissues and cells that are fundamental to maintaining body iron homeostasis. We include subnetworks for cells of the intestine and liver, tissues important in iron uptake and storage, respectively; as well as the reticulocyte and macrophage, key cells in iron utilization and recycling. The addition of kinetic information to our structural network will permit the simulation of iron metabolism in different tissues as well as in health and disease. PMID:19381358

  17. Iron metabolism and ineffective erythropoiesis in β-thalassemia mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Pedro; Melchiori, Luca; Gardenghi, Sara; Van-Roijen, Nico; Grady, Robert W.; Ginzburg, Yelena; Rivella, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    β-thalassemia is a disease associated with decreased β-globin production leading to anemia, ineffective erythropoiesis, and iron overload. New mechanisms associated with modulation of erythropoiesis and iron metabolism have recently been discovered in thalassemic mice, improving our understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease. These discoveries have the potential to be translated into clinically-relevant therapeutic options to reduce ineffective erythropoiesis and iron overload. A new generation of therapies based on limiting ineffective erythropoiesis, iron absorption, and the correction of iron maldistribution could be on the way, possibly complementing and improving the current standard of patient care. PMID:20712768

  18. Metabolic adaptation to tissue iron overload confers tolerance to malaria.

    PubMed

    Gozzelino, Raffaella; Andrade, Bruno Bezerril; Larsen, Rasmus; Luz, Nivea F; Vanoaica, Liviu; Seixas, Elsa; Coutinho, Antonio; Cardoso, Sílvia; Rebelo, Sofia; Poli, Maura; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Darshan, Deepak; Kühn, Lukas C; Soares, Miguel P

    2012-11-15

    Disease tolerance is a defense strategy that limits the fitness costs of infection irrespectively of pathogen burden. While restricting iron (Fe) availability to pathogens is perceived as a host defense strategy, the resulting tissue Fe overload can be cytotoxic and promote tissue damage to exacerbate disease severity. Examining this interplay during malaria, the disease caused by Plasmodium infection, we find that expression of the Fe sequestering protein ferritin H chain (FtH) in mice, and ferritin in humans, is associated with reduced tissue damage irrespectively of pathogen burden. FtH protection relies on its ferroxidase activity, which prevents labile Fe from sustaining proapoptotic c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. FtH expression is inhibited by JNK activation, promoting tissue Fe overload, tissue damage, and malaria severity. Mimicking FtH's antioxidant effect or inhibiting JNK activation pharmacologically confers therapeutic tolerance to malaria in mice. Thus, FtH provides metabolic adaptation to tissue Fe overload, conferring tolerance to malaria.

  19. The iron stimulon and fur regulon of Geobacter sulfurreducens and their role in energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Embree, Mallory; Qiu, Yu; Shieu, Wendy; Nagarajan, Harish; O'Neil, Regina; Lovley, Derek; Zengler, Karsten

    2014-05-01

    Iron plays a critical role in the physiology of Geobacter species. It serves as both an essential component for proteins and cofactors and an electron acceptor during anaerobic respiration. Here, we investigated the iron stimulon and ferric uptake regulator (Fur) regulon of Geobacter sulfurreducens to examine the coordination between uptake of Fe(II) and the reduction of Fe(III) at the transcriptional level. Gene expression studies across a variety of different iron concentrations in both the wild type and a Δfur mutant strain were used to determine the iron stimulon. The stimulon consists of a broad range of gene products, ranging from iron-utilizing to central metabolism and iron reduction proteins. Integration of gene expression and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data sets assisted in the identification of the Fur transcriptional regulatory network and Fur's role as a regulator of the iron stimulon. Additional physiological and transcriptional analyses of G. sulfurreducens grown with various Fe(II) concentrations revealed the depth of Fur's involvement in energy metabolism and the existence of redundancy within the iron-regulatory network represented by IdeR, an alternative iron transcriptional regulator. These characteristics enable G. sulfurreducens to thrive in environments with fluctuating iron concentrations by providing it with a robust mechanism to maintain tight and deliberate control over intracellular iron homeostasis.

  20. Use of carbonyl iron to induce iron loading in the mussel Mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Bootsma, N.; Macey, D.J.; Webb, J.; Talbot, V. )

    1990-02-01

    It is now recognized that in organisms such as marine mussels, the prior presence of one metal can be important in determining the ultimate toxicological response to a second challenge by a different metal species. Thus, for example, the presence of iron in the mussel Mytilus edulis profoundly affects the subsequent accumulation of zinc. To determine these synergistic (or indeed antagonistic) effects in an organism such as the mussel, it is important to be able to both load the animal rapidly, and ensure that the metal ends up in a form which is ultimately the same as that found in the animal in the natural environment. Unfortunately, considerable problems have arisen with the form in which iron has been loaded into mussels. Recently, carbonyl iron has been used to induce iron loading in rats. This form of iron is prepared by reacting elemental iron at high temperatures with carbon monoxide to form iron pentacarbonyl. This study was thus undertaken to determine whether carbonyl iron could be used for the rapid non-toxic iron loading of the mussel Mytilus edulis. Such loading could subsequently be used for the investigation of synergistic metal accumulation in mussels, a topic of considerable interest due to their use as marine pollution indicator organisms. Biochemical aspects of this tissue iron loading, including the isolation and characterization of the major metal-binding protein ferritin, have been reported previously.

  1. Iron overload signature in chrysotile-induced malignant mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Akatsuka, Shinya; Nagai, Hirotaka; Chew, Shan-Hwu; Ohara, Hiroki; Okazaki, Yasumasa; Yamashita, Yoriko; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Ikuta, Katsuya; Sasaki, Katsunori; Kohgo, Yutaka; Hirano, Seishiro; Shinohara, Yasushi; Kohyama, Norihiko; Takahashi, Takashi; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to asbestos is a risk for malignant mesothelioma (MM) in humans. Among the commercially used types of asbestos (chrysotile, crocidolite, and amosite), the carcinogenicity of chrysotile is not fully appreciated. Here, we show that all three asbestos types similarly induced MM in the rat peritoneal cavity and that chrysotile caused the earliest mesothelioma development with a high fraction of sarcomatoid histology. The pathogenesis of chrysotile-induced mesothelial carcinogenesis was closely associated with iron overload: repeated administration of an iron chelator, nitrilotriacetic acid, which promotes the Fenton reaction, significantly reduced the period required for carcinogenesis; massive iron deposition was found in the peritoneal organs with high serum ferritin; and homozygous deletion of the CDKN2A/2B/ARF tumour suppressor genes, the most frequent genomic alteration in human MM and in iron-induced rodent carcinogenesis, was observed in 92.6% of the cases studied with array-based comparative genomic hybridization. The induced rat MM cells revealed high expression of mesoderm-specific transcription factors, Dlx5 and Hand1, and showed an iron regulatory profile of active iron uptake and utilization. These data indicate that chrysotile is a strong carcinogen when exposed to mesothelia, acting through the induction of local iron overload. Therefore, an intervention to remove local excess iron might be a strategy to prevent MM after asbestos exposure.

  2. Advantages and disadvantages of the animal models v. in vitro studies in iron metabolism: a review.

    PubMed

    García, Y; Díaz-Castro, J

    2013-10-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world. Special molecules have evolved for iron acquisition, transport and storage in soluble, nontoxic forms. Studies about the effects of iron on health are focused on iron metabolism or nutrition to prevent or treat iron deficiency and anemia. These studies are focused in two main aspects: (1) basic studies to elucidate iron metabolism and (2) nutritional studies to evaluate the efficacy of iron supplementation to prevent or treat iron deficiency and anemia. This paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of the experimental models commonly used as well as the methods that are more used in studies related to iron. In vitro studies have used different parts of the gut. In vivo studies are done in humans and animals such as mice, rats, pigs and monkeys. Iron metabolism is a complex process that includes interactions at the systemic level. In vitro studies, despite physiological differences to humans, are useful to increase knowledge related to this essential micronutrient. Isotopic techniques are the most recommended in studies related to iron, but their high cost and required logistic, making them difficult to use. The depletion-repletion of hemoglobin is a method commonly used in animal studies. Three depletion-repletion techniques are mostly used: hemoglobin regeneration efficiency, relative biological values (RBV) and metabolic balance, which are official methods of the association of official analytical chemists. These techniques are well-validated to be used as studies related to iron and their results can be extrapolated to humans. Knowledge about the main advantages and disadvantages of the in vitro and animal models, and methods used in these studies, could increase confidence of researchers in the experimental results with less costs.

  3. Chromosomal intrachanges induced by swift iron ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horstmann, M.; Durante, M.; Johannes, C.; Obe, G.

    We measured the induction of aberrations in human chromosome 5 by iron ions using the novel technique of multicolor banding in situ hybridization (mBAND). Human lymphocytes isolated from whole blood were exposed in vitro to 500 MeV/n (LET=200 keV/μ m, doses 1 or 4 Gy) 56Fe nuclei at the HIMAC accelerator in Chiba (Japan). Chromosomes were prematurely condensed by calyculin A after 48 h in culture, and slides were painted by mBAND (MetaSystems). We found a frequency of 0.11 and 0.57 residual breakpoints per chromosome 5 after 1 Gy and 4 Gy Fe-ions, respectively. The distribution per unit length were similar in the p- and q-arm of chromosome 5, and >50% of the observed fragments measured <30% of the whole chromosome length. Only small fragments (<40% of the chromosome size) were involved in intra-chromosomal exchanges (interstitial deletions or inversions), whereas fragments up to 75% of the whole chromosome 5 were found in inter-chromosomal exchanges. We measured more inter-changes than intra-changes, and more intra-arm than inter-arm exchanges at both doses. No significant differences in the ratios of these aberrations were detected with respect to X-rays. On the other hand, Fe-ions induced a significantly higher fraction of complex-type exchanges when compared to sparsely ionizing radiation. Work supported by DLR, BMBF, INTAS and NIRS-HIMAC.

  4. Multi-Copper Oxidases and Human Iron Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Vashchenko, Ganna; MacGillivray, Ross T. A.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-copper oxidases (MCOs) are a small group of enzymes that oxidize their substrate with the concomitant reduction of dioxygen to two water molecules. Generally, multi-copper oxidases are promiscuous with regards to their reducing substrates and are capable of performing various functions in different species. To date, three multi-copper oxidases have been detected in humans—ceruloplasmin, hephaestin and zyklopen. Each of these enzymes has a high specificity towards iron with the resulting ferroxidase activity being associated with ferroportin, the only known iron exporter protein in humans. Ferroportin exports iron as Fe2+, but transferrin, the major iron transporter protein of blood, can bind only Fe3+ effectively. Iron oxidation in enterocytes is mediated mainly by hephaestin thus allowing dietary iron to enter the bloodstream. Zyklopen is involved in iron efflux from placental trophoblasts during iron transfer from mother to fetus. Release of iron from the liver relies on ferroportin and the ferroxidase activity of ceruloplasmin which is found in blood in a soluble form. Ceruloplasmin, hephaestin and zyklopen show distinctive expression patterns and have unique mechanisms for regulating their expression. These features of human multi-copper ferroxidases can serve as a basis for the precise control of iron efflux in different tissues. In this manuscript, we review the biochemical and biological properties of the three human MCOs and discuss their potential roles in human iron homeostasis. PMID:23807651

  5. Hepcidin: an important iron metabolism regulator in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Sandra Azevedo; Canziani, Maria Eugênia Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Anemia is a common complication and its impact on morbimortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is well known. The discovery of hepcidin and its functions has contributed to a better understanding of iron metabolism disorders in CKD anemia. Hepcidin is a peptide mainly produced by hepatocytes and, through a connection with ferroportin, it regulates iron absorption in the duodenum and its release of stock cells. High hepcidin concentrations described in patients with CKD, especially in more advanced stages are attributed to decreased renal excretion and increased production. The elevation of hepcidin has been associated with infection, inflammation, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance and oxidative stress. Some strategies were tested to reduce the effects of hepcidin in patients with CKD, however more studies are necessary to assess the impact of its modulation in the management of anemia in this population. Resumo Anemia é uma complicação frequente e seu impacto na morbimortalidade é bem conhecido em pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC). A descoberta da hepcidina e de suas funções contribuíram para melhor compreensão dos distúrbios do metabolismo de ferro na anemia da DRC. Hepcidina é um peptídeo produzido principalmente pelos hepatócitos, e através de sua ligação com a ferroportina, regula a absorção de ferro no duodeno e sua liberação das células de estoque. Altas concentrações de hepcidina descritas em pacientes com DRC, principalmente em estádios mais avançados, são atribuídas à diminuição da excreção renal e ao aumento de sua produção. Elevação de hepcidina tem sido associada à ocorrência de infecção, inflamação, aterosclerose, resistência à insulina e estresse oxidativo. Algumas estratégias foram testadas para diminuir os efeitos da hepcidina em pacientes com DRC, entretanto, serão necessários mais estudos para avaliar o impacto de sua modulação no manejo da anemia nessa população.

  6. The Metabolic Status Drives Acclimation of Iron Deficiency Responses in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as Revealed by Proteomics Based Hierarchical Clustering and Reverse Genetics*

    PubMed Central

    Höhner, Ricarda; Barth, Johannes; Magneschi, Leonardo; Jaeger, Daniel; Niehues, Anna; Bald, Till; Grossman, Arthur; Fufezan, Christian; Hippler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Iron is a crucial cofactor in numerous redox-active proteins operating in bioenergetic pathways including respiration and photosynthesis. Cellular iron management is essential to sustain sufficient energy production and minimize oxidative stress. To produce energy for cell growth, the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii possesses the metabolic flexibility to use light and/or carbon sources such as acetate. To investigate the interplay between the iron-deficiency response and growth requirements under distinct trophic conditions, we took a quantitative proteomics approach coupled to innovative hierarchical clustering using different “distance-linkage combinations” and random noise injection. Protein co-expression analyses of the combined data sets revealed insights into cellular responses governing acclimation to iron deprivation and regulation associated with photosynthesis dependent growth. Photoautotrophic growth requirements as well as the iron deficiency induced specific metabolic enzymes and stress related proteins, and yet differences in the set of induced enzymes, proteases, and redox-related polypeptides were evident, implying the establishment of distinct response networks under the different conditions. Moreover, our data clearly support the notion that the iron deficiency response includes a hierarchy for iron allocation within organelles in C. reinhardtii. Importantly, deletion of a bifunctional alcohol and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH1), which is induced under low iron based on the proteomic data, attenuates the remodeling of the photosynthetic machinery in response to iron deficiency, and at the same time stimulates expression of stress-related proteins such as NDA2, LHCSR3, and PGRL1. This finding provides evidence that the coordinated regulation of bioenergetics pathways and iron deficiency response is sensitive to the cellular and chloroplast metabolic and/or redox status, consistent with systems approach data. PMID:23820728

  7. Gene expression profiling in Entamoeba histolytica identifies key components in iron uptake and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Cuevas, Nora Adriana; Weber, Christian; Hon, Chung-Chau; Guillen, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is an ameboid parasite that causes colonic dysentery and liver abscesses in humans. The parasite encounters dramatic changes in iron concentration during its invasion of the host, with relatively low levels in the intestinal lumen and then relatively high levels in the blood and liver. The liver notably contains sources of iron; therefore, the parasite's ability to use these sources might be relevant to its survival in the liver and thus the pathogenesis of liver abscesses. The objective of the present study was to identify factors involved in iron uptake, use and storage in E. histolytica. We compared the respective transcriptomes of E. histolytica trophozoites grown in normal medium (containing around 169 µM iron), low-iron medium (around 123 µM iron), iron-deficient medium (around 91 µM iron), and iron-deficient medium replenished with hemoglobin. The differentially expressed genes included those coding for the ATP-binding cassette transporters and major facilitator transporters (which share homology with bacterial siderophores and heme transporters) and genes involved in heme biosynthesis and degradation. Iron deficiency was associated with increased transcription of genes encoding a subset of cell signaling molecules, some of which have previously been linked to adaptation to the intestinal environment and virulence. The present study is the first to have assessed the transcriptome of E. histolytica grown under various iron concentrations. Our results provide insights into the pathways involved in iron uptake and metabolism in this parasite.

  8. The Oral Iron Chelator Deferiprone Protects against Iron Overload–Induced Retinal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hadziahmetovic, Majda; Song, Ying; Wolkow, Natalie; Iacovelli, Jared; Grieco, Steven; Lee, Jennifer; Lyubarsky, Arkady; Pratico, Domenico; Connelly, John; Spino, Michael; Harris, Z. Leah

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Iron-induced oxidative stress may exacerbate age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Ceruloplasmin/Hephaestin double-knockout (DKO) mice with age-dependent retinal iron accumulation and some features of AMD were used to test retinal protection by the oral iron chelator deferiprone (DFP). Methods. Cultured retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells and mice were treated with DFP. Transferrin receptor mRNA (Tfrc), an indicator of iron levels, was quantified by qPCR. In mice, retinal oxidative stress was assessed by mass spectrometry, and degeneration by histology and electroretinography. Results. DFP at 60 μM decreased labile iron in ARPE-19 cells, increasing Tfrc and protecting 70% of cells against a lethal dose of H2O2. DFP 1 mg/mL in drinking water increased retinal Tfrc mRNA 2.7-fold after 11 days and also increased transferrin receptor protein. In DKOs, DFP over 8 months decreased retinal iron levels to 72% of untreated mice, diminished retinal oxidative stress to 70% of the untreated level, and markedly ameliorated retinal degeneration. DFP was not retina toxic in wild-type (WT) or DKO mice, as assessed by histology and electroretinography. Conclusions. Oral DFP was not toxic to the mouse retina. It diminished retinal iron levels and oxidative stress and protected DKO mice against iron overload–induced retinal degeneration. Further testing of DFP for retinal disease involving oxidative stress is warranted. PMID:21051716

  9. Compartmentalization and regulation of iron metabolism proteins protect male germ cells from iron overload.

    PubMed

    Leichtmann-Bardoogo, Yael; Cohen, Lyora A; Weiss, Avital; Marohn, Britta; Schubert, Stephanie; Meinhardt, Andreas; Meyron-Holtz, Esther G

    2012-06-15

    The universal importance of iron, its high toxicity, and complex chemistry present a challenge to biological systems in general and to protected compartments in particular. The high mitotic rate and avid mitochondriogenesis of developing male germ cells imply high iron requirements. Yet access to germ cells is tightly regulated by the blood-testis barrier that protects the meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells. To elucidate how iron is supplied to developing male germ cells, we analyzed iron deposition and iron transport proteins in testes of mice with iron overload and with genetic ablation of the iron regulators Hfe and iron regulatory protein 2. Iron accumulated mainly around seminiferous tubules, and only small amounts localized within the seminiferous tubules. The localization and regulation of proteins involved in iron import, storage, and export such as transferrin, transferrin receptor, the divalent metal transporter-1, cytosolic ferritin, and ferroportin strongly support a model of a largely autonomous iron cycle within seminiferous tubules. We show evidence that ferritin secretion from Sertoli cells may play an important role in iron acquisition of primary spermatocytes. During spermatogenic development iron is carried along from primary spermatocytes to spermatids, and from spermatids iron is recycled to the apical compartment of Sertoli cells, which traffic it back to a new generation of spermatocytes. Losses are replenished by the peripheral circulation. Such an internal iron cycle essentially detaches the iron homeostasis within the seminiferous tubule from the periphery and protects developing germ cells from iron fluctuations. This model explains how compartmentalization can optimize cellular and systemic nutrient homeostasis.

  10. Beta-Thalassemia Major and Female Fertility: The Role of Iron and Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Roussou, Paraskevi; Tsagarakis, Nikolaos J.; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine complications due to haemosiderosis are present in a significant number of patients with beta-thalassemia major (BTM) worldwide and often become barriers in their desire for parenthood. Thus, although spontaneous fertility can occur, the majority of females with BTM is infertile due to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) and need assisted reproductive techniques. Infertility in these women seems to be attributed to iron deposition and iron-induced oxidative stress (OS) in various endocrine organs, such as hypothalamus, pituitary, and female reproductive system, but also through the iron effect on other organs, such as liver and pancreas, contributing to the impaired metabolism of hormones and serum antioxidants. Nevertheless, the gonadal function of these patients is usually intact and fertility is usually retrievable. Meanwhile, a significant prooxidants/antioxidants imbalance with subsequent increased (OS) exists in patients with BTM, which is mainly caused by tissue injury due to overproduction of free radicals by secondary iron overload, but also due to alteration in serum trace elements and antioxidant enzymes. Not only using the appropriate antioxidants, essential trace elements, and minerals, but also regulating the advanced glycation end products, could probably reduce the extent of oxidative damage and related complications and retrieve BTM women's infertility. PMID:24396593

  11. The effect of 8-week different-intensity walking exercises on serum hepcidin, IL-6, and iron metabolism in pre-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Buyukyazi, G; Ulman, C; Çelik, A; Çetinkaya, C; Şişman, A R; Çimrin, D; Doğru, Y; Kaya, D

    2017-03-01

    Objective Hepcidin may be an important mediator in exercise-induced iron deficiency. Despite the studies investigating acute exercise effects on hepcidin and markers of iron metabolism, we found no studies examining the chronic effects of walking exercises (WE) on hepcidin and markers of iron metabolism in premenopausal women. The chronic effects of two 8-week different-intensity WE on hepcidin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and markers of iron metabolism in pre-menopausal women were examined. Methods Exercise groups (EG) [moderate tempo walking group (MTWG), n = 11; brisk walking group (BWG), n = 11] walked 3 days/week, starting from 30 to 51 min. Control group (CG; n = 8) did not perform any exercises. BWG walked at ∼70%-75%; MTWG at ∼50%-55% of HRRmax. VO2max, hepcidin, IL-6, and iron metabolism markers were determined before and after the intervention. Results VO2max increased in both EGs, favoring the BWG. Hepcidin increased in the BWG (p < 0.01) and CG (p < 0.05). IL-6 decreased in the BWG and the MTWG (p < 0.05; p < 0.01). While iron, ferritin, transferrin, and transferrin saturation levels did not change in any group, total iron binding capacity (p < 0.05), red blood cells (p < 0.05), and hematocrit (p < 0.01) increased only in the BWG. Conclusion Both WE types may be useful to prevent inflammation. However, brisk walking is advisable due to the positive changes in VO2max and some iron metabolism parameters, which may contribute to prevent iron deficiency. The increase in hepcidin levels remains unclear and necessitates further studies.

  12. Nifedipine prevents iron accumulation and reverses iron-overload-induced dopamine neuron degeneration in the substantia nigra of rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, ZeGang; Zhou, Yu; Xie, JunXia

    2012-11-01

    The mechanisms of iron accumulation in substantia nigra (SN) of Parkinson's diseases remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of nifedipine on iron-overload-induced iron accumulation and neurodegeneration in SN of rats. By high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry, and iron content array, we first quantified iron content and the number of dopamine neurons in SN of experimental rats treated with iron dextran. We further assessed effects of treatment with nifedipine. Our results showed that nifedipine treatment prevents iron dextran-induced dopamine depletion in the striatum. Consistently, we found that nifedipine restores the number of TH-positive neurons reduced by iron dextran overload and prevents increase of iron content in the SN. These results suggested that nifedipine may suppress iron toxicity in dopamine neurons and prevent neurodegeneration.

  13. Gamma radiation induced resistivity changes in Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tundwal, Ambika; Kumar, V.; Datta, A.

    2017-03-01

    Monte Carlo Code JA-IPU is used for estimation of Frenkel pairs and their effect on change of resistivity of Iron on irradiation by gamma spectrum of Co60. The Code includes three cascade processes of incident gamma, produced electrons and recoiled atoms and simulation of the lattice structure of the target material. Change in experimentally measured resistivity of Iron is found to vary with number of Frenkel pairs as (x - 1) ln N d .

  14. Iron-dependent changes in cellular energy metabolism: influence on citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Oexle, H; Gnaiger, E; Weiss, G

    1999-11-10

    Iron modulates the expression of the critical citric acid cycle enzyme aconitase via a translational mechanism involving iron regulatory proteins. Thus, the present study was undertaken to investigate the consequences of iron perturbation on citric acid cycle activity, oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial respiration in the human cell line K-562. In agreement with previous data iron increases the activity of mitochondrial aconitase while it is reduced upon addition of the iron chelator desferrioxamine (DFO). Interestingly, iron also positively affects three other citric acid cycle enzymes, namely citrate synthase, isocitric dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase, while DFO decreases the activity of these enzymes. Consequently, iron supplementation results in increased formation of reducing equivalents (NADH) by the citric acid cycle, and thus in increased mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP formation via oxidative phosphorylation as shown herein. This in turn leads to downregulation of glucose utilization. In contrast, all these metabolic pathways are reduced upon iron depletion, and thus glycolysis and lactate formation are significantly increased in order to compensate for the decrease in ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation in the presence of DFO. Our results point to a complex interaction between iron homeostasis, oxygen supply and cellular energy metabolism in human cells.

  15. The iron chelator deferasirox induces apoptosis by targeting oncogenic Pyk2/β-catenin signaling in human multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tsutomu; Kawano, Yutaka; Murase, Kazuyuki; Arihara, Yohei; Kikuchi, Shohei; Hayasaka, Naotaka; Usami, Makoto; Iyama, Satoshi; Miyanishi, Koji; Sato, Yasushi; Kobune, Masayoshi; Kato, Junji

    2016-01-01

    Deregulated iron metabolism underlies the pathogenesis of many human cancers. Recently, low expression of ferroportin, which is the only identified non-heme iron exporter, has been associated with significantly reduced overall survival in multiple myeloma (MM); however, the altered iron metabolism in MM biology remains unclear. In this study we demonstrated, by live cell imaging, that MM cells have increased intracellular iron levels as compared with normal cells. In experiments to test the effect of iron chelation on the growth of MM cells, we found that deferasirox (DFX), an oral iron chelator used to treat iron overload in clinical practice, inhibits MM cell growth both in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistically, DFX was found to induce apoptosis of MM cells via the inhibition of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2), which is known to promote tumor growth in MM. Inhibition of Pyk2 is caused by the suppression of reactive oxygen species, and leads to downregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Taken together, our findings indicate that high levels of intracellular iron, which might be due to low ferroportin expression, play a role in MM pathophysiology. Therefore, DFX may provide a therapeutic option for MM that is driven by deregulated iron homeostasis and/or Pyk2/Wnt signaling. PMID:27602957

  16. Neuroprotective effects of ginkgetin against neuroinjury in Parkinson's disease model induced by MPTP via chelating iron.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y-Q; Wang, M-Y; Fu, X-R; Peng-Yu; Gao, G-F; Fan, Y-M; Duan, X-L; Zhao, B-L; Chang, Y-Z; Shi, Z-H

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of neuronal iron homeostasis and oxidative stress are closely related to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Ginkgetin, a natural biflavonoid isolated from leaves of Ginkgo biloba L, has many known effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-influenza virus, and anti-fungal activities, but its underlying mechanism of the neuroprotective effects in PD remains unclear. The present study utilized PD models induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to explore the neuroprotective ability of ginkgetin in vivo and in vitro. Our results showed that ginkgetin could provide significant protection from MPP(+)-induced cell damage in vitro by decreasing the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and maintaining mitochondrial membrane potential. Meanwhile, ginkgetin dramatically inhibited cell apoptosis induced by MPP+ through the caspase-3 and Bcl2/Bax pathway. Moreover, ginkgetin significantly improved sensorimotor coordination in a mouse PD model induced by MPTP by dramatically inhibiting the decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the substantia nigra and superoxide dismutase activity in the striatum. Interestingly, ginkgetin could strongly chelate ferrous ion and thereby inhibit the increase of the intracellular labile iron pool through downregulating L-ferritin and upregulating transferrin receptor 1. These results indicate that the neuroprotective mechanism of ginkgetin against neurological injury induced by MPTP occurs via regulating iron homeostasis. Therefore, ginkgetin may provide neuroprotective therapy for PD and iron metabolism disorder related diseases.

  17. Transferrin Receptor 2 Dependent Alterations of Brain Iron Metabolism Affect Anxiety Circuits in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrino, Rosa Maria; Boda, Enrica; Montarolo, Francesca; Boero, Martina; Mezzanotte, Mariarosa; Saglio, Giuseppe; Buffo, Annalisa; Roetto, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The Transferrin Receptor 2 (Tfr2) modulates systemic iron metabolism through the regulation of iron regulator Hepcidin (Hepc) and Tfr2 inactivation causes systemic iron overload. Based on data demonstrating Tfr2 expression in brain, we analysed Tfr2-KO mice in order to examine the molecular, histological and behavioural consequences of Tfr2 silencing in this tissue. Tfr2 abrogation caused an accumulation of iron in specific districts in the nervous tissue that was not accompanied by a brain Hepc response. Moreover, Tfr2-KO mice presented a selective overactivation of neurons in the limbic circuit and the emergence of an anxious-like behaviour. Furthermore, microglial cells showed a particular sensitivity to iron perturbation. We conclude that Tfr2 is a key regulator of brain iron homeostasis and propose a role for Tfr2 alpha in the regulation of anxiety circuits. PMID:27477597

  18. Insights into the Structure and Metabolic Function of Microbes That Shape Pelagic Iron-Rich Aggregates ( Iron Snow )

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, S; Chourey, Karuna; REICHE, M; Nietzsche, S; Shah, Manesh B; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Kusel, K

    2013-01-01

    Metaproteomics combined with total nucleic acid-based methods aided in deciphering the roles of microorganisms in the formation and transformation of iron-rich macroscopic aggregates (iron snow) formed in the redoxcline of an acidic lignite mine lake. Iron snow had high total bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies, with 2 x 109 copies g (dry wt)-1 in the acidic (pH 3.5) central lake basin and 4 x 1010 copies g (dry wt)-1 in the less acidic (pH 5.5) northern lake basin. Active microbial communities in the central basin were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria (36.6%) and Actinobacteria (21.4%), and by Betaproteobacteria (36.2%) in the northern basin. Microbial Fe-cycling appeared to be the dominant metabolism in the schwertmannite-rich iron snow, because cloning and qPCR assigned up to 61% of active bacteria as Fe-cycling bacteria (FeB). Metaproteomics revealed 70 unique proteins from central basin iron snow and 283 unique proteins from 43 genera from northern basin. Protein identification provided a glimpse into in situ processes, such as primary production, motility, metabolism of acidophilic FeB, and survival strategies of neutrophilic FeB. Expression of carboxysome shell proteins and RubisCO indicated active CO2 fixation by Fe(II) oxidizers. Flagellar proteins from heterotrophs indicated their activity to reach and attach surfaces. Gas vesicle proteins related to CO2-fixing Chlorobium suggested that microbes could influence iron snow sinking. We suggest that iron snow formed by autotrophs in the redoxcline acts as a microbial parachute, since it is colonized by motile heterotrophs during sinking which start to dissolve schwertmannite.

  19. Hepcidin and iron metabolism in non-diabetic obese and type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Yin, Hui-qing; Liu, Hao-ling; Xiu, Lei; Peng, Xiao-yu

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of iron levels and hepatic regulatory molecules expression involved in iron metabolism in non-diabetic obese/type 2 diabetic rat models. Male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: control group, non-diabetic obese group and type 2 diabetic group (n=20 each). The rats were evaluated physiologically and biochemically. The hepatic histopathological changes were observed using haematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The mRNA expression patterns of hepcidin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and ferroportin (Fpn) in the rat liver in control group, non-diabetic obese group and type 2 diabetic group were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The protein expression patterns of hepcidin in liver of each group were further analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. As compared with control group, the ferritin in non-diabetic obese group and type 2 diabetic group was increased significantly (P<0.001). However, there was no significant difference in soluble transferring receptor (sTfR):ferritin ratio among the three groups (P>0.05). The real-time RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting results all revealed that the expression levels of hepcidin in non-diabetic obese group and type 2 diabetic group were elevated significantly as compared with those in control group (P<0.001). The expression levels of hepcidin mRNA between non-diabetic obese group and type 2 diabetic group showed no significant difference (P>0.05). However, the protein expression levels of hepcidin in type 2 diabetic group were significantly higher than those in non-diabetic obese group (P<0.05). Compared to control group, the expression levels of IL-6 mRNA in non-diabetic obese group and type 2 diabetic group were increased significantly and the expression levels of Fpn mRNA decreased (P<0.05). However, the expression levels of HIF mRNA had no significant difference among three groups. It is suggested that iron metabolism is

  20. Abnormal iron metabolism in fibroblasts from a patient with the neurodegenerative disease hereditary ferritinopathy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nucleotide duplications in exon 4 of the ferritin light polypeptide (FTL) gene cause the autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease neuroferritinopathy or hereditary ferritinopathy (HF). Pathologic examination of patients with HF has shown abnormal ferritin and iron accumulation in neurons and glia in the central nervous system (CNS) as well as in cells of other organ systems, including skin fibroblasts. To gain some understanding on the molecular basis of HF, we characterized iron metabolism in primary cultures of human skin fibroblasts from an individual with the FTL c.497_498dupTC mutation. Results Compared to normal controls, HF fibroblasts showed abnormal iron metabolism consisting of increased levels of ferritin polypeptides, divalent metal transporter 1, basal iron content and reactive oxygen species, and decreased levels of transferrin receptor-1 and IRE-IRP binding activity. Conclusions Our data indicates that HF fibroblasts replicate the abnormal iron metabolism observed in the CNS of patients with HF. We propose that HF fibroblasts are a unique cellular model in which to study the role of abnormal iron metabolism in the pathogenesis of HF without artifacts derived from over-expression or lack of endogenous translational regulatory elements. PMID:21067605

  1. Genetic modification of iron metabolism in mice affects the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Buhnik-Rosenblau, Keren; Moshe-Belizowski, Shirly; Danin-Poleg, Yael; Meyron-Holtz, Esther G

    2012-10-01

    The composition of the gut microbiota is affected by environmental factors as well as host genetics. Iron is one of the important elements essential for bacterial growth, thus we hypothesized that changes in host iron homeostasis, may affect the luminal iron content of the gut and thereby the composition of intestinal bacteria. The iron regulatory protein 2 (Irp2) and one of the genes mutated in hereditary hemochromatosis Hfe , are both proteins involved in the regulation of systemic iron homeostasis. To test our hypothesis, fecal metal content and a selected spectrum of the fecal microbiota were analyzed from Hfe-/-, Irp2-/- and their wild type control mice. Elevated levels of iron as well as other minerals in feces of Irp2-/- mice compared to wild type and Hfe-/- mice were observed. Interestingly significant variation in the general fecal-bacterial population-patterns was observed between Irp2-/- and Hfe-/- mice. Furthermore the relative abundance of five species, mainly lactic acid bacteria, was significantly different among the mouse lines. Lactobacillus (L.) murinus and L. intestinalis were highly abundant in Irp2-/- mice, Enterococcus faecium species cluster and a species most similar to Olsenella were highly abundant in Hfe-/- mice and L. johnsonii was highly abundant in the wild type mice. These results suggest that deletion of iron metabolism genes in the mouse host affects the composition of its intestinal bacteria. Further studying the relationship between gut microbiota and genetic mutations affecting systemic iron metabolism in human should lead to clinical implications.

  2. Gene expression profiling and phenotype analyses of S. cerevisiae in response to changing copper reveals six genes with new roles in copper and iron metabolism.

    PubMed

    van Bakel, Harm; Strengman, Eric; Wijmenga, Cisca; Holstege, Frank C P

    2005-08-11

    Exhaustive microarray time course analyses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during copper starvation and copper excess reveal new aspects of metal-induced gene regulation. Aside from identifying targets of established copper- and iron-responsive transcription factors, we find that genes encoding mitochondrial proteins are downregulated and that copper-independent iron transport genes are preferentially upregulated, both during prolonged copper deprivation. The experiments also suggest the presence of a small regulatory iron pool that links copper and iron responses. One hundred twenty-eight genes with putative roles in metal metabolism were further investigated by several systematic phenotype screens. Of the novel phenotypes uncovered, hsp12-Delta and arn1-Delta display increased sensitivity to copper, cyc1-Delta and crr1-Delta show resistance to high copper, vma13-Delta exhibits increased sensitivity to iron deprivation, and pep12-Delta results in reduced growth in high copper and low iron. Besides revealing new components of eukaryotic metal trafficking pathways, the results underscore the previously determined intimate links between iron and copper metabolism and mitochondrial and vacuolar function in metal trafficking. The analyses further suggest that copper starvation can specifically lead to downregulation of respiratory function to preserve iron and copper for other cellular processes.

  3. Red blood cell and iron metabolism during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2002-01-01

    Space flight anemia is a widely recognized phenomenon in astronauts. Reduction in circulating red blood cells and plasma volume results in a 10% to 15% decrement in circulatory volume. This effect appears to be a normal physiologic adaptation to weightlessness and results from the removal of newly released blood cells from the circulation. Iron availability increases, and (in the few subjects studied) iron stores increase during long-duration space flight. The consequences of these changes are not fully understood.

  4. Clinical Consequences of New Insights in the Pathophysiology of Disorders of Iron and Heme Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Brittenham, Gary M.; Weiss, Günter; Brissot, Pierre; Lainé, Fabrice; Guillygomarc'h, Anne; Guyader, Dominique; Moirand, Romain; Deugnier, Yves

    2000-01-01

    This review examines the clinical consequences for the practicing hematologist of remarkable new insights into the pathophysiology of disorders of iron and heme metabolism. The familiar proteins of iron transport and storage-transferrin, transferrin receptor, and ferritin-have recently been joined by a host of newly identified proteins that play critical roles in the molecular management of iron homeostasis. These include the iron-regulatory proteins (IRP-1 and -2), HFE (the product of the HFE gene that is mutated in most patients with hereditary hemochromatosis), the divalent metal transporter (DMT1), transferrin receptor 2, ceruloplasmin, hephaestin, the "Stimulator of Fe Transport" (SFT), frataxin, ferroportin 1 and others. The growing appreciation of the roles of these newly identified proteins has fundamental implications for the clinical understanding and laboratory evaluation of iron metabolism and its alterations with iron deficiency, iron overload, infection, and inflammation. In Section I, Dr. Brittenham summarizes current concepts of body and cellular iron supply and storage and reviews new means of evaluating the full range of body iron stores including genetic testing for mutations in the HFE gene, measurement of serum ferritin iron, transferrin receptor, reticulocyte hemoglobin content and measurement of tissue iron by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic susceptometry using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) instrumentation. In Section II, Dr. Weiss discusses the improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying alterations in iron metabolism due to chronic inflammatory disorders. The anemia of chronic disorders remains the most common form of anemia found in hospitalized patients. The network of interactions that link iron metabolism with cellular immune effector functions involving pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, acute phase proteins and oxidative stress is described, with an emphasis on

  5. [Influence of dinitrosyl iron complexes on blood metabolism in rats with thermal trauma].

    PubMed

    Martusevich, A K; Solov'eva, A G; Peteriagin, S P; Davydiuk, A V

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics in the oxidative and energy metabolism and enzyme systems of blood detoxification in animals with thermal trauma injected with dinitrosyl iron complexes was explored. The positive effect of dinitrosyl iron complexes on the state of blood pro- and antioxidant systems in animals with experimental thermal injury having profound oxidative stress is shown. This effect is observed as a considerable reduction of the intensity (normalization) of lipid peroxidation processes against significant elevation of antioxidant potential of blood plasma. This tendency was also fixed in erythrocyte membranes. It is also stated, that dinitrosyl iron complexes clearly normalized erythrocyte energy metabolism already by the 3rd day after trauma. In addition, infusions of dinitrosyl iron complexes caused marked stimulation of aldehyde dehydrogenase catalytic activity in burned rats via mechanism, associated with enzyme detoxification properties.

  6. Disturbance of aerobic metabolism accompanies neurobehavioral changes induced by nickel in mice.

    PubMed

    He, Min-Di; Xu, Shang-Cheng; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Yan; Xiong, Jia-Chuan; Zhang, Xiao; Lu, Yong-Hui; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Zheng-Ping; Zhou, Zhou

    2013-09-01

    The oral ingestion of soluble nickel compounds leads to neurological symptoms in humans. Deficiencies in aerobic metabolism induced by neurotoxic stimulus can cause an energy crisis in the brain that results in a variety of neurotoxic effects. In the present study, we focused on the aerobic metabolic states to investigate whether disturbance of aerobic metabolism was involved in nickel-induced neurological effects in mice. Mice were orally administered nickel chloride, and neurobehavioral performance was evaluated using the Morris water maze and open field tests at different time points. Aerobic metabolic states in the cerebral cortex were analyzed at the same time points at which neurobehavioral changes were evident. We found that nickel exposure caused deficits in both spatial memory and exploring activity in mice and that nickel was deposited in their cerebral cortex. Deficient aerobic metabolism manifested as decreased O2 consumption and ATP concentrations, lactate and NADH accumulation, and oxidative stress. Meanwhile, the activity of prototypical iron-sulfur clusters (ISCs) containing enzymes that are known to control aerobic metabolism, including complex I and aconitase, and the expression of ISC assembly scaffold protein (ISCU) were inhibited following nickel deposition. Overall, these data suggest that aerobic metabolic disturbances, which accompanied the neurobehavioral changes, may participate in nickel-induced neurologic effects. The inactivation of ISC containing metabolic enzymes may result in the disturbance of aerobic metabolism. A better understanding of how nickel impacts the energy metabolic processes may provide insight into the prevention of nickel neurotoxicity.

  7. Effects of Iron on Vitamin D Metabolism: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Azizi-Soleiman, Fatemeh; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Abiri, Behnaz; Safavi, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is a prohormone nutrient, which is involved in skeletal and extra-skeletal functions. Iron is another essential nutrient that is necessary for the production of red blood cells and oxygen transport. This element plays important roles in enzymatic systems including those required for Vitamin D activation. To the best of our knowledge, there is no exclusive review on the relationship between iron deficiency anemia (IDA), as the most prevalent type of anemia, and Vitamin D deficiency and the effect of recovery from iron deficiency on Vitamin D status. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic search of observational and clinical trials in this field. The databases of PubMed, ProQuest, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Knowledge, and SCOPUS were searched comprehensively. English-language human studies conducted on iron deficient patients or interventions on the effect of iron therapy on Vitamin D were extracted (n = 10). Our initial search yielded 938 articles. A total of 23 papers met the inclusion criteria. Thirteen studies were excluded because they were not relevant or not defining anemia types. The final analysis was performed on ten articles (3 cross-sectional and 7 interventional studies). Observational data indicated a positive relationship between iron status and Vitamin D, while trials did not support the effectiveness of iron supplementation on improving Vitamin D status. The mechanism underlying this association may involve the reduction of the activation of hydroxylases that yield calcitriol. Future randomized controlled trials with large sample sizes and proper designs are needed to highlight underlying mechanisms. PMID:28028427

  8. Iron-dependent remodeling of fungal metabolic pathways associated with ferrichrome biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Alexandre; Labbé, Simon

    2010-06-01

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe excretes and accumulates the hydroxamate-type siderophore ferrichrome. The sib1(+) and sib2(+) genes encode, respectively, a siderophore synthetase and an l-ornithine N(5)-oxygenase that participate in ferrichrome biosynthesis. In the present report, we demonstrate that sib1(+) and sib2(+) are repressed by the GATA-type transcriptional repressor Fep1 in response to high levels of iron. We further found that the loss of Fep1 results in increased ferrichrome production. We showed that a sib1Delta sib2Delta mutant strain exhibits a severe growth defect on iron-poor media. We determined that two metabolic pathways are involved in biosynthesis of ornithine, an obligatory precursor of ferrichrome. Ornithine is produced by hydrolysis of arginine by the Car1 and Car3 proteins. Although car3(+) was constitutively expressed, car1(+) transcription levels were repressed upon exposure to iron, with a concomitant decrease of Car1 arginase activity. Ornithine is also generated by transformation of glutamate, which itself is produced by two separate biosynthetic pathways which are transcriptionally regulated by iron in an opposite fashion. In one pathway, the glutamate dehydrogenase Gdh1, which produces glutamate from 2-ketoglutarate, was repressed under iron-replete conditions in a Fep1-dependent manner. The other pathway involves two coupled enzymes, glutamine synthetase Gln1 and Fe-S cluster-containing glutamate synthase Glt1, which were both repressed under iron-limiting conditions but were expressed under iron-replete conditions. Collectively, these results indicate that under conditions of iron deprivation, yeast remodels metabolic pathways linked to ferrichrome synthesis in order to limit iron utilization without compromising siderophore production and its ability to sequester iron from the environment.

  9. Experimental hemochromatosis due to MHC class I HFE deficiency: Immune status and iron metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bahram, Seiamak; Gilfillan, Susan; Kühn, Lukas C.; Moret, Rémy; Schulze, Johannes B.; Lebeau, Annette; Schümann, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    The puzzling linkage between genetic hemochromatosis and histocompatibility loci became even more so when the gene involved, HFE, was identified. Indeed, within the well defined, mainly peptide-binding, MHC class I family of molecules, HFE seems to perform an unusual yet essential function. As yet, our understanding of HFE function in iron homeostasis is only partial; an even more open question is its possible role in the immune system. To advance on both of these avenues, we report the deletion of HFE α1 and α2 putative ligand binding domains in vivo. HFE-deficient animals were analyzed for a comprehensive set of metabolic and immune parameters. Faithfully mimicking human hemochromatosis, mice homozygous for this deletion develop iron overload, characterized by a higher plasma iron content and a raised transferrin saturation as well as an elevated hepatic iron load. The primary defect could, indeed, be traced to an augmented duodenal iron absorption. In parallel, measurement of the gut mucosal iron content as well as iron regulatory proteins allows a more informed evaluation of various hypotheses regarding the precise role of HFE in iron homeostasis. Finally, an extensive phenotyping of primary and secondary lymphoid organs including the gut provides no compelling evidence for an obvious immune-linked function for HFE. PMID:10557317

  10. Glucose metabolism in the Belgrade rat, a model of iron-loading anemia.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xuming; Kim, Jonghan; Veuthey, Tania; Lee, Chih-Hao; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2013-06-15

    The iron-diabetes hypothesis proposes an association between iron overload and glucose metabolism that is supported by a number of epidemiological studies. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis and iron-loading thalassemia supports this hypothesis. The Belgrade rat carries a mutation in the iron transporter divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) resulting in iron-loading anemia. In this study, we characterized the glycometabolic status of the Belgrade rat. Belgrade rats displayed normal glycemic control. Insulin signaling and secretion were not impaired, and pancreatic tissue did not incur damage despite high levels of nonheme iron. These findings suggest that loss of DMT1 protects against oxidative damage to the pancreas and helps to maintain insulin sensitivity despite iron overload. Belgrade rats had lower body weight but increased food consumption compared with heterozygous littermates. The unexpected energy balance was associated with increased urinary glucose output. Increased urinary excretion of electrolytes, including iron, was also observed. Histopathological evidence suggests that altered renal function is secondary to changes in kidney morphology, including glomerulosclerosis. Thus, loss of DMT1 appears to protect the pancreas from injury but damages the integrity of kidney structure and function.

  11. Modulation of iron metabolism in aging and in Alzheimer's disease: relevance of the choroid plexus

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Sandro D.; Ferreira, Ana C.; Sousa, João C.; Santos, Nadine C.; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Sousa, Nuno; Palha, Joana A.; Marques, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Iron is essential for mammalian cellular homeostasis. However, in excess, it promotes free radical formation and is associated with aging-related progressive deterioration and with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are no mechanisms to excrete iron, which makes iron homeostasis a very tightly regulated process at the level of the intestinal absorption. Iron is believed to reach the brain through receptor-mediated endocytosis of iron-bound transferrin by the brain barriers, the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier, formed by the choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cells and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) formed by the endothelial cells of the brain capillaries. Importantly, the CP epithelial cells are responsible for producing most of the CSF, the fluid that fills the brain ventricles and the subarachnoid space. Recently, the finding that the CP epithelial cells display all the machinery to locally control iron delivery into the CSF may suggest that the general and progressive senescence of the CP may be at the basis of the impairment of regional iron metabolism, iron-mediated toxicity, and the increase in inflammation and oxidative stress that occurs with aging and, particularly, in AD. PMID:22661928

  12. Glucose metabolism in the Belgrade rat, a model of iron-loading anemia

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xuming; Kim, Jonghan; Veuthey, Tania; Lee, Chih-Hao

    2013-01-01

    The iron-diabetes hypothesis proposes an association between iron overload and glucose metabolism that is supported by a number of epidemiological studies. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis and iron-loading thalassemia supports this hypothesis. The Belgrade rat carries a mutation in the iron transporter divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) resulting in iron-loading anemia. In this study, we characterized the glycometabolic status of the Belgrade rat. Belgrade rats displayed normal glycemic control. Insulin signaling and secretion were not impaired, and pancreatic tissue did not incur damage despite high levels of nonheme iron. These findings suggest that loss of DMT1 protects against oxidative damage to the pancreas and helps to maintain insulin sensitivity despite iron overload. Belgrade rats had lower body weight but increased food consumption compared with heterozygous littermates. The unexpected energy balance was associated with increased urinary glucose output. Increased urinary excretion of electrolytes, including iron, was also observed. Histopathological evidence suggests that altered renal function is secondary to changes in kidney morphology, including glomerulosclerosis. Thus, loss of DMT1 appears to protect the pancreas from injury but damages the integrity of kidney structure and function. PMID:23599042

  13. Bactericidal antibiotics induce programmed metabolic toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, Aislinn D.; Cabral, Damien J.; Belenky, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The misuse of antibiotics has led to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance in clinically important pathogens. These resistant infections are having a significant impact on treatment outcomes and contribute to approximately 25,000 deaths in the U.S. annually. If additional therapeutic options are not identified, the number of annual deaths is predicted to rise to 317,000 in North America and 10,000,000 worldwide by 2050. Identifying therapeutic methodologies that utilize our antibiotic arsenal more effectively is one potential way to extend the useful lifespan of our current antibiotics. Recent studies have indicated that modulating metabolic activity is one possible strategy that can impact the efficacy of antibiotic therapy. In this review, we will address recent advances in our knowledge about the impacts of bacterial metabolism on antibiotic effectiveness and the impacts of antibiotics on bacterial metabolism. We will particularly focus on two studies, Lobritz, et al. (PNAS, 112(27): 8173-8180) and Belenky et al. (Cell Reports, 13(5): 968-980) that together demonstrate that bactericidal antibiotics induce metabolic perturbations that are linked to and required for bactericidal antibiotic toxicity.

  14. Proteomic Analysis Reveals That Iron Availability Alters the Metabolic Status of the Pathogenic Fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Parente, Ana F. A.; Bailão, Alexandre M.; Borges, Clayton L.; Parente, Juliana A.; Magalhães, Adriana D.; Ricart, Carlos A. O.; Soares, Célia M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermodimorphic fungus and the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). The ability of P. brasiliensis to uptake nutrients is fundamental for growth, but a reduction in the availability of iron and other nutrients is a host defense mechanism many pathogenic fungi must overcome. Thus, fungal mechanisms that scavenge iron from host may contribute to P. brasiliensis virulence. In order to better understand how P. brasiliensis adapts to iron starvation in the host we compared the two-dimensional (2D) gel protein profile of yeast cells during iron starvation to that of iron rich condition. Protein spots were selected for comparative analysis based on the protein staining intensity as determined by image analysis. A total of 1752 protein spots were selected for comparison, and a total of 274 out of the 1752 protein spots were determined to have changed significantly in abundance due to iron depletion. Ninety six of the 274 proteins were grouped into the following functional categories; energy, metabolism, cell rescue, virulence, cell cycle, protein synthesis, protein fate, transcription, cellular communication, and cell fate. A correlation between protein and transcript levels was also discovered using quantitative RT-PCR analysis from RNA obtained from P. brasiliensis under iron restricting conditions and from yeast cells isolated from infected mouse spleens. In addition, western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays validated the differential regulation of proteins identified by 2-D gel analysis. We observed an increase in glycolytic pathway protein regulation while tricarboxylic acid cycle, glyoxylate and methylcitrate cycles, and electron transport chain proteins decreased in abundance under iron limiting conditions. These data suggest a remodeling of P. brasiliensis metabolism by prioritizing iron independent pathways. PMID:21829521

  15. Effects of dietary manganese and iron on manganese and iron metabolism during infancy

    SciTech Connect

    Kiehl, H.; Loennerdal, B. )

    1991-03-15

    To derive a better understanding of the metabolism of Mn during infancy, infant formulas with different levels of Mn and Fe were labeled with {sup 54}Mn and {sup 59}Fe and administered orally to suckling rats: control low-Fe formula; control with 100-times Mn; and control with 100-times Fe. Another group received 200 {mu}g MnCl{sub 2} daily during infancy. 12 hr post-dosing, the pattern of {sup 54}Mn distribution in the tissues paralleled that of {sup 59}Fe. An excess of either mineral decreased overall retention but led to higher recoveries of both elements in the proximal intestine and liver. Conversely, these recoveries in pups given Mn from birth were lower than in controls. Analysis of the cytosolic fractions from intestine and liver using FPLC gel filtration demonstrated the impact of the mineral loads on protein profiles. In all cases except the high-Mn dose, dietary manipulations resulted in greater relative levels of a high molecular weight protein with MW similar to ferritin. The high-Mn formula seemed to induce in the hepatocyte a lower MW protein with which most of the {sup 54}Mn and {sup 59}Fe was associated. These results suggest a possible role of Mn as a regulator in the synthesis of cytosolic proteins of the enterocyte and hepatocyte in infants.

  16. Microbially Induced Iron Oxidation: What, Where, How

    SciTech Connect

    SCHIERMEYER,ELISA M.; PROVENCIO,PAULA P.; NORTHUP,DIANA E.

    2000-08-15

    From the results of the different bacterial cells seen, it is fairly certain that Gallionella is present because of the bean-shaped cells and twisted stalks found with the TEM. The authors cannot confirm, though, what other iron-oxidizing genera exist in the tubes, since the media was only preferential and not one that isolated a specific genus of bacteria. Based on the environment in which they live and the source of the water, they believe their cultures contain Gallionella, Leptothrix, and possibly Crenothrix and Sphaerotilus. They believe the genus Leptothrix rather than Sphaerotilus exist in the tubes because the water source was fresh, unlike the polluted water in which Sphaerotilus are usually found. The TEM preparations worked well. The cryogenic method rapidly froze the cells in place and allowed them to view their morphology. The FAA method, as stated previously, was the best of the three methods because it gave the best contrast. The gluteraldehyde samples did not come out as well. It is possible that the gluteraldehyde the authors prepared was still too concentrated and did not mix well. Although these bacteria were collected from springs and then cultured in an environment containing a presumably pure iron-bearing metal, it seems the tube already containing Manganese Gradient Medium could be used with a piece of metal containing these bacteria. A small piece of corroding metal could then be inserted into the test tube and cultured to study the bacteria.

  17. Oxidation-Induced Degradable Nanogels for Iron Chelation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi; Wang, Yan; Purro, Max; Xiong, May P.

    2016-02-01

    Iron overload can increase cellular oxidative stress levels due to formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); untreated, it can be extremely destructive to organs and fatal to patients. Since elevated oxidative stress levels are inherent to the condition in such patients, oxidation-induced degradable nanogels for iron chelation were rationally designed by simultaneously polymerizing oxidation-sensitive host-guest crosslinkers between β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and ferrocene (Fc) and iron chelating moieties composed of deferoxamine (DFO) into the final gel scaffold in reverse emulsion reaction chambers. UV-Vis absorption and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was used to verify iron chelating capability of nanogels. These materials can degrade into smaller chelating fragments at rates proportional to the level of oxidative stress present. Conjugating DFO reduces the cytotoxicity of the chelator in the macrophage cells. Importantly, the nanogel can effectively reduce cellular ferritin expression in iron overloaded cells and regulate intracellular iron levels at the same time, which is important for maintaining a homeostatic level of this critical metal in cells.

  18. Oxidation-Induced Degradable Nanogels for Iron Chelation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi; Wang, Yan; Purro, Max; Xiong, May P.

    2016-01-01

    Iron overload can increase cellular oxidative stress levels due to formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); untreated, it can be extremely destructive to organs and fatal to patients. Since elevated oxidative stress levels are inherent to the condition in such patients, oxidation-induced degradable nanogels for iron chelation were rationally designed by simultaneously polymerizing oxidation-sensitive host-guest crosslinkers between β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and ferrocene (Fc) and iron chelating moieties composed of deferoxamine (DFO) into the final gel scaffold in reverse emulsion reaction chambers. UV-Vis absorption and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was used to verify iron chelating capability of nanogels. These materials can degrade into smaller chelating fragments at rates proportional to the level of oxidative stress present. Conjugating DFO reduces the cytotoxicity of the chelator in the macrophage cells. Importantly, the nanogel can effectively reduce cellular ferritin expression in iron overloaded cells and regulate intracellular iron levels at the same time, which is important for maintaining a homeostatic level of this critical metal in cells. PMID:26868174

  19. Influence of Lead on Repetitive Behavior and Dopamine Metabolism in a Mouse Model of Iron Overload

    PubMed Central

    Kueon, Chojin; Kim, Jonghan

    2014-01-01

    Exposures to lead (Pb) are associated with neurological problems including psychiatric disorders and impaired learning and memory. Pb can be absorbed by iron transporters, which are up-regulated in hereditary hemochromatosis, an iron overload disorder in which increased iron deposition in various parenchymal organs promote metal-induced oxidative damage. While dysfunction in HFE (High Fe) gene is the major cause of hemochromatosis, the transport and toxicity of Pb in Hfe-related hemochromatosis are largely unknown. To elucidate the relationship between HFE gene dysfunction and Pb absorption, H67D knock-in Hfe-mutant and wild-type mice were given drinking water containing Pb 1.6 mg/ml ad libitum for 6 weeks and examined for behavioral phenotypes using the nestlet-shredding and marble-burying tests. Latency to nestlet-shredding in Pb-treated wild-type mice was prolonged compared with non-exposed wild-types (p < 0.001), whereas Pb exposure did not alter shredding latency in Hfe-mutant mice. In the marble-burying test, Hfe-mutant mice showed an increased number of marbles buried compared with wild-type mice (p = 0.002), indicating more repetitive behavior upon Hfe mutation. Importantly, Pb-exposed wild-type mice buried more marbles than non-exposed wild-types, whereas the number of marbles buried by Hfe-mutant mice did not change whether or not exposed to Pb. These results suggest that Hfe mutation could normalize Pb-induced behavioral alteration. To explore the mechanism of repetitive behavior caused by Pb, western blot analysis was conducted for proteins involved in brain dopamine metabolism. The levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter increased upon Pb exposure in both genotypes, whereas Hfe-mutant mice displayed down-regulation of the dopamine transporter and dopamine D1 receptor with D2 receptor elevated. Taken together, our data support the idea that both Pb exposure and Hfe mutation increase repetitive behavior in mice and further suggest that

  20. [The effect of exogenous antioxidants on the antioxidant status of erythrocytes and hepcidin content in blood of patients with disorders of iron metabolism regulation].

    PubMed

    Shcherbinina, S P; Levina, A A; Lisovskaia, I L; Ataullakhanov, F I

    2013-01-01

    In many diseases associated with impairments in iron metabolism, erythrocytes exhibit an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress induced in vitro. In this study, we have examined the antioxidant status of erythrocytes from healthy donors and from 12 patients with disorders of iron homeostasis by measuring the extent of t-BHP-induced hemolysis in vitro. The extent of hemolysis observed with patient erythrocytes was significantly higher than that observed in experiment with normal cells. After therapeutic infusions of the antioxidants mexidol or emoxypin, oxidative hemolysis in patients was restored to normal values and blood hepcidin content increased significantly. A significant correlation was observed between hepcidin concentration after treatment and t-BHP-induced hemolysis before treatment. These data suggest that antioxidants may exert a favorable effect under pathological conditions associated with iron overload disease.

  1. Iron-induced reactive oxygen species mediate transporter DMT1 endocytosis and iron uptake in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Esparza, Andrés; Gerdtzen, Ziomara P; Olivera-Nappa, Alvaro; Salgado, J Cristian; Núñez, Marco T

    2015-10-15

    Recent evidence shows that iron induces the endocytosis of the iron transporter dimetal transporter 1 (DMT1) during intestinal absorption. We, and others, have proposed that iron-induced DMT1 internalization underlies the mucosal block phenomena, a regulatory response that downregulates intestinal iron uptake after a large oral dose of iron. In this work, we investigated the participation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the establishment of this response. By means of selective surface protein biotinylation of polarized Caco-2 cells, we determined the kinetics of DMT1 internalization from the apical membrane after an iron challenge. The initial decrease in DMT1 levels in the apical membrane induced by iron was followed at later times by increased levels of DMT1. Addition of Fe(2+), but not of Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), or Cu(1+), induced the production of intracellular ROS, as detected by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence. Preincubation with the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) resulted in increased DMT1 at the apical membrane before and after addition of iron. Similarly, preincubation with the hydroxyl radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) resulted in the enhanced presence of DMT1 at the apical membrane. The decrease of DMT1 levels at the apical membrane induced by iron was associated with decreased iron uptake rates. A kinetic mathematical model based on operational rate constants of DMT1 endocytosis and exocytosis is proposed. The model qualitatively captures the experimental observations and accurately describes the effect of iron, NAC, and DMSO on the apical distribution of DMT1. Taken together, our data suggest that iron uptake induces the production of ROS, which modify DMT1 endocytic cycling, thus changing the iron transport activity at the apical membrane.

  2. Sleep Disorders in Parkinson’s Disease: Clinical Features, Iron Metabolism and Related Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shu-yang; Sun, Li; Liu, Zhuo; Huang, Xi-yan; Zuo, Li-jun; Cao, Chen-jie; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xiao-min

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical features, iron metabolism and neuroinflammation in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with sleep disorders (SD). Methods 211 PD patients were evaluated by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and a body of scales for motor symptoms and non-motor symptoms. 94 blood and 38 cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected and iron and its metabolism-relating proteins, neuroinflammatory factors were detected and analyzed. Results 136 cases (64.5%) of PD patients were accompanied by SD. Factor with the highest score in PSQI was daytime dysfunction. Depression, restless leg syndrome, autonomic symptoms and fatigue contributed 68.6% of the variance of PSQI score. Transferrin level in serum and tumor necrosis factor–α level in CSF decreased, and the levels of iron, transferrin, lactoferrin and prostaglandin E2 in CSF increased in PD patients with SD compared with those without SD. In CSF, prostaglandin E2 level was positively correlated with the levels of transferrin and lactoferrin, and tumor necrosis factor–α level was negatively correlated with the levels of iron, transferrin and lactoferrin in CSF. Conclusions Depression, restless leg syndrome, autonomic disorders and fatigue are the important contributors for the poor sleep in PD patients. Abnormal iron metabolism may cause excessive iron deposition in brain and be related to SD in PD patients through dual potential mechanisms, including neuroinflammation by activating microglia and neurotoxicity by targeting neurons. Hence, inhibition of iron deposition-related neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity may cast a new light for drug development for SD in PD patients. PMID:24376607

  3. Increased iron export by ferroportin induces restriction of HIV-1 infection in sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Namita; Ammosova, Tatiana; Diaz, Sharmin; Lin, Xionghao; Niu, Xiaomei; Ivanov, Andrey; Jerebtsova, Marina; Dhawan, Subhash; Oneal, Patricia; Nekhai, Sergei

    2017-01-01

    The low incidence of HIV-1 infection in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and inhibition of HIV-1 replication in vitro under the conditions of low intracellular iron or heme treatment suggests a potential restriction of HIV-1 infection in SCD. We investigated HIV-1 ex vivo infection of SCD peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and found that HIV-1 replication was inhibited at the level of reverse transcription (RT) and transcription. We observed increased expression of heme and iron-regulated genes, previously shown to inhibit HIV-1, including ferroportin, IKBα, HO-1, p21, and SAM domain and HD domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1). HIV-1 inhibition was less pronounced in hepcidin-treated SCD PBMCs and more pronounced in the iron or iron chelators treated, suggesting a key role of iron metabolism. In SCD PBMCs, labile iron levels were reduced and protein levels of ferroportin, HIF-1α, IKBα, and HO-1 were increased. Hemin treatment induced ferroportin expression and inhibited HIV-1 in THP-1 cells, mimicking the HIV-1 inhibition in SCD PBMCs, especially as hepcidin similarly prevented HIV-1 inhibition. In THP-1 cells with knocked down ferroportin, IKBα, or HO-1 genes but not HIF-1α or p21, HIV-1 was not inhibited by hemin. Activity of SAMHD1-regulatory CDK2 was decreased, and SAMHD1 phosphorylation was reduced in SCD PBMCs and hemin-treated THP-1 cells, suggesting SAMHD1-mediated HIV-1 restriction in SCD. Our findings point to ferroportin as a trigger of HIV-1 restriction in SCD settings, linking reduced intracellular iron levels to the inhibition of CDK2 activity, reduction of SAMHD1 phosphorylation, increased IKBα expression, and inhibition of HIV-1 RT and transcription. PMID:28203649

  4. Mitochondria: A crossroads for lipid metabolism defect in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation diseases.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Manar; Tiranti, Valeria

    2015-06-01

    Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) comprises a group of brain iron deposition syndromes that lead to mixed extrapyramidal features and progressive dementia. Exact pathologic mechanism of iron deposition in NBIA remains unknown. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that many neurodegenerative diseases are hallmarked by metabolic dysfunction that often involves altered lipid profile. Among the identified disease genes, four encode for proteins localized in mitochondria, which are directly or indirectly implicated in lipid metabolism: PANK2, CoASY, PLA2G6 and C19orf12. Mutations in PANK2 and CoASY, both implicated in CoA biosynthesis that acts as a fatty acyl carrier, lead, respectively, to PKAN and CoPAN forms of NBIA. Mutations in PLA2G6, which plays a key role in the biosynthesis and remodeling of membrane phospholipids including cardiolipin, lead to PLAN. Mutations in C19orf12 lead to MPAN, a syndrome similar to that caused by mutations in PANK2 and PLA2G6. Although the function of C19orf12 is largely unknown, experimental data suggest its implication in mitochondrial homeostasis and lipid metabolism. Altogether, the identified mutated proteins localized in mitochondria and associated with different NBIA forms support the concept that dysfunctions in mitochondria and lipid metabolism play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of NBIA. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Energy Metabolism Disorders and Therapies.

  5. The Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Iron Redox Metabolism in Hot Spring Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St Clair, B. E.; Shock, E.

    2012-12-01

    The oxidation of ferrous iron and the reduction of ferric minerals are widespread sources of metabolic energy for microorganisms in hot spring ecosystems. How these energy sources are used can be determined by combining thermodynamic calculations with kinetic experiments. By measuring concentrations of ferrous iron, total iron, pH, dissolved hydrogen and oxygen, as well as temperature and many other parameters in hot springs at Yellowstone National Park, we can calculate chemical affinities of iron redox reactions, which reveal the maximum amount of energy an organism can derive from the catalysis of a given reaction. Iron redox reactions typically involve protons, and energy yields are greatly affected by pH. The heterotrophic reduction of ferric minerals typically consumes a large stoichiometric number of protons compared to the other components. For example, the reduction of hematite (Fe2O3), to ferrous ions with glucose requires 48 moles of protons per mole of glucose oxidized. Calculations indicate this proton requirement increases the energy yield with decreasing pH. The opposite trend is observed for iron oxidation reactions. The autotrophic oxidation of ferrous iron to hematite releases four protons per mole of hematite formed. As a consequence, the energy yield from this reaction decreases with decreasing pH. How effectively energy sources are tapped depends on the efficiencies of microbial metabolism compared with the rates of abiotic mechanisms for the same redox reactions. Experiments were performed across the pH spectrum on isolated sediments incubated in situ and assayed for biological oxidation and reduction by monitoring changing concentrations of Fe2+. In hot springs with pH values <2, particularly those with large gas flows, abiological reduction is rapid. Biological reduction, nevertheless, occasionally proceeded faster than the abiological rate. The quick abiological reduction rate, combined with the high solubility of ferrous iron, leads to

  6. Effects of Iron Overload on Ascorbic Acid Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Wapnick, A. A.; Lynch, S. R.; Krawitz, P.; Seftel, H. C.; Charlton, R. W.; Bothwell, T. H.

    1968-01-01

    Studies of the ascorbic acid status in two subjects with idiopathic haemochromatosis and in 12 with transfusional siderosis showed that all had decreased levels of white cell ascorbic acid. The urinary excretion of ascorbic acid was also diminished in those subjects in whom such measurements were made. The administration of ascorbic acid was followed by only a small rise in the urinary ascorbic acid output, while the oxalic acid levels (measured in two subjects) showed a significant rise. These findings resemble those described in siderotic Bantu, and support the thesis that increased iron stores lead to irreversible oxidation of some of the available ascorbic acid. PMID:5673960

  7. Effects of iron overload on ascorbic acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wapnick, A A; Lynch, S R; Krawitz, P; Seftel, H C; Charlton, R W; Bothwell, T H

    1968-09-21

    Studies of the ascorbic acid status in two subjects with idiopathic haemochromatosis and in 12 with transfusional siderosis showed that all had decreased levels of white cell ascorbic acid. The urinary excretion of ascorbic acid was also diminished in those subjects in whom such measurements were made. The administration of ascorbic acid was followed by only a small rise in the urinary ascorbic acid output, while the oxalic acid levels (measured in two subjects) showed a significant rise. These findings resemble those described in siderotic Bantu, and support the thesis that increased iron stores lead to irreversible oxidation of some of the available ascorbic acid.

  8. Liver iron overload induced by tamoxifen in diabetic and non-diabetic female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Jatobá, Carlos André Nunes; de Rezende, Adriana Augusto; de Paiva Rodrigues, Sarah Jane; de Almeida Câmara, Maria Margareth; das Graças Almeida, Maria; Freire-Neto, Francisco; da Rocha, Luiz Reginaldo Menezes; da Medeiros, Aldo Cunha; Brandão-Neto, José; de Carvalho Formiga, Maria Célia; de Azevedo, Italo Medeiros; de Oliveira Ramos, Ana Maria

    2008-04-01

    Tamoxifen (TX), a drug used in the treatment of breast cancer, may cause hepatic changes in some patients. The consequences of its use on the liver tissues of rats with or without diabetes mellitus (DM) have not been fully explored. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between plasma hepatic enzyme levels and the presence of iron overload in the hepatic tissue of female Wistar rats with or without streptozotocin-induced DM and using TX. Female rats were studied in control groups: C-0 (non-drug users), C-V (sorbitol vehicle only) and C-TX (using TX). DM (diabetic non-drug users) and DM-TX (diabetics using TX) were the test groups. Sixty days after induced DM, blood samples were collected for glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin measures. Hepatic fragments were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, Perls. The hepatic iron content was quantified by atomic absorption spectrometry. AST, ALT and ALP levels were significantly elevated in the DM and DM-TX groups, with unchanged bilirubin levels. Liver iron overload using Perls stain and atomic absorption spectrometry were observed exclusively in groups C-TX and DM-TX. There was positive correlation between AST, ALT and ALP levels and microscopic hepatic siderosis intensity in group DM-TX. In conclusion, TX administration is associated with liver siderosis in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. In addition, TX induced liver iron overload with unaltered hepatic function in non-diabetic rats and may be a useful tool for investigating the biological control of iron metabolism.

  9. Iron and cancer: more ore to be mined.

    PubMed

    Torti, Suzy V; Torti, Frank M

    2013-05-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient that facilitates cell proliferation and growth. However, iron also has the capacity to engage in redox cycling and free radical formation. Therefore, iron can contribute to both tumour initiation and tumour growth; recent work has also shown that iron has a role in the tumour microenvironment and in metastasis. Pathways of iron acquisition, efflux, storage and regulation are all perturbed in cancer, suggesting that reprogramming of iron metabolism is a central aspect of tumour cell survival. Signalling through hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and WNT pathways may contribute to altered iron metabolism in cancer. Targeting iron metabolic pathways may provide new tools for cancer prognosis and therapy.

  10. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans QseBC is activated by catecholamines and iron and regulates genes encoding proteins associated with anaerobic respiration and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Weigel, WA; Demuth, DR; Torres-Escobar, A; Juárez-Rodríguez, MD

    2015-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans QseBC regulates its own expression and is essential for biofilm growth and virulence. However, the signal that activates the QseC sensor has not been identified and the qseBC regulon has not been defined. In this study, we show that QseC is activated by catecholamine hormones and iron but not by either component alone. Activation of QseC requires an EYRDD motif in the periplasmic domain of the sensor and site-specific mutations in EYRDD or the deletion of the periplasmic domain inhibits catecholamine/iron-dependent induction of the ygiW-qseBC operon. Catecholamine/iron-dependent induction of transcription also requires interaction of the QseB response regulator with its binding site in the ygiW-qseBC promoter. Whole genome microarrays were used to compare gene expression profiles of A. actinomycetemcomitans grown in a chemically defined medium with and without catecholamine and iron supplementation. Approximately 11.5% of the A. actinomycetemcomitans genome was differentially expressed by at least two-fold upon exposure to catecholamines and iron. The expression of ferritin was strongly induced, suggesting that intracellular iron storage capacity is increased upon QseBC activation. Consistent with this, genes encoding iron binding and transport proteins were down-regulated by QseBC. Strikingly, 57% of the QseBC up-regulated genes (56/99) encode proteins associated with anaerobic metabolism and respiration. Most of these up-regulated genes were recently reported to be induced during in vivo growth of A. actinomycetemcomitans. These results suggest that detection of catecholamines and iron by QseBC may alter the cellular metabolism of A. actinomycetemcomitans for increased fitness and growth in an anaerobic host environment. PMID:25923132

  11. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans QseBC is activated by catecholamines and iron and regulates genes encoding proteins associated with anaerobic respiration and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Weigel, W A; Demuth, D R; Torres-Escobar, A; Juárez-Rodríguez, M D

    2015-10-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans QseBC regulates its own expression and is essential for biofilm growth and virulence. However, the signal that activates the QseC sensor has not been identified and the qseBC regulon has not been defined. In this study, we show that QseC is activated by catecholamine hormones and iron but not by either component alone. Activation of QseC requires an EYRDD motif in the periplasmic domain of the sensor and site-specific mutations in EYRDD or the deletion of the periplasmic domain inhibits catecholamine/iron-dependent induction of the ygiW-qseBC operon. Catecholamine/iron-dependent induction of transcription also requires interaction of the QseB response regulator with its binding site in the ygiW-qseBC promoter. Whole genome microarrays were used to compare gene expression profiles of A. actinomycetemcomitans grown in a chemically defined medium with and without catecholamine and iron supplementation. Approximately 11.5% of the A. actinomycetemcomitans genome was differentially expressed by at least two-fold upon exposure to catecholamines and iron. The expression of ferritin was strongly induced, suggesting that intracellular iron storage capacity is increased upon QseBC activation. Consistent with this, genes encoding iron binding and transport proteins were down-regulated by QseBC. Strikingly, 57% of the QseBC up-regulated genes (56/99) encode proteins associated with anaerobic metabolism and respiration. Most of these up-regulated genes were recently reported to be induced during in vivo growth of A. actinomycetemcomitans. These results suggest that detection of catecholamines and iron by QseBC may alter the cellular metabolism of A. actinomycetemcomitans for increased fitness and growth in an anaerobic host environment.

  12. Metabolic Implications in the Biochemical Responses to Iron Deficiency in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Roots.

    PubMed Central

    Rabotti, G.; De Nisi, P.; Zocchi, G.

    1995-01-01

    Strategy I plants respond to Fe deficiency by inducing morphological and biochemical modifications at the root level that are apt to make iron available for uptake. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in the absence of Fe has been shown to increase the capacity to acidify the rhizosphere and Fe3+ reduction activity. We have determined in these roots some metabolic activities that might be correlated with the increased proton extrusion. Proton efflux from roots may be followed by a mechanism regulating the cytosolic pH according to the pH-stat theory. Roots grown in the absence of Fe showed an increase in dark 14CO2 fixation and organic acid synthesis and a 6-fold increase in the extractable phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity with respect to the control roots. Dehydrogenase activities producing cytosolic NAD(P)H were also increased under Fe deficiency. The presence of Fe2+, but not Fe3+, inhibited dark 14CO2 fixation in a range between 24 and 52% but did not show any effect on the in vitro phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity. PMID:12228426

  13. Deregulation of Genes Related to Iron and Mitochondrial Metabolism in Refractory Anemia with Ring Sideroblasts

    PubMed Central

    del Rey, Mónica; Benito, Rocío; Fontanillo, Celia; Campos-Laborie, Francisco J.; Janusz, Kamila; Velasco-Hernández, Talía; Abáigar, María; Hernández, María; Cuello, Rebeca; Borrego, Daniel; Martín-Zanca, Dionisio; De Las Rivas, Javier; Mills, Ken I.; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús M.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of SF3B1 gene mutations is a hallmark of refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS). However, the mechanisms responsible for iron accumulation that characterize the Myelodysplastic Syndrome with ring sideroblasts (MDS-RS) are not completely understood. In order to gain insight in the molecular basis of MDS-RS, an integrative study of the expression and mutational status of genes related to iron and mitochondrial metabolism was carried out. A total of 231 low-risk MDS patients and 81 controls were studied. Gene expression analysis revealed that iron metabolism and mitochondrial function had the highest number of genes deregulated in RARS patients compared to controls and the refractory cytopenias with unilineage dysplasia (RCUD). Thus mitochondrial transporters SLC25 (SLC25A37 and SLC25A38) and ALAD genes were over-expressed in RARS. Moreover, significant differences were observed between patients with SF3B1 mutations and patients without the mutations. The deregulation of genes involved in iron and mitochondrial metabolism provides new insights in our knowledge of MDS-RS. New variants that could be involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases have been identified. PMID:25955609

  14. Iron metabolism and oxidative profile of dogs naturally infected by Ehrlichia canis: Acute and subclinical disease.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Nathieli B; Crivellenti, Leandro Z; Borin-Crivellenti, Sofia; Oliveira, Jéssica R; Coelho, Stefanie B; Contin, Catarina M; Tatsch, Etiane; Moresco, Rafael N; Santana, Aureo E; Tonin, Alexandre A; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidant profile and iron metabolism in serum of dogs infected by Ehrlichia canis. Banked sera samples of dogs were divided into two groups: negative control (n = 17) and infected by E. canis on acute (n = 24), and subclinical (n = 18) phases of the disease. The eritrogram, leucogram, and platelet counts were evaluate as well as iron, ferritin, and transferrin levels, latent iron binding capacity (LIBC), and transferrin saturation index (TSI) concentration. In addition, the advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) in sera were also analyzed. Blood samples were examined for the presence of E. canis by PCR techniques. History and clinical signals were recorded for each dog. During the acute phase of the disease, infected animals showed thrombocytopenia and anemia when compared to healthy animals (P < 0.05) as a consequence of lower iron levels. Ferritin and transferrin levels were higher in both phases (acute and subclinical) of the disease. The AOPP and FRAP levels increased in infected animals on the acute phase; however, the opposite occurred in the subclinical phase. We concluded that dogs naturally infected by E. canis showed changes in the iron metabolism and developed an oxidant status in consequence of disease pathophysiology.

  15. Serotonergic dysfunctions and abnormal iron metabolism: Relevant to mental fatigue of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Li-Jun; Yu, Shu-Yang; Hu, Yang; Wang, Fang; Piao, Ying-Shan; Lian, Teng-Hong; Yu, Qiu-Jin; Wang, Rui-Dan; Li, Li-Xia; Guo, Peng; Du, Yang; Zhu, Rong-Yan; Jin, Zhao; Wang, Ya-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Min; Chan, Piu; Chen, Sheng-Di; Wang, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Fatigue is a very common non-motor symptom in Parkinson disease (PD) patients. It included physical fatigue and mental fatigue. The potential mechanisms of mental fatigue involving serotonergic dysfunction and abnormal iron metabolism are still unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the fatigue symptoms, classified PD patients into fatigue group and non-fatigue group, and detected the levels of serotonin, iron and related proteins in CSF and serum. In CSF, 5-HT level is significantly decreased and the levels of iron and transferrin are dramatically increased in fatigue group. In fatigue group, mental fatigue score is negatively correlated with 5-HT level in CSF, and positively correlated with the scores of depression and excessive daytime sleepiness, and disease duration, also, mental fatigue is positively correlated with the levels of iron and transferrin in CSF. Transferrin level is negatively correlated with 5-HT level in CSF. In serum, the levels of 5-HT and transferrin are markedly decreased in fatigue group; mental fatigue score exhibits a negative correlation with 5-HT level. Thus serotonin dysfunction in both central and peripheral systems may be correlated with mental fatigue through abnormal iron metabolism. Depression, excessive daytime sleepiness and disease duration were the risk factors for mental fatigue of PD.

  16. Using skin to assess iron accumulation in human metabolic disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinote, I.; Fleming, R.; Silva, R.; Filipe, P.; Silva, J. N.; Veríssimo, A.; Napoleão, P.; Alves, L. C.; Pinheiro, T.

    2006-08-01

    The distribution of Fe in skin was assessed to monitor body Fe status in human hereditary hemochromatosis. The paper reports on data from nine patients with hemochromatosis that were studied along the therapeutic programme. Systemic evaluation of Fe metabolism was carried out by measuring with PIXE technique the Fe concentration in plasma and blood cells, and by determining with biochemical methods the indicators of Fe transport in serum (ferritin and transferrin). The Fe distribution and concentration in skin was assessed by nuclear microscopy and Fe deposits in liver estimated through nuclear magnetic resonance. Elevated Fe concentrations in skin were related to increased plasma Fe (p < 0.004), serum ferritin content (p < 0.01) and Fe deposits in liver (p < 0.004). The relationship of Fe deposits in organs and metabolism markers may help to better understand Fe pools mobilisation and to establish the quality of skin as a marker for the disease progression and therapy efficacy.

  17. Iron and carbon metabolism by a mineral-oxidizing Alicyclobacillus-like bacterium.

    PubMed

    Yahya, Adibah; Hallberg, Kevin B; Johnson, D Barrie

    2008-04-01

    A novel iron-oxidizing, moderately thermophilic, acidophilic bacterium (strain "GSM") was isolated from mineral spoil taken from a gold mine in Montana. Biomolecular analysis showed that it was most closely related to Alicyclobacillus tolerans, although the two bacteria differed in some key respects, including the absence (in strain GSM) of varpi-alicyclic fatty acids and in their chromosomal base compositions. Isolate GSM was able to grow in oxygen-free media using ferric iron as terminal electron acceptor confirming that it was a facultative anaerobe, a trait not previously described in Alicyclobacillus spp.. The acidophile used both organic and inorganic sources of energy and carbon, although growth and iron oxidation by isolate GSM was uncoupled in media that contained both fructose and ferrous iron. Fructose utilization suppressed iron oxidation, and oxidation of ferrous iron occurred only when fructose was depleted. In contrast, fructose catabolism was suppressed when bacteria were harvested while actively oxidizing iron, suggesting that both ferrous iron- and fructose-oxidation are inducible in this acidophile. Isolate GSM accelerated the oxidative dissolution of pyrite in liquid media either free of, or amended with, organic carbon, although redox potentials were significantly different in these media. The potential of this isolate for commercial mineral processing is discussed.

  18. Effect of Nordic Walking training on iron metabolism in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Kortas, Jakub; Prusik, Katarzyna; Flis, Damian; Prusik, Krzysztof; Ziemann, Ewa; Leaver, Neil; Antosiewicz, Jedrzej

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite several, well-documented pro-healthy effects of regular physical training, its influence on body iron stores in elderly people remains unknown. At the same time, body iron accumulation is associated with high risk of different morbidities. Purpose We hypothesized that Nordic Walking training would result in pro-healthy changes in an elderly group of subjects by reducing body iron stores via shifts in iron metabolism-regulating proteins. Methods Thirty-seven women aged 67.7±5.3 years participated in this study. They underwent 32 weeks of training, 1-hour sessions three times a week, between October 2012 and May 2013. Fitness level, blood morphology, CRP, vitamin D, ferritin, hepcidin, and soluble Hjv were assessed before and after the training. Results The training program caused a significant decrease in ferritin, which serves as a good marker of body iron stores. Simultaneously, the physical cardiorespiratory fitness had improved. Furthermore, blood hepcidin was positively correlated with the ferritin concentration after the training. The concentration of blood CRP dropped, but the change was nonsignificant. The applied training resulted in a blood Hjv increase, which was inversely correlated with the vitamin D concentration. Conclusion Overall the Nordic Walking training applied in elderly people significantly reduced blood ferritin concentration, which explains the observed decrease in body iron stores. PMID:26664101

  19. Cytosolic aconitase activity sustains adipogenic capacity of adipose tissue connecting iron metabolism and adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Moreno, María; Ortega, Francisco; Xifra, Gemma; Ricart, Wifredo; Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Moreno-Navarrete, José María

    2015-04-01

    To gain insight into the regulation of intracellular iron homeostasis in adipose tissue, we investigated the role of iron regulatory protein 1/cytosolic aconitase 1 (ACO1). ACO1 gene expression and activity increased in parallel to expression of adipogenic genes during differentiation of both murine 3T3-L1 cells and human preadipocytes. Lentiviral knockdown (KD) of Aco1 in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes led to diminished cytosolic aconitase activity and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (NADP(+)), soluble (Idh1) mRNA levels, decreased intracellular NADPH:NADP ratio, and impaired adipogenesis during adipocyte differentiation. In addition, Aco1 KD in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes decreased lipogenic, Idh1, Adipoq, and Glut4 gene expression. A bidirectional cross-talk was found between intracellular iron levels and ACO1 gene expression and protein activity. Although iron in excess, known to increase reactive oxygen species production, and iron depletion both resulted in decreased ACO1 mRNA levels and activity, Aco1 KD led to reduced gene expression of transferrin receptor (Tfrc) and transferrin, disrupting intracellular iron uptake. In agreement with these findings, in 2 human independent cohorts (n = 85 and n = 38), ACO1 gene expression was positively associated with adipogenic markers in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. ACO1 gene expression was also positively associated with the gene expression of TFRC while negatively linked to ferroportin (solute carrier family 40 (iron-regulated transporter), member 1) mRNA levels. Altogether, these results suggest that ACO1 activity is required for the normal adipogenic capacity of adipose tissue by connecting iron, energy metabolism, and adipogenesis.

  20. Aft2, a Novel Transcription Regulator, Is Required for Iron Metabolism, Oxidative Stress, Surface Adhesion and Hyphal Development in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ning; Cheng, Xinxin; Yu, Qilin; Qian, Kefan; Ding, Xiaohui; Liu, Ruming; Zhang, Biao; Xing, Laijun; Li, Mingchun

    2013-01-01

    Morphological transition and iron metabolism are closely relevant to Candida albicans pathogenicity and virulence. In our previous study, we demonstrated that C. albicans Aft2 plays an important role in ferric reductase activity and virulence. Here, we further explored the roles of C. albicans Aft2 in numerous cellular processes. We found that C. albicans Aft2 exhibited an important role in iron metabolism through bi-directional regulation effects on iron-regulon expression. Deletion of AFT2 reduced cellular iron accumulation under iron-deficient conditions. Furthermore, both reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were remarkably increased in the aft2Δ/Δ mutant, which were thought to be responsible for the defective responses to oxidative stress. However, we found that over-expression of C. albicans AFT2 under the regulation of the strong PGK1 promoter could not effectively rescue Saccharomyces cerevisiae aft1Δ mutant defects in some cellular processes, such as cell-wall assembly, ion homeostasis and alkaline resistance, suggesting a possibility that C. albicans Aft2 weakened its functional role of regulating some cellular metabolism during the evolutionary process. Interestingly, deletion of AFT2 in C. albicans increased cell surface hydrophobicity, cell flocculation and the ability of adhesion to polystyrene surfaces. In addition, our results also revealed that C. albicans Aft2 played a dual role in regulating hypha-specific genes under solid and liquid hyphal inducing conditions. Deletion of AFT2 caused an impaired invasive growth in solid medium, but an increased filamentous aggregation and growth in liquid conditions. Moreover, iron deficiency and environmental cues induced nuclear import of Aft2, providing additional evidence for the roles of Aft2 in transcriptional regulation. PMID:23626810

  1. Cytochromes and iron sulfur proteins in sulfur metabolism of phototrophic bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, U.

    1985-01-01

    Dissimilatory sulfur metabolism in phototrophic sulfur bacteria provides the bacteria with electrons for photosynthetic electron transport chain and, with energy. Assimilatory sulfate reduction is necessary for the biosynthesis of sulfur-containing cell components. Sulfide, thiosulfate, and elemental sulfur are the sulfur compounds most commonly used by phototrophic bacteria as electron donors for anoxygenic photosynthesis. Cytochromes or other electron transfer proteins, like high-potential-iron-sulfur protein (HIPIP) function as electron acceptors or donors for most enzymatic steps during the oxidation pathways of sulfide or thiosulfate. Yet, heme- or siroheme-containing proteins themselves undergo enzymatic activities in sulfur metabolism. Sirohemes comprise a porphyrin-like prosthetic group of sulfate reductase. eenzymatic reactions involve electron transfer. Electron donors or acceptors are necessary for each reaction. Cytochromes and iron sulfur problems, are able to transfer electrons.

  2. Leu1 plays a role in iron metabolism and is required for virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Do, Eunsoo; Hu, Guanggan; Caza, Mélissa; Oliveira, Debora; Kronstad, James W; Jung, Won Hee

    2015-02-01

    Amino acid biosynthetic pathways that are absent in mammals are considered an attractive target for antifungal therapy. Leucine biosynthesis is one such target pathway, consisting of a five-step conversion process starting from the valine precursor 2-keto-isovalerate. Isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (Leu1) is an Fe-S cluster protein that is required for leucine biosynthesis in the model fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans possesses an ortholog of S. cerevisiae Leu1, and our previous transcriptome data showed that the expression of LEU1 is regulated by iron availability. In this study, we characterized the role of Leu1 in iron homeostasis and the virulence of C. neoformans. We found that deletion of LEU1 caused leucine auxotrophy and that Leu1 may play a role in the mitochondrial-cytoplasmic Fe-S cluster balance. Whereas cytoplasmic Fe-S protein levels were not affected, mitochondrial Fe-S proteins were up-regulated in the leu1 mutant, suggesting that Leu1 mainly influences mitochondrial iron metabolism. The leu1 mutant also displayed increased sensitivity to oxidative stress and cell wall/membrane disrupting agents, which may have been caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, the leu1 mutant was deficient in capsule formation and showed attenuated virulence in a mouse inhalation model of cryptococcosis. Overall, our results indicate that Leu1 plays a role in iron metabolism and is required for virulence in C. neoformans.

  3. Vitamin D, Iron Metabolism, and Diet in Alpinists During a 2-Week High-Altitude Climb.

    PubMed

    Kasprzak, Zbigniew; Śliwicka, Ewa; Hennig, Karol; Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak, Łucja; Huta-Osiecka, Anna; Nowak, Alicja

    2015-09-01

    A defensive mechanism against hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude is erythropoesis. Some authors point to the contribution of vitamin D to the regulation of this process. The aim of the present study was to assess the 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) level and its associations with iron metabolic and inflammatory indices in participants of a 2-week mountaineering expedition. The study sample included 9 alpinists practicing recreational mountain climbing. Every 2 or 3 days they set up a different base between 3200 and 3616 m with the intention of climbing 4000 m peaks in the Mont Blanc massif. Before their departure for the mountains and 2 days after returning to the sea level anthropometric parameters, hematological parameters, serum levels of 25(OH)D and iron metabolic indices were measured in all the participants. The composition of the participants' diet was also evaluated. The comparative analysis showed a significant decrease in body mass, BMI values, total iron, and 25(OH)D concentrations (p<0.05). Also significant increases in unsaturated iron-binding capacity, hematocrit, and C-reactive protein concentrations (p<0.05) were found. It can be concluded that the 2-week climbing expedition contributed to the reduction of 25(OH)D levels and these changes were associated with modulation of immune processes. Moreover, the climbers' diet requires some serious modifications.

  4. Leu1 plays a role in iron metabolism and is required for virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Do, Eunsoo; Hu, Guanggan; Caza, Mélissa; Oliveira, Debora; Kronstad, James W.; Jung, Won Hee

    2015-01-01

    Amino acid biosynthetic pathways that are absent in mammals are considered an attractive target for antifungal therapy. Leucine biosynthesis is one such target pathway, consisting of a five-step conversion process starting from the valine precursor 2-keto-isovalerate. Isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (Leu1) is an Fe-S cluster protein that is required for leucine biosynthesis in the model fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans possesses an ortholog of S. cerevisiae Leu1, and our previous transcriptome data showed that the expression of LEU1 is regulated by iron availability. In this study, we characterized the role of Leu1 in iron homeostasis and the virulence of C. neoformans. We found that deletion of LEU1 caused leucine auxotrophy and that Leu1 may play a role in the mitochondrial-cytoplasmic Fe-S cluster balance. Whereas cytoplasmic Fe-S protein levels were not affected, mitochondrial Fe-S proteins were up- regulated in the leu1 mutant, suggesting that Leu1 mainly influences mitochondrial iron metabolism. The leu1 mutant also displayed increased sensitivity to oxidative stress and cell wall/membrane disrupting agents, which may have been caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, the leu1 mutant was deficient in capsule formation and showed attenuated virulence in a mouse inhalation model of cryptococcosis. Overall, our results indicate that Leu1 plays a role in iron metabolism and is required for virulence in C. neoformans. PMID:25554701

  5. Zebrafish in the sea of mineral (iron, zinc, and copper) metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lu; Xia, Zhidan; Wang, Fudi

    2014-01-01

    Iron, copper, zinc, and eight other minerals are classified as essential trace elements because they present in minute in vivo quantities and are essential for life. Because either excess or insufficient levels of trace elements can be detrimental to life (causing human diseases such as iron-deficiency anemia, hemochromatosis, Menkes syndrome and Wilson's disease), the endogenous levels of trace minerals must be tightly regulated. Many studies have demonstrated the existence of systems that maintain trace element homeostasis, and these systems are highly conserved in multiple species ranging from yeast to mice. As a model for studying trace mineral metabolism, the zebrafish is indispensable to researchers. Several large-scale mutagenesis screens have been performed in zebrafish, and these screens led to the identification of a series of metal transporters and the generation of several mutagenesis lines, providing an in-depth functional analysis at the system level. Moreover, because of their developmental advantages, zebrafish have also been used in mineral metabolism-related chemical screens and toxicology studies. Here, we systematically review the major findings of trace element homeostasis studies using the zebrafish model, with a focus on iron, zinc, copper, selenium, manganese, and iodine. We also provide a homology analysis of trace mineral transporters in fish, mice and humans. Finally, we discuss the evidence that zebrafish is an ideal experimental tool for uncovering novel mechanisms of trace mineral metabolism and for improving approaches to treat mineral imbalance-related diseases. PMID:24639652

  6. Knockdown of proteins involved in iron metabolism limits tick reproduction and development

    PubMed Central

    Hajdusek, Ondrej; Sojka, Daniel; Kopacek, Petr; Buresova, Veronika; Franta, Zdenek; Sauman, Ivo; Winzerling, Joy; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2009-01-01

    Ticks are among the most important vectors of a wide range of human and animal diseases. During blood feeding, ticks are exposed to an enormous amount of free iron that must be appropriately used and detoxified. However, the mechanism of iron metabolism in ticks is poorly understood. Here, we show that ticks possess a complex system that efficiently utilizes, stores and transports non-heme iron within the tick body. We have characterized a new secreted ferritin (FER2) and an iron regulatory protein (IRP1) from the sheep tick, Ixodes ricinus, and have demonstrated their relationship to a previously described tick intracellular ferritin (FER1). By using RNA interference-mediated gene silencing in the tick, we show that synthesis of FER1, but not of FER2, is subject to IRP1-mediated translational control. Further, we find that depletion of FER2 from the tick plasma leads to a loss of FER1 expression in the salivary glands and ovaries that normally follows blood ingestion. We therefore suggest that secreted FER2 functions as the primary transporter of non-heme iron between the tick gut and the peripheral tissues. Silencing of the fer1, fer2, and irp1 genes by RNAi has an adverse impact on hatching rate and decreases postbloodmeal weight in tick females. Importantly, knockdown of fer2 dramatically impairs the ability of ticks to feed, thus making FER2 a promising candidate for development of an efficient anti-tick vaccine. PMID:19171899

  7. Dealing with iron metabolism in rice: from breeding for stress tolerance to biofortification.

    PubMed

    Santos, Railson Schreinert Dos; Araujo, Artur Teixeira de; Pegoraro, Camila; Oliveira, Antonio Costa de

    2017-03-16

    Iron is a well-known metal. Used by humankind since ancient times in many different ways, this element is present in all living organisms, where, unfortunately, it represents a two-way problem. Being an essential block in the composition of different proteins and metabolic pathways, iron is a vital component for animals and plants. That is why iron deficiency has a severe impact on the lives of different organisms, including humans, becoming a major concern, especially in developing countries where access to adequate nutrition is still difficult. On the other hand, this metal is also capable of causing damage when present in excess, becoming toxic to cells and affecting the whole organism. Because of its importance, iron absorption, transport and storage mechanisms have been extensively investigated in order to design alternatives that may solve this problem. As the understanding of the strategies that plants use to control iron homeostasis is an important step in the generation of improved plants that meet both human agricultural and nutritional needs, here we discuss some of the most important points about this topic.

  8. [Asbestos-stimulated changes in nitric oxide and iron metabolism in rats].

    PubMed

    Shandarenko, S H; Kishko, T O; Chumachenko, I M; Dmytrenko, M P

    2011-01-01

    Under intratracheal asbestos fibers installation it has been investigated NO synthesis in the lung and liver tissues of Wistar rats by EPR method. Asbestos A6-45, sifted through the sieve with size 0.1 mm, has been administrated in a dose of 5 mg/kg. To evaluate the NO synthesis EPR and NO-trap methods have been used. The amplitude of EPR signal "trap-NO" in the lung samples was 12, 16 and 14 times greater than in controls on the 3th, 6th and 10th days after asbestos installation and was corresponding to NO rate of about 2 mkmol/(g x h). In the liver samples of asbestos-stimulated animals the NO level contained in the non-heme iron nitrosyl complexes was about 2 mkmol/g. Thus, the asbestos fibers stimulate NO synthesis not only in the lung tissue, but also in other organs. The obtained data shows that under NO hyperproduction certain changes in iron metabolism take place, such as: the decrease of transferrin iron and the accumulation of ferric iron not bound with transferrin. The accumulation of ferric iron not shielded by proteins is one of the oxidative stress triggers.

  9. Iron

    MedlinePlus

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  10. Protective effect of phytic acid hydrolysis products on iron-induced lipid peroxidation of liposomal membranes.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, S; Kuwata, G; Imai, M; Nagao, A; Terao, J

    2000-12-01

    Beneficial effects of dietary phytic acid (myo-inositol hexaphosphate; IP6) have often been explained by its strong iron ion-chelating ability, which possibly suppresses iron ion-induced oxidative damage in the gastrointestinal tract. Because phytic acid is hydrolyzed during digestion, this work aimed to know whether its hydrolysis products (IP2, IP3, IP4, and IP5) could still prevent iron ion-induced lipid peroxidation. Studies using liposomal membranes demonstrated that hydrolysis products containing three or more phosphate groups are able to inhibit iron ion-induced lipid peroxidation although their effectiveness decreased with dephosphorylation. Similarly, they also prevented iron ion-induced decomposition of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide. These results demonstrate that intermediate products of phytic acid hydrolysis still possess iron ion-chelating ability, and thus they can probably prevent iron ion-induced lipid peroxidation in biological systems.

  11. Can valproic acid be an inducer of clozapine metabolism?

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Francisco J.; Eap, Chin B.; Ansermot, Nicolas; Crettol, Severine; Spina, Edoardo; de Leon, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Prior clozapine studies indicated no effects, mild inhibition or induction of valproic acid (VPA) on clozapine metabolism. The hypotheses that 1) VPA is a net inducer of clozapine metabolism, and 2) smoking modifies this inductive effect were tested in a therapeutic drug monitoring study. Methods After excluding strong inhibitors and inducers, 353 steady-state total clozapine (clozapine plus norclozapine) concentrations provided by 151 patients were analyzed using a random intercept linear model. Results VPA appeared to be an inducer of clozapine metabolism since total plasma clozapine concentrations in subjects taking VPA were significantly lower (27% lower; 95% confidence interval, 14% to 39%) after controlling for confounding variables including smoking (35% lower, 28% to 56%). Discussion Prospective studies are needed to definitively establish that VPA may 1) be an inducer of clozapine metabolism when induction prevails over competitive inhibition, and 2) be an inducer even in smokers who are under the influence of smoking inductive effects on clozapine metabolism. PMID:24764199

  12. Role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 in transcriptional activation of ceruloplasmin by iron deficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, C. K.; Mazumder, B.; Fox, P. L.

    2000-01-01

    A role of the copper protein ceruloplasmin (Cp) in iron metabolism is suggested by its ferroxidase activity and by the tissue iron overload in hereditary Cp deficiency patients. In addition, plasma Cp increases markedly in several conditions of anemia, e.g. iron deficiency, hemorrhage, renal failure, sickle cell disease, pregnancy, and inflammation. However, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanism(s) involved. We have reported that iron chelators increase Cp mRNA expression and protein synthesis in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Furthermore, we have shown that the increase in Cp mRNA is due to increased rate of transcription. We here report the results of new studies designed to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying transcriptional activation of Cp by iron deficiency. The 5'-flanking region of the Cp gene was cloned from a human genomic library. A 4774-base pair segment of the Cp promoter/enhancer driving a luciferase reporter was transfected into HepG2 or Hep3B cells. Iron deficiency or hypoxia increased luciferase activity by 5-10-fold compared with untreated cells. Examination of the sequence showed three pairs of consensus hypoxia-responsive elements (HREs). Deletion and mutation analysis showed that a single HRE was necessary and sufficient for gene activation. The involvement of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) was shown by gel-shift and supershift experiments that showed HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta binding to a radiolabeled oligonucleotide containing the Cp promoter HRE. Furthermore, iron deficiency (and hypoxia) did not activate Cp gene expression in Hepa c4 hepatoma cells deficient in HIF-1beta, as shown functionally by the inactivity of a transfected Cp promoter-luciferase construct and by the failure of HIF-1 to bind the Cp HRE in nuclear extracts from these cells. These results are consistent with in vivo findings that iron deficiency increases plasma Cp and provides a molecular mechanism that may help to understand these

  13. Microbial Metabolism Shifts Towards an Adverse Profile with Supplementary Iron in the TIM-2 In vitro Model of the Human Colon

    PubMed Central

    Kortman, Guus A. M.; Dutilh, Bas E.; Maathuis, Annet J. H.; Engelke, Udo F.; Boekhorst, Jos; Keegan, Kevin P.; Nielsen, Fiona G. G.; Betley, Jason; Weir, Jacqueline C.; Kingsbury, Zoya; Kluijtmans, Leo A. J.; Swinkels, Dorine W.; Venema, Koen; Tjalsma, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Oral iron administration in African children can increase the risk for infections. However, it remains unclear to what extent supplementary iron affects the intestinal microbiome. We here explored the impact of iron preparations on microbial growth and metabolism in the well-controlled TNO's in vitro model of the large intestine (TIM-2). The model was inoculated with a human microbiota, without supplementary iron, or with 50 or 250 μmol/L ferrous sulfate, 50 or 250 μmol/L ferric citrate, or 50 μmol/L hemin. High resolution responses of the microbiota were examined by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing, microarray analysis, and metagenomic sequencing. The metabolome was assessed by fatty acid quantification, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Cultured intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were used to assess fecal water toxicity. Microbiome analysis showed, among others, that supplementary iron induced decreased levels of Bifidobacteriaceae and Lactobacillaceae, while it caused higher levels of Roseburia and Prevotella. Metagenomic analyses showed an enrichment of microbial motility-chemotaxis systems, while the metabolome markedly changed from a saccharolytic to a proteolytic profile in response to iron. Branched chain fatty acids and ammonia levels increased significantly, in particular with ferrous sulfate. Importantly, the metabolite-containing effluent from iron-rich conditions showed increased cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells. Our explorations indicate that in the absence of host influences, iron induces a more hostile environment characterized by a reduction of microbes that are generally beneficial, and increased levels of bacterial metabolites that can impair the barrier function of a cultured intestinal epithelial monolayer. PMID:26779139

  14. Microbial Metabolism Shifts Towards an Adverse Profile with Supplementary Iron in the TIM-2 In vitro Model of the Human Colon

    SciTech Connect

    Kortman, Guus A. M.; Dutilh, Bas E.; Maathuis, Annet J. H.; Engelke, Udo F.; Boekhorst, Jos; Keegan, Kevin P.; Nielsen, Fiona G. G.; Betley, Jason; Weir, Jacqueline C.; Kingsbury, Zoya; Kluijtmans, Leo A. J.; Swinkels, Dorine W.; Venema, Koen; Tjalsma, Harold

    2016-01-06

    Oral iron administration in African children can increase the risk for infections. However, it remains unclear to what extent supplementary iron affects the intestinal microbiome. We here explored the impact of iron preparations on microbial growth and metabolism in the well-controlled TNO's in vitro model of the large intestine (TIM-2). The model was inoculated with a human microbiota, without supplementary iron, or with 50 or 250 μmol/L ferrous sulfate, 50 or 250 μmol/L ferric citrate, or 50 μmol/L hemin. High resolution responses of the microbiota were examined by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing, microarray analysis, and metagenomic sequencing. The metabolome was assessed by fatty acid quantification, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Cultured intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were used to assess fecal water toxicity. Microbiome analysis showed, among others, that supplementary iron induced decreased levels of Bifidobacteriaceae and Lactobacillaceae, while it caused higher levels of Roseburia and Prevotella. Metagenomic analyses showed an enrichment of microbial motility-chemotaxis systems, while the metabolome markedly changed from a saccharolytic to a proteolytic profile in response to iron. Branched chain fatty acids and ammonia levels increased significantly, in particular with ferrous sulfate. Importantly, the metabolite-containing effluent from iron-rich conditions showed increased cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, our explorations indicate that in the absence of host influences, iron induces a more hostile environment characterized by a reduction of microbes that are generally beneficial, and increased levels of bacterial metabolites that can impair the barrier function of a cultured intestinal epithelial monolayer.

  15. Microbial Metabolism Shifts Towards an Adverse Profile with Supplementary Iron in the TIM-2 In vitro Model of the Human Colon

    DOE PAGES

    Kortman, Guus A. M.; Dutilh, Bas E.; Maathuis, Annet J. H.; ...

    2016-01-06

    Oral iron administration in African children can increase the risk for infections. However, it remains unclear to what extent supplementary iron affects the intestinal microbiome. We here explored the impact of iron preparations on microbial growth and metabolism in the well-controlled TNO's in vitro model of the large intestine (TIM-2). The model was inoculated with a human microbiota, without supplementary iron, or with 50 or 250 μmol/L ferrous sulfate, 50 or 250 μmol/L ferric citrate, or 50 μmol/L hemin. High resolution responses of the microbiota were examined by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing, microarray analysis, and metagenomic sequencing. The metabolome was assessedmore » by fatty acid quantification, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Cultured intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were used to assess fecal water toxicity. Microbiome analysis showed, among others, that supplementary iron induced decreased levels of Bifidobacteriaceae and Lactobacillaceae, while it caused higher levels of Roseburia and Prevotella. Metagenomic analyses showed an enrichment of microbial motility-chemotaxis systems, while the metabolome markedly changed from a saccharolytic to a proteolytic profile in response to iron. Branched chain fatty acids and ammonia levels increased significantly, in particular with ferrous sulfate. Importantly, the metabolite-containing effluent from iron-rich conditions showed increased cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, our explorations indicate that in the absence of host influences, iron induces a more hostile environment characterized by a reduction of microbes that are generally beneficial, and increased levels of bacterial metabolites that can impair the barrier function of a cultured intestinal epithelial monolayer.« less

  16. Presence of acute phase changes in zinc, iron, and copper metabolism in turkey embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Klasing, K.C.; Richards, M.P.; Darcey, S.E.; Laurin, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Acute phase changes in trace mineral metabolism were examined in turkey embryos. An endotoxin injection resulted in increased concentrations of serum copper and liver zinc and decreased concentrations of serum zinc in embryos incubated either in ovo or ex ovo. Changes in zinc and copper metabolism occurred when endotoxin either was injected intramuscularly, into the amnionic fluid, or administered onto the chorioallantoic membrane. Unlike poults, embryos did not respond to an inflammatory challenge with decreased serum iron concentrations. Acute phase changes in embryo serum zinc and copper as well as liver zinc concentrations were similar to those in poults. Increased liver zinc concentrations were associated with increased zinc in metallothionein (MT). An injection of a crude interleukin 1 preparation into embryos resulted in similar increases in hepatic zinc and MT concentrations as an endotoxin injection, suggesting a role for this cytokine in mediating the acute phase changes in embryonic zinc metabolism.

  17. Drug-induced abnormalities of potassium metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kokot, Franciszek; Hyla-Klekot, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy has progressed rapidly over the last 20 years with the result that general practioners more and more often use drugs which may influence potassium metabolism at the kidney or gastrointestinal level, or the transmembrane transport of potassium at the cellular level. Potassium abnormalities may result in life-theatening clinical conditions. Hypokalemia is most frequently caused by renal loss of this electrolyte (thiazide, thiazide-like and loop diuretics, glucocorticoids) and the gastrointestinal tract (laxatives, diarrhea, vomiting, external fistula), and may be the result of an increased intracellular potassium influx induced by sympathicomimetics used mostly by patients with asthma, or by insulin overdosage in diabetic subjects. The leading symptoms of hypokalemia are skeletal and smooth muscle weakness and cardiac arrhythmias. Hyperkalemia may be caused by acute or end-stage renal failure, impaired tubular excretion of potassium (blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclosporine, antifungal drugs, potassium sparing diuretics), acidemia, and severe cellular injury (tumor lysis syndrome). Hyperkalemia may be the cause of severe injury of both skeletal and smooth muscle cells. The specific treatment counteracting hyperkalemia is a bolus injection of calcium salts and, when necessary, hemodialysis.

  18. Daily regulation of serum and urinary hepcidin is not influenced by submaximal cycling exercise in humans with normal iron metabolism.

    PubMed

    Troadec, Marie-Bérengère; Lainé, Fabrice; Daniel, Vincent; Rochcongar, Pierre; Ropert, Martine; Cabillic, Florian; Perrin, Michèle; Morcet, Jeff; Loréal, Olivier; Olbina, Gordana; Westerman, Mark; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Ganz, Tomas; Brissot, Pierre

    2009-06-01

    Hepcidin and hemojuvelin (HJV) are two critical regulators of iron metabolism as indicated by the development of major iron overload associated to mutations in hepcidin and HJV genes. Hepcidin and HJV are highly expressed in liver and muscles, respectively. Intensive muscular exercise has been reported to modify serum iron parameters and to increase hepcidinuria. The present study aimed at evaluating the potential impact of low intensity muscle exercise on iron metabolism and on hepcidin, its key regulator. Fourteen normal volunteers underwent submaximal cycling-based exercise in a crossover design and various iron parameters, including serum and urinary hepcidin, were serially studied. The results demonstrated that submaximal ergocycle endurance exercise did not modulate hepcidin. This study also indicated that hepcidinuria did not show any daily variation whereas serum hepcidin did. The findings, by demonstrating that hepcidin concentrations are not influenced by submaximal cycling exercise, may have implications for hepcidin sampling in medical practice.

  19. The effect of BCG on iron metabolism in the early neonatal period: A controlled trial in Gambian neonates.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Sarah; Jallow, Momodou W; Prentice, Andrew M

    2015-06-12

    Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination has been reported to protect neonates from non-tuberculous pathogens, but no biological mechanism to explain such effects is known. We hypothesised that BCG produces broad-spectrum anti-microbial protection via a hepcidin-mediated hypoferraemia, limiting iron availability for pathogens. To test this we conducted a trial in 120 Gambian neonates comparing iron status in the first 5-days of life after allocation to: (1) All routine vaccinations at birth (BCG/Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV)/Hepatitis B Vaccine (HBV)); (2) BCG delayed until after the study period (at day 5); and (3) All routine vaccinations delayed until after the study period. Vaccine regime at birth did not significantly impact on any measured parameter of iron metabolism. However, the ability to detect an effect of BCG on iron metabolism may have been limited by short follow-up time and high activation of the inflammatory-iron axis in the study population.

  20. Tensile strain-induced softening of iron at high temperature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoqing; Schönecker, Stephan; Simon, Eszter; Bergqvist, Lars; Zhang, Hualei; Szunyogh, László; Zhao, Jijun; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2015-01-01

    In weakly ferromagnetic materials, already small changes in the atomic configuration triggered by temperature or chemistry can alter the magnetic interactions responsible for the non-random atomic-spin orientation. Different magnetic states, in turn, can give rise to substantially different macroscopic properties. A classical example is iron, which exhibits a great variety of properties as one gradually removes the magnetic long-range order by raising the temperature towards its Curie point of  = 1043 K. Using first-principles theory, here we demonstrate that uniaxial tensile strain can also destabilise the magnetic order in iron and eventually lead to a ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition at temperatures far below . In consequence, the intrinsic strength of the ideal single-crystal body-centred cubic iron dramatically weakens above a critical temperature of ~500 K. The discovered strain-induced magneto-mechanical softening provides a plausible atomic-level mechanism behind the observed drop of the measured strength of Fe whiskers around 300–500 K. Alloying additions which have the capability to partially restore the magnetic order in the strained Fe lattice, push the critical temperature for the strength-softening scenario towards the magnetic transition temperature of the undeformed lattice. This can result in a surprisingly large alloying-driven strengthening effect at high temperature as illustrated here in the case of Fe-Co alloy. PMID:26556127

  1. Tensile strain-induced softening of iron at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoqing; Schönecker, Stephan; Simon, Eszter; Bergqvist, Lars; Zhang, Hualei; Szunyogh, László; Zhao, Jijun; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2015-11-10

    In weakly ferromagnetic materials, already small changes in the atomic configuration triggered by temperature or chemistry can alter the magnetic interactions responsible for the non-random atomic-spin orientation. Different magnetic states, in turn, can give rise to substantially different macroscopic properties. A classical example is iron, which exhibits a great variety of properties as one gradually removes the magnetic long-range order by raising the temperature towards its Curie point of  TC°= 1043 K. Using first-principles theory, here we demonstrate that uniaxial tensile strain can also destabilise the magnetic order in iron and eventually lead to a ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition at temperatures far below TC°. In consequence, the intrinsic strength of the ideal single-crystal body-centred cubic iron dramatically weakens above a critical temperature of ~500 K. The discovered strain-induced magneto-mechanical softening provides a plausible atomic-level mechanism behind the observed drop of the measured strength of Fe whiskers around 300-500 K. Alloying additions which have the capability to partially restore the magnetic order in the strained Fe lattice, push the critical temperature for the strength-softening scenario towards the magnetic transition temperature of the undeformed lattice. This can result in a surprisingly large alloying-driven strengthening effect at high temperature as illustrated here in the case of Fe-Co alloy.

  2. Pf4 bacteriophage produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhibits Aspergillus fumigatus metabolism via iron sequestration.

    PubMed

    Penner, Jack C; Ferreira, Jose A G; Secor, Patrick R; Sweere, Johanna M; Birukova, Maria K; Joubert, Lydia-Marie; Haagensen, Janus A J; Garcia, Omar; Malkovskiy, Andrey V; Kaber, Gernot; Nazik, Hasan; Manasherob, Robert; Spormann, Alfred M; Clemons, Karl V; Stevens, David A; Bollyky, Paul L

    2016-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) and Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) are major human pathogens known to interact in a variety of disease settings, including airway infections in cystic fibrosis. We recently reported that clinical CF isolates of Pa inhibit the formation and growth of Af biofilms. Here, we report that the bacteriophage Pf4, produced by Pa, can inhibit the metabolic activity of Af biofilms. This phage-mediated inhibition was dose dependent, ablated by phage denaturation, and was more pronounced against preformed Af biofilm rather than biofilm formation. In contrast, planktonic conidial growth was unaffected. Two other phages, Pf1 and fd, did not inhibit Af, nor did supernatant from a Pa strain incapable of producing Pf4. Pf4, but not Pf1, attaches to Af hyphae in an avid and prolonged manner, suggesting that Pf4-mediated inhibition of Af may occur at the biofilm surface. We show that Pf4 binds iron, thus denying Af a crucial resource. Consistent with this, the inhibition of Af metabolism by Pf4 could be overcome with supplemental ferric iron, with preformed biofilm more resistant to reversal. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a bacterium producing a phage that inhibits the growth of a fungus and the first description of a phage behaving as an iron chelator in a biological system.

  3. α-Synuclein Over-Expression Induces Increased Iron Accumulation and Redistribution in Iron-Exposed Neurons.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Richard; Carmona, Asuncion; Roudeau, Stéphane; Perrin, Laura; Dučić, Tanja; Carboni, Eleonora; Bohic, Sylvain; Cloetens, Peter; Lingor, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Parkinson's disease is the most common α-synucleinopathy, and increased levels of iron are found in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease patients, but the potential interlink between both molecular changes has not been fully understood. Metal to protein binding assays have shown that α-synuclein can bind iron in vitro; therefore, we hypothesized that iron content and iron distribution could be modified in cellulo, in cells over-expressing α-synuclein. Owing to particle-induced X-ray emission and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence chemical nano-imaging, we were able to quantify and describe the iron distribution at the subcellular level. We show that, in neurons exposed to excess iron, the mere over-expression of human α-synuclein results in increased levels of intracellular iron and in iron redistribution from the cytoplasm to the perinuclear region within α-synuclein-rich inclusions. Reproducible results were obtained in two distinct recombinant expression systems, in primary rat midbrain neurons and in a rat neuroblastic cell line (PC12), both infected with viral vectors expressing human α-synuclein. Our results link two characteristic molecular features found in Parkinson's disease, the accumulation of α-synuclein and the increased levels of iron in the substantia nigra.

  4. Iron-induced turnover of the Arabidopsis IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER1 metal transporter requires lysine residues.

    PubMed

    Kerkeb, Loubna; Mukherjee, Indrani; Chatterjee, Iera; Lahner, Brett; Salt, David E; Connolly, Erin L

    2008-04-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient but is toxic if accumulated at high levels. Thus, iron uptake and distribution in plants are controlled by precise regulatory mechanisms. IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER1 (IRT1) is the major high affinity iron transporter responsible for iron uptake from the soil in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Previously, we showed that IRT1 is subject to posttranscriptional regulation; when expressed from the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, IRT1 protein accumulates only in iron-deficient roots. IRT1 contains an intracellular loop that may be critical for posttranslational regulation by metals. Of particular interest are a histidine (His) motif (HGHGHGH) that might bind metals and two lysine residues that could serve as attachment sites for ubiquitin. We constructed a set of mutant IRT1 alleles: IRT1H154Q, IRT1H156Q, IRT1H158Q, IRT1H160Q, IRT14HQ (quadruple His mutant), IRT1K146R, IRT1K171R, and a double mutant (IRT1K146R,K171R). Mutation of the His or lysine residues did not eliminate the ability of IRT1 to transport iron or zinc. Expression of each of the IRT1 variants and an IRT1intact construct in plants from the 35S promoter revealed that either K146 or K171 is required for iron-induced protein turnover, and 35S-IRT1K146R,K171R plants contain higher levels of iron as compared to 35S-IRT1 and wild type. Furthermore, accumulation of metals in 35S-IRT1K146R,K171R plants was not associated with an increase in ferric chelate reductase activity; this result indicates that, at least under conditions when iron is abundant, reduction of ferric iron may not be the rate-limiting step in iron uptake by strategy I plants such as Arabidopsis.

  5. Two Sinorhizobium meliloti glutaredoxins regulate iron metabolism and symbiotic bacteroid differentiation.

    PubMed

    Benyamina, Sofiane M; Baldacci-Cresp, Fabien; Couturier, Jérémy; Chibani, Kamel; Hopkins, Julie; Bekki, Abdelkader; de Lajudie, Philippe; Rouhier, Nicolas; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Alloing, Geneviève; Puppo, Alain; Frendo, Pierre

    2013-03-01

    Legumes interact symbiotically with bacteria of the Rhizobiaceae to form nitrogen-fixing root nodules. We investigated the contribution of the three glutaredoxin (Grx)-encoding genes present in the Sinorhizobium meliloti genome to this symbiosis. SmGRX1 (CGYC active site) and SmGRX3 (CPYG) recombinant proteins displayed deglutathionylation activity in the 2-hydroethyldisulfide assay, whereas SmGRX2 (CGFS) did not. Mutation of SmGRX3 did not affect S. meliloti growth or symbiotic capacities. In contrast, SmGRX1 and SmGRX2 mutations decreased the growth of free-living bacteria and the nitrogen fixation capacity of bacteroids. Mutation of SmGRX1 led to nodule abortion and an absence of bacteroid differentiation, whereas SmGRX2 mutation decreased nodule development without modifying bacteroid development. The higher sensitivity of the Smgrx1 mutant strain as compared with wild-type strain to oxidative stress was associated with larger amounts of glutathionylated proteins. The Smgrx2 mutant strain displayed significantly lower levels of activity than the wild type for two iron-sulfur-containing enzymes, aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase. This lower level of activity could be associated with deregulation of the transcriptional activity of the RirA iron regulator and higher intracellular iron content. Thus, two S. meliloti Grx proteins are essential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, playing independent roles in bacterial differentiation and the regulation of iron metabolism.

  6. Accumulation and metabolism of iron-dextran by hepatocytes, Kupffer cells and endothelial cells in the neonatal pig liver.

    PubMed

    Caperna, T J; Failla, M L; Steele, N C; Richards, M P

    1987-02-01

    Treatment of newborn pigs with supplemental iron is a common procedure utilized to prevent neonatal anemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatic distribution and intracellular metabolism of iron-dextran, a widely used colloidal-iron-carbohydrate preparation. Piglets were injected intramuscularly with iron-dextran (50 mg Fe/kg body wt) at 1 d of age. Hepatocytes and sinusoidal cells (Kupffer cells and endothelial cells) were isolated from iron-treated and control (uninjected) piglets at 2, 6 and 11 d of age. The concentrations of iron, copper and zinc in isolated cells were determined by atomic-absorption spectroscopy. In addition, the quantities of ferritin-protein and ferritin-iron were measured by immunoelectrophoresis and ion-exchange chromatography, respectively. At 2 d of age, the concentration (microgram/mg cell protein) of iron was 5-, 62- and 54-fold higher in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells and endothelial cells, respectively, isolated from iron-treated piglets than from control piglets. Hepatocytes, Kupffer cells and endothelial cells accumulated ferritin in response to iron-dextran treatment. Higher concentrations of ferritin-protein and ferritin-iron were present in Kupffer cells and endothelial cells than in hepatocytes at all times after treatment with iron-dextran. The percentage of cellular iron that was associated with ferritin, however, was greater in hepatocytes than in sinusoidal cells. Iron accumulated by all three liver cell types was mobilized to extrahepatic sites. Slight alterations in zinc and copper status of liver cells were evident at 11 d of age as a result of iron treatment.

  7. Abnormal Brain Iron Metabolism in Irp2 Deficient Mice Is Associated with Mild Neurological and Behavioral Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Zumbrennen-Bullough, Kimberly B.; Becker, Lore; Garrett, Lillian; Hölter, Sabine M.; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Quintanilla-Fend, Leticia; Racz, Ildiko; Rathkolb, Birgit; Klopstock, Thomas; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Wolf, Eckhard; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Romney, Steven J.; Leibold, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (Irp2, Ireb2) is a central regulator of cellular iron homeostasis in vertebrates. Two global knockout mouse models have been generated to explore the role of Irp2 in regulating iron metabolism. While both mouse models show that loss of Irp2 results in microcytic anemia and altered body iron distribution, discrepant results have drawn into question the role of Irp2 in regulating brain iron metabolism. One model shows that aged Irp2 deficient mice develop adult-onset progressive neurodegeneration that is associated with axonal degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells in the central nervous system. These mice show iron deposition in white matter tracts and oligodendrocyte soma throughout the brain. A contrasting model of global Irp2 deficiency shows no overt or pathological signs of neurodegeneration or brain iron accumulation, and display only mild motor coordination and balance deficits when challenged by specific tests. Explanations for conflicting findings in the severity of the clinical phenotype, brain iron accumulation and neuronal degeneration remain unclear. Here, we describe an additional mouse model of global Irp2 deficiency. Our aged Irp2−/− mice show marked iron deposition in white matter and in oligodendrocytes while iron content is significantly reduced in neurons. Ferritin and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1, Tfrc), expression are increased and decreased, respectively, in the brain from Irp2−/− mice. These mice show impairments in locomotion, exploration, motor coordination/balance and nociception when assessed by neurological and behavioral tests, but lack overt signs of neurodegenerative disease. Ultrastructural studies of specific brain regions show no evidence of neurodegeneration. Our data suggest that Irp2 deficiency dysregulates brain iron metabolism causing cellular dysfunction that ultimately leads to mild neurological, behavioral and nociceptive impairments. PMID:24896637

  8. Disopyramide pharmacokinetics and metabolism: effect of inducers.

    PubMed Central

    Kapil, R P; Axelson, J E; Mansfield, I L; Edwards, D J; McErlane, B; Mason, M A; Lalka, D; Kerr, C R

    1987-01-01

    1. The disposition of orally administered disopyramide was studied in a population of smokers (n = 6) and non-smokers (n = 8) before and during phenobarbitone treatment (100 mg daily for 21 days; Cp 21st day = 13.9 +/- 2.0 micrograms ml-1). The comparative inducibility of these populations by phenobarbitone was assessed as was the inductive effect of cigarette smoking, per se. Furthermore, the determinants of the intensity of the inductive effect were examined, as well as the effect of the barbiturate on the binding of disopyramide to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). 2. Smokers and non-smokers exhibited similar half-lives (6.48 +/- 1.49 vs 6.66 +/- 1.02 h), apparent total body clearances (0.100 +/- 0.020 vs 0.117 +/- 0.034 l h-1 kg-1), mean renal clearances (0.043 +/- 0.0093 vs 0.057 +/- 0.013 l h-1 kg-1) and apparent intrinsic metabolic clearances (0.057 +/- 0.015 vs 0.060 +/- 0.024 l h-1 kg-1) before phenobarbitone treatment. 3. Both populations responded comparably to barbiturate exposure in that apparent intrinsic metabolic clearance more than doubled. Interestingly, the magnitude of this increase was highly dependent on the observed baseline apparent intrinsic metabolic clearance, (r' = 0.81; P less than 0.001). 4. Phenobarbitone treatment of non-smokers resulted in an increase in the AUC of the active metabolite N-despropyl disopyramide (MND), but not significantly (3.8 +/- 1.6 vs 4.1 +/- 2.3 micrograms ml-1 h). Similar results were observed in smokers (3.5 +/- 1.4 vs 3.9 +/- 2.0 micrograms ml-1 h, respectively). 5. The percent of administered dose recovered in urine as disopyramide in non-smokers was significantly decreased upon phenobarbitone treatment (43 +/- 6% vs 25 +/- 5%), whereas the percent of dose recovered as MND increased significantly in this group (25 +/- 6% vs 31 +/- 5%). The population of smokers responded similarly. 6. At doses typically used to achieve hepatic microsomal enzyme induction in man, phenobarbitone treatment caused no significant

  9. Changes in the proteomic and metabolic profiles of Beta vulgaris root tips in response to iron deficiency and resupply

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plants grown under iron deficiency show different morphological, biochemical and physiological changes. These changes include, among others, the elicitation of different strategies to improve the acquisition of Fe from the rhizosphere, the adjustment of Fe homeostasis processes and a reorganization of carbohydrate metabolism. The application of modern techniques that allow the simultaneous and untargeted analysis of multiple proteins and metabolites can provide insight into multiple processes taking place in plants under Fe deficiency. The objective of this study was to characterize the changes induced in the root tip proteome and metabolome of sugar beet plants in response to Fe deficiency and resupply. Results Root tip extract proteome maps were obtained by 2-D isoelectric focusing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and approximately 140 spots were detected. Iron deficiency resulted in changes in the relative amounts of 61 polypeptides, and 22 of them were identified by mass spectrometry (MS). Metabolites in root tip extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-MS, and more than 300 metabolites were resolved. Out of 77 identified metabolites, 26 changed significantly with Fe deficiency. Iron deficiency induced increases in the relative amounts of proteins and metabolites associated to glycolysis, tri-carboxylic acid cycle and anaerobic respiration, confirming previous studies. Furthermore, a protein not present in Fe-sufficient roots, dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine (DMRL) synthase, was present in high amounts in root tips from Fe-deficient sugar beet plants and gene transcript levels were higher in Fe-deficient root tips. Also, a marked increase in the relative amounts of the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs) was observed in Fe-deficient plants, and a further increase in these compounds occurred upon short term Fe resupply. Conclusions The increases in DMRL synthase and in RFO sugars were the major changes induced by Fe deficiency and resupply

  10. Iron deprivation results in a rapid but not sustained increase of the expression of genes involved in iron metabolism and sulfate uptake in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Paolacci, Anna Rita; Celletti, Silvia; Catarcione, Giulio; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Astolfi, Stefania; Ciaffi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of the relationship between sulfur and iron in both Strategy I and Strategy II plants, has proven that low sulfur availability often limits plant capability to cope with iron shortage. Here it was investigated whether the adaptation to iron deficiency in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants was associated with an increased root sulfate uptake and translocation capacity, and modified dynamics of total sulfur and thiols accumulation between roots and shoots. Most of the tomato sulfate transporter genes belonging to Groups 1, 2, and 4 were significantly upregulated in iron-deficient roots, as it commonly occurs under S-deficient conditions. The upregulation of the two high affinity sulfate transporter genes, SlST1.1 and SlST1.2, by iron deprivation clearly suggests an increased root capability to take up sulfate. Furthermore, the upregulation of the two low affinity sulfate transporter genes SlST2.1 and SlST4.1 in iron-deficient roots, accompanied by a substantial accumulation of total sulfur and thiols in shoots of iron-starved plants, likely supports an increased root-to-shoot translocation of sulfate. Results suggest that tomato plants exposed to iron-deficiency are able to change sulfur metabolic balance mimicking sulfur starvation responses to meet the increased demand for methionine and its derivatives, allowing them to cope with this stress.

  11. Determination of plasma temperature and electron density of iron in iron slag samples using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, T.; Gondal, M. A.; Shamraiz, M.

    2016-08-01

    Plasma temperature and electron density of iron in iron slag samples taken from a local plant is studied. Optimal experimental conditions were evaluated using Nd: YAG laser at 1064 nm. Some toxic elements were identified and quantitative measurements were also made. Plasma temperature and electron density were estimated using standard equations and well resolved iron spectral lines in the 229.06-358.11 nm region at 10, 20, 30 and 40 mJ laser pulse energy with 4.5 μs delay time. These parameters were found to increase with increase in laser pulse energy. The Boltzmann distribution and experimentally measured line intensities support the assumption that the laser-induced plasma was in local thermal equilibrium. It is worth mentioning that iron and steel sector generates tons of solid waste and residues annually containing variety of contaminants which can be harmful to the environment and therefore knowledge, proper analysis and investigation of such iron slag is important.

  12. Nitrosative stress and apoptosis in non-anemic healthy rats induced by intravenous iron sucrose similars versus iron sucrose originator.

    PubMed

    Toblli, Jorge E; Cao, Gabriel; Angerosa, Margarita

    2015-04-01

    Iron can both induce and inhibit nitrosative stress. Intracellular iron levels play an important role in nitric oxide (NO(•)) signaling mechanisms. Depending on various factors, such as the cell's redox state and transition metal levels, NO(•) generation may lead to lipid peroxidation and DNA damage as well as both anti- and pro-apoptotic effects. Administration of intravenous iron sucrose originator (IS(ORIG)) has been shown not to cause significant tyrosine nitration or significantly increased caspase 3 levels in non-anemic rats. In this study, the potential of several marketed iron sucrose similars (ISSs) to induce tyrosine nitration and caspase 3 expression in non-anemic rats was assessed. Although the physico-chemical properties of most of the analyzed ISSs complied with the United States Pharmacopeia for iron sucrose injection, all ISSs resulted in higher levels of tyrosine nitration and increased the expression of caspase 3 versus IS(ORIG). Moreover, significant differences were detected in tissue iron distribution between IS(ORIG)- and ISS-treated animals. In general, ISORIG resulted in higher levels of ferritin deposits versus ISSs whereas ISSs showed higher Prussian blue-stainable iron(III) deposits than IS(ORIG). This result suggests that some iron from ISSs bypassed the tightly regulated pathway through resident macrophages of the liver, spleen and bone marrow thus, ending up in the cellular compartment that favors oxidative and or nitrosative stress as well as apoptosis. The results also confirm that polynuclear iron(III)-oxyhydroxide carbohydrates, such as iron sucrose, cannot be fully characterized by physico-chemical methods alone.

  13. Diet-Induced Metabolic Disturbances As Modulators of Brain Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Le; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J.; Dasuri, Kalavathi; Nguyen, AnhThao; Liu, Dr Ying; Keller, Jeffrey N.

    2009-01-01

    A number of metabolic disturbances occur in response to the consumption of a high fat Western diet. Such metabolic disturbances can include the progressive development of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulemia, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Cumulatively, diet-induced disturbance in metabolism are known to promote increased morbidity and negatively impact life expectancy through a variety of mechanisms. While the impact of metabolic disturbances on the hepatic, endocrine, and cardiovascular systems are well established there remains a noticeable void in understanding the basis by which the central nervous system (CNS) becomes altered in response to diet-induced metabolic dysfunction. In particular, it remains to be fully elucidated which established features of diet-induced pathogenesis (observed in non-CNS tissues) are recapitulated in the brain, and identification as to whether the observed changes in the brain are a direct or indirect effect of peripheral metabolic disturbances. This review will focus on each of these key issues and identify some critical experimental questions which remain to be elucidated experimentally, as well as provide an outline of our current understanding for how diet-induced alterations in metabolism may impact the brain during aging and age-related diseases of the nervous system. PMID:18926905

  14. Hepcidin-Induced Iron Deficiency Is Related to Transient Anemia and Hypoferremia in Kawasaki Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying-Hsien; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Huang, Fu-Chen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Yang, Ya-Ling; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Li, Sung-Chou; Kuo, Hsing-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a type of systemic vasculitis that primarily affects children under the age of five years old. For sufferers of KD, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been found to successfully diminish the occurrence of coronary artery lesions. Anemia is commonly found in KD patients, and we have shown that in appropriately elevated hepcidin levels are related to decreased hemoglobin levels in these patients. In this study, we investigated the time period of anemia and iron metabolism during different stages of KD. A total of 100 patients with KD and 20 control subjects were enrolled in this study for red blood cell and hemoglobin analysis. Furthermore, plasma, urine hepcidin, and plasma IL-6 levels were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 20 KD patients and controls. Changes in hemoglobin, plasma iron levels, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were also measured in patients with KD. Hemoglobin, iron levels, and TIBC were lower (p < 0.001, p = 0.009, and p < 0.001, respectively) while plasma IL-6 and hepcidin levels (both p < 0.001) were higher in patients with KD than in the controls prior to IVIG administration. Moreover, plasma hepcidin levels were positively and significantly correlated with urine hepcidin levels (p < 0.001) prior to IVIG administration. After IVIG treatment, plasma hepcidin and hemoglobin levels significantly decreased (both p < 0.001). Of particular note was a subsequent gradual increase in hemoglobin levels during the three weeks after IVIG treatment; nevertheless, the hemoglobin levels stayed lower in KD patients than in the controls (p = 0.045). These findings provide a longitudinal study of hemoglobin changes and among the first evidence that hepcidin induces transient anemia and hypoferremia during KD’s acute inflammatory phase. PMID:27187366

  15. Hepcidin-Induced Iron Deficiency Is Related to Transient Anemia and Hypoferremia in Kawasaki Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Hsien; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Huang, Fu-Chen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Yang, Ya-Ling; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Li, Sung-Chou; Kuo, Hsing-Chun

    2016-05-12

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a type of systemic vasculitis that primarily affects children under the age of five years old. For sufferers of KD, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been found to successfully diminish the occurrence of coronary artery lesions. Anemia is commonly found in KD patients, and we have shown that in appropriately elevated hepcidin levels are related to decreased hemoglobin levels in these patients. In this study, we investigated the time period of anemia and iron metabolism during different stages of KD. A total of 100 patients with KD and 20 control subjects were enrolled in this study for red blood cell and hemoglobin analysis. Furthermore, plasma, urine hepcidin, and plasma IL-6 levels were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 20 KD patients and controls. Changes in hemoglobin, plasma iron levels, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were also measured in patients with KD. Hemoglobin, iron levels, and TIBC were lower (p < 0.001, p = 0.009, and p < 0.001, respectively) while plasma IL-6 and hepcidin levels (both p < 0.001) were higher in patients with KD than in the controls prior to IVIG administration. Moreover, plasma hepcidin levels were positively and significantly correlated with urine hepcidin levels (p < 0.001) prior to IVIG administration. After IVIG treatment, plasma hepcidin and hemoglobin levels significantly decreased (both p < 0.001). Of particular note was a subsequent gradual increase in hemoglobin levels during the three weeks after IVIG treatment; nevertheless, the hemoglobin levels stayed lower in KD patients than in the controls (p = 0.045). These findings provide a longitudinal study of hemoglobin changes and among the first evidence that hepcidin induces transient anemia and hypoferremia during KD's acute inflammatory phase.

  16. Coordinated remodeling of cellular metabolism during iron deficiency through targeted mRNA degradation.

    PubMed

    Puig, Sergi; Askeland, Eric; Thiele, Dennis J

    2005-01-14

    Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for virtually all organisms and serves as a cofactor for a wide variety of vital cellular processes. Although Fe deficiency is the primary nutritional disorder in the world, cellular responses to Fe deprivation are poorly understood. We have discovered a posttranscriptional regulatory process controlled by Fe deficiency, which coordinately drives widespread metabolic reprogramming. We demonstrate that, in response to Fe deficiency, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cth2 protein specifically downregulates mRNAs encoding proteins that participate in many Fe-dependent processes. mRNA turnover requires the binding of Cth2, an RNA binding protein conserved in plants and mammals, to specific AU-rich elements in the 3' untranslated region of mRNAs targeted for degradation. These studies elucidate coordinated global metabolic reprogramming in response to Fe deficiency and identify a mechanism for achieving this by targeting specific mRNA molecules for degradation, thereby facilitating the utilization of limited cellular Fe levels.

  17. The effects of maternal iron deficiency on infant fibroblast growth factor-23 and mineral metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, V.S.; Prentice, A.; Darboe, M.K.; Prentice, A.M.; Moore, S.E.

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), a phosphate(Phos)-regulating hormone, is abnormally elevated in hypophosphataemic syndromes and an elevated FGF23 is a predictor of mortality in kidney disease. Recent findings suggest iron deficiency as a potential mediator of FGF23 expression and murine studies have shown in utero effects of maternal iron deficiency on offspring FGF23 and phosphate metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the impact of maternal iron status on infant FGF23 and mineral metabolites over the first 2 years of life. Infants born to mothers with normal (NIn = 25,) and low (LIn = 25) iron status during pregnancy, from a mother-infant trial (ISRCTN49285450) in rural Gambia, West Africa, had blood and plasma samples analysed at 12, 24, 52, 78 and 104 weeks (wk) of age. Circulating intact-FGF23 (I-FGF23), Phos, total alkaline phosphatase (TALP) and haemoglobin (Hb) decreased and estimated glomerular filtration rate increased over time [all P ≤ 0.0001)]. C-terminal-FGF23 (C-FGF23) and TALP were significantly higher in LI compared with NI, from 52 wk for C-FGF23 [Beta coefficient (SE) 18.1 (0.04) %, P = 0.04] and from 24 wk for TALP [44.7 (29.6) U/L, P = 0.04]. Infant Hb was the strongest negative predictor of C-FGF23 concentration [− 21% (4%) RU/mL, P ≤ 0.0001], Phos was the strongest positive predictor of I-FGF23 [32.0(3.9) pg/mL, P ≤ 0.0001] and I-FGF23 did not predict C-FGF23 over time [− 0.5% (0.5%), P = 0.3]. In conclusion, this study suggests that poor maternal iron status is associated with a higher infant C-FGF23 and TALP but similar I-FGF23 concentrations in infants and young children. These findings further highlight the likely public health importance of preventing iron deficiency during pregnancy. Whether or not children who are born to iron deficient mothers have persistently high concentrations of these metabolites and are more likely to be at risk of impaired bone development and pre-disposed to rickets

  18. Metabolic Stress Induced by Arginine Deprivation Induces Autophagy Cell Death in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Arginine deiminase as a novel therapy for prostate cancer induces autophagy and caspase-independent apoptosis. Cancer Research, 69(2):700-708...TITLE: Metabolic stress induced by arginine deprivation induces autophagy cell death in prostate cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Richard Bold, MD...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Metabolic stress induced by arginine deprivation induces autophagy cell 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER death in prostate cancer 5b

  19. Association between Serum Ferritin and Osteocalcin as a Potential Mechanism Explaining the Iron-Induced Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Juanola-Falgarona, Martí; Cándido-Fernández, José; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Estruch, Ramón; Fiol, Miquel; Arija-Val, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Background Increased iron stores are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, however, the mechanisms underlying these associations are poorly understood. Because a reduction of circulating osteocalcin levels after iron overload have been demonstrated in cell cultures, and osteocalcin is related to glucose and insulin metabolism, the iron-induced osteocalcin reductions could contribute to explain the role of iron metabolism in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Objective To analyzed the associations between serum total and uncarboxylated osteocalcin and adiponectin concentrations with serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) in elderly subjects. Design We evaluated a total of 423 subjects from the PREDIMED cohort in a population-based cross-sectional analysis. Extensive clinical, nutritional and laboratory measurements, including total and uncarboxylated osteocalcin, adiponectin, ferritin and sTfR were recorded. Results Serum ferritin was positively correlated with increased glucose and insulin circulating levels but also with HOMA-IR, and was inversely associated with total osteocalcin and adiponectin. A regression analysis revealed that serum ferritin and transferrin receptor levels were significantly associated with a decrease in total and uncarboxylated osteocalcin. Serum sTfR levels were associated with lower uncarboxylated osteocalcin levels in the whole-study subjects and remained significant only in the IFG (impaired fasting glucose) individuals. Conclusions We described, for the first time, an inverse association between serum ferritin and sTfR with osteocalcin and extend previous results on adiponectin, thus supporting that factors related to iron metabolism could contribute to the insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN35739639 . PMID:24167545

  20. Bypasses in intracellular glucose metabolism in iron-limited Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Sasnow, Samantha S; Wei, Hua; Aristilde, Ludmilla

    2016-02-01

    Decreased biomass growth in iron (Fe)-limited Pseudomonas is generally attributed to downregulated expression of Fe-requiring proteins accompanied by an increase in siderophore biosynthesis. Here, we applied a stable isotope-assisted metabolomics approach to explore the underlying carbon metabolism in glucose-grown Pseudomonas putida KT2440. Compared to Fe-replete cells, Fe-limited cells exhibited a sixfold reduction in growth rate but the glucose uptake rate was only halved, implying an imbalance between glucose uptake and biomass growth. This imbalance could not be explained by carbon loss via siderophore production, which accounted for only 10% of the carbon-equivalent glucose uptake. In lieu of the classic glycolytic pathway, the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway in Pseudomonas is the principal route for glucose catabolism following glucose oxidation to gluconate. Remarkably, gluconate secretion represented 44% of the glucose uptake in Fe-limited cells but only 2% in Fe-replete cells. Metabolic (13) C flux analysis and intracellular metabolite levels under Fe limitation indicated a decrease in carbon fluxes through the ED pathway and through Fe-containing metabolic enzymes. The secreted siderophore was found to promote dissolution of Fe-bearing minerals to a greater extent than the high extracellular gluconate. In sum, bypasses in the Fe-limited glucose metabolism were achieved to promote Fe availability via siderophore secretion and to reroute excess carbon influx via enhanced gluconate secretion.

  1. Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Salama, Samir A.; Omar, Hany A.; Maghrabi, Ibrahim A.; AlSaeed, Mohammed S.; EL-Tarras, Adel E.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: • Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. • Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. • Iron

  2. Influence of artistic gymnastics on iron nutritional status and exercise-induced hemolysis in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Sureira, Thaiz Mattos; Amancio, Olga Silverio; Pellegrini Braga, Josefina Aparecida

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between body iron losses and gains in artistic gymnastics female athletes. It shows that despite the low iron intake and exercise-induced hemolysis, iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia does not occur, but partial changes in the hematological profile do. The hypothesis that gymnasts' nutritional behavior contributes to anemia, which may be aggravated by exercise-induced hemolysis, led to this cross-sectional study, conducted with 43 female artistic gymnasts 6-16 yr old. The control group was formed by 40 nontraining girls, paired by age. Hemogram, serum iron, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, haptoglobin, total and fractional bilirubin, Type I urine, and parasitologic and occult fecal blood tests were evaluated. The athletes presented mean hematimetric and serum iron values (p = .020) higher than those of the control group. The bilirubin result discarded any hemolytic alteration in both groups. The haptoglobin results were lower in the athlete group (p = .002), confirming the incidence of exercise-induced hemolysis. Both groups presented low iron intake. The results suggest that artistic gymnastics practice leads to exercise-induced hemolysis and partially changes the hematological profile, although not causing iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia, even in the presence of low iron intake.

  3. NMR-based metabonomic analyses of the effects of ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) on macrophage metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jianghua; Zhao, Jing; Hao, Fuhua; Chen, Chang; Bhakoo, Kishore; Tang, Huiru

    2011-05-01

    The metabonomic changes in murine RAW264.7 macrophage-like cell line induced by ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxides (USPIO) have been investigated, by analyzing both the cells and culture media, using high-resolution NMR in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods. Upon treatment with USPIO, macrophage cells showed a significant decrease in the levels of triglycerides, essential amino acids such as valine, isoleucine, and choline metabolites together with an increase of glycerophospholipids, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, glycine, and glutamate. Such cellular responses to USPIO were also detectable in compositional changes of cell media, showing an obvious depletion of the primary nutrition molecules, such as glucose and amino acids and the production of end-products of glycolysis, such as pyruvate, acetate, and lactate and intermediates of TCA cycle such as succinate and citrate. At 48 h treatment, there was a differential response to incubation with USPIO in both cell metabonome and medium components, indicating that USPIO are phagocytosed and released by macrophages. Furthermore, information on cell membrane modification can be derived from the changes in choline-like metabolites. These results not only suggest that NMR-based metabonomic methods have sufficient sensitivity to identify the metabolic consequences of murine RAW264.7 macrophage-like cell line response to USPIO in vitro, but also provide useful information on the effects of USPIO on cellular metabolism.

  4. Fungal Morphology, Iron Homeostasis, and Lipid Metabolism Regulated by a GATA Transcription Factor in Blastomyces dermatitidis

    PubMed Central

    Marty, Amber J.; Broman, Aimee T.; Zarnowski, Robert; Dwyer, Teigan G.; Bond, Laura M.; Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa; Fontaine, Joël; Ntambi, James M.; Keleş, Sündüz; Kendziorski, Christina; Gauthier, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    In response to temperature, Blastomyces dermatitidis converts between yeast and mold forms. Knowledge of the mechanism(s) underlying this response to temperature remains limited. In B. dermatitidis, we identified a GATA transcription factor, SREB, important for the transition to mold. Null mutants (SREBΔ) fail to fully complete the conversion to mold and cannot properly regulate siderophore biosynthesis. To capture the transcriptional response regulated by SREB early in the phase transition (0–48 hours), gene expression microarrays were used to compare SREB∆ to an isogenic wild type isolate. Analysis of the time course microarray data demonstrated SREB functioned as a transcriptional regulator at 37°C and 22°C. Bioinformatic and biochemical analyses indicated SREB was involved in diverse biological processes including iron homeostasis, biosynthesis of triacylglycerol and ergosterol, and lipid droplet formation. Integration of microarray data, bioinformatics, and chromatin immunoprecipitation identified a subset of genes directly bound and regulated by SREB in vivo in yeast (37°C) and during the phase transition to mold (22°C). This included genes involved with siderophore biosynthesis and uptake, iron homeostasis, and genes unrelated to iron assimilation. Functional analysis suggested that lipid droplets were actively metabolized during the phase transition and lipid metabolism may contribute to filamentous growth at 22°C. Chromatin immunoprecipitation, RNA interference, and overexpression analyses suggested that SREB was in a negative regulatory circuit with the bZIP transcription factor encoded by HAPX. Both SREB and HAPX affected morphogenesis at 22°C; however, large changes in transcript abundance by gene deletion for SREB or strong overexpression for HAPX were required to alter the phase transition. PMID:26114571

  5. Alterations of systemic and muscle iron metabolism in human subjects treated with low-dose recombinant erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Robach, Paul; Recalcati, Stefania; Girelli, Domenico; Gelfi, Cecilia; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels J; Thomsen, Jonas J; Norgaard, Anne M; Alberghini, Alessandra; Campostrini, Natascia; Castagna, Annalisa; Viganò, Agnese; Santambrogio, Paolo; Kempf, Tibor; Wollert, Kai C; Moutereau, Stéphane; Lundby, Carsten; Cairo, Gaetano

    2009-06-25

    The high iron demand associated with enhanced erythropoiesis during high-altitude hypoxia leads to skeletal muscle iron mobilization and decrease in myoglobin protein levels. To investigate the effect of enhanced erythropoiesis on systemic and muscle iron metabolism under nonhypoxic conditions, 8 healthy volunteers were treated with recombinant erythropoietin (rhEpo) for 1 month. As expected, the treatment efficiently increased erythropoiesis and stimulated bone marrow iron use. It was also associated with a prompt and considerable decrease in urinary hepcidin and a slight transient increase in GDF-15. The increased iron use and reduced hepcidin levels suggested increased iron mobilization, but the treatment was associated with increased muscle iron and L ferritin levels. The muscle expression of transferrin receptor and ferroportin was up-regulated by rhEpo administration, whereas no appreciable change in myoglobin levels was observed, which suggests unaltered muscle oxygen homeostasis. In conclusion, under rhEpo stimulation, the changes in the expression of muscle iron proteins indicate the occurrence of skeletal muscle iron accumulation despite the remarkable hepcidin suppression that may be mediated by several factors, such as rhEpo or decreased transferrin saturation or both.

  6. Growth-Induced Instability in Metabolic Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Sidhartha; Wingreen, Ned S.

    2007-03-30

    Product-feedback inhibition is a ubiquitous regulatory scheme for maintaining homeostasis in living cells. Individual metabolic pathways with product-feedback inhibition are stable as long as one pathway step is rate limiting. However, pathways are often coupled both by the use of a common substrate and by stoichiometric utilization of their products for cell growth. We show that such a coupled network with product-feedback inhibition may exhibit limit-cycle oscillations which arise via a Hopf bifurcation. Our results highlight novel evolutionary constraints on the architecture of metabolism.

  7. Iron Status and Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghamarchehreh, Mohammad Ebrahim; Jonaidi-Jafari, Nematollah; Bigdeli, Mohammad; Khedmat, Hossein; Saburi, Amin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND A hypothesis has been presented about the role of serum iron, ferritin and transferrin saturation among patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and resistance to insulin (metabolic syndrome [MetS]), but there is much controversy. This study aimed at investigating the level of serum iron and demographic characteristics in patients with NAFLD with or without MetS. METHODS A case-control study was conducted on patients with elevated liver enzymes referring to Baqiyatallah clinic, Tehran, Iran during 2010-2011. After ruling out other causes of increased aminotransferases and approving the diagnosis of NAFLD, the patients were divided into two groups of with or without MetS. Then, the individuals’ demographic, sonographic, and laboratory characteristics were recorded. RESULTS This research included 299 patients suffering from NAFLD who were divided into MetS (n=143; 47.8%) and non-MetS (n=156; 52.2%) groups. The age, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist/hip ratio, glucose tolerance test, serum insulin, C. peptide, triglyceride, and HB A1c were different between MetS and non-MetS groups (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in serum iron and ferritin levels between the two groups, however, a significant correlation was found between serum ferritin and alanine transaminase (p=0.005) and also aspartate aminotransferase (p=0.032). CONCLUSION Our findings did not show a significant relationship between iron, in free or storage form, and the presence of MetS among patients with NAFLD, but serum ferritin can correlate with hepatocytes injuries indicated by raised aminotransferases. Nevertheless, to clarify this relationship further molecular, genomic, and histopathological studies are required. PMID:26933479

  8. The factors influencing urinary arsenic excretion and metabolism of workers in steel and iron smelting foundry.

    PubMed

    Shuhua, Xi; Qingshan, Sun; Fei, Wang; Shengnan, Liu; Ling, Yan; Lin, Zhang; Yingli, Song; Nan, Yan; Guifan, Sun

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the degree of arsenic (As) exposure and the factors influencing urinary As excretion and metabolism, 192 workers from a steel and iron smelting plant, with different type of work in production such as roller, steel smelting, iron smelting and metallic charge preparation, were recruited. Information about characteristics of each subject was obtained by questionnaire and inorganic As (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine were determined. The results showed that steel smelters had significantly higher concentrations of DMA and total As (TAs) than rollers and metallic charge preparation workers, and iron and steel smelters had a higher value of primary methylation index and lower proportion of the iAs (iAs%) than rollers and metallic charge preparation workers. In steel smelters, urinary As level exceeded the biological exposure index (BEI) limit for urinary As of 35 μg/l by 65.52%, and higher than metallic charge preparation workers (35.14%). The individuals consumed seafood in recent 3 days had a higher TAs than the individuals without seafood consumption. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that different jobs, taken Chinese medicine of bezoar and seafood consumption in recent 3 days were significantly associated with urinary TAs exceeded BEI limit value 35 μg/l. Our results suggest that workers in steel and iron smelting plant had a lower level of As exposure, and seafood consumption and taking Chinese medicine of bezoar also could increase the risk of urinary TAs exceeded BEI limit value.

  9. Effects of exercise on hepcidin response and iron metabolism during recovery.

    PubMed

    Peeling, Peter; Dawson, Brian; Goodman, Carmel; Landers, Grant; Wiegerinck, Erwin T; Swinkels, Dorine W; Trinder, Debbie

    2009-12-01

    Urinary hepcidin, inflammation, and iron metabolism were examined during the 24 hr after exercise. Eight moderately trained athletes (6 men, 2 women) completed a 60-min running trial (15-min warm-up at 75-80% HR(peak) + 45 min at 85-90% HR(peak)) and a 60-min trial of seated rest in a randomized, crossover design. Venous blood and urine samples were collected pretrial, immediately posttrial, and at 3, 6, and 24 hr posttrial. Samples were analyzed for interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum iron, serum ferritin, and urinary hepcidin. The immediate postrun levels of IL-6 and 24-hr postrun levels of CRP were significantly increased from baseline (6.9 and 2.6 times greater, respectively) and when compared with the rest trial (p < or = .05). Hepcidin levels in the run trial after 3, 6, and 24 hr of recovery were significantly greater (1.7-3.1 times) than the pre- and immediate postrun levels (p < or = .05). This outcome was consistent in all participants, despite marked variation in the magnitude of rise. In addition, the 3-hr postrun levels of hepcidin were significantly greater than at 3 hr in the rest trial (3.0 times greater, p < or = .05). Hepcidin levels continued to increase at 6 hr postrun but failed to significantly differ from the rest trial (p = .071), possibly because of diurnal influence. Finally, serum iron levels were significantly increased immediately postrun (1.3 times, p < or = .05). The authors concluded that high-intensity exercise was responsible for a significant increase in hepcidin levels subsequent to a significant increase in IL-6 and serum iron.

  10. Zinc inhibits oxidative stress-induced iron signaling and apoptosis in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kilari, Sreenivasulu; Pullakhandam, Raghu; Nair, K Madhavan

    2010-04-01

    Studies in humans and animals have suggested negative interactions of iron and zinc during their intestinal absorption. Further, zinc seems to prevent iron-induced oxidative damage in rats, which was hypothesized to be through the modulation of the intracellular iron signaling pathway. The aim of this study was, therefore, to understand the effects of zinc on oxidant-induced iron signaling and cell death in human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells. We demonstrate that zinc decreases glucose/glucose oxidase (H(2)O(2)-generating system)-induced iron uptake and inhibits iron-regulatory protein 1 activation and divalent metal ion transporter 1 expression. There was also a concomitant decrease in oxidant-induced intracellular labile iron and restoration of ferritin and metallothionein expression. Further, zinc enhanced the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and reduced caspase-3 activity, leading to inhibition of apoptosis. Interestingly, bathophenanthroline disulfonic acid, an extracellular iron chelator, emulated the effects of zinc except for the reduced ferritin levels. These results suggest that zinc inhibits apoptosis by reducing oxidant-induced iron signaling in Caco-2 cells.

  11. Iron induced genotoxicity: attenuation by vitamin C and its optimization

    PubMed Central

    Parveen, Nuzhat; Ahmad, Shoeb

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin C (VC) is a well-known antioxidant and strong free radical scavenger. Its antioxidant activity is useful for protection of cellular macromolecules, particularly DNA, from oxidative damage induced by different agents. This study was undertaken to evaluate the optimum level of VC in attenuating the chromosome aberrations (CAs) and DNA damage after iron sulfate (FeSO4) acute administration in Wistar rats. The results exhibited that the increase of CAs and DNA damage induced by FeSO4, 200 mg Fe/kg, could be reduced significantly by VC pretreatment at the dose of 500 mg/kg (p<0.001), but not in the 100 mg/kg group. The findings provide evidence that VC at the dose of 500 mg/kg exerted a possible protective effect against FeSO4 induced CAs and DNA damage. The possible mechanisms of VC may be attributed to its property as a free radical scavenger or to its indirect action in reducing the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:26109893

  12. Iron metabolism in obesity: how interaction between homoeostatic mechanisms can interfere with their original purpose. Part I: underlying homoeostatic mechanisms of energy storage and iron metabolisms and their interaction.

    PubMed

    Becker, Christiane; Orozco, Mónica; Solomons, Noel W; Schümann, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Adipose tissue plasticity mediated by inflammation is an important evolutionary achievement to survive seasonal climate changes. It permits to store excessive calories and to release them if required, using inflammatory cells to remove the debris. This process is regulated by a complex interaction of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6), adipokines (adiponectin, apelin, liptin), adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin) and transcription factors (NF-κB, HIF-1α). Iron mediates electron transfer as an essential component of e.g. myeloperoxidase, hemoglobin, cytochrome C and ribonucleotide reductase. Conversely, unbound iron can catalyze oxidation of lipids, proteins, and DNA. To balance the essential with the potentially toxic function requires an efficient iron homoeostasis. This is mediated by hepcidin's interaction with the iron-exporter ferroportin, to adapt intestinal iron absorption and body iron-sequestration to changes in demand. In addition, the interaction of iron-responsive elements (IRE) and iron-responsive proteins (IRP), the IRE/IRP-mechanism, regulates cellular iron homoeostasis. Obesity-induced inflammation interacts with both these mechanisms and disturbs iron availability by impairing its absorption, and by sequestering it in the reticuloendothelial system. Both mechanisms lead to anemia and reduce physical fitness which, in a vicious cycle, can support the development of pathological obesity. Thus, interaction between these two sets of beneficial regulatory mechanisms can become detrimental in situations of ample calorie supply.

  13. Tumor-initiating cells of breast and prostate origin show alterations in the expression of genes related to iron metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Tomkova, Veronika; Korenkova, Vlasta; Langerova, Lucie; Simonova, Ekaterina; Zjablovskaja, Polina; Alberich-Jorda, Meritxell; Neuzil, Jiri; Truksa, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    The importance of iron in the growth and progression of tumors has been widely documented. In this report, we show that tumor-initiating cells (TICs), represented by spheres derived from the MCF7 cell line, exhibit higher intracellular labile iron pool, mitochondrial iron accumulation and are more susceptible to iron chelation. TICs also show activation of the IRP/IRE system, leading to higher iron uptake and decrease in iron storage, suggesting that level of properly assembled cytosolic iron-sulfur clusters (FeS) is reduced. This finding is confirmed by lower enzymatic activity of aconitase and FeS cluster biogenesis enzymes, as well as lower levels of reduced glutathione, implying reduced FeS clusters synthesis/utilization in TICs. Importantly, we have identified specific gene signature related to iron metabolism consisting of genes regulating iron uptake, mitochondrial FeS cluster biogenesis and hypoxic response (ABCB10, ACO1, CYBRD1, EPAS1, GLRX5, HEPH, HFE, IREB2, QSOX1 and TFRC). Principal component analysis based on this signature is able to distinguish TICs from cancer cells in vitro and also Leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) from non-LICs in the mouse model of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Majority of the described changes were also recapitulated in an alternative model represented by MCF7 cells resistant to tamoxifen (TAMR) that exhibit features of TICs. Our findings point to the critical importance of redox balance and iron metabolism-related genes and proteins in the context of cancer and TICs that could be potentially used for cancer diagnostics or therapy. PMID:28031527

  14. Comparative proteomics of a tor inducible Aspergillus fumigatus mutant reveals involvement of the Tor kinase in iron regulation.

    PubMed

    Baldin, Clara; Valiante, Vito; Krüger, Thomas; Schafferer, Lukas; Haas, Hubertus; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Brakhage, Axel A

    2015-07-01

    The Tor (target of rapamycin) kinase is one of the major regulatory nodes in eukaryotes. Here, we analyzed the Tor kinase in Aspergillus fumigatus, which is the most important airborne fungal pathogen of humans. Because deletion of the single tor gene was apparently lethal, we generated a conditional lethal tor mutant by replacing the endogenous tor gene by the inducible xylp-tor gene cassette. By both 2DE and gel-free LC-MS/MS, we found that Tor controls a variety of proteins involved in nutrient sensing, stress response, cell cycle progression, protein biosynthesis and degradation, but also processes in mitochondria, such as respiration and ornithine metabolism, which is required for siderophore formation. qRT-PCR analyses indicated that mRNA levels of ornithine biosynthesis genes were increased under iron limitation. When tor was repressed, iron regulation was lost. In a deletion mutant of the iron regulator HapX also carrying the xylp-tor cassette, the regulation upon iron deprivation was similar to that of the single tor inducible mutant strain. In line, hapX expression was significantly reduced when tor was repressed. Thus, Tor acts either upstream of HapX or independently of HapX as a repressor of the ornithine biosynthesis genes and thereby regulates the production of siderophores.

  15. The Effect of the Hemochromatosis (HFE) Genotype on Lead Load and Iron Metabolism among Lead Smelter Workers

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Guangqin; Du, Guihua; Li, Huijun; Lin, Fen; Sun, Ziyong; Yang, Wei; Feng, Chang; Zhu, Gaochun; Li, Yanshu; Chen, Ying; Jiao, Huan; Zhou, Fankun

    2014-01-01

    Background Both an excess of toxic lead (Pb) and an essential iron disorder have been implicated in many diseases and public health problems. Iron metabolism genes, such as the hemochromatosis (HFE) gene, have been reported to be modifiers for lead absorption and storage. However, the HFE gene studies among the Asian population with occupationally high lead exposure are lacking. Objectives To explore the modifying effects of the HFE genotype (wild-type, H63D variant and C282Y variant) on the Pb load and iron metabolism among Asian Pb-workers with high occupational exposure. Methods Seven hundred and seventy-one employees from a lead smelter manufacturing company were tested to determine their Pb intoxication parameters, iron metabolic indexes and identify the HFE genotype. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results Forty-five H63D variant carriers and no C282Y variant carrier were found among the 771 subjects. Compared with subjects with the wild-type genotype, H63D variant carriers had higher blood lead levels, even after controlling for factors such as age, sex, marriage, education, smoking and lead exposure levels. Multivariate analyses also showed that the H63D genotype modifies the associations between the blood lead levels and the body iron burden/transferrin. Conclusions No C282Y variant was found in this Asian population. The H63D genotype modified the association between the lead and iron metabolism such that increased blood lead is associated with a higher body iron content or a lower transferrin in the H63D variant. It is indicated that H63D variant carriers may be a potentially highly vulnerable sub-population if they are exposed to high lead levels occupationally. PMID:24988074

  16. In Absence of the Cellular Prion Protein, Alterations in Copper Metabolism and Copper-Dependent Oxidase Activity Affect Iron Distribution.

    PubMed

    Gasperini, Lisa; Meneghetti, Elisa; Legname, Giuseppe; Benetti, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Essential elements as copper and iron modulate a wide range of physiological functions. Their metabolism is strictly regulated by cellular pathways, since dysregulation of metal homeostasis is responsible for many detrimental effects. Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and prion diseases are characterized by alterations of metal ions. These neurodegenerative maladies involve proteins that bind metals and mediate their metabolism through not well-defined mechanisms. Prion protein, for instance, interacts with divalent cations via multiple metal-binding sites and it modulates several metal-dependent physiological functions, such as S-nitrosylation of NMDA receptors. In this work we focused on the effect of prion protein absence on copper and iron metabolism during development and adulthood. In particular, we investigated copper and iron functional values in serum and several organs such as liver, spleen, total brain and isolated hippocampus. Our results show that iron content is diminished in prion protein-null mouse serum, while it accumulates in liver and spleen. Our data suggest that these alterations can be due to impairments in copper-dependent cerulopalsmin activity which is known to affect iron mobilization. In prion protein-null mouse total brain and hippocampus, metal ion content shows a fluctuating trend, suggesting the presence of homeostatic compensatory mechanisms. However, copper and iron functional values are likely altered also in these two organs, as indicated by the modulation of metal-binding protein expression levels. Altogether, these results reveal that the absence of the cellular prion protein impairs copper metabolism and copper-dependent oxidase activity, with ensuing alteration of iron mobilization from cellular storage compartments.

  17. In Absence of the Cellular Prion Protein, Alterations in Copper Metabolism and Copper-Dependent Oxidase Activity Affect Iron Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Gasperini, Lisa; Meneghetti, Elisa; Legname, Giuseppe; Benetti, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Essential elements as copper and iron modulate a wide range of physiological functions. Their metabolism is strictly regulated by cellular pathways, since dysregulation of metal homeostasis is responsible for many detrimental effects. Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and prion diseases are characterized by alterations of metal ions. These neurodegenerative maladies involve proteins that bind metals and mediate their metabolism through not well-defined mechanisms. Prion protein, for instance, interacts with divalent cations via multiple metal-binding sites and it modulates several metal-dependent physiological functions, such as S-nitrosylation of NMDA receptors. In this work we focused on the effect of prion protein absence on copper and iron metabolism during development and adulthood. In particular, we investigated copper and iron functional values in serum and several organs such as liver, spleen, total brain and isolated hippocampus. Our results show that iron content is diminished in prion protein-null mouse serum, while it accumulates in liver and spleen. Our data suggest that these alterations can be due to impairments in copper-dependent cerulopalsmin activity which is known to affect iron mobilization. In prion protein-null mouse total brain and hippocampus, metal ion content shows a fluctuating trend, suggesting the presence of homeostatic compensatory mechanisms. However, copper and iron functional values are likely altered also in these two organs, as indicated by the modulation of metal-binding protein expression levels. Altogether, these results reveal that the absence of the cellular prion protein impairs copper metabolism and copper-dependent oxidase activity, with ensuing alteration of iron mobilization from cellular storage compartments. PMID:27729845

  18. Reconstruction of Gene Networks of Iron Response in Shewanella oneidensis

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yunfeng; Harris, Daniel P; Luo, Feng; Joachimiak, Marcin; Wu, Liyou; Dehal, Paramvir; Jacobsen, Janet; Yang, Zamin Koo; Gao, Haichun; Arkin, Adam; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Zhou, Jizhong

    2009-01-01

    It is of great interest to study the iron response of the -proteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis since it possesses a high content of iron and is capable of utilizing iron for anaerobic respiration. We report here that the iron response in S. oneidensis is a rapid process. To gain more insights into the bacterial response to iron, temporal gene expression profiles were examined for iron depletion and repletion, resulting in identification of iron-responsive biological pathways in a gene co-expression network. Iron acquisition systems, including genes unique to S. oneidensis, were rapidly and strongly induced by iron depletion, and repressed by iron repletion. Some were required for iron depletion, as exemplified by the mutational analysis of the putative siderophore biosynthesis protein SO3032. Unexpectedly, a number of genes related to anaerobic energy metabolism were repressed by iron depletion and induced by repletion, which might be due to the iron storage potential of their protein products. Other iron-responsive biological pathways include protein degradation, aerobic energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Furthermore, sequence motifs enriched in gene clusters as well as their corresponding DNA-binding proteins (Fur, CRP and RpoH) were identified, resulting in a regulatory network of iron response in S. oneidensis. Together, this work provides an overview of iron response and reveals novel features in S. oneidensis, including Shewanella-specific iron acquisition systems, and suggests the intimate relationship between anaerobic energy metabolism and iron response.

  19. Iron starvation induces apoptosis in Rhizopus oryzae in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Fazal; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Ibrahim, Ashraf S

    2015-01-01

    Mortality associated with mucormycosis remains high despite current antifungals. Iron-starvation strategies have been shown to have promising activity against Mucorales. We hypothesized that iron starvation enhances apoptosis in Rhizopus oryzae. Apoptosis was characterized in R. oryzae transformed with RNAi plasmid targeting FTR1 expression (iron permease mutant) or empty plasmid grown in iron rich (0.125% FeCl3) and iron depleted media (YNB+1mM ferrozine and 1 mM ascorbic acid). Increased apoptosis was observed with dihydrorhodamine-123 and rhodamine-123 staining in the iron starved mutant FTR1 when compared to empty plasmid, followed by increased extracellular ATP levels. In addition, DNA fragmentation and metacaspase activity were prominent in FTR1. In contrast, Rhizopus strains grown in iron-rich medium displayed minimal apoptosis. Our results demonstrate a metacaspase dependent apoptotic process in iron deprived condition and further support the role of iron starvation strategies as an adjunct treatment for mucormycosis, a mechanism by which iron starvation affects R. oryzae.

  20. Wilson's disease patient with iron metabolism discharge barriers: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Guoen; Huang, Xinming; Ye, Qinyong; Xiong, Wenting; Duan, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Wilson's disease (WD) is an autosomal genetic disease. In the present study, the patient was a 35-year-old woman who exhibited drinking bucking (bulbar paralysis) and dysphagia for a period of nine years. Genetic analysis of the patient identified the Thr935Met and Pro992Leu mutations, which lead to copper metabolism discharge barriers. Moreover, magnetic resonance imaging revealed a susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) hyperintense area in the bilateral substantia nigra and lenticular nuclei. These SWI observations indicated that ‘mineral deposits’ were present. The present case demonstrates that the SWI hyperintense area in the bilateral lenticular nuclei, substantia nigra and red nucleus combined with the patient's symptoms indicated that there is a possibility to diagnose WD when it is not detected by genetic analysis. In addition, it demonstrates that systemic mineral removal treatment (including manganese, iron and copper) may be successful for the initial treatment of WD. PMID:28123513

  1. Knocking down mitochondrial iron transporter (MIT) reprograms primary and secondary metabolism in rice plants

    PubMed Central

    Vigani, Gianpiero; Bashir, Khurram; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Lehmann, Martin; Casiraghi, Fabio Marco; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Seki, Motoaki; Geigenberger, Peter; Zocchi, Graziano; Nishizawa, Naoko K.

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and development, and its reduced bioavailability strongly impairs mitochondrial functionality. In this work, the metabolic adjustment in the rice (Oryza sativa) mitochondrial Fe transporter knockdown mutant (mit-2) was analysed. Biochemical characterization of purified mitochondria from rice roots showed alteration in the respiratory chain of mit-2 compared with wild-type (WT) plants. In particular, proteins belonging to the type II alternative NAD(P)H dehydrogenases accumulated strongly in mit-2 plants, indicating that alternative pathways were activated to keep the respiratory chain working. Additionally, large-scale changes in the transcriptome and metabolome were observed in mit-2 rice plants. In particular, a strong alteration (up-/down-regulation) in the expression of genes encoding enzymes of both primary and secondary metabolism was found in mutant plants. This was reflected by changes in the metabolic profiles in both roots and shoots of mit-2 plants. Significant alterations in the levels of amino acids belonging to the aspartic acid-related pathways (aspartic acid, lysine, and threonine in roots, and aspartic acid and ornithine in shoots) were found that are strictly connected to the Krebs cycle. Furthermore, some metabolites (e.g. pyruvic acid, fumaric acid, ornithine, and oligosaccharides of the raffinose family) accumulated only in the shoot of mit-2 plants, indicating possible hypoxic responses. These findings suggest that the induction of local Fe deficiency in the mitochondrial compartment of mit-2 plants differentially affects the transcript as well as the metabolic profiles in root and shoot tissues. PMID:26685186

  2. Iron metabolism in African American women in the second and third trimesters of high-risk pregnancies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To examine iron metabolism during the second and third trimesters in African American women with high-risk pregnancies. Design: Longitudinal pilot study. Setting: Large, university-based, urban Midwestern U.S. medical center. Participants: Convenience sample of 32 African American wome...

  3. Telomere dysfunction induces metabolic and mitochondrial compromise

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Ergün; Colla, Simona; Liesa, Marc; Moslehi, Javid; Müller, Florian L.; Guo, Mira; Cooper, Marcus; Kotton, Darrell; Fabian, Attila J.; Walkey, Carl; Maser, Richard S.; Tonon, Giovanni; Foerster, Friedrich; Xiong, Robert; Wang, Y. Alan; Shukla, Sachet A.; Jaskelioff, Mariela; Martin, Eric S.; Heffernan, Timothy P.; Protopopov, Alexei; Ivanova, Elena; Mahoney, John E.; Kost-Alimova, Maria; Perry, Samuel R.; Bronson, Roderick; Liao, Ronglih; Mulligan, Richard; Shirihai, Orian S.; Chin, Lynda; DePinho, Ronald A.

    2013-01-01

    Telomere dysfunction activates p53-mediated cellular growth arrest, senescence and apoptosis to drive progressive atrophy and functional decline in high-turnover tissues. The broader adverse impact of telomere dysfunction across many tissues including more quiescent systems prompted transcriptomic network analyses to identify common mechanisms operative in haematopoietic stem cells, heart and liver. These unbiased studies revealed profound repression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha and beta (PGC-1α and PGC-1β, also known as Ppargc1a and Ppargc1b, respectively) and the downstream network in mice null for either telomerase reverse transcriptase (Tert) or telomerase RNA component (Terc) genes. Consistent with PGCs as master regulators of mitochondrial physiology and metabolism, telomere dysfunction is associated with impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and function, decreased gluconeogenesis, cardiomyopathy, and increased reactive oxygen species. In the setting of telomere dysfunction, enforced Tert or PGC-1α expression or germline deletion of p53 (also known as Trp53) substantially restores PGC network expression, mitochondrial respiration, cardiac function and gluconeogenesis. We demonstrate that telomere dysfunction activates p53 which in turn binds and represses PGC-1α and PGC-1β promoters, thereby forging a direct link between telomere and mitochondrial biology. We propose that this telomere–p53–PGC axis contributes to organ and metabolic failure and to diminishing organismal fitness in the setting of telomere dysfunction. PMID:21307849

  4. Secondary psychosis induced by metabolic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bonnot, Olivier; Herrera, Paula M.; Tordjman, Sylvie; Walterfang, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic disorders are not well-recognized by psychiatrists as a possible source of secondary psychoses. Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are not frequent. Although their prompt diagnosis may lead to suitable treatments. IEMs are well-known to pediatricians, in particular for their most serious forms, having an early expression most of the time. Recent years discoveries have unveiled later expression forms, and sometimes very discreet first physical signs. There is a growing body of evidence that supports the hypothesis that IEMs can manifest as atypical psychiatric symptoms, even in the absence of clear neurological symptoms. In the present review, we propose a detailed overview at schizophrenia-like and autism-like symptoms that can lead practitioners to bear in mind an IEM. Other psychiatric manifestations are also found, as behavioral, cognitive, learning, and mood disorders. However, they are less frequent. Ensuring an accurate IEM diagnosis, in front of these psychiatric symptoms should be a priority, in order to grant suitable and valuable treatment for these pathologies. PMID:26074754

  5. Iron overload induced death of osteoblasts in vitro: involvement of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhipeng; Yang, Jingjing; Zheng, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Iron overload is recognized as a new pathogenfor osteoporosis. Various studies demonstrated that iron overload could induce apoptosis in osteoblasts and osteoporosis in vivo. However, the exact molecular mechanisms involved in the iron overload-mediated induction of apoptosis in osteoblasts has not been explored. Purpose In this study, we attempted to determine whether the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway is involved in iron-induced osteoblastic cell death and to investigate the beneficial effect of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) in iron-induced cytotoxicity. Methods The MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cell line was treated with various concentrations of ferric ion in the absence or presence of NAC, and intracellular iron, cell viability, reactive oxygen species, functionand morphology changes of mitochondria and mitochondrial apoptosis related key indicators were detected by commercial kits. In addition, to further explain potential mechanisms underlying iron overload-related osteoporosis, we also assessed cell viability, apoptosis, and osteogenic differentiation potential in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stemcells(MSCs) by commercial kits. Results Ferric ion demonstrated concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects on osteoblasts. After incubation with iron, an elevation of intracelluar labile iron levels and a concomitant over-generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by flow cytometry in osteoblasts. Nox4 (NADPH oxidase 4), an important ROS producer, was also evaluated by western blot. Apoptosis, which was evaluated by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, Hoechst 33258 staining, and the activation of caspase-3, was detected after exposure to iron. Iron contributed to the permeabilizatio of mitochondria, leading to the release of cytochrome C (cyto C), which, in turn, induced mitochondrial apoptosis in osteoblasts via activation of Caspase-3, up-regulation of Bax, and down-regulation of Bcl-2. NAC could reverse iron-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and

  6. Deferasirox-induced iron depletion promotes BclxL downregulation and death of proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Martin-Sanchez, Diego; Gallegos-Villalobos, Angel; Fontecha-Barriuso, Miguel; Carrasco, Susana; Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Lopez-Hernandez, Francisco J; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto; Sanz, Ana Belén

    2017-01-31

    Iron deficiency has been associated with kidney injury. Deferasirox is an oral iron chelator used to treat blood transfusion-related iron overload. Nephrotoxicity is the most serious and common adverse effect of deferasirox and may present as an acute or chronic kidney disease. However, scarce data are available on the molecular mechanisms of nephrotoxicity. We explored the therapeutic modulation of deferasirox-induced proximal tubular cell death in culture. Deferasirox induced dose-dependent tubular cell death and AnexxinV/7AAD staining showed features of apoptosis and necrosis. However, despite inhibiting caspase-3 activation, the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk failed to prevent deferasirox-induced cell death. Moreover, zVAD increased deferasirox-induced cell death, a feature sometimes found in necroptosis. Electron microscopy identified mitochondrial injury and features of necrosis. However, neither necrostatin-1 nor RIP3 knockdown prevented deferasirox-induced cell death. Deferasirox caused BclxL depletion and BclxL overexpression was protective. Preventing iron depletion protected from BclxL downregulation and deferasirox cytotoxicity. In conclusion, deferasirox promoted iron depletion-dependent cell death characterized by BclxL downregulation. BclxL overexpression was protective, suggesting a role for BclxL downregulation in iron depletion-induced cell death. This information may be used to develop novel nephroprotective strategies. Furthermore, it supports the concept that monitoring kidney tissue iron depletion may decrease the risk of deferasirox nephrotoxicity.

  7. Deferasirox-induced iron depletion promotes BclxL downregulation and death of proximal tubular cells

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Sanchez, Diego; Gallegos-Villalobos, Angel; Fontecha-Barriuso, Miguel; Carrasco, Susana; Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Lopez-Hernandez, Francisco J; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto; Sanz, Ana Belén

    2017-01-01

    Iron deficiency has been associated with kidney injury. Deferasirox is an oral iron chelator used to treat blood transfusion-related iron overload. Nephrotoxicity is the most serious and common adverse effect of deferasirox and may present as an acute or chronic kidney disease. However, scarce data are available on the molecular mechanisms of nephrotoxicity. We explored the therapeutic modulation of deferasirox-induced proximal tubular cell death in culture. Deferasirox induced dose-dependent tubular cell death and AnexxinV/7AAD staining showed features of apoptosis and necrosis. However, despite inhibiting caspase-3 activation, the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk failed to prevent deferasirox-induced cell death. Moreover, zVAD increased deferasirox-induced cell death, a feature sometimes found in necroptosis. Electron microscopy identified mitochondrial injury and features of necrosis. However, neither necrostatin-1 nor RIP3 knockdown prevented deferasirox-induced cell death. Deferasirox caused BclxL depletion and BclxL overexpression was protective. Preventing iron depletion protected from BclxL downregulation and deferasirox cytotoxicity. In conclusion, deferasirox promoted iron depletion-dependent cell death characterized by BclxL downregulation. BclxL overexpression was protective, suggesting a role for BclxL downregulation in iron depletion-induced cell death. This information may be used to develop novel nephroprotective strategies. Furthermore, it supports the concept that monitoring kidney tissue iron depletion may decrease the risk of deferasirox nephrotoxicity. PMID:28139717

  8. Cysteine Prevents the Reduction in Keratin Synthesis Induced by Iron Deficiency in Human Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Miniaci, Maria Concetta; Irace, Carlo; Capuozzo, Antonella; Piccolo, Marialuisa; Di Pascale, Antonio; Russo, Annapina; Lippiello, Pellegrino; Lepre, Fabio; Russo, Giulia; Santamaria, Rita

    2016-02-01

    L-cysteine is currently recognized as a conditionally essential sulphur amino acid. Besides contributing to many biological pathways, cysteine is a key component of the keratin protein by its ability to form disulfide bridges that confer strength and rigidity to the protein. In addition to cysteine, iron represents another critical factor in regulating keratins expression in epidermal tissues, as well as in hair follicle growth and maturation. By focusing on human keratinocytes, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cysteine supplementation as nutraceutical on keratin biosynthesis, as well as to get an insight on the interplay of cysteine availability and cellular iron status in regulating keratins expression in vitro. Herein we demonstrate that cysteine promotes a significant up-regulation of keratins expression as a result of de novo protein synthesis, while the lack of iron impairs keratin expression. Interestingly, cysteine supplementation counteracts the adverse effect of iron deficiency on cellular keratin expression. This effect was likely mediated by the up-regulation of transferrin receptor and ferritin, the main cellular proteins involved in iron homeostasis, at last affecting the labile iron pool. In this manner, cysteine may also enhance the metabolic iron availability for DNA synthesis without creating a detrimental condition of iron overload. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first study in an in vitro keratinocyte model providing evidence that cysteine and iron cooperate for keratins expression, indicative of their central role in maintaining healthy epithelia.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of reconstructed ferritin as an iron-induced pathological model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balejcikova, Lucia; Strbak, Oliver; Baciak, Ladislav; Kovac, Jozef; Masarova, Marta; Krafcik, Andrej; Frollo, Ivan; Dobrota, Dusan; Kopcansky, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Iron, an essential element of the human body, is a significant risk factor, particularly in the case of its concentration increasing above the specific limit. Therefore, iron is stored in the non-toxic form of the globular protein, ferritin, consisting of an apoferritin shell and iron core. Numerous studies confirmed the disruption of homeostasis and accumulation of iron in patients with various diseases (e.g. cancer, cardiovascular or neurological conditions), which is closely related to ferritin metabolism. Such iron imbalance enables the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a sensitive technique for the detection of iron-based aggregates through changes in the relaxation times, followed by the change in the inherent image contrast. For our in vitrostudy, modified ferritins with different iron loadings were prepared by chemical reconstruction of the iron core in an apoferritin shell as pathological model systems. The magnetic properties of samples were studied using SQUID magnetometry, while the size distribution was detected via dynamic light scattering. We have shown that MRI could represent the most advantageous method for distinguishing native ferritin from reconstructed ferritin which, after future standardisation, could then be suitable for the diagnostics of diseases associated with iron accumulation.

  10. Iron Deposition Leads to Neuronal α-Synuclein Pathology by Inducing Autophagy Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Wenbin; Jin, Lirong; Wang, Zigao; Wang, Lingyan; Fei, Guoqiang; Ye, Fanlong; Pan, Xiaoli; Wang, Changpeng; Zhong, Chunjiu

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence has indicated that iron deposition in the substantia nigra plays an important role in Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the underlying mechanism is still elusive. Using primary dopaminergic neurons and SH-SY5Y cells cultured in vitro, we observed that iron loading increased α-synuclein and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in these cells but did not affect the intracellular α-synuclein mRNA levels. Furthermore, iron loading significantly downregulated Beclin-1 levels and decreased the ratio of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 isoforms (LC3 II/LC3 I). However, a significant change in the levels of autophagy-related gene 5 (Atg5) was not observed in either neurons or SH-SY5Y cells after iron treatment. After treatment with rapamycin, the iron loading-induced increase in the α-synuclein level was significantly reversed and ROS generation was alleviated in both cultured neurons and SH-SY5Y cells. These results indicate that the inhibition of autophagy is critical for the pathological alterations in α-synuclein induced by iron loading. Moreover, treatment with vitamin E did not affect the increase in the α-synuclein levels but significantly eliminated the iron-induced ROS production. Together, our study shows that autophagy dysfunction contributes to iron-induced α-synuclein pathology. PMID:28138322

  11. Effects of Radiation and Dietary Iron on Expression of Genes and Proteins Involved in Drug Metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faust, K. M.; Wotring, V. E.

    2014-01-01

    Liver function, especially the rate of metabolic enzyme activities, determines the concentration of circulating drugs and the duration of their efficacy. Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver, and clinically-used medication doses are given with normal liver function in mind. A drug overdose can result in the case of a liver that is damaged and removing pharmaceuticals from the circulation at a rate slower than normal. Alternatively, if liver function is elevated and removing drugs from the system more quickly than usual, it would be as if too little drug had been given for effective treatment. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism, we want to understand any effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver. Dietary factors and exposure to radiation are aspects of spaceflight that are potential oxidative stressors and both can be modeled in ground experiments. In this experiment, we examined the effects of high dietary iron and low dose gamma radiation (individually and combined) on the gene expression of enzymes involved in drug metabolism, redox homeostasis, and DNA repair. METHODS All procedures were approved by the JSC Animal Care and Use Committee. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (n=8); control, high Fe diet (650 mg iron/kg), radiation (fractionated 3 Gy exposure from a Cs- 137 source) and combined high Fe diet + radiation exposure. Animals were euthanized 24h after the last treatment of radiation; livers were removed immediately and flash -frozen in liquid nitrogen. Expression of genes thought to be involved in redox homeostasis, drug metabolism and DNA damage repair was measured by RT-qPCR. Where possible, protein expression of the same genes was measured by western blotting. All data are expressed as % change in expression normalized to reference gene expression; comparisons were then made of each treatment group to the sham exposed/ normal diet control group. Data was considered significant at p< 0

  12. IscR of Rhodobacter sphaeroides functions as repressor of genes for iron-sulfur metabolism and represents a new type of iron-sulfur-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Remes, Bernhard; Eisenhardt, Benjamin D; Srinivasan, Vasundara; Klug, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    IscR proteins are known as transcriptional regulators for Fe–S biogenesis. In the facultatively phototrophic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides IscR is the product of the first gene in the isc-suf operon. A major role of IscR in R. sphaeroides iron-dependent regulation was suggested in a bioinformatic study (Rodionov et al., PLoS Comput Biol 2:e163, 2006), which predicted a binding site in the upstream regions of several iron uptake genes, named Iron-Rhodo-box. Most known IscR proteins have Fe–S clusters featuring (Cys)3(His)1 ligation. However, IscR proteins from Rhodobacteraceae harbor only a single-Cys residue and it was considered unlikely that they can ligate an Fe–S cluster. In this study, the role of R. sphaeroides IscR as transcriptional regulator and sensor of the Fe–S cluster status of the cell was analyzed. A mutant lacking IscR is more impaired in growth under iron limitation than the wild-type and exhibits significantly increased ROS levels in iron-replete and iron-deplete conditions. Expression studies reveal that R. sphaeroides IscR in its cluster-bound form functions as transcriptional repressor of genes involved in iron metabolism by direct binding to the promoter region of genes preceded by the motif. A total of 110 genes are directly or indirectly affected by IscR. Furthermore, IscR possesses a unique Fe–S cluster ligation scheme with only a single cysteine involved. PMID:26235649

  13. Pressure-Induced Phase Transitions In Gadolinium Iron Borate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharlamova, S. A.; Struzhkin, V. V.; Sinogeikin, S. V.; Gavriliuk, A. G.; Brown, D.; Toellner, T.; Zhao, J.; Lerche, M.; Lyubutin, I. S.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.; Alp, E. E.; Sturhahn, W.

    2007-12-01

    An understanding of spin crossover (SC) dynamics is relevant to understanding of a role or participation of SC in natural systems including lower Mantle minerals, heme proteins as well as from fundamental science of view. For example, pressure-induced electronic spin transitions of Fe2+ and Fe3+ iron occur in magnesiowustite, silicate perovskite and post-perovskite which are abundant minerals in the Earth's lower mantle [1-3]. Such a SC phenomenon has recently been observed in a number of magnetic minerals FeBO3 [4, 5], BiFeO3 [6], Fe2O3 [7], and Y3Fe5O12 [8], (La, Pr)FeO3 [9, 10]. In those cases, iron ions are in the trivalent state Fe3+ and the high-spin-low-spin (HS-LS) crossover is manifested as the collapse of the local magnetic moment and as the transition of the antiferromagnet to a paramagnetic state. For example, in FeBO3 at low temperatures a spin-crossover and some magnetic transitions with two triple points were found [4, 5]. Gadolinium iron borate, GdFe3(BO3)4 is also a system with SEC and recently, we have reported on phase transitions induced by high pressures in this material [11, 12]. We studied the structural and magnetic behavior of GdFe573(BO3)4 at high pressures and temperatures using a diamond anvil cell and a Synchrotron Mossbauer Spectroscopy technique. The hyperfine parameters and results obtained from the experiments are discussed. Based on our experimental data and theoretical calculation a tentative magnetic P-T phase diagram and an equation of states of GdFe573(BO3)4 are proposed. Important features of the phase diagram are a spin crossover, insulator-semiconductor transition and possible presence of two triple points where magnetic and paramagnetic phases of the high-spin and low-spin states coexist. 1. J. Badro, J.-P. Rueff, G. Vankó, et al., Science 305, 383 (2004). 2. J. M. Jackson, W. Sturhahn, G. Shen, et al., American Mineralogist 90, 199 (2005). 3. J.Li, V.V. Struzhkin, H.-K. Mao, et al., PNAS 101, 14027 (2004). 4. I.A. Troyan

  14. A Sinorhizobium meliloti RpoH-Regulated Gene Is Involved in Iron-Sulfur Protein Metabolism and Effective Plant Symbiosis under Intrinsic Iron Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Shohei; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Sinorhizobium meliloti, RpoH-type sigma factors have a global impact on gene expression during heat shock and play an essential role in symbiosis with leguminous plants. Using mutational analysis of a set of genes showing highly RpoH-dependent expression during heat shock, we identified a gene indispensable for effective symbiosis. This gene, designated sufT, was located downstream of the sufBCDS homologs that specify the iron-sulfur (Fe/S) cluster assembly pathway. The identified transcription start site was preceded by an RpoH-dependent promoter consensus sequence. SufT was related to a conserved protein family of unknown molecular function, of which some members are involved in Fe/S cluster metabolism in diverse organisms. A sufT mutation decreased bacterial growth in both rich and minimal media, tolerance to stresses such as iron starvation, and activities of some Fe/S cluster-dependent enzymes. These results support the involvement of SufT in SUF (sulfur mobilization) system-mediated Fe/S protein metabolism. Furthermore, we isolated spontaneous pseudorevertants of the sufT mutant with partially recovered growth; each of them had a mutation in rirA. This gene encodes a global iron regulator whose loss increases the intracellular iron content. Deletion of rirA in the original sufT mutant improved growth and restored Fe/S enzyme activities and effective symbiosis. These results suggest that enhanced iron availability compensates for the lack of SufT in the maintenance of Fe/S proteins. IMPORTANCE Although RpoH-type sigma factors of the RNA polymerase are present in diverse proteobacteria, their role as global regulators of protein homeostasis has been studied mainly in the enteric gammaproteobacterium Escherichia coli. In the soil alphaproteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti, the rpoH mutations have a strong impact on symbiosis with leguminous plants. We found that sufT is a unique member of the S. meliloti RpoH regulon; sufT contributes to Fe

  15. Dissecting iron deficiency-induced proton extrusion in Arabidopsis roots.

    PubMed

    Santi, Simonetta; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Here, we have analysed the H(+)-ATPase-mediated extrusion of protons across the plasma membrane (PM) of rhizodermic cells, a process that is inducible by iron (Fe) deficiency and thought to serve in the mobilization of sparingly soluble Fe sources. The induction and function of Fe-responsive PM H(+)-ATPases in Arabidopsis roots was investigated by gene expression analysis and by using mutants defective in the expression or function of one of the isogenes. In addition, the expression of the most responsive isogenes was investigated in natural Arabidopsis accessions that have been selected for their in vivo proton extrusion activity. Our data suggest that the rhizosphere acidification in response to Fe deficiency is chiefly mediated by AHA2, while AHA1 functions as a housekeeping isoform. The aha7 knock-out mutant plants showed a reduced frequency of root hairs, suggesting an involvement of AHA7 in the differentiation of rhizodermic cells. Acidification capacity varied among Arabidopsis accessions and was associated with a high induction of AHA2 and IRT1, a high relative growth rate and a shoot-root ratio that was unaffected by the external Fe supply. An effective regulation of the Fe-responsive genes and a stable shoot-root ratio may represent important characteristics for the Fe uptake efficiency.

  16. Cooperation of two mRNA-binding proteins drives metabolic adaptation to iron deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Sergi; Vergara, Sandra V.; Thiele, Dennis J.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Iron (Fe) is an essential co-factor for a wide range of cellular processes. We have previously demonstrated that during Fe-deficiency yeast Cth2 is expressed and promotes degradation of a battery of mRNAs leading to reprogramming of Fe-dependent metabolism and Fe-storage. We report that the Cth2-homologous protein, Cth1, is transiently expressed during Fe-deprivation and participates in the response to Fe-deficiency through the degradation of mRNAs primarily involved in mitochondrially-localized activities including respiration and amino acid biosynthesis. In parallel, wild type but not cth1Δ cth2Δ cells accumulate mRNAs encoding proteins that function in glucose import and storage and store high levels of glycogen. In addition, Fe-deficiency leads to Snf1 phosphorylation, a member of the AMP-activated protein kinase family required for the cellular response to glucose starvation. These studies demonstrate a metabolic reprogramming as a consequence of Fe-starvation that is dependent on the coordinated activities of two mRNA-binding proteins. PMID:18522836

  17. Drosophila mitoferrin is essential for male fertility: evidence for a role of mitochondrial iron metabolism during spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mammals and Drosophila melanogaster share some striking similarities in spermatogenesis. Mitochondria in spermatids undergo dramatic morphological changes and syncytial spermatids are stripped from their cytoplasm and then individually wrapped by single membranes in an individualization process. In mammalian and fruit fly testis, components of the mitochondrial iron metabolism are expressed, but so far their function during spermatogenesis is unknown. Here we investigate the role of Drosophila mitoferrin (dmfrn), which is a mitochondrial carrier protein with an established role in the mitochondrial iron metabolism, during spermatogenesis. Results We found that P-element insertions into the 5'-untranslated region of the dmfrn gene cause recessive male sterility, which was rescued by a fluorescently tagged transgenic dmfrn genomic construct (dmfrnvenus). Testes of mutant homozygous dmfrnSH115 flies were either small with unorganized content or contained some partially elongated spermatids, or testes were of normal size but lacked mature sperm. Testis squashes indicated that spermatid elongation was defective and electron micrographs showed mitochondrial defects in elongated spermatids and indicated failed individualization. Using a LacZ reporter and the dmfrnvenus transgene, we found that dmfrn expression in testes was highest in spermatids, coinciding with the stages that showed defects in the mutants. Dmfrn-venus protein accumulated in mitochondrial derivatives of spermatids, where it remained until most of it was stripped off during individualization and disposed of in waste bags. Male sterility in flies with the hypomorph alleles dmfrnBG00456 and dmfrnEY01302 over the deletion Df(3R)ED6277 was increased by dietary iron chelation and suppressed by iron supplementation of the food, while male sterility of dmfrnSH115/Df(3R)ED6277 flies was not affected by food iron levels. Conclusions In this work, we show that mutations in the Drosophila mitoferrin gene

  18. Iron-contamination-induced performance degradation of an iron-fed fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Min; Song, Wei; Zhai, Lin-Feng; Tong, Zhong-Hua

    2014-02-01

    The iron-fed fuel cell is an effective technology to recover iron and electricity from acid mine drainage (AMD). However, this technology suffers from the problem of performance degradation which significantly reduces its power output during long-term operation. In this work, the performance degradation of iron-fed fuel cell is comprehensively evaluated with the objective to elucidate the mechanisms involved in such a phenomenon. The iron contamination is identified as the main cause responsible for the performance degradation of fuel cell. The iron contaminant is present in the form of α-FeO(OH), which is the main product recovered by the iron-fed fuel cell. Both the electrode and membrane are deteriorated by iron contamination, whereas the membrane deterioration is more significant. Fed-batch experiments demonstrate the performance loss of fuel cell due to contamination of membrane is more than 50% greater than the performance loss due to contamination of electrode. The α-FeO(OH) contaminant not only forms fouling layers on the surfaces of carbon electrode and membrane, but also migrates into the membrane to damage the membrane structure. As a result, both the charge transfer and mass transfer resistances of fuel cell are dramatically increased, which leads to delayed electro-oxidation kinetics of Fe(II).

  19. Revealing insect herbivory-induced phenolamide metabolism: from single genes to metabolic network plasticity analysis.

    PubMed

    Gaquerel, Emmanuel; Gulati, Jyotasana; Baldwin, Ian T

    2014-08-01

    The phenylpropanoid metabolic space comprises a network of interconnected metabolic branches that contribute to the biosynthesis of a large array of compounds with functions in plant development and stress adaptation. During biotic challenges, such as insect attack, a major rewiring of gene networks associated with phenylpropanoid metabolism is observed. This rapid reconfiguration of gene expression allows prioritized production of metabolites that help the plant solve ecological problems. Phenolamides are a group of phenolic derivatives that originate from diversion of hydroxycinnamoyl acids from the main phenylpropanoid pathway after N-acyltransferase-dependent conjugation to polyamines or aryl monoamines. These structurally diverse metabolites are abundant in the reproductive organs of many plants, and have recently been shown to play roles as induced defenses in vegetative tissues. In the wild tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, in which herbivory-induced regulation of these metabolites has been studied, rapid elevations of the levels of phenolamides that function as induced defenses result from a multi-hormonal signaling network that re-shapes connected metabolic pathways. In this review, we summarize recent findings in the regulation of phenolamides obtained by mass spectrometry-based metabolomics profiling, and outline a conceptual framework for gene discovery in this pathway. We also introduce a multifactorial approach that is useful in deciphering metabolic pathway reorganizations among tissues in response to stress.

  20. Revealing insect herbivory-induced phenolamide metabolism: from single genes to metabolic network plasticity analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gaquerel, Emmanuel; Gulati, Jyotasana; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2016-01-01

    The phenylpropanoid metabolic space comprises a network of interconnected metabolic branches that contribute to the biosynthesis of a large array of compounds with functions in plant development and stress adaptation. During biotic challenges, such as insect attack, a major rewiring of gene networks associated with phenylpropanoid metabolism is observed. This rapid reconfiguration of gene expression allows for the prioritized production of metabolites that help the plant solve ecological problems. Phenolamides are a group of phenolic-derivatives that originate from the diversion of hydroxycinnamoyl acids from the main phenylpropanoid pathway after N-acyltransferase-dependent conjugation to polyamines or aryl-monoamines. These structurally diverse metabolites are abundant in reproductive organs of many plants and have recently been shown to play roles as induced defenses in vegetative tissues. In the wild tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata in which the herbivory-induced regulation of these metabolites has been studied, rapid elevations of phenolamide levels that function as induced defenses result from a multi-hormonal signaling network that reshapes connected metabolic pathways. In this review, we summarize recent findings in the regulation of phenolamides obtained by mass spectrometry-based metabolomics and outline a conceptual framework for gene discovery in this pathway. We finally introduce a multifactorial approach useful in deciphering metabolic pathway reorganizations among different tissues in response to stress. PMID:24617849

  1. PEDF-induced alteration of metabolism leading to insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Carnagarin, Revathy; Dharmarajan, Arunasalam M; Dass, Crispin R

    2015-02-05

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is an anti-angiogenic, immunomodulatory, and neurotrophic serine protease inhibitor protein. PEDF is evolving as a novel metabolic regulatory protein that plays a causal role in insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is the central pathogenesis of metabolic disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovarian disease, and metabolic syndrome, and PEDF is associated with them. The current evidence suggests that PEDF administration to animals induces insulin resistance, whereas neutralisation improves insulin sensitivity. Inflammation, lipolytic free fatty acid mobilisation, and mitochondrial dysfunction are the proposed mechanism of PEDF-mediated insulin resistance. This review summarises the probable mechanisms adopted by PEDF to induce insulin resistance, and identifies PEDF as a potential therapeutic target in ameliorating insulin resistance.

  2. The role of iron and zinc in chemotherapy-induced alopecia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyukavci, Mustafa; Gurol, Ali; Karabulut, Abdulhalik; Budak, Gokhan; Karacan, Mehmet

    2005-10-01

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is a common and distressing side effect in children with cancer. Iron and zinc are the well known trace elements which are associated with hair shedding. In this study, we investigated the hair content of iron and zinc in children with cancer consists of two groups: group A, newly diagnosed patients; group B, the patients received a course of chemotherapy. We compared the results between each others and healthy controls. Hair content of iron and zinc was not different between the patient groups. Iron concentrations of patient samples, either at diagnosis or after chemotherapy, were significantly lower than healthy controls. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the zinc values. In conclusion, hair content of iron and zinc do not have a role in chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis YtgA is an iron-binding periplasmic protein induced by iron restriction

    PubMed Central

    Miller, J. D.; Sal, M. S.; Schell, M.; Whittimore, J. D.; Raulston, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium that is the causative agent of common sexually transmitted diseases and the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. It has been observed that YtgA (CT067) is very immunogenic in patients with chlamydial genital infections. Homology analyses suggested that YtgA is a soluble periplasmic protein and a component of an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport system for metals such as iron. Since little is known about iron transport in C. trachomatis, biochemical assays were used to determine the potential role of YtgA in iron acquisition. 59Fe binding and competition studies revealed that YtgA preferentially binds iron over nickel, zinc or manganese. Western blot and densitometry techniques showed that YtgA concentrations specifically increased 3–5-fold in C. trachomatis, when cultured under iron-starvation conditions rather than under general stress conditions, such as exposure to penicillin. Finally, immuno-transmission electron microscopy provided evidence that YtgA is more concentrated in C. trachomatis during iron restriction, supporting a possible role for YtgA as a component of an ABC transporter. PMID:19556290

  4. Dual preventive benefits of iron elimination by desferal in asbestos-induced mesothelial carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Chew, Shan-Hwu; Nakamura, Kosuke; Ohara, Yuuki; Akatsuka, Shinya; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2016-07-01

    Asbestos-induced mesothelial carcinogenesis is currently a profound social issue due to its extremely long incubation period and high mortality rate. Therefore, procedures to prevent malignant mesothelioma in people already exposed to asbestos are important. In previous experiments, we established an asbestos-induced rat peritoneal mesothelioma model, which revealed that local iron overload is a major cause of pathogenesis and that the induced genetic alterations are similar to human counterparts. Furthermore, we showed that oral administration of deferasirox modified the histology from sarcomatoid to the more favorable epithelioid subtype. Here, we used i.p. administration of desferal to evaluate its effects on asbestos-induced peritoneal inflammation and iron deposition, as well as oxidative stress. Nitrilotriacetate was used to promote an iron-catalyzed Fenton reaction as a positive control. Desferal significantly decreased peritoneal fibrosis, iron deposition, and nuclear 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels in mesothelial cells, whereas nitrilotriacetate significantly increased all of them. Desferal was more effective in rat peritoneal mesothelial cells to counteract asbestos-induced cytotoxicity than in murine macrophages (RAW264.7). Furthermore, rat sarcomatoid mesothelioma cells were more dependent on iron for proliferation than rat peritoneal mesothelial cells. Because inflammogenicity of a fiber is proportionally associated with subsequent mesothelial carcinogenesis, iron elimination from the mesothelial environment can confer dual merits for preventing asbestos-induced mesothelial carcinogenesis by suppressing inflammation and mesothelial proliferation simultaneously.

  5. Mitochondrial iron chelation ameliorates cigarette-smoke induced bronchitis and emphysema in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cloonan, Suzanne M.; Glass, Kimberly; Laucho-Contreras, Maria E.; Bhashyam, Abhiram R.; Cervo, Morgan; Pabón, Maria A.; Konrad, Csaba; Polverino, Francesca; Siempos, Ilias I.; Perez, Elizabeth; Mizumura, Kenji; Ghosh, Manik C.; Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Williams, Niamh C.; Rooney, Kristen T.; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Goldklang, Monica P.; Yuan, Guo-Cheng; Moore, Stephen C.; Demeo, Dawn L.; Rouault, Tracey A.; D’Armiento, Jeanine M.; Schon, Eric A.; Manfredi, Giovanni; Quackenbush, John; Mahmood, Ashfaq; Silverman, Edwin K.; Owen, Caroline A.; Choi, Augustine M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is linked to both cigarette smoking and genetic determinants. We have previously identified iron-responsive element binding protein 2 (IRP2) as an important COPD susceptibility gene, with IRP2 protein increased in the lungs of individuals with COPD. Here we demonstrate that mice deficient in Irp2 were protected from cigarette smoke (CS)-induced experimental COPD. By integrating RIP-Seq, RNA-Seq, gene expression and functional enrichment clustering analysis, we identified IRP2 as a regulator of mitochondrial function in the lung. IRP2 increased mitochondrial iron loading and cytochrome c oxidase (COX), which led to mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent experimental COPD. Frataxin-deficient mice with higher mitochondrial iron loading had impaired airway mucociliary clearance (MCC) and higher pulmonary inflammation at baseline, whereas synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase (Sco2)-deficient mice with reduced COX were protected from CS-induced pulmonary inflammation and impairment of MCC. Mice treated with a mitochondrial iron chelator or mice fed a low-iron diet were protected from CS-induced COPD. Mitochondrial iron chelation also alleviated CS-impairment of MCC, CS-induced pulmonary inflammation and CS-associated lung injury in mice with established COPD, suggesting a critical functional role and potential therapeutic intervention for the mitochondrial-iron axis in COPD. PMID:26752519

  6. Application of circuit simulation method for differential modeling of TIM-2 iron uptake and metabolism in mouse kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhijian; Harrison, Scott H; Torti, Suzy V; Torti, Frank M; Han, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Circuit simulation is a powerful methodology to generate differential mathematical models. Due to its highly accurate modeling capability, circuit simulation can be used to investigate interactions between the parts and processes of a cellular system. Circuit simulation has become a core technology for the field of electrical engineering, but its application in biology has not yet been fully realized. As a case study for evaluating the more advanced features of a circuit simulation tool called Advanced Design System (ADS), we collected and modeled laboratory data for iron metabolism in mouse kidney cells for a H ferritin (HFt) receptor, T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-2 (TIM-2). The internal controlling parameters of TIM-2 associated iron metabolism were extracted and the ratios of iron movement among cellular compartments were quantified by ADS. The differential model processed by circuit simulation demonstrated a capability to identify variables and predict outcomes that could not be readily measured by in vitro experiments. For example, an initial rate of uptake of iron-loaded HFt (Fe-HFt) was 2.17 pmol per million cells. TIM-2 binding probability with Fe-HFt was 16.6%. An average of 8.5 min was required for the complex of TIM-2 and Fe-HFt to form an endosome. The endosome containing HFt lasted roughly 2 h. At the end of endocytosis, about 28% HFt remained intact and the rest was degraded. Iron released from degraded HFt was in the labile iron pool (LIP) and stimulated the generation of endogenous HFt for new storage. Both experimental data and the model showed that TIM-2 was not involved in the process of iron export. The extracted internal controlling parameters successfully captured the complexity of TIM-2 pathway and the use of circuit simulation-based modeling across a wider range of cellular systems is the next step for validating the significance and utility of this method.

  7. Haematological and iron-related parameters in male and female athletes according to different metabolic energy demands.

    PubMed

    Milic, Radoje; Martinovic, Jelena; Dopsaj, Milivoj; Dopsaj, Violeta

    2011-03-01

    We investigated the iron-related haematological parameters in both male and female athletes participating in different sporting disciplines necessitating different metabolic energy demands. A total of 873 athletes (514 males, mean age: 22.08 ± 4.95 years and 359 females, mean age: 21.38 ± 3.88 years) were divided according to gender and to the predominant energy system required for participation in sport (aerobic, anaerobic or mixed) and haematological and iron-related parameters were measured. For both male and female athletes, significant differences related to the predominant energy system were found at a general level: male (Wilks' λ = 0.798, F = 3.047, p < 0.001) and female (Wilks' λ = 0.762, F = 2.591, p < 0.001). According to the ferritin cutoff value of 35 μg/L, whole body iron and sTfR significantly differed in all three groups of male and female athletes (p < 0.001). The percentage of hypochromic erythrocytes in male athletes was significantly higher only in those who required an anaerobic energy source (p < 0.001), whilst in the females hypochromic erythrocytes (p < 0.001) and haemoglobin (anaerobic, p = 0.042; mixed, p = 0.006) were significantly different only in anaerobic and mixed energy source athletes. According to the ferritin cutoff value of 22 μg/L, in females, whole body iron, sTfR and hypochromic erythrocytes were significantly higher in all three groups of athletes than those below the aforementioned cutoff value (p < 0.001). We conclude that the predominant energy system required for participation in sport affects haematological parameters. sTfR and body iron proved to be reliable parameters for monitoring the dynamics of iron metabolism and could contribute to successful iron-deficiency prevention.

  8. Depot risperidone-induced adverse metabolic alterations in female rats.

    PubMed

    Horska, Katerina; Ruda-Kucerova, Jana; Karpisek, Michal; Suchy, Pavel; Opatrilova, Radka; Kotolova, Hana

    2017-04-01

    Atypical antipsychotics are associated with adverse metabolic effects including weight gain, increased adiposity, dyslipidaemia, alterations in glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. Increasing evidence suggests that metabolic dysregulation precedes weight gain development. The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in adipokines, hormones and basic serum biochemical parameters induced by chronic treatment with depot risperidone at two doses (20 and 40 mg/kg) in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Dose-dependent metabolic alterations induced by risperidone after 6 weeks of treatment were revealed. Concomitant to weight gain and increased liver weight, an adverse lipid profile with an elevated triglyceride level was observed in the high exposure group, administered a 40 mg/kg dose repeatedly, while the low dose exposure group, administered a 20 mg/kg dose, developed weight gain without alterations in the lipid profile and adipokine levels. An initial peak in leptin serum level after the higher dose was observed in the absence of weight gain. This finding may indicate that the metabolic alterations observed in this study are not consequent to body weight gain. Taken together, these data may support the primary effects of atypical antipsychotics on peripheral tissues.

  9. Relationship between Serum Levels of Body Iron Parameters and Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Ja; Jang, Han Byul; Park, Ji Eun; Park, Kyung-Hee; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Sang Ick; Song, Jihyun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives An increase in serum ferritin and levels of the cleaved soluble form of transferrin receptor (sTfR) are related to several metabolic conditions. We evaluated the relationship between body iron status indicators, including ferritin and sTfR, and insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1350 children in Korea. Anthropometrical parameters; lipid profiles; levels of glucose, insulin, and leptin; and iron status indicators, including sTfR, serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), and transferrin saturation (TS), were analyzed. Results Although serum sTfR levels were significantly higher in boys than in girls (2.20 vs. 2.06 mg/L, p < 0.0001), serum iron and TS were higher in girls than in boys (101.38 vs. 95.77 mg/L, p = 0.027 and 30.15 vs. 28.91%, p = 0.04, respectively). Waist circumference (WC) and leptin were most significantly associated with body iron indicators when adjusted for age and sex. After adjusting for age, sex, and WC, sTfR levels showed the strongest positive association with leptin levels (p = 0.0001). Children in the highest tertile for homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) had higher TIBC (p = 0.0005) and lower serum iron (p = 0.0341), and the lowest TS (p < 0.0001) after adjustment for confounders. Children with higher sTfR were most significantly associated with risk of MetS compared with those lower sTfR (p = 0.0077). Conclusion The associations of serum levels of iron metabolism markers with leptin levels, HOMA-IR, and MetS suggest that iron-related factors may involve insulin resistance and MetS. PMID:25379371

  10. Ethylene glycol induces hyperoxaluria without metabolic acidosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Green, Mike L; Hatch, Marguerite; Freel, Robert W

    2005-09-01

    Ethylene glycol (EG) consumption is commonly employed as an experimental regimen to induce hyperoxaluria in animal models of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. This approach has, however, been criticized because EG overdose induces metabolic acidosis in humans. We tested the hypothesis that EG consumption (0.75% in drinking water for 4 wk) induces metabolic acidosis by comparing arterial blood gases, serum electrolytes, and urinary chemistries in five groups of Sprague-Dawley rats: normal controls (CON), those made hyperoxaluric (HYP) with EG administration, unilaterally nephrectomized controls (UNI), unilaterally nephrectomized rats fed EG (HRF), and a metabolic acidosis (MA) reference group imbibing sweetened drinking water (5% sucrose) containing 0.28 M NH4Cl. Arterial pH, plasma bicarbonate concentrations, anion gap, urinary pH, and the excretion of titratable acid, ammonium, phosphate, citrate, and calcium in HYP rats were not significantly different from CON rats, indicating that metabolic acidosis did not develop in HYP rats with two kidneys. Unilateral nephrectomy alone (UNI group) did not significantly affect arterial pH, plasma bicarbonate, anion gap, or urinary pH compared with CON rats; however, HRF rats exhibited some signs of a nascent acidosis in having an elevated anion gap, higher phosphate excretion, lower urinary pH, and an increase in titratable acid. Frank metabolic acidosis was observed in the MA rats: decreased arterial pH and plasma HCO3(-) concentration with lower urinary pH and citrate excretion with elevated excretion of ammonium, phosphate and, hence, titratable acid. We conclude that metabolic acidosis does not develop in conventional EG treatments but may ensue with renal insufficiency resulting from an oxalate load.

  11. Metabolic reprogramming induced by ketone bodies diminishes pancreatic cancer cachexia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aberrant energy metabolism is a hallmark of cancer. To fulfill the increased energy requirements, tumor cells secrete cytokines/factors inducing muscle and fat degradation in cancer patients, a condition known as cancer cachexia. It accounts for nearly 20% of all cancer-related deaths. However, the mechanistic basis of cancer cachexia and therapies targeting cancer cachexia thus far remain elusive. A ketogenic diet, a high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet that elevates circulating levels of ketone bodies (i.e., acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone), serves as an alternative energy source. It has also been proposed that a ketogenic diet leads to systemic metabolic changes. Keeping in view the significant role of metabolic alterations in cancer, we hypothesized that a ketogenic diet may diminish glycolytic flux in tumor cells to alleviate cachexia syndrome and, hence, may provide an efficient therapeutic strategy. Results We observed reduced glycolytic flux in tumor cells upon treatment with ketone bodies. Ketone bodies also diminished glutamine uptake, overall ATP content, and survival in multiple pancreatic cancer cell lines, while inducing apoptosis. A decrease in levels of c-Myc, a metabolic master regulator, and its recruitment on glycolytic gene promoters, was in part responsible for the metabolic phenotype in tumor cells. Ketone body-induced intracellular metabolomic reprogramming in pancreatic cancer cells also leads to a significantly diminished cachexia in cell line models. Our mouse orthotopic xenograft models further confirmed the effect of a ketogenic diet in diminishing tumor growth and cachexia. Conclusions Thus, our studies demonstrate that the cachectic phenotype is in part due to metabolic alterations in tumor cells, which can be reverted by a ketogenic diet, causing reduced tumor growth and inhibition of muscle and body weight loss. PMID:25228990

  12. Acidosis induces reprogramming of cellular metabolism to mitigate oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A variety of oncogenic and environmental factors alter tumor metabolism to serve the distinct cellular biosynthetic and bioenergetic needs present during oncogenesis. Extracellular acidosis is a common microenvironmental stress in solid tumors, but little is known about its metabolic influence, particularly when present in the absence of hypoxia. In order to characterize the extent of tumor cell metabolic adaptations to acidosis, we employed stable isotope tracers to examine how acidosis impacts glucose, glutamine, and palmitate metabolism in breast cancer cells exposed to extracellular acidosis. Results Acidosis increased both glutaminolysis and fatty acid β-oxidation, which contribute metabolic intermediates to drive the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) and ATP generation. Acidosis also led to a decoupling of glutaminolysis and novel glutathione (GSH) synthesis by repressing GCLC/GCLM expression. We further found that acidosis redirects glucose away from lactate production and towards the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). These changes all serve to increase nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) production and counter the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) present under acidosis. The reduced novel GSH synthesis under acidosis may explain the increased demand for NADPH to recycle existing pools of GSH. Interestingly, acidosis also disconnected novel ribose synthesis from the oxidative PPP, seemingly to reroute PPP metabolites to the TCA cycle. Finally, we found that acidosis activates p53, which contributes to both the enhanced PPP and increased glutaminolysis, at least in part, through the induction of G6PD and GLS2 genes. Conclusions Acidosis alters the cellular metabolism of several major metabolites, which induces a significant degree of metabolic inflexibility. Cells exposed to acidosis largely rely upon mitochondrial metabolism for energy generation to the extent that metabolic intermediates are

  13. Inositol hexa phosphoric acid (phytic acid), a nutraceuticals, attenuates iron-induced oxidative stress and alleviates liver injury in iron overloaded mice.

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, Anwesha; Ojha, Durbadal; Goswami, Debayan; Das, Rashmi; Chandra, Nidhi S; Chatterjee, Tapan K; Chakravarty, Amit; Chakravarty, Sudipa; Chattopadhyay, Debprasad

    2017-03-01

    Inositol hexa phosphoric acid (IP6) or Phytic acid, a natural antioxidant of some leguminous plants, known to act as a protective agent for seed storage in plants by suppressing iron catalyzed oxidative process. Following the same mechanism, we have tested the effect of IP6 on iron overloaded in vitro oxidative stress, and studied it's in vivo hepatoprotective ability in iron-dextran (injection)-induced iron overloaded liver injury in mice (intraperitoneal). Our results showed that IP6 had in vitro iron chelation (IC50 38.4μg/ml) activity, with the inhibition of iron-induced lipid peroxidation (IC50 552μg/ml), and deoxyribose sugar degrading hydroxyl radicals (IC50 448.6μg/ml). Oral administration of IP6 (0-200mg/kg) revealed significant decrease in biochemical markers such as serum iron, total iron binding, serum ferritin and serum enzymes. Histopathology of liver stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Prussian blue showed reduced hepatocellular necrosis, ballooning and inflammation, indicating the restoration of normal cellular integrity. Interestingly, the IP6 was found to down-regulate the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, Interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 in iron overloaded liver tissues. Thus, we provide an insight that IP6, a natural food component, can serve as an iron chelator against iron overload diseases like Thalassemia, and also as a dietary hepatoprotective supplement.

  14. Spectral induced polarization and electrodic potential monitoring of microbially mediated iron sulfide transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Personna, Yves Robert; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Slater, Lee; Yee, Nathan; O'Brien, Michael; Hubbard, Susan

    2008-06-01

    Stimulated sulfate-reduction is a bioremediation technique utilized for the sequestration of heavy metals in the subsurface. We performed laboratory column experiments to investigate the geoelectrical response of iron sulfide transformations by Desulfovibrio vulgaris. Two geoelectrical methods, (1) spectral induced polarization (SIP), and (2) electrodic potential measurements, were investigated. Aqueous geochemistry (sulfate, lactate, sulfide, and acetate), observations of precipitates (identified from electron microscopy as iron sulfide), and electrodic potentials on bisulfide ion (HS-) sensitive silver-silver chloride (Ag-AgCl) electrodes (˜-630 mV) were diagnostic of induced transitions between anaerobic iron sulfide forming conditions and aerobic conditions promoting iron sulfide dissolution. The SIP data showed ˜10 mrad anomalies during iron sulfide mineralization accompanying microbial activity under an anaerobic transition. These anomalies disappeared during iron sulfide dissolution under the subsequent aerobic transition. SIP model parameters based on a Cole-Cole relaxation model of the polarization at the mineral-fluid interface were converted to (1) estimated biomineral surface area to pore volume (Sp), and (2) an equivalent polarizable sphere diameter (d) controlling the relaxation time. The temporal variation in these model parameters is consistent with filling and emptying of pores by iron sulfide biofilms, as the system transitions between anaerobic (pore filling) and aerobic (pore emptying) conditions. The results suggest that combined SIP and electrodic potential measurements might be used to monitor spatiotemporal variability in microbial iron sulfide transformations in the field.

  15. Spectral induced polarization and electrodic potential monitoring of microbially mediated iron sulfide transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, Susan; Personna, Y.R.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L.; Yee, N.; O'Brien, M.; Hubbard, S.

    2008-02-15

    Stimulated sulfate-reduction is a bioremediation technique utilized for the sequestration of heavy metals in the subsurface.We performed laboratory column experiments to investigate the geoelectrical response of iron sulfide transformations by Desulfo vibriovulgaris. Two geoelectrical methods, (1) spectral induced polarization (SIP), and (2) electrodic potential measurements, were investigated. Aqueous geochemistry (sulfate, lactate, sulfide, and acetate), observations of precipitates (identified from electron microscopy as iron sulfide), and electrodic potentials on bisulfide ion (HS) sensitive silver-silver chloride (Ag-AgCl) electrodes (630 mV) were diagnostic of induced transitions between an aerobic iron sulfide forming conditions and aerobic conditions promoting iron sulfide dissolution. The SIP data showed 10m rad anomalies during iron sulfide mineralization accompanying microbial activity under an anaerobic transition. These anomalies disappeared during iron sulfide dissolution under the subsequent aerobic transition. SIP model parameters based on a Cole-Cole relaxation model of the polarization at the mineral-fluid interface were converted to (1) estimated biomineral surface area to pore volume (Sp), and (2) an equivalent polarizable sphere diameter (d) controlling the relaxation time. The temporal variation in these model parameters is consistent with filling and emptying of pores by iron sulfide biofilms, as the system transitions between anaerobic (pore filling) and aerobic (pore emptying) conditions. The results suggest that combined SIP and electrodic potential measurements might be used to monitor spatiotemporal variability in microbial iron sulfide transformations in the field.

  16. Iron induces bimodal population development by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    DePas, William H; Hufnagel, David A; Lee, John S; Blanco, Luz P; Bernstein, Hans C; Fisher, Steve T; James, Garth A; Stewart, Philip S; Chapman, Matthew R

    2013-02-12

    Bacterial biofilm formation is a complex developmental process involving cellular differentiation and the formation of intricate 3D structures. Here we demonstrate that exposure to ferric chloride triggers rugose biofilm formation by the uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain UTI89 and by enteric bacteria Citrobacter koseri and Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium. Two unique and separable cellular populations emerge in iron-triggered, rugose biofilms. Bacteria at the air-biofilm interface express high levels of the biofilm regulator csgD, the cellulose activator adrA, and the curli subunit operon csgBAC. Bacteria in the interior of rugose biofilms express low levels of csgD and undetectable levels of matrix components curli and cellulose. Iron activation of rugose biofilms is linked to oxidative stress. Superoxide generation, either through addition of phenazine methosulfate or by deletion of sodA and sodB, stimulates rugose biofilm formation in the absence of high iron. Additionally, overexpression of Mn-superoxide dismutase, which can mitigate iron-derived reactive oxygen stress, decreases biofilm formation in a WT strain upon iron exposure. Not only does reactive oxygen stress promote rugose biofilm formation, but bacteria in the rugose biofilms display increased resistance to H(2)O(2) toxicity. Altogether, we demonstrate that iron and superoxide stress trigger rugose biofilm formation in UTI89. Rugose biofilm development involves the elaboration of two distinct bacterial populations and increased resistance to oxidative stress.

  17. Curcumin induces apoptosis and protective autophagy in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells through iron chelation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunguang; Ma, Xueyou; Wang, Zhihua; Zeng, Xing; Hu, Zhiquan; Ye, Zhangqun; Shen, Guanxin

    2017-01-01

    Background Curcumin induces apoptosis and autophagy in different cancer cells. Moreover, chemical and biological experiments have evidenced that curcumin is a biologically active iron chelator and induces cytotoxicity through iron chelation. We thus hypothesized that curcumin may induce apoptosis and autophagy in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells through its iron-chelating properties. Materials and methods CRPC cells were loaded with curcumin alone or in combination with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC). Cytotoxicity was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and caspase activity. Autophagy status was analyzed by the detection of autophagosomes and light chain 3-II (LC3-II) using transmission electron microscopy and Western blot. Iron-binding activity of curcumin was assessed by spectrophotometry and MTT assay. The expression levels of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) were examined by Western blot. Results Curcumin induced apoptosis and autophagy in CRPC cells. Combining curcumin with autophagy inhibitors (3-methyladenine [3-MA]) synergized the apoptotic effect of curcumin. Moreover, curcumin bound to FAC at a ratio of ~1:1, as assessed by spectrophotometry and MTT assay. Apoptosis and autophagy induced by curcumin were counteracted by equal amounts of FAC. At apoptosis- and autophagy-inducing concentrations, curcumin enhanced the expression levels of TfR1 and IRP1, indicative of iron deprivation induced by curcumin. Conclusion Together, our results indicate that curcumin induces apoptosis and protective autophagy in CRPC cells, which are at least partially dependent on its iron-chelating properties. PMID:28243065

  18. Ferric Carboxymaltose-Mediated Attenuation of Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in an Iron Deficiency Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Toblli, Jorge Eduardo; Rivas, Carlos; Cao, Gabriel; Giani, Jorge Fernando; Dominici, Fernando Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Since anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC), a complication of anthracycline-based chemotherapies, is thought to involve iron, concerns exist about using iron for anaemia treatment in anthracycline-receiving cancer patients. This study evaluated how intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) modulates the influence of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) and doxorubicin (3–5 mg per kg body weight [BW]) on oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation, and cardiorenal function in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone (SHR-SP) rats. FCM was given as repeated small or single total dose (15 mg iron per kg BW), either concurrent with or three days after doxorubicin. IDA (after dietary iron restriction) induced cardiac and renal oxidative stress (markers included malondialdehyde, catalase, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase), nitrosative stress (inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitrotyrosine), inflammation (tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6), and functional/morphological abnormalities (left ventricle end-diastolic and end-systolic diameter, fractional shortening, density of cardiomyocytes and capillaries, caveolin-1 expression, creatinine clearance, and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) that were aggravated by doxorubicin. Notably, iron treatment with FCM did not exacerbate but attenuated the cardiorenal effects of IDA and doxorubicin independent of the iron dosing regimen. The results of this model suggest that intravenous FCM can be used concomitantly with an anthracycline-based chemotherapy without increasing signs of AIC. PMID:24876963

  19. Lipocalin 2 deficiency dysregulates iron homeostasis and exacerbates endotoxin-induced sepsis.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Gayathri; Aitken, Jesse D; Zhang, Benyue; Carvalho, Frederic A; Chassaing, Benoit; Shashidharamurthy, Rangaiah; Borregaard, Niels; Jones, Dean P; Gewirtz, Andrew T; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2012-08-15

    Various states of inflammation, including sepsis, are associated with hypoferremia, which limits iron availability to pathogens and reduces iron-mediated oxidative stress. Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2; siderocalin, 24p3) plays a central role in iron transport. Accordingly, Lcn2-deficient (Lcn2KO) mice exhibit elevated intracellular labile iron. In this study, we report that LPS induced systemic Lcn2 by 150-fold in wild-type mice at 24 h. Relative to wild-type littermates, Lcn2KO mice were markedly more sensitive to endotoxemia, exhibiting elevated indices of organ damage (transaminasemia, lactate dehydrogenase) and increased mortality. Such exacerbated endotoxemia was associated with substantially increased caspase-3 cleavage and concomitantly elevated immune cell apoptosis. Furthermore, cells from Lcn2KO mice were hyperresponsive to LPS ex vivo, exhibiting elevated cytokine secretion. Additionally, Lcn2KO mice exhibited delayed LPS-induced hypoferremia despite normal hepatic hepcidin expression and displayed decreased levels of the tissue redox state indicators cysteine and glutathione in liver and plasma. Desferroxamine, an iron chelator, significantly protects Lcn2KO mice from LPS-induced toxicity, including mortality, suggesting that Lcn2 may act as an antioxidant in vivo by regulating iron homeostasis. Thus, Lcn2-mediated regulation of labile iron protects the host against sepsis. Its small size and simple structure may make Lcn2 a deployable treatment for sepsis.

  20. Iron metabolism and related genetic diseases: A cleared land, keeping mysteries.

    PubMed

    Brissot, Pierre; Loréal, Olivier

    2016-02-01

    Body iron has a very close relationship with the liver. Physiologically, the liver synthesizes transferrin, in charge of blood iron transport; ceruloplasmin, acting through its ferroxidase activity; and hepcidin, the master regulator of systemic iron. It also stores iron inside ferritin and serves as an iron reservoir, both protecting the cell from free iron toxicity and ensuring iron delivery to the body whenever needed. The liver is first in line for receiving iron from the gut and the spleen, and is, therefore, highly exposed to iron overload when plasma iron is in excess, especially through its high affinity for plasma non-transferrin bound iron. The liver is strongly involved when iron excess is related either to hepcidin deficiency, as in HFE, hemojuvelin, hepcidin, and transferrin receptor 2 related haemochromatosis, or to hepcidin resistance, as in type B ferroportin disease. It is less involved in the usual (type A) form of ferroportin disease which targets primarily the macrophagic system. Hereditary aceruloplasminemia raises important pathophysiological issues in light of its peculiar organ iron distribution.

  1. Abnormal body iron distribution and erythropoiesis in a novel mouse model with inducible gain of iron regulatory protein (IRP)-1 function.

    PubMed

    Casarrubea, D; Viatte, L; Hallas, T; Vasanthakumar, A; Eisenstein, R S; Schümann, K; Hentze, M W; Galy, B

    2013-07-01

    Disorders of iron metabolism account for some of the most common human diseases. Cellular iron homeostasis is maintained by iron regulatory proteins (IRP)-1 and 2 through their binding to cis-regulatory iron-responsive elements (IREs) in target mRNAs. Mouse models with IRP deficiency have yielded valuable insights into iron biology, but the physiological consequences of gain of IRP function in mammalian organisms have remained unexplored. Here, we report the generation of a mouse line allowing conditional expression of a constitutively active IRP1 mutant (IRP1) using Cre/Lox technology. Systemic activation of the IRP1 transgene from the Rosa26 locus yields viable animals with gain of IRE-binding activity in all the organs analyzed. IRP1 activation alters the expression of IRP target genes and is accompanied by iron loading in the same organs. Furthermore, mice display macrocytic erythropenia with decreased hematocrit and hemoglobin levels as well as impaired erythroid differentiation. Thus, inappropriately high IRP1 activity causes disturbed body iron distribution and erythropoiesis. This new mouse model further highlights the importance of appropriate IRP regulation in central organs of iron metabolism. Moreover, it opens novel avenues to study diseases associated with abnormally high IRP1 activity, such as Parkinson's disease or Friedreich's ataxia.

  2. [Quality of life and iron metabolism in patients with anemic syndrome developed on the background of chronic heart failure].

    PubMed

    Ryndina, N; Kravchun, P; Tytova, G

    2013-03-01

    The presence of concomitant anemia in many aspects defines an unfavorable course of chronic heart failure, affects patient's quality of life. Among anemic patients with chronic heart failure prevailed persons with a relative deficiency of iron. Aim of the study - to evaluate the quality of life for patients with anemia on the background of chronic heart failure, using a questionnaire FACT-An, and to analyze the existence and nature of the relations between quality of life and indicators of the iron metabolism, based on the study of transferrin saturation and ferritin. Ferritin concentration was determined by ELISA. Transferrin saturation were determined by the formula. Questionnaire FACT-An was used for assess the quality of life in anemic patients with chronic heart failure. The presence of functional iron deficiency in patients with chronic heart failure and anemic syndrome is accompanied by deterioration of parameters of quality of life mainly due to the scale of physical activity and social functioning.

  3. Hepatoprotective activity of polyherbal formulation (Normeta) in oxidative stress induced by alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron in rats.

    PubMed

    Patere, Shilpa N; Saraf, Madhusudan N; Majumdar, Anuradha S

    2009-09-01

    In recent years, oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of a large number of diseases or disorders which are initiated and/or exacerbated by pro-oxidants such as various drugs including alcohol and food additives. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of oral treatment with polyherbal formulation Normeta (2 ml and 4 ml/kg) on hepatic damage induced by alcohol 10-30% (blood alcohol was maintained at levels between 150 and 350 mg/dl), thermally oxidized oil (polyunsaturated fatty acids) (15% of diet) and carbonyl iron (1.5-2% of diet) for 30 days in rats. In vitro studies with 1, 1-Diphenyl, 2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide and Ferric chloride (Fe(+3) ions) showed that Normeta possesses antioxidant and metal chelating activity. Alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron feeding produced an increase in serum levels of iron, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase and decrease in serum proteins. It was also associated with elevated lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and disruption of antioxidant defence mechanism in liver, decreased body weight and increased liver to body weight ratio. Oral administration of Normeta along with alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron decreased the serum iron, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase levels and increased serum protein levels. The levels of liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were decreased and the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase were increased. Improvement in body weight and liver to body weight ratio was also observed. The effects of Normeta on physico-metabolic parameters were comparable with silymarin. This indicates that Normeta has favourable effect in bringing down the severity of hepatotoxicity.

  4. Mutations in the clathrin-assembly gene Picalm are responsible for the hematopoietic and iron metabolism abnormalities in fit1 mice.

    PubMed

    Klebig, Mitchell L; Wall, Melissa D; Potter, Mark D; Rowe, Erica L; Carpenter, Donald A; Rinchik, Eugene M

    2003-07-08

    Recessive N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced mutations recovered at the fitness-1 (fit1) locus in mouse chromosome 7 cause hematopoietic abnormalities, growth retardation, and shortened life span, with varying severity of the defects in different alleles. Abnormal iron distribution and metabolism and frequent scoliosis have also been associated with an allele of intermediate severity (fit14R). We report that fit14R, as well as the most severe fit15R allele, are nonsense point mutations in the mouse ortholog of the human phosphatidylinositol-binding clathrin assembly protein (PICALM) gene, whose product is involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. A variety of leukemias and lymphomas have been associated with translocations that fuse human PICALM with the putative transcription factor gene AF10. The Picalmfit1-5R and Picalmfit1-4R mutations are splice-donor alterations resulting in transcripts that are less abundant than normal and missing exons 4 and 17, respectively. These exon deletions introduce premature termination codons predicted to truncate the proteins near the N and C termini, respectively. No mutations in the genes encoding Picalm, clathrin, or components of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP2) have been previously described in which the suite of disorders present in the Picalmfit1 mutant mice is apparent. These mutants thus provide unique models for exploring how the endocytic function of mouse Picalm and the transport processes mediated by clathrin and the AP2 complex contribute to normal hematopoiesis, iron metabolism, and growth.

  5. [Biomarkers of iron metabolism and inflammation in patients with chronic heart failure and various types of left ventricular dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Kazymyrko, V K; Kutovyĭ, V V; Ivanyts'ka, L M; Dubkova, A G; Silant'ieva, T S

    2013-09-01

    Study the level of some of the indicators of iron metabolism and inflammatory markers in patients with chronic heart failure due to hypertension and coronary heart disease. The results of the study in systolic and diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle, the varying degrees of severity of heart failure. The level of the studied parameters determined by the severity of heart failure and does not depend on the nature of left ventricular dysfunction.

  6. Differential Role of Ferritins in Iron Metabolism and Virulence of the Plant-Pathogenic Bacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937▿

    PubMed Central

    Boughammoura, Aïda; Matzanke, Berthold F.; Böttger, Lars; Reverchon, Sylvie; Lesuisse, Emmanuel; Expert, Dominique; Franza, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    During infection, the phytopathogenic enterobacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi has to cope with iron-limiting conditions and the production of reactive oxygen species by plant cells. Previous studies have shown that a tight control of the bacterial intracellular iron content is necessary for full virulence. The E. chrysanthemi genome possesses two loci that could be devoted to iron storage: the bfr gene, encoding a heme-containing bacterioferritin, and the ftnA gene, coding for a paradigmatic ferritin. To assess the role of these proteins in the physiology of this pathogen, we constructed ferritin-deficient mutants by reverse genetics. Unlike the bfr mutant, the ftnA mutant had increased sensitivity to iron deficiency and to redox stress conditions. Interestingly, the bfr ftnA mutant displayed an intermediate phenotype for sensitivity to these stresses. Whole-cell analysis by Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that the main iron storage protein is FtnA and that there is an increase in the ferrous iron/ferric iron ratio in the ftnA and bfr ftnA mutants. We found that ftnA gene expression is positively controlled by iron and the transcriptional repressor Fur via the small antisense RNA RyhB. bfr gene expression is induced at the stationary phase of growth. The σS transcriptional factor is necessary for this control. Pathogenicity tests showed that FtnA and the Bfr contribute differentially to the virulence of E. chrysanthemi depending on the host, indicating the importance of a perfect control of iron homeostasis in this bacterial species during infection. PMID:18165304

  7. Black reefs: iron-induced phase shifts on coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Linda Wegley; Barott, Katie L; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Friedlander, Alan M; Nosrat, Bahador; Obura, David; Sala, Enric; Sandin, Stuart A; Smith, Jennifer E; Vermeij, Mark J A; Williams, Gareth J; Willner, Dana; Rohwer, Forest

    2012-03-01

    The Line Islands are calcium carbonate coral reef platforms located in iron-poor regions of the central Pacific. Natural terrestrial run-off of iron is non-existent and aerial deposition is extremely low. However, a number of ship groundings have occurred on these atolls. The reefs surrounding the shipwreck debris are characterized by high benthic cover of turf algae, macroalgae, cyanobacterial mats and corallimorphs, as well as particulate-laden, cloudy water. These sites also have very low coral and crustose coralline algal cover and are call black reefs because of the dark-colored benthic community and reduced clarity of the overlying water column. Here we use a combination of benthic surveys, chemistry, metagenomics and microcosms to investigate if and how shipwrecks initiate and maintain black reefs. Comparative surveys show that the live coral cover was reduced from 40 to 60% to <10% on black reefs on Millennium, Tabuaeran and Kingman. These three sites are relatively large (>0.75 km(2)). The phase shift occurs rapidly; the Kingman black reef formed within 3 years of the ship grounding. Iron concentrations in algae tissue from the Millennium black reef site were six times higher than in algae collected from reference sites. Metagenomic sequencing of the Millennium Atoll black reef-associated microbial community was enriched in iron-associated virulence genes and known pathogens. Microcosm experiments showed that corals were killed by black reef rubble through microbial activity. Together these results demonstrate that shipwrecks and their associated iron pose significant threats to coral reefs in iron-limited regions.

  8. Iron signature in asbestos-induced malignant pleural mesothelioma: A population-based autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Crovella, Sergio; Bianco, Anna Monica; Vuch, Joseph; Zupin, Luisa; Moura, Ronald Rodrigues; Trevisan, Elisa; Schneider, Manuela; Brollo, Alessandro; Nicastro, Enza Maria; Cosenzi, Alessandro; Zabucchi, Giuliano; Borelli, Violetta

    2016-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer with poor prognosis. The development of MPM is frequently linked to inhalation of asbestos fibers. A genetic component of susceptibility to this disease is suggested by the observation that some individuals develop MPM following lower doses of asbestos exposure, whereas others exposed to higher quantities do not seem to be affected. This hypothesis is supported also by frequent reports of MPM familial clustering. Despite the widely recognized role of iron (Fe) in cellular asbestos-induced pulmonary toxicity, the role of the related gene polymorphisms in the etiology of MPM has apparently not been evaluated. Eighty-six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 10 Fe-metabolism genes were examined by exploiting formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded postmortem samples from 77 patients who died due to MPM (designated AEM) and compared with 48 who were exposed to asbestos but from died in old age of cause other than asbestos (designated AENM). All subjects showed objective signs of asbestos exposure. Three SNPs, localized in the ferritin heavy polypeptide, transferrin, and hephaestin genes, whose frequencies were distributed differently in AEM and AENM populations, were identified. For ferritin and transferrin the C/C and the G/G genotypes, respectively, representing intronic polymorphisms, were significantly associated with protection against MPM and need to be considered as possible genetic markers of protection. Similarly, the C/C hephaestin SNP, a missense variation of this multicopper ferroxidase encoding gene, may be related, also functionally, with protection against MPM. In conclusion, it is proposed that three Fe metabolism-associated genes, significantly associated with protection against development of MPM, may serve as protective markers for this aggressive tumor.

  9. Exacerbation of Alcohol-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats by Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Iron Load

    PubMed Central

    Patere, S. N.; Majumdar, A. S.; Saraf, M. N.

    2011-01-01

    The hypothesis that excessive intake of vegetable oil containing polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron load precipitate alcohol-induced liver damage was investigated in a rat model. In order to elucidate the mechanism underlying this synergism, the serum levels of iron, total protein, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase in liver of rats treated with alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron per se and in combination were examined. Alcohol was fed to the rats at a level of 10-30% (blood alcohol was maintained between 150-350 mg/dl by using head space gas chromatography), polyunsaturated fatty acids at a level of 15% of diet and carbonyl iron 1.5-2% of diet per se and in combination to different groups for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, which was elevated and serum total protein, which was decreased significantly in rats fed with a combination of alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron. It was also associated with increased lipid peroxidation and disruption of antioxidant defense in combination fed rats as compared to rats fed with alcohol or polyunsaturated fatty acids or iron. The present study revealed significant exacerbation of the alcohol-induced oxidative stress in presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron. PMID:22303057

  10. Modulation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation by chronic iron overload in rat.

    PubMed

    Lê, Bá Vuong; Khorsi-Cauet, Hafida; Bach, Véronique; Gay-Quéheillard, Jérôme

    2012-03-01

    Iron constitutes a critical nutrient source for bacterial growth, so iron overload is a risk factor for bacterial infections. This study aimed at investigating the role of iron overload in modulating bacterial endotoxin-induced lung inflammation. Weaning male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with saline or iron sucrose [15 mg kg(-1) body weight (bw), 3 times per week, 4 weeks]. They were then intratracheally injected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (5 μg kg(-1) bw) or saline. Inflammatory indices were evaluated 4 or 18 h post-LPS/saline injection. At 4 h, LPS-treated groups revealed significant increases in the majority of inflammatory parameters (LPS-binding protein (LBP), immune cell recruitment, inflammatory cytokine synthesis, myeloperoxidase activity, and alteration of alveolar-capillary permeability), as compared with control groups. At 18 h, these parameters reduced strongly with the exception for LBP content and interleukin (IL)-10. In parallel, iron acted as a modulator of immune cell recruitment; LBP, tumor necrosis factor-α, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 3, and IL-10 synthesis; and alveolar-capillary permeability. Therefore, P. aeruginosa LPS may only act as an acute lung inflammatory molecule, and iron overload may modulate lung inflammation by enhancing different inflammatory parameters. Thus, therapy for iron overload may be a novel and efficacious approach for the prevention and treatment of bacterial lung inflammations.

  11. Acute Ozone-Induced Pulmonary and Systemic Metabolic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Acute ozone exposure increases circulating stress hormones and induces metabolic alterations in animals and humans. We hypothesized that the increase of adrenal-derived stress hormones is necessary for both ozone-induced metabolic effects and lung injury. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats underwent adrenal demedullation (DEMED), total bilateral adrenalectomy (ADREX), or sham surgery (SHAM). After a 4 day recovery, rats were exposed to air or ozone (1ppm), 4h/day for 1 or 2 days. Circulating adrenaline levels dropped to nearly zero in DEMED and ADREX rats relative to air-exposed SHAM. Corticosterone levels tended to be low in DEMED rats and dropped to nearly zero in ADREX rats. Adrenalectomy in air-exposed rats caused modest changes in metabolites and lung toxicity parameters. Ozone-induced hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance were markedly attenuated in DEMED rats with nearly complete reversal in ADREX rats. Ozone increased circulating epinephrine and corticosterone in SHAM but not in DEMED or ADREX rats. Free fatty acids (p=0.15) and branched-chain amino acids increased after ozone exposure in SHAM but not in DEMED or ADREX rats. Lung minute volume was not affected by surgery or ozone but ozone-induced labored breathing was less pronounced in ADREX rats. Ozone-induced increases in lung protein leakage and neutrophilic inflammation were markedly reduced in DEMED and ADREX rats (ADREX>DMED). Ozone-mediated decreases in circulating white blood cells in SHAM were not obser

  12. Acute Ozone-Induced Pulmonary and Systemic Metabolic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Acute ozone exposure increases circulating stress hormones and induces peripheral metabolic alterations in animals and humans. We hypothesized that the increase of adrenal-derived stress hormones is necessary for ozone-induced systemic metabolic effects and lung injury. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats (12 week-old) underwent total bilateral adrenalectomy (ADREX), adrenal demedullation (DEMED) or sham surgery (SHEM). After 4 day recovery, rats were exposed to air or ozone (1ppm), 4h/day for 1 or 2 days. Circulating adrenaline levels dropped to nearly zero in DEMED and ADREX rats relative to air-exposed SHAM. Corticosterone levels tended to be low in DEMED rats and dropped to nearly zero in ADREX rats. Adrenalectomy in air-exposed rats caused modest changes in metabolites and lung toxicity parameters. Ozone-induced hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance were markedly attenuated in DEMED with nearly complete reversal in ADREX rats. Ozone increased circulating epinephrine and corticosterone in SHAM but not in DEMED or ADREX rats. Free fatty acids and branched-chain amino acids tended to increase after ozone exposure in SHAM but not in DEMED or ADREX rats. Lung minute volume was not affected by surgery or ozone but ozone-induced labored breathing was less pronounced in ADREX rats. Ozone-induced increases in lung protein leakage and neutrophilic inflammation were markedly reduced in DEMED and ADREX rats (ADREX>DMED). Ozone-mediated decrease in circulating WBC in SHAM was not

  13. EPO-dependent induction of erythroferrone drives hepcidin suppression and systematic iron absorption under phenylhydrazine-induced hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xingkang; Gao, Ming; Chen, Yue; Liu, Jing; Qi, Shiyong; Ma, Juan; Zhang, Zhihong; Xu, Yong

    2016-05-01

    Hemolytic anemia is a common form of anemia due to hemolysis, resulting in disordered iron homeostasis. In this study, a dose of 40mg/kg phenylhydrazine (PHZ) was injected into mice to successfully establish a pronounced anemia animal model, which resulted in stress erythropoiesis and iron absorption. We found that serum erythropoietin (EPO) concentration was dramatically elevated by nearly 5000-fold for the first 2days, and then drop to the basal level on day 6 after PHZ injection. Mirrored with serum EPO concentration, the mRNA expression of erythroferrone (ERFE) was rapidly increased in the bone marrow and spleen 3days after injection of PHZ, and then gradually decreased but was still higher than baseline on day 6. In addition, we also found that the hepcidin mRNA levels were gradually reduced almost up to 8-fold on day 5, and then was ameliorated compared to the untreated control. Mechanistic investigation manifested that the increase of serum EPO essentially determined the induction of ERFE expression particular at the first 3days after PHZ treatment. Lentiviral mediated ERFE knockdown significantly restrained hepcidin suppression under PHZ treatment. Thus, our data unearthed EPO-dependent ERFE expression acts as an erythropoiesis-driven regulator of iron metabolism under PHZ-induced hemolytic anemia.

  14. Dual-Action Inhibitors of HIF Prolyl Hydroxylases That Induce Binding of a Second Iron Ion

    PubMed Central

    Thalhammer, Armin; Demetriades, Marina; Chowdhury, Rasheduzzaman; Tian, Ya-Min; Stolze, Ineke; McNeill, Luke A.; Lee, Myung Kyu; Woon, Esther C. Y.; Mackeen, Mukram M.; Kawamura, Akane; Ratcliffe, Peter J.; Mecinović, Jasmin; Schofield, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl-hydroxylases (PHD or EGLN enzymes) is of interest for the treatment of anemia and ischemia-related diseases. Most PHD inhibitors work by binding to the single ferrous ion and competing with 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) co-substrate for binding at the PHD active site. Non-specific iron chelators also inhibit the PHDs, both in vitro and in cells. We report the identification of dual action PHD inhibitors, which bind to the active site iron and also induce the binding of a second iron ion at the active site. Following analysis of small-molecule iron complexes and application of non-denaturing protein mass spectrometry to assess PHD2·iron·inhibitor stoichimetry, selected diacylhydrazines were identified as PHD2 inhibitors that induce the binding of a second iron ion. Some compounds were shown to inhibit the HIF hydroxylases in human hepatoma and renal carcinoma cell lines. PMID:23151668

  15. Iron and cancer: more ore to be mined

    PubMed Central

    Torti, Suzy V.; Torti, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient that facilitates cell proliferation and growth. However, iron also has the capacity to engage in redox cycling and free radical formation. Therefore, iron can contribute to both tumour initiation and tumour growth; recent work has also shown that iron has a role in the tumour microenvironment and in metastasis. Pathways of iron acquisition, efflux, storage and regulation are all perturbed in cancer, suggesting that reprogramming of iron metabolism is a central aspect of tumour cell survival. Signalling through hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and WNT pathways may contribute to altered iron metabolism in cancer. Targeting iron metabolic pathways may provide new tools for cancer prognosis and therapy. PMID:23594855

  16. Stereoselective propranolol metabolism in two drug induced rat hepatic microsomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Zeng, Su

    2000-02-01

    AIM:To study the influence of inducers BNF and PB on the stereoselective metabolism of propranolol in rat hepatic microsomes.METHODS:Phase I metabolism of propranolol was studied by using the microsomes induced by BNF and PB and the non induced microsome as the control.The enzymatic kinetic parameters of propranolol enantiomers were calculated by regression analysis of Lineweaver-Burk plots. Propranolol concentrations were assayed by HPLC.RESULTS:A RP-HPLC method was developed to determine propranolol concentration in rat hepatic microsomes. The linearity equations for R(+)propranolol and S(-) propranolol were A = 705.7C+311.2C (R = 0.9987) and a = 697.2C+311.4C (R = 0.9970) respectively. Recoveries of each enantiomer were 98.9%, 99.5%, 101.0% at 60&mgr;mol/L, 120&mgr;mol/L, 240&mgr;mol/L respectively. At the concentration level of 120&mgr;mol/L, propranolol enantiomers were metabolized at different rates in different microsomes. The concentration ratio R(+)/S(-) of control and PB induced microsomes increased with time, whereas that of microsome induced by BNF decreased. The assayed enzyme parameters were: 1. Km. Control group: R(+)30 plus minus 8, S(-)18 plus minus 5; BNF group: R(+)34 plus minus 3, S(-)39 plus minus 7; PB group: R(+)38 plus minus 17, S(-)36 plus minus 10. 2. Vmax. Control group: R(+)1.5 plus minus 0.2, S(-)2.9 plus minus 0.3; BNF group: R(+)3.8 plus minus 0.3, S(-)3.3 plus minus 0.5; PB group: R(+)0.07 plus minus 0.03, S(-)1.94 plus minus 0.07. 3. Clint. Control group: R(+)60 plus minus 3, S(-)170 plus minus 30; BNF group: R(+)111.0 plus minus 1, S(-) 84 plus minus 5; PB group: R(+)2.0 plus minus 2, S(-)56.0 plus minus 1. The enzyme parameters compared with unpaired t tests showed that no stereoselectivity was observed in enzymatic affinity of three microsomes to enantiomers and their catalytic abilities were quite different and had stereoselectivities.Compared with the control, microsome induced by BNF enhanced enzyme activity to propranolol R

  17. Athletic induced iron deficiency: new insights into the role of inflammation, cytokines and hormones.

    PubMed

    Peeling, Peter; Dawson, Brian; Goodman, Carmel; Landers, Grant; Trinder, Debbie

    2008-07-01

    Iron is utilised by the body for oxygen transport and energy production, and is therefore essential to athletic performance. Commonly, athletes are diagnosed as iron deficient, however, contrasting evidence exists as to the severity of deficiency and the effect on performance. Iron losses can result from a host of mechanisms during exercise such as hemolysis, hematuria, sweating and gastrointestinal bleeding. Additionally, recent research investigating the anemia of inflammation during states of chronic disease has allowed us to draw some comparisons between unhealthy populations and athletes. The acute-phase response is a well-recognised reaction to both exercise and disease. Elevated cytokine levels from such a response have been shown to increase the liver production of the hormone Hepcidin. Hepcidin up-regulation has a negative impact on the iron transport and absorption channels within the body, and may explain a potential new mechanism behind iron deficiency in athletes. This review will attempt to explore the current literature that exits in this new area of iron metabolism and exercise.

  18. Brain Hyperglycemia Induced by Heroin: Association with Metabolic Neural Activation.

    PubMed

    Solis, Ernesto; Bola, R Aaron; Fasulo, Bradley J; Kiyatkin, Eugene A

    2017-02-15

    Glucose enters the brain extracellular space from arterial blood, and its proper delivery is essential for metabolic activity of brain cells. By using enzyme-based biosensors coupled with high-speed amperometry in freely moving rats, we previously showed that glucose levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) display high variability, increasing rapidly following exposure to various arousing stimuli. In this study, the same technology was used to assess NAc glucose fluctuations induced by intravenous heroin. Heroin passively injected at a low dose optimal for maintaining self-administration behavior (100 μg/kg) induces a rapid but moderate glucose rise (∼150-200 μM or ∼15-25% over resting baseline). When the heroin dose was doubled and tripled, the increase became progressively larger in magnitude and longer in duration. Heroin-induced glucose increases also occurred in other brain structures (medial thalamus, lateral striatum, hippocampus), suggesting that brain hyperglycemia is a whole-brain phenomenon but changes were notably distinct in each structure. While local vasodilation appears to be the possible mechanism underlying the rapid rise in extracellular glucose levels, the driving factor for this vasodilation (central vs peripheral) remains to be clarified. The heroin-induced NAc glucose increases positively correlated with increases in intracerebral heat production determined in separate experiments using multisite temperature recordings (NAc, temporal muscle and skin). However, glucose levels rise very rapidly, preceding much slower increases in brain heat production, a measure of metabolic activation associated with glucose consumption.

  19. Diet-induced iron deficiency anemia and pregnancy outcome in rhesus monkeys12

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Mari S; Hogrefe, Casey E; Tarantal, Alice F; Germann, Stacey L; Beard, John L; Georgieff, Michael K; Calatroni, Agustin; Lozoff, Betsy

    2006-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is relatively common in the third trimester of pregnancy, but causal associations with low birth weight and compromised neonatal iron status are difficult to establish in human populations. Objective The objective was to determine the effects of diet-induced IDA on intrauterine growth and neonatal iron status in an appropriate animal model for third-trimester IDA in women. Design Hematologic and iron-status measures, pregnancy outcomes, and fetal and neonatal evaluations were compared between pregnant rhesus monkeys (n = 14) fed a diet containing 10 μg Fe/g diet from the time of pregnancy detection (gestation days 28–30) and controls (n = 24) fed 100 μg Fe/g diet. Results By the third trimester, 79% of the iron-deprived dams and 29% of the control monkeys had a hemoglobin concentration <11 g/dL. There were also significant group differences in hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, transferrin saturation, serum ferritin, and serum iron. At birth, the newborns of monkeys iron-deprived during pregnancy had significantly lower hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin values and a lower ratio of erythroid to total colony-forming units in bone marrow than did the control newborns. Pregnancy weight gain did not differ significantly between the iron-deprived and control dams, and the fetuses and newborns of the iron-deprived dams were not growth retarded relative to the controls. Gestation length, the number of stillbirths, and neonatal neurobehavioral test scores did not differ significantly by diet group. Conclusion These data indicate that an inadequate intake of iron from the diet during pregnancy in rhesus monkeys can lead to compromised hematologic status of the neonate without indications of growth retardation or impaired neurologic function at birth. PMID:16522913

  20. Wound-Induced Metabolism in Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Tubers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei-Li

    2006-01-01

    Suberin, a cell specific, wall-associated biopolymer, is formed during normal plant growth and development as well as in response to stress conditions such as wounding. It is characterized by the deposition of both a poly(phenolic) domain (SPPD) in the cell wall and a poly(aliphatic) domain (SPAD) thought to be deposited between the cell wall and plasma membrane. Although the monomeric components that comprise the SPPD and SPAD are well known, the biosynthesis and deposition of suberin is poorly understood. Using wound healing potato tubers as a model system, we have tracked the flux of carbon into the aliphatic monomers of the SPAD in a time course fashion. From these analyses, we demonstrate that newly formed fatty acids undergo one of two main metabolic fates during wound-induced suberization: (1) desaturation followed by oxidation to form the 18:1 ω-hydroxy and dioic acids characteristic of potato suberin, and (2) elongation to very long chain fatty acids (C20 to C28), associated with reduction to 1-alkanols, decarboxylation to n-alkanes and minor amounts of hydroxylation. The partitioning of carbon between these two metabolic fates illustrates metabolic regulation during wound healing, and provides insight into the organization of fatty acid metabolism. PMID:19521477

  1. Assessment of the extent of oxidative stress induced by intravenous ferumoxytol, ferric carboxymaltose, iron sucrose and iron dextran in a nonclinical model.

    PubMed

    Toblli, Jorge E; Cao, Gabriel; Oliveri, Leda; Angerosa, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    Intravenous (i.v.) iron is associated with a risk of oxidative stress. The effects of ferumoxytol, a recently approved i.v. iron preparation, were compared with those of ferric carboxymaltose, low molecular weight iron dextran and iron sucrose in the liver, kidneys and heart of normal rats. In contrast to iron sucrose and ferric carboxymaltose, low molecular weight iron dextran and ferumoxytol caused renal and hepatic damage as demonstrated by proteinuria and increased liver enzyme levels. Higher levels of oxidative stress in these tissues were also indicated, by significantly higher levels of malondialdehyde, significantly increased antioxidant enzyme activities, and a significant reduction in the reduced to oxidized glutathione ratio. Inflammatory markers were also significantly higher with ferumoxytol and low molecular weight iron dextran rats than iron sucrose and ferric carboxymaltose. Polarographic analysis suggested that ferumoxytol contains a component with a more positive reduction potential, which may facilitate iron-catalyzed formation of reactive oxygen species and thus be responsible for the observed effects. Only low molecular weight iron dextran induced oxidative stress and inflammation in the heart.

  2. The nature of heme/iron-induced protein tyrosine nitration

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Ka; Gao, Zhonghong; Weisbrodt, Norman; Murad, Ferid

    2003-01-01

    Recently, substantial evidence has emerged that revealed a very close association between the formation of nitrotyrosine and the presence of activated granulocytes containing peroxidases, such as myeloperoxidase. Peroxidases share heme-containing homology and can use H2O2 to oxidize substrates. Heme is a complex of iron with protoporphyrin IX, and the iron-containing structure of heme has been shown to be an oxidant in several model systems where the prooxidant effects of free iron, heme, and hemoproteins may be attributed to the formation of hypervalent states of the heme iron. In the current study, we have tested the hypothesis that free heme and iron play a crucial role in NO2-Tyr formation. The data from our study indicate that: (i) heme/iron catalyzes nitration of tyrosine residues by using hydrogen peroxide and nitrite, a reaction that revealed the mechanism underlying the protein nitration by peroxidase, H2O2, and NO\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{_{2}^{-}}}\\end{equation*}\\end{document}; (ii) H2O2 plays a key role in the protein oxidation that forms the basis for the protein nitration, whereas nitrite is an essential element that facilitates nitration by the heme(Fe), H2O2, and the NO\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{_{2}^{-}}}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} system; (iii) the formation of a Fe(IV) hypervalent compound may be essential for heme(Fe)-catalyzed nitration, whereas O\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage

  3. Comparison of the prophylactic effect of silymarin and deferoxamine on iron overload-induced hepatotoxicity in rat.

    PubMed

    Najafzadeh, Hossein; Jalali, Mohammad Razi; Morovvati, Hassan; Taravati, Farnaz

    2010-03-01

    In pathologic conditions or poisoning states, iron overload can affect different tissues including liver. In this study, the prophylactic effect of deferoxamine and silymarin was compared in decreasing experimental iron-overload-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The study was done in six groups of rats, which received drugs q2 days for 2 weeks. The rats in groups 1 to 6 received drugs, respectively: normal saline, iron dextran, iron dextran + deferoxamine (intraperitoneally), iron dextran + silymarin (orally), iron dextran + silymarin (intraperitoneally), and iron dextran + deferoxamine (intraperitoneally) + silymarin (intraperitoneally). At the end of the study, blood was collected, and serum was separated for laboratory tests. The liver of rats was separated for iron measuring and tissue processing. The serum iron concentration and the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity were determined. The numbers of necrotic hepatocytes were counted as quantity index tissue injury in light microscopic examination. The mean of serum and liver iron in group 2 was significantly greater than group 1. Liver iron was significantly decreased in other groups except group 4. Also serum iron was decreased in groups 3 to 6 compared to group 2 (nearly 400%). ALT activity in group 3 and AST activity in group 5 were significantly lesser than in other groups. The mean of necrotic hepatocytes in group 2 was significantly increased in comparison to group 1. This elevation was significantly prevented by deferoxamine and silymarin. The result of the present study shows that silymarin has a protective effect similar to deferoxamine on iron overload-induced hepatotoxicity.

  4. Bicarbonate blocks iron translocation from cotyledons inducing iron stress responses in Citrus roots.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Legaz, Francisco; Forner-Giner, M Ángeles; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Iglesias, Domingo J

    2013-07-01

    The effect of bicarbonate ion (HCO3(-)) on the mobilization of iron (Fe) reserves from cotyledons to roots during early growth of citrus seedlings and its influence on the components of the iron acquisition system were studied. Monoembryonic seeds of Citrus limon (L.) were germinated "in vitro" on two iron-deprived media, supplemented or not with 10mM HCO3(-) (-Fe+Bic and -Fe, respectively). After 21d of culture, Fe concentration in seedling organs was measured, as well as gene expression and enzymatic activities. Finally, the effect of Fe resupply on the above responses was tested in the presence and absence of HCO3(-) (+Fe+Bic or +Fe, respectively). -Fe+Bic seedlings exhibited lower Fe concentration in shoots and roots than -Fe ones but higher in cotyledons, associated to a significative inhibition of NRAMP3 expression. HCO3(-) upregulated Strategy I related genes (FRO1, FRO2, HA1 and IRT1) and FC-R and H(+)-ATPase activities in roots of Fe-starved seedlings. PEPC1 expression and PEPCase activity were also increased. When -Fe+Bic pre-treated seedlings were transferred to Fe-containing media for 15d, Fe content in shoots and roots increased, although to a lower extent in the +Fe+Bic medium. Consequently, the above-described root responses became markedly repressed, however, this effect was less pronounced in +Fe+Bic seedlings. In conclusion, it appears that HCO3(-) prevents Fe translocation from cotyledons to shoot and root, therefore reducing their Fe levels. This triggers Fe-stress responses in the root, enhancing the expression of genes related with Fe uptake and the corresponding enzymatic activities.

  5. Artificial sweeteners produce the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements.

    PubMed

    Swithers, Susan E

    2013-09-01

    The negative impact of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages on weight and other health outcomes has been increasingly recognized; therefore, many people have turned to high-intensity sweeteners like aspartame, sucralose, and saccharin as a way to reduce the risk of these consequences. However, accumulating evidence suggests that frequent consumers of these sugar substitutes may also be at increased risk of excessive weight gain, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This paper discusses these findings and considers the hypothesis that consuming sweet-tasting but noncaloric or reduced-calorie food and beverages interferes with learned responses that normally contribute to glucose and energy homeostasis. Because of this interference, frequent consumption of high-intensity sweeteners may have the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements.

  6. Fumarate induces redox-dependent senescence by modifying glutathione metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Liang; Cardaci, Simone; Jerby, Livnat; MacKenzie, Elaine D; Sciacovelli, Marco; Johnson, T Isaac; Gaude, Edoardo; King, Ayala; Leach, Joshua D G; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Hedley, Ann; Morrice, Nicholas A; Kalna, Gabriela; Blyth, Karen; Ruppin, Eytan; Frezza, Christian; Gottlieb, Eyal

    2015-01-23

    Mutations in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH) are associated with a highly malignant form of renal cancer. We combined analytical chemistry and metabolic computational modelling to investigate the metabolic implications of FH loss in immortalized and primary mouse kidney cells. Here, we show that the accumulation of fumarate caused by the inactivation of FH leads to oxidative stress that is mediated by the formation of succinicGSH, a covalent adduct between fumarate and glutathione. Chronic succination of GSH, caused by the loss of FH, or by exogenous fumarate, leads to persistent oxidative stress and cellular senescence in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, the ablation of p21, a key mediator of senescence, in Fh1-deficient mice resulted in the transformation of benign renal cysts into a hyperplastic lesion, suggesting that fumarate-induced senescence needs to be bypassed for the initiation of renal cancers.

  7. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome: Improving outcome with lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Westerink, N L; Nuver, J; Lefrandt, J D; Vrieling, A H; Gietema, J A; Walenkamp, A M E

    2016-12-01

    Increasing numbers of long-term cancer survivors face important treatment related adverse effects. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome (CTIMetS) is an especially prevalent and harmful condition. The aetiology of CTIMetS likely differs from metabolic syndrome in the general population, but effective treatment and prevention methods are probably similar. In this review, we summarize the potential mechanisms leading to the development of CTIMetS after various types of cancer treatment. Furthermore, we propose a safe and accessible method to treat or prevent CTIMetS through lifestyle change. In particular, we suggest that a lifestyle intervention and optimization of energy balance can prevent or mitigate the development of CTIMetS, which may contribute to optimal survivorship care.

  8. Artificial sweeteners produce the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements

    PubMed Central

    Swithers, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    The negative impact of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages on weight and other health outcomes has been increasingly recognized; therefore, many people have turned to high-intensity sweeteners like aspartame, sucralose, and saccharin as a way to reduce the risk of these consequences. However, accumulating evidence suggests that frequent consumers of these sugar substitutes may also be at increased risk of excessive weight gain, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This paper discusses these findings and considers the hypothesis that consuming sweet-tasting but noncaloric or reduced-calorie food and beverages interferes with learned responses that normally contribute to glucose and energy homeostasis. Because of this interference, frequent consumption of high-intensity sweeteners may have the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements. PMID:23850261

  9. Iron dextran treatment does not induce serum protein carbonyls in the newborn pig.

    PubMed

    Caperna, T J; Shannon, A E; Blomberg, L A; Garrett, W M; Ramsay, T G

    2012-01-01

    Oxidation of serum proteins can lead to carbonyl formation that alters their function and is often associated with stress-related diseases. As it is recommended that all pigs reared in modern production facilities be given supplemental iron at birth to prevent anemia, and metals can catalyze the carbonylation of proteins, the primary objective of this study was to determine whether standard iron dextran treatment was associated with enhanced serum protein oxidation in newborn piglets. Piglets were treated with 100 mg of iron dextran intramuscularly either on the day of birth, or on the third day after birth. Blood samples were collected from piglets 48 or 96 h after treatment and serum was harvested. For quantification, serum protein carbonyls were converted to hydrazones with dinitrophenyl hydrazine and analyzed spectrophotometrically. To identify and determine relative distribution of carbonylated proteins, serum protein carbonyls were derivatized with biotin hydrazide, separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, stained with avidin-fluorescein and identified by mass spectrometry. The standard iron dextran treatment was associated with no increase in total oxidized proteins if given either on the first or third day of life. In addition, with a few noted exceptions, the overall distribution and identification of oxidized proteins were similar between control and iron dextran-treated pigs. These results indicate that while iron dextran treatment is associated with a marked increase in circulating iron, it does not appear to specifically induce the oxidation of serum proteins.

  10. Relation between iron metabolism and antioxidants enzymes and δ-ALA-D activity in rats experimentally infected by Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Nathieli B; Mendes, Ricardo E; Baldissera, Matheus D; Bochi, Guilherme V; Moresco, Rafael N; Leal, Marta L R; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria R C; Christ, Ricardo; Gheller, Larissa; Marques, Éder J; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the iron metabolism in serum, as well as antioxidant enzymes, in addition to the Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activity in the liver of rats experimentally infected by Fasciola hepatica. Thirty male adult rats (Wistar) specific pathogen free were divided into four groups: two uninfected group (CTRL 1 and CTRL 2) with five animals each and two infected groups (INF 1 and INF 2) with 10 animals each. Infection was performed orally with 20 metacercariae at day 1. On day 15 (CTRL 1 and INF 1 groups) and 87 PI (CTRL 2 and INF 2 groups) blood and bone marrow were collected and the animals were subsequently euthanized for liver sampling. Blood was allocated in tubes without anticoagulant for serum acquisition to measure iron, transferrin and unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC). δ-ALA-D, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities were measured in the liver. A decrease in iron, transferrin and UIBC levels was observed in all infected animals compared to control groups (P < 0.05). Furthermore, iron accumulation was observed in bone marrow of infected mice. Infected animals showed an increase in δ-ALA-D activity at 87 post-infection (PI) (INF 2) as well as in SOD activity at days 15 (INF 1) and 87 PI (INF 2). On the other hand, CAT activity was reduced in rats infected by F. hepatica during acute and chronic phase of fasciolosis (INF 1 and INF 2 groups), when moderate (acute) and severe necrosis in the liver histopathology were observed. These results may suggest that oxidative damage to tissues along with antioxidant mechanisms might have taken part in fasciolosis pathogenesis and are also involved in iron deficiency associated to changes in δ-ALA-D activity during chronic phase of disease.

  11. Induced Disruption of the Iron-Regulatory Hormone Hepcidin Inhibits Acute Inflammatory Hypoferraemia

    PubMed Central

    Armitage, Andrew E.; Lim, Pei Jin; Frost, Joe N.; Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Soilleux, Elizabeth J.; Evans, Emma; Morovat, Alireza; Santos, Ana; Diaz, Rebeca; Biggs, Daniel; Davies, Benjamin; Gileadi, Uzi; Robbins, Peter A.; Lakhal-Littleton, Samira; Drakesmith, Hal

    2016-01-01

    Withdrawal of iron from serum (hypoferraemia) is a conserved innate immune antimicrobial strategy that can withhold this critical nutrient from invading pathogens, impairing their growth. Hepcidin (Hamp1) is the master regulator of iron and its expression is induced by inflammation. Mice lacking Hamp1 from birth rapidly accumulate iron and are susceptible to infection by blood-dwelling siderophilic bacteria such as Vibrio vulnificus. In order to study the innate immune role of hepcidin against a background of normal iron status, we developed a transgenic mouse model of tamoxifen-sensitive conditional Hamp1 deletion (termed iHamp1-KO mice). These mice attain adulthood with an iron status indistinguishable from littermate controls. Hamp1 disruption and the consequent decline of serum hepcidin concentrations occurred within hours of a single tamoxifen dose. We found that the TLR ligands LPS and Pam3CSK4 and heat-killed Brucella abortus caused an equivalent induction of inflammation in control and iHamp1-KO mice. Pam3CSK4 and B. abortus only caused a drop in serum iron in control mice, while hypoferraemia due to LPS was evident but substantially blunted in iHamp1-KO mice. Our results characterise a powerful new model of rapidly inducible hepcidin disruption, and demonstrate the critical contribution of hepcidin to the hypoferraemia of inflammation. PMID:27423740

  12. Increased iron deposition in rat liver fibrosis induced by a high-dose injection of dimethylnitrosamine.

    PubMed

    Guo, Limei; Enzan, Hideaki; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Miyazaki, Eriko; Jin, Yulan; Toi, Makoto; Kuroda, Naoto; Hiroi, Makoto

    2006-12-01

    Using a developed rat model of hepatic necrosis and subsequent fibrosis induced by a high-dose intraperitoneal injection of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), we studied iron deposition and expression of transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) during the development of persistent liver fibrosis. Rats were sacrificed at several timepoints from 6 h to 10 months post-injection and the livers were examined for iron content and distribution, and for expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, ED-1, TGF-beta(1), and collagen (alpha(2))I. Morphologic evidence of acute submassive hemorrhagic necrosis peaked at 36 h; on day 3 the residual parenchyma contained activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and necrotic areas contained numerous macrophages; and on day 5, necrotic tissues and erythrocytes had been phagocytosed and macrophages contained abundant iron deposits. From days 7 to 10, iron-laden macrophages and activated HSCs (myofibroblasts) populated the fibrous septa in parallel. From week 2 to month 10, closely arranged macrophages and myofibroblasts were found in central-to-central bridging fibrotic tissue. TGF-beta(1) was strongly detected in both macrophages and HSCs during development of liver fibrosis. Our data suggest that increased iron deposition may be involved in the initiation and perpetuation of rat liver fibrosis. Iron-laden macrophages may influence HSCs through the action of TGF-beta(1) in DMN-induced liver fibrosis.

  13. Modelling irradiation-induced softening in BCC iron by crystal plasticity approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xiazi; Terentyev, Dmitry; Yu, Long; Song, Dingkun; Bakaev, A.; Duan, Huiling

    2015-11-01

    Crystal plasticity model (CPM) for BCC iron to account for radiation-induced strain softening is proposed. CPM is based on the plastically-driven and thermally-activated removal of dislocation loops. Atomistic simulations are applied to parameterize dislocation-defect interactions. Combining experimental microstructures, defect-hardening/absorption rules from atomistic simulations, and CPM fitted to properties of non-irradiated iron, the model achieves a good agreement with experimental data regarding radiation-induced strain softening and flow stress increase under neutron irradiation.

  14. Friction-induced surface activity of some hydrocarbons with clean and oxide-covered iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    Sliding friction studies were conducted on a clean and oxide-covered iron surface with exposure of that surface to various hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbons included ethane, ethylene ethyl chloride, methyl chloride, and vinyl chloride. Auger cylindrical mirror analysis was used to follow interactions of the hydrocarbon with the iron surface. Results with vinyl chloride indicate friction induced surface reactivity, adsorption to surface oxides, friction sensitivity to concentration and polymerization. Variation in the loads employed influence adsorption and accordingly friction. In contrast with ethyl and vinyl chloride, friction induced surface reactivity was not observed with ethane and ethylene.

  15. Friction induced surface activity of some simple organic chlorides and hydrocarbons with iron.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    Sliding friction studies were conducted on an iron surface with exposure of that surface to various hydrocarbons and organic chlorides. The hydrocarbons included ethane, ethylene, ethyl chloride, methyl chloride and vinyl chloride. Auger cylindrical-mirror analysis was used to follow interactions of the hydrocarbon and organic chlorides with the iron surface. Results with vinyl chloride indicate friction-induced surface reactivity, adsorption to surface oxides, friction sensitivity to concentration and polymerization. Variation in the loads employed influence adsorption and, accordingly, friction. Unlike results with ethyl and vinyl chloride, friction-induced surface reactivity was not observed with ethane and ethylene.

  16. Silica-Induced Protein (Sip) in Thermophilic Bacterium Thermus thermophilus Responds to Low Iron Availability

    PubMed Central

    Fujino, Yasuhiro; Nagayoshi, Yuko; Iwase, Makoto; Yokoyama, Takushi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Thermus thermophilus HB8 expresses silica-induced protein (Sip) when cultured in medium containing supersaturated silicic acids. Using genomic information, Sip was identified as a Fe3+-binding ABC transporter. Detection of a 1-kb hybridized band in Northern analysis revealed that sip transcription is monocistronic and that sip has its own terminator and promoter. The sequence of the sip promoter showed homology with that of the σA-dependent promoter, which is known as a housekeeping promoter in HB8. Considering that sip is transcribed when supersaturated silicic acids are added, the existence of a repressor is presumed. DNA microarray analysis suggested that supersaturated silicic acids and iron deficiency affect Thermus cells similarly, and enhanced sip transcription was detected under both conditions. This suggested that sip transcription was initiated by iron deficiency and that the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) controlled the transcription. Three Fur gene homologues (TTHA0255, TTHA0344, and TTHA1292) have been annotated in the HB8 genome, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that the TTHA0344 product interacts with the sip promoter region. In medium containing supersaturated silicic acids, free Fe3+ levels were decreased due to Fe3+ immobilization on colloidal silica. This suggests that, because Fe3+ ions are captured by colloidal silica in geothermal water, Thermus cells are continuously exposed to the risk of iron deficiency. Considering that Sip is involved in iron acquisition, Sip production may be a strategy to survive under conditions of low iron availability in geothermal water. IMPORTANCE The thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB8 produces silica-induced protein (Sip) in the presence of supersaturated silicic acids. Sip has homology with iron-binding ABC transporter; however, the mechanism by which Sip expression is induced by silicic acids remains unexplained. We demonstrate that Sip captures iron and its transcription

  17. Montelukast and irbesartan ameliorate metabolic and hepatic disorders in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Amin, Entesar F; Ibrahim, Salwa A; Abdelzaher, Walaa Y; Abdelrahman, Aly M

    2014-02-05

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a global health problem. Elucidation of the role of 5- lipooxygenase/leukotriene pathway and renin angiotensin system in the pathogenesis of MetS suggests a variety of potential therapies worthy of testing. The present work investigated the effect of montelukast, a leukotriene antagonist and/or irbesartan, an angiotensin II-receptor blocker, in the prevention of fructose-induced MetS in rats. Rats were allocated into 9 groups and treated for 6 weeks as follow: normal control; MetS group (received 20% fructose); MetS+montelukast groups (treated with montelukast, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg/day, respectively); MetS+irbesartan groups (treated withirbesartan 15, 30, and 45 mg/kg/day, respectively); and MetS+montelukast+irbesartan group (co treated with montelukast 5 mg/kg plus irbesartan 15 mg/g). Metabolic parameters (visceral fat index, liver index, insulin resistance, and serum lipid profile), oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, and catalase), and inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-α, and uric acid) were measured. Expression of caspase-3 in hepatic tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. Liver injury was evaluated by histopathological examination and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Montelukast, irbesartan, and their combination caused significant attenuation in metabolic and hepatic disorders. Their effect was associated with attenuation of oxidative stress markers, inflammatory mediators, and caspase-3 expression. This study highlighted the protective effects of montelukast and irbesartan against fructose-induced metabolic and hepatic disorders. The protective effect of either drug relies, at least in part, on their antioxidant and antiinflammatory effect, as well as on the reduction of caspase-3 expression in hepatic tissue.

  18. Gemigliptin ameliorates Western-diet-induced metabolic syndrome in mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Hee; Leem, Jaechan; Park, Sungmi; Lee, Chong-Kee; Park, Keun-Gyu; Lee, In-Kyu

    2017-02-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are widely used antihyperglycemic agents for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, increasing attention has been focused on the pleiotropic actions of DPP-4 inhibitors. The aim of the present study was to examine whether gemigliptin, a recently developed DPP-4 inhibitor, could ameliorate features of metabolic syndrome. Mice were fed a Western diet (WD) for 12 weeks and were subsequently divided into 2 groups: mice fed a WD diet alone or mice fed a WD diet supplemented with gemigliptin for an additional 4 weeks. Gemigliptin treatment attenuated WD-induced body mass gain, hypercholesterolemia, adipocyte hypertrophy, and macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, which were accompanied by an increased expression of uncoupling protein 1 in subcutaneous fat. These events contributed to improved insulin sensitivity, as assessed by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test. Furthermore, gemigliptin reduced WD-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation via inhibition of de novo lipogenesis and activation of fatty acid oxidation, which was accompanied by AMP-dependent protein kinase activation. Gemigliptin ameliorated WD-induced hepatic inflammation and fibrosis through suppression of oxidative stress. These results suggest that DPP-4 inhibitors may represent promising therapeutic agents for metabolic syndrome beyond their current role as antihyperglycemic agents.

  19. Iron-induced neuronal damage in a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Yu, Zhibo; Zhang, Yang; Huang, Xueling; Hou, Jingming; Zhao, YanGang; Luo, Wei; Chen, Lin; Ou, Lan; Li, Haitao; Zhang, Jiqiang

    2016-08-25

    Previous studies have shown that iron redistribution and deposition in the brain occurs in some neurodegenerative diseases, and oxidative damage due to abnormal iron level is a primary cause of neuronal death. In the present study, we used the single prolonged stress (SPS) model to mimic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and examined whether iron was involved in the progression of PTSD. The anxiety-like behaviors of the SPS group were assessed by the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field tests, and iron levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Expression of glucocorticoid receptors and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and ferritin (Fn) was detected by Western blot and immunohistochemistry in selected brain areas; TfR1 and Fn mRNA expression were detected by quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Ultrastructures of the hippocampus were observed under a transmission electron microscope. Our results showed that SPS exposure induced anxiety-like symptoms and increased the level of serum cortisol and the concentration of iron in key brain areas such as the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum. The stress induced region-specific changes in both protein and mRNA levels of TfR1 and Fn. Moreover, swelling mitochondria and cell apoptosis were observed in neurons in brain regions with iron accumulation. We concluded that SPS stress increased iron in some cognition-related brain regions and subsequently cause neuronal injury, indicating that the iron may function in the pathology of PTSD.

  20. An insight into the metabolic responses of ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide using metabonomic analysis of biofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jianghua; Liu, Huili; Zhang, Limin; Bhakoo, Kishore; Lu, Lehui

    2010-10-01

    Ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxides (USPIO) have been developed as intravenous organ/tissue-targeted contrast agents to improve magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vivo. However, their potential toxicity and effects on metabolism have attracted particular attention. In the present study, uncoated and dextran-coated USPIO were investigated by analyzing both rat urine and plasma metabonomes using high-resolution NMR-based metabonomic analysis in combination with multivariate statistical analysis. The wealth of information gathered on the metabolic profiles from rat urine and plasma has revealed subtle metabolic changes in response to USPIO administration. The metabolic changes include the elevation of urinary α-hydroxy-n-valerate, o- and p-HPA, PAG, nicotinate and hippurate accompanied by decreases in the levels of urinary α-ketoglutarate, succinate, citrate, N-methylnicotinamide, NAG, DMA, allantoin and acetate following USPIO administration. The changes associated with USPIO administration included a gradual increase in plasma glucose, N-acetyl glycoprotein, saturated fatty acid, citrate, succinate, acetate, GPC, ketone bodies (β-hydroxybutyrate, acetone and acetoacetate) and individual amino acids, such as phenylalanine, lysine, isoleucine, glycine, glutamine and glutamate and a gradual decrease of myo-inositol, unsaturated fatty acid and triacylglycerol. Hence USPIO administration effects are reflected in changes in a number of metabolic pathways including energy, lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism. The size- and surface chemistry-dependent metabolic responses and possible toxicity were observed using NMR analysis of biofluids. These changes may be attributed to the disturbances of hepatic, renal and cardiac functions following USPIO administrations. The potential biotoxicity can be derived from metabonomic analysis and serum biochemistry analysis. Metabonomic strategy offers a promising approach for the detection of subtle

  1. Low Dose Iron Treatments Induce a DNA Damage Response in Human Endothelial Cells within Minutes

    PubMed Central

    Mollet, Inês G.; Giess, Adam; Paschalaki, Koralia; Periyasamy, Manikandan; Lidington, Elaine C.; Mason, Justin C.; Jones, Michael D.; Game, Laurence; Ali, Simak; Shovlin, Claire L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Spontaneous reports from patients able to report vascular sequelae in real time, and recognition that serum non transferrin bound iron may reach or exceed 10μmol/L in the blood stream after iron tablets or infusions, led us to hypothesize that conventional iron treatments may provoke acute vascular injury. This prompted us to examine whether a phenotype could be observed in normal human endothelial cells treated with low dose iron. Methodology Confluent primary human endothelial cells (EC) were treated with filter-sterilized iron (II) citrate or fresh media for RNA sequencing and validation studies. RNA transcript profiles were evaluated using directional RNA sequencing with no pre-specification of target sequences. Alignments were counted for exons and junctions of the gene strand only, blinded to treatment types. Principal Findings Rapid changes in RNA transcript profiles were observed in endothelial cells treated with 10μmol/L iron (II) citrate, compared to media-treated cells. Clustering for Gene Ontology (GO) performed on all differentially expressed genes revealed significant differences in biological process terms between iron and media-treated EC, whereas 10 sets of an equivalent number of randomly selected genes from the respective EC gene datasets showed no significant differences in any GO terms. After 1 hour, differentially expressed genes clustered to vesicle mediated transport, protein catabolism, and cell cycle (Benjamini p = 0.0016, 0.0024 and 0.0032 respectively), and by 6 hours, to cellular response to DNA damage stimulus most significantly through DNA repair genes FANCG, BLM, and H2AFX. Comet assays demonstrated that 10μM iron treatment elicited DNA damage within 1 hour. This was accompanied by a brisk DNA damage response pulse, as ascertained by the development of DNA damage response (DDR) foci, and p53 stabilization. Significance These data suggest that low dose iron treatments are sufficient to modify the vascular endothelium

  2. Evaluation of iron metabolism indices and their relation with physical work capacity in athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Karamizrak, S O; Işlegen, C; Varol, S R; Taşkiran, Y; Yaman, C; Mutaf, I; Akgün, N

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the relation between iron status and physical working capacity, and to assess the effect of oral iron treatment on these variables, in athletes with borderline iron status. METHODS--Blood haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell count (RBC), serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), and ferritin determinations were compared in 71 male and 18 female athletes participating in various sports and in matched male (n = 11) and female (n = 8) controls. The first aim was to assess the relations between these variables and performance in a physical work capacity test (PWC170). Oral iron treatment (175-350 mg ferrous fumarate daily) was provided for three weeks to six male and five female athletes with borderline Hb concentrations, to determine the effects of such treatment on both iron status and performance. RESULTS--Among females, handball players had the lowest serum ferritin concentrations (P < 0.05), the highest TIBC values, and lowest PWC170 scores (P < 0.01); runners had the highest ferritin concentrations and PWC170 scores (P < 0.01). There were significant correlations (P < 0.01) between PWC170 and PCV, serum ferritin, and transferrin saturation of female athletes. Hb, serum iron, serum ferritin, and transferrin saturation increased with iron treatment in both males (P < 0.01) and females (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS--Serum ferritin determination may prove a valuable addition to the screening of athletes and may indicate the need for iron treatment, even though a causal effect on improvement of work capacity may not be present. PMID:8665109

  3. The role of S-methylisothiourea hemisulfate as inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor against kidney iron deposition in iron overload rats

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Maryam; Samadi, Melika; Khanmoradi, Mehrangiz; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Talebi, Ardeshir; Nasri, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Iron dextran is in common use to maintain iron stores. However, it is potentially toxic and may lead to iron deposition (ID) and impair functions of organs. Iron overload can regulate the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in some cells that has an important role in tissue destruction. S-methylisothiourea hemisulfate (SMT) is a direct inhibitor of iNOS, and this study was designed to investigate the effect of SMT against kidney ID in iron overload rats. Materials and Methods: 24 Wistar rats (male and female) were randomly assigned to two groups. Iron overloading was performed by iron dextran 100 mg/kg/day every other day for 2 weeks. In addition, during the study, groups 1 and 2 received vehicle and SMT (10 mg/kg, ip), respectively. Finally, blood samples were obtained, and the kidneys were prepared for histopathological procedures. Results: SMT significantly reduced the serum levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. However, SMT did not alter the serum levels of iron and nitrite, and the kidney tissue level of nitrite. Co-administration of SMT with iron dextran did not attenuate the ID in the kidney. Conclusion: SMT, as a specific iNOS inhibitor, could not protect the kidney from ID while it attenuated the serum levels of kidney function biomarkers. PMID:27308268

  4. The Association of Multiple Biomarkers of Iron Metabolism and Type 2 Diabetes - the EPIC-InterAct Study

    PubMed Central

    Podmore, Clara; Meidtner, Karina; Schulze, Matthias B; Scott, Robert A; Ramond, Anna; Butterworth, Adam S; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Danesh, John; Arriola, Larraitz; Barricarte, Aurelio; Boeing, Heiner; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Cross, Amanda J; Dahm, Christina C; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W; Gavrila, Diana; Grioni, Sara; Gunter, Marc J; Gusto, Gaelle; Jakszyn, Paula; Katzke, Verena; Key, Timothy J; Kühn, Tilman; Mattiello, Amalia; Nilsson, Peter M; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Slimani, Nadia; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke MW; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Feskens, Edith JM; Forouhi, Nita G; Sharp, Stephen J; Riboli, Elio; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Observational studies show an association between ferritin and type 2 diabetes (T2D), suggesting a role of high iron stores for T2D development. However, ferritin is influenced by factors other than iron stores, which is less the case for other biomarkers of iron metabolism. We investigate associations of ferritin, transferrin saturation (TSAT), serum iron and transferrin with T2D incidence, to clarify the role of iron in the pathogenesis of T2D. Research and Design Methods The EPIC-InterAct study includes 12,403 incident T2D cases and a representative sub-cohort of 16,154 individuals from a European cohort with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up. We studied the prospective association of ferritin, TSAT, serum iron and transferrin with incident T2D in 11,052 cases and a random sub-cohort of 15,182 individuals and assessed whether these associations differed by subgroups of the population. Results Higher levels of ferritin and transferrin were associated with a higher risk of T2D [HR in men and women, respectively: 1.07 (95% CI: 1.01; 1.12) and 1.12 (1.05; 1.19) per 100 μg/L higher ferritin level; 1.11 (1.00; 1.24) and 1.22 (1.12; 1.33) per 0.5 g/L higher transferrin level] after adjustment for age, centre, BMI, physical activity, smoking status, education, hsCRP, ALT and GGT. Elevated TSAT (≥45% versus <45%) was associated with a lower risk of T2D in women [0.68 (0.54; 0.86)] but was not statistically significantly associated in men [0.90 (0.75; 1.08)]. Serum iron was not associated with T2D. The association of ferritin with T2D was stronger among leaner individuals (pinteraction<0.01). Conclusions The pattern of association of TSAT and transferrin with T2D suggests that the underlying relationship between iron stores and T2D is more complex than the simple link suggested by the association of ferritin with T2D. PMID:26861925

  5. Iron regulatory proteins control a mucosal block to intestinal iron absorption.

    PubMed

    Galy, Bruno; Ferring-Appel, Dunja; Becker, Christiane; Gretz, Norbert; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Schümann, Klaus; Hentze, Matthias W

    2013-03-28

    Mammalian iron metabolism is regulated systemically by the hormone hepcidin and cellularly by iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) that orchestrate a posttranscriptional regulatory network. Through ligand-inducible genetic ablation of both IRPs in the gut epithelium of adult mice, we demonstrate that IRP deficiency impairs iron absorption and promotes mucosal iron retention via a ferritin-mediated "mucosal block." We show that IRP deficiency does not interfere with intestinal sensing of body iron loading and erythropoietic iron need, but rather alters the basal expression of the iron-absorption machinery. IRPs thus secure sufficient iron transport across absorptive enterocytes by restricting the ferritin "mucosal block" and define a basal set point for iron absorption upon which IRP-independent systemic regulatory inputs are overlaid.

  6. The Role of Iron and Iron Overload in Chronic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Milic, Sandra; Mikolasevic, Ivana; Orlic, Lidija; Devcic, Edita; Starcevic-Cizmarevic, Nada; Stimac, Davor; Kapovic, Miljenko; Ristic, Smiljana

    2016-01-01

    The liver plays a major role in iron homeostasis; thus, in patients with chronic liver disease, iron regulation may be disturbed. Higher iron levels are present not only in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis, but also in those with alcoholic liver disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and hepatitis C viral infection. Chronic liver disease decreases the synthetic functions of the liver, including the production of hepcidin, a key protein in iron metabolism. Lower levels of hepcidin result in iron overload, which leads to iron deposits in the liver and higher levels of non-transferrin-bound iron in the bloodstream. Iron combined with reactive oxygen species leads to an increase in hydroxyl radicals, which are responsible for phospholipid peroxidation, oxidation of amino acid side chains, DNA strain breaks, and protein fragmentation. Iron-induced cellular damage may be prevented by regulating the production of hepcidin or by administering hepcidin agonists. Both of these methods have yielded successful results in mouse models. PMID:27332079

  7. Sleep deprivation induces abnormal bone metabolism in temporomandibular joint

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Wei; Wu, Gaoyi; Huang, Fei; Zhu, Yong; Nie, Jia; He, Yuhong; Chen, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of experimental sleep deprivation (SD) on the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of rats and the possible mechanism related to abnormal bone metabolism. Material and methods: SD was induced by a modified multiple platform method and assessed by serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level. TMJs were detached and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, H&E staining, immunohistochemical staining and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Compared with controls, SD significantly increased serum ACTH, indicating that the SD model was successful. In the SD group, H&E staining revealed greater vessel hyperplasia in the synovial membrane and thicker hypertrophic layers in condylar cartilages. Compared with controls, RNA and protein expression of the inflammatory factors IL-1β and TNF-α and the bone metabolism-related factor RANKL increased in condylar cartilage in the SD group, whereas OPG and the OPG/RANKL ratio decreased. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that OPG/RANKL immunopositive cells were mainly located in hypertrophic layers. Conclusions: These results suggest that sleep deprivation might play an important role in the occurrence and development of temporomandibular disorders, which may occur through abnormal secretion of inflammatory and bone metabolism-related factors. PMID:25785010

  8. Metabolic Stress Induced by Arginine Deprivation Induces Autophagy Cell Death in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    arginine deiminase W81XWH-08-1-0385 1 AUG 2010 - 31 JUL 2011Annual01-08-2011 University of California, Davis Davis, CA 95618 Metabolic Stress Induced...J Coates, T Bowles, J Sutcliffe, R Jung, R Gandour-Edwards, R Bold, HJ Kung. Arginine deiminase : a novel therapy for prostate cancer and a tool to...R Jung, R Gandour-Edwards, R Bold, HJ Kung. Arginine deiminase induces autophagic cell death in human prostate cancer. EMBO Conference: Autophagy

  9. Higher concentrations of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) in soil induced rice chlorosis due to inhibited active iron transportation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Fang, Zhanqiang; Cheng, Wen; Yan, Xiaomin; Tsang, Pokeung Eric; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the effects of concentrations 0, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg kg(-1) of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) on germination, seedlings growth, physiology and toxicity mechanisms were investigated. The results showed that nZVI had no effect on germination, but inhibited the rice seedlings growth in higher concentrations (>500 mg kg(-1) nZVI). The highest suppression rate of the length of roots and shoots reached 46.9% and 57.5%, respectively. The 1000mg kg(-1) nZVI caused the highest suppression rates for chlorophyll and carotenoids, at 91.6% and 85.2%, respectively. In addition, the activity of antioxidant enzymes was altered by the translocation of nanoparticles and changes in active iron content. Visible symptoms of iron deficiency were observed at higher concentrations, at which the active iron content decreased 61.02% in the shoots, but the active iron content not decreased in roots. Interestingly, the total and available amounts of iron in the soil were not less than those in the control. Therefore, the plants iron deficiency was not caused by (i) deficiency of available iron in the soil and (ii) restraint of the absorption that plant takes in the available iron, while induced by (ⅲ) the transport of active iron from the root to the shoot was blocked. The cortex tissues were seriously damaged by nZVI which was transported from soil to the root, these were proved by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). This current study shows that the mechanism of iron deficiency in rice seedling was due to transport of active iron from the root to the shoot blocked, which was caused by the uptake of nZVI.

  10. Soybean Ferritin Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Modulates Iron Accumulation and Resistance to Elevated Iron Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    de Llanos, Rosa; Martínez-Garay, Carlos Andrés; Fita-Torró, Josep; Romero, Antonia María; Martínez-Pastor, María Teresa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fungi, including the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, lack ferritin and use vacuoles as iron storage organelles. This work explored how plant ferritin expression influenced baker's yeast iron metabolism. Soybean seed ferritin H1 (SFerH1) and SFerH2 genes were cloned and expressed in yeast cells. Both soybean ferritins assembled as multimeric complexes, which bound yeast intracellular iron in vivo and, consequently, induced the activation of the genes expressed during iron scarcity. Soybean ferritin protected yeast cells that lacked the Ccc1 vacuolar iron detoxification transporter from toxic iron levels by reducing cellular oxidation, thus allowing growth at high iron concentrations. Interestingly, when simultaneously expressed in ccc1Δ cells, SFerH1 and SFerH2 assembled as heteropolymers, which further increased iron resistance and reduced the oxidative stress produced by excess iron compared to ferritin homopolymer complexes. Finally, soybean ferritin expression led to increased iron accumulation in both wild-type and ccc1Δ yeast cells at certain environmental iron concentrations. IMPORTANCE Iron deficiency is a worldwide nutritional disorder to which women and children are especially vulnerable. A common strategy to combat iron deficiency consists of dietary supplementation with inorganic iron salts, whose bioavailability is very low. Iron-enriched yeasts and cereals are alternative strategies to diminish iron deficiency. Animals and plants possess large ferritin complexes that accumulate, detoxify, or buffer excess cellular iron. However, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacks ferritin and uses vacuoles as iron storage organelles. Here, we explored how soybean ferritin expression influenced yeast iron metabolism, confirming that yeasts that express soybean seed ferritin could be explored as a novel strategy to increase dietary iron absorption. PMID:26969708

  11. Pre-treatment of rats with ad-hepcidin prevents iron-induced oxidative stress in the brain.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jing; Du, Fang; Qian, Zhong Ming; Luo, Qian Qian; Sheng, Yuan; Yung, Wing-Ho; Xu, Yan Xin; Ke, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Our recent investigation showed that hepcidin can reduce iron in the brain of iron-overloaded rat by down-regulating iron-transport proteins. It has also been demonstrated that iron is a major generator of reactive oxygen species. We therefore hypothesized that hepcidin could prevent iron accumulation and thus reduce iron-mediated oxidative stress in iron-overloaded rats. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of pre-treatment of rats with recombinant-hepcidin-adenovirus (ad-hepcidin) on the contents of iron, dichlorofluorescein and 8-isoprostane in the brain. Hepcidin expression was detected by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence analysis. Iron contents were measured using Perl's staining as well as graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Dichlorofluorescein and 8-isoprostane were determined using a fluorescence spectrophotometer and an ELISA kit, respectively. We found that hepcidin contents in the cortex, hippocampus, striatum and substantia nigra of rats treated with ad-hepcidin are 3.50, 2.98, 2.93 and 4.07 fold of those of the control rats respectively. Also, we demonstrated that the increased iron as well as dichlorofluorescein and 8-isoprostane levels in all four brain regions, induced by injection of iron dextran, could be effectively prevented by pre-treatment of the rats with ad-hepcidin. We concluded that pre-treatment with ad-hepcidin could increase hepcidin expression and prevent the increase in iron and reduce reactive oxygen species in the brain of iron-overloaded rats.

  12. Iron limitation impact on eddy-induced ecosystem variability in the coastal Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiechter, Jerome; Moore, Andrew M.

    2012-04-01

    A data assimilative, coupled physical-biological model for the northwestern coastal Gulf of Alaska (CGOA) is used to characterize lower trophic level ecosystem response to eddy variability at the shelfbreak over a 5-year period (1998-2002). The ocean circulation component is an implementation of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), the lower trophic level ecosystem component is a six-compartment Nutrient-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus (NPZD) model with iron limitation, and the data assimilation component is the adjoint-based, four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) system available in ROMS. Assimilated observations consist of weekly satellite sea surface height and temperature, as well as bimonthly in situ temperature and salinity measurements. Overall, the model results are in agreement with earlier observational studies, and confirm that eddy-induced cross-shelf transport of biological properties can potentially enhance phytoplankton concentrations in the basin by: (1) alleviating iron limitation on phytoplankton growth by transporting iron-rich shelf waters offshore, and (2) transporting elevated shelf phytoplankton concentrations offshore. Simulated nutrient anomalies during eddy events indicate a substantial increase in dissolved iron concentrations in near-surface waters, thereby suggesting that eddy-induced offshore transport of iron-rich shelf waters is the dominant mechanism regulating locally-generated offshore production in the CGOA high nutrient-low chlorophyll (HNLC) region during eddy events. In fact, for the period 1998-2002, the model results predict that approximately two thirds of the eddy-induced production in the Yakutat/Sitka "eddy corridor" is associated with locally-generated production resulting from alleviated iron limitation conditions on phytoplankton growth. The remaining third can be attributed to eddy-induced offshore export of chlorophyll concentrations of shelf origin.

  13. Iron metabolism and resistance to infection by invasive bacteria in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Bozzaro, Salvatore; Buracco, Simona; Peracino, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Dictyostelium cells are forest soil amoebae, which feed on bacteria and proliferate as solitary cells until bacteria are consumed. Starvation triggers a change in life style, forcing cells to gather into aggregates to form multicellular organisms capable of cell differentiation and morphogenesis. As a soil amoeba and a phagocyte that grazes on bacteria as the obligate source of food, Dictyostelium could be a natural host of pathogenic bacteria. Indeed, many pathogens that occasionally infect humans are hosted for most of their time in protozoa or free-living amoebae, where evolution of their virulence traits occurs. Due to these features and its amenability to genetic manipulation, Dictyostelium has become a valuable model organism for studying strategies of both the host to resist infection and the pathogen to escape the defense mechanisms. Similarly to higher eukaryotes, iron homeostasis is crucial for Dictyostelium resistance to invasive bacteria. Iron is essential for Dictyostelium, as both iron deficiency or overload inhibit cell growth. The Dictyostelium genome shares with mammals many genes regulating iron homeostasis. Iron transporters of the Nramp (Slc11A) family are represented with two genes, encoding Nramp1 and Nramp2. Like the mammalian ortholog, Nramp1 is recruited to phagosomes and macropinosomes, whereas Nramp2 is a membrane protein of the contractile vacuole network, which regulates osmolarity. Nramp1 and Nramp2 localization in distinct compartments suggests that both proteins synergistically regulate iron homeostasis. Rather than by absorption via membrane transporters, iron is likely gained by degradation of ingested bacteria and efflux via Nramp1 from phagosomes to the cytosol. Nramp gene disruption increases Dictyostelium sensitivity to infection, enhancing intracellular growth of Legionella or Mycobacteria. Generation of mutants in other "iron genes" will help identify genes essential for iron homeostasis and resistance to pathogens.

  14. Haemolysis and Perturbations in the Systemic Iron Metabolism of Suckling, Copper-Deficient Mosaic Mutant Mice – An Animal Model of Menkes Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lenartowicz, Małgorzata; Starzyński, Rafał R.; Krzeptowski, Wojciech; Grzmil, Paweł; Bednarz, Aleksandra; Ogórek, Mateusz; Pierzchała, Olga; Staroń, Robert; Gajowiak, Anna; Lipiński, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    The biological interaction between copper and iron is best exemplified by the decreased activity of multicopper ferroxidases under conditions of copper deficiency that limits the availability of iron for erythropoiesis. However, little is known about how copper deficiency affects iron homeostasis through alteration of the activity of other copper-containing proteins, not directly connected with iron metabolism, such as superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). This antioxidant enzyme scavenges the superoxide anion, a reactive oxygen species contributing to the toxicity of iron via the Fenton reaction. Here, we analyzed changes in the systemic iron metabolism using an animal model of Menkes disease: copper-deficient mosaic mutant mice with dysfunction of the ATP7A copper transporter. We found that the erythrocytes of these mutants are copper-deficient, display decreased SOD1 activity/expression and have cell membrane abnormalities. In consequence, the mosaic mice show evidence of haemolysis accompanied by haptoglobin-dependent elimination of haemoglobin (Hb) from the circulation, as well as the induction of haem oxygenase 1 (HO1) in the liver and kidney. Moreover, the hepcidin-ferroportin regulatory axis is strongly affected in mosaic mice. These findings indicate that haemolysis is an additional pathogenic factor in a mouse model of Menkes diseases and provides evidence of a new indirect connection between copper deficiency and iron metabolism. PMID:25247420

  15. Serum Hepcidin and Soluble Transferrin Receptor in the Assessment of Iron Metabolism in Children on a Vegetarian Diet.

    PubMed

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Mazur, Joanna; Gajewska, Joanna; Rowicka, Grażyna; Strucińska, Małgorzata; Chełchowska, Magdalena

    2017-03-24

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of vegetarian diet on iron metabolism parameters paying special attention to serum hepcidin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations in 43 prepubertal children (age range 4.5-9.0 years) on vegetarian and in 46 children on omnivorous diets. There were no significant differences according to age, weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) between vegetarian and omnivorous children. Vegetarians had similar intake of iron and vitamin B12 and a significantly higher intake of vitamin C (p < 0.05) compared with non-vegetarians. Hematologic parameters and serum iron concentrations were within the reference range in both groups of children. Serum transferrin levels were similar in all subjects; however, ferritin concentrations were significantly (p < 0.01) lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. In children on a vegetarian diet, median hepcidin levels were lower (p < 0.05) but sTfR concentrations significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared with omnivorous children. In the multivariate regression model, we observed associations between hepcidin level and ferritin concentration (β = 0.241, p = 0.05) in the whole group of children as well as between hepcidin concentration and CRP level (β = 0.419, p = 0.047) in vegetarians. We did not find significant associations with concentration of sTfR and selected biochemical, anthropometric, and dietary parameters in any of the studied groups of children. As hematologic parameters and iron concentrations in vegetarians and omnivores were comparable and ferritin level was lower in vegetarians, we suggest that inclusion of novel markers, in particular sTfR (not cofounded by inflammation) and hepcidin, can better detect subclinical iron deficiency in children following vegetarian diets.

  16. ARE MACROPHAGES ACTIVATED AND INDUCE PULMONARY INJURY BY INTRACELLULARLY BIOAVAILABLE IRON?

    EPA Science Inventory

    ARE MACROPHAGES ACTIVATED AND INDUCE PULMONARY INJURY BY INTRACELLULARLY BIOAVAILABLE IRON? UP Kodavanti1, MCJ Schladweiler1, S Becker2, DL Costa1, P Mayer3, A Ziesenis3, WG Kreyling3, 1ETD, 2HSDivision, NHEERL, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA, and 3GSF, Inhalation Biology...

  17. SUNLIGHT AND IRON(III)-INDUCED PHOTOCHEMICAL PRODUCTION OF DISSOLVED GASEOUS MERCURY IN FRESHWATER. (R827632)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mechanistic understanding of sunlight-induced natural processes for
    production of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) in freshwaters has remained
    limited, and few direct field tests of the mechanistic hypotheses are available.
    We exposed ferric iron salt-spiked fresh s...

  18. Downregulation of TBXAS1 in an iron-induced malignant mesothelioma model.

    PubMed

    Minami, Daisuke; Takigawa, Nagio; Kato, Yuka; Kudo, Kenichiro; Isozaki, Hideko; Hashida, Shinsuke; Harada, Daijiro; Ochi, Nobuaki; Fujii, Masanori; Kubo, Toshio; Ohashi, Kadoaki; Sato, Akiko; Tanaka, Takehiro; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Tabata, Masahiro; Toyooka, Shinichi; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kiura, Katsuyuki

    2015-10-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive and therapy-resistant neoplasm arising from mesothelial cells. Evidence suggests that the major pathology associated with asbestos-induced mesothelioma is local iron overload. In the present study, we induced iron-induced mesothelioma in rats based on previous reports. Ten Wistar rats were given ferric saccharate and nitrilotriacetate i.p. for 5 days a week. Five of the ten rats exhibited widespread mesotheliomas in the peritoneum and tunica vaginalis. The tumor cells showed positive immunostaining for calretinin, wilms tumor-1, podoplanin and the oxidative DNA marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. In three of the five rats with mesothelioma, array-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis identified a common chromosomal deletion mapped to the chromosomal 4q31 locus, which encompasses the TBXAS1 gene. Downregulation of the TBXAS1 gene was confirmed using quantitative PCR. TBXAS1 gene expression was also reduced in three of four human malignant pleural mesothelioma cell lines compared with normal bronchial epithelial cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed that TBXAS1 expression was weakly positive and positive in five and three out of eight human malignant mesothelioma samples, respectively. In conclusion, TBXAS1 gene expression was downregulated in rats with iron-induced mesothelioma. The relationship between iron overload and TBXAS1 downregulation should be pursued further.

  19. Iron nanoparticle growth induced by Kr-F excimer laser photolysis of Fe(CO)5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, A. V.; Gurentsov, E. V.; Priemchenko, K. Yu

    2013-06-01

    In this article the process of nanoparticle formation under the condensation of highly supersaturated atomic vapor produced by the photodissociation of metal-bearing compounds was investigated. The iron nanoparticles were synthesized by Kr-F laser pulse photolysis of Fe(CO)5. The measurements of an optical density of condensed phase were performed using a laser light extinction at a wavelength 633 nm. The particle size during their formation process was measured by a two-color time-resolved laser-induced incandescence. The final iron particle sizes and their structure were analyzed by a transmission electron microscopy. It has been shown that the process of iron particle formation in the investigated conditions could be divided onto three stages: the fast nucleation of iron atoms during 1-2 μs, the surface growth of particles up to the sizes of 1-6 nm with increasing volume fraction of condensed phase during 100-250 μs, and the relatively slow particle coagulation up to the final sizes of 5-9 nm. The effective rate constants of iron clusters and particle growth were extracted using laser light extinction measurements. The essential role of the reactions of iron clusters and particles with the parental Fe(CO)5 molecules was established. The kinetic mechanism of iron nanoparticle growth induced by photo-dissociation of Fe(CO)5 at room temperature based on obtained experimental results and known literature data has been suggested. The results obtained could be used for the developments of methods of synthesis of catalysts, magnetic nanopowders, and others nanomaterials at room temperature. Besides that, the presented experimental data could be useful for the validation of kinetic models of gas-phase condensation of supersaturated vapor of solids.

  20. Photo-induced spin transition of Iron(III) compounds with pi-pi intermolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Hayami, Shinya; Hiki, Kenji; Kawahara, Takayoshi; Maeda, Yonezo; Urakami, Daisuke; Inoue, Katsuya; Ohama, Mitsuo; Kawata, Satoshi; Sato, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    Iron(III) spin-crossover compounds [Fe(pap)(2)]ClO(4) (1), [Fe(pap)(2)]BF(4) (2), [Fe(pap)(2)]PF(6) (3), [Fe(qsal)(2)]NCS (4), and [Fe(qsal)(2)]NCSe (5) (Hpap=2-(2-pyridylmethyleneamino)phenol and Hqsal=2-[(8-quinolinylimino)methyl]phenol) were prepared and their spin-transition properties investigated by magnetic susceptibility and Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements. The iron(III) compounds exhibited spin transition with thermal hysteresis. Single crystals of the iron(III) compounds were obtained as suitable solvent adducts for X-ray analysis, and structures in high-spin (HS) and low-spin (LS) states were revealed. Light-induced excited-spin-state trapping (LIESST) effects of the iron(III) compounds were induced by light irradiation at 532 nm for 1-3 and at 800 nm for 4 and 5. The activation energy E(a) and the low-temperature tunneling rate k(HL)(T-->0) of iron(III) LIESST compound 1 were estimated to be 1079 cm(-1) and 2.4x10(-8) s(-1), respectively, by HS-->LS relaxation experiments. The Huang-Rhys factor S of 1 was also estimated to be 50, which was similar to that expected for iron(II) complexes. It is thought that the slow relaxation in iron(III) systems is achieved by the large structural distortion between HS and LS states. Introduction of strong intermolecular interactions, such as pi-pi stacking, can also play an important role in the relaxation behavior, because it can enhance the structural distortion of the LIESST complex.

  1. Dysregulated iron metabolism in the choroid plexus in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Jeanelle; Steward, Craig; Rueckert, Flora; Widdison, Matt; Coffman, Robert; Afjei, Atiyeh; Noctor, Stephen C; Hagerman, Randi; Hagerman, Paul; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2015-02-19

    Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder associated with premutation alleles of the FMR1 gene that is characterized by progressive action tremor, gait ataxia, and cognitive decline. Recent studies of mitochondrial dysfunction in FXTAS have suggested that iron dysregulation may be one component of disease pathogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that iron dysregulation is part of the pathogenic process in FXTAS. We analyzed postmortem choroid plexus from FXTAS and control subjects, and found that in FXTAS iron accumulated in the stroma, transferrin levels were decreased in the epithelial cells, and transferrin receptor 1 distribution was shifted from the basolateral membrane (control) to a predominantly intracellular location (FXTAS). In addition, ferroportin and ceruloplasmin were markedly decreased within the epithelial cells. These alterations have implications not only for understanding the pathophysiology of FXTAS, but also for the development of new clinical treatments that may incorporate selective iron chelation.

  2. Changes in Serum Ferritin and Other Factors Associated with Iron Metabolism During Chronic Hyperbaric Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    N. Cooley. 1974. Bone scane withcomplex. Damageo fluorine-18 in diagnosing osteonecrosis in divers. In: :ould result in release of stored reserves...STRESS-GILMAN ET AL. Related Osteonecrosis . Proceedings of a symposium on in patients with iron overload and with acute and Dysbaric Osteonecrosis ...N. Walder. 1975. Serum ferritin, cobalt excretion, and body iron 19ඕ. Serum ferritin and dysbaric osteonecrosis . Under- status. C.M.A. J., 112

  3. Spin disorder induced reentrant ferromagnetism in iron-based nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, S.; Kumar, S.; Das, D.

    2012-03-01

    The low-temperature magnetic behavior of pure iron nanocrystallites dispersed in MgO matrix has been investigated by dc magnetization and ac susceptibility measurements. Irreversibilities in the magnetization data at low field are observed at low temperatures, indicating a passage from a high temperature ferromagnetic phase to a low-temperature disordered, frozen state. Quenching of these irreversibilities is seen when the external magnetic field is increased. The variation of the in-phase susceptibility with temperature showed marked frequency dependence whereas the out-of-phase susceptibility component passes through a maximum. The origin of this behavior is traced to the spin disorder at the grain boundaries, which exhibit a co-operative freezing below a certain temperature.

  4. Free surface damage induced by irradiation of BCC iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korchuganov, Aleksandr V.

    2016-11-01

    The influence of the crystallographic orientation of bcc iron samples on the character of structural changes near the free surface irradiated with ions was studied in the framework of a molecular dynamics method. Irradiation of the (111) surface leads to the formation of craters surrounded by atoms escaped on the surface (adatoms). In the case of the (110) surface irradiation, a vacancy-type dislocation loop with the Burgers vector a <100> or a/2 <111> was formed. The number of adatoms and survived point defects was greater in the sample with the (110) surface than in the sample with the (111) surface for the atomic displacement cascade energies lower than 20 keV. The influence of the irradiated surface orientation on the number of generated point defects decreased with the increasing atomic displacement cascade energy.

  5. Associations of iron metabolism genes with blood manganese levels: a population-based study with validation data from animal models

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Given mounting evidence for adverse effects from excess manganese exposure, it is critical to understand host factors, such as genetics, that affect manganese metabolism. Methods Archived blood samples, collected from 332 Mexican women at delivery, were analyzed for manganese. We evaluated associations of manganese with functional variants in three candidate iron metabolism genes: HFE [hemochromatosis], TF [transferrin], and ALAD [δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase]. We used a knockout mouse model to parallel our significant results as a novel method of validating the observed associations between genotype and blood manganese in our epidemiologic data. Results Percentage of participants carrying at least one copy of HFE C282Y, HFE H63D, TF P570S, and ALAD K59N variant alleles was 2.4%, 17.7%, 20.1%, and 6.4%, respectively. Percentage carrying at least one copy of either C282Y or H63D allele in HFE gene was 19.6%. Geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) manganese concentrations were 17.0 (1.5) μg/l. Women with any HFE variant allele had 12% lower blood manganese concentrations than women with no variant alleles (β = -0.12 [95% CI = -0.23 to -0.01]). TF and ALAD variants were not significant predictors of blood manganese. In animal models, Hfe-/- mice displayed a significant reduction in blood manganese compared with Hfe+/+ mice, replicating the altered manganese metabolism found in our human research. Conclusions Our study suggests that genetic variants in iron metabolism genes may contribute to variability in manganese exposure by affecting manganese absorption, distribution, or excretion. Genetic background may be critical to consider in studies that rely on environmental manganese measurements. PMID:22074419

  6. Study of the protective effects of Katha (Heartwood Extract of Acacia catechu) in liver damage induced by iron overload.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Bibhabasu; Sarkar, Rhitajit; Ghate, Nikhil Baban; Chaudhuri, Dipankar; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the ameliorating effect of 70% methanol extract of Acacia catechu heartwood, or Katha (ACME) on liver injury induced by iron overload. Iron overload in mice was caused by intraperitoneal administration of 100 mg/kg iron-dextran. ACME was administered orally for 21 days, starting from the day after the first iron-dextran injection. The biochemical markers of hepatic damage and liver iron, protein carbonyl, and hydroxyproline contents were measured in response to the oral administration of ACME. Apart from those, the release of iron from ferritin by ACME was further assessed to determine the efficiency of ACME as an iron-chelating drug. Treatment with different doses of ACME (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight) showed dose-dependent reductions in liver iron, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, liver fibrosis, serum enzymes, and ferritin. The antioxidant enzymes levels were enhanced and the reductive release of ferritin iron increased significantly with gradually increasing concentrations of ACME. These results indicate that ACME has a potent hepatoprotective action against hepatic damage induced by iron overload in mice, probably by ameliorating the antioxidant defense activities and reductively releasing ferritin iron.

  7. Adaptive response of the heart to long-term anemia induced by iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Naito, Yoshiro; Tsujino, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Mika; Sakoda, Tsuyoshi; Ohyanagi, Mitsumasa; Masuyama, Tohru

    2009-03-01

    Anemia is common in patients with chronic heart failure and an independent predictor of poor prognosis. Chronic anemia leads to left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and heart failure, but its molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. We investigated the mechanisms, including the molecular signaling pathway, of cardiac remodeling induced by iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an iron-deficient diet for 20 wk to induce IDA, and the molecular mechanisms of cardiac remodeling were evaluated. The iron-deficient diet initially induced severe anemia, which resulted in LV hypertrophy and dilation with preserved systolic function associated with increased serum erythropoietin (Epo) concentration. Cardiac STAT3 phosphorylation and VEGF gene expression increased by 12 wk of IDA, causing angiogenesis in the heart. Thereafter, sustained IDA induced upregulation of cardiac hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha gene expression and maintained upregulation of cardiac VEGF gene expression and cardiac angiogenesis; however, sustained IDA promoted cardiac fibrosis and lung congestion, with decreased serum Epo concentration and cardiac STAT3 phosphorylation after 20 wk of IDA compared with 12 wk. Upregulation of serum Epo concentration and cardiac STAT3 phosphorylation is associated with a beneficial adaptive mechanism of anemia-induced cardiac hypertrophy, and later decreased levels of these molecules may be critical for the transition from adaptive cardiac hypertrophy to cardiac dysfunction in long-term anemia. Understanding the mechanism of cardiac maladaptation to anemia may lead to a new strategy for treatment of chronic heart failure with anemia.

  8. Testosterone alters iron metabolism and stimulates red blood cell production independently of dihydrotestosterone.

    PubMed

    Beggs, Luke A; Yarrow, Joshua F; Conover, Christine F; Meuleman, John R; Beck, Darren T; Morrow, Matthew; Zou, Baiming; Shuster, Jonathan J; Borst, Stephen E

    2014-09-01

    Testosterone (T) stimulates erythropoiesis and regulates iron homeostasis. However, it remains unknown whether the (type II) 5α-reduction of T to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) mediates these androgenic effects, as it does in some other tissues. Our purpose was to determine whether inhibition of type II 5α-reductase (via finasteride) alters red blood cell (RBC) production and serum markers of iron homeostasis subsequent to testosterone-enanthate (TE) administration in older hypogonadal men. Sixty men aged ≥60 yr with serum T <300 ng/dl or bioavailable T <70 ng/dl received treatment with TE (125 mg/wk) vs. vehicle paired with finasteride (5 mg/day) vs. placebo using a 2 × 2 factorial design. Over the course of 12 mo, TE increased RBC count 9%, hematocrit 4%, and hemoglobin 8% while suppressing serum hepcidin 57% (P < 0.001 for all measurements). Most of the aforementioned changes occurred in the first 3 mo of treatment, and finasteride coadministration did not significantly alter any of these effects. TE also reduced serum ferritin 32% (P = 0.002) within 3 mo of treatment initiation without altering iron, transferrin, or transferrin saturation. We conclude that TE stimulates erythropoiesis and alters iron homeostasis independently of the type II 5α-reductase enzyme. These results demonstrate that elevated DHT is not required for androgen-mediated erythropoiesis or for alterations in iron homeostasis that would appear to support iron incorporation into RBCs.

  9. Protective effect of Clerodendrum colebrookianum leaves against iron-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Das, Abhishek; Chaudhuri, Dipankar; Ghate, Nikhil Baban; Panja, Sourav; Chatterjee, Anupam; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2015-05-01

    Liver toxicity due to iron overload leads to oxidative damage of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids which in turn manifests several human diseases. Here, we evaluated the improving effect of Clerodendrum colebrookianum leaf on iron overload induced liver injury along with in vitro iron chelation and the protection of Fenton reaction induced DNA damage was conducted. Iron overload was induced by intraperitoneal administration of iron-dextran into mice. Post oral administration of different doses of the extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) showed significant decrease in different biochemical markers such as liver iron, serum ferritin and serum enzyme levels, along with decreased lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and collagen content. In addition, the extract effectively enhanced the antioxidant enzyme levels and also exhibited the potential activity of the reductive release of ferritin iron. The protective effect of C. colebrookianum extract on injured liver was furthermore supported by the histopathological studies that showed improvement histologically. In conclusion, the present results demonstrated the hepatoprotective efficiency of C. colebrookianum leaf in iron overloaded mice, and hence, a potential iron chelating drug for iron overload diseases.

  10. Cadmium toxicity induced alterations in the root proteome of green gram in contrasting response towards iron supplement.

    PubMed

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman; Mohamed, Rozi; Lee, Jeong Hyun

    2014-04-15

    Cadmium signifies a severe threat to crop productivity and green gram is a notably iron sensitive plant which shows considerable variation towards cadmium stress. A gel-based proteomics analysis was performed with the roots of green gram exposed to iron and cadmium combined treatments. The resulting data show that twenty three proteins were down-regulated in iron-deprived roots either in the absence (-Fe/-Cd) or presence (-Fe/+Cd) of cadmium. These down-regulated proteins were however well expressed in roots under iron sufficient conditions, even in the presence of cadmium (+Fe/+Cd). The functional classification of these proteins determined that 21% of the proteins are associated with nutrient metabolism. The other proteins in higher quantities are involved in either transcription or translation regulation, and the rest are involved in biosynthesis metabolism, antioxidant pathways, molecular chaperones and stress response. On the other hand, several protein spots were also absent in roots in response to iron deprivation either in absence (-Fe/-Cd) or presence (-Fe/+Cd) of cadmium but were well expressed in the presence of iron (+Fe/+Cd). Results suggest that green gram plants exposed to cadmium stress are able to change the nutrient metabolic balance in roots, but in the mean time regulate cadmium toxicity through iron supplements.

  11. Cadmium Toxicity Induced Alterations in the Root Proteome of Green Gram in Contrasting Response towards Iron Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman; Mohamed, Rozi; Lee, Jeong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium signifies a severe threat to crop productivity and green gram is a notably iron sensitive plant which shows considerable variation towards cadmium stress. A gel-based proteomics analysis was performed with the roots of green gram exposed to iron and cadmium combined treatments. The resulting data show that twenty three proteins were down-regulated in iron-deprived roots either in the absence (−Fe/−Cd) or presence (−Fe/+Cd) of cadmium. These down-regulated proteins were however well expressed in roots under iron sufficient conditions, even in the presence of cadmium (+Fe/+Cd). The functional classification of these proteins determined that 21% of the proteins are associated with nutrient metabolism. The other proteins in higher quantities are involved in either transcription or translation regulation, and the rest are involved in biosynthesis metabolism, antioxidant pathways, molecular chaperones and stress response. On the other hand, several protein spots were also absent in roots in response to iron deprivation either in absence (−Fe/−Cd) or presence (−Fe/+Cd) of cadmium but were well expressed in the presence of iron (+Fe/+Cd). Results suggest that green gram plants exposed to cadmium stress are able to change the nutrient metabolic balance in roots, but in the mean time regulate cadmium toxicity through iron supplements. PMID:24739807

  12. Relations between iron and vanadium metabolism: in vivo incorporation of vanadium into iron proteins of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Sabbioni, E.; Marafante, E.

    1981-09-01

    In vivo experiments with /sup 48/V and /sup 59/Fe radiotracers were performed to study the association of V with Fe proteins. Each male rat was injected ip with 10 ..mu..g /sup 48/VO/sup 2 +/ and then with 1 ..mu..g /sup 59/Fe/sup 3 +/ to label Fe-containing proteins. The radioactivities incorporated were measured in plasma transferrin, red blood cell hemoglobin, liver ferritin, partially purified heart myoglobin, and liver mitochondrial and microsomal cytochromes b and c and ferriporphyrin. Liver ferritin can bind V in vivo similarly to plasma transferrin, as shown by gel filtration and immunoprecipitation. Negligible amounts of /sup 48/V were incorporated into hemoglobin, partially purified myoglobin, and cytochromes b and c. These findings suggest that the nonenzymatic Fe-containing proteins may be involved in the V metabolism.

  13. Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart.) Consumption Modulates Iron Homeostasis and Prevents Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Rat Liver.

    PubMed

    Fustinoni-Reis, Adriana M; Arruda, Sandra F; Dourado, Lívia P S; da Cunha, Marcela S B; Siqueira, Egle M A

    2016-02-17

    This study investigated the effect of tucum-do-cerrado consumption in the oxidative status of iron-supplemented rats. Four groups of rats were treated: Control (AIN-93G), Tuc (AIN-93G added of tucum-do-cerrado), Fe (AIN-93G iron-enriched), or TucFe (AIN-93G with tucum-do-cerrado and iron-enriched) diet, for 30 days. Iron-enriched diet increased serum, liver, spleen, and intestine iron levels; transferrin saturation; liver lipid oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Bmp6, and Nrf2 in the intestine. Tucum-do-cerrado consumption reduced spleen lipid and protein oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Ftl, and increased serum antioxidant capacity and hepatic mRNA levels of Bmp6, Hmox1, Nqo1, and Nrf2. TucFe diet consumption abrogated the liver Hamp iron-induced up-regulation, prevented intestinal iron accumulation; hepatic lipid peroxidation; splenic protein damage, and the increase of catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activity in some tissues. These results suggest that tucum-do-cerrado protects tissues against oxidative damage, by reducing iron availability in liver and consequently inhibiting liver Hamp expression.

  14. Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart.) Consumption Modulates Iron Homeostasis and Prevents Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Fustinoni-Reis, Adriana M.; Arruda, Sandra F.; Dourado, Lívia P. S.; da Cunha, Marcela S. B.; Siqueira, Egle M. A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of tucum-do-cerrado consumption in the oxidative status of iron-supplemented rats. Four groups of rats were treated: Control (AIN-93G), Tuc (AIN-93G added of tucum-do-cerrado), Fe (AIN-93G iron-enriched), or TucFe (AIN-93G with tucum-do-cerrado and iron-enriched) diet, for 30 days. Iron-enriched diet increased serum, liver, spleen, and intestine iron levels; transferrin saturation; liver lipid oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Bmp6, and Nrf2 in the intestine. Tucum-do-cerrado consumption reduced spleen lipid and protein oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Ftl, and increased serum antioxidant capacity and hepatic mRNA levels of Bmp6, Hmox1, Nqo1, and Nrf2. TucFe diet consumption abrogated the liver Hamp iron-induced up-regulation, prevented intestinal iron accumulation; hepatic lipid peroxidation; splenic protein damage, and the increase of catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activity in some tissues. These results suggest that tucum-do-cerrado protects tissues against oxidative damage, by reducing iron availability in liver and consequently inhibiting liver Hamp expression. PMID:26901220

  15. Deciphering the iron response in Acinetobacter baumannii: a proteomics approach

    PubMed Central

    Nwugo, Chika; Gaddy, Jennifer A.; Zimbler, Daniel L.; Actis, Luis A.

    2010-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient that plays a role in bacterial differential gene expression and protein production. Accordingly, the comparative analysis of total lysate and outer membrane fractions isolated from A. baumannii ATCC 19606T cells cultured under iron-rich and -chelated conditions using 2-D gel electrophoresis-mass spectrometry resulted in the identification of 58 protein spots differentially produced. While 19 and 35 of them represent iron-repressed and iron-induced protein spots, respectively, four other spots represent a metal chelation response unrelated to iron. Most of the iron-repressed protein spots represent outer membrane siderophore receptors, some of which could be involved in the utilization of siderophores produced by other bacteria. The iron-induced protein spots represent a wide range of proteins including those involved in iron storage, such as Bfr, metabolic and energy processes, such as AcnA, AcnB, GlyA, SdhA, and SodB, as well as lipid biosynthesis. The detection of an iron-regulated Hfq ortholog indicates that iron regulation in this bacterium could be mediated by Fur and small RNAs as described in other bacteria. The iron-induced production of OmpA suggests this protein plays a role in iron metabolism as shown by the diminished ability of an OmpA isogenic deficient derivative to grow under iron-chelated conditions. PMID:20692388

  16. Loading-induced changes in synovial fluid affect cartilage metabolism.

    PubMed

    van de Lest, C H; van den Hoogen, B M; van Weeren, P R

    2000-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine whether changes in the synovial fluid (SF) induced by in vivo loading can alter the metabolic activity of chondrocytes in vitro, and, if so, whether insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is responsible for this effect. Therefore, SF was collected from ponies after a period of box rest and after they had been exercised for a week. Normal, unloaded articular cartilage explants were cultured in 20% solutions of these SFs for 4 days and chondrocyte bioactivity was determined by glycosaminoglycan (GAG) turnover (i.e., the incorporation of 35SO4 into GAG and the release of GAG into the medium). Furthermore, the extent to which the bioactivity is IGF-I-dependent was determined in a cartilage explant culture in 20% SF, in the presence and absence of anti-IGF-I antibodies. In explants cultured in post-exercise SF, GAG synthesis was enhanced and GAG release was diminished when compared to cultures in pre-exercise SF. SF analysis showed that IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels were increased in post-exercise SF. There was a positive correlation between IGF-I levels and proteoglycan synthesis, but no correlation between IGF-I levels and proteoglycan release. Addition of anti-IGF-I antibodies significantly inhibited stimulation of proteoglycan synthesis in explants cultured in SF with 40%. However, there was no difference in inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis between pre- and post-exercise SF which indicated that the relative contribution of IGF-I in the stimulating effect of SF did not change. Proteoglycan release was not influenced by the presence of anti-IGF-I antibodies. It is concluded that chondrocyte metabolic activity is at least partially regulated by changes in the SF induced by in vivo loading. Exercise altered the SF in a way that it had a favourable effect on cartilage PG content by enhancing the PG synthesis and reducing the PG breakdown. IGF-I is an important contributor to the overall stimulating effect of SF on cartilage

  17. Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of microcytic anemias due to genetic disorders of iron metabolism or heme synthesis.

    PubMed

    Donker, Albertine E; Raymakers, Reinier A P; Vlasveld, L Thom; van Barneveld, Teus; Terink, Rieneke; Dors, Natasja; Brons, Paul P T; Knoers, Nine V A M; Swinkels, Dorine W

    2014-06-19

    During recent years, our understanding of the pathogenesis of inherited microcytic anemias has gained from the identification of several genes and proteins involved in systemic and cellular iron metabolism and heme syntheses. Numerous case reports illustrate that the implementation of these novel molecular discoveries in clinical practice has increased our understanding of the presentation, diagnosis, and management of these diseases. Integration of these insights into daily clinical practice will reduce delays in establishing a proper diagnosis, invasive and/or costly diagnostic tests, and unnecessary or even detrimental treatments. To assist the clinician, we developed evidence-based multidisciplinary guidelines on the management of rare microcytic anemias due to genetic disorders of iron metabolism and heme synthesis. These genetic disorders may present at all ages, and therefore these guidelines are relevant for pediatricians as well as clinicians who treat adults. This article summarizes these clinical practice guidelines and includes background on pathogenesis, conclusions, and recommendations and a diagnostic flowchart to facilitate using these guidelines in the clinical setting.

  18. Nitric oxide ameliorates the damaging effects of oxidative stress induced by iron deficiency in cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Manish Singh; Srivastava, Meenakshi; Srivastava, Alka; Singh, Anumeha; Mishra, Arun Kumar

    2016-11-01

    In cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120, iron deficiency leads to oxidative stress with unavoidable consequences. Nitric oxide reduces pigment damage and supported the growth of Anabaena 7120 in iron-deficient conditions. Elevation in nitric oxide accumulation and reduced superoxide radical production justified the role of nitric oxide in alleviating oxidative stress in iron deficiency. Increased activities of antioxidative enzymes and higher levels of ROS scavengers (ascorbate, glutathione and thiol) in iron deficiency were also observed in the presence of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide also supported the membrane integrity of Anabaena cells and reduces protein and DNA damage caused by oxidative stress induced by iron deficiency. Results suggested that nitric oxide alleviates the damaging effects of oxidative stress induced by iron deficiency in cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120.

  19. A comparative study of iron-related metabolic parameters in the eye of three animal species.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Quiñones, Luis E; García-Castiñeiras, Sixto

    2007-12-01

    In order to obtain a wider perspective of iron homeostasis in the eye, a comparative study was undertaken of several iron-related parameters (Total Iron, TI; Total Iron Binding Capacity, TIBC; Transferrin, Tf; and saturation of Tf) both in blood serum and in ocular tissues (lens, cornea, iris-ciliary body, retina) and fluids (vitreous body, aqueous humor) of several animal species (pig, cow and rat). The relative degree of oxidative stress of tissues and fluids was evaluated based on the criteria that high values of TI and Tf saturation, and low values of TIBC and Tf, would promote iron-related oxidative stress. The inclusion of both diurnal (pig, cow) and nocturnal (rat) animal species in this comparative work provided the opportunity to explore if iron homeostasis parameters are in some way influenced by the higher oxidative stress level expected in animals with diurnal living habits. This project involved also the design of new and very sensitive methods of analyses, given the fact that in many cases very small amounts of sample (i.e., aqueous humor), and/or low concentration of analytes (i.e., transferrin) are available. All results were expressed as concentration relative to mg protein as determined with the Bradford method (microplate assay). When analyzing TI/TIBC it was possible to define a loosely bound iron pool (LBIP) in ocular tissues that was proportional to the degree of vascularization of the tissues analyzed. The comparison of iron related parameters patterns within the eye and among species allowed us to reach the following conclusions: (1) The aqueous humor and vitreous body of cow and pig exhibited highest concentration of Tf and a very low saturation of Tf, while the lowest value of Tf was detected in all species in the lens; (2) TI showed the tendency to be highest in the vitreous body of cow and pig, and lowest in the lens of all three species. The very low iron concentration in the lens may effectively counteract the risk of having a low Tf

  20. Iron Dextran Increases Hepatic Oxidative Stress and Alters Expression of Genes Related to Lipid Metabolism Contributing to Hyperlipidaemia in Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Maísa; Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Sampaio, Ana Flávia Santos; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of iron dextran on lipid metabolism and to determine the involvement of oxidative stress. Fischer rats were divided into two groups: the standard group (S), which was fed the AIN-93M diet, and the standard plus iron group (SI), which was fed the same diet but also received iron dextran injections. Serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were higher in the SI group than in the S group. Iron dextran was associated with decreased mRNA levels of pparα, and its downstream gene cpt1a, which is involved in lipid oxidation. Iron dextran also increased mRNA levels of apoB-100, MTP, and L-FABP indicating alterations in lipid secretion. Carbonyl protein and TBARS were consistently higher in the liver of the iron-treated rats. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between oxidative stress products, lfabp expression, and iron stores. In addition, a negative correlation was found between pparα expression, TBARS, carbonyl protein, and iron stores. In conclusion, our results suggest that the increase observed in the transport of lipids in the bloodstream and the decreased fatty acid oxidation in rats, which was promoted by iron dextran, might be attributed to increased oxidative stress. PMID:25685776

  1. Copper and zinc metabolism in aminonucleoside-induced nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pedraza-Chaverrí, J; Torres-Rodríguez, G A; Cruz, C; Mainero, A; Tapia, E; Ibarra-Rubio, M E; Silencio, J L

    1994-01-01

    Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were measured in urine, serum and tissues from rats with nephrotic syndrome (NS) induced with a single subcutaneous dose of puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN; 15 mg/100 g BW). Control animals were pair-fed. Urine was collected daily, and the rats were sacrificed on day 10. PAN-nephrotic rats had proteinuria (days 3-10), high urinary Cu (days 1, 2, 4-10) and Zn (days 3-10) excretion. On day 10, nephrotic rats had: (a) albuminuria, hypoalbuminemia, hypoproteinemia, high urine and low serum levels of ceruloplasmin; (b) low Cu and Zn serum levels; (c) high clearance and fractional excretion of Cu and Zn, and (d) low kidney and liver Cu content and essentially normal tissue Zn levels. The alterations in Cu metabolism were more intense than those in Zn metabolism. Urine Cu and Zn showed a positive correlation with urine total protein on days 3-10 which suggests that high urinary excretion of Cu and Zn may be due to the excretion of its carrier proteins. In conclusion, these rats did not show a typical Zn deficiency but a clear decrease in Cu in the liver and kidney.

  2. Surface iron inhibits quartz-induced cytotoxic and inflammatory responses in alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ghiazza, Mara; Scherbart, Agnes M; Fenoglio, Ivana; Grendene, Francesca; Turci, Francesco; Martra, Gianmario; Albrecht, Catrin; Schins, Roel P F; Fubini, Bice

    2011-01-14

    The mechanism of enhancement/inhibition of quartz toxicity induced by iron is still unclear. Here the amount of iron on a fibrogenic quartz (Qz) was increased by wet impregnation (Fe(NO(3))(3) 0.67 and 6.7 wt %). X-ray diffraction (XRD), XRF diffuse reflectance, UV-vis, and infrared (IR) spectroscopies revealed dispersed ferric ions, and hematite aggregates at the higher loading. Surface features relevant to pathogenicity and cell responses were compared not only to the original quartz but also to reference quartz DQ12. Surface charge (ζ-potential) was more negative on the original and low-loaded specimen than on the high-loaded one. DQ12 had a less negative ζ-potential than Qz, ascribed to the absence of aluminium present in Qz (1.7 wt %). All quartz specimens were able to generate HO(•) radicals, iron-loaded samples being more reactive than original quartz. Iron deposition inhibited the rupture of a C-H bond. All quartzes were phagocytized by alveolar macrophages (AMΦ cell line NR8383) to the same extent, irrespective of their surface state. Conversely, iron loading increased AMΦ viability (evaluated by cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis). Qz was found to be much less cytotoxic than DQ12. The induction of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses (evaluated by HO-1 mRNA expression and TNF-α mRNA and protein expression) revealed a reduction in inflammogenicity upon iron loading and a more inflammogenic potency of DQ12 ascribed to undissociated SiOH interacting via H-bonding with cell membrane components. The results suggest that besides aluminium also iron at the quartz surface may have an inhibitory effect on adverse health responses.

  3. Quercetin prevents ethanol-induced iron overload by regulating hepcidin through the BMP6/SMAD4 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuhan; Li, Yanyan; Yu, Haiyan; Gao, Chao; Liu, Liang; Chen, Shaodan; Xing, Mingyou; Liu, Liegang; Yao, Ping

    2014-06-01

    Emerging evidence has demonstrated that chronic ethanol exposure induces iron overload, enhancing ethanol-mediated liver damage. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of the naturally occurring compound quercetin on ethanol-induced iron overload and liver damage, focusing on the signaling pathway of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were pair-fed with isocaloric-Lieber De Carli diets containing ethanol (accounting for 30% of total calories) and/or carbonyl iron (0.2%) and treated with quecertin (100 mg/kg body weight) for 15 weeks. Mouse primary hepatocytes were incubated with ethanol (100 mM) and quercetin (100 μM) for 24 h. Mice exposed to either ethanol or iron presented significant fatty infiltration and iron deposition in the liver; these symptoms were exacerbated in mice cotreated with ethanol and iron. Quercetin attenuated the abnormity induced by ethanol and/or iron. Ethanol suppressed BMP6 and intranuclear SMAD4 as well as decreased hepcidin expression. These effects were partially alleviated by quercetin supplementation in mice and hepatocytes. Importantly, ethanol caused suppression of SMAD4 binding to the HAMP promoter and of hepcidin messenger RNA expression. These effects were exacerbated by anti-BMP6 antibody and partially alleviated by quercetin or human recombinant BMP6 in cultured hepatocytes. In contrast, co-treatment with iron and ethanol, especially exposure of iron alone, activated BMP6/SMAD4 pathway and up-regulated hepcidin expression, which was also normalized by quercetin in vivo. Quercetin prevented ethanol-induced hepatic iron overload different from what carbonyl iron diet elicited in the mechanism, by regulating hepcidin expression via the BMP6/SMAD4 signaling pathway.

  4. Iron oxide nanoparticles induce Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth, induce biofilm formation, and inhibit antimicrobial peptide function†

    PubMed Central

    Borcherding, Jennifer; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Chen, Haihan; Stebounova, Larissa; Wu, Chia-Ming; Rubasinghege, Gayan; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A.; Caraballo, Juan Carlos; Zabner, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Given the increased use of iron-containing nanoparticles in a number of applications, it is important to understand any effects that iron-containing nanoparticles can have on the environment and human health. Since iron concentrations are extremely low in body fluids, there is potential that iron-containing nanoparticles may influence the ability of bacteria to scavenge iron for growth, affect virulence and inhibit antimicrobial peptide (AMP) function. In this study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA01) and AMPs were exposed to iron oxide nanoparticles, hematite (α-Fe2O3), of different sizes ranging from 2 to 540 nm (2 ± 1, 43 ± 6, 85 ± 25 and 540 ± 90 nm) in diameter. Here we show that the greatest effect on bacterial growth, biofilm formation, and AMP function impairment is found when exposed to the smallest particles. These results are attributed in large part to enhanced dissolution observed for the smallest particles and an increase in the amount of bioavailable iron. Furthermore, AMP function can be additionally impaired by adsorption onto nanoparticle surfaces. In particular, lysozyme readily adsorbs onto the nanoparticle surface which can lead to loss of peptide activity. Thus, this current study shows that co-exposure of nanoparticles and known pathogens can impact host innate immunity. Therefore, it is important that future studies be designed to further understand these types of impacts. PMID:25221673

  5. Intermittent Hypoxia Exacerbates Metabolic Effects of Diet-Induced Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Drager, Luciano F.; Li, Jianguo; Reinke, Christian; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Jun, Jonathan C.; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity causes insulin resistance (IR) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but the relative contribution of sleep apnea is debatable. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a hallmark of sleep apnea, on IR and NAFLD in lean mice and mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO). Mice (C57BL/6J), 6–8 weeks of age were fed a high fat (n = 18) or regular (n = 16) diet for 12 weeks and then exposed to CIH or control conditions (room air) for 4 weeks. At the end of the exposure, fasting (5 h) blood glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index, liver enzymes, and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg) were measured. In DIO mice, body weight remained stable during CIH and did not differ from control conditions. Lean mice under CIH were significantly lighter than control mice by day 28 (P = 0.002). Compared to lean mice, DIO mice had higher fasting levels of blood glucose, plasma insulin, the HOMA index, and had glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis at baseline. In lean mice, CIH slightly increased HOMA index (from 1.79 ± 0.13 in control to 2.41 ± 0.26 in CIH; P = 0.05), whereas glucose tolerance was not affected. In contrast, in DIO mice, CIH doubled HOMA index (from 10.1 ± 2.1 in control to 22.5 ± 3.6 in CIH; P < 0.01), and induced severe glucose intolerance. In DIO mice, CIH induced NAFLD, inflammation, and oxidative stress, which was not observed in lean mice. In conclusion, CIH exacerbates IR and induces steatohepatitis in DIO mice, suggesting that CIH may account for metabolic dysfunction in obesity. PMID:21799478

  6. Intermittent hypoxia exacerbates metabolic effects of diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Drager, Luciano F; Li, Jianguo; Reinke, Christian; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Jun, Jonathan C; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y

    2011-11-01

    Obesity causes insulin resistance (IR) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but the relative contribution of sleep apnea is debatable. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a hallmark of sleep apnea, on IR and NAFLD in lean mice and mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO). Mice (C57BL/6J), 6-8 weeks of age were fed a high fat (n = 18) or regular (n = 16) diet for 12 weeks and then exposed to CIH or control conditions (room air) for 4 weeks. At the end of the exposure, fasting (5 h) blood glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index, liver enzymes, and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg) were measured. In DIO mice, body weight remained stable during CIH and did not differ from control conditions. Lean mice under CIH were significantly lighter than control mice by day 28 (P = 0.002). Compared to lean mice, DIO mice had higher fasting levels of blood glucose, plasma insulin, the HOMA index, and had glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis at baseline. In lean mice, CIH slightly increased HOMA index (from 1.79 ± 0.13 in control to 2.41 ± 0.26 in CIH; P = 0.05), whereas glucose tolerance was not affected. In contrast, in DIO mice, CIH doubled HOMA index (from 10.1 ± 2.1 in control to 22.5 ± 3.6 in CIH; P < 0.01), and induced severe glucose intolerance. In DIO mice, CIH induced NAFLD, inflammation, and oxidative stress, which was not observed in lean mice. In conclusion, CIH exacerbates IR and induces steatohepatitis in DIO mice, suggesting that CIH may account for metabolic dysfunction in obesity.

  7. The effects of intestinal Escherichia coli 263, intravenous infusion of Escherichia coli 263 culture filtrate and iron dextran supplementation on iron metabolism in the young pig.

    PubMed

    Knight, C D; Klasing, K C; Forsyth, D M

    1984-12-01

    An experiment using 32 pigs in a 2(3) factorial arrangement of treatments was used to determine the effects on the (1) level of iron dextran supplementation, (2) iv infusion of an Escherichia coli 263 culture filtrate and (3) presence of E. coli 263 in a ligated intestinal segment, on the ability of the young pig to limit systemic Fe availability. Iron dextran was administered im 3 d postpartum. Culture filtrate was infused iv, E. coli were injected into ligated intestines and blood sampling was started at 14 d postpartum. Blood was taken every 2 h for 22 h, after which pigs were euthanized and livers, spleens and kidneys were removed. Pigs receiving 400 mg of iron dextran (HiFe) exhibited greater serum Fe (SFe) and lower total Fe-binding capacity (TIBC) than pigs injected with 100 mg Fe (LoFe). The effects of the E. coli culture filtrate infusion appeared to be associated with endotoxin-induced circulatory shock. The presence of E. coli in the intestine increased TIBC in LoFe pigs, but not in HiFe pigs. The increase in TIBC coincided with the time of maximal fluid secretion into the intestine. Intestinal E. coli also caused an increase in liver Fe content, particularly in HiFe pigs. These data suggest that intestinal E. coli can cause a shift of Fe from the plasma to the reticuloendothelial system, and pigs receiving high supplemental dosages of Fe are less able to limit the availability of Fe to microorganisms.

  8. Calorie restriction down-regulates expression of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin in normal and D-galactose-induced aging mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shougang; Shi, Wenli; Li, Man; Gao, Qian

    2014-02-01

    It has been shown that iron progressively accumulates in the brain with age. Calorie restriction (CR) may allay many of the adverse effects of aging on the brain, yet the underlying mechanisms, in particular in relation to brain iron metabolism, remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of CR in the regulation of cerebral cellular iron homeostasis. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups of eight. The control group was fed a conventional diet ad libitum; the CR group received 70% of the calories of the control mouse intake per day; the D-galactose (D-gal) group received subcutaneous injection of D-gal at a dose of 100 mg/kg once daily to produce mouse model of aging; the D-gal plus CR group received both of the two interventions for 14 weeks. The Morris water maze (MWM) was employed to test the cognitive performance of all animals, and the expression of iron regulatory genes, ferroportin and hepcidin, in the cortex and hippocampus were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Compared to the controls, the D-gal group mice showed significant spatial reference memory deficits in the MWM test, whereas the D-gal-CR group mice exhibited almost normal cognitive function, indicating that CR protects against D-gal-induced learning and memory impairment. Hepcidin mRNA expression was increased in the D-gal group, decreased in the CR group, and was basically unchanged in the D-gal-CR group. There was no statistical difference in the transmembrane iron exporter ferroportin expression between control and any of the experimental groups. The results suggest that the anti-aging effects of CR might partially lie in its capacity to reduce or avoid age-related iron accumulation in the brain through down-regulating expression of brain hepcidin--the key negative regulator for intracellular iron efflux--and that facilitating the balance of brain iron metabolism may be a promising anti-aging measure.

  9. Asbestos causes apoptosis in alveolar epithelial cells: role of iron-induced free radicals.

    PubMed

    Aljandali, A; Pollack, H; Yeldandi, A; Li, Y; Weitzman, S A; Kamp, D W

    2001-05-01

    Asbestos causes asbestosis and malignancies by mechanisms that are not fully understood. Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) injury by iron-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one important mechanism. To determine whether asbestos causes apoptosis in AECs, we exposed WI-26 (human type I-like cells), A549 (human type II-like cells), and rat alveolar type II cells to amosite asbestos and assessed apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine-5'-triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, nuclear morphology, annexin V staining, DNA nucleosome formation, and caspase 3 activation. In contrast to control medium and TiO2, amosite asbestos and H2O2 each caused AEC apoptosis. A role for iron-catalyzed ROS was suggested by the finding that asbestos-induced AEC apoptosis and caspase 3 activation were each attenuated by either an iron chelator (phytic acid and deferoxamine) or a.OH scavenger (dimethyl-thiourea, salicylate, and sodium benzoate) but not by iron-loaded phytic acid. To determine whether asbestos causes apoptosis in vivo, rats received a single intratracheal instillation of amosite (5 mg) or normal saline solution, and apoptosis in epithelial cells in the bronchoalveolar duct regions was assessed by TUNEL staining. One week after exposure, amosite asbestos caused a 3-fold increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells in the bronchoalveolar duct regions as compared with control (control, 2.1% +/- 0.35%; asbestos, 7.61% +/- 0.15%; n = 3). However, by 4 weeks the number of apoptotic cells was similar to control. We conclude that asbestos-induced pulmonary toxicity may partly be caused by apoptosis in the lung epithelium that is mediated by iron-catalyzed ROS and caspase 3 activation.

  10. Isolation of acetogenic bacteria that induce biocorrosion by utilizing metallic iron as the sole electron donor.

    PubMed

    Kato, Souichiro; Yumoto, Isao; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion of iron occurring under anoxic conditions, which is termed microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) or biocorrosion, is mostly caused by microbial activities. Microbial activity that enhances corrosion via uptake of electrons from metallic iron [Fe(0)] has been regarded as one of the major causative factors. In addition to sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea in marine environments, acetogenic bacteria in freshwater environments have recently been suggested to cause MIC under anoxic conditions. However, no microorganisms that perform acetogenesis-dependent MIC have been isolated or had their MIC-inducing mechanisms characterized. Here, we enriched and isolated acetogenic bacteria that induce iron corrosion by utilizing Fe(0) as the sole electron donor under freshwater, sulfate-free, and anoxic conditions. The enriched communities produced significantly larger amounts of Fe(II) than the abiotic controls and produced acetate coupled with Fe(0) oxidation prior to CH4 production. Microbial community analysis revealed that Sporomusa sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. dominated in the enrichments. Strain GT1, which is closely related to the acetogen Sporomusa sphaeroides, was eventually isolated from the enrichment. Strain GT1 grew acetogenetically with Fe(0) as the sole electron donor and enhanced iron corrosion, which is the first demonstration of MIC mediated by a pure culture of an acetogen. Other well-known acetogenic bacteria, including Sporomusa ovata and Acetobacterium spp., did not grow well on Fe(0). These results indicate that very few species of acetogens have specific mechanisms to efficiently utilize cathodic electrons derived from Fe(0) oxidation and induce iron corrosion.

  11. Protective effects of acerola juice on genotoxicity induced by iron in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Horta, Roberta Nunes; Kahl, Vivian Francilia Silva; Sarmento, Merielen da Silva; Nunes, Marisa Fernanda Silva; Porto, Carem Rejane Maglione; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Silva, Juliana Da

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Metal ions such as iron can induce DNA damage by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. Vitamin C is one of the most widely consumed antioxidants worldwide, present in many fruits and vegetables, especially inMalpighia glabra L., popularly known as acerola, native to Brazil. Acerola is considered a functional fruit due to its high antioxidant properties and phenolic contents, and therefore is consumed to prevent diseases or as adjuvant in treatment strategies. Here, the influence of ripe and unripe acerola juices on iron genotoxicity was analyzed in vivo using the comet assay and micronucleus test. The comet assay results showed that acerola juice exerted no genotoxic or antigenotoxic activity. Neither ripe nor unripe acerola juices were mutagenic to animals treated with juices, in micronucleus test. However, when compared to iron group, the pre-treatment with acerola juices exerted antimutagenic activity, decreasing significantly micronucleus mean values in bone marrow. Stage of ripeness did not influence the interaction of acerola compounds with DNA, and both ripe and unripe acerola juices exerted protective effect over DNA damage generated by iron. PMID:27007905

  12. Promotion of iron-induced rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation by copper.

    PubMed

    Beckman, J K; Borowitz, S M; Greene, H L; Burr, I M

    1988-06-01

    Although copper has been demonstrated to promote lipid peroxidation in a number of systems, the mechanisms involved have not been fully defined. In this study, the role of copper in modifying lipid peroxidation has been explored in rat hepatic microsomes. In an in vitro system containing reduced glutathione (GSH, 200 microM) and Tris buffer, pH 7.4, cupric sulfate (1-50 microM) potentiated lipid peroxidation induced by ferrous sulfate (10 microM) but was unable to elicit peroxidation in the absence of iron. Higher levels of cupric sulfate (100 microM or greater) were inhibitory. The nature as well as the extent of the peroxidative response of microsomes to cupric sulfate were dependent on glutathione levels in addition to those of iron. Cupric sulfate (100 microM) strongly potentiated ferrous ion-induced lipid peroxidation in the presence of 400-800 microM GSH, while it inhibited peroxidation at lower levels of GSH (0-200 microM) and did not affect ferrous ion-induced peroxidation with glutathione levels of 3-10 mM. The potentiating effect of copper on ferrous ion-induced lipid peroxidation was further explored by investigating: (1) potential GSH-mediated reduction of cupric ions; (2) potential copper/GSH-mediated reduction of ferric ions (formed by oxidation during incubation); and (3) possible promotion of propagation reactions by copper/GSH. Our results indicate that cupric ions are reduced by GSH and thus are converted from an inhibitor to an enhancer of iron-induced lipid peroxidation. Cuprous ions appear to potentiate lipid peroxidation by reduction of ferric ions, rather than by promoting propagation reactions. Iron (in a specific Fe+2/Fe+3 ratio) is then an effective promoter of initiation reactions.

  13. Modeling radiation induced segregation in Iron-Chromium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Senninger, Oriane; Soisson, Frederic; Martinez Saez, Enrique; Nastar, Maylise; Fu, Chu-Chun; Brechet, Yves

    2015-10-16

    Radiation induced segregation in ferritic Fe-Cr alloys is studied by Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations that include di usion of chemical species by vacancy and interstitial migration, recombination, and elimination at sinks. The parameters of the di usion model are tted to DFT calculations. Transport coe cients that control the coupling between di usion of defects and chemical species are measured in dilute and concentrated alloys. Radiation induced segregation near grain boundaries is directly simulated with this model. We nd that the di usion of vacancies toward sinks leads to a Cr depletion. Meanwhile, the di usion of self-interstitials causes an enrichment of Cr in the vicinity of sinks. For concentrations lower than 15%Cr, we predict that sinks will be enriched with Cr for temperatures lower than a threshold. When the temperature is above this threshold value, the sinks will be depleted in Cr. These results are compared to previous experimental studies and models. Cases of radiation induced precipitation and radiation accelerated precipitation are considered.

  14. Modeling radiation induced segregation in Iron-Chromium alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Senninger, Oriane; Soisson, Frederic; Martinez Saez, Enrique; ...

    2015-10-16

    Radiation induced segregation in ferritic Fe-Cr alloys is studied by Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations that include di usion of chemical species by vacancy and interstitial migration, recombination, and elimination at sinks. The parameters of the di usion model are tted to DFT calculations. Transport coe cients that control the coupling between di usion of defects and chemical species are measured in dilute and concentrated alloys. Radiation induced segregation near grain boundaries is directly simulated with this model. We nd that the di usion of vacancies toward sinks leads to a Cr depletion. Meanwhile, the di usion of self-interstitials causesmore » an enrichment of Cr in the vicinity of sinks. For concentrations lower than 15%Cr, we predict that sinks will be enriched with Cr for temperatures lower than a threshold. When the temperature is above this threshold value, the sinks will be depleted in Cr. These results are compared to previous experimental studies and models. Cases of radiation induced precipitation and radiation accelerated precipitation are considered.« less

  15. The lysine biosynthetic enzyme Lys4 influences iron metabolism, mitochondrial function and virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Do, Eunsoo; Park, Minji; Hu, Guanggan; Caza, Mélissa; Kronstad, James W; Jung, Won Hee

    2016-09-02

    The lysine biosynthesis pathway via α-aminoadipate in fungi is considered an attractive target for antifungal drugs due to its absence in mammalian hosts. The iron-sulfur cluster-containing enzyme homoaconitase converts homocitrate to homoisocitrate in the lysine biosynthetic pathway, and is encoded by LYS4 in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we identified the ortholog of LYS4 in the human fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans, and found that LYS4 expression is regulated by iron levels and by the iron-related transcription factors Hap3 and HapX. Deletion of the LYS4 gene resulted in lysine auxotrophy suggesting that Lys4 is essential for lysine biosynthesis. Our study also revealed that lysine uptake was mediated by two amino acid permeases, Aap2 and Aap3, and influenced by nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR). Furthermore, the lys4 mutant showed increased sensitivity to oxidative stress, agents that challenge cell wall/membrane integrity, and azole antifungal drugs. We showed that these phenotypes were due in part to impaired mitochondrial function as a result of LYS4 deletion, which we propose disrupts iron homeostasis in the organelle. The combination of defects are consistent with our observation that the lys4 mutant was attenuated virulence in a mouse inhalation model of cryptococcosis.

  16. The effect of inducers and inhibitors of urethane metabolism on its in vitro and in vivo metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Carlson, G P

    1994-12-09

    The activation of urethane (ethyl carbamate) is important in its exerting its carcinogenic effect. Rats were treated with inducers and inhibitors of urethane metabolism, and the conversion of [carbonyl-14C]urethane to 14CO2 in vivo was measured. The cytochrome P-450 inducers, phenobarbital and beta-naphthoflavone, and esterase inhibitor, paraoxon, were without effect while the CYP2E1 inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamate, decreased metabolism to about 3% of control. Ethanol administered acutely inhibited urethane metabolism. Pyridine, shown previously to enhance this metabolism in microsomal preparations, greatly inhibited it in vivo. The discordant results between the in vitro and in vivo studies may be related to the presence of pyridine acting as an inhibitor in whole animals and suggest that caution is needed in extrapolating from in vitro results to in vivo implications.

  17. Loading-induced changes in synovial fluid affect cartilage metabolism.

    PubMed

    Van den Hoogen, B M; van de Lest, C H; van Weeren, P R; Lafeber, F P; Lopes-Cardozo, M; van Golde, L M; Barneveld, A

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether changes in the synovial fluid (SF) induced by in vivo loading can induce an alteration in the metabolic activity of chondrocytes in vitro. Therefore, SF was collected from ponies after a period of box rest and after they had exercise for a week. Normal, unloaded articular cartilage explants were cultured in 20% solutions of these SFs for 4 days and chondrocyte activity was determined by glycosaminoglycan (GAG) turnover. In explants cultured in post-exercise SF, GAG synthesis was enhanced and GAG release was diminished when compared to cultures in pre-exercise SF. SF analysis showed that levels of insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II) tended to be higher in post-exercise SF, while no differences were found in metalloproteinase activity, hyaluronic acid and protein concentrations. This study showed that anabolic effects of joint loading on cartilage are, at least partially, mediated by alterations in the SF.

  18. Hepcidin and Iron Metabolism in Pregnancy: Correlation with Smoking and Birth Weight and Length.

    PubMed

    Chełchowska, Magdalena; Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Gajewska, Joanna; Jabłońska-Głąb, Ewa; Maciejewski, Tomasz M; Ołtarzewski, Mariusz

    2016-09-01

    To estimate the effect of tobacco smoking on iron homeostasis and the possible association between hepcidin and the neonatal birth weight and length, concentrations of serum hepcidin and selected iron markers were measured in 81 healthy pregnant women (41 smokers and 40 nonsmokers). The smoking mothers had significantly lower concentrations of serum hepcidin (p < 0.001), iron (p < 0.001), and hemoglobin (p < 0.05), but higher erythropoietin (p < 0.05) levels compared with non-smoking pregnant women. Logistic regression analysis showed the highest negative impact of the number of cigarettes smoked per day (β = -0.46; p < 0.01) and positive impact of ferritin level (β = 0.47; p < 0.001) on serum hepcidin concentration. The birth weight and the body length of smoking mothers' infants were significantly lower than in tobacco abstinent group (p < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, birth body weight (β = 0.56; p < 0.001) and length (β = 0.50; p < 0.001) were significantly related to maternal hepcidin values. Tobacco smoking affected hepcidin level in serum of pregnant women in a dose-dependent manner. Low concentrations of iron and hemoglobin in maternal serum coexisting with high level of erythropoietin suggest that smoking could lead to subclinical iron deficiency and chronic hypoxia not only in mothers but also in fetus. Low serum hepcidin concentration in smoking pregnant women might be associated with lower fetal birth weight and length.

  19. Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4α Controls Iron Metabolism and Regulates Transferrin Receptor 2 in Mouse Liver*

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Shunsuke; Ogawa, Masayuki; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Mizui, Yumiko; Sasaki, Shota; Fujimura, Takafumi; Takizawa, Masayuki; Ariga, Nagayuki; Ozaki, Hiroaki; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Inoue, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential element in biological systems, but excess iron promotes the formation of reactive oxygen species, resulting in cellular toxicity. Several iron-related genes are highly expressed in the liver, a tissue in which hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) plays a critical role in controlling gene expression. Therefore, the role of hepatic HNF4α in iron homeostasis was examined using liver-specific HNF4α-null mice (Hnf4aΔH mice). Hnf4aΔH mice exhibit hypoferremia and a significant change in hepatic gene expression. Notably, the expression of transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2) mRNA was markedly decreased in Hnf4aΔH mice. Promoter analysis of the Tfr2 gene showed that the basal promoter was located at a GC-rich region upstream of the transcription start site, a region that can be transactivated in an HNF4α-independent manner. HNF4α-dependent expression of Tfr2 was mediated by a proximal promoter containing two HNF4α-binding sites located between the transcription start site and the translation start site. Both the GC-rich region of the basal promoter and the HNF4α-binding sites were required for maximal transactivation. Moreover, siRNA knockdown of HNF4α suppressed TFR2 expression in human HCC cells. These results suggest that Tfr2 is a novel target gene for HNF4α, and hepatic HNF4α plays a critical role in iron homeostasis. PMID:26527688

  20. Iron-induced epigenetic abnormalities of mouse bone marrow through aberrant activation of aconitase and isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masayo; Tanaka, Hiroki; Toki, Yasumichi; Hatayama, Mayumi; Ito, Satoshi; Addo, Lynda; Shindo, Motohiro; Sasaki, Katsunori; Ikuta, Katsuya; Ohtake, Takaaki; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Torimoto, Yoshihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2016-10-01

    Iron overload remains a concern in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients. Iron chelation therapy (ICT) thus plays an integral role in the management of these patients. Moreover, ICT has been shown to prolong leukemia-free survival in MDS patients; however, the mechanisms responsible for this effect are unclear. Iron is a key molecule for regulating cytosolic aconitase 1 (ACO1). Additionally, the mutation of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), the enzyme downstream of ACO1 in the TCA cycle, is associated with epigenetic abnormalities secondary to 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) and DNA methylation. However, epigenetic abnormalities observed in many MDS patients occur without IDH mutation. We hypothesized that iron itself activates the ACO1-IDH pathway, which may increase 2-HG and DNA methylation, and eventually contribute to leukemogenesis without IDH mutation. Using whole RNA sequencing of bone marrow cells in iron-overloaded mice, we observed that the enzymes, phosphoglucomutase 1, glycogen debranching enzyme, and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (Idh1), which are involved in glycogen and glucose metabolism, were increased. Digital PCR further showed that Idh1 and Aco1, enzymes involved in the TCA cycle, were also elevated. Additionally, enzymatic activities of TCA cycle and methylated DNA were increased. Iron chelation reversed these phenomena. In conclusion, iron activation of glucose metabolism causes an increase of 2-HG and DNA methylation.

  1. Baking soda induced severe metabolic alkalosis in a haemodialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Solak, Yalcin; Turkmen, Kultigin; Atalay, Huseyin; Turk, Suleyman

    2009-08-01

    Metabolic alkalosis is a rare occurence in hemodialysis population compared to metabolic acidosis unless some precipitating factors such as nasogastric suction, vomiting and alkali ingestion or infusion are present. When metabolic alkalosis develops, it may cause serious clinical consequences among them are sleep apnea, resistent hypertension, dysrhythmia and seizures. Here, we present a 54-year-old female hemodialysis patient who developed a severe metabolic alkalosis due to baking soda ingestion to relieve dyspepsia. She had sleep apnea, volume overload and uncontrolled hypertension due to metabolic alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis was corrected and the patient's clinical condition was relieved with negative-bicarbonate hemodialysis.

  2. Acute Ozone-Induced Pulmonary and Systemic Metabolic Effects are Diminished in Adrenalectomized Rats#

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute ozone exposure increases circulating stress hormones and induces metabolic alterations in animals and humans. We hypothesized that the increase of adrenal-derived stress hormones is necessary for both ozone-induced metabolic effects and lung injury. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats ...

  3. Acute Ozone-Induced Pulmonary and Systemic Metabolic Effects are Diminished in Adrenalectomized Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute ozone exposure increases circulating stress hormones and induces peripheral metabolic alterations in animals and humans. We hypothesized that the increase of adrenal-derived stress hormones is necessary for ozone-induced systemic metabolic effects and lung injury. Male Wis...

  4. Iron-induced oxidative stress in a macrophyte: a chemometric approach.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sarita; Basant, Ankita; Malik, Amrita; Singh, Kunwar P

    2009-02-01

    Iron-induced oxidative stress in plants of Bacopa monnieri L., a macrophyte with medicinal value, was investigated using the chemometric approach. Cluster analysis (CA) rendered two distinct clusters of roots and shoots. Discriminant analysis (DA) identified discriminating variables (NP-SH and APX) between the root and shoot tissues. Principal component analysis (PCA) results suggested that protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbic acid, proline, and Fe uptake are dominant in root tissues, whereas malondialdehyde (MDA), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), cysteine, and non-protein thiol (NP-SH) in shoot of the stress plant. Discriminant partial-least squares (DPLS) results further confirmed that SOD and ascorbic acid contents dominated in root tissues, while NP-SH, cysteine, POD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and MDA in shoot. MDA and NP-SH were identified as most pronounced variables in plant during the highest exposure time. The chemometric approach allowed for the interpretation of the induced biochemical changes in plant tissues exposed to iron.

  5. 2-Oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases are sensors of energy metabolism, oxygen availability, and iron homeostasis: potential role in the regulation of aging process.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Antero; Kauppinen, Anu; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the members of an ancient family of nonheme Fe(2+)/2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-OGDO) are involved in the functions associated with the aging process. 2-Oxoglutarate and O2 are the obligatory substrates and Fe(2+) a cofactor in the activation of 2-OGDO enzymes, which can induce the hydroxylation of distinct proteins and the demethylation of DNA and histones. For instance, ten-eleven translocation 1-3 (TET1-3) are the demethylases of DNA, whereas Jumonji C domain-containing histone lysine demethylases (KDM2-7) are the major epigenetic regulators of chromatin landscape, known to be altered with aging. The functions of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylases (PHD1-3) as well as those of collagen hydroxylases are associated with age-related degeneration. Moreover, the ribosomal hydroxylase OGFOD1 controls mRNA translation, which is known to decline with aging. 2-OGDO enzymes are the sensors of energy metabolism, since the Krebs cycle intermediate 2-oxoglutarate is an activator whereas succinate and fumarate are the potent inhibitors of 2-OGDO enzymes. In addition, O2 availability and iron redox homeostasis control the activities of 2-OGDO enzymes in tissues. We will briefly elucidate the catalytic mechanisms of 2-OGDO enzymes and then review the potential functions of the above-mentioned 2-OGDO enzymes in the control of the aging process.

  6. Murine macrophages response to iron.

    PubMed

    Polati, Rita; Castagna, Annalisa; Bossi, Alessandra Maria; Alberio, Tiziana; De Domenico, Ivana; Kaplan, Jerry; Timperio, Anna Maria; Zolla, Lello; Gevi, Federica; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Brunch, Ryan; Olivieri, Oliviero; Girelli, Domenico

    2012-12-05

    Macrophages play a critical role at the crossroad between iron metabolism and immunity, being able to store and recycle iron derived from the phagocytosis of senescent erythrocytes. The way by which macrophages manage non-heme iron at physiological concentration is still not fully understood. We investigated protein changes in mouse bone marrow macrophages incubated with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC 10 μM iron). Differentially expressed spots were identified by nano RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Transcriptomic, metabolomics and western immunoblotting analyses complemented the proteomic approach. Pattern analysis was also used for identifying networks of proteins involved in iron homeostasis. FAC treatment resulted in higher abundance of several proteins including ferritins, cytoskeleton related proteins, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) at the membrane level, vimentin, arginase, galectin-3 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). Interestingly, GAPDH has been recently proposed to act as an alternative transferrin receptor for iron acquisition through internalization of the GAPDH-transferrin complex into the early endosomes. FAC treatment also induced the up-regulation of oxidative stress-related proteins (PRDX), which was further confirmed at the metabolic level (increase in GSSG, 8-isoprostane and pentose phosphate pathway intermediates) through mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolomics approaches. This study represents an example of the potential usefulness of "integarated omics" in the field of iron biology, especially for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms controlling iron homeostasis in normal and disease conditions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Integrated omics.

  7. Iron-induced virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium at the intestinal epithelial interface can be suppressed by carvacrol.

    PubMed

    Kortman, Guus A M; Roelofs, Rian W H M; Swinkels, Dorine W; de Jonge, Marien I; Burt, Sara A; Tjalsma, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Oral iron therapy can increase the abundance of bacterial pathogens, e.g., Salmonella spp., in the large intestine of African children. Carvacrol is a natural compound with antimicrobial activity against various intestinal bacterial pathogens, among which is the highly prevalent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. This study aimed to explore a presumed interaction between carvacrol and bacterial iron handling and to assess the potential of carvacrol in preventing the increase of bacterial pathogenicity during high iron availability. S. Typhimurium was cultured with increasing concentrations of iron and carvacrol to study the effects of these combined interventions on growth, adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells, and iron uptake/influx in both bacterial and epithelial cells. In addition, the ability of carvacrol to remove iron from the high-affinity ligand transferrin and an Fe-dye complex was examined. Carvacrol retarded growth of S. Typhimurium at all iron conditions. Furthermore, iron-induced epithelial adhesion was effectively reduced by carvacrol at high iron concentrations. The reduction of growth and virulence by carvacrol was not paralleled by a change in iron uptake or influx into S. Typhimurium. In contrast, bioavailability of iron for epithelial cells was moderately decreased under these conditions. Further, carvacrol was shown to lack the properties of an iron binding molecule; however, it was able to weaken iron-ligand interactions by which it may possibly interfere with bacterial virulence. In conclusion, our in vitro data suggest that carvacrol has the potential to serve as a novel dietary supplement to prevent pathogenic overgrowth and colonization in the large intestine during oral iron therapy.

  8. Iron-Induced Virulence of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium at the Intestinal Epithelial Interface Can Be Suppressed by Carvacrol

    PubMed Central

    Kortman, Guus A. M.; Roelofs, Rian W. H. M.; Swinkels, Dorine W.; de Jonge, Marien I.; Burt, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Oral iron therapy can increase the abundance of bacterial pathogens, e.g., Salmonella spp., in the large intestine of African children. Carvacrol is a natural compound with antimicrobial activity against various intestinal bacterial pathogens, among which is the highly prevalent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. This study aimed to explore a presumed interaction between carvacrol and bacterial iron handling and to assess the potential of carvacrol in preventing the increase of bacterial pathogenicity during high iron availability. S. Typhimurium was cultured with increasing concentrations of iron and carvacrol to study the effects of these combined interventions on growth, adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells, and iron uptake/influx in both bacterial and epithelial cells. In addition, the ability of carvacrol to remove iron from the high-affinity ligand transferrin and an Fe-dye complex was examined. Carvacrol retarded growth of S. Typhimurium at all iron conditions. Furthermore, iron-induced epithelial adhesion was effectively reduced by carvacrol at high iron concentrations. The reduction of growth and virulence by carvacrol was not paralleled by a change in iron uptake or influx into S. Typhimurium. In contrast, bioavailability of iron for epithelial cells was moderately decreased under these conditions. Further, carvacrol was shown to lack the properties of an iron binding molecule; however, it was able to weaken iron-ligand interactions by which it may possibly interfere with bacterial virulence. In conclusion, our in vitro data suggest that carvacrol has the potential to serve as a novel dietary supplement to prevent pathogenic overgrowth and colonization in the large intestine during oral iron therapy. PMID:24379194

  9. Metabolic flexibility of the Fe(II)-oxidizing phototropic strain Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE1 and its potential role in microbial iron cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, C.; Oswald, K.; Melton, E. D.; Kappler, A.

    2012-04-01

    The biogeochemical conversion of iron(II) and iron(III) is widespread in many aquatic and terrestrial environments. In the anoxic regime of soils and sediments the conversion and alternation of the iron redox state is predominantly run by microorganisms that are thought to gain life-sustaining energy by the oxidation and/or reduction of ferrous/ferric components. The spatial arrangement of microbial iron(II) oxidation and iron(III) reduction is largely controlled by the availability of the required electron acceptor and electron donor, as well as the essential source of energy (i.e. light or chemical energy). The physico-chemical patterns of many microbial environments undergo dynamic variations (i.e. diurnal and seasonal changes) as a function of natural external forces (i.e. seasonality, storm events, algae blooms) which strongly affects the local budget of organic carbon and nutrients, as well as the day light penetration. Such fluctuations force microorganisms either to follow the flow of substrate or to switch their metabolism to alternative electron acceptors and/or donors. Different photoferrotrophic bacteria have been shown to be able to grow either on organic (heterotrophic) or inorganic (autotrophic) substrates while exploiting light as their energy source. Within the frame of this study the preference for organic substrates (lactate and acetate) and/or ferrous iron (in simultaneous presence) for photo(ferro)trophic growth of Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE1 has been investigated in detail. Rates of iron oxidation, acetate/lactate consumption and growth have been followed over time as a function of different lactate to acetate to iron(II) ratios. Additional experiments have been designed to evaluate the potential of Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE1 to contribute to the redox cycling of iron. TIE1 has been grown in a batch set-up in which the iron(III)-reducing strain Shewanella oneidensis MR1 has been incubated at different ferrihydrite concentrations in

  10. Step induced magnetic anisotropy of iron/tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mireles, Hector Cordova

    Surface Magneto Optic Kerr Effect (SMOKE) measurements of ultrathin layers of Fe on graded-step-density W(001) are used to test essential predictions of a hysteresis loop phase diagram model reported by Zangwill et al. [1]. The one-dimensional micromagetic model produces a rich variety of hysteresis loop shapes as well as predictions of switching field strengths that depend on two parameters: Λ = normalized step length and κ = normalized step-anisotropy energy. These parameters are varied in the experiment by using a graded-step-density W(001) surface (vicinal angle α range from 0°-15°), and by reducing the step anisotropy energy with chemisorption. Spot-Profile- Analysis Low Energy Electron Diffraction (SPA- LEED) is used to characterize the stepped surfaces. The experiments indicate that the Zangwill model successfully accounts for general trends in hysteresis loop shapes and switching field dependencies as a function of Λ and κ. Our measured switching fields, ( Hswitch) vs vicinality for 2 monolayers thick Fe films are generally compatible with results reported by Kawakami et al. [2] over the range 0° < α < 7°, although our results over this range yield a power law of Hswitch ~ αn where n = 2.6 +/- .1, which is different from the quadratic behavior Hswitch ~ α 2 obtained from their measurements and those predicted by the Néel model [3]. Above a critical vicinal angle, αq the step-induced anisotropy becomes ineffective and the loops revert back to the square shape observed on flat surfaces. The angle αq is dependent on the oxygen dosage on the sample as well as on the film thickness. Novel two- state switching is observed at selected vicinal angles, which is related to surface-step-induced anisotropy. While both the Néel model and the Zangwill model account for general trends in step-induced magnetic anisotropy, refinements in the micromagnetic model appear to be required to explain the observed phenomena in detail.

  11. Catecholamine Stress Hormones Regulate Cellular Iron Homeostasis by a Posttranscriptional Mechanism Mediated by Iron Regulatory Protein

    PubMed Central

    Tapryal, Nisha; Vivek G, Vishnu; Mukhopadhyay, Chinmay K.

    2015-01-01

    Adequate availability of iron is important for cellular energy metabolism. Catecholamines such as epinephrine and norepinephrine promote energy expenditure to adapt to conditions that arose due to stress. To restore the energy balance, epinephrine/norepinephrine-exposed cells may face higher iron demand. So far, no direct role of epinephrine/norepinephrine in cellular iron homeostasis has been reported. Here we show that epinephrine/norepinephrine regulates iron homeostasis components such as transferrin receptor-1 and ferritin-H in hepatic and skeletal muscle cells by promoting the binding of iron regulatory proteins to iron-responsive elements present in the UTRs of transferrin receptor-1 and ferritin-H transcripts. Increased transferrin receptor-1, decreased ferritin-H, and increased iron-responsive element-iron regulatory protein interaction are also observed in liver and muscle tissues of epinephrine/norepinephrine-injected mice. We demonstrate the role of epinephrine/norepinephrine-induced generation of reactive oxygen species in converting cytosolic aconitase (ACO1) into iron regulatory protein-1 to bind iron-responsive elements present in UTRs of transferrin receptor-1 and ferritin-H. Our study further reveals that mitochondrial iron content and mitochondrial aconitase (ACO2) activity are elevated by epinephrine/norepinephrine that are blocked by the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine and iron regulatory protein-1 siRNA, suggesting involvement of reactive oxygen species and iron regulatory protein-1 in this mechanism. This study reveals epinephrine and norepinephrine as novel regulators of cellular iron homeostasis. PMID:25572399

  12. Dislocation core reconstruction induced by carbon segregation in bcc iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventelon, Lisa; Lüthi, B.; Clouet, E.; Proville, L.; Legrand, B.; Rodney, D.; Willaime, F.

    2015-06-01

    The relative stability of dislocation core configurations in body-centered-cubic metals is profoundly modified by the presence of solutes. Considering the Fe(C) system, we demonstrate by using density functional theory that carbon atoms destabilize the usual easy core to the benefit of the hard core configuration of the screw dislocation, which is unstable in pure metals. The carbon atom is at the center of a regular prism in a cementitelike local environment. The same dislocation core reconstruction is also found with other solutes (B, N, O) and in W(C). This unexpected low-energy configuration induces a strong solute-dislocation attraction, leading to dislocation core saturation by solute atoms, even for very low bulk solute concentrations. This core reconstruction will constitute an essential factor to account for in solute-segregation related phenomena, such as strain aging.

  13. New insights into the human body iron metabolism analyzed by a Petri net based approach.

    PubMed

    Sackmann, Andrea; Formanowicz, Dorota; Formanowicz, Piotr; Blazewicz, Jacek

    2009-04-01

    Iron homeostasis is one of the most important biochemical processes in the human body. Despite this fact, the process is not fully understood and until recently only rough descriptions of parts of the process could be found in the literature. Here, an extension of the recently published formal model of the main part of the process is presented. This extension consists in including all known mechanisms of hepcidin regulation. Hepcidin is a hormone synthesized in the liver which is mainly responsible for an inhibition of iron absorption in the small intestine during an inflammatory process. The model is expressed in the language of Petri net theory which allows for its relatively easy analysis and simulation.

  14. Redox Balance in Lactobacillus reuteri DSM20016: Roles of Iron-Dependent Alcohol Dehydrogenases in Glucose/ Glycerol Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Bromberger, Paul David; Nieuwenhuiys, Gavin; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri, a heterofermentative bacterium, metabolizes glycerol via a Pdu (propanediol-utilization) pathway involving dehydration to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) followed by reduction to 1,3-propandiol (1,3-PDO) with concomitant generation of an oxidized cofactor, NAD+ that is utilized to maintain cofactor balance required for glucose metabolism and even for oxidation of 3-HPA by a Pdu oxidative branch to 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP). The Pdu pathway is operative inside Pdu microcompartment that encapsulates different enzymes and cofactors involved in metabolizing glycerol or 1,2-propanediol, and protects the cells from the toxic effect of the aldehyde intermediate. Since L. reuteri excretes high amounts of 3-HPA outside the microcompartment, the organism is likely to have alternative alcohol dehydrogenase(s) in the cytoplasm for transformation of the aldehyde. In this study, diversity of alcohol dehydrogenases in Lactobacillus species was investigated with a focus on L. reuteri. Nine ADH enzymes were found in L. reuteri DSM20016, out of which 3 (PduQ, ADH6 and ADH7) belong to the group of iron-dependent enzymes that are known to transform aldehydes/ketones to alcohols. L. reuteri mutants were generated in which the three ADHs were deleted individually. The lagging growth phenotype of these deletion mutants revealed that limited NAD+/NADH recycling could be restricting their growth in the absence of ADHs. Notably, it was demonstrated that PduQ is more active in generating NAD+ during glycerol metabolism within the microcompartment by resting cells, while ADH7 functions to balance NAD+/NADH by converting 3-HPA to 1,3-PDO outside the microcompartment in the growing cells. Moreover, evaluation of ADH6 deletion mutant showed strong decrease in ethanol level, supporting the role of this bifuctional alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase in ethanol production. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report revealing both internal and external recycling

  15. Metabolic responses to iron deficiency in roots of Carrizo citrange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck. x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Iglesias, Domingo J; Talón, Manuel; Abadía, Javier; López-Millán, Ana-Flor; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Legaz, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    The effects of iron (Fe) deficiency on the low-molecular-weight organic acid (LMWOA) metabolism have been investigated in Carrizo citrange (CC) [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] roots. Major LMWOAs found in roots, xylem sap and root exudates were citrate and malate and their concentrations increased with Fe deficiency. The activities of several enzymes involved in the LMWOA metabolism were also assessed in roots. In the cytosolic fraction, the activities of malate dehydrogenase (cMDH) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) enzymes were 132 and 100% higher in Fe-deficient conditions, whereas the activity of pyruvate kinase was 31% lower and the activity of malic enzyme (ME) did not change. In the mitochondrial fraction, the activities of fumarase, MDH and citrate synthase enzymes were 158, 117 and 53% higher, respectively, in Fe-deficient extracts when compared with Fe-sufficient controls, whereas no significant differences between treatments were found for aconitase (ACO) activity. The expression of their corresponding genes in roots of Fe-deficient plants was higher than that measured in Fe-sufficient controls, except for ACO and ME. Also, dicarboxylate-tricarboxylate carrier (DTC) expression was significantly increased in Fe-deficient roots. In conclusion, Fe deficiency in CC seedlings causes a reprogramming of the carbon metabolism that involves an increase of anaplerotic fixation of carbon via PEPC and MDH activities in the cytosol and a shift of the Krebs cycle in the mitochondria towards a non-cyclic mode, as previously described in herbaceous species. In this scheme, DTC could play an important role shuttling both malate and reducing equivalents between the cytosol and the mitochondria. As a result of this metabolic switch malate and citrate concentrations in roots, xylem sap and root exudates increase.

  16. Iron transformations induced by an acid-tolerant Desulfosporosinus species.

    PubMed

    Bertel, Doug; Peck, John; Quick, Thomas J; Senko, John M

    2012-01-01

    The mineralogical transformations of Fe phases induced by an acid-tolerant, Fe(III)- and sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfosporosinus sp. strain GBSRB4.2 were evaluated under geochemical conditions associated with acid mine drainage-impacted systems (i.e., low pH and high Fe concentrations). X-ray powder diffractometry coupled with magnetic analysis by first-order reversal curve diagrams were used to evaluate mineral phases produced by GBSRB4.2 in media containing different ratios of Fe(II) and Fe(III). In medium containing Fe predominately in the +II oxidation state, ferrimagnetic, single-domain greigite (Fe₃S₄) was formed, but the addition of Fe(III) inhibited greigite formation. In media that contained abundant Fe(III) [as schwertmannite; Fe₈O₈(OH)₆SO₄ · nH₂O], the activities of strain GBSRB4.2 enhanced the transformation of schwertmannite to goethite (α-FeOOH), due to the increased pH and Fe(II) concentrations that resulted from the activities of GBSRB4.2.

  17. Iron Transformations Induced by an Acid-Tolerant Desulfosporosinus Species

    PubMed Central

    Bertel, Doug; Peck, John; Quick, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The mineralogical transformations of Fe phases induced by an acid-tolerant, Fe(III)- and sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfosporosinus sp. strain GBSRB4.2 were evaluated under geochemical conditions associated with acid mine drainage-impacted systems (i.e., low pH and high Fe concentrations). X-ray powder diffractometry coupled with magnetic analysis by first-order reversal curve diagrams were used to evaluate mineral phases produced by GBSRB4.2 in media containing different ratios of Fe(II) and Fe(III). In medium containing Fe predominately in the +II oxidation state, ferrimagnetic, single-domain greigite (Fe3S4) was formed, but the addition of Fe(III) inhibited greigite formation. In media that contained abundant Fe(III) [as schwertmannite; Fe8O8(OH)6SO4 · nH2O], the activities of strain GBSRB4.2 enhanced the transformation of schwertmannite to goethite (α-FeOOH), due to the increased pH and Fe(II) concentrations that resulted from the activities of GBSRB4.2. PMID:22038606

  18. Pomegranate juice intake attenuates the increase in oxidative stress induced by intravenous iron during hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Shema-Didi, Lilach; Kristal, Batya; Ore, Liora; Shapiro, Galina; Geron, Ronit; Sela, Shifra

    2013-06-01

    The hemodialysis (HD) procedure induces oxidative stress (OS), which is further aggravated by intravenous (IV) iron administration, aimed at correcting anemia of patients with HD. We have recently shown that 1 year of pomegranate juice (PJ) intake attenuated OS and inflammation in patients with HD. In the current study, we hypothesized that a single dose of PJ can attenuate the enhanced OS and inflammation induced by both the dialysis procedure and IV iron administration during HD session. Twenty-seven patients with HD were randomized to receive PJ or placebo during 1 dialysis session with IV iron. Blood samples were drawn before and after the session to asses OS biomarkers such as advanced oxidation protein products and myeloperoxidase (MPO), whereas polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) counts served as an indirect measure of inflammation. At the end of the dialysis session, an increase in advanced oxidation protein products and MPO levels as well as a decrease in PMNLs counts were observed in the placebo group, whereas no significant changes occurred in the PJ group. The postdialysis increase in MPO levels in the placebo group is a direct result of PMNL degranulation, associated with postdialysis decrease in PMNL counts. Degranulation of PMNLs leads to the release of other cell moieties, such as inflammatory mediators and proteases that enhance inflammation. We conclude that PJ intake attenuated the increase in systemic OS and inflammation induced by IV iron administration during the dialysis session. These beneficial effects illuminate the previously observed attenuation in OS and inflammation in patients with HD on prolonged PJ intake.

  19. Early embryonic androgen exposure induces transgenerational epigenetic and metabolic changes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Chua, Angela K; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Ning-Ai; Goodarzi, Mark O

    2014-08-01

    Androgen excess is a central feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which affects 6% to 10% of young women. Mammals exposed to elevated androgens in utero develop PCOS-like phenotypes in adulthood, suggesting fetal origins of PCOS. We hypothesize that excess androgen exposure during early embryonic development may disturb the epigenome and disrupt metabolism in exposed and unexposed subsequent generations. Zebrafish were used to study the underlying mechanism of fetal origins. Embryos were exposed to androgens (testosterone and dihydrotestosterone) early at 26 to 56 hours post fertilization or late at 21 to 28 days post fertilization. Exposed zebrafish (F0) were grown to adults and crossed to generate unexposed offspring (F1). For both generations, global DNA methylation levels were examined in ovaries using a luminometric methylation assay, and fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels were measured. We found that early but not late androgen exposure induced changes in global methylation and glucose homeostasis in both generations. In general, F0 adult zebrafish exhibited altered global methylation levels in the ovary; F1 zebrafish had global hypomethylation. Fasting blood glucose levels were decreased in F0 but increased in F1; postprandial glucose levels were elevated in both F0 and F1. This androgenized zebrafish study suggests that transient excess androgen exposure during early development can result in transgenerational alterations in the ovarian epigenome and glucose homeostasis. Current data cannot establish a causal relationship between epigenetic changes and altered glucose homeostasis. Whether transgenerational epigenetic alteration induced by prenatal androgen exposure plays a role in the development of PCOS in humans deserves study.

  20. Induced phenylpropanoid metabolism during suberization and lignification: a comparative analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernards, M. A.; Susag, L. M.; Bedgar, D. L.; Anterola, A. M.; Lewis, N. G.

    2000-01-01

    Induction of the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids was monitored at the enzyme level through measurement of the temporal change in the activity of two marker enzymes of phenylpropanoid metabolism, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, (PAL, E.C. 4.1.3.5) and 4-coumaryl-CoA ligase (4-CL, E.C. 6.2.1.12) and two marker enzymes for hydroxycinnamyl alcohol biosynthesis, cinnamoyl-CoA:NADP+ oxidoreductase (CCR, E.C. 1.2.1.44) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, E.C. 1.1.1.195) in both suberizing potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and lignifying loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) cell cultures. While measurable activities of PAL, 4-CL and CAD increased upon initiation of suberization in potato tubers, that of CCR did not. By contrast, all four enzymes were induced upon initiation of lignification in pine cell cultures. The lack of CCR induction in potato by wound treatment is consistent with the channelling of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA derivatives away from monolignol formation and toward other hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives such as those that accumulate during suberization.

  1. New Insights into the Crosstalk between NMDARs and Iron: Implications for Understanding Pathology of Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huamin; Jiang, Hong; Xie, Junxia

    2017-01-01

    Both iron dyshomeostasis and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs)-mediated neurotoxicity have been shown to have an important role in neurological diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Evidence proved that activation of NMDARs could promote iron overload and iron-induced neurotoxicity by enhancing iron importer divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1)-mediated iron uptake and iron releasing from lysosome. Also, iron overload could regulate NMDARs-mediated synaptic transmission. This indicates that there might be a possible relationship between iron and activation of NMDARs in neurological diseases. Understanding this interaction between iron and activation of NMDARs may provide new therapeutic avenues for a more targeted neurotherapeutic strategy for these diseases. Therefore, in this review article, we will describe the dysfunction of iron metabolism and NMDARs in neurological diseases including PD and AD, and summarize the new insight into the mechanisms underlying the interaction between iron and activation of NMDARs. PMID:28360837

  2. Effects of Maternal Linseed Oil Supplementation on Metabolic Parameters in Cafeteria Diet-induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Benaissa, Nawel; Merzouk, Hafida; Merzouk, Sid Ahmed; Narce, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Because linseed oil may influence maternal and fetal metabolisms, we investigated its role in the modulation of lipid metabolism in cafeteria diet-induced obese rats and their offspring. Female Wistar rats were fed control or cafeteria food, which were either supplemented or not supplemented with linseed oil (5%) for 1 month before and during gestation. At parturition, serum and tissue lipids and enzyme activities were analyzed. Cafeteria diet induced adverse metabolic alterations in both mothers and offspring. Linseed oil improved metabolic status. In conclusion, linseed oil displayed health benefits by modulating tissue enzyme activities in both obese mothers and their newborns.

  3. Induction of IRT1 by the nickel-induced iron-deficient response in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Sho; Aisu, Ayaka; Mizuno, Takafumi

    2012-03-01

    Excessive amounts of nickel (Ni) can be toxic for plants. Recently, we reported that IRT1, the primary iron (Fe) uptake transporter in roots, meditates excess Ni accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana. We also found that Ni exposure increases IRT1 expression in roots, suggesting that Ni uptake is further induced by Ni stress. Here, we show that Ni exposure induces expression of not only IRT1, but also FRO2, a ferric reductase in the root epidermis, and FIT, a transcription factor regulating the expression of genes involved in Fe homeostasis including IRT1 and FRO2. This result suggests that Ni accumulation induces an Fe-deficient response and leads to the induction of IRT1. Our findings suggest that excess Ni causes Fe deficiency at the molecular level and induces Fe deficiency signaling in plant cells.

  4. The impact on atmospheric CO2 of iron fertilization induced changes in the ocean's biological pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, X.; Gruber, N.; Frenzel, H.; Doney, S. C.; McWilliams, J. C.

    2007-10-01

    Using numerical simulations, we quantify the impact of changes in the ocean's biological pump on the air-sea balance of CO2 by fertilizing a small surface patch in the high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll region of the eastern tropical Pacific with iron. Decade-long fertilization experiments are conducted in a basin-scale, eddy-permitting coupled physical biogeochemical ecological model. In contrast to previous studies, we find that most of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) removed from the euphotic zone by the enhanced biological export is replaced by uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere. Atmospheric uptake efficiencies, the ratio of the perturbation in air-sea CO2 flux to the perturbation in export flux across 100 m, are 0.75 to 0.93 in our patch size-scale experiments. The atmospheric uptake efficiency is insensitive to the duration of the experiment. The primary factor controlling the atmospheric uptake efficiency is the vertical distribution of the enhanced biological production. Iron fertilization at the surface tends to induce production anomalies primarily near the surface, leading to high efficiencies. In contrast, mechanisms that induce deep production anomalies (e.g. altered light availability) tend to have a low uptake efficiency, since most of the removed DIC is replaced by lateral and vertical transport and mixing. Despite high atmospheric uptake efficiencies, patch-scale iron fertilization of the ocean's biological pump tends to remove little CO2 from the atmosphere over the decadal timescale considered here.

  5. Thiol-Ene Induced Diphosphonic Acid Functionalization of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, Ryan D.; Warner, Cynthia L.; Pittman, Jonathan W.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Warner, Marvin G.

    2010-07-20

    Multi-functional organic molecules represent an interesting challenge for nanoparticle functionalization due to the potential for undesirable interactions between the substrate material and the variable functionalities, making it difficult to control the final orientation of the ligand. In the present study, UV-induced thiol-ene click chemistry has been utilized as a means of directed functionalization of bifunctional ligands on an iron oxide nanoparticle surface. Allyl diphosphonic acid ligand was covalently deposited on the surface of thiol-presenting iron oxide nanoparticles via the formation of a UV-induced thioether. This method of thiol-ene click chemistry offers a set of reaction conditions capable of controlling the ligand deposition and circumventing the natural affinity exhibited by the phosphonic acid moiety for the iron oxide surface. These claims are supported via a multimodal characterization platform which includes thermogravimetric analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and metal contact analysis and are consistent with a properly oriented, highly active ligand on the nanoparticle surface. These experiments suggest thiol-ene click chemistry as both a practical and generally applicable strategy for the directed deposition of multi-functional ligands on metal oxide nanoparticle surfaces.

  6. Earth's core formation aided by flow channelling instabilities induced by iron diapirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golabek, Gregor J.; Schmeling, Harro; Tackley, Paul J.

    2008-07-01

    The core formation mechanism remains poorly known. An unstable gravitational configuration of a dense molten metallic layer overlying a cold chondritic protocore is predicted by most studies, which leads to the formation of a Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability. Recent results [Dahl, T.W., 2005. Turbulent mixing during planet accretion and core formation: Interpretation of the Hf/W chronometer and implications for the age of the Moon. M. Sc. Thesis, University of Copenhagen.] indicate that additionally, iron cores of predifferentiated planetesimals are also able to plunge mostly intact into the cold protocore and create large iron diapirs. For both scenarios we propose the application of the stress-induced melt channelling mechanism [Stevenson, D.J., 1989. Spontaneous small-scale melt segregation in partial melts undergoing deformation. Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1,067-1,070] in the region surrounding an incipient iron diapir. We therefore perform numerical experiments solving the two-phase, two composition flow equations within a 2D rectangular box with symmetrical boundary conditions. We apply the Compaction Boussinesq Approximation (CBA) and include a depth-dependent gravity. For simplicity we use a constant viscosity for the solid phase and a melt fraction dependent rheology for the partially molten region around the diapir. We investigate the physical conditions under which the melt channels can form and whether they are applicable to the early Earth. As a result, for sufficiently small melt retention numbers iron-rich melt channels develop within a region of approximately twice the diapir's size. This could lead to effective draining of the surrounding region and might initiate cascading daughter diapirs. The region of the protocore drained by this cascading mechanism is expected to significantly increase with depth, and thus indicates an effective mechanism to also extract iron melt from deeper parts of the initially chondritic protocore. This mechanism could

  7. Role of iron in asbestos-body-induced oxidant radical generation.

    PubMed

    Governa, M; Amati, M; Fontana, S; Visona I; Botta, G C; Mollo, F; Bellis, D; Bo, P

    1999-11-12

    Asbestos bodies (AB) were harvested from human lung tissue digests and isolated from uncoated asbestos fibers. Samples containing 1000 AB were added to a reactive solution to investigate the ability of AB to oxidize deoxy-D-ribose and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of ascorbate and hydrogen peroxide as determined by formation of thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-reactive products. Three types of asbestos fibers were tested for comparison, since they are known to be able to produce ROS. The absorbance values measured with 1000 AB were significantly higher than those observed with 1000 fibers of the three types of asbestos. Since in our reaction system the only source of transition metals was the iron-rich AB, data suggest iron derived from the ferritin coating of AB was involved in oxidant generation. Addition of iron to AB enhanced TBA-reactive product formation, while chelation of Fe with deferoxamine reduced this reaction. Hydroxyl radical scavengers 1,3-dimethyl-2-thiourea (DMTU) and mannitol (MN) also effectively blocked TBA-reactive product generation. Data indicate the importance of Fe in AB-induced oxidant damage. With the addition of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) to AB, incubation in the reactive solution gave very high amounts of TBA-reactive products, but using a reactive solution devoid of ascorbate, very low amounts of TBA-reactive products were generated. In the latter condition, the superoxide of cell membranes probably reduced and removed iron from AB-coating ferritin, but less effectively than ascorbate. Further after the possible reoxidation of Fe2+, Fe3+ could be coordinated by lactoferrin. Since such availability of reductant is never approached in living systems, the iron in the AB coating is unlikely to function as a catalyst of Fenton-type reactions in vivo.

  8. Morphology and growth speed of hcp domains during shock-induced phase transition in iron.

    PubMed

    Pang, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Guang-Cai; Xu, Ai-Guo; Zhao, Xian-Geng

    2014-01-10

    Emergence and time evolution of micro-structured new-phase domains play a crucial role in determining the macroscopic physical and mechanical behaviors of iron under shock compression. Here, we investigate, through molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical modelings, shock-induced phase transition process of iron from body-centered-cubic (bcc) to hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) structure. We present a central-moment method and a rolling-ball algorithm to calculate and analyze the morphology and growth speed of the hcp phase domains, and then propose a phase transition model to clarify our derived growth law of the phase domains. We also demonstrate that the new-phase evolution process undergoes three distinguished stages with different time scales of the hcp phase fraction in the system.

  9. Magnetically Induced Continuous CO2 Hydrogenation Using Composite Iron Carbide Nanoparticles of Exceptionally High Heating Power.

    PubMed

    Bordet, Alexis; Lacroix, Lise-Marie; Fazzini, Pier-Francesco; Carrey, Julian; Soulantica, Katerina; Chaudret, Bruno

    2016-12-19

    The use of magnetic nanoparticles to convert electromagnetic energy into heat is known to be a key strategy for numerous biomedical applications but is also an approach of growing interest in the field of catalysis. The heating efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles is limited by the poor magnetic properties of most of them. Here we show that the new generation of iron carbide nanoparticles of controlled size and with over 80 % crystalline Fe2.2 C leads to exceptional heating properties, which are much better than the heating properties of currently available nanoparticles. Associated to catalytic metals (Ni, Ru), iron carbide nanoparticles submitted to magnetic excitation very efficiently catalyze CO2 hydrogenation in a dedicated continuous-flow reactor. Hence, we demonstrate that the concept of magnetically induced heterogeneous catalysis can be successfully applied to methanation of CO2 and represents an approach of strategic interest in the context of intermittent energy storage and CO2 recovery.

  10. Displacement damage induced in iron by gammas and neutrons under irradiation in the IFMIF test cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simakov, S. P.; Fischer, U.

    2011-10-01

    This work presents a complete comparative analysis of the radiation damage induced in iron-based materials in IFMIF by photons and neutrons. The gamma induced damage takes into account, for the first time, both photonuclear and photoatomic reaction mechanisms. The relevant cross sections were taken from available data evaluations. The gamma and neutron radiation fields were calculated by the McDeLicious Monte Carlo code using a 3-D geometry model. Finally the gamma and neutron induced damages in the iron have been assessed inside the IFMIF test cell and the surrounding concrete walls. It was found that the photoatomic mechanism dominates the photonuclear with at least one hundred times higher damage rates. The ratio of the gamma and the neutron induced displacement damage was found to be 10 -3 inside the concrete wall and 10 -5 in the components close to d-Li source. This fraction may increase a few times due to the uncertainty of the evaluated γ-dpa cross sections and the different surviving probabilities for defects produced by gammas and neutrons, nevertheless unlikely exceed 1%.

  11. Iron-induced oxidation of (all-E)-β-carotene under model gastric conditions: kinetics, products, and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sy, Charlotte; Dangles, Olivier; Borel, Patrick; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine

    2013-10-01

    The stability of (all-E)-β-carotene toward dietary iron was studied in a mildly acidic (pH 4) micellar solution as a simple model of the postprandial gastric conditions. The oxidation was initiated by free iron (Fe(II), Fe(III)) or by heme iron (metmyoglobin, MbFe(III)). Fe(II) and metmyoglobin were much more efficient than Fe(III) at initiating β-carotene oxidation. Whatever the initiator, hydrogen peroxide did not accumulate. Moreover, β-carotene markedly inhibited the conversion of Fe(II) into Fe(III). β-Carotene oxidation induced by Fe(II) or MbFe(III) was maximal with 5-10 eq Fe(II) or 0.05-0.1 eq MbFe(III) and was inhibited at higher iron concentrations, especially with Fe(II). UPLC/DAD/MS and GC/MS analyses revealed a complex distribution of β-carotene-derived products including Z-isomers, epoxides, and cleavage products of various chain lengths. Finally, the mechanism of iron-induced β-carotene oxidation is discussed. Altogether, our results suggest that dietary iron, especially free (loosely bound) Fe(II) and heme iron, may efficiently induce β-carotene autoxidation within the upper digestive tract, thereby limiting its supply to tissues (bioavailability) and consequently its biological activity.

  12. Antioxidant Activity of Caffeic Acid against Iron-Induced Free Radical Generation—A Chemical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Genaro-Mattos, Thiago C.; Maurício, Ângelo Q.; Rettori, Daniel; Alonso, Antonio; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Caffeic acid (CA) is a phenolic compound widely found in coffee beans with known beneficial effects in vivo. Many studies showed that CA has anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, antibacterial and anti-carcinogenic properties, which could be linked to its antioxidant activity. Taking in consideration the reported in vitro antioxidant mechanism of other polyphenols, our working hypothesis was that the CA antioxidant activity could be related to its metal-chelating property. With that in mind, we sought to investigate the chemical antioxidant mechanism of CA against in vitro iron-induced oxidative damage under different assay conditions. CA was able to prevent hydroxyl radical formation promoted by the classical Fenton reaction, as determined by 2-deoxyribose (2-DR) oxidative degradation and DMPO hydroxylation. In addition to its ability to prevent hydroxyl radical formation, CA had a great inhibition of membrane lipid peroxidation. In the lipid peroxidation assays CA acted as both metal-chelator and as hydrogen donor, preventing the deleterious action promoted by lipid-derived peroxyl and alkoxyl radicals. Our results indicate that the observed antioxidant effects were mostly due to the formation of iron-CA complexes, which are able to prevent 2-DR oxidation and DMPO hydroxylation. Noteworthy, the formation of iron-CA complexes and prevention of oxidative damage was directly related to the pH of the medium, showing better antioxidant activity at higher pH values. Moreover, in the presence of lipid membranes the antioxidant potency of CA was much higher, indicating its enhanced effectiveness in a hydrophobic environment. Overall, our results show that CA acts as an antioxidant through an iron chelating mechanism, preventing the formation of free hydroxyl radicals and, therefore, inhibiting Fenton-induced oxidative damage. The chemical properties of CA described here—in association with its reported signaling effects—could be an explanation to its beneficial effects

  13. The effect of haem biosynthesis inhibitors and inducers on intestinal iron absorption and liver haem biosynthetic enzyme activities

    SciTech Connect

    Laftah, A.H.; Simpson, R.J. Peters, T.J.; Raja, K.B.

    2008-06-15

    The relation between haem biosynthesis and intestinal iron absorption is not well understood, we therefore investigated the effect of compounds that alter haem metabolism on duodenal iron absorption. CD1 mice were treated with either an inhibitor (succinyl acetone (SA)) or stimulator (2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide (AIA)) of haem biosynthesis. 5-Aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) dehydratase and urinary ALA and porphobilinogen (PBG) levels, were determined. Intestinal iron absorption was assayed with in vivo and in vitro techniques. Liver hepcidin (Hamp1) and duodenal iron transporter mRNA levels were measured using RT-PCR. AIA caused increased hepatic ALA synthase (1.6-fold) and ALA dehydratase (1.4-fold, both p < 0.005) activities and increased urinary ALA and PBG excretion (2.1- and 1.4-fold, p < 0.005, p < 0.05, respectively). In vivo intestinal iron absorption was reduced to 49% of control (p < 0.005). Mice treated with SA showed decreased urinary ALA and PBG levels (75 and 55% control, both p < 0.005) and reductions in both ALA synthase and ALA dehydratase activities (77 and 56% control, p < 0.05, p < 0.005, respectively) in the liver. Liver and duodenal haem and cytochrome oxidase levels were not significantly decreased. Iron absorption was enhanced (1.26-fold, p < 0.05) and hepatic Hamp1 mRNA was reduced (53% of control, p < 0.05). In vitro duodenal iron uptake after mice were injected with SA also demonstrated an increase in Fe(III) reduction and uptake (1.27- and 1.41-fold, p < 0.01 respectively). Simultaneous injections of SA and ALA blocked the enhancing effect on iron absorption seen with SA alone. We conclude that alterations in haem biosynthesis can influence iron absorption and in particular, the intermediate ALA seems to be an inhibitor of iron absorption.

  14. Hypoxia-induced metabolic stress in retinal pigment epithelial cells is sufficient to induce photoreceptor degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kurihara, Toshihide; Westenskow, Peter D; Gantner, Marin L; Usui, Yoshihiko; Schultz, Andrew; Bravo, Stephen; Aguilar, Edith; Wittgrove, Carli; Friedlander, Mollie SH; Paris, Liliana P; Chew, Emily; Siuzdak, Gary; Friedlander, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Photoreceptors are the most numerous and metabolically demanding cells in the retina. Their primary nutrient source is the choriocapillaris, and both the choriocapillaris and photoreceptors require trophic and functional support from retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. Defects in RPE, photoreceptors, and the choriocapillaris are characteristic of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a common vision-threatening disease. RPE dysfunction or death is a primary event in AMD, but the combination(s) of cellular stresses that affect the function and survival of RPE are incompletely understood. Here, using mouse models in which hypoxia can be genetically triggered in RPE, we show that hypoxia-induced metabolic stress alone leads to photoreceptor atrophy. Glucose and lipid metabolism are radically altered in hypoxic RPE cells; these changes impact nutrient availability for the sensory retina and promote progressive photoreceptor degeneration. Understanding the molecular pathways that control these responses may provide important clues about AMD pathogenesis and inform future therapies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14319.001 PMID:26978795

  15. Beneficial effect of pollen and/or propolis on the metabolism of iron, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium in rats with nutritional ferropenic anemia.

    PubMed

    Haro, A; López-Aliaga, I; Lisbona, F; Barrionuevo, M; Alférez, M J; Campos, M S

    2000-11-01

    There has been considerable debate regarding the nutritional benefits of pollen and the propolis produced by bees, although most contributions have lacked scientific soundness. This paper describes the possible beneficial effect of their use in pharmacological products in cases of anemic syndrome. We studied the effect of these two natural products on the digestive utilization of iron, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium, using control rats and rats with nutritional ferropenic anemia. The addition of these products to the diet produced a positive effect on weight gain; this fact could constitute a scientific basis for the application of pollen and propolis as fortifiers. They improve the digestive utilization of iron and the regeneration efficiency of hemoglobin, especially during recovery from an anemic syndrome. They also have a positive effect on phosphocalcic metabolism and maintain an appropiate level of magnesium metabolism. Furthermore, in iron-deficient rats, these natural products palliate, to a large extent, the adverse effects of iron deficiency on calcium and magnesium metabolism as a result of the improvement in the digestive utilization of these minerals.

  16. Increased iron availability resulting from increased CO2 enhances carbon and nitrogen metabolism in the economical marine red macroalga Pyropia haitanensis (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Chen, Binbin; Zou, Dinghui; Yang, Yufeng

    2017-04-01

    Ocean acidification caused by rising CO2 is predicted to increase the concentrations of dissolved species of Fe(II) and Fe(III), leading to the enhanced photosynthetic carbon sequestration in some algal species. In this study, the carbon and nitrogen metabolism in responses to increased iron availability under two CO2 levels (390 μL L(-1) and 1000 μL L(-1)), were investigated in the maricultivated macroalga Pyropia haitanensis (Rhodophyta). The results showed that, elevated CO2 increased soluble carbonhydrate (SC) contents, resulting from enhanced photosynthesis and photosynthetic pigment synthesis in this algae, but declined its soluble protein (SP) contents, resulting in increased ratio of SC/SP. This enhanced photosynthesis performance and carbon accumulation was more significant under iron enrichment condition in seawater, with higher iron uptake rate at high CO2 level. As a key essential biogenic element for algae, Fe-replete functionally contributed to P. haitanensis photosynthesis. Increased SC fundamentally provided carbon skeletons for nitrogen assimilation. The significant increase of carbon and nitrogen assimilation finally contributed to enhanced growth in this alga. This was also intuitively reflected by respiration that provided energy for cellular metabolism and algal growth. We propose that, in the predicted scenario of rising atmospheric CO2, P. haitanensis is capable to adjust its physiology by increasing its carbon and nitrogen metabolism to acclimate the acidified seawater, at the background of global climate change and simultaneously increased iron concentration due to decreased pH levels.

  17. Insulin resistance, atherogenicity, and iron metabolism in multiple sclerosis with and without depression: Associations with inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers and uric acid.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Sayonara Rangel; Kallaur, Ana Paula; Lopes, Josiane; Colado Simão, Andrea Name; Vissoci Reiche, Edna Maria; de Almeida, Elaine Regina Delicato; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; de Carvalho Jennings de Pereira, Wildea Lice; Alfieri, Daniela Frizon; Flauzino, Tamires; de Meleck Proença, Caio; Gomes, Anna Maria; Kaimen-Maciel, Damacio Ramón; Maes, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Depression is accompanied by metabolic disorders in iron metabolism, lipoproteins, and insulin resistance. We measured plasma levels of ferritin, iron, lipids, insulin, and glucose and computed the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA2IR) and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) in MS patients with and without depression and healthy controls. Explanatory variables were serum uric acid, interleukin (IL)-6, lipid hydroperoxides (CL-LOOH), albumin, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Depression was assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), neurological disability using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), and disease progression using ∆EDSS over five years earlier. HOMA2IR and insulin were predicted by diagnosis (increased in MS), age and body mass index (BMI); AIP by diagnosis, sex, BMI, CRP, and uric acid; triglycerides by diagnosis (higher in MS without depression), age, BMI and uric acid; ferritin by diagnosis (higher in MS), sex, CRP, and albumin; and iron by albumin. The HADS score was significantly predicted by ∆EDSS, gastro-intestinal symptoms, iron (inverse), and age. MS is characterized by significantly increased insulin resistance, which is determined by increased insulin levels; and increased ferritin, a biomarker of inflammation. Depression in MS is not associated with increased insulin resistance and atherogenicity but with lowered iron.

  18. Metabolic response induced by parasitic plant-fungus interactions hinder amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism in the host

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Ahn, Soohyun; Cho, Hae Yoon; Yun, Hye Young; Park, Jeong Hill; Lim, Johan; Lee, Jeongmi; Kwon, Sung Won

    2016-01-01

    Infestation by the biotrophic pathogen Gymnosporangium asiaticum can be devastating for plant of the family Rosaceae. However, the phytopathology of this process has not been thoroughly elucidated. Using a metabolomics approach, we discovered the intrinsic activities that induce disease symptoms after fungal invasion in terms of microbe-induced metabolic responses. Through metabolic pathway enrichment and mapping, we found that the host altered its metabolite levels, resulting in accumulation of tetrose and pentose sugar alcohols, in response to this fungus. We then used a multiple linear regression model to evaluate the effect of the interaction between this abnormal accumulation of sugar alcohol and the group variable (control/parasitism). The results revealed that this accumulation resulted in deficiency in the supply of specific sugars, which led to a lack of amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism. Halting this metabolism could hamper pivotal functions in the plant host, including cell wall synthesis and lesion repair. In conclusion, our findings indicate that altered metabolic responses that occur during fungal parasitism can cause deficiency in substrates in pivotal pathways and thereby trigger pathological symptoms. PMID:27892480

  19. Zuclopenthixol-acetate treatment in catatonic patients: the implication of iron metabolism.

    PubMed

    Conca, A; Bertsch, E; Küng, A; Waschgler, R; Hrubos, W; König, P; Hansen, M

    2003-02-01

    There is some evidence of ferropenia correlating with neuroleptic malignant syndrome and catatonic symptoms. The aim of this prospective and naturalistic study was to investigate the implications of ferremia in patients undergoing an intramuscular injection treatment of Zuclopenthixol-acetate in Visceolo. We recruited 59 catatonic patients (33 females). Age, sex, psychiatric and somatic diagnoses, body mass index (BMI), dosage and duration of Zuclopenthixol-acetate medication and the timing of the changeover from intramuscular to oral prescription, the single dosage of Clopenthixol if initially coadministered, incidence, onset and duration of transient benign hyperthermia, iron, ferritin, transferrin and saturation values, and white and red blood cell counts as well as liver function and electrolytes were registered. A transient and benign hyperthermic reaction (mean degrees: 37.5 + 0.3 degrees C) lasting for an average of 3.0 + 1.9 d was shown by 72.9% patients (N = 43, 22 females), during a mean treatment period of 5.8 + 3.1 d. These patients were medicated with significant different mean doses of Zuclopenthixol-acetate and compared to the patients with normal body temperature (ANOVA P < 0.01). The duration of Zuclopenthixol-acetate application did not vary between these patients groups. Furthermore, significant differences of iron (59.5 + 30.6 micromol/dl vs. 87.8 + 40.8 micromol/dl; ANOVA P < 0.006) and transferrin saturation values (18.3 + 10.4% vs. 27.2 + 17.0%; ANOVA P < 0.02) were found. Ferritin and transferrin were not implicated in the episode of hyperthermia. Diagnoses, sex, white and red blood cell counts also did not vary between these groups. Our findings indicate a possible involvement of ferropenia in catatonic patients, regardless of the diagnoses, and in the development of benign transient hyperthermia, also known as drug fever.

  20. Iron metabolism modulation in Atlantic salmon infested with the sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus rogercresseyi: A matter of nutritional immunity?

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Sea lice are copepodid ectoparasites that produce high economic losses and environmental issues, thus impacting the salmon aquaculture worldwide. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from Northern and Southern Hemispheres are primarily parasitized by Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus rogercresseyi, respectively. To cope L. salmonis infestation, studies suggest that Atlantic salmon can restrict iron availability as a mechanism of nutritional immunity. However, no molecular studies of iron regulation from salmonids infected with C. rogercresseyi have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine if there are differences in the regulation of iron metabolism in Atlantic salmon infested with L. salmonis or C. rogercresseyi. For comparisons, skin and head kidney were profiled using qPCR of 15 genes related to iron regulation in Atlantic salmons infected with each sea louse species in Norway and Chile, respectively. Prior to infestation, no significant differences were observed between fish group. However, genes involved in iron transport and Heme biosynthesis were highly upregulated in Atlantic salmon infested with L. salmonis. Interestingly, hepcidin and Heme oxygenase, a component of the Heme degradation pathway, were upregulated during C. rogercresseyi infestation. Oxidative stress related genes were also evaluated, showing higher transcription activity in the head kidney than in the skin of Atlantic salmon infested with L. salmonis. These comparative results suggest pathogen-specific responses in infected Atlantic salmon, where iron metabolism is primarily regulated during the infestation with L. salmonis than C. rogercresseyi. Feeding behavior, for instance haematophagy, of the infesting sea lice species in relation to iron modulation is discussed.

  1. Helicobacter pylori infection and low dietary iron alter behavior, induce iron deficiency anemia, and modulate hippocampal gene expression in female C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Burns, Monika; Amaya, Aldo; Bodi, Caroline; Ge, Zhongming; Bakthavatchalu, Vasudevan; Ennis, Kathleen; Wang, Timothy C; Georgieff, Michael; Fox, James G

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori), a bacterial pathogen, is a causative agent of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease and is a strong risk factor for development of gastric cancer. Environmental conditions, such as poor dietary iron resulting in iron deficiency anemia (IDA), enhance H.pylori virulence and increases risk for gastric cancer. IDA affects billions of people worldwide, and there is considerable overlap between regions of high IDA and high H.pylori prevalence. The primary aims of our study were to evaluate the effect of H.pylori infection on behavior, iron metabolism, red blood cell indices, and behavioral outcomes following comorbid H. pylori infection and dietary iron deficiency in a mouse model. C57BL/6 female mice (n = 40) were used; half were placed on a moderately iron deficient (ID) diet immediately post-weaning, and the other half were maintained on an iron replete (IR) diet. Half were dosed with H.pylori SS1 at 5 weeks of age, and the remaining mice were sham-dosed. There were 4 study groups: a control group (-Hp, IR diet) as well as 3 experimental groups (-Hp, ID diet; +Hp, IR diet; +Hp,ID diet). All mice were tested in an open field apparatus at 8 weeks postinfection. Independent of dietary iron status, H.pylori -infected mice performed fewer exploratory behaviors in the open field chamber than uninfected mice (p<0.001). Hippocampal gene expression of myelination markers and dopamine receptor 1 was significantly downregulated in mice on an ID diet (both p<0.05), independent of infection status. At 12 months postinfection, hematocrit (Hct) and hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration were significantly lower in +Hp, ID diet mice compared to all other study groups. H.pylori infection caused IDA in mice maintained on a marginal iron diet. The mouse model developed in this study is a useful model to study the neurologic, behavioral, and hematologic impact of the common human co-morbidity of H. pylori infection and IDA.

  2. Helicobacter pylori infection and low dietary iron alter behavior, induce iron deficiency anemia, and modulate hippocampal gene expression in female C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Monika; Amaya, Aldo; Bodi, Caroline; Ge, Zhongming; Bakthavatchalu, Vasudevan; Ennis, Kathleen; Wang, Timothy C.; Georgieff, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori), a bacterial pathogen, is a causative agent of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease and is a strong risk factor for development of gastric cancer. Environmental conditions, such as poor dietary iron resulting in iron deficiency anemia (IDA), enhance H.pylori virulence and increases risk for gastric cancer. IDA affects billions of people worldwide, and there is considerable overlap between regions of high IDA and high H.pylori prevalence. The primary aims of our study were to evaluate the effect of H.pylori infection on behavior, iron metabolism, red blood cell indices, and behavioral outcomes following comorbid H. pylori infection and dietary iron deficiency in a mouse model. C57BL/6 female mice (n = 40) were used; half were placed on a moderately iron deficient (ID) diet immediately post-weaning, and the other half were maintained on an iron replete (IR) diet. Half were dosed with H.pylori SS1 at 5 weeks of age, and the remaining mice were sham-dosed. There were 4 study groups: a control group (-Hp, IR diet) as well as 3 experimental groups (-Hp, ID diet; +Hp, IR diet; +Hp,ID diet). All mice were tested in an open field apparatus at 8 weeks postinfection. Independent of dietary iron status, H.pylori -infected mice performed fewer exploratory behaviors in the open field chamber than uninfected mice (p<0.001). Hippocampal gene expression of myelination markers and dopamine receptor 1 was significantly downregulated in mice on an ID diet (both p<0.05), independent of infection status. At 12 months postinfection, hematocrit (Hct) and hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration were significantly lower in +Hp, ID diet mice compared to all other study groups. H.pylori infection caused IDA in mice maintained on a marginal iron diet. The mouse model developed in this study is a useful model to study the neurologic, behavioral, and hematologic impact of the common human co-morbidity of H. pylori infection and IDA. PMID:28355210

  3. Genotypic variability within Tunisian grapevine varieties (Vitis vinifera L.) facing bicarbonate-induced iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ksouri, Riadh; Debez, Ahmed; Mahmoudi, Henda; Ouerghi, Zeineb; Gharsalli, Mohamed; Lachaâl, Mokhtar

    2007-05-01

    Morpho-physiological responses to bicarbonate-induced Fe deficiency were investigated in five Vitis vinifera L. Tunisian varieties (Khamri, Blanc3, Arich Dressé, Beldi, and Balta4). One-month-old woody cuttings were cultivated for 85days on a free calcareous soil irrigated with tap water containing increasing bicarbonate levels (0, 4, 8, 12, and 16mM NaHCO(3)). After this screening, a second experiment compared root biochemical responses of two contrasting genotypes (tolerant-sensitive) dealing with bicarbonate-induced iron deprivation (20microM Fe+/-10mM HCO(3)(-)) for 75days. Using morpho-physiological criteria, grapevine tolerance to HCO(3)(-)-induced Fe shortage appeared to be genotype-dependent: Balta4 and Beldi varieties showed the highest leaf-chlorosis score (especially at the extreme HCO(3)(-) levels), in contrast to Khamri variety. Growth parameters (shoot height, total leaf area, leaf number, and biomass production) as well as juvenile leaf chlorophyll content were also differently affected depending on both genotype and bicarbonate dose. At 16mM HCO(3)(-), Khamri was the less sensitive variety, contrasting with Balta4. On the other hand, chlorophyll content correlated positively with HCl-extractible Fe content of the juvenile leaves, suggesting that the grapevine response to iron deficiency may partly depend on to the plant ability to adequately supply young leaves with this element. Root biochemical responses revealed a relatively higher root acidification capacity in Khamri (tolerant) under Fe-deficiency while no significant changes occurred in Balta4 (sensitive). In addition, Fe(III)-reductase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31) activities were strongly stimulated by Fe-deficiency in Khamri, while remaining constant in Balta4. These findings suggest that biochemical parameters may constitute reliable criteria for the selection of tolerant grapevine genotypes to iron chlorosis.

  4. [Iron dysregulation and anemias].

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Katsuya

    2015-10-01

    Most iron in the body is utilized as a component of hemoglobin that delivers oxygen to the entire body. Under normal conditions, the iron balance is tightly regulated. However, iron dysregulation does occasionally occur; total iron content reductions cause iron deficiency anemia and overexpression of the iron regulatory peptide hepcidin disturbs iron utilization resulting in anemia of chronic disease. Conversely, the presence of anemia may ultimately lead to iron overload; for example, thalassemia, a common hereditary anemia worldwide, often requires transfusion, but long-term transfusions cause iron accumulation that leads to organ damage and other poor outcomes. On the other hand, there is a possibility that iron overload itself can cause anemia; iron chelation therapy for the post-transfusion iron overload observed in myelodysplastic syndrome or aplastic anemia improves dependency on transfusions in some cases. These observations reflect the extremely close relationship between anemias and iron metabolism.

  5. Ferrous Iron Induces Nrf2 Expression in Mouse Brain Astrocytes to Prevent Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhenwen; Zhong, Zhihong; Yang, Yong; Wang, Baofeng; Sun, Yuhao; Sun, Qingfang; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Bian, Liuguan

    2016-08-01

    Free radical damage caused by ferrous iron is involved in the pathogenesis of secondary brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a major phase II gene regulator that binds to antioxidant response element, represents an important cellular cytoprotective mechanism against oxidative damage. We hypothesized that Nrf2 might protect astrocytes from damage by Fe(2+) . Therefore, we examined cytotoxicity in primary astrocytes induced by iron overload and evaluated the effects of Fe(2+) on Nrf2 expression. The results demonstrated that 24-h Fe(2+) exposure exerted time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in astrocytes. Furthermore, Fe(2+) exposure in astrocytes resulted in time- and concentration-dependent increases in Nrf2 expression, which preceded Fe(2+) toxicity. Nrf2-specific siRNA further knocked down Nrf2 levels, resulting in greater Fe(2+) -induced astrocyte cytotoxicity. These data indicate that induction of Nrf2 expression could serve as an adaptive self-defense mechanism, although it is insufficient to completely protect primary astrocytes from Fe(2+) -induced neurotoxicity.

  6. Cadmium toxicity-induced proline accumulation is coupled to iron depletion.

    PubMed

    Sharmila, P; Kumari, P Kusuma; Singh, Kavita; Prasad, N V S R K; Pardha-Saradhi, P

    2017-03-01

    Investigations were conducted to elucidate the key factor behind Cd(2+)-toxicity-induced proline accumulation in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) by raising seedlings, independently in distilled water (DW) and mineral growth medium (MGM) in the presence of 0-500 μM CdCl2. Invariably, Cd(2+)-induced toxicity, measured in terms of growth, was significantly more prominent in seedlings raised in DW than those raised in MGM. Cd(2+) brought about a significant reduction in growth and photosystem II activity with a concomitant increase in proline levels, in a concentration-dependent manner. Interestingly, the level of iron in shoots of seedlings decreased proportionately with increase in Cd(2+) toxicity. Cd(2+)-promoted proline accumulation was significantly higher in seedlings raised in DW than those raised in MGM. Depletion of essential cations (viz. Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), and Fe(2+)) from MGM one at a time revealed that depletion of Fe(2+) leads to maximal proline accumulation under Cd(2+) toxicity. Interestingly, proline level in seedlings raised under Cd(2+) toxicity in DW supplemented with Fe(2+) was similar to that recorded in seedlings raised in MGM. Our results convincingly demonstrated that Cd(2+)-induced iron deficiency promotes proline accumulation.

  7. Integration of Genome-Scale Metabolic Nodels of Iron-Reducing Bacteria With Subsurface Flow and Geochemical Reactive Transport Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibe, T. D.; Mahadevan, R.; Fang, Y.; Garg, S.; Long, P. E.; Lovley, D. M.

    2008-12-01

    Several field and laboratory experiments have demonstrated that the growth and activity of iron-reducing bacteria can be stimulated in many subsurface environments by amendment of groundwater with a soluble electron donor. Under strong iron-reducing conditions, these organisms mediate reactions that can impact a wide range of subsurface contaminants including chlorinated hydrocarbons, metals, and radionuclides. Therefore there is strong interest in in-situ bioremediation as a potential technology for cleanup of contaminated aquifers. To evaluate and design bioremediation systems, as well as to evaluate the viability of monitored natural attenuation as an alternative, quantitative models of biogeochemically reactive transport are needed. To date, most such models represent microbial activity in terms of kinetic rate (e.g., Monod- type) formulations. Such models do not account for fundamental changes in microbial functionality (such as utilization of alternative respiratory pathways) that occur as the result of spatial and temporal variations in the geochemical environment experienced by microorganisms. Constraint-based genome-scale in silico models of microbial metabolism present an alternative to simplified rate formulations that provide flexibility to account for changes in microbial function in response to local geochemical conditions. We have developed and applied a methodology for coupling a constraint-based in silico model of Geobacter sulfurreducens with a conventional model of groundwater flow, transport, and geochemical reaction. Two uses of the in silico model are tested: 1) incorporation of modified microbial growth yield coefficients based on the in silico model, and 2) variation of reaction rates in a reactive transport model based on in silico modeling of a range of local geochemical conditions. Preliminary results from this integrated model will be presented.

  8. Ozone-Induced Metabolic Impairment is Attenuated in Adrenalectomized Wistar Kyoto Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Air pollutants have been linked to increased incidence of metabolic syndrome however the mechanisms are poorly understood. We have recently shown that ozone exposure induces significant hyperglycemia together with elevated serum leptin and epinephrine in the Wistar Ky...

  9. Estrogens prevent metabolic dysfunctions induced by circadian disruptions in female mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Circadian disruption has become a significant factor contributing to the epidemics of obesity and insulin resistance. However, interventions to treat metabolic dysfunctions induced by circadian disruptions are limited. The ovarian hormone, estrogen, produces important antiobesity and antidiabetic ef...

  10. Effects of iron-reducing bacteria on carbon steel corrosion induced by thermophilic sulfate-reducing consortia.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Cantero, Eduardo; Peña-Cabriales, Juan José

    2014-02-28

    Four thermophilic bacterial species, including the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacillus sp. G2 and the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfotomaculum sp. SRB-M, were employed to integrate a bacterial consortium. A second consortium was integrated with the same bacteria, except for Geobacillus sp. G2. Carbon steel coupons were subjected to batch cultures of both consortia. The corrosion induced by the complete consortium was 10 times higher than that induced by the second consortium, and the ferrous ion concentration was consistently higher in iron-reducing consortia. Scanning electronic microscopy analysis of the carbon steel surface showed mineral films colonized by bacteria. The complete consortium caused profuse fracturing of the mineral film, whereas the non-iron-reducing consortium did not generate fractures. These data show that the iron-reducing activity of Geobacillus sp. G2 promotes fracturing of mineral films, thereby increasing steel corrosion.

  11. Molecular dynamics study of strain-induced diffusivity of nitrogen in pure iron nanocrystalline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadzadeh, Roghayeh; Razmara, Naiyer; Razmara, Fereshteh

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, the self-diffusion process of nitrogen in pure iron nanocrystalline under strain conditions has been investigated by Molecular Dynamics (MD). The interactions between particles are modeled using Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM). Mean Square Displacement (MSD) of nitrogen in iron structure under strain is calculated. Strain is applied along [ 11 2 ¯ 0 ] and [ 0001 ] directions in both tensile and compression conditions. The activation energy and pre-exponential diffusion factor for nitrogen diffusion is comparatively high along [ 0001 ] direction of compressed structure of iron. The strain-induced diffusion coefficient at 973 K under the compression rate of 0.001 Å/ps along [ 0001 ] direction is about 6.72E-14 m2/s. The estimated activation energy of nitrogen under compression along [ 0001 ] direction is equal to 12.39 kcal/mol. The higher activation energy might be due to the fact that the system transforms into a more dense state when compressive stress is applied.

  12. Hepcidin: A Promising Therapeutic Target for Iron Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Sun, Bingbing; Yin, Huijun; Liu, Sijin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Iron is required for most forms of organisms, and it is the most essential element for the functions of many iron-containing proteins involved in oxygen transport, cellular respiration, DNA replication, and so on. Disorders of iron metabolism are associated with diverse diseases, including anemias (e.g., iron-deficiency anemia and anemia of chronic diseases) and iron overload diseases, such as hereditary hemochromatosis and β-thalassemia. Hepcidin (encoded by Hamp gene) is a peptide hormone synthesized by hepatocytes, and it plays an important role in regulating the systematic iron homeostasis. As the systemic iron regulator, hepcidin, not only controls dietary iron absorption and iron egress out of iron storage cells, but also induces iron redistribution in various organs. Deregulated hepcidin is often seen in a variety of iron-related diseases including anemias and iron overload disorders. In the case of iron overload disorders (e.g., hereditary hemochromatosis and β-thalassemia), hepatic hepcidin concentration is significantly reduced. Since hepcidin deregulation is responsible for iron disorder-associated diseases, the purpose of this review is to summarize the recent findings on therapeutics targeting hepcidin. Continuous efforts have been made to search for hepcidin mimics and chemical compounds that could be used to increase hepcidin level. Here, a literature search was conducted in PubMed, and research papers relevant to hepcidin regulation or hepcidin-centered therapeutic work were reviewed. On the basis of literature search, we recapitulated recent findings on therapeutic studies targeting hepcidin, including agonists and antagonists to modulate hepcidin expression or its downstream signaling. We also discussed the molecular mechanisms by which hepcidin level and iron metabolism are modulated. Elevating hepcidin concentration is an optimal strategy to ameliorate iron overload diseases, and also to relieve β-thalassemia phenotypes by improving

  13. Femtosecond laser-driven shock-induced dislocation structures in iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Tomoki; Sano, Tomokazu; Arakawa, Kazuto; Sakata, Osami; Tajiri, Hiroo; Hirose, Akio

    2014-12-01

    We found that a femtosecond laser-driven shock wave induces marked changes in dislocation structure in iron over a fluence range from 1.3 to 8.3 J/cm2. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed a change in dislocation structure from lath structures with twist boundaries to only laths, and an increase in depth where laths begin to appear, with increasing fluence. X-ray diffraction results showed the distribution of crystallite sizes corresponding to the change in dislocation structure. We proposed that the dislocation structure is determined by the laser fluence, through the change in the duration of the shock wave.

  14. Characterization of magnetization-induced second harmonic generation in iron oxide polymer nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Vandendriessche, Stefaan; Valev, Ventsislav K; Verbiest, Thierry

    2012-01-10

    We have measured the magnetization-induced second harmonic generation (MSHG) of a nanocomposite consisting of iron oxide nanoparticles in a polymer film. The existing theoretical framework is extended to include DC magnetic fields in order to characterize the MSHG signal and analyze the measurements. Additionally, magnetic hysteresis loops are measured for four principal polarizer-analyzer configurations, revealing the P(IN)-P(OUT) and S(IN)-P(OUT) polarizer-analyzer configurations to be sensitive to the transverse magnetic field. These results demonstrate the use of MSHG and the applied formalism as a tool to study magnetic nanoparticles and their magnetic properties.

  15. Redox Balance in Lactobacillus reuteri DSM20016: Roles of Iron-Dependent Alcohol Dehydrogenases in Glucose/ Glycerol Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bromberger, Paul David; Nieuwenhuiys, Gavin; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri, a heterofermentative bacterium, metabolizes glycerol via a Pdu (propanediol-utilization) pathway involving dehydration to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) followed by reduction to 1,3-propandiol (1,3-PDO) with concomitant generation of an oxidized cofactor, NAD+ that is utilized to maintain cofactor balance required for glucose metabolism and even for oxidation of 3-HPA by a Pdu oxidative branch to 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP). The Pdu pathway is operative inside Pdu microcompartment that encapsulates different enzymes and cofactors involved in metabolizing glycerol or 1,2-propanediol, and protects the cells from the toxic effect of the aldehyde intermediate. Since L. reuteri excretes high amounts of 3-HPA outside the microcompartment, the organism is likely to have alternative alcohol dehydrogenase(s) in the cytoplasm for transformation of the aldehyde. In this study, diversity of alcohol dehydrogenases in Lactobacillus species was investigated with a focus on L. reuteri. Nine ADH enzymes were found in L. reuteri DSM20016, out of which 3 (PduQ, ADH6 and ADH7) belong to the group of iron-dependent enzymes that are known to transform aldehydes/ketones to alcohols. L. reuteri mutants were generated in which the three ADHs were deleted individually. The lagging growth phenotype of these deletion mutants revealed that limited NAD+/NADH recycling could be restricting their growth in the absence of ADHs. Notably, it was demonstrated that PduQ is more active in generating NAD+ during glycerol metabolism within the microcompartment by resting cells, while ADH7 functions to balance NAD+/NADH by converting 3-HPA to 1,3-PDO outside the microcompartment in the growing cells. Moreover, evaluation of ADH6 deletion mutant showed strong decrease in ethanol level, supporting the role of this bifuctional alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase in ethanol production. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report revealing both internal and external recycling

  16. Role of Cardiovascular Disease-associated iron overload in Libby amphibole-induced acute pulmonary injury and inflammation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary toxicity induced by asbestos is thought to be mediated through redox-cycling of fiber-bound and bioavailable iron (Fe). We hypothesized that Libby amphibole (LA)-induced cute lung injury will be exacerbated in rat models of cardiovascular disease (CVD)-associated Fe-ove...

  17. Cp/Heph mutant mice have iron-induced neurodegeneration diminished by deferiprone

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liangliang; Hadziahmetovic, Majda; Wang, Chenguang; Xu, Xueying; Song, Ying; Jinnah, H.A.; Wodzinska, Jolanta; Iacovelli, Jared; Wolkow, Natalie; Krajacic, Predrag; Weissberger, Alyssa Cwanger; Connelly, John; Spino, Michael; Lee, Michael K.; Connor, James; Giasson, Benoit; Harris, Z. Leah; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2016-01-01

    Brain iron accumulates in several neurodegenerative diseases and can cause oxidative damage, but mechanisms of brain iron homeostasis are incompletely understood. Patients with mutations in the cellular iron-exporting ferroxidase ceruloplasmin (Cp) have brain iron accumulation causing neurodegeneration. Here, we assessed the brains of mice with combined mutation of Cp and its homolog hephaestin. Compared to single mutants, brain iron accumulation was accelerated in double mutants in the cerebellum, substantia nigra, and hippocampus. Iron accumulated within glia, while neurons were iron deficient. There was loss of both neurons and glia. Mice developed ataxia and tremor, and most died by 9 months. Treatment with the oral iron chelator deferiprone diminished brain iron levels, protected against neuron loss, and extended lifespan. Ferroxidases play important, partially overlapping roles in brain iron homeostasis by facilitating iron export from glia, making iron available to neurons. PMID:26303407

  18. Fabrication of layered nanostructures by successive electron beam induced deposition with two precursors: protective capping of metallic iron structures.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, M; Walz, M-M; Papp, C; Kronast, F; Gray, A X; Balke, B; Cramm, S; Fadley, C S; Steinrück, H-P; Marbach, H

    2011-11-25

    We report on the stepwise generation of layered nanostructures via electron beam induced deposition (EBID) using organometallic precursor molecules in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). In a first step a metallic iron line structure was produced using iron pentacarbonyl; in a second step this nanostructure was then locally capped with a 2-3 nm thin titanium oxide-containing film fabricated from titanium tetraisopropoxide. The chemical composition of the deposited layers was analyzed by spatially resolved Auger electron spectroscopy. With spatially resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Fe L₃ edge, it was demonstrated that the thin capping layer prevents the iron structure from oxidation upon exposure to air.

  19. Effect of calcium phosphate and vitamin D3 supplementation on bone remodelling and metabolism of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of calcium phosphate and/or vitamin D3 on bone and mineral metabolism. Methods Sixty omnivorous healthy subjects participated in the double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel designed study. Supplements were tricalcium phosphate (CaP) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). At the beginning of the study (baseline), all subjects documented their normal nutritional habits in a dietary record for three successive days. After baseline, subjects were allocated to three intervention groups: CaP (additional 1 g calcium/d), vitamin D3 (additional 10 μg/d) and CaP + vitamin D3. In the first two weeks, all groups consumed placebo bread, and afterwards, for eight weeks, the test bread according to the intervention group. In the last week of each study period (baseline, placebo, after four and eight weeks of intervention), a faecal (three days) and a urine (24 h) collection and a fasting blood sampling took place. Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron were determined in faeces, urine and blood. Bone formation and resorption markers were analysed in blood and urine. Results After four and eight weeks, CaP and CaP + vitamin D3 supplementations increased faecal excretion of calcium and phosphorus significantly compared to placebo. Due to the vitamin D3 supplementations (vitamin D3, CaP + vitamin D3), the plasma 25-(OH)D concentration significantly increased after eight weeks compared to placebo. The additional application of CaP led to a significant increase of the 25-(OH)D concentration already after four weeks. Bone resorption and bone formation markers were not influenced by any intervention. Conclusions Supplementation with daily 10 μg vitamin D3 significantly increases plasma 25-(OH)D concentration. The combination with daily 1 g calcium (as CaP) has a further increasing effect on the 25-(OH)D concentration. Both CaP alone and in combination with vitamin D3 have no beneficial effect on bone

  20. Dietary Composition Influences Incidence of Helicobacter pylori-Induced Iron Deficiency Anemia and Gastric Ulceration.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Amber C; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Noto, Jennifer M; Peek, Richard M; Washington, M Kay; Algood, Holly M Scott; Cover, Timothy L

    2016-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies have provided conflicting data regarding an association between Helicobacter pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in humans. Here, a Mongolian gerbil model was used to investigate a potential role of H. pylori infection, as well as a possible role of diet, in H. pylori-associated IDA. Mongolian gerbils (either H. pylori infected or uninfected) received a normal diet or one of three diets associated with increased H. pylori virulence: high-salt, low-iron, or a combination of a high-salt and low-iron diet. In an analysis of all infected animals compared to uninfected animals (independent of diet), H. pylori-infected gerbils had significantly lower hemoglobin values than their uninfected counterparts at 16 weeks postinfection (P < 0.0001). The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and serum ferritin values were significantly lower in H. pylori-infected gerbils than in uninfected gerbils, consistent with IDA. Leukocytosis and thrombocytosis were also detected in infected gerbils, indicating the presence of a systemic inflammatory response. In comparison to uninfected gerbils, H. pylori-infected gerbils had a higher gastric pH, a higher incidence of gastric ulcers, and a higher incidence of fecal occult blood loss. Anemia was associated with the presence of gastric ulceration but not gastric cancer. Infected gerbils consuming diets with a high salt content developed gastric ulcers significantly more frequently than gerbils consuming a normal-salt diet, and the lowest hemoglobin levels were in infected gerbils consuming a high-salt/low-iron diet. These data indicate that H. pylori infection can cause IDA and that the composition of the diet influences the incidence and severity of H. pylori-induced IDA.

  1. Paradoxically, iron overload does not potentiate doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in vitro in cardiomyocytes and in vivo in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Guenancia, Charles; Li, Na; Hachet, Olivier; Rigal, Eve; Cottin, Yves; Dutartre, Patrick; Rochette, Luc; Vergely, Catherine

    2015-04-15

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is known to induce serious cardiotoxicity, which is believed to be mediated by oxidative stress and complex interactions with iron. However, the relationship between iron and DOX-induced cardiotoxicity remains controversial and the role of iron chelation therapy to prevent cardiotoxicity is called into question. Firstly, we evaluated in vitro the effects of DOX in combination with dextran–iron on cell viability in cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes and EMT-6 cancer cells. Secondly, we used an in vivo murine model of iron overloading (IO) in which male C57BL/6 mice received a daily intra-peritoneal injection of dextran–iron (15 mg/kg) for 3 weeks (D0–D20) and then (D21) a single sub-lethal intra-peritoneal injection of 6 mg/kg of DOX. While DOX significantly decreased cell viability in EMT-6 and H9c2, pretreatment with dextran–iron (125–1000 μg/mL) in combination with DOX, paradoxically limited cytotoxicity in H9c2 and increased it in EMT-6. In mice, IO alone resulted in cardiac hypertrophy (+ 22%) and up-regulation of brain natriuretic peptide and β-myosin heavy-chain (β-MHC) expression, as well as an increase in cardiac nitro-oxidative stress revealed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. In DOX-treated mice, there was a significant decrease in left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and an up-regulation of cardiac β-MHC and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) expression. However, prior IO did not exacerbate the DOX-induced fall in LVEF and there was no increase in ANP expression. IO did not impair the capacity of DOX to decrease cancer cell viability and could even prevent some aspects of DOX cardiotoxicity in cardiomyocytes and in mice. - Highlights: • The effects of iron on cardiomyocytes were opposite to those on cancer cell lines. • In our model, iron overload did not potentiate anthracycline cardiotoxicity. • Chronic oxidative stress induced by iron could mitigate doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. • The role of iron in

  2. Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolism refers to all the physical and chemical processes in the body that convert or use energy, ... Tortora GJ, Derrickson BH. Metabolism. In: Tortora GJ, Derrickson ... Physiology . 14th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons; 2014:chap ...

  3. Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... El metabolismo Metabolism Basics Our bodies get the energy they need from food through metabolism, the chemical ... that convert the fuel from food into the energy needed to do everything from moving to thinking ...

  4. Male-Specific Alleviation of Iron-Induced Striatal Injury by Inhibition of Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Fang; Yokoyama, Kazunari K.; Chen, Tzu-Yin; Hsiao, Hsiu-Wen; Chiang, Pei-Chi; Hsieh, Ya-Ching; Lo, Steven; Hsu, Chin

    2015-01-01

    Men exhibit a worse survival rate than premenopausal women after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), however, no sex-specific management has been concerned. In a rat model involving infusion of ferrous citrate (FC) that simulates iron accumulation after hemorrhage, a higher degree of autophagy associated with higher injury severity was observed in striatum of males than in females. Since the imbalance between the levels of autophagy and energy demand may lead to cell death, we proposed that FC-induced autophagy is detrimental in a male specific manner and autophagy modulation affects injury severity in a sex-dependent manner. Rapamycin, an autophagy inducer, and conditional knockout gene of autophagy-related protein 7 (Atg7) in dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) neurons were used to test our hypothesis using a mouse model with striatal FC infusion. The result showed that the levels of autophagic cell death and injury severity were higher in male than in female mice. Pre-treatment of FC-infused females with rapamycin increased the FC-induced behavioral deficit and DRD2 neuron death. However, DRD2 neuron-specific knockout of Atg7 decreased FC-induced injury severity and the number of TUNEL(+) DRD2 neurons in males. These results suggest that autophagy in FC-infusion males is overactive with maladaptive consequences and inhibition of autophagy decreases the severity of FC-induced striatal injury in males. These findings present prospects for male-specific therapeutic strategy that targets autophagy in patients suffering from iron overload. PMID:26147959

  5. Iron transport through ferroportin is induced by intracellular ascorbate and involves IRP2 and HIF2α.

    PubMed

    Scheers, Nathalie; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2014-01-03

    A few tightly regulated transport proteins mediate iron absorption across the intestinal epithelium. At the basolateral border of intestinal cells there is one identified transporter, ferroportin, for the transfer of intracellular iron to the vascular system. Here, we investigate the effects of ascorbate (vitamin C) on the regulation of ferroportin in human intestinal Caco-2 cells using ELISA and Western Blot analyses. The results indicate that ferroportin protein levels peak at 100 μM of added ascorbate with an increase of 274% (p=0.02). At 150 μM of ascorbate, the increase was only 28% (p=0.04), and at 200 μM there was no significant change from the baseline control. In addition, the ascorbate-induced, (at 150 μM) up-regulated ferroportin levels were associated with increased 55Fe transport across the basolateral border (19%, p=0.03). Ascorbate-induced up-regulation of cellular ferroportin levels (no added iron) was associated with increased levels of the iron regulatory protein IRP2 (230%, p=0.0009), and the hypoxia-inducible factor HIF2α (69%, p=0.03). Thus, iron transport across the basal border via ferroportin is influenced by the intracellular status of ascorbate and IRP2 and HIF2α are involved. We discuss possible reasons for the ascorbate-effects and the dependence of cellular growth conditions for iron transport-related protein expression.

  6. Genes related to iron metabolism and susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease in Basque population.

    PubMed

    Blázquez, L; De Juan, D; Ruiz-Martínez, J; Emparanza, J I; Sáenz, A; Otaegui, D; Sistiaga, A; Martínez-Lage, P; Lamet, I; Samaranch, L; Buiza, C; Etxeberria, I; Arriola, E; Cuadrado, E; Urdaneta, E; Yanguas, J; López de Munain, A

    2007-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common dementing disorder and presents with a progressive and irrev