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Sample records for iron stores correlate

  1. Distribution and quantitation of skin iron in primary haemochromatosis: correlation with total body iron stores in patients undergoing phlebotomy.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Teresa; Silva, Raquel; Fleming, Rita; Gonçalves, Afonso; Barreiros, Maria A; Silva, João N; Morlière, Patrice; Santus, René; Filipe, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of the concentration of iron in the skin, if correlated with total body iron stores, may enable better informed decisions on when to initiate, change or stop therapy in hereditary heamochromatosis. Naïve haemochromatosis patients with iron overload and with C282Y and/or H63D HFE mutations were evaluated at the following time-points: disease diagnosis, end of the therapy programme, and 6 months after the end of therapy. The distribution and concentration of iron in the skin were assessed by quantitative nuclear microscopy methods, in parallel with serum and plasma iron concentration. Iron content in the liver was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. Iron accumulated in the epidermis; its concentration increased from outer to inner layers, being maximal in the basal layer (7.33 ± 0.98 µmol/g). At all 3 time-points, most of the iron was associated with the extracellular space. During the phlebotomy programme the iron content of the skin and the liver decreased by a factor of 2. These data suggest that measurements of iron concentration in the epidermis, which is a readily accessible tissue, reflect iron overload in the liver.

  2. METABOLISM OF IRON STORES

    PubMed Central

    SAITO, HIROSHI

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Remarkable progress was recently achieved in the studies on molecular regulators of iron metabolism. Among the main regulators, storage iron, iron absorption, erythropoiesis and hepcidin interact in keeping iron homeostasis. Diseases with gene-mutations resulting in iron overload, iron deficiency, and local iron deposition have been introduced in relation to the regulators of storage iron metabolism. On the other hand, the research on storage iron metabolism has not advanced since the pioneering research by Shoden in 1953. However, we recently developed a new method for determining ferritin iron and hemosiderin iron by computer-assisted serum ferritin kinetics. Serum ferritin increase or decrease curves were measured in patients with normal storage iron levels (chronic hepatitis C and iron deficiency anemia treated by intravenous iron injection), and iron overload (hereditary hemochromatosis and transfusion dependent anemia). We thereby confirmed the existence of two iron pathways where iron flows followed the numbered order (1) labile iron, (2) ferritin and (3) hemosiderin in iron deposition and mobilization among many previously proposed but mostly unproven routes. We also demonstrated the increasing and decreasing phases of ferritin iron and hemosiderin iron in iron deposition and mobilization. The author first demonstrated here the change in proportion between pre-existing ferritin iron and new ferritin iron synthesized by removing iron from hemosiderin in the course of iron removal. In addition, the author disclosed the cause of underestimation of storage iron turnover rate which had been reported by previous investigators in estimating storage iron turnover rate of normal subjects. PMID:25741033

  3. Use of near infrared correlation spectroscopy for quantitation of surface iron, absorbed water and stored electronic energy in a suite of Mars soil analog materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyne, Lelia M.; Banin, Amos; Carle, Glenn; Orenberg, James; Scattergood, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A number of questions concerning the surface mineralogy and the history of water on Mars remain unresolved using the Viking analyses and Earth-based telescopic data. Identification and quantitation of iron-bearing clays on Mars would elucidate these outstanding issues. Near infrared correlation analysis, a method typically applied to qualitative and quantitative analysis of individual constituents of multicomponent mixtures, is adapted here to selection of distinctive features of a small, highly homologous series of Fe/Ca-exchanged montmorillonites and several kalinites. Independently determined measures of surface iron, relative humidity and stored electronic energy were used as constituent data for linear regression of the constituent vs. reflectance data throughout the spectral region 0.68 to 2.5 micrometers. High correlations were found in appropriate regions for all three constituents, though that with stored energy is still considered tenuous. Quantitation was improved using 1st and 2nd derivative spectra. High resolution data over a broad spectral range would be required to quantitatively identify iron-bearing clays by remotely sensed reflectance.

  4. Daily supplementation with iron increases lipid peroxidation in young women with low iron stores.

    PubMed

    King, Sarah M; Donangelo, Carmen M; Knutson, Mitchell D; Walter, Patrick B; Ames, Bruce N; Viteri, Fernando E; King, Janet C

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether women with low iron stores (plasma ferritin iron supplement for 8 wks at a level commonly used to treat poor iron status develop increased lipid peroxidation as measured by ethane exhalation rates and plasma malondialdehyde. The women served as their own control as pre- and post-supplementation periods were compared. Twelve women participated in the study for a 70-day period and consumed daily iron supplements (98 mg of iron as ferrous sulfate) from day 14 to day 70. Baseline blood and expired air samples were obtained on days 1 and 14; measurements during supplementation were performed on days 56 and 70, that is at 6 and 8 weeks of supplementation. Iron status improved during the iron supplementation period; biochemical indicators of lipid peroxidation also increased. After 6 wks of iron supplementation, serum ferritin almost doubled and body iron more than doubled. Hemoglobin levels increased slightly and other indicators of iron status became normal. However, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and breath ethane exhalation rates (BEER) increased by more than 40% between baseline and 6 wks of supplementation; these increases correlated significantly with plasma iron and ferritin levels. MDA was positively correlated with BEER. BEER increased further after 8 wks of iron supplementation. The increased indicators of lipid peroxidation with duration of supplementation and as iron status improved suggest that providing daily nearly 100 mg iron may not be a totally innocuous regimen for correcting iron depletion in women.

  5. [Iron stores status at early pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Barón, María Adela; Solano, Liseti; Peña, Evelyn; Del Real, Sara

    2005-06-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common cause of nutritional anemia. During pregnancy there is a high risk of developing it, due to the increase of iron requirements for fetal and maternal tissues growth. The objective of this study was to determine the iron nutritional status in early pregnancy and to determine its relationship with the dietary intake. The study applied a cross-sectional and descriptive design in 419 pregnant women (13-41 y) from Valencia, Carabobo, Venezuela. Serum ferritin was determined by enzimoinmunoassay and hemoglobin by a semi-automated method. Dietary iron intake was assessed through two non-consecutive 24 hours recalls. Statistical analysis included basic descriptives, Fisher exact test, Chi-square, and Mann-Whitney tests; with a statistical significance of p < 0.05. The iron deficiency and anemia prevalence were 16.2% and 14.4%, respectively; corresponding 36.6% to ferropenic anemia. 10.4%, 29.0% and 24.2% of the women had deficient intake for iron, vitamin C and A, respectively. There were no significant differences by age. A nutritional risk was observed regarding the iron status, demonstrated by the percentage of ferropenic anemia and because the main dietary contribution came from non-heme iron, which has low bioavailability. Additionally, there was an important percentage of inadequate vitamin C and A intakes; hence, their contribution to iron absorption was limited.

  6. Nuclear resonance scattering measurement of human iron stores

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, L.; Ancona, R.C.; Mossey, R.T.; Vaswani, A.N.; Cohn, S.H.

    1985-07-01

    Hepatic iron stores were measured noninvasively in 31 patients (thalassemia, hemodialysis, hemosiderosis, refractory anemia) with suspected iron overload, employing a nuclear resonance scattering (NRS) technique. The thalassemia patients were undergoing desferrioxamine chelation therapy during the NRS measurements. The hemodialysis patients were measured before chelation therapy. Iron levels measured by NRS were in general agreement with those determined in liver biopsies by atomic absorption spectroscopy. In addition, NRS measurements from the thorax of some of these patients suggest that this method may also prove useful for clinical assessment of cardiac iron.

  7. Evaluation of Iron Store by Serum Ferritin in Healthy Blood Donors of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M M; Adnan, S D; Karim, S; Mamun, M A; Nandy, S; Faruki, M A; Islam, K

    2016-07-01

    Iron stores in the body exist primarily in the form of ferritin. Small amounts of ferritin secreted into the plasma and plasma ferritin is positively correlated with the size of the total body iron stores. The present study conducted to determine the iron status using the serum ferritin level among healthy Bangladeshi blood donors. The present cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Transfusion Medicine, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2011 to June 2012. Blood donor signed informed consent and has satisfactory pre-donation health assessment and satisfactory post-donation blood test results were included in the study. Full blood counts were performed within 4 hours of collection using an automated haematology analyzer. Serum ferritin was measured using a validated enzyme immunoassay. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 (SPPS Incorporation, Chicago, IL, USA). P value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Total 100 blood donors were included in the study, among them 88 were male and 12 were female. Mean±SD of the age of the respondents was 26.8±5.9 years with a range of 19 to 45 years. Mean±SD of heamoglobin level (gm/dl) and total count of Red Blood Cell (million/cmm) were 14.1±1.4 and 5.1±0.4 respectively. Mean±SD of serum ferritin level (ng/ml) was 96.4±69.0ng/ml with a range of 4.1ng/ml to 298.7ng/ml. Among the respondents 9.0% had depleted iron store, 7.0 reduced iron store and 84.0% had normal iron store. Among the respondents 5.0% had iron deficiency anaemia in term of serum ferritin level. Statistically significant difference of serum ferritin level observed between male and female and donors with and without history of previous blood donation. Among the healthy blood donors of Bangladesh abnormal serum ferritin is highly prevalent among blood donors specially among female. Monitoring of iron stores by serum ferritin seems justified in order to identify those with depleted iron stores who will

  8. Adequate iron stores and the 'Nil nocere' principle.

    PubMed

    Hollán, S; Johansen, K S

    1993-01-01

    There is a need to change the policy of unselective iron supplementation during periods of life with physiologically increased cell proliferation. Levels of iron stores to be regarded as adequate during infancy and pregnancy are still not well established. Recent data support the view that it is not justified to interfere with physiological adaptations developed through millions of years by sophisticated and precisely coordinated regulation of iron absorption, utilization and storage. Recent data suggest that the chelatable intracellular iron pool regulates the expression of proteins with central importance in cellular iron metabolism (TfR, ferritin, and erythroid 5-aminolevulinic synthetase) in a coordinately controlled way through an iron dependent cytosolic mRNA binding protein, the iron regulating factor (IRF). This factor is simultaneously a sensor and a regulator of iron levels. The reduction of ferritin levels during highly increased cell proliferation is a mirror of the increased density of TfRs. An abundance of data support the vigorous competition for growth-essential iron between microbial pathogens and their vertebrate hosts. The highly coordinated regulation of iron metabolism is probably crucial in achieving a balance between the blockade of readily accessible iron to invading organisms and yet providing sufficient iron for the immune system of the host. The most evident adverse clinical effects of excess iron have been observed in immunodeficient patients in tropical countries and in AIDS patients. Excess iron also increases the risk of initiation and promotion of malignant processes by iron binding to DNA and by the iron-catalysed release of free radicals. Oxygen radicals were shown to damage critical biomolecules leading, apart from cancer, to a variety of human disease states, including inflammation and atherosclerosis. They are also involved in processes of aging and thrombosis. Recent clinical trials have suggested that the use of iron

  9. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors.'' The purpose of this public workshop is to... donor safety and blood availability, and potential measures to maintain adequate iron stores in...

  10. Risk of Oxidative Damage to Bone from Increased Iron Stores During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Iron stores are increased secondary to neocytolysis of red blood cells and a high dietary intake of iron during space flight. This raises concerns about the risk of excess iron causing oxidative damage in many tissues, including bone. Biomarkers of iron status, oxidative damage, and bone resorption during space flight were analyzed for 23 (16 M/7 F) International Space Station crewmembers as part of the Nutrition SMO project. Up to 5 in-flight blood samples and 24-h urine pools were collected over the course of the 4-6 month missions. Serum iron increased slightly during space flight and was decreased at landing (P < 0.0004). An increase in serum ferritin early in flight (217% in women and 68% in men, P < 0.0004), returning to preflight concentrations at landing, and a decrease in transferrin and transferrin receptors during flight indicated that a transient increase in iron stores occurred. No inflammatory response was observed during flight. The oxidative damage markers 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and prostaglandin F(sub 2(alpha)) were positively correlated (both P < 0.001) with serum ferritin. A greater area under the curve for ferritin during flight was correlated with greater changes in bone mineral density of several bone regions after flight (1). In a separate study (2), a ground-based investigation was conducted that examined the combined effects of radiation exposure and iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury in several physiological systems in 12-wk male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were acclimated to an adequate iron diet (45 mg iron (ferric citrate)/kg diet) for 3 wk and then assigned to one of four groups: adequate iron (Fe) diet/no radiation, adequate Fe diet/ radiation, moderately high Fe diet (650 mg Fe (ferric citrate)/kg diet)/no radiation, and moderately high Fe diet/radiation. Animals remained on the assigned diet for 4 wk. Starting on day 14 of experimental diet treatment, animals were exposed to a fractionated dose (0.375 Gy) of Cs

  11. The influence of iron stores on cadmium body burden in a Thai population.

    PubMed

    Apinan, Roongnapa; Satarug, Soisunwan; Ruengweerayut, Ronnatrai; Mahavorasirikul, Wiratchanee; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2010-06-01

    Cadmium is a toxin of increasing public health concern due to its presence in most human foodstuffs and in cigarette smoke. Exposure to cadmium leads to tissue bioaccumulation and, in particular, has nephrotoxic effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between cadmium body burden and iron stores in a Thai population. A total of 182 healthy adult Thai subjects of both genders (89 males, 93 females) aged between 18 and 57 years and weighing 40-95 kg were included in this study. The total amounts of cadmium excreted in urine over 2 h (microg/g creatinine) were used as an index of long-term cadmium exposure. Quantitation of cadmium was performed using electrothermal (graphite furnace) atomic absorption spectrometry. The urinary cadmium excreted displayed a normal frequency distribution. The average urinary cadmium level did not exceed the WHO maximum tolerable internal dose for the non-exposed population (2 microg/g creatinine). Body iron stores reflected by serum ferritin levels did not show any correlation with cadmium burden in both males and females, although a relatively stronger influence of body iron store status on cadmium burden was shown in females. When the levels of serum ferritin were stratified into five levels (<20, 20-100, 101-200, 201-300, and >300 microg/l), a significant difference in total cadmium body burden was observed between females and males only in the group with a low level of serum ferritin of <20 microg/l. The cadmium body burden in females was about twice that in males in this group.

  12. Dietary supplementation with ipriflavone decreases hepatic iron stores in wild type mice.

    PubMed

    Patchen, Bonnie; Koppe, Tiago; Cheng, Aaron; Seo, Young Ah; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne; Fraenkel, Paula G

    2016-09-01

    Hepcidin, a peptide produced in the liver, decreases intestinal iron absorption and macrophage iron release by causing degradation of the iron exporter, ferroportin. Because its levels are inappropriately low in patients with iron overload syndromes, hepcidin is a potential drug target. We previously conducted a chemical screen that revealed ipriflavone, an orally available small molecule, as a potent inducer of hepcidin expression. To evaluate ipriflavone's effect on iron homeostasis, we placed groups of 5-week old wild type or thalassemia intermedia (Hbb(Th3+/-)) mice on a soy-free, iron-sufficient diet, AIN-93G containing 220mg iron and 0-750mgipriflavone/kg of food for 50days. Ipriflavone 500mg/kg significantly reduced liver iron stores and intestinal ferroportin expression in WT mice, while increasing the ratio of hepcidin transcript levels to liver iron stores. Ipriflavone supplementation in Hbb(Th3+/-) mice failed to alleviate iron overload and was associated with a milder reduction in intestinal ferroportin and a failure to alter the ratio of hepcidin transcript levels to liver iron stores or splenic expression of the hepcidin-regulatory hormone, erythroferrone. These data suggest that dietary supplementation with ipriflavone alone would not be sufficient to treat iron overload in thalassemia intermedia. PMID:27519943

  13. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure serum ferritin and the relationship between serum ferritin and nonheme iron stores in cats.

    PubMed

    Andrews, G A; Chavey, P S; Smith, J E

    1994-11-01

    Serum ferritin concentration correlates with tissue iron stores in humans, horses, calves, dogs, and pigs but not in rats. Because serum iron and total iron-binding capacity can be affected by disorders unrelated to iron adequacy (such as hypoproteinemia, chronic infection, hemolytic anemia, hypothyroidism, and renal disease), serum ferritin is probably the most reliable indicator of total body iron stores in larger species. To test the hypothesis that serum ferritin might be correlated with tissue iron levels in cats, we developed a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that uses two monoclonal antibodies in a sandwich arrangement to measure feline serum ferritin. The recovery of purified ferritin added to feline sera ranged from 94% to 104%; the within-assay coefficient of variability was 8.4%, and the assay-to-assay variability was 13.2%. Mean serum ferritin from 40 apparently healthy cats was 76 ng/ml (SD = 24 ng/ml). Serum ferritin concentration was significantly correlated (P < 0.001, n = 101, r = 0.365) with the nonheme iron in the liver and spleen (expressed as milligrams of iron per kilogram of body weight), as determined by Pearson product-moment correlation analysis. Because serum iron can decrease in diseases other than iron deficiency, the combination of serum iron and serum ferritin should provide sufficient evidence to differentiate anemia of chronic inflammation from anemia of iron deficiency in the cat.

  14. Hepcidin is a Better Predictor of Iron Stores in Premenopausal Women than Blood Loss or Dietary Intake

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Karen H. C.; Booth, Alison O.; Nowson, Caryl A.; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A.; Irving, David O.; Riddell, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between dietary intake, circulating hepcidin and iron status in free-living premenopausal women has not been explored. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify dietary determinants of iron stores after accounting for blood loss and to determine whether iron intake predicts iron stores independently of hepcidin in a sample of Australian women. Three hundred thirty eight women aged 18–50 years were recruited. Total intake and food sources of iron were determined via food frequency questionnaire; the magnitude of menstrual losses was estimated by self-report; and blood donation volume was quantified using blood donation records and self-reported donation frequency. Serum samples were analysed for ferritin, hepcidin and C-reactive protein concentrations. Linear regression was used to investigate associations. Accounting for blood loss, each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron was associated with a 3% increase in iron stores (p = 0.027); this association was not independent of hepcidin. Hepcidin was a more influential determinant of iron stores than blood loss and dietary factors combined (R2 of model including hepcidin = 0.65; R2 of model excluding hepcidin = 0.17, p for difference <0.001), and increased hepcidin diminished the positive association between iron intake and iron stores. Despite not being the biggest contributor to dietary iron intake, unprocessed meat was positively associated with iron stores, and each 10% increase in consumption was associated with a 1% increase in iron stores (p = 0.006). No other dietary factors were associated with iron stores. Interventions that reduce hepcidin production combined with dietary strategies to increase iron intake may be important means of improving iron status in women with depleted iron stores. PMID:27598194

  15. Hepcidin is a Better Predictor of Iron Stores in Premenopausal Women than Blood Loss or Dietary Intake.

    PubMed

    Lim, Karen H C; Booth, Alison O; Nowson, Caryl A; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Irving, David O; Riddell, Lynn J

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between dietary intake, circulating hepcidin and iron status in free-living premenopausal women has not been explored. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify dietary determinants of iron stores after accounting for blood loss and to determine whether iron intake predicts iron stores independently of hepcidin in a sample of Australian women. Three hundred thirty eight women aged 18-50 years were recruited. Total intake and food sources of iron were determined via food frequency questionnaire; the magnitude of menstrual losses was estimated by self-report; and blood donation volume was quantified using blood donation records and self-reported donation frequency. Serum samples were analysed for ferritin, hepcidin and C-reactive protein concentrations. Linear regression was used to investigate associations. Accounting for blood loss, each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron was associated with a 3% increase in iron stores (p = 0.027); this association was not independent of hepcidin. Hepcidin was a more influential determinant of iron stores than blood loss and dietary factors combined (R² of model including hepcidin = 0.65; R² of model excluding hepcidin = 0.17, p for difference <0.001), and increased hepcidin diminished the positive association between iron intake and iron stores. Despite not being the biggest contributor to dietary iron intake, unprocessed meat was positively associated with iron stores, and each 10% increase in consumption was associated with a 1% increase in iron stores (p = 0.006). No other dietary factors were associated with iron stores. Interventions that reduce hepcidin production combined with dietary strategies to increase iron intake may be important means of improving iron status in women with depleted iron stores. PMID:27598194

  16. Hepcidin is a Better Predictor of Iron Stores in Premenopausal Women than Blood Loss or Dietary Intake.

    PubMed

    Lim, Karen H C; Booth, Alison O; Nowson, Caryl A; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Irving, David O; Riddell, Lynn J

    2016-09-02

    The relationship between dietary intake, circulating hepcidin and iron status in free-living premenopausal women has not been explored. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify dietary determinants of iron stores after accounting for blood loss and to determine whether iron intake predicts iron stores independently of hepcidin in a sample of Australian women. Three hundred thirty eight women aged 18-50 years were recruited. Total intake and food sources of iron were determined via food frequency questionnaire; the magnitude of menstrual losses was estimated by self-report; and blood donation volume was quantified using blood donation records and self-reported donation frequency. Serum samples were analysed for ferritin, hepcidin and C-reactive protein concentrations. Linear regression was used to investigate associations. Accounting for blood loss, each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron was associated with a 3% increase in iron stores (p = 0.027); this association was not independent of hepcidin. Hepcidin was a more influential determinant of iron stores than blood loss and dietary factors combined (R² of model including hepcidin = 0.65; R² of model excluding hepcidin = 0.17, p for difference <0.001), and increased hepcidin diminished the positive association between iron intake and iron stores. Despite not being the biggest contributor to dietary iron intake, unprocessed meat was positively associated with iron stores, and each 10% increase in consumption was associated with a 1% increase in iron stores (p = 0.006). No other dietary factors were associated with iron stores. Interventions that reduce hepcidin production combined with dietary strategies to increase iron intake may be important means of improving iron status in women with depleted iron stores.

  17. Serum ferritin concentrations and body iron stores in a multicenter, multiethnic primary-care population.

    PubMed

    Gordeuk, Victor R; Reboussin, David M; McLaren, Christine E; Barton, James C; Acton, Ronald T; McLaren, Gordon D; Harris, Emily L; Reiss, Jacob A; Adams, Paul C; Speechley, Mark; Phatak, Pradyumna D; Sholinsky, Phyliss; Eckfeldt, John H; Chen, Wen-Pin; Passmore, Leah; Dawkins, Fitzroy W

    2008-08-01

    How often elevated serum ferritin in primary-care patients reflects increased iron stores (normally 0.8 g in men, 0.4 g in women) is not known. The Hereditary Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) study screened 101,168 primary-care participants (44% Caucasians, 27% African-Americans, 14% Asians/Pacific Islanders, 13% Hispanics, 2% others). Follow-up clinical evaluation was performed in 302 of 333 HFE C282Y homozygotes regardless of iron measures and 1,375 of 1,920 nonhomozygotes with serum ferritin >300 microg/L (men), >200 microg/L (women) and transferrin saturation >50% (men), >45% (women). Quantitative phlebotomy was conducted in 122 of 175 C282Y homozygotes and 122 of 1,102 nonhomozygotes with non-transfusional serum ferritin elevation at evaluation. The estimated prevalence in the Caucasian population of C282Y homozygotes with serum ferritin >900 microg/L at evaluation was 20 per 10,000 men and 4 per 10,000 women; this constellation was predictive of iron stores >4 g in men and >2 g in women. The estimated prevalence per 10,000 of non-C282Y homozygotes with serum ferritin >900 microg/L at evaluation was 7 among Caucasians, 13 among Hispanics, 20 among African Americans, and 38 among Asians and Pacific Islanders, and this constellation was predictive of iron stores >2 g but <4 g. In conclusion, serum ferritin >900 microg/L after initial elevations of both serum ferritin and transferrin saturation is predictive of mildly increased iron stores in multiple ethnic populations regardless of HFE genotype. Serum ferritin >900 microg/L in male C282Y homozygotes is predictive of moderately increased iron stores. PMID:18429050

  18. Transfusion of human volunteers with older, stored red blood cells produces extravascular hemolysis and circulating non-transferrin-bound iron.

    PubMed

    Hod, Eldad A; Brittenham, Gary M; Billote, Genia B; Francis, Richard O; Ginzburg, Yelena Z; Hendrickson, Jeanne E; Jhang, Jeffrey; Schwartz, Joseph; Sharma, Shruti; Sheth, Sujit; Sireci, Anthony N; Stephens, Hannah L; Stotler, Brie A; Wojczyk, Boguslaw S; Zimring, James C; Spitalnik, Steven L

    2011-12-15

    Transfusions of RBCs stored for longer durations are associated with adverse effects in hospitalized patients. We prospectively studied 14 healthy human volunteers who donated standard leuko-reduced, double RBC units. One unit was autologously transfused "fresh" (3-7 days of storage), and the other "older" unit was transfused after 40 to 42 days of storage. Of the routine laboratory parameters measured at defined times surrounding transfusion, significant differences between fresh and older transfusions were only observed in iron parameters and markers of extravascular hemolysis. Compared with fresh RBCs, mean serum total bilirubin increased by 0.55 mg/dL at 4 hours after transfusion of older RBCs (P = .0003), without significant changes in haptoglobin or lactate dehydrogenase. In addition, only after the older transfusion, transferrin saturation increased progressively over 4 hours to a mean of 64%, and non-transferrin-bound iron appeared, reaching a mean of 3.2μM. The increased concentrations of non-transferrin-bound iron correlated with enhanced proliferation in vitro of a pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli (r = 0.94, P = .002). Therefore, circulating non-transferrin-bound iron derived from rapid clearance of transfused, older stored RBCs may enhance transfusion-related complications, such as infection.

  19. Mycoflora and aflatoxin production in pigeon pea stored in jute sacks and iron bins.

    PubMed

    Bankole, S A; Eseigbe, D A; Enikuomehin, O A

    The mycoflora, moisture content and aflatoxin contamination of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millisp) stored in jute sacks and iron bins were determined at monthly intervals for a year. The predominant fungi on freshly harvested seeds were Alternaria spp., Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium spp. and Phoma spp. These fungi gradually disappeared from stored seeds with time and by 5-6 months, most were not isolated. The fungi that succeeded the initially dominant ones were mainly members of the general Aspergillus, Penicillium and Rhizopus. Population of these fungi increased up to the end of one year storage. Higher incidence of mycoflora and Aspergillus flavus were recorded in jute-sack samples throughout the storage period. The moisture content of stored seeds was found to fluctuate with the prevailing weather conditions, being low during the dry season and slightly high during the wet season. The stored seeds were free of aflatoxins for 3 and 5 months in jute sacks and iron bins respectively. The level of aflatoxins detected in jute-sack storage system was considerably higher than that occurring in the iron bin system. Of 196 isolates of A. flavus screened, 48% were toxigenic in liquid culture (54% from jute sacks and 41% from iron bins).

  20. Ascorbate status modulates reticuloendothelial iron stores and response to deferasirox iron chelation in ascorbate-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Casey; Otto-Duessel, Maya; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Nick, Hanspeter; Wood, John C

    2012-10-01

    Iron chelation is essential to patients on chronic blood transfusions to prevent toxicity from iron overload and remove excess iron. Deferasirox (DFX) is the most commonly used iron chelator in the United States; however, some patients are relatively refractory to DFX therapy. We postulated that vitamin C supplementation would improve the availability of transfusional iron to DFX treatment by promoting iron's redox cycling, increasing its soluble ferrous form and promoting its release from reticuloendothelial cells. Osteogenic dystrophy rats (n = 54) were given iron dextran injections for 10 weeks. Cardiac and liver iron levels were measured after iron loading (n = 18), 12 weeks of sham chelation (n = 18), and 12 weeks of DFX chelation (n = 18) at 75 mg/kg/day. Ascorbate supplementation of 150 ppm, 900 ppm, and 2250 ppm was used in the chow to mimic a broad range of ascorbate status; plasma ascorbate levels were 5.4 ± 1.9, 8.2 ± 1.4, 23.6 ± 9.8 μM, respectively (p < 0.0001). The most severe ascorbate deficiency produced reticuloenthelial retention, lowering total hepatic iron by 29% at the end of iron loading (p < 0.05) and limiting iron redistribution from cardiac and hepatic macrophages during 12 weeks of sham chelation. Most importantly, ascorbate supplementation at 2250 ppm improved DFX efficiency, allowing DFX to remove 21% more hepatic iron than ascorbate supplementation with 900 ppm or 150 ppm (p < 0.05). We conclude that vitamin C status modulates the release of iron from the reticuloendothelial system and correlates positively with DFX chelation efficiency. Our findings suggest that ascorbate status should be probed in patients with unsatisfactory response to DFX.

  1. Body iron stores and breast cancer risk in female atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Richard G; Cologne, John B; Nakachi, Kei; Grant, Eric J; Neriishi, Kazuo

    2011-12-01

    Iron can be a potent pro-oxidant and, on this basis, elevated body iron may increase the risk of cancer. Although epidemiological evidence is mixed, there is overall support for this possibility. In addition, because of this same oxidative capacity, body iron levels may alter radiation sensitivity. In the present study, a nested case-control study of breast cancer was conducted in Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Stored serum samples from the Adult Health Study cohort were assayed for ferritin levels and joint statistical analyses were conducted of ferritin and radiation dose on the risk of breast cancer. Serum ferritin is the best feasible indicator of body iron levels in otherwise healthy people. A total of 107 cases and 212 controls were available for analysis. The relative risk (RR) of breast cancer for a 1 log unit increase in ferritin was 1.4 (95% confidence interval 1.1-1.8). This translates to an RR of 1.64 comparing high and low values of the interquartile range among controls (58 and 13.2 ng/mL, respectively). The results support the hypothesis that elevated body iron stores increase the risk of breast cancer. However, the study was inconclusive regarding the question of whether body iron alters radiation-induced breast cancer risk.

  2. Body iron stores and breast cancer risk in female atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Richard G; Cologne, John B; Nakachi, Kei; Grant, Eric J; Neriishi, Kazuo

    2011-12-01

    Iron can be a potent pro-oxidant and, on this basis, elevated body iron may increase the risk of cancer. Although epidemiological evidence is mixed, there is overall support for this possibility. In addition, because of this same oxidative capacity, body iron levels may alter radiation sensitivity. In the present study, a nested case-control study of breast cancer was conducted in Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Stored serum samples from the Adult Health Study cohort were assayed for ferritin levels and joint statistical analyses were conducted of ferritin and radiation dose on the risk of breast cancer. Serum ferritin is the best feasible indicator of body iron levels in otherwise healthy people. A total of 107 cases and 212 controls were available for analysis. The relative risk (RR) of breast cancer for a 1 log unit increase in ferritin was 1.4 (95% confidence interval 1.1-1.8). This translates to an RR of 1.64 comparing high and low values of the interquartile range among controls (58 and 13.2 ng/mL, respectively). The results support the hypothesis that elevated body iron stores increase the risk of breast cancer. However, the study was inconclusive regarding the question of whether body iron alters radiation-induced breast cancer risk. PMID:21883693

  3. Correlation effects in the iron pnictides

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jian-xin; Si, Qimiao; Abrahams, Elihu; Dai, Jianhui

    2009-01-01

    One of the central questions about the iron pnictides concerns the extent to which their electrons are strongly correlated. Here we address this issue through the phenomenology of the charge transport and dynamics, single-electron excitation spectrum, and magnetic ordering and dynamics. We outline the evidence that the parent compounds, while metallic, have electron interactions that are sufficiently strong to produce incipient Mott physics. In other words, in terms of the strength of electron correlations compared to the kinetic energy, the iron pnictides are closer to intermediately-coupled systems lying at the boundary between itinerancy and localization, such as V{sub 2}O{sub 3} a or Se-doped NiS{sub 2} , rather than to simple antiferromagnetic metals like Cr. This level of electronic correlations produces a new small parameter for controlled theoretical analyses, namely the fraction of the single-electron spectral weight that lies in the coherent part. Using this expansion parameter, we construct the effective low-energy Hamiltonian and discuss its implications for the magnetic order and magnetic quantum criticality. Finally, this approach sharpens the notion of magnetic frustration for such a metallic system, and brings about a multi band matrix t-J{sub 1}-J{sub 2} model for the carrier-doped iron pnictides.

  4. Iron

    MedlinePlus

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  5. Intestinal absorption of dietary cadmium in women depends on body iron stores and fiber intake.

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, M; Akesson, A; Nermell, B; Vahter, M

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of intake and uptake of cadmium in relation to diet composition were carried out in 57 nonsmoking women, 20-50 years of age. A vegetarian/high-fiber diet and a mixed-diet group were constructed based on results from a food frequency questionnaire. Duplicate diets and the corresponding feces were collected during 4 consecutive days in parallel with dietary recording of type and amount of food ingested for determination of the dietary intake of cadmium and various nutrients. Blood and 24-hr urine samples were collected for determination of cadmium, hemoglobin, ferritin, and zinc. There were no differences in the intake of nutrients between the mixed-diet and the high-fiber diet groups, except for a significantly higher intake of fiber (p < 0.001) and cadmium (p < 0.002) in the high-fiber group. Fecal cadmium corresponded to 98% in the mixed-diet group and 100% in the high-fiber diet group. No differences in blood cadmium (BCd) or urinary cadmium (UCd) between groups could be detected. There was a tendency toward higher BCd and UCd concentrations with increasing fiber intake; however, the concentrations were not statistically significant at the 5% level, indicating an inhibitory effect of fiber on the gastrointestinal absorption of cadmium. Sixty-seven percent of the women had serum ferritin < 30 micrograms/l, indicating reduced body iron stores, which were highly associated with higher BCd (irrespective of fiber intake). BCd was mainly correlated with UCd, serum ferritin, age, anf fibre intake. UCd and serum ferritin explained almost 60% of the variation in BCd.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:7713018

  6. Iron Stores, Periodic Leg Movements, and Sleepiness in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Louise M.; Koo, Julie; Fan, Ludi; Owusu, Jocelynn T.; Chotinaiwattarakul, Wattanachai; Felt, Barbara T.; Chervin, Ronald D.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: Most clinical sleep studies are performed for suspected obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), yet one-quarter to one-half show periodic leg movements (PLMs), for reasons that remain unknown. Several other disparate sleep disorders also increase the risk for PLMs. We examined the novel hypotheses that OSA as a representative sleep disorder could promote lower body iron stores, as reflected by serum ferritin levels, and, through downstream effects on dopaminergic transmission, increase PLMs and daytime sleepiness. Methods: Subjects were recruited as they underwent laboratory-based polysomnography for suspected OSA. Serum ferritin levels were measured the next morning. Each subject completed an Epworth Sleepiness Scale and a brief questionnaire to assess for restless legs syndrome (RLS). Results: The frequency of apneic events showed no association with serum ferritin levels, before or after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, and likely RLS (each p value > 0.3). Serum ferritin levels did not predict the frequency of PLMs (p = 0.7) or Epworth scores (p = 0.8). Iron deficiency as a dichotomous variable, determined by ferritin levels less than < 50μg/L or in combination with low transferrin saturation or mean corpuscular volume, showed similar results. In exploratory analyses, contrary to expectations, lower minimum oxygen saturation and increased sleep-stage shifts predicted increased rather than decreased ferritin levels (p = 0.03 and p = 0.02, respectively). Conclusions: Results of this study, powered to detect small to moderate effect sizes, strongly suggest that OSA does not cause lower serum ferritin levels, which, in turn, cannot explain PLMs or daytime sleepiness in these patients. Citation: O'Brien LM; Koo J; Fan L; Owusu JT; Chotinaiwattarakul W; Felt BT; Chervin RD. Iron stores, periodic leg movements, and sleepiness in obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(6):525-531. PMID:20465018

  7. Correlation, magnetization and conduction in iron pnictides and iron chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zhiping; Haule, Kristjan; Kotliar, Gabriel

    2011-03-01

    By combining density functional theory (DFT) and dynamical mean field theory (DMFT), we study the electronic properties of iron pnictides and iron chalcogenides in both the paramagnetic and magnetic states. With ab initio derived realistic Coulomb interaction U and Hund's exchange coupling J, we find detailed agreements bewtween our calculations and many experimental observations in these compounds, including ARPES, magnetic properties, optical conductivity and anisotropy, and so on, WITHOUT any adjustment such as shifting of atomic positions, Fermi level and bands and renormalizations of bands which are commonly needed in DFT calculations in order to compare with experiments. Our theory explains the origin of the different magnetizations in FeTe and other iron pnictides and provides a unique physical picture. We find that in the magnetic phase of the iron pnictides, both the spin and the orbital polarization are strongly energy dependent. The spin polarization becomes weaker around Fermi level when the orbital polarization is stronger and vice verse at high energies. We stress on the role of the Hund's J rather than the Coulomb U and show how the iron pnictides and iron chalcogenides differ from other compounds.

  8. Increased Body Mass Index may lead to Hyperferritinemia Irrespective of Body Iron Stores

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Faiza; Memon, Abdul Shakoor; Fatima, Syeda Sadia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Obesity causes subclinical inflammation which results in the secretion of various bioactive peptides that are key players in metabolic regulation of iron homeostasis. We sought to establish correlation of one such peptide (ferritin) with marker of subclinical inflammation (CRP) in various BMI. Methods: Total 150 subjects between the ages of 20-60 years were included in the cross-sectional study conducted at Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre, Karachi, Pakistan. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by weight (kg) /height (m2). The given values were used as reference for Group A: normal weight (18.0-22.9 kg/m2), Group B: overweight (23.0-24.9 kg/m2), Group C: obese (>25.0 kg/m2) according to South Asian criteria. Serum Iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity, serum Transferrin Saturation, serum Ferritin and C-reactive protein were measured by commercially available kits. ANNOVA with Tukey’s minimum significant difference and Spearman Rho correlation were used considering p<0.05 significant. Results: The results identified an increased serum Ferritin and CRP in obese versus lean subjects (p < 0.001). BMI showed significantly positive correlation with serum CRP (r = 0.815; p-value < 0.01) and Ferritin (r = 0.584; p-value < 0.01). However, serum Iron levels and Transferrin saturation decreased in obese versus normal weight individuals (p < 0.001). Conclusion: This integrated new data reveals that individuals with high BMI had high levels of Serum Ferritin despite low levels of iron with high levels of C- reactive protein. This might be caused due to inflammatory conditions prevailing in the presence of increased adipose tissue. PMID:26870128

  9. Signatures of electronic correlations in iron silicide

    PubMed Central

    Tomczak, Jan M.; Haule, Kristjan; Kotliar, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    The intermetallic FeSi exhibits an unusual temperature dependence in its electronic and magnetic degrees of freedom, epitomized by the cross-over from a low-temperature nonmagnetic semiconductor to a high-temperature paramagnetic metal with a Curie–Weiss-like susceptibility. Many proposals for this unconventional behavior have been advanced, yet a consensus remains elusive. Using realistic many-body calculations, we here reproduce the signatures of the metal-insulator cross-over in various observables: the spectral function, the optical conductivity, the spin susceptibility, and the Seebeck coefficient. Validated by quantitative agreement with experiment, we then address the underlying microscopic picture. We propose a new scenario in which FeSi is a band insulator at low temperatures and is metalized with increasing temperature through correlation induced incoherence. We explain that the emergent incoherence is linked to the unlocking of iron fluctuating moments, which are almost temperature independent at short timescales. Finally, we make explicit suggestions for improving the thermoelectric performance of FeSi based systems. PMID:22328152

  10. Signatures of electronic correlations in iron silicide.

    PubMed

    Tomczak, Jan M; Haule, Kristjan; Kotliar, Gabriel

    2012-02-28

    The intermetallic FeSi exhibits an unusual temperature dependence in its electronic and magnetic degrees of freedom, epitomized by the cross-over from a low-temperature nonmagnetic semiconductor to a high-temperature paramagnetic metal with a Curie-Weiss-like susceptibility. Many proposals for this unconventional behavior have been advanced, yet a consensus remains elusive. Using realistic many-body calculations, we here reproduce the signatures of the metal-insulator cross-over in various observables: the spectral function, the optical conductivity, the spin susceptibility, and the Seebeck coefficient. Validated by quantitative agreement with experiment, we then address the underlying microscopic picture. We propose a new scenario in which FeSi is a band insulator at low temperatures and is metalized with increasing temperature through correlation induced incoherence. We explain that the emergent incoherence is linked to the unlocking of iron fluctuating moments, which are almost temperature independent at short timescales. Finally, we make explicit suggestions for improving the thermoelectric performance of FeSi based systems.

  11. Timing of clamping and factors associated with iron stores in full-term newborns

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho; Assis, Karine Franklin; Martins, Mariana Campos; do Prado, Mara Rúbia Maciel Cardoso; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Sant’Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the impact of timing of clamping and obstetric, biological and socioeconomic factors on the iron stores of full-term newborns. METHODS Cross-sectional study between October 2011 and July 2012 in which hematological parameters were evaluated for newborns in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. It involved collecting 7 mL of umbilical cord blood from 144 full-term not underweight newborns. The parameters investigated were complete blood count, serum iron, ferritin and C-reactive protein. The time of umbilical cord clamping was measured using a digital timer without interfering in the procedures of childbirth. The birth data were collected from Live Birth Certificates and other information was obtained from the mother through a questionnaire applied in the first month postpartum. Analysis of multiple linear regression was then used to estimate the influence of biological, obstetrics and socioeconomic factors on the ferritin levels at birth. RESULTS The median ferritin was 130.3 µg/L (n = 129, minimum = 16.4; maximum = 420.5 µg/L), the mean serum iron was 137.9 μg/dL (n = 144, SD = 39.29) and mean hemoglobin was 14.7 g/dL (n = 144, SD = 1.47). The median time of cord clamping was 36 seconds, ranging between 7 and 100. The bivariate analysis detected an association between ferritin levels and color of the child, timing clamping of 60 seconds, type of delivery, the presence of gestational diabetes and per capita family income. In multivariate analysis, the variables per capita income, number of antenatal visits and length at birth accounted for 22.0% of variation in ferritin levels. CONCLUSIONS Iron stores at birth were influenced by biological, obstetric and social characteristics. Tackling anemia should involve creating policies aimed at reducing social inequalities, improving the quality of antenatal care, as well as implementing a criterion of delayed clamping of the umbilical cord within the guidelines of labor. PMID:24789632

  12. Iron fortification of whole wheat flour reduces iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia and increases body iron stores in Indian school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Muthayya, Sumithra; Thankachan, Prashanth; Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Amalrajan, Vani; Thomas, Tinku; Lubree, Himangi; Agarwal, Dhiraj; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Hurrell, Richard F; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Kurpad, Anura V

    2012-11-01

    Wheat is the primary staple food for nearly one-third of the world's population. NaFeEDTA is the only iron (Fe) compound suitable for fortifying high extraction flours. We tested the hypothesis that NaFeEDTA-fortified, whole wheat flour reduces Fe deficiency (ID) and improves body Fe stores (BIS) and cognitive performance in Indian children. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled, school feeding trial, 6- to 15-y-old, Fe-depleted children (n = 401) were randomly assigned to either a daily wheat-based lunch meal fortified with 6 mg of Fe as NaFeEDTA or an otherwise identical unfortified control meal. Hemoglobin (Hb) and Fe status were measured at baseline, 3.5 mo, and 7 mo. Cognitive performance was evaluated at baseline and 7 mo in children (n = 170) at one of the study sites. After 7 mo, the prevalence of ID and ID anemia in the treatment group significantly decreased from 62 to 21% and 18 to 9%, respectively. There was a time x treatment interaction for Hb, serum ferritin, transferrin receptor, zinc protoporphyrin, and BIS (all P < 0.0001). Changes in BIS differed between the groups; it increased in the treatment group (0.04 ± 0.04 mmol/kg body weight) and decreased in the control group (-0.02 ± 0.04 mmol/kg body weight) (P < 0.0001). In sensory tests, NaFeEDTA-fortified flour could not be differentiated from unfortified flour. There were no significant differences in cognitive performance tests between the groups. NaFeEDTA-fortified wheat flour markedly improved BIS and reduced ID in Fe-depleted children. It may be recommended for wider use in national school feeding programs. PMID:23014487

  13. Dietary Iron Intake and Body Iron Stores Are Associated with Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in a Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies123

    PubMed Central

    Hunnicutt, Jacob; He, Ka; Xun, Pengcheng

    2014-01-01

    The link between iron intake as well as body iron stores and coronary heart disease (CHD) has been contentiously debated, and the epidemiologic evidence is inconsistent. We aimed to quantitatively summarize the literature on the association between dietary iron intake/body iron stores and CHD risk by conducting a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. PubMed was used to find studies published through June 2013 in peer-reviewed journals. Embase or a hand search of relevant articles was used to obtain additional articles. The pooled RRs of CHD incidence and mortality with 95% CIs were calculated by using either a random-effects or fixed-effects model, as appropriate. Twenty-one eligible studies (32 cohorts) including 292,454 participants with an average of 10.2 y of follow-up were included. Heme iron was found to be positively associated with CHD incidence (RR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.28, 1.94), whereas total iron was inversely associated (RR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.999). Neither heme-iron nor total iron intakes were significantly associated with CHD mortality. Both transferrin saturation and serum iron were inversely related to CHD incidence [RR (95% CI): 0.76 (0.66, 0.88) and 0.68 (0.56, 0.82), respectively], but only transferrin saturation was inversely associated with CHD mortality (RR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.99). In conclusion, total iron intake and serum iron concentrations were inversely associated with CHD incidence, but heme iron intake was positively related to CHD incidence. Elevated serum transferrin saturation concentration was inversely associated with both CHD incidence and mortality. Future research is needed to establish the causal relation and to elucidate potential mechanisms. PMID:24401818

  14. Therapeutic Depletion of Iron Stores Is Not Associated with a Reduced Hemoglobin Mass in a Hemochromatosis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Wrobel, Nina; Pottgiesser, Torben; Birkner, Philipp; Deibert, Peter; Ahlgrim, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hereditary hemochromatosis features a dysregulated iron absorption leading to iron overload and organ damage. The regulation of total hemoglobin mass during depletion of iron deposits by therapeutic phlebotomy has not been studied. Case Presentation The initial ferritin level of the 52-year-old male subject was 1,276 μg/l. Despite successful depletion of iron stores (ferritinmin: 53 μg/l) through phlebotomies, total hemoglobin mass stabilized at the pretherapy level. However, regeneration of total hemoglobin mass was accelerated (up to 10.8 g/day). Conclusion In this hemochromatosis patient, the total hemoglobin mass was not altered in the long term, but regeneration was accelerated, possibly due to elevated body iron content. PMID:27721733

  15. Elevated levels of iron in groundwater in Prey Veng province in Cambodia: a possible factor contributing to high iron stores in women.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Murphy, Heather M; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; Vercauteren, Suzanne M; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Porter, Keith; Kroeun, Hou; Eath, Many; McLean, Judy; Green, Timothy J

    2015-06-01

    Iron is a natural element found in food, water and soil and is essential for human health. Our aim was to determine the levels of iron and 25 other metals and trace elements in groundwater from 22 households in Prey Veng, Cambodia. Water analyses were conducted using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and optical emission spectrometry. Compared to the 2011 World Health Organization guidelines for drinking water quality, aluminum, iron and manganese exceeded maximum levels (in 4.5, 72.7 and 40.9% of samples, respectively). Compared to the 2004 Cambodian drinking water quality standards, iron and manganese exceeded maximum levels (in 59.1 and 36.4% of samples, respectively). We found no evidence of arsenic contamination. Guidelines for iron were established primarily for esthetic reasons (e.g. taste), whereas other metals and elements have adverse effects associated with toxicity. Iron in groundwater ranged from 134 to 5,200 μg/L (mean ∼1,422 μg/L). Based on a daily consumption of 3 L groundwater, this equates to ∼0.4-15.6 mg iron (mean ∼4.3 mg/day), which may be contributing to high iron stores and the low prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in Prey Veng women. Elevated levels of manganese in groundwater are a concern and warrant further investigation. PMID:26042988

  16. Elevated levels of iron in groundwater in Prey Veng province in Cambodia: a possible factor contributing to high iron stores in women.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Murphy, Heather M; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; Vercauteren, Suzanne M; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Porter, Keith; Kroeun, Hou; Eath, Many; McLean, Judy; Green, Timothy J

    2015-06-01

    Iron is a natural element found in food, water and soil and is essential for human health. Our aim was to determine the levels of iron and 25 other metals and trace elements in groundwater from 22 households in Prey Veng, Cambodia. Water analyses were conducted using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and optical emission spectrometry. Compared to the 2011 World Health Organization guidelines for drinking water quality, aluminum, iron and manganese exceeded maximum levels (in 4.5, 72.7 and 40.9% of samples, respectively). Compared to the 2004 Cambodian drinking water quality standards, iron and manganese exceeded maximum levels (in 59.1 and 36.4% of samples, respectively). We found no evidence of arsenic contamination. Guidelines for iron were established primarily for esthetic reasons (e.g. taste), whereas other metals and elements have adverse effects associated with toxicity. Iron in groundwater ranged from 134 to 5,200 μg/L (mean ∼1,422 μg/L). Based on a daily consumption of 3 L groundwater, this equates to ∼0.4-15.6 mg iron (mean ∼4.3 mg/day), which may be contributing to high iron stores and the low prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in Prey Veng women. Elevated levels of manganese in groundwater are a concern and warrant further investigation.

  17. Body iron stores and glucose intolerance in premenopausal women: role of hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and genomic variants related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and iron metabolism.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, M Angeles; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; San-Millán, José L; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2009-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Increased serum ferritin levels and iron stores may be involved in the development of abnormal glucose tolerance in women presenting with obesity and/or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We aimed to study the determinants of serum ferritin levels in premenopausal women among indexes of insulin resistance, adiposity, hyperandrogenism, and genotypes pertaining to inflammation, oxidative stress, and iron metabolism. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 257 premenopausal women, classified depending on the presence or absence of PCOS, obesity, and/or abnormal glucose tolerance, underwent a complete metabolic evaluation, serum ferritin, haptoglobin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) measurements, and genotyping for proinflammatory and prooxidant variants and mutations in the HFE gene. RESULTS Serum ferritin concentrations were increased in women presenting with PCOS and/or abnormal glucose tolerance, independent of obesity. A stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis (R(2) = 0.18, P < 0.0001) retained menstrual dysfunction (beta = 0.14, P = 0.035), free testosterone (beta = 0.14, P = 0.052), insulin sensitivity index (beta = -0.12, P = 0.012), the His63Asp variant in HFE (beta = 0.16, P = 0.008), and abnormal glucose tolerance (beta = 0.15, P = 0.015) as significant predictors of the logarithm of ferritin levels, whereas CRP, haptoglobin, waist-to-hip ratio, or variants in the TNFalpha, TNFRSF1B, IL6, IL6ST, IL6Ralpha, PON1, and HFE Cys282Tyr mutation exerted no influence. CONCLUSIONS Androgen excess (partly because of hyperandrogenemia and partly because of menstrual dysfunction), insulin resistance, abnormal glucose tolerance, and the HFE His63Asp variant correlate with ferritin levels in premenopausal women.

  18. Correlation between serum ferritin levels and liver iron concentration determined by MR imaging: impact of hematologic disease and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Olthof, Allard W; Sijens, Paul E; Kreeftenberg, Herman G; Kappert, Peter; Irwan, Roy; van der Jagt, Eric J; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2007-02-01

    Liver iron concentration was determined in 28 patients by magnetic resonance imaging using the method of Gandon et al. (Non-invasive assessment of hepatic iron stores by MRI. Lancet 2004;363:357-362). The result showed a significant correlation with blood plasma ferritin content (Spearman's r=.66; P<.001) and a slightly improving correlation coefficient when limited to those patients not known to have inflammation (r=.82; n=17; P<.001). Zooming in on patients with hematologic disease also had a beneficial effect on the correlation between liver iron content and plasma ferritin level (r=.79; n=13; P=.001). It is concluded that in patients without inflammation and in patients with hematologic disease, the content of ferritin in blood is a better predictor of liver iron content than in other patient categories.

  19. Blood withdrawal affects iron store dynamics in primates with consequences on monoaminergic system function.

    PubMed

    Hyacinthe, C; De Deurwaerdere, P; Thiollier, T; Li, Q; Bezard, E; Ghorayeb, I

    2015-04-01

    Iron homeostasis is essential for the integrity of brain monoaminergic functions and its deregulation might be involved in neurological movement disorders such as the restless legs syndrome (RLS). Although iron metabolism breakdown concomitantly appears with monoaminergic system dysfunction in iron-deficient rodents and in RLS patients, the direct consequences of peripheral iron deficiency in the central nervous system (CNS) of non-human primates have received little attention. Here, we evaluated the peripheral iron-depletion impact on brain monoamine levels in macaque monkeys. After documenting circadian variations of iron and iron-related proteins (hemoglobin, ferritin and transferrin) in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of normal macaques, repeated blood withdrawals (RBW) were used to reduce peripheral iron-related parameter levels. Decreased serum iron levels were paradoxically associated with increased CSF iron concentrations. Despite limited consequences on tissue monoamine contents (dopamine - DA, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid - DOPAC, homovanillic acid, L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine - L-DOPA, 5-8 hydroxytryptamine - 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid - 5-HIAA and noradrenaline) measured with post-mortem chromatography, we found distinct and region-dependent relationships of these tissue concentrations with CSF iron and/or serum iron and/or blood hemoglobin. Additionally, striatal extracellular DA, DOPAC and 5-HIAA levels evaluated by in vivo microdialysis showed a substantial increase, suggesting an overall increase in both DA and 5-HT tones. Finally, a trending increase in general locomotor activity, measured by actimetry, was observed in the most serum iron-depleted macaques. Taken together, our data are compatible with an increase in nigrostriatal DAergic function in the event of iron deficiency and point to a specific alteration of the 5-HT/DA interaction in the CNS that is possibly involved in the etiology of RLS. PMID:25662508

  20. Exploring the "iron shuttle" hypothesis in chelation therapy: effects of combined deferoxamine and deferiprone treatment in hypertransfused rats with labeled iron stores and in iron-loaded rat heart cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Link, G; Konijn, A M; Breuer, W; Cabantchik, Z I; Hershko, C

    2001-08-01

    Although iron chelation therapy results in a significant improvement in well-being and life expectancy of thalassemic patients with transfusional iron overload, failure to achieve these goals in a substantial proportion of patients underlines the need for improved methods of treatment. In the present studies we used selective radioactive iron probes of hepatocellular and reticuloendothelial (RE) iron stores in hypertransfused rats and iron-loaded heart cells to compare the source of iron chelated in vivo by deferoxamine (DFO) or by deferiprone (L1) and its mode of excretion, to examine the ability of DFO and L1 to remove iron directly from iron-loaded myocardial cells, and to examine the mechanism of their combined interaction through a possible additive or synergistic effect. Our results indicate that L1 given orally is 1.6 to 1.9 times more effective in rats, on a weight-per-weight basis, than parenteral DFO in promoting the excretion of storage iron from parenchymal iron stores but shows no advantage over DFO in promoting RE iron excretion. Simultaneous administration of DFO and L1 results in an increase in chelating effect that is additive but not synergistic. The magnitude of this additive effect is identical to an increase in the equivalent (weight or molar) dose of DFO alone rather than the sum of the separate effects of L1 and DFO. This finding is most probably the result of a transfer of chelated iron from L1 to DFO. These observations may have practical implications for current efforts to design better therapeutic strategies for the management of transfusional iron overload.

  1. Unified Picture for Magnetic Correlations in Iron-Based Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, W.G.; Lee, E.-C.; Ku, W.

    2010-09-02

    The varying metallic antiferromagnetic correlations observed in iron-based superconductors are unified in a model consisting of both itinerant electrons and localized spins. The decisive factor is found to be the sensitive competition between the superexchange antiferromagnetism and the orbital-degenerate double-exchange ferromagnetism. Our results reveal the crucial role of Hund's rule coupling for the strongly correlated nature of the system and suggest that the iron-based superconductors are closer kin to manganites than cuprates in terms of their diverse magnetism and incoherent normal-state electron transport. This unified picture would be instrumental for exploring other exotic properties and the mechanism of superconductivity in this new class of superconductors.

  2. How Mercury can be the most reduced terrestrial planet and still store iron in its mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malavergne, Valérie; Cordier, Patrick; Righter, Kevin; Brunet, Fabrice; Zanda, Brigitte; Addad, Ahmed; Smith, Thomas; Bureau, Hélène; Surblé, Suzy; Raepsaet, Caroline; Charon, Emeline; Hewins, Roger H.

    2014-05-01

    Mercury is notorious as the most reduced planet with the highest metal/silicate ratio, yet paradoxically data from the MESSENGER spacecraft show that its iron-poor crust is high in sulfur (up to ˜6 wt%, ˜80× Earth crust abundance) present mainly as Ca-rich sulfides on its surface. These particularities are simply impossible on the other terrestrial planets. In order to understand the role played by sulfur during the formation of Mercury, we investigated the phase relationships in Mercurian analogs of enstatite chondrite-like composition experimentally under conditions relevant to differentiation of Mercury (˜1 GPa and 1300-2000 °C). Our results show that Mg-rich and Ca-rich sulfides, which both contain Fe, crystallize successively from reduced silicate melts upon cooling below 1550 °C. As the iron concentration in the reduced silicates stays very low (≪1 wt%), these sulfides represent new host phases for both iron and sulfur in the run products. Extrapolated to Mercury, these results show that Mg-rich sulfide crystallization provides the first viable and fundamental means for retaining iron as well as sulfur in the mantle during differentiation, while sulfides richer in Ca would crystallize at shallower levels. The distribution of iron in the differentiating mantle of Mercury was mainly determined by its partitioning between metal (or troilite) and Mg-Fe-Ca-rich sulfides rather than by its partitioning between metal (or troilite) and silicates. Moreover, the primitive mantle might also be boosted in Fe by a reaction at the core mantle boundary (CMB) between Mg-rich sulfides of the mantle and FeS-rich outer core materials to produce (Fe, Mg)S. The stability of Mg-Fe-Ca-rich sulfides over a large range of depths up to the surface of Mercury would be consistent with sulfur, calcium and iron abundances measured by MESSENGER.

  3. A virus capsid-like nanocompartment that stores iron and protects bacteria from oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Colleen A; Fontana, Juan; Nemecek, Daniel; Cheng, Naiqian; Aksyuk, Anastasia A; Heymann, J Bernard; Winkler, Dennis C; Lam, Alan S; Wall, Joseph S; Steven, Alasdair C; Hoiczyk, Egbert

    2014-01-01

    Living cells compartmentalize materials and enzymatic reactions to increase metabolic efficiency. While eukaryotes use membrane-bound organelles, bacteria and archaea rely primarily on protein-bound nanocompartments. Encapsulins constitute a class of nanocompartments widespread in bacteria and archaea whose functions have hitherto been unclear. Here, we characterize the encapsulin nanocompartment from Myxococcus xanthus, which consists of a shell protein (EncA, 32.5 kDa) and three internal proteins (EncB, 17 kDa; EncC, 13 kDa; EncD, 11 kDa). Using cryo-electron microscopy, we determined that EncA self-assembles into an icosahedral shell 32 nm in diameter (26 nm internal diameter), built from 180 subunits with the fold first observed in bacteriophage HK97 capsid. The internal proteins, of which EncB and EncC have ferritin-like domains, attach to its inner surface. Native nanocompartments have dense iron-rich cores. Functionally, they resemble ferritins, cage-like iron storage proteins, but with a massively greater capacity (˜30,000 iron atoms versus ˜3,000 in ferritin). Physiological data reveal that few nanocompartments are assembled during vegetative growth, but they increase fivefold upon starvation, protecting cells from oxidative stress through iron sequestration. PMID:25024436

  4. Weak-coupling superconductivity in a strongly correlated iron pnictide.

    PubMed

    Charnukha, A; Post, K W; Thirupathaiah, S; Pröpper, D; Wurmehl, S; Roslova, M; Morozov, I; Büchner, B; Yaresko, A N; Boris, A V; Borisenko, S V; Basov, D N

    2016-01-05

    Iron-based superconductors have been found to exhibit an intimate interplay of orbital, spin, and lattice degrees of freedom, dramatically affecting their low-energy electronic properties, including superconductivity. Albeit the precise pairing mechanism remains unidentified, several candidate interactions have been suggested to mediate the superconducting pairing, both in the orbital and in the spin channel. Here, we employ optical spectroscopy (OS), angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), ab initio band-structure, and Eliashberg calculations to show that nearly optimally doped NaFe0.978Co0.022As exhibits some of the strongest orbitally selective electronic correlations in the family of iron pnictides. Unexpectedly, we find that the mass enhancement of itinerant charge carriers in the strongly correlated band is dramatically reduced near the Γ point and attribute this effect to orbital mixing induced by pronounced spin-orbit coupling. Embracing the true band structure allows us to describe all low-energy electronic properties obtained in our experiments with remarkable consistency and demonstrate that superconductivity in this material is rather weak and mediated by spin fluctuations.

  5. Urinary Hepcidin Levels in Iron-Deficient and Iron-Supplemented Piglets Correlate with Hepcidin Hepatic mRNA and Serum Levels and with Body Iron Status.

    PubMed

    Staroń, Robert; Van Swelm, Rachel P L; Lipiński, Paweł; Gajowiak, Anna; Lenartowicz, Małgorzata; Bednarz, Aleksandra; Gajewska, Małgorzata; Pieszka, Marek; Laarakkers, Coby M M; Swinkels, Dorine W; Starzyński, Rafał R

    2015-01-01

    Among livestock, domestic pig (Sus scrofa) is a species, in which iron metabolism has been most intensively examined during last decade. The obvious reason for studying the regulation of iron homeostasis especially in young pigs is neonatal iron deficiency anemia commonly occurring in these animals. Moreover, supplementation of essentially all commercially reared piglets with iron entails a need for monitoring the efficacy of this routine practice followed in the swine industry for several decades. Since the discovery of hepcidin many studies confirmed its role as key regulator of iron metabolism and pointed out the assessment of its concentrations in biological fluids as diagnostic tool for iron-related disorder. Here we demonstrate that urine hepcidin-25 levels measured by a combination of weak cation exchange chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (WCX-TOF MS) are highly correlated with mRNA hepcidin expression in the liver and plasma hepcidin-25 concentrations in anemic and iron-supplemented 28-day old piglets. We also found a high correlation between urine hepcidin level and hepatic non-heme iron content. Our results show that similarly to previously described transgenic mouse models of iron disorders, young pigs constitute a convenient animal model to explore accuracy and relationship between indicators for assessing systemic iron status. PMID:26323096

  6. Correlation between the In Vitro Functionality of Stored Platelets and the Cytosolic Esterase-Induced Fluorescence Intensity with CMFDA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiexi; Yi, Xiaoyang; Liu, Minxia; Zhou, Qian; Ren, Suping; Wang, Yan; Yang, Chao; Zhou, Jianwei; Han, Ying

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the cytosolic esterase-induced fluorescence intensity (CEIFI) from carboxy dimethyl fluorescein diacetate (CMFDA) in platelets may related to platelet functions. In the present study, we measured the change of CEIFI in platelets during storage, and examined the correlations of CEIFI with the in vitro functionality of stored platelets, including the ADP-induced aggregation activity, hypotonic shock response, expression of CD62P as well as platelet apoptosis. The CEIFI of fresh platelets, when tested at 10 μM CMFDA, the mean fluorescence intensity index (MFI) was 305.9 ± 49.9 (N = 80). After 1-day storage, it was 203.8 ± 34.4, the CEIFI of the stored platelets started to decline significantly, and reduced to 112.7 ±27.7 after 7-day storage. The change in CEIFI is highly correlated to all four functional parameters measured, with the correlation coefficients being 0.9813, 0.9848, -0.9945 and -0.9847 for the ADP-induced aggregation activity, hypotonic shock response (HSR), expression of CD62P and platelet apoptosis respectively. The above results show that the CEIFI measurement of platelets represents well the viability and functional state of in vitro stored platelets. This may be used as a convenient new method for quality evaluation for stored platelets if this result can be further validated by the following clinical trials.

  7. Correlation between Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Free Iron Content and Lipid Oxidation in Four Lines of Korean Native Chicken Meat.

    PubMed

    Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Seung Gyu; Baek, Ki Ho; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Lee, Cheol-Koo; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe the association between antioxidant enzyme activity, free iron content and lipid oxidation of Korean native chicken (KNC) meat during refrigerated storage. Four lines of KNC (Yeonsan ogye, Hyunin black, Hoengseong yakdak and Hwangbong) were raised under similar conditions. A total of 16 roosters were randomly sampled and slaughtered at the age of 12 mon. The breast and thigh meats were stored aerobically for 10 d at 4℃. Although thigh meat had higher antioxidant enzyme activity, it was more susceptible to lipid oxidation and released more iron during storage than breast meat. Aerobic refrigerated storage for 10 d significantly decreased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and increased the amount of free iron and malondialdehyde. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were negatively correlated with lipid oxidation, whereas that of catalase was not. The amount of free iron was positively associated with lipid oxidation. We concluded that chicken line did not affect strongly on antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid oxidation in breast meat of KNC. However, the thigh meat of Hwangbong and Hyunin black had higher SOD and GSH-Px activity, respectively, and lower malondialdehyde contents than that of other chickens. SOD, GSH-Px and free iron play significant roles in meat lipid oxidation during refrigerated storage. PMID:27499663

  8. Correlation between Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Free Iron Content and Lipid Oxidation in Four Lines of Korean Native Chicken Meat

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Kyung; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe the association between antioxidant enzyme activity, free iron content and lipid oxidation of Korean native chicken (KNC) meat during refrigerated storage. Four lines of KNC (Yeonsan ogye, Hyunin black, Hoengseong yakdak and Hwangbong) were raised under similar conditions. A total of 16 roosters were randomly sampled and slaughtered at the age of 12 mon. The breast and thigh meats were stored aerobically for 10 d at 4℃. Although thigh meat had higher antioxidant enzyme activity, it was more susceptible to lipid oxidation and released more iron during storage than breast meat. Aerobic refrigerated storage for 10 d significantly decreased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and increased the amount of free iron and malondialdehyde. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were negatively correlated with lipid oxidation, whereas that of catalase was not. The amount of free iron was positively associated with lipid oxidation. We concluded that chicken line did not affect strongly on antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid oxidation in breast meat of KNC. However, the thigh meat of Hwangbong and Hyunin black had higher SOD and GSH-Px activity, respectively, and lower malondialdehyde contents than that of other chickens. SOD, GSH-Px and free iron play significant roles in meat lipid oxidation during refrigerated storage. PMID:27499663

  9. Effects of HFE C282Y and H63D polymorphisms and polygenic background on iron stores in a large community sample of twins.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, J B; Cullen, L M; Jazwinska, E C; Powell, L W; Heath, A C; Zhu, G; Duffy, D L; Martin, N G

    2000-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and to compare the role of HFE polymorphisms and other genetic factors in variation in iron stores. Blood samples were obtained from 3,375 adult male and female twins (age range 29-82 years) recruited from the Australian Twin Registry. There were 1,233 complete pairs (562 monozygotic and 571 dizygotic twins). Serum iron, transferrin, transferrin saturation with iron, and ferritin were measured, and the HFE C282Y and H63D genotypes were determined. The frequency of the C282Y allele was.072, and that of the H63D allele was.141. Significant sources of variation in the indices of iron status included age, sex, age-sex interaction, body-mass index, and both the C282Y and H63D genotypes. The iron, transferrin, and saturation values of CC and CY subjects differed significantly, but the ferritin values did not. After correction for age and body-mass index, 23% and 31% of the variance in iron, 66% and 49% of the variance in transferrin, 33% and 47% of the variance in transferrin saturation, and 47% and 47% of the variance in ferritin could be explained by additive genetic factors, for men and women, respectively. HFE C282Y and H63D variation accounted for <5% of the corrected phenotypic variance, except for saturation (12% in women and 5% in men). We conclude that HFE CY and HD heterozygotes differ in iron status from the CC and HH homozygotes and that serum transferrin saturation is more affected than is serum ferritin. There are highly significant effects of other as-yet-unidentified genes on iron stores, in addition to HFE genotype.

  10. The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2011-07-15

    Background: Cadmium is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant associated with increased risk of leading causes of mortality and morbidity in women, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Iron deficiency increases absorption of dietary cadmium, rendering women, who tend to have lower iron stores than men, more susceptible to cadmium uptake. We used body iron, a measure that incorporates both serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, as recommended by the World Health Organization, to evaluate the relationships between iron status and urine and blood cadmium. Methods: Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, urine and blood cadmium values in never-smoking, non-pregnant, non-lactating, non-menopausal women aged 20-49 years (n=599) were obtained from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, and iron deficiency defined as body iron <0 mg/kg. Robust linear regression was used to evaluate the relationships between body iron and blood and urine cadmium, adjusted for age, race, poverty, body mass index, and parity. Results: Per incremental (mg/kg) increase in body iron, urine cadmium decreased by 0.003 {mu}g/g creatinine and blood cadmium decreased by 0.014 {mu}g/L. Iron deficiency was associated with 0.044 {mu}g/g creatinine greater urine cadmium (95% CI=0.020, 0.069) and 0.162 {mu}g/L greater blood cadmium (95% CI=0.132, 0.193). Conclusions: Iron deficiency is a risk factor for increased blood and urine cadmium among never-smoking, pre-menopausal, non-pregnant US women, independent of age, race, poverty, body mass index and parity. Expanding programs to detect and correct iron deficiency among non-pregnant women merits consideration as a potential means to reduce the risk of cadmium associated diseases. - Highlights: {yields} Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. {yields} Body iron was inversely associated with blood

  11. Heme Oxygenase Activity Correlates with Serum Indices of Iron Homeostasis in Healthy Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Ghio, Andrew J.; Schreinemachers, Dina M.

    2016-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the breakdown of heme to carbon monoxide, iron, and biliverdin. While the use of genetically altered animal models in investigation has established distinct associations between HO activity and systemic iron availability, studies have not yet confirmed such participation of HO in iron homeostasis of humans. Carbon monoxide produced through HO activity will bind to hemoglobin in circulating erythrocytes, and therefore, blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) can be used as an index of HO activity. Using the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we tested the postulate that HO activity correlates with serum indices of iron homeostasis in healthy nonsmokers. The investigation included 844 lifetime nonsmokers (586 females) 18 years of age and older in the study population. Significant correlations were demonstrated between COHb and several indices of iron homeostasis including serum levels of both ferritin and iron and percentage iron saturation of transferrin. There was no significant association between COHb and hemoglobin, the largest repository of heme in the human body, which functions as the substrate for HO. We conclude that HO activity contributes to human iron homeostasis with significant correlations between COHb and serum ferritin and iron levels and percentage iron saturation of transferrin. PMID:27199547

  12. Depletion of Calcium Stores in Injured Sensory Neurons: Anatomic and Functional Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Gemes, Geza; Rigaud, Marcel; Weyker, Paul D.; Abram, Stephen E.; Weihrauch, Dorothee; Poroli, Mark; Zoga, Vasiliki; Hogan, Quinn H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Painful nerve injury leads to disrupted Ca2+ signaling in primary sensory neurons, including decreased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ storage. The present study examines potential causes and functional consequences of Ca2+ store limitation after injury. Methods Neurons were dissociated from axotomized fifth lumbar (L5) and the adjacent L4 dorsal root ganglia following L5 spinal nerve ligation that produced hyperalgesia, and were compared to neurons from control animals. Intracellular Ca2+ levels were measured with Fura-2 microfluorometry, and ER was labeled with probes or antibodies. Ultrastructural morphology was analyzed by electron microscopy of nondissociated dorsal root ganglia, and intracellular electrophysiological recordings were obtained from intact ganglia. Results Live neuron staining with BODIPY FL-X thapsigargin (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) revealed a 40% decrease in sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase binding in axotomized L5 neurons and a 34% decrease in L4 neurons. Immunocytochemical labeling for the ER Ca2+-binding protein calreticulin was unaffected by injury. Total length of ER profiles in electron micrographs was reduced by 53% in small axotomized L5 neurons, but increased in L4 neurons. Cisternal stacks of ER and aggregation of ribosomes occurred less frequently in axotomized neurons. Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, examined by microfluorometry with dantrolene, was eliminated in axotomized neurons. Pharmacologic blockade of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release with dantrolene produced hyperexcitability in control neurons, confirming its functional importance. Conclusions After axotomy, ER Ca2+ stores are reduced by anatomic loss and possibly diminished sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase. The resulting disruption of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release and protein synthesis may contribute to the generation of neuropathic pain. PMID:19602957

  13. Depleted iron stores and iron deficiency anemia associated with reduced ferritin and hepcidin and elevated soluble transferrin receptors in a multiethnic group of preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Hope A; Jean-Philippe, Sonia; Cohen, Tamara R; Vanstone, Catherine A; Agellon, Sherry

    2015-09-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is prevalent in subgroups of the Canadian population. The objective of this study was to examine iron status and anemia in preschool-age children. Healthy children (n = 430, 2-5 years old, Montreal, Quebec, Canada) were sampled from randomly selected daycares. Anthropometry, demographics, and diet were assessed. Biochemistry included hemoglobin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), ferritin index, markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)), and hepcidin. Iron deficiency and anemia cutoffs conformed to the World Health Organization criteria. Differences among categories were tested using mixed-model ANOVA or χ(2) tests. Children were 3.8 ± 1.0 years of age, with a body mass index z score of 0.48 ± 0.97, and 51% were white. Adjusted intakes of iron indicated <1% were at risk for deficiency. Hemoglobin was higher in white children, whereas ferritin was higher with greater age and female sex. Inflammatory markers and hepcidin did not vary with any demographic variable. The prevalence of iron deficiency was 16.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 13.0-20.0). Three percent (95% CI, 1.4-4.6) of children had iron deficiency anemia and 12.8% (95% CI, 9.6-16.0) had unexplained anemia. Children with iron deficiency, with and without anemia, had lower plasma ferritin and hepcidin but higher sTfR, ferritin index, and IL-6, whereas those with unexplained anemia had elevated TNFα. We conclude that iron deficiency anemia is not very common in young children in Montreal. While iron deficiency without anemia is more common than iron deficiency with anemia, the correspondingly reduced circulating hepcidin would have enabled heightened absorption of dietary iron in support of erythropoiesis.

  14. The role of Hund's coupling in the correlations and the nematicity of iron superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bascones, Elena

    Since their discovery in 2008 the strength and the nature of correlations in iron superconductors have been widely discussed. Understanding the correlations is key to unveil the nature of the superconducting, nematic and magnetic instabilities which appear in the phase diagram. Due to their multi-orbital character, correlations in iron superconductors are strongly affected by Hund's coupling and these materials have been classified by some authors as Hund metals. For a long time there has been a strong controversy on the nature of correlations induced by Hund's coupling and its relation to Mott physics. While some authors describe Hund metals as strongly correlated systems which are not in proximity to a Mott insulating state, others, have described iron superconductors as doped Mott insulators. In the talk, after some introduction, I will first show our recent results which show that while the spin polarization of the atoms, promoted by Hund's coupling induces strong correlations, this does not necessary mean that the total charge is more localized. On the contrary, in some cases this polarization promotes itinerancy. I will then present a generic framework to address the correlations in iron superconductors and discuss the role of Hund's coupling in the nematicity of iron superconductors, with special emphasis on FeSe. Funding from Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología FIS2011-29689, FIS2014-53219-P and Fundacion Ramon Areces.

  15. Low iron stores are related to higher blood concentrations of manganese, cobalt and cadmium in non-smoking, Norwegian women in the HUNT 2 study

    SciTech Connect

    Margrete Meltzer, Helle; Lise Brantsaeter, Anne; Borch-Iohnsen, Berit; Ellingsen, Dag G.; Alexander, Jan; Thomassen, Yngvar; Stigum, Hein; Ydersbond, Trond A.

    2010-07-15

    Low iron (Fe) stores may influence absorption or transport of divalent metals in blood. To obtain more knowledge about such associations, the divalent metal ions cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) and parameters of Fe metabolism (serum ferritin, haemoglobin (Hb) and transferrin) were investigated in 448 healthy, menstruating non-smoking women, age 20-55 years (mean 38 years), participating in the Norwegian HUNT 2 study. The study population was stratified for serum ferritin: 257 were iron-depleted (serum ferritin <12 {mu}g/L) and 84 had iron deficiency anaemia (serum ferritin <12 {mu}g/L and Hb<120 g/L). The low ferritin group had increased blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd but normal concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb. In multiple regression models, ferritin emerged as the main determinant of Mn, Co and Cd (p<0.001), while no significant associations with Cu, Zn and Pb were found. Adjusted r{sup 2} for the models were 0.28, 0.48 and 0.34, respectively. Strong positive associations between blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd were observed, also when controlled for their common association with ferritin. Apart from these associations, the models showed no significant interactions between the six divalent metals studied. Very mild anaemia (110{<=}Hb<120 g/L) did not seem to have any effect independent of low ferritin. Approximately 26% of the women with iron deficiency anaemia had high concentrations of all of Mn, Co and Cd as opposed to 2.3% of iron-replete subjects. The results confirm that low serum ferritin may have an impact on body kinetics of certain divalent metal ions, but not all. Only a fraction of women with low iron status exhibited an increased blood concentration of divalent metals, providing indication of complexities in the body's handling of these metals.

  16. Correlation Between Microstructure and Ageing of Iron Manganite Thermistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battault, T.; Legros, R.; Brieu, M.; Coudere, J. J.; Bernard, L.; Rousset, A.

    1997-05-01

    Negative Temperature Coefficient (NTC) thermistors made of spinel structure transition metal manganites usually display ageing phenomena under thermal stress. Their resistance drift depends on their composition, crystal structure (cubic or tetragonal) and heat treatments. We have previously shown in iron manganite thermistors, Mn{3-x}FexO4 (with 0 leq x leq 1.51), that the ageing is due to the migration of Fe^{3+} and Mn^{2+} ions between tetrahedral and octahedral sites of the spinel structure. Iron manganites were investigated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) in order to relate microstructure to electrical stability. For iron manganites with iron content x leq 0.78, two dimensional defects result in a domain microstructure (microtwins). As x increases and exceeds 0.78, the domain structure gradually vanishes and transforms into a tweed microstructure (x = 1.05) and, for x > 1.30, no bidimensional defects are observed. Thus it is suggested that the microstructural disturbance plays an important role in the kinetics of the ion migration during the ageing of the studied ceramics. Les thermistances à Coefficient de Température Négatif (CTN) élaborées à partir de manganites de métaux de transition à structure spinelle présentent, sous contrainte thermique, le phénomène de vieillissement. La dérive de leur résistance dépend de la composition chimique, de la structure cristallographique (cubique ou quadratique) et des traitements thermiques. Précédemment, nous avons montré, pour les thermistances à base de manganites de fer de composition Mn{3-x}FexO4 (avec 0 leq x leq 1,51), que le vieillissement est dû à une migration des ions Fe^{3+} et Mn^{2+} entre les sites tétraédriques et octaédriques de la structure spinelle. Une étude des manganites de fer a été réalisée par Microscopie Électronique à Transmission (MET) afin de relier la microstructure à la stabilité électrique. Pour les manganites de fer ayant une teneur en fer x leq

  17. Iron

    MedlinePlus

    ... cereals and breads. White beans, lentils, spinach, kidney beans, and peas. Nuts and some dried fruits, such as raisins. Iron in food comes in two forms: heme iron and nonheme iron. Nonheme iron is found in plant foods and iron-fortified food products. Meat, seafood, ...

  18. Iron supplementation prevents a decline in iron stores and enhances strength performance in elite female volleyball players during the competitive season.

    PubMed

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Zourdos, Michael C; Calleja-González, Julio; Urdampilleta, Aritz; Ostojic, Sergej

    2015-06-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of 11 weeks of iron supplementation on hematological and strength markers in elite female volleyball players. Twenty-two volleyball players (aged 27.0 ± 5.6 years) from 2 Spanish First National League teams participated and were counterbalanced into 1 of 2 groups based upon iron status: (i) control group (CG, n = 11); or (ii) iron treatment group (ITG, n = 11), which received 325 mg/day of ferrous sulphate daily. Subjects performed their team's regimen of training or match play every day. Both groups were tested for hematological and strength levels at 2 points: (i) baseline (T0, before preseason) and (ii) 11 weeks later (T11, post-testing). Hematological parameters were serum iron (sFe), serum ferritin (FER), transferrin saturation index (TSI), and hemoglobin (Hb); strength assessments were bench press, military press, half-squat, power clean, clean and jerk, and pull-over. CG experienced a significant decrease (p < 0.05) for sFe (T0, 112.7 ± 31.5; T11, 69.0 ± 20.5 μg·dL(-1); -33.9%), FER (T0, 60.2 ± 28.6; T11, 38.2 ± 16.4 ng·mL(-1); -34.6%), TSI (T0, 29.4% ± 9.5%; T11, 17.4% ± 5.1%; -35.3%), and Hb (T0, 14.1 ± 1.0; T11, 13.0 ± 0.8 g·L(-1); -7.44%); however, ITG experienced no changes (p > 0.05). Consequently, in ITG all hematological parameters were significantly greater (p < 0.05) than CG at T11. There was greater (p < 0.05) percent increase in the clean and jerk (CG: +5.1% ± 20.9 vs. ITG: +29.0% ± 21.3%), power clean (CG: -5.8% ± 30.3% vs. ITG: +44.6% ± 56.6%), and total mean strength (CG: +10.9% ± 3.2% vs. ITG: +26.2% ± 3.6%) in ITG. Our findings suggest that oral iron supplementation prevents iron loss and enhances strength in female volleyball players during the competitive season. PMID:25965846

  19. Observation of universal strong orbital-dependent correlation effects in iron chalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, M.; Liu, Z. -K.; Zhang, Y.; Yu, R.; Zhu, J. -X.; Lee, J. J.; Moore, R. G.; Schmitt, F. T.; Li, W.; Riggs, S. C.; Chu, J. -H.; Lv, B.; Hu, J.; Hashimoto, M.; Mo, S. -K.; Hussain, Z.; Mao, Z. Q.; Chu, C. W.; Fisher, I. R.; Si, Q.; Shen, Z. -X.; Lu, D. H.

    2015-07-23

    Establishing the appropriate theoretical framework for unconventional superconductivity in the iron-based materials requires correct understanding of both the electron correlation strength and the role of Fermi surfaces. This fundamental issue becomes especially relevant with the discovery of the iron chalcogenide superconductors. Here, we use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to measure three representative iron chalcogenides, FeTe0.56Se0.44, monolayer FeSe grown on SrTiO3 and K0.76Fe1.72Se2. We show that these superconductors are all strongly correlated, with an orbital-selective strong renormalization in the dxy bands despite having drastically different Fermi surface topologies. Furthermore, raising temperature brings all three compounds from a metallic state to a phase where the dxy orbital loses all spectral weight while other orbitals remain itinerant. As a result, these observations establish that iron chalcogenides display universal orbital-selective strong correlations that are insensitive to the Fermi surface topology, and are close to an orbital-selective Mott phase, hence placing strong constraints for theoretical understanding of iron-based superconductors.

  20. Observation of universal strong orbital-dependent correlation effects in iron chalcogenides

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yi, M.; Liu, Z. -K.; Zhang, Y.; Yu, R.; Zhu, J. -X.; Lee, J. J.; Moore, R. G.; Schmitt, F. T.; Li, W.; Riggs, S. C.; et al

    2015-07-23

    Establishing the appropriate theoretical framework for unconventional superconductivity in the iron-based materials requires correct understanding of both the electron correlation strength and the role of Fermi surfaces. This fundamental issue becomes especially relevant with the discovery of the iron chalcogenide superconductors. Here, we use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to measure three representative iron chalcogenides, FeTe0.56Se0.44, monolayer FeSe grown on SrTiO3 and K0.76Fe1.72Se2. We show that these superconductors are all strongly correlated, with an orbital-selective strong renormalization in the dxy bands despite having drastically different Fermi surface topologies. Furthermore, raising temperature brings all three compounds from a metallic state to a phasemore » where the dxy orbital loses all spectral weight while other orbitals remain itinerant. As a result, these observations establish that iron chalcogenides display universal orbital-selective strong correlations that are insensitive to the Fermi surface topology, and are close to an orbital-selective Mott phase, hence placing strong constraints for theoretical understanding of iron-based superconductors.« less

  1. Quantification of melanin and iron content in uveal malignant melanomas and correlation with magnetic resonance image.

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, J D; Bloom, P A; Goddard, P R; Collins, C

    1993-01-01

    Eleven patients with uveal malignant melanomas (MM) were studied by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging before enucleation. The MR appearances varied, but often were different from those previously reported to be characteristic of these tumours. Using an image analyser to assess quantitatively the melanin and iron content of each tumour, a wide range of tumour melanin concentrations was found, but universally low tumour iron concentrations. These values were compared with MR appearances that were quantified and expressed as contrast to noise ratios. The correlation between T1 and T2 shortening and increasing melanin content did not reach statistical significance. There was no correlation between MR appearances and iron content. The theories postulated to explain the diverse MR appearances of uveal MMs are discussed and variations in tumour melanin content and differences in scanner strengths are suggested as the most likely explanations. Images PMID:8318467

  2. Maternal Serum Ferritin Concentration Is Positively Associated with Newborn Iron Stores in Women with Low Ferritin Status in Late Pregnancy123

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Jie; Lou, Jingan; Rao, Raghavendra; Georgieff, Michael K.; Kaciroti, Niko; Felt, Barbara T.; Zhao, Zheng-Yan; Lozoff, Betsy

    2012-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is common in pregnant women and infants, particularly in developing countries. The relation between maternal and neonatal iron status remains unclear. This study considered the issue in a large sample of mother-newborn pairs in rural southeastern China. Hemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin (SF) were measured in 3702 pregnant women at ≥37 wk gestation and in cord blood of their infants born at term (37–42 wk gestation). Maternal anemia (Hb <110 g/L) was present in 27.5% and associated with maternal SF <20 μg/L in 86.9%. Only 5.6% of neonates were anemic (Hb <130 g/L) and 9.5% had cord-blood SF <75 μg/L. There were low-order correlations between maternal and newborn iron measures (r = 0.07–0.10 for both Hb and SF; P ≤ 0.0001 due to the large number). We excluded 430 neonates with suggestion of inflammation [cord SF >370 μg/L, n = 208 and/or C-reactive protein (CRP) >5 mg/L, n = 233]. Piecewise linear regression analyses identified a threshold for maternal SF at which cord-blood SF was affected. For maternal SF below the threshold of 13.6 μg/L (β = 2.4; P = 0.001), cord SF was 0.17 SD lower than in neonates whose mothers had SF above the threshold (167 ± 75 vs. 179 ± 80 μg/L). The study confirmed that ID anemia remains common during pregnancy in rural southeastern China. Despite widespread maternal ID, however, iron nutrition seemed to meet fetal needs except when mothers were very iron deficient. The impact of somewhat lower cord SF on iron status later in infancy warrants further study. PMID:23014493

  3. Orbital-dependent electron correlation effects in iron-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Ming

    The iron chalcogenide superconductors constitute arguably one of the most intriguing families of the iron-based high temperature superconductors given their ability to superconduct at comparable temperatures as the iron pnictides, despite the lack of similarities in their magnetic structures and Fermi surface topologies. In particular, the lack of hole Fermi pockets at the Brillouin zone center posts a challenge to the previous proposal of spin fluctuation mediated pairing via Fermi surface nesting. In this talk, using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements, I will present evidence that show that instead of Fermi surface topology, strong electron correlation observed in electron bandwidth is an important ingredient for superconductivity in the iron chalcogenides. Specifically, I will show i) there exists universal strong orbital-selective renormalization effects and proximity to an orbital-selective Mott phase in Fe1+yTe1-xSex, AxFe2-ySe2, and monolayer FeSe film on SrTiO3, and ii) in RbxFe2(Se1-zSz)2 , where sulfur substitution for selenium continuously suppresses superconductivity down to zero, little change occurs in the Fermi surface topology while a substantial reduction of electron correlation is observed in an expansion of the overall bandwidth, implying that electron correlation is one of the key tuning parameters for superconductivity in these materials.

  4. Competing Magnetic Fluctuations in Iron Pnictide Superconductors: Role of Ferromagnetic Spin Correlations Revealed by NMR.

    PubMed

    Wiecki, P; Roy, B; Johnston, D C; Bud'ko, S L; Canfield, P C; Furukawa, Y

    2015-09-25

    In the iron pnictide superconductors, theoretical calculations have consistently shown enhancements of the static magnetic susceptibility at both the stripe-type antiferromagnetic and in-plane ferromagnetic (FM) wave vectors. However, the possible existence of FM fluctuations has not yet been examined from a microscopic point of view. Here, using ^{75}As NMR data, we provide clear evidence for the existence of FM spin correlations in both the hole- and electron-doped BaFe_{2}As_{2} families of iron-pnictide superconductors. These FM fluctuations appear to compete with superconductivity and are thus a crucial ingredient to understanding the variability of T_{c} and the shape of the superconducting dome in these and other iron-pnictide families. PMID:26451577

  5. Competing magnetic fluctuations in iron pnictide superconductors: Role of ferromagnetic spin correlations revealed by NMR

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wiecki, P.; Roy, B.; Johnston, D. C.; Bud’ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Furukawa, Y.

    2015-09-22

    In the iron pnictide superconductors, theoretical calculations have consistently shown enhancements of the static magnetic susceptibility at both the stripe-type antiferromagnetic and in-plane ferromagnetic (FM) wave vectors. However, the possible existence of FM fluctuations has not yet been examined from a microscopic point of view. Here, using 75As NMR data, we provide clear evidence for the existence of FM spin correlations in both the hole- and electron-doped BaFe2As2 families of iron-pnictide superconductors. Furthermore, these FM fluctuations appear to compete with superconductivity and are thus a crucial ingredient to understanding the variability of Tc and the shape of the superconducting domemore » in these and other iron-pnictide families.« less

  6. Competing magnetic fluctuations in iron pnictide superconductors: Role of ferromagnetic spin correlations revealed by NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Wiecki, P.; Roy, B.; Johnston, D. C.; Bud’ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Furukawa, Y.

    2015-09-22

    In the iron pnictide superconductors, theoretical calculations have consistently shown enhancements of the static magnetic susceptibility at both the stripe-type antiferromagnetic and in-plane ferromagnetic (FM) wave vectors. However, the possible existence of FM fluctuations has not yet been examined from a microscopic point of view. Here, using 75As NMR data, we provide clear evidence for the existence of FM spin correlations in both the hole- and electron-doped BaFe2As2 families of iron-pnictide superconductors. Furthermore, these FM fluctuations appear to compete with superconductivity and are thus a crucial ingredient to understanding the variability of Tc and the shape of the superconducting dome in these and other iron-pnictide families.

  7. The correlation between swelling and radiation-induced segregation in iron-chromium-nickel alloys.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T. R.; Busby, J. T.; Kenik, E. A.; Was, G. S.

    1998-03-05

    The magnitudes of both void swelling and radiation-induced segregation (RIS) in iron-chromium-nickel alloys are dependent on bulk alloy composition. Because the diffusivity of nickel via the vacancy flux is slow relative to chromium, nickel enriches and chromium depletes at void surfaces during irradiation. This local composition change reduces the subsequent vacancy flux to the void, thereby reducing void swelling. In this work, the resistance to swelling from major element segregation is estimated using diffusivities derived from grain boundary segregation measurements in irradiated iron-chromium-nickel alloys. The resistance to void swelling in iron- and nickel-base alloys correlates with the segregation and both are functions of bulk alloy composition. Alloys that display the greatest amount of nickel enrichment and chromium depletion are found to be most resistant to void swelling, as predicted. Additionally, swelling is shown to be greater in alloys in which the RIS profiles are slow to develop.

  8. Correlation of natural gas content to iron species in the New Albany shale group

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shiley, R.H.; Cluff, R.M.; Dickerson, D.R.; Hinckley, C.C.; Smith, Gerard V.; Twardowska, H.; Saporoschenko, Mykola

    1981-01-01

    Mo??ssbauer parameters were obtained for four Illinois Basin shales and their corresponding < 2??m clay fractions from wells drilled through the New Albany Shale Group in Henderson, Tazewell, and Effingham counties in Illinois and Christian County in Kentucky. Off-gas analysis indicated that the Illinois cores were in an area of low gas potential, while the Kentucky core was in an area of moderate-to-good potential. Iron-rich dolomite (ankerite) was found in the Kentucky core but not in the Illinois cores. In the Kentucky core, gas content could be correlated with the ankerite in the bulk sample, the Mo??ssbauer M (2) species in the clay fraction, and a ferrous iron species in the clay fraction. The location of the greatest concentration of natural gas in the Kentucky core could be predicted by following the changes in percentage concentration of these iron species when plotted against the depth of burial of the core sample. ?? 1981.

  9. Correlation between iron self-diffusion and thermal stability in doped iron nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Tayal, Akhil; Gupta, Mukul E-mail: dr.mukul.gupta@gmail.com; Kumar, D.; Reddy, V. R.; Gupta, Ajay; Amir, S. M.; Korelis, Panagiotis; Stahn, Jochen

    2014-12-14

    Nanocrystalline Fe-X-N thin films (with doping X = 0, 3.1 at. % Al, 1.6 at. % Zr), were deposited using reactive ion beam sputtering. Magnetization study reveals that the deposited films exhibit a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Thermal stability of the films was investigated systematically and it was observed that the structural and the magnetic stability gets significantly enhanced with Al doping, whereas Zr doping has only a marginal effect. Fe self-diffusion, obtained using polarized neutron reflectivity, shows a suppression with both additives. A correlation between the thermal stability and the diffusion process gives a direct evidence that the enhancement in the thermal stability is primarily diffusion controlled. A combined picture of diffusion, structural, and magnetic stability has been drawn to understand the obtained results.

  10. Correlation between iron self-diffusion and thermal stability in doped iron nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayal, Akhil; Gupta, Mukul; Kumar, D.; Reddy, V. R.; Gupta, Ajay; Amir, S. M.; Korelis, Panagiotis; Stahn, Jochen

    2014-12-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe-X-N thin films (with doping X = 0, 3.1 at. % Al, 1.6 at. % Zr), were deposited using reactive ion beam sputtering. Magnetization study reveals that the deposited films exhibit a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Thermal stability of the films was investigated systematically and it was observed that the structural and the magnetic stability gets significantly enhanced with Al doping, whereas Zr doping has only a marginal effect. Fe self-diffusion, obtained using polarized neutron reflectivity, shows a suppression with both additives. A correlation between the thermal stability and the diffusion process gives a direct evidence that the enhancement in the thermal stability is primarily diffusion controlled. A combined picture of diffusion, structural, and magnetic stability has been drawn to understand the obtained results.

  11. Oxidatively damaged guanosine in white blood cells and in urine of welders: associations with exposure to welding fumes and body iron stores.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Beate; Lotz, Anne; Koch, Holger M; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Casjens, Swaantje; Käfferlein, Heiko U; Welge, Peter; Lehnert, Martin; Heinze, Evelyn; Van Gelder, Rainer; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Behrens, Thomas; Raulf, Monika; Hartwig, Andrea; Weiss, Tobias; Brüning, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer considers the carcinogenicity of welding fume of priority for re-evaluation. Genotoxic effects in experimental animals are still inconclusive. Here, we investigated the association of personal exposure to metals in respirable welding fumes during a working shift with oxidatively damaged guanosine in DNA of white blood cells (WBC) and in postshift urine samples from 238 welders. Medians of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) were 2.35/10(6) dGuo in DNA of WBC and 4.33 µg/g creatinine in urine. The median of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo) was 7.03 µg/g creatinine in urine. The extent of both urinary parameters was higher in welders applying techniques with high particle emission rates to stainless steel than in tungsten inert gas welders (8-oxodGuo: 9.96 vs. 4.49 µg/L, 8-oxoGuo: 15.7 vs. 7.7 µg/L), but this apparent difference diminished after creatinine adjustment. We applied random intercept models to estimate the influence of airborne and systemic exposure to metals on oxidatively damaged guanosine in WBC and urine together with covariates. We observed a highly significant nonlinear association of urinary 8-oxoGuo with serum ferritin (P < 0.0001) and higher 8-oxoGuo concentrations for respirable iron >1,000 µg/m(3) compared to ≤57 µg/m(3). Similar effects were found for manganese. Airborne chromium but not nickel was associated with all oxidatively modified guanosine measures, whereas urinary chromium as well as nickel showed associations with urinary modified guanosines. In summary, oxidatively damaged urinary guanosine was associated with airborne and systemic exposure to metals in welders and showed a strong relation to body iron stores.

  12. Oxidatively damaged guanosine in white blood cells and in urine of welders: associations with exposure to welding fumes and body iron stores.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Beate; Lotz, Anne; Koch, Holger M; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Casjens, Swaantje; Käfferlein, Heiko U; Welge, Peter; Lehnert, Martin; Heinze, Evelyn; Van Gelder, Rainer; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Behrens, Thomas; Raulf, Monika; Hartwig, Andrea; Weiss, Tobias; Brüning, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer considers the carcinogenicity of welding fume of priority for re-evaluation. Genotoxic effects in experimental animals are still inconclusive. Here, we investigated the association of personal exposure to metals in respirable welding fumes during a working shift with oxidatively damaged guanosine in DNA of white blood cells (WBC) and in postshift urine samples from 238 welders. Medians of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) were 2.35/10(6) dGuo in DNA of WBC and 4.33 µg/g creatinine in urine. The median of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo) was 7.03 µg/g creatinine in urine. The extent of both urinary parameters was higher in welders applying techniques with high particle emission rates to stainless steel than in tungsten inert gas welders (8-oxodGuo: 9.96 vs. 4.49 µg/L, 8-oxoGuo: 15.7 vs. 7.7 µg/L), but this apparent difference diminished after creatinine adjustment. We applied random intercept models to estimate the influence of airborne and systemic exposure to metals on oxidatively damaged guanosine in WBC and urine together with covariates. We observed a highly significant nonlinear association of urinary 8-oxoGuo with serum ferritin (P < 0.0001) and higher 8-oxoGuo concentrations for respirable iron >1,000 µg/m(3) compared to ≤57 µg/m(3). Similar effects were found for manganese. Airborne chromium but not nickel was associated with all oxidatively modified guanosine measures, whereas urinary chromium as well as nickel showed associations with urinary modified guanosines. In summary, oxidatively damaged urinary guanosine was associated with airborne and systemic exposure to metals in welders and showed a strong relation to body iron stores. PMID:25107450

  13. ARPES Study on the Strongly Correlated Iron Chalcogenides Fe1+ySexTe1-x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongkai

    2014-03-01

    The level of electronic correlation has been one of the key questions in understanding the nature of iron-based superconductivity. Using Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES), we systematically investigated the correlation level in the iron chalcogenide family Fe1+ySexTe1-x. For the parent compound Fe1.02Te, we discovered ``peak-dip-hump'' spectra with heavily renormalized quasiparticles in the low temperature antiferromagnetic (AFM) state, characteristic of coherent polarons seen in other correlated materials with complex electronic and lattice interactions. As the temperature (or Se ratio x) increases and Fe1.02SexTe1-x is in the paramagnetic (PM) phase, we observed dissociation behavior of polarons, suggestive of connection between the weakening electron-phonon coupling and AFM. Further increase of x leads to an incoherent to coherent crossover in the electronic structure, indicating a reduction in the electronic correlation as the superconductivity emerges. Furthermore, the reduction of the electronic correlation in Fe1+ySexTe1-x evolves in an orbital-dependent way, where the dxy orbital is influenced most significantly. At the other end of the phase diagram (FeSe) where the single crystal is not stable, we have studied the MBE-grown thin film which also reveals orbital-dependent strong correlation in the electronic structure. Our findings provide a quantitative comprehension on the correlation level and its evolution on the phase diagram of Fe1+ySexTe1-x. We discuss the physical scenarios leading to strong correlations and its connection to superconductivity.

  14. C-reactive protein, waist circumference, and family history of heart attack are independent predictors of body iron stores in apparently healthy premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Ortegón, M F; Arbeláez, A; Mosquera, M; Méndez, F; Aguilar-de Plata, C

    2012-08-01

    Ferritin levels have been associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prediction of ferritin levels by variables related to cardiometabolic disease risk in a multivariate analysis. For this aim, 123 healthy women (72 premenopausal and 51 posmenopausal) were recruited. Data were collected through procedures of anthropometric measurements, questionnaires for personal/familial antecedents, and dietary intake (24-h recall), and biochemical determinations (ferritin, C reactive protein (CRP), glucose, insulin, and lipid profile) in blood serum samples obtained. Multiple linear regression analysis was used and variables with no normal distribution were log-transformed for this analysis. In premenopausal women, a model to explain log-ferritin levels was found with log-CRP levels, heart attack familial history, and waist circumference as independent predictors. Ferritin behaves as other cardiovascular markers in terms of prediction of its levels by documented predictors of cardiometabolic disease and related disorders. This is the first report of a relationship between heart attack familial history and ferritin levels. Further research is required to evaluate the mechanism to explain the relationship of central body fat and heart attack familial history with body iron stores values.

  15. Doping dependence of spin excitations and its correlations with high-temperature superconductivity in iron pnictides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Chenglin; Lu, Xingye; Tan, Guotai; Luo, Huiqian; Song, Yu; Wang, Miaoyin; Zhang, Xiaotian; Goremychkin, E A; Perring, T G; Maier, T A; Yin, Zhiping; Haule, Kristjan; Kotliar, Gabriel; Dai, Pengcheng

    2013-01-01

    High-temperature superconductivity in iron pnictides occurs when electrons and holes are doped into their antiferromagnetic parent compounds. Since spin excitations may be responsible for electron pairing and superconductivity, it is important to determine their electron/hole-doping evolution and connection with superconductivity. Here we use inelastic neutron scattering to show that while electron doping to the antiferromagnetic BaFe₂As₂ parent compound modifies the low-energy spin excitations and their correlation with superconductivity (<50 meV) without affecting the high-energy spin excitations (>100 meV), hole-doping suppresses the high-energy spin excitations and shifts the magnetic spectral weight to low-energies. In addition, our absolute spin susceptibility measurements for the optimally hole-doped iron pnictide reveal that the change in magnetic exchange energy below and above T(c) can account for the superconducting condensation energy. These results suggest that high-T(c) superconductivity in iron pnictides is associated with both the presence of high-energy spin excitations and a coupling between low-energy spin excitations and itinerant electrons.

  16. Effects of electron correlations on transport properties of iron at Earth's core conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Cohen, R E; Haule, K

    2015-01-29

    Earth's magnetic field has been thought to arise from thermal convection of molten iron alloy in the outer core, but recent density functional theory calculations have suggested that the conductivity of iron is too high to support thermal convection, resulting in the investigation of chemically driven convection. These calculations for resistivity were based on electron-phonon scattering. Here we apply self-consistent density functional theory plus dynamical mean-field theory (DFT + DMFT) to iron and find that at high temperatures electron-electron scattering is comparable to the electron-phonon scattering, bringing theory into agreement with experiments and solving the transport problem in Earth's core. The conventional thermal dynamo picture is safe. We find that electron-electron scattering of d electrons is important at high temperatures in transition metals, in contrast to textbook analyses since Mott, and that 4s electron contributions to transport are negligible, in contrast to numerous models used for over fifty years. The DFT+DMFT method should be applicable to other high-temperature systems where electron correlations are important.

  17. Evaluation of carotid artery dynamics & correlation with cardiac & hepatic iron in β-thalassaemia patients

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Rashid H.; Chate, Someshwar; Ahmed, Javed; Ahmad, Noor; Karnik, Alka; Jankaria, Bhavin

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Early atherosclerosis and vascular complication have been described in thalassaemia patients. There is lack of data or guidelines regarding monitoring of vascular health in thalassaemia. This study was conducted to compare carotid artery structural and functional indices such as carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), stiffness index (SI) and Young's elastic modulus (YEM) in β-thalassemia patients with age and sex matched controls, and to correlate these parameters with serum ferritin, cardiac iron, and hepatic iron. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 53 β-thalassaemia patients receiving regular blood transfusions. Carotid artery indices such as CIMT, SI, and YEM were calculated by duplex ultrasound and colour Doppler. Serum ferritin levels were measured by chemiluminescence. Cardiac and hepatic iron estimation were done using MRI T2* sequences analyzed by a special thalassaemia software. Results: Mean CIMT of cases and controls were 0.48 ± 0.04 and 0.44±0.02 mm, respectively and these were significantly different (P<0.001). Similarly significant differences were noted in SI and YEM of cases (2.45±0.79 and 96.12±34.85, respectively) as compared to controls (1.98±0.54 and 68.60±24.29, respectively) (P<0.001). There was significant inverse correlation between stiffness index and cardiac iron overload assessed by MRI cardiac T2* (P=0.03). Mean SI and YEM of cases were (2.1736 ± 0.2986 and 107.3± 41.6, respectively) significantly higher among non-splenectomized patients compared to splenectomized patients (2.0136 ± 0.263 and 86.9 ± 25.2, respectively) (P<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: CIMT and arterial stiffness indices were significantly increased in β-thalassaemia patients compared to controls which was indicative of early atherogenic changes. This study supports the hypothesis that iron overload is a risk factor for early atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. PMID:27377500

  18. Influence of the local-spin-density correlation functional on the stability of bcc ferromagnetic iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, D.; Clougherty, D. P.; MacLaren, J. M.; Albers, R. C.; Wang, C. S.

    1991-10-01

    The influence of local-spin-dependent correlation effects on the predicted stable ground-state phase of iron is reexamined with use of general-potential linearized augmented-plane-wave calculations. Differences in the form of the Vosko-Wilk-Nusair (VWN) local-spin-density functional used in previous studies are noted, since in previous studies significant additional approximations were made with respect to those of Vosko, Wilk, and Nusan [Can. J. Phys. 58, 1200 (1980)] and of MacLaren, Clougherty, and Albers [Phys. Rev. B 42, 3205 (1990)]. While the results of previous linear muffin-tin orbital calculations using the VWN functional predict a bcc ferromagnetic ground state, the present calculations show that the VWN spin-correlation effects fail to stabilize a bcc ground state. Considerable sensitivity to the form of the spin interpolation is found.

  19. A consistent description of the iron dimer spectrum with a correlated single-determinant wave function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casula, Michele; Marchi, Mariapia; Azadi, Sam; Sorella, Sandro

    2009-08-01

    We study the iron dimer by using an accurate ansatz for quantum chemical calculations based on a simple variational wave function, defined by a single geminal expanded in molecular orbitals and combined with a real space correlation factor. By means of this approach we predict that, contrary to previous expectations, the neutral ground state is 7Δ while the ground state of the anion is 8Σg-, hence explaining in a simple way a long standing controversy in the interpretation of the experiments. Moreover, we characterize consistently the states seen in the photoemission spectroscopy by Leopold and Lineberger [D.G. Leopold, W.C. Lineberger, J. Chem. Phys. 85 (1) (1986) 51]. It is shown that the non-dynamical correlations included in the geminal expansion are relevant to correctly reproduce the energy ordering of the low-lying spin states.

  20. XPCS study of dynamic correlation in polyurethane gel-carbonyl iron composite under magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriew, Helena; Wiegart, Lutz; Boczkowska, Anna; Mirkowska, Monika

    2010-10-01

    An X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) study of composite-type material consisting of polyurethane gel and carbonyl iron micrometric spheres was performed under magnetic fields of 0, 300 and 600 mT. The onion-like spheres structure was destroyed during the composite processing. The following conclusions were obtained from the study: -The polyurethane matrix is preferred as a source for the observed dynamic effects. -Below 300mT the material dynamics in direction of the outer magnetic field are very clear. -For 600 mT the dependence of the dynamics on magnetic field direction disappears, but the correlation rate is much higher. These findings may be caused by a disturbance of the polymer mesostructure by larger strain leading to its cross-linking.

  1. Uses and limitations of serum ferritin, magnetic resonance imaging T2 and T2* in the diagnosis of iron overload and in the ferrikinetics of normalization of the iron stores in thalassemia using the International Committee on Chelation deferiprone/deferoxamine combination protocol.

    PubMed

    Kolnagou, Anita; Yazman, Dilek; Economides, Charalambos; Eracleous, Eleni; Kontoghiorghes, George J

    2009-01-01

    Excess cardiac iron deposition leads to congestive cardiac failure and accounts for more than 70% of deaths in thalassemia major patients. In three separate studies involving 145 thalassemia patients, serum ferritin and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relaxation times T2 and T2* have been compared for assessing iron load levels during chelation treatment. In two studies, variable levels of cardiac iron load have been detected by T2 and T2* in patients treated with deferoxamine (DFO), which, however, were unrelated to serum ferritin. In most cases, similar range levels from normal to severe cardiac iron load could be identified by both the T2 and T2* methods. However, in a few cases there were substantial differences in the levels detected between the two methods. In the third study, the ferrikinetics of the normalization of the iron stores during the International Committee on Chelation (ICOC) deferiprone (L1)/DFO combination protocol was followed up using T2 and T2* and serum ferritin. Iron deposits were found not to be proportionally distributed between the liver and the heart or uniformly distributed within each organ. Iron mobilization in each patient varied and iron deposits in each organ were cleared at different rates. Despite some limitations, the application of the MRI relaxation times T2 and T2* offers the best diagnostic methods for iron overload estimations in most organs and especially the heart. These MRI methods and serum ferritin could also be used for the ferrikinetics of iron mobilization and removal during chelation therapy and the normalization of the iron stores during the ICOC L1/DFO combination protocol. There is a need to standardize the two MRI relaxation times T2 and T2* methods and identify the factors causing the differences between them.

  2. Pica associated with iron deficiency or depletion: clinical and laboratory correlates in 262 non-pregnant adult outpatients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There are many descriptions of the association of pica with iron deficiency in adults, but there are few reports in which observations available at diagnosis of iron deficiency were analyzed using multivariable techniques to identify significant predictors of pica. We sought to identify clinical and laboratory correlates of pica in adults with iron deficiency or depletion using univariable and stepwise forward logistic regression analyses. Methods We reviewed charts of 262 non-pregnant adult outpatients (ages ≥18 y) who required treatment with intravenous iron dextran. We tabulated their sex, age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, symptoms and causes of iron deficiency or depletion, serum iron and complete blood count measures, and other conditions at diagnosis before intravenous iron dextran was administered. We excluded patients with serum creatinine >133 μmol/L or disorders that could affect erythrocyte or iron measures. Iron deficiency was defined as both SF <45 pmol/L and TS <10%. Iron depletion was defined as serum ferritin (SF) <112 pmol/L. We performed univariable comparisons and stepwise forward logistic regression analyses to identify significant correlates of pica. Results There were 230 women (184 white, 46 black; ages 19-91 y) and 32 men (31 white, 1 black; ages 24-81 y). 118 patients (45.0%) reported pica; of these, 87.3% reported ice pica (pagophagia). In univariable analyses, patients with pica had lower mean age, black race/ethnicity, and higher prevalences of cardiopulmonary and epithelial manifestations. The prevalence of iron deficiency, with or without anemia, did not differ significantly between patients with and without pica reports. Mean hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were lower and mean red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and platelet count were higher in patients with pica. Thrombocytosis occurred only in women and was more prevalent in those with pica (20.4% vs. 8.3%; p = 0.0050). Mean total iron

  3. Correlation between the behavior of magnetic iron oxide particles in the lungs of rabbits and phagocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Brain, J.D.; Bloom, S.B.; Valberg, P.A.; Gehr, P.

    1984-01-01

    Five New Zealand white male rabbits were exposed (30 min; 300 mg/m3) to a submicrometric magnetic iron oxide aerosol (gamma-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/) produced by burning iron pentacarbonyl in a reducing atmosphere. Using a flux-gate magnetometer probe in an enclosure shielded against external magnetic noise, the peak remanent magnetic field after magnetization was measured periodically during the next 6 weeks. After each magnetization, the strength of the remanent field decayed rapidly with time (relaxation). The mechanism responsible is particle rotation caused by tissue, cell, organelle, or Brownian movement. The rate of relaxation changed with time after particle inhalation, especially during the first day; changes in the relaxation rate correlated with an estimate of in situ particle phagocytosis during that time. Analysis of pulmonary lavage fluid from 15 rabbits into which radioactive gold-198 had been intratracheally instilled showed that, at 1 hr after instillation, 27% of the gold had been phagocytized, whereas at 16 hr 91% had been ingested. The strength of the magnetic field immediately after each magnetization (that is, before relaxation) was used to estimate the amount of iron oxide in the lungs. At 1 day after exposure, 96.8 +/- 8.8% (mean +/- standard error) of the initial dust was still present; at 10 days, 67.9 +/- 16.2%; and at 40 days, 16.0 +/- 4.6%. It is concluded that ferrimagnetic particles can serve as an easily measured, long-lasting marker that can be used for noninvasive studies of clearance and of particle phagocytosis and as a probe for intracellular processes such as organelle motion.

  4. Correlation between computed gas-phase and experimentally determined solution-phase infrared spectra: models of the iron-iron hydrogenase enzyme active site.

    PubMed

    Tye, Jesse W; Darensbourg, Marcetta Y; Hall, Michael B

    2006-09-01

    Gas-phase density functional theory calculations (B3LYP, double zeta plus polarization basis sets) are used to predict the solution-phase infrared spectra for a series of CO- and CN-containing iron complexes. It is shown that simple linear scaling of the computed C--O and C--N stretching frequencies yields accurate predictions of the the experimentally determined nu(CO) and nu(CN) values for a variety of complexes of different charges and in solvents of varying polarity. As examples of the technique, the resulting correlation is used to assign structures to spectroscopically observed but structurally ambiguous species in two different systems. For the (mu-SCH2CH2CH2S)[Fe(CO)3]2 complex in tetrahydrofuran solution, our calculations show that the initial electrochemical reduction process leads to a simple one-electron reduced product with a structure very similar to the (mu-SCH2CH2CH2S)[Fe(CO)3]2 parent complex. For the iron-iron hydrogenase enzyme active site, our computations show that the absence or presence of a water molecule near the distal iron center (the iron center further from the [4Fe4S] cluster and protein backbone) has very little effect on the predicted infrared spectra.

  5. Correlation of mechanical properties with the acoustic properties in case of an experimental white cast iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gȋrneţ, A.; Stanciu, S.; Chicet, D.; Axinte, M.; Goanţă, V.

    2016-08-01

    The general and traditional opinion regarding the materials used to build bells, musical instruments or sound transmitters is that those materials must be only from the bronze alloyed with tin category. In order to approach this idea from a scientific point of view, the materials with acoustic properties must be analyzed starting from the physical theory and experimental determination that sound travels only through bodies with elastic properties. It has been developed an experimental white cast iron, medium alloyed with Cr and Ni, in order to obtain a material with special acoustic properties. There were determined on specific samples: the vibration damping capacity, the unit energy, the tensile strength and elasticity modulus. These properties were correlated with the properties of other known acoustic materials.

  6. Heme oxygenase activity correlates with serum indices of iron homeostasis in healthy nonsmokers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the breakdown of heme to carbon monoxide, iron, and biliverdin. While the use of genetically altered animal models in investigation has established distinct associations between HO activity and systemic iron availability, studies have not yet confirm...

  7. A GGA+U approach to effective electronic correlations in thiolate-ligated iron-oxo (IV) porphyrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elenewski, Justin E.; Hackett, John C.

    2012-09-01

    High-valent oxo-metal complexes exhibit correlated electronic behavior on dense, low-lying electronic state manifolds, presenting challenging systems for electronic structure methods. Among these species, the iron-oxo (IV) porphyrin denoted Compound I occupies a privileged position, serving a broad spectrum of catalytic roles. The most reactive members of this family bear a thiolate axial ligand, exhibiting high activity toward molecular oxygen activation and substrate oxidation. The default approach to such systems has entailed the use of hybrid density functionals or multi-configurational/multireference methods to treat electronic correlation. An alternative approach is presented based on the GGA+U approximation to density functional theory, in which a generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functional is supplemented with a localization correction to treat on-site correlation as inspired by the Hubbard model. The electronic structure of thiolate-ligated iron-oxo (IV) porphyrin and corresponding Coulomb repulsion U are determined both empirically and self-consistently, yielding spin-distributions, state level splittings, and electronic densities of states consistent with prior hybrid functional calculations. Comparison of this detailed electronic structure with model Hamiltonian calculations suggests that the localized 3d iron moments induce correlation in the surrounding electron gas, strengthening local moment formation. This behavior is analogous to strongly correlated electronic systems such as Mott insulators, in which the GGA+U scheme serves as an effective single-particle representation for the full, correlated many-body problem.

  8. Water buffalo mozzarella cheese stored in polysaccharide-based gels: correlation between prolongation of the shelf-life and physicochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Laurienzo, P; Malinconico, M; Mazzarella, G; Petitto, F; Piciocchi, N; Stefanile, R; Volpe, M G

    2008-04-01

    An innovative packaging system has been developed, based on natural gels, that has shown the peculiar characteristic to strongly increase the shelf life of water buffalo Mozzarella cheese. To explain the mechanism of action of the gel, measurements of Ca and Na in the cheese and in the storage liquid were carried out, together with pH determination. A correlation has been found between the constant level of Ca and pH in the cheese and the prolongation of nutritional characteristics; in fact, both parameters diminish significantly in the absence of gel. At the same time, the weight of the cheese in gel remained constant for as long as 30 d. Confocal laser microscopy gave direct evidence of the persistent physical structure of proteins and lipids of Mozzarella when stored in gel.

  9. A unifying phase diagram with correlation-driven superconductor-to-insulator transition for the 122 series of iron chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, X. H.; Chen, S. D.; Jiang, J.; Ye, Z. R.; Yu, T. L.; Xu, D. F.; Xu, M.; Feng, Y.; Yan, Y. J.; Xie, B. P.; Zhao, J.; Gu, D. C.; Sun, L. L.; Mao, Qianhui; Wang, Hangdong; Fang, Minghu; Zhang, C. J.; Hu, J. P.; Sun, Z.; Feng, D. L.

    2016-02-01

    The 122 series of iron chalcogenide superconductors, for example KxFe2 -ySe2 , only possesses electron Fermi pockets. Their distinctive electronic structure challenges the picture built upon iron pnictide superconductors, where both electron and hole Fermi pockets coexist. However, partly due to the intrinsic phase separation in this family of compounds, many aspects of their behavior remain elusive. In particular, the evolution of the 122 series of iron chalcogenides with chemical substitution still lacks a microscopic and unified interpretation. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we studied a major fraction of 122 iron chalcogenides, including the isovalently "doped" KxFe2 -ySe2 -zSz,RbxFe2 -ySe2 -zTez , and (Tl,K) xFe2 -ySe2 -zSz . We found that the bandwidths of the low energy Fe 3 d bands in these materials depend on doping; and more crucially, as the bandwidth decreases, the ground state evolves from a metal to a superconductor, and eventually to an insulator, yet the Fermi surface in the metallic phases is unaffected by the isovalent dopants. Moreover, the correlation-driven insulator found here with small band filling may be a novel insulating phase. Our study shows that almost all the known 122-series iron chalcogenides can be understood via one unifying phase diagram which implies that moderate correlation strength is beneficial for the superconductivity.

  10. Theoretical study of correlation between spin fluctuations and Tc in isovalent-doped 1111 iron-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Hayato; Usui, Hidetomo; Suzuki, Katsuhiro; Fuseya, Yuki; Kuroki, Kazuhiko

    2015-04-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on isovalent-doped 1111 iron-based superconductors LaFeAs1-xPxO1-yFy and the theoretical study that followed, we investigate, within the five-orbital model, the correlation between spin fluctuations and the superconducting transition temperature, which exhibits a double-dome feature upon varying the Fe-As-Fe bond angle. Around the first dome with higher Tc, the low-energy spin fluctuation and Tc are not tightly correlated because the finite-energy spin fluctuation also contributes to superconductivity. On the other hand, the strength of the low-energy spin fluctuation originating from the dx z /y z orbital is correlated with Tc in the second dome with lower Tc. These calculation results are consistent with a recent NMR study, and hence strongly suggest that the pairing in iron-based superconductors is predominantly caused by multiorbital spin fluctuations.

  11. On the correlation between primary damage and long-term nanostructural evolution in iron under irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souidi, A.; Hou, M.; Becquart, C. S.; Malerba, L.; Domain, C.; Stoller, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Atomic displacement cascades in solids are complex phenomena, the outcome of which can be statistically characterised by properties such as their spatial extent, morphology and the spatial correlation of defects. Some properties scale in a simple way with parameters such as the cascade energy, others have limited variability with energy, for example point defect cluster size distributions. Taking advantage of the latter invariance, we use object kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate that most properties of displacement cascade play no significant role in the evolution of point defect cluster size distributions after long enough time. It is suggested that reliable long-term predictions are possible, when using only the self-interstitial and vacancy cluster size distributions from low energy displacement cascades as building blocks to represent the complete spectrum of cascade energies obtained under neutron irradiation conditions. This is shown on the basis of recursive properties of displacement cascades evidenced for the first time and taking only approximately into account the average volumes in which vacancies and self-interstitial atoms are confined. The model has been successfully used to simulate the evolution of point defect clusters in iron for displacement rates in the range of 10 -6 dpa/s and doses of the order of 0.1 dpa. The applicability beyond this range and to more complex materials is discussed.

  12. Correlation of superparamagnetic relaxation with magnetic dipole interaction in capped iron-oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landers, J.; Stromberg, F.; Darbandi, M.; Schöppner, C.; Keune, W.; Wende, H.

    2015-01-01

    Six nanometer sized iron-oxide nanoparticles capped with an organic surfactant and/or silica shell of various thicknesses have been synthesized by a microemulsion method to enable controllable contributions of interparticle magnetic dipole interaction via tunable interparticle distances. Bare particles with direct surface contact were used as a reference to distinguish between interparticle interaction and surface effects by use of Mössbauer spectroscopy. Superparamagnetic relaxation behaviour was analyzed by SQUID-magnetometry techniques, showing a decrease of the blocking temperature with decreasing interparticle interaction energies kBT0 obtained by AC susceptibility. A many-state relaxation model enabled us to describe experimental Mössbauer spectra, leading to an effective anisotropy constant Keff ≈ 45 kJm-3 in case of weakly interacting particles, consistent with results from ferromagnetic resonance. Our unique multi-technique approach, spanning a huge regime of characteristic time windows from about 10 s to 5 ns, provides a concise picture of the correlation of superparamagnetic relaxation with interparticle magnetic dipole interaction.

  13. Storing Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyun Jeong; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Autrey, Thomas; Chupas, Peter; Proffen, Thomas E.

    2010-05-31

    Researchers have been studying mesoporous materials for almost two decades with a view to using them as hosts for small molecules and scaffolds for molding organic compounds into new hybrid materials and nanoparticles. Their use as potential storage systems for large quantities of hydrogen has also been mooted. Such systems that might hold large quantities of hydrogen safely and in a very compact volume would have enormous potential for powering fuel cell vehicles, for instance. A sponge-like form of silicon dioxide, the stuff of sand particles and computer chips, can soak up and store other compounds including hydrogen. Studies carried out at the XOR/BESSRC 11-ID-B beamline at the APS have revealed that the nanoscopic properties of the hydrogenrich compound ammonia borane help it store hydrogen more efficiently than usual. The material may have potential for addressing the storage issues associated with a future hydrogen economy. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  14. Iron deficiency anemia

    MedlinePlus

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... iron from old red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia develops when your body's iron stores run low. ... You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. Most of the time, ... slowly. Symptoms may include: Feeling weak or tired more often ...

  15. Protective effects of naringenin on iron-overload-induced cerebral cortex neurotoxicity correlated with oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Chtourou, Yassine; Fetoui, Hamadi; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2014-06-01

    Iron is a component of several metalloproteins involved in crucial metabolic processes such as oxygen sensing and transport, energy metabolism, and DNA synthesis. This metal progressively accumulates in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) diseases. Naringenin (NGEN), a natural flavonoid compound, has been reported to possess neuroprotective effect against PD-related pathology, however, the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects are poorly defined. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the potential mechanism involved in the cytoprotection of NGEN against iron-induced neurotoxicity in the cerebral cortex of Wistar rats. Animals that were given repetitive injections of iron dextran for a total of 4 weeks showed a significant increase in lipid and protein markers such as thiobarbituric reactive acid substances, protein carbonyl product content levels, and DNA apoptosis in the cerebral cortex. These changes were accompanied by a decrease of enzymatic antioxidants like superoxide dismutase and catalase and in the levels of nonenzymatic antioxidants like total thiols and ascorbic acid. The activity of glutathione peroxidase remained unchanged in rats. A significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities was also shown, with a substantial rise in the nitric oxide levels. Coadministration of NGEN to iron-treated rats significantly improved antioxidant enzyme activities and attenuated oxidative damages observed in the cerebral cortex. The potential effect of NGEN to prevent iron-induced neurotoxicity was also reflected by the microscopic study, indicative of its neuroprotective effects. PMID:24682942

  16. Correlation between surface physicochemical properties and the release of iron from stainless steel AISI 304 in biological media.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, Yolanda; Karlsson, Maria-Elisa; Blomberg, Eva; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Hedberg, Jonas

    2014-10-01

    Stainless steel is widely used in biological environments, for example as implant material or in food applications, where adsorption-controlled ligand-induced metal release is of importance from a corrosion, health, and food safety perspective. The objective of this study was to elucidate potential correlations between surface energy and wettability of stainless steel surfaces and the release of iron in complexing biological media. This was accomplished by studying changes in surface energies calculated from contact angle measurements, surface oxide composition (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), and released iron (graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy) for stainless steel grade AISI 304 immersed in fluids containing bovine serum albumin or citric acid, and non-complexing fluids such as NaCl, NaOH, and HNO3. It was shown that the surface wettability and polar surface energy components were all influenced by adventitious atmospheric carbon (surface contamination of low molecular weight), rather than differences in surface oxide composition in non-complexing solutions. Adsorption of both BSA and citrate, which resulted in ligand-induced metal release, strongly influenced the wettability and the surface energy, and correlated well with the measured released amount of iron.

  17. Efficacy of a multi micronutrient-fortified drink in improving iron and micronutrient status among schoolchildren with low iron stores in India: A randomised, double-masked placebo-controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multiple micronutrient-fortified drink could be an effective strategy to combating micronutrient deficiencies in school-going children. Our objective was to assess the efficacy of a multiple micronutrient-fortified drink in reducing iron deficiency (ID), ID anemia (IDA), anemia and improving micro...

  18. Electronic correlations determine the phase stability of iron up to the melting temperature

    PubMed Central

    Leonov, I.; Poteryaev, A. I.; Gornostyrev, Yu. N.; Lichtenstein, A. I.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Anisimov, V. I.; Vollhardt, D.

    2014-01-01

    We present theoretical results on the high-temperature phase stability and phonon spectra of paramagnetic bcc iron which explicitly take into account many-body effects. Several peculiarities, including a pronounced softening of the [110] transverse (T1) mode and a dynamical instability of the bcc lattice in harmonic approximation are identified. We relate these features to the α-to-γ and γ-to-δ phase transformations in iron. The high-temperature bcc phase is found to be highly anharmonic and appears to be stabilized by the lattice entropy. PMID:24998330

  19. Siderophore-mediated iron transport correlates with the presence of specific iron-regulated proteins in the outer membrane of Rhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed Central

    Reigh, G; O'Connell, M

    1993-01-01

    A universal chemical assay used to detect the production of siderophores in a range of Rhizobium strains showed that production is strain specific. Iron nutrition bioassays carried out on Rhizobium meliloti strains to determine cross-utilization of their siderophores showed that R. meliloti 2011, 220-5, and 220-3 could each use the siderophores produced by the other two but not the siderophore produced by R. meliloti DM4 (and vice versa). Mutants of R. meliloti 2011 and 220-5 defective in siderophore production were isolated by Tn5-mob mutagenesis. The Tn5-mob-containing EcoRI fragment of mutant R. meliloti 220-5-1 was cloned into pUC19. By using this fragment as a probe, the presence of a homologous region was observed in R. meliloti 2011 and 220-3 but not in R. meliloti DM4. A complementing cosmid from a gene bank of R. meliloti 2011 was identified by using the same probe. Introduction of this cosmid into R. meliloti 102F34, a strain not producing a siderophore, resulted in the ability of this strain to produce a siderophore and also in the ability to utilize the siderophores produced by R. meliloti 2011, 220-5, and 220-3 but not the siderophore produced by R. meliloti DM4. A comparative analysis of the outer membrane proteins prepared from iron-deficient cultures of R. meliloti 102F34 and 102F34 harboring the cosmid revealed the presence, in the latter, of a low-iron-induced outer membrane protein corresponding to a low-iron-induced protein in R. meliloti 2011, 220-5, and 220-3. This protein is not present in R. meliloti DM4. The results suggest that R. meliloti 2011, 220-5, and 220-3 produce siderophores that are identical or sufficiently similar in structure to be transported by the membrane transport system of each strain while also indicating that utilization of a particular siderophore is correlated with the presence of specific outer membrane proteins. Images PMID:8416915

  20. Hepcidin and Iron Metabolism in Pregnancy: Correlation with Smoking and Birth Weight and Length.

    PubMed

    Chełchowska, Magdalena; Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Gajewska, Joanna; Jabłońska-Głąb, Ewa; Maciejewski, Tomasz M; Ołtarzewski, Mariusz

    2016-09-01

    To estimate the effect of tobacco smoking on iron homeostasis and the possible association between hepcidin and the neonatal birth weight and length, concentrations of serum hepcidin and selected iron markers were measured in 81 healthy pregnant women (41 smokers and 40 nonsmokers). The smoking mothers had significantly lower concentrations of serum hepcidin (p < 0.001), iron (p < 0.001), and hemoglobin (p < 0.05), but higher erythropoietin (p < 0.05) levels compared with non-smoking pregnant women. Logistic regression analysis showed the highest negative impact of the number of cigarettes smoked per day (β = -0.46; p < 0.01) and positive impact of ferritin level (β = 0.47; p < 0.001) on serum hepcidin concentration. The birth weight and the body length of smoking mothers' infants were significantly lower than in tobacco abstinent group (p < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, birth body weight (β = 0.56; p < 0.001) and length (β = 0.50; p < 0.001) were significantly related to maternal hepcidin values. Tobacco smoking affected hepcidin level in serum of pregnant women in a dose-dependent manner. Low concentrations of iron and hemoglobin in maternal serum coexisting with high level of erythropoietin suggest that smoking could lead to subclinical iron deficiency and chronic hypoxia not only in mothers but also in fetus. Low serum hepcidin concentration in smoking pregnant women might be associated with lower fetal birth weight and length. PMID:26785641

  1. Structure-function correlations in Iron(II) tris(pyrazolyl)borate spin-state crossover complexes.

    PubMed

    Reger, Daniel L; Gardinier, James R; Elgin, J Derek; Smith, Mark D; Hautot, Dimitri; Long, Gary J; Grandjean, Fernande

    2006-10-30

    Iron(II) poly(pyrazolyl)borate complexes have been investigated to determine the impact of substituent effects, intramolecular ligand distortions, and intermolecular supramolecular structures on the spin-state crossover (SCO) behavior. The molecular structure of Fe[HB(3,4,5-Me3pz)3]2 (pz = pyrazolyl ring), a complex known to remain high spin when the temperature is lowered, reveals that this complex has an intramolecular ring-twist distortion that is not observed in analogous complexes that do exhibit a SCO at low temperatures, thus indicating that this distortion greatly influences the properties of these complexes. The structure of Fe[B(3-(cy)Prpz)4]2.(CH3OH) ((cy)Pr = cyclopropyl ring) at 294 K has two independent molecules in the unit cell, both of which are high spin; only one of these high-spin iron(II) sites, the site with the lesser ring-twist distortion, is observed to be low-spin iron(II) in the 90 K structure. A careful evaluation of the supramolecular structures of these complexes and several similar complexes reported previously revealed no strong correlation between the supramolecular packing forces and their SCO behavior. Magnetic and Mössbauer spectral measurements on Fe[B(3-(cy)Prpz)4]2 and Fe[HB(3-(cy)Prpz)3]2 indicate that both complexes exhibit a partial SCO from fully high-spin iron(II) at higher temperatures, respectively, to a 50:50 high-spin/low-spin mixture of iron(II) below 100 K. These results may be understood, in the former case, by the differences in ring-twisting and, in the latter case, by a phase transition; in all complexes in which a phase transition is observed, this change dominates the SCO behavior. A comparison of the Mössbauer spectral properties of these two complexes and of Fe[HB(3-Mepz)3]2 with that of other complexes reveals correlations between the Mössbauer-effect isomer shift and the average Fe-N bond distance and between the quadrupole splitting and the average FeN-NB intraligand dihedral torsion angles and the

  2. Influence of welding fume on systemic iron status.

    PubMed

    Casjens, Swaantje; Henry, Jana; Rihs, Hans-Peter; Lehnert, Martin; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Welge, Peter; Lotz, Anne; Gelder, Rainer Van; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Stiegler, Hugo; Eisele, Lewin; Weiss, Tobias; Hartwig, Andrea; Brüning, Thomas; Pesch, Beate

    2014-11-01

    Iron is the major metal found in welding fumes, and although it is an essential trace element, its overload causes toxicity due to Fenton reactions. To avoid oxidative damage, excess iron is bound to ferritin, and as a result, serum ferritin (SF) is a recognized biomarker for iron stores, with high concentrations linked to inflammation and potentially also cancer. However, little is known about iron overload in welders. Within this study, we assessed the iron status and quantitative associations between airborne iron, body iron stores, and iron homeostasis in 192 welders not wearing dust masks. Welders were equipped with personal samplers in order to determine the levels of respirable iron in the breathing zone during a working shift. SF, prohepcidin and other markers of iron status were determined in blood samples collected after shift. The impact of iron exposure and other factors on SF and prohepcidin were estimated using multiple regression models. Our results indicate that respirable iron is a significant predictor of SF and prohepcidin. Concentrations of SF varied according to the welding technique and respiratory protection used, with a median of 103 μg l(-1) in tungsten inert gas welders, 125 μg l(-1) in those wearing air-purifying respirators, and 161 μg l(-1) in other welders. Compared to welders with low iron stores (SF < 25 μg l(-1)), those with excess body iron (SF ≥ 400 μg l(-1)) worked under a higher median concentration of airborne iron (60 μg m(-3) versus 148 μg m(-3)). Even though air concentrations of respirable iron and manganese were highly correlated, and low iron stores have been reported to increase manganese uptake in the gastrointestinal tract, no correlation was seen between SF and manganese in blood. In conclusion, monitoring SF may be a reasonable method for health surveillance of welders. Respiratory protection with air-purifying respirators can decrease iron exposure and avoid chronically higher SF in welders working with

  3. Influence of welding fume on systemic iron status.

    PubMed

    Casjens, Swaantje; Henry, Jana; Rihs, Hans-Peter; Lehnert, Martin; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Welge, Peter; Lotz, Anne; Gelder, Rainer Van; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Stiegler, Hugo; Eisele, Lewin; Weiss, Tobias; Hartwig, Andrea; Brüning, Thomas; Pesch, Beate

    2014-11-01

    Iron is the major metal found in welding fumes, and although it is an essential trace element, its overload causes toxicity due to Fenton reactions. To avoid oxidative damage, excess iron is bound to ferritin, and as a result, serum ferritin (SF) is a recognized biomarker for iron stores, with high concentrations linked to inflammation and potentially also cancer. However, little is known about iron overload in welders. Within this study, we assessed the iron status and quantitative associations between airborne iron, body iron stores, and iron homeostasis in 192 welders not wearing dust masks. Welders were equipped with personal samplers in order to determine the levels of respirable iron in the breathing zone during a working shift. SF, prohepcidin and other markers of iron status were determined in blood samples collected after shift. The impact of iron exposure and other factors on SF and prohepcidin were estimated using multiple regression models. Our results indicate that respirable iron is a significant predictor of SF and prohepcidin. Concentrations of SF varied according to the welding technique and respiratory protection used, with a median of 103 μg l(-1) in tungsten inert gas welders, 125 μg l(-1) in those wearing air-purifying respirators, and 161 μg l(-1) in other welders. Compared to welders with low iron stores (SF < 25 μg l(-1)), those with excess body iron (SF ≥ 400 μg l(-1)) worked under a higher median concentration of airborne iron (60 μg m(-3) versus 148 μg m(-3)). Even though air concentrations of respirable iron and manganese were highly correlated, and low iron stores have been reported to increase manganese uptake in the gastrointestinal tract, no correlation was seen between SF and manganese in blood. In conclusion, monitoring SF may be a reasonable method for health surveillance of welders. Respiratory protection with air-purifying respirators can decrease iron exposure and avoid chronically higher SF in welders working with

  4. Iron status of vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Craig, W J

    1994-05-01

    An appropriately planned well-balanced vegetarian diet is compatible with an adequate iron status. Although the iron stores of vegetarians may be reduced, the incidence of iron-deficiency anemia in vegetarians is not significantly different from that in omnivores. Restrictive vegetarian diets (eg, macrobiotic) are associated with more widespread iron-deficiency anemia. Western vegetarians who consume a variety of foods have a better iron status than do those in developing countries who consume a limited diet based on unleavened, unrefined cereals. Whereas phytates, polyphenolics, and other plant constituents found in vegetarian diets inhibit nonheme-iron absorption, vitamin C, citric acid, and other organic acids facilitate nonheme-iron absorption.

  5. Iron Dextran Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... called iron replacement products. It works by replenishing iron stores so that the body can make more red blood cells. ... and order certain lab tests to check your body's response to iron dextran injection.Before having any laboratory test, tell ...

  6. Correlations between lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and iron concentrations in frozen tuna fish

    SciTech Connect

    Galindo, L.; Hardisson, A.; Montelongo, F.G.

    1986-04-01

    The presence of metallic pollutants in marine ecosystems has promoted wide research plans in order to evaluate pollution levels in marine organisms. However, little is known concerning environmental and physiological processes that regulate the concentration of trace metals in marine organisms. Even though the toxicity of lead and cadmium is well established, copper, zinc and iron are considered as essential elements for mammals. Little is known about heavy metals, other than mercury, concentrations in fresh and frozen tuna fish. Fifty samples obtained at the entrance of a canning factory in Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands), were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results were treated by applying the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences compiled and linked in the software of a Digital VAX/VMS 11/780 computer.

  7. Correlation-induced self-doping in iron-pnictide superconductor Ba2Ti2Fe2As4O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Tian; Ma, Junzhang; Roekeghem, A. Van; Richard, Pierre; Cao, Guanghan; Biermann, Silke; Ding, Hong

    2015-03-01

    The electronic structure of the iron-based superconductor Ba2Ti2Fe2As4O (Tconset = 23.5 K) has been investigated by using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and combined local density approximation and dynamical mean field theory calculations. The electronic states near the Fermi level are dominated by both the Fe 3 d and Ti 3 d orbitals, indicating that the spacer layers separating different FeAs layers are also metallic. By counting the enclosed volumes of the Fermi surface sheets, we observe a large self-doping effect, i. e. 0.25 electrons per unit cell are transferred from the FeAs layer to the Ti2As2O layer, leaving the FeAs layer in a hole-doped state. This exotic behavior is successfully reproduced by our dynamical mean field calculations, in which the self-doping effect is attributed to the electronic correlations in the 3 d shells. Our work provides an alternative route of effective doping without element substitution for iron-based superconductors.

  8. Correlation induced self-doping in the iron-pnictide superconductor Ba2 Ti2 Fe2 As4 O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J. Z.; Richard, P.; Chen, G. F.; Miao, H.; Zeng, L. K.; Roekeghem, A. Van; Biermann, S.; Xu, N.; Shi, M.; Liu, Z. H.; He, J. B.; Wang, S. C.; Cao, C.; Sun, Y. L.; Cao, G. H.; Qian, T.; Ding, H.

    The electronic structure of the intercalated iron-based superconductor Ba2Ti2Fe2As4O (Tc ~21.5 K) has been investigated by using ARPES and combined LDA + DMFT calculations. The electronic states near the Fermi level are dominated by both the Fe 3d and Ti 3d orbitals, indicating that the spacing layers separating different FeAs layers are also metallic. By counting the enclosed volumes of the Fermi surface sheets, we observe a large self-doping effect, i.e., 0.25 electrons per unit cell are transferred from the FeAs layer to the Ti2As2O layer, leaving the FeAs layer in a hole-doped state, which is in contrast with the LDA prediction of an electron-doped FeAs layer. This exotic behavior is successfully reproduced by the LDA + DMFT calculations, in which the self-doping effect is attributed to the electronic correlations in the Fe 3d shell. Our work provides an alternative route of effective doping without element substitution for iron-based superconductors. Beijing 100190, China.

  9. Correlation-Enhanced Odd-Parity Interorbital Singlet Pairing in the Iron-Pnictide Superconductor LiFeAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nourafkan, R.; Kotliar, G.; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    2016-09-01

    The rich variety of iron-based superconductors and their complex electronic structure lead to a wide range of possibilities for gap symmetry and pairing components. Here we solve in the two-Fe Brillouin zone the full frequency-dependent linearized Eliashberg equations to investigate spin-fluctuations mediated Cooper pairing for LiFeAs. The magnetic excitations are calculated with the random phase approximation on a correlated electronic structure obtained with density functional theory and dynamical mean field theory. The interaction between electrons through Hund's coupling promotes both the intraorbital dx z (y z ) and the interorbital magnetic susceptibility. As a consequence, the leading pairing channel, conventional s+- , acquires sizable interorbital dx y-dx z (y z ) singlet pairing with odd parity under glide-plane symmetry. The combination of intra- and interorbital components makes the results consistent with available experiments on the angular dependence of the gaps observed on the different Fermi surfaces.

  10. HEPCIDIN AND IRON HOMEOSTASIS

    PubMed Central

    Ganz, Tomas; Nemeth, Elizabeta

    2014-01-01

    Despite fluctuations in dietary iron intake and intermittent losses through bleeding, the plasma iron concentrations in humans remain stable at 10–30 μM. While most of the iron entering blood plasma comes from recycling, appropriate amount of iron is absorbed from the diet to compensate for losses and maintain nontoxic amounts in stores. Plasma iron concentration and iron distribution are similarly regulated in laboratory rodents. The hepatic peptide hepcidin was identified as the systemic iron-regulatory hormone. In the efferent arc, hepcidin regulates intestinal iron absorption, plasma iron concentrations, and tissue iron distribution by inducing degradation of its receptor, the cellular iron exporter ferroportin. Ferroportin exports iron into plasma from absorptive enterocytes, from macrophages that recycle the iron of senescent erythrocytes, and from hepatocytes that store iron. In the more complex and less well understood afferent arc, hepatic hepcidin synthesis is transcriptionally regulated by extracellular and intracellular iron concentrations through a molecular complex of bone morphogenetic protein receptors and their iron-specific ligands, modulators and iron sensors. Through as yet undefined pathways, hepcidin is also homeostatically regulated by the iron requirements of erythroid precursors for hemoglobin synthesis. In accordance with the role of hepcidin-mediated iron redistribution in host defense, hepcidin production is regulated by inflammation as well. Increased hepcidin concentrations in plasma are pathogenic in iron-restrictive anemias including anemias associated with inflammation, chronic kidney disease and some cancers. Hepcidin deficiency causes iron overload in hereditary hemochromatosis and ineffective erythropoiesis. Hepcidin, ferroportin and their regulators represent potential targets for the diagnosis and treatment of iron disorders and anemias. PMID:22306005

  11. Structure-Property Correlation in Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Clay Hybrid Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Son, You-Hwan; Lee, Jung-Kun; Soong, Yee; Martello, Donald; Chyu, Minking

    2010-03-16

    Heterostructures between montmorillonite and embedded alpha-Fe2O3 nanoparticles are explored to create new hybrid particles with high magnetic response and magnetic-field induced tunability. α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles are hybridized to montmorillonite clays by using an intercalation technique. Also, stable aqueous fluids consisting of the heterostructured particles are prepared and the rheology of the fluids under external magnetic field is examined. When α-Fe2O3 a nanoparticles are embedded in the interlayer space of montmorillonite clays, the magnetization per Fe atom increases at most 60 times. This unique combination of the magnetization and the coercivity is traced to the suppressed growth of embedded α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles by the aluminosilicate layers, leading to the size control, anisotropic magnetic interaction, and uniaxial stress of two-dimensionally distributed α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Furthermore, high magnetization of heterostructured particles leads to strong dependence of fluids' viscosity on the external magnetic field. The present study indicates that the new heterostructured particles have unique magnetic fielddependent properties that are not attainable in individual clay or iron oxide particles.

  12. Iron overload and hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Veneri, Dino

    2004-01-01

    Although iron is essential for cell replication and survival, an increase of body iron stores has been implicated in the development of cancer. However, while the association between iron overload and hepatocellular carcinoma is well documented, the relationship with nonhepatocellular malignancies remains ill-defined. In this review, we briefly report the present knowledge regarding the association between iron overload and hematologic malignancies.

  13. Correlation Of 2-Chlorobiphenyl Dechlorination By Fe/Pd With Iron Corrosion At Different pH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rate of 2-chlorobiphenyl dechlorination by palladized iron (Fe/Pd) decreased with increasing pH until pH > 12.5. Iron corrosion potential (Ec) and current (jc), obtained from polarization curves of a rotating disk electrode of iron, followed the Tafel e...

  14. Electronic correlations and topological Fermi surface transition in the iron-based chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skornyakov, S.; Leonov, I.; Anisimov, V. I.; Vollhardt, D.

    We present results of a theoretical investigation of the electronic structure and phase stability of paramagnetic FeSe obtained within a combination of abinitio methods for calculating band structure and dynamical mean-field theory. Our results reveal an entire reconstruction of the Fermi surface topology upon a moderate expansion of the lattice (Lifshitz transition), with a change of magnetic correlations from the in-plane magnetic wave vector (π , π) to (π , 0) . We attribute this behavior to a correlation-induced shift of the Van Hove singularity originating from the xy and xz / yz bands at the M-point across the Fermi level. Our results predict a structural transition of FeSe upon a ca. 10 % expansion of the lattice volume as well as a topological change of the Fermi surface of FeSe upon partial substitution Se by Te, which is accompanied with a sharp increase of the local moments. We expect that these changes are responsible for the experimentally observed increase of Tc in FeSe upon doping with Te. The microscopic origin for superconductivity in this system is then due to a Van Hove singularity close to the Fermi level. This identification may open a new route to increase Tc even further.

  15. Iron accumulation in deep cortical layers accounts for MRI signal abnormalities in ALS: correlating 7 tesla MRI and pathology.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Justin Y; Jeong, Suh Young; Van Gelderen, Peter; Deng, Han-Xiang; Quezado, Martha M; Danielian, Laura E; Butman, John A; Chen, Lingye; Bayat, Elham; Russell, James; Siddique, Teepu; Duyn, Jeff H; Rouault, Tracey A; Floeter, Mary Kay

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cortical and spinal motor neuron dysfunction. Routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have previously shown hypointense signal in the motor cortex on T(2)-weighted images in some ALS patients, however, the cause of this finding is unknown. To investigate the utility of this MR signal change as a marker of cortical motor neuron degeneration, signal abnormalities on 3T and 7T MR images of the brain were compared, and pathology was obtained in two ALS patients to determine the origin of the motor cortex hypointensity. Nineteen patients with clinically probable or definite ALS by El Escorial criteria and 19 healthy controls underwent 3T MRI. A 7T MRI scan was carried out on five ALS patients who had motor cortex hypointensity on the 3T FLAIR sequence and on three healthy controls. Postmortem 7T MRI of the brain was performed in one ALS patient and histological studies of the brains and spinal cords were obtained post-mortem in two patients. The motor cortex hypointensity on 3T FLAIR images was present in greater frequency in ALS patients. Increased hypointensity correlated with greater severity of upper motor neuron impairment. Analysis of 7T T(2)(*)-weighted gradient echo imaging localized the signal alteration to the deeper layers of the motor cortex in both ALS patients. Pathological studies showed increased iron accumulation in microglial cells in areas corresponding to the location of the signal changes on the 3T and 7T MRI of the motor cortex. These findings indicate that the motor cortex hypointensity on 3T MRI FLAIR images in ALS is due to increased iron accumulation by microglia.

  16. Apparatus for storing hydrogen isotopes

    DOEpatents

    McMullen, John W.; Wheeler, Michael G.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Sherman, Robert H.

    1985-01-01

    An improved method and apparatus for storing isotopes of hydrogen (especially tritium) are provided. The hydrogen gas(es) is (are) stored as hydrides of material (for example uranium) within boreholes in a block of copper. The mass of the block is critically important to the operation, as is the selection of copper, because no cooling pipes are used. Because no cooling pipes are used, there can be no failure due to cooling pipes. And because copper is used instead of stainless steel, a significantly higher temperature can be reached before the eutectic formation of uranium with copper occurs, (the eutectic of uranium with the iron in stainless steel forming at a significantly lower temperature).

  17. Correlations between growth parameters of spoilage micro-organisms and shelf-life of pork stored under air and modified atmosphere at -2, 4 and 10 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Yang, Run-Qing; Li, Yun-Fei

    2006-09-01

    The correlations of the growth parameters (the initial cell number (N(0)), maximum cell number (N(max)), maximum specific growth rate (mu(max)), lag-phase (lambda)) of typical spoilage micro-organisms (lactic acid bacteria (LAB), coliforms, pseudomonads, Brochothrix thermosphacta) growing on sliced pork to the sensory shelf-life and microbial shelf-life were investigated. The changes in sensory quality and proliferation of micro-organisms on pork shoulder were studied at different atmosphere conditions (air and 40%CO(2)/59%N(2)/1%O(2)) and temperatures (-2, 4 and 10 degrees C). Microbial counts were fitted to the modified-Gompertz equation to obtain the growth parameters of different micro-organisms. B. thermosphacta and coliforms were predominant bacteria associated with spoilage of pork under all temperatures and air conditions. However, pseudomonads could only dominate under regular atmosphere condition. Using multiple linear regression, high correlations were found between the lag-time (lambda) of LAB (0.9814, 0.9830), B. thermosphacta (0.9895, 0.9849), or the maximum specific growth rate (mu(max)) of coliforms (-0.9583, -0.9695) and the microbial shelf-life and sensory shelf-life, respectively. The mu(max) and lambda of micro-organisms correlated well with microbial and sensory shelf-life. The shelf-life of pork is mainly correlated with the growth parameters of mu(max) and lambda than by N(max).

  18. Circulating non–transferrin-bound iron after oral administration of supplemental and fortification doses of iron to healthy women: a randomized study1234

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Maria; Egli, Ines; Foman, Jasmin Tajeri; Zeder, Christophe; Westerman, Mark E; Hurrell, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    Background: After the oral administration of iron, the production of circulating non–transferrin-bound iron may contribute to an increased risk of illness in malaria-endemic areas that lack effective medical services. Objective: In healthy women with a range of body iron stores, we aimed to determine effects on the production of circulating non–transferrin-bound iron resulting from the oral administration of 1) a supplemental dose of iron (60 mg) with water, 2) a supplemental dose of iron (60 mg) with a standard test meal, and 3) a fortification dose of iron (6 mg) with a standard test meal. Design: With the use of serum ferritin as the indicator, healthy women with replete iron stores (ferritin concentration >25 μg/L; n = 16) and reduced iron stores (ferritin concentration ≤25 μg/L; n = 16) were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, crossover study. After the oral administration of aqueous solutions of ferrous sulfate isotopically labeled with 54Fe, 57Fe, or 58Fe, blood samples were collected for 8 h, and iron absorption was estimated by erythrocyte incorporation at 14 d. Results: At 4 h, serum non–transferrin-bound iron reached peaks with geometric mean (95% CI) concentrations of 0.81 μmol/L (0.56, 1.1 μmol/L) for 60 mg Fe with water and 0.26 μmol/L (0.15, 0.38 μmol/L) for 60 mg Fe with food but was at assay limits of detection (0.1 μmol Fe/L) for 6 mg Fe with food. For the 60 mg Fe without food, the area under the curve over 8 h for serum non–transferrin-bound iron was positively correlated with the amount of iron absorbed (R = 0.49, P < 0.01) and negatively correlated with serum ferritin (R = −0.39, P < 0.05). Conclusions: In healthy women, the production of circulating non–transferrin-bound iron is determined by the rate and amount of iron absorbed. The highest concentrations of non–transferrin-bound iron resulted from the administration of supplemental doses of iron without food. Little or no circulating non–transferrin-bound iron

  19. Evaluation methods for intrauterine growth using neonatal fat stores instead of birth weight as outcome measures: fetal and neonatal measurements correlated with neonatal skinfold thicknesses.

    PubMed

    Sumners, J E; Findley, G M; Ferguson, K A

    1990-01-01

    Neonatal anthropometry, including timed skinfold measurements, was performed on 55 products of selected pregnancies. These skinfold measurements were compared with published standards of measurements obtained by similar techniques. Values outside the 3rd percentile to 97th percentile range were overlaid on the birth weight/menstrual age relationship of these subjects. Seven of 10 subjects with the lowest midtriceps skinfolds weighed more than 2500 g at birth (2 more than 3500 g) and 2 of 4 with the largest midtriceps skinfold had birth weights less than 4000 g. This comparison emphasizes the imprecision of birth weight as a measure of quality of fetal growth. Since skinfold thickness measurement is cumbersome for clinical use, other neonatal measures that may be more readily available to the clinician were examined for correlation with skinfolds. Simple birth weight/crown-heel length ratio was found to have the closest relationship of the parameters examined. Although estimated fetal weight was found to be the ultrasonography-derived parameter best correlated with skinfold thickness, ultrasonography discriminated poorly between babies with normal and low skinfolds. Low skinfold thickness predicted thermal vulnerability in the nursery better than did birth weight.

  20. Convenience Store Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luter, Robert R.

    This self-paced, individualized instructional guide is designed for use by those who are currently working in a convenience store or by those who wish to learn the basics of convenience store marketing and operations. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: today's convenience store, regular duties and…

  1. Iron metabolism and iron supplementation in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Heinz; Evstatiev, Rayko; Kornek, Gabriela; Aapro, Matti; Bauernhofer, Thomas; Buxhofer-Ausch, Veronika; Fridrik, Michael; Geissler, Dietmar; Geissler, Klaus; Gisslinger, Heinz; Koller, Elisabeth; Kopetzky, Gerhard; Lang, Alois; Rumpold, Holger; Steurer, Michael; Kamali, Houman; Link, Hartmut

    2015-12-01

    Iron deficiency and iron deficiency-associated anemia are common complications in cancer patients. Most iron deficient cancer patients present with functional iron deficiency (FID), a status with adequate storage iron, but insufficient iron supply for erythroblasts and other iron dependent tissues. FID is the consequence of the cancer-associated cytokine release, while in absolute iron deficiency iron stores are depleted resulting in similar but often more severe symptoms of insufficient iron supply. Here we present a short review on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, clinical symptoms, and treatment of iron deficiency in cancer patients. Special emphasis is given to intravenous iron supplementation and on the benefits and limitations of different formulations. Based on these considerations and recommendations from current international guidelines we developed recommendations for clinical practice and classified the level of evidence and grade of recommendation according to the principles of evidence-based medicine.

  2. Correlation of erythrocyte and plasma levels of zinc, copper, and iron with evidence of metastatic spread in cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Gorodetsky, R.; Fuks, Z.; Sulkes, A.; Ginsburg, H.; Weshler, Z.

    1985-02-15

    The level of plasma copper (Cu-Pl) and zinc (Zn-Pl) and the level of erythrocyte iron (Fe-RBC), copper (Cu-RBC), and zinc (Zn-RBC) were determined in the blood of 70 normal donors and 138 patients with various solid tumors by diagnostic x-ray spectrometry (DXS), a technique based on x-ray fluorescence spectrometry analysis. There were no significant changes in the mean values of Zn-Pl, Fe-RBC, and Cu-RBC in the patients when compared with those of normal donors. The mean level of Cu-Pl in the normal donors was 1.34 +/- 0.37 micrograms/ml; it was significantly increased in the patients, ranging between 1.47 +/- 0.34 micrograms/ml for patients without evidence of active cancer (NED) and 1.91 +/- 0.76 micrograms/ml for patients with hepatic metastases. The most significant change observed was an increase in the Zn-RBC found in the patients with clinical evidence of metastatic spread. Whereas the Zn-RBC level in the normal donors was 9.85 +/- 1.47 micrograms/g wet weight, and not significantly elevated in the NED patients, it was elevated to values of 11.37 +/- 1.55 micrograms/g (P less than 0.004) for patients with soft tissue and hepatic metastases and was 12.34 +/- 1.65 micrograms/g (P less than 0.001) for patients with bone metastases. The data suggest a clear correlation between Zn-RBC and metastatic spread in nonlymphomatous human cancer.

  3. Correlation of erythrocyte and plasma levels of zinc, copper, and iron with evidence of metastatic spread in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Gorodetsky, R; Fuks, Z; Sulkes, A; Ginsburg, H; Weshler, Z

    1985-02-15

    The level of plasma copper (Cu-Pl) and zinc (Zn-Pl) and the level of erythrocyte iron (Fe-RBC), copper (Cu-RBC), and zinc (Zn-RBC) were determined in the blood of 70 normal donors and 138 patients with various solid tumors by diagnostic x-ray spectrometry (DXS), a technique based on x-ray fluorescence spectrometry analysis. There were no significant changes in the mean values of Zn-Pl, Fe-RBC, and Cu-RBC in the patients when compared with those of normal donors. The mean level of Cu-Pl in the normal donors was 1.34 +/- 0.37 micrograms/ml; it was significantly increased in the patients, ranging between 1.47 +/- 0.34 micrograms/ml for patients without evidence of active cancer (NED) and 1.91 +/- 0.76 micrograms/ml for patients with hepatic metastases. The most significant change observed was an increase in the Zn-RBC found in the patients with clinical evidence of metastatic spread. Whereas the Zn-RBC level in the normal donors was 9.85 +/- 1.47 micrograms/g wet weight, and not significantly elevated in the NED patients, it was elevated to values of 11.37 +/- 1.55 micrograms/g (P less than 0.004) for patients with soft tissue and hepatic metastases and was 12.34 +/- 1.65 micrograms/g (P less than 0.001) for patients with bone metastases. The data suggest a clear correlation between Zn-RBC and metastatic spread in nonlymphomatous human cancer.

  4. New evidence on iron, copper accumulation and zinc depletion and its correlation with DNA integrity in aging human brain regions

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevaraju, P.; Bharathi; T, Jyothsna; Shamasundar, N. M.; Subba Rao, K.; Balaraj, B. M.; KSJ, Rao; T.S, Sathyanarayana Rao

    2010-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) conformation and stability play an important role in brain function. Earlier studies reported alterations in DNA integrity in the brain regions of neurological disorders like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. However, there are only limited studies on DNA stability in an aging brain and the factors responsible for genomic instability are still not clear. In this study, we assess the levels of Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe) and Zinc (Zn) in three age groups (Group I: below 40 years), Group II: between 41-60 years) and Group III: above 61 years) in hippocampus and frontal cortex regions of normal brains. The number of samples in each group was eight. Genomic DNA was isolated and DNA integrity was studied by nick translation studies and presented as single and double strand breaks. The number of single strand breaks correspondingly increased with aging compared to double strand breaks. The strand breaks were more in frontal cortex compared to hippocampus. We observed that the levels of Cu and Fe are significantly elevated while Zn is significantly depleted as one progresses from Group I to Group III, indicating changes with aging in frontal cortex and hippocampus. But the elevation of metals was more in frontal cortical region compared to hippocampal region. There was a clear correlation between Cu and Fe levels versus strand breaks in aging brain regions. This indicates that genomic instability is progressive with aging and this will alter the gene expressions. To our knowledge, this is a new comprehensive database to date, looking at the levels of redox metals and corresponding strand breaks in DNA in two brain regions of the aging brain. The biological significance of these findings with relevance to mental health will be discussed. PMID:20838501

  5. 10. Interior detail, original Boiler and Engine Room, Engine Stores ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior detail, original Boiler and Engine Room, Engine Stores Building, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to east (90mm lens). Note the pin-connected roof truss system and built-up iron longitudinal roof girders. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Engine Stores Building, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  6. 9. Interior, original Boiler and Engine Room, Engine Stores Building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior, original Boiler and Engine Room, Engine Stores Building, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90mm lens). Note the roof truss system and built-up iron longitudinal roof girders. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Engine Stores Building, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  7. [Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are global health problems].

    PubMed

    Dahlerup, Jens; Lindgren, Stefan; Moum, Björn

    2015-03-10

    Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are global health problems leading to deterioration in patients' quality of life and more serious prognosis in patients with chronic diseases. The cause of iron deficiency and anemia is usually a combination of increased loss and decreased intestinal absorption and delivery from iron stores due to inflammation. Oral iron is first line treatment, but often hampered by intolerance. Intravenous iron is safe, and the preferred treatment in patients with chronic inflammation and bowel diseases. The goal of treatment is normalisation of hemoglobin concentration and recovery of iron stores. It is important to follow up treatment to ensure that these objectives are met and also long-term in patients with chronic iron loss and/or inflammation to avoid recurrence of anemia.

  8. Leasing the College Store.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Richard M.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of college administrators responsible for supervising college stores found that three factors are strongly considered in deciding whether to lease the college store: available management skills, service orientation, and financial resources. It also found that private and public institutions and large and small institutions rank the…

  9. Magnetic behavior of iron-modified MCM-41 correlated with clustering processes from the wet impregnation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuello, Natalia I.; Elías, Verónica R.; Winkler, Elin; Pozo-López, Gabriela; Oliva, Marcos I.; Eimer, Griselda A.

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic MCM-41 type mesoporous silica materials were synthetized and modified with different iron loadings by the wet impregnation method. The evolution of iron speciation, depending on the metal loading and associated with a particular magnetic behavior was investigated by M vs. H curves, FC-ZFC curves, EPR spectroscopy and other complementary techniques such as SEM, TEM, and chemisorption of pyridine followed by FT-IR studies. A superparamagnetic contribution was larger for the lower loadings suggesting the high dispersion of very small sized iron nanospecies. However, this contribution decreased with increasing metal loading due to the growth of magnetically blocked nanoparticles (hematite) on the outer surface. Finally, a bimodal size distribution for the superparamagnetic nanospecies could be inferred; then the anisotropy constant for this phase and the corresponding nanospecies sizes were estimated.

  10. Iron studies in hemophilia

    SciTech Connect

    Lottenberg, R.; Kitchens, C.S.; Roessler, G.S.; Noyes, W.D.

    1981-12-01

    Although iron deficiency is not recognized as a usual complication of hemophilia, we questioned whether intermittent occult loss of blood in urine or stool might predispose hemophiliacs to chronic iron deficiency. Seven men with factor VII and one with factor IX deficiency were studied. Blood studied, bone marrow aspirates, urine and stool samples, and ferrokinetics with total-body counting up to five months were examined. These data showed no excessive loss of blood during the study period; however, marrow iron stores were decidedly decreased, being absent in four subjects. We suggest that in some hemophiliacs, iron deposits in tissues such as synovial membranes may form a high proportion of the body's total iron stores.

  11. Transferrin response in normal and iron-deficient mice heterozygotic for hypotransferrinemia; effects on iron and manganese accumulation.

    PubMed

    Malecki, E A; Devenyi, A G; Beard, J L; Connor, J R

    1998-09-01

    Hypotransferrinemia is a genetic defect in mice resulting < 1% of normal plasma transferrin (Tf) concentrations; heterozygotes for this mutation (+/hpx) have low circulating Tf concentrations. These mice provide a unique opportunity to examine the developmental pattern and response of Tf to iron-deficient diets, and furthermore, to address the controversial role of Tf in Mn transport. Twenty-three weanling +/hpx mice and forty-five wild-type BALB/cJ mice were either killed at weaning or fed diets containing either 13 or 72 mg kg-1 Fe, and killed after four or eight weeks. Plasma Tf concentrations were lower in +/hpx mice, plasma Tf nearly doubled and liver Tf was only 50% of normal in response to iron deficiency. Brain iron concentration did not correlate significantly with either plasma Tf or TIBC. However, iron accumulation into brain continued with iron deficiency whereas most other organs had less iron. These results imply that either there is a selected targeting of iron to the brain by plasma Tf or there is an alternative iron delivery system to the brain. Furthermore, we observed no differences in tissue distribution of 54Mn despite the differences in circulating Tf concentrations and body iron stores; this suggests that there are non-Tf dependent mechanisms for Mn transport. PMID:9850571

  12. [Morphology of soil iron oxides and its correlation with soil-forming process and forming conditions in a karst mountain].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Zhu, Zhang-Xiong; Fu, Wa-Li; Wen, Zhi-Lin

    2012-06-01

    The quantity and morphology of iron oxides are indicators of soil forming-process and forming conditions. In order to analyze the connection between soil iron oxides and soil forming conditions and degenerative process of karst ecosystem, we have chosen 14 soil profiles on the top and middle section of Jinfo Mountain, a typical karst slope in Chongqing, China. Morphology and contents of soil iron oxides were studied by using chemical selective extraction techniques. We draw conclusions: 1) total iron (Fe(t)) is mainly controlled by parent material and lithology. Significant difference of Fe(t) content exists between soils in Top Mountain (51.49 g x kg(-1), mean value from 5 profiles) and soils at the middle sector of North Slope (86.29 g x kg(-1), mean value of 9 profiles); 2) the results show low concentration of F(d) (29.16 g x kg(-1)) and low ratio of Fe(d) to Fe(t)(35.40%) in soil clay under conditions of high elevation and low temperature on Top Mountain. In contrast, the results indicate advanced weathering and soil-forming process at middle slope sites due to high temperature; this is supported by high mean values of Fe(d) (43.92 g x kg(-1)) and ratio of Fe(d)/Fe(t) in clay (60.41%); 3) long humid climatic setting and large numbers of soil organic matter on top of the mountain result in high activation degrees (F(o)/Fe(d)) and high complexation degrees (Fe(p)/Fe(d)); mean values of them are 73.51%, 17.21% respectively, which are higher than that of soils at middle slope sites (13.06%, 0.41%); 4) after degradation or deforestation of secondary forestland (pines massoniana among bushes) at middle section of the hillslope, soil free iron oxides (Fe(d)) and total iron oxides (Fe(t)) decrease as well as soil organic carbon and clay, because of progressively increasing of soil erosion. Average contents of Fe(t) and Fe(d) in clay from 2 shrub profiles are 98.25 g x kg(-1), 50.81 g x kg(-1) respectively. However, the four tillage soils we have studied reveal lower

  13. Storing your medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... your medicine out of reach and out of sight of children. Store your medicine in a cabinet ... Your Medicines Up and Away and Out of Sight. December 12, 2011. www.cdc.gov/Features/MedicationStorage . ...

  14. Provenance Store Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, Patrick R.; Gibson, Tara D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Stephan, Eric G.

    2008-03-01

    Requirements for the provenance store and access API are developed. Existing RDF stores and APIs are evaluated against the requirements and performance benchmarks. The team’s conclusion is to use MySQL as a database backend, with a possible move to Oracle in the near-term future. Both Jena and Sesame’s APIs will be supported, but new code will use the Jena API

  15. Characterization and thermolysis reactions of CO{sub 2} bridged iron-tin and rhenium-tin complexes. Structure-reactivity correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, D.H.; Ye, M.; Sleadd, B.A.; Mehta, J.M.; Mbadike, O.P.; Richardson, J.F.; Mashuta, M.S.

    1995-03-01

    We report here our studies of the thermolysis behavior of iron-tin complexes and related rhenium-tin complexes and new structural data which allow further correlations to be made between thermolysis activity and bonding parameters involving the CO{sub 2} ligand. All compounds have been characterized by solid-state IR spectral methods which allow a determination of the {mu}{sub 2}-{eta}{sup 2} or {mu}{sub 2}-{eta}{sup 3} bonding mode in each compound when compared with structural data on representative compounds of each type. Factors which control the ease of thermolysis and the mode of decomposition are the bonding type, the presence of electron-donating or electron-withdrawing groups on the tin atom as well as those on iron or rhenium, metal-carbon bond strength, the orientation of the bridging CO{sub 2} ligand between the two metal centers, and, most importantly, the stability of the corresponding metal (iron or rhenium) anion. Reaction mechanisms are proposed which are consistent with structural and electronic differences that lead to separate thermolysis paths. 17 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. Evaluation of iron status in European adolescents through biochemical iron indicators: the HELENA Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, M; Mistura, L; Patterson, E; Sjöström, M; Díaz, L E; Stehle, P; Gonzalez-Gross, M; Kersting, M; Widhalm, K; Molnár, D; Gottrand, F; De Henauw, S; Manios, Y; Kafatos, A; Moreno, L A; Leclercq, C

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To assess the iron status among European adolescents through selected biochemical parameters in a cross-sectional study performed in 10 European cities. Subjects/Methods: Iron status was defined utilising biochemical indicators. Iron depletion was defined as low serum ferritin (SF<15 μg/l). Iron deficiency (ID) was defined as high-soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR>8.5 mg/l) plus iron depletion. Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) was defined as ID with haemoglobin (Hb) below the WHO cutoff for age and sex: 12.0 g/dl for girls and for boys aged 12.5–14.99 years and 13.0 g/dl for boys aged ⩾15 years. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used as analytical method for SF, sTfR and C-reactive protein (CRP). Subjects with indication of inflammation (CRP >5 mg/l) were excluded from the analyses. A total of 940 adolescents aged 12.5–17.49 years (438 boys and 502 girls) were involved. Results: The percentage of iron depletion was 17.6%, significantly higher in girls (21.0%) compared with boys (13.8%). The overall percentage of ID and IDA was 4.7 and 1.3%, respectively, with no significant differences between boys and girls. A correlation was observed between log (SF) and Hb (r=0.36, P<0.01), and between log (sTfR) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (r=−0.30, P<0.01). Iron body stores were estimated on the basis of log (sTfR/SF). A higher percentage of negative values of body iron was recorded in girls (16.5%) with respect to boys (8.3%), and body iron values tended to increase with age in boys, whereas the values remained stable in girls. Conclusions: To ensure adequate iron stores, specific attention should be given to girls at European level to ensure that their dietary intake of iron is adequate. PMID:21245877

  17. Iron Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... detect and help diagnose iron deficiency or iron overload. In people with anemia , these tests can help ... also be ordered when iron deficiency or iron overload is suspected. Early iron deficiency often goes unnoticed. ...

  18. Method and apparatus for storing hydrogen isotopes. [stored as uranium hydride in a block of copper

    DOEpatents

    McMullen, J.W.; Wheeler, M.G.; Cullingford, H.S.; Sherman, R.H.

    1982-08-10

    An improved method and apparatus for storing isotopes of hydrogen (especially tritium) are provided. The hydrogen gas is stored as hydrides of material (for example uranium) within boreholes in a block of copper. The mass of the block is critically important to the operation, as is the selection of copper, because no cooling pipes are used. Because no cooling pipes are used, there can be no failure due to cooling pipes. And because copper is used instead of stainless steel, a significantly higher temperature can be reached before the eutectic formation of uranium with copper occurs, (the eutectic of uranium with the iron in stainless steel forms at a significantly lower temperature).

  19. The Store Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical and robotic technologies are merging to present a wonderful opportunity to develop artificial limbs and prosthetic devices for humans injured on the job, in the military, or due to disease. In this challenge, students will have the opportunity to design a store or online service that specifically dedicates itself to amputees. Described…

  20. Cooling of stored beams

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, F.E.

    1986-10-15

    Beam cooling methods developed for the accumulation of antiprotons are being employed to assist in the performance of experiments in Nuclear and Particle Physics with ion beams stored in storage rings. The physics of beam cooling, and the ranges of utility of stochastic and electron cooling are discussed in this paper.

  1. Storing and transporting energy

    DOEpatents

    McClaine, Andrew W.; Brown, Kenneth

    2010-09-07

    Among other things, hydrogen is released from water at a first location using energy from a first energy source; the released hydrogen is stored in a metal hydride slurry; and the metal hydride slurry is transported to a second location remote from the first location.

  2. Iron deficiency anaemia.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Anthony; Cacoub, Patrice; Macdougall, Iain C; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2016-02-27

    Anaemia affects roughly a third of the world's population; half the cases are due to iron deficiency. It is a major and global public health problem that affects maternal and child mortality, physical performance, and referral to health-care professionals. Children aged 0-5 years, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women are particularly at risk. Several chronic diseases are frequently associated with iron deficiency anaemia--notably chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Measurement of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum soluble transferrin receptors, and the serum soluble transferrin receptors-ferritin index are more accurate than classic red cell indices in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia. In addition to the search for and treatment of the cause of iron deficiency, treatment strategies encompass prevention, including food fortification and iron supplementation. Oral iron is usually recommended as first-line therapy, but the most recent intravenous iron formulations, which have been available for nearly a decade, seem to replenish iron stores safely and effectively. Hepcidin has a key role in iron homoeostasis and could be a future diagnostic and therapeutic target. In this Seminar, we discuss the clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and acute management of iron deficiency anaemia, and outstanding research questions for treatment.

  3. Iron deficiency anaemia.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Anthony; Cacoub, Patrice; Macdougall, Iain C; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2016-02-27

    Anaemia affects roughly a third of the world's population; half the cases are due to iron deficiency. It is a major and global public health problem that affects maternal and child mortality, physical performance, and referral to health-care professionals. Children aged 0-5 years, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women are particularly at risk. Several chronic diseases are frequently associated with iron deficiency anaemia--notably chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Measurement of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum soluble transferrin receptors, and the serum soluble transferrin receptors-ferritin index are more accurate than classic red cell indices in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia. In addition to the search for and treatment of the cause of iron deficiency, treatment strategies encompass prevention, including food fortification and iron supplementation. Oral iron is usually recommended as first-line therapy, but the most recent intravenous iron formulations, which have been available for nearly a decade, seem to replenish iron stores safely and effectively. Hepcidin has a key role in iron homoeostasis and could be a future diagnostic and therapeutic target. In this Seminar, we discuss the clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and acute management of iron deficiency anaemia, and outstanding research questions for treatment. PMID:26314490

  4. Correlation-induced self-doping in the iron-pnictide superconductor Ba2Ti2Fe2As4O.

    PubMed

    Ma, J-Z; van Roekeghem, A; Richard, P; Liu, Z-H; Miao, H; Zeng, L-K; Xu, N; Shi, M; Cao, C; He, J-B; Chen, G-F; Sun, Y-L; Cao, G-H; Wang, S-C; Biermann, S; Qian, T; Ding, H

    2014-12-31

    The electronic structure of the iron-based superconductor Ba2Ti2Fe2As4O (Tc(onset)=23.5  K) has been investigated by using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and combined local density approximation and dynamical mean field theory calculations. The electronic states near the Fermi level are dominated by both the Fe 3d and Ti 3d orbitals, indicating that the spacer layers separating different FeAs layers are also metallic. By counting the enclosed volumes of the Fermi surface sheets, we observe a large self-doping effect; i.e., 0.25 electrons per unit cell are transferred from the FeAs layer to the Ti2As2O layer, leaving the FeAs layer in a hole-doped state. This exotic behavior is successfully reproduced by our dynamical mean field calculations, in which the self-doping effect is attributed to the electronic correlations in the 3d shells. Our work provides an alternative route of effective doping without element substitution for iron-based superconductors.

  5. Correlation-Induced Self-Doping in the Iron-Pnictide Superconductor Ba2Ti2Fe2As4O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J.-Z.; van Roekeghem, A.; Richard, P.; Liu, Z.-H.; Miao, H.; Zeng, L.-K.; Xu, N.; Shi, M.; Cao, C.; He, J.-B.; Chen, G.-F.; Sun, Y.-L.; Cao, G.-H.; Wang, S.-C.; Biermann, S.; Qian, T.; Ding, H.

    2014-12-01

    The electronic structure of the iron-based superconductor Ba2Ti2Fe2As4O (Tconset=23.5 K ) has been investigated by using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and combined local density approximation and dynamical mean field theory calculations. The electronic states near the Fermi level are dominated by both the Fe 3 d and Ti 3 d orbitals, indicating that the spacer layers separating different FeAs layers are also metallic. By counting the enclosed volumes of the Fermi surface sheets, we observe a large self-doping effect; i.e., 0.25 electrons per unit cell are transferred from the FeAs layer to the Ti2As2O layer, leaving the FeAs layer in a hole-doped state. This exotic behavior is successfully reproduced by our dynamical mean field calculations, in which the self-doping effect is attributed to the electronic correlations in the 3 d shells. Our work provides an alternative route of effective doping without element substitution for iron-based superconductors.

  6. Iron dextran increases hepatic oxidative stress and alters expression of genes related to lipid metabolism contributing to hyperlipidaemia in murine model.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maísa; da Costa Guerra, Joyce Ferreira; Sampaio, Ana Flávia Santos; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of iron dextran on lipid metabolism and to determine the involvement of oxidative stress. Fischer rats were divided into two groups: the standard group (S), which was fed the AIN-93M diet, and the standard plus iron group (SI), which was fed the same diet but also received iron dextran injections. Serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were higher in the SI group than in the S group. Iron dextran was associated with decreased mRNA levels of pparα, and its downstream gene cpt1a, which is involved in lipid oxidation. Iron dextran also increased mRNA levels of apoB-100, MTP, and L-FABP indicating alterations in lipid secretion. Carbonyl protein and TBARS were consistently higher in the liver of the iron-treated rats. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between oxidative stress products, lfabp expression, and iron stores. In addition, a negative correlation was found between pparα expression, TBARS, carbonyl protein, and iron stores. In conclusion, our results suggest that the increase observed in the transport of lipids in the bloodstream and the decreased fatty acid oxidation in rats, which was promoted by iron dextran, might be attributed to increased oxidative stress. PMID:25685776

  7. Storing Blood Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute worked with Goddard Space Flight Center to propose a solution to the blood-cell freezing problem. White blood cells and bone marrow are stored for future use by leukemia patients as a result of Goddard and Jet Propulsion Laboratory expertise in electronics and cryogenics. White blood cell and bone marrow bank established using freezing unit. Freezing unit monitors temperature of cells themselves. Thermocouple placed against polyethylene container relays temperature signals to an electronic system which controls small heaters located outside container. Heaters allow liquid nitrogen to circulate at constant temperature and maintain consistent freezing rate. Ability to freeze, store, and thaw white cells and bone marrow without damage is important in leukemia treatment.

  8. Power-law-like correlation between condensation energy and superconducting transition temperatures in iron pnictide/chalcogenide superconductors: Beyond the BCS understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Jie; Li, Sheng; Zeng, Bin; Mu, Gang; Shen, Bing; Schneeloch, J.; Zhong, R. D.; Liu, T. S.; Gu, G. D.; Wen, Hai-Hu

    2014-04-01

    Superconducting condensation energy U0int has been determined by integrating the electronic entropy in various iron pnictide/chalcogenide superconducting systems. It is found that U0int∝Tcn with n =3-4, which is in sharp contrast to the simple BCS prediction U0BCS=1/2NFΔs2, with NF the quasiparticle density of states at the Fermi energy and Δs the superconducting gap. A similar correlation holds if we compute the condensation energy through U0cal=3γneffΔs2/4π2kB2, with γneff the effective normal state electronic specific heat coefficient. This indicates a general relationship γneff∝Tcm with m =1-2, which is not predicted by the BCS scheme. A picture based on quantum criticality is proposed to explain this phenomenon.

  9. Power-law-like correlation between condensation energy and superconducting transition temperatures in iron pnictide/chalcogenide superconductors: Beyond the BCS understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Jie; Li, Sheng; Zeng, Bin; Mu, Gang; Shen, Bing; Schneeloch, J.; Zhong, R. D.; Liu, T. S.; Gu, G. D.; Wen, Hai-Hu

    2015-03-01

    Superconducting condensation energy U0int has been determined by integrating the electronic entropy in various iron pnictide/chalcogenide superconducting systems. It is found that U0int ~Tcn with n = 3 to 4, which is in sharp contrast to the simple BCS prediction U0BCS = 1 / 2NFΔs2 , with NF the quasiparticle density of states at the Fermi energy and Δs the superconducting gap. A similar correlation holds if we compute the condensation energy through U0cal = 3γneff Δs2 / 4π2kB2 , with γneff the effective normal state electronic specific heat coefficient. This indicates a general relationship γneff ~Tcm with m = 1 to 2, which is not predicted by the BCS scheme. A picture based on quantum criticality is proposed to explain this phenomenon.

  10. Store and forward teledermatology.

    PubMed

    Kanthraj, Garehatty Rudrappa; Srinivas, Chakravarty Rangachari

    2007-01-01

    Store and forward and real time or videoconferences are the two types of teledermatology services practiced. Dermatology and radio-diagnosis are visual specialties suited for store-and-forward teledermatology (SAFT). Advances in information technology, electronic instruments and biotechnology have revolutionized and brought changes in SAFT. Cellular phone, digital camera, personal digital assistants, Wi-Fi, Wi-Max and computer- aided-design software are incorporated to deliver the quality health care to remote geographic regions. Complete SAFT care equivalent to face-to-face consultation (Gold standard) is essential. Health care providers in rural areas are the 'eyes' for the consultants. Consultants to guide them should have a rapid periodic audit of visual parameters and dimensions of lesions. Given this background, this article reviews advances in 1) capture, store and transfer of images. 2) Computer Aided measurements of generalized and localized lesions and 3) the integration model to meet all the above two requirements in a centralized location. This process enables diagnosis, management, periodic assessment and complete follow-up care to achieve patient and physician satisfaction. Preservation of privacy and confidentiality of digital images is important. Uniform rules and regulations are required. Indian space research organization (ISRO), Government of India has demonstrated telemedicine pilot projects utilizing the satellite communication and mobile telemedicine units to be useful in meeting the health care needs of remote and rural India. we have to join hands with them to meet dermatology problems in rural areas.

  11. Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in women.

    PubMed

    Coad, Jane; Pedley, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional problems in the world and disproportionately affects women and children. Stages of iron deficiency can be characterized as mild deficiency where iron stores become depleted, marginal deficiency where the production of many iron-dependent proteins is compromised but hemoglobin levels are normal and iron deficiency anemia where synthesis of hemoglobin is decreased and oxygen transport to the tissues is reduced. Iron deficiency anemia is usually assessed by measuring hemoglobin levels but this approach lacks both specificity and sensitivity. Failure to identify and treat earlier stages of iron deficiency is concerning given the neurocognitive implications of iron deficiency without anemia. Most of the daily iron requirement is derived from recycling of senescent erythrocytes by macrophages; only 5-10 % comes from the diet. Iron absorption is affected by inhibitors and enhancers of iron absorption and by the physiological state. Inflammatory conditions, including obesity, can result in iron being retained in the enterocytes and macrophages causing hypoferremia as a strategic defense mechanism to restrict iron availability to pathogens. Premenopausal women usually have low iron status because of iron loss in menstrual blood. Conditions which further increase iron loss, compromise absorption or increase demand, such as frequent blood donation, gastrointestinal lesions, athletic activity and pregnancy, can exceed the capacity of the gastrointestinal tract to upregulate iron absorption. Women of reproductive age are at particularly high risk of iron deficiency and its consequences however there is a controversial argument that evolutionary pressures have resulted in an iron deficient phenotype which protects against infection.

  12. Iron Chelation

    MedlinePlus

    ... iron overload and need treatment. What is iron overload? Iron chelation therapy is used when you have ... may want to perform: How quickly does iron overload happen? This is different for each person. It ...

  13. Study of maternal influences on fetal iron status at term using cord blood transferrin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, D; Savage, G; Tubman, T; Lappin, T; Halliday, H

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To determine effects of maternal iron depletion and smoking on iron status of term babies using serum transferrin receptors (STfR) and their ratio to ferritin (TfR-F index) in cord blood.
METHODS—Iron, ferritin, STfR, and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration were measured and TfR-F index calculated in 67 cord /maternal blood pairs. Twenty six mothers were iron depleted (ferritin <10 µg/l) and 28 were smokers.
RESULTS—Maternal iron depletion was associated with decreased cord ferritin (113 v 171 µg/l) and Hb (156 v 168 g/l) but no change in STfR or TfR-F index. Smoking was associated with increased cord Hb (168 v 157 g/l) and TfR-F index (4.1 v 3.4), and decreased ferritin (123 v 190 µg/l). Cord TfR-F index and Hb were positively correlated (r = 0.48).
CONCLUSIONS—Maternal iron depletion is associated with reduced fetal iron stores but no change in free iron availability. Smoking is associated with increased fetal iron requirements for erythropoiesis.

 PMID:11124923

  14. Hyperinsulinemia may boost both hematocrit and iron absorption by up-regulating activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha.

    PubMed

    McCarty, M F

    2003-01-01

    There is growing evidence that increases in both hematocrit and body iron stores are components of the insulin resistance syndrome. The ability of insulin and of IGF-I - whose effective activity is increased in the context of insulin resistance - to boost activity of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), may be at least partially responsible for this association. HIF-1alpha, which functions physiologically as a detector of both hypoxia and iron-deficiency, promotes synthesis of erythropoietin, and may also mediate the up-regulatory impact of hypoxia on intestinal iron absorption. Insulin/IGF-I may also influence erythropoiesis more directly, as they are growth factors for developing reticulocytes. Conversely, the activation of HIF-1alpha associated with iron deficiency may be responsible for the increased glucose tolerance noted in iron-deficient animals; HIF-1alpha promotes efficient glucose uptake and glycolysis - a sensible adaptation to hypoxia - by inducing increased synthesis of glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes. Recent reports that phlebotomy can increase the efficiency of muscle glucose uptake in lean healthy omnivores are intriguing and require further confirmation. Whether increased iron stores contribute to the elevated vascular risk associated with insulin resistance is doubtful, inasmuch as most prospective studies fail to correlate serum ferritin or transferrin saturation with subsequent vascular events. However, current data are reasonably consistent with the possibility that moderately elevated iron stores are associated with increased overall risk for cancer - and for colorectal cancer in particular; free iron may play a catalytic role in 'spontaneous' mutagenesis. Thus, iron excess may mediate at least some of the increased cancer risk associated with insulin resistance and heme-rich diets. People who are insulin resistant can minimize any health risk associated with iron overload by avoiding heme

  15. Store manager performance and satisfaction: effects on store employee performance and satisfaction, store customer satisfaction, and store customer spending growth.

    PubMed

    Netemeyer, Richard G; Maxham, James G; Lichtenstein, Donald R

    2010-05-01

    Based on emotional contagion theory and the value-profit chain literatures, the present study posits a number of hypotheses that show how managers in the small store, small number of employees retail context may affect store employees, customers, and potentially store performance. With data from 306 store managers, 1,615 store customer-contact employees, and 57,656 customers of a single retail chain, the authors examined relationships among store manager job satisfaction and job performance, store customer-contact employee job satisfaction and job performance, customer satisfaction with the retailer, and a customer-spending-based store performance metric (customer spending growth over a 2-year period). Via path analysis, several hypothesized direct and interaction relations among these constructs are supported. The results suggest implications for academic researchers and retail managers. PMID:20476831

  16. Store manager performance and satisfaction: effects on store employee performance and satisfaction, store customer satisfaction, and store customer spending growth.

    PubMed

    Netemeyer, Richard G; Maxham, James G; Lichtenstein, Donald R

    2010-05-01

    Based on emotional contagion theory and the value-profit chain literatures, the present study posits a number of hypotheses that show how managers in the small store, small number of employees retail context may affect store employees, customers, and potentially store performance. With data from 306 store managers, 1,615 store customer-contact employees, and 57,656 customers of a single retail chain, the authors examined relationships among store manager job satisfaction and job performance, store customer-contact employee job satisfaction and job performance, customer satisfaction with the retailer, and a customer-spending-based store performance metric (customer spending growth over a 2-year period). Via path analysis, several hypothesized direct and interaction relations among these constructs are supported. The results suggest implications for academic researchers and retail managers.

  17. Can Water Store Charge?

    PubMed Central

    Ovchinnikova, Kate; Pollack, Gerald H.

    2010-01-01

    Previous work from this and other laboratories has demonstrated large pH gradients in water. Established by passing current between immersed electrodes, pH gradients between electrodes were found to disappear slowly, persisting for tens of minutes after the current had been turned off. We find here that these pH gradients reflect a genuine separation of charge: at times well after disconnection of the power supply, current could be drawn through a resistor placed between the charging electrodes or between pairs of electrodes positioned on either side of the midline between original electrodes. In some experiments, it was possible to recover the majority of charge that had been imparted to the water. It appears, then, that water has the capacity to store and release substantial amounts of charge. PMID:19053655

  18. Ecophysiology of iron-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria in an iron oxyhydroxide mound in a shallow marine environment at Satsuma Iwo-jima, Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, T.; Kuratomi, T.; Morono, Y.; Hori, T.; Kiyokawa, S.; Inagaki, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Satsuma Iwo-Jima is a small volcanic island located 40 km south of the Kyusyu Island, Japan. In the Nagahama Bay of the island, venting hydrothermal fluids from iron oxyhydroxide mounds on the seafloor. Using a light microscopy, numerous twisted stalk structures in the deposits were observed, suggesting the presence of neutrophilic iron-oxidizing microbial communities. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene-tagged fragments followed by correlation analysis showed that iron-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria inhabit the iron deposits in the vicinity of anaerobic iron-reducing bacteria, indicating the occurrence of iron cycling mediated by the microbial ecosystem. We successfully identified Zetaproteobacteria cells using CARD-FISH technique at the different depths of the cored sample, suggesting that the number of Zetaproteobacteria cells and the frequency of the twisted stalk structures are not always consistent. In stalk-abundant horizons that harbor relatively small Zetaproteobacteria populations, accumulation of polyphosphate within Zetaproteobacteria cells was clearly observed. This indicates that Zetaproteobacteria physiologically store energy and phosphorus substrates during the active iron oxidation. In marked contrast, in other horizons with fewer stalks and large populations of Zetaproteobacteria, polyphosphate was rarely observed in the cells, suggesting that Zetaproteobacteria have already used up the intracellular reservoir of energy and phosphorous substrates, and the iron-oxidizing activity is most likely lower than those cells inhabiting the redox interface.

  19. Iron overload in cultured rat myocardial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauminger, E. R.; Iancu, T. C.; Link, G.; Pinson, A.; Hershko, C.

    1987-03-01

    In order to characterize the nature of iron deposits associated with iron overload in heart cells, Mössbauer spectroscopy and ultrastructural studies were performed in iron loaded heart cell cultures obtained from newborn rats grown in a medium containing 20 μg iron/ml. Maximal uptake of iron after 24 hrs was about 15%. Not more than 20% of the iron in these cells was stored in ferritin and the rest was found in smaller trivalent iron aggregates. With time there was a shift from smaller to larger aggregates. In chase samples there was only a very limited spontaneous release of iron from heart cells. Desferrioxamine, an iron chelating drug, removed a major part of the smaller aggregates, but did not remove ferritin iron.

  20. Estimation of iron overloads using oral exfoliative cytology in beta-thalassemia major patients

    PubMed Central

    Leekha, Swati; Nayar, Amit Kumar; Bakshi, Preeti; Sharma, Aman; Parhar, Swati; Soni, Sugandhi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Iron overload is a medical condition that occurs when too much of the mineral iron builds up inside the body and produces a toxic reaction. Thalassemia is a genetic disorder of hemoglobin synthesis, which requires regular blood transfusion therapy, and the lack of specific excretory pathways for iron in humans leads to iron overload in the body tissues. It is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. The estimation of iron levels in exfoliated buccal mucosal cells may provide a simple, noninvasive, and a safe procedure for estimating the iron overload by using the Perls’ Prussian blue stain. Methods: Smears were obtained from buccal mucosa of 40 randomly selected beta-thalassemia major patients and 40 healthy subjects as controls. Smears were stained with Perls’ Prussian blue method. Blood samples were taken for estimation of serum ferritin levels. Images of smears were analyzed using the software image J software version 1.47v and correlated with serum ferritin. Results: Perls’ positivity was observed in 87.5% of thalassemic patients with a positive correlation to serum ferritin levels. Conclusion: The use of exfoliative buccal mucosal cells for the evaluation of iron overloads in the body provides us with a diagnostic medium that is noninvasive, easy to collect, store, and transport, cost effective, and above all reliable. PMID:27081394

  1. Evaluating the use of in-store measures in retail food stores and restaurants in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Ana Clara; Lock, Karen; Latorre, Maria do Rosario D O; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess inter-rater reliability, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of retail food store, open-air food market, and restaurant observation tools adapted to the Brazilian urban context. METHODS This study is part of a cross-sectional observation survey conducted in 13 districts across the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil in 2010-2011. Food store and restaurant observational tools were developed based on previously available tools, and then tested it. They included measures on the availability, variety, quality, pricing, and promotion of fruits and vegetables and ultra-processed foods. We used Kappa statistics and intra-class correlation coefficients to assess inter-rater and test-retest reliabilities in samples of 142 restaurants, 97 retail food stores (including open-air food markets), and of 62 restaurants and 45 retail food stores (including open-air food markets), respectively. Construct validity as the tool’s abilities to discriminate based on store types and different income contexts were assessed in the entire sample: 305 retail food stores, 8 fruits and vegetable markets, and 472 restaurants. RESULTS Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were generally high, with most Kappa values greater than 0.70 (range 0.49-1.00). Both tools discriminated between store types and neighborhoods with different median income. Fruits and vegetables were more likely to be found in middle to higher-income neighborhoods, while soda, fruit-flavored drink mixes, cookies, and chips were cheaper and more likely to be found in lower-income neighborhoods. CONCLUSIONS The measures were reliable and able to reveal significant differences across store types and different contexts. Although some items may require revision, results suggest that the tools may be used to reliably measure the food stores and restaurant food environment in urban settings of middle-income countries. Such studies can help .inform health promotion interventions and policies in these

  2. Iron status in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Wawer, Anna A; Gillings, Rachel; Jennings, Amy; Myint, Phyo K

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is prevalent in older age, particularly after the age of 80. Serum ferritin concentrations also decline, although there is no evidence to suggest that changes in iron stores are an inevitable consequence of ageing. Chronic inflammation is a common condition in older people, making the measurement of iron status difficult, and it is likely that elevated levels of circulating hepcidin are responsible for changes in iron metabolism that result in systemic iron depletion. Other contributory factors are poor diet and some medications, such as aspirin. Anaemia in older age has undesirable health outcomes, including increased susceptibility to falling and depression. However, there are concerns about possible adverse effects of iron supplements, either in relation to pro-inflammatory effects in the gut or inappropriate tissue iron deposition. Brain iron levels are increased with age-related degenerative diseases, but it is not known if this is the cause or a consequence of the disease, and genetic factors are likely to play a role. In order to maintain body iron within the normal range a personalised approach is required, taking into account all of the factors that may affect iron metabolism and the available strategies for preventing iron deficiency or overload.

  3. 61. Hennessy's Department Store (130 North Main, 18971898) is a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. Hennessy's Department Store (130 North Main, 1897-1898) is a steel frame and brick structure designed by Frederick Kees of Minneapolis. It has inlaid marble tiles in the halls, and plate glass windows framed in copper on the first and second floors. There is also a cast-iron and ornamental glass lower level and terra-cotta detailing around the windows. The entrance is an eliptical arch with iron grill work. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  4. HENNESSY'S DEPARTMENT STORE (130 NORTH MAIN, 18971898) IS A STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HENNESSY'S DEPARTMENT STORE (130 NORTH MAIN, 1897-1898) IS A STEEL FRAME AND BRICK STRUCTURE DESIGNED BY FREDERICK KEES OF MINNEAPOLIS. IT HAS INLAID MARBLE TILES IN THE HALLS, AND PLATE GLASS WINDOWS FRAMED IN COPPER ON THE FIRST AND SECOND FLOORS. THERE IS ALSO A CAST-IRON AND ORNAMENTAL GLASS LOWER LEVEL AND TERRA-COTTA DETAILING AROUND THE WINDOWS. THE ENTRANCE IS AN ELLIPTICAL ARCH WITH IRON GRILL WORK. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  5. Use of hydrogen to store, transmit power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccanera, P.; Moriconi, A.; Naviglio, A.

    1980-02-01

    A mode of using hydrogen specifically as an energy storage component is discussed. A system is described in which electrical energy taken from the power distribution network during low-demand periods is used to produce H2 by electrolysis. The hydrogen energy potential produced is stored by absorption of the gas in iron-titanium hydrid beds, from which it is recovered (during energy peak demand periods) in the form of electrical energy through hydrogen-fueled fuel cells, that is, electric cells that use as a fuel the hydrogen previously absorbed by the FeTi hydride and subsequently dissociated from it through simple heating. The thermal energy developed during the formation of the metallic hydride and that which must be supplied to release hydrogen are respectively removed and transferred by a thermal-carrier liquid circulating in pipes inside the vessels containing the hydride.

  6. Effects of Pregnancy and Lactation on Iron Metabolism in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Guofen; Liu, Shang-Yuan; Wang, Hui-Jie; Zhang, Tian-Wei; Yu, Peng; Duan, Xiang-Lin; Zhao, Shu-E; Chang, Yan-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    In female, inadequate iron supply is a highly prevalent problem that often leads to iron-deficiency anemia. This study aimed to understand the effects of pregnancy and lactation on iron metabolism. Rats with different days of gestation and lactation were used to determine the variations in iron stores and serum iron level and the changes in expression of iron metabolism-related proteins, including ferritin, ferroportin 1 (FPN1), ceruloplasmin (Cp), divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1), and the major iron-regulatory molecule—hepcidin. We found that iron stores decline dramatically at late-pregnancy period, and the low iron store status persists throughout the lactation period. The significantly increased FPN1 level in small intestine facilitates digestive iron absorption, which maintains the serum iron concentration at a near-normal level to meet the increase of iron requirements. Moreover, a significant decrease of hepcidin expression is observed during late-pregnancy and early-lactation stages, suggesting the important regulatory role that hepcidin plays in iron metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. These results are fundamental to the understanding of iron homeostasis during pregnancy and lactation and may provide experimental bases for future studies to identify key molecules expressed during these special periods that regulate the expression of hepcidin, to eventually improve the iron-deficiency status. PMID:26788496

  7. Iron homoeostasis in rheumatic disease.

    PubMed

    Baker, Joshua F; Ghio, Andrew J

    2009-11-01

    Iron is critical in nearly all cell functions and the ability of a cell, tissue and organism to procure this metal is obligatory for survival. Iron is necessary for normal immune function, and relative iron deficiency is associated with mild immunosuppression. Concentrations of this metal in excess of those required for function can present both an oxidative stress and elevate risks for infection. As a result, the human has evolved to have a complex mechanism of regulating iron and limiting its availability. This homoeostasis can be disrupted. Autoimmune diseases and gout often present with abnormal iron homoeostasis, thus supporting a participation of the metal in these injuries. We review the role of iron in normal immune function and discuss both clinical evidence of altered iron homoeostasis in autoimmune diseases and gout as well as possible implications of both depletion and supplementation of this metal in this patient population. We conclude that altered iron homoeostasis may represent a purposeful response to inflammation that could have theoretical anti-inflammatory benefits. We encourage physicians to avoid routine iron supplementation in those without depleted iron stores.

  8. Measurement of hair iron concentration as a marker of body iron content

    PubMed Central

    SAHIN, CEM; PALA, CIGDEM; KAYNAR, LEYLAGUL; TORUN, YASEMIN ALTUNER; CETIN, AYSUN; KURNAZ, FATIH; SIVGIN, SERDAR; SAHIN, FATIH SERDAR

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to define the possible association between blood parameters and hair iron concentration in patient groups showing a difference in body iron content. The study population comprised subjects with iron deficiency anaemia and transfusion-related anaemia with different body iron contents and a healthy control group. All the cases included in the study were examined with respect to hair iron concentration, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation and erythrocyte markers in the total blood count with ferritin values. Differences in hair iron concentration were evaluated between the groups. Correlation analysis was applied to define the association between the laboratory values used as markers of body iron content and hair iron concentration. A statistically significant difference was determined in hair iron 56Fe and 57Fe concentrations between the group with transfusion-related anaemia, the iron deficiency anaemia group and the healthy control group (P<0.001). In addition, a positive correlation was determined between hair iron 56Fe and 57Fe concentrations and serum iron, ferritin level, transferrin saturation, mean erythrocyte volume and mean erythrocyte haemoglobin values and a negative correlation with TIBC. In conclusion, the results of the present study showed a statistically significant difference in the hair iron concentrations of the patient groups with different body iron content and these values were correlated to the laboratory markers of body iron content. PMID:26137241

  9. Storage iron exchange in the rat as affected by deferoxamine

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.K.; Huebers, H.; Pippard, M.J.; Finch, C.A.

    1985-04-01

    The initial tissue localization and redistribution of radioactive iron injected intravenously into the rat as ferritin, chondroitin sulfate, and nonviable red cells was determined. Ferritin iron, initially localized in the hepatocyte, showed minimal redistribution over 24 hours in the normal animal. This may be compared with the active release of iron from the reticuloendothelial cell after the intravenous injection of nonviable red cells and chondroitin sulfate iron. All forms of iron were actively mobilized in iron-deficient animals. The effect of chelation of iron by deferoxamine (DFO) on the redistribution pattern over 4 to 6 hours was determined in iron-deficient, normal, iron-loaded, and phenylhydrazine-treated rats to evaluate the effect of iron stores and erythropoiesis. Use of DFO resulted in extensive chelation of radioactive iron within the hepatocyte and greatly reduced the amount of hepatocyte iron available for erythropoiesis. Very little chelation of reticuloendothelial cell-processed iron occurred, and there was little decrease in its utilization for red cell production. Total urinary chelate iron was independent of erythropoiesis but varied in parallel with the iron load of the animal. These studies suggest that DFO does not act on the reticuloendothelial cell but does have at least two sites of action, both of which relate to total storage iron. One involves hepatocyte stores with excretion into the intestinal tract. The other, possibly located at the hepatocyte membrane, results in urinary iron excretion.

  10. Intravenous iron therapy: how far have we come?

    PubMed Central

    Cançado, Rodolfo Delfini; Muñoz, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Oral iron supplementation is usually the first choice for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) because of its effectiveness and low cost. But unfortunately in many iron deficient conditions, oral iron is a less than the ideal treatment mainly because of adverse events related to the gastrointestinal tract as well as the long course required to treat anemia and replenish body iron stores. The first iron product for intravenous use was high-molecular-weight iron dextran. However, dextran-containing intravenous iron preparations are associated with an elevated risk of anaphylactic reactions, which made physicians reluctant to prescribe intravenous iron in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia for many years. In 1999 and 2001, two new intravenous iron preparations (ferric gluconate and iron sucrose) were introduced into the market as safer alternatives to iron dextran. Over the last five years, three new intravenous iron dextran-free preparations have been developed and have better safety profiles than the more traditional intravenous compounds, as none require test doses and all these products are promising in respect to a more rapid replacement of body iron stores (15-60 minutes/infusion) as they can be given at higher doses (from 500 mg to more than 1000 mg/infusion). The purpose of this review is to discuss some pertinent issues in relation to the history, pharmacology, administration, efficacy, safety profile and toxicity of intravenous iron for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. PMID:23049364

  11. Iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Scrimshaw, N S

    1991-10-01

    The world's leading nutritional problem is iron deficiency. 66% of children and women aged 15-44 years in developing countries have it. Further, 10-20% of women of childbearing age in developed countries are anemic. Iron deficiency is identified with often irreversible impairment of a child's learning ability. It is also associated with low capacity for adults to work which reduces productivity. In addition, it impairs the immune system which reduces the body's ability to fight infection. Iron deficiency also lowers the metabolic rate and the body temperature when exposed to cold. Hemoglobin contains nearly 73% of the body's iron. This iron is always being recycled as more red blood cells are made. The rest of the needed iron does important tasks for the body, such as binds to molecules that are reservoirs of oxygen for muscle cells. This iron comes from our diet, especially meat. Even though some plants, such as spinach, are high in iron, the body can only absorb 1.4-7% of the iron in plants whereas it can absorb 20% of the iron in red meat. In many developing countries, the common vegetarian diets contribute to high rates of iron deficiency. Parasitic diseases and abnormal uterine bleeding also promote iron deficiency. Iron therapy in anemic children can often, but not always, improve behavior and cognitive performance. Iron deficiency during pregnancy often contributes to maternal and perinatal mortality. Yet treatment, if given to a child in time, can lead to normal growth and hinder infections. However, excess iron can be damaging. Too much supplemental iron in a malnourished child promotes fatal infections since the excess iron is available for the pathogens use. Many countries do not have an effective system for diagnosing, treating, and preventing iron deficiency. Therefore a concerted international effort is needed to eliminate iron deficiency in the world.

  12. How Much Iron is Needed for Breastfeeding Infants?

    PubMed

    Greer, Frank R

    2015-01-01

    The iron requirement for breastfed infants remains controversial. Given the impact of iron on neurodevelopmental outcomes and the questionable impact of iron supplements after iron deficiency has occurred, its importance as a nutrient in this population cannot be down played. Infants are born with relatively large body stores of iron that are marginally related to maternal iron status in developed countries. Delayed cord clamping may increase these fetal stores, but at the present time this is only recommended for preterm infants who are born with low iron stores. The diagnosis of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) remains problematic though new laboratory tests (measures of reticulocyte hemoglobin concentration and serum transferrin receptor) hold promise in developed countries. The present evidence supports the potential benefits of iron supplementation of exclusively breastfed infants after 4 months of age, by which time the iron stores present at birth are depleted. This deficit cannot be made up even if the small amounts of iron in human milk are completely absorbed. PMID:26239113

  13. METABOLIC CAPACITY REGULATES IRON HOMEOSTATIS IN ENDOTHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sensitivity of endothelial cells to oxidative stress and the high concentrations of iron in mitochondria led us to test the hypotheses that (1) changes in respiratory capacity alter iron homeostasis, and (2) lack of aerobic metabolism decreases labile iron stores and attenuat...

  14. Disorders of iron metabolism. Part 1: molecular basis of iron homoeostasis.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Manuel; García-Erce, José Antonio; Remacha, Angel Francisco

    2011-04-01

    IRON FUNCTIONS: Iron is an essential micronutrient, as it is required for satisfactory erythropoietic function, oxidative metabolism and cellular immune response. IRON PHYSIOLOGY: Absorption of dietary iron (1-2 mg/day) is tightly regulated and just balanced against iron loss because there are no active iron excretory mechanisms. Dietary iron is found in haem (10%) and non-haem (ionic, 90%) forms, and their absorption occurs at the apical surface of duodenal enterocytes via different mechanisms. Iron is exported by ferroportin 1 (the only putative iron exporter) across the basolateral membrane of the enterocyte into the circulation (absorbed iron), where it binds to transferrin and is transported to sites of use and storage. Transferrin-bound iron enters target cells-mainly erythroid cells, but also immune and hepatic cells-via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Senescent erythrocytes are phagocytosed by reticuloendothelial system macrophages, haem is metabolised by haem oxygenase, and the released iron is stored as ferritin. Iron will be later exported from macrophages to transferrin. This internal turnover of iron is essential to meet the requirements of erythropoiesis (20-30 mg/day). As transferrin becomes saturated in iron-overload states, excess iron is transported to the liver, the other main storage organ for iron, carrying the risk of free radical formation and tissue damage. REGULATION OF IRON HOMOEOSTASIS: Hepcidin, synthesised by hepatocytes in response to iron concentrations, inflammation, hypoxia and erythropoiesis, is the main iron-regulatory hormone. It binds ferroportin on enterocytes, macrophages and hepatocytes triggering its internalisation and lysosomal degradation. Inappropriate hepcidin secretion may lead to either iron deficiency or iron overload.

  15. Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Breymann, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Anemia is a common problem in obstetrics and perinatal care. Any hemoglobin below 10.5 g/dL can be regarded as true anemia regardless of gestational age. Reasons for anemia in pregnancy are mainly nutritional deficiencies, parasitic and bacterial diseases, and inborn red blood cell disorders such as thalassemias. The main cause of anemia in obstetrics is iron deficiency, which has a worldwide prevalence between estimated 20%-80% and consists of a primarily female population. Stages of iron deficiency are depletion of iron stores, iron-deficient erythropoiesis without anemia, and iron deficiency anemia, the most pronounced form of iron deficiency. Pregnancy anemia can be aggravated by various conditions such as uterine or placental bleedings, gastrointestinal bleedings, and peripartum blood loss. In addition to the general consequences of anemia, there are specific risks during pregnancy for the mother and the fetus such as intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, feto-placental miss ratio, and higher risk for peripartum blood transfusion. Besides the importance of prophylaxis of iron deficiency, the main therapy options for the treatment of pregnancy anemia are oral iron and intravenous iron preparations.

  16. Method to predict external store carriage characteristics at transonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Bruce S.

    1988-01-01

    Development of a computational method for prediction of external store carriage characteristics at transonic speeds is described. The geometric flexibility required for treatment of pylon-mounted stores is achieved by computing finite difference solutions on a five-level embedded grid arrangement. A completely automated grid generation procedure facilitates applications. Store modeling capability consists of bodies of revolution with multiple fore and aft fins. A body-conforming grid improves the accuracy of the computed store body flow field. A nonlinear relaxation scheme developed specifically for modified transonic small disturbance flow equations enhances the method's numerical stability and accuracy. As a result, treatment of lower aspect ratio, more highly swept and tapered wings is possible. A limited supersonic freestream capability is also provided. Pressure, load distribution, and force/moment correlations show good agreement with experimental data for several test cases. A detailed computer program description for the Transonic Store Carriage Loads Prediction (TSCLP) Code is included.

  17. Estimation of Energy Stores of Mentally Retarded Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litchford, Mary Demarest

    1987-01-01

    The study sought to identify reliable measurements for estimating energy stores of retarded adults (N=80) and possible correlations between energy intakes and obesity. Among results were a lack of significant correlations between caloric intake and anthropometric measures (e.g., tricepts skinfold). Body mass index is suggested as a more practical…

  18. Iron Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A meteorite composed mainly of nickel-iron, with traces of other metals; also referred to simply as an iron, and formerly known as a siderite. Irons account for over 6% of all known meteorite specimens. They are the easiest type to identify, being heavy, magnetic and rust-colored; their metallic sheen tarnishes quickly on the Earth's surface, but otherwise irons show better resistance to weatheri...

  19. Progressive Silicification of Iron Microbes — Preliminary Observations from a Two Year Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieber, J.

    2010-03-01

    Iron microbe mats were stored at 50°C in a silica-rich solution for two years and intermittently examined by SEM. The results suggest a high potential for morphological preservation of iron microbes in silica precipitating environments.

  20. Two terabyte optical archival store

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Murray; Varda, Ann; DeClute, Gary

    1987-08-01

    We describe a very large archival store which has been built and is now being used as a cluster device on a cluster of VAX computers at the Physical Sciences Laboratory of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. We also give measured performances and data on the first use. The Optical Archival Store has been built to write and read files of all sizes from 1 byte to 1 Gbyte. The total capacity is 2 Tbyte (terabyte). The store has a general directory capability, and preserves the VMS protection scheme. The first access time to a random file is 35 s, and the second access time to a file on the same volume is 4 s. The principal need is for use by High Energy Physics, but other UW groups can also use the system.

  1. Iron speciation in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) biofortified by common breeding.

    PubMed

    Hoppler, Matthias; Egli, Ines; Petry, Nicolai; Gille, Doreen; Zeder, Christophe; Walczyk, Thomas; Blair, Matthew W; Hurrell, Richard F

    2014-09-01

    The iron storage protein ferritin is a potential vehicle to enhance the iron content of biofortified crops. With the aim of evaluating the potential of ferritin iron in plant breeding, we used species-specific isotope dilution mass spectrometry to quantify ferritin iron in bean varieties with a wide range of total iron content. Zinc, phytic acid, and polyphenols were also measured. Total iron concentration in 21 bean varieties ranged from 32 to 115 ppm and was positively correlated with concentrations of zinc (P = 0.001) and nonferritin bound iron (P < 0.001). Ferritin iron ranged from 13% to 35% of total iron and increased only slightly in high iron beans (P = 0.007). Concentrations of nonferritin bound iron and phytic acid were correlated (P = 0.001), although phytic acid:iron molar ratio decreased with increasing iron concentration (P = 0.003). Most iron in high iron beans was present as nonferritin bound iron, which confirms our earlier finding showing that ferritin iron in beans was lower than previously published. As the range of ferritin iron content in beans is relatively narrow, there is less opportunity for breeders to breed for high ferritin. The relevance of these findings to the extent of iron absorption depends on resolving the question of whether ferritin iron is absorbed or not to a greater extent than nonferritin bound iron.

  2. Ferrous versus Ferric Oral Iron Formulations for the Treatment of Iron Deficiency: A Clinical Overview

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Palacios

    2012-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia represents a major public health problem, particularly in infants, young children, pregnant women, and females with heavy menses. Oral iron supplementation is a cheap, safe, and effective means of increasing haemoglobin levels and restoring iron stores to prevent and correct iron deficiency. Many preparations are available, varying widely in dosage, formulation (quick or prolonged release), and chemical state (ferrous or ferric form). The debate over the advantages of ferrous versus ferric formulations is ongoing. In this literature review, the tolerability and efficacy of ferrous versus ferric iron formulations are evaluated. We focused on studies comparing ferrous sulphate preparations with ferric iron polymaltose complex preparations, the two predominant forms of iron used. Current data show that slow-release ferrous sulphate preparations remain the established and standard treatment of iron deficiency, irrespective of the indication, given their good bioavailability, efficacy, and acceptable tolerability demonstrated in several large clinical studies. PMID:22654638

  3. Iron biofortification of maize grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mineral nutrient deficiencies are a worldwide problem that is directly correlated with poverty and food insecurity. The most common of these is iron deficiency; more than one-third of the world’s population suffers from iron deficiency-induced anemia, 80% of which are in developing countries. The de...

  4. Iron biofortification of maize grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mineral nutrient deficiencies are a worldwide problem that is directly correlated with poverty and food insecurity. The most common of these is iron deficiency; more than one-third of the world’s population suffers from iron deficiency-induced anemia, 80% of which are in developing countries. The co...

  5. Store Security: Internal Shrinkage Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhardt, Richard M.

    The document presents a 10-week training program designed to provide helpful and proven methods for controlling internal shrinkage in retail stores. Shrinkage includes the three problems of shoplifting, employee theft, and errors, each of which is addressed by the course. Ohio's laws are also discussed. The format for the course content section is…

  6. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  7. Circulating Retinol-Binding Protein-4 Concentration Might Reflect Insulin Resistance–Associated Iron Overload

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Moreno, José María; Ricart, Wifredo

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—The mechanisms behind the association between retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) and insulin resistance are not well understood. An interaction between iron and vitamin A status, of which RBP4 is a surrogate, has long been recognized. We hypothesized that iron-associated insulin resistance could be behind the impaired insulin action caused by RBP4. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Serum ferritin and RBP4 concentration and insulin resistance were evaluated in a sample of middle-aged men (n = 132) and in a replication independent study. Serum RBP4 was also studied before and after iron depletion in patients with type 2 diabetes. Finally, the effect of iron on RBP4 release was evaluated in vitro in adipose tissue. RESULTS—A positive correlation between circulating RBP4 and log serum ferritin (r = 0.35 and r = 0.61, respectively; P < 0.0001) was observed in both independent studies. Serum RBP4 concentration was higher in men than women in parallel to increased ferritin levels. On multiple regression analyses to predict serum RBP4, log serum ferritin contributed significantly to RBP4 variance after controlling for BMI, age, and homeostasis model assessment value. Serum RBP4 concentration decreased after iron depletion in type 2 diabetic patients (percent mean difference −13.7 [95% CI −25.4 to −2.04]; P = 0.024). The iron donor lactoferrin led to increased dose-dependent adipose tissue release of RBP4 (2.4-fold, P = 0.005) and increased RBP4 expression, while apotransferrin and deferoxamine led to decreased RBP4 release. CONCLUSIONS—The relationship between circulating RBP4 and iron stores, both cross-sectional and after iron depletion, and in vitro findings suggest that iron could play a role in the RBP4–insulin resistance relationship. PMID:18426863

  8. Fate of blood meal iron in mosquitos

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guoli; Kohlhepp, Pete; Geiser, Dawn; Frasquillo, Maria del Carmen; Vazquez-Moreno, Luz; Winzerling, Joy J.

    2007-01-01

    Iron is an essential element of living cells and organisms as a component of numerous metabolic pathways. Hemoglobin and ferric-transferrin in vertebrate host blood are the two major iron sources for female mosquitoes. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and radioisotope-labeling to quantify the fate of iron supplied from hemoglobin or as transferrin in Aedes aegypti. At the end of the first gonotrophic cycloe, ~87% of the ingested total meal heme iron was excreted, while 7% was distributed into the eggs and 6% was stored in different tissues. In contrast, ~8% of the iron provided as transferrin was excreted and of that absorbed, 77% was allocated to the eggs and 15% distributed in the tissues. Further analyses indicate that of the iron supplied in a blood meal, ~7% appears in the eggs and of this iron 98% is from hemoglobin and 2% from ferric-transferrin. Whereas of iron from a blood meal retained in body of the female, ~97% is from heme and <1 % is from transferrin. Evaluation of iron-binding proteins in hemolymph and egg following intake of 59Fe-transferrin revealed that ferritin is iron loaded in these animals, and indicate that this protein plays a critical role in meal iron transport and iron storage in eggs in A. aegypti. PMID:17689557

  9. Bigger Stores, More Stores, or No Stores: Paths of Retail Restructuring in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vias, Alexander C.

    2004-01-01

    Changes such as the development of large international retail chains, retail concentration, locational changes, technological innovation, new labor practices, and the increasing scale of individual stores, have revolutionized the retail sector. This broad restructuring will have profound impacts in rural America because employment in retail is a…

  10. Ecophysiology of Zetaproteobacteria Associated with Shallow Hydrothermal Iron-Oxyhydroxide Deposits in Nagahama Bay of Satsuma Iwo-Jima, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Kuratomi, Takashi; Morono, Yuki; Hori, Tomoyuki; Oiwane, Hisashi; Kiyokawa, Shoichi; Inagaki, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of microbial communities in deep-sea hydrothermal ferric deposits have demonstrated that members of Zetaproteobacteria play significant ecological roles in biogeochemical iron-cycling. However, the ecophysiological characteristics and interaction between other microbial members in the habitat still remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated microbial communities in a core sample obtained from shallow hydrothermal iron-oxyhydroxide deposits at Nagahama Bay of Satsuma Iwo-Jima, Japan. Scanning electron microscopic observation showed numerous helical stalk structures, suggesting the occurrence of iron-oxidizing bacteria. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated the co-occurrence of iron-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria and iron-reducing bacteria such as the genera Deferrisoma and Desulfobulbus with strong correlations on the sequence abundance. CARD-FISH indicated that the numbers of Zetaproteobacteria were not always consistent to the frequency of stalk structures. In the stalk-abundant layers with relatively small numbers of Zetaproteobacteria cells, accumulation of polyphosphate was observed inside Zetaproteobacteria cells, whereas no polyphosphate grains were observed in the topmost layers with fewer stalks and abundant Zetaproteobacteria cells. These results suggest that Zetaproteobacteria store intracellular polyphosphates during active iron oxidation that contributes to the mineralogical growth and biogeochemical iron cycling. PMID:26793184

  11. Ecophysiology of Zetaproteobacteria Associated with Shallow Hydrothermal Iron-Oxyhydroxide Deposits in Nagahama Bay of Satsuma Iwo-Jima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Kuratomi, Takashi; Morono, Yuki; Hori, Tomoyuki; Oiwane, Hisashi; Kiyokawa, Shoichi; Inagaki, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of microbial communities in deep-sea hydrothermal ferric deposits have demonstrated that members of Zetaproteobacteria play significant ecological roles in biogeochemical iron-cycling. However, the ecophysiological characteristics and interaction between other microbial members in the habitat still remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated microbial communities in a core sample obtained from shallow hydrothermal iron-oxyhydroxide deposits at Nagahama Bay of Satsuma Iwo-Jima, Japan. Scanning electron microscopic observation showed numerous helical stalk structures, suggesting the occurrence of iron-oxidizing bacteria. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated the co-occurrence of iron-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria and iron-reducing bacteria such as the genera Deferrisoma and Desulfobulbus with strong correlations on the sequence abundance. CARD-FISH indicated that the numbers of Zetaproteobacteria were not always consistent to the frequency of stalk structures. In the stalk-abundant layers with relatively small numbers of Zetaproteobacteria cells, accumulation of polyphosphate was observed inside Zetaproteobacteria cells, whereas no polyphosphate grains were observed in the topmost layers with fewer stalks and abundant Zetaproteobacteria cells. These results suggest that Zetaproteobacteria store intracellular polyphosphates during active iron oxidation that contributes to the mineralogical growth and biogeochemical iron cycling. PMID:26793184

  12. Iron(II) sulfate release from drop-formed lipophilic matrices developed by special hot-melt technology.

    PubMed

    Pallagi, E; Vass, K; Pintye-Hódi, K; Kása, P; Falkay, G; Eros, I; Szabó-Révész, P

    2004-03-01

    Iron(II) sulfate-containing lipophilic matrices were developed by a special hot-melt technology (melt solidification in drops), using stearin, white wax and their mixture as conventional bed materials. The special technology resulted in spherical particles which can be filled directly into capsules; these store iron as a depot and ensure a slow and uniform release, whereby the irritation of the gastric mucosa by the iron can be decreased. The rates of dissolution of the iron(II) sulfate from the various lipophilic matrices were different, but fundamentally low. Kinetic calculations demonstrated that the rate of dissolution of the iron(II) sulfate was of approximately zero kinetic order. The results of in vivo experiments on rabbits correlated well with the in vitro data. The plasma curves for the animals treated with the iron(II) sulfate preparations varied with the excipients in the depot products. The properties and ratio of the bed materials influenced the release of the iron(II) sulfate. In all probability, the release of the active agent can be regulated through the use of a melt of stearin and white wax in different ratios. The development products functioned as a sustained-release system and ensured elimination of the irritation of the gastric mucosa. At the same time, the results justified the applicability of the special hot-melt technology in the development of the solid dosage form. PMID:15018986

  13. Iron endowment at birth: maternal iron status and other influences.

    PubMed

    Viteri, Fernando E

    2011-11-01

    The iron endowment at birth depends, in large part, on the newborn's birth weight and gestational age. These are determined by many factors, some of which are maternal characteristics, including the following: maternal iron stores at her own birth and during her own early life, maternal growth and development, maternal age at conception, intergenesic intervals, maternal body characteristics and iron status at conception and during early pregnancy, gestational body weight gain, and iron status throughout gestation, particularly at conception and early pregnancy, and gestational body weight gain. Although less studied, paternal influences on the initiation and progression of pregnancy and on maternal environmental exposures are also important. Even though tools for the quantitative evaluation of women's iron status are very well developed, the quantitative estimation of body iron in the newborn and young infant remains a challenge. This article describes the crucial role played by the placenta in protecting the embryo and the fetus. In addition, neonatal health, particularly early in pregnancy, is briefly addressed, as are some important aspects of antenatal nutritional interventions that include iron.

  14. Iron deficiency: new insights into diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Camaschella, Clara

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are common conditions worldwide affecting especially children and young women. In developing countries, iron deficiency is caused by poor iron intake and/or parasitic infection, whereas vegetarian dietary choices, poor iron absorption, and chronic blood loss are common causes in high-income countries. Erythropoiesis stimulating agents can result in functional iron deficiency for erythropoiesis even when stores are iron-replete. Diagnosis of iron deficiency is straightforward, except when it occurs in the context of inflammatory disorders. Oral iron salts correct absolute iron deficiency in most patients, because low hepcidin levels facilitate iron absorption. Unfortunately frequent side effects limit oral iron efficacy. Intravenous iron is increasingly utilized, because currently available preparations allow rapid normalization of total body iron even with a single infusion and are effective also in functional iron deficiency and in iron deficiency associated with inflammatory disorders. The evidence is accumulating that these preparations are safe and effective. However, long-term safety issues of high doses of iron need to be further explored.

  15. Iron deficiency: new insights into diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Camaschella, Clara

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are common conditions worldwide affecting especially children and young women. In developing countries, iron deficiency is caused by poor iron intake and/or parasitic infection, whereas vegetarian dietary choices, poor iron absorption, and chronic blood loss are common causes in high-income countries. Erythropoiesis stimulating agents can result in functional iron deficiency for erythropoiesis even when stores are iron-replete. Diagnosis of iron deficiency is straightforward, except when it occurs in the context of inflammatory disorders. Oral iron salts correct absolute iron deficiency in most patients, because low hepcidin levels facilitate iron absorption. Unfortunately frequent side effects limit oral iron efficacy. Intravenous iron is increasingly utilized, because currently available preparations allow rapid normalization of total body iron even with a single infusion and are effective also in functional iron deficiency and in iron deficiency associated with inflammatory disorders. The evidence is accumulating that these preparations are safe and effective. However, long-term safety issues of high doses of iron need to be further explored. PMID:26637694

  16. Model/School Store Management Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Board for Vocational Education, Bismarck.

    This teacher-coordinator manual assists in planning, organizing, directing, and evaluating student learning experiences associated with either a model store, school store, or combination. (A model store in a marketing laboratory simulates marketing functions; the school store markets merchandise to fellow students, faculty, and/or the public.)…

  17. The role of ceruloplasmin in iron metabolism.

    PubMed

    Roeser, H P; Lee, G R; Nacht, S; Cartwright, G E

    1970-12-01

    The importance of ceruloplasmin in iron metabolism was studied in swine made hypoceruloplasminemic by copper deprivation. When the plasma ceruloplasmin level fell below 1% of normal, cell-to-plasma iron flow became sufficiently impaired to cause hypoferremia, even though total body iron stores were normal. When ceruloplasmin was administered to such animals, plasma iron increased immediately and continued to rise at a rate proportional to the logarithm of the ceruloplasmin dose. The administration of inorganic copper induced increases in plasma iron only after ceruloplasmin appeared in the circulation. Thus, ceruloplasmin appeared to be essential to the normal movement of iron from cells to plasma. Studies designed to define the mechanism of action of ceruloplasmin were based on the in vitro observation that ceruloplasmin behaves as an enzyme (ferroxidase) that catalyzes oxidation of ferrous iron. Retention of injected ferrous iron in the plasma of ceruloplasmin-deficient swine was significantly less than that of ferric iron, reflecting impaired transferrin iron binding. Rat ceruloplasmin, which has little ferroxidase activity, was much less effective than porcine or human ceruloplasmin in inducing increases in plasma iron. These observations suggest that ceruloplasmin acts by virtue of its ferroxidase activity. Eight patients with Wilson's disease were evaluated in order to investigate iron metabolism in a disorder characterized by reduced ceruloplasmin levels. Evidence of iron deficiency was found in six of these, and in five of the six, plasma ceruloplasmin was less than 5% of normal. In comparison, the two patients without evidence of iron deficiency had ceruloplasmin levels of 11 and 18% of normal. It is suggested that iron deficiency tends to occur in those patients with Wilson's disease who have the severest degrees of hypoceruloplasminemia, possibly because of defective transfer of iron from intestinal mucosal cells to plasma.

  18. Store-Operated Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Store-operated calcium channels (SOCs) are a major pathway for calcium signaling in virtually all metozoan cells and serve a wide variety of functions ranging from gene expression, motility, and secretion to tissue and organ development and the immune response. SOCs are activated by the depletion of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), triggered physiologically through stimulation of a diverse set of surface receptors. Over 15 years after the first characterization of SOCs through electrophysiology, the identification of the STIM proteins as ER Ca2+ sensors and the Orai proteins as store-operated channels has enabled rapid progress in understanding the unique mechanism of store-operate calcium entry (SOCE). Depletion of Ca2+ from the ER causes STIM to accumulate at ER-plasma membrane (PM) junctions where it traps and activates Orai channels diffusing in the closely apposed PM. Mutagenesis studies combined with recent structural insights about STIM and Orai proteins are now beginning to reveal the molecular underpinnings of these choreographic events. This review describes the major experimental advances underlying our current understanding of how ER Ca2+ depletion is coupled to the activation of SOCs. Particular emphasis is placed on the molecular mechanisms of STIM and Orai activation, Orai channel properties, modulation of STIM and Orai function, pharmacological inhibitors of SOCE, and the functions of STIM and Orai in physiology and disease. PMID:26400989

  19. Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia

    PubMed Central

    De Falco, Luigia; Sanchez, Mayka; Silvestri, Laura; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Iolascon, Achille; Gouya, Laurent; Camaschella, Clara; Beaumont, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is a hereditary recessive anemia due to a defect in the TMPRSS6 gene encoding Matriptase-2. This protein is a transmembrane serine protease that plays an essential role in down-regulating hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis. Hallmarks of this disease are microcytic hypochromic anemia, low transferrin saturation and normal/high serum hepcidin values. The anemia appears in the post-natal period, although in some cases it is only diagnosed in adulthood. The disease is refractory to oral iron treatment but shows a slow response to intravenous iron injections and partial correction of the anemia. To date, 40 different Matriptase-2 mutations have been reported, affecting all the functional domains of the large ectodomain of the protein. In vitro experiments on transfected cells suggest that Matriptase-2 cleaves Hemojuvelin, a major regulator of hepcidin expression and that this function is altered in this genetic form of anemia. In contrast to the low/undetectable hepcidin levels observed in acquired iron deficiency, in patients with Matriptase-2 deficiency, serum hepcidin is inappropriately high for the low iron status and accounts for the absent/delayed response to oral iron treatment. A challenge for the clinicians and pediatricians is the recognition of the disorder among iron deficiency and other microcytic anemias commonly found in pediatric patients. The current treatment of iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is based on parenteral iron administration; in the future, manipulation of the hepcidin pathway with the aim of suppressing it might become an alternative therapeutic approach. PMID:23729726

  20. Interpreting results of coulometry and immunoprecipitation in diagnosing iron disorders.

    PubMed

    Rettmer, R L; Labbé, R F; Huebers, H A; Brown, W P; Josephson, B M; Finch, C A

    1987-07-01

    Concentration of iron in plasma, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), and transferrin saturation are often determined by standard spectrophotometric methods, but iron concentration may be quantified by immunoprecipitation or, electrochemically, by controlled-potential coulometry. Because these iron assays do not all measure the same form(s) of iron, we studied subjects in various states of iron nutriture: normal adults, iron-deficient patients, thalassemia patients with unsaturated transferrin or oversaturated transferrin, and patients with idiopathic hemochromatosis. The spectrophotometric and coulometric methods detected essentially all non-heme iron in plasma; results correlated well but showed a negative bias toward the coulometric method. Results by an immunoprecipitation procedure, which measures only transferrin-bound iron, correlated well with those obtained coulometrically but were slightly higher than the latter. The characteristics of the various methods for iron must be understood by the clinical laboratory if diagnosis of iron disorders is to be accurate.

  1. SCRAP STEEL AND FOUNDRY SCRAP IRON, USED AS THE PRIMARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SCRAP STEEL AND FOUNDRY SCRAP IRON, USED AS THE PRIMARY METAL SOURCES, ARE STORED IN THESE BINS AND LIFTED TO SCALES BY AN ELECTRIC MAGNET. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Melting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  2. Mössbauer investigation of iron uptake in wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, K.; Kuzmann, E.; Fodor, F.; Cseh, E.; Homonnay, Z.; Vértes, A.

    2008-07-01

    Iron uptake and distribution in wheat roots were studied with 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. Plants were grown both in iron sufficient and in iron deficient nutrient solutions. Mössbauer spectra of the frozen iron sufficient roots exhibited three iron(III) components with the typical average Mössbauer parameters of δ = 0.50 mm s - 1, Δ = 0.43 mm s - 1, δ = 0.50 mm s - 1, Δ = 0.75 mm s - 1 and δ = 0.50 mm s - 1, Δ = 1.20 mm s - 1 at 80 K. These doublets are very similar to those obtained earlier for cucumber [0], which allows us to suppose that iron is stored in a very similar way in different plants. No ferrous iron could be identified in any case, not even in the iron deficient roots, which confirms the mechanism proposed for iron uptake in the graminaceous plants.

  3. Differences in activation of mouse hepcidin by dietary iron and parenterally administered iron dextran: compartmentalization is critical for iron sensing.

    PubMed

    Daba, Alina; Gkouvatsos, Konstantinos; Sebastiani, Giada; Pantopoulos, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    The iron regulatory hormone hepcidin responds to both oral and parenteral iron. Here, we hypothesized that the diverse iron trafficking routes may affect the dynamics and kinetics of the hepcidin activation pathway. To address this, C57BL/6 mice were administered an iron-enriched diet or injected i.p. with iron dextran and analyzed over time. After 1 week of dietary loading with carbonyl iron, mice exhibited significant increases in serum iron and transferrin saturation, as well as in hepatic iron, Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6), and hepcidin mRNAs. Nevertheless, hepcidin expression reached a plateau afterward, possibly due to upregulation of inhibitory Smad7, Id1, and matriptase-2 mRNAs, while hepatic and splenic iron continued to accumulate over 9 weeks. One day following parenteral administration of iron dextran, mice manifested elevated serum and hepatic iron levels and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation, but no increases in transferrin saturation or BMP6 mRNA. Surprisingly, hepcidin failed to appropriately respond to acute overload with iron dextran, and a delayed (after 5-7 days) hepcidin upregulation correlated with increased transferrin saturation, partial relocation of iron from macrophages to hepatocytes, and induction of BMP6 mRNA. Our data suggest that the physiological hepcidin response is saturable and are consistent with the idea that hepcidin senses exclusively iron compartmentalized within circulating transferrin and/or hepatocytes.

  4. [The role of iron as a deficient element].

    PubMed

    Schümann, K

    1989-12-01

    Iron is an essential trace element. In its heme-form as well as in its non heme-form it is a part of enzymes and hemoproteins. For a safe and adequate dietary intake 10-18 mg of iron are recommended daily. Frequently, this quantity is not available: approximately 20% of the world population is iron-deficient. In this state the enteral transfer capacity for toxic metals, e.g., Cd and Pb, is increased and the adaptation to physical strain as well as the immunological responses are depressed. Alterations of body iron-stores are almost exclusively balanced by adequate adaptation of the enteral iron-transfer capacity. The mechanism of this adaptation process can neither be satisfactorily explained by the "mucosal block hypothesis", nor by the "mucosal transferrin hypothesis". When the time-course of iron storage and its relation to intestinal iron transfer was investigated after i.v. iron administration to iron-deficient rats, the results indicated that the process of adaptation is located in the intestinal mucosa. Intestinal iron loading is decreased in iron deficiency, whereas the iron transfer into the organism is increased. Further investigation is necessary to find out by which mechanism the iron manages to bypass existing mucosal storage capacity in this situation. The geographical distribution of iron deficiency is influenced by a variety of local factors. Still, the paramount causes of iron-deficiency are unbalanced iron losses and the lack of bioavailable iron in the diet. The bioavailability of non heme iron is influenced by the composition of the diet. The effect of promotors of iron absorption, such as meat, amino acids, polycarbonic acids and ascorbate is opposed by the influence of inhibitors, such as bran, soya products, vegetables and egg-dishes. Iron losses are mainly due to blood losses. Thus, the wide distribution of hookworm diseases in tropical areas contributes significantly to the endemic iron-deficiency in these regions. A more physiological loss

  5. Availability of Vending Machines and School Stores in California Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cisse-Egbuonye, Nafissatou; Liles, Sandy; Schmitz, Katharine E.; Kassem, Nada; Irvin, Veronica L.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study examined the availability of foods sold in vending machines and school stores in United States public and private schools, and associations of availability with students' food purchases and consumption. Methods: Descriptive analyses, chi-square tests, and Spearman product-moment correlations were conducted on data collected…

  6. Pressure-induced phase transitions and correlation between structure and superconductivity in iron-based superconductor Ce(O(0.84)F(0.16))FeAs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinggeng; Liu, Haozhe; Ehm, Lars; Dong, Dawei; Chen, Zhiqiang; Liu, Qingqing; Hu, Wanzheng; Wang, Nanlin; Jin, Changqing

    2013-07-15

    High-pressure angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction experiments on iron-based superconductor Ce(O(0.84)F(0.16))FeAs were performed up to 54.9 GPa at room temperature. A tetragonal to tetragonal isostructural phase transition starts at about 13.9 GPa, and a new high-pressure phase has been found above 33.8 GPa. At pressures above 19.9 GPa, Ce(O(0.84)F(0.16))FeAs completely transforms to a high-pressure tetragonal phase, which remains in the same tetragonal structure with a larger a-axis and smaller c-axis than those of the low-pressure tetragonal phase. The structure analysis shows a discontinuity in the pressure dependences of the Fe-As and Ce-(O, F) bond distances, as well as the As-Fe-As and Ce-(O, F)-Ce bond angles in the transition region, which correlates with the change in T(c) of this compound upon compression. The isostructural phase transition in Ce(O(0.84)F(0.16))FeAs leads to a drastic drop in the superconducting transition temperature T(c) and restricts the superconductivity at low temperature. For the 1111-type iron-based superconductors, the structure evolution and following superconductivity changes under compression are related to the radius of lanthanide cations in the charge reservoir layer.

  7. The relationship between the iron isotopic composition of human whole blood and iron status parameters.

    PubMed

    Van Heghe, Lana; Delanghe, Joris; Van Vlierberghe, Hans; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2013-11-01

    As the iron status of an individual cannot be adequately assessed on the basis of the (total) Fe concentration in whole blood or serum, in medicine a number of parameters, such as the serum concentrations of ferritin, transferrin and soluble transferrin receptor and the transferrin saturation, are routinely determined instead. As previous research has shown that also the isotopic composition of Fe in blood and tissues is dependent on the metabolism, the present study assessed whether Fe isotopic composition in whole blood provides information as to an individual's iron status. Fe isotopic analysis of whole blood samples from a reference population (healthy volunteers) was carried out using multi-collector ICP-mass spectrometry (after chromatographic target element isolation) and the results obtained were investigated by statistical means as to their potential relation with the iron status parameters conventionally used in medicine. A low δ(56)Fe value was demonstrated to coincide with high iron status and a high δ(56)Fe value with low iron status, thus reflecting the response of the body to this iron status in terms of iron uptake, distribution between blood and stores and mobilization of storage iron. In a second phase, the iron isotopic composition in blood from patients treated for hemochromatosis type I and from patients with anemia of chronic disease (ACD) was determined. The results for hemochromatosis patients plotted with the values of low iron status, while those for ACD patients plotted with the values of high iron status. By taking a closer look at the aberrant iron metabolism that comes with these diseases, it can be seen that the patient samples confirm the conclusions drawn for the reference population. Patients with hemochromatosis type I have a strongly upregulated iron uptake, like healthy individuals with low iron status. The metabolism of patients suffering from ACD tries to remove iron from the circulation by downregulating the iron uptake

  8. Current approach to iron chelation in children.

    PubMed

    Aydinok, Yesim; Kattamis, Antonis; Viprakasit, Vip

    2014-06-01

    Transfusion-dependent children, mostly with thalassaemia major, but also and occasionally to a more significant degree, with inherited bone marrow failures, can develop severe iron overload in early life. Moreover, chronic conditions associated with ineffective erythropoiesis, such as non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (NTDT), may lead to iron overload through increased gut absorption of iron starting in childhood. Currently, the goal of iron chelation has shifted from treating iron overload to preventing iron accumulation and iron-induced end-organ complications, in order to achieve a normal pattern of complication-free survival and of quality of life. New chelation options increase the likelihood of achieving these goals. Timely initiation, close monitoring and continuous adjustment are the cornerstones of optimal chelation therapy in children, who have a higher transfusional requirements compared to adults in order to reach haemoglobin levels adequate for normal growth and development. Despite increased knowledge, there are still uncertainties about the level of body iron at which iron chelation therapy should be started and about the appropriate degree of iron stores' depletion.

  9. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000806.htm Infant Formula – Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding To use the ... using infant formula . Buying, Preparing, and Storing Infant Formula The following tips can help you buy, prepare, ...

  10. Long-Term Efficacy of Postpartum Intravenous Iron Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Background. The potential benefits of administering a dose of intravenous iron in patients with moderate postpartum anaemia rather than oral iron alone remains unproven. Aims. To determine whether a single injection of intravenous iron followed by a 6-week course of oral iron is as effective over 6 months in restoring normal haemoglobin levels and replenishing iron stores in women with moderate postpartum anaemia as a course of oral iron alone in women with mild postpartum anaemia. Materials and Methods. Retrospective two-arm cohort study in women with mild postpartum anaemia (haemoglobin 9.6–10.5 g/dL) prescribed iron daily for 6 weeks (N = 150) and women with moderate postpartum anaemia (haemoglobin 8.5–9.5 g/dL), given a single 500 mg injection of intravenous iron followed by iron daily for 6 weeks (N = 75). Haemoglobin and ferritin were measured 6 months postpartum. Results. Haemoglobin returned to similar mean levels in both groups. Ferritin levels were statistically significantly higher in the intravenous + oral group (57.7 ± 49.3 μg/L versus 32.9 ± 20.1 μg/L). Conclusions. Despite lower baseline haemoglobin, intravenous iron carboxymaltose was superior to oral iron alone in replenishing iron stores in moderate postpartum anaemia and may prove similarly beneficial in mild postpartum anaemia. PMID:25431768

  11. Treatment of iron deficiency anemia associated with gastrointestinal tract diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bayraktar, Ulas D; Bayraktar, Soley

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a common site of bleeding that may lead to iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Treatment of IDA depends on severity and acuity of patients’ signs and symptoms. While red blood cell transfusions may be required in hemodynamically unstable patients, transfusions should be avoided in chronically anemic patients due to their potential side effects and cost. Iron studies need to be performed after episodes of GI bleeding and stores need to be replenished before anemia develops. Oral iron preparations are efficacious but poorly tolerated due to non-absorbed iron-mediated GI side effects. However, oral iron dose may be reduced with no effect on its efficacy while decreasing side effects and patient discontinuation rates. Parenteral iron therapy replenishes iron stores quicker and is better tolerated than oral therapy. Serious hypersensitive reactions are very rare with new intravenous preparations. While data on worsening of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) activity by oral iron therapy are not conclusive, parenteral iron therapy still seems to be advantageous in the treatment of IDA in patients with IBD, because oral iron may not be sufficient to overcome the chronic blood loss and GI side effects of oral iron which may mimic IBD exacerbation. Finally, we believe the choice of oral vs parenteral iron therapy in patients with IBD should primarily depend on acuity and severity of patients’ signs and symptoms. PMID:20533591

  12. The placenta: the forgotten essential organ of iron transport.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chang; Fleming, Mark D

    2016-07-01

    Optimal iron nutrition in utero is essential for development of the fetus and helps establish birth iron stores adequate to sustain growth in early infancy. In species with hemochorial placentas, such as humans and rodents, iron in the maternal circulation is transferred to the fetus by directly contacting placental syncytiotrophoblasts. Early kinetic studies provided valuable data on the initial uptake of maternal transferrin, an iron-binding protein, by the placenta. However, the remaining steps of iron trafficking across syncytiotrophoblasts and through the fetal endothelium into the fetal blood remain poorly characterized. Over the last 20 years, identification of transmembrane iron transporters and the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin has greatly expanded the knowledge of cellular iron transport and its regulation by systemic iron status. In addition, emerging human and animal data demonstrating comprised fetal iron stores in severe maternal iron deficiency challenge the classic dogma of exclusive fetal control over the transfer process and indicate that maternal and local signals may play a role in regulating this process. This review compiles current data on the kinetic, molecular, and regulatory aspects of placental iron transport and considers new questions and knowledge gaps raised by these advances. PMID:27261274

  13. New Options for Iron Supplementation in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Vaziri, Nosratola D; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Wish, Jay B

    2016-03-01

    End-stage renal disease results in anemia caused by shortened erythrocyte survival, erythropoietin deficiency, hepcidin-mediated impairment of intestinal absorption and iron release, recurrent blood loss, and impaired responsiveness to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). Iron malabsorption renders oral iron products generally ineffective, and intravenous (IV) iron supplementation is required in most patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis (HD). IV iron is administered at doses far exceeding normal intestinal iron absorption. Moreover, by bypassing physiologic safeguards, indiscriminate use of IV iron overwhelms transferrin, imposing stress on the reticuloendothelial system that can have long-term adverse consequences. Unlike conventional oral iron preparations, ferric citrate has recently been shown to be effective in increasing serum ferritin, hemoglobin, and transferrin saturation values while significantly reducing IV iron and ESA requirements in patients treated with HD. Ferric pyrophosphate citrate is a novel iron salt delivered by dialysate; by directly reaching transferrin, its obviates the need for storing administered iron and increases transferrin saturation without increasing serum ferritin levels. Ferric pyrophosphate citrate trials have demonstrated effective iron delivery and stable hemoglobin levels with significant reductions in ESA and IV iron requirements. To date, the long-term safety of using these routes of iron administration in patients receiving HD has not been compared to IV iron and therefore awaits future investigations.

  14. Use of magnetic resonance imaging to monitor iron overload.

    PubMed

    Wood, John C

    2014-08-01

    Treatment of iron overload requires robust estimates of total-body iron burden and its response to iron chelation therapy. Compliance with chelation therapy varies considerably among patients, and individual reporting is notoriously unreliable. Even with perfect compliance, intersubject variability in chelator effectiveness is extremely high, necessitating reliable iron estimates to guide dose titration. In addition, each chelator has a unique profile with respect to clearing iron stores from different organs. This article presents the tools available to clinicians to monitor their patients, focusing on noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging methods because they have become the de facto standard of care.

  15. 7 CFR 1170.6 - Store.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PRODUCT MANDATORY REPORTING § 1170.6 Store. (a) Store... of 50 degrees Fahrenheit or lower and hold these dairy products for 30 days or more; or (b) Store means to place nonfat dry milk or dry whey in a manufacturing plant, packaging plant, distribution...

  16. 7 CFR 1170.6 - Store.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PRODUCT MANDATORY REPORTING § 1170.6 Store. (a) Store... of 50 degrees Fahrenheit or lower and hold these dairy products for 30 days or more; or (b) Store means to place nonfat dry milk or dry whey in a manufacturing plant, packaging plant, distribution...

  17. 7 CFR 1170.6 - Store.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PRODUCT MANDATORY REPORTING § 1170.6 Store. (a) Store... of 50 degrees Fahrenheit or lower and hold these dairy products for 30 days or more; or (b) Store means to place nonfat dry milk or dry whey in a manufacturing plant, packaging plant, distribution...

  18. Limiting mycotoxins in stored wheat.

    PubMed

    Magan, Naresh; Aldred, David; Mylona, Kalliopi; Lambert, Ronald J W

    2010-05-01

    The quality of harvested wheat grain can deteriorate markedly during the post-harvest management stages. Biotic factors, such as grain type and ripeness, coupled with the prevailing abiotic factors, such as water content and temperature, and also preservative concentration will influence the safe storage life and the level of contamination with mycotoxins. These mycotoxins include deoxynivalenol (DON) produced pre-harvest and zearalenone (ZEA) produced post-harvest by Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium poae, respectively, ochratoxin (OTA) produced by Penicillium verrucosum post-harvest in cool damp northern European climates, and perhaps T-2 and HT-2 toxins produced by Fusarium langsethiae. This review presents recent data on the relationship between dry matter losses caused by F. graminearum under different environmental regimes (water activities, temperatures) and the level of contamination with DON. This is important as poor post-harvest drying and storage management may exacerbate DON contamination already present pre-harvest. It is thus critical to relate the environmental factors in stored wheat grain during storage, especially of intergranular relative humidity (RH) and temperature, to safe storage periods without spoilage or risk from increased DON contamination. The growth/no growth and DON/no DON (F. graminearum) and OTA/no toxin production (P. verrucosum) have been used to build a model with a simple interface to link temperature and RH values to the potential risk level which may allow growth or toxin production. This paper also considers the use of modified atmospheres, preservatives and biocontrol to minimise DON and OTA in moist wheat grain. These approaches together with clear monitoring criteria and hygiene could contribute to better post-harvest management of stored temperate cereals and ensure that mycotoxin contamination is minimised during this key phase in the food/feed chain.

  19. Comparison of Two Doses of Elemental Iron in the Treatment of Latent Iron Deficiency: Efficacy, Side Effects and Blinding Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Alecia J.; Chalmers, Kerry A.; Collins, Clare E.; Patterson, Amanda J.

    2014-01-01

    Adherence to iron supplementation can be compromised due to side effects, and these limit blinding in studies of iron deficiency. No studies have reported an efficacious iron dose that allows participants to remain blinded. This pilot study aimed to determine a ferrous sulfate dose that improves iron stores, while minimising side effects and enabling blinding. A double-blinded RCT was conducted in 32 women (18–35 years): 24 with latent iron deficiency (serum ferritin < 20 µg/L) and 8 iron sufficient controls. Participants with latent iron deficiency were randomised to 60 mg or 80 mg elemental iron or to placebo, for 16 weeks. The iron sufficient control group took placebo. Treatment groups (60 mg n = 7 and 80 mg n = 6) had significantly higher ferritin change scores than placebo groups (iron deficient n = 5 and iron sufficient n = 6), F(1, 23) = 8.46, p ≤ 0.01. Of the 24 who completed the trial, 10 participants (77%) on iron reported side effects, compared with 5 (45%) on placebo, but there were no differences in side effects (p = 0.29), or compliance (p = 0.60) between iron groups. Nine (69%) participants on iron, and 11 (56%) on placebo correctly guessed their treatment allocation. Both iron doses were equally effective in normalising ferritin levels. Although reported side-effects were similar for both groups, a majority of participants correctly guessed their treatment group. PMID:24714351

  20. Iron Status in Toddlerhood Predicts Sensitivity to Psychostimulants in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Catharyn A.; Xie, Diqiong; Zimmerman, Bridget M.; Calarge, Chadi A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Iron deficiency is associated with impaired dopaminergic signaling and externalizing behavior. The authors examine, whether iron stores in toddlerhood influence later response to psychostimulants. Method: Youth participating in a study monitoring the long-term safety of risperidone were included in this analysis if they had received…

  1. Overexpression of mitochondrial ferritin causes cytosolic iron depletion and changes cellular iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Nie, Guangjun; Sheftel, Alex D; Kim, Sangwon F; Ponka, Prem

    2005-03-01

    Cytosolic ferritin sequesters and stores iron and, consequently, protects cells against iron-mediated free radical damage. However, the function of the newly discovered mitochondrial ferritin (MtFt) is unknown. To examine the role of MtFt in cellular iron metabolism, we established a cell line that stably overexpresses mouse MtFt under the control of a tetracycline-responsive promoter. The overexpression of MtFt caused a dose-dependent iron deficiency in the cytosol that was revealed by increased RNA-binding activity of iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) along with an increase in transferrin receptor levels and decrease in cytosolic ferritin. Consequently, the induction of MtFt resulted in a dramatic increase in cellular iron uptake from transferrin, most of which was incorporated into MtFt. The induction of MtFt caused a shift of iron from cytosolic ferritin to MtFt. In addition, iron inserted into MtFt was less available for chelation than that in cytosolic ferritin and the expression of MtFt was associated with decreased mitochondrial and cytosolic aconitase activities, the latter being consistent with the increase in IRP-binding activity. In conclusion, our results indicate that overexpression of MtFt causes a dramatic change in intracellular iron homeostasis and that shunting iron to MtFt likely limits its availability for active iron proteins.

  2. Iron transport in plants: better be safe than sorry.

    PubMed

    Thomine, Sébastien; Vert, Grégory

    2013-06-01

    Iron is essential for plant cell function and more specifically for photosynthesis. Plants have evolved highly efficient systems to take up iron from the soil. However, activating iron uptake is a double jeopardy: not only iron itself is toxic but iron uptake systems are poorly selective and allow the entry of other potentially toxic metals. Plants therefore tightly control iron uptake at the transcriptional and post-translational level and have evolved mechanisms to cope with the concomitant entry of toxic metals. In plant cells, iron has to be distributed to chloroplasts and mitochondria or may be stored safely in vacuole. Distinct transcriptional networks regulating uptake and intracellular distribution are being uncovered, while iron sensing mechanisms remain elusive.

  3. Oral Iron Supplementation After Blood Donation

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Joseph E.; Brambilla, Donald; Glynn, Simone A.; Mast, Alan E.; Spencer, Bryan R.; Stone, Mars; Kleinman, Steven H.; Cable, Ritchard G.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Although blood donation is allowed every 8 weeks in the United States, recovery of hemoglobin to the currently accepted standard (12.5 g/dL) is frequently delayed, and some donors become anemic. OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of oral iron supplementation on hemoglobin recovery time (days to recovery of 80% of hemoglobin removed) and recovery of iron stores in iron-depleted (“low ferritin,” ≤26 ng/mL) and iron-replete (“higher ferritin,” >26 ng/mL) blood donors. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Randomized, nonblinded clinical trial of blood donors stratified by ferritin level, sex, and age conducted in 4 regional blood centers in the United States in 2012. Included were 215 eligible participants aged 18 to 79 years who had not donated whole blood or red blood cells within 4 months. INTERVENTIONS One tablet of ferrous gluconate (37.5 mg of elemental iron) daily or no iron for 24 weeks (168 days) after donating a unit of whole blood (500 mL). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Time to recovery of 80% of the postdonation decrease in hemoglobin and recovery of ferritin level to baseline as a measure of iron stores. RESULTS The mean baseline hemoglobin levels were comparable in the iron and no-iron groups and declined from a mean (SD) of 13.4 (1.1) g/dL to 12.0 (1.2) g/dL after donation in the low-ferritin group and from 14.2 (1.1) g/dL to 12.9 (1.2) g/dL in the higher-ferritin group. Compared with participants who did not receive iron supplementation, those who received iron supplementation had shortened time to 80% hemoglobin recovery in both the low-ferritin and higher-ferritin groups. Recovery of iron stores in all participants who received supplements took a median of 76 days (IQR, 20–126); for participants not taking iron, median recovery time was longer than 168 days (IQR, 147->168 days; P < .001). Without iron supplements, 67% of participants did not recover iron stores by 168 days. Low-Ferritin Group (≤26 ng/mL) Higher-Ferritin Group (>26 ng

  4. The evaluation of iron deficiency and anemia in male blood donors with other related factors

    PubMed Central

    Yousefinejad, Vahid; Darvishi, Nazila; Arabzadeh, Masoumeh; Soori, Masoumeh; Magsudlu, Mahtab; Shafiayan, Madjid

    2010-01-01

    Aims and Background: Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional disorders worldwide and blood donation may cause iron depletion. Limited studies with large sample size have been done on male donors. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia among male donors in the Kurdistan Organization of Blood Transfusion in Iran. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Sample size was 1184 blood donors selected by systematic random sampling. Hemoglobin, serum iron, serum ferritin, total iron banding capacity (TIBC) and transferin saturation were measured in donors. Iron depletion, lack of iron stores, iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia and anemia were evaluated among them. Data was analyzed with SPSS software and X2, one-way ANOVA, and LSD test. Results: Iron deficiency, anemia, iron deficiency anemia, iron depletion and lack of iron resources were seen in 2.3, 4.08, 2.14, 22.76 and 4.66 percent respectively. There was a significant relationship of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia with instances of donation and interval from last donation (P < 0.05). A significant relationship was seen between iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia among blood donors with more than ten times blood donation (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study showed regular male donors require especial attention. Therefore, serum ferritin is recommended as a more adequate index to use for iron deficiency screening and planning purposes for iron supplementation among them. PMID:20859513

  5. Iron, phytoplankton growth, and the carbon cycle.

    PubMed

    Street, Joseph H; Paytan, Adina

    2005-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for all living organisms. Iron is required for the synthesis of chlorophyll and of several photosynthetic electron transport proteins and for the reduction of CO2, SO4(2-), and NO3(-) during the photosynthetic production of organic compounds. Iron concentrations in vast areas of the ocean are very low (<1 nM) due to the low solubility of iron in oxic seawater. Low iron concentrations have been shown to limit primary production rates, biomass accumulation, and ecosystem structure in a variety of open-ocean environments, including the equatorial Pacific, the subarctic Pacific and the Southern Ocean and even in some coastal areas. Oceanic primary production, the transfer of carbon dioxide into organic carbon by photosynthetic plankton (phytoplankton), is one process by which atmospheric CO2 can be transferred to the deep ocean and sequestered for long periods of time. Accordingly, iron limitation of primary producers likely plays a major role in the global carbon cycle. It has been suggested that variations in oceanic primary productivity, spurred by changes in the deposition of iron in atmospheric dust, control atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and hence global climate, over glacial-interglacial timescales. A contemporary application of this "iron hypothesis" promotes the large-scale iron fertilization of ocean regions as a means of enhancing the ability of the ocean to store anthropogenic CO2 and mitigate 21st century climate change. Recent in situ iron enrichment experiments in the HNLC regions, however, cast doubt on the efficacy and advisability of iron fertilization schemes. The experiments have confirmed the role of iron in regulating primary productivity, but resulted in only small carbon export fluxes to the depths necessary for long-term sequestration. Above all, these experiments and other studies of iron biogeochemistry over the last two decades have begun to illustrate the great complexity of the ocean system. Attempts to

  6. Flutter study of an advanced composite wing with external stores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Stanley R.; Rivera, Jose A., Jr.; Nagaraja, K. S.

    1987-01-01

    A flutter test using a scaled model of an advanced composite wing for a Navy attack aircraft has been conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The model was a wall-mounted half-span wing with a semi-span of 6.63 ft. The wing had an aspect ratio of 5.31, taper ratio of 0.312, and quarter-chord sweep of 25 degrees. The model was supported in a manner that simulated the load path in the carry-through structure of the aircraft and the symmetric boundary condition at the fuselage centerline. The model was capable of carrying external stores from three pylon locations on the wing. Flutter tests were conducted for the wing with and without external stores. No flutter was encountered for the clean wing at test conditions which simulated the scaled airplane operating envelope. Flutter boundaries were obtained for several external store configurations. The flutter boundaries for the fuel tanks were nearly Mach number independent (occurring at constant dynamic pressure). To study the aerodynamic effect of the fuel tank stores, pencil stores (slender cylindrical rods) which had the same mass and pitch and yaw inertia as the fuel tanks were tested on the model. These pencil store configurations exhibited a transonic dip in the flutter dynamic pressure, indicating that the aerodynamic effect of the actual fuel tanks on flutter was significant. Several flutter analyses methods were used in an attempt to predict the flutter phenomenon exhibited during the wind-tunnel test. The analysis gave satisfactory predictions of flutter for the pencil store configurations, but unsatisfactory correlation for the actual fuel tank configurations.

  7. Dysregulation of iron and copper homeostasis in nonalcoholic fatty liver

    PubMed Central

    Aigner, Elmar; Weiss, Günter; Datz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Elevated iron stores as indicated by hyperferritinemia with normal or mildly elevated transferrin saturation and mostly mild hepatic iron deposition are a characteristic finding in subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Excess iron is observed in approximately one third of NAFLD patients and is commonly referred to as the “dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome”. Clinical evidence suggests that elevated body iron stores aggravate the clinical course of NAFLD with regard to liver-related and extrahepatic disease complications which relates to the fact that excess iron catalyses the formation of toxic hydroxyl-radicals subsequently resulting in cellular damage. Iron removal improves insulin sensitivity, delays the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus, improves pathologic liver function tests and likewise ameliorates NAFLD histology. Several mechanisms contribute to pathologic iron accumulation in NAFLD. These include impaired iron export from hepatocytes and mesenchymal Kupffer cells as a consequence of imbalances in the concentrations of iron regulatory factors, such as hepcidin, cytokines, copper or other dietary factors. This review summarizes the knowledge about iron homeostasis in NAFLD and the rationale for its therapeutic implications. PMID:25729473

  8. Second international round robin for the quantification of serum non-transferrin-bound iron and labile plasma iron in patients with iron-overload disorders.

    PubMed

    de Swart, Louise; Hendriks, Jan C M; van der Vorm, Lisa N; Cabantchik, Z Ioav; Evans, Patricia J; Hod, Eldad A; Brittenham, Gary M; Furman, Yael; Wojczyk, Boguslaw; Janssen, Mirian C H; Porter, John B; Mattijssen, Vera E J M; Biemond, Bart J; MacKenzie, Marius A; Origa, Raffaella; Galanello, Renzo; Hider, Robert C; Swinkels, Dorine W

    2016-01-01

    Non-transferrin-bound iron and its labile (redox active) plasma iron component are thought to be potentially toxic forms of iron originally identified in the serum of patients with iron overload. We compared ten worldwide leading assays (6 for non-transferrin-bound iron and 4 for labile plasma iron) as part of an international inter-laboratory study. Serum samples from 60 patients with four different iron-overload disorders in various treatment phases were coded and sent in duplicate for analysis to five different laboratories worldwide. Some laboratories provided multiple assays. Overall, highest assay levels were observed for patients with untreated hereditary hemochromatosis and β-thalassemia intermedia, patients with transfusion-dependent myelodysplastic syndromes and patients with transfusion-dependent and chelated β-thalassemia major. Absolute levels differed considerably between assays and were lower for labile plasma iron than for non-transferrin-bound iron. Four assays also reported negative values. Assays were reproducible with high between-sample and low within-sample variation. Assays correlated and correlations were highest within the group of non-transferrin-bound iron assays and within that of labile plasma iron assays. Increased transferrin saturation, but not ferritin, was a good indicator of the presence of forms of circulating non-transferrin-bound iron. The possibility of using non-transferrin-bound iron and labile plasma iron measures as clinical indicators of overt iron overload and/or of treatment efficacy would largely depend on the rigorous validation and standardization of assays.

  9. Ferrokinetics: a biologic model for plasma iron exchange in man

    PubMed Central

    Cook, J. D.; Marsaglia, G.; Eschbach, J. W.; Funk, D. D.; Finch, C. A.

    1970-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating internal iron kinetics. An early reflux associated with extravascular exchange and a late reflux associated with erythropoiesis are described. A biologic model of iron exchange is proposed in which erythron iron turnover is divided into an effective portion (iron fixed in circulating red cells) and wastage iron of erythropoiesis (late reflux). Nonerythroid iron exchange also has a fixed portion (parenchymal uptake) and an early reflux (lymphatic circuit), both of which correlate in amount with the amount of plasma iron. Ferrokinetic measurements in normal subjects and in various pathologic states are presented to validate the model. PMID:5411779

  10. The nature of the meteoritic components of Apollo 16 soil, as inferred from correlations of iron, cobalt, iridium, and gold with nickel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    1987-01-01

    The Apollo 16 soil concentrations of Ni, Fe, Co, Ir, and Au were studied to determine the correlations with Ni. The correlations obtained indicate that the variation in the siderophile element concentrations in Apollo 16 soils result from the variation in the concentration of a Fe-Ni metal (with the mean composition of 5.6 pct Ni and 0.36 pct Co) that contributes about 0.4-0.5 pct to a typical soil from Apollo 16. It is shown that the siderophile elements of the 'ancient meteorite component' of Anders et al. (1973) and Hertogen et al. (1977) are located in the grains of Fe-Ni metal that in turn are contained in noritic impact melt breccias produced about 3.9 Ga ago. The ancient Fe-Ni is different from the metal of ordinary chondrites by having lower Ni/Co, Ir/Ni, and Ir/Au ratios. It is shown that Ni in the Apollo 16 soil is contributed approximately equally by the 'ancient meteorite component' and the 'micrometeorite component' (dominated by carbonaceous chondrites); however, most of the variation in Ni concentration results from the variation of the ancient Fe-Ni metal among samples of Apollo 16 soil.

  11. Increased duodenal DMT-1 expression and unchanged HFE mRNA levels in HFE-associated hereditary hemochromatosis and iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, V; Barrett, S; Ryan, E; Kelleher, T; O'Keane, C; Coughlan, B; Crowe, J

    2002-01-01

    HFE-associated hereditary hemochromatosis is characterized by imbalances of iron homeostasis and alterations in intestinal iron absorption. The identification of the HFE gene and the apical iron transporter divalent metal transporter-1, DMT-1, provide a direct method to address the mechanisms of iron overload in this disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the regulation of duodenal HFE and DMT-1 gene expression in HFE-associated hereditary hemochromatosis. Small bowel biopsies and serum iron indices were obtained from a total of 33 patients. The study population comprised 13 patients with hereditary hemochromatosis (C282Y homozygous), 10 patients with iron deficiency anemia, and 10 apparently healthy controls, all of whom were genotyped for the two common mutations in the HFE gene (C282Y and H63D). Total RNA was isolated from tissue and amplified via RT-PCR for HFE, DMT-1, and the internal control GAPDH. DMT-1 protein expression was additionally assessed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of HFE mRNA did not differ significantly between patient groups (P = 0.09), specifically between C282Y homozygotes and iron deficiency anemic patients, when compared to controls (P = 0.09, P = 0.9, respectively). In contrast, DMT-1 mRNA levels were at least twofold greater in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis and iron deficiency anemia when compared to controls (P = 0.02, P = 0.01, respectively). Heightened DMT-1 protein expression correlated with mRNA levels in all patients. Loss of HFE function in hereditary hemochromatosis is not derived from inhibition of its gene expression. DMT-1 expression in C282Y homozygote subjects is consistent with the hypothesis of a "paradoxical" duodenal iron deficiency in hereditary hemochromatosis. The observed twofold upregulation of the DMT-1 is consistent with the slow but steady increase in body iron stores observed in those presenting with clinical features of hereditary hemochromatosis.

  12. Adipocyte iron regulates leptin and food intake

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yan; Li, Zhonggang; Gabrielsen, J. Scott; Simcox, Judith A.; Lee, Soh-hyun; Jones, Deborah; Cooksey, Bob; Stoddard, Gregory; Cefalu, William T.; McClain, Donald A.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary iron supplementation is associated with increased appetite. Here, we investigated the effect of iron on the hormone leptin, which regulates food intake and energy homeostasis. Serum ferritin was negatively associated with serum leptin in a cohort of patients with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the same inverse correlation was observed in mice fed a high-iron diet. Adipocyte-specific loss of the iron exporter ferroportin resulted in iron loading and decreased leptin, while decreased levels of hepcidin in a murine hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) model increased adipocyte ferroportin expression, decreased adipocyte iron, and increased leptin. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with iron decreased leptin mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. We found that iron negatively regulates leptin transcription via cAMP-responsive element binding protein activation (CREB activation) and identified 2 potential CREB-binding sites in the mouse leptin promoter region. Mutation of both sites completely blocked the effect of iron on promoter activity. ChIP analysis revealed that binding of phosphorylated CREB is enriched at these two sites in iron-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared with untreated cells. Consistent with the changes in leptin, dietary iron content was also directly related to food intake, independently of weight. These findings indicate that levels of dietary iron play an important role in regulation of appetite and metabolism through CREB-dependent modulation of leptin expression. PMID:26301810

  13. Calibration of myocardial T2 and T1 against iron concentration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The assessment of myocardial iron using T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has been validated and calibrated, and is in clinical use. However, there is very limited data assessing the relaxation parameters T1 and T2 for measurement of human myocardial iron. Methods Twelve hearts were examined from transfusion-dependent patients: 11 with end-stage heart failure, either following death (n = 7) or cardiac transplantation (n = 4), and 1 heart from a patient who died from a stroke with no cardiac iron loading. Ex-vivo R1 and R2 measurements (R1 = 1/T1 and R2 = 1/T2) at 1.5 Tesla were compared with myocardial iron concentration measured using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Results From a single myocardial slice in formalin which was repeatedly examined, a modest decrease in T2 was observed with time, from mean (±SD) 23.7 ± 0.93 ms at baseline (13 days after death and formalin fixation) to 18.5 ± 1.41 ms at day 566 (p < 0.001). Raw T2 values were therefore adjusted to correct for this fall over time. Myocardial R2 was correlated with iron concentration [Fe] (R2 0.566, p < 0.001), but the correlation was stronger between LnR2 and Ln[Fe] (R2 0.790, p < 0.001). The relation was [Fe] = 5081•(T2)-2.22 between T2 (ms) and myocardial iron (mg/g dry weight). Analysis of T1 proved challenging with a dichotomous distribution of T1, with very short T1 (mean 72.3 ± 25.8 ms) that was independent of iron concentration in all hearts stored in formalin for greater than 12 months. In the remaining hearts stored for <10 weeks prior to scanning, LnR1 and iron concentration were correlated but with marked scatter (R2 0.517, p < 0.001). A linear relationship was present between T1 and T2 in the hearts stored for a short period (R2 0.657, p < 0.001). Conclusion Myocardial T2 correlates well with myocardial iron concentration, which raises the possibility that T2 may provide additive

  14. Geometric and electronic structure of the Mn(IV)Fe(III) cofactor in class Ic ribonucleotide reductase: correlation to the class Ia binuclear non-heme iron enzyme.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Yeonju; Jiang, Wei; Dassama, Laura M K; Park, Kiyoung; Bell, Caleb B; Liu, Lei V; Wong, Shaun D; Saito, Makina; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Shinji; Seto, Makoto; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Alp, E Ercan; Zhao, Jiyong; Bollinger, J Martin; Krebs, Carsten; Solomon, Edward I

    2013-11-20

    The class Ic ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) from Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) utilizes a Mn/Fe heterobinuclear cofactor, rather than the Fe/Fe cofactor found in the β (R2) subunit of the class Ia enzymes, to react with O2. This reaction produces a stable Mn(IV)Fe(III) cofactor that initiates a radical, which transfers to the adjacent α (R1) subunit and reacts with the substrate. We have studied the Mn(IV)Fe(III) cofactor using nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) and absorption (Abs)/circular dichroism (CD)/magnetic CD (MCD)/variable temperature, variable field (VTVH) MCD spectroscopies to obtain detailed insight into its geometric/electronic structure and to correlate structure with reactivity; NRVS focuses on the Fe(III), whereas MCD reflects the spin-allowed transitions mostly on the Mn(IV). We have evaluated 18 systematically varied structures. Comparison of the simulated NRVS spectra to the experimental data shows that the cofactor has one carboxylate bridge, with Mn(IV) at the site proximal to Phe127. Abs/CD/MCD/VTVH MCD data exhibit 12 transitions that are assigned as d-d and oxo and OH(-) to metal charge-transfer (CT) transitions. Assignments are based on MCD/Abs intensity ratios, transition energies, polarizations, and derivative-shaped pseudo-A term CT transitions. Correlating these results with TD-DFT calculations defines the Mn(IV)Fe(III) cofactor as having a μ-oxo, μ-hydroxo core and a terminal hydroxo ligand on the Mn(IV). From DFT calculations, the Mn(IV) at site 1 is necessary to tune the redox potential to a value similar to that of the tyrosine radical in class Ia RNR, and the OH(-) terminal ligand on this Mn(IV) provides a high proton affinity that could gate radical translocation to the α (R1) subunit.

  15. Geometric and Electronic Structure of the Mn(IV)Fe(III) Cofactor in Class Ic Ribonucleotide Reductase: Correlation to the Class Ia Binuclear Non-Heme Iron Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Yeonju; Jiang, Wei; Dassama, Laura M.K.; Park, Kiyoung; Bell, Caleb B.; Liu, Lei V.; Wong, Shaun D.; Saito, Makina; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Shinji; Seto, Makoto; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Alp, E. Ercan; Zhao, Jiyong; Bollinger, J Martin; Krebs, Carsten; Solomon, Edward I.

    2013-01-01

    The class Ic ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) from Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) utilizes a Mn/Fe hetero-binuclear cofactor, rather than the Fe/Fe cofactor found in the β (R2) subunit of the class Ia enzymes, to react with O2. This reaction produces a stable MnIVFeIII cofactor that initiates a radical, which transfers to the adjacent α (R1) subunit and reacts with the substrate. We have studied the MnIVFeIII cofactor using nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) and absorption (Abs) / circular dichroism (CD) / magnetic CD (MCD) / variable temperature, variable field (VTVH) MCD spectroscopies to obtain detailed insight into its geometric/electronic structure and to correlate structure with reactivity; NRVS focuses on the FeIII, whereas MCD reflects the spin-allowed transitions mostly on the MnIV. We have evaluated 18 systematically varied structures. Comparison of the simulated NRVS spectra to the experimental data shows that the cofactor has one carboxylate bridge, with MnIV at the site proximal to Phe127. Abs/CD/MCD/VTVH MCD data exhibit 12 transitions that are assigned as d-d, and oxo and OH− to metal charge transfer (CT) transitions. Assignments are based on MCD/Abs intensity ratios, transition energies, polarizations, and derivative-shaped pseudo-A term CT transitions. Correlating these results with TD-DFT calculations defines the MnIVFeIII cofactor as having a µ-oxo, µ-hydroxo core and a terminal hydroxo ligand on the MnIV. From DFT calculations, the MnIV at site 1 is necessary to tune the redox potential to a value similar to that of the tyrosine radical in class Ia RNR, and the OH− terminal ligand on this MnIV provides a high proton affinity that could gate radical translocation to the α (R1) subunit. PMID:24131208

  16. Dietary iron intake and serum ferritin concentration in 213 patients homozygous for the HFEC282Y hemochromatosis mutation

    PubMed Central

    Gordeuk, Victor R; Lovato, Laura; Barton, James C; Vitolins, Mara; McLaren, Gordon; Acton, Ronald T; McLaren, Christine; Harris, Emily L; Speechley, Mark; Eckfeldt, John H; Diaz, Sharmin; Sholinsky, Phyliss; Adams, Paul

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HFEC282Y homozygotes have an increased risk for developing increased iron stores and related disorders. It is controversial whether dietary iron restrictions should be recommended to such individuals. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether dietary iron content influences iron stores in HFEC282Y homozygotes as assessed by serum ferritin concentration. DESIGN: Serum ferritin concentration was measured and a dietary iron questionnaire was completed as part of the evaluation of 213 HFEC282Y homozygotes who were identified through screening of >100,000 primary care patients at five HEmochromatosis and IRon Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study Field Centers in the United States and Canada. RESULTS: No significant relationships between serum ferritin concentration and dietary heme iron content, dietary nonheme iron content or reports of supplemental iron use were found. CONCLUSION: These results do not support recommending dietary heme or nonheme iron restrictions for HFEC282Y homozygotes diagnosed through screening in North America. PMID:22720276

  17. Passive control of wing/store flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. H., III; Cazier, F. W., Jr.; Foughner, J. T., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for a passive flutter suppression approach known as the decoupler pylon. The decoupler pylon dynamically isolates the wing from store pitch inertia effects by means of soft spring/damper elements assisted by a low frequency feedback control system which minimizes static pitch deflections of the store because of maneuvers and changing flight conditions. Wind tunnel tests and analyses show that this relatively simple pylon suspension system provides substantial increases in flutter speed and reduces the sensitivity of flutter to changes in store inertia and center of gravity. Flutter characteristics of F-16 and YF-17 flutter models equipped with decoupler pylon mounted stores are presented and compared with results obtained on the same model configuration with active flutter suppression systems. These studies show both passive and active concepts to be effective in suppressing wing/store flutter. Also presented are data showing the influence of pylon stiffness nonlinearities on wing/store flutter.

  18. Signature-based store checking buffer

    DOEpatents

    Sridharan, Vilas; Gurumurthi, Sudhanva

    2015-06-02

    A system and method for optimizing redundant output verification, are provided. A hardware-based store fingerprint buffer receives multiple instances of output from multiple instances of computation. The store fingerprint buffer generates a signature from the content included in the multiple instances of output. When a barrier is reached, the store fingerprint buffer uses the signature to verify the content is error-free.

  19. Iron and alloys of iron. [lunar resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastri, Sankar

    1992-01-01

    All lunar soil contains iron in the metallic form, mostly as an iron-nickel alloy in concentrations of a few tenths of 1 percent. Some of this free iron can be easily separated by magnetic means. It is estimated that the magnetic separation of 100,000 tons of lunar soil would yield 150-200 tons of iron. Agglutinates contain metallic iron which could be extracted by melting and made into powder metallurgy products. The characteristics and potential uses of the pure-iron and iron-alloy lunar products are discussed. Processes for working iron that might be used in a nonterrestrial facility are also addressed.

  20. Helicopter in-flight stores jettison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Jahsman, Dirck; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1990-01-01

    A helicopter emergency external-stores jettison system accommodating an experimental simplified mounting system is presented. The system's conceptual approach is described, including store interface, attachment, functional mechanisms, and system initiation. It is novel both in the stores' mounting interface logic and in the modifications to existing technology for the components. Two nonfragmenting 'ridge cut' explosive bolts were mounted in each 600-pound store to interface with a simple plate on the aircraft. Starting designs with proven technology and functional margins were demonstrated by analysis and test through the design and development. Design details of the system's components, from the explosive bolt to the initiation handle, are described.

  1. Food storing and the hippocampus in Paridae.

    PubMed

    Healy, S D; Krebs, J R

    1996-01-01

    Food storing passerines have a larger hippocampus, relative to the rest of the telencephalon and/or body mass, than do non-storing species. This study looked at the relationship between relative size of the hippocampus and degree of food storing in six species of Paridae (blue tit, Parus caeruleus, great tit, P major, marsh tit, P palustris, coal tit, P ater, black-capped chickadee, P. atricapillus, and willow tit, P montanus). The degree of storing by these species varies from little or none to thousands of food items. The period over which food is stored also varies from a few hours to several months. The results showed that hippocampal volume, relative to the rest of the telencephalon, is larger in those species that store more food, store for longer, or both. In an analysis of intraspecific variation within two of the species, the food storing marsh tit and the non-storing blue tit, there was a significant positive relationship between hippocampal volume relative to body mass, and telencephalic volume relative to body mass, in the marsh tit but no relationship between these variables in the blue tit.

  2. Differential ferrioxamine test for measuring chelatable body iron

    PubMed Central

    Fielding, J.

    1965-01-01

    The differential ferrioxamine test is a simple method for the measurement of chelation of body iron by desferrioxamine. A single six-hour specimen of urine is obtained after intravenous Desferal, accompanied by 59Fe-ferrioxamine. Two values are measured: Fd, the excretion of ferrioxamine derived from body iron by chelation, and Fex, the proportion of ferrioxamine excreted from a known intravenous dose. The data enables Fv, chelation of iron in vivo, to be calculated by simple proportion. Desferrioxamine chelation proceeds for about half an hour after injection. The results in normal subjects, in cases with known high iron stores, and in cases of iron-deficiency anaemia are described. High, normal, and low body iron states have been differentiated. Fv values in the higher ranges obtained in iron-storage diseases and in haemolytic states are differentiated by the pattern of excretion, high Fd values and low Fex values respectively. It is suggested that there are two main sources of chelatable body iron: as ferritin-haemosiderin and as iron newly released from haem in a more readily chelatable form. The significance of variable chelation susceptibility in iron metabolism is briefly discussed. It is suggested that variable chelatability of different sources of body iron may explain the preferential utilization of iron released from red cells or absorbed from the intestine, rather than storage iron, in the biosynthesis of haem. PMID:14247711

  3. Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia

    PubMed Central

    Friedrisch, João Ricardo; Cançado, Rodolfo Delfini

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional iron deficiency anemia is the most common deficiency disorder, affecting more than two billion people worldwide. Oral iron supplementation is usually the first choice for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia, but in many conditions, oral iron is less than ideal mainly because of gastrointestinal adverse events and the long course needed to treat the disease and replenish body iron stores. Intravenous iron compounds consist of an iron oxyhydroxide core, which is surrounded by a carbohydrate shell made of polymers such as dextran, sucrose or gluconate. The first iron product for intravenous use was the high molecular weight iron dextran. However, dextran-containing intravenous iron preparations are associated with an elevated risk of anaphylactic reactions, which made physicians reluctant to use intravenous iron for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia over many years. Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose is a stable complex with the advantage of being non-dextran-containing and a very low immunogenic potential and therefore not predisposed to anaphylactic reactions. Its properties permit the administration of large doses (15 mg/kg; maximum of 1000 mg/infusion) in a single and rapid session (15-minute infusion) without the requirement of a test dose. The purpose of this review is to discuss some pertinent issues in relation to the history, pharmacology, administration, efficacy, and safety profile of ferric carboxymaltose in the treatment of patients with iron deficiency anemia. PMID:26670403

  4. Iron and iron derived radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fastexclamation Think smallexclamation In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Torpor and digestion in food-storing hibernators.

    PubMed

    Humphries, M M; Thomas, D W; Kramer, D L

    2001-01-01

    Many species of hibernating mammals rely on hoarded food rather than body fat to support winter energy requirements. Here, we evaluate whether the associated ingestive and digestive requirements reduce the benefits that food-storing hibernators can accrue from torpor. Using a simple model, we predict (1) that digestive efficiency could either increase or decrease with increased use of torpor, depending on the Q(10) of digestion relative to the Q(10) of whole-animal metabolism and (2) that increased torpor will result in a linear decrease in energy consumption but an exponential increase in euthermic intake requirements. In 16 captive eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), the proportion of time that different individuals spent in torpor was highly variable (29.8%+/-5.9%; 0.0%-86.3%), positively correlated with dry matter digestibility (r2=0.53, P=0.02) and negatively correlated with energy consumption (r2=0.72, P=0.002). Thus, by both increasing conversion efficiency and reducing energy requirements, torpor appears to provide a double benefit for energy conservation by food-storing hibernators. Despite this, a comparative analysis shows that the euthermic intervals of food-storing rodents are four times as long and torpor intervals are half as long as that of fat-storing rodents. Given that required euthermic intake rates are expected to increase exponentially at high levels of torpor, the reduced torpor expression of food-storing species may result from constraints on their ability to load enough food into the gut when euthermic to cover the energy requirements of the subsequent torpor cycle.

  6. Iron homeostasis: a new job for macrophages in adipose tissue?

    PubMed

    Hubler, Merla J; Peterson, Kristin R; Hasty, Alyssa H

    2015-02-01

    Elevated serum ferritin and increased cellular iron concentrations are risk factors for diabetes; however, the etiology of this association is unclear. Metabolic tissues such as pancreas, liver, and adipose tissue (AT), as well as the immune cells resident in these tissues, may be involved. Recent studies demonstrate that the polarization status of macrophages has important relevance to their iron-handling capabilities. Furthermore, a subset of macrophages in AT have elevated iron concentrations and a gene expression profile indicative of iron handling, a capacity diminished in obesity. Because iron overload in adipocytes increases systemic insulin resistance, iron handling by AT macrophages may have relevance not only to adipocyte iron stores but also to local and systemic insulin sensitivity.

  7. Iron homeostasis: a new job for macrophages in adipose tissue?

    PubMed Central

    Hubler, Merla J.; Peterson, Kristin R.; Hasty, Alyssa H.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated serum ferritin and increased cellular iron concentrations are risk factors for diabetes; however, the etiology of this association is unclear. Metabolic tissues such as pancreas, liver, and adipose tissue (AT), as well as the immune cells resident in these tissues, may be involved. Recent studies demonstrate that the polarization status of macrophages has important relevance to their iron handling capabilities. Furthermore, a subset of macrophages in AT have elevated iron concentrations and a gene expression profile indicative of iron handling, a capacity diminished in obesity. Because iron overload in adipocytes increases systemic insulin resistance, iron handling by AT macrophages may have relevance not only to adipocyte iron stores but also to local and systemic insulin sensitivity. PMID:25600948

  8. Correlates of anaemia in pregnant urban South Indian women: a possible role of dietary intake of nutrients that inhibit iron absorption

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Tinu Mary; Thomas, Tinku; Finkelstein, Julia; Bosch, Ronald; Rajendran, Ramya; Virtanen, Suvi M; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura V; Duggan, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify correlates of anaemia during the first trimester of pregnancy among 366 urban South Indian pregnant women. Design Cross-sectional study evaluating demographic, socio-economic, anthropometric and dietary intake data on haematological outcomes. Setting A government maternity health-care centre catering predominantly to the needs of pregnant women from the lower socio-economic strata of urban Bangalore. Subjects Pregnant women (n 366) aged ≥18 and ≤40 years, who registered for antenatal screening at ≤14 weeks of gestation. Results Mean age was 22.6 (SD 3.4) years, mean BMI was 20.4 (SD 3.3) kg/m2 and 236 (64.5%) of the pregnant women were primiparous. The prevalence of anaemia (Hb <11.0g/dl) was 30.3% and of microcytic anaemia (anaemia with mean corpuscular volume <80fl) 20.2%. Mean dietary intakes of energy, Ca, Fe and folate were well below the Indian RDA. In multivariable log-binomial regression analysis, anaemia was independently associated with high dietary intakes of Ca (relative risk; 95% CI: 1.79; 1.16, 2.76) and P (1.96; 1.31, 2.96) and high intake of meat, fish and poultry (1.94; 1.29, 2.91). Conclusions Low dietary intake of multiple micronutrients, but higher intakes of nutrients that inhibit Fe absorption such as Ca and P, may help explain high rates of maternal anaemia in India. PMID:22575487

  9. Storing Peanuts in Flexible Hermetically Sealed Containers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-shell peanuts stored in large bulk warehouses lose approximately 1.5-2% of their value. However, peanuts stored as long as nine months may lose as much as 5% of their value due to excessive moisture loss, a reduction of peanut kernel size and damage due to insects or microbial growth. Research h...

  10. Gauging triple stores with actual biological data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Semantic Web technologies have been developed to overcome the limitations of the current Web and conventional data integration solutions. The Semantic Web is expected to link all the data present on the Internet instead of linking just documents. One of the foundations of the Semantic Web technologies is the knowledge representation language Resource Description Framework (RDF). Knowledge expressed in RDF is typically stored in so-called triple stores (also known as RDF stores), from which it can be retrieved with SPARQL, a language designed for querying RDF-based models. The Semantic Web technologies should allow federated queries over multiple triple stores. In this paper we compare the efficiency of a set of biologically relevant queries as applied to a number of different triple store implementations. Results Previously we developed a library of queries to guide the use of our knowledge base Cell Cycle Ontology implemented as a triple store. We have now compared the performance of these queries on five non-commercial triple stores: OpenLink Virtuoso (Open-Source Edition), Jena SDB, Jena TDB, SwiftOWLIM and 4Store. We examined three performance aspects: the data uploading time, the query execution time and the scalability. The queries we had chosen addressed diverse ontological or biological questions, and we found that individual store performance was quite query-specific. We identified three groups of queries displaying similar behaviour across the different stores: 1) relatively short response time queries, 2) moderate response time queries and 3) relatively long response time queries. SwiftOWLIM proved to be a winner in the first group, 4Store in the second one and Virtuoso in the third one. Conclusions Our analysis showed that some queries behaved idiosyncratically, in a triple store specific manner, mainly with SwiftOWLIM and 4Store. Virtuoso, as expected, displayed a very balanced performance - its load time and its response time for all the

  11. Store-operate-coherence-on-value

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Ohmacht, Martin; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2014-11-18

    A system, method and computer program product for performing various store-operate instructions in a parallel computing environment that includes a plurality of processors and at least one cache memory device. A queue in the system receives, from a processor, a store-operate instruction that specifies under which condition a cache coherence operation is to be invoked. A hardware unit in the system runs the received store-operate instruction. The hardware unit evaluates whether a result of the running the received store-operate instruction satisfies the condition. The hardware unit invokes a cache coherence operation on a cache memory address associated with the received store-operate instruction if the result satisfies the condition. Otherwise, the hardware unit does not invoke the cache coherence operation on the cache memory device.

  12. Updating stored memory requires adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Pereira, Irene; Carrión, Ángel M

    2015-09-11

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis appears to influence hippocampal functions, such as memory formation for example. While adult hippocampal neurogenesis is known to be involved in hippocampal-dependent learning and consolidation processes, the role of such immature neurons in memory reconsolidation, a process involved in the modification of stored memories, remains unclear. Here, using a novel fast X-ray ablation protocol to deplete neurogenic cells, we have found that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is required to update object recognition stored memory more than to reinforce it. Indeed, we show that immature neurons were selectively recruited to hippocampal circuits during the updating of stored information. Thus, our data demonstrate a new role for neurogenesis in cognitive processes, adult hippocampal neurogenesis being required for the updating of stored OR memories. These findings suggest that manipulating adult neurogenesis may have a therapeutic application in conditions associated with traumatic stored memory, for example.

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores in dendritic spines

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Menahem; Korkotian, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Despite decades of research, the role of calcium stores in dendritic spines structure, function and plasticity is still debated. The reasons for this may have to do with the multitude of overlapping calcium handling machineries in the neuron, including stores, voltage and ligand gated channels, pumps and transporters. Also, different cells in the brain are endowed with calcium stores that are activated by different receptor types, and their differential compartmentalization in dendrites, spines and presynaptic terminals complicates their analysis. In the present review we address several key issues, including the role of calcium stores in synaptic plasticity, their role during development, in stress and in neurodegenerative diseases. Apparently, there is increasing evidence for a crucial role of calcium stores, especially of the ryanodine species, in synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival. PMID:25071469

  14. Updating stored memory requires adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Pereira, Irene; Carrión, Ángel M

    2015-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis appears to influence hippocampal functions, such as memory formation for example. While adult hippocampal neurogenesis is known to be involved in hippocampal-dependent learning and consolidation processes, the role of such immature neurons in memory reconsolidation, a process involved in the modification of stored memories, remains unclear. Here, using a novel fast X-ray ablation protocol to deplete neurogenic cells, we have found that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is required to update object recognition stored memory more than to reinforce it. Indeed, we show that immature neurons were selectively recruited to hippocampal circuits during the updating of stored information. Thus, our data demonstrate a new role for neurogenesis in cognitive processes, adult hippocampal neurogenesis being required for the updating of stored OR memories. These findings suggest that manipulating adult neurogenesis may have a therapeutic application in conditions associated with traumatic stored memory, for example. PMID:26358557

  15. Observation of Field-Emission Dependence on Stored Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Jiahang; Antipov, Sergey P.; Baryshev, Sergey V.; Chen, Huaibi; Conde, Manoel; Doran, Darrell S.; Gai, Wei; Jing, Chunguang; Liu, Wanming; Power, John; Qiu, Jiaqi; Shi, Jiaru; Wang, Dan; Wang, Faya; Whiteford, Charles E.; Wisniewski, Eric; Xiao, Liling

    2015-12-01

    Field emission from a solid metal surface has been continuously studied for a century over macroscopic to atomic scales. It is general knowledge that, other than the surface properties, the emitted current is governed solely by the applied electric field. A pin cathode has been used to study the dependence of field emission on stored energy in an L -band rf gun. The stored energy was changed by adjusting the axial position (distance between the cathode base and the gun back surface) of the cathode while the applied electric field on the cathode tip is kept constant. A very strong correlation of the field-emission current with the stored energy has been observed. While eliminating all possible interfering sources, an enhancement of the current by a factor of 5 was obtained as the stored energy was increased by a factor of 3. It implies that under certain circumstances a localized field emission may be significantly altered by the global parameters in a system.

  16. Observation of Field-Emission Dependence on Stored Energy.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jiahang; Antipov, Sergey P; Baryshev, Sergey V; Chen, Huaibi; Conde, Manoel; Doran, Darrell S; Gai, Wei; Jing, Chunguang; Liu, Wanming; Power, John; Qiu, Jiaqi; Shi, Jiaru; Wang, Dan; Wang, Faya; Whiteford, Charles E; Wisniewski, Eric; Xiao, Liling

    2015-12-31

    Field emission from a solid metal surface has been continuously studied for a century over macroscopic to atomic scales. It is general knowledge that, other than the surface properties, the emitted current is governed solely by the applied electric field. A pin cathode has been used to study the dependence of field emission on stored energy in an L-band rf gun. The stored energy was changed by adjusting the axial position (distance between the cathode base and the gun back surface) of the cathode while the applied electric field on the cathode tip is kept constant. A very strong correlation of the field-emission current with the stored energy has been observed. While eliminating all possible interfering sources, an enhancement of the current by a factor of 5 was obtained as the stored energy was increased by a factor of 3. It implies that under certain circumstances a localized field emission may be significantly altered by the global parameters in a system. PMID:26764996

  17. Hydrogen-storing hydride complexes

    DOEpatents

    Srinivasan, Sesha S.; Niemann, Michael U.; Goswami, D. Yogi; Stefanakos, Elias K.

    2012-04-10

    A ternary hydrogen storage system having a constant stoichiometric molar ratio of LiNH.sub.2:MgH.sub.2:LiBH.sub.4 of 2:1:1. It was found that the incorporation of MgH.sub.2 particles of approximately 10 nm to 20 nm exhibit a lower initial hydrogen release temperature of 150.degree. C. Furthermore, it is observed that the particle size of LiBNH quaternary hydride has a significant effect on the hydrogen sorption concentration with an optimum size of 28 nm. The as-synthesized hydrides exhibit two main hydrogen release temperatures, one around 160.degree. C. and the other around 300.degree. C., with the main hydrogen release temperature reduced from 310.degree. C. to 270.degree. C., while hydrogen is first reversibly released at temperatures as low as 150.degree. C. with a total hydrogen capacity of 6 wt. % to 8 wt. %. Detailed thermal, capacity, structural and microstructural properties have been demonstrated and correlated with the activation energies of these materials.

  18. Macrophage iron homeostasis and polarization in the context of cancer.

    PubMed

    Jung, Michaela; Mertens, Christina; Brüne, Bernhard

    2015-02-01

    Macrophages are central in regulating iron homeostasis, which is tightly linked to their versatile role during innate immunity. They sequester iron by phagocytosis of senescent erythrocytes and represent a major source of available iron in the body. Macrophage iron homeostasis is coupled to the functional heterogeneity and plasticity of these cells, with their extreme roles during inflammation, immune modulation, and resolution of inflammation. It is now appreciated that the macrophage polarization process dictates expression profiles of genes involved in iron metabolism. Therefore, macrophages have evolved a multitude of mechanisms to sequester, transport, store, and release iron. A new, enigmatic protein entering the iron scene and affecting the macrophage phenotype is lipocalin-2. Iron sequestration in macrophages depletes the microenvironment, thereby limiting extracellular pathogen or tumor growth, while fostering inflammation. In contrast, iron release from macrophages contributes to bystander cell proliferation, which is important for tissue regeneration and repair. This dichotomy is also reflected by the dual role of lipocalin-2 in macrophages. Unfortunately, the iron release macrophage phenotype is also a characteristic of tumor-associated macrophages and stimulates tumor cell survival and growth. Iron sequestration versus its release is now appreciated to be associated with the macrophage polarization program and can be used to explain a number of biological functions attributed to distinct macrophage phenotypes. Here we discuss macrophage iron homeostasis with a special focus on lipocalin-2 related to the formation and function of tumor-associated macrophages.

  19. Measuring the healthfulness of food retail stores: variations by store type and neighbourhood deprivation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The consumer nutrition environment has been conceptualised as in-store environmental factors that influence food shopping habits. More healthful in-store environments could be characterised as those which promote healthful food choices such as selling good quality healthy foods or placing them in prominent locations to prompt purchasing. Research measuring the full-range of in-store environmental factors concurrently is limited. Purpose To develop a summary score of ‘healthfulness’ composed of nine in-store factors that influence food shopping behaviour, and to assess this score by store type and neighbourhood deprivation. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 601 retail food stores, including supermarkets, grocery stores and convenience stores, was completed in Hampshire, United Kingdom between July 2010 and June 2011. The survey measured nine variables (variety, price, quality, promotions, shelf placement, store placement, nutrition information, healthier alternatives and single fruit sale) to assess the healthfulness of retail food stores on seven healthy and five less healthy foods that are markers of diet quality. Four steps were completed to create nine individual variable scores and another three to create an overall score of healthfulness for each store. Results Analysis of variance showed strong evidence of a difference in overall healthfulness by store type (p < 0.001). Large and premium supermarkets offered the most healthful shopping environments for consumers. Discount supermarkets, ‘world’, convenience and petrol stores offered less healthful environments to consumers however there was variation across the healthfulness spectrum. No relationship between overall healthfulness and neighbourhood deprivation was observed (p = 0.1). Conclusions A new composite measure of nine variables that can influence food choices was developed to provide an overall assessment of the healthfulness of retail food stores. This composite score could be

  20. Effect of repeated phlebotomy on iron status of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Mandell, C P; George, J W

    1991-05-01

    Iron status, as determined by hematologic values, serum iron concentration, total iron-binding capacity, and zinc protoporphyrin concentration, was determined in 2 groups of 6 nonpregnant monkeys. Monkeys of groups 1 and 2 had 10 and 5%, respectively, of their blood volume withdrawn per week for up to 10 weeks or until blood hemoglobin concentration was less than or equal to 10 g/dl. A third group of 6 monkeys served as controls. The majority (8/12) of the monkeys became anemic (hemoglobin concentration, less than or equal to 10 g/dl) after approximately 30 to 70% (mean, 49%) of their blood volume was removed. Anemia was accompanied by decrease in serum iron concentration and percentage of transferrin saturation. Microcytosis, hypochromasia, and increased zinc protoporphyrin concentration, all hematologic characteristics of iron deficiency, developed later. The calculated iron stores ranged from 1 to 133 mg, with mean value of 51 mg. Iron-depleted monkeys had mean calculated available iron store of 20.8 mg, whereas iron-replete monkeys had mean available iron store of 114.0 mg. Changes were not observed in monkeys of the control group during the study period. None of the baseline hematologic or biochemical analytes measured were good predictors of iron stores. The diet used at the research center did not provide sufficient iron to prevent iron deficiency in most of the monkeys from which a total amount of 30 to 70% of blood volume at 5 or 10%/week was withdrawn. Studies requiring that much blood may need to be modified to include iron supplementation, reduction of sample volume, or iron replacement after termination of projects. PMID:1854097

  1. NASA Armstrong's Approach to Store Separation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuff, Chris; Bui, Trong

    2015-01-01

    Presentation will an overview of NASA Armstrong's store separation capabilities and how they have been applied recently. Objective of the presentation is to brief Generation Orbit and other potential partners on NASA Armstrong's store separation capabilities. It will include discussions on the use of NAVSEP and Cart3D, as well as some Python scripting work to perform the analysis, and a short overview of this methodology applied to the Towed Glider Air Launch System. Collaboration with potential customers in this area could lead to funding for the further development of a store separation capability at NASA Armstrong, which would boost the portfolio of engineering expertise at the center.

  2. A four-helix bundle stores copper for methane oxidation.

    PubMed

    Vita, Nicolas; Platsaki, Semeli; Baslé, Arnaud; Allen, Stephen J; Paterson, Neil G; Crombie, Andrew T; Murrell, J Colin; Waldron, Kevin J; Dennison, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    Methane-oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs) require large quantities of copper for the membrane-bound (particulate) methane monooxygenase. Certain methanotrophs are also able to switch to using the iron-containing soluble methane monooxygenase to catalyse methane oxidation, with this switchover regulated by copper. Methane monooxygenases are nature's primary biological mechanism for suppressing atmospheric levels of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Furthermore, methanotrophs and methane monooxygenases have enormous potential in bioremediation and for biotransformations producing bulk and fine chemicals, and in bioenergy, particularly considering increased methane availability from renewable sources and hydraulic fracturing of shale rock. Here we discover and characterize a novel copper storage protein (Csp1) from the methanotroph Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b that is exported from the cytosol, and stores copper for particulate methane monooxygenase. Csp1 is a tetramer of four-helix bundles with each monomer binding up to 13 Cu(I) ions in a previously unseen manner via mainly Cys residues that point into the core of the bundle. Csp1 is the first example of a protein that stores a metal within an established protein-folding motif. This work provides a detailed insight into how methanotrophs accumulate copper for the oxidation of methane. Understanding this process is essential if the wide-ranging biotechnological applications of methanotrophs are to be realized. Cytosolic homologues of Csp1 are present in diverse bacteria, thus challenging the dogma that such organisms do not use copper in this location. PMID:26308900

  3. A four-helix bundle stores copper for methane oxidation.

    PubMed

    Vita, Nicolas; Platsaki, Semeli; Baslé, Arnaud; Allen, Stephen J; Paterson, Neil G; Crombie, Andrew T; Murrell, J Colin; Waldron, Kevin J; Dennison, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    Methane-oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs) require large quantities of copper for the membrane-bound (particulate) methane monooxygenase. Certain methanotrophs are also able to switch to using the iron-containing soluble methane monooxygenase to catalyse methane oxidation, with this switchover regulated by copper. Methane monooxygenases are nature's primary biological mechanism for suppressing atmospheric levels of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Furthermore, methanotrophs and methane monooxygenases have enormous potential in bioremediation and for biotransformations producing bulk and fine chemicals, and in bioenergy, particularly considering increased methane availability from renewable sources and hydraulic fracturing of shale rock. Here we discover and characterize a novel copper storage protein (Csp1) from the methanotroph Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b that is exported from the cytosol, and stores copper for particulate methane monooxygenase. Csp1 is a tetramer of four-helix bundles with each monomer binding up to 13 Cu(I) ions in a previously unseen manner via mainly Cys residues that point into the core of the bundle. Csp1 is the first example of a protein that stores a metal within an established protein-folding motif. This work provides a detailed insight into how methanotrophs accumulate copper for the oxidation of methane. Understanding this process is essential if the wide-ranging biotechnological applications of methanotrophs are to be realized. Cytosolic homologues of Csp1 are present in diverse bacteria, thus challenging the dogma that such organisms do not use copper in this location.

  4. Pharmacology of Iron Transport

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Shaina L.; Krishnamurthy, Divya; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating the molecular basis for the regulation of iron uptake, storage, and distribution is necessary to understand iron homeostasis. Pharmacological tools are emerging to identify and distinguish among different iron transport pathways. Stimulatory or inhibitory small molecules with effects on iron uptake can help characterize the mechanistic elements of iron transport and the roles of the transporters involved in these processes. In particular, iron chelators can serve as potential pharmacological tools to alleviate diseases of iron overload. This review focuses on the pharmacology of iron transport, introducing iron transport membrane proteins and known inhibitors. PMID:23020294

  5. Iron absorption from typical Latin American diets.

    PubMed

    Acosta, A; Amar, M; Cornbluth-Szarfarc, S C; Dillman, E; Fosil, M; Biachi, R G; Grebe, G; Hertrampf, E; Kremenchuzky, S; Layrisse, M

    1984-06-01

    The availability and daily absorption of iron was determined by the extrinsic label method in typical lower middle to lower class diets consumed in regions of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela. Differences in iron absorption from meals up to 7-fold, could be attributed to the varying contents of absorption enhancers, eg, in meat, and of inhibitors in tea, vegetables, and wheat or maize bread. The total iron available in the diets from four countries did not meet the physiological requirements for normal subjects but deficient subjects fulfilled their requirements absorbing from 1.0 to 2.1 mg/day. In five diets heme iron (6 to 24% of the total) provided 34 to 73% of the iron absorbed. These data suggest that such absorption and utilization studies may be used to correlate the prevalence of iron deficiency in a population with certain diets and to guide fortification programs.

  6. Identifying the Threshold of Iron Deficiency in the Central Nervous System of the Rat by the Auditory Brainstem Response

    PubMed Central

    Greminger, Allison R.

    2015-01-01

    The deleterious effects of anemia on auditory nerve (AN) development have been well investigated; however, we have previously reported that significant functional consequences in the auditory brainstem response (ABR) can also occur as a consequence of marginal iron deficiency (ID). As the ABR has widespread clinical use, we evaluated the ability of this electrophysiological method to characterize the threshold of tissue ID in rats by examining the relationship between markers of tissue ID and severity of ABR latency defects. To generate various levels of ID, female Long-Evans rats were exposed to diets containing sufficient, borderline, or deficient iron (Fe) concentrations throughout gestation and offspring lifetime. We measured hematological indices of whole body iron stores in dams and offspring to assess the degree of ID. Progression of AN ID in the offspring was measured as ferritin protein levels at different times during postnatal development to complement ABR functional measurements. The severity of ABR deficits correlated with the level of Fe restriction in each diet. The sufficient Fe diet did not induce AN ID and consequently did not show an impaired ABR latency response. The borderline Fe diet, which depleted AN Fe stores but did not cause systemic anemia resulted in significantly increased ABR latency isolated to Peak I.The low Fe diet, which induced anemia and growth retardation, significantly increased ABR latencies of Peaks I to IV. Our findings indicate that changes in the ABR could be related to various degrees of ID experienced throughout development. PMID:25732706

  7. Estimation of dietary iron bioavailability from food iron intake and iron status.

    PubMed

    Dainty, Jack R; Berry, Rachel; Lynch, Sean R; Harvey, Linda J; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    Currently there are no satisfactory methods for estimating dietary iron absorption (bioavailability) at a population level, but this is essential for deriving dietary reference values using the factorial approach. The aim of this work was to develop a novel approach for estimating dietary iron absorption using a population sample from a sub-section of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS). Data were analyzed in 873 subjects from the 2000-2001 adult cohort of the NDNS, for whom both dietary intake data and hematological measures (hemoglobin and serum ferritin (SF) concentrations) were available. There were 495 men aged 19-64 y (mean age 42.7±12.1 y) and 378 pre-menopausal women (mean age 35.7±8.2 y). Individual dietary iron requirements were estimated using the Institute of Medicine calculations. A full probability approach was then applied to estimate the prevalence of dietary intakes that were insufficient to meet the needs of the men and women separately, based on their estimated daily iron intake and a series of absorption values ranging from 1-40%. The prevalence of SF concentrations below selected cut-off values (indicating that absorption was not high enough to maintain iron stores) was derived from individual SF concentrations. An estimate of dietary iron absorption required to maintain specified SF values was then calculated by matching the observed prevalence of insufficiency with the prevalence predicted for the series of absorption estimates. Mean daily dietary iron intakes were 13.5 mg for men and 9.8 mg for women. Mean calculated dietary absorption was 8% in men (50th percentile for SF 85 µg/L) and 17% in women (50th percentile for SF 38 µg/L). At a ferritin level of 45 µg/L estimated absorption was similar in men (14%) and women (13%). This new method can be used to calculate dietary iron absorption at a population level using data describing total iron intake and SF concentration. PMID:25356629

  8. Influence of iron and zinc status on cadmium accumulation in Bangladeshi women

    SciTech Connect

    Kippler, Maria; Ekstroem, Eva-Charlotte; Loennerdal, Bo; Goessler, Walter; Akesson, Agneta; El Arifeen, Shams; Persson, Lars-Ake; Vahter, Marie . E-mail: Marie.Vahter@ki.se

    2007-07-15

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental contaminant present in food. The absorption in the intestine increases in individuals with low iron stores, but the effect of zinc deficiency is not clear. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of iron and zinc status on cadmium accumulation in pregnant Bangladeshi women. We measured cadmium in urine from 890 women using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Further, we also measured ferritin and zinc in plasma. The median cadmium concentration in urine was 0.59 {mu}g/L (adjusted to mean specific gravity of 1.012 g/mL). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that urinary cadmium was associated with plasma ferritin and plasma zinc via a significant interaction between dichotomized plasma ferritin and plasma zinc. The analysis was adjusted for age and socioeconomic status. Women with low iron stores and adequate zinc status had significantly higher urinary cadmium compared to women with both adequate iron stores and zinc status. There was no difference in urinary cadmium between women with both low iron stores and zinc status compared to those with both adequate iron stores and zinc status. In conclusion, low iron stores were associated with increased cadmium accumulation, but only at adequate zinc status.

  9. Availability of Medical and Recreational Marijuana Stores and Neighborhood Characteristics in Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuyan; Meseck, Kristin; Jankowska, Marta M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To examine the availability of marijuana stores in Colorado and associations with neighborhood characteristics. Methods. The addresses for 650 medical and recreational marijuana stores were geocoded and linked to the characteristics of 1249 census tracts in Colorado. Accounting for spatial autocorrelations, autologistic regressions were used to quantify the associations of census tract socioeconomic characteristics with the availability of marijuana stores. Results. Regardless of store types, marijuana stores were more likely to locate in neighborhoods that had a lower proportion of young people, had a higher proportion of racial and ethnic minority population, had a lower household income, had a higher crime rate, or had a greater density of on-premise alcohol outlets. The availability of medical and recreational marijuana stores was differentially correlated with household income and racial and ethnic composition. Conclusions. Neighborhood disparities existed in the availability of marijuana stores, and associations between availability of stores and neighborhood characteristics varied by store types. This study highlighted the need for regulatory measures to prevent marijuana related outcomes in high risk neighborhoods. PMID:27213075

  10. [The frequency and development of tissue iron deficiency in 6 iron deficiency anemia patients with plummer-vinson syndrome].

    PubMed

    Uchida, T; Matsuno, M; Ide, M; Kawachi, Y

    1998-11-01

    The physical signs of tissue iron deficiency include smooth and red tongue, angular stomatitis, koilonychia, and pica. The incidence of these conditions is unknown in Japan. We evaluated the frequency and development of tissue iron deficiency in 353 patients with iron deficiency anemia. The frequency of tissue iron deficiency was 6.8%; papillary atrophy of the tongue, 5.4%; abnormal nails, 5.4%; angular stomatitis, 1.1%; Plummer-Vinson syndrome, 1.7%; and pica, 0.06%. These findings were compared with the date collected by Wintrobe and Beveridge. The development and incidence of tissue iron deficiency correlated significantly with the severity of iron deficiency anemia.

  11. Effects of training and iron supplementation on iron status of cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Pattini, A; Schena, F

    1990-12-01

    We have studied the effects of iron treatment on iron deficient cross-country skiers. Kind and duration of their daily training were also considered. Forty-eight athletes were divided in three balanced groups: Group A received 160 mg ferritinic iron/die, Group B received the same amount of iron and 1 gr of ascorbic acid and Group C was untreated. Blood samples were taken at the start, after two months and four months of supplementation. Hematological and iron status parameters were determined. Average training duration was 80 min a day. Running was the most frequent method of training but also roll and country skiing were commonly used. At the initial sample low serum ferritin values were found in all the three groups (Group A = 23.3 micrograms/l, Group B = 20.9 micrograms/l and Group C = 23.5 micrograms/l). After iron treatment serum ferritin increased in Groups A and B (+67.8% and +63.6% respectively) but was slightly reduced in Group C. Serum iron was unchanged and total iron binding capacity decreased following ferritin increase. Ascorbic acid failed to increase iron absorption in Group B. A significant reduction of haptoglobin (-14% and -9% in Group A and B respectively) was also documented. We conclude that cross-country skiers extensively use running in their training and it may be one of the cause of their poor iron status. Ferritinic iron treatment seems to be effective in replacing iron stores in cross-country skiers who underwent heavy training.

  12. Iron uptake and transport across physiological barriers.

    PubMed

    Duck, Kari A; Connor, James R

    2016-08-01

    Iron is an essential element for human development. It is a major requirement for cellular processes such as oxygen transport, energy metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis, and myelin synthesis. Despite its crucial role in these processes, iron in the ferric form can also produce toxic reactive oxygen species. The duality of iron's function highlights the importance of maintaining a strict balance of iron levels in the body. As a result, organisms have developed elegant mechanisms of iron uptake, transport, and storage. This review will focus on the mechanisms that have evolved at physiological barriers, such as the intestine, the placenta, and the blood-brain barrier (BBB), where iron must be transported. Much has been written about the processes for iron transport across the intestine and the placenta, but less is known about iron transport mechanisms at the BBB. In this review, we compare the established pathways at the intestine and the placenta as well as describe what is currently known about iron transport at the BBB and how brain iron uptake correlates with processes at these other physiological barriers. PMID:27457588

  13. Stored energy in irradiated silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, L.L.; Burchell, T.D.

    1997-04-01

    This report presents a short review of the phenomenon of Wigner stored energy release from irradiated graphite and discusses it in relation to neutron irradiation of silicon carbide. A single published work in the area of stored energy release in SiC is reviewed and the results are discussed. It appears from this previous work that because the combination of the comparatively high specific heat of SiC and distribution in activation energies for recombining defects, the stored energy release of SiC should only be a problem at temperatures lower than those considered for fusion devices. The conclusion of this preliminary review is that the stored energy release in SiC will not be sufficient to cause catastrophic heating in fusion reactor components, though further study would be desirable.

  14. Retailing: Careers in the Department Store Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Gail M.

    1982-01-01

    The retailing industry is overviewed and executive training programs are detailed. Jobs in retailing are described: merchandising, department manager, assistant buyer, buyer, merchandise manager, and store manager. Also discussed are operations, financial control, and personnel management. (CT)

  15. Measurement of liver iron overload: noninvasive calibration of MRI-R2* by magnetic iron detector susceptometer.

    PubMed

    Gianesin, B; Zefiro, D; Musso, M; Rosa, A; Bruzzone, C; Balocco, M; Carrara, P; Bacigalupo, L; Banderali, S; Rollandi, G A; Gambaro, M; Marinelli, M; Forni, G L

    2012-06-01

    An accurate assessment of body iron accumulation is essential for the diagnosis and therapy of iron overload in diseases such as thalassemia or hemochromatosis. Magnetic iron detector susceptometry and MRI are noninvasive techniques capable of detecting iron overload in the liver. Although the transverse relaxation rate measured by MRI can be correlated with the presence of iron, a calibration step is needed to obtain the liver iron concentration. Magnetic iron detector provides an evaluation of the iron overload in the whole liver. In this article, we describe a retrospective observational study comparing magnetic iron detector and MRI examinations performed on the same group of 97 patients with transfusional or congenital iron overload. A biopsy-free linear calibration to convert the average transverse relaxation rate in iron overload (R(2) = 0.72), or in liver iron concentration evaluated in wet tissue (R(2) = 0.68), is presented. This article also compares liver iron concentrations calculated in dry tissue using MRI and the existing biopsy calibration with liver iron concentrations evaluated in wet tissue by magnetic iron detector to obtain an estimate of the wet-to-dry conversion factor of 6.7 ± 0.8 (95% confidence level).

  16. Ferrous iron formation following the co-aggregation of ferric iron and the Alzheimer's disease peptide β-amyloid (1–42)

    PubMed Central

    Everett, J.; Céspedes, E.; Shelford, L. R.; Exley, C.; Collingwood, J. F.; Dobson, J.; van der Laan, G.; Jenkins, C. A.; Arenholz, E.; Telling, N. D.

    2014-01-01

    For decades, a link between increased levels of iron and areas of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology has been recognized, including AD lesions comprised of the peptide β-amyloid (Aβ). Despite many observations of this association, the relationship between Aβ and iron is poorly understood. Using X-ray microspectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, electron microscopy and spectrophotometric iron(II) quantification techniques, we examine the interaction between Aβ(1–42) and synthetic iron(III), reminiscent of ferric iron stores in the brain. We report Aβ to be capable of accumulating iron(III) within amyloid aggregates, with this process resulting in Aβ-mediated reduction of iron(III) to a redox-active iron(II) phase. Additionally, we show that the presence of aluminium increases the reductive capacity of Aβ, enabling the redox cycling of the iron. These results demonstrate the ability of Aβ to accumulate iron, offering an explanation for previously observed local increases in iron concentration associated with AD lesions. Furthermore, the ability of iron to form redox-active iron phases from ferric precursors provides an origin both for the redox-active iron previously witnessed in AD tissue, and the increased levels of oxidative stress characteristic of AD. These interactions between Aβ and iron deliver valuable insights into the process of AD progression, which may ultimately provide targets for disease therapies. PMID:24671940

  17. Store tobacco policies: a survey of store managers, California, 1996-1997

    PubMed Central

    Weinbaum, Z.; Quinn, V.; Rogers, T.; Roeseler, A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To identify store tobacco policies and retailer perception and beliefs that may have contributed to changes in compliance with youth access laws in California.
DESIGN—In the winter of 1996-7, a cross sectional, follow up telephone survey was conducted of California store managers whose stores were anonymously surveyed for illegal tobacco sales in the summer of 1996 (that is, 1996 Youth Tobacco Purchase Survey, YTPS).
SETTING—A simple random sample of stores from a list of California stores likely to sell tobacco, used in the 1996 YTPS.
PARTICIPANTS—334 managers (77%) of the 434 stores surveyed in 1996 responded to the survey. After eliminating stores that stopped selling tobacco or were under new management or ownership, 320 responses of store managers were included in the analysis. The stores were analysed by type of ownership: chain, which included corporate managed (n = 61); franchise owned (n = 56); and independent (n = 203).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Responses of store managers were linked with the 1996 YTPS outcomes. Manager responses were compared by χ2 tests. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify store factors associated with illegal tobacco sales.
RESULTS—A lower likelihood of illegal sales rate was associated with the chain stores when compared with the independent stores (odds ratio (OR) = 0.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.2 to 0.9). A lower likelihood of illegal tobacco sales was found in stores that implemented tobacco related activities in the previous year such as changing tobacco displays (OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.9) or adding new warning signs (OR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.4 to 1.2). Store managers' beliefs that youth were sent to their stores to do compliance checks also resulted in a lower likelihood of illegal sales (OR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.4 to 1.1).
CONCLUSIONS—Store tobacco youth access policies, and managers' beliefs about the extent of youth access enforcement in the

  18. Iron Deficiency Anemia: A Common and Curable Disease

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jeffery L.

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia arises when the balance of iron intake, iron stores, and the body's loss of iron are insufficient to fully support production of erythrocytes. Iron deficiency anemia rarely causes death, but the impact on human health is significant. In the developed world, this disease is easily identified and treated, but frequently overlooked by physicians. In contrast, it is a health problem that affects major portions of the population in underdeveloped countries. Overall, the prevention and successful treatment for iron deficiency anemia remains woefully insufficient worldwide, especially among underprivileged women and children. Here, clinical and laboratory features of the disease are discussed, and then focus is placed on relevant economic, environmental, infectious, and genetic factors that converge among global populations. PMID:23613366

  19. SIRT3 regulates cellular iron metabolism and cancer growth by repressing iron regulatory protein 1.

    PubMed

    Jeong, S M; Lee, J; Finley, L W S; Schmidt, P J; Fleming, M D; Haigis, M C

    2015-04-16

    Iron metabolism is essential for many cellular processes, including oxygen transport, respiration and DNA synthesis, and many cancer cells exhibit dysregulation in iron metabolism. Maintenance of cellular iron homeostasis is regulated by iron regulatory proteins (IRPs), which control the expression of iron-related genes by binding iron-responsive elements (IREs) of target mRNAs. Here, we report that mitochondrial SIRT3 regulates cellular iron metabolism by modulating IRP1 activity. SIRT3 loss increases reactive oxygen species production, leading to elevated IRP1 binding to IREs. As a consequence, IRP1 target genes, such as the transferrin receptor (TfR1), a membrane-associated glycoprotein critical for iron uptake and cell proliferation, are controlled by SIRT3. Importantly, SIRT3 deficiency results in a defect in cellular iron homeostasis. SIRT3 null cells contain high levels of iron and lose iron-dependent TfR1 regulation. Moreover, SIRT3 null mice exhibit higher levels of iron and TfR1 expression in the pancreas. We found that the regulation of iron uptake and TfR1 expression contribute to the tumor-suppressive activity of SIRT3. Indeed, SIRT3 expression is negatively correlated with TfR1 expression in human pancreatic cancers. SIRT3 overexpression decreases TfR1 expression by inhibiting IRP1 and represses proliferation in pancreatic cancer cells. Our data uncover a novel role of SIRT3 in cellular iron metabolism through IRP1 regulation and suggest that SIRT3 functions as a tumor suppressor, in part, by modulating cellular iron metabolism. PMID:24909164

  20. Health implications of iron overload: the role of diet and genotype.

    PubMed

    Heath, Anne-Louise M; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2003-02-01

    The relationship between high dietary iron intake, mutations of the HFE gene, and iron status, and their effects on human health are reviewed. Prolonged high dietary intakes of iron are unlikely to result in iron overload in the general population. Homozygotes for the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene have elevated body iron levels. Heterozygotes have normal iron stores but some may be at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. There is no convincing evidence that elevated iron status increases the risk of coronary heart disease or type 2 diabetes, but high iron intakes may increase the risk of colorectal cancer. The dietary levels of iron associated with health risks in different HFE genotypes must be determined.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... refractory iron deficiency anemia iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia is one of many types of anemia , which ...

  2. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery: A Robust and Inexpensive Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery for Grid-Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: USC is developing an iron-air rechargeable battery for large-scale energy storage that could help integrate renewable energy sources into the electric grid. Iron-air batteries have the potential to store large amounts of energy at low cost—iron is inexpensive and abundant, while oxygen is freely obtained from the air we breathe. However, current iron-air battery technologies have suffered from low efficiency and short life spans. USC is working to dramatically increase the efficiency of the battery by placing chemical additives on the battery’s iron-based electrode and restructuring the catalysts at the molecular level on the battery’s air-based electrode. This can help the battery resist degradation and increase life span. The goal of the project is to develop a prototype iron-air battery at significantly cost lower than today’s best commercial batteries.

  3. Red blood cell and iron metabolism during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2002-01-01

    Space flight anemia is a widely recognized phenomenon in astronauts. Reduction in circulating red blood cells and plasma volume results in a 10% to 15% decrement in circulatory volume. This effect appears to be a normal physiologic adaptation to weightlessness and results from the removal of newly released blood cells from the circulation. Iron availability increases, and (in the few subjects studied) iron stores increase during long-duration space flight. The consequences of these changes are not fully understood.

  4. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2009-07-01

    Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

  5. Characterization of tetraethylene glycol passivated iron nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Eloiza da Silva; Viali, Wesley Renato; da Silva, Sebastião William; Coaquira, José Antonio Huamaní; Garg, Vijayendra Kumar; de Oliveira, Aderbal Carlos; Morais, Paulo César; Jafelicci Júnior, Miguel

    2014-10-01

    The present study describes the synthesis and characterization of iron@iron oxide nanoparticles produced by passivation of metallic iron in tetraethylene glycol media. Structural and chemical characterizations were performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Pomegranate-like core@shell nanoparticulate material in the size range of 90-120 nm was obtained. According to quantitative phase analysis using Rietveld structure refinement the synthesized iron oxide was identified as magnetite (Fe3O4) whereas the iron to magnetite mass fractions was found to be 47:53. These findings are in good agreement with the data obtained from Mössbauer and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The XPS data revealed the presence of a surface organic layer with higher hydrocarbon content, possibly due to the tetraethylene glycol thermal degradation correlated with iron oxidation. The room-temperature (300 K) saturation magnetization measured for the as-synthesized iron and for the iron-iron oxide were 145 emu g-1 and 131 emu g-1, respectively. The measured saturation magnetizations are in good agreement with data obtained from TEM, XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  6. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-06-22

    Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

  7. Storing data encoded DNA in living organisms

    DOEpatents

    Wong; Pak C. , Wong; Kwong K. , Foote; Harlan P.

    2006-06-06

    Current technologies allow the generation of artificial DNA molecules and/or the ability to alter the DNA sequences of existing DNA molecules. With a careful coding scheme and arrangement, it is possible to encode important information as an artificial DNA strand and store it in a living host safely and permanently. This inventive technology can be used to identify origins and protect R&D investments. It can also be used in environmental research to track generations of organisms and observe the ecological impact of pollutants. Today, there are microorganisms that can survive under extreme conditions. As well, it is advantageous to consider multicellular organisms as hosts for stored information. These living organisms can provide as memory housing and protection for stored data or information. The present invention provides well for data storage in a living organism wherein at least one DNA sequence is encoded to represent data and incorporated into a living organism.

  8. Setting the stage for child health and development: prevention of iron deficiency in early infancy.

    PubMed

    Chaparro, Camila M

    2008-12-01

    Iron deficiency is estimated to be the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and is particularly persistent among infants and children. The high prevalence of anemia in 6- to 9-mo-old children raises the concern that birth iron stores in some infants are inadequate to sustain growth and development through the first 6 mo of life, and postnatal factors are contributing to early depletion of iron stores and development of anemia. At the same time, there are concerns about negative effects of excess iron in infants. Maternal iron status, infant birth weight and gestational age, as well as the timing of umbilical cord clamping at birth all contribute to the establishment of adequate total body iron at birth. Postnatally, feeding practices and growth rate are factors that will affect how quickly birth iron is depleted during the first 6 mo of life. Under conditions in which maternal iron status, birth weight, gestational age, and umbilical cord clamping time are optimal, and exclusive breast-feeding is practiced, infants should have adequate iron stores for the first 6-8 mo of life. Under suboptimal conditions, infants may not reach this goal and may need to be targeted for iron supplementation before 6 mo of age.

  9. Oxidative stress and labile plasmatic iron in anemic patients following blood therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Marília Sabo; Rissi, Tatiana Tamborena; Zuravski, Luisa; Mezzomo, Juliana; Vargas, Carmen Regla; Folmer, Vanderlei; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; Manfredini, Vanusa; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Puntel, Robson Luiz

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the plasmatic iron content and evaluate the oxidative stress (OS) markers in subjects receiving blood therapy. METHODS: Thirty-nine individuals with unspecified anemia receiving blood transfusions and 15 healthy subjects were included in the study. Anemic subjects were divided into three subgrouP: (1) those that received up to five blood transfusions (n = 14); (2) those that received from five to ten transfusions (n = 11); and (3) those that received more than ten transfusions (n = 14). Blood samples were collected by venous arm puncture and stored in tubes containing heparin. The plasma and cells were separated by centrifugation and subsequently used for analyses. Statistical analyses were performed using Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance followed by Dunn’s multiple comparison tests when appropriate. RESULTS: The eletrophoretic hemoglobin profiles of the subjects included in this study indicated that no patients presented with hemoglobinopathy. Labile plasmatic iron, ferritin, protein carbonyl, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and dichlorofluorescein diacetate oxidation were significantly higher (P < 0.05), whereas total thiol levels were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in transfused subjects compared to controls. Additionally, the activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly lower in the transfused subjects (P < 0.05). Antioxidant enzyme activities and total thiol levels were positively correlated (P < 0.05), and negatively correlated with the levels of protein carbonyl and TBARS (P < 0.05). In contrast, protein carbonyl and TBARS were positively correlated (P < 0.05). Altogether, these data confirm the involvement of OS in patients following therapy with repeated blood transfusions. CONCLUSION: Our data reveal that changes in OS markers are correlated with levels of labile plasmatic iron and ferritin and the number of transfusions. PMID:25254188

  10. Storing Astronomical Information on the Romanian Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, Magda; Mioc, Vasile

    The Romanian astronomy has a more than 2000-year old tradition which is however too little known abroad. The first known archive of astronomical information is the Dacian sanctuary at Sarmizegetusa Regia very similar to that of Stonehenge. After a gap of more than 1000 years sources of astronomical information became to be recovered. They consist mainly of records of astronomical events seen on the Romanian territory. The most safe places to store these genuine archives were the monasteries. We present a classification of the manners of storing astronomical information along with characteristic examples.

  11. Lightweight Tanks for Storing Liquefied Natural Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Single-walled, jacketed aluminum tanks have been conceived for storing liquefied natural gas (LNG) in LNG-fueled motor vehicles. Heretofore, doublewall steel tanks with vacuum between the inner and outer walls have been used for storing LNG. In comparison with the vacuum- insulated steel tanks, the jacketed aluminum tanks weigh less and can be manufactured at lower cost. Costs of using the jacketed aluminum tanks are further reduced in that there is no need for the vacuum pumps heretofore needed to maintain vacuum in the vacuum-insulated tanks.

  12. Automated Store Management For Drum Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Koller, W.; Lang, R.

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes advanced system technology developed for a new Drum Storage Facility to be operated by Taiwan Power Company (TPC). A logistics management concept is applied for the storage of solid rad-wastes in terms of automated handling, transportation and storing as well as in terms of data management. The individual equipments, such as automated Bridge Cranes, Automatic Guided Vehicles and auxiliary systems are introduced in this paper and the store management process is outlined. The authors report furthermore on challenges during the design and engineering phase and review the project implementation from the equipment supplier's end. (authors)

  13. System for handling and storing radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J.K.; Lindemann, P.E.

    1982-07-19

    A system and method are claimed for handling and storing spent reactor fuel and other solid radioactive waste, including canisters to contain the elements of solid waste, storage racks to hold a plurality of such canisters, storage bays to store these racks in isolation by means of shielded doors in the bays. This system also includes means for remotely positioning the racks in the bays and an access tunnel within which the remotely operated means is located to position a rack in a selected bay. The modular type of these bays will facilitate the construction of additional bays and access tunnel extension.

  14. System for handling and storing radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, John K.; Lindemann, Paul E.

    1984-01-01

    A system and method for handling and storing spent reactor fuel and other solid radioactive waste, including canisters to contain the elements of solid waste, storage racks to hold a plurality of such canisters, storage bays to store these racks in isolation by means of shielded doors in the bays. This system also includes means for remotely positioning the racks in the bays and an access tunnel within which the remotely operated means is located to position a rack in a selected bay. The modular type of these bays will facilitate the construction of additional bays and access tunnel extension.

  15. Storing Fluorine In Graphitelike Carbon Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh

    1995-01-01

    Fluorine stored in graphite or graphitelike carbon fibers for later release and/or use in chemical reactions. Storage in carbon fibers eliminates difficulty and risk of using high-pressure tanks and pipes to hold corrosive gas. Storage in carbon fibers makes fluorine more readily accessible than does storage as constituent of metal fluoride. Carbon fibers heated to release stored fluorine, which draws away to vessel where reacts with material to be fluorinated, possibly at temperature other than release temperature. Alternatively, material to be fluorinated mixed or otherwise placed in contact with fibers and entire mass heated to or beyond release temperature.

  16. comparison of effects of different long-term iron-chelation regimens on myocardial and hepatic iron concentrations assessed with T2* magnetic resonance imaging in patients with beta-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Perifanis, Vassilios; Christoforidis, Athanasios; Vlachaki, Efthimia; Tsatra, Ioanna; Spanos, George; Athanassiou-Metaxa, Miranda

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different long-term chelation regimens on heart and liver iron stores with the use of T2* magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia major. Sixty-four patients (28 men, 36 women; mean age, 26.49 +/- 5.8 years) were enrolled in the study. The 3 groups were based on the chelation therapy received. The first group (19 patients) received deferiprone (DFP) (75 mg/kg per day orally), the second group (23 patients) received deferoxamine (DFO) (30-50 mg/kg per day subcutaneously at least 5 times/week), and the third group (22 patients) received a combination of DFO (30-50 mg/kg per day, 2-3 days/week) and DFP (75 mg/kg per day, 7 days/week). MRI scans were acquired with an imager equipped with a 1.5 T magnet, and the data included myocardial and hepatic iron measurements obtained by means of T2*, and ventricular volumes and ejection fractions obtained with standard cardiovascular MRI techniques. The results revealed that the DFP and the combined groups had significantly less myocardial iron than the DFO group (mean myocardial T2*, 35.77 +/- 18.3 milliseconds and 38.05 +/- 15.3 milliseconds versus 23.77 +/- 13 milliseconds [P = .02, and P = .001], respectively). On the contrary, the DFP group had a significantly higher hepatic iron content than the DFO and combined groups (mean hepatic T2*, 3.29 +/- 2.5 milliseconds versus 8.16 +/- 8.4 milliseconds and 11.3 +/- 10.9 milliseconds [P = .014, and P = .003], respectively). No correlation was observed between myocardial T2* and hepatic T2* values (r = -0.043; P = .37). Myocardial T2* values were inversely correlated with age (r = -0.249; P = .024) and positively correlated with both left and right ventricular ejection fractions (r = 0.33 [P = .004], and r = 0.279 [P = .014], respectively). Finally, liver T2* was strongly and inversely correlated with serum ferritin concentration (r = -0.465; P = .001). In conclusion, combined

  17. Restless Legs Syndrome, pica, and iron status in blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Bryan R.; Kleinman, Steven; Wright, David J.; Glynn, Simone A.; Rye, David B.; Kiss, Joseph E.; Mast, Alan E.; Cable, Ritchard G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The association of blood donation related iron deficiency with pica or Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS) remains poorly elucidated. This study evaluated the prevalence of RLS and pica in blood donors completing the REDS-II Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) Study. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS RISE enrolled 2425 blood donors in a prospective cohort study; 1334 donors provided blood samples to characterize iron status and answered a questionnaire inquiring into symptoms of RLS and pica at a final visit after 15–24 months of follow-up. Associations between both conditions and iron status were evaluated. RESULTS There were 9% and 20% of donors reporting symptoms of Probable or Probable/Possible RLS, respectively. Iron depletion and donation intensity were not predictive of RLS. Pica was reported by 65 donors (5.5%), half of whom reported daily cravings. Prevalence of pica increased with degree of iron depletion in women (2% in iron replete females, 13% in those with ferritin < 12ng/mL), but not in men. Probable RLS and pica co-expressed in 8 individuals, but no more frequently than expected by chance. CONCLUSION RLS and pica have been associated with iron deficiency in non-donor populations. This study indicates a potentially high prevalence of RLS in frequent blood donors but shows no association with iron status or donation intensity. Low iron stores were associated with higher prevalence of pica, but only in females. Furthermore, the results are incompatible with RLS and pica sharing a common pathophysiology. PMID:23763445

  18. [Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia].

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    The major causes of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) include iron loss due to bleeding, increased iron requirements, and decreased iron absorption by the intestine. The most common cause of IDA in Japanese women is iron loss during menstruation. Autoimmune atrophic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection can also cause IDA by reducing intestinal iron absorption. In addition to these common etiologies, germline mutations of TMPRSS6 can cause iron-refractory IDA (IRIDA). TMPRSS6 encodes matriptase-2, a membrane-bound serine protease primarily expressed in the liver. Functional loss of matriptase-2 due to homozygous mutations results in an increase in the expression of hepcidin, which is the key regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. The serum hepcidin increase in turn leads to a decrease in iron supply from the intestine and macrophages to erythropoietic cells. IRIDA is microcytic and hypochromic, but decreased serum ferritin is not observed as in IDA. IRIDA is refractory to oral iron supplementation, but does respond to intravenous iron supplementation to some extent. Because genetic testing is required for the diagnoses of IRIDA, a considerable number of cases may go undiagnosed and may thus be overlooked.

  19. Vitamin and iron status in new vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Helman, A D; Darnton-Hill, I

    1987-04-01

    This study assessed the biochemical status of a number of vitamins and iron in a group of new vegetarians. Values were compared with a group of omnivores of similar age. Satisfactory to high levels of serum folate, vitamin E, and riboflavin were found, and all were significantly higher in vegetarians than omnivores. Thiamin status was satisfactory in both groups although a small but statistically significant difference in favor of the omnivores was found. Serum vitamin B-12 was significantly lower in vegetarians, and iron status as measured by serum ferritin was very significantly lower in vegetarians. Pyridoxine status was similar in both groups. A number of sex differences were found in the vegetarian sample. New vegetarian women appear to be at particular risk of developing low iron stores.

  20. Effects of High Dietary HEME Iron and Radiation on Cardiovascular Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westby, Christian M.; Brown, A. K.; Platts, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    The radiation related health risks to astronauts is of particular concern to NASA. Data support that exposure to radiation is associated with a number of disorders including a heightened risk for cardiovascular diseases. Independent of radiation, altered nutrient status (e.g. high dietary iron) also increases ones risk for cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown whether exposure to radiation in combination with high dietary iron further increases ones cardiovascular risk. The intent of our proposal is to generate compulsory data examining the combined effect of radiation exposure and iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury to address HRP risks: 1) Risk Factor of Inadequate Nutrition; 2) Risk of Cardiac Rhythm Problems; and 3) Risk of Degenerative Tissue or other Health Effects from Space Radiation. Towards our goal we propose two distinct pilot studies using the following specific aims: Vascular Aim 1: To determine the short-term consequences of the independent and combined effects of exposure to gamma radiation and elevated body iron stores on measures of endothelial function and cell viability and integrity. We hypothesize that animals that have high body iron stores and are exposed to gamma radiation will show a greater reduction in endothelial dependent nitric oxid production and larger pathological changes in endothelial integrity than animals that have only 1 of those treatments (either high iron stores or exposure to gamma radiation). Vascular Aim 2: Identify and compare the effects of gamma radiation and elevated body iron stores on the genetic and epigenetic regulation of proteins associated with endothelial cell function. We hypothesize that modifications of epigenetic control and posttranslational expression of proteins associated with endothelial cell function will be differentially altered in rats with high body iron stores and exposed to gamma radiation compared to rats with only 1 type of treatment. Cardiac Aim 1: To determine the

  1. Associations between dietary iron and zinc intakes, and between biochemical iron and zinc status in women.

    PubMed

    Lim, Karen; Booth, Alison; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Gibson, Rosalind S; Bailey, Karl B; Irving, David; Nowson, Caryl; Riddell, Lynn

    2015-04-20

    Iron and zinc are found in similar foods and absorption of both may be affected by food compounds, thus biochemical iron and zinc status may be related. This cross-sectional study aimed to: (1) describe dietary intakes and biochemical status of iron and zinc; (2) investigate associations between dietary iron and zinc intakes; and (3) investigate associations between biochemical iron and zinc status in a sample of premenopausal women aged 18-50 years who were recruited in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a 154-item food frequency questionnaire (n = 379). Iron status was assessed using serum ferritin and hemoglobin, zinc status using serum zinc (standardized to 08:00 collection), and presence of infection/inflammation using C-reactive protein (n = 326). Associations were explored using multiple regression and logistic regression. Mean (SD) iron and zinc intakes were 10.5 (3.5) mg/day and 9.3 (3.8) mg/day, respectively. Median (interquartile range) serum ferritin was 22 (12-38) μg/L and mean serum zinc concentrations (SD) were 12.6 (1.7) μmol/L in fasting samples and 11.8 (2.0) μmol/L in nonfasting samples. For each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron intake, zinc intake increased by 0.4 mg/day. Each 1 μmol/L increase in serum zinc corresponded to a 6% increase in serum ferritin, however women with low serum zinc concentration (AM fasting < 10.7 μmol/L; AM nonfasting < 10.1 μmol/L) were not at increased risk of depleted iron stores (serum ferritin <15 μg/L; p = 0.340). Positive associations were observed between dietary iron and zinc intakes, and between iron and zinc status, however interpreting serum ferritin concentrations was not a useful proxy for estimating the likelihood of low serum zinc concentrations and women with depleted iron stores were not at increased risk of impaired zinc status in this cohort.

  2. High hepcidin level accounts for the nigral iron accumulation in acute peripheral iron intoxication rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chao; Song, Ning; Xie, Anmu; Xie, Junxia; Jiang, Hong

    2012-08-01

    Hepcidin is considered to be a circulatory hormone and a major mechanism regulating iron homeostasis. Our previous publication revealed that acute iron intoxication induced iron deposit and dopaminergic neuron degeneration in the substantia nigra (SN) of a rat model. However, whether and how hepcidin functions in this nigral iron accumulation has not been elucidated. In the present study, we observed a decreased of FPN1 protein level in the SN triggered by peripheral iron overload within 4 h, which correlated with a high hepcidin level. To further investigate the role of intracellular hepcidin under iron overload circumstances, we assessed the expression of hepcidin mRNA and FPN1 protein in vitro. We observed that hepcidin mRNA level was up-regulated and FPN1 protein level was down-regulated in MES23.5 dopaminergic cells in a period of 4h incubation with iron. Both in pCMV-XL4-hepcidin transfected and hepcidin-treated cells, decreased FPN1 protein levels were observed. Our data provide direct evidence that the role for intracellular hepcidin generated in the SN is particularly relevant to restrict iron release by down-regulation FPN1 expression in this region, thus an important contributor to the abnormal iron deposit occurred at an early stage in conditions of peripheral iron intoxication. PMID:22659129

  3. Occupant Perceptions and a Health Outcome in Retail Stores

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Mingjie; Kim, Yang-Seon; Srebric, Jelena

    2015-11-02

    Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in commercial buildings, such as retail stores, can affect employee satisfaction, productivity, and health. This study administered an IEQ survey to retail employees and found correlations between measured IEQ parameters and the survey responses. The survey included 611 employees in 14 retail stores located in Pennsylvania (climate zone 5A) and Texas (climate zone 2A). The survey questionnaire featured ratings of different aspects of IEQ, including thermal comfort, lighting and noise level, indoor smells, overall cleanness, and environmental quality. Simultaneously with the survey, on-site physical measurements were taken to collect data of relative humidity levels, air exchange rates, dry bulb temperatures, and contaminant concentrations. This data was analyzed using multinomial logit regression with independent variables being the measured IEQ parameters, employees’ gender, and age. This study found that employee perception of stuffy smells is related to formaldehyde and PM10 concentrations. Furthermore, the survey also asked the employees to report an annual frequency of common colds as a health indicator. The regression analysis showed that the cold frequency statistically correlates with the measured air exchange rates, outdoor temperatures, and indoor PM concentrations. Overall, the air exchange rate is the most influential parameter on the employee perception of the overall environmental quality and self-reported health outcome.

  4. Method for storing nuclear fuel in respositories

    DOEpatents

    Schweitzer, D.G.; Sastre, C.

    A method for storing radioactive spent fuel in repositories containing polyphenyl or silicon oil as the storage medium is disclosed. Polyphenyls and silicon oils are non-corrosive and are not subject to radiation damage. Thus, storage periods of up to 100 years are possible.

  5. Storing Renewable Energy in Chemical Bonds

    ScienceCinema

    Helm, Monte; Bullock, Morris

    2016-07-12

    With nearly 7 billion people, the world's population is demanding more electricity every year. Improved technologies are bringing wind and solar power to our electrical grid. However, wind turbines and solar panels only work when the wind blows or the sun shines. PNNL scientists discuss catalysis approaches for storing and releasing energy on demand.

  6. Management Training Program in a Discount Store.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sethi, Manmohan Singh

    This study inquired into the objectives of management training programs in two chains of discount stores, and whether those who complete training believe that program objectives have been met. Questionnaire interviews were held with two managers and four trainees from one chain, and with two managers and two trainees from the other. Ten hypotheses…

  7. Storing Data and Video on One Tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, J. H.; Cater, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    Microprocessor-based system originally developed for anthropometric research merges digital data with video images for storage on video cassette recorder. Combined signals later retrieved and displayed simultaneously on television monitor. System also extracts digital portion of stored information and transfers it to solid-state memory.

  8. The Changing Face of the College Store

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Increased competition from Internet merchants, coupled with the swelling popularity of electronic books and skyrocketing textbook prices, is forcing the nation's college stores to get creative, find new ways to boost revenues, and drive sales of books and other merchandise to students and faculty. To make up for lost revenue as a result of…

  9. Storing Renewable Energy in Chemical Bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Helm, Monte; Bullock, Morris

    2013-03-27

    With nearly 7 billion people, the world's population is demanding more electricity every year. Improved technologies are bringing wind and solar power to our electrical grid. However, wind turbines and solar panels only work when the wind blows or the sun shines. PNNL scientists discuss catalysis approaches for storing and releasing energy on demand.

  10. Charge and Energy Stored in a Capacitor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    Using a data-acquisition system, the charge and energy stored in a capacitor are measured and displayed during the charging/discharging process. The experiment is usable as a laboratory work and/or a lecture demonstration. (Contains 3 figures.)

  11. 19 CFR 122.47 - Stores list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stores list. 122.47 Section 122.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for...

  12. A stored program channel processor for CAMAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bercaw, R. W.

    1971-01-01

    A PDP-15 interface was developed for the CAMAC instrumentation standard which implements the features of both the addressable I/0 bus and the single cycle data channel. The data channel section forms an independent I/0 processor which executes programs stored in core. Programs consist of CAMAC commands plus special control characters and commands.

  13. Walmart Experimental Store Performance Stories: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.; Kozubal, E.; Norton, P.

    2010-08-01

    Walmart opened two experimental stores--one in Colorado and one in Texas--in 2005 to serve as test beds for several advanced building systems. Each embodied more than 50 experiments covering materials, water systems, energy systems, and renewable energy production. Walmart worked for three years with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the Colorado Store and Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Texas store to monitor, analyze, and report on their performance. HVAC experiments included waste oil boilers, a microturbine/absorption chiller combined heat and power system, evaporative cooling, and a transpired solar collector. The refrigeration systems integrated a medium-temperature secondary loop, evaporatively cooled condenser, doors on medium-temperature cases, and light-emitting diodes on cases. Experiments in the lighting systems included a redesigned roof for clerestory daylighting and T-5 fluorescent lamps. Three photovoltaic systems for a total of 135 kW and a 50-kW wind turbine are also included. The energy system performance was compared to the measured performance of a prototypical Walmart store and to other benchmarks.

  14. Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Lorenzo, Donald K.; Van Cleve, Jr., John E.

    1982-01-01

    The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

  15. Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Lorenzo, D.K.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.

    1980-04-23

    The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

  16. Fuels and Lubricants. Selecting and Storing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parady, W. Harold; Colvin, Thomas S.

    The manual presents basic information for the person who plans to operate or service tractors, trucks, industrial engines, and automobiles. It tells how to select the proper fuels and lubricants and how to store them properly. Although there are no prerequisites to the study of the text, a general knowledge of engines and mobile-type vehicles is…

  17. A four-helix bundle stores copper for methane oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Vita, Nicolas; Platsaki, Semeli; Baslé, Arnaud; Allen, Stephen J.; Paterson, Neil G.; Crombie, Andrew T.; Murrell, J. Colin; Waldron, Kevin J.; Dennison, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Methane-oxidising bacteria (methanotrophs) require large quantities of copper for the membrane-bound (particulate) methane monooxygenase (pMMO)1,2. Certain methanotrophs are also able to switch to using the iron-containing soluble MMO (sMMO) to catalyse methane oxidation, with this switchover regulated by copper3,4. MMOs are Nature’s primary biological mechanism for suppressing atmospheric levels of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Furthermore, methanotrophs and MMOs have enormous potential in bioremediation and for biotransformations producing bulk and fine chemicals, and in bioenergy, particularly considering increased methane availability from renewable sources and hydraulic fracturing of shale rock5,6. We have discovered and characterised a novel copper storage protein (Csp1) from the methanotroph Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b that is exported from the cytosol, and stores copper for pMMO. Csp1 is a tetramer of 4-helix bundles with each monomer binding up to 13 Cu(I) ions in a previously unseen manner via mainly Cys residues that point into the core of the bundle. Csp1 is the first example of a protein that stores a metal within an established protein-folding motif. This work provides a detailed insight into how methanotrophs accumulate copper for the oxidation of methane. Understanding this process is essential if the wide-ranging biotechnological applications of methanotrophs are to be realised. Cytosolic homologues of Csp1 are present in diverse bacteria thus challenging the dogma that such organisms do not use copper in this location. PMID:26308900

  18. The Strategic Management of Store Brand Perceived Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Defeng

    Store brand plays a vital role in the success of retailers. Perceived quality is one of important factors influencing consumers' store brand purchase intention. Store brand perceived quality is lower compared with objective quality or national brand. For this end, the purpose of this article is to examine how to manage store brand perceived quality in strategic level. This article firstly discusses how consumers evaluate product quality, and the theoretical background of the reason that store brand perceived quality is lower from the view of cue related theories. Then, consumers' store brand quality evaluation is explored. Finally, this article presents several strategic tactics to increase store brand perceived quality. These tactics include choosing store's name as store brand name, making large advertising investment, improving store brand product package, and strengthening the relationship with store brand product suppliers.

  19. The Organization of Controller Motifs Leading to Robust Plant Iron Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Agafonov, Oleg; Selstø, Christina Helen; Thorsen, Kristian; Xu, Xiang Ming; Drengstig, Tormod; Ruoff, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an essential element needed by all organisms for growth and development. Because iron becomes toxic at higher concentrations iron is under homeostatic control. Plants face also the problem that iron in the soil is tightly bound to oxygen and difficult to access. Plants have therefore developed special mechanisms for iron uptake and regulation. During the last years key components of plant iron regulation have been identified. How these components integrate and maintain robust iron homeostasis is presently not well understood. Here we use a computational approach to identify mechanisms for robust iron homeostasis in non-graminaceous plants. In comparison with experimental results certain control arrangements can be eliminated, among them that iron homeostasis is solely based on an iron-dependent degradation of the transporter IRT1. Recent IRT1 overexpression experiments suggested that IRT1-degradation is iron-independent. This suggestion appears to be misleading. We show that iron signaling pathways under IRT1 overexpression conditions become saturated, leading to a breakdown in iron regulation and to the observed iron-independent degradation of IRT1. A model, which complies with experimental data places the regulation of cytosolic iron at the transcript level of the transcription factor FIT. Including the experimental observation that FIT induces inhibition of IRT1 turnover we found a significant improvement in the system’s response time, suggesting a functional role for the FIT-mediated inhibition of IRT1 degradation. By combining iron uptake with storage and remobilization mechanisms a model is obtained which in a concerted manner integrates iron uptake, storage and remobilization. In agreement with experiments the model does not store iron during its high-affinity uptake. As an iron biofortification approach we discuss the possibility how iron can be accumulated even during high-affinity uptake. PMID:26800438

  20. Daily oral iron supplementation during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Dowswell, Therese; Viteri, Fernando E

    2014-01-01

    Background Iron and folic acid supplementation has been the preferred intervention to improve iron stores and prevent anaemia among pregnant women, and it may also improve other maternal and birth outcomes. Objectives To assess the effects of daily oral iron supplements for pregnant women, either alone or in conjunction with folic acid, or with other vitamins and minerals as a public health intervention. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (2 July 2012). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (2 July 2012) and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effects of oral preventive supplementation with daily iron, iron + folic acid or iron + other vitamins and minerals during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis We assessed the methodological quality of trials using standard Cochrane criteria. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and conducted checks for accuracy. Main results We included 60 trials. Forty-three trials, involving more than 27,402 women, contributed data and compared the effects of daily oral supplements containing iron versus no iron or placebo. Overall, women taking iron supplements were less likely to have low birthweight newborns (below 2500 g) compared with controls (8.4% versus 10.2%, average risk ratio (RR) 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68 to 0.97, 11 trials, 8480 women) and mean birthweight was 30.81 g greater for those infants whose mothers received iron during pregnancy (average mean difference (MD) 30.81; 95% CI 5.94 to 55.68, 14 trials, 9385 women). Preventive iron supplementation reduced the risk of maternal anaemia at term by 70% (RR 0.30; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.46, 14 trials, 2199 women) and iron deficiency at term by 57% (RR 0.43; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.66, seven trials, 1256 women

  1. Relative hippocampal volume in relation to food-storing behavior in four species of woodpeckers.

    PubMed

    Volman, S F; Grubb, T C; Schuett, K C

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that those food-storing birds of the order Passeriformes that remember the locations of their caches have relatively larger hippocampal complexes than do non-storing passerines. Woodpeckers constitute a different avian order (Piciformes), which also includes some food-storing species. We compared hippocampal volume, relative to the volume of the rest of the telencephalon, across four species of woodpeckers with disparate caching behavior. Red-bellied woodpeckers (Melanerpes carolinus) are "scatter hoarders'. During the fall and winter they cache acorns or beechnuts in dispersed sites throughout a large territory. Red-headed woodpeckers (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) also store nuts but in central "larders' on their small territories which they fiercely defend. Caching is absent or much reduced in hairy woodpeckers (Picoides villosus) and downy woodpeckers (Picoides pubescens), both of which forage on a variety of foods within large winter home ranges. The relative volume of the hippocampal complex in the scatter hoarder was larger than in the larder hoarder, suggesting that red-bellied woodpeckers, like passerine scatter hoarders, rely on memory to recover their caches. Surprisingly, the relative hippocampal volumes in the two non-storing Picoides woodpeckers were most similar to the scatter hoarder of the other genus. In passerine birds, hippocampal volume and telencephalon volume are highly correlated in storing species but not in non-storers. We found that the volumes of these two brain areas were highly correlated in both Melanerpes species, uncorrelated in the hairy woodpeckers, and more weakly correlated in the downy woodpeckers. The unexpectedly large hippocampal complexes in the Picoides species suggests they may engage in some behavior, other than food-storing, that selects for this trait. Conversely, our results concerning the relationship between hippocampal and telencephalon volumes may indicate that a weak correlation is

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging contrast of iron oxide nanoparticles developed for hyperthermia is dominated by iron content

    PubMed Central

    Wabler, Michele; Zhu, Wenlian; Hedayati, Mohammad; Attaluri, Anilchandra; Zhou, Haoming; Mihalic, Jana; Geyh, Alison; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Ivkov, Robert; Artemov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) are used as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and hyperthermia for cancer treatment. The relationship between MRI signal intensity and cellular iron concentration for many new formulations, particularly MNPs having magnetic properties designed for heating in hyperthermia, is lacking. In this study, we examine the correlation between MRI T2 relaxation time and iron content in cancer cells loaded with various MNP formulations. Materials and methods Human prostate carcinoma DU-145 cells were loaded with starch-coated bionised nanoferrite (BNF), iron oxide (Nanomag® D-SPIO), Feridex™, and dextran-coated Johns Hopkins University (JHU) particles at a target concentration of 50 pg Fe/cell using poly-D-lysine transfection reagent. T2-weighted MRI of serial dilutions of these labelled cells was performed at 9.4 T and iron content quantification was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Clonogenic assay was used to characterise cytotoxicity. Results No cytotoxicity was observed at twice the target intracellular iron concentration (~100 pg Fe/cell). ICP-MS revealed highest iron uptake efficiency with BNF and JHU particles, followed by Feridex and Nanomag-D-SPIO, respectively. Imaging data showed a linear correlation between increased intracellular iron concentration and decreased T2 times, with no apparent correlation among MNP magnetic properties. Conclusions This study demonstrates that for the range of nanoparticle concentrations internalised by cancer cells the signal intensity of T2-weighted MRI correlates closely with absolute iron concentration associated with the cells. This correlation may benefit applications for cell-based cancer imaging and therapy including nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery and hyperthermia. PMID:24773041

  3. Pleiotropic actions of iron balance in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinhui; Fang, Xuexian; Wang, Fudi

    2015-03-01

    As an essential element, iron plays a central role in many physiological processes, including redox balance, inflammation, energy metabolism, and environment sensing. Perturbations in iron homeostasis are associated with several conditions, including hyperglycemia and diabetes, both of which have been studied in patients and animal models. To clarify the pleiotropic role of iron homeostasis in diabetes development, the early studies on diseases with iron-overload, studies on clinical iron depletion therapies, associations between iron-related genetic polymorphisms and diabetes, and etiological mechanisms underlying iron perturbations-impaired insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity were carefully reviewed and discussed. Hereditary hemochromatosis, transfusion-dependent thalassemia, and excess heme iron intake can increase the risk of developing diabetes. Genetically modified mice and mice fed a high-iron diet present with discrepant phenotypes due to differences in tissue iron distribution. Moreover, several genetic polymorphisms related to iron homeostasis have been associated with the risk of developing diabetes. Tightly controlled iron metabolism is essential for insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, and iron overload in pancreatic islets alters reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, as well as hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) stability and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, thereby impairing the function and viability of β-cells. Decreased levels of adiponectin, macrophage-mediated inflammation, and ROS-mediated liver kinase B1 (LKB1)/adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation can contribute to iron overload-induced insulin resistance, whereas iron deficiency could also participate in obesity-related inflammation, hypoxia, and insulin resistance. Because iron homeostasis is closely correlated with many metabolic processes, future studies are needed in order to elucidate the finely tuned network among iron

  4. Electronic correlations in the ironpnictides

    SciTech Connect

    Qazilbash, M. M.; Hamlin, J. J.; Baumbach, R. E.; Zhang, Lijun; Singh, David J; Maple, M. B.; Basov, D. N.

    2009-01-01

    In correlated metals derived from Mott insulators, the motion of an electron is impeded by Coulomb repulsion due to other electrons. This phenomenon causes a substantial reduction in the electron's kinetic energy, leading to remarkable experimental manifestations in optical spectroscopy. The high-transition-temperature (Tc) superconducting cuprates are perhaps the most studied examples of such correlated metals. The occurrence of high-Tc superconductivity in the iron pnictides puts a spotlight on the relevance of correlation effects in these materials. Here, we present an infrared and optical study on single crystals of the iron pnictide superconductor LaFePO. We find clear evidence of electronic correlations in metallic LaFePO with the kinetic energy of the electrons reduced to half of that predicted by band theory of nearly free electrons. We deduce that electronic many-body effects are important in the iron pnictides despite the absence of a Mott transition.

  5. Management of Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Ainsworth, Mark; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Anemia is the most frequent complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but anemia, mostly due to iron deficiency, has long been neglected in these patients. The aim was to briefly present the pathophysiology, followed by a balanced overview of the different forms of iron replacement available, and subsequently, to perform a systematic review of studies performed in the last decade on the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia in IBD. Given that intravenous therapies have been introduced in the last decade, a systematic review performed in PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and the websites of WHO, FDA, and EMA covered prospective trials investigating the management of iron-deficiency anemia in IBD published since 2004. A total of 632 articles were reviewed, and 13 articles (2906 patients) with unique content were included. In general, oral supplementation in iron-deficiency anemia should be administered with a target to restore/replenish the iron stores and the hemoglobin level in a suitable way. However, in patients with IBD flares and inadequate responses to or side effects with oral preparations, intravenous iron supplementation is the therapy of choice. Neither oral nor intravenous therapy seems to exacerbate the clinical course of IBD, and intravenous iron therapy can be administered even in active disease stages and concomitantly with biologics. In conclusion, because many physicians are in doubt as to how to manage anemia and iron deficiency in IBD, there is a clear need for the implementation of evidence-based recommendations on this matter. Based on the data presented, oral iron therapy should be preferred for patients with quiescent disease stages and trivial iron deficiency anemia unless such patients are intolerant or have an inadequate response, whereas intravenous iron supplementation may be of advantage in patients with aggravated anemia or flares of IBD because inflammation hampers intestinal absorption of iron. PMID:26061331

  6. Neonatal iron nutrition.

    PubMed

    Rao, R; Georgieff, M K

    2001-10-01

    Preterm infants are prone to iron deficiency. Their total body iron content at birth is low and gets further depleted by clinical practices such as uncompensated phlebotomy losses and exogenous erythropoietin administration during the neonatal period. Early iron deficiency appears to adversely affect cognitive development in human infants. To maintain iron sufficiency and meet the iron demands of catch-up postnatal growth, iron supplementation is prudent in preterm infants. A dose of 2-4 mg/kg/day is recommended for preterm infants who are fed exclusively human milk. A dose of 6 mg/kg/day or more is needed with the use of exogenous erythropoietin or to correct preexisting iron deficiency. However, due to the poor antioxidant capabilities of preterm infants and the potential role of iron in several oxidant-related perinatal disorders, indiscriminate iron supplementation should be avoided.

  7. Spatial-Temporal Modeling of Neighborhood Sociodemographic Characteristics and Food Stores

    PubMed Central

    Lamichhane, Archana P.; Warren, Joshua L.; Peterson, Marc; Rummo, Pasquale; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-01-01

    The literature on food stores, neighborhood poverty, and race/ethnicity is mixed and lacks methods of accounting for complex spatial and temporal clustering of food resources. We used quarterly data on supermarket and convenience store locations from Nielsen TDLinx (Nielsen Holdings N.V., New York, New York) spanning 7 years (2006–2012) and census tract-based neighborhood sociodemographic data from the American Community Survey (2006–2010) to assess associations between neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics and food store distributions in the Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) of 4 US cities (Birmingham, Alabama; Chicago, Illinois; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and San Francisco, California). We fitted a space-time Poisson regression model that accounted for the complex spatial-temporal correlation structure of store locations by introducing space-time random effects in an intrinsic conditionally autoregressive model within a Bayesian framework. After accounting for census tract–level area, population, their interaction, and spatial and temporal variability, census tract poverty was significantly and positively associated with increasing expected numbers of supermarkets among tracts in all 4 MSAs. A similar positive association was observed for convenience stores in Birmingham, Minneapolis, and San Francisco; in Chicago, a positive association was observed only for predominantly white and predominantly black tracts. Our findings suggest a positive association between greater numbers of food stores and higher neighborhood poverty, with implications for policy approaches related to food store access by neighborhood poverty. PMID:25515169

  8. Antimony in iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, J.

    1981-01-01

    Sb concentrations determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis in 60 iron meteorites range from 0.2 ng/g to 36 microg/g. The meteorites with the highest Sb concentrations are those of the nonmagmatic groups IAB and IIICD, while meteorites with the lowest Sb concentrations are found in groups IVA and IVB. In all groups Sb is positively correlated with Ni; slopes on log Sb vs log Ni plots decrease with increasing Ni. This decrease may reflect an increasing tendency to avoid schreibersite during the analysis of high-Ni meteorites because Sb partitions strongly into schreibersite. It is found that schreibersite from New Westville is enriched in Cr, Ni, Ge, As, Sb, and Au and depleted in Fe, Co, Ir; the Sb content in schreibersite is 540 times higher than the bulk metal value.

  9. Effect of microbial mediated iron plaque reduction on arsenic mobility in paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinjun; Chen, Xueping; Yang, Jing; Wang, Zhaosu; Sun, Guoxin

    2009-01-01

    The potential of microbial mediated iron plaque reduction, and associated arsenic (As) mobility were examined by iron reducing bacteria enriched from As contaminated paddy soil. To our knowledge, this is the first time to report the impact of microbial iron plaque reduction on As mobility. Iron reduction occurred during the inoculation of iron reducing enrichment culture in the treatments with iron plaque and ferrihydrite as the electron acceptors, respectively. The Fe(II) concentration with the treatment of anthraquinone-2, 6-disulfonic acid (AQDS) and iron reducing bacteria increased much faster than the control. Arsenic released from iron plaque with the iron reduction, and a significant correlation between Fe(II) and total As in culture was observed. However, compared with control, the increasing rate of As was inhibited by iron reducing bacteria especially in the presence of AQDS. In addition, the concentrations of As(III) and As(V) in abiotic treatments were higher than those in the biotic treatments at day 30. These results indicated that both microbial and chemical reductions of iron plaque caused As release from iron plaque to aqueous phase, however, microbial iron reduction induced the formation of more crystalline iron minerals, leading to As sequestration. In addition, the presence of AQDS in solution can accelerate the iron reduction, the As release from iron plaque and subsequently the As retention in the crystalline iron mineral. Thus, our results suggested that it is possible to remediate As contaminated soils by utilizing iron reducing bacteria and AQDS. PMID:20108691

  10. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    SciTech Connect

    Habib, A.C.; Zheng, W.; Haacke, E.M.; Webb, S.; Nichol, H.; /SLAC

    2012-07-17

    To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  11. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    SciTech Connect

    Habib, Charbel A.; Zheng Weili; Mark Haacke, E.; Webb, Sam; Nichol, Helen

    2010-07-23

    Aim: To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Material and Methods: Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. Results: MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Conclusion: Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  12. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Charbel A.; Zheng, Weili; Mark Haacke, E.; Webb, Sam; Nichol, Helen

    2010-07-01

    Aim: To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Material and Methods: Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. Results: MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Conclusion: Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  13. Prevalence of iron depletion and anemia in top-level basketball players.

    PubMed

    Dubnov, Gal; Constantini, Naama W

    2004-02-01

    Iron depletion, with or without anemia, may have a negative effect on physical and mental performance. Even with current recognition of the problem, its incidence among athletes remains high. Most studies describe iron status in endurance athletes. This study examined the prevalence of iron depletion and anemia among male and female top-level basketball players. Adolescents and adults (N = 103) from 8 national basketball teams were screened for anemia and iron stores status, which included a complete blood count and levels of plasma ferritin, transferrin, and serum iron. Iron depletion, defined by a ferritin level below 20 microg/L, was found among 22% of study participants (15% in males vs. 35% in females, p = .019). Anemia was found among 25% of athletes (18% in males vs. 38% in females, p = .028). Iron deficiency anemia, defined by the presence of anemia, ferritin levels below 12 microg/L, and transferrin saturation below 16%, was found among 7% of players (3% in males vs. 14% in females, p = .043). In summary, a high prevalence of iron depletion, anemia, and iron deficiency anemia was found among basketball players of both genders. We recommend screening ballgame players for blood count and iron store status, and providing nutritional counseling and iron supplementation when necessary.

  14. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, OF TELLURIDE IRON WORKS RETORT USED FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, OF TELLURIDE IRON WORKS RETORT USED FOR FLASHING MERCURY OFF OF GOLD TO CREATE SOFT INGOTS CALLED "SPONGES." AT RIGHT ARE SAFES FOR STORING 22-POUND SPONGES WORTH OVER $60,000 EACH, CA. 1985. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  15. 146. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING STRAIGHT ON, OF CAST IRON LAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    146. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING STRAIGHT ON, OF CAST IRON LAMP STANDARD. THIS AND OTHER LAMP STANDARDS WERE REMOVED FROM THE LAMP COLUMNS ON THE PARAPET WALLS DURING WORLD WAR II AND STORED INSIDE THE DAM (January 1991) - Coolidge Dam, Gila River, Peridot, Gila County, AZ

  16. Obesity as an emerging risk factor for iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Aigner, Elmar; Feldman, Alexandra; Datz, Christian

    2014-09-11

    Iron homeostasis is affected by obesity and obesity-related insulin resistance in a many-facetted fashion. On one hand, iron deficiency and anemia are frequent findings in subjects with progressed stages of obesity. This phenomenon has been well studied in obese adolescents, women and subjects undergoing bariatric surgery. On the other hand, hyperferritinemia with normal or mildly elevated transferrin saturation is observed in approximately one-third of patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This constellation has been named the "dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome (DIOS)". Both elevated body iron stores and iron deficiency are detrimental to health and to the course of obesity-related conditions. Iron deficiency and anemia may impair mitochondrial and cellular energy homeostasis and further increase inactivity and fatigue of obese subjects. Obesity-associated inflammation is tightly linked to iron deficiency and involves impaired duodenal iron absorption associated with low expression of duodenal ferroportin (FPN) along with elevated hepcidin concentrations. This review summarizes the current understanding of the dysregulation of iron homeostasis in obesity.

  17. 30 CFR 56.6100 - Separation of stored explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Separation of stored explosive material. 56... Explosives Storage § 56.6100 Separation of stored explosive material. (a) Detonators shall not be stored in the same magazine with other explosive material. (b) When stored in the same magazine, blasting...

  18. 30 CFR 56.6100 - Separation of stored explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Separation of stored explosive material. 56... Explosives Storage § 56.6100 Separation of stored explosive material. (a) Detonators shall not be stored in the same magazine with other explosive material. (b) When stored in the same magazine, blasting...

  19. 30 CFR 56.6100 - Separation of stored explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Separation of stored explosive material. 56... Explosives Storage § 56.6100 Separation of stored explosive material. (a) Detonators shall not be stored in the same magazine with other explosive material. (b) When stored in the same magazine, blasting...

  20. 30 CFR 57.6100 - Separation of stored explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Separation of stored explosive material. 57... Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6100 Separation of stored explosive material. (a) Detonators shall not be stored in the same magazine with other explosive material. (b) When stored in the...

  1. 30 CFR 56.6100 - Separation of stored explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Separation of stored explosive material. 56... Explosives Storage § 56.6100 Separation of stored explosive material. (a) Detonators shall not be stored in the same magazine with other explosive material. (b) When stored in the same magazine, blasting...

  2. 30 CFR 56.6100 - Separation of stored explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Separation of stored explosive material. 56... Explosives Storage § 56.6100 Separation of stored explosive material. (a) Detonators shall not be stored in the same magazine with other explosive material. (b) When stored in the same magazine, blasting...

  3. 30 CFR 57.6100 - Separation of stored explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Separation of stored explosive material. 57... Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6100 Separation of stored explosive material. (a) Detonators shall not be stored in the same magazine with other explosive material. (b) When stored in the...

  4. 30 CFR 57.6100 - Separation of stored explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Separation of stored explosive material. 57... Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6100 Separation of stored explosive material. (a) Detonators shall not be stored in the same magazine with other explosive material. (b) When stored in the...

  5. 30 CFR 57.6100 - Separation of stored explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Separation of stored explosive material. 57... Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6100 Separation of stored explosive material. (a) Detonators shall not be stored in the same magazine with other explosive material. (b) When stored in the...

  6. 30 CFR 57.6100 - Separation of stored explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Separation of stored explosive material. 57... Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6100 Separation of stored explosive material. (a) Detonators shall not be stored in the same magazine with other explosive material. (b) When stored in the...

  7. 7 CFR 160.5 - Standards for naval stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for naval stores. 160.5 Section 160.5..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) NAVAL STORES REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.5 Standards for naval stores. In addition to the standards...

  8. 7 CFR 160.5 - Standards for naval stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standards for naval stores. 160.5 Section 160.5..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) NAVAL STORES REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.5 Standards for naval stores. In addition to the standards...

  9. 19. View of southwest corner of corner store, Crystal Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View of southwest corner of corner store, Crystal Bridge connection to east side of 1946/1948 store for homes and south side of 1946/1948 store for homes, and 1958 service building addition, from south looking northwest. - Rich's Downtown Department Store, 45 Broad Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  10. Small multipurpose stored data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, G.C.; Ryerson, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories Telemetry Department has designed and is fielding a small, inexpensive multipurpose stored data acquisition system in tests ranging from 6000 meters below the ocean surface in seafloor penetrators to 40,000 meters above sea level in gamma ray telescope balloons. The systems consists of a simple microprocessor-controlled unit which digitizes analog data stores the data in memory for readout after the test by a portable personal compute. The system has been used in over ninety tests consisting of parachute drops, water entry test, vehicle environmental monitoring, and seafloor penetration tests. Data typically recorded with the system are acceleration, strain, temperature, pressure, and angular velocity. The system is also capable of generating control functions such as parachute release. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  11. The Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI)

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.D.; Ward, C.R.

    1995-12-31

    A mobile robot system called Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI) is under development by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Robotics Group of Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) to perform mandated inspections of waste drums stored in warehouse facilities. The system will reduce personnel exposure to potential hazards and create accurate, high-quality documentation to ensure regulatory compliance and enhance waste management operations. Development work is coordinated among several Department of Energy (DOE), academic, and commercial entities in accordance wit DOE`s technology transfer initiative. The prototype system, SWAMI I, was demonstrated at Savannah River Site (SRS) in November, 1993. SWAMI II is now under development for field trails at the Fernald site.

  12. Rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Rubinstein, Herbert J.; Clark, Philip M.; Gilcrest, James D.

    1978-06-20

    A rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements in which a plurality of aligned rows of upright enclosures of generally square cross-sectional areas contain vertically disposed fuel elements. The enclosures are fixed at the lower ends thereof to a base. Pockets are formed between confronting walls of adjacent enclosures for receiving high absorption neutron absorbers, such as Boral, cadmium, borated stainless steel and the like for the closer spacing of spent fuel elements.

  13. Multiple stage multiple filter hydrate store

    DOEpatents

    Bjorkman, Jr., Harry K.

    1983-05-31

    An improved hydrate store for a metal halogen battery system is disclosed which employs a multiple stage, multiple filter means or separating the halogen hydrate from the liquid used in forming the hydrate. The filter means is constructed in the form of three separate sections which combine to substantially cover the interior surface of the store container. Exit conduit means is provided in association with the filter means for transmitting liquid passing through the filter means to a hydrate former subsystem. The hydrate former subsystem combines the halogen gas generated during the charging of the battery system with the liquid to form the hydrate in association with the store. Relief valve means is interposed in the exit conduit means for controlling the operation of the separate sections of the filter means, such that the liquid flow through the exit conduit means from each of the separate sections is controlled in a predetermined sequence. The three separate sections of the filter means operate in three discrete stages to provide a substantially uniform liquid flow to the hydrate former subsystem during the charging of the battery system. The separation of the liquid from the hydrate causes an increase in the density of the hydrate by concentrating the hydrate along the filter means.

  14. Multiple stage multiple filter hydrate store

    DOEpatents

    Bjorkman, H.K. Jr.

    1983-05-31

    An improved hydrate store for a metal halogen battery system is disclosed which employs a multiple stage, multiple filter means for separating the halogen hydrate from the liquid used in forming the hydrate. The filter means is constructed in the form of three separate sections which combine to substantially cover the interior surface of the store container. Exit conduit means is provided in association with the filter means for transmitting liquid passing through the filter means to a hydrate former subsystem. The hydrate former subsystem combines the halogen gas generated during the charging of the battery system with the liquid to form the hydrate in association with the store. Relief valve means is interposed in the exit conduit means for controlling the operation of the separate sections of the filter means, such that the liquid flow through the exit conduit means from each of the separate sections is controlled in a predetermined sequence. The three separate sections of the filter means operate in three discrete stages to provide a substantially uniform liquid flow to the hydrate former subsystem during the charging of the battery system. The separation of the liquid from the hydrate causes an increase in the density of the hydrate by concentrating the hydrate along the filter means. 7 figs.

  15. Iron clad wetlands: Soil iron-sulfur buffering determines coastal wetland response to salt water incursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoepfer, Valerie A.; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Burgin, Amy J.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal freshwater wetland chemistry is rapidly changing due to increased frequency of salt water incursion, a consequence of global change. Seasonal salt water incursion introduces sulfate, which microbially reduces to sulfide. Sulfide binds with reduced iron, producing iron sulfide (FeS), recognizable in wetland soils by its characteristic black color. The objective of this study is to document iron and sulfate reduction rates, as well as product formation (acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and chromium reducible sulfide (CRS)) in a coastal freshwater wetland undergoing seasonal salt water incursion. Understanding iron and sulfur cycling, as well as their reduction products, allows us to calculate the degree of sulfidization (DOS), from which we can estimate how long soil iron will buffer against chemical effects of sea level rise. We show that soil chloride, a direct indicator of the degree of incursion, best predicted iron and sulfate reduction rates. Correlations between soil chloride and iron or sulfur reduction rates were strongest in the surface layer (0-3 cm), indicative of surface water incursion, rather than groundwater intrusion at our site. The interaction between soil moisture and extractable chloride was significantly related to increased AVS, whereas increased soil chloride was a stronger predictor of CRS. The current DOS in this coastal plains wetland is very low, resulting from high soil iron content and relatively small degree of salt water incursion. However, with time and continuous salt water exposure, iron will bind with incoming sulfur, creating FeS complexes, and DOS will increase.

  16. Quality Detection of Litchi Stored in Different Environments Using an Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Sai; Lü, Enli; Lu, Huazhong; Zhou, Zhiyan; Wang, Yu; Yang, Jing; Wang, Yajuan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to explore the utility of an electronic nose to detect the quality of litchi fruit stored in different environments. In this study, a PEN3 electronic nose was adopted to test the storage time and hardness of litchi that were stored in three different types of environment (room temperature, refrigerator and controlled-atmosphere). After acquiring data about the hardness of the sample and from the electronic nose, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), canonical correlation analysis (CCA), BP neural network (BPNN) and BP neural network-partial least squares regression (BPNN-PLSR), were employed for data processing. The experimental results showed that the hardness of litchi fruits stored in all three environments decreased during storage. The litchi stored at room temperature had the fastest rate of decrease in hardness, followed by those stored in a refrigerator environment and under a controlled-atmosphere. LDA has a poor ability to classify the storage time of the three environments in which litchi was stored. BPNN can effectively recognize the storage time of litchi stored in a refrigerator and a controlled-atmosphere environment. However, the BPNN classification of the effect of room temperature storage on litchi was poor. CCA results show a significant correlation between electronic nose data and hardness data under the room temperature, and the correlation is more obvious for those under the refrigerator environment and controlled-atmosphere environment. The BPNN-PLSR can effectively predict the hardness of litchi under refrigerator storage conditions and a controlled-atmosphere environment. However, the BPNN-PLSR prediction of the effect of room temperature storage on litchi and global environment storage on litchi were poor. Thus, this experiment proved that an electronic nose can detect the quality of litchi under refrigeratored storage and a controlled-atmosphere environment. These results provide a useful reference for future

  17. Assessment of a healthy corner store program (FIT Store) in low-income, urban, and ethnically diverse neighborhoods in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Oh, Hyun Jung; Jung, Yumi; Thompson, Tracy; Alaimo, Katherine; Risley, John; Mayfield, Kellie

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated a community-based and social marketing healthy corner store program (FIT store) to improve the affordability and availability of healthy foods in low-income, urban, and ethnically diverse neighborhoods in Michigan. The Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores data were analyzed for the FIT (N = 4) stores. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among the FIT store customers before (N = 401) and after (N = 318) the intervention. Three FIT stores improved their total Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores availability score from before to after the intervention. A significantly higher level of FIT awareness and monthly bean and nut consumption was reported in the postintervention. PMID:24297010

  18. Serum iron test

    MedlinePlus

    ... of iron homeostasis: iron deficiency and overload. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, et al, ... EJ, Gardner LB. Anemia of chronic diseases. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, et al, ...

  19. Total iron binding capacity

    MedlinePlus

    ... GM. Disorders of iron homeostasis: iron deficiency and overload. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, ... to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A. ...

  20. Iron and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... 24 months old. Serve iron-rich foods alongside foods containing vitamin C — such as tomatoes, broccoli, oranges, and strawberries — which improves the body's absorption of iron. Avoid serving coffee ...

  1. Ferrous Sulfate (Iron)

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells. It is used to treat or prevent iron-deficiency anemia, a condition that occurs when the body ... than prescribed by your doctor.Although symptoms of iron deficiency usually improve within a few days, you may ...

  2. Iron losses in sweat

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, M.; Magnusson, B.; Persson, H.; Hallberg, L.

    1986-03-01

    The losses of iron in whole body cell-free sweat were determined in eleven healthy men. A new experimental design was used with a very careful cleaning procedure of the skin and repeated consecutive sampling periods of sweat in a sauna. The purpose was to achieve a steady state of sweat iron losses with minimal influence from iron originating from desquamated cells and iron contaminating the skin. A steady state was reached in the third sauna period (second sweat sampling period). Iron loss was directly related to the volume of sweat lost and amounted to 22.5 micrograms iron/l sweat. The findings indicate that iron is a physiological constituent of sweat and derived not only from contamination. Present results imply that variations in the amount of sweat lost will have only a marginal effect on the variation in total body iron losses.

  3. Iron supplements (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  4. Ferric iron reduction by Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed Central

    Nyhus, K J; Wilborn, A T; Jacobson, E S

    1997-01-01

    The pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans must reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) prior to uptake. We investigated mechanisms of reduction using the chromogenic ferrous chelator bathophenanthroline disulfonate. Iron-depleted cells reduced 57 nmol of Fe(III) per 10(6) cells per h, while iron-replete cells reduced only 8 nmol of Fe(III). Exponential-phase cells reduced the most and stationary-phase cells reduced the least Fe(III), independent of iron status. Supernatants from iron-depleted cells reduced up to 2 nmol of Fe(III) per 10(6) cells per h, while supernatants from iron-replete cells reduced 0.5 nmol of Fe(III), implying regulation of the secreted reductant(s). One such reductant is 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3HAA), which was found at concentrations up to 29 microM in iron-depleted cultures but <2 microM in cultures supplemented with iron. Moreover, when washed and resuspended in low iron medium, iron-depleted cells secreted 20.4 microM 3HAA, while iron-replete cells secreted only 4.5 microM 3HAA. Each mole of 3HAA reduced 3 mol of Fe(III), and increasing 3HAA concentrations correlated with increasing reducing activity of supernatants; however, 3HAA accounted for only half of the supernatant's reducing activity, indicating the presence of additional reductants. Finally, we found that melanized stationary-phase cells reduced 2 nmol of Fe(III) per 10(6) cells per h--16 times the rate of nonmelanized cells--suggesting that this redox polymer participates in reduction of Fe(III). PMID:9009293

  5. Duodenal Absorption and Tissue Utilization of Dietary Heme and Nonheme Iron Differ in Rats123

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chang; Thomas, Carrie E.; Insogna, Karl L.; O'Brien, Kimberly O.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dietary heme contributes to iron intake, yet regulation of heme absorption and tissue utilization of absorbed heme remains undefined. Objectives: In a rat model of iron overload, we used stable iron isotopes to examine heme- and nonheme-iron absorption in relation to liver hepcidin and to compare relative utilization of absorbed heme and nonheme iron by erythroid (RBC) and iron storage tissues (liver and spleen). Methods: Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to groups for injections of either saline or iron dextran (16 or 48 mg Fe over 2 wk). After iron loading, rats were administered oral stable iron in the forms of 57Fe-ferrous sulfate and 58Fe-labeled hemoglobin. Expression of liver hepcidin and duodenal iron transporters and tissue stable iron enrichment was determined 10 d postdosing. Results: High iron loading increased hepatic hepcidin by 3-fold and reduced duodenal expression of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) by 76%. Nonheme-iron absorption was 2.5 times higher than heme-iron absorption (P = 0.0008). Absorption of both forms of iron was inversely correlated with hepatic hepcidin expression (heme-iron absorption: r = −0.77, P = 0.003; nonheme-iron absorption: r = −0.80, P = 0.002), but hepcidin had a stronger impact on nonheme-iron absorption (P = 0.04). Significantly more 57Fe was recovered in RBCs (P = 0.02), and more 58Fe was recovered in the spleen (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Elevated hepcidin significantly decreased heme- and nonheme-iron absorption but had a greater impact on nonheme-iron absorption. Differential tissue utilization of heme vs. nonheme iron was evident between erythroid and iron storage tissues, suggesting that some heme may be exported into the circulation in a form different from that of nonheme iron. PMID:25332470

  6. Changes in the bacterial community structure in stored wormbed leachate.

    PubMed

    Romero-Tepal, Elda M; Contreras-Blancas, Eduardo; Navarro-Noya, Yendi E; Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Víctor M; Luna-Guido, Marco; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico A; Dendooven, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Organic wastes, such as cow manure, are often composted with earthworms (vermicomposting) while excess water is drained and collected. This wormbed leachate is nutrient-rich and it has been extensively used to fertilize plants. However, it is derived partially from a not yet finished compost process and could exhibit phytotoxicity or contain potentially hazardous microorganisms. The bacterial community in wormbed leachate derived from vermicomposting of cow manure was studied by pyrosequencing the 16S rRNA gene. The fresh wormbed leachate was rich in Mollicutes, particularly the genus Acholeplasma which contain phytopathogen species. The abundance of the Mollicutes decreased when the leachate was stored, while that of the Rhizobiales and the genus Pseudomonas increased. The bacterial communities changed rapidly in the leachate during storage. The changes in ammonium, nitrate and inorganic carbon content of the wormbed leachate when stored were correlated to changes in the bacterial community structure. It was found that storage of the wormbed leachate might be required before it can be applied to crops as large proportions of potentially plant pathogens were found in the fresh leachate. PMID:24577291

  7. Maternal iron – infection interactions and neonatal mortality, with an emphasis on developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Brabin, Loretta; Brabin, Bernard J.; Gies, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Infection is a major cause of neonatal death in developing countries. We address the question whether host iron status affects maternal and/or neonatal infection risk, potentially contributing to neonatal death. We summarize the iron acquisition mechanisms described for pathogens causing stillbirth, preterm birth, and congenital infection. There is in vitro evidence that iron availability influences severity and chronicity of infections that cause these outcomes. The risk in vivo is unknown as relevant studies of maternal iron supplementation have not assessed infection risk. Reducing iron deficiency anemia among women is beneficial and should improve the iron stores of babies, but there is evidence that iron status in young children predicts malaria risk and possibly invasive bacterial diseases. Caution with maternal iron supplementation is indicated in iron-replete women who have high infection exposure, although distinguishing iron-replete and iron-deficient women is currently difficult. Further research is indicated to investigate infection risk in relation to iron status in mothers and babies in order to avoid iron intervention strategies that result in detrimental birth outcomes for some groups of women. PMID:23865798

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily ... Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  9. Stored energy release behaviour of disordered carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, K.; Barat, P.; Sarkar, A.; Mukherjee, P.; Sathiyamoorthy, D.

    2007-06-01

    The use of graphite as a moderator in a low temperature thermal nuclear reactor is restricted due to accumulation of energy caused by displacement of atoms by neutrons and high energetic particles. Thermal transients may lead to a release of stored energy that may raise the temperature of the fuel clad above the design limit. Disordered carbon is thought to be an alternative choice for this purpose. Two types of disordered carbon composites, namely, CB (made up of 15 wt. % carbon black dispersed in carbonized phenolic resin) and PAN (made up of 20 vol. % chopped polyacrylonitrile carbon fibre dispersed in carbonized phenolic resin matrix) have been irradiated with 145 MeV Ne6+ ions at three fluence levels of 1.0×1013, 5.0×1013 and 1.5×1014 Ne6+/cm2, respectively. The XRD patterns revealed that both the samples remained disordered even after irradiation. The maximum release of stored energy for CB was 212 J/g and that of PAN was 906 J/g. For CB, the release of stored energy was a first order reaction with activation energy of 2.79 eV and a frequency factor of 3.72×1028 per second. 13% of the defects got annealed by heating up to 700 °C. PAN showed a third-order release rate with activation energy of 1.69 eV and a frequency factor of 1.77×1014 per second. 56% of the total defects got annealed by heating it up to 700 °C. CB seems to be the better choice than PAN as it showed less energy release with a slower rate.

  10. Microwave radar detection of stored-product insects.

    PubMed

    Mankin, R W

    2004-06-01

    A microwave radar system that senses motion was tested for capability to detect hidden insects of different sizes and activity levels in stored products. In initial studies, movements of individual adults or groups of Lasioderma serricorne (F.), Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), Attagenus unicolor (Brahm), and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) were easily detected over distances up to 30 cm in air. Boxes of corn meal mix and flour mix were artificially infested with 5-100 insects to estimate the reliability of detection. The likelihood that a box was infested was rated by the radar system on a quantitative scale. The ratings were significantly correlated with the numbers of infesting insects. The radar system has potential applications in management programs where rapid, nondestructive targeting of incipient insect infestations would be of benefit to the producers and consumers of packaged foods.

  11. Storing entanglement of nuclear spins via Uhrig dynamical decoupling

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Soumya Singha; Mahesh, T. S.; Agarwal, G. S.

    2011-06-15

    Stroboscopic spin flips have already been shown to prolong the coherence times of quantum systems under noisy environments. Uhrig's dynamical decoupling scheme provides an optimal sequence for a quantum system interacting with a dephasing bath. Several experimental demonstrations have already verified the efficiency of such dynamical decoupling schemes in preserving single-qubit coherences. In this work we describe the experimental study of Uhrig's dynamical decoupling in preserving two-qubit entangled states using an ensemble of spin-1/2 nuclear pairs in solution state. We find that the performance of odd-order Uhrig sequences in preserving entanglement is superior to both even-order Uhrig sequences and periodic spin-flip sequences. We also find that there exists an optimal order of the Uhrig sequence in which a singlet state can be stored at high correlation for about 30 seconds.

  12. Hepcidin: an emerging biomarker for iron disorders, inflammatory diseases, and infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerman, Mark E.; Olbina, Gordana; Ostland, Vaughn E.; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Ganz, Tomas

    2010-04-01

    The peptide hormone hepcidin, has emerged as the master regulator of iron homeostasis. Dysregulation of hepcidin is a principal or contributing factor in most genetic and acquired systemic iron disorders, including anemia of inflammation (anemia of chronic disease). Hepcidin maintains healthy blood iron levels by regulating dietary iron absorption and transport from body iron stores to plasma. High serum hepcidin levels observed in chronic and acute inflammatory conditions can cause anemia by limiting plasma iron available for erythropoiesis. Chronically low serum hepcidin levels cause iron-overload and ultimately, accumulation of iron in liver and heart. We recently validated the first immunoassay for serum hepcidin and established the normal ranges in adults. Hepcidin has excellent potential as a biomarker and has a known mechanism of action, good stability, and rapid response to iron stores, inflammatory stimuli, and bacterial infections. Hepcidin can be measured in blood, urine, and saliva, and is generally not measurable in iron deficient/anemic patients and highly elevated in inflammatory diseases and infections. Intrinsic LifeSciences (ILS) is developing second generation hepcidin immunoassays and lateral-flow POC devices for hepcidin, a well characterized multi-purpose biomarker with applications in global health security.

  13. Bioavailability of iron, zinc, and other trace minerals from vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Janet R

    2003-09-01

    Iron and zinc are currently the trace minerals of greatest concern when considering the nutritional value of vegetarian diets. With elimination of meat and increased intake of phytate-containing legumes and whole grains, the absorption of both iron and zinc is lower with vegetarian than with nonvegetarian, diets. The health consequences of lower iron and zinc bioavailability are not clear, especially in industrialized countries with abundant, varied food supplies, where nutrition and health research has generally supported recommendations to reduce meat and increase legume and whole-grain consumption. Although it is clear that vegetarians have lower iron stores, adverse health effects from lower iron and zinc absorption have not been demonstrated with varied vegetarian diets in developed countries, and moderately lower iron stores have even been hypothesized to reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Premenopausal women cannot easily achieve recommended iron intakes, as modified for vegetarians, with foods alone; however, the benefit of routine iron supplementation has not been demonstrated. It may be prudent to monitor the hemoglobin of vegetarian children and women of childbearing age. Improved assessment methods are required to determine whether vegetarians are at risk of zinc deficiency. In contrast with iron and zinc, elements such as copper appear to be adequately provided by vegetarian diets. Although the iron and zinc deficiencies commonly associated with plant-based diets in impoverished nations are not associated with vegetarian diets in wealthier countries, these nutrients warrant attention as nutritional assessment methods become more sensitive and plant-based diets receive greater emphasis.

  14. Storing Astronomical Information on the Romanian Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, M.; Mioc, V.

    2004-12-01

    Romanian astronomy has a more than 2000-year old tradition, which is, however, little known abroad. The first known archive of astronomical information is the Dacian sanctuary at Sarmizegetusa Regia, erected in the first century AD, having similarities with that of Stonehenge. After a gap of more than 1000 years, more sources of astronomical information become available, mainly records of astronomical events. Monasteries were the safest storage places of these genuine archives. We present a classification of the ways of storing astronomical information, along with characteristic examples.

  15. Cricket: A Mapped, Persistent Object Store

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shekita, Eugene; Zwilling, Michael

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes Cricket, a new database storage system that is intended to be used as a platform for design environments and persistent programming languages. Cricket uses the memory management primitives of the Mach operating system to provide the abstraction of a shared, transactional single-level store that can be directly accessed by user applications. In this paper, we present the design and motivation for Cricket. We also present some initial performance results which show that, for its intended applications, Cricket can provide better performance than a general-purpose database storage system.

  16. Tissue Iron Distribution Assessed by MRI in Patients with Iron Loading Anemias

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Lucía; House, Michael J.; Vasavda, Nisha; Drašar, Emma; Gonzalez-Gascon y Marin, Isabel; Kulasekararaj, Austin G.; St Pierre, Tim G.; Thein, Swee L.

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow, spleen, liver and kidney proton transverse relaxation rates (R2), together with cardiac R2* from patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and non-transfusion dependent thalassemia (NTDT) have been compared with a control group. Increased liver and bone marrow R2 values for the three groups of patients in comparison with the controls have been found. SCD and PNH patients also present an increased spleen R2 in comparison with the controls. The simultaneous measurement of R2 values for several tissue types by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has allowed the identification of iron distribution patterns in diseases associated with iron imbalance. Preferential liver iron loading is found in the highly transfused SCD patients, while the low transfused ones present a preferential iron loading of the spleen. Similar to the highly transfused SCD group, PNH patients preferentially accumulate iron in the liver. A reduced spleen iron accumulation in comparison with the liver and bone marrow loading has been found in NTDT patients, presumably related to the differential increased intestinal iron absorption. The correlation between serum ferritin and tissue R2 is moderate to good for the liver, spleen and bone marrow in SCD and PNH patients. However, serum ferritin does not correlate with NTDT liver R2, spleen R2 or heart R2*. As opposed to serum ferritin measurements, tissue R2 values are a more direct measurement of each tissue’s iron loading. This kind of determination will allow a better understanding of the different patterns of tissue iron biodistribution in diseases predisposed to tissue iron accumulation. PMID:26406992

  17. Iron and the liver.

    PubMed

    Pietrangelo, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Humans have evolved to retain iron in the body and are exposed to a high risk of iron overload and iron-related toxicity. Excess iron in the blood, in the absence of increased erythropoietic needs, can saturate the buffering capacity of serum transferrin and result in non-transferrin-bound highly reactive forms of iron that can cause damage, as well as promote fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis in the parenchymatous organs. A number of hereditary or acquired diseases are associated with systemic or local iron deposition or iron misdistribution in organs or cells. Two of these, the HFE- and non-HFE hemochromatosis syndromes represent the paradigms of genetic iron overload. They share common clinical features and the same pathogenic basis, in particular, a lack of synthesis or activity of hepcidin, the iron hormone. Before hepcidin was discovered, the liver was simply regarded as the main site of iron storage and, as such, the main target of iron toxicity. Now, as the main source of hepcidin, it appears that the loss of the hepcidin-producing liver mass or genetic and acquired factors that repress hepcidin synthesis in the liver may also lead to iron overload. Usually, there is low-grade excess iron which, through oxidative stress, is sufficient to worsen the course of the underlying liver disease or other chronic diseases that are apparently unrelated to iron, such as chronic metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. In the future, modulation of hepcidin synthesis and activity or hepcidin hormone-replacing strategies may become therapeutic options to cure iron-related disorders.

  18. [Peculiarities of iron metabolism in patients with Beta - thalassemia at different periods after splenectomy].

    PubMed

    Kadimova, E

    2007-11-01

    Often thalassaemia patients have significant iron stores. The present research has been conducted to estimate a level of the overall store and degree of an iron overload in patients suffering from beta-thalassemia in pre- and post-surgery periods (pre-surgery, and to the second, seventh, fifteenth, and thirtieth days) after splenectomy. Observation was conducted once a year. The observation period was eight years. The analysis of parameters of iron metabolism in patients with beta-thalassemia in the distant period of time after splenectomy showed that the decrease of serum iron level and index of transferrin saturation was unchanged during the first year. The index of serum ferittin was unchanged during two years. SFT value remained reduced within a year; two years after splenectomy this parameter reached a preoperative level. The index of total serum coupling capacity remaind unchanged during the whole period of observation. The research revealed, that splenectomy has a positive effect on iron balance.

  19. Iron, radiation, and cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, R G; Kalkwarf, D R

    1990-01-01

    Increased iron content of cells and tissue may increase the risk of cancer. In particular, high available iron status may increase the risk of a radiation-induced cancer. There are two possible mechanisms for this effect: iron can catalyze the production of oxygen radicals, and it may be a limiting nutrient to the growth and development of a transformed cell in vivo. Given the high available iron content of the western diet and the fact that the world is changing to the western model, it is important to determine if high iron increases the risk of cancer. PMID:2269234

  20. Serum ferritin concentrations in Africans with low dietary iron.

    PubMed

    Moyo, Victor M; Mvundura, Elisha; Khumalo, Hlosukwazi; Gangaidzo, Innocent T; Saungweme, Thokozile; Nouraie, Mehdi; Rouault, Tracey A; Gomo, Zvenyika A R; Gordeuk, Victor R

    2009-11-01

    In the setting of high dietary, several studies have provided evidence for a strong effect of both high dietary iron and an unidentified genetic locus on iron stores in Africans. To investigate whether these effects are discernible in the setting of low dietary iron, serum ferritin concentrations were measured in 194 Zimbabwean men >30 years of age and 299 postmenopausal women who consumed a non-iron-fortified diet and who did not drink iron-rich traditional beer or other alcoholic beverages. Comparisons were made with non-alcohol drinking African-Americans studied in the third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES III) who consume an iron-fortified diet. As stratified by age and sex, serum ferritin concentrations were significantly lower in the 493 Zimbabweans studied than in 1,380 comparable African-Americans (P < 0.0005). Nevertheless, nine Zimbabwean subjects (1.8% of all cases) had modestly elevated serum ferritin concentrations not associated with evidence of inflammation or hepatic dysfunction. These data suggest that mild serum ferritin concentration elevations may occur among Zimbabweans not exposed to high dietary iron and that iron fortification of the diet may have substantial effects on serum ferritin concentration.

  1. Iron status of military personnel deployed to Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Candy; McClung, James P; Karl, J Philip; Brothers, Michael D

    2011-12-01

    Iron is a micronutrient necessary for energy metabolism and for oxygen transport and delivery. Depletion of iron stores (iron deficiency [ID]) may lead to iron deficiency anemia (IDA), which affects mood, cognitive function, and physical performance. Previous studies indicated that iron status may decline during military training. This study assessed the iron status and prevalence of ID and IDA in military personnel deployed to Bagram Air Base, Afghanistan (1492 m). Within the pool of 294 participants (149 male and 145 female), 2 males (1%) and 8 females (6%) presented with ID. Although IDA was not observed in males, 3 females (2%) met the criteria for IDA. Female sex (p = 0.05) and self-reported history of anemia (p < 0.05) were associated with diminished iron status. Amenorrhea was associated with higher ferritin (p < 0.05) and hemoglobin (p < 0.05) levels. Although ID and IDA did not affect a large portion of the deployed population assessed in this study, findings suggest that risk factors including female sex, history of anemia, and regular menstruation should be considered in the assessment of iron status in military personnel.

  2. Safety of total dose iron dextran infusion in geriatric patients with chronic kidney disease and iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Dossabhoy, Neville R; Turley, Steven; Gascoyne, Rebecca; Tapolyai, Mihaly; Sulaiman, Karina

    2014-08-01

    There are limited data on total dose infusion (TDI) using iron dextran in geriatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA). Our goal was to evaluate the safety of TDI in this setting. We conducted a retrospective chart review spanning a 5 year period (2002-2007), including all patients with CKD and IDA who were treated with iron dextran TDI. Patient demographics were noted, and laboratory values for creatinine, hemoglobin and iron stores were recorded pre- and post-dose. TDI diluted in normal saline was administered intravenously over 4-6 hours after an initial test dose. One hundred fifty-three patients received a total of 250 doses of TDI (mean ± SD=971 ± 175 mg); age was 69 ± 12 years and creatinine 3.3 ± 1.9 mg/dL. All stages of CKD were represented (stage 4 commonest). Hemoglobin and iron stores improved post-TDI (P<0.001). None of the patients experienced an anaphylactic reaction or death. Adverse events (AEs) were noted in 8 out of 250 administered doses (3.2%). The most common AEs were itching, chills and back pain. One hundred and ten doses of high molecular weight (HMW) iron dextran produced 6 AEs (5.45%), whereas 140 doses of low molecular weight (LMW) iron dextran produced 2 AEs (1.43%), a non-significant trend (P=0.1433 by Fishers Exact Test). Iron dextran TDI is relatively safe and effective in correcting IDA in geriatric CKD patients. Fewer AEs were noted with the LMW compared to the HMW product. LMW iron dextran given as TDI can save both cost and time, helping to alleviate issues of non-compliance and patient scheduling.

  3. The influence of status and the social environment on energy stores in a social fish.

    PubMed

    Hellmann, J K; Ligocki, I Y; O'Connor, C M; Reddon, A R; Farmer, T M; Marsh-Rollo, S E; Balshine, S; Hamilton, I M

    2016-04-01

    This study explores how muscle and liver energy stores are linked with social status and the social environment in Neolamprologus pulcher, a cooperatively breeding fish that lives in colonies comprised of up to 200 distinct social groups. Subordinate muscle energy stores were positively correlated with the number of neighbouring social groups in the colony, but this pattern was not observed in dominant N. pulcher. Furthermore, liver energy stores were smaller in dominants living at the edge of the colony compared with those living in the colony centre, with no differences among subordinates in liver energy stores. Subordinate N. pulcher may build up large energy stores in the muscles to fuel rapid growth after dispersal, which could occur more frequently in high-density environments. Dominant N. pulcher may use the more easily mobilized energy stores in the liver to fuel daily activities, which could be more energetically demanding on the edge of the colony as a result of the increased predation defence needed on the edge. Overall, this study demonstrates that both subordinate and dominant physiology in N. pulcher varies with characteristics of the social environment. Furthermore, dominant and subordinate energy storage strategies appear to differ due to status-dependent variation in daily activities and variation in the need to prepare for future reproductive or dispersal opportunities.

  4. Dietary protein alters tubular iron accumulation after partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Nankivell, B J; Tay, Y C; Boadle, R A; Harris, D C

    1994-04-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in progression of disease in the rat remnant kidney (RK) model of chronic renal failure. Substantial amounts of iron accumulate in proximal tubular lysosomes of RK and could damage tubules by ROS generation. The effect of dietary protein intake on ROS, tubular damage and iron accumulation assessed by energy dispersive analysis was determined in RK (5/6 nephrectomy, N = 12) and sham-operated kidneys (SO, N = 10). In RK, mean lysosomal iron concentration, urinary iron and protein excretion and morphological damage were increased and GFR decreased. Dietary protein loading (40% vs. 12%) increased the number of iron-containing lysosomes (P < 0.05) and the mean lysosomal iron (P < 0.02) in proximal tubular cells after four weeks. In RK, high protein diet increased renal weight (P < 0.01), numerical density of iron-containing lysosomes and tubular damage (both P < 0.05). ROS generation, assessed by tissue and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), was also increased (both P < 0.05). Plasma MDA correlated with tubular iron accumulation (r = 0.75). In RK fed a high protein diet (N = 18) treatment with the iron-chelator desferrioxamine reduced serum iron, urinary volume, and tubular iron accumulation and damage compared to controls (P < 0.01). In summary, in RK dietary protein manipulation altered urinary iron and protein excretion, proximal tubular iron accumulation, renal cortical ROS generation and ultrastructural damage. Desferrioxamine treatment reduced tubular lysosomal iron and ultrastructural damage. These results suggest a role for tubular iron as a determinant of tubular injury associated with dietary protein loading in rats with partial nephrectomy.

  5. Bioprocessing of a stored mixed liquid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D.; Finney, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the development and results of a demonstration for a continuous bioprocess for mixed waste treatment. A key element of the process is an unique microbial strain which tolerates high levels of aromatic solvents and surfactants. This microorganism is the biocatalysis of the continuous flow system designed for the processing of stored liquid scintillation wastes. During the past year a process demonstration has been conducted on commercial formulation of liquid scintillation cocktails (LSC). Based on data obtained from this demonstration, the Ohio EPA granted the Mound Applied Technologies Lab a treatability permit allowing the limited processing of actual mixed waste. Since August 1994, the system has been successfully processing stored, {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} LSC waste. The initial LSC waste fed into the system contained 11% pseudocumene and detectable quantities of plutonium. Another treated waste stream contained pseudocumene and tritium. Data from this initial work shows that the hazardous organic solvent, and pseudocumene have been removed due to processing, leaving the aqueous low level radioactive waste. Results to date have shown that living cells are not affected by the dissolved plutonium and that 95% of the plutonium was sorbed to the biomass. This paper discusses the bioprocess, rates of processing, effluent, and the implications of bioprocessing for mixed waste management.

  6. Arousal and consumer in-store behavior.

    PubMed

    Groeppel-Klein, Andrea

    2005-11-15

    From a psychophysiological point of view, arousal is a fundamental feature of behavior. As reported in different empirical studies based on insights from theories of consumer behavior, store atmosphere should evoke phasic arousal reactions to attract consumers. Most of these empirical investigations used verbal scales to measure consumers' perceived phasic arousal at the point-of-sale (POS). However, the validity of verbal arousal measurement is questioned; self-reporting methods only allow a time-lagged measurement. Furthermore, the selection of inappropriate items to represent perceived arousal is criticized, and verbal reports require some form of cognitive evaluation of perceived arousal by the individual, who might (in a non-measurement condition) not even be aware of the arousal. By contrast, phasic electrodermal reaction (EDR) has proven to be the most appropriate and valid indicator for measuring arousal [W. Boucsein, Physiologische Grundlagen und Messmethoden der dermalen Aktivität. In: F. Rösler (Ed.), Enzyklopädie der Psychologie, Bereich Psychophysiologie, Band 1: Grundlagen and Methoden der Psychophysiologie, Kapitel, Vol. 7, Hogrefe, Göttingen, 2001, pp. 551-623] that could be relevant to behavior. EDR can be recorded simultaneously to the perception of stimuli. Furthermore, telemetric online device can be used, which enables physiological arousal measurement while participants can move freely through the store and perform the assigned task in the experiments. The present paper delivers insights on arousal theory and results from empirical studies using EDR to measure arousal at the POS. PMID:16216690

  7. Using magnetic permeability bits to store information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmerwilke, John; Petrie, J. R.; Wieland, K. A.; Mencia, Raymond; Liou, Sy-Hwang; Cress, C. D.; Newburgh, G. A.; Edelstein, A. S.

    2015-10-01

    Steps are described in the development of a new magnetic memory technology, based on states with different magnetic permeability, with the capability to reliably store large amounts of information in a high-density form for decades. The advantages of using the permeability to store information include an insensitivity to accidental exposure to magnetic fields or temperature changes, both of which are known to corrupt memory approaches that rely on remanent magnetization. The high permeability media investigated consists of either films of Metglas 2826 MB (Fe40Ni38Mo4B18) or bilayers of permalloy (Ni78Fe22)/Cu. Regions of films of the high permeability media were converted thermally to low permeability regions by laser or ohmic heating. The permeability of the bits was read by detecting changes of an external 32 Oe probe field using a magnetic tunnel junction 10 μm away from the media. Metglas bits were written with 100 μs laser pulses and arrays of 300 nm diameter bits were read. The high and low permeability bits written using bilayers of permalloy/Cu are not affected by 10 Mrad(Si) of gamma radiation from a 60Co source. An economical route for writing and reading bits as small at 20 nm using a variation of heat assisted magnetic recording is discussed.

  8. The Study of HFE Genotypes and Its Expression Effect on Iron Status of Iranian Haemochromatosis, Iron Deficiency Anemia Patients, Iron-Taker and Non Iron-Taker Controls.

    PubMed

    Beiranvand, Elham; Abediankenari, Saeid; Rostamian, Mosayeb; Beiranvand, Behnoush; Naazeri, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    The role of HFE gene mutations or its expression in regulation of iron metabolism of hereditary haemochromatosis (HH) patients is remained controversial. Therefore here the correlation between two common HFE genotype (p.C282Y, p.H63D) and HFE gene expression with iron status in HH, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and healthy Iranian participants was studied. For this purpose genotype determination was done by polymerase chain reaction--restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Real-Time PCR was applied for evaluation of HFE gene expression. Biochemical parameters and iron consumption were also assessed. Homozygote p.H63D mutation was seen in all HH patients and p.C282Y was not observed in any member of the population. A significant correlation was observed between serum ferritin (SF) level and gender or age of HH patients. p.H63D homozygote was seen to be able to significantly increase SF and transferrin saturation (TS) level without affecting on liver function. Our results also showed that iron consumption affects on TS level increasing. HFE gene expression level of IDA patients was significantly higher than other groups. Also the HFE gene expression was negatively correlated with TS. Finally, the main result of our study showed that loss of HFE function in HH is not derived from its gene expression inhibition and much higher HFE gene expression might lead to IDA. However we propose repeating of the study for more approval of our finding.

  9. [Iron function and carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Akatsuka, Shinya; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2016-07-01

    Though iron is an essential micronutrient for humans, the excess state is acknowledged to be associated with oncogenesis. For example, iron overload in the liver of the patients with hereditary hemocromatosis highly increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Also, as to asbestos-related mesothelioma, such kinds of asbestos with a higher iron content are considered to be more carcinogenic. Iron is a useful element, which enables fundamental functions for life such as oxygen carrying and electron transport. However, in the situation where organisms are unable to have good control of it, iron turns into a dangerous element which catalyzes generation of reactive oxygen. In this review, I first outline the relationships between iron and cancer in general, then give an explanation about iron-related animal carcinogenesis models.

  10. Macrophages and Iron Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Soares, Miguel P; Hamza, Iqbal

    2016-03-15

    Iron is a transition metal that due to its inherent ability to exchange electrons with a variety of molecules is essential to support life. In mammals, iron exists mostly in the form of heme, enclosed within an organic protoporphyrin ring and functioning primarily as a prosthetic group in proteins. Paradoxically, free iron also has the potential to become cytotoxic when electron exchange with oxygen is unrestricted and catalyzes the production of reactive oxygen species. These biological properties demand that iron metabolism is tightly regulated such that iron is available for core biological functions while preventing its cytotoxic effects. Macrophages play a central role in establishing this delicate balance. Here, we review the impact of macrophages on heme-iron metabolism and, reciprocally, how heme-iron modulates macrophage function.

  11. [Iron function and carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Akatsuka, Shinya; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2016-07-01

    Though iron is an essential micronutrient for humans, the excess state is acknowledged to be associated with oncogenesis. For example, iron overload in the liver of the patients with hereditary hemocromatosis highly increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Also, as to asbestos-related mesothelioma, such kinds of asbestos with a higher iron content are considered to be more carcinogenic. Iron is a useful element, which enables fundamental functions for life such as oxygen carrying and electron transport. However, in the situation where organisms are unable to have good control of it, iron turns into a dangerous element which catalyzes generation of reactive oxygen. In this review, I first outline the relationships between iron and cancer in general, then give an explanation about iron-related animal carcinogenesis models. PMID:27455808

  12. Dietary phosphate supplementation delays the onset of iron deficiency anemia and affects iron status in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Mari; Yamamoto, Hironori; Nakahashi, Otoki; Ikeda, Shoko; Abe, Kotaro; Masuda, Masashi; Ishiguro, Mariko; Iwano, Masayuki; Takeda, Eiji; Taketani, Yutaka

    2015-11-01

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) plays critical roles in bone metabolism and is an essential component of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG). It has been reported that animals fed a low-iron diet modulate Pi metabolism, whereas the effect of dietary Pi on iron metabolism, particularly in iron deficiency anemia (IDA), is not fully understood. In this study, we hypothesized the presence of a link between Pi and iron metabolism and tested the hypothesis by investigating the effects of dietary Pi on iron status and IDA. Wistar rats aged 4 weeks were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental dietary groups: normal iron content (Con Fe)+0.5% Pi, low-iron (Low Fe)+0.5% Pi, Con Fe+1.5% Pi, and Low Fe+1.5% Pi. Rats fed the 1.5% Pi diet for 14 days, but not for 28 days, maintained their anemia state and plasma erythropoietin concentrations within the reference range, even under conditions of low iron. In addition, plasma concentrations of 2,3-DPG were significantly increased by the 1.5% Pi diets and were positively correlated with plasma Pi concentration (r=0.779; P<.001). Dietary Pi regulated the messenger RNA expression of iron-regulated genes, including divalent metal transporter 1, duodenal cytochrome B, and hepcidin. Furthermore, iron concentration in liver tissues was increased by the 1.5% Pi in Con Fe diet. These results suggest that dietary Pi supplementation delays the onset of IDA and increases plasma 2,3-DPG concentration, followed by modulation of the expression of iron-regulated genes.

  13. Treatment of Anemia in Heart Failure: Potential Risks and Benefits of Intravenous Iron Therapy in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jelani, Qurat-ul-ain; Katz, Stuart D.

    2010-01-01

    Iron-deficiency anemia is common is patients with heart failure (HF), but the optimum diagnostic tests to detect iron deficiency and the treatment options to replete iron have not been fully characterized. Recent studies in patients with HF indicate that intravenous iron can rapidly replenish iron stores in patients having iron-deficiency anemia, with resultant increased hemoglobin levels and improved functional capacity. Preliminary data from a sub-group analysis also suggests that supplemental intravenous iron therapy can improve functional capacity even in those subjects without anemia. The mechanisms responsible for this observation are not fully characterized, but may be related to beneficial effects of iron supplementation on mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle. The long-term safety of using intravenous iron supplementation in HF populations is not known. Iron is a known pro-oxidant factor that can inhibit nitric oxide signaling and irreversibly injury cells. Increased iron stores are associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction and increased risk of coronary heart disease events. Additional clinical trials are needed to more fully characterize the therapeutic potential and safety of intravenous iron in HF patients. PMID:20699672

  14. Interactions among dietary manganese, heme iron, and nonheme iron in women.

    PubMed

    Davis, C D; Malecki, E A; Greger, J L

    1992-11-01

    The relationship among dietary intake of heme iron, nonheme iron, and manganese on indexes of hematological and nutritional status in regard to manganese of 47 women consuming their typical diets was investigated. Increasing dietary iron intake, by consuming more nonheme iron in the diet, had questionable effects on hematological status (hematocrit values and ferritin and transferrin concentrations) and negative effects on nutritional status in regard to manganese (serum manganese, urine manganese, and lymphocyte manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase activity). In contrast, heme-iron intake was positively correlated with hematological status and had no consistent effect on nutritional status in regard to manganese. Differences in dietary manganese intake had no consistent effect on indices of manganese or iron status, possibly because foods that contain significant amounts of manganese (green vegetables, breads, and cereals) often contain significant amounts of nonheme iron. Thus, increasing dietary manganese intake by consuming these foods is apt to have limited impact on manganese status because of the interaction between nonheme iron and manganese. PMID:1415012

  15. Cellular iron metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ponka, P

    1999-03-01

    Iron is essential for oxidation-reduction catalysis and bioenergetics, but unless appropriately shielded, iron plays a key role in the formation of toxic oxygen radicals that can attack all biological molecules. Hence, specialized molecules for the acquisition, transport (transferrin), and storage (ferritin) of iron in a soluble nontoxic form have evolved. Delivery of iron to most cells, probably including those of the kidney, occurs following the binding of transferrin to transferrin receptors on the cell membrane. The transferrin-receptor complexes are then internalized by endocytosis, and iron is released from transferrin by a process involving endosomal acidification. Cellular iron storage and uptake are coordinately regulated post-transcriptionally by cytoplasmic factors, iron-regulatory proteins 1 and 2 (IRP-1 and IRP-2). Under conditions of limited iron supply, IRP binding to iron-responsive elements (present in 5' untranslated region of ferritin mRNA and 3' untranslated region of transferrin receptor mRNA) blocks ferritin mRNA translation and stabilizes transferrin receptor mRNA. The opposite scenario develops when iron in the transit pool is plentiful. Moreover, IRP activities/levels can be affected by various forms of "oxidative stress" and nitric oxide. The kidney also requires iron for metabolic processes, and it is likely that iron deficiency or excess can cause disturbed function of kidney cells. Transferrin receptors are not evenly distributed throughout the kidney, and there is a cortical-to-medullary gradient in heme biosynthesis, with greatest activity in the cortex and least in the medulla. This suggests that there are unique iron/heme metabolism features in some kidney cells, but the specific aspects of iron and heme metabolism in the kidney are yet to be explained.

  16. Effects of Radiation and a High Iron Load on Bone Mineral Density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, E.; Morgan, J. L. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Gonzales, E.; Camp, K.; Smith, S. M.; Bloomfield, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Astronauts on long duration space flight missions to the moon or mars are exposed to radiation and have increase iron (Fe) stores, both of which can independently induce oxidative stress and may exacerbate bone mass loss and strength. We hypothesize a high Fe diet and a fractionated gamma radiation exposure would increase oxidative stress and lower bone mass. Three mo-old, SD rats (n=32) were randomized to receive an adequate Fe diet (45 mg Fe/kg diet) or a high Fe diet (650 mg Fe/kg diet) for 4 wks and either a cumulative 3 Gy dose (fractionated 8 x 0.375 Gy) of gamma radiation (Cs-137) or sham exposure starting on day 14. Elisa kit assessed serum catalase, clinical analyzer assessed serum Fe status and ex vivo pQCT scans measured bone parameters in the proximal/midshaft tibia and femoral neck. Mechanical strength was assessed by 3-pt bending and femoral neck test. There is a significant decrease in trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) from radiation (p less than 0.05) and a trend in diet (p=0.05) at the proximal tibia. There is a significant interaction in cortical BMD from the combined treatments at the midshaft tibia (p less than 0.05). There is a trending decrease in total BMD from diet (p=0.07) at the femoral neck. In addition, high serum Fe was correlated to low trabecular BMD (p less than 0.05) and high serum catalase was correlated to low BMD at all 3 bone sites (p less than 0.05). There was no difference in the max load of the tibia or femoral neck. Radiation and a high iron diet increases iron status and catalase in the serum and decreases BMD.

  17. mRNA regulation of cardiac iron transporters and ferritin subunits in a mouse model of iron overload.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Casey J; Wood, Ruth I; Wood, John C

    2014-12-01

    Iron cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of death in iron overload. Men have twice the mortality rate of women, though the cause is unknown. In hemojuvelin-knockout mice, a model of the disease, males load more cardiac iron than females. We postulated that sex differences in cardiac iron import cause differences in cardiac iron concentration. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure mRNA of cardiac iron transporters in hemojuvelin-knockout mice. No sex differences were discovered among putative importers of nontransferrin-bound iron (L-type and T-type calcium channels, ZRT/IRT-like protein 14 zinc channels). Transferrin-bound iron transporters were also analyzed; these are controlled by the iron regulatory element/iron regulatory protein (IRE/IRP) system. There was a positive relationship between cardiac iron and ferroportin mRNA in both sexes, but it was significantly steeper in females (p < 0.05). Transferrin receptor 1 and divalent metal transporter 1 were more highly expressed in females than males (p < 0.01 and p < 0.0001, respectively), consistent with their lower cardiac iron levels, as predicted by IRE/IRP regulatory pathways. Light-chain ferritin showed a positive correlation with cardiac iron that was nearly identical in males and females (R(2) = 0.41, p < 0.01; R(2) = 0.56, p < 0.05, respectively), whereas heavy-chain ferritin was constitutively expressed in both sexes. This represents the first report of IRE/IRP regulatory pathways in the heart. Transcriptional regulation of ferroportin was suggested in both sexes, creating a potential mechanism for differential set points for iron export. Constitutive heavy-chain-ferritin expression suggests a logical limit to cardiac iron buffering capacity at levels known to produce heart failure in humans. PMID:25220979

  18. Dose titration of deferasirox iron chelation therapy by magnetic resonance imaging for chronic iron storage disease in three adult red bald-headed uakari (Cacajao calvus rubicundus).

    PubMed

    Brewer, Casey; Tyszka, J Michael; Stadler, Cynthia K; Garner, Michael; Baer, Janet; Wood, John C

    2014-06-01

    Iron overload is common in lemurs and some New World nonhuman primates raised in captivity, but there is no such documentation in the red bald-headed uakari (Cacajao calvus rubicundus). This study describes postmortem documentation of severe iron storage disease in one red bald-headed uakari and the use of iron chelation with oral deferasirox in the three surviving members of the colony. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify pretreatment iron burden and to follow the response to therapy in two females, 22 and 28 yr of age, and one male 33 yr of age. Baseline liver iron concentrations ranged from 16 to 23 mg/g dry weight. In humans, a liver iron concentration greater than 15 mg/g is considered severe and associated with endocrine and cardiac toxicity. The uakaris were otherwise asymptomatic, generally healthy, nonpregnant, and on a stable, low-iron diet. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging indicated that dosage escalations up to 100 mg/kg were needed to produce meaningful reductions in iron stores. After 5 yr of therapy, two animals continue at a dosage of 100 mg/kg per day, and the third was transitioned to twice-weekly maintenance dosing because of successful de-ironing. The animals tolerated iron chelation therapy well, having stable hematologic, renal, and hepatic function profiles before, during, and after treatment. Deferasirox monotherapy may represent a therapeutic option in primates with iron storage disease when dietary measures are ineffective and phlebotomy is logistically challenging.

  19. 19 CFR 122.133 - Stores list required on arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... or taxes assessed for any shortage shall be set at the highest rate available for the alcoholic beverages in the kit. (b) Disposition of stores list copies. One copy of the incoming stores list shall...

  20. Silent store detection and recording in memory storage

    DOEpatents

    Bose, Pradip; Cher, Chen-Yong; Nair, Ravi

    2016-09-20

    An aspect includes receiving a write request that includes a memory address and write data. Stored data is read from a memory location at the memory address. Based on determining that the memory location was not previously modified, the stored data is compared to the write data. Based on the stored data matching the write data, the write request is completed without writing the write data to the memory and a corresponding silent store bit, in a silent store bitmap is set. Based on the stored data not matching the write data, the write data is written to the memory location, the silent store bit is reset and a corresponding modified bit is set. At least one of an application and an operating system is provided access to the silent store bitmap.

  1. 19 CFR 122.133 - Stores list required on arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... or taxes assessed for any shortage shall be set at the highest rate available for the alcoholic beverages in the kit. (b) Disposition of stores list copies. One copy of the incoming stores list shall...

  2. 19 CFR 122.133 - Stores list required on arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... or taxes assessed for any shortage shall be set at the highest rate available for the alcoholic beverages in the kit. (b) Disposition of stores list copies. One copy of the incoming stores list shall...

  3. 19 CFR 122.133 - Stores list required on arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or taxes assessed for any shortage shall be set at the highest rate available for the alcoholic beverages in the kit. (b) Disposition of stores list copies. One copy of the incoming stores list shall...

  4. 1. South approach to the horse pasture store, looking north; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. South approach to the horse pasture store, looking north; U.S. Highway 58 (toward Martinsville) is in the foreground - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  5. VIEW OF POPPELL'S HARDWARE, FURNITURE, FEED AND SEED STORE FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF POPPELL'S HARDWARE, FURNITURE, FEED AND SEED STORE FROM NORTHEAST FACING SOUTHWEST - Poppell's Hardware, Furniture, Feed & Seed Store, U.S. Highway 341 at Carter Avenue, Odum, Wayne County, GA

  6. VIEW OF POPPELL'S HARDWARE, FURNITURE, FEED AND SEED STORE FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF POPPELL'S HARDWARE, FURNITURE, FEED AND SEED STORE FROM SOUTHEAST FACING NORTHWEST - Poppell's Hardware, Furniture, Feed & Seed Store, U.S. Highway 341 at Carter Avenue, Odum, Wayne County, GA

  7. 19 CFR 122.133 - Stores list required on arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or taxes assessed for any shortage shall be set at the highest rate available for the alcoholic beverages in the kit. (b) Disposition of stores list copies. One copy of the incoming stores list shall...

  8. 7. West and south facades of the store's two outbuildings: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. West and south facades of the store's two outbuildings: a fertilizer shed at the left of the view and the outhouse on the right - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  9. 18. View of corner store, south side of Crystal Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. View of corner store, south side of Crystal Bridge, 1939/1940 addition, and 1951/1953 addition from south looking northeast. - Rich's Downtown Department Store, 45 Broad Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  10. Iron supplementation, maternal packed cell volume, and fetal growth.

    PubMed Central

    Hemminki, E; Rimpelä, U

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies have found that there is a correlation between mothers' haemoglobin concentration or packed cell volume and infants' birth weight, and that iron supplementation increases mothers' haemoglobin concentration. The purpose of this study, using the data of a large randomised trial on iron prophylaxis during pregnancy, was to find out whether iron supplementation causes fetal growth to deteriorate. At their first antenatal visit, 2912 pregnant women were randomised into non-routine iron and routine iron supplementation. The mean length of gestation was shorter in the non-routine group. Birth weight did not differ between the groups, but due to longer gestations boys in the group receiving routine iron were taller than in the non-routine group. In both groups, whether studied by various values of packed cell volume or correlation coefficients, the lower the packed cell volume, the heavier and taller the infant and heavier the placenta. These negative correlations could be seen even with a packed cell volume measured early in pregnancy. Standardising for blood pressure did not influence the correlation coefficients. The correlation between a high ratio for packed cell volume and poor fetal growth thus may not be caused by iron supplementation, nor mediated by blood pressure, but by some other mechanism. PMID:2025036

  11. Iron stores in low and normal birth weight infants at birth and in early infancy.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ramesh; Virmani, Deenanath; Jaipal, Munnalal; Gupta, Shuchita; Sankar, Mari Jeeva; Bhatia, Sunita; Agarwal, Anand; Devgan, Veena; Gupta, Nandita; Deorari, Ashok K; Paul, Vinod K

    2014-03-01

    Serum ferritin levels of low birth weight (LBW; BW < 2,500 g) and normal birth weight (NBW; BW ≥ 2,500 g) infants were evaluated at birth and at 3 mo using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. At birth, levels were 318.6 (31.0-829.5) ng/mL in LBW (n = 217) and 366.2 (122.4-858.5) ng/mL in NBW infants (n = 116; p < 0.01), with 1.4 % of LBW and none of the NBW infants having levels <12 ng/mL (p = 0.20). At follow up, levels were 66.9 (4.5-567.7) ng/mL in LBW (n = 126) and 126.2 (6.8-553.7) ng/mL in NBW infants (n = 76; p = 0.27), with 11.9 % of LBW and 11.8 % of NBW infants having levels <12 ng/mL (p = 0.80). PMID:23979924

  12. Impact of inflammation on iron stores in involved and non-involved psoriatic skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Ynsa, M. D.; Alves, L. C.; Teixeira, P.; Ferreira, J.; Filipe, P.

    2015-04-01

    Accumulating evidence supports a role for cellular Fe in cell proliferation, inflammation, and disease tolerance. Psoriasis is a severe inflammatory and hyper proliferative condition of human skin whose aetiology remains poorly understood. Herein, we performed nuclear microscopy techniques to quantify with cellular resolution and high sensitivity the concentration of Fe in lesional (psoriatic plaques) and non-lesional adjacent skin of psoriatic patients. Fe contents were measured across skin depth and along epidermal strata either by quantitatively imaging Fe distribution in regions of interest, or by determining Fe profiles through analysis of sequential points along selected transepts. Both procedures require deconvolution of spectra to project quantitative elemental data through the application of different software codes. Using these approaches a detailed quantitative distribution of Fe was resolved. We show that in both lesional and non-lesional skin, the epidermal profiles of Fe contents showed a peak at the basal layer and that Fe concentration along the basal layer was not uniformly distributed. Typically, Fe levels were significantly higher in epidermal ridges relative to regions above dermal papillae. Lesional skin displayed excess Fe over extended regions above basal layer. In conclusion, we found significantly increased Fe deposits in the epidermis of psoriatic patients, particularly in areas of epidermal hyper proliferation. These findings suggest an important role for Fe in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. They also raise the possibility that manipulation of Fe levels in the skin may become relevant for the clinical management of psoriasis.

  13. Stored RBC Transfusions: Iron, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection 2013 Emily Cooley Lecture

    PubMed Central

    Spitalnik, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Emily Cooley was a highly-regarded medical technologist and morphologist. The “Emily Cooley Lectureship and Award” was established to honor her, in particular, and medical technologists, in general. This article reviews some basic concepts about the “life of a red blood cell” and uses these to discuss the actual and potential consequences that occur in patients following clearance of transfused refrigerator storage-damaged red blood cells by extravascular hemolysis. PMID:25196845

  14. Iron Acquisition in Bacillus cereus: The Roles of IlsA and Bacillibactin in Exogenous Ferritin Iron Mobilization

    PubMed Central

    Buisson, Christophe; Daou, Nadine; Kallassy, Mireille; Lereclus, Didier; Arosio, Paolo; Bou-Abdallah, Fadi; Nielsen Le Roux, Christina

    2014-01-01

    In host-pathogen interactions, the struggle for iron may have major consequences on the outcome of the disease. To overcome the low solubility and bio-availability of iron, bacteria have evolved multiple systems to acquire iron from various sources such as heme, hemoglobin and ferritin. The molecular basis of iron acquisition from heme and hemoglobin have been extensively studied; however, very little is known about iron acquisition from host ferritin, a 24-mer nanocage protein able to store thousands of iron atoms within its cavity. In the human opportunistic pathogen Bacillus cereus, a surface protein named IlsA (Iron-regulated leucine rich surface protein type A) binds heme, hemoglobin and ferritin in vitro and is involved in virulence. Here, we demonstrate that IlsA acts as a ferritin receptor causing ferritin aggregation on the bacterial surface. Isothermal titration calorimetry data indicate that IlsA binds several types of ferritins through direct interaction with the shell subunits. UV-vis kinetic data show a significant enhancement of iron release from ferritin in the presence of IlsA indicating for the first time that a bacterial protein might alter the stability of the ferritin iron core. Disruption of the siderophore bacillibactin production drastically reduces the ability of B. cereus to utilize ferritin for growth and results in attenuated bacterial virulence in insects. We propose a new model of iron acquisition in B. cereus that involves the binding of IlsA to host ferritin followed by siderophore assisted iron uptake. Our results highlight a possible interplay between a surface protein and a siderophore and provide new insights into host adaptation of B. cereus and general bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:24550730

  15. The ubiquity of iron.

    PubMed

    Frey, Perry A; Reed, George H

    2012-09-21

    The importance of iron in living systems can be traced to the many complexes within which it is found, to its chemical mobility in undergoing oxidation-reduction reactions, and to the abundance of iron in Earth's crust. Iron is the most abundant element, by mass, in the Earth, constituting about 80% of the inner and outer cores of Earth. The molten outer core is about 8000 km in diameter, and the solid inner core is about 2400 km in diameter. Iron is the fourth most abundant element in Earth's crust. It is the chemically functional component of mononuclear iron complexes, dinuclear iron complexes, [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-4S] clusters, [Fe-Ni-S] clusters, iron protophorphyrin IX, and many other complexes in protein biochemistry. Metals such as nickel, cobalt, copper, and manganese are present in the crust and could in principle function chemically in place of iron, but they are scarce in Earth's crust. Iron is plentiful because of its nuclear stability in stellar nuclear fusion reactions. It seems likely that other solid planets, formed by the same processes as Earth, would also foster the evolution of life and that iron would be similarly important to life on those planets as it is on Earth. PMID:22845493

  16. The ubiquity of iron.

    PubMed

    Frey, Perry A; Reed, George H

    2012-09-21

    The importance of iron in living systems can be traced to the many complexes within which it is found, to its chemical mobility in undergoing oxidation-reduction reactions, and to the abundance of iron in Earth's crust. Iron is the most abundant element, by mass, in the Earth, constituting about 80% of the inner and outer cores of Earth. The molten outer core is about 8000 km in diameter, and the solid inner core is about 2400 km in diameter. Iron is the fourth most abundant element in Earth's crust. It is the chemically functional component of mononuclear iron complexes, dinuclear iron complexes, [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-4S] clusters, [Fe-Ni-S] clusters, iron protophorphyrin IX, and many other complexes in protein biochemistry. Metals such as nickel, cobalt, copper, and manganese are present in the crust and could in principle function chemically in place of iron, but they are scarce in Earth's crust. Iron is plentiful because of its nuclear stability in stellar nuclear fusion reactions. It seems likely that other solid planets, formed by the same processes as Earth, would also foster the evolution of life and that iron would be similarly important to life on those planets as it is on Earth.

  17. CARBON MONOXIDE REVERSIBLY DISRUPTS IRON HOMEOSTATIS AND RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iron dissociation from heme is a major factor in iron metabolism and cellular concentrations of the metal correlate inversely with the expression of heme oxygenase (HO). We tested the hypothesis that 1) exposure to a product of HO, carbon monoxide (CO), disturbs iron homeostas...

  18. Store-operated calcium signaling in neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Regina A; Lowell, Clifford A

    2015-10-01

    Calcium signals in neutrophils are initiated by a variety of cell-surface receptors, including formyl peptide and other GPCRs, FcRs, and integrins. The predominant pathway by which calcium enters immune cells is termed SOCE, whereby plasma membrane CRAC channels allow influx of extracellular calcium into the cytoplasm when intracellular ER stores are depleted. The identification of 2 key families of SOCE regulators, STIM calcium "sensors" and ORAI calcium channels, has allowed for genetic manipulation of SOCE pathways and provided valuable insight into the molecular mechanism of calcium signaling in immune cells, including neutrophils. This review focuses on our current knowledge of the molecules involved in neutrophil SOCE and how study of these molecules has further informed our understanding of the role of calcium signaling in neutrophil activation.

  19. Extractable Work from Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perarnau-Llobet, Martí; Hovhannisyan, Karen V.; Huber, Marcus; Skrzypczyk, Paul; Brunner, Nicolas; Acín, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Work and quantum correlations are two fundamental resources in thermodynamics and quantum information theory. In this work, we study how to use correlations among quantum systems to optimally store work. We analyze this question for isolated quantum ensembles, where the work can be naturally divided into two contributions: a local contribution from each system and a global contribution originating from correlations among systems. We focus on the latter and consider quantum systems that are locally thermal, thus from which any extractable work can only come from correlations. We compute the maximum extractable work for general entangled states, separable states, and states with fixed entropy. Our results show that while entanglement gives an advantage for small quantum ensembles, this gain vanishes for a large number of systems.

  20. 4. West and south elevations of the horse pasture store, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. West and south elevations of the horse pasture store, looking northeast; a "Greenhouse" structure can be seen extending to the west of the store at the left of the view - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  1. In-Store Experimental Approach to Pricing and Consumer Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Foxall, Gordon; Saevarsson, Hugi

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed how, and to what extent, it is possible to use behavioral experimentation and relative sales analysis to study the effects of price on consumers' brand choices in the store environment. An in-store experiment was performed in four stores to investigate the effects of different prices of a target brand on consumers' relative…

  2. 41 CFR 109-27.5006 - Stores catalogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stores catalogs. 109-27... catalogs. A stores catalog for customer use that lists items available from stock shall be established for each stores operation. Exceptions to this requirement are authorized where establishment of a...

  3. 41 CFR 109-27.5006 - Stores catalogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stores catalogs. 109-27... catalogs. A stores catalog for customer use that lists items available from stock shall be established for each stores operation. Exceptions to this requirement are authorized where establishment of a...

  4. The College Store of the 1980's: Meeting the Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Harold E.

    Approaches to help achieve a professional college store operation in the 1980s are outlined for the benefit of the college store staff member, supervisor, or manager, as well as administrators responsible for the review of the college store. The following areas are addressed: objectives of the service, organization, equipment and layout, the…

  5. 41 CFR 109-1.5108-3 - Stores inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stores inventories. 109....51-Personal Property Management Standards and Practices § 109-1.5108-3 Stores inventories. Perpetual inventory records are to be maintained for stores inventory items....

  6. 46 CFR 2.75-60 - Hazardous ships' stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hazardous ships' stores. 2.75-60 Section 2.75-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL... Personnel § 2.75-60 Hazardous ships' stores. Hazardous ships' stores, as defined in § 147.3 of this...

  7. 46 CFR 2.75-60 - Hazardous ships' stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hazardous ships' stores. 2.75-60 Section 2.75-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL... Personnel § 2.75-60 Hazardous ships' stores. Hazardous ships' stores, as defined in § 147.3 of this...

  8. 46 CFR 2.75-60 - Hazardous ships' stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hazardous ships' stores. 2.75-60 Section 2.75-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL... Personnel § 2.75-60 Hazardous ships' stores. Hazardous ships' stores, as defined in § 147.3 of this...

  9. 46 CFR 2.75-60 - Hazardous ships' stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous ships' stores. 2.75-60 Section 2.75-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL... Personnel § 2.75-60 Hazardous ships' stores. Hazardous ships' stores, as defined in § 147.3 of this...

  10. 46 CFR 2.75-60 - Hazardous ships' stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hazardous ships' stores. 2.75-60 Section 2.75-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL... Personnel § 2.75-60 Hazardous ships' stores. Hazardous ships' stores, as defined in § 147.3 of this...

  11. Iron-sulfur clusters: why iron?

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kasper P

    2006-08-01

    This communication addresses a simple question by means of density functional calculations: Why is iron used as the metal in iron-sulfur clusters? While there may be several answers to this question, it is shown here that one feature - the well-defined inner-sphere reorganization energy of self-exchange electron transfer - is very much favored in iron-sulfur clusters as opposed to metal substituted analogues of Mn, Co, Ni, and Cu. Furthermore, the conclusion holds for both 1Fe and 2Fe type iron-sulfur clusters. The results show that only iron provides a small inner-sphere reorganization energy of 21 kJ/mol in 1Fe (rubredoxin) and 46 kJ/mol in 2Fe (ferredoxin) models, whereas other metal ions exhibit values in the range 57-135 kJ/mol (1Fe) and 94-140 kJ/mol (2Fe). This simple result provides an important, although partial, explanation why iron alone is used in this type of clusters. The results can be explained by simple orbital rules of electron transfer, which state that the occupation of anti-bonding orbitals should not change during the redox reactions. This rule immediately suggests good and poor electron carriers.

  12. Competition among species of stored-product psocids (Psocoptera) in stored grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the competition of stored-product psocid species, by conducting two series of laboratory experiments. In the first series, three Liposcelididae were used: Liposcelis bostrychophila, L. decolor and L. paeta. Five adult females of these species were placed in vials, either alone or in all...

  13. A School Store-Classroom Laboratory Guide for Marketing and Distributive Education. Store/Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Distributive Education.

    This manual is designed to assist teachers in operating a school store as a classroom-laboratory for teaching marketing in the high school distributive education curriculum. The first part of the guide provides a rationale for competency-based instruction, introduces the cluster concept of organizing jobs in marketing and distributive education,…

  14. Greater hippocampal neuronal recruitment in food-storing than in non-food-storing birds.

    PubMed

    Hoshooley, Jennifer S; Sherry, David F

    2007-03-01

    Previous research has shown heightened recruitment of new neurons to the chickadee hippocampus in the fall. The present study was conducted to determine whether heightened fall recruitment is associated with the seasonal onset of food-storing by comparing neurogenesis in chickadees and a non-food-storing species, the house sparrow. Chickadees and house sparrows were captured in the wild in fall and spring and received multiple injections of the cell birth marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Birds were held in captivity and the level of hippocampal neuron recruitment was assessed after 6 weeks. Chickadees showed significantly more hippocampal neuronal recruitment than house sparrows. We found no seasonal differences in hippocampal neuronal recruitment in either species. In chickadees and in house sparrows, one-third of new cells labeled for BrdU also expressed the mature neuronal protein, NeuN. In a region adjacent to the hippocampus, the hyperpallium apicale, we observed no significant differences in neuronal recruitment between species or between seasons. Hippocampal volume and total neuron number both were greater in spring than in fall in chickadees, but no seasonal differences were observed in house sparrows. Enhanced neuronal recruitment in the hippocampus of food-storing chickadees suggests a degree of neurogenic specialization that may be associated with the spatial memory requirements of food-storing behavior.

  15. Low Prevalence of Iron and Vitamin A Deficiency among Cambodian Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Wieringa, Frank T; Sophonneary, Prak; Whitney, Sophie; Mao, Bunsoth; Berger, Jacques; Conkle, Joel; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A; Laillou, Arnaud

    2016-04-01

    Nearly half of women of reproductive age (WRA) in Cambodia are anemic. To guide interventions, national data on nutritional causes of anemia, including iron deficiency and vitamin A deficiency, are needed. In 2012, a national household survey in WRA on antibodies to routine vaccine-preventable disease immunity was performed. We used serum samples from this survey to estimate the prevalence of iron and vitamin A deficiency in 2112 Cambodian WRA, aged 15 to 39 years. Iron deficiency was classified as low or marginal iron stores (ferritin concentrations corrected for inflammation <15 μg/L and <50 μg/L respectively; Fer), iron deficient erythropoiesis (soluble transferrin receptor concentrations >8.3 mg/L; sTfR), or low total body iron (TBI) derived from Fer and sTfR concentrations (<0 mg/kg). Vitamin A status was classified using retinol binding protein (RBP) concentrations corrected for inflammation as deficient (<0.70 μmol/L) or marginal (<1.05 μmol/L. Overall, the prevalence of low iron stores, low TBI and iron deficient erythropoiesis was 8.1%, 5.0% and 9.3% respectively. Almost 40% of the women had marginal iron stores. Iron status was better in women living in urban areas compared to rural areas (p < 0.05 for TBI and sTfR). The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was <1%. These findings suggest that the contribution of iron and vitamin A deficiency to the high prevalence of anemia in Cambodian WRA may be limited. The etiology of anemia in Cambodia needs to be elucidated further to guide current policies on anemia.

  16. Iron and Stony-iron Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haack, H.; McCoy, T. J.

    2003-12-01

    Without iron and stony-iron meteorites, our chances of ever sampling the deep interior of a differentiated planetary object would be next to nil. Although we live on a planet with a very substantial core, we will never be able to sample it. Fortunately, asteroid collisions provide us with a rich sampling of the deep interiors of differentiated asteroids.Iron and stony-iron meteorites are fragments of a large number of asteroids that underwent significant geological processing in the early solar system. Parent bodies of iron and some stony-iron meteorites completed a geological evolution similar to that continuing on Earth - although on much smaller length- and timescales - with melting of the metal and silicates, differentiation into core, mantle, and crust, and probably extensive volcanism. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are our only available analogues to materials found in the deep interiors of Earth and other terrestrial planets. This fact has been recognized since the work of Chladni (1794), who argued that stony-iron meteorites must have originated in outer space and fallen during fireballs and that they provide our closest analogue to the material that comprises our own planet's core. This chapter deals with our current knowledge of these meteorites. How did they form? What can they tell us about the early evolution of the solar system and its solid bodies? How closely do they resemble the materials from planetary interiors? What do we know and don't we know?Iron and stony-iron meteorites constitute ˜6% of meteorite falls (Grady, 2000). Despite their scarcity among falls, iron meteorites are our only samples of ˜75 of the ˜135 asteroids from which meteorites originate ( Keil et al., 1994; Scott, 1979; Meibom and Clark, 1999; see also Chapter 1.05), suggesting that both differentiated asteroids and the geologic processes that produced them were common.Despite the highly evolved nature of iron and stony-iron meteorites, their chemistry provides important

  17. Brain iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Moos, Torben

    2002-11-01

    Iron is essential for virtually all types of cells and organisms. The significance of the iron for brain function is reflected by the presence of receptors for transferrin on brain capillary endothelial cells. The transport of iron into the brain from the circulation is regulated so that the extraction of iron by brain capillary endothelial cells is low in iron-replete conditions and the reverse when the iron need of the brain is high as in conditions with iron deficiency and during development of the brain. Whereas there is good agreement that iron is taken up by means of receptor-mediated uptake of iron-transferrin at the brain barriers, there are contradictory views on how iron is transported further on from the brain barriers and into the brain extracellular space. The prevailing hypothesis for transport of iron across the BBB suggests a mechanism that involves detachment of iron from transferrin within barrier cells followed by recycling of apo-transferrin to blood plasma and release of iron as non-transferrin-bound iron into the brain interstitium from where the iron is taken up by neurons and glial cells. Another hypothesis claims that iron-transferrin is transported into the brain by means of transcytosis through the BBB. This thesis deals with the topic "brain iron homeostasis" defined as the attempts to maintain constant concentrations of iron in the brain internal environment via regulation of iron transport through brain barriers, cellular iron uptake by neurons and glia, and export of iron from brain to blood. The first part deals with transport of iron-transferrin complexes from blood to brain either by transport across the brain barriers or by uptake and retrograde axonal transport in motor neurons projecting beyond the blood-brain barrier. The transport of iron and transport into the brain was examined using radiolabeled iron-transferrin. Intravenous injection of [59Fe-125]transferrin led to an almost two-fold higher accumulation of 59Fe than of

  18. Serum vitamin c and iron levels in oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Guruprasad, R; Nair, Preeti P; Singh, Manika; Singh, Manishi; Singh, MP; Jain, Arpit

    2014-01-01

    Background: In this study Serum Vitamin C and Iron levels in Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) were estimated. The objective was to evaluate the correlation between Serum Vitamin C and Iron levels in OSMF individuals. Serum Iron content can be a predictor for the progression of this condition. OSMF is basically a disorder of collagen metabolism where Vitamin C gets utilized in conversion of proline into hydroxyproline, this hydroxylation reaction requires ferrous Iron and Vitamin C. Many studies regarding micronutrients and other antioxidants levels have been emphasized, but very few studies are done on the Serum levels of Vitamin C and its correlation with Iron in OSMF patients. Methods: Thirty five OSMF patients and 50 deleterious habit free healthy individuals (controls) were selected. Two ml of venous blood was collected from each individual. Vitamin C level in serum was estimated by 2-4 dinitrophenylhydrazine method and Iron estimated by Tripyridyl method. Results: The level of Serum Vitamin-C and Iron was significantly decreased in OSMF patients when compared to controls which were statistically significant. Conclusion: On the basis of these observations, it seems possible that the chemical, thermal and/or mechanical factors associated with the use of areca nut may act in conjunction with the Vitamin C and Iron deficiency leading to the development of OSMF. Therapeutic substitution of vitamin C and Iron may be recommended in the management of OSMF PMID:25565730

  19. Mechanisms of mammalian iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Pantopoulos, Kostas; Porwal, Suheel Kumar; Tartakoff, Alan; Devireddy, L

    2012-07-24

    Iron is vital for almost all organisms because of its ability to donate and accept electrons with relative ease. It serves as a cofactor for many proteins and enzymes necessary for oxygen and energy metabolism, as well as for several other essential processes. Mammalian cells utilize multiple mechanisms to acquire iron. Disruption of iron homeostasis is associated with various human diseases: iron deficiency resulting from defects in the acquisition or distribution of the metal causes anemia, whereas iron surfeit resulting from excessive iron absorption or defective utilization causes abnormal tissue iron deposition, leading to oxidative damage. Mammals utilize distinct mechanisms to regulate iron homeostasis at the systemic and cellular levels. These involve the hormone hepcidin and iron regulatory proteins, which collectively ensure iron balance. This review outlines recent advances in iron regulatory pathways as well as in mechanisms underlying intracellular iron trafficking, an important but less studied area of mammalian iron homeostasis.

  20. IRON IN MULTIPLE MYELOMA

    PubMed Central

    VanderWall, Kristina; Daniels-Wells, Tracy R; Penichet, Manuel; Lichtenstein, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a non-curable B cell malignancy in which iron metabolism plays an important role. Patients with this disorder almost universally suffer from a clinically significant anemia, which is often symptomatic, and which is due to impaired iron utilization. Recent studies indicate that the proximal cause of dysregulated iron metabolism and anemia in these patients is cytokine-induced upregulation of hepcidin expression. Malignant myeloma cells are dependent on an increased influx of iron and therapeutic efforts are being made to target this requirement. The studies detailing the characteristics and biochemical abnormalities in iron metabolism causing anemia and the initial attempts to target iron therapeutically are described in this review. PMID:23879589

  1. Cellular iron transport.

    PubMed

    Garrick, Michael D; Garrick, Laura M

    2009-05-01

    Iron has a split personality as an essential nutrient that also has the potential to generate reactive oxygen species. We discuss how different cell types within specific tissues manage this schizophrenia. The emphasis in enterocytes is on regulating the body's supply of iron by regulating transport into the blood stream. In developing red blood cells, adaptations in transport manage the body's highest flux of iron. Hepatocytes buffer the body's stock of iron. Macrophage recycle the iron from effete red cells among other iron management tasks. Pneumocytes provide a barrier to prevent illicit entry that, when at risk of breaching, leads to a need to handle the dangers in a fashion essentially shared with macrophage. We also discuss or introduce cell types including renal cells, neurons, other brain cells, and more where our ignorance, currently still vast, needs to be removed by future research. PMID:19344751

  2. Are Grocery Store Tours Capturing the Right Audience? Characteristics of Students Who Volunteer to Receive a Grocery Store Tour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Elizabeth; Brunt, Ardith; Stangl, Christa; Borr, Mari

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research is to examine the demographics of students volunteering to receive a grocery store tour in order to assess if these students represent those most in need of the information. Dietetics students trained in giving grocery store tours through a Produce for Better Health grant provided store tours to college student…

  3. Austempered Ductile Iron Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilc, Jozef; Šajgalík, Michal; Holubják, Jozef; Piešová, Marianna; Zaušková, Lucia; Babík, Ondrej; Kuždák, Viktor; Rákoci, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    This article deals with the machining of cast iron. In industrial practice, Austempered Ductile Iron began to be used relatively recently. ADI is ductile iron that has gone through austempering to get improved properties, among which we can include strength, wear resistance or noise damping. This specific material is defined also by other properties, such as high elasticity, ductility and endurance against tenigue, which are the properties, that considerably make the tooling characteristic worse.

  4. Asthma as a disruption in iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Andrew J

    2016-10-01

    Over several decades, asthma has evolved from being recognized as a single disease to include a diverse group of phenotypes with dissimilar natural histories, pathophysiologies, responses to treatment, and distinctive molecular pathways. With the application of Occam's razor to asthma, it is proposed that there is one cause underlying the numerous phenotypes of this disease and that the responsible molecular pathway is a deficiency of iron in the lung tissues. This deficiency can be either absolute (e.g. asthma in the neonate and during both pregnancy and menstruation) or functional (e.g. asthma associated with infections, smoking, and obesity). Comparable associations between asthma co-morbidity (e.g. eczema, urticaria, restless leg syndrome, and pulmonary hypertension) with iron deficiency support such a shared mechanistic pathway. Therapies directed at asthma demonstrate a capacity to impact iron homeostasis, further strengthening the relationship. Finally, pathophysiologic events producing asthma, including inflammation, increases in Th2 cells, and muscle contraction, can correlate with iron availability. Recognition of a potential association between asthma and an absolute and/or functional iron deficiency suggests specific therapeutic interventions including inhaled iron. PMID:27595579

  5. Predictors of iron levels in 14,737 Danish blood donors: results from the Danish Blood Donor Study

    PubMed Central

    Rigas, Andreas Stribolt; Sørensen, Cecilie Juul; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Thørner, Lise Wegner; Kotzé, Sebastian; Sørensen, Erik; Magnussen, Karin; Rostgaard, Klaus; Erikstrup, Christian; Ullum, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary studies show a relationship between the intake of iron enhancers and inhibitors and iron stores in the general population. However, the impact of dietary factors on the iron stores of blood donors, whose iron status is affected by blood donations, is incompletely understood. Study Design and Methods In the Danish Blood Donor Study, we assessed the effect of blood donation frequency, physiologic factors, lifestyle and supplemental factors, and dietary factors on ferritin levels. We used multiple linear and logistic regression analyses stratified by sex and menopausal status. Results Among high-frequency donors (more than nine donations in the past 3 years), we found iron deficiency (ferritin below 15 ng/mL) in 9, 39, and 22% of men, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women, respectively. The strongest predictors of iron deficiency were sex, menopausal status, the number of blood donations in a 3-year period, and the time since last donation. Other significant factors included weight, age, intensity of menstruation, iron tablets, vitamin pills, and consumption of meat and wine. Conclusion The study confirms iron deficiency as an important problem, especially among menstruating women donating frequently. The risk of iron depletion was largely explained by sex, menopausal status, and donation frequency. Other factors, including dietary and supplemental iron intake, had a much weaker effect on the risk of iron depletion. PMID:24372094

  6. Plea for Iron Astrochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Mostefaoui, T. A.; Benmerad, B.; Kerkar, M.

    2010-10-31

    Iron is a key element and compound in living bodies. It is the most abundant refractory element and has the most stable nucleus in the Universe. Also, elemental Iron has a relevant abundance in the interstellar medium and dense clouds, it can be in gas phase or included in dust particles. During this talk, I shall explain why this special interest in Iron and shall give a brief explanation about its origin and the interstellar nucleosynthesis. After this I'll detail the rich chemistry that Iron can be involved in the interstellar medium, dense clouds with several species.

  7. Iron deficiency: beyond anemia.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Dinesh; Chandra, Jagdish

    2011-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder affecting at least one third of world's population. Though anemia is common manifestation of iron deficiency, other effects of iron deficiency on various tissues, organs and systems are usually under recognized. Impaired brain development and cognitive, behavioural and psychomotor impairment are most worrisome manifestations of iron deficiency. Studies have demonstrated that some of these changes occurring during period of brain growth spurt (<2 years age) may be irreversible. Association of iron deficiency with febrile seizures, pica, breath holding spells, restless leg syndrome and thrombosis is increasingly being recognized. Impaired cell-mediated immunity and bactericidal function are generally noted in iron-deficient persons; however, the findings are inconsistent. Despite proven reversible functional immunological defects in vitro studies, a clinically important relationship between states of iron deficiency and susceptibility to infections remains controversial. Studies from malaria endemic regions have reported increased incidence of malaria in association with iron supplementation. These and some other aspects of iron deficiency are reviewed in this article.

  8. Physics of iron

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, O.

    1993-10-01

    This volume comprises papers presented at the AIRAPT Conference, June 28 to July 1993. The iron sessions at the meeting were identified as the Second Ironworkers Convention. The renewal of interest stems from advances in technologies in both diamond-anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave studies as well as from controversies arising from a lack of consensus among both experimentalists and theoreticians. These advances have produced new data on iron in the pressure-temperature regime of interest for phase diagrams and for temperatures of the core/mantle and inner-core/outer-core boundaries. Particularly interesting is the iron phase diagram inferred from DAC studies. A new phase, {beta}, with a {gamma}-{beta}-{epsilon} triple point at about 30 GPa and 1190 K, and possible sixth phase, {omega}, with an {epsilon}-{Theta}-melt triple point at about 190 GPa and 4000 K are deemed possible. The importance of the equation of state of iron in consideration of Earth`s heat budget and the origin of its magnetic field invoke the interest of theoreticians who argue on the basis of molecular dynamics and other first principles methods. While the major thrust of both meetings was on the physics of pure iron, there was notable contributions on iron alloys. Hydrogen-iron alloys, iron-sulfur liquids, and the comparability to rhenium in phase diagram studies are discussed. The knowledge of the physical properties of iron were increased by several contributions.

  9. Physiology of Iron Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Waldvogel-Abramowski, Sophie; Waeber, Gérard; Gassner, Christoph; Buser, Andreas; Frey, Beat M.; Favrat, Bernard; Tissot, Jean-Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Summary A revolution occurred during the last decade in the comprehension of the physiology as well as in the physiopathology of iron metabolism. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent knowledge that has accumulated, allowing a better comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in iron homeostasis. Iron metabolism is very fine tuned. The free molecule is very toxic; therefore, complex regulatory mechanisms have been developed in mammalian to insure adequate intestinal absorption, transportation, utilization, and elimination. ‘Ironomics’ certainly will be the future of the understanding of genes as well as of the protein-protein interactions involved in iron metabolism. PMID:25053935

  10. Physics of iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, O.

    1993-10-01

    This volume comprises papers presented at the AIRAPT Conference, 28 June - 2 July 1993. The iron sessions at the meeting were identified as the Second Ironworkers Convention. The renewal of interest stems from advances in technologies in both diamond-anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave studies as well as from controversies arising from a lack of consensus among both experimentalists and theoreticians. These advances have produced new data on iron in the pressure-temperature regime of interest for phase diagrams and for temperatures of the core/mantle and inner-core/outer-core boundaries. Particularly interesting is the iron phase diagram inferred from DAC studies. A new phase, (beta), with a (gamma)-(beta)-(epsilon) triple point at about 30 GPa and 1190 K, and possible sixth phase, (omega), with an (epsilon)-(Theta)-melt triple point at about 190 GPa and 4000 K are deemed possible. The importance of the equation of state of iron in consideration of Earth's heat budget and the origin of its magnetic field invoke the interest of theoreticians who argue on the basis of molecular dynamics and other first principles methods. While the major thrust of both meetings was on the physics of pure iron, there were notable contributions on iron alloys. Hydrogen-iron alloys, iron-sulfur liquids, and the comparability to rhenium in phase diagram studies are discussed. The knowledge of the physical properties of iron were increased by several contributions.

  11. Different storage conditions influence biocompatibility and physicochemical properties of iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zaloga, Jan; Janko, Christina; Agarwal, Rohit; Nowak, Johannes; Müller, Robert; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Lee, Geoffrey; Odenbach, Stefan; Lyer, Stefan; Alexiou, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have attracted increasing attention in many biomedical fields. In magnetic drug targeting SPIONs are injected into a tumour supplying artery and accumulated inside the tumour with a magnet. The effectiveness of this therapy is thus dependent on magnetic properties, stability and biocompatibility of the particles. A good knowledge of the effect of storage conditions on those parameters is of utmost importance for the translation of the therapy concept into the clinic and for reproducibility in preclinical studies. Here, core shell SPIONs with a hybrid coating consisting of lauric acid and albumin were stored at different temperatures from 4 to 45 °C over twelve weeks and periodically tested for their physicochemical properties over time. Surprisingly, even at the highest storage temperature we did not observe denaturation of the protein or colloidal instability. However, the saturation magnetisation decreased by maximally 28.8% with clear correlation to time and storage temperature. Furthermore, the biocompatibility was clearly affected, as cellular uptake of the SPIONs into human T-lymphoma cells was crucially dependent on the storage conditions. Taken together, the results show that the particle properties undergo significant changes over time depending on the way they are stored.

  12. Different Storage Conditions Influence Biocompatibility and Physicochemical Properties of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zaloga, Jan; Janko, Christina; Agarwal, Rohit; Nowak, Johannes; Müller, Robert; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Lee, Geoffrey; Odenbach, Stefan; Lyer, Stefan; Alexiou, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have attracted increasing attention in many biomedical fields. In magnetic drug targeting SPIONs are injected into a tumour supplying artery and accumulated inside the tumour with a magnet. The effectiveness of this therapy is thus dependent on magnetic properties, stability and biocompatibility of the particles. A good knowledge of the effect of storage conditions on those parameters is of utmost importance for the translation of the therapy concept into the clinic and for reproducibility in preclinical studies. Here, core shell SPIONs with a hybrid coating consisting of lauric acid and albumin were stored at different temperatures from 4 to 45 °C over twelve weeks and periodically tested for their physicochemical properties over time. Surprisingly, even at the highest storage temperature we did not observe denaturation of the protein or colloidal instability. However, the saturation magnetisation decreased by maximally 28.8% with clear correlation to time and storage temperature. Furthermore, the biocompatibility was clearly affected, as cellular uptake of the SPIONs into human T-lymphoma cells was crucially dependent on the storage conditions. Taken together, the results show that the particle properties undergo significant changes over time depending on the way they are stored. PMID:25918940

  13. 35. GREY IRON TUMBLERS, IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY ROTATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. GREY IRON TUMBLERS, IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY ROTATE CASTINGS WITH SHOT TO REMOVE AND SURFACE OXIDES AND REMAINING EXCESS METALS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. Iron and other micronutrient deficiencies in low-birthweight infants.

    PubMed

    Domellöf, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Low birthweight (LBW), defined as birthweight <2,500 g, is a major global public health problem and is associated with lifelong cognitive and behavioral problems. Very LBW (VLBW) infants (<1,500 g) are at high risk of multiple macro- and micronutrient deficiencies, but most LBW infants are larger (1,500-2,500 g), and the most common nutritional problem of those infants is iron deficiency (ID). Globally, about 25% of pre-school children have ID anemia (IDA), the most severe form of ID, and there is good evidence that ID is associated with impaired brain development. However, adverse effects of excessive iron supplementation have been observed. Delayed umbilical cord clamping, which increases infant iron stores, should be recommended for all newborns. There is good evidence that intakes of 2 mg of dietary iron per kg daily prevents IDA in LBW infants without causing adverse effects. A recent study shows that this dose of iron supplementation also reduces the risk of behavioral problems at 3 years in infants with birthweights 2,000-2,500 g. VLBW infants need 2-3 mg/kg per day. To achieve these intakes, breastfed LBW infants should receive iron supplements, and formula-fed LBW infants should receive an iron-fortified infant formula. PMID:23887120

  15. Iron and other micronutrient deficiencies in low-birthweight infants.

    PubMed

    Domellöf, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Low birthweight (LBW), defined as birthweight <2,500 g, is a major global public health problem and is associated with lifelong cognitive and behavioral problems. Very LBW (VLBW) infants (<1,500 g) are at high risk of multiple macro- and micronutrient deficiencies, but most LBW infants are larger (1,500-2,500 g), and the most common nutritional problem of those infants is iron deficiency (ID). Globally, about 25% of pre-school children have ID anemia (IDA), the most severe form of ID, and there is good evidence that ID is associated with impaired brain development. However, adverse effects of excessive iron supplementation have been observed. Delayed umbilical cord clamping, which increases infant iron stores, should be recommended for all newborns. There is good evidence that intakes of 2 mg of dietary iron per kg daily prevents IDA in LBW infants without causing adverse effects. A recent study shows that this dose of iron supplementation also reduces the risk of behavioral problems at 3 years in infants with birthweights 2,000-2,500 g. VLBW infants need 2-3 mg/kg per day. To achieve these intakes, breastfed LBW infants should receive iron supplements, and formula-fed LBW infants should receive an iron-fortified infant formula.

  16. Iron, copper, zinc, and manganese transport and regulation in pathogenic Enterobacteria: correlations between strains, site of infection and the relative importance of the different metal transport systems for virulence

    PubMed Central

    Porcheron, Gaëlle; Garénaux, Amélie; Proulx, Julie; Sabri, Mourad; Dozois, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    For all microorganisms, acquisition of metal ions is essential for survival in the environment or in their infected host. Metal ions are required in many biological processes as components of metalloproteins and serve as cofactors or structural elements for enzymes. However, it is critical for bacteria to ensure that metal uptake and availability is in accordance with physiological needs, as an imbalance in bacterial metal homeostasis is deleterious. Indeed, host defense strategies against infection either consist of metal starvation by sequestration or toxicity by the highly concentrated release of metals. To overcome these host strategies, bacteria employ a variety of metal uptake and export systems and finely regulate metal homeostasis by numerous transcriptional regulators, allowing them to adapt to changing environmental conditions. As a consequence, iron, zinc, manganese, and copper uptake systems significantly contribute to the virulence of many pathogenic bacteria. However, during the course of our experiments on the role of iron and manganese transporters in extraintestinal Escherichia coli (ExPEC) virulence, we observed that depending on the strain tested, the importance of tested systems in virulence may be different. This could be due to the different set of systems present in these strains, but literature also suggests that as each pathogen must adapt to the particular microenvironment of its site of infection, the role of each acquisition system in virulence can differ from a particular strain to another. In this review, we present the systems involved in metal transport by Enterobacteria and the main regulators responsible for their controlled expression. We also discuss the relative role of these systems depending on the pathogen and the tissues they infect. PMID:24367764

  17. Benefits and harms of iron supplementation in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient children.

    PubMed

    Domellöf, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Due to high iron requirements, young children are at risk for iron deficiency anemia. Iron supplements are therefore often recommended, especially since iron deficiency anemia in children is associated with poor neurodevelopment. However, in contrast to most other nutrients, excess iron cannot be excreted by the human body and it has recently been suggested that excessive iron supplementation of young children may have adverse effects on growth, risk of infections, and even on cognitive development. Recent studies support that iron supplements are beneficial in iron-deficient children but there is a risk of adverse effects in those who are iron replete. In populations with a low prevalence of iron deficiency, general supplementation should therefore be avoided. Iron-fortified foods can still be generally recommended since they seem to be safer than medicinal iron supplements, but the level of iron fortification should be limited. General iron supplementation is recommended in areas with a high prevalence of iron deficiency, with the exception of malarious areas where a cautious supplementation approach needs to be adopted, based either on screening or a combination of iron supplements and infection control measures. More studies are urgently needed to better determine the risks and benefits of iron supplementation and iron-fortified foods given to iron-deficient and iron-sufficient children.

  18. Storing Renewable Energy in the Hydrogen Cycle.

    PubMed

    Züttel, Andreas; Callini, Elsa; Kato, Shunsuke; Atakli, Züleyha Özlem Kocabas

    2015-01-01

    An energy economy based on renewable energy requires massive energy storage, approx. half of the annual energy consumption. Therefore, the production of a synthetic energy carrier, e.g. hydrogen, is necessary. The hydrogen cycle, i.e. production of hydrogen from water by renewable energy, storage and use of hydrogen in fuel cells, combustion engines or turbines is a closed cycle. Electrolysis splits water into hydrogen and oxygen and represents a mature technology in the power range up to 100 kW. However, the major technological challenge is to build electrolyzers in the power range of several MW producing high purity hydrogen with a high efficiency. After the production of hydrogen, large scale and safe hydrogen storage is required. Hydrogen is stored either as a molecule or as an atom in the case of hydrides. The maximum volumetric hydrogen density of a molecular hydrogen storage is limited to the density of liquid hydrogen. In a complex hydride the hydrogen density is limited to 20 mass% and 150 kg/m(3) which corresponds to twice the density of liquid hydrogen. Current research focuses on the investigation of new storage materials based on combinations of complex hydrides with amides and the understanding of the hydrogen sorption mechanism in order to better control the reaction for the hydrogen storage applications. PMID:26842323

  19. Storing Renewable Energy in the Hydrogen Cycle.

    PubMed

    Züttel, Andreas; Callini, Elsa; Kato, Shunsuke; Atakli, Züleyha Özlem Kocabas

    2015-01-01

    An energy economy based on renewable energy requires massive energy storage, approx. half of the annual energy consumption. Therefore, the production of a synthetic energy carrier, e.g. hydrogen, is necessary. The hydrogen cycle, i.e. production of hydrogen from water by renewable energy, storage and use of hydrogen in fuel cells, combustion engines or turbines is a closed cycle. Electrolysis splits water into hydrogen and oxygen and represents a mature technology in the power range up to 100 kW. However, the major technological challenge is to build electrolyzers in the power range of several MW producing high purity hydrogen with a high efficiency. After the production of hydrogen, large scale and safe hydrogen storage is required. Hydrogen is stored either as a molecule or as an atom in the case of hydrides. The maximum volumetric hydrogen density of a molecular hydrogen storage is limited to the density of liquid hydrogen. In a complex hydride the hydrogen density is limited to 20 mass% and 150 kg/m(3) which corresponds to twice the density of liquid hydrogen. Current research focuses on the investigation of new storage materials based on combinations of complex hydrides with amides and the understanding of the hydrogen sorption mechanism in order to better control the reaction for the hydrogen storage applications.

  20. Polymeric Bladder for Storing Liquid Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, David H.; Harvey, Andrew C.; Leary, William

    2009-01-01

    A proposed system for storing oxygen in liquid form and dispensing it in gaseous form is based on (1) initial subcooling of the liquid oxygen; (2) containing the liquid oxygen in a flexible vessel; (3) applying a gas spring to the flexible vessel to keep the oxygen compressed above the saturation pressure and, thus, in the liquid state; and (4) using heat leakage into the system for vaporizing the oxygen to be dispensed. In a typical prior system based on these principles, the flexible vessel is a metal bellows housed in a rigid tank, and the gas spring consists of pressurized helium in the tank volume surrounding the bellows. Unfortunately, the welds in the bellows corrugations are subject to fatigue, and, because bellows have large ullage, a correspondingly large fraction of the oxygen content cannot be expelled. In the proposed system, the flexible vessel would be a bladder made of a liquid- crystal polymer (LCP). (LCPs are strong and compatible with liquid oxygen.) In comparison with a metal bellows, a polymeric bladder would have less ullage and would weigh less. In experiments involving fatigue cycling at liquid-nitrogen temperatures, two LCPs were found to be suitable for this application.

  1. The use and disposal of stored embryos.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Bernard M

    2016-07-01

    Claims that human embryos are "human beings" or "persons" cannot be agreed, because philosophies and approaches differ, awarding them statuses from full human to property. In 1984, the UK (Warnock) Committee of Inquiry into Human Fertilisation and Embryology made recommendations that still offer legal and ethical guidance. It is widely agreed, for instance, that embryos created through in vitro fertilization (IVF) should not be transferred for reproductive purposes without relevant consent, whether for gamete donors' or others' family-building. A consequence of courts enforcing parties' IVF agreements on stored embryo use or balancing parties' competing interests is that one party-usually the male-can veto the other's use of the embryo for reproduction on termination of a partnership. The extent to which surplus IVF embryos can be donated for research ranges from prohibition to infertility treatment and more, but wider needs for embryology research are appearing that, despite prevailing bans, may require embryos for study created to genetic specifications. PMID:27177517

  2. Transgenic plants with increased calcium stores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Sarah (Inventor); Tsou, Pei-Lan (Inventor); Robertson, Dominique (Inventor); Boss, Wendy (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention provides transgenic plants over-expressing a transgene encoding a calcium-binding protein or peptide (CaBP). Preferably, the CaBP is a calcium storage protein and over-expression thereof does not have undue adverse effects on calcium homeostasis or biochemical pathways that are regulated by calcium. In preferred embodiments, the CaBP is calreticulin (CRT) or calsequestrin. In more preferred embodiments, the CaBP is the C-domain of CRT, a fragment of the C-domain, or multimers of the foregoing. In other preferred embodiments, the CaBP is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum by operatively associating the transgene encoding the CaBP with an endoplasmic reticulum localization peptide. Alternatively, the CaBP is targeted to any other sub-cellular compartment that permits the calcium to be stored in a form that is biologically available to the plant. Also provided are methods of producing plants with desirable phenotypic traits by transformation of the plant with a transgene encoding a CaBP. Such phenotypic traits include increased calcium storage, enhanced resistance to calcium-limiting conditions, enhanced growth and viability, increased disease and stress resistance, enhanced flower and fruit production, reduced senescence, and a decreased need for fertilizer production. Further provided are plants with enhanced nutritional value as human food or animal feed.

  3. Keeping FIT, storing fat: Lipid droplet biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Vineet; Golden, Andy; Prinz, William A

    2016-01-01

    All eukaryotes store excess lipids in organelles known as lipid droplets (LDs), which play central roles in lipid metabolism. Understanding LD biogenesis and metabolism is critical for understanding the pathophysiology of lipid metabolic disorders like obesity and atherosclerosis. LDs are composed of a core of neutral lipids surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids that often contains coat proteins. Nascent LDs bud from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but the mechanism is not known. In this commentary we discuss our recent finding that a conserved family of proteins called fat storage-inducing transmembrane (FIT) proteins is necessary for LDs budding from the ER. In cells lacking FIT proteins, LDs remain in the ER membrane. C. elegans has a single FIT protein (FITM-2), which we found is essential; almost all homozygous fitm-2 animals die as larvae and those that survive to adulthood give rise to embryos that die as L1 and L2 larvae. Homozygous fitm-2 animals have a number of abnormalities including a significant decrease in intestinal LDs and dramatic defects in muscle development. Understanding how FIT proteins mediate LD biogenesis and what roles they play in lipid metabolism and development are fascinating challenges for the future. PMID:27383728

  4. Importance of Iron and Soil Physicochemical Properties to Stabilize Organic Carbon in Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Q.; Yang, Y.; Obrist, D.; Poulson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Global warming can potentially accelerate the decomposition of forest soil organic matter (SOM), as a source of greenhouse gas emissions. Understanding the fate of forest SOM is important for evaluating and managing the global carbon cycle during climate change. Iron minerals play an important role in stabilizing organic carbon (OC) and regulating the biogeochemical cycle in the soil environment, but there is only limited information available concerning how iron-mediated OC stabilization is affected by physicochemical properties of soil. This study investigated the behavior of iron-bound OC in soils collected from 14 forests across the United States, and the impact of soil physicochemical properties on the stabilization of OC by iron minerals. The bicarbonate-citrate-dithionite (BCD) method was used to reduce iron in soil samples, and OC content was characterized prior and after reduction to quantify iron-bound OC. We found that iron-bound OC contributed 1.2 - 57.7 weight % of total OC in forest soils. Atomic ratios of iron-bound OC:Fe ranged from 0.006 to 0.178, indicating the importance of sorptive interactions. The fraction of iron-bound OC was more closely correlated to the molar ratio of iron-bound OC:Fe than the absolute concentration of reactive iron, which is ranged from 0.08 to 19.31 mg/g. Iron-bound OC was enriched in 13C compared to the non-iron-bound SOM. There were significant correlations between the total N concentration and total or non-iron bound OC, but not with iron-bound OC. Overall, iron minerals mainly stabilize 13C-enriched non-nitrogenous OC, which was almost regulated by the sorptive association between iron and OC. Our results illustrate the importance of understanding the stabilization of OC in soil, and the coupled biogeochemical processes of carbon and iron.

  5. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation Information Page Synonym(s): Hallervorden-Spatz Disease, ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation? Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) ...

  6. The Repair of Skeletal Muscle Requires Iron Recycling through Macrophage Ferroportin.

    PubMed

    Corna, Gianfranca; Caserta, Imma; Monno, Antonella; Apostoli, Pietro; Manfredi, Angelo A; Camaschella, Clara; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia

    2016-09-01

    Macrophages recruited at the site of sterile muscle damage play an essential role in the regeneration of the tissue. In this article, we report that the selective disruption of macrophage ferroportin (Fpn) results in iron accumulation within muscle-infiltrating macrophages and jeopardizes muscle healing, prompting fat accumulation. Macrophages isolated from the tissue at early time points after injury express ferritin H, CD163, and hemeoxygenase-1, indicating that they can uptake heme and store iron. At later time points they upregulate Fpn expression, thus acquiring the ability to release the metal. Transferrin-mediated iron uptake by regenerating myofibers occurs independently of systemic iron homeostasis. The inhibition of macrophage iron export via the silencing of Fpn results in regenerating muscles with smaller myofibers and fat accumulation. These results highlight the existence of a local pathway of iron recycling that plays a nonredundant role in the myogenic differentiation of muscle precursors, limiting the adipose degeneration of the tissue.

  7. Structural characterization of encapsulated ferritin provides insight into iron storage in bacterial nanocompartments.

    PubMed

    He, Didi; Hughes, Sam; Vanden-Hehir, Sally; Georgiev, Atanas; Altenbach, Kirsten; Tarrant, Emma; Mackay, C Logan; Waldron, Kevin J; Clarke, David J; Marles-Wright, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Ferritins are ubiquitous proteins that oxidise and store iron within a protein shell to protect cells from oxidative damage. We have characterized the structure and function of a new member of the ferritin superfamily that is sequestered within an encapsulin capsid. We show that this encapsulated ferritin (EncFtn) has two main alpha helices, which assemble in a metal dependent manner to form a ferroxidase center at a dimer interface. EncFtn adopts an open decameric structure that is topologically distinct from other ferritins. While EncFtn acts as a ferroxidase, it cannot mineralize iron. Conversely, the encapsulin shell associates with iron, but is not enzymatically active, and we demonstrate that EncFtn must be housed within the encapsulin for iron storage. This encapsulin nanocompartment is widely distributed in bacteria and archaea and represents a distinct class of iron storage system, where the oxidation and mineralization of iron are distributed between two proteins. PMID:27529188

  8. Kinetics of iron removal by phlebotomy in patients with iron overload after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Eisfeld, Ann-Kathrin; Krahl, Rainer; Jaekel, Nadja; Niederwieser, Dietger; Al-Ali, Haifa Kathrin

    2012-01-01

    Excess body iron could persist for years after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with possible deleterious sequels. An iron depletive therapy with phlebotomy seems rational. Kinetics of iron removal by phlebotomy without erythropoietin support in non-thalassemic adult patients with iron overload after HCT and the impact of pre- and post-HCT hemochromatosis (HFE) genotype on iron mobilization were investigated. Patients and methods: Phlebotomy was initiated in 61 recipients of allografts due to hematologic malignancies (median age 48 years) after a median of 18 months. The prephlebotomy median serum ferritin (SF) was 1697ng/ml and the median number of blood transfusions 28 units. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)/aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphates (AP), and bilirubin were elevated in 55.7%, 64% and 11.5% patients respectively. HFE-genotype was elucidated by polymerase chain reaction using hybridization probes and melting curve analysis. Results: Phlebotomy was well-tolerated irrespective of age or conditioning. A negative iron balance in 80% of patients (median SF 1086 ng/ml) and a rise in hemoglobin were observed (p<0.0001). Higher transfusional burden and SF were associated with a greater iron mobilization per session (p=0.02). In 58% of patients, a plateau after an initial steady decline in SF was followed by a second decline under further phlebotomy. The improvement in ALT (p=0.002), AST (p=0.03), AP (p=0.01), and bilirubin (p<0.0001) did not correlate with the decline in SF. Mutant HFE-gene variants were detected in 14/55 (25%) pre-HCT and 22/55 (40%) patients post-HCT. Overall, dissimilar pre- and posttransplantational HFE-genotypes were detected in 20/55 (40%) patients. Posttransplantational mutant HFE variants correlated with a slower decline in SF (p=0.007). Conclusions: Phlebotomy is a convenient therapy of iron overload in survivors of HCT. A negative iron balance and a rise in hemoglobin were observed in the majority of

  9. THE EFFECT OF SMECTITE ON THE CORROSION OF IRON METAL

    SciTech Connect

    Balko, Barbara A.; Bosse, Stephanie A.; Cade, Anne E.; Jones-Landry, Elise F.; Amonette, James E.; Daschbach, John L.

    2012-04-24

    The combination of zero-valent iron and a clay-type amendment is often observed to have a synergistic effect on the rate of reduction reactions. In this paper, electrochemical techniques are used to determine the mechanism of interaction between the iron and smectite clay minerals. Iron electrodes coated with an evaporated smectite suspension (clay-modified iron electrodes, CMIEs) were prepared using five different smectites: SAz-1, SWa-1, STx-1, SWy-1, and SHCa-1. All the smectites were exchanged with Na+ and one sample of SWy-1 was also exchanged with Mg2+. Potentiodynamic potential scans and cyclic voltammograms were taken using the CMIEs and uncoated but passivated iron electrodes. These electrochemical experiments, along with measurements of the amount of Fe2+ and Fe3+ sorbed in the smectite coating, suggested that the smectite removed the passive layer of the underlying iron electrode during the evaporation process. Cyclic voltammograms taken after the CMIEs were biased at the active-passive transition potential for varying amounts of time suggested that the smectite limited growth of a passive layer, preventing passivation. These results are attributed to the Broensted acidity of the smectite as well as to its ability to sorb iron cations. Oxides that did form on the surface of the iron in the presence of the smectite when it was biased anodically seemed to be different than those that form on the surface of an uncoated iron electrode under otherwise similar conditions; this difference suggested that the smectite reacted with the Fe2+ formed from the oxidation of the underlying iron. No significant correlation could be found between the ability of the smectite to remove the iron passive film and the smectite type. The results have implications for the mixing of sediments and iron particles in permeable reactive barriers, underground storage of radioactive waste in steel canisters, and the use of smectite supports in preventing aggregation of nano-sized zero

  10. Alloy softening in binary iron solid solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine softening and hardening behavior in 19 binary iron-alloy systems. Microhardness tests were conducted at four temperatures in the range 77 to 411 K. Alloy softening was exhibited by 17 of the 19 alloy systems. Alloy softening observed in 15 of the alloy systems was attributed to an intrinsic mechanism, believed to be lowering of the Peierls (lattice friction) stress. Softening and hardening rates could be correlated with the atomic radius ratio of solute to iron. Softening observed in two other systems was attributed to an extrinsic mechanism, believed to be associated with scavenging of interstitial impurities.

  11. [Iron deficiency and digestive disorders].

    PubMed

    Cozon, G J N

    2014-11-01

    Iron deficiency anemia still remains problematic worldwide. Iron deficiency without anemia is often undiagnosed. We reviewed, in this study, symptoms and syndromes associated with iron deficiency with or without anemia: fatigue, cognitive functions, restless legs syndrome, hair loss, and chronic heart failure. Iron is absorbed through the digestive tract. Hepcidin and ferroportin are the main proteins of iron regulation. Pathogenic micro-organisms or intestinal dysbiosis are suspected to influence iron absorption.

  12. Retail stores' compliance with a city no-smoking law.

    PubMed Central

    Rigotti, N A; Stoto, M A; Bierer, M F; Rosen, A; Schelling, T

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Laws restricting smoking in public places and workplaces can protect the public only if they are obeyed. We sought to assess compliance with a Cambridge, Mass, no-smoking ordinance. METHODS. We prospectively observed 174 retail stores 1 month before and 3, 11, and 24 months after the law took effect. At 24 months, we interviewed one employee per store. RESULTS. Full compliance with the law was low; at 24 months, only 4% of stores displayed the mandated sign and were free of smokers and smoke. Fewer than half the stores posted any no-smoking sign. Sign prevalence increased over 2 years (22% to 41%, P < .001), but the frequency of smoke or smokers (13% and 10%, respectively, at baseline) did not change. According to employees interviewed at 24 months, 38% of stores illegally permitted customers or employees to smoke. These stores had more smoke and fewer signs than did stores prohibiting smoking. Compliance was poor in liquor and convenience stores. Employees who had been told how to handle customers' smoking were more likely to enforce the law. CONCLUSIONS. Compliance with a no-smoking law is not guaranteed. For retail stores, compliance may improve if stores adopt no-smoking policies, post signs, and teach employees to enforce the law. PMID:8427328

  13. Seasonal hippocampal plasticity in food-storing birds.

    PubMed

    Sherry, David F; Hoshooley, Jennifer S

    2010-03-27

    Both food-storing behaviour and the hippocampus change annually in food-storing birds. Food storing increases substantially in autumn and winter in chickadees and tits, jays and nutcrackers and nuthatches. The total size of the chickadee hippocampus increases in autumn and winter as does the rate of hippocampal neurogenesis. The hippocampus is necessary for accurate cache retrieval in food-storing birds and is much larger in food-storing birds than in non-storing passerines. It therefore seems probable that seasonal change in caching and seasonal change in the hippocampus are causally related. The peak in recruitment of new neurons into the hippocampus occurs before birds have completed food storing and cache retrieval for the year and may therefore be associated with spacing caches, encoding the spatial locations of caches, or creating a neuronal architecture involved in the recollection of cache sites. The factors controlling hippocampal plasticity in food-storing birds are not well understood. Photoperiodic manipulations that produce change in food-storing behaviour have no effect on either hippocampal size or neuronal recruitment. Available evidence suggests that changes in hippocampal size and neurogenesis may be a consequence of the behavioural and cognitive involvement of the hippocampus in storing and retrieving food.

  14. Iron nutrition in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mesías, Marta; Seiquer, Isabel; Navarro, M Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development. Iron needs are elevated as a result of intensive growth and muscular development, which implies an increase in blood volume; thus, it is extremely important for the adolescent's iron requirements to be met. Diet, therefore, must provide enough iron and, moreover, nutrients producing adequate iron bioavailability to favor element utilization and thus be sufficient for needs at this stage of life. Currently, many adolescents consume monotonous and unbalanced diets which may limit mineral intake and/or bioavailability, leading to iron deficiency and, consequently, to ferropenic anemia, a nutritional deficit of worldwide prevalence. Iron deficiency, apart from provoking important physiological repercussions, can adversely affect adolescents' cognitive ability and behavior. Accordingly, promoting the consumption of a varied, adjusted, and balanced diet by adolescents will facilitate iron utilization, benefiting their health both at present and in adulthood. This review discusses how physiological changes during adolescence can cause iron requirements to increase. Consequently, it is important that diet should contribute an appropriate amount of this mineral and, moreover, with an adequate bioavailability to satisfy needs during this special period of life.

  15. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  16. Noninvasive assessment of skin iron content in hemodialysis patients. An index of parenchymal tissue iron content

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlaender, M.M.; Kaufman, B.; Rubinger, D.; Moreb, J.; Popovtzer, M.M.; Goredetsky, R.

    1988-07-01

    Iron overload has been described in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate a rapid, noninvasive method for determination of skin iron by the technique of diagnostic x-ray spectrometry (DXS). Thirty-five patients receiving chronic hemodialysis treatment entered the study and were compared with 25 normal controls. Since pathological skin iron deposition occurs mainly at the dermal-epidermal junction in the basal cells of the epidermis, measurements were made in the thenar eminence representing mainly epidermal tissue (FeE), and in the forearm representative mainly of dermis (FeD). The mean +/- SD FeE iron concentrations were equivalent to 14.5 +/- 8.8 and 18.2 +/- 10.2 parts per million wet weight tissue (ppm) and both were significantly higher than in normal controls in which they averaged 9.2 +/- 2.5 ppm (P less than 0.005) and 10.2 +/- 3.2 ppm (P less than 0.001), respectively. There was significant positive correlation between individual skin iron determinations with the total number of blood transfusions received, the rate of blood transfusion, and with serum ferritin levels. Bone marrow hemosiderin was examined in six patients and showed a similar trend. Despite correlation only with indirect indices of tissue iron, our findings suggest that DXS may serve as a reliable quick method for noninvasive estimation of nonreticuloendothelial tissue iron deposition in hemodialysis patients suspected of having transfusional iron overload. The method may be valuable in monitoring the effects of chelation therapy.

  17. Microbes: mini iron factories.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Kumar Batuk

    2014-12-01

    Microbes have flourished in extreme habitats since beginning of the Earth and have played an important role in geological processes like weathering, mineralization, diagenesis, mineral formation and destruction. Biotic mineralization is one of the most fascinating examples of how microbes have been influencing geological processes. Iron oxidizing and reducing bacteria are capable of precipitating wide varieties of iron oxides (magnetite), carbonates (siderite) and sulphides (greigite) via controlled or induced mineralization processes. Microbes have also been considered to play an important role in the history of evolution of sedimentary rocks on Earth from the formation of banded iron formations during the Archean to modern biotic bog iron and ochre deposits. Here, we discuss the role that microbes have been playing in precipitation of iron and the role and importance of interdisciplinary studies in the field of geology and biology in solving some of the major geological mysteries. PMID:25320452

  18. Microbes: mini iron factories.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Kumar Batuk

    2014-12-01

    Microbes have flourished in extreme habitats since beginning of the Earth and have played an important role in geological processes like weathering, mineralization, diagenesis, mineral formation and destruction. Biotic mineralization is one of the most fascinating examples of how microbes have been influencing geological processes. Iron oxidizing and reducing bacteria are capable of precipitating wide varieties of iron oxides (magnetite), carbonates (siderite) and sulphides (greigite) via controlled or induced mineralization processes. Microbes have also been considered to play an important role in the history of evolution of sedimentary rocks on Earth from the formation of banded iron formations during the Archean to modern biotic bog iron and ochre deposits. Here, we discuss the role that microbes have been playing in precipitation of iron and the role and importance of interdisciplinary studies in the field of geology and biology in solving some of the major geological mysteries.

  19. [Effect of Root Iron Plaque on Norfloxacin Uptake by Rice].

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei; Bao, Yan-yu

    2015-06-01

    In anaerobic condition, release of oxygen by roots to rhyzosphere caused the formation of red plaque of iron oxides or hydroxides on the root surface of rice. The effect of iron plaque on norfloxacin uptake was investigated with solution culture in greenhouse, and the results are showed in the following. The content of iron plaque increased with the increase of Fe2+ concentration in medium. After the addition of norfloxacin in nutrient solution, the content of iron plaques on the root surface decreased to different degree, and the reduction of iron plaques was increasing with the increase of norfloxacin mass concentration. Significant relationships were found between the iron plaques and norfloxacin on the root surface, and the correlation coefficients were 0.959 (norfloxacin mass concentration was 10 mg x L(-1)) and 0.987 (norfloxacin mass concentration was 50 mg x L(-1)), respectively, however, the norfloxacin contents in roots and shoots had no significant correlation with the iron plaques. After addition of different mass concentrations of norfloxacin, the quality distribution percentages of norfloxacin on the root surface and in roots and shoots were 87.7%-97.6%, 0.8%-4.8%, 1.5%-7.5%, respectively, the norfloxacin content on the root surface was far greater than those in roots and shoots. It was therefore concluded that iron plaque on roots was a norfloxacin reservoir for rice plant but had no significant effect on the transfer of norfloxacin to roots and shoots of the rice plant.

  20. Food environment and childhood obesity: the effect of dollar stores.

    PubMed

    Drichoutis, Andreas C; Nayga, Rodolfo M; Rouse, Heather L; Thomsen, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of dollar stores on children's Body Mass Index (BMI). We use a dataset compiled by the Arkansas Center for Health Improvement that reflects a BMI screening program for public school children in the state of Arkansas. We combine propensity score matching with difference-in-differences methods to deal with time-invariant as well time-varying unobserved factors. We find no evidence that the presence of dollar stores within a reasonably close proximity of the child's residence increases BMI. In fact, we see an increase in BMI when dollar stores leave a child's neighborhood. Given the proliferation of dollar stores in rural and low-income urban areas, the question of whether dollar stores are contributing to high rates of childhood obesity is policy relevant. However, our results provide some evidence that exposure to dollar stores is not a causal factor.

  1. Influence of iron-limited continuous culture on physiology and virulence of Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    James, B W; Mauchline, W S; Fitzgeorge, R B; Dennis, P J; Keevil, C W

    1995-11-01

    A virulent strain of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, subgroup Pontiac, was grown in continuous culture at a constant growth rate under iron-replete and iron-limited conditions. Iron limitation was achieved by the removal of ferrous sulfate and hemin from the chemically defined medium. Residual contaminating iron, 0.45 microM, was sufficient to support iron-limited growth. Typical iron-replete cultures metabolized 3.3 microM iron. Serine provided the principal source of carbon and energy for both cultures, although iron-replete cultures also depleted a number of other amino acids. There was a 40% decrease in culture biomass under iron-restricted conditions. Iron limitation did not significantly affect carbohydrate metabolism, with the molar growth yield for carbon (Ycarbon) comparable for both cultures. However, under iron-limited conditions a sixfold increase in Yiron correlated with a significant decrease in the iron content of the biomass, as the culture utilized the available iron more efficiently. Highly pleomorphic iron-replete cultures became uniform cultures of short fine rods when adapted to iron-deficient conditions. In addition to the morphological and physiological changes, iron limitation had a critical effect on culture virulence. The virulence of this strain was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced when the culture was subjected to iron-limited conditions. This phenomenon was reversible, with a significant increase in culture virulence upon reversion to iron-replete conditions. When compared in an in vitro macrophage assay, the number of culturable avirulent iron-limited cells located intracellularly after infection was significantly lower than for the virulent replete and control cultures. These results further support the role of environmental parameters in regulating the virulence of L. pneumophila. PMID:7591051

  2. Prototype Optical Correlator For Robotic Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholl, Marija S.

    1993-01-01

    Known and unknown images fed in electronically at high speed. Optical correlator and associated electronic circuitry developed for vision system of robotic vehicle. System recognizes features of landscape by optical correlation between input image of scene viewed by video camera on robot and stored reference image. Optical configuration is Vander Lugt correlator, in which Fourier transform of scene formed in coherent light and spatially modulated by hologram of reference image to obtain correlation.

  3. Iron-overload injury and cardiomyopathy in acquired and genetic models is attenuated by resveratrol therapy

    PubMed Central

    Das, Subhash K.; Wang, Wang; Zhabyeyev, Pavel; Basu, Ratnadeep; McLean, Brent; Fan, Dong; Parajuli, Nirmal; DesAulniers, Jessica; Patel, Vaibhav B.; Hajjar, Roger J.; Dyck, Jason R. B.; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Oudit, Gavin Y.

    2015-01-01

    Iron-overload cardiomyopathy is a prevalent cause of heart failure on a world-wide basis and is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with secondary iron-overload and genetic hemochromatosis. We investigated the therapeutic effects of resveratrol in acquired and genetic models of iron-overload cardiomyopathy. Murine iron-overload models showed cardiac iron-overload, increased oxidative stress, altered Ca2+ homeostasis and myocardial fibrosis resulting in heart disease. Iron-overload increased nuclear and acetylated levels of FOXO1 with corresponding inverse changes in SIRT1 levels in the heart corrected by resveratrol therapy. Resveratrol, reduced the pathological remodeling and improved cardiac function in murine models of acquired and genetic iron-overload at varying stages of iron-overload. Echocardiography and hemodynamic analysis revealed a complete normalization of iron-overload mediated diastolic and systolic dysfunction in response to resveratrol therapy. Myocardial SERCA2a levels were reduced in iron-overloaded hearts and resveratrol therapy restored SERCA2a levels and corrected altered Ca2+ homeostasis. Iron-mediated pro-oxidant and pro-fibrotic effects in human and murine cardiomyocytes and cardiofibroblasts were suppressed by resveratrol which correlated with reduction in iron-induced myocardial oxidative stress and myocardial fibrosis. Resveratrol represents a clinically and economically feasible therapeutic intervention to reduce the global burden from iron-overload cardiomyopathy at early and chronic stages of iron-overload. PMID:26638758

  4. Iron-overload injury and cardiomyopathy in acquired and genetic models is attenuated by resveratrol therapy.

    PubMed

    Das, Subhash K; Wang, Wang; Zhabyeyev, Pavel; Basu, Ratnadeep; McLean, Brent; Fan, Dong; Parajuli, Nirmal; DesAulniers, Jessica; Patel, Vaibhav B; Hajjar, Roger J; Dyck, Jason R B; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2015-12-07

    Iron-overload cardiomyopathy is a prevalent cause of heart failure on a world-wide basis and is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with secondary iron-overload and genetic hemochromatosis. We investigated the therapeutic effects of resveratrol in acquired and genetic models of iron-overload cardiomyopathy. Murine iron-overload models showed cardiac iron-overload, increased oxidative stress, altered Ca(2+) homeostasis and myocardial fibrosis resulting in heart disease. Iron-overload increased nuclear and acetylated levels of FOXO1 with corresponding inverse changes in SIRT1 levels in the heart corrected by resveratrol therapy. Resveratrol, reduced the pathological remodeling and improved cardiac function in murine models of acquired and genetic iron-overload at varying stages of iron-overload. Echocardiography and hemodynamic analysis revealed a complete normalization of iron-overload mediated diastolic and systolic dysfunction in response to resveratrol therapy. Myocardial SERCA2a levels were reduced in iron-overloaded hearts and resveratrol therapy restored SERCA2a levels and corrected altered Ca(2+) homeostasis. Iron-mediated pro-oxidant and pro-fibrotic effects in human and murine cardiomyocytes and cardiofibroblasts were suppressed by resveratrol which correlated with reduction in iron-induced myocardial oxidative stress and myocardial fibrosis. Resveratrol represents a clinically and economically feasible therapeutic intervention to reduce the global burden from iron-overload cardiomyopathy at early and chronic stages of iron-overload.

  5. Iron economy in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Glaesener, Anne G.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Blaby-Haas, Crysten E.

    2013-01-01

    While research on iron nutrition in plants has largely focused on iron-uptake pathways, photosynthetic microbes such as the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii provide excellent experimental systems for understanding iron metabolism at the subcellular level. Several paradigms in iron homeostasis have been established in this alga, including photosystem remodeling in the chloroplast and preferential retention of some pathways and key iron-dependent proteins in response to suboptimal iron supply. This review presents our current understanding of iron homeostasis in Chlamydomonas, with specific attention on characterized responses to changes in iron supply, like iron-deficiency. An overview of frequently used methods for the investigation of iron-responsive gene expression, physiology and metabolism is also provided, including preparation of media, the effect of cell size, cell density and strain choice on quantitative measurements and methods for the determination of metal content and assessing the effect of iron supply on photosynthetic performance. PMID:24032036

  6. Children's processing of emotion in ironic language

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Andrew; Whalen, Juanita M.; Pexman, Penny M.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we addressed two novel questions: (1) is children's irony appreciation and processing related to their empathy skills? and (2) is children's processing of a speaker's ironic meaning best explained by a modular or interactive theory? Participants were thirty-one 8- and 9-year-olds children. We used a variant of the visual world paradigm to assess children's processing of ironic and literal evaluative remarks; in this paradigm children's cognition is revealed through their actions and eye gaze. Results in this paradigm showed that children's irony appreciation and processing were correlated with their empathy development, suggesting that empathy or emotional perspective taking may be important for development of irony comprehension. Further, children's processing of irony was consistent with an interactive framework, in which children consider ironic meanings in the earliest moments, as speech unfolds. These results provide important new insights about development of this complex aspect of emotion recognition. PMID:24130537

  7. Deferoxamine inhibition of malaria is independent of host iron status

    SciTech Connect

    Hershko, C.; Peto, T.E.

    1988-07-01

    The mechanism whereby deferoxamine (DF) inhibits the growth of malaria parasites was studied in rats infected with Plasmodium berghei. Peak parasitemia was 32.6% (day 14) in untreated controls and 0.15% (day 7) in rats receiving 0.33 mg/g in 8 hourly DF injections, subcutaneously. DF inhibition of parasite growth was achieved without any reduction in transferrin saturation or hemoglobin synthesis and with only a partial (56%) depletion of hepatic iron stores. Dietary iron depletion resulted in anemia (hematocrit 25 vs. 46%), microcytosis (MCV 54 vs. 60 fl), and reduced transferrin saturation (17 vs. 96%) without any effect on infection (peak parasitemia 30 vs. 36%). Similarly, parenteral iron loading with ferric citrate over 10 d (75 mg iron/kg) failed to aggravate infection. In a search for evidence of direct interaction between DF and parasitized erythrocytes, gel filtration and ultrafiltration was performed on hemolysates obtained from in vivo /sup 59/Fe-labeled parasitized erythrocytes. This showed that 1.1-1.9% of the intracellular radioiron was located in a chelatable, labile iron pool. Incubation of intact cells with 0-500 microM DF resulted in a proportional increase in intracellular iron chelation, and the chelation of all available labile intracellular iron was completed within 6 h. These observations indicate that the severity of P. berghei infection in rats and its in vivo suppression by DF are independent of host iron status and suggest that DF inhibition of malaria involves intracellular chelation of a labile iron pool in parasitized erythrocytes.

  8. The Statistical Relationship between Product Life Cycle and Repeat Purchase Behavior in Convenience Stores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, T.; Takayasu, M.

    The density function of product life cycles in convenience stores is found to follow the Weibull distribution. To clarify the parameters that determine these life cycles, we introduce the conditional market share---defined as the probability that a product is selected by customers only if it had been previously purchased---and the market share without any conditions. The product life cycle is more strongly correlated with the conditional market share of the product than with the latter type of market share.

  9. RAFFS: Model Checking a Robust Abstract Flash File Store

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taverne, Paul; Pronk, C. (Kees)

    This paper presents a case study in modeling and verifying a POSIX-like file store for Flash memory. This work fits in the context of Hoare's verification challenge and, in particular, Joshi and Holzmann's mini-challenge to build a verifiable file store. We have designed a simple robust file store and implemented it in the form of a Promela model. A test harness is used to exercise the file store in a number of ways. Model checking technology has been extensively used to verify the correctness of our implementation. A distinguishing feature of our approach is the (bounded) exhaustive verification of power loss recovery.

  10. Store and Restaurant Advertising and Health of Public Housing Residents

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Katie M.; Li, Dongmei; Regan, Gail R.; Howard, Hugh H.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine relationships between food and beverage signs and health. Methods In 12 public housing neighborhoods, food and alcohol signs were counted for stores and restaurants. Health and demographic data were from 373 adults. Results Multilevel modeling showed higher BMI was related to more store and restaurant alcohol signs, higher blood pressure, nonsmokers, and females. Higher dietary fat consumption was related to more store and restaurant alcohol and fewer low-calorie healthy signs, lower fruit consumption, fewer minutes walked, and white and Hispanic/Latino ethnicity. Conclusions Signs in stores and restaurants are related to BMI and dietary fat consumption among residents. PMID:22251784

  11. Tangential, semisubmerged, and internal store carriage and separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Baysal, Oktay; Stallings, Robert L., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Accounts are presented of tangential, semisubmerged, and internal store carriage drag, as well as of the results to date of stores-separation investigations employing both computational and experimental methods. It is demonstrated that CFD can contribute to the data base needed for internal stores carriage design and trade studies. Attention is given to the case of an internally carried store separating from its bay at supersonic speeds, where various kinds of interference are encountered. A code is developed for the simulation of these unsteady flows through time-accurate computations; computation results are noted to closely reproduce experiment data.

  12. 1. EXTERIOR, SIDE OF PICKLE BARREL RESTAURANT AND ADJOINING STORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR, SIDE OF PICKLE BARREL RESTAURANT AND ADJOINING STORE - Silverton Historic District, East Thirteenth & Green Streets (Commercial Building), East Thirteenh & Green Streets, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  13. Uptake and incorporation of iron in sugar beet chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Solti, Adám; Kovács, Krisztina; Basa, Brigitta; Vértes, Attila; Sárvári, Eva; Fodor, Ferenc

    2012-03-01

    Chloroplasts contain 80-90% of iron taken up by plant cells. Though some iron transport-related envelope proteins were identified recently, the mechanism of iron uptake into chloroplasts remained unresolved. To shed more light on the process of chloroplast iron uptake, trials were performed with isolated intact chloroplasts of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris). Iron uptake was followed by measuring the iron content of chloroplasts in the form of ferrous-bathophenantroline-disulphonate complex after solubilising the chloroplasts in reducing environment. Ferric citrate was preferred to ferrous citrate as substrate for chloroplasts. Strong dependency of ferric citrate uptake on photosynthetic electron transport activity suggests that ferric chelate reductase uses NADPH, and is localised in the inner envelope membrane. The K(m) for iron uptake from ferric-citrate pool was 14.65 ± 3.13 μM Fe((III))-citrate. The relatively fast incorporation of (57)Fe isotope into Fe-S clusters/heme, detected by Mössbauer spectroscopy, showed the efficiency of the biosynthetic machinery of these cofactors in isolated chloroplasts. The negative correlation between the chloroplast iron concentration and the rate of iron uptake refers to a strong feedback regulation of the uptake.

  14. Rapid Spectrophotometric Technique for Quantifying Iron in Cells Labeled with Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Potential Translation to the Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Dadashzadeh, Esmaeel R.; Hobson, Matthew; Bryant, L. Henry; Dean, Dana D.; Frank, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Labeling cells with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles provides the ability to track cells by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Quantifying intracellular iron concentration in SPIO labeled cells would allow for the comparison of agents and techniques used to magnetically label cells. Here we describe a rapid spectrophotometric technique (ST) to quantify iron content of SPIO labeled cells, circumventing the previous requirement of an overnight acid digestion. Following lysis with 10% SDS of magnetically labeled cells, quantification of SPIO doped or labeled cells was performed using commonly available spectrophotometric instrument(s) by comparing absorptions at 370 and 750 nm with correction for turbidity of cellular products to determine iron content of each sample. Standard curves demonstrated high linear correlation (R2 = 0.998) between absorbance spectra of iron oxide nanoparticles and concentration in known SPIO doped cells. Comparisons of the ST to ICP-MS or NMR relaxometric (R2) determinations of intracellular iron contents in SPIO containing samples resulted in significant linear correlation between the techniques (R2 vs. ST, R2>0.992, p<0.0001, ST vs. ICP-MS, R2>0.995, p<0.0001) with the limit of detection of ST for iron = 0.66μg/ml. We have developed a rapid straightforward protocol that does not require overnight acid digestion for quantifying iron oxide content in magnetically labeled cells using readily available analytic instrumentation that should greatly expedite advances in comparing SPIO agents and protocols for labeling cells. PMID:23109392

  15. Recirculating cross-correlation detector

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, W.H. Jr.; Roberts, M.J.

    1985-01-18

    A digital cross-correlation detector is provided in which two time-varying signals are correlated by repetitively comparing data samples stored in digital form to detect correlation between the two signals. The signals are sampled at a selected rate converted to digital form, and stored in separate locations in separate memories. When the memories are filled, the data samples from each memory are first fed word-by-word through a multiplier and summing circuit and each result is compared to the last in a peak memory circuit and if larger than the last is retained in the peak memory. Then the address line to leading signal memory is offset by one byte to affect one sample period delay of a known amount in that memory and the data in the two memories are then multiplied word-by-word once again and summed. If a new result is larger than a former sum, it is saved in the peak memory together with the time delay. The recirculating process continues with the address of the one memory being offset one additional byte each cycle until the address is shifted through the length of the memory. The correlation between the two signals is indicated by the peak signal stored in the peak memory together with the delay time at which the peak occurred. The circuit is faster and considerably less expensive than comparable accuracy correlation detectors.

  16. 21 CFR 310.518 - Drug products containing iron or iron salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug products containing iron or iron salts. 310... Drug products containing iron or iron salts. Drug products containing elemental iron or iron salts as...) that contains iron or iron salts for use as an iron source shall bear the following statement:...

  17. 21 CFR 310.518 - Drug products containing iron or iron salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drug products containing iron or iron salts. 310... Drug products containing iron or iron salts. Drug products containing elemental iron or iron salts as...) that contains iron or iron salts for use as an iron source shall bear the following statement:...

  18. 21 CFR 310.518 - Drug products containing iron or iron salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drug products containing iron or iron salts. 310... Drug products containing iron or iron salts. Drug products containing elemental iron or iron salts as...) that contains iron or iron salts for use as an iron source shall bear the following statement:...

  19. 21 CFR 310.518 - Drug products containing iron or iron salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drug products containing iron or iron salts. 310... Drug products containing iron or iron salts. Drug products containing elemental iron or iron salts as...) that contains iron or iron salts for use as an iron source shall bear the following statement:...

  20. Molecular control of vertebrate iron homeostasis by iron regulatory proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wallander, Michelle L.; Leibold, Elizabeth A.; Eisenstein, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    Both deficiencies and excesses of iron represent major public health problems throughout the world. Understanding the cellular and organismal processes controlling iron homeostasis is critical for identifying iron-related diseases and in advancing the clinical treatments for such disorders of iron metabolism. Iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) 1 and 2 are key regulators of vertebrate iron metabolism. These RNA binding proteins post-transcriptionally control the stability or translation of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in iron homeostasis thereby controlling the uptake, utilization, storage or export of iron. Recent evidence provides insight into how IRPs selectively control the translation or stability of target mRNAs, how IRP RNA binding activity is controlled by iron-dependent and iron-independent effectors, and the pathological consequences of dysregulation of the IRP system. PMID:16872694