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Sample records for iron transport systems

  1. Iron transport proteins: Gateways of cellular and systemic iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Knutson, Mitchell D

    2017-08-04

    Cellular iron homeostasis is maintained by iron and heme transport proteins that work in concert with ferrireductases, ferroxidases, and chaperones to direct the movement of iron into, within, and out of cells. Systemic iron homeostasis is regulated by the liver-derived peptide hormone, hepcidin. The interface between cellular and systemic iron homeostasis is readily observed in the highly dynamic iron handling of four main cell types: duodenal enterocytes, erythrocyte precursors, macrophages, and hepatocytes. This review provides an overview of how these cell types handle iron, highlighting how iron and heme transporters mediate the exchange and distribution of body iron in health and disease. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Bacterial ferrous iron transport: the Feo system.

    PubMed

    Lau, Cheryl K Y; Krewulak, Karla D; Vogel, Hans J

    2016-03-01

    To maintain iron homeostasis within the cell, bacteria have evolved various types of iron acquisition systems. Ferric iron (Fe(3+)) is the dominant species in an oxygenated environment, while ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) is more abundant under anaerobic conditions or at low pH. For organisms that must combat oxygen limitation for their everyday survival, pathways for the uptake of ferrous iron are essential. Several bacterial ferrous iron transport systems have been described; however, only the Feo system appears to be widely distributed and is exclusively dedicated to the transport of iron. In recent years, many studies have explored the role of the FeoB and FeoA proteins in ferrous iron transport and their contribution toward bacterial virulence. The three-dimensional structures for the Feo proteins have recently been determined and provide insight into the molecular details of the transport system. A highly select group of bacteria also express the FeoC protein from the same operon. This review will provide a comprehensive look at the structural and functional aspects of the Feo system. In addition, bioinformatics analyses of the feo operon and the Feo proteins have been performed to complement our understanding of this ubiquitous bacterial uptake system, providing a new outlook for future studies. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Characterization of ferric and ferrous iron transport systems in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Wyckoff, Elizabeth E; Mey, Alexandra R; Leimbach, Andreas; Fisher, Carolyn F; Payne, Shelley M

    2006-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae has multiple iron acquisition systems, including TonB-dependent transport of heme and of the catechol siderophore vibriobactin. Strains defective in both of these systems grow well in laboratory media and in the infant mouse intestine, indicating the presence of additional iron acquisition systems. Previously uncharacterized potential iron transport systems, including a homologue of the ferrous transporter Feo and a periplasmic binding protein-dependent ATP binding cassette (ABC) transport system, termed Fbp, were identified in the V. cholerae genome sequence. Clones encoding either the Feo or the Fbp system exhibited characteristics of iron transporters: both repressed the expression of lacZ cloned under the control of a Fur-regulated promoter in Escherichia coli and also conferred growth on a Shigella flexneri mutant that has a severe defect in iron transport. Two other ABC transporters were also evaluated but were negative by these assays. Transport of radioactive iron by the Feo system into the S. flexneri iron transport mutant was stimulated by the reducing agent ascorbate, consistent with Feo functioning as a ferrous transporter. Conversely, ascorbate inhibited transport by the Fbp system, suggesting that it transports ferric iron. The growth of V. cholerae strains carrying mutations in one or more of the potential iron transport genes indicated that both Feo and Fbp contribute to iron acquisition. However, a mutant defective in the vibriobactin, Fbp, and Feo systems was not attenuated in a suckling mouse model, suggesting that at least one other iron transport system can be used in vivo.

  4. Pharmacology of Iron Transport

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Shaina L.; Krishnamurthy, Divya; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating the molecular basis for the regulation of iron uptake, storage, and distribution is necessary to understand iron homeostasis. Pharmacological tools are emerging to identify and distinguish among different iron transport pathways. Stimulatory or inhibitory small molecules with effects on iron uptake can help characterize the mechanistic elements of iron transport and the roles of the transporters involved in these processes. In particular, iron chelators can serve as potential pharmacological tools to alleviate diseases of iron overload. This review focuses on the pharmacology of iron transport, introducing iron transport membrane proteins and known inhibitors. PMID:23020294

  5. Pharmacology of iron transport.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Shaina L; Krishnamurthy, Divya; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating the molecular basis for the regulation of iron uptake, storage, and distribution is necessary to understand iron homeostasis. Pharmacological tools are emerging to identify and distinguish among different iron transport pathways. Stimulatory or inhibitory small molecules with effects on iron uptake can help characterize the mechanistic elements of iron transport and the roles of the transporters involved in these processes. In particular, iron chelators can serve as potential pharmacological tools to alleviate diseases of iron overload. This review focuses on the pharmacology of iron transport, introducing iron transport membrane proteins and known inhibitors.

  6. Does iron deficiency in pea enhance the activity of the root-plasmalemma iron transport system

    SciTech Connect

    Grusak, M.A.; Welch, R.M.; Kochian, L.V. )

    1990-05-01

    When dicots are subjected to Fe-deficiency stress, the ability of the root system to reduce exogenous Fe is increased. The question remains, however, whether the activity of the root-plasmalemma Fe transport system (which transports Fe{sup 2+}) is similarly enhanced or altered in response to this stress. Since it is currently difficult to supply Fe{sup 2+} to roots in an oxygenated solution, we have indirectly addressed this question by measuring both Fe(III) reduction and short-term Fe{sup 2+} influx (Fe{sup 2+} derived from the reduction of {sup 59}Fe-labelled Fe(III)EDTA) on the same root system. The rate of Fe(III) reduction was used to normalize subsequently determined influx values, such that different treatments could be compared. Measurements at various concentrations of Fe(III)EDTA with excised, primary lateral roots of both iron-deficient and iron-adequate peas (Pisum sativum), showed that the ratio of Fe influx to Fe reduction never exceeded an average value of 0.15 {mu}mol Fe{sup 2+} absorbed/{mu}mol Fe(III) reduced. At high concentrations of Fe(III)EDTA (> 100 {mu}M), the value of this ratio often decreased. Our results suggest that while increased rates of Fe influx can be measured in Fe-deficient peas, this increase is due to an increased production of the transported species Fe{sup 2+}, and the specific activity of the root-plasmalemma Fe transport system is not altered or enhanced in response to Fe-deficiency.

  7. OPT3 Is a Phloem-Specific Iron Transporter That Is Essential for Systemic Iron Signaling and Redistribution of Iron and Cadmium in Arabidopsis[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Zhiyang; Gayomba, Sheena R.; Jung, Ha-il; Vimalakumari, Nanditha K.; Piñeros, Miguel; Craft, Eric; Rutzke, Michael A.; Danku, John; Lahner, Brett; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Salt, David E.; Kochian, Leon V.; Vatamaniuk, Olena K.

    2014-01-01

    Iron is essential for both plant growth and human health and nutrition. Knowledge of the signaling mechanisms that communicate iron demand from shoots to roots to regulate iron uptake as well as the transport systems mediating iron partitioning into edible plant tissues is critical for the development of crop biofortification strategies. Here, we report that OPT3, previously classified as an oligopeptide transporter, is a plasma membrane transporter capable of transporting transition ions in vitro. Studies in Arabidopsis thaliana show that OPT3 loads iron into the phloem, facilitates iron recirculation from the xylem to the phloem, and regulates both shoot-to-root iron signaling and iron redistribution from mature to developing tissues. We also uncovered an aspect of crosstalk between iron homeostasis and cadmium partitioning that is mediated by OPT3. Together, these discoveries provide promising avenues for targeted strategies directed at increasing iron while decreasing cadmium density in the edible portions of crops and improving agricultural productivity in iron deficient soils. PMID:24867923

  8. Chemical interference with iron transport systems to suppress bacterial growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Bin; Zhang, Liang; Li, Nan; Han, Junlong; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Xuesong; He, Qing-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for the growth of most bacteria. To obtain iron, bacteria have developed specific iron-transport systems located on the membrane surface to uptake iron and iron complexes such as ferrichrome. Interference with the iron-acquisition systems should be therefore an efficient strategy to suppress bacterial growth and infection. Based on the chemical similarity of iron and ruthenium, we used a Ru(II) complex R-825 to compete with ferrichrome for the ferrichrome-transport pathway in Streptococcus pneumoniae. R-825 inhibited the bacterial growth of S. pneumoniae and stimulated the expression of PiuA, the iron-binding protein in the ferrichrome-uptake system on the cell surface. R-825 treatment decreased the cellular content of iron, accompanying with the increase of Ru(II) level in the bacterium. When the piuA gene (SPD_0915) was deleted in the bacterium, the mutant strain became resistant to R-825 treatment, with decreased content of Ru(II). Addition of ferrichrome can rescue the bacterial growth that was suppressed by R-825. Fluorescence spectral quenching showed that R-825 can bind with PiuA in a similar pattern to the ferrichrome-PiuA interaction in vitro. These observations demonstrated that Ru(II) complex R-825 can compete with ferrichrome for the ferrichrome-transport system to enter S. pneumoniae, reduce the cellular iron supply, and thus suppress the bacterial growth. This finding suggests a novel antimicrobial approach by interfering with iron-uptake pathways, which is different from the mechanisms used by current antibiotics.

  9. Cellular iron transport.

    PubMed

    Garrick, Michael D; Garrick, Laura M

    2009-05-01

    Iron has a split personality as an essential nutrient that also has the potential to generate reactive oxygen species. We discuss how different cell types within specific tissues manage this schizophrenia. The emphasis in enterocytes is on regulating the body's supply of iron by regulating transport into the blood stream. In developing red blood cells, adaptations in transport manage the body's highest flux of iron. Hepatocytes buffer the body's stock of iron. Macrophage recycle the iron from effete red cells among other iron management tasks. Pneumocytes provide a barrier to prevent illicit entry that, when at risk of breaching, leads to a need to handle the dangers in a fashion essentially shared with macrophage. We also discuss or introduce cell types including renal cells, neurons, other brain cells, and more where our ignorance, currently still vast, needs to be removed by future research.

  10. The Vibrio cholerae VctPDGC system transports catechol siderophores and a siderophore-free iron ligand.

    PubMed

    Wyckoff, Elizabeth E; Payne, Shelley M

    2011-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, has an absolute requirement for iron. It transports the catechol siderophores vibriobactin, which it synthesizes and secretes, and enterobactin. These siderophores are transported across the inner membrane by one of two periplasmic binding protein-dependent ABC transporters, VctPDGC or ViuPDGC. We show here that one of these inner membrane transport systems, VctPDGC, also promotes iron acquisition in the absence of siderophores. Plasmids carrying the vctPDGC genes stimulated growth in both rich and minimal media of a Shigella flexneri mutant that produces no siderophores. vctPDGC also stimulated the growth of an Escherichia coli enterobactin biosynthetic mutant in low iron medium, and this effect did not require feoB, tonB or aroB. A tyrosine to phenylalanine substitution in the periplasmic binding protein VctP did not alter enterobactin transport, but eliminated growth stimulation in the absence of a siderophore. These data suggest that the VctPDGC system has the capacity to transport both catechol siderophores and a siderophore-free iron ligand. We also show that VctPDGC is the previously unidentified siderophore-independent iron transporter in V. cholerae, and this appears to complete the list of iron transport systems in V. cholerae.

  11. Comparative Genomics of Iron-Transporting Systems in Bacillus cereus Strains and Impact of Iron Sources on Growth and Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Hayrapetyan, Hasmik; Siezen, Roland; Abee, Tjakko; Nierop Groot, Masja

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an important element for bacterial viability, however it is not readily available in most environments. We studied the ability of 20 undomesticated food isolates of Bacillus cereus and two reference strains for capacity to use different (complex) iron sources for growth and biofilm formation. Studies were performed in media containing the iron scavenger 2,2-Bipyridine. Transcriptome analysis using B. cereus ATCC 10987 indeed showed upregulation of predicted iron transporters in the presence of 2,2-Bipyridine, confirming that iron was depleted upon its addition. Next, the impact of iron sources on growth performance of the 22 strains was assessed and correlations between growth stimulation and presence of putative iron transporter systems in the genome sequences were analyzed. All 22 strains effectively used Fe citrate and FeCl3 for growth, and possessed genes for biosynthesis of the siderophore bacillibactin, whereas seven strains lacked genes for synthesis of petrobactin. Hemoglobin could be used by all strains with the exception of one strain that lacked functional petrobactin and IlsA systems. Hemin could be used by the majority of the tested strains (19 of 22). Notably, transferrin, ferritin, and lactoferrin were not commonly used by B. cereus for growth, as these iron sources could be used by 6, 3, and 2 strains, respectively. Furthermore, biofilm formation was found to be affected by the type of iron source used, including stimulation of biofilms at liquid-air interphase (FeCl3 and Fe citrate) and formation of submerged type biofilms (hemin and lactoferrin). Our results show strain variability in the genome-encoded repertoire of iron-transporting systems and differences in efficacy to use complex iron sources for growth and biofilm formation. These features may affect B. cereus survival and persistence in specific niches.

  12. Comparative Genomics of Iron-Transporting Systems in Bacillus cereus Strains and Impact of Iron Sources on Growth and Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hayrapetyan, Hasmik; Siezen, Roland; Abee, Tjakko; Nierop Groot, Masja

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an important element for bacterial viability, however it is not readily available in most environments. We studied the ability of 20 undomesticated food isolates of Bacillus cereus and two reference strains for capacity to use different (complex) iron sources for growth and biofilm formation. Studies were performed in media containing the iron scavenger 2,2-Bipyridine. Transcriptome analysis using B. cereus ATCC 10987 indeed showed upregulation of predicted iron transporters in the presence of 2,2-Bipyridine, confirming that iron was depleted upon its addition. Next, the impact of iron sources on growth performance of the 22 strains was assessed and correlations between growth stimulation and presence of putative iron transporter systems in the genome sequences were analyzed. All 22 strains effectively used Fe citrate and FeCl3 for growth, and possessed genes for biosynthesis of the siderophore bacillibactin, whereas seven strains lacked genes for synthesis of petrobactin. Hemoglobin could be used by all strains with the exception of one strain that lacked functional petrobactin and IlsA systems. Hemin could be used by the majority of the tested strains (19 of 22). Notably, transferrin, ferritin, and lactoferrin were not commonly used by B. cereus for growth, as these iron sources could be used by 6, 3, and 2 strains, respectively. Furthermore, biofilm formation was found to be affected by the type of iron source used, including stimulation of biofilms at liquid-air interphase (FeCl3 and Fe citrate) and formation of submerged type biofilms (hemin and lactoferrin). Our results show strain variability in the genome-encoded repertoire of iron-transporting systems and differences in efficacy to use complex iron sources for growth and biofilm formation. These features may affect B. cereus survival and persistence in specific niches. PMID:27375568

  13. Siderophore Cephalosporin Cefiderocol Utilizes Ferric Iron Transporter Systems for Antibacterial Activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Toru; Yoshizawa, Hidenori; Sato, Takafumi; Nakamura, Rio; Tsuji, Masakatsu; Yamano, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Cefiderocol (S-649266) is a novel parenteral siderophore cephalosporin conjugated with a catechol moiety at the third-position side chain. The in vitro activity of cefiderocol against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was enhanced under iron-depleted conditions, whereas that of ceftazidime was not affected. The monitoring of [thiazole-14C]cefiderocol revealed the increased intracellular accumulation of cefiderocol in P. aeruginosa cells incubated under iron-depleted conditions compared with those incubated under iron-sufficient conditions. Cefiderocol was shown to have potent chelating activity with ferric iron, and extracellular iron was efficiently transported into P. aeruginosa cells in the presence of cefiderocol as well as siderophores, while enhanced transport of extracellular ferric iron was not observed when one of the hydroxyl groups of the catechol moiety of cefiderocol was replaced with a methoxy group. We conclude that cefiderocol forms a chelating complex with iron, which is actively transported into P. aeruginosa cells via iron transporters, resulting in potent antibacterial activity of cefiderocol against P. aeruginosa. PMID:27736756

  14. Identification and Characterization of Gonococcal Iron Transport Systems as Potential Vaccine Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Cornelissen, CN

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Gonorrhea is the second most commonly reported infectious disease in the United States, and incidence has been increasing in recent years. Antibiotic resistance among clinical isolates has reached a critical point at which the CDC currently recommends only a single class of antibiotic for treatment. These developments have hastened the search for a vaccine to protect against gonococcal infections. Vaccine efforts have been thwarted by the ability of the gonococcus to antigenically vary most surface structures. The transferrin-iron transport system is not subject to high frequency phase or antigenic variation and is expressed by all pathogenic Neisseria. Vaccine formulations comprised of epitopes of the transferrin-binding proteins complexed with inactivated cholera toxin generated antibodies with potentially protective characteristics. These antigens, and others predicted from genome sequence data, could be developed into a vaccine that protects against neisserial infections. PMID:18505395

  15. Differential expression of Bordetella pertussis iron transport system genes during infection

    PubMed Central

    Brickman, Timothy J.; Hanawa, Tomoko; Anderson, Mark T.; Suhadolc, Ryan J.; Armstrong, Sandra K.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Temporal expression patterns of the Bordetella pertussis alcaligin, enterobactin, and heme iron acquisition systems were examined using alcA-, bfeA-, and bhuR-tnpR recombinase fusion strains in a mouse respiratory infection model. The iron systems were differentially expressed in vivo, showing early induction of the alcaligin and enterobactin siderophore systems, and delayed induction of the heme system in a manner consistent with predicted changes in host iron source availability during infection. Previous mixed infection competition studies established the importance of alcaligin and heme utilization for B. pertussis in vivo growth and survival. In this study, the contribution of the enterobactin system to the fitness of B. pertussis was confirmed using wild-type and enterobactin receptor mutant strains in similar competition infection experiments. As a correlate to the in vivo expression studies of B. pertussis iron systems in mice, sera from uninfected and B. pertussis-infected human donors were screened for antibody reactivity with Bordetella iron-repressible cell envelope proteins. Pertussis patient sera recognized multiple iron-repressible proteins including the known outer membrane receptors for alcaligin, enterobactin, and heme, supporting the hypothesis that B. pertussis is iron-starved and responds to the presence of diverse iron sources during natural infection. PMID:18554331

  16. A novel transferrin/TfR2-mediated mitochondrial iron transport system is disrupted in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Mastroberardino, Pier Giorgio; Hoffman, Eric K.; Horowitz, Maxx P.; Betarbet, Ranjita; Taylor, Georgia; Cheng, Dongmei; Na, Hye Mee; Gutekunst, Claire-Anne; Gearing, Marla; Trojanowski, John Q.; Anderson, Marjorie; Chu, Charleen T.; Peng, Junmin; Greenamyre, J. Timothy

    2009-01-01

    More than 80 years after iron accumulation was initially described in the substantia nigra (SN) of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are still unknown. Similarly, how iron is delivered to its major recipients in the cell – mitochondria and the respiratory complexes – has yet to be elucidated. Here, we report a novel transferrin/transferrin receptor 2 (Tf/TfR2)-mediated iron transport pathway in mitochondria of SN dopamine neurons. We found that TfR2 has a previously uncharacterized mitochondrial targeting sequence that is sufficient to import the protein into these organelles. Importantly, the Tf/TfR2 pathway can deliver Tf bound iron to mitochondria and to the respiratory complex I as well. The pathway is redox-sensitive and oxidation of Tf thiols to disulfides induces release from Tf of highly reactive ferrous iron, which contributes to free radical production. In the rotenone model of PD, Tf accumulates in dopamine neurons, with much of it accumulating in the mitochondria. This is associated with iron deposition in SN, similar to what occurs in PD. In the human SN, TfR2 is also found in mitochondria of dopamine neurons, and in PD there is a dramatic increase of oxidized Tf in SN. Thus, we have discovered a novel mitochondrial iron transport system that goes awry in PD, and which may provide a new target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:19250966

  17. Iron Isotopes in the Amazon River System: Weathering and Transport Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergquist, B. A.; Boyle, E. A.

    2004-12-01

    Fractionation of iron isotopes will be an effective tool to investigate and quantify the environmental geochemistry of iron. Initial studies of stable iron isotopes show measurable fractionation in both field samples and laboratory studies spanning over 4‰ in the 56/54 ratio. In this study, trace metal clean plankton tows, river samples, aerosol leachates, and porewater samples were measured for their iron isotopic composition using a GV Instruments IsoProbe Multi-collector ICPMS. This system uses a hexapole collision cell to reduce molecular interferences and improve transmission. A plankton tow collected in a low salinity Amazon River plume in the open ocean had a δ 56Fe value of -0.34‰ relative to igneous rocks and a Fe:C ratio of ˜ 600 μ mol/mol. It was inferred from the high Fe:C ratio that a majority of the Fe collected in the plankton tow was extracellular Fe and that the δ 56Fe might reflect the composition of particles and Fe attached to the surface of the plankton. In order to investigate the source of Fe to the Amazon plume water, samples were collected from the Amazon River and region including filtered river water, suspended sediment, and a shelf porewater. River water-seawater mixing experiments were also performed to assess whether Fe flocculation in estuaries affects isotopic composition of the dissolved flux to the ocean. The overall Fe isotopic variation observed in the Amazon River system was 1.5‰ . The Fe from the dissolved and suspended loads of two main channel river sites was isotopically similar ( ˜ -0.2 to -0.45‰ ). The most depleted sample was the Amazon shelf porewater (-1.4‰ ). The isotopically heaviest sample collected was the dissolved Fe from an organic rich tributary, the Negro River, in the Amazon River system (+0.16‰ ). Although the Negro River dissolved phase was isotopically heavy relative to igneous rock, its suspended sediment Fe was isotopically light (-1‰ ). The signature of the Negro was not observed

  18. Genetic defects of iron transport.

    PubMed

    Bannerman, R M

    1976-09-01

    Five genetic traits in man and laboratory animals have major effects on iron transport. The heterogeneous condition, hemochromatosis, in some families appears to segregate as a Mendelian trait, and is associated with defective control of intestinal iron absorption. In the very rare human autosomal recessive trait, atransferrinemia, there is an almost total lack of transferrin and gross maldistribution of iron through the body. In mice, sex-linked anemia (an X-linked recessive trait) causes iron deficiency through defective iron absorption, at the "exit" step; a similar defect probably exists in placental iron transfer. In microcytic anemia of mice, an autosomal recessive trait, iron absorption is also impaired because of a defect of iron entry into cells, which is probably generalized. Belgrade rat anemia, less understood at present, also may involve a major disorder of iron metabolism. Study of these mutations has provided new knowledge of iron metabolism and its genetic control Their phenotypic interaction with nutritional factors, especially the form and quantity of iron in the diet, may provide new insights for the study of nutrition.

  19. Molecular mechanisms and regulation of iron transport.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jayong; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2003-04-01

    Iron homeostasis is primarily maintained through regulation of its transport. This review summarizes recent discoveries in the field of iron transport that have shed light on the molecular mechanisms of dietary iron uptake, pathways for iron efflux to and between peripheral tissues, proteins implicated in organellar transport of iron (particularly the mitochondrion), and novel regulators that have been proposed to control iron assimilation. The transport of both transferrin-bound and nontransferrin-bound iron to peripheral tissues is discussed. Finally, the regulation of iron transport is also considered at the molecular level, with posttranscriptional, transcriptional, and posttranslational control mechanisms being reviewed.

  20. Vibrio Iron Transport: Evolutionary Adaptation to Life in Multiple Environments

    PubMed Central

    Mey, Alexandra R.; Wyckoff, Elizabeth E.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Iron is an essential element for Vibrio spp., but the acquisition of iron is complicated by its tendency to form insoluble ferric complexes in nature and its association with high-affinity iron-binding proteins in the host. Vibrios occupy a variety of different niches, and each of these niches presents particular challenges for acquiring sufficient iron. Vibrio species have evolved a wide array of iron transport systems that allow the bacteria to compete for this essential element in each of its habitats. These systems include the secretion and uptake of high-affinity iron-binding compounds (siderophores) as well as transport systems for iron bound to host complexes. Transporters for ferric and ferrous iron not complexed to siderophores are also common to Vibrio species. Some of the genes encoding these systems show evidence of horizontal transmission, and the ability to acquire and incorporate additional iron transport systems may have allowed Vibrio species to more rapidly adapt to new environmental niches. While too little iron prevents growth of the bacteria, too much can be lethal. The appropriate balance is maintained in vibrios through complex regulatory networks involving transcriptional repressors and activators and small RNAs (sRNAs) that act posttranscriptionally. Examination of the number and variety of iron transport systems found in Vibrio spp. offers insights into how this group of bacteria has adapted to such a wide range of habitats. PMID:26658001

  1. The stabilisation and transportation of dissolved iron from high temperature hydrothermal vent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkes, J. A.; Connelly, D. P.; Gledhill, M.; Achterberg, E. P.

    2013-08-01

    Iron (Fe) binding phases in two hydrothermal plumes in the Southern Ocean were studied using a novel voltammetric technique. This approach, reverse titration-competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry, showed that on average 30±21% of dissolved Fe in the hydrothermal plumes was stabilised by chemically labile binding to ligands. The conditional stability constant (log K‧FeL) of the observed complexes was 20.61±0.54 (mean±1 SD) for the two vent sites, intermediate between previous measurements of deep ocean ligands (21.4-23; Kondo et al., 2012) and dissolved weak estuarine ligands (<20; Gerringa et al., 2007). Our results indicate that approximately 7.5% of all hydrothermal Fe was stabilised by complexation with ligands. Furthermore, 47±26% of the dissolved Fe in the plume existed in the colloidal size range (0.02-0.2 μm). Our data suggests that a portion (∼7.5%) of hydrothermal Fe is sufficiently stabilised in the dissolved size fraction (<0.2 μm) to make an important impact on deep ocean Fe distributions. Lateral deep ocean currents transport this hydrothermal Fe as lenses of enhanced Fe concentrations away from mid ocean ridge spreading centres and back arc basins.

  2. OPT3 is a phloem-specific iron transporter that is essential for systemic iron signaling and redistribution of iron and cadmium in arabidopsis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Iron is essential for both plant growth and human health and nutrition. Cadmium, on the other hand, is a non-essential and highly toxic element that competes with iron for uptake and partitioning in plant tissues, posing a threat to crop productivity and human health. Knowledge of signaling mechanis...

  3. Characterization of a high-affinity iron transport system in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed Central

    Echenique, J R; Arienti, H; Tolmasky, M E; Read, R R; Staneloni, R J; Crosa, J H; Actis, L A

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of a clinical isolate of Acinetobacter baumannii showed that this bacterium was able to grow under iron-limiting conditions, using chemically defined growth media containing different iron chelators such as human transferrin, ethylenediaminedi-(o-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid, nitrilotriacetic acid, and 2,2'-bipyridyl. This iron uptake-proficient phenotype was due to the synthesis and secretion of a catechol-type siderophore compound. Utilization bioassays using the Salmonella typhimurium iron uptake mutants enb-1 and enb-7 proved that this siderophore is different from enterobactin. This catechol siderophore was partially purified from culture supernatants by adsorption chromatography using an XAD-7 resin. The purified component exhibited a chromatographic behavior and a UV-visible light absorption spectrum different from those of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid and other bacterial catechol siderophores. Furthermore, the siderophore activity of this extracellular catechol was confirmed by its ability to stimulate energy-dependent uptake of 55Fe(III) as well as to promote the growth of A. baumannii bacterial cells under iron-deficient conditions imposed by 60 microM human transferrin. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed the presence of iron-regulated proteins in both inner and outer membranes of this clinical isolate of A. baumannii. Some of these membrane proteins may be involved in the recognition and internalization of the iron-siderophore complexes. Images PMID:1447137

  4. Coordination Chemistry of Microbial Iron Transport

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    has emerged with the characterization of what are now called siderocalins. Initially found as a protein of the human innate immune system, these proteins bind both ferric and apo-siderophores to inactivate the siderophore transport system and hence deny iron to an invading pathogenic microbe. Siderocalins also can play a role in iron transport of the host, particularly in the early stages of fetal development. Finally, it is speculated that the molecular targets of siderocalins in different species differ based on the siderophore structures of the most important bacterial pathogens of those species. PMID:26332443

  5. The effect of iron and copper as an essential nutrient on mitochondrial electron transport system and lipid peroxidation in Trichoderma harzianum.

    PubMed

    Tavsan, Zehra; Ayar Kayali, Hulya

    2013-08-01

    Iron and copper are essential nutrients for all living organisms as cofactors of many enzymes and play important roles in electron transport system (ETS) enzymes which have heme and iron-sulfur centers. In the present study, ETS enzymes, namely, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and cytochrome c oxidase (COX), activities as well as adenine nucleotides and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels of eukaryotic model Trichoderma harzianum grown in varied concentrations of iron (0-20 mg/l) and copper (0-25 mg/l) mediums have been examined. SDH and COX activities increased up to 10 mg/l of iron. COX and SDH activities increased significantly up to 15 and 1 mg/l of copper, respectively. ATP and ADP levels showed a positive correlation with SDH activity with respect to iron-copper concentrations. The trends of AMP were similar with those of ATP and ADP for iron concentrations, while AMP levels elevated until 5 mg/l of copper. As an indicative marker of membrane damage, LPO levels increased with iron and copper concentration. In conclusion, iron and copper concentrations are of critical importance on activities of the ETS enzymes besides adenine nucleotides and LPO levels by maintenance of this metal homeostasis.

  6. Characterization of Pit, a Streptococcus pneumoniae Iron Uptake ABC Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jeremy S.; Gilliland, Sarah M.; Ruiz-Albert, Javier; Holden, David W.

    2002-01-01

    Bacteria frequently have multiple mechanisms for acquiring iron, an essential micronutrient, from the environment. We have identified a four-gene Streptococcus pneumoniae operon, named pit, encoding proteins with similarity to components of a putative Brachyspira hyodysenteriae iron uptake ABC transporter, Bit. An S. pneumoniae strain containing a defined mutation in pit has impaired growth in medium containing the iron chelator ethylenediamine di-o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, reduced sensitivity to the iron-dependent antibiotic streptonigrin, and impaired virulence in a mouse model of S. pneumoniae systemic infection. Furthermore, addition of a mutation in pit to a strain containing mutations in the two previously described S. pneumoniae iron uptake ABC transporters, piu and pia, resulted in a strain with impaired growth in two types of iron-deficient medium, a high degree of resistance to streptonigrin, and a reduced rate of iron uptake. Comparison of the susceptibilities to streptonigrin of the individual pit, piu, and pia mutant strains and comparison of the growth in iron-deficient medium and virulence of single and double mutant strains suggest that pia is the dominant iron transporter during in vitro and in vivo growth. PMID:12117949

  7. Hepcidin Suppresses Brain Iron Accumulation by Downregulating Iron Transport Proteins in Iron-Overloaded Rats.

    PubMed

    Du, Fang; Qian, Zhong-Ming; Luo, Qianqian; Yung, Wing-Ho; Ke, Ya

    2015-08-01

    Iron accumulates progressively in the brain with age, and iron-induced oxidative stress has been considered as one of the initial causes for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Based on the role of hepcidin in peripheral organs and its expression in the brain, we hypothesized that this peptide has a role to reduce iron in the brain and hence has the potential to prevent or delay brain iron accumulation in iron-associated neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we investigated the effects of hepcidin expression adenovirus (ad-hepcidin) and hepcidin peptide on brain iron contents, iron transport across the brain-blood barrier, iron uptake and release, and also the expression of transferrin receptor-1 (TfR1), divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), and ferroportin 1 (Fpn1) in cultured microvascular endothelial cells and neurons. We demonstrated that hepcidin significantly reduced brain iron in iron-overloaded rats and suppressed transport of transferrin-bound iron (Tf-Fe) from the periphery into the brain. Also, the peptide significantly inhibited expression of TfR1, DMT1, and Fpn1 as well as reduced Tf-Fe and non-transferrin-bound iron uptake and iron release in cultured microvascular endothelial cells and neurons, while downregulation of hepcidin with hepcidin siRNA retrovirus generated opposite results. We concluded that, under iron-overload, hepcidin functions to reduce iron in the brain by downregulating iron transport proteins. Upregulation of brain hepcidin by ad-hepcidin emerges as a new pharmacological treatment and prevention for iron-associated neurodegenerative disorders.

  8. Involvement of NRAMP1 from Arabidopsis thaliana in iron transport.

    PubMed

    Curie, C; Alonso, J M; Le Jean, M; Ecker, J R; Briat, J F

    2000-05-01

    Nramp genes code for a widely distributed class of proteins involved in a variety of processes, ranging from the control of susceptibility to bacterial infection in mammalian cells and taste behaviour in Drosophila to manganese uptake in yeast. Some of the NRAMP proteins in mammals and in yeast are capable of transporting metal ions, including iron. In plants, iron transport was shown to require a reduction/Fe(II) transport system. In Arabidopsis thaliana this process involves the IRT1 and Fro2 genes. Here we report the sequence of five NRAMP proteins from A. thaliana. Sequence comparison suggests that there are two classes of NRAMP proteins in plants: A. thaliana (At) NRAMP1 and Oriza sativa (Os) NRAMP1 and 3 (two rice isologues) represent one class, and AtNRAMP2-5 and OsNRAMP2 the other. AtNramp1 and OsNramp1 are able to complement the fet3fet4 yeast mutant defective both in low- and high-affinity iron transports, whereas AtNramp2 and OsNramp2 fail to do so. In addition, AtNramp1 transcript, but not AtNramp2 transcript, accumulates in response to iron deficiency in roots but not in leaves. Finally, overexpression of AtNramp1 in transgenic A. thaliana plants leads to an increase in plant resistance to toxic iron concentration. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AtNramp1 participates in the control of iron homoeostasis in plants.

  9. Coordinated transporter activity shapes high-affinity iron acquisition in cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kranzler, Chana; Lis, Hagar; Finkel, Omri M; Schmetterer, Georg; Shaked, Yeala; Keren, Nir

    2014-01-01

    Iron bioavailability limits biological activity in many aquatic and terrestrial environments. Broad scale genomic meta-analyses indicated that within a single organism, multiple iron transporters may contribute to iron acquisition. Here, we present a functional characterization of a cyanobacterial iron transport pathway that utilizes concerted transporter activities. Cyanobacteria are significant contributors to global primary productivity with high iron demands. Certain cyanobacterial species employ a siderophore-mediated uptake strategy; however, many strains possess neither siderophore biosynthesis nor siderophore transport genes. The unicellular, planktonic, freshwater cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, employs an alternative to siderophore-based uptake-reduction of Fe(III) species before transport through the plasma membrane. In this study, we combine short-term radioactive iron uptake and reduction assays with a range of disruption mutants to generate a working model for iron reduction and uptake in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. We found that the Fe(II) transporter, FeoB, is the major iron transporter in this organism. In addition, we uncovered a link between a respiratory terminal oxidase (Alternate Respiratory Terminal Oxidase) and iron reduction - suggesting a coupling between these two electron transfer reactions. Furthermore, quantitative RNA transcript analysis identified a function for subunits of the Fe(III) transporter, FutABC, in modulating reductive iron uptake. Collectively, our results provide a molecular basis for a tightly coordinated, high-affinity iron transport system. PMID:24088625

  10. Quilamine HQ1-44, an iron chelator vectorized toward tumor cells by the polyamine transport system, inhibits HCT116 tumor growth without adverse effect.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Stéphanie; Corcé, Vincent; Cannie, Isabelle; Ropert, Martine; Lepage, Sylvie; Loréal, Olivier; Deniaud, David; Gaboriau, François

    2015-08-01

    Tumor cell growth requires large iron quantities and the deprivation of this metal induced by synthetic metal chelators is therefore an attractive method for limiting the cancer cell proliferation. The antiproliferative effect of the Quilamine HQ1-44, a new iron chelator vectorized toward tumor cells by a polyamine chain, is related to its high selectivity for the Polyamine Transport System (PTS), allowing its preferential uptake by tumoral cells. The difference in PTS activation between healthy cells and tumor cells enables tumor cells to be targeted, whereas the strong dependence of these cells on iron ensures a secondary targeting. Here, we demonstrated in vitro that HQ1-44 inhibits DNA synthesis and cell proliferation of HCT116 cells by modulating the intracellular metabolism of both iron and polyamines. Moreover, in vivo, in xenografted athymic nude mice, we found that HQ1-44 was as effective as cis-platin in reducing HCT116 tumor growth, without its side effects. Furthermore, as suggested by in vitro data, the depletion in exogenous or endogenous polyamines, known to activate the PTS, dramatically enhanced the antitumor efficiency of HQ1-44. These data support the need for further studies to assess the value of HQ1-44 as an adjuvant treatment in cancer.

  11. Plasmid-Encoded Iron Uptake Systems.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Manuela; Stork, Michiel

    2014-12-01

    Plasmids confer genetic information that benefits the bacterial cells containing them. In pathogenic bacteria, plasmids often harbor virulence determinants that enhance the pathogenicity of the bacterium. The ability to acquire iron in environments where it is limited, for instance the eukaryotic host, is a critical factor for bacterial growth. To acquire iron, bacteria have evolved specific iron uptake mechanisms. These systems are often chromosomally encoded, while those that are plasmid-encoded are rare. Two main plasmid types, ColV and pJM1, have been shown to harbor determinants that increase virulence by providing the cell with essential iron for growth. It is clear that these two plasmid groups evolved independently from each other since they do not share similarities either in the plasmid backbones or in the iron uptake systems they harbor. The siderophores aerobactin and salmochelin that are found on ColV plasmids fall in the hydroxamate and catechol group, respectively, whereas both functional groups are present in the anguibactin siderophore, the only iron uptake system found on pJM1-type plasmids. Besides siderophore-mediated iron uptake, ColV plasmids carry additional genes involved in iron metabolism. These systems include ABC transporters, hemolysins, and a hemoglobin protease. ColV- and pJM1-like plasmids have been shown to confer virulence to their bacterial host, and this trait can be completely ascribed to their encoded iron uptake systems.

  12. Divalent metal transporter 1 (Dmt1) Mediates Copper Transport in the Duodenum of Iron-Deficient Rats and When Overexpressed in Iron-Deprived HEK-293 Cells12

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lingli; Garrick, Michael D.; Garrick, Laura M.; Zhao, Lin; Collins, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular copper-binding proteins (metallothionein I/II) and a copper exporter (Menkes copper-transporting ATPase) are upregulated in duodenal enterocytes from iron-deficient rats, consistent with copper accumulation in the intestinal mucosa. How copper enters enterocytes during iron deficiency is, however, not clear. Divalent metal transporter 1 (Dmt1), the predominant iron importer in the mammalian duodenum, also transports other metal ions, possibly including copper. Given this possibility and that Dmt1 expression is upregulated by iron deprivation, we sought to test the hypothesis that Dmt1 transports copper during iron deficiency. Two model systems were utilized: the Belgrade (b) rat, expressing mutant Dmt1, and an inducible Dmt1-overexpression cell culture system. Mutant rats (b/b) were fed a semipurified, AIN93G-based control diet and phenotypically normal littermates (+/b) were fed control or iron-deficient diets for ∼14 wk. An everted gut sleeve technique and a colorimetric copper quantification assay were utilized to assess duodenal copper transport. The control diet-fed +/b rats had normal hematological parameters, whereas iron-deprived +/b and b/b rats were iron deficient and Dmt1 mRNA and protein levels increased. Importantly, duodenal copper transport was similar in the control +/b and b/b rats; however, it significantly increased (∼4-fold) in the iron-deprived +/b rats. Additional experiments in Dmt1 overexpressing HEK-293 cells showed that copper (64Cu) uptake was stimulated (∼3-fold) in the presence of an iron chelator. Dmt1 transcript stabilization due to a 3′ iron-responsive element was also documented, likely contributing to increased transport activity. In summary, these studies suggest that Dmt1 enhances copper uptake into duodenal enterocytes during iron deprivation. PMID:24089420

  13. Divalent metal transporter 1 (Dmt1) mediates copper transport in the duodenum of iron-deficient rats and when overexpressed in iron-deprived HEK-293 cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lingli; Garrick, Michael D; Garrick, Laura M; Zhao, Lin; Collins, James F

    2013-12-01

    Intracellular copper-binding proteins (metallothionein I/II) and a copper exporter (Menkes copper-transporting ATPase) are upregulated in duodenal enterocytes from iron-deficient rats, consistent with copper accumulation in the intestinal mucosa. How copper enters enterocytes during iron deficiency is, however, not clear. Divalent metal transporter 1 (Dmt1), the predominant iron importer in the mammalian duodenum, also transports other metal ions, possibly including copper. Given this possibility and that Dmt1 expression is upregulated by iron deprivation, we sought to test the hypothesis that Dmt1 transports copper during iron deficiency. Two model systems were utilized: the Belgrade (b) rat, expressing mutant Dmt1, and an inducible Dmt1-overexpression cell culture system. Mutant rats (b/b) were fed a semipurified, AIN93G-based control diet and phenotypically normal littermates (+/b) were fed control or iron-deficient diets for ~14 wk. An everted gut sleeve technique and a colorimetric copper quantification assay were utilized to assess duodenal copper transport. The control diet-fed +/b rats had normal hematological parameters, whereas iron-deprived +/b and b/b rats were iron deficient and Dmt1 mRNA and protein levels increased. Importantly, duodenal copper transport was similar in the control +/b and b/b rats; however, it significantly increased (~4-fold) in the iron-deprived +/b rats. Additional experiments in Dmt1 overexpressing HEK-293 cells showed that copper ((64)Cu) uptake was stimulated (∼3-fold) in the presence of an iron chelator. Dmt1 transcript stabilization due to a 3' iron-responsive element was also documented, likely contributing to increased transport activity. In summary, these studies suggest that Dmt1 enhances copper uptake into duodenal enterocytes during iron deprivation.

  14. Genetics and molecular biology of siderophore-mediated iron transport in bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Crosa, J H

    1989-01-01

    The possession of specialized iron transport systems may be crucial for bacteria to override the iron limitation imposed by the host or the environment. One of the most commonly found strategies evolved by microorganisms is the production of siderophores, low-molecular-weight iron chelators that have very high constants of association for their complexes with iron. Thus, siderophores act as extracellular solubilizing agents for iron from minerals or organic compounds, such as transferrin and lactoferrin in the host vertebrate, under conditions of iron limitation. Transport of iron into the cell cytosol is mediated by specific membrane receptor and transport systems which recognize the iron-siderophore complexes. In this review I have analyzed in detail three siderophore-mediated iron uptake systems: the plasmid-encoded anguibactin system of Vibrio anguillarum, the aerobactin-mediated iron assimilation system present in the pColV-K30 plasmid and in the chromosomes of many enteric bacteria, and the chromosomally encoded enterobactin iron uptake system, found in Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., and other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The siderophore systems encoded by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, namely, pyochelin and pyoverdin, as well as the siderophore amonabactin, specified by Aeromonas hydrophila, are also discussed. The potential role of siderophore-mediated systems as virulence determinants in the specific host-bacteria interaction leading to disease is also analyzed with respect to the influence of these systems in the expression of other factors, such as toxins, in the bacterial virulence repertoire. PMID:2531838

  15. Mechanisms of Brain Iron Transport: Insight into Neurodegeneration and CNS Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Eric; Dong, Xian-ping; Wang, Fudi; Xu, Haoxing

    2009-01-01

    Summary Trace metals such as iron, copper, zinc, manganese, and cobalt are essential cofactors for many cellular enzymes. Extensive research on iron, the most abundant transition metal in biology, has contributed to an increased understanding of the molecular machinery involved in maintaining its homeostasis in mammalian peripheral tissues. However, the cellular and intercellular iron transport mechanisms in the central nervous system (CNS) are still poorly understood. Accumulating evidence suggests that impaired iron metabolism is an initial cause of neurodegeneration, and several common genetic and sporadic neurodegenerative disorders have been proposed to be associated with dysregulated CNS iron homeostasis. This review aims to provide a summary of the molecular mechanisms of brain iron transport. Our discussion is focused on iron transport across endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier and within the neuro- and glial-vascular units of the brain, with the aim of revealing novel therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative and CNS disorders. PMID:20161623

  16. Ascorbate Efflux as a New Strategy for Iron Reduction and Transport in Plants*

    PubMed Central

    Grillet, Louis; Ouerdane, Laurent; Flis, Paulina; Hoang, Minh Thi Thanh; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Lobinski, Ryszard; Curie, Catherine; Mari, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is essential for virtually all living organisms. The identification of the chemical forms of iron (the speciation) circulating in and between cells is crucial to further understand the mechanisms of iron delivery to its final targets. Here we analyzed how iron is transported to the seeds by the chemical identification of iron complexes that are delivered to embryos, followed by the biochemical characterization of the transport of these complexes by the embryo, using the pea (Pisum sativum) as a model species. We have found that iron circulates as ferric complexes with citrate and malate (Fe(III)3Cit2Mal2, Fe(III)3Cit3Mal1, Fe(III)Cit2). Because dicotyledonous plants only transport ferrous iron, we checked whether embryos were capable of reducing iron of these complexes. Indeed, embryos did express a constitutively high ferric reduction activity. Surprisingly, iron(III) reduction is not catalyzed by the expected membrane-bound ferric reductase. Instead, embryos efflux high amounts of ascorbate that chemically reduce iron(III) from citrate-malate complexes. In vitro transport experiments on isolated embryos using radiolabeled 55Fe demonstrated that this ascorbate-mediated reduction is an obligatory step for the uptake of iron(II). Moreover, the ascorbate efflux activity was also measured in Arabidopsis embryos, suggesting that this new iron transport system may be generic to dicotyledonous plants. Finally, in embryos of the ascorbate-deficient mutants vtc2-4, vtc5-1, and vtc5-2, the reducing activity and the iron concentration were reduced significantly. Taken together, our results identified a new iron transport mechanism in plants that could play a major role to control iron loading in seeds. PMID:24347170

  17. Ascorbate efflux as a new strategy for iron reduction and transport in plants.

    PubMed

    Grillet, Louis; Ouerdane, Laurent; Flis, Paulina; Hoang, Minh Thi Thanh; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Lobinski, Ryszard; Curie, Catherine; Mari, Stéphane

    2014-01-31

    Iron (Fe) is essential for virtually all living organisms. The identification of the chemical forms of iron (the speciation) circulating in and between cells is crucial to further understand the mechanisms of iron delivery to its final targets. Here we analyzed how iron is transported to the seeds by the chemical identification of iron complexes that are delivered to embryos, followed by the biochemical characterization of the transport of these complexes by the embryo, using the pea (Pisum sativum) as a model species. We have found that iron circulates as ferric complexes with citrate and malate (Fe(III)3Cit2Mal2, Fe(III)3Cit3Mal1, Fe(III)Cit2). Because dicotyledonous plants only transport ferrous iron, we checked whether embryos were capable of reducing iron of these complexes. Indeed, embryos did express a constitutively high ferric reduction activity. Surprisingly, iron(III) reduction is not catalyzed by the expected membrane-bound ferric reductase. Instead, embryos efflux high amounts of ascorbate that chemically reduce iron(III) from citrate-malate complexes. In vitro transport experiments on isolated embryos using radiolabeled (55)Fe demonstrated that this ascorbate-mediated reduction is an obligatory step for the uptake of iron(II). Moreover, the ascorbate efflux activity was also measured in Arabidopsis embryos, suggesting that this new iron transport system may be generic to dicotyledonous plants. Finally, in embryos of the ascorbate-deficient mutants vtc2-4, vtc5-1, and vtc5-2, the reducing activity and the iron concentration were reduced significantly. Taken together, our results identified a new iron transport mechanism in plants that could play a major role to control iron loading in seeds.

  18. Iron acquisition and regulation systems in Streptococcus species.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ruiguang; Sun, Xuesong

    2014-05-01

    Gram-positive Streptococcus species are responsible for millions of cases of meningitis, bacterial pneumonia, endocarditis, erysipelas and necrotizing fasciitis. Iron is essential for the growth and survival of Streptococcus in the host environment. Streptococcus species have developed various mechanisms to uptake iron from an environment with limited available iron. Streptococcus can directly extract iron from host iron-containing proteins such as ferritin, transferrin, lactoferrin and hemoproteins, or indirectly by relying on the employment of specialized secreted hemophores (heme chelators) and small siderophore molecules (high affinity ferric chelators). This review presents the most recent discoveries in the iron acquisition system of Streptococcus species - the transporters as well as the regulators.

  19. Genetic analysis of the Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 chrysobactin iron-transport system: characterization of a gene cluster involved in uptake and biosynthetic pathways.

    PubMed

    Franza, T; Enard, C; van Gijsegem, F; Expert, D

    1991-06-01

    Twenty of the twenty-two MudII1734 insertions impairing the chrysobactin iron-assimilation system of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 were localized to a 50 kbp genomic insert contained in the R-prime plasmid, R'4 (Enard et al., 1988). Using the conjugative plasmid pULB110 (RP4::mini-Mu) and the generalized transducing phage phi EC2, we located this iron-transport region and the two unlinked mutations on the chromosome linkage map. Chrysobactin is a catechol-type siderophore and, as we have previously observed with the entA locus of Escherichia coli, the E. chrysanthemi-derived R'4 was found to complement E. coli entB and entE mutations. A 2.9 kb EcoRi and a 4.8 kb BamHI fragment in the R'4 sharing homology with the E. coli entCEBAP15 operon DNA were subcloned. These fragments were used as DNA/DNA hybridization probes to screen a wild-type gene library, yielding a recombinant cosmid (pEC7) able to complement mutations disrupting the 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid biosynthetic pathway in both Erwinia and Escherichia spp. as well as the E. coli entE mutation. Physical mapping of the genomic MudII1734 insertions corresponding to these mutations led to the identification of a cluster of genes confined to a DNA sequence of about 10 kb required for both biosynthetic and receptor functions.

  20. Iron and pH-responsive FtrABCD ferrous iron utilization system of Bordetella species

    PubMed Central

    Brickman, Timothy J.; Armstrong, Sandra K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary A putative operon encoding an uncharacterized ferrous iron transport (FtrABCD) system was previously identified in cDNA microarray studies. In growth studies using buffered medium at pH values ranging from pH 6.0 to 7.6, Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica FtrABCD system mutants showed dramatic reductions in growth yields under iron-restricted conditions at pH 6.0, but had no growth defects at pH 7.6. Supplementation of culture medium with 2 mM ascorbate reductant was inhibitory to alcaligin siderophore-dependent growth at pH 7.6, but had a neglible effect on FtrABCD system-dependent iron assimilation at pH 6.0 consistent with its predicted specificity for ferrous iron. Unlike Bordetella siderophore-dependent and haem iron transport systems, and in agreement with its hypothesized role in transport of inorganic iron from periplasm to cytoplasm, FtrABCD system function did not require the TonB energy transduction complex. Gene fusion analysis revealed that ftrABCD promoter activity was maximal under iron-restricted growth conditions at acidic pH. The pH of human airway surface fluids ranges from pH 5.5 to 7.9, and the FtrABCD system may supply ferrous iron necessary for Bordetella growth in acidic host microenvironments in which siderophores are ineffective for iron retrieval. PMID:22924881

  1. Iron and pH-responsive FtrABCD ferrous iron utilization system of Bordetella species.

    PubMed

    Brickman, Timothy J; Armstrong, Sandra K

    2012-11-01

    A putative operon encoding an uncharacterized ferrous iron transport (FtrABCD) system was previously identified in cDNA microarray studies. In growth studies using buffered medium at pH values ranging from pH 6.0 to 7.6, Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica FtrABCD system mutants showed dramatic reductions in growth yields under iron-restricted conditions at pH 6.0, but had no growth defects at pH 7.6. Supplementation of culture medium with 2 mM ascorbate reductant was inhibitory to alcaligin siderophore-dependent growth at pH 7.6, but had a neglible effect on FtrABCD system-dependent iron assimilation at pH 6.0 consistent with its predicted specificity for ferrous iron. Unlike Bordetella siderophore-dependent and haem iron transport systems, and in agreement with its hypothesized role in transport of inorganic iron from periplasm to cytoplasm, FtrABCD system function did not require the TonB energy transduction complex. Gene fusion analysis revealed that ftrABCD promoter activity was maximal under iron-restricted growth conditions at acidic pH. The pH of human airway surface fluids ranges from pH 5.5 to 7.9, and the FtrABCD system may supply ferrous iron necessary for Bordetella growth in acidic host microenvironments in which siderophores are ineffective for iron retrieval.

  2. A novel iron-regulated metal transporter from plants identified by functional expression in yeast.

    PubMed

    Eide, D; Broderius, M; Fett, J; Guerinot, M L

    1996-05-28

    Iron is an essential nutrient for virtually all organisms. The IRT1 (iron-regulated transporter) gene of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, encoding a probable Fe(II) transporter, was cloned by functional expression in a yeast strain defective for iron uptake. Yeast expressing IRT1 possess a novel Fe(II) uptake activity that is strongly inhibited by Cd. IRT1 is predicted to be an integral membrane protein with a metal-binding domain. Data base comparisons and Southern blot analysis indicated that IRT1 is a member of a gene family in Arabidopsis. Related sequences were also found in the genomes of rice, yeast, nematodes, and humans. In Arabidopsis, IRT1 is expressed in roots, is induced by iron deficiency, and has altered regulation in plant lines bearing mutations that affect the iron uptake system. These results provide the first molecular insight into iron transport by plants.

  3. Iron, copper, zinc, and manganese transport and regulation in pathogenic Enterobacteria: correlations between strains, site of infection and the relative importance of the different metal transport systems for virulence

    PubMed Central

    Porcheron, Gaëlle; Garénaux, Amélie; Proulx, Julie; Sabri, Mourad; Dozois, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    For all microorganisms, acquisition of metal ions is essential for survival in the environment or in their infected host. Metal ions are required in many biological processes as components of metalloproteins and serve as cofactors or structural elements for enzymes. However, it is critical for bacteria to ensure that metal uptake and availability is in accordance with physiological needs, as an imbalance in bacterial metal homeostasis is deleterious. Indeed, host defense strategies against infection either consist of metal starvation by sequestration or toxicity by the highly concentrated release of metals. To overcome these host strategies, bacteria employ a variety of metal uptake and export systems and finely regulate metal homeostasis by numerous transcriptional regulators, allowing them to adapt to changing environmental conditions. As a consequence, iron, zinc, manganese, and copper uptake systems significantly contribute to the virulence of many pathogenic bacteria. However, during the course of our experiments on the role of iron and manganese transporters in extraintestinal Escherichia coli (ExPEC) virulence, we observed that depending on the strain tested, the importance of tested systems in virulence may be different. This could be due to the different set of systems present in these strains, but literature also suggests that as each pathogen must adapt to the particular microenvironment of its site of infection, the role of each acquisition system in virulence can differ from a particular strain to another. In this review, we present the systems involved in metal transport by Enterobacteria and the main regulators responsible for their controlled expression. We also discuss the relative role of these systems depending on the pathogen and the tissues they infect. PMID:24367764

  4. Fatty acids alter monolayer integrity, paracellular transport, and iron uptake and transport in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Droke, Elizabeth A; Briske-Anderson, Mary; Lukaski, Henry C

    2003-12-01

    The Caco-2 cell line was used as a model to determine if the type of fatty acid, unsaturated versus saturated, differentially altered the uptake and transport of iron in the human intestine and if the changes were the result of alterations in monolayer integrity and paracellular transport. Cells were cultured in either a lower-iron or normal-iron medium and incubated with a bovine serum albumin control, linoleate, oleate, palmatate, or stearate. Oleate, palmatate, and stearate enhanced (p < 0.05) iron uptake in cells grown in lower iron. The fatty acid effect on iron uptake by cells grown in normal iron was not as pronounced. Iron transport was not affected (p > 0.05) by an interaction between the type of medium (iron concentration) and the type of fatty acid. Iron transport was enhanced (p < 0.05) with palmatate and stearate. Various indicators of monolayer integrity and paracellular transport were also affected by the fatty acids, thus impacting iron uptake and transport. These results indicate that oleate, palmatate, and stearic can enhance iron uptake and transport; however, this enhancement may be the result of alterations in the integrity of the intestine.

  5. Ultrastructural aspects of iron storage, transport and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Iancu, Theodore C

    2011-03-01

    The iron storage proteins, ferritin and hemosiderin, enable electron microscopic visualization thanks to their electron-dense iron content, which is not present in other compounds involved in transport or metabolism of iron such as transferrin, lactoferrin, or hemoglobin. It is this electron density which contributed to the unraveling of stages in absorption, transport, deposition, storage, and release of iron. In recent years, additional methods of investigation have further supported the information achieved by the ultrastructural studies. Even while using new analytical methods, the seminal morphological observations remain valid for understanding the role of iron in health and disease. In this review, we will illustrate a few basic findings of electron microscopy in humans, experimental animals, and cell cultures. The importance of H chain ferritin as a transporter across the blood-brain barrier is just an example of a new role revealed for an "old" storage protein, explaining some controversial observations on the presence of iron in the brain.

  6. Atypical iron storage in marine brown algae: a multidisciplinary study of iron transport and storage in Ectocarpus siliculosus

    PubMed Central

    Matzanke, Berthold F.; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Carrano, Carl J.

    2012-01-01

    Iron is an essential element for all living organisms due to its ubiquitous role in redox and other enzymes, especially in the context of respiration and photosynthesis. The iron uptake and storage systems of terrestrial/higher plants are now reasonably well understood, with two basic strategies for iron uptake being distinguished: strategy I plants use a mechanism involving induction of Fe(III)-chelate reductase (ferrireductase) and Fe(II) transporter proteins, while strategy II plants utilize high-affinity, iron-specific, binding compounds called phytosiderophores. In contrast, little is known about the corresponding systems in marine, plant-like lineages, particularly those of multicellular algae (seaweeds). Herein the first study of the iron uptake and storage mechanisms in the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus is reported. Genomic data suggest that Ectocarpus may use a strategy I approach. Short-term radio-iron uptake studies verified that iron is taken up by Ectocarpus in a time- and concentration-dependent manner consistent with an active transport process. Upon long-term exposure to 57Fe, two metabolites have been identified using a combination of Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. These include an iron–sulphur cluster accounting for ~26% of the total intracellular iron pool and a second component with spectra typical of a polymeric (Fe3+O6) system with parameters similar to the amorphous phosphorus-rich mineral core of bacterial and plant ferritins. This iron metabolite accounts for ~74% of the cellular iron pool and suggests that Ectocarpus contains a non-ferritin but mineral-based iron storage pool. PMID:22945940

  7. Maritime Intelligent Transport Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrzykowski, Zbigniew

    The concept of intelligent transport systems, developed since 1980s, includes all modes of transport. Relevant developments in road transport are the most advanced. Recently water transport, particularly maritime transport, has gained more attention in this respect, in connection with building and further developments of maritime intelligent transport systems. The present state and directions of development of telematic systems in maritime transport will be discussed, with a focus on marine navigation.

  8. Quercetin Inhibits Intestinal Iron Absorption and Ferroportin Transporter Expression In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Balesaria, Sara; Skinner, Vernon; Debnam, Edward S.; Srai, Surjit K. S.; Sharp, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Balancing systemic iron levels within narrow limits is critical for maintaining human health. There are no known pathways to eliminate excess iron from the body and therefore iron homeostasis is maintained by modifying dietary absorption so that it matches daily obligatory losses. Several dietary factors can modify iron absorption. Polyphenols are plentiful in human diet and many compounds, including quercetin – the most abundant dietary polyphenol – are potent iron chelators. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute and longer-term effects of quercetin on intestinal iron metabolism. Acute exposure of rat duodenal mucosa to quercetin increased apical iron uptake but decreased subsequent basolateral iron efflux into the circulation. Quercetin binds iron between its 3-hydroxyl and 4-carbonyl groups and methylation of the 3-hydroxyl group negated both the increase in apical uptake and the inhibition of basolateral iron release, suggesting that the acute effects of quercetin on iron transport were due to iron chelation. In longer-term studies, rats were administered quercetin by a single gavage and iron transporter expression measured 18 h later. Duodenal FPN expression was decreased in quercetin-treated rats. This effect was recapitulated in Caco-2 cells exposed to quercetin for 18 h. Reporter assays in Caco-2 cells indicated that repression of FPN by quercetin was not a transcriptional event but might be mediated by miRNA interaction with the FPN 3′UTR. Our study highlights a novel mechanism for the regulation of iron bioavailability by dietary polyphenols. Potentially, diets rich in polyphenols might be beneficial for patients groups at risk of iron loading by limiting the rate of intestinal iron absorption. PMID:25058155

  9. Quercetin inhibits intestinal iron absorption and ferroportin transporter expression in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lesjak, Marija; Hoque, Rukshana; Balesaria, Sara; Skinner, Vernon; Debnam, Edward S; Srai, Surjit K S; Sharp, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Balancing systemic iron levels within narrow limits is critical for maintaining human health. There are no known pathways to eliminate excess iron from the body and therefore iron homeostasis is maintained by modifying dietary absorption so that it matches daily obligatory losses. Several dietary factors can modify iron absorption. Polyphenols are plentiful in human diet and many compounds, including quercetin--the most abundant dietary polyphenol--are potent iron chelators. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute and longer-term effects of quercetin on intestinal iron metabolism. Acute exposure of rat duodenal mucosa to quercetin increased apical iron uptake but decreased subsequent basolateral iron efflux into the circulation. Quercetin binds iron between its 3-hydroxyl and 4-carbonyl groups and methylation of the 3-hydroxyl group negated both the increase in apical uptake and the inhibition of basolateral iron release, suggesting that the acute effects of quercetin on iron transport were due to iron chelation. In longer-term studies, rats were administered quercetin by a single gavage and iron transporter expression measured 18 h later. Duodenal FPN expression was decreased in quercetin-treated rats. This effect was recapitulated in Caco-2 cells exposed to quercetin for 18 h. Reporter assays in Caco-2 cells indicated that repression of FPN by quercetin was not a transcriptional event but might be mediated by miRNA interaction with the FPN 3'UTR. Our study highlights a novel mechanism for the regulation of iron bioavailability by dietary polyphenols. Potentially, diets rich in polyphenols might be beneficial for patients groups at risk of iron loading by limiting the rate of intestinal iron absorption.

  10. Iron transport in Escherichia coli: all has not been said and done.

    PubMed

    Grass, Gregor

    2006-04-01

    During recent years new systems involved in iron transport were identified in the old workhorse Escherichia coli (and in other enterobacteria). This came as a bit of a surprise because one might think transport of this essential trace element was already thoroughly studied. Moreover, it appears that iron homeostasis consists not only of uptake but also of efflux of this potentially toxic redox-active metal. New findings in E. coli will be discussed and compared to the situation in other bacteria.

  11. Nonredundant Roles of Iron Acquisition Systems in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Peng, Eric D; Wyckoff, Elizabeth E; Mey, Alexandra R; Fisher, Carolyn R; Payne, Shelley M

    2015-12-07

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the severe diarrheal disease cholera, thrives in both marine environments and the human host. To do so, it must encode the tools necessary to acquire essential nutrients, including iron, under these vastly different conditions. A number of V. cholerae iron acquisition systems have been identified; however, the precise role of each system is not fully understood. To test the roles of individual systems, we generated a series of mutants in which only one of the four systems that support iron acquisition on unsupplemented LB agar, Feo, Fbp, Vct, and Vib, remains functional. Analysis of these mutants under different growth conditions showed that these systems are not redundant. The strain carrying only the ferrous iron transporter Feo grew well at acidic, but not alkaline, pH, whereas the ferric iron transporter Fbp promoted better growth at alkaline than at acidic pH. A strain defective in all four systems (null mutant) had a severe growth defect under aerobic conditions but accumulated iron and grew as well as the wild type in the absence of oxygen, suggesting the presence of an additional, unidentified iron transporter in V. cholerae. In support of this, the null mutant was only moderately attenuated in an infant mouse model of infection. While the null mutant used heme as an iron source in vitro, we demonstrate that heme is not available to V. cholerae in the infant mouse intestine. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Nonredundant Roles of Iron Acquisition Systems in Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Eric D.; Wyckoff, Elizabeth E.; Mey, Alexandra R.; Fisher, Carolyn R.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the severe diarrheal disease cholera, thrives in both marine environments and the human host. To do so, it must encode the tools necessary to acquire essential nutrients, including iron, under these vastly different conditions. A number of V. cholerae iron acquisition systems have been identified; however, the precise role of each system is not fully understood. To test the roles of individual systems, we generated a series of mutants in which only one of the four systems that support iron acquisition on unsupplemented LB agar, Feo, Fbp, Vct, and Vib, remains functional. Analysis of these mutants under different growth conditions showed that these systems are not redundant. The strain carrying only the ferrous iron transporter Feo grew well at acidic, but not alkaline, pH, whereas the ferric iron transporter Fbp promoted better growth at alkaline than at acidic pH. A strain defective in all four systems (null mutant) had a severe growth defect under aerobic conditions but accumulated iron and grew as well as the wild type in the absence of oxygen, suggesting the presence of an additional, unidentified iron transporter in V. cholerae. In support of this, the null mutant was only moderately attenuated in an infant mouse model of infection. While the null mutant used heme as an iron source in vitro, we demonstrate that heme is not available to V. cholerae in the infant mouse intestine. PMID:26644383

  13. Multicomponent reactive transport in an in situ zero-valent iron cell

    SciTech Connect

    Yabusaki, Steven B. ); Cantrell, Kirk J. ); Sass, Bruce; Steefel, Carl

    2000-12-01

    Data collected from a field study of in situ zero-valent iron treatment for TCE were analyzed in the context of coupled transport and reaction processes. The focus of this analysis was to understand the behavior of chemical components, including contaminants, in groundwater transported through the iron cell of a pilot-scale funnel and gate treatment system. A multicomponent reactive transport simulator was used to simultaneously model mobile and nonmobile components undergoing equilibrium and kinetic reactions including TCE degradation, parallel iron dissolution reactions, precipitation of secondary minerals, and complexation reactions. The resulting mechanistic model of coupled processes reproduced solution chemistry behavior observed in the iron cell with a minimum of calibration. These observations included the destruction of TCE and cis-1,2-DCE; increases in pH and hydrocarbons; and decreases in EH, alkalinity, dissolved O2 and CO2, and major ions (i.e., Ca, Mg, Cl, sulfate, nitrate). Mineral precipitation in the iron zone was critical to correctly predicting these behaviors. The dominant precipitation products were ferrous hydroxide, siderite, aragonite, brucite, and iron sulfide. In the first few centimeters of the reactive iron cell, these precipitation products are predicted to account for a 3% increase in mineral volume per year, which could have implications for the longevity of favorable barrier hydraulics and reactivity. The inclusion of transport was key to understanding the interplay between rates of transport and rates of reaction in the field.

  14. Acquisition, transport, and storage of iron by pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Howard, D H

    1999-07-01

    Iron is required by most living systems. A great variety of means of acquisition, avenues of uptake, and methods of storage are used by pathogenic fungi to ensure a supply of the essential metal. Solubilization of insoluble iron polymers is the first step in iron assimilation. The two methods most commonly used by microorganisms for solubilization of iron are reduction and chelation. Reduction of ferric iron to ferrous iron by enzymatic or nonenzymatic means is a common mechanism among pathogenic yeasts. Under conditions of iron starvation, many fungi synthesize iron chelators known as siderophores. Two classes of compounds that function in iron gathering are commonly observed: hydroxamates and polycarboxylates. Two major responses to iron stress in fungi are a high-affinity ferric iron reductase and siderophore synthesis. Regulation of these two mechanisms at the molecular level has received attention. Uptake of siderophores is a diverse process, which varies among the different classes of compounds. Since free iron is toxic, it must be stored for further metabolic use. Polyphosphates, ferritins, and siderophores themselves have been described as storage molecules. The iron-gathering mechanisms used by a pathogen in an infected host are largely unknown and can only be posited on the basis of in vitro studies at present.

  15. Iron-induced turnover of the Arabidopsis IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER1 metal transporter requires lysine residues.

    PubMed

    Kerkeb, Loubna; Mukherjee, Indrani; Chatterjee, Iera; Lahner, Brett; Salt, David E; Connolly, Erin L

    2008-04-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient but is toxic if accumulated at high levels. Thus, iron uptake and distribution in plants are controlled by precise regulatory mechanisms. IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER1 (IRT1) is the major high affinity iron transporter responsible for iron uptake from the soil in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Previously, we showed that IRT1 is subject to posttranscriptional regulation; when expressed from the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, IRT1 protein accumulates only in iron-deficient roots. IRT1 contains an intracellular loop that may be critical for posttranslational regulation by metals. Of particular interest are a histidine (His) motif (HGHGHGH) that might bind metals and two lysine residues that could serve as attachment sites for ubiquitin. We constructed a set of mutant IRT1 alleles: IRT1H154Q, IRT1H156Q, IRT1H158Q, IRT1H160Q, IRT14HQ (quadruple His mutant), IRT1K146R, IRT1K171R, and a double mutant (IRT1K146R,K171R). Mutation of the His or lysine residues did not eliminate the ability of IRT1 to transport iron or zinc. Expression of each of the IRT1 variants and an IRT1intact construct in plants from the 35S promoter revealed that either K146 or K171 is required for iron-induced protein turnover, and 35S-IRT1K146R,K171R plants contain higher levels of iron as compared to 35S-IRT1 and wild type. Furthermore, accumulation of metals in 35S-IRT1K146R,K171R plants was not associated with an increase in ferric chelate reductase activity; this result indicates that, at least under conditions when iron is abundant, reduction of ferric iron may not be the rate-limiting step in iron uptake by strategy I plants such as Arabidopsis.

  16. Hydrogen transport in iron and steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louthan, M. R., Jr.; Derrick, R. G.; Donovan, J. A.; Caskey, G. R., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The permeabilities of protium, deuterium, and tritium in foil specimens of Marz grade iron, 4130 steel, Armco iron, HP-9-4-20, and T-1 steels were studied at hydrogen pressures between 0.02 and 0.5 MPa over the temperature range 260-700 K. The permeability was measured by a pressure-rise method, deuterium counting with a detector, and radioactivity counting. Good agreement is found between the measurement techniques used. It is shown that the permeabilities of protium, deuterium, and tritium in iron and T-1 steel at temperatures as low as 260 K are in good agreement with the equation proposed by Gonzalez (1967). However, the permeabilities of HP-9-4-20 and 4130 steel to hydrogen are typically lower than predicted. The isotope effect on hydrogen permeability of HP-9-4-20, 4130 and T-1 steels, and high-purity iron can be estimated by an inverse square root of mass correction.

  17. Recognition of iron-free siderophores by TonB-dependent iron transporters.

    PubMed

    Schalk, Isabelle J; Yue, Wyatt W; Buchanan, Susan K

    2004-10-01

    TonB-dependent iron transporters reside in the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria, transporting ferric-complexes into the periplasm by a mechanism requiring proton motive force and an integral inner membrane complex, TonB-ExbB-ExbD. Certain TonB-dependent transporters contain an additional domain at the N-terminus, which interacts with an inner membrane regulatory protein and a cytoplasmic sigma factor to induce transcription of iron transport genes when a ferric-ligand is bound at the extracellular surface of the transporter. Transport of the ferric-ligand is apparently not necessary for transcription induction. Recent biophysical and crystallographic experiments have shown that this subclass of TonB-dependent iron transporters can bind iron-free ligands, whereas only the ferric-ligands are transported into the periplasm. This review focuses on the ligand binding properties of these transporters and includes a discussion of the biological function of the additional domain, the mechanism of transcription induction and the mechanism of ferric-ligand transport.

  18. Pivotal Role of Iron in the Regulation of Cyanobacterial Electron Transport.

    PubMed

    González, A; Sevilla, E; Bes, M T; Peleato, M L; Fillat, M F

    2016-01-01

    Iron-containing metalloproteins are the main cornerstones for efficient electron transport in biological systems. The abundance and diversity of iron-dependent proteins in cyanobacteria makes those organisms highly dependent of this micronutrient. To cope with iron imbalance, cyanobacteria have developed a survey of adaptation strategies that are strongly related to the regulation of photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism and other central electron transfer pathways. Furthermore, either in its ferrous form or as a component of the haem group, iron plays a crucial role as regulatory signalling molecule that directly or indirectly modulates the composition and efficiency of cyanobacterial redox reactions. We present here the major mechanism used by cyanobacteria to couple iron homeostasis to the regulation of electron transport, making special emphasis in processes specific in those organisms. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enterobactin-mediated iron transport in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Poole, K; Young, L; Neshat, S

    1990-01-01

    A pyoverdine-deficient strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was unable to grow in an iron-deficient minimal medium in the presence of the nonmetabolizable iron chelator ethylene diamine-di(omega-hydroxyphenol acetic acid) (EDDHA), although addition of enterobactin to EDDHA-containing minimal media did restore growth of the pyoverdine-deficient P. aeruginosa. Consistent with the apparent ability of enterobactin to provide iron to P. aeruginosa, enterobactin-dependent 55Fe3+ uptake was observed in cells of P. aeruginosa previously grown in an iron-deficient medium containing enterobactin (or enterobactin-containing Escherichia coli culture supernatant). This uptake was energy dependent, was observable at low concentrations (60 nM) of FeCl3, and was absent in cells cultured without enterobactin. A novel protein with a molecular weight of approximately 80,000 was identified in the outer membranes of cells grown in iron-deficient minimal medium containing enterobactin, concomitant with the induction of enterobactin-dependent iron uptake. A Tn501 insertion mutant lacking this protein was isolated and shown to be deficient in enterobactin-mediated iron transport at 60 nM FeCl3, although it still exhibited enterobactin-dependent growth in iron-deficient medium containing EDDHA. It was subsequently observed that the mutant was, however, capable of enterobactin-mediated iron transport at much higher concentrations (600 nM) of FeCl3. Indeed, enterobactin-dependent iron uptake at this concentration of iron was observed in both the mutant and parent strains irrespective of whether they had been cultured in the presence of enterobactin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:2174865

  20. Iron acquisition systems of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, T J; Vartivarian, S; Cowart, R E

    1990-01-01

    The uptake of iron by Listeria monocytogenes was studied. The microorganism was found to bind both 59Fe(II) and [59Fe3+]citrate. In contrast, L. monocytogenes was unable to acquire iron from [59Fe3+]ferroxamine or [59Fe3+]EDTA or as 59FeCl3. The data suggest that iron is acquired principally as iron(II) and that a citrate-inducible iron uptake system is also operative. PMID:2115028

  1. A Systems Biology Approach to Iron Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Chifman, J.; Laubenbacher, R.; Torti, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    Iron is critical to the survival of almost all living organisms. However, inappropriately low or high levels of iron are detrimental and contribute to a wide range of diseases. Recent advances in the study of iron metabolism have revealed multiple intricate pathways that are essential to the maintenance of iron homeostasis. Further, iron regulation involves processes at several scales, ranging from the subcellular to the organismal. This complexity makes a systems biology approach crucial, with its enabling technology of computational models based on a mathematical description of regulatory systems. Systems biology may represent a new strategy for understanding imbalances in iron metabolism and their underlying causes. PMID:25480643

  2. Shigella Iron Acquisition Systems and their Regulation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yahan; Murphy, Erin R

    2016-01-01

    Survival of Shigella within the host is strictly dependent on the ability of the pathogen to acquire essential nutrients, such as iron. As an innate immune defense against invading pathogens, the level of bio-available iron within the human host is maintained at exceeding low levels, by sequestration of the element within heme and other host iron-binding compounds. In response to sequestration mediated iron limitation, Shigella produce multiple iron-uptake systems that each function to facilitate the utilization of a specific host-associated source of nutrient iron. As a mechanism to balance the essential need for iron and the toxicity of the element when in excess, the production of bacterial iron acquisition systems is tightly regulated by a variety of molecular mechanisms. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the iron-uptake systems produced by Shigella species, their distribution within the genus, and the molecular mechanisms that regulate their production.

  3. Vacuolar Iron Transporter BnMEB2 Is Involved in Enhancing Iron Tolerance of Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wei; Zuo, Rong; Zhou, Rongfang; Huang, Junyan; Tang, Minqiang; Cheng, Xiaohui; Liu, Yueying; Tong, Chaobo; Xiang, Yang; Dong, Caihua; Liu, Shengyi

    2016-01-01

    Iron toxicity is a nutrient disorder that severely affects crop development and yield in some soil conditions. Vacuolar detoxification of metal stress is an important strategy for plants to survive and adapt to this adverse environment. Vacuolar iron transporter (VIT) members are involved in this process and play essential roles in iron storage and transport. In this study, we identified a rapeseed VIT gene BnMEB2 (BnaC07g30170D) homologs to Arabidopsis MEB2 (At5g24290). Transient expression analysis revealed that BnMEB2 was localized to the vacuolar membrane. Q-PCR detection showed a high expression of BnMEB2 in mature (60-day-old) leaves and could be obviously induced by exogenous iron stress in both roots and leaves. Over-expressed BnMEB2 in both Arabidopsis wild type and meb2 mutant seedlings resulted in greatly improved iron tolerability with no significant changes in the expression level of other VIT genes. The mutant meb2 grew slowly and its root hair elongation was inhibited under high iron concentration condition while BnMEB2 over-expressed transgenic plants of the mutant restored the phenotypes with apparently higher iron storage in roots and dramatically increased iron content in the whole plant. Taken together, these results suggested that BnMEB2 was a VIT gene in rapeseed which was necessary for safe storage and vacuole detoxification function of excess iron to enhance the tolerance of iron toxicity. This research sheds light on a potentially new strategy for attenuating hazardous metal stress from environment and improving iron biofortification in Brassicaceae crops. PMID:27679642

  4. Ceruloplasmin-ferroportin system of iron traffic in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Musci, Giovanni; Polticelli, Fabio; Bonaccorsi di Patti, Maria Carmela

    2014-01-01

    Safe trafficking of iron across the cell membrane is a delicate process that requires specific protein carriers. While many proteins involved in iron uptake by cells are known, only one cellular iron export protein has been identified in mammals: ferroportin (SLC40A1). Ceruloplasmin is a multicopper enzyme endowed with ferroxidase activity that is found as a soluble isoform in plasma or as a membrane-associated isoform in specific cell types. According to the currently accepted view, ferrous iron transported out of the cell by ferroportin would be safely oxidized by ceruloplasmin to facilitate loading on transferrin. Therefore, the ceruloplasmin-ferroportin system represents the main pathway for cellular iron egress and it is responsible for physiological regulation of cellular iron levels. The most recent findings regarding the structural and functional features of ceruloplasmin and ferroportin and their relationship will be described in this review. PMID:24921009

  5. Phosphorus: Riverine system transport

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The transport and transformation of phosphorus (P) in riverine systems fundamentally affects the outcome of watershed mitigation strategies aimed at curbing downstream eutrophication. Phosphorus transport and transformations in streams and rivers are mediated by physical (sediment deposition and res...

  6. Transportation System Requirements Document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

  7. Monoubiquitin-dependent endocytosis of the iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) transporter controls iron uptake in plants.

    PubMed

    Barberon, Marie; Zelazny, Enric; Robert, Stéphanie; Conéjéro, Geneviève; Curie, Cathy; Friml, Jìrí; Vert, Grégory

    2011-08-09

    Plants take up iron from the soil using the iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) high-affinity iron transporter at the root surface. Sophisticated regulatory mechanisms allow plants to tightly control the levels of IRT1, ensuring optimal absorption of essential but toxic iron. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of Arabidopsis thaliana IRT1 leads to constitutive IRT1 protein accumulation, metal overload, and oxidative stress. IRT1 is unexpectedly found in trans-Golgi network/early endosomes of root hair cells, and its levels and localization are unaffected by iron nutrition. Using pharmacological approaches, we show that IRT1 cycles to the plasma membrane to perform iron and metal uptake at the cell surface and is sent to the vacuole for proper turnover. We also prove that IRT1 is monoubiquitinated on several cytosol-exposed residues in vivo and that mutation of two putative monoubiquitination target residues in IRT1 triggers stabilization at the plasma membrane and leads to extreme lethality. Together, these data suggest a model in which monoubiquitin-dependent internalization/sorting and turnover keep the plasma membrane pool of IRT1 low to ensure proper iron uptake and to prevent metal toxicity. More generally, our work demonstrates the existence of monoubiquitin-dependent trafficking to lytic vacuoles in plants and points to proteasome-independent turnover of plasma membrane proteins.

  8. Iron production maintenance effectiveness system

    SciTech Connect

    Augstman, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    In 1989, an internal study in the Coke and Iron Maintenance Department identified the opportunities available to increase production, by decreasing unscheduled maintenance delays from 4.6%. A five year front loaded plan was developed, and presented to the company president. The plan required an initial investment of $1.4 million and a conservative break-even point was calculated to be 2.5 years. Due to budget restraints, it would have to be self-funded, i.e., generate additional production or savings, to pay for the program. The program began in 1991 at number 2 coke plant and the blast furnaces. This paper will describe the Iron Production Maintenance Effectiveness System (ME), which began with the mechanical and pipefitting trades.

  9. Controls on radium transport by adsorption to iron minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Wang, T.; Kocar, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    Radium is a naturally occurring radioactive metal found in many subsurface environments. Radium isotopes are generated by uranium and thorium decay, and are particularly abundant within groundwaters where minimal porewater flux leads to accumulation. These isotopes are used as natural tracers for estimating submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) [1], allowing for large scale estimation of GW fluxes into and out of the ocean [2]. They also represent a substantial hazard in wastewater produced after hydraulic fracturing for natural gas extraction [3], resulting in a significant risk of environmental release to surface and near-surface waters, and increased cost for water treatment or disposal. Adsorption to mineral surfaces represents a dominant pathway of radium retention in subsurface environments. For SGD studies, adsorption processes impact estimates of GW fluxes, while in hydraulic fracturing, radium adsorption to aquifer solids mediates wastewater radium activities. Analysis of past sorption studies revealed large variability in partition coefficients [4], while examination of radium adsorption kinetics and surface complexation have only recently started [5]. Accordingly, we present the results of sorption and column experiments of radium with a suite of iron minerals representative of those found within deep saline and near-surface (freshwater) aquifers, and evaluate impacts of varying salinity solutions through artificial waters. Further, we explore the impacts of pyrite oxidation and ferrihydrite transformation to other iron-bearing secondary minerals on the transport and retention of radium. These results will provide critical information on the mineralogical controls on radium retention in subsurface environments, and will therefore improve predictions of radium groundwater transport in natural and contaminated systems. [1] Charette, M.A., Buesseler, K.O. & Andrews, J.E., Limnol. Oceanogr. (2001). [2] Moore, W.S., Ann. Rev. Mar. Sci. (2010). [3] Vengosh, A

  10. A new mechanism for membrane iron transport in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Schalk, I J; Abdallah, M A; Pattus, F

    2002-08-01

    Various biochemical and biophysical studies have demonstrated the existence of a novel iron-uptake mechanism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, different from that generally described for ferrichrome and ferric-enterobactin in Escherichia coli. This new iron-uptake mechanism involves all the proteins generally reported to be involved in the uptake of ferric-siderophore complexes in Gram-negative bacteria (i.e. the outer membrane receptor, periplasmic binding protein and ATP-binding-cassette transporter), but differs in the behaviour of the siderophore. One of the key features of this process is the binding of iron-free pyoverdin to the outer membrane receptor FpvA in conditions of iron deficiency.

  11. Atmospheric Transport and Input of Iron to the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tindale, N. W.

    2002-12-01

    While Australia is not generally considered to be a major source of mineral dust to the atmosphere, at least compared to Asian and African desert regions, it does appear to be the main source of mineral material to the Southern Ocean region south of Australia and New Zealand. In common with most of the greater Southern Ocean, this region contains high nitrate, low chlorophyll (HNLC) waters. Recent open ocean iron enrichment experiments in this region have demonstrated that phytoplankton growth and biomass are limited by iron availability. However the flux of atmospheric iron to this open ocean region is poorly known with very few direct measurements of mineral aerosol levels and input. Using mineral aerosol samples collected on Macquarie Island and at Cape Grim, together with other chemical data, air mass trajectories and satellite data, the spatial and temporal variability of aerosol iron transport and input to the Southern Ocean region south of Australia is estimated.

  12. Identification of Nramp2 as an iron transport protein: another piece of the intestinal iron absorption puzzle.

    PubMed

    Fleet, J C

    1998-03-01

    Although a number of iron-binding proteins have been identified, the roles for specific proteins in mediating iron absorption have not been definitively assigned. Two recent papers report the identification of an iron transport protein that may be responsible for movement of iron from the intestinal lumen into the enterocyte. Coupled with the recent identification of the protein mutated in hemochromatosis, researchers are now establishing a clearer picture of the mechanism of intestinal iron absorption.

  13. Iron Homeostasis in Peripheral Nervous System, Still a Black Box?

    PubMed Central

    Taveggia, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Iron is the most abundant transition metal in biology and an essential cofactor for many cellular enzymes. Iron homeostasis impairment is also a component of peripheral neuropathies. Recent Advances: During the past years, much effort has been paid to understand the molecular mechanism involved in maintaining systemic iron homeostasis in mammals. This has been stimulated by the evidence that iron dyshomeostasis is an initial cause of several disorders, including genetic and sporadic neurodegenerative disorders. Critical Issues: However, very little has been done to investigate the physiological role of iron in peripheral nervous system (PNS), despite the development of suitable cellular and animal models. Future Directions: To stimulate research on iron metabolism and peripheral neuropathy, we provide a summary of the knowledge on iron homeostasis in the PNS, on its transport across the blood–nerve barrier, its involvement in myelination, and we identify unresolved questions. Furthermore, we comment on the role of iron in iron-related disorder with peripheral component, in demyelinating and metabolic peripheral neuropathies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 634–648. PMID:24409826

  14. The ttpC gene is contained in two of three TonB systems in the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus, but only one is active in iron transport and virulence.

    PubMed

    Kustusch, Ryan J; Kuehl, Carole J; Crosa, Jorge H

    2012-06-01

    The TonB system of proteins is required for the energy-dependent active transport of iron-bound substrates across the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. We have identified three TonB systems within the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus. The TonB1 system contains the TonB1, ExbD1, and ExbB1 proteins, whereas both the TtpC2-TonB2 and TtpC3-TonB3 systems contain an additional fourth protein, TtpC. Here we report that TtpC3, although highly related to TtpC2, is inactive in iron transport, whereas TtpC2 is essential for the function of the TtpC2-TonB2 system in V. vulnificus. This protein, together with TonB2, is absolutely required for both the uptake of endogenously produced iron-bound siderophores as well as siderophores produced from other organisms. Through complementation we show that V. vulnificus is capable of using different TtpC2 proteins from other Vibrio species to drive the uptake of multiple siderophores. We have also determined that aerobactin, a common bacterial siderophore involved in virulence of enteric bacteria, can only be brought into the cell using the TtpC2-TonB2 system, indicating an important evolutionary adaptation of TtpC2 and TonB2. Furthermore, in the absence of TonB1, TtpC2 is essential for a fully virulent phenotype as demonstrated using 50% lethal dose (LD(50)) experiments in mice.

  15. A vacuolar iron-transporter homologue acts as a detoxifier in Plasmodium

    PubMed Central

    Slavic, Ksenija; Krishna, Sanjeev; Lahree, Aparajita; Bouyer, Guillaume; Hanson, Kirsten K.; Vera, Iset; Pittman, Jon K.; Staines, Henry M.; Mota, Maria M.

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient but is also highly toxic. In yeast and plant cells, a key detoxifying mechanism involves iron sequestration into intracellular storage compartments, mediated by members of the vacuolar iron-transporter (VIT) family of proteins. Here we study the VIT homologue from the malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum (PfVIT) and Plasmodium berghei (PbVIT). PfVIT-mediated iron transport in a yeast heterologous expression system is saturable (Km∼14.7 μM), and selective for Fe2+ over other divalent cations. PbVIT-deficient P. berghei lines (Pbvit−) show a reduction in parasite load in both liver and blood stages of infection in mice. Moreover, Pbvit− parasites have higher levels of labile iron in blood stages and are more sensitive to increased iron levels in liver stages, when compared with wild-type parasites. Our data are consistent with Plasmodium VITs playing a major role in iron detoxification and, thus, normal development of malaria parasites in their mammalian host. PMID:26786069

  16. Payload transportation system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A standard size set of shuttle payload transportation equipment was defined that will substantially reduce the cost of payload transportation and accommodate a wide range of payloads with minimum impact on payload design. The system was designed to accommodate payload shipments between the level 4 payload integration sites and the launch site during the calendar years 1979-1982. In addition to defining transportation multi-use mission support equipment (T-MMSE) the mode of travel, prime movers, and ancillary equipment required in the transportation process were also considered. Consistent with the STS goals of low cost and the use of standardized interfaces, the transportation system was designed to commercial grade standards and uses the payload flight mounting interfaces for transportation. The technical, cost, and programmatic data required to permit selection of a baseline system of MMSE for intersite movement of shuttle payloads were developed.

  17. Transgenic petunia with the iron(III)-phytosiderophore transporter gene acquires tolerance to iron deficiency in alkaline environments.

    PubMed

    Murata, Yoshiko; Itoh, Yoshiyuki; Iwashita, Takashi; Namba, Kosuke

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for all plants. However, terrestrial plants often suffer from iron deficiency in alkaline soil due to its extremely low solubility. Alkaline soil accounts for about 30% of all cultivated ground in the world. Plants have evolved two distinct strategies, I and II, for iron uptake from the soil. Dicots and non-graminaceous monocots use Strategy I, which is primarily based on the reduction of iron(III) to iron(II) and the uptake of iron(II) by the iron-regulated transporter, IRT1. In contrast, graminaceous plants use Strategy II to efficiently acquire insoluble iron(III). Strategy II comprises the synthesis and secretion of iron-chelating phytosiderophores, such as mugineic acids and the Yellow Stripe 1 transporter proteins of the iron(III)-phytosiderophore complex. Barley, which exhibits the highest tolerance to iron deficiency in alkaline soil among graminaceous plants, utilizes mugineic acids and the specific iron(III)-mugineic acids transporter, HvYS1. In this study, we established the transgenic plant Petunia hybrida, which originally had only Strategy I, by introducing the HvYS1 transporter gene derived from barley. When the transgenic plants were grown hydroponically in media containing the iron(III)-2'-deoxymugineic acid complex, free 2'-deoxymugineic acid and its iron(III) complex were detected in the root extract of the transgenic plant by electrospray ionization-Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The growth of the transgenic petunia was significantly better than that of the control host in alkaline conditions. Consequently, the transgenic plant acquired a significantly enhanced tolerance to alkaline hydroponic media in the presence of the iron(III)-2'-deoxymugineic acid complex. Furthermore, the flower color of the transgenic plant deepened. The results showed that iron-phytosiderophore complexes and their transporters can potentially be utilized to overcome the worldwide iron uptake problems to diverse

  18. Space Transportation Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Stewart, Mark E.; Suresh, Ambady; Owen, A. Karl

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines the Space Transportation Propulsion Systems for the NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) program. Topics include: 1) a review of Engine/Inlet Coupling Work; 2) Background/Organization of Space Transportation Initiative; 3) Synergy between High Performance Computing and Communications Program (HPCCP) and Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP); 4) Status of Space Transportation Effort, including planned deliverables for FY01-FY06, FY00 accomplishments (HPCCP Funded) and FY01 Major Milestones (HPCCP and ASTP); and 5) a review current technical efforts, including a review of the Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC), Scope of Work, RBCC Concept Aerodynamic Analysis and RBCC Concept Multidisciplinary Analysis.

  19. Active Transport of Iron in Bacillus megaterium: Role of Secondary Hydroxamic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Davis, W. B.; Byers, B. R.

    1971-01-01

    Kinetics of radioactive iron transport were examined in three strains of Bacillus megaterium. In strain ATCC 19213, which secretes the ferric-chelating secondary hydroxamic acid schizokinen, 59Fe3+ uptake from 59FeCl3 or the ferric hydroxamate Desferal-59Fe3+ was rapid and reached saturation within 3 min. In strain SK11, which does not secrete schizokinen, transport from 59FeCl3 was markedly reduced; the two ferric hydroxamates Desferal-59Fe3+ or schizokinen-59Fe3+ increased both total 59Fe3+ uptake and the 59Fe3+ appearing in a cellular trichloroacetic acid-insoluble fraction, although 10 min was required to reach saturation. Certain characteristics of transport from both ferric hydroxamates and FeCl3 suggest that iron uptake was an active process. The growth-inhibitory effect of aluminum on strain SK11 was probably due to the formation of nonutilizable iron-aluminum complexes which blocked uptake from 59FeCl3. Desferal or schizokinen prevented this blockage. A strain (ARD-1) resistant to the ferric hydroxamate antibiotic A22765 was isolated from strain SK11. Strain ARD-1 failed to grow with Desferal-Fe3+ as an iron source, and it was unable to incorporate 59Fe3+ from this source. Growth and iron uptake in strain ARD-1 were similar to strain SK11 with schizokinen-Fe3+ or the iron salt as sources. It is suggested that the ferric hydroxamates, or the iron they chelate, may be transported by a special system which might be selective for certain ferric hydroxamates. Strain ARD-1 may be unable to recognize both the antibiotic A22765 and the structurally similar chelate Desferal-Fe3+, while retaining its capacity to utilize schizokinen-Fe3+. PMID:5000305

  20. Maternal iron status during pregnancy compared with neonatal iron status better predicts placental iron transporter expression in humans.

    PubMed

    Best, Cora M; Pressman, Eva K; Cao, Chang; Cooper, Elizabeth; Guillet, Ronnie; Yost, Olivia L; Galati, Jonathan; Kent, Tera R; O'Brien, Kimberly O

    2016-10-01

    The placenta richly expresses nonheme and heme Fe transport proteins. To address the impact of maternal and neonatal Fe status and hepcidin on the regulation of these proteins, mRNA expression and protein abundance of nonheme and heme Fe transport proteins were evaluated in placental tissue from 154 adolescents. Regression analyses found maternal Fe status was significantly associated with multiple placental nonheme and heme transporters, whereas neonatal Fe status was related to only 3 heme transporters. Across statistical analyses, maternal Fe status was consistently associated with the placental nonheme Fe importer transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1). Protein abundance of TfR1 was related to midgestation maternal serum ferritin (SF) (β = -0.32; P = 0.005) and serum TfR (β = 0.25; P = 0.024). Protein abundance of the heme importer, proton-coupled folate transporter, was related to neonatal SF (β = 0.30; P = 0.016) and serum TfR (β = -0.46; P < 0.0001). Neonatal SF was also related to mRNA expression of the heme exporter feline leukemia virus subgroup C receptor 1 (β = -0.30; P = 0.004). In summary, maternal Fe insufficiency during pregnancy predicts increased expression of the placental nonheme Fe transporter TfR1. Associations between placental heme Fe transporters and neonatal Fe status require further study.-Best, C. M., Pressman, E. K., Cao, C., Cooper, E., Guillet, R., Yost, O. L., Galati, J., Kent, T. R., O'Brien, K. O. Maternal iron status during pregnancy compared with neonatal iron status better predicts placental iron transporter expression in humans. © FASEB.

  1. Maternal iron status during pregnancy compared with neonatal iron status better predicts placental iron transporter expression in humans

    PubMed Central

    Best, Cora M.; Pressman, Eva K.; Cao, Chang; Cooper, Elizabeth; Guillet, Ronnie; Yost, Olivia L.; Galati, Jonathan; Kent, Tera R.; O’Brien, Kimberly O.

    2016-01-01

    The placenta richly expresses nonheme and heme Fe transport proteins. To address the impact of maternal and neonatal Fe status and hepcidin on the regulation of these proteins, mRNA expression and protein abundance of nonheme and heme Fe transport proteins were evaluated in placental tissue from 154 adolescents. Regression analyses found maternal Fe status was significantly associated with multiple placental nonheme and heme transporters, whereas neonatal Fe status was related to only 3 heme transporters. Across statistical analyses, maternal Fe status was consistently associated with the placental nonheme Fe importer transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1). Protein abundance of TfR1 was related to midgestation maternal serum ferritin (SF) (β = −0.32; P = 0.005) and serum TfR (β = 0.25; P = 0.024). Protein abundance of the heme importer, proton-coupled folate transporter, was related to neonatal SF (β = 0.30; P = 0.016) and serum TfR (β = −0.46; P < 0.0001). Neonatal SF was also related to mRNA expression of the heme exporter feline leukemia virus subgroup C receptor 1 (β = −0.30; P = 0.004). In summary, maternal Fe insufficiency during pregnancy predicts increased expression of the placental nonheme Fe transporter TfR1. Associations between placental heme Fe transporters and neonatal Fe status require further study.—Best, C. M., Pressman, E. K., Cao, C., Cooper, E., Guillet, R., Yost, O. L., Galati, J., Kent, T. R., O’Brien, K. O. Maternal iron status during pregnancy compared with neonatal iron status better predicts placental iron transporter expression in humans. PMID:27402672

  2. Modeling the processing of mineral iron during dust transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelsberg, Ulrike; Wolke, Ralf; Tilgner, Andreas; Tegen, Ina; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2014-05-01

    The Saharan desert and the Gobi desert are the main contributors to Aeolian desert dust, which is a major source of micronutrients to the remote ocean regions. Micronutrients, such as transition metals like iron or copper, are regarded essential for biological processes of different marine species. In this context recent studies have shown that soluble iron, since it is generally the most abundant transition metal in dust particles, has the ability to control marine productivity and thereby likely influence the CO2- budget. Nevertheless, the processing of desert dust leading to the release of soluble iron still lacks sufficient understanding since several factors control the solubilization process. Especially anthropogenic emissions are regarded to significantly add to the amount of soluble iron by acidification of dust particles or by the direct emission of soluble iron comprised, e.g. in coal fly ash. For the investigation of the dissolution process of iron that takes place during dust transportation the spectral air parcel model SPACCIM is used. A mechanism describing the precipitation and dissolution of mineral particles by heterogeneous surface reactions has been implemented. Trajectory properties were derived from COSMO-MUSCAT simulations or from re-analysis data by HYSPLIT. Differences in the chemical composition and the amount of anthropogenic and naturally emitted species on the North African continent and the highly industrialized region of South-East Asia have considerable impact on the acidification of the desert dust. Under this aspect, special cases of dust outbreaks of the Saharan desert and the Gobi desert are investigated and compared with focus on soluble iron produced.

  3. Smart vehicular transportation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Little, C.Q.; Wilson, C.W.

    1997-05-01

    This work builds upon established Sandia intelligent systems technology to develop a unique approach for the integration of intelligent system control into the US Highway and urban transportation systems. The Sandia developed concept of the COPILOT controller integrates a human driver with computer control to increase human performance while reducing reliance on detailed driver attention. This research extends Sandia expertise in sensor based, real-time control of robotics systems to high speed transportation systems. Knowledge in the form of maps and performance characteristics of vehicles provides the automatic decision making intelligence needed to plan optimum routes, maintain safe driving speeds and distances, avoid collisions, and conserve fuel.

  4. Restored iron transport by a small molecule promotes absorption and hemoglobinization in animals

    PubMed Central

    Grillo, Anthony S.; SantaMaria, Anna M.; Kafina, Martin D.; Cioffi, Alexander G.; Huston, Nicholas C.; Han, Murui; Seo, Young Ah; Yien, Yvette Y.; Nardone, Christopher; Menon, Archita V.; Fan, James; Svoboda, Dillon C.; Anderson, Jacob B.; Hong, John D.; Nicolau, Bruno G.; Subedi, Kiran; Gewirth, Andrew A.

    2017-01-01

    Multiple human diseases ensue from a hereditary or acquired deficiency of iron-transporting protein function that diminishes transmembrane iron flux in distinct sites and directions. Because other iron-transport proteins remain active, labile iron gradients build up across the corresponding protein-deficient membranes. Here we report that a small molecule natural product, hinokitiol, can harness such gradients to restore iron transport into, within, and/or out of cells. The same compound promotes gut iron absorption in DMT1-deficient rats and ferroportin-deficient mice, as well as hemoglobinization in DMT1- and mitoferrin-deficient zebrafish. These findings illuminate a general mechanistic framework for small molecule-mediated site- and direction-selective restoration of iron transport. They also suggest small molecules that partially mimic the function of missing protein transporters of iron, and possibly other ions, may have potential in treating human diseases. PMID:28495746

  5. Hunger for iron: the alternative siderophore iron scavenging systems in highly virulent Yersinia.

    PubMed

    Rakin, Alexander; Schneider, Lukas; Podladchikova, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Low molecular weight siderophores are used by many living organisms to scavenge scarcely available ferric iron. Presence of at least a single siderophore-based iron acquisition system is usually acknowledged as a virulence-associated trait and a pre-requisite to become an efficient and successful pathogen. Currently, it is assumed that yersiniabactin (Ybt) is the solely functional endogenous siderophore iron uptake system in highly virulent Yersinia (Yersinia pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. enterocolitica biotype 1B). Genes responsible for biosynthesis, transport, and regulation of the yersiniabactin (ybt) production are clustered on a mobile genetic element, the High-Pathogenicity Island (HPI) that is responsible for broad dissemination of the ybt genes in Enterobacteriaceae. However, the ybt gene cluster is absent from nearly half of Y. pseudotuberculosis O3 isolates and epidemic Y. pseudotuberculosis O1 isolates responsible for the Far East Scarlet-like Fever. Several potential siderophore-mediated iron uptake gene clusters are documented in Yersinia genomes, however, neither of them have been proven to be functional. It has been suggested that at least two siderophores alternative to Ybt may operate in the highly virulent Yersinia pestis/Y. pseudotuberculosis group, and are referred to as pseudochelin (Pch) and yersiniachelin (Ych). Furthermore, most sporadic Y. pseudotuberculosis O1 strains possess gene clusters encoding all three iron scavenging systems. Thus, the Ybt system appears not to be the sole endogenous siderophore iron uptake system in the highly virulent yersiniae and may be efficiently substituted and/or supplemented by alternative iron siderophore scavenging systems.

  6. Vacuolar-Iron-Transporter1-Like proteins mediate iron homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gollhofer, Julia; Timofeev, Roman; Lan, Ping; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Buckhout, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency is a nutritional problem in plants and reduces crop productivity, quality and yield. With the goal of improving the iron (Fe) storage properties of plants, we have investigated the function of three Arabidopsis proteins with homology to Vacuolar Iron Transporter1 (AtVIT1). Heterologous expression of Vacuolar Iron Transporter-Like1 (AtVTL1; At1g21140), AtVTL2 (At1g76800) or AtVTL5 (At3g25190) in the yeast vacuolar Fe transport mutant, Δccc1, restored growth in the presence of 4 mM Fe. Isolated vacuoles from yeast expressing either of the VTL genes in the Δccc1 background had a three- to four-fold increase in Fe concentration compared to vacuoles isolated from the untransformed mutant. Transiently expressed GFP-tagged AtVTL1 was localized exclusively and AtVTL2 was localized primarily to the vacuolar membrane of onion epidermis cells. Seedling root growth of the Arabidopsis nramp3/nramp4 and vit1-1 mutants was decreased compared to the wild type when seedlings were grown under Fe deficiency. When expressed under the 35S promoter in the nramp3/nramp4 or vit1-1 backgrounds, AtVTL1, AtVTL2 or AtVTL5 restored root growth in both mutants. The seed Fe concentration in the nramp3/nramp4 mutant overexpressing AtVTL1, AtVTL2 or AtVTL5 was between 50 and 60% higher than in non-transformed double mutants or wild-type plants. We conclude that the VTL proteins catalyze Fe transport into vacuoles and thus contribute to the regulation of Fe homeostasis in planta.

  7. Vacuolar-Iron-Transporter1-Like Proteins Mediate Iron Homeostasis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Gollhofer, Julia; Timofeev, Roman; Lan, Ping; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Buckhout, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency is a nutritional problem in plants and reduces crop productivity, quality and yield. With the goal of improving the iron (Fe) storage properties of plants, we have investigated the function of three Arabidopsis proteins with homology to Vacuolar Iron Transporter1 (AtVIT1). Heterologous expression of Vacuolar Iron Transporter-Like1 (AtVTL1; At1g21140), AtVTL2 (At1g76800) or AtVTL5 (At3g25190) in the yeast vacuolar Fe transport mutant, Δccc1, restored growth in the presence of 4 mM Fe. Isolated vacuoles from yeast expressing either of the VTL genes in the Δccc1 background had a three- to four-fold increase in Fe concentration compared to vacuoles isolated from the untransformed mutant. Transiently expressed GFP-tagged AtVTL1 was localized exclusively and AtVTL2 was localized primarily to the vacuolar membrane of onion epidermis cells. Seedling root growth of the Arabidopsis nramp3/nramp4 and vit1-1 mutants was decreased compared to the wild type when seedlings were grown under Fe deficiency. When expressed under the 35S promoter in the nramp3/nramp4 or vit1-1 backgrounds, AtVTL1, AtVTL2 or AtVTL5 restored root growth in both mutants. The seed Fe concentration in the nramp3/nramp4 mutant overexpressing AtVTL1, AtVTL2 or AtVTL5 was between 50 and 60% higher than in non-transformed double mutants or wild-type plants. We conclude that the VTL proteins catalyze Fe transport into vacuoles and thus contribute to the regulation of Fe homeostasis in planta. PMID:25360591

  8. Iron supply determines apical/basolateral membrane distribution of intestinal iron transporters DMT1 and ferroportin 1.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Marco T; Tapia, Victoria; Rojas, Alejandro; Aguirre, Pabla; Gómez, Francisco; Nualart, Francisco

    2010-03-01

    Intestinal iron absorption comprises the coordinated activity of the influx transporter divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and the efflux transporter ferroportin (FPN). In this work, we studied the movement of DMT1 and FPN between cellular compartments as a function of iron supply. In rat duodenum, iron gavage resulted in the relocation of DMT1 to basal domains and the internalization of basolateral FPN. Considerable FPN was also found in apical domains. In Caco-2 cells, the apical-to-basal movement of cyan fluorescent protein-tagged DMT1 was complete 90 min after the addition of iron. Steady-state membrane localization studies in Caco-2 cells revealed that iron status determined the apical/basolateral membrane distribution of DMT1 and FPN. In agreement with the membrane distribution of the transporters, (55)Fe flux experiments revealed inward and outward iron fluxes at both membrane domains. Antisense oligonucleotides targeted to DMT1 or FPN inhibited basolateral iron uptake and apical iron efflux, respectively, indicating the participation of DMT1 and FPN in these fluxes. The fluxes were regulated by the iron supply; increased iron reduced apical uptake and basal efflux and increased basal uptake and apical efflux. These findings suggest a novel mechanism of regulation of intestinal iron absorption based on inward and outward fluxes at both membrane domains, and repositioning of DMT1 and FPN between membrane and intracellular compartments as a function of iron supply. This mechanism should be complementary to those based in the transcriptional or translational regulation of iron transport proteins.

  9. Reactive iron transport in an acidic mountain stream in Summit County, Colorado: A hydrologic perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKnight, Diane M.; Bencala, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    A pH perturbation experiment was conducted in an acidic, metal-enriched, mountain stream to identify relative rates of chemical and hydrologic processes as they influence iron transport. During the experiment the pH was lowered from 4.2 to 3.2 for three hours by injection of sulfuric acid. Amorphous iron oxides are abundant on the streambed, and dissolution and photoreduction reactions resulted in a rapid increase in the dissolved iron concentration. The increase occurred simultaneously with the decrease in pH. Ferrous iron was the major aqueous iron species. The changes in the iron concentration during the experiment indicate that variation exists in the solubility properties of the hydrous iron oxides on the streambed with dissolution of at least two compartments of hydrous iron oxides contributing to the iron pulse. Spatial variations of the hydrologic properties along the stream were quantified by simulating the transport of a coinjected tracer, lithium. A simulation of iron transport, as a conservative solute, indicated that hydrologie transport had a significant role in determining downstream changes in the iron pulse. The rapidity of the changes in iron concentration indicates that a model based on dynamic equilibrium may be adequate for simulating iron transport in acid streams. A major challenge for predictive solute transport models of geochemical processes may be due to substantial spatial and seasonal variations in chemical properties of the reactive hydrous oxides in such streams, and in the physical and hydrologic properties of the stream. ?? 1989.

  10. Prion Protein (PrP) Knock-Out Mice Show Altered Iron Metabolism: A Functional Role for PrP in Iron Uptake and Transport

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajay; Kong, Qingzhong; Luo, Xiu; Petersen, Robert B.; Meyerson, Howard; Singh, Neena

    2009-01-01

    Despite overwhelming evidence implicating the prion protein (PrP) in prion disease pathogenesis, the normal function of this cell surface glycoprotein remains unclear. In previous reports we demonstrated that PrP mediates cellular iron uptake and transport, and aggregation of PrP to the disease causing PrP-scrapie (PrPSc) form results in imbalance of iron homeostasis in prion disease affected human and animal brains. Here, we show that selective deletion of PrP in transgenic mice (PrPKO) alters systemic iron homeostasis as reflected in hematological parameters and levels of total iron and iron regulatory proteins in the plasma, liver, spleen, and brain of PrPKO mice relative to matched wild type controls. Introduction of radiolabeled iron (59FeCl3) to Wt and PrPKO mice by gastric gavage reveals inefficient transport of 59Fe from the duodenum to the blood stream, an early abortive spike of erythropoiesis in the long bones and spleen, and eventual decreased 59Fe content in red blood cells and all major organs of PrPKO mice relative to Wt controls. The iron deficient phenotype of PrPKO mice is reversed by expressing Wt PrP in the PrPKO background, demonstrating a functional role for PrP in iron uptake and transport. Since iron is required for essential metabolic processes and is also potentially toxic if mismanaged, these results suggest that loss of normal function of PrP due to aggregation to the PrPSc form induces imbalance of brain iron homeostasis, resulting in disease associated neurotoxicity. PMID:19568430

  11. Duodenal expression of iron transport molecules in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis or iron deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Dostalikova-Cimburova, Marketa; Kratka, Karolina; Balusikova, Kamila; Chmelikova, Jitka; Hejda, Vaclav; Hnanicek, Jan; Neubauerova, Jitka; Vranova, Jana; Kovar, Jan; Horak, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Disturbances of iron metabolism are observed in chronic liver diseases. In the present study, we examined gene expression of duodenal iron transport molecules and hepcidin in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis (HHC) (treated and untreated), involving various genotypes (genotypes which represent risk for HHC were examined), and in patients with iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). Gene expressions of DMT1, ferroportin, Dcytb, hephaestin, HFE and TFR1 were measured in duodenal biopsies using real-time PCR and Western blot. Serum hepcidin levels were measured using ELISA. DMT1, ferroportin and TFR1 mRNA levels were significantly increased in post-phlebotomized hemochromatics relative to controls. mRNAs of all tested molecules were significantly increased in patients with IDA compared to controls. The protein expression of ferroportin was increased in both groups of patients but not significantly. Spearman rank correlations showed that DMT1 versus ferroportin, Dcytb versus hephaestin and DMT1 versus TFR1 mRNAs were positively correlated regardless of the underlying cause, similarly to protein levels of ferroportin versus Dcytb and ferroportin versus hephaestin. Serum ferritin was negatively correlated with DMT1 mRNA in investigated groups of patients, except for HHC group. A decrease of serum hepcidin was observed in IDA patients, but this was not statistically significant. Our data showed that although untreated HHC patients do not have increased mRNA levels of iron transport molecules when compared to normal subjects, the expression is relatively increased in relation to body iron stores. On the other hand, post-phlebotomized HHC patients had increased DMT1 and ferroportin mRNA levels possibly due to stimulated erythropoiesis after phlebotomy. PMID:21973163

  12. Fate of labeled hydroxamates during iron transport from hydroxamate-ion chelates.

    PubMed

    Arceneaux, J E; Davis, W B; Downer, D N; Haydon, A H; Byers, B R

    1973-09-01

    The fate of the hydroxamic acid-iron transport cofactors during iron uptake from the (59)Fe(3+) chelates of the (3)H-labeled hydroxamates schizokinen and aerobactin was studied by assay of simultaneous incorporation of both (59)Fe(3+) and (3)H. In the schizokinen-producing organism Bacillus megaterium ATCC 19213 transport of (59)Fe(3+) from the (3)H-schizokinen-(59)Fe(3+) chelate at 37 C was accompanied by rapid uptake and release (within 2 min) of (3)H-schizokinen, although (3)H-schizokinen discharge was temperature-dependent and did not occur at 0 C. In the schizokinen-requiring strain B. megaterium SK11 similar release of (3)H-schizokinen occurred only at elevated concentrations of the double-labeled chelate; at lower chelate concentrations, (3)H-schizokinen remained cell-associated. Temperature-dependent uptake of deferri (iron-free) (3)H-schizokinen to levels equivalent to those incorporated from the chelate form was noted in strain SK11, but strain ATCC 19213 showed only temperature-independent binding of low concentrations of deferri (3)H-schizokinen. These results indicate an initial temperature-independent binding of the ferric hydroxamate which is followed rapidly by temperature-dependent transport of the chelate into the cell and an enzyme catalyzed separation of iron from the chelate. The resulting deferri hydroxamate is discharged from the cell only when a characteristic intracellular concentration of the hydroxamate is exceeded, which happens in the schizokinen-requiring strain only at elevated concentrations of the chelate. This strain also appears to draw the deferri hydroxamate into the cell by a temperature-dependent mechanism. The aerobactin-producing organism Aerobacter aerogenes 62-1 also demonstrated rapid initial uptake and temperature-dependent discharge of (3)H-aerobactin during iron transport from (3)H-aerobactin-(59)Fe(3+), suggesting a similar ferric hydroxamate transport system in this organism.

  13. Magnetic resonance microscopy of iron transport in methanogenic granules.

    PubMed

    Bartacek, Jan; Vergeldt, Frank J; Gerkema, Edo; Jenicek, Pavel; Lens, Piet N L; Van As, Henk

    2009-10-01

    Interactions between anaerobic biofilms and heavy metals such as iron, cobalt or nickel are largely unknown. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive method that allows in situ studies of metal transport within biofilm matrixes. The present study investigates quantitatively the penetration of iron (1.7 5mM) bound to ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) into the methanogenic granules (spherical biofilm). A spatial resolution of 109x109x218 microm(3) and a temporal resolution of 11 min are achieved with 3D Turbo Spin Echo (TSE) measurements. The longitudinal relaxivity, i.e. the slope the dependence of the relaxation rate (1/T(1)) on the concentration of paramagnetic metal ions, was used to measure temporal changes in iron concentration in the methanogenic granules. It took up to 300 min for the iron-EDTA complex ([FeEDTA](2-)) to penetrate into the methanogenic granules (3-4mm in diameter). The diffusion was equally fast in all directions with irregularities such as diffusion-facilitating channels and diffusion-resistant zones. Despite these irregularities, the overall process could be modeled using Fick's equations for diffusion in a sphere, because immobilization of [FeEDTA](2-) in the granular matrix (or the presence of a reactive barrier) was not observed. The effective diffusion coefficient (D(ejf)) of [FeEDTA](2-) was found to be 2.8x10(-11)m(2)s(-1), i.e. approximately 4% of D(ejf) of [FeEDTA](2-) in water. The Fickian model did not correspond to the processes taking place in the core of the granule (3-5% of the total volume of the granule), where up to 25% over-saturation by iron (compare to the concentration in the bulk solution) occurred.

  14. Magnetic resonance microscopy of iron transport in methanogenic granules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartacek, Jan; Vergeldt, Frank J.; Gerkema, Edo; Jenicek, Pavel; Lens, Piet N. L.; Van As, Henk

    2009-10-01

    Interactions between anaerobic biofilms and heavy metals such as iron, cobalt or nickel are largely unknown. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive method that allows in situ studies of metal transport within biofilm matrixes. The present study investigates quantitatively the penetration of iron (1.75 mM) bound to ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) into the methanogenic granules (spherical biofilm). A spatial resolution of 109 × 109 × 218 μm 3 and a temporal resolution of 11 min are achieved with 3D Turbo Spin Echo (TSE) measurements. The longitudinal relaxivity, i.e. the slope the dependence of the relaxation rate (1/ T1) on the concentration of paramagnetic metal ions, was used to measure temporal changes in iron concentration in the methanogenic granules. It took up to 300 min for the iron-EDTA complex ([FeEDTA] 2-) to penetrate into the methanogenic granules (3-4 mm in diameter). The diffusion was equally fast in all directions with irregularities such as diffusion-facilitating channels and diffusion-resistant zones. Despite these irregularities, the overall process could be modeled using Fick's equations for diffusion in a sphere, because immobilization of [FeEDTA] 2- in the granular matrix (or the presence of a reactive barrier) was not observed. The effective diffusion coefficient ( D ejf) of [FeEDTA] 2- was found to be 2.8 × 10 -11 m 2 s -1, i.e. approximately 4% of D ejf of [FeEDTA] 2- in water. The Fickian model did not correspond to the processes taking place in the core of the granule (3-5% of the total volume of the granule), where up to 25% over-saturation by iron (compare to the concentration in the bulk solution) occurred.

  15. Repression of the Low Affinity Iron Transporter Gene FET4

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Soraia M.; Menezes, Regina; Amaral, Catarina; Rodrigues-Pousada, Claudina; Pimentel, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium is a well known mutagenic metal that can enter cells via nonspecific metal transporters, causing several cellular damages and eventually leading to death. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcription factor Yap1 plays a key role in the regulation of several genes involved in metal stress response. We have previously shown that Yap1 represses the expression of FET4, a gene encoding a low affinity iron transporter able to transport metals other than iron. Here, we have studied the relevance of this repression in cell tolerance to cadmium. Our results indicate that genomic deletion of Yap1 increases FET4 transcript and protein levels. In addition, the cadmium toxicity exhibited by this strain is completely reversed by co-deletion of FET4 gene. These data correlate well with the increased intracellular levels of cadmium observed in the mutant yap1. Rox1, a well known aerobic repressor of hypoxic genes, conveys the Yap1-mediated repression of FET4. We further show that, in a scenario where the activity of Yap1 or Rox1 is compromised, cells activate post-transcriptional mechanisms, involving the exoribonuclease Xrn1, to compensate the derepression of FET4. Our data thus reveal a novel protection mechanism against cadmium toxicity mediated by Yap1 that relies on the aerobic repression of FET4 and results in the impairment of cadmium uptake. PMID:26063801

  16. Transportation Systems Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanning, M. L.; Michelson, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    A methodology for the analysis of transportation systems consisting of five major interacting elements is reported. The analysis begins with the causes of travel demand: geographic, economic, and demographic characteristics as well as attitudes toward travel. Through the analysis, the interaction of these factors with the physical and economic characteristics of the transportation system is determined. The result is an evaluation of the system from the point of view of both passenger and operator. The methodology is applicable to the intraurban transit systems as well as major airlines. Applications of the technique to analysis of a PRT system and a study of intraurban air travel are given. In the discussion several unique models or techniques are mentioned: i.e., passenger preference modeling, an integrated intraurban transit model, and a series of models to perform airline analysis.

  17. Transportation Anslysis Simulation System

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-23

    TRANSIMS version 3.1 is an integrated set of analytical and simulation models and supporting databases. The system is designed to create a virtual metropolitan region with representation of each of the region’s individuals, their activities and the transportation infrastructure they use. TRANSIMS puts into practice a new, disaggregate approach to travel demand modeling using agent-based micro-simulation technology. TRANSIMS methodology creates a virtual metropolitan region with representation of the transportation infrastructure and the population, at the level of households and individual travelers. Trips a planned to satisfy the population’s activity pattems at the individual traveler level. TRANSIMS then simulates the movement of travelers and vehicles across the transportation network using multiple modes, including car, transit, bike and walk, on a second-by-second basis. Metropolitan planners must plan growth of their cities according to the stringent transportation system planning requirements of the Interniodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other similar laws and regulations. These require each state and its metropotitan regions to work together to develop short and long term transportation improvement plans. The plans must (1) estimate the future transportation needs for travelers and goods movements, (2) evaluate ways to manage and reduce congestion, (3) examine the effectiveness of building new roads and transit systems, and (4) limit the environmental impact of the various strategies. The needed consistent and accurate transportation improvement plans require an analytical capability that properly accounts for travel demand, human behavior, traffic and transit operations, major investments, and environmental effects. Other existing planning tools use aggregated information and representative behavior to predict average response and average use of transportation facilities. They do not account

  18. Nano iron particles transport in fractured rocks: laboratory and field scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Meirav; Weisbrod, Noam

    2017-04-01

    Our study deals with the transport potential of nano iron particles (NIPs) in fractured media. Two different systemswere used to investigate transport on two scales: (1 )a laboratory flow system of a naturally discrete fractured chalk core, 0.43 and 0.18 m in length and diamater, respectively; and (2) a field system of hydraulically connected boreholes located 47 m apart which penetrate a fractured chalk aquifer. We started by testing the transport potential of various NIPs under different conditions. Particle stability experiments were conducted using various NIPs and different stabilizersat two ionic strengths. Overall, four different NIPs and three stabilizers were tested. Particles and solution properties (stability, aggregate/particle size, viscosity and density) were tested in batch experiments, and transport experiments (breakthrough curves (BTCs) and recovery) were conduted in the fractured chalk core. We have learned that the key parameters controlling particle transport are the particle/aggregate size and stability, which govern NIP settling rates and ultimately their migration distance. The governing mechanism controlling NIP transport was found to be sedimentation, and to a much lesser extent, processes such as diffusion, straining or interception. On the basis of these experiments, Carbo-Iron® particles ( 800 nm activated carbon particles doped with nano zero valent iron particles) and Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) stabilizer were selected for the field test injection. In the field, Carbo-Iron particles were initially injected into the fractured aquifer using an excess of stabilizer in order to ensure maximum recovery. This resulted in high particle recovery and fast arrival time, similar to the ideal tracer (iodide). The high recovery of the stable particle solution emphasized the importance of particle stability for transport in fractures. To test mobility manipulation potential of the particles and simulate more realistic scenarios, a second field

  19. A lunar transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Due to large amounts of oxygen required for space travel, a method of mining, transporting, and storing this oxygen in space would facilitate further space exploration. The following project deals specifically with the methods for transporting liquid oxygen from the lunar surface to the Lunar Orbit (LO) space station, and then to the Lower Earth Orbit (LEO) space station. Two vehicles were designed for operation between the LEO and LO space stations. The first of these vehicles is an aerobraked design vehicle. The Aerobrake Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) is capable of transporting 5000 lbm of payload to LO while returning to LEO with 60,000 lbm of liquid oxygen, and thus meet mission requirements. The second vehicle can deliver 18,000 lbm of payload to LO and is capable of bringing 60,000 lbm of liquid oxygen back to LEO. A lunar landing vehicle was also designed for operation between LO and the established moon base. The use of an electromagnetic railgun as a method for launching the lunar lander was also investigated. The feasibility of the railgun is doubtful at this time. A system of spheres was also designed for proper storing and transporting of the liquid oxygen. The system assumes a safe means for transferring the liquid oxygen from tank to tank is operational. A sophisticated life support system was developed for both the OTV and the lunar lander. This system focuses on such factors as the vehicle environment, waste management, water requirements, food requirements, and oxygen requirements.

  20. Lunar transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The University Space Research Association (USRA) requested the University of Minnesota Spacecraft Design Team to design a lunar transportation infrastructure. This task was a year long design effort culminating in a complete conceptual design and presentation at Johnson Space Center. The mission objective of the design group was to design a system of vehicles to bring a habitation module, cargo, and crew to the lunar surface from LEO and return either or both crew and cargo safely to LEO while emphasizing component commonality, reusability, and cost effectiveness. During the course of the design, the lunar transportation system (LTS) has taken on many forms. The final design of the system is composed of two vehicles, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a lunar excursion vehicle (LEV). The LTV serves as an efficient orbital transfer vehicle between the earth and the moon while the LEV carries crew and cargo to the lunar surface. Presented in the report are the mission analysis, systems layout, orbital mechanics, propulsion systems, structural and thermal analysis, and crew systems, avionics, and power systems for this lunar transportation concept.

  1. Lunar transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-07-01

    The University Space Research Association (USRA) requested the University of Minnesota Spacecraft Design Team to design a lunar transportation infrastructure. This task was a year long design effort culminating in a complete conceptual design and presentation at Johnson Space Center. The mission objective of the design group was to design a system of vehicles to bring a habitation module, cargo, and crew to the lunar surface from LEO and return either or both crew and cargo safely to LEO while emphasizing component commonality, reusability, and cost effectiveness. During the course of the design, the lunar transportation system (LTS) has taken on many forms. The final design of the system is composed of two vehicles, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a lunar excursion vehicle (LEV). The LTV serves as an efficient orbital transfer vehicle between the earth and the moon while the LEV carries crew and cargo to the lunar surface. Presented in the report are the mission analysis, systems layout, orbital mechanics, propulsion systems, structural and thermal analysis, and crew systems, avionics, and power systems for this lunar transportation concept.

  2. Transgenic Petunia with the Iron(III)-Phytosiderophore Transporter Gene Acquires Tolerance to Iron Deficiency in Alkaline Environments

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Yoshiko; Itoh, Yoshiyuki; Iwashita, Takashi; Namba, Kosuke

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for all plants. However, terrestrial plants often suffer from iron deficiency in alkaline soil due to its extremely low solubility. Alkaline soil accounts for about 30% of all cultivated ground in the world. Plants have evolved two distinct strategies, I and II, for iron uptake from the soil. Dicots and non-graminaceous monocots use Strategy I, which is primarily based on the reduction of iron(III) to iron(II) and the uptake of iron(II) by the iron-regulated transporter, IRT1. In contrast, graminaceous plants use Strategy II to efficiently acquire insoluble iron(III). Strategy II comprises the synthesis and secretion of iron-chelating phytosiderophores, such as mugineic acids and the Yellow Stripe 1 transporter proteins of the iron(III)-phytosiderophore complex. Barley, which exhibits the highest tolerance to iron deficiency in alkaline soil among graminaceous plants, utilizes mugineic acids and the specific iron(III)-mugineic acids transporter, HvYS1. In this study, we established the transgenic plant Petunia hybrida, which originally had only Strategy I, by introducing the HvYS1 transporter gene derived from barley. When the transgenic plants were grown hydroponically in media containing the iron(III)-2′-deoxymugineic acid complex, free 2′-deoxymugineic acid and its iron(III) complex were detected in the root extract of the transgenic plant by electrospray ionization-Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The growth of the transgenic petunia was significantly better than that of the control host in alkaline conditions. Consequently, the transgenic plant acquired a significantly enhanced tolerance to alkaline hydroponic media in the presence of the iron(III)-2′-deoxymugineic acid complex. Furthermore, the flower color of the transgenic plant deepened. The results showed that iron-phytosiderophore complexes and their transporters can potentially be utilized to overcome the worldwide iron uptake problems to

  3. Knock-out of Arabidopsis metal transporter gene IRT1 results in iron deficiency accompanied by cell differentiation defects.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Rossana; Jásik, Ján; Klein, Markus; Martinoia, Enrico; Feller, Urs; Schell, Jeff; Pais, Maria S; Koncz, Csaba

    2002-11-01

    IRT1 and IRT2 are members of the Arabidopsis ZIP metal transporter family that are specifically induced by iron deprivation in roots and act as heterologous suppressors of yeast mutations inhibiting iron and zinc uptake. Although IRT1 and IRT2 are thought to perform redundant functions as root-specific metal transporters, insertional inactivation of the IRT1 gene alone results in typical symptoms of iron deficiency causing severe leaf chlorosis and lethality in soil. The irt1 mutation is characterized by specific developmental defects, including a drastic reduction of chloroplast thylakoid stacking into grana and lack of palisade parenchyma differentiation in leaves, reduced number of vascular bundles in stems, and irregular patterns of enlarged endodermal and cortex cells in roots. Pulse labeling with 59Fe through the root system shows that the irt1 mutation reduces iron accumulation in the shoots. Short-term labeling with 65Zn reveals no alteration in spatial distribution of zinc, but indicates a lower level of zinc accumulation. In comparison to wild-type, the irt1 mutant responds to iron and zinc deprivation by altered expression of certain zinc and iron transporter genes, which results in the activation of ZIP1 in shoots, reduction of ZIP2 transcript levels in roots, and enhanced expression of IRT2 in roots. These data support the conclusion that IRT1 is an essential metal transporter required for proper development and regulation of iron and zinc homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

  4. Transportation Systems Center

    SciTech Connect

    Greer, G.S.

    1992-07-01

    The Transportation Systems Center at Sandia Laboratory performs research, development, and implementation of technologies that enhance the safe movement of people, goods, and information. Our focus is on systems engineering. However, we realize that to understand the puzzle, you must also understand the pieces. This brochure describes some of the activities currently underway at the Center and presents the breadth and depth of our capabilities. Please contact the noted, individuals for more, information.

  5. Heat transport system

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, Bill L.

    1978-01-01

    A heat transport system of small size which can be operated in any orientation consists of a coolant loop containing a vaporizable liquid as working fluid and includes in series a vaporizer, a condenser and two one-way valves and a pressurizer connected to the loop between the two valves. The pressurizer may be divided into two chambers by a flexible diaphragm, an inert gas in one chamber acting as a pneumatic spring for the system.

  6. The rice mitochondrial iron transporter is essential for plant growth

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Khurram; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Shimo, Hugo; Nagasaka, Seiji; Fujimoto, Masaru; Takanashi, Hideki; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro; An, Gynheung; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K.

    2011-01-01

    In plants, iron (Fe) is essential for mitochondrial electron transport, heme, and Fe-Sulphur (Fe-S) cluster synthesis; however, plant mitochondrial Fe transporters have not been identified. Here we show, identify and characterize the rice mitochondrial Fe transporter (MIT). Based on a transfer DNA library screen, we identified a rice line showing symptoms of Fe deficiency while accumulating high shoot levels of Fe. Homozygous knockout of MIT in this line resulted in a lethal phenotype. MIT localized to the mitochondria and complemented the growth of Δmrs3Δmrs4 yeast defective in mitochondrial Fe transport. The growth of MIT-knockdown (mit-2) plants was also significantly impaired despite abundant Fe accumulation. Further, the decrease in the activity of the mitochondrial and cytosolic Fe-S enzyme, aconitase, indicated that Fe-S cluster synthesis is affected in mit-2 plants. These results indicate that MIT is a mitochondrial Fe transporter essential for rice growth and development. PMID:21610725

  7. Iron-induced reactive oxygen species mediate transporter DMT1 endocytosis and iron uptake in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Esparza, Andrés; Gerdtzen, Ziomara P; Olivera-Nappa, Alvaro; Salgado, J Cristian; Núñez, Marco T

    2015-10-15

    Recent evidence shows that iron induces the endocytosis of the iron transporter dimetal transporter 1 (DMT1) during intestinal absorption. We, and others, have proposed that iron-induced DMT1 internalization underlies the mucosal block phenomena, a regulatory response that downregulates intestinal iron uptake after a large oral dose of iron. In this work, we investigated the participation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the establishment of this response. By means of selective surface protein biotinylation of polarized Caco-2 cells, we determined the kinetics of DMT1 internalization from the apical membrane after an iron challenge. The initial decrease in DMT1 levels in the apical membrane induced by iron was followed at later times by increased levels of DMT1. Addition of Fe(2+), but not of Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), or Cu(1+), induced the production of intracellular ROS, as detected by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence. Preincubation with the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) resulted in increased DMT1 at the apical membrane before and after addition of iron. Similarly, preincubation with the hydroxyl radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) resulted in the enhanced presence of DMT1 at the apical membrane. The decrease of DMT1 levels at the apical membrane induced by iron was associated with decreased iron uptake rates. A kinetic mathematical model based on operational rate constants of DMT1 endocytosis and exocytosis is proposed. The model qualitatively captures the experimental observations and accurately describes the effect of iron, NAC, and DMSO on the apical distribution of DMT1. Taken together, our data suggest that iron uptake induces the production of ROS, which modify DMT1 endocytic cycling, thus changing the iron transport activity at the apical membrane. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Effects of copper and ceruloplasmin on iron transport in the Caco 2 cell intestinal model.

    PubMed

    Zerounian, Nora R.; Linder, Maria C.

    2002-03-01

    Previous studies have implicated copper proteins, including ceruloplasmin, in intestinal iron transport. Polarized Caco2 cells with tight junctions were used to examine the possibilities that (a) ceruloplasmin promotes iron absorption by enhancing release at the basolateral cell surface and (b) copper deficiency reduces intestinal iron transport. Iron uptake and overall transport were followed for 90 min with 1 &mgr;M 59Fe(II) applied to the apical surface of Caco2 cell monolayers. Apotransferrin (38 &mgr;M) was in the basolateral chamber. Induction of iron deficiency with desferrioxamine (100 &mgr;M; 18 h) markedly increased uptake and overall transport of iron. Uptake increased from about 20% to about 65% of dose, and overall 59Fe transport from <1% to 60% of dose. On the basis of actual iron released into the basal chamber (measured with bathophenanthroline), transport increased 8-fold. Desferrioxamine pretreatment reduced cellular Fe by 55%. The addition of freshly isolated, enzymatically active human ceruloplasmin to the basolateral chamber during absorption had no effect on uptake or transport of iron by the cells. Unexpectedly, pretreatment with three different chelators of copper (18 h), which reduced cellular levels about 40%, more than doubled iron uptake and raised overall transport to 20%. This was so, whether or not cells were also made iron deficient with desferrioxamine. Acute addition of 1 &mgr;M Cu(II) to the apical chamber had no significant effect upon iron uptake, retention, or transport in iron deficient or normal cells, in the presence of absence of ascorbate. We conclude that intestinal absorption of Fe(II) is unlikely to depend upon plasma ceruloplasmin, and that cuproproteins involved in this form of iron transport must be binding copper tightly.

  9. Iron transport through ferroportin is induced by intracellular ascorbate and involves IRP2 and HIF2α.

    PubMed

    Scheers, Nathalie; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2014-01-03

    A few tightly regulated transport proteins mediate iron absorption across the intestinal epithelium. At the basolateral border of intestinal cells there is one identified transporter, ferroportin, for the transfer of intracellular iron to the vascular system. Here, we investigate the effects of ascorbate (vitamin C) on the regulation of ferroportin in human intestinal Caco-2 cells using ELISA and Western Blot analyses. The results indicate that ferroportin protein levels peak at 100 μM of added ascorbate with an increase of 274% (p=0.02). At 150 μM of ascorbate, the increase was only 28% (p=0.04), and at 200 μM there was no significant change from the baseline control. In addition, the ascorbate-induced, (at 150 μM) up-regulated ferroportin levels were associated with increased 55Fe transport across the basolateral border (19%, p=0.03). Ascorbate-induced up-regulation of cellular ferroportin levels (no added iron) was associated with increased levels of the iron regulatory protein IRP2 (230%, p=0.0009), and the hypoxia-inducible factor HIF2α (69%, p=0.03). Thus, iron transport across the basal border via ferroportin is influenced by the intracellular status of ascorbate and IRP2 and HIF2α are involved. We discuss possible reasons for the ascorbate-effects and the dependence of cellular growth conditions for iron transport-related protein expression.

  10. Effects of iron status on transpulmonary transport and tissue distribution of Mn and Fe.

    PubMed

    Brain, Joseph D; Heilig, Elizabeth; Donaghey, Thomas C; Knutson, Mitchell D; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne; Molina, Ramon M

    2006-03-01

    Manganese transport into the blood can result from inhaling metal-containing particles. Intestinal manganese and iron absorption is mediated by divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and is upregulated in iron deficiency. Since iron status alters absorption of Fe and Mn in the gut, we tested the hypothesis that iron status may alter pulmonary transport of these metals. DMT1 expression in the lungs was evaluated to explore its role in metal transport. The pharmacokinetics of intratracheally instilled 54Mn or 59Fe in repeatedly bled or iron oxide-exposed rats were compared with controls. Iron oxide exposure caused a reduction in pulmonary transport of 54Mn and 59Fe, and decreased uptake in other major organs. Low iron status from repeated bleeding also reduced pulmonary transport of iron but not of manganese. However, uptake of manganese in the brain and of iron in the spleen increased in bled rats. DMT1 transcripts were detected in airway epithelium, alveolar macrophages, and bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue in all rats. Focal increases were seen in particle-containing macrophages and adjacent epithelial cells, but no change was observed in bled rats. Although lung DMT1 expression did not correlate with iron status, differences in pharmacokinetics of instilled metals suggest that their potential toxicity can be modified by iron status.

  11. Calcium channel blockers ameliorate iron overload-associated hepatic fibrosis by altering iron transport and stellate cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Xin; Chang, Yanzhong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Chu, Xi; Zhang, Xuan; Liu, Zhenyi; Guo, Hui; Wang, Na; Gao, Yonggang; Zhang, Jianping; Chu, Li

    2016-06-15

    Liver fibrosis is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with iron overload. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) can antagonize divalent cation entry into renal and myocardial cells and inhibit fibrogenic gene expression. We investigated the potential of CCBs to resolve iron overload-associated hepatic fibrosis. Kunming mice were assigned to nine groups (n=8 per group): control, iron overload, deferoxamine, high and low dose verapamil, high and low dose nimodipine, and high and low dose diltiazem. Iron deposition and hepatic fibrosis were measured in mouse livers. Expression levels of molecules associated with transmembrane iron transport were determined by molecular biology approaches. In vitro HSC-T6 cells were randomized into nine groups (the same groups as the mice). Changes in proliferation, apoptosis, and metalloproteinase expression in cells were detected to assess the anti-fibrotic effects of CCBs during iron overload conditions. We found that CCBs reduced hepatic iron content, intracellular iron deposition, the number of hepatic fibrotic areas, collagen expression levels, and hydroxyproline content. CCBs rescued abnormal expression of α1C protein in L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel (LVDCC) and down-regulated divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT-1) expression in mouse livers. In iron-overloaded HSC-T6 cells, CCBs reduced iron deposition, inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1). CCBs are potential therapeutic agents that can be used to address hepatic fibrosis during iron overload. They resolve hepatic fibrosis probably correlated with regulating transmembrane iron transport and inhibiting HSC growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. SUBSURFACE EMPLACEMENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    T. Wilson; R. Novotny

    1999-11-22

    The objective of this analysis is to identify issues and criteria that apply to the design of the Subsurface Emplacement Transportation System (SET). The SET consists of the track used by the waste package handling equipment, the conductors and related equipment used to supply electrical power to that equipment, and the instrumentation and controls used to monitor and operate those track and power supply systems. Major considerations of this analysis include: (1) Operational life of the SET; (2) Geometric constraints on the track layout; (3) Operating loads on the track; (4) Environmentally induced loads on the track; (5) Power supply (electrification) requirements; and (6) Instrumentation and control requirements. This analysis will provide the basis for development of the system description document (SDD) for the SET. This analysis also defines the interfaces that need to be considered in the design of the SET. These interfaces include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Waste handling building; (2) Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface site layout; (3) Waste Emplacement System (WES); (4) Waste Retrieval System (WRS); (5) Ground Control System (GCS); (6) Ex-Container System (XCS); (7) Subsurface Electrical Distribution System (SED); (8) MGR Operations Monitoring and Control System (OMC); (9) Subsurface Facility System (SFS); (10) Subsurface Fire Protection System (SFR); (11) Performance Confirmation Emplacement Drift Monitoring System (PCM); and (12) Backfill Emplacement System (BES).

  13. Expression and purification of functionally active ferrous iron transporter FeoB from Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Smith, Aaron T; Sestok, Alexandrea E

    2017-09-20

    The acquisition of ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) is an important virulence factor utilized by several hospital-acquired (nosocomial) pathogens such as Klebsiella pneumoniae to establish infection within human hosts. Virtually all bacteria use the ferrous iron transport system (Feo) to acquire ferrous iron from their environments, which are often biological niches that stabilize Fe(2+) relative to Fe(3+). However, the details of this process remain poorly understood, likely owing to the few expression and purification systems capable of supplying sufficient quantities of the chief component of the Feo system, the integral membrane GTPase FeoB. This bottleneck has undoubtedly hampered efforts to understand this system in order to target it for therapeutic intervention. In this study, we describe the expression, solubilization, and purification of the Fe(2+) transporter from K. pneumoniae, KpFeoB. We show that this protein may be heterologously overexpressed in Escherichia coli as the host organism. After testing several different commercially-available detergents, we have developed a solubilization and purification protocol that produces milligram quantities of KpFeoB with sufficient purity for enzymatic and biophysical analyses. Importantly, we demonstrate that KpFeoB displays robust GTP hydrolysis activity (kcat(GTP) of ∼10(-1) s(-1)) in the absence of any additional stimulatory factors. Our findings suggest that K. pneumoniae may be capable of using its Feo system to drive Fe(2+) import in an active manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Growth characteristics and control of iron bacteria on cast iron in drinking water distribution systems].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xiao-Jian; Chen, Yu-Qiao; Lu, Pin-Pin; Chen, Chao

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated the growth characteristics of iron bacteria on cast iron and relationship between suspended and attached iron bacteria. The steady-state growth of iron bacteria would need 12 d and iron bacteria level in effluents increased 1 lg. Hydraulics influence on iron bacteria level and detachment rate of steady-state attached iron bacteria was not significant. But it could affect the time of attached iron bacteria on cast-iron coupons reaching to steady state. When the chlorine residual was 0.3 mg/L, the iron bacteria growth could be controlled effectively and suspended and attached iron bacteria levels both decreased 1 lg. When the chlorine residual was more than 1.0 mg/L, it could not inactivate the iron bacteria of internal corrosion scale yet. There was little effect on inhibiting the iron bacteria growth that the chlorine residual was 0.05 mg/L in drinking water quality standard of China. The iron bacteria on coupons reached to steady state without disinfectant and then increased the chlorine residual to 1.25 mg/L, the attached iron bacteria level could decrease 2 lg to 3 lg. Under steady-state, the suspended iron bacteria levels were linearly dependent on the attached iron bacteria. The control of iron bacteria in drinking water distribution systems was advanced: maintaining the chlorine residual (0.3 mg/L), flushing the pipeline with high dosage disinfectant, adopting corrosion-resistant pipe materials and renovating the old pipe loop.

  15. Mars Equipment Transport System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorrells, Cindy; Geiger, Michelle; Ohanlon, Sean; Pieloch, Stuart; Brogan, Nick

    1993-01-01

    Mechanical Engineering Senior Design Project 1 (ME4182) is a part of the NASA/University Advanced Design Program. Under this program, NASA allocates money and resources to students to be used in design work for a specified topic. The current topic is the exploration and colonization of Mars. The specific area in which we are to work is the transportation of the modules in which astronauts will live while on Mars. NASA is concerned about the weight of the module transferring system, as the shipping cost to Mars is quite expensive. NASA has specified that the weight of the system is to be minimized in order to reduce the shipping costs.

  16. Identification and characterization of an iron ABC transporter operon in Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal 5.

    PubMed

    Urzúa, Lucia Soto; Vázquez-Candanedo, Ada P; Sánchez-Espíndola, Adriana; Ramírez, Carlos Ávila; Baca, Beatriz E

    2013-06-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium and endophyte of sugarcane. We have cloned and sequenced the genes coding for the components of the iron ABC-type acquisition system of G. diazotrophicus. Sequence analysis revealed three ORFs, (feuA, feuB, and feuC) organized as an operon and encoding polypeptides of 346 (38 kDa), 342 (34.2 kDa), and 240 (26 kDa) amino acids, respectively. The deduced translation products of the feu operon showed similarity with a periplasmic solute-binding protein (FeuA), permease (FeuB), and ATPase (FeuC) involved in Fe transport. The role of FeuB in the survival of G. diazotrophicus under iron depletion was evaluated by comparing the ability of wild-type and FeuB-Km(R) -mutant strains in a medium without iron supplementation and in a medium containing 2, 2'-dipyridyl (DP). Growth of the mutant was affected in the medium containing DP. The operon was expressed at higher levels in cells depleted for iron than in those that contained the metal. A decrease in nitrogenase activity was observed with the FeuB-Km(R) -mutant strain that with the wild-type under iron deficiency conditions, suggesting that the Feu operon play role in Fe nutrition of G. diazotrophicus.

  17. Space Transportation Systems Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, Jay H.

    2001-01-01

    This document is the final report by the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) on contracted support provided to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under Contract NAS8-99060, 'Space Transportation Systems Technologies'. This contract, initiated by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) on February 8, 1999, was focused on space systems technologies that directly support NASA's space flight goals. It was awarded as a Cost-Plus-Incentive-Fee (CPIF) contract to SAIC, following a competitive procurement via NASA Research Announcement, NRA 8-21. This NRA was specifically focused on tasks related to Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs). Through Task Area 3 (TA-3), "Other Related Technology" of this NRA contract, SAIC extensively supported the Space Transportation Directorate of MSFC in effectively directing, integrating, and setting its mission, operations, and safety priorities for future RLV-focused space flight. Following an initially contracted Base Year (February 8, 1999 through September 30, 1999), two option years were added to the contract. These were Option Year 1 (October 1, 1999 through September 30, 2000) and Option Year 2 (October 1, 2000 through September 30, 2001). This report overviews SAIC's accomplishments for the Base Year, Option Year 1, and Option Year 2, and summarizes the support provided by SAIC to the Space Transportation Directorate, NASA/MSFC.

  18. Mars transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, William; Vano, Andrew; Rutherford, Dave

    1992-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Advanced Space Design Program has developed a sample Mars exploration scenario. The purpose of the design project is to enhance NASA and university interaction, to provide fresh ideas to NASA, and to provide real world design problems to engineering students. The Mars Transportation System in this paper is designed to transport a crew of six astronauts to the Martian surface and return them to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) starting in the year 2016. The proposed vehicle features such advanced technologies as nuclear propulsion, nuclear power generation, and aerobraking. Three missions are planned. Orbital trajectories are of the conjunction class with an inbound Venus swingby providing a 60-day surface stay at Mars and an average total trip time of 520 days.

  19. Localization of Iron in Arabidopsis Seed Requires the Vacuolar Membrane Transporter VIT1

    SciTech Connect

    Kim,S.; Punshon, T.; Lanzirotti, A.; Li, L.; Alonso, J.; Ecker, J.; Kaplan, J.; Guerinot, M.

    2006-01-01

    Iron deficiency is a major human nutritional problem wherever plant-based diets are common. Using synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microtomography to directly visualize iron in Arabidopsis seeds, we show that iron is localized primarily to the provascular strands of the embryo. This localization is completely abolished when the vacuolar iron uptake transporter VIT1 is disrupted. Vacuolar iron storage is also critical for seedling development because vit1-1 seedlings grow poorly when iron is limiting. We have uncovered a fundamental aspect of seed biology that will ultimately aid the development of nutrient-rich seed, benefiting both human health and agricultural productivity.

  20. Electrophoresis enhanced transport of nano-scale zero valent iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Ahmed I. A.; O'Carroll, Denis M.; Xu, Yanqing; Sleep, Brent E.

    2012-05-01

    Electrokinetics (EK) has been used extensively to remove heavy metals from low permeability porous media. Electrokinetics (EK) or more specifically electrophoresis (EP) has also been proposed to enhance transport of nanoscale zero valent iron (NZVI) in fine grained porous media in the subsurface. However, increased dissolved oxygen and lower pH, due to electrolysis of water at the anode oxidizes NZVI particles and thus affects the remediation potential of EP with NZVI. This study focuses on minimization of NZVI oxidation and quantification of NZVI migration enhancement through the application of EP. Application of 50 and 100 mA currents under constant current conditions with an oxygen scavenger enhanced NZVI transport from the cathode to the anode. The enhancement in transport compared to diffusion was proportional to the applied current. Predictions of a numerical model, based on traditional colloidal filtration theory (CFT), were consistent with experimental results. In developing the model, the traditional CFT based mass balance equation was modified for the case of no advection. This study suggests that EP has the potential to deliver NZVI in low permeability porous media and that the numerical simulator can be used to predict NZVI mobility with EP.

  1. Competitive adsorption, displacement, and transport of organic matter on iron oxide: II. Displacement and transport

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, B; Mehlhorn, T.L.; Liang, Liyuan

    1996-08-01

    The competitive interactions between organic matter compounds and mineral surfaces are poorly understood, yet these interactions may play a significant role in the stability and co-transport of mineral colloids and/or environmental contaminants. In this study, the processes of competitive adsorption, displacement, and transport of Suwannee River natural organic matter (SR-NOM) are investigated with several model organic compounds in packed beds of iron oxide-coated quartz columns. Results demonstrated that strongly-binding organic compounds are competitively adsorbed and displace those weakly-bound organic compounds along the flow path. Among the four organic compounds studied, polyacrylic acid (PAA) appeared to be the most competitive, whereas SR-NOM was more competitive than phthalic and salicylic acids. A diffuse adsorption and sharp desorption front (giving an appearance of irreversible adsorption) of the SR-NOM breakthrough curves are explained as being a result of the competitive time-dependent adsorption and displacement processes between different organic components within the SR-NOM. The stability and transport of iron oxide colloids varied as one organic component competitively displaces another. Relatively large quantities of iron oxide colloids are transported when the more strongly-binding PAA competitively displaces the weakly-binding SR-NOM or when SR-NOM competitively displaces phthalic and salicylic acids. Results of this study suggest that the chemical composition and hence the functional behavior of NOM (e.g., in stabilizing mineral colloids and in complexing contaminants) can change along its flow path as a result of the dynamic competitive interactions between heterogeneous NOM subcomponents. Further studies are needed to better define and quantify these NOM components as well as their roles in contaminant partitioning and transport. 37 refs., 10 figs.

  2. The Bacillus subtilis EfeUOB transporter is essential for high-affinity acquisition of ferrous and ferric iron.

    PubMed

    Miethke, Marcus; Monteferrante, Carmine G; Marahiel, Mohamed A; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2013-10-01

    Efficient uptake of iron is of critical importance for growth and viability of microbial cells. Nevertheless, several mechanisms for iron uptake are not yet clearly defined. Here we report that the widely conserved transporter EfeUOB employs an unprecedented dual-mode mechanism for acquisition of ferrous (Fe[II]) and ferric (Fe[III]) iron in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis. We show that the binding protein EfeO and the permease EfeU form a minimal complex for ferric iron uptake. The third component EfeB is a hemoprotein that oxidizes ferrous iron to ferric iron for uptake by EfeUO. Accordingly, EfeB promotes growth under microaerobic conditions where ferrous iron is more abundant. Notably, EfeB also fulfills a vital role in cell envelope stress protection by eliminating reactive oxygen species that accumulate in the presence of ferrous iron. In conclusion, the EfeUOB system contributes to the high-affinity uptake of iron that is available in two different oxidation states. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pneumatic Pellet-Transporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, George; Pugsley, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    Pneumatic system transports food pellets to confined animals. Flow of air into venturi assembly entrains round pellets, drawing them from reservoir into venturi for transport by airflow. Pneumatic pellet-transporting system includes venturi assembly, which creates flow of air that draws pellets into system.

  4. Pneumatic Pellet-Transporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, George; Pugsley, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    Pneumatic system transports food pellets to confined animals. Flow of air into venturi assembly entrains round pellets, drawing them from reservoir into venturi for transport by airflow. Pneumatic pellet-transporting system includes venturi assembly, which creates flow of air that draws pellets into system.

  5. Two iron-regulated transporter (IRT) genes showed differential expression in poplar trees under iron or zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Huang, Danqiong; Dai, Wenhao

    2015-08-15

    Two iron-regulated transporter (IRT) genes were cloned from the iron chlorosis resistant (PtG) and susceptible (PtY) Populus tremula 'Erecta' lines. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed no significant difference between PtG and PtY. The predicted proteins contain a conserved ZIP domain with 8 transmembrane (TM) regions. A ZIP signature sequence was found in the fourth TM domain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PtIRT1 was clustered with tomato and tobacco IRT genes that are highly responsible to iron deficiency. The PtIRT3 gene was clustered with the AtIRT3 gene that was related to zinc and iron transport in plants. Tissue specific expression indicated that PtIRT1 only expressed in the root, while PtIRT3 constitutively expressed in all tested tissues. Under iron deficiency, the expression of PtIRT1 was dramatically increased and a significantly higher transcript level was detected in PtG than in PtY. Iron deficiency also enhanced the expression of PtIRT3 in PtG. On the other hand, zinc deficiency down-regulated the expression of PtIRT1 and PtIRT3 in both PtG and PtY. Zinc accumulated significantly under iron-deficient conditions, whereas the zinc deficiency showed no significant effect on iron accumulation. A yeast complementation test revealed that the PtIRT1 and PtIRT3 genes could restore the iron uptake ability under the iron uptake-deficiency condition. The results will help understand the mechanisms of iron deficiency response in poplar trees and other woody species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Integral habitat transport system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Bill; Frazer, Scott; Higgs, Joey; Huff, Jason; Milam, Tigree

    1994-01-01

    In the 1993 Fall quarter, the ME 4182 design class was sponsored to study various scenarios that needed to be studied for Martian travel. The class was sponsored by NASA and there were several different design projects. The design that group three chose was an integral transport system for a Martian habitat. An integral transport system means the design had to be one that was attached to the habitat. There were several criteria that the design had to meet. Group three performed an in depth study of the Martian environment and looked at several different design ideas. The concept group three developed involved the use of kinematic linkages and the use of Martian gravity to move the habitat. The various design concepts, the criteria matrices and all other aspects that helped group three develop their design can be found in their 1993 ME 4182 design report. Now it is Winter quarter 1994 and group three is faced with another problem. The problem is building a working prototype of their Fall design. The limitations this quarter were the parts. The group had to make the prototype work with existing manufactured parts or make the parts themselves in a machine shop. The prototype was scaled down roughly about twelve times smaller than the original design. The following report describes the actions taken by group three to build a working model.

  7. Chaotic transport in dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, Stephen

    The subject of chaotic transport in dynamical systems is examined from the viewpoint of problems of phase space transport. The examples considered include uniform elliptical vortices in external linear time-dependent velocity fields; capture and passage through resonance in celestial mechanics; bubble dynamics in straining flows; and photodissociation of molecules. The discussion covers transport in two-dimensional maps; convective mixing and transport problems in fluid mechanics; transport in quasi-periodically forced systems; Markov models; and transport in k-degree-of-freedom Hamiltonian systems.

  8. Separate sites and mechanisms for placental transport of calcium, iron and glucose in the equine placenta.

    PubMed

    Wooding, F B; Morgan, G; Fowden, A L; Allen, W R

    2000-09-01

    The placenta is the only channel for transport of nutrients to the conceptus and the fetal nutrient demands increase exponentially to term. The 9 kDa calcium binding protein (calbindin, 9CBP) and the iron binding protein uteroferrin (UF) are proving to be reliable markers for epithelia that mediate active transcellular calcium and iron transport and the glucose transporter proteins (GT1 and GT3) for glucose transport by facilitated diffusion. Light and electron microscope immunocytochemistry have been used on perfusion fixed resin embedded material to establish the distribution of 9CBP, UF, GT1 and GT3 in the equine placenta from 100 days of pregnancy to term (336 days). The equine placenta has two main structural components, flat areolae and microcotyledons. From 100 days of pregnancy to term immunoreactive 9CBP is found only in the cytoplasm of the maternal glands and the areolar trophoblast cells with none in the microcotyledons; whereas GT1 is present exclusively in the microcotyledons on the basolateral plasmalemma of both trophoblast and uterine epithelia with GT3 on the apical microvilli. The glands show neither GT1 nor GT3 expression. The areas of both areolae and microcotyledons increase enormously during gestation but there is no indication of increasing amounts of 9CBP, GT1 or GT3 protein per cell. Glucose transport through the placental cell cytoplasm is by diffusion of the free molecule, but calcium ions in transit must be sequestered in some way since the high calcium fluxes needed to support fetal bone growth in later pregnancy would be deleterious to calcium based homeostasis and cellular control systems. Electron microscope immunocytochemistry shows that 9CBP is uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm of the areolar trophoblast cells but excluded from all membrane bounded compartments such as mitochondria, Golgi saccules and pinocytotic transport vesicles. Such apical transport vesicles can be identified immunocytochemically by their

  9. Chloroplast Iron Transport Proteins – Function and Impact on Plant Physiology

    PubMed Central

    López-Millán, Ana F.; Duy, Daniela; Philippar, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplasts originated about three billion years ago by endosymbiosis of an ancestor of today’s cyanobacteria with a mitochondria-containing host cell. During evolution chloroplasts of higher plants established as the site for photosynthesis and thus became the basis for all life dependent on oxygen and carbohydrate supply. To fulfill this task, plastid organelles are loaded with the transition metals iron, copper, and manganese, which due to their redox properties are essential for photosynthetic electron transport. In consequence, chloroplasts for example represent the iron-richest system in plant cells. However, improvement of oxygenic photosynthesis in turn required adaptation of metal transport and homeostasis since metal-catalyzed generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causes oxidative damage. This is most acute in chloroplasts, where radicals and transition metals are side by side and ROS-production is a usual feature of photosynthetic electron transport. Thus, on the one hand when bound by proteins, chloroplast-intrinsic metals are a prerequisite for photoautotrophic life, but on the other hand become toxic when present in their highly reactive, radical generating, free ionic forms. In consequence, transport, storage and cofactor-assembly of metal ions in plastids have to be tightly controlled and are crucial throughout plant growth and development. In the recent years, proteins for iron transport have been isolated from chloroplast envelope membranes. Here, we discuss their putative functions and impact on cellular metal homeostasis as well as photosynthetic performance and plant metabolism. We further consider the potential of proteomic analyses to identify new players in the field. PMID:27014281

  10. Expression of peanut Iron Regulated Transporter 1 in tobacco and rice plants confers improved iron nutrition.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Hongchun; Guo, Xiaotong; Kobayashi, Takanori; Kakei, Yusuke; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nozoye, Tomoko; Zhang, Lixia; Shen, Hongyun; Qiu, Wei; Nishizawa, Naoko K; Zuo, Yuanmei

    2014-07-01

    Iron (Fe) limitation is a widespread agricultural problem in calcareous soils and severely limits crop production. Iron Regulated Transporter 1 (IRT1) is a key component for Fe uptake from the soil in dicot plants. In this study, the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) AhIRT1 was introduced into tobacco and rice plants using an Fe-deficiency-inducible artificial promoter. Induced expression of AhIRT1 in tobacco plants resulted in accumulation of Fe in young leaves under Fe deficient conditions. Even under Fe-excess conditions, the Fe concentration was also markedly enhanced, suggesting that the Fe status did not affect the uptake and translocation of Fe by AhIRT1 in the transgenic plants. Most importantly, the transgenic tobacco plants showed improved tolerance to Fe limitation in culture in two types of calcareous soils. Additionally, the induced expression of AhIRT1 in rice plants also resulted in high tolerance to low Fe availability in calcareous soils.

  11. A Golgi-localized MATE transporter mediates iron homoeostasis under osmotic stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Seo, Pil Joon; Park, Jungmin; Park, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Youn-Sung; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Jung, Jae-Hoon; Park, Chung-Mo

    2012-03-15

    Iron is an essential micronutrient that acts as a cofactor in a wide variety of pivotal metabolic processes, such as the electron transport chain of respiration, photosynthesis and redox reactions, in plants. However, its overload exceeding the cellular capacity of iron binding and storage is potentially toxic to plant cells by causing oxidative stress and cell death. Consequently, plants have developed versatile mechanisms to maintain iron homoeostasis. Organismal iron content is tightly regulated at the steps of uptake, translocation and compartmentalization. Whereas iron uptake is fairly well understood at the cellular and organismal levels, intracellular and intercellular transport is only poorly understood. In the present study, we show that a MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) transporter, designated BCD1 (BUSH-AND-CHLOROTIC-DWARF 1), contributes to iron homoeostasis during stress responses and senescence in Arabidopsis. The BCD1 gene is induced by excessive iron, but repressed by iron deficiency. It is also induced by cellular and tissue damage occurring under osmotic stress. The activation-tagged mutant bcd1-1D exhibits leaf chlorosis, a typical symptom of iron deficiency. The chlorotic lesion of the mutant was partially recovered by iron feeding. Whereas the bcd1-1D mutant accumulated a lower amount of iron, the iron level was elevated in the knockout mutant bcd1-1. The BCD1 protein is localized to the Golgi complex. We propose that the BCD1 transporter plays a role in sustaining iron homoeostasis by reallocating excess iron released from stress-induced cellular damage.

  12. The Arabidopsis YELLOW STRIPE LIKE4 and 6 transporters control iron release from the chloroplast.

    PubMed

    Divol, Fanchon; Couch, Daniel; Conéjéro, Geneviève; Roschzttardtz, Hannetz; Mari, Stéphane; Curie, Catherine

    2013-03-01

    In most plant cell types, the chloroplast represents the largest sink for iron, which is both essential for chloroplast metabolism and prone to cause oxidative damage. Here, we show that to buffer the potentially harmful effects of iron, besides ferritins for storage, the chloroplast is equipped with specific iron transporters that respond to iron toxicity by removing iron from the chloroplast. We describe two transporters of the YELLOW STRIPE1-LIKE family from Arabidopsis thaliana, YSL4 and YSL6, which are likely to fulfill this function. Knocking out both YSL4 and YSL6 greatly reduces the plant's ability to cope with excess iron. Biochemical and immunolocalization analyses showed that YSL6 resides in the chloroplast envelope. Elemental analysis and histochemical staining indicate that iron is trapped in the chloroplasts of the ysl4 ysl6 double mutants, which also accumulate ferritins. Also, vacuolar iron remobilization and NRAMP3/4 expression are inhibited. Furthermore, ubiquitous expression of YSL4 or YSL6 dramatically reduces plant tolerance to iron deficiency and decreases chloroplastic iron content. These data demonstrate a fundamental role for YSL4 and YSL6 in managing chloroplastic iron. YSL4 and YSL6 expression patterns support their physiological role in detoxifying iron during plastid dedifferentiation occurring in embryogenesis and senescence.

  13. Transportation System Concept of Operations

    SciTech Connect

    N. Slater-Thompson

    2006-08-16

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, authorized the DOE to develop and manage a Federal system for the disposal of SNF and HLW. OCRWM was created to manage acceptance and disposal of SNF and HLW in a manner that protects public health, safety, and the environment; enhances national and energy security; and merits public confidence. This responsibility includes managing the transportation of SNF and HLW from origin sites to the Repository for disposal. The Transportation System Concept of Operations is the core high-level OCRWM document written to describe the Transportation System integrated design and present the vision, mission, and goals for Transportation System operations. By defining the functions, processes, and critical interfaces of this system early in the system development phase, programmatic risks are minimized, system costs are contained, and system operations are better managed, safer, and more secure. This document also facilitates discussions and understanding among parties responsible for the design, development, and operation of the Transportation System. Such understanding is important for the timely development of system requirements and identification of system interfaces. Information provided in the Transportation System Concept of Operations includes: the functions and key components of the Transportation System; system component interactions; flows of information within the system; the general operating sequences; and the internal and external factors affecting transportation operations. The Transportation System Concept of Operations reflects OCRWM's overall waste management system policies and mission objectives, and as such provides a description of the preferred state of system operation. The description of general Transportation System operating functions in the Transportation System Concept of Operations is the first step in the OCRWM systems engineering process, establishing the starting point for the lower level

  14. Specific expression of the vacuolar iron transporter, TgVit, causes iron accumulation in blue-colored inner bottom segments of various tulip petals.

    PubMed

    Momonoi, Kazumi; Tsuji, Toshiaki; Kazuma, Kohei; Yoshida, Kumi

    2012-01-01

    Several flowers of Tulipa gesneriana exhibit a blue color in the bottom segments of the inner perianth. We have previously reported the inner-bottom tissue-specific iron accumulation and expression of the vacuolar iron transporter, TgVit1, in tulip cv. Murasakizuisho. To clarify whether the TgVit1-dependent iron accumulation and blue-color development in tulip petals are universal, we analyzed anthocyanin, its co-pigment components, iron contents and the expression of TgVit1 mRNA in 13 cultivars which show a blue color in the bottom segments of the inner perianth accompanying yellow- and white-colored inner-bottom petals. All of the blue bottom segments contained the same anthocyanin component, delphinidin 3-rutinoside. The flavonol composition varied with cultivar and tissue part. The major flavonol in the bottom segments of the inner perianth was rutin. The iron content in the upper part was less than that in the bottom segments of the inner perianth. The iron content in the yellow and white petals was higher in the bottom segment of the inner perianth than in the upper tissues. TgVit1 mRNA expression was apparent in all of the bottom tissues of the inner perianth. The result of a reproduction experiment by mixing the constituents suggests that the blue coloration in tulip petals is generally caused by iron complexation to delphinidin 3-rutinoside and that the iron complex is solubilized and stabilized by flavonol glycosides. TgVit1-dependent iron accumulation in the bottom segments of the inner perianth might be controlled by an unknown system that differentiated the upper parts and bottom segments of the inner perianth.

  15. Analysis of high iron rice lines reveals new miRNAs that target iron transporters in roots

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Soumitra; Gayen, Dipak; Datta, Swapan K.; Datta, Karabi

    2016-01-01

    The present study highlights the molecular regulation of iron transport in soyFER1-overexpressing transgenic rice. Accumulation of iron in three different seed developmental stages, milk, dough, and mature, has been examined. The transgenic seeds of the milk stage showed significant augmentation of iron and zinc levels compared with wild-type seeds, and similar results were observed throughout the dough and mature stages. To investigate the regulation of iron transport, the role of miRNAs was studied in roots of transgenic rice. Sequencing of small RNA libraries revealed 153 known and 41 novel miRNAs in roots. Among them, 59 known and 14 novel miRNAs were found to be significantly expressed. miR166, miR399, and miR408 were identified as playing a vital role in iron uptake in roots of transgenic plants . Most importantly, four putative novel miRNAs, namely miR11, miR26, miR30, and miR31, were found to be down-regulated in roots of transgenic plants. For all these four novel miRNAs, natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 4 (NRAMP4), encoding a metal transporter, was predicted as a target gene. It is hypothesized that the NRAMP4 transporter is activated in roots of transgenic plants due to the lower abundance of its corresponding putative novel miRNAs. The relative transcript level of the NRAMP4 transcript was increased from 0.107 in the wild type to 65.24 and 55.39 in transgenic plants, which demonstrates the elevated amount of iron transport in transgenic plants. In addition, up-regulation of OsYSL15, OsFRO2, and OsIRT1 in roots also facilitates iron loading in transgenic seeds. PMID:27729476

  16. ROMANSE Public Transport Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Steven

    ROMANSE is multi-million pound pilot project based in Southampton. It aims to use Advanced Transport Telematics (ATT) to develop the city as a model for transport management systems across Europe. ROMANSE achieves this by providing realtime traffic and travel information to influence travel behaviour, increase the use of public transport, maximize the efficiency of the transport system and provide high-quality information for use in strategic policy decisions.

  17. SURFACE COMPLEXATION OF ACTINIDES WITH IRON OXIDES: IMPLICATIONS FOR RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT IN NEAR-SURFACE AQUIFERS

    SciTech Connect

    J.L. Jerden Jr.; A.J. Kropf; Y. Tsai

    2005-08-25

    The surface complexation of actinides with iron oxides plays a key role in actinide transport and retardation in geosphere-biosphere systems. The development of accurate actinide transport models therefore requires a mechanistic understanding of surface complexation reactions (i.e. knowledge of chemical speciation at mineral/fluid interfaces). Iron oxides are particularly important actinide sorbents due to their pH dependent surface charges, relatively high surface areas and ubiquity in oxic and suboxic near-surface systems. In this paper we present results from field and laboratory investigations that elucidate the mechanisms involved in binding uranium and neptunium to iron oxide mineral substrates in near neutral groundwaters. The field study involved sampling and characterizing uranium-bearing groundwaters and solids from a saprolite aquifer overlying an unmined uranium deposit in the Virginia Piedmont. The groundwaters were analyzed by inductively coupled mass spectrometry and ion chromatography and the aquifer solids were analyzed by electron microprobe. The laboratory study involved a series of batch sorption tests in which U(VI) and Np(V) were reacted with goethite, hematite and magnetite in simulated groundwaters. The pH, ionic strength, aging time, and sorbent/sorbate ratios were varied in these experiments. The oxidation state and coordination environment of neptunium in solutions and sorbents from the batch tests were characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. Results from this work indicate that, in oxidizing near-surface aquifers, the dissolved concentration of uranium may be limited to less than 30 parts per billion due to uptake by iron oxide mineral coatings and the precipitation of sparingly soluble U(VI) phosphate minerals. Results from the batch adsorption tests showed that, in near neutral groundwaters, a significant fraction of the uranium and neptunium adsorbed as strongly

  18. Effects of electron correlations on transport properties of iron at Earth's core conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Cohen, R E; Haule, K

    2015-01-29

    Earth's magnetic field has been thought to arise from thermal convection of molten iron alloy in the outer core, but recent density functional theory calculations have suggested that the conductivity of iron is too high to support thermal convection, resulting in the investigation of chemically driven convection. These calculations for resistivity were based on electron-phonon scattering. Here we apply self-consistent density functional theory plus dynamical mean-field theory (DFT + DMFT) to iron and find that at high temperatures electron-electron scattering is comparable to the electron-phonon scattering, bringing theory into agreement with experiments and solving the transport problem in Earth's core. The conventional thermal dynamo picture is safe. We find that electron-electron scattering of d electrons is important at high temperatures in transition metals, in contrast to textbook analyses since Mott, and that 4s electron contributions to transport are negligible, in contrast to numerous models used for over fifty years. The DFT+DMFT method should be applicable to other high-temperature systems where electron correlations are important.

  19. Characterization of a Dipartite Iron Uptake System from Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Strain F11*

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Doreen; Chan, Anson C. K.; Murphy, Michael E. P.; Lilie, Hauke; Grass, Gregor; Nies, Dietrich H.

    2011-01-01

    In the uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain F11, in silico genome analysis revealed the dicistronic iron uptake operon fetMP, which is under iron-regulated control mediated by the Fur regulator. The expression of fetMP in a mutant strain lacking known iron uptake systems improved growth under iron depletion and increased cellular iron accumulation. FetM is a member of the iron/lead transporter superfamily and is essential for iron uptake by the Fet system. FetP is a periplasmic protein that enhanced iron uptake by FetM. Recombinant FetP bound Cu(II) and the iron analog Mn(II) at distinct sites. The crystal structure of the FetP dimer reveals a copper site in each FetP subunit that adopts two conformations: CuA with a tetrahedral geometry composed of His44, Met90, His97, and His127, and CuB, a second degenerate octahedral geometry with the addition of Glu46. The copper ions of each site occupy distinct positions and are separated by ∼1.3 Å. Nearby, a putative additional Cu(I) binding site is proposed as an electron source that may function with CuA/CuB displacement to reduce Fe(III) for transport by FetM. Together, these data indicate that FetMP is an additional iron uptake system composed of a putative iron permease and an iron-scavenging and potentially iron-reducing periplasmic protein. PMID:21596746

  20. Out of Balance—Systemic Iron Homeostasis in Iron-Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Steinbicker, Andrea U.; Muckenthaler, Martina U.

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential element in our daily diet. Most iron is required for the de novo synthesis of red blood cells, where it plays a critical role in oxygen binding to hemoglobin. Thus, iron deficiency causes anemia, a major public health burden worldwide. On the other extreme, iron accumulation in critical organs such as liver, heart, and pancreas causes organ dysfunction due to the generation of oxidative stress. Therefore, systemic iron levels must be tightly balanced. Here we focus on the regulatory role of the hepcidin/ferroportin circuitry as the major regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. We discuss how regulatory cues (e.g., iron, inflammation, or hypoxia) affect the hepcidin response and how impairment of the hepcidin/ferroportin regulatory system causes disorders of iron metabolism. PMID:23917168

  1. Transport of Lactate-modified Nanoscale Iron Particles in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, K. R.

    2012-12-01

    Nanoscale iron particles (NIP) have recently shown to be effective for dehalogenation of recalcitrant organic contaminants such as pentachlorphenol (PCP) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) in the environment. However, effective transport of NIP into the contaminated subsurface zones is crucial for the success of in-situ remediation. Previous studies showed that the transport of NIP in soils is very limited and surface-modification of NIP is required to achieve adequate transport. This paper investigates the transport of NIP and lactate-modified NIP (LMNIP) through four different porous media (sands with different particle size and distribution). A series of laboratory column experiments was conducted to quantify the transport of NIP and LMNIP at two different slurry concentrations of 1 g/L and 4 g/L under two different flow velcoities. NIP used in this study possessed magentic properties, thus a magnetic susceptibility sensor system was used to monitor the changes in magnetic susceptibility (MS) along the length of the column at different times during the experiments. At the end of testing, the distribution of total Fe in the sand column was measured. Results showed a linear correlation between the Fe concentration and MS and it was used to assess the transient transport of NIP and LMNIP in the sand columns. Results showed that LMNIP transported better than bare NIP and higher concentration of 4 g/L LMNIP exhibited unform and greater transport compared to other tested conditions. Transport of NIP increased in the order from fine Ottawa sand > medium field sand > coarse field sand > coarse Ottawa sand. Filtration theory and advective-dispersion equation with reaction were applied to capture the transport response of NIP and LMNIP in the sand columns.

  2. Ceruloplasmin ferroxidase activity stimulates cellular iron uptake by a trivalent cation-specific transport mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attieh, Z. K.; Mukhopadhyay, C. K.; Seshadri, V.; Tripoulas, N. A.; Fox, P. L.

    1999-01-01

    The balance required to maintain appropriate cellular and tissue iron levels has led to the evolution of multiple mechanisms to precisely regulate iron uptake from transferrin and low molecular weight iron chelates. A role for ceruloplasmin (Cp) in vertebrate iron metabolism is suggested by its potent ferroxidase activity catalyzing conversion of Fe2+ to Fe3+, by identification of yeast copper oxidases homologous to Cp that facilitate high affinity iron uptake, and by studies of "aceruloplasminemic" patients who have extensive iron deposits in multiple tissues. We have recently shown that Cp increases iron uptake by cultured HepG2 cells. In this report, we investigated the mechanism by which Cp stimulates cellular iron uptake. Cp stimulated the rate of non-transferrin 55Fe uptake by iron-deficient K562 cells by 2-3-fold, using a transferrin receptor-independent pathway. Induction of Cp-stimulated iron uptake by iron deficiency was blocked by actinomycin D and cycloheximide, consistent with a transcriptionally induced or regulated transporter. Cp-stimulated iron uptake was completely blocked by unlabeled Fe3+ and by other trivalent cations including Al3+, Ga3+, and Cr3+, but not by divalent cations. These results indicate that Cp utilizes a trivalent cation-specific transporter. Cp ferroxidase activity was required for iron uptake as shown by the ineffectiveness of two ferroxidase-deficient Cp preparations, copper-deficient Cp and thiomolybdate-treated Cp. We propose a model in which iron reduction and subsequent re-oxidation by Cp are essential for an iron uptake pathway with high ion specificity.

  3. Ceruloplasmin ferroxidase activity stimulates cellular iron uptake by a trivalent cation-specific transport mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attieh, Z. K.; Mukhopadhyay, C. K.; Seshadri, V.; Tripoulas, N. A.; Fox, P. L.

    1999-01-01

    The balance required to maintain appropriate cellular and tissue iron levels has led to the evolution of multiple mechanisms to precisely regulate iron uptake from transferrin and low molecular weight iron chelates. A role for ceruloplasmin (Cp) in vertebrate iron metabolism is suggested by its potent ferroxidase activity catalyzing conversion of Fe2+ to Fe3+, by identification of yeast copper oxidases homologous to Cp that facilitate high affinity iron uptake, and by studies of "aceruloplasminemic" patients who have extensive iron deposits in multiple tissues. We have recently shown that Cp increases iron uptake by cultured HepG2 cells. In this report, we investigated the mechanism by which Cp stimulates cellular iron uptake. Cp stimulated the rate of non-transferrin 55Fe uptake by iron-deficient K562 cells by 2-3-fold, using a transferrin receptor-independent pathway. Induction of Cp-stimulated iron uptake by iron deficiency was blocked by actinomycin D and cycloheximide, consistent with a transcriptionally induced or regulated transporter. Cp-stimulated iron uptake was completely blocked by unlabeled Fe3+ and by other trivalent cations including Al3+, Ga3+, and Cr3+, but not by divalent cations. These results indicate that Cp utilizes a trivalent cation-specific transporter. Cp ferroxidase activity was required for iron uptake as shown by the ineffectiveness of two ferroxidase-deficient Cp preparations, copper-deficient Cp and thiomolybdate-treated Cp. We propose a model in which iron reduction and subsequent re-oxidation by Cp are essential for an iron uptake pathway with high ion specificity.

  4. Advanced space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disher, J. H.; Hethcoat, J. P.; Page, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Projected growth in space transportation capabilities beyond the initial Space Shuttle is discussed in terms of earth-to-low-orbit launch vehicles as well as transportation beyond low orbit (orbit transfer vehicles). Growth versions of the Shuttle and heavy-lift derivatives of the Shuttle are shown conceptually. More advanced launch vehicle concepts are also shown, based on rocket propulsion or combinations of rocket and air-breathing propulsion. Orbit transfer vehicle concepts for personnel transport and for cargo transport are discussed, including chemical rocket as well as electric propulsion. Finally, target levels of capability and efficiencies for later time periods are discussed and compared with the prospective vehicle concepts mentioned earlier.

  5. Excess capacity of the iron regulatory protein system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Di, Xiumin; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Torti, Suzy V; Torti, Frank M

    2007-08-24

    Iron regulatory proteins (IRP1 and IRP2) are master regulators of cellular iron metabolism. IRPs bind to iron-responsive elements (IREs) present in the untranslated regions of mRNAs encoding proteins of iron storage, uptake, transport, and export. Because simultaneous knockout of IRP1 and IRP2 is embryonically lethal, it has not been possible to use dual knockouts to explore the consequences of loss of both IRP1 and IRP2 in mammalian cells. In this report, we describe the use of small interfering RNA to assess the relative contributions of IRP1 and IRP2 in epithelial cells. Stable cell lines were created in which either IRP1, IRP2, or both were knocked down. Knockdown of IRP1 decreased IRE binding activity but did not affect ferritin H and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) expression, whereas knockdown of IRP2 marginally affected IRE binding activity but caused an increase in ferritin H and a decrease in TfR1. Knockdown of both IRPs resulted in a greater reduction of IRE binding activity and more severe perturbation of ferritin H and TfR1 expression compared with single IRP knockdown. Even though the knockdown of IRP-1, IRP-2, or both was efficient, resulting in nondetectable protein and under 5% of wild type levels of mRNA, all stable knockdowns retained an ability to modulate ferritin H and TfR1 appropriately in response to iron challenge. However, further knockdown of IRPs accomplished by transient transfection of small interfering RNA in stable knockdown cells completely abolished the response of ferritin H and TfR1 to iron challenge, demonstrating an extensive excess capacity of the IRP system.

  6. Raman hyperspectral imaging of iron transport across membranes in cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Anupam; Costa, Xavier Felipe; Khmaladze, Alexander; Barroso, Margarida; Sharikova, Anna

    2016-09-01

    Raman scattering microscopy is a powerful imaging technique used to identify chemical composition, structural and conformational state of molecules of complex samples in biology, biophysics, medicine and materials science. In this work, we have shown that Raman techniques allow the measurement of the iron content in protein mixtures and cells. Since the mechanisms of iron acquisition, storage, and excretion by cells are not completely understood, improved knowledge of iron metabolism can offer insight into many diseases in which iron plays a role in the pathogenic process, such as diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and metabolic syndrome. Understanding of the processes involved in cellular iron metabolism will improve our knowledge of cell functioning. It will also have a big impact on treatment of diseases caused by iron deficiency (anemias) and iron overload (hereditary hemochromatosis). Previously, Raman studies have shown substantial differences in spectra of transferrin with and without bound iron, thus proving that it is an appropriate technique to determine the levels of bound iron in the protein mixture. We have extended these studies to obtain hyperspectral images of transferrin in cells. By employing a Raman scanning microscope together with spectral detection by a highly sensitive back-illuminated cooled CCD camera, we were able to rapidly acquire and process images of fixed cells with chemical selectivity. We discuss and compare various methods of hyperspectral Raman image analysis and demonstrate the use of these methods to characterize cellular iron content without the need for dye labeling.

  7. Role of duodenal iron transporters and hepcidin in patients with alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Dostalikova-Cimburova, Marketa; Balusikova, Kamila; Kratka, Karolina; Chmelikova, Jitka; Hejda, Vaclav; Hnanicek, Jan; Neubauerova, Jitka; Vranova, Jana; Kovar, Jan; Horak, Jiri

    2014-09-01

    Patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) often display disturbed iron indices. Hepcidin, a key regulator of iron metabolism, has been shown to be down-regulated by alcohol in cell lines and animal models. This down-regulation led to increased duodenal iron transport and absorption in animals. In this study, we investigated gene expression of duodenal iron transport molecules and hepcidin in three groups of patients with ALD (with anaemia, with iron overload and without iron overload) and controls. Expression of DMT1, FPN1, DCYTB, HEPH, HFE and TFR1 was measured in duodenal biopsies by using real-time PCR and Western blot. Serum hepcidin levels were measured by using ELISA. Serum hepcidin was decreased in patients with ALD. At the mRNA level, expressions of DMT1, FPN1 and TFR1 genes were significantly increased in ALD. This pattern was even more pronounced in the subgroups of patients without iron overload and with anaemia. Protein expression of FPN1 paralleled the increase at the mRNA level in the group of patients with ALD. Serum ferritin was negatively correlated with DMT1 mRNA. The down-regulation of hepcidin expression leading to up-regulation of iron transporters expression in the duodenum seems to explain iron metabolism disturbances in ALD. Alcohol consumption very probably causes suppression of hepcidin expression in patients with ALD.

  8. Occurrence of chromosome- or plasmid-mediated aerobactin iron transport systems and hemolysin production among clonal groups of human invasive strains of Escherichia coli K1.

    PubMed

    Valvano, M A; Silver, R P; Crosa, J H

    1986-04-01

    The incidence of the aerobactin system and the genetic location of aerobactin genes were investigated in Escherichia coli K1 neonatal isolates belonging to different clonal groups. A functional aerobactin system was found in all members of the O7 MP3, O1 MP5, O1 MP9, and O18 MP9 clonal groups examined and also in K1 strains having O6, O16, and O75 lipopolysaccharide types, which are less frequently associated with neonatal infections. In contrast, the aerobactin system was not detected in strains from the O18 MP6 clone. The combined results of plasmid and colony hybridization experiments showed that the aerobactin genes were located on the chromosome in the majority (75%) of the aerobactin-producing K1 isolates, the genetic location of the aerobactin genes was closely correlated with the outer membrane protein profile rather than the O lipopolysaccharide type, the K1 strains harboring a chromosome-mediated aerobactin system did not possess colicin V genes, and five of six K1 isolates possessing a plasmid-borne aerobactin system contained colicin V genes which were located on the same plasmids carrying the aerobactin genes. The comparison of hemolysin production with possession of the aerobactin system in virulent clones of E. coli K1 strains showed that all of the aerobactin-producing strains from the O18 MP9 and O7 MP3 clonal groups did not synthesize hemolysin, whereas 11 of 12 aerobactin-nonproducing O18 MP6 isolates were hemolytic. Of the K1 strains examined, 92.5% possessed either the aerobactin system or the ability to produce hemolysin or both.

  9. Three conserved histidine residues contribute to mitochondrial iron transport through mitoferrins.

    PubMed

    Brazzolotto, Xavier; Pierrel, Fabien; Pelosi, Ludovic

    2014-05-15

    Iron is an essential element for almost all organisms. In eukaryotes, it is mainly used in mitochondria for the biosynthesis of iron-sulfur clusters and haem group maturation. Iron is delivered into the mitochondrion by mitoferrins, members of the MCF (mitochondrial carrier family), through an unknown mechanism. In the present study, the yeast homologues of these proteins, Mrs3p (mitochondrial RNA splicing 3) and Mrs4p, were studied by inserting them into liposomes. In this context, they could transport Fe2+ across the proteoliposome membrane, as shown using the iron chelator bathophenanthroline. A series of amino acid-modifying reagents were screened for their effects on Mrs3p-mediated iron transport. The results of the present study suggest that carboxy and imidazole groups are essential for iron transport. This was confirmed by in vivo complementation assays, which demonstrated that three highly conserved histidine residues are important for Mrs3p function. These histidine residues are not conserved in other MCF members and thus they are likely to play a specific role in iron transport. A model describing how these residues help iron to transit smoothly across the carrier cavity is proposed and compared with the structural and biochemical data available for other carriers in this family.

  10. Nitrate-dependent iron oxidation limits iron transport in anoxic ocean regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Florian; Löscher, Carolin R.; Fiskal, Annika; Sommer, Stefan; Hensen, Christian; Lomnitz, Ulrike; Wuttig, Kathrin; Göttlicher, Jörg; Kossel, Elke; Steininger, Ralph; Canfield, Donald E.

    2016-11-01

    Iron is an essential element for life on Earth and limits primary production in large parts of the ocean. Oxygen-free continental margin sediments represent an important source of bioavailable iron to the ocean, yet little of the iron released from the seabed reaches the productive sea surface. Even in the anoxic water of oxygen minimum zones, where iron solubility should be enhanced, most of the iron is rapidly re-precipitated. To constrain the mechanism(s) of iron removal in anoxic ocean regions we explored the sediment and water in the oxygen minimum zone off Peru. During our sampling campaign the water column featured two distinct redox boundaries separating oxic from nitrate-reducing (i.e., nitrogenous) water and nitrogenous from weakly sulfidic water. The sulfidic water mass in contact with the shelf sediment contained elevated iron concentrations >300 nM. At the boundary between sulfidic and nitrogenous conditions, iron concentrations dropped sharply to <20 nM coincident with a maximum in particulate iron concentration. Within the iron gradient, we found an increased expression of the key functional marker gene for nitrate reduction (narG). Part of this upregulation was related to the activity of known iron-oxidizing bacteria. Collectively, our data suggest that iron oxidation and removal is induced by nitrate-reducing microbes, either enzymatically through anaerobic iron oxidation or by providing nitrite for an abiotic reaction. Given the important role that iron plays in nitrogen fixation, photosynthesis and respiration, nitrate-dependent iron oxidation likely represents a key-link between the marine biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, oxygen and carbon.

  11. Wheat Vacuolar Iron Transporter TaVIT2 Transports Fe and Mn and Is Effective for Biofortification1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Eleanor R.; Rodríguez-Ramiro, Ildefonso

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the intrinsic nutritional quality of crops, known as biofortification, is viewed as a sustainable approach to alleviate micronutrient deficiencies. In particular, iron deficiency anemia is a major global health issue, but the iron content of staple crops such as wheat (Triticum aestivum) is difficult to change because of genetic complexity and homeostasis mechanisms. To identify target genes for the biofortification of wheat, we functionally characterized homologs of the VACUOLAR IRON TRANSPORTER (VIT). The wheat genome contains two VIT paralogs, TaVIT1 and TaVIT2, which have different expression patterns but are both low in the endosperm. TaVIT2, but not TaVIT1, was able to rescue the growth of a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mutant defective in vacuolar iron transport. TaVIT2 also complemented a manganese transporter mutant but not a vacuolar zinc transporter mutant. By overexpressing TaVIT2 under the control of an endosperm-specific promoter, we achieved a greater than 2-fold increase in iron in white flour fractions, exceeding minimum legal fortification levels in countries such as the United Kingdom. The antinutrient phytate was not increased and the iron in the white flour fraction was bioavailable in vitro, suggesting that food products made from the biofortified flour could contribute to improved iron nutrition. The single-gene approach impacted minimally on plant growth and also was effective in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Our results show that by enhancing vacuolar iron transport in the endosperm, this essential micronutrient accumulated in this tissue, bypassing existing homeostatic mechanisms. PMID:28684433

  12. Functional characterization of LIT1, the Leishmania amazonensis ferrous iron transporter

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Ismaele; Andrews, Norma W.; Huynh, Chau

    2010-01-01

    Leishmania amazonensis LIT1 was identified based on homology with IRT1, a ferrous iron transporter from Arabidopsis thaliana. Δlit1 Leishmania amazonensis are defective in intracellular replication and lesion formation in vivo, a virulence phenotype attributed to defective intracellular iron acquisition. Here we functionally characterize LIT1, directly demonstrating that it functions as a ferrous iron membrane transporter from the ZIP family. Conserved residues in the predicted transmembrane domains II, IV, V and VII of LIT1 are essential for iron transport in yeast, including histidines that were proposed to function as metal ligands in ZIP transporters. LIT1 also contains two regions within the predicted intracellular loop that are not found in Arabidopsis IRT1. Deletion of region I inhibited LIT1 expression on the surface of Leishmania promastigotes. Deletion of region II did not interfere with LIT1 trafficking to the surface, but abolished its iron transport capacity when expressed in yeast. Mutagenesis revealed two motifs within region II, HGHQH and TPPRDM, that are independently required for iron transport by LIT1. D263 was identified as a key residue required for iron transport within the TPPRDM motif, while P260 and P261 were dispensable. Deletion of proline-rich regions within region I and between regions I and II did not affect iron transport in yeast, but in Leishmania amazonensis were not able to rescue the intracellular growth of Δlit1 parasites, or their ability to form lesions in mice. These results are consistent with a potential role of the unique intracellular loop of LIT1 in intracellular regulation by Leishmania-specific factors. PMID:20025906

  13. Functional characterization of LIT1, the Leishmania amazonensis ferrous iron transporter.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Ismaele; Andrews, Norma W; Huynh, Chau

    2010-03-01

    Leishmania amazonensis LIT1 was identified based on homology with IRT1, a ferrous iron transporter from Arabidopsis thaliana. Deltalit1L. amazonensis are defective in intracellular replication and lesion formation in vivo, a virulence phenotype attributed to defective intracellular iron acquisition. Here we functionally characterize LIT1, directly demonstrating that it functions as a ferrous iron membrane transporter from the ZIP family. Conserved residues in the predicted transmembrane domains II, IV, V and VII of LIT1 are essential for iron transport in yeast, including histidines that were proposed to function as metal ligands in ZIP transporters. LIT1 also contains two regions within the predicted intracellular loop that are not found in Arabidopsis IRT1. Deletion of region I inhibited LIT1 expression on the surface of Leishmania promastigotes. Deletion of region II did not interfere with LIT1 trafficking to the surface, but abolished its iron transport capacity when expressed in yeast. Mutagenesis revealed two motifs within region II, HGHQH and TPPRDM, that are independently required for iron transport by LIT1. D263 was identified as a key residue required for iron transport within the TPPRDM motif, while P260 and P261 were dispensable. Deletion of proline-rich regions within region I and between regions I and II did not affect iron transport in yeast, but in L. amazonensis were not able to rescue the intracellular growth of Deltalit1 parasites, or their ability to form lesions in mice. These results are consistent with a potential role of the unique intracellular loop of LIT1 in intracellular regulation by Leishmania-specific factors.

  14. Constitutive expression of a barley Fe phytosiderophore transporter increases alkaline soil tolerance and results in iron partitioning between vegetative and storage tissues under stress.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Galera, Sonia; Sudhakar, Duraialagaraja; Pelacho, Ana M; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Cereals have evolved chelation systems to mobilize insoluble iron in the soil, but in rice this process is rather inefficient, making the crop highly susceptible to alkaline soils. We therefore engineered rice to express the barley iron-phytosiderophore transporter (HvYS1), which enables barley plants to take up iron from alkaline soils. A representative transgenic rice line was grown in standard (pH 5.5) or alkaline soil (pH 8.5) to evaluate alkaline tolerance and iron mobilization. Transgenic plants developed secondary tillers and set seeds when grown in standard soil although iron concentration remained similar in leaves and seeds compared to wild type. However, when grown in alkaline soil transgenic plants exhibited enhanced growth, yield and iron concentration in leaves compared to the wild type plants which were severely stunted. Transgenic plants took up iron more efficiently from alkaline soil compared to wild type, indicating an enhanced capacity to increase iron mobility ex situ. Interestingly, all the additional iron accumulated in vegetative tissues, i.e. there was no difference in iron concentration in the seeds of wild type and transgenic plants. Our data suggest that iron uptake from the rhizosphere can be enhanced through expression of HvYS1 and confirm the operation of a partitioning mechanism that diverts iron to leaves rather than seeds, under stress.

  15. The Siderocalin/Enterobactin Interaction: A Link between Mammalian Immunity and Bacterial Iron Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Meux, Susan C.

    2008-05-12

    The siderophore enterobactin (Ent) is produced by enteric bacteria to mediate iron uptake. Ent scavenges iron and is taken up by the bacteria as the highly stable ferric complex [Fe{sup III}(Ent)]{sup 3-}. This complex is also a specific target of the mammalian innate immune system protein, Siderocalin (Scn), which acts as an anti-bacterial agent by specifically sequestering siderophores and their ferric complexes during infection. Recent literature suggesting that Scn may also be involved in cellular iron transport has increased the importance of understanding the mechanism of siderophore interception and clearance by Scn; Scn is observed to release iron in acidic endosomes and [Fe{sup III}(Ent)]{sup 3-} is known to undergo a change from catecholate to salicylate coordination in acidic conditions, which is predicted to be sterically incompatible with the Scn binding pocket (also referred to as the calyx). To investigate the interactions between the ferric Ent complex and Scn at different pH values, two recombinant forms of Scn with mutations in three residues lining the calyx were prepared: Scn-W79A/R81A and Scn-Y106F. Binding studies and crystal structures of the Scn-W79A/R81A:[Fe{sup III}(Ent)]{sup 3-} and Scn-Y106F:[Fe{sup III}(Ent)]{sup 3-} complexes confirm that such mutations do not affect the overall conformation of the protein but do weaken significantly its affinity for [Fe{sup III}(Ent)]{sup 3-}. Fluorescence, UV-Vis and EXAFS spectroscopies were used to determine Scn/siderophore dissociation constants and to characterize the coordination mode of iron over a wide pH range, in the presence of both mutant proteins and synthetic salicylate analogs of Ent. While Scn binding hinders salicylate coordination transformation, strong acidification results in the release of iron and degraded siderophore. Iron release may therefore result from a combination of Ent degradation and coordination change.

  16. The Siderocalin/Enterobactin Interaction: a Link Between Mammalian Immunity And Bacterial Iron Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Abergel, R.J.; Clifton, M.C.; Pizarro, J.C.; Warner, J.A.; Shuh, D.K.; Strong, R.K.; Raymond, K.N.

    2009-05-12

    The siderophore enterobactin (Ent) is produced by enteric bacteria to mediate iron uptake. Ent scavenges iron and is taken up by the bacteria as the highly stable ferric complex [Fe{sup III}(Ent)]{sup 3-}. This complex is also a specific target of the mammalian innate immune system protein, Siderocalin (Scn), which acts as an antibacterial agent by specifically sequestering siderophores and their ferric complexes during infection. Recent literature suggesting that Scn may also be involved in cellular iron transport has increased the importance of understanding the mechanism of siderophore interception and clearance by Scn; Scn is observed to release iron in acidic endosomes and [Fe{sup III}(Ent)]{sup 3-} is known to undergo a change from catecholate to salicylate coordination in acidic conditions, which is predicted to be sterically incompatible with the Scn binding pocket (also referred to as the calyx). To investigate the interactions between the ferric Ent complex and Scn at different pH values, two recombinant forms of Scn with mutations in three residues lining the calyx were prepared: Scn-W79A/R81A and Scn-Y106F. Binding studies and crystal structures of the Scn-W79A/R81A:[Fe{sup III}(Ent)]{sup 3-} and Scn-Y106F:[Fe{sup III}(Ent)]{sup 3-} complexes confirm that such mutations do not affect the overall conformation of the protein but do weaken significantly its affinity for [Fe{sup III}(Ent)]{sup 3-}. Fluorescence, UV-vis, and EXAFS spectroscopies were used to determine Scn/siderophore dissociation constants and to characterize the coordination mode of iron over a wide pH range, in the presence of both mutant proteins and synthetic salicylate analogues of Ent. While Scn binding hinders salicylate coordination transformation, strong acidification results in the release of iron and degraded siderophore. Iron release may therefore result from a combination of Ent degradation and coordination change.

  17. Iron transport in the kidney: implications for physiology and cadmium nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Thévenod, Frank; Wolff, Natascha A

    2016-01-01

    The kidney has recently emerged as an organ with a significant role in systemic iron (Fe) homeostasis. Substantial amounts of Fe are filtered by the kidney, which have to be reabsorbed to prevent Fe deficiency. Accordingly Fe transporters and receptors for protein-bound Fe are expressed in the nephron that may also function as entry pathways for toxic metals, such as cadmium (Cd), by way of "ionic and molecular mimicry". Similarities, but also differences in handling of Cd by these transport routes offer rationales for the propensity of the kidney to develop Cd toxicity. This critical review provides a comprehensive update on Fe transport by the kidney and its relevance for physiology and Cd nephrotoxicity. Based on quantitative considerations, we have also estimated the in vivo relevance of the described transport pathways for physiology and toxicology. Under physiological conditions all segments of the kidney tubules are likely to utilize Fe for cellular Fe requiring processes for metabolic purposes and also to contribute to reabsorption of free and bound forms of Fe into the circulation. But Cd entering tubule cells disrupts metabolic pathways and is unable to exit. Furthermore, our quantitative analyses contest established models linking chronic Cd nephrotoxicity to proximal tubular uptake of metallothionein-bound Cd. Hence, Fe transport by the kidney may be beneficial by preventing losses from the body. But increased uptake of Fe or Cd that cannot exit tubule cells may lead to kidney injury, and Fe deficiency may facilitate renal Cd uptake.

  18. Reactive transport modeling at uranium in situ recovery sites: uncertainties in uranium sorption on iron hydroxides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Tutu, Hlanganani; Brown, Adrian; Figueroa, Linda; Wolkersdorfer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Geochemical changes that can occur down gradient from uranium in situ recovery (ISR) sites are important for various stakeholders to understand when evaluating potential effects on surrounding groundwater quality. If down gradient solid-phase material consists of sandstone with iron hydroxide coatings (no pyrite or organic carbon), sorption of uranium on iron hydroxides can control uranium mobility. Using one-dimensional reactive transport models with PHREEQC, two different geochemical databases, and various geochemical parameters, the uncertainties in uranium sorption on iron hydroxides are evaluated, because these oxidized zones create a greater risk for future uranium transport than fully reduced zones where uranium generally precipitates.

  19. Helium, Iron and Electron Particle Transport and Energy Transport Studies on the TFTR Tokamak

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Synakowski, E. J.; Efthimion, P. C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B. C.; Tang, W. M.; Grek, B.; Hill, K. W.; Hulse, R. A.; Johnson, D .W.; Mansfield, D. K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Park, H. K.; Ramsey, A. T.; Redi, M. H.; Scott, S. D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M. C. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.); Kissick, M. W. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Results from helium, iron, and electron transport on TFTR in L-mode and Supershot deuterium plasmas with the same toroidal field, plasma current, and neutral beam heating power are presented. They are compared to results from thermal transport analysis based on power balance. Particle diffusivities and thermal conductivities are radially hollow and larger than neoclassical values, except possibly near the magnetic axis. The ion channel dominates over the electron channel in both particle and thermal diffusion. A peaked helium profile, supported by inward convection that is stronger than predicted by neoclassical theory, is measured in the Supershot The helium profile shape is consistent with predictions from quasilinear electrostatic drift-wave theory. While the perturbative particle diffusion coefficients of all three species are similar in the Supershot, differences are found in the L-Mode. Quasilinear theory calculations of the ratios of impurity diffusivities are in good accord with measurements. Theory estimates indicate that the ion heat flux should be larger than the electron heat flux, consistent with power balance analysis. However, theoretical values of the ratio of the ion to electron heat flux can be more than a factor of three larger than experimental values. A correlation between helium diffusion and ion thermal transport is observed and has favorable implications for sustained ignition of a tokamak fusion reactor.

  20. Iron release from corroded iron pipes in drinking water distribution systems: effect of dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Sarin, P; Snoeyink, V L; Bebee, J; Jim, K K; Beckett, M A; Kriven, W M; Clement, J A

    2004-03-01

    Iron release from corroded iron pipes is the principal cause of "colored water" problems in drinking water distribution systems. The corrosion scales present in corroded iron pipes restrict the flow of water, and can also deteriorate the water quality. This research was focused on understanding the effect of dissolved oxygen (DO), a key water quality parameter, on iron release from the old corroded iron pipes. Corrosion scales from 70-year-old galvanized iron pipe were characterized as porous deposits of Fe(III) phases (goethite (alpha-FeOOH), magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)), and maghemite (alpha-Fe(2)O(3))) with a shell-like, dense layer near the top of the scales. High concentrations of readily soluble Fe(II) content was present inside the scales. Iron release from these corroded pipes was investigated for both flow and stagnant water conditions. Our studies confirmed that iron was released to bulk water primarily in the ferrous form. When DO was present in water, higher amounts of iron release was observed during stagnation in comparison to flowing water conditions. Additionally, it was found that increasing the DO concentration in water during stagnation reduced the amount of iron release. Our studies substantiate that increasing the concentration of oxidants in water and maintaining flowing conditions can reduce the amount of iron release from corroded iron pipes. Based on our studies, it is proposed that iron is released from corroded iron pipes by dissolution of corrosion scales, and that the microstructure and composition of corrosion scales are important parameters that can influence the amount of iron released from such systems.

  1. Phytosiderophore Efflux Transporters Are Crucial for Iron Acquisition in Graminaceous Plants*

    PubMed Central

    Nozoye, Tomoko; Nagasaka, Seiji; Kobayashi, Takanori; Takahashi, Michiko; Sato, Yuki; Sato, Yoko; Uozumi, Nobuyuki; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K.

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic organisms have developed diverse mechanisms for the acquisition of iron, which is required for their survival. Graminaceous plants use a chelation strategy. They secrete phytosiderophore compounds, which solubilize iron in the soil, and then take up the resulting iron-phytosiderophore complexes. Bacteria and mammals also secrete siderophores to acquire iron. Although phytosiderophore secretion is crucial for plant growth, its molecular mechanism remains unknown. Here, we show that the efflux of deoxymugineic acid, the primary phytosiderophore from rice and barley, involves the TOM1 and HvTOM1 genes, respectively. Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing TOM1 or HvTOM1 released 14C-labeled deoxymugineic acid but not 14C-labeled nicotianamine, a structural analog and biosynthetic precursor of deoxymugineic acid, indicating that the TOM1 and HvTOM1 proteins are the phytosiderophore efflux transporters. Under conditions of iron deficiency, rice and barley roots express high levels of TOM1 and HvTOM1, respectively, and the overexpression of these genes increased tolerance to iron deficiency. In rice roots, the efficiency of deoxymugineic acid secretion was enhanced by overexpression of TOM1 and decreased by its repression, providing further evidence that TOM1 encodes the efflux transporter of deoxymugineic acid. We have also identified two genes encoding efflux transporters of nicotianamine, ENA1 and ENA2. Our identification of phytosiderophore efflux transporters has revealed the final piece in the molecular machinery of iron acquisition in graminaceous plants. PMID:21156806

  2. IRT1, an Arabidopsis transporter essential for iron uptake from the soil and for plant growth.

    PubMed

    Vert, Grégory; Grotz, Natasha; Dédaldéchamp, Fabienne; Gaymard, Frédéric; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Briat, Jean-François; Curie, Catherine

    2002-06-01

    Plants are the principal source of iron in most diets, yet iron availability often limits plant growth. In response to iron deficiency, Arabidopsis roots induce the expression of the divalent cation transporter IRT1. Here, we present genetic evidence that IRT1 is essential for the uptake of iron from the soil. An Arabidopsis knockout mutant in IRT1 is chlorotic and has a severe growth defect in soil, leading to death. This defect is rescued by the exogenous application of iron. The mutant plants do not take up iron and fail to accumulate other divalent cations in low-iron conditions. IRT1-green fluorescent protein fusion, transiently expressed in culture cells, localized to the plasma membrane. We also show, through promoter::beta-glucuronidase analysis and in situ hybridization, that IRT1 is expressed in the external cell layers of the root, specifically in response to iron starvation. These results clearly demonstrate that IRT1 is the major transporter responsible for high-affinity metal uptake under iron deficiency.

  3. Transport of iron bound to recombinant human lactoferrin from rice and iron citrate across Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Conesa, Celia; Pocoví, Coloma; Pérez, María-Dolores; Calvo, Miguel; Sánchez, Lourdes

    2009-12-01

    The possibility of using recombinant human lactoferrin from rice (rhLF) makes it necessary to study its differences from the protein of milk. In this work, the binding of different iron-saturated forms of rhLF to Caco-2 cells was studied. Iron-saturated rhLF bound in higher proportion than the apo-form, but, the data obtained for specific binding were not compatible with receptor-mediated binding. Competition assays showed the same binding capacity for human milk lactoferrin as for rhLF to Caco-2 cells. Another basic protein of milk, lactoperoxidase, was found to compete with rhLF for binding to Caco-2 cell membranes, suggesting an electrostatic interaction. The transport of iron ((59)Fe) bound to rhLF and to citrate and the transport of rhLF ((125)I-labeled) were studied on Caco-2 monolayers. Transport of iron was found to be significantly greater when bound to citrate than to rhLF. The amount of intact lactoferrin that traversed the Caco-2 monolayers was very low, suggesting degradation of it across these cells.

  4. Changes of ferrous iron and its transporters after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gaiqing; Shao, Anwen; Hu, Weimin; Xue, Fang; Zhao, Hongping; Jin, Xiaojie; Li, Guanglai; Sun, Zhitang; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Ferrous iron is a major source inducing oxidative stress after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Divalent metal transporter1 (DMT1) is the important and well-known plasma membrane transport protein which was proved to be involved in the transport of free ferrous iron in mammals. Ferroportin 1 (FPN1) is the unique exporter of ferrous iron from mammalian cells. The role of DMT1 and FPN1 in brain after ICH is still not elucidated. Therefore, we measure the expression of DMT1 and FPN1, to explore the correlations between ferrous iron and its specific transporters after ICH. Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley rats received intra-striatal infusions of 0.5 U type IV collagenase to establish ICH model. Ferrous iron content in brain was determined using Turnbull's method. DMT1 and FPN1 expression were examined by immunohistochemical staining and Real-Time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). With the use of confocal laser microscopy, we determined the colocalization of DMT1 and FPN1 at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after ICH. Ferrous iron deposition was shown in the perihematomal zone as early as 1 day after ICH; it reached a peak after 7 days and was not elevated within 14 days following ICH. The expression of the DMT1 upregulated and reached to peak at day 7 after ICH. FPN1 reached a plateau at 3 days post-ICH. Expression levels of DMT1 and FPN1 were in parallel with ferrous iron deposition. There was a positive correlation between FPN1 and DMT1. DMT1 mainly localized in the cytoplasm of glias and neurons. FPN1 were mostly distributed on the membrane of endothelial cells and glias. Confocal microscope showed that DMT1 colocalized with FPN1. DMT1 and FPN1 are positively influenced by ferrous iron status in brain after ICH. DMT1 and FPN1 attenuate iron overload after ICH via increasing transmembrane iron export.

  5. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Trilactone Siderophores: Where Chiral Recognition Occurs in Enterobactin and Bacillibactin Iron Transport1

    PubMed Central

    Abergel, Rebecca J.; Zawadzka, Anna M.; Hoette, Trisha M.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2009-01-01

    Bacillibactin and enterobactin are hexadentate catecholate siderophores produced by bacteria upon iron limitation to scavenge ferric ion and seem to be the ultimate siderophores of their two respective domains: Gram-positive and Gram-negative. Iron acquisition mediated by these trilactone-based ligands necessitates enzymatic hydrolysis of the scaffold for successful intracellular iron delivery. The esterases BesA and Fes hydrolyze bacillibactin and enterobactin, respectively, as well as the corresponding iron complexes. Bacillibactin binds iron through three 2,3-catecholamide moieties linked to a tri-threonine scaffold via glycine spacers, whereas in enterobactin the iron-binding moieties are directly attached to a tri-l-serine backbone; although apparently minor, these structural differences result in markedly different iron coordination properties and iron transport behavior. Comparison of the solution thermodynamic and circular dichroism properties of bacillibactin, enterobactin and the synthetic analogs d-enterobactin, SERGlyCAM and d-SERGlyCAM has determined the role of each different feature in the siderophores' molecular structures in ferric complex stability and metal chirality. While opposite metal chiralities in the different complexes did not affect transport and incorporation in Bacillus subtilis, ferric complexes formed with the various siderophores did not systematically promote growth of the bacteria. The bacillibactin esterase BesA is less specific than the enterobactin esterase Fes; BesA can hydrolyze the trilactones of both siderophores, while only the tri-l-serine trilactone is a substrate of Fes. Both enzymes are stereospecific and cannot cleave tri-d-serine lactones. These data provide a complete picture of the microbial iron transport mediated by these two siderophores, from initial recognition and transport to intracellular iron release. PMID:19673474

  6. Enzymatic hydrolysis of trilactone siderophores: where chiral recognition occurs in enterobactin and bacillibactin iron transport.

    PubMed

    Abergel, Rebecca J; Zawadzka, Anna M; Hoette, Trisha M; Raymond, Kenneth N

    2009-09-09

    Bacillibactin and enterobactin are hexadentate catecholate siderophores produced by bacteria upon iron limitation to scavenge ferric ion and seem to be the ultimate siderophores of their two respective domains: Gram-positive and Gram-negative. Iron acquisition mediated by these trilactone-based ligands necessitates enzymatic hydrolysis of the scaffold for successful intracellular iron delivery. The esterases BesA and Fes hydrolyze bacillibactin and enterobactin, respectively, as well as the corresponding iron complexes. Bacillibactin binds iron through three 2,3-catecholamide moieties linked to a trithreonine scaffold via glycine spacers, whereas in enterobactin the iron-binding moieties are directly attached to a tri-l-serine backbone; although apparently minor, these structural differences result in markedly different iron coordination properties and iron transport behavior. Comparison of the solution thermodynamic and circular dichroism properties of bacillibactin, enterobactin and the synthetic analogs d-enterobactin, SERGlyCAM and d-SERGlyCAM has determined the role of each different feature in the siderophores' molecular structures in ferric complex stability and metal chirality. While opposite metal chiralities in the different complexes did not affect transport and incorporation in Bacillus subtilis, ferric complexes formed with the various siderophores did not systematically promote growth of the bacteria. The bacillibactin esterase BesA is less specific than the enterobactin esterase Fes; BesA can hydrolyze the trilactones of both siderophores, while only the tri-l-serine trilactone is a substrate of Fes. Both enzymes are stereospecific and cannot cleave tri-d-serine lactones. These data provide a complete picture of the microbial iron transport mediated by these two siderophores, from initial recognition and transport to intracellular iron release.

  7. Role of clay minerals in the transportation of iron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carroll, D.

    1958-01-01

    The clay minerals have iron associated with them in several ways: 1. (1) as an essential constituent 2. (2) as a minor constituent within the crystal lattice where it is in isomorphous substitution and 3. (3) as iron oxide on the surface of the mineral platelets. Nontronite, "hydromica," some chlorites, vermiculite, glauconite and chamosite contain iron as an essential constituent. Kaolinite and halloysite have no site within the lattice for iron, but in certain environments iron oxide (goethite or hematite) is intimately associated as a coating on the micelles. Analyses of clay minerals show that the content of Fe2O3 varies: 29 per cent (nontronite), 7??3 per cent (griffithite), 4.5 per cent ("hydromica"), 5.5 per cent (chlorite), 4 per cent (vermiculite) and 18 per cent (glauconite). The FeO content is: 40 per cent (chamosite), 7.8 per cent (griffithite), 1-2 per cent ("hydromica"), 3 per cent (glauconite) and 2 per cent (chlorite). The iron associated with the clay minerals remains stable in the environment in which the minerals occur, but if either pH or Eh or both are changed the iron may be affected. Change of environment will cause: 1. (1) removal of iron by reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+; 2. (2) ion-exchange reactions; 3. (3) instability of the crystal lattice. Experiments using bacterial activity to produce reducing conditions with kaolinite and halloysite coated with iron oxides and with nontronite in which ferric iron is in the octahedral position within the lattice showed that ferric oxide is removed at Eh +0??215 in fresh water and at Eh +0.098 in sea water. Hematite, goethite, and indefinite iron oxides were removed at different rates. Red ferric oxides were changed to black indefinite noncrystalline ferrous sulphide at Eh -0.020 but reverted to ferric oxide under oxidizing conditions. Nontronite turned bright green under reducing conditions and some of the ferrous iron remained within the lattice on a return to oxidizing conditions. Bacterial activity

  8. Role of Iron Uptake Systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence and Airway Infection

    PubMed Central

    Minandri, Fabrizia; Imperi, Francesco; Frangipani, Emanuela; Bonchi, Carlo; Visaggio, Daniela; Facchini, Marcella; Pasquali, Paolo; Bragonzi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia and chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Iron is essential for bacterial growth, and P. aeruginosa expresses multiple iron uptake systems, whose role in lung infection deserves further investigation. P. aeruginosa Fe3+ uptake systems include the pyoverdine and pyochelin siderophores and two systems for heme uptake, all of which are dependent on the TonB energy transducer. P. aeruginosa also has the FeoB transporter for Fe2+ acquisition. To assess the roles of individual iron uptake systems in P. aeruginosa lung infection, single and double deletion mutants were generated in P. aeruginosa PAO1 and characterized in vitro, using iron-poor media and human serum, and in vivo, using a mouse model of lung infection. The iron uptake-null mutant (tonB1 feoB) and the Fe3+ transport mutant (tonB1) did not grow aerobically under low-iron conditions and were avirulent in the mouse model. Conversely, the wild type and the feoB, hasR phuR (heme uptake), and pchD (pyochelin) mutants grew in vitro and caused 60 to 90% mortality in mice. The pyoverdine mutant (pvdA) and the siderophore-null mutant (pvdA pchD) grew aerobically in iron-poor media but not in human serum, and they caused low mortality in mice (10 to 20%). To differentiate the roles of pyoverdine in iron uptake and virulence regulation, a pvdA fpvR double mutant defective in pyoverdine production but expressing wild-type levels of pyoverdine-regulated virulence factors was generated. Deletion of fpvR in the pvdA background partially restored the lethal phenotype, indicating that pyoverdine contributes to the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa lung infection by combining iron transport and virulence-inducing capabilities. PMID:27271740

  9. Iron transport across the blood-brain barrier; Development, neurovascular regulation and cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Ryan C; Kosman, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    There are two barriers for iron entry into the brain: 1) the brain-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and 2) the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here, we review the literature on developmental iron accumulation by the brain, focusing on the transport of iron through the brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) of the BBB. We review the iron trafficking proteins which may be involved in the iron flux across BMVEC and discuss the plausible mechanisms of BMVEC iron uptake and efflux. We suggest a model for how BMVEC iron uptake and efflux are regulated and a mechanism by which the majority of iron is trafficked across the developing BBB under the direct guidance of neighboring astrocytes. Thus, we place brain iron uptake in the context of the neurovascular unit of the adult brain. Last, we propose that BMVEC iron is involved in the aggregation of amyloid-β peptides leading to the progression of cerebral amyloid angiopathy which often occurs prior to dementia and the onset of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25355056

  10. Iron transport across the blood-brain barrier: development, neurovascular regulation and cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Ryan C; Kosman, Daniel J

    2015-02-01

    There are two barriers for iron entry into the brain: (1) the brain-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and (2) the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here, we review the literature on developmental iron accumulation by the brain, focusing on the transport of iron through the brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) of the BBB. We review the iron trafficking proteins which may be involved in the iron flux across BMVEC and discuss the plausible mechanisms of BMVEC iron uptake and efflux. We suggest a model for how BMVEC iron uptake and efflux are regulated and a mechanism by which the majority of iron is trafficked across the developing BBB under the direct guidance of neighboring astrocytes. Thus, we place brain iron uptake in the context of the neurovascular unit of the adult brain. Last, we propose that BMVEC iron is involved in the aggregation of amyloid-β peptides leading to the progression of cerebral amyloid angiopathy which often occurs prior to dementia and the onset of Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Droplet transport system and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neitzel, G. Paul (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Embodiments of droplet transport systems and methods are disclosed for levitating and transporting single or encapsulated droplets using thermocapillary convection. One method embodiment, among others comprises providing a droplet of a first liquid; and applying thermocapillary convection to the droplet to levitate and move the droplet.

  12. Transport of carbon colloid supported nanoscale zero-valent iron in saturated porous media.

    PubMed

    Busch, Jan; Meißner, Tobias; Potthoff, Annegret; Oswald, Sascha E

    2014-08-01

    Injection of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) has recently gained great interest as emerging technology for in-situ remediation of chlorinated organic compounds from groundwater systems. Zero-valent iron (ZVI) is able to reduce organic compounds and to render it to less harmful substances. The use of nanoscale particles instead of granular or microscale particles can increase dechlorination rates by orders of magnitude due to its high surface area. However, classical nZVI appears to be hampered in its environmental application by its limited mobility. One approach is colloid supported transport of nZVI, where the nZVI gets transported by a mobile colloid. In this study transport properties of activated carbon colloid supported nZVI (c-nZVI; d50=2.4μm) are investigated in column tests using columns of 40cm length, which were filled with porous media. A suspension was pumped through the column under different physicochemical conditions (addition of a polyanionic stabilizer and changes in pH and ionic strength). Highest observed breakthrough was 62% of the injected concentration in glass beads with addition of stabilizer. Addition of mono- and bivalent salt, e.g. more than 0.5mM/L CaCl2, can decrease mobility and changes in pH to values below six can inhibit mobility at all. Measurements of colloid sizes and zeta potentials show changes in the mean particle size by a factor of ten and an increase of zeta potential from -62mV to -80mV during the transport experiment. However, results suggest potential applicability of c-nZVI under field conditions.

  13. Evaluation of the effect of divalent metal transporter 1 gene polymorphism on blood iron, lead and cadmium levels

    SciTech Connect

    Kayaaltı, Zeliha Akyüzlü, Dilek Kaya; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2015-02-15

    Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), a member of the proton-coupled metal ion transporter family, mediates transport of ferrous iron from the lumen of the intestine into the enterocyte and export of iron from endocytic vesicles. It has an affinity not only for iron but also for other divalent cations including manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc. DMT1 is encoded by the SLC11a2 gene that is located on chromosome 12q13 in humans and express four major mammalian isoforms (1A/+IRE, 1A/-IRE, 2/+IRE and 2/-IRE). Mutations or polymorphisms of DMT1 gene may have an impact on human health by disturbing metal trafficking. To study the possible association of DMT1 gene with the blood levels of some divalent cations such as iron, lead and cadmium, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (IVS4+44C/A) in DMT1 gene was investigated in 486 unrelated and healthy individuals in a Turkish population by method of polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP). The genotype frequencies were found as 49.8% homozygote typical (CC), 38.3% heterozygote (CA) and 11.9% homozygote atypical (AA). Metal levels were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system and the average levels of iron, lead and cadmium in the blood samples were 446.01±81.87 ppm, 35.59±17.72 ppb and 1.25±0.87 ppb, respectively. Individuals with the CC genotype had higher blood iron, lead and cadmium levels than those with AA and CA genotypes. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism in the DMT1 gene and iron and lead levels (p=0.001 and p=0.036, respectively), but no association was found with cadmium level (p=0.344). This study suggested that DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, lead and cadmium levels. - Highlights: • DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, cadmium and lead levels.

  14. Recombinant vacuolar iron transporter family homologue PfVIT from human malaria-causing Plasmodium falciparum is a Fe2+/H+exchanger

    PubMed Central

    Labarbuta, Paola; Duckett, Katie; Botting, Catherine H.; Chahrour, Osama; Malone, John; Dalton, John P.; Law, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    Vacuolar iron transporters (VITs) are a poorly understood family of integral membrane proteins that can function in iron homeostasis via sequestration of labile Fe2+ into vacuolar compartments. Here we report on the heterologous overexpression and purification of PfVIT, a vacuolar iron transporter homologue from the human malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Use of synthetic, codon-optimised DNA enabled overexpression of functional PfVIT in the inner membrane of Escherichia coli which, in turn, conferred iron tolerance to the bacterial cells. Cells that expressed PfVIT had decreased levels of total cellular iron compared with cells that did not express the protein. Qualitative transport assays performed on inverted vesicles enriched with PfVIT revealed that the transporter catalysed Fe2+/H+ exchange driven by the proton electrochemical gradient. Furthermore, the PfVIT transport function in this system did not require the presence of any Plasmodium-specific factor such as post-translational phosphorylation. PfVIT purified as a monomer and, as measured by intrinsic protein fluorescence quenching, bound Fe2+ in detergent solution with low micromolar affinity. This study of PfVIT provides material for future detailed biochemical, biophysical and structural studies to advance understanding of the vacuolar iron transporter family of membrane proteins from important human pathogens. PMID:28198449

  15. Role of Nitrosomonas europaea NitABC iron transporter in the uptake of Fe3+-siderophore complexes.

    PubMed

    Vajrala, Neeraja; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A; Bottomley, Peter J; Arp, Daniel J

    2010-11-01

    Nitrosomonas europaea has a single three-gene operon (nitABC) encoding an iron ABC transporter system (NitABC). Phylogenetic analysis clustered the subunit NitB with Fe(3+)-ABC transporter permease components from other organisms. The N. europaea strain deficient in nitB (nitB::kan) grew well in either Fe-replete or Fe-limited media and in Fe-limited medium containing the catecholate-type siderophore, enterobactin or the citrate-based dihydroxamate-type siderophore, aerobactin. However, the nitB::kan mutant strain was unable to grow in Fe-limited media containing either the hydroxamate-type siderophores, ferrioxamine and ferrichrome or the mixed-chelating type siderophore, pyoverdine. Exposure of N. europaea cells to a ferrichrome analog coupled to the fluorescent moiety naphthalic diimide (Fhu-NI) led to increase in fluorescence in the wild type but not in nitB::kan mutant cells. Spheroplasts prepared from N. europaea wild type exposed to Fhu-NI analog retained the fluorescence, while spheroplasts of the nitB::kan mutant were not fluorescent. NitABC transports intact Fe(3+)-ferrichrome complex into the cytoplasm and is an atypical ABC type iron transporter for Fe(3+) bound to ferrioxamine, ferrichrome or pyoverdine siderophores into the cytoplasm. The mechanisms to transport iron in either the Fe(3+) or Fe(2+) forms or Fe(3+) associated with enterobactin or aerobactin siderophores into the cell across the cytoplasmic membrane are as yet undetermined.

  16. Iron and copper release in drinking-water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Shi, Baoyou; Taylor, James S

    2007-09-01

    A large-scale pilot study was carried out to evaluate the impacts of changes in water source and treatment process on iron and copper release in water distribution systems. Finished surface waters, groundwaters, and desalinated waters were produced with seven different treatment systems and supplied to 18 pipe distribution systems (PDSs). The major water treatment processes included lime softening, ferric sulfate coagulation, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and integrated membrane systems. PDSs were constructed from PVC, lined cast iron, unlined cast iron, and galvanized pipes. Copper pipe loops were set up for corrosion monitoring. Results showed that surface water after ferric sulfate coagulation had low alkalinity and high sulfates, and consequently caused the highest iron release. Finished groundwater treated by conventional method produced the lowest iron release but the highest copper release. The iron release of desalinated water was relatively high because of the water's high chloride level and low alkalinity. Both iron and copper release behaviors were influenced by temperature.

  17. Use of Electrophoresis for Transporting Nano-Iron in Porous Media

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted to evaluate if electrophoresis could transport surface stabilized nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) through fine grained sand with the intent of remediating a contaminant in situ. The experimental procedure involved determining the transport rates of poly...

  18. Transcription termination Within the iron transport-biosynthesis operon of Vibrio anguillarum requires an antisense RNA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The iron transport-biosynthesis (ITB) operon in Vibrio anguillarum includes four genes for ferric-siderophore transport, fatD,C,B,A, and two genes for siderophorebiosynthesis, angR and angT and plays an important role in the virulence mechanism of this bacterium. Despite being part of the same polyc...

  19. Use of Electrophoresis for Transporting Nano-Iron in Porous Media

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted to evaluate if electrophoresis could transport surface stabilized nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) through fine grained sand with the intent of remediating a contaminant in situ. The experimental procedure involved determining the transport rates of poly...

  20. MASS TRANSPORT EFFECTS ON THE KINETICS OF NITROBENZENE REDUCTION BY IRON METAL. (R827117)

    EPA Science Inventory

    To evaluate the importance of external mass transport on the overall rates of
    contaminant reduction by iron metal (Fe0), we have compared measured
    rates of surface reaction for nitrobenzene (ArNO2) to estimated rates
    of external mass transport...

  1. MASS TRANSPORT EFFECTS ON THE KINETICS OF NITROBENZENE REDUCTION BY IRON METAL. (R827117)

    EPA Science Inventory

    To evaluate the importance of external mass transport on the overall rates of
    contaminant reduction by iron metal (Fe0), we have compared measured
    rates of surface reaction for nitrobenzene (ArNO2) to estimated rates
    of external mass transport...

  2. Anion transporters and biological systems.

    PubMed

    Gale, Philip A; Pérez-Tomás, Ricardo; Quesada, Roberto

    2013-12-17

    In this Account, we discuss the development of new lipid bilayer anion transporters based on the structure of anionophoric natural products (the prodigiosins) and purely synthetic supramolecular systems. We have studied the interaction of these compounds with human cancer cell lines, and, in general, the most active anion transporter compounds possess the greatest anti-cancer properties. Initially, we describe the anion transport properties of synthetic molecules that are based on the structure of the family of natural products known as the prodiginines. Obatoclax, for example, is a prodiginine derivative with an indole ring that is currently in clinical trials for use as an anti-cancer drug. The anion transport properties of the compounds were correlated with their toxicity toward small cell human lung cancer GLC4 cells. We studied related compounds with enamine moieties, tambjamines, that serve as active transporters. These molecules and others in this series could depolarize acidic compartments within GLC4 cells and trigger apoptosis. In a study of the variation of lipophilicity of a series of these compounds, we observed that, as log P increases, the anion transport efficiency reaches a peak and then decreases. In addition, we discuss the anion transport properties of series of synthetic supramolecular anion receptor species. We synthesized trisureas and thioureas based on the tren backbone, and found that the thiourea compounds effectively transport anions. Fluorination of the pendant phenyl groups in this series of compounds greatly enhances the transport properties. Similar to our earlier results, the most active anion transporters reduced the viability of human cancer cell lines by depolarizing acidic compartments in GLC4 cells and triggering apoptosis. In an attempt to produce simpler transporters that obey Lipinski's Rule of Five, we synthesized simpler systems containing a single urea or thiourea group. Once again the thiourea systems, and in particular

  3. Getting to the root of plant iron uptake and cell-cell transport: Polarity matters!

    PubMed

    Dubeaux, Guillaume; Zelazny, Enric; Vert, Grégory

    2015-01-01

    Plasma membrane proteins play pivotal roles in mediating responses to endogenous and environmental cues. Regulation of membrane protein levels and establishment of polarity are fundamental for many cellular processes. In plants, IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER 1 (IRT1) is the major root iron transporter but is also responsible for the absorption of other divalent metals such as manganese, zinc and cobalt. We recently uncovered that IRT1 is polarly localized to the outer plasma membrane domain of plant root epidermal cells upon depletion of its secondary metal substrates. The endosome-recruited FYVE1 protein interacts with IRT1 in the endocytic pathway and plays a crucial role in the establishment of IRT1 polarity, likely through its recycling to the cell surface. Our work sheds light on the mechanisms of radial transport of nutrients across the different cell types of plant roots toward the vascular tissues and raises interesting parallel with iron transport in mammals.

  4. Iron, oxidative stress, and redox signaling in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Gudjoncik, Aurélie; Guenancia, Charles; Zeller, Marianne; Cottin, Yves; Vergely, Catherine; Rochette, Luc

    2014-08-01

    The redox state of the cell is predominantly dependent on an iron redox couple and is maintained within strict physiological limits. Iron is an essential metal for hemoglobin synthesis in erythrocytes, for oxidation-reduction reactions, and for cellular proliferation. The maintenance of stable iron concentrations requires the coordinated regulation of iron transport into plasma from dietary sources in the duodenum, from recycled senescent red cells in macrophages, and from storage in hepatocytes. The absorption of dietary iron, which is present in heme or nonheme form, is carried out by mature villus enterocytes of the duodenum and proximal jejunum. Multiple physiological processes are involved in maintaining iron homeostasis. These include its storage at the intracellular and extracellular level. Control of iron balance in the whole organism requires communication between sites of uptake, utilization, and storage. Key protein transporters and the molecules that regulate their activities have been identified. In this field, ferritins and hepcidin are the major regulator proteins. A variety of transcription factors may be activated depending on the level of oxidative stress, leading to the expression of different genes. Major preclinical and clinical trials have shown advances in iron-chelation therapy for the treatment of iron-overload disease as well as cardiovascular and chronic inflammatory diseases. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Nickel-iron battery system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltat, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    The generated flow rates of gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen from an electrical vehicle nickel-iron battery system were determined and used to evaluate the flame quenching capabilities of several candidate devices to prevent flame propagation within batteries having central watering/venting systems. The battery generated hydrogen and oxygen gases were measured for a complete charge and discharge cycle. The data correlates well with accepted theory during strong overcharge conditions indicating that the measurements are valid for other portions of the cycle. Tests confirm that the gas mixture in the cells is always flammable regardless of the battery status. The literature indicated that a conventional flame arrestor would not be effective over the broad spectrum of gassing conditions presented by a nickel-iron battery. Four different types of protective devices were evaluated. A foam-metal arrestor design was successful in quenching gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen flames, however; the application of this flame arrestor to individual cell or module protection in a battery is problematic. A possible rearrangement of the watering/venting system to accept the partial protection of simple one-way valves is presented which, in combination with the successful foam-metal arrestor as main vent protection, could result in a significant improvement in battery protection.

  6. Heat transport system

    DOEpatents

    Harkness, S.D.

    A falling bed of ceramic particles receives neutron irradiation from a neutron-producing plasma and thereby transports energy as heat from the plasma to a heat exchange location where the ceramic particles are cooled by a gas flow. The cooled ceramic particles are elevated to a location from which they may again pass by gravity through the region where they are exposed to neutron radiation. Ceramic particles of alumina, magnesia, silica and combinations of these materials are contemplated as high-temperature materials that will accept energy from neutron irradiation. Separate containers of material incorporating lithium are exposed to the neutron flux for the breeding of tritium that may subsequently be used in neutron-producing reactions. The falling bed of ceramic particles includes velocity partitioning between compartments near to the neutron-producing plasma and compartments away from the plasma to moderate the maximum temperature in the bed.

  7. Heat transport system

    DOEpatents

    Harkness, Samuel D.

    1982-01-01

    A falling bed of ceramic particles receives neutron irradiation from a neutron-producing plasma and thereby transports energy as heat from the plasma to a heat exchange location where the ceramic particles are cooled by a gas flow. The cooled ceramic particles are elevated to a location from which they may again pass by gravity through the region where they are exposed to neutron radiation. Ceramic particles of alumina, magnesia, silica and combinations of these materials are contemplated as high-temperature materials that will accept energy from neutron irradiation. Separate containers of material incorporating lithium are exposed to the neutron flux for the breeding of tritium that may subsequently be used in neutron-producing reactions. The falling bed of ceramic particles includes velocity partitioning between compartments near to the neutron-producing plasma and compartments away from the plasma to moderate the maximum temperature in the bed.

  8. Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John J.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Langley's Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program employs a heavily instrumented, B 737-100 as its Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TRSV). The TRSV has been used during the demonstration trials of the Time Reference Scanning Beam Microwave Landing System (TRSB MLS), the '4D flight-management' concept, ATC data links, and airborne windshear sensors. The credibility obtainable from successful flight test experiments is often a critical factor in the granting of substantial commitments for commercial implementation by the FAA and industry. In the case of the TRSB MLS, flight test demonstrations were decisive to its selection as the standard landing system by the ICAO.

  9. Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John J.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Langley's Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program employs a heavily instrumented, B 737-100 as its Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TRSV). The TRSV has been used during the demonstration trials of the Time Reference Scanning Beam Microwave Landing System (TRSB MLS), the '4D flight-management' concept, ATC data links, and airborne windshear sensors. The credibility obtainable from successful flight test experiments is often a critical factor in the granting of substantial commitments for commercial implementation by the FAA and industry. In the case of the TRSB MLS, flight test demonstrations were decisive to its selection as the standard landing system by the ICAO.

  10. The ferrous iron transporter FtrABCD is required for the virulence of Brucella abortus 2308 in mice.

    PubMed

    Elhassanny, Ahmed E M; Anderson, Eric S; Menscher, Evan A; Roop, R Martin

    2013-06-01

    Iron transport has been linked to the virulence of Brucella strains in both natural and experimental hosts. The genes designated BAB2_0837-0840 in the Brucella abortus 2308 genome sequence are predicted to encode a CupII-type ferrous iron transporter homologous to the FtrABCD transporter recently described in Bordetella. To study the role of the Brucella FtrABCD in iron transport, an isogenic ftrA mutant was constructed from B. abortus 2308. Compared with the parental strain, the B. abortus ftrA mutant displays a decreased capacity to use non-haem iron sources in vitro, a growth defect in a low iron medium that is enhanced at pH 6, and studies employing radiolabelled FeCl3 confirmed that FtrABCD transports ferrous iron. Transcription of the ftrA gene is induced in B. abortus 2308 in response to iron deprivation and exposure to acid pH, and similar to other Brucella iron acquisition genes that have been examined the iron-responsiveness of ftrA is dependent upon the iron response regulator Irr. The B. abortus ftrA mutant exhibits significant attenuation in both cultured murine macrophages and experimentally infected mice, supporting the proposition that ferrous iron is a critical iron source for these bacteria in the mammalian host.

  11. Two iron-regulated cation transporters from tomato complement metal uptake-deficient yeast mutants.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, U; Mas Marques, A; Buckhout, T J

    2001-03-01

    Although iron deficiency poses severe nutritional problems to crop plants, to date iron transporters have only been characterized from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. To extend our molecular knowledge of Fe transport in crop plants, we have isolated two cDNAs (LeIRT1 and LeIRT2) from a library constructed from roots of iron-deficient tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants, using the Arabidopsis iron transporter cDNA, IRTI, as a probe. Their deduced polypeptides display 64% and 62% identical amino acid residues to the IRT1 protein, respectively. Transcript level analyses revealed that both genes were predominantly expressed in roots. Transcription of LeIRT2 was unaffected by the iron status of the plant, while expression of LeIRT1 was strongly enhanced by iron limitation. The growth defect of an iron uptake-deficient yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mutant was complemented by LeIRT1 and LeIRT2 when ligated to a yeast expression plasmid. Transport assays revealed that iron uptake was restored in the transformed yeast cells. This uptake was temperature-dependent and saturable, and Fe2+ rather than Fe3+ was the preferred substrate. A number of divalent metal ions inhibited Fe2+ uptake when supplied at 100-fold or 10-fold excess. Manganese, zinc and copper uptake-deficient yeast mutants were also rescued by the two tomato cDNAs, suggesting that their gene products have a broad substrate range. The gene structure was determined by polymerase chain reaction experiments and, surprisingly, both genes are arranged in tandem with a tail-to-tail orientation.

  12. Iron biogeochemistry across marine systems - progress from the past decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitbarth, E.; Achterberg, E. P.; Ardelan, M. V.; Baker, A. R.; Bucciarelli, E.; Chever, F.; Croot, P. L.; Duggen, S.; Gledhill, M.; Hassellöv, M.; Hassler, C.; Hoffmann, L. J.; Hunter, K. A.; Hutchins, D. A.; Ingri, J.; Jickells, T.; Lohan, M. C.; Nielsdóttir, M. C.; Sarthou, G.; Schoemann, V.; Trapp, J. M.; Turner, D. R.; Ye, Y.

    2010-03-01

    Based on an international workshop (Gothenburg, 14-16 May 2008), this review article aims to combine interdisciplinary knowledge from coastal and open ocean research on iron biogeochemistry. The major scientific findings of the past decade are structured into sections on natural and artificial iron fertilization, iron inputs into coastal and estuarine systems, colloidal iron and organic matter, and biological processes. Potential effects of global climate change, particularly ocean acidification, on iron biogeochemistry are discussed. The findings are synthesized into recommendations for future research areas.

  13. Sources, transport and deposition of iron in the global atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R.; Balkanski, Y.; Boucher, O.; Bopp, L.; Chappell, A.; Ciais, P.; Hauglustaine, D.; Peñuelas, J.; Tao, S.

    2015-03-01

    Atmospheric deposition of iron (Fe) plays an important role in controlling oceanic primary productivity. However, the sources of Fe in the atmosphere are not well understood. In particular, the combustion sources of Fe and their deposition over oceans are not accounted for in current biogeochemical models of the carbon cycle. Here we used a mass-balance method to estimate the emissions of Fe from the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass by accounting for the Fe contents in fuel and the partitioning of Fe during combustion. The emissions of Fe attached to aerosols from combustion sources were estimated by particle size, and their uncertainties were quantified by a Monte Carlo simulation. The emissions of Fe from mineral sources were estimated using the latest soil mineralogical database to date. As a result, the total Fe emissions from combustion averaged for 1960-2007 were estimated to be 5.1 Tg yr-1 (90% confidence of 2.2 to 11.5). Of these emissions, 2, 33 and 65% were emitted in particles <1 μm (PM1), 1-10 μm (PM1-10), and >10 μm (PM>10), respectively, compared to total Fe emissions from mineral sources of 41.0 Tg yr-1. For combustion sources, different temporal trends were found in fine and medium-to-coarse particles, with a notable increase in Fe emissions in PM1 and PM1-10 since 2000 due to a rapid increase from motor vehicles. These emissions have been introduced in a global 3-D transport model run at a spatial resolution of of 0.94° latitude by 1.28° longitude to evaluate our estimation of Fe emissions. The modelled Fe concentrations were compared to measurements at 825 sampling stations. The deviation between modelled and observed Fe concentrations attached to aerosols at the surface was within a factor of two at most sampling stations, and the deviation was within a factor of 1.5 at sampling stations dominated by combustion sources. We analyzed the relative contribution of combustion sources to total Fe concentrations over different regions of the

  14. Sources, transport and deposition of iron in the global atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R.; Balkanski, Y.; Boucher, O.; Bopp, L.; Chappell, A.; Ciais, P.; Hauglustaine, D.; Peñuelas, J.; Tao, S.

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric deposition of iron (Fe) plays an important role in controlling oceanic primary productivity. However, the sources of Fe in the atmosphere are not well understood. In particular, the combustion sources of Fe and the subsequent deposition to the oceans have been accounted for in only few ocean biogeochemical models of the carbon cycle. Here we used a mass-balance method to estimate the emissions of Fe from the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass by accounting for the Fe contents in fuel and the partitioning of Fe during combustion. The emissions of Fe attached to aerosols from combustion sources were estimated by particle size, and their uncertainties were quantified by a Monte Carlo simulation. The emissions of Fe from mineral sources were estimated using the latest soil mineralogical database to date. As a result, the total Fe emissions from combustion averaged for 1960-2007 were estimated to be 5.3 Tg yr-1 (90% confidence of 2.3 to 12.1). Of these emissions, 1, 27 and 72% were emitted in particles < 1 μm (PM1), 1-10 μm (PM1-10), and > 10 μm (PM> 10), respectively, compared to a total Fe emission from mineral dust of 41.0 Tg yr-1 in a log-normal distribution with a mass median diameter of 2.5 μm and a geometric standard deviation of 2. For combustion sources, different temporal trends were found in fine and medium-to-coarse particles, with a notable increase in Fe emissions in PM1 since 2000 due to an increase in Fe emission from motor vehicles (from 0.008 to 0.0103 Tg yr-1 in 2000 and 2007, respectively). These emissions have been introduced in a global 3-D transport model run at a spatial resolution of 0.94° latitude by 1.28° longitude to evaluate our estimation of Fe emissions. The modelled Fe concentrations as monthly means were compared with the monthly (57 sites) or daily (768 sites) measured concentrations at a total of 825 sampling stations. The deviation between modelled and observed Fe concentrations attached to aerosols at the

  15. Structure, function and binding selectivity and stereoselectivity of siderophore-iron outer membrane transporters.

    PubMed

    Schalk, Isabelle J; Mislin, Gaëtan L A; Brillet, Karl

    2012-01-01

    To get access to iron, microorganisms produce and release into their environment small organic metal chelators called siderophores. In parallel, they produce siderophore-iron outer membrane transporters (also called TonB-Dependent Transporters or TBDT) embedded in the outer membrane; these proteins actively reabsorb the siderophore loaded with iron from the extracellular medium. This active uptake requires energy in the form of the proton motive force transferred from the inner membrane to the outer membrane transporter via the inner membrane TonB complex. Siderophores produced by microorganisms are structurally very diverse with molecular weights of 150 up to 2000Da. Siderophore-iron uptake from the extracellular medium by TBDTs is a highly selective and sometimes even stereoselective process, with each siderophore having a specific TBDT. Unlike the siderophores, all TBDTs have similar structures and belong to the outer membrane β-barrel protein superfamily. The way in which the siderophore-iron complex passes through the TBDT is still unclear. In some bacteria, TBDTs are also partners of signaling cascades regulating the expression of proteins involved in siderophore biosynthesis and siderophore-iron acquisition.

  16. Tether Transportation System Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangham, M. E.; Lorenzini, E.; Vestal, L.

    1998-01-01

    The projected traffic to geostationary earth orbit (GEO) is expected to increase over the next few decades. At the same time, the cost of delivering payloads from the Earth's surface to low earth orbit (LEO) is projected to decrease, thanks in part to the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). A comparable reduction in the cost of delivering payloads from LEO to GEO is sought. The use of in-space tethers, eliminating the requirement for traditional chemical upper stages and thereby reducing the launch mass, has been identified as such an alternative. Spinning tethers are excellent kinetic energy storage devices for providing the large delta vee's required for LEO to GEO transfer. A single-stage system for transferring payloads from LEO to GEO was proposed some years ago. The study results presented here contain the first detailed analyses of this proposal, its extension to a two-stage system, and the likely implementation of the operational system.

  17. Experimental research on the behavior of the pneumatic transport of fine-grained iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, V.; Hritac, M.; Constantin, N.; Dobrescu, C.

    2017-01-01

    Mixed injection of fine-grained iron ore and pulverized coal in the furnace, involves determining the behavior of these materials during pneumatic transport in a dense state through the pipe and setting possibilities for adjusting the flow rate of material transported with the corresponding values of the process. Parameters of the pneumatic transport were determined for the main types of iron ore and chalk used in Arcelor Mittal Galati. Outside the intended purpose of injecting iron ore and flux, it was considered also the experimental check of the possibility for injecting ilmenite in the furnace for crucible protection purpose. The possibility of injecting cinder mill into the furnace was also considered. Injecting cinder could be taken into account for the recycling of ferrous waste in the furnace, also as additive for intensifying the combustion process around the tuyeres.

  18. Modelling Systemic Iron Regulation during Dietary Iron Overload and Acute Inflammation: Role of Hepcidin-Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sparla, Richard; Hahnel, Maximilian; Bode, Johannes; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Legewie, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Systemic iron levels must be maintained in physiological concentrations to prevent diseases associated with iron deficiency or iron overload. A key role in this process plays ferroportin, the only known mammalian transmembrane iron exporter, which releases iron from duodenal enterocytes, hepatocytes, or iron-recycling macrophages into the blood stream. Ferroportin expression is tightly controlled by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms in response to hypoxia, iron deficiency, heme iron and inflammatory cues by cell-autonomous and systemic mechanisms. At the systemic level, the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin is released from the liver in response to these cues, binds to ferroportin and triggers its degradation. The relative importance of individual ferroportin control mechanisms and their interplay at the systemic level is incompletely understood. Here, we built a mathematical model of systemic iron regulation. It incorporates the dynamics of organ iron pools as well as regulation by the hepcidin/ferroportin system. We calibrated and validated the model with time-resolved measurements of iron responses in mice challenged with dietary iron overload and/or inflammation. The model demonstrates that inflammation mainly reduces the amount of iron in the blood stream by reducing intracellular ferroportin transcription, and not by hepcidin-dependent ferroportin protein destabilization. In contrast, ferroportin regulation by hepcidin is the predominant mechanism of iron homeostasis in response to changing iron diets for a big range of dietary iron contents. The model further reveals that additional homeostasis mechanisms must be taken into account at very high dietary iron levels, including the saturation of intestinal uptake of nutritional iron and the uptake of circulating, non-transferrin-bound iron, into liver. Taken together, our model quantitatively describes systemic iron metabolism and generated experimentally testable predictions for additional

  19. Intelligent Transport Systems in the Management of Road Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalupová, Blanka; Hlavoň, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    Extension of European Union causes increase of free transfer of people and goods. At the same time they raised the problems associated with the transport, e.g. congestion and related accidents on roads, air traffic delays and more. To increase the efficiency and safety of transport, the European Commission supports the introduction of intelligent transport systems and services in all transport sectors. Implementation of intelligent transport systems and services in the road transport reduces accident frequency, increases the capacity of existing infrastructure and reduces congestions. Use of toll systems provides resources needed for the construction and operation of a new road network, improves public transport, cycling transport and walking transport, and also their multimodal integration with individual car transport.

  20. The FupA/B protein uniquely facilitates transport of ferrous iron and siderophore-associated ferric iron across the outer membrane of Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Bhaswati

    2014-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious Gram-negative pathogen that replicates intracellularly within the mammalian host. One of the factors associated with virulence of F. tularensis is the protein FupA that mediates high-affinity transport of ferrous iron across the outer membrane. Together with its paralogue FslE, a siderophore–ferric iron transporter, FupA supports survival of the pathogen in the host by providing access to the essential nutrient iron. The FupA orthologue in the attenuated live vaccine strain (LVS) is encoded by the hybrid gene fupA/B, the product of an intergenic recombination event that significantly contributes to attenuation of the strain. We used 55Fe transport assays with mutant strains complemented with the different paralogues to show that the FupA/B protein of LVS retains the capacity for high-affinity transport of ferrous iron, albeit less efficiently than FupA of virulent strain Schu S4. 55Fe transport assays using purified siderophore and siderophore-dependent growth assays on iron-limiting agar confirmed previous findings that FupA/B also contributes to siderophore-mediated ferric iron uptake. These assays further demonstrated that the LVS FslE protein is a weaker siderophore–ferric iron transporter than the orthologue from Schu S4, and may be a result of the sequence variation between the two proteins. Our results indicate that iron-uptake mechanisms in LVS differ from those in Schu S4 and that functional differences in the outer membrane iron transporters have distinct effects on growth under iron limitation. PMID:24307666

  1. Iron

    MedlinePlus

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  2. "Pumping iron"-how macrophages handle iron at the systemic, microenvironmental, and cellular levels.

    PubMed

    Nairz, Manfred; Theurl, Igor; Swirski, Filip K; Weiss, Guenter

    2017-04-01

    Macrophages reside in virtually every organ. First arising during embryogenesis, macrophages replenish themselves in the adult through a combination of self-renewal and influx of bone marrow-derived monocytes. As large phagocytic cells, macrophages participate in innate immunity while contributing to tissue-specific homeostatic functions. Among the key metabolic tasks are senescent red blood cell recycling, free heme detoxification, and provision of iron for de novo hemoglobin synthesis. While this systemic mechanism involves the shuttling of iron between spleen, liver, and bone marrow through the concerted function of defined macrophage populations, similar circuits appear to exist within the microenvironment of other organs. The high turnover of iron is the prerequisite for continuous erythropoiesis and tissue integrity but challenges macrophages' ability to maintain cellular iron homeostasis and immune function.This review provides a brief overview of systemic, microenvironmental, and cellular aspects of macrophage iron handling with a focus on exciting and unresolved questions in the field.

  3. The Fundamentals of Dislocation Transport of Hydrogen in BCC Iron.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    only with water P electrolysis in a basic solution. On the hydrogen charging side (cathodic cell), the reaction on the specimen surface is: - H2 0...state hydrogen flux due to 77 concurrent plastic deformation for edge orientation single crystal. Figure 5-16: Curve stripping method used in separating ...and polycrystal pure iron has been studied. Single crystals with a proper combination of surface orientation and tensile axis were used to separately

  4. Evaluation of the effect of divalent metal transporter 1 gene polymorphism on blood iron, lead and cadmium levels.

    PubMed

    Kayaaltı, Zeliha; Akyüzlü, Dilek Kaya; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2015-02-01

    Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), a member of the proton-coupled metal ion transporter family, mediates transport of ferrous iron from the lumen of the intestine into the enterocyte and export of iron from endocytic vesicles. It has an affinity not only for iron but also for other divalent cations including manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc. DMT1 is encoded by the SLC11a2 gene that is located on chromosome 12q13 in humans and express four major mammalian isoforms (1A/+IRE, 1A/-IRE, 2/+IRE and 2/-IRE). Mutations or polymorphisms of DMT1 gene may have an impact on human health by disturbing metal trafficking. To study the possible association of DMT1 gene with the blood levels of some divalent cations such as iron, lead and cadmium, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (IVS4+44C/A) in DMT1 gene was investigated in 486 unrelated and healthy individuals in a Turkish population by method of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The genotype frequencies were found as 49.8% homozygote typical (CC), 38.3% heterozygote (CA) and 11.9% homozygote atypical (AA). Metal levels were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system and the average levels of iron, lead and cadmium in the blood samples were 446.01 ± 81.87 ppm, 35.59 ± 17.72 ppb and 1.25 ± 0.87 ppb, respectively. Individuals with the CC genotype had higher blood iron, lead and cadmium levels than those with AA and CA genotypes. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism in the DMT1 gene and iron and lead levels (p=0.001 and p=0.036, respectively), but no association was found with cadmium level (p=0.344). This study suggested that DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, lead and cadmium levels.

  5. Amyloid fibril systems reduce, stabilize and deliver bioavailable nanosized iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yi; Posavec, Lidija; Bolisetty, Sreenath; Hilty, Florentine M.; Nyström, Gustav; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Hilbe, Monika; Rossi, Antonella; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Zimmermann, Michael B.; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2017-07-01

    Iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a major global public health problem. A sustainable and cost-effective strategy to reduce IDA is iron fortification of foods, but the most bioavailable fortificants cause adverse organoleptic changes in foods. Iron nanoparticles are a promising solution in food matrices, although their tendency to oxidize and rapidly aggregate in solution severely limits their use in fortification. Amyloid fibrils are protein aggregates initially known for their association with neurodegenerative disorders, but recently described in the context of biological functions in living organisms and emerging as unique biomaterial building blocks. Here, we show an original application for these protein fibrils as efficient carriers for iron fortification. We use biodegradable amyloid fibrils from β-lactoglobulin, an inexpensive milk protein with natural reducing effects, as anti-oxidizing nanocarriers and colloidal stabilizers for iron nanoparticles. The resulting hybrid material forms a stable protein-iron colloidal dispersion that undergoes rapid dissolution and releases iron ions during acidic and enzymatic in vitro digestion. Importantly, this hybrid shows high in vivo iron bioavailability, equivalent to ferrous sulfate in haemoglobin-repletion and stable-isotope studies in rats, but with reduced organoleptic changes in foods. Feeding the rats with these hybrid materials did not result in abnormal iron accumulation in any organs, or changes in whole blood glutathione concentrations, inferring their primary safety. Therefore, these iron-amyloid fibril hybrids emerge as novel, highly effective delivery systems for iron in both solid and liquid matrices.

  6. Earthquake damage to transportation systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCullough, Heather

    1994-01-01

    Earthquakes represent one of the most destructive natural hazards known to man. A large magnitude earthquake near a populated area can affect residents over thousands of square kilometers and cause billions of dollars in property damage. Such an event can kill or injure thousands of residents and disrupt the socioeconomic environment for months, sometimes years. A serious result of a large-magnitude earthquake is the disruption of transportation systems, which limits post-disaster emergency response. Movement of emergency vehicles, such as police cars, fire trucks and ambulances, is often severely restricted. Damage to transportation systems is categorized below by cause including: ground failure, faulting, vibration damage, and tsunamis.

  7. Surveillance systems for intermodal transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovlev, Sergej; Voznak, Miroslav; Andziulis, Arunas

    2015-05-01

    Intermodal container monitoring is considered a major security issue in many major logistic companies and countries worldwide. Current representation of the problem, we face today, originated in 2002, right after the 9/11 attacks. Then, a new worldwide Container Security Initiative (CSI, 2002) was considered that shaped the perception of the transportation operations. Now more than 80 larger ports all over the world contribute to its further development and integration into everyday transportation operations and improve the regulations for the developing regions. Although, these new improvements allow us to feel safer and secure, constant management of transportation operations has become a very difficult problem for conventional data analysis methods and information systems. The paper deals with a proposal of a whole new concept for the improvement of the Containers Security Initiative (CSI) by virtually connecting safety, security processes and systems. A conceptual middleware approach with deployable intelligent agent modules is proposed to be used with possible scenarios and a testbed is used to test the solution. Middleware examples are visually programmed using National Instruments LabView software packages and Wireless sensor network hardware modules. An experimental software is used to evaluate he solution. This research is a contribution to the intermodal transportation and is intended to be used as a means or the development of intelligent transport systems.

  8. Nitric oxide and glutathione impact the expression of iron uptake- and iron transport-related genes as well as the content of metals in A. thaliana plants grown under iron deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Koen, Emmanuel; Szymańska, Katarzyna; Klinguer, Agnès; Dobrowolska, Grażyna; Besson-Bard, Angélique; Wendehenne, David

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicate that nitric oxide (NO) acts as a signaling molecule mediating iron deficiency responses through the upregulation of the expression of iron uptake-related genes. Accordingly, NO donors such as nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) were reported to improve the fitness of plants grown under iron deficiency. Here, we showed that glutathione, a by-product of GSNO, triggered the upregulation of the expression of iron uptake- and transport-related gene and an increase of iron concentration in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings facing iron deficiency. Furthermore, we provided evidence that under iron deficiency, NO released by GSNO did not improve the root iron concentration but impacted the content of copper. Collectively, our data highlight the complexity of interpreting data based on the use of NO donors when investigating the role of NO in iron homeostasis. PMID:22902693

  9. Understanding and Controlling iron Release in Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generation of red-water resulting from the release of iron from drinking water distribution system materials is a major consumer complaint of drinking water systems. The objective of this presentation is to provide a fundamental basis for iron release from drinking water distrib...

  10. Understanding and Controlling iron Release in Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generation of red-water resulting from the release of iron from drinking water distribution system materials is a major consumer complaint of drinking water systems. The objective of this presentation is to provide a fundamental basis for iron release from drinking water distrib...

  11. Regulation of iron transport related genes by boron in the marine bacterium Marinobacter algicola DG893.

    PubMed

    Romano, Ariel; Trimble, Lyndsay; Hobusch, Ashtian R; Schroeder, Kristine J; Amin, Shady A; Hartnett, Andrej D; Barker, Ryan A; Crumbliss, Alvin L; Carrano, Carl J

    2013-08-01

    While there has been extensive interest in the use of boron isotope ratios as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the high (0.4 mM) concentration and the depth-independent (conservative or non-nutrient-like) concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the modern ocean. Here we report that boron affects the expression of a number of protein and genes in the "algal-associated" Gram-negative marine bacterium Marinobacter algicola DG893. Most intriguingly, a number of these proteins and genes are related to iron uptake. In a recent separate publication we have shown that boron regulates one such iron transport related protein, i.e. the periplasmic iron binding protein FbpA via a direct interaction of the metalloid with this protein. Here we show that a number of other iron uptake related genes are also affected by boron but in the opposite way i.e. they are up-regulated. We propose that the differential effect of boron on FbpA expression relative to other iron transport related genes is a result of an interaction between boron and the global iron regulatory protein Fur.

  12. A Trypanosomatid Iron Transporter that Regulates Mitochondrial Function Is Required for Leishmania amazonensis Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Mittra, Bidyottam; Laranjeira-Silva, Maria Fernanda; Perrone Bezerra de Menezes, Juliana; Jensen, Jennifer; Michailowsky, Vladimir; Andrews, Norma W.

    2016-01-01

    Iron, an essential co-factor of respiratory chain proteins, is critical for mitochondrial function and maintenance of its redox balance. We previously reported a role for iron uptake in differentiation of Leishmania amazonensis into virulent amastigotes, by a mechanism that involves reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and is independent of the classical pH and temperature cues. Iron import into mitochondria was proposed to be essential for this process, but evidence supporting this hypothesis was lacking because the Leishmania mitochondrial iron transporter was unknown. Here we describe MIT1, a homolog of the mitochondrial iron importer genes mrs3 (yeast) and mitoferrin-1 (human) that is highly conserved among trypanosomatids. MIT1 expression was essential for the survival of Trypanosoma brucei procyclic but not bloodstream forms, which lack functional respiratory complexes. L. amazonensis LMIT1 null mutants could not be generated, suggesting that this mitochondrial iron importer is essential for promastigote viability. Promastigotes lacking one LMIT1 allele (LMIT1/Δlmit1) showed growth defects and were more susceptible to ROS toxicity, consistent with the role of iron as the essential co-factor of trypanosomatid mitochondrial superoxide dismutases. LMIT1/Δlmit1 metacyclic promastigotes were unable to replicate as intracellular amastigotes after infecting macrophages or cause cutaneous lesions in mice. When induced to differentiate axenically into amastigotes, LMIT1/Δlmit1 showed strong defects in iron content and function of mitochondria, were unable to upregulate the ROS-regulatory enzyme FeSOD, and showed mitochondrial changes suggestive of redox imbalance. Our results demonstrate the importance of mitochondrial iron uptake in trypanosomatid parasites, and highlight the role of LMIT1 in the iron-regulated process that orchestrates differentiation of L. amazonensis into infective amastigotes. PMID:26741360

  13. Iron-titanium oxyhydroxides which transport water into the deep upper mantle and mantle transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsukage, K. N.; Nishihara, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We experimentally discovered a new hydrous phase in the system FeOOH-TiO2 at pressures of 10-16 GPa and temperatures of 1000-1600°C which corresponds to conditions of the deep upper mantle and the Earth's mantle transition zone. Seven different compositions in the FeOOH-TiO2 system having molar ratios of x = Ti/(Fe + Ti) = 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, 0.5, 0.75 that were prepared by mixing reagent grade a-FeOOH (goethite) and TiO2 (anatase) powders were used as starting materials. High-pressure and high-temperature experiments were carried out using Kawai-type multi-anvil apparatus (Orange-1000 at Ehime University and SPI-1000 at Tokyo Institute of Technology). In this system, we identified two stable iron-titanium oxyhydroxide phases whose estimated composition is expressed by (FeH)1 - xTixO2 . One is the Fe-rich solid solution (x < 0.23) with e-FeOOH type crystal structure (e-phase, orthorhombic, P21nm) that was described by the previous studies (e.g., Suzuki 2010), and the other is the more Ti-rich solid solution (x > 0.35) with a-PbO2 type structure (a-phase, orthorhombic, Pbcn). The a-phase is stable up to 1500ºC for a composition of x = 0.5 and at least to 1600ºC for x = 0.75. Our result means that this phase is stable at average mantle temperature in the Earth's mantle transition zone. The Iron-titanium-rich hydrous phases was possible to stable in basalt + H2O system (e.g., Hashimoto and Matsukage 2013). Therefore our findings suggest that water transport in the Earth's deep interior is probably much more efficient than had been previously thought.

  14. Changes of ferrous iron and its transporters after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gaiqing; Shao, Anwen; Hu, Weimin; Xue, Fang; Zhao, Hongping; Jin, Xiaojie; Li, Guanglai; Sun, Zhitang; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Ferrous iron is a major source inducing oxidative stress after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Divalent metal transporter1 (DMT1) is the important and well-known plasma membrane transport protein which was proved to be involved in the transport of free ferrous iron in mammals. Ferroportin 1 (FPN1) is the unique exporter of ferrous iron from mammalian cells. The role of DMT1 and FPN1 in brain after ICH is still not elucidated. Therefore, we measure the expression of DMT1 and FPN1, to explore the correlations between ferrous iron and its specific transporters after ICH. Methods: Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley rats received intra-striatal infusions of 0.5 U type IV collagenase to establish ICH model. Ferrous iron content in brain was determined using Turnbull’s method. DMT1 and FPN1 expression were examined by immunohistochemical staining and Real-Time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). With the use of confocal laser microscopy, we determined the colocalization of DMT1 and FPN1 at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after ICH. Results: Ferrous iron deposition was shown in the perihematomal zone as early as 1 day after ICH; it reached a peak after 7 days and was not elevated within 14 days following ICH. The expression of the DMT1 upregulated and reached to peak at day 7 after ICH. FPN1 reached a plateau at 3 days post-ICH. Expression levels of DMT1 and FPN1 were in parallel with ferrous iron deposition. There was a positive correlation between FPN1 and DMT1. DMT1 mainly localized in the cytoplasm of glias and neurons. FPN1 were mostly distributed on the membrane of endothelial cells and glias. Confocal microscope showed that DMT1 colocalized with FPN1. Conclusions: DMT1 and FPN1 are positively influenced by ferrous iron status in brain after ICH. DMT1 and FPN1 attenuate iron overload after ICH via increasing transmembrane iron export. PMID:26617777

  15. 21 CFR 862.1415 - Iron-binding capacity test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron-binding capacity test system. 862.1415... Systems § 862.1415 Iron-binding capacity test system. (a) Identification. An iron-binding capacity test system is a device intended to measure iron-binding capacity in serum. Iron-binding capacity...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1415 - Iron-binding capacity test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron-binding capacity test system. 862.1415... Systems § 862.1415 Iron-binding capacity test system. (a) Identification. An iron-binding capacity test system is a device intended to measure iron-binding capacity in serum. Iron-binding capacity measurements...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1415 - Iron-binding capacity test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron-binding capacity test system. 862.1415... Systems § 862.1415 Iron-binding capacity test system. (a) Identification. An iron-binding capacity test system is a device intended to measure iron-binding capacity in serum. Iron-binding capacity measurements...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1415 - Iron-binding capacity test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron-binding capacity test system. 862.1415... Systems § 862.1415 Iron-binding capacity test system. (a) Identification. An iron-binding capacity test system is a device intended to measure iron-binding capacity in serum. Iron-binding capacity measurements...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1415 - Iron-binding capacity test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron-binding capacity test system. 862.1415... Systems § 862.1415 Iron-binding capacity test system. (a) Identification. An iron-binding capacity test system is a device intended to measure iron-binding capacity in serum. Iron-binding capacity measurements...

  20. 49 CFR 230.91 - Chafing irons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chafing irons. 230.91 Section 230.91 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Tenders Draw Gear and Draft Systems § 230.91 Chafing irons. Chafing irons that permit proper curving shall...

  1. 49 CFR 230.91 - Chafing irons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chafing irons. 230.91 Section 230.91 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Tenders Draw Gear and Draft Systems § 230.91 Chafing irons. Chafing irons that permit proper curving shall...

  2. 49 CFR 230.91 - Chafing irons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chafing irons. 230.91 Section 230.91 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Tenders Draw Gear and Draft Systems § 230.91 Chafing irons. Chafing irons that permit proper curving shall...

  3. Yellow Stripe1. Expanded Roles for the Maize Iron-Phytosiderophore Transporter1

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Louis A.; Pierson, Abbey J.; Panaviene, Zivile; Walker, Elsbeth L.

    2004-01-01

    Graminaceous monocots, including most of the world's staple grains (i.e. rice, corn, and wheat) use a chelation strategy (Strategy II) for primary acquisition of iron from the soil. Strategy II plants secrete phytosiderophores (PS), compounds of the mugineic acid family that form stable Fe(III) chelates in soil. Uptake of iron-PS chelates, which occurs through specific transporters at the root surface, thus represents the primary route of iron entry into Strategy II plants. The gene Yellow stripe1 (Ys1) encodes the Fe(III)-PS transporter of maize (Zea mays). Here the physiological functions performed by maize YS1 were further defined by examining the pattern of Ys1 mRNA and protein accumulation and by defining YS1 transport specificity in detail. YS1 is able to translocate iron that is bound either by PS or by the related compound, nicotianamine; thus, the role of YS1 may be to transport either of these complexes. Ys1 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels responds rapidly to changes in iron availability but is not strongly affected by limitation of copper or zinc. Our data provide no support for the idea that YS1 is a transporter of zinc-PS, based on YS1 biochemical activity and Ys1 mRNA expression patterns in response to zinc deficiency. YS1 is capable of transporting copper-PS, but expression data suggest that the copper-PS uptake has limited significance in primary uptake of copper. PMID:15107503

  4. Optimal concentrations in transport systems.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kaare H; Kim, Wonjung; Holbrook, N Michele; Bush, John W M

    2013-06-06

    Many biological and man-made systems rely on transport systems for the distribution of material, for example matter and energy. Material transfer in these systems is determined by the flow rate and the concentration of material. While the most concentrated solutions offer the greatest potential in terms of material transfer, impedance typically increases with concentration, thus making them the most difficult to transport. We develop a general framework for describing systems for which impedance increases with concentration, and consider material flow in four different natural systems: blood flow in vertebrates, sugar transport in vascular plants and two modes of nectar drinking in birds and insects. The model provides a simple method for determining the optimum concentration copt in these systems. The model further suggests that the impedance at the optimum concentration μopt may be expressed in terms of the impedance of the pure (c = 0) carrier medium μ0 as μopt 2(α)μ0, where the power α is prescribed by the specific flow constraints, for example constant pressure for blood flow (α = 1) or constant work rate for certain nectar-drinking insects (α = 6). Comparing the model predictions with experimental data from more than 100 animal and plant species, we find that the simple model rationalizes the observed concentrations and impedances. The model provides a universal framework for studying flows impeded by concentration, and yields insight into optimization in engineered systems, such as traffic flow.

  5. Optimal concentrations in transport systems

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kaare H.; Kim, Wonjung; Holbrook, N. Michele; Bush, John W. M.

    2013-01-01

    Many biological and man-made systems rely on transport systems for the distribution of material, for example matter and energy. Material transfer in these systems is determined by the flow rate and the concentration of material. While the most concentrated solutions offer the greatest potential in terms of material transfer, impedance typically increases with concentration, thus making them the most difficult to transport. We develop a general framework for describing systems for which impedance increases with concentration, and consider material flow in four different natural systems: blood flow in vertebrates, sugar transport in vascular plants and two modes of nectar drinking in birds and insects. The model provides a simple method for determining the optimum concentration copt in these systems. The model further suggests that the impedance at the optimum concentration μopt may be expressed in terms of the impedance of the pure (c = 0) carrier medium μ0 as μopt∼2αμ0, where the power α is prescribed by the specific flow constraints, for example constant pressure for blood flow (α = 1) or constant work rate for certain nectar-drinking insects (α = 6). Comparing the model predictions with experimental data from more than 100 animal and plant species, we find that the simple model rationalizes the observed concentrations and impedances. The model provides a universal framework for studying flows impeded by concentration, and yields insight into optimization in engineered systems, such as traffic flow. PMID:23594815

  6. Green tea polyphenols require the mitochondrial iron transporter, mitoferrin, for lifespan extension in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Terry E; Pham, Hoang M; Nguyen, Benjamin V; Tahmasian, Yerazik; Ramsden, Shannon; Coskun, Volkan; Schriner, Samuel E; Jafari, Mahtab

    2016-12-01

    Green tea has been found to increase the lifespan of various experimental animal models including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. High in polyphenolic content, green tea has been shown to reduce oxidative stress in part by its ability to bind free iron, a micronutrient that is both essential for and toxic to all living organisms. Due to green tea's iron-binding properties, we questioned whether green tea acts to increase the lifespan of the fruit fly by modulating iron regulators, specifically, mitoferrin, a mitochondrial iron transporter, and transferrin, found in the hemolymph of flies. Publicly available hypomorph mutants for these iron regulators were utilized to investigate the effect of green tea on lifespan and fertility. We identified that green tea could not increase the lifespan of mitoferrin mutants but did rescue the reduced male fertility phenotype. The effect of green tea on transferrin mutant lifespan and fertility were comparable to w(1118) flies, as observed in our previous studies, in which green tea increased male fly lifespan and reduced male fertility. Expression levels in both w(1118) flies and mutant flies, supplemented with green tea, showed an upregulation of mitoferrin but not transferrin. Total body and mitochondrial iron levels were significantly reduced by green tea supplementation in w(1118) and mitoferrin mutants but not transferrin mutant flies. Our results demonstrate that green tea may act to increase the lifespan of Drosophila in part by the regulation of mitoferrin and reduction of mitochondrial iron.

  7. Effects of aspirin on expression of iron transport and storage proteins in BV-2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan Xin; Du, Fang; Jiang, Li Rong; Gong, Jing; Zhou, Yu-Fu; Luo, Qian Qian; Qian, Zhong Ming; Ke, Ya

    2015-12-01

    In the light of recent studies, we hypothesized that aspirin might have the functions to regulate the expression of iron transport proteins and then affect cellular iron levels. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of aspirin on expression of iron uptake protein transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1), iron release protein ferroportin 1 (Fpn1) and iron storage protein ferritin using Western blot analysis and on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-αlpha, interleukin (IL)-6, interleukin (IL)-10 and hepcidin using quantitative real-time PCR in BV-2 microglial cells treated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We found that aspirin significantly down-regulated TfR1, while also up-regulated Fpn1 and ferritin expressions in BV-2 microglial cells in vitro. We also showed that TfR1 and Fpn1 expressions were significantly higher, while ferritin contents, IL-6, TNF-alpha and hepcidin mRNA levels were lower in cells treated with aspirin plus LPS than those in cells treated with LPS only. We concluded that aspirin has a negative effect on cell iron contents under 'normal' conditions and could partly reverse LPS-induced-disruption in cell iron balance under in vitro inflammatory conditions. Our findings also suggested that hepcidin might play a dominant role in the control of TfR1 expression by aspirin in the cells treated with LPS.

  8. [Partitioning of taxifolin-iron ions complexes in octanol-water system].

    PubMed

    Shatalin, Iu V; Shubina, V S

    2014-01-01

    The composition of taxifolin-iron ions complexes in an octanol-water biphasic system was studied using the method of absorption spectrophotometry. It was found that at pH 5.0 in an aqueous biphasic system the complex of [Tf2 x Fe x (OH)k(H2O)8-k] is present, but at pH 7.0 and 9.0 the complexes of [Tf2 x Fe x (OH)k(H2O)2-k] and [Tf x Fe x OH)k(H2O)4-k] are predominantly observed. The formation of a stable [Tf3 x Fe] complex occurred in octanol phase. The charged iron ion of this complex is surrounded by taxifolin molecules, which shield the iron ion from lipophilic solvent. During transition from water to octanol phase the changes of the composition of complexes are accompanied by reciprocal changes in portion of taxifolin and iron ions in these phases. It was shown that the portion of taxifolin in aqueous solution in the presence of iron ions is increased at high pH values, and the portion of iron ions is minimal at pH 7.0. In addition, the parameters of solubility limits of taxifolin-iron ions complexes in an aqueous solution were determined. The data obtained gain a better understanding of the role of complexation of polyphenol with metal of variable valency in passive transport of flavonoids and metal ions across lipid membranes.

  9. The identification of a vacuolar iron transporter involved in the blue coloration of cornflower petals.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kumi; Negishi, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    The blue petal color of the cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) is caused by protocyanin, a kind of metalloanthocyanin, which is a self-assembled supramolecular metal complex pigment. Protocyanin is composed of six molecules of anthocyanin, six molecules of flavone, one ferric ion, and one magnesium ion. The ferric ion is essential for blue color development. Here, we identify the vacuolar iron transporter gene (CcVIT) from the blue petals of C. cyanus and its function is identified and characterized. The CcVIT transcript was observed only in the petals. Its amino acid sequence is highly homologous to the Arabidopsis thaliana (AtVIT1) and Tulipa gesneriana (TgVit1) vacuolar iron transporters. Heterologous expression of the CcVIT gene in yeast indicated that the corresponding gene product transports ferrous ion into vacuoles. Analysis of purple mutant-line petals clarified that the anthocyanin and flavone components were the same as those found in plants with blue petals, but the amount of iron ions in the colored cells decreased, and consequently the amount of blue protocyanin was reduced. The CcVIT gene was expressed even in purple mutant petals, however, an amino acid substitution (A236E) occurred in that case. This change in the CcVIT gene sequence also resulted in loss of iron transport activity. The CcVIT protein thus plays a critical role in the blue coloration of cornflower petals.

  10. Lunar articulated remote transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The students of the Florida A&M/Florida State University College of Engineering continued their design from 1988 to 1989 on a first generation lunar transportation vehicle for use on the surface of the Moon between the years 2010 and 2020. Attention is focused on specific design details on all components of the Lunar Articulated Remote Transportation System (Lunar ARTS). The Lunar ARTS will be a three-cart, six-wheeled articulated vehicle. Its purpose will be the transportation of astronauts and/or materials for excavation purposes at a short distance from the base (37.5 km). The power system includes fuel cells for both the primary system and the back-up system. The vehicle has the option of being operated in a manned or unmanned mode. The unmanned mode includes stereo imaging with signal processing for navigation. For manned missions the display console is a digital readout displayed on the inside of the astronaut's helmet. A microprocessor is also on board the vehicle. Other components of the vehicle include a double wishbone/flexible hemispherical wheel suspension; chassis; a steering system; motors; seat retraints; heat rejection systems; solar flare protection; dust protection; and meteoroid protection. A one-quarter scale dynamic model has been built to study the dynamic behavior of the vehicle. The dynamic model closely captures the mechanical and electrical details of the total design.

  11. Lunar articulated remote transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beech, Geoffrey; Conley, Gerald; Diaz, Claudine; Dimella, Timothy; Dodson, Pete; Hykin, Jeff; Richards, Byron; Richardson, Kroy; Shetzer, Christie; Vandyke, Melissa

    1990-01-01

    A first generation lunar transportation vehicle was designed for use on the surface of the Moon between the years 2010 and 2020. Attention is focussed on specific design details on all components of the Lunar Articulated Remote Transportation System (Lunar ARTS). The Lunar ARTS will be a three cart, six-wheeled articulated vehicle. It's purpose will be for the transportation of astronauts and/or materials for excavation purposes at a short distance from the base (37.5 kilometers). The power system includes fuel cells for both the primary system and the back-up system. The vehicle has the option of being operated in a manned or unmanned mode. The unmanned mode includes stereo imaging with signal processing for navigation. For manned missions the display console is a digital readout displayed on the inside of the asronaut's helmet. A microprocessor is also on board the vehicle. Other components of the vehicle include: a double wishbone/flexible hemispherical wheel suspension; chassis; a steering system; motors; seat restraints, heat rejection systems; solar flare protection; dust protection; and meteoroid protection. A one-quarter scale dynamic model was built to study the dynamic behavior of the vehicle. The dynamic model closely captures the mechanical and electrical details of the total design.

  12. Integrated Intermodal Passenger Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klock, Ryan; Owens, David; Schwartz, Henry; Plencner, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Modern transportation consists of many unique modes of travel. Each of these modes and their respective industries has evolved independently over time, forming a largely incoherent and inefficient overall transportation system. Travelers today are forced to spend unnecessary time and efforts planning a trip through varying modes of travel each with their own scheduling, pricing, and services; causing many travelers to simply rely on their relatively inefficient and expensive personal automobile. This paper presents a demonstration program system to not only collect and format many different sources of trip planning information, but also combine these independent modes of travel in order to form optimal routes and itineraries of travel. The results of this system show a mean decrease in inter-city travel time of 10 percent and a 25 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions over personal automobiles. Additionally, a 55 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions is observed for intra-city travel. A conclusion is that current resources are available, if somewhat hidden, to drastically improve point to point transportation in terms of time spent traveling, the cost of travel, and the ecological impact of a trip. Finally, future concepts are considered which could dramatically improve the interoperability and efficiency of the transportation infrastructure.

  13. Higher concentrations of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) in soil induced rice chlorosis due to inhibited active iron transportation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Fang, Zhanqiang; Cheng, Wen; Yan, Xiaomin; Tsang, Pokeung Eric; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the effects of concentrations 0, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg kg(-1) of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) on germination, seedlings growth, physiology and toxicity mechanisms were investigated. The results showed that nZVI had no effect on germination, but inhibited the rice seedlings growth in higher concentrations (>500 mg kg(-1) nZVI). The highest suppression rate of the length of roots and shoots reached 46.9% and 57.5%, respectively. The 1000mg kg(-1) nZVI caused the highest suppression rates for chlorophyll and carotenoids, at 91.6% and 85.2%, respectively. In addition, the activity of antioxidant enzymes was altered by the translocation of nanoparticles and changes in active iron content. Visible symptoms of iron deficiency were observed at higher concentrations, at which the active iron content decreased 61.02% in the shoots, but the active iron content not decreased in roots. Interestingly, the total and available amounts of iron in the soil were not less than those in the control. Therefore, the plants iron deficiency was not caused by (i) deficiency of available iron in the soil and (ii) restraint of the absorption that plant takes in the available iron, while induced by (ⅲ) the transport of active iron from the root to the shoot was blocked. The cortex tissues were seriously damaged by nZVI which was transported from soil to the root, these were proved by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). This current study shows that the mechanism of iron deficiency in rice seedling was due to transport of active iron from the root to the shoot blocked, which was caused by the uptake of nZVI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Atmospheric transport of iron and its deposition in the ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Duce, R.A.; Tindale, N.W. )

    1991-12-01

    The atmospheric transport of continental weathering products is responsible for much of the mineral material and Fe entering the open ocean and is probably the dominant source of nutrient Fe in the photic zone. In regions where other nutrients are present in high concentrations, the flux of Fe from the atmosphere may be a limiting factor in primary productivity. Due to the larger source regions for dust north of the equator, {approximately}8 times more atmospheric Fe is deposited in the northern hemisphere than in the southern hemisphere. The mineral aerosol and Fe transport and deposition are highly variable due to the episodic nature of dust generation and its transport and deposition processes. Between 10 and 50% of the total atmospheric Fe entering the world ocean appears to dissolve rapidly when the mineral matter enters the ocean. Much of the atmospheric Fe is present as Fe(II), apparently produced as a result of photochemical reduction reactions taking place during atmospheric transport. This readily soluble Fe(II) should be available immediately for use as a nutrient by phytoplankton. Atmospheric transport from the continents is estimated to supply {approximately}3 times as much dissolved Fe to the oceans as that delivered via rivers.

  15. The Bradyrhizobium japonicum Ferrous Iron Transporter FeoAB Is Required for Ferric Iron Utilization in Free Living Aerobic Cells and for Symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Sankari, Siva; O'Brian, Mark R

    2016-07-22

    The bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 does not synthesize siderophores for iron utilization in aerobic environments, and the mechanism of iron uptake within symbiotic soybean root nodules is unknown. An mbfA bfr double mutant defective in iron export and storage activities cannot grow aerobically in very high iron medium. Here, we found that this phenotype was suppressed by loss of function mutations in the feoAB operon encoding ferrous (Fe(2+)) iron uptake proteins. Expression of the feoAB operon genes was elevated under iron limitation, but mutants defective in either gene were unable to grow aerobically over a wide external ferric (Fe(3+)) iron (FeCl3) concentration range. Thus, FeoAB accommodates iron acquisition under iron limited and iron replete conditions. Incorporation of radiolabel from either (55)Fe(2+) or (59)Fe(3+) into cells was severely defective in the feoA and feoB strains, suggesting Fe(3+) reduction to Fe(2+) prior to traversal across the cytoplasmic membrane by FeoAB. The feoA or feoB deletion strains elicited small, ineffective nodules on soybean roots, containing few bacteria and lacking nitrogen fixation activity. A feoA(E40K) mutant contained partial iron uptake activity in culture that supported normal growth and established an effective symbiosis. The feoA(E40K) strain had partial iron uptake activity in situ within nodules and in isolated cells, indicating that FeoAB is the iron transporter in symbiosis. We conclude that FeoAB supports iron acquisition under limited conditions of soil and in the iron-rich environment of a symbiotic nodule. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Uptake and transport of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles through human brain capillary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, L B; Linemann, T; Pondman, K M; Lichota, J; Kim, K S; Pieters, R J; Visser, G M; Moos, T

    2013-10-16

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) formed by brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) constitutes a firm physical, chemical, and immunological barrier, making the brain accessible to only a few percent of potential drugs intended for treatment inside the central nervous system. With the purpose of overcoming the restraints of the BBB by allowing the transport of drugs, siRNA, or DNA into the brain, a novel approach is to use superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as drug carriers. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of fluorescent SPIONs to pass through human brain microvascular endothelial cells facilitated by an external magnet. The ability of SPIONs to penetrate the barrier was shown to be significantly stronger in the presence of an external magnetic force in an in vitro BBB model. Hence, particles added to the luminal side of the in vitro BBB model were found in astrocytes cocultured at a remote distance on the abluminal side, indicating that particles were transported through the barrier and taken up by astrocytes. Addition of the SPIONs to the culture medium did not negatively affect the viability of the endothelial cells. The magnetic force-mediated dragging of SPIONs through BCECs may denote a novel mechanism for the delivery of drugs to the brain.

  17. Fur-Regulated Iron Uptake System of Edwardsiella ictaluri and Its Influence on Pathogenesis and Immunogenicity in the Catfish Host

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Greg; Wanda, Soo-Young; Curtiss, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The ability of bacterial pathogens to take up iron from the host during infection is necessary for their multiplication within the host. However, host high-affinity iron binding proteins limit levels of free iron in fluids and tissues. To overcome this deficiency of iron during infection, bacterial pathogens have developed iron uptake systems that are upregulated in the absence of iron, typically tightly controlled by the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein. The iron uptake system of Edwardsiella ictaluri, a host-restricted pathogen of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and the main pathogen of this fish in aquaculture, is unknown. Here we describe the E. ictaluri Fur protein, the iron uptake machinery controlled by Fur, and the effects of fur gene deletion on virulence and immunogenicity in the fish host. Analysis of the E. ictaluri Fur protein shows that it lacks the N-terminal region found in the majority of pathogen-encoded Fur proteins. However, it is fully functional in regulated genes encoding iron uptake proteins. E. ictaluri grown under iron-limited conditions upregulates an outer membrane protein (HemR) that shows heme-hemoglobin transport activity and is tightly regulated by Fur. In vivo studies showed that an E. ictaluri Δfur mutant is attenuated and immune protective in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), triggering systemic immunity. We conclude that an E. ictaluri Δfur mutant could be an effective component of an immersion-oral vaccine for the catfish industry. PMID:22615248

  18. Fur-regulated iron uptake system of Edwardsiella ictaluri and its influence on pathogenesis and immunogenicity in the catfish host.

    PubMed

    Santander, Javier; Golden, Greg; Wanda, Soo-Young; Curtiss, Roy

    2012-08-01

    The ability of bacterial pathogens to take up iron from the host during infection is necessary for their multiplication within the host. However, host high-affinity iron binding proteins limit levels of free iron in fluids and tissues. To overcome this deficiency of iron during infection, bacterial pathogens have developed iron uptake systems that are upregulated in the absence of iron, typically tightly controlled by the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein. The iron uptake system of Edwardsiella ictaluri, a host-restricted pathogen of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and the main pathogen of this fish in aquaculture, is unknown. Here we describe the E. ictaluri Fur protein, the iron uptake machinery controlled by Fur, and the effects of fur gene deletion on virulence and immunogenicity in the fish host. Analysis of the E. ictaluri Fur protein shows that it lacks the N-terminal region found in the majority of pathogen-encoded Fur proteins. However, it is fully functional in regulated genes encoding iron uptake proteins. E. ictaluri grown under iron-limited conditions upregulates an outer membrane protein (HemR) that shows heme-hemoglobin transport activity and is tightly regulated by Fur. In vivo studies showed that an E. ictaluri Δfur mutant is attenuated and immune protective in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), triggering systemic immunity. We conclude that an E. ictaluri Δfur mutant could be an effective component of an immersion-oral vaccine for the catfish industry.

  19. An iron-regulated gene, magA, encoding an iron transport protein of Magnetospirillum sp. strain AMB-1.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, C; Burgess, J G; Sode, K; Matsunaga, T

    1995-11-24

    Magnetospirillum sp. AMB-1 is a freshwater magnetic bacterium which synthesizes intracellular particles of magnetite (Fe3O4). A genomic DNA fragment required for synthesis of magnetic particles was previously isolated from a nonmagnetic transposon Tn5 mutant. We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of this fragment. The 2975-base pair region contains two putative open reading frames. One open reading frame, designated magA, encodes a polypeptide which is homologous to the cation efflux proteins, the Escherichia coli potassium ion-translocating protein, KefC, and the putative Na+/H(+)-antiporter, NapA, from Enterococcus hirae. Northern hybridization demonstrated that the magA mRNA transcript is 1.3 kilobases in size, corresponding to the size of the magA gene. A functional promoter was located upstream from the magA gene, and the transcription in AMB-1 was regulated by environmental iron concentration. Vesicles isolated from E. coli in which the MagA protein was expressed exhibited iron accumulation ability. We consider that the MagA protein is an iron transport involved in the synthesis of magnetic particles in AMB-1.

  20. Expression of Iron-Related Proteins at the Neurovascular Unit Supports Reduction and Reoxidation of Iron for Transport Through the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, Annette; Skjørringe, Tina; Johnsen, Kasper Bendix; Siupka, Piotr; Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Nielsen, Morten Schallburg; Thomsen, Lars Lykke; Moos, Torben

    2016-12-01

    The mechanisms for iron transport through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) remain a controversy. We analyzed for expression of mRNA and proteins involved in oxidation and transport of iron in isolated brain capillaries from dietary normal, iron-deficient, and iron-reverted rats. The expression was also investigated in isolated rat brain endothelial cells (RBECs) and in immortalized rat brain endothelial (RBE4) cells grown as monoculture or in hanging culture inserts with defined BBB properties. Transferrin receptor 1, ferrireductases Steap 2 and 3, divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), ferroportin, soluble and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored ceruloplasmin, and hephaestin were all expressed in brain capillaries in vivo and in isolated RBECs and RBE4 cells. Gene expression of DMT1, ferroportin, and soluble and GPI-anchored ceruloplasmin were significantly higher in isolated RBECs with induced BBB properties. Primary pericytes and astrocytes both expressed ceruloplasmin and hephaestin, and RBECs, pericytes, and astrocytes all exhibited ferrous oxidase activity. The coherent protein expression of these genes was demonstrated by immunocytochemistry. The data show that brain endothelial cells provide the machinery for receptor-mediated uptake of ferric iron-containing transferrin. Ferric iron can then undergo reduction to ferrous iron by ferrireductases inside endosomes followed by DMT1-mediated pumping into the cytosol and subsequently cellular export by ferroportin. The expression of soluble ceruloplasmin by brain endothelial cells, pericytes, and astrocytes that together form the neurovascular unit (NVU) provides the ferroxidase activity necessary to reoxidize ferrous iron once released inside the brain.

  1. Biomedical microdevices synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles using a microfluidic system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Bin; Weng, Chen-Hsun; Cheng, Fong-Yu; Yeh, Chen-Sheng; Lei, Huan-Yao; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2009-02-01

    The preparation of nanoparticles is essential in the application of many nanotechnologies and various preparation methods have been explored in the previous decades. Among them, iron oxide nanoparticles have been widely investigated in applications ranging from bio-imaging to bio-sensing due to their unique magnetic properties. Recently, microfluidic systems have been utilized for synthesis of nanoparticles, which have the advantages of automation, well-controlled reactions, and a high particle uniformity. In this study, a new microfluidic system capable of mixing, transporting and reacting was developed for the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles. It allowed for a rapid and efficient approach to accelerate and automate the synthesis of the iron oxide nanoparticles as compared with traditional methods. The microfluidic system uses micro-electro-mechanical-system technologies to integrate a new double-loop micromixer, two micropumps, and a microvalve on a single chip. When compared with large-scale synthesis systems with commonly-observed particle aggregation issues, successful synthesis of dispersed and uniform iron oxide nanoparticles has been observed within a shorter period of time (15 min). It was found that the size distribution of these iron oxide nanoparticles is superior to that of the large-scale systems without requiring any extra additives or heating. The size distribution had a variation of 16%. This is much lower than a comparable large-scale system (34%). The development of this microfluidic system is promising for the synthesis of nanoparticles for many future biomedical applications.

  2. RirA is the iron response regulator of the rhizobactin 1021 biosynthesis and transport genes in Sinorhizobium meliloti 2011.

    PubMed

    Viguier, Caroline; O Cuív, Páraic; Clarke, Paul; O'Connell, Michael

    2005-05-15

    The genes encoding the biosynthesis and transport of rhizobactin 1021, a siderophore produced by Sinorhizobium meliloti, are negatively regulated by iron. Mutagenesis of rirA, the rhizobial iron regulator, resulted in abolition of the iron responsive regulation of the biosynthesis and transport genes. Bioassay analysis revealed that the siderophore is produced in the presence of iron in a rirA mutant. RNA analysis and GFP fusions supported the conclusion that RirA is the mediator of iron-responsive transcriptional repression of the two transcripts encoding the biosynthesis and transport genes. RirA in S. meliloti appears to fulfil the role often observed for Fur in other bacterial species. The regulator was found to mediate the iron-responsive expression of two additional genes, smc02726 and dppA1, repressing the former while activating the latter. The rirA mutant nodulated the host plant Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and fixed nitrogen as effectively as the wild type.

  3. International aspects of minerals transportation: iron ore, coal, and phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, P.J.

    1982-10-01

    Economic evaluation of mining projects cannot stop at the mine or mill. Costs associated with transportation, especially maritime, can be critical in determining project viability. It is important for the mining executive to be aware of factors that control shipping costs so he can effectively analyze projects with true global perspective.

  4. Lateral transport properties of thermally excited magnons in yttrium iron garnet films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X. J.; Shi, G. Y.; Han, J. H.; Yang, Q. H.; Rao, Y. H.; Zhang, H. W.; Lang, L. L.; Zhou, S. M.; Pan, F.; Song, C.

    2017-02-01

    Spin information carried by magnons is attractive for computing technology, and the development of magnon-based computing circuits is of great interest. However, magnon transport in insulators has been challenging, different from the clear physical picture for spin transport in conductors. Here, we investigate the lateral transport properties of thermally excited magnons in yttrium iron garnet (YIG), a model magnetic insulator. Polarity reversals of detected spins in non-local geometry devices have been experimentally observed and are strongly dependent on temperature, YIG film thickness, and injector-detector separation distance. A competing two-channel transport model for thermally excited magnons is proposed, which is qualitatively consistent with the spin signal behavior. In addition to the fundamental significance for thermal magnon transport, our work furthers the development of magnonics by creating an easily accessible magnon source with controllable transport.

  5. Diagnosis of energy transport in iron buried layer targets using an extreme ultraviolet laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzad, M.; Culfa, O.; Rossall, A. K.; Wilson, L. A.; Guilbaud, O.; Kazamias, S.; Delmas, O.; Demailly, J.; Maitrallain, A.; Pittman, M.; Baynard, E.; Farjardo, M.; Tallents, G. J.

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate the use of extreme ultra-violet (EUV) laboratory lasers in probing energy transport in laser irradiated solid targets. EUV transmission through targets containing a thin layer of iron (50 nm) encased in plastic (CH) after irradiation by a short pulse (35 fs) laser focussed to irradiances 3 × 1016 Wcm-2 is measured. Heating of the iron layer gives rise to a rapid decrease in EUV opacity and an increase in the transmission of the 13.9 nm laser radiation as the iron ionizes to Fe5+ and above where the ion ionisation energy is greater than the EUV probe photon energy (89 eV). A one dimensional hydrodynamic fluid code HYADES has been used to simulate the temporal variation in EUV transmission (wavelength 13.9 nm) using IMP opacity values for the iron layer and the simulated transmissions are compared to measured transmission values. When a deliberate pre-pulse is used to preform an expanding plastic plasma, it is found that radiation is important in the heating of the iron layer while for pre-pulse free irradiation, radiation transport is not significant.

  6. Diagnosis of energy transport in iron buried layer targets using an extreme ultraviolet laser

    SciTech Connect

    Shahzad, M.; Culfa, O.; Rossall, A. K.; Tallents, G. J.; Wilson, L. A.; Guilbaud, O.; Kazamias, S.; Delmas, O.; Demailly, J.; Maitrallain, A.; Pittman, M.; Baynard, E.; Farjardo, M.

    2015-02-15

    We demonstrate the use of extreme ultra-violet (EUV) laboratory lasers in probing energy transport in laser irradiated solid targets. EUV transmission through targets containing a thin layer of iron (50 nm) encased in plastic (CH) after irradiation by a short pulse (35 fs) laser focussed to irradiances 3 × 10{sup 16} Wcm{sup −2} is measured. Heating of the iron layer gives rise to a rapid decrease in EUV opacity and an increase in the transmission of the 13.9 nm laser radiation as the iron ionizes to Fe{sup 5+} and above where the ion ionisation energy is greater than the EUV probe photon energy (89 eV). A one dimensional hydrodynamic fluid code HYADES has been used to simulate the temporal variation in EUV transmission (wavelength 13.9 nm) using IMP opacity values for the iron layer and the simulated transmissions are compared to measured transmission values. When a deliberate pre-pulse is used to preform an expanding plastic plasma, it is found that radiation is important in the heating of the iron layer while for pre-pulse free irradiation, radiation transport is not significant.

  7. The Arabidopsis YELLOW STRIPE LIKE4 and 6 Transporters Control Iron Release from the Chloroplast[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Divol, Fanchon; Couch, Daniel; Conéjéro, Geneviève; Roschzttardtz, Hannetz; Mari, Stéphane; Curie, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    In most plant cell types, the chloroplast represents the largest sink for iron, which is both essential for chloroplast metabolism and prone to cause oxidative damage. Here, we show that to buffer the potentially harmful effects of iron, besides ferritins for storage, the chloroplast is equipped with specific iron transporters that respond to iron toxicity by removing iron from the chloroplast. We describe two transporters of the YELLOW STRIPE1-LIKE family from Arabidopsis thaliana, YSL4 and YSL6, which are likely to fulfill this function. Knocking out both YSL4 and YSL6 greatly reduces the plant’s ability to cope with excess iron. Biochemical and immunolocalization analyses showed that YSL6 resides in the chloroplast envelope. Elemental analysis and histochemical staining indicate that iron is trapped in the chloroplasts of the ysl4 ysl6 double mutants, which also accumulate ferritins. Also, vacuolar iron remobilization and NRAMP3/4 expression are inhibited. Furthermore, ubiquitous expression of YSL4 or YSL6 dramatically reduces plant tolerance to iron deficiency and decreases chloroplastic iron content. These data demonstrate a fundamental role for YSL4 and YSL6 in managing chloroplastic iron. YSL4 and YSL6 expression patterns support their physiological role in detoxifying iron during plastid dedifferentiation occurring in embryogenesis and senescence. PMID:23512854

  8. Requirement of integrin β3 for iron transportation during enamel formation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T; Kumashiro, Y; Iwata, T; Ishihara, J; Umemoto, T; Shiratsuchi, Y; Kawashima, N; Sugiyama, T; Yamato, M; Okano, T

    2012-12-01

    Rodent incisors exhibit pigmentation on their labial surfaces. Although previous studies have shown that this pigment is composed of iron, the existence of other elements has not been investigated. This study found that the lower incisors of CD61, also known as integrin β3, null mice (CD61(-/-)) lacked pigmentation. Although ameloblasts differentiated and formed enamel normally, no ferric ion accumulation was observed in maturation-stage ameloblasts in CD61(-/-) mice. Surface elements of control and CD61-/- lower incisors were compared by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS analysis detected C, Ca, N, O, and P on the labial surfaces of lower incisors of both mice, whereas Fe was detected only in control samples. No peak of non-ferrous metal or other element was detected in either group. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of 18 iron-transportation-related genes with mRNA from maturation-stage ameloblasts and ALC, a pre-ameloblastic cell line, was performed. The results suggested that CD61 regulates the expressions of Slc11a2 and Slc40a1, both of which are involved in iron transportation in epithelial tissues. These results suggested that the pigment on the labial surface of mouse incisors is composed of Fe and that both anemia and reduction of iron-transporting proteins may cause the loss of pigmentation in CD61(-/-) mice.

  9. Involvement of the ABCG37 transporter in secretion of scopoletin and derivatives by Arabidopsis roots in response to iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Fourcroy, Pierre; Sisó-Terraza, Patricia; Sudre, Damien; Savirón, María; Reyt, Guilhem; Gaymard, Frédéric; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadia, Javier; Alvarez-Fernández, Ana; Briat, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Studies of Iron (Fe) uptake mechanisms by plant roots have focussed on Fe(III)-siderophores or Fe(II) transport systems. Iron deficency also enhances root secretion of flavins and phenolics. However, the nature of these compounds, their transport outside the roots and their role in Fe nutrition are largely unknown. We used HPLC/ESI-MS (TOF) and HPLC/ESI-MS/MS (ion trap) to characterize fluorescent phenolic-type compounds accumulated in roots or exported to the culture medium of Arabidopsis plants in response to Fe deficiency. Wild-type and mutant plants altered either in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis or in the ABCG37 (PDR9) ABC transporter were grown under standard or Fe-deficient nutrition conditions and compared. Fe deficiency upregulates the expression of genes encoding enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway and leads to the synthesis and secretion of phenolic compounds belonging to the coumarin family. The ABCG37 gene is also upregulated in response to Fe deficiency and coumarin export is impaired in pdr9 mutant plants. Therefore it can be concluded that: Fe deficiency induces the secretion of coumarin compounds by Arabidopsis roots; the ABCG37 ABC transporter is required for this secretion to take place; and these compounds improved plant Fe nutrition. © 2013 CNRS. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. System and method for producing metallic iron nodules

    DOEpatents

    Bleifuss, Rodney L [Grand Rapids, MN; Englund, David J [Bovey, MN; Iwasaki, Iwao [Grand Rapids, MN; Lindgren, Andrew J [Grand Rapids, MN; Kiesel, Richard F [Hibbing, MN

    2011-09-20

    A method for producing metallic iron nodules by assembling a shielding entry system to introduce coarse carbonaceous material greater than 6 mesh in to the furnace atmosphere at location(s) where the temperature of the furnace atmosphere adjacent at least partially reduced reducible iron bearing material is between about 2200 and 2650.degree. F. (1200 and 1450.degree. C.), the shielding entry system adapted to inhibit emission of infrared radiation from the furnace atmosphere and seal the furnace atmosphere from exterior atmosphere while introducing coarse carbonaceous material greater than 6 mesh into the furnace to be distributed over the at least partially reduced reducible iron bearing material, and heating the covered at least partially reduced reducible iron bearing material in a fusion atmosphere to assist in fusion and inhibit reoxidation of the reduced material during fusion to assist in fusion and inhibit reoxidation of the reduced material in forming metallic iron nodules.

  11. System and method for producing metallic iron

    SciTech Connect

    Englund, David J.; Schlichting, Mark; Meehan, John; Crouch, Jeremiah; Wilson, Logan

    2014-07-29

    A method of production of metallic iron nodules comprises assembling a hearth furnace having a moveable hearth comprising refractory material and having a conversion zone and a fusion zone, providing a hearth material layer comprising carbonaceous material on the refractory material, providing a layer of reducible material comprising and iron bearing material arranged in discrete portions over at least a portion of the hearth material layer, delivering oxygen gas into the hearth furnace to a ratio of at least 0.8:1 ponds of oxygen to pounds of iron in the reducible material to heat the conversion zone to a temperature sufficient to at least partially reduce the reducible material and to heat the fusion zone to a temperature sufficient to at least partially reduce the reducible material, and heating the reducible material to form one or more metallic iron nodules and slag.

  12. A systematic analysis reveals an essential role for high-affinity iron uptake system, haemolysin and CFEM domain-containing protein in iron homoeostasis and virulence in Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Vivek Kumar; Suneetha, Korivi Jyothiraj; Kaur, Rupinder

    2014-10-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for all living organisms and human pathogens employ a battery of factors to scavenge iron from the high-affinity iron-binding host proteins. In the present study, we have elucidated, via a candidate gene approach, major iron acquisition and homoeostatic mechanisms operational in an opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida glabrata. Phenotypic, biochemical and molecular analysis of a set of 13 C. glabrata strains, deleted for proteins potentially implicated in iron metabolism, revealed that the high-affinity reductive iron uptake system is required for utilization of alternate carbon sources and for growth under both in vitro iron-limiting and in vivo conditions. Furthermore, we show for the first time that the cysteine-rich CFEM (common in fungal extracellular membranes) domain-containing cell wall structural protein, CgCcw14, and a putative haemolysin, CgMam3, are essential for maintenance of intracellular iron content, adherence to epithelial cells and virulence. Consistent with their roles in iron homoeostasis, mitochondrial aconitase activity was lower and higher in mutants disrupted for high-affinity iron transport, and haemolysin respectively. Additionally, we present evidence that the mitochondrial frataxin, CgYfh1, is pivotal to iron metabolism. Besides yielding insights into major in vitro and in vivo iron acquisition strategies, our findings establish high-affinity iron uptake mechanisms as critical virulence determinants in C. glabrata.

  13. The Space Taxi™ transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of recent studies by Orbital to significantly reduce NASA's future launch costs and improve crew safety through the implementation of a low-risk, evolutionary space transportation architecture. These studies were performed as a part of NASA's Space Transportation Architecture Studies (STAS) and subsequent internally-funded efforts. A large number of vehicles and architecture approaches were examined and evaluated. Orbital's recommended architecture includes a small, multifunctional vehicle, referred to as a Space Taxi™, which would serve as: an emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station (ISS), a two-way human space transportation system, a small cargo delivery and return vehicle, and as a passenger module for a future Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). The Space Taxi™ would initially be launched on a heavy-lift Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV), currently under development by U.S. industry and the U.S. Air Force. Together with a small cargo carrier located behind the Space Taxi™, this combination of vehicles would be used to meet future ISS servicing requirements. Later, a two-stage, commercially developed RLV would replace the EELV in launching the Space Taxi™ system at a significantly lower cost. .

  14. Solution Structure of Escherichia coli FeoA and Its Potential Role in Bacterial Ferrous Iron Transport

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Cheryl K. Y.; Ishida, Hiroaki; Liu, Zhihong

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an indispensable nutrient for most organisms. Ferric iron (Fe3+) predominates under aerobic conditions, while during oxygen limitation ferrous (Fe2+) iron is usually present. The Feo system is a bacterial ferrous iron transport system first discovered in Escherichia coli K-12. It consists of three genes, feoA, feoB, and feoC (yhgG). FeoB is thought to be the main transmembrane transporter while FeoC is considered to be a transcriptional regulator. Using multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we have determined the solution structure of E. coli FeoA. The structure of FeoA reveals a Src-homology 3 (SH3)-like fold. The structure is composed of a β-barrel with two α-helices where one helix is positioned over the barrel. In comparison to the standard eukaryotic SH3 fold, FeoA has two additional α-helices. FeoA was further characterized by heteronuclear NMR dynamics measurements, which suggest that it is a monomeric, stable globular protein. Model-free analysis of the NMR relaxation results indicates that a slow conformational dynamic process is occurring in β-strand 4 that may be important for function. 31P NMR-based GTPase activity measurements with the N-terminal domain of FeoB (NFeoB) indicate a higher GTP hydrolysis rate in the presence of potassium than with sodium. Further enzymatic assays with NFeoB suggest that FeoA may not act as a GTPase-activating protein as previously proposed. These findings, together with bioinformatics and structural analyses, suggest that FeoA may have a different role, possibly interacting with the cytoplasmic domain of the highly conserved core portion of the FeoB transmembrane region. PMID:23104801

  15. Vapor phase heat transport systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedstrom, J. C.; Neeper, D. A.

    1985-09-01

    Progress in theoretical and experimental investigations of various forms of a vapor transport system for solar space heating is described, which could also be applied to service water heating. The refrigerant is evaporated in a solar collector, which may be located on the external wall or roof of a building. The vapor is condensed in a passively discharged thermal storage unit located within the building. The condensed liquid can be returned to the collector either by a motor-driven pump or by a completely passive self-pumping mechanism in which the vapor pressure lifts the liquid from the condenser to the collector. The theoretical investigation analyzes this self-pumping scheme. Experiments in solar test cells compared the operation of both passive and active forms of the vapor system with the operation of a passive water wall. The vapor system operates as expected, with potential advantages over other passive systems in design flexibility and energy yield.

  16. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Malus robusta with tomato iron transporter gene.

    PubMed

    Qu, Shen-Chun; Huang, Xiao-De; Zhang, Zhen; Yao, Quan-Hong; Tao, Jian-Min; Qiao, Yu-Shan; Zhang, Jun-Yi

    2005-06-01

    The tomato iron transporter gene (LeIRT2) was introduced to Malus robusta Rehd. via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to produce iron-deficiency tolerant apple rootstock. A total of 19 putative transformants were obtained, 11 of which were verified by PCR amplification to carry a fragment of the transgene. Among them, nine were confirmed to carry the transgene by Southern blot analysis with one to three copies of the transgene integrated into the plant genome. Two transgenic plants, one carrying one copy and the other three copies of the transgene, were hydroponically cultured to test their tolerance to iron-deficiency, which was found only in the transgenic plant with a single copy, which weighted 21%-4% greater than those of the control plants.

  17. Influence of Dirac Fermions on Magnetothermoelectric Transport in Iron-Based Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matusiak, M.; Bukowski, Z.; Karpinski, J.; Pomjakushina, E.; Conder, K.

    We report the Nernst coefficient (ν ) measurements in parent compounds of the iron pnictides {CaFe_2As_2} and {EuFe_2As_2} ("122",) as well as the iron chalcogenide {Fe_{1.04}Te} ("11"). In all three single crystals we observe an anomaly in ν (T) that develops in the magnetically ordered state. However, there are clear differences between anomalies in the "122" iron pnictides and the "11" chalcogenide, which can be ascribed to presence of Dirac cones in the antiferromagnetic metallic state of "122" compounds. We also investigate influence of substitution of Fe with Co on the Nernst effect in the series of {Eu(Fe_{1-x}Co_x)_2As_2} single crystals. We notice that even small cobalt doping (x = 0.15) causes eradication of Dirac fermions contribution to transport effects.

  18. Arabidopsis IRT2 cooperates with the high-affinity iron uptake system to maintain iron homeostasis in root epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    Vert, Grégory; Barberon, Marie; Zelazny, Enric; Séguéla, Mathilde; Briat, Jean-François; Curie, Catherine

    2009-05-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for all organisms but toxic when present in excess. Consequently, plants carefully regulate their iron uptake, dependent on the FRO2 ferric reductase and the IRT1 transporter, to control its homeostasis. Arabidopsis IRT2 gene, whose expression is induced in root epidermis upon iron deprivation, was shown to encode a functional iron/zinc transporter in yeast, and proposed to function in iron acquisition from the soil. In this study, we demonstrate that, unlike its close homolog IRT1, IRT2 is not involved in iron absorption from the soil since overexpression of IRT2 does not rescue the iron uptake defect of irt1-1 mutant and since a null irt2 mutant shows no chlorosis in low iron. Consistently, an IRT2-green fluorescent fusion protein, transiently expressed in culture cells, localizes to intracellular vesicles. However, IRT2 appears strictly co-regulated with FRO2 and IRT1, supporting the view that IRT2 is an integral component of the root response to iron deficiency in root epidermal cells. We propose a model where IRT2 likely prevents toxicity from IRT1-dependent iron fluxes in epidermal cells, through compartmentalization.

  19. [Effect on iron release in drinking water distribution systems].

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhang-bin; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xiao-jian; Chen, Chao; Wang, Sheng-hui

    2007-10-01

    Batch-scale experiments were done to quantitatively study the effect of inorganic chemical parameters on iron release in drinking water distribution systems. The parameters include acid-base condition, oxidation-reduction condition, and neutral ion condition. It was found that the iron release rate decreased with pH, alkalinity, the concentration of dissolved oxygen increasing, and the iron release rate increased with the concentration of chloride increasing. The theoretical critical formula of iron release rate was elucidated. According to the formula, the necessary condition for controlling iron release is that pH is above 7.6, the concentration of alkalinity and dissolved oxygen is more than 150 mg/L and 2 mg/L, and the concentration of chloride is less than 150 mg/L of distributed water.

  20. Structure of the nucleotide-binding domain of a dipeptide ABC transporter reveals a novel iron-sulfur cluster-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolu; Zhuo, Wei; Yu, Jie; Ge, Jingpeng; Gu, Jinke; Feng, Yue; Yang, Maojun; Wang, Linfang; Wang, Na

    2013-02-01

    Dipeptide permease (Dpp), which belongs to an ABC transport system, imports peptides consisting of two or three L-amino acids from the matrix to the cytoplasm in microbes. Previous studies have indicated that haem competes with dipeptides to bind DppA in vitro and in vivo and that the Dpp system can also translocate haem. Here, the crystal structure of DppD, the nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) of the ABC-type dipeptide/oligopeptide/nickel-transport system from Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis, bound with ATP, Mg(2+) and a [4Fe-4S] iron-sulfur cluster is reported. The N-terminal domain of DppD shares a similar structural fold with the NBDs of other ABC transporters. Interestingly, the C-terminal domain of DppD contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster. The UV-visible absorbance spectrum of DppD was consistent with the presence of a [4Fe-4S] cluster. A search with DALI revealed that the [4Fe-4S] cluster-binding domain is a novel structural fold. Structural analysis and comparisons with other ABC transporters revealed that this iron-sulfur cluster may act as a mediator in substrate (dipeptide or haem) binding by electron transfer and may regulate the transport process in Dpp ABC transport systems. The crystal structure provides a basis for understanding the properties of ABC transporters and will be helpful in investigating the functions of NBDs in the regulation of ABC transporter activity.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus transporters Hts, Sir, and Sst capture iron liberated from human transferrin by Staphyloferrin A, Staphyloferrin B, and catecholamine stress hormones, respectively, and contribute to virulence.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Federico C; Marolda, Cristina L; Cheung, Johnson; Buac, Suzana; Heinrichs, David E

    2011-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of bloodstream, respiratory tract, and skin and soft tissue infections. In the bloodstream, the iron-binding glycoprotein transferrin circulates to provide iron to cells throughout the body, but its iron-binding properties make it an important component of innate immunity. It is well established that siderophores, with their high affinity for iron, in many instances can remove iron from transferrin as a means to promote proliferation of bacterial pathogens. It is also established that catecholamine hormones can interfere with the iron-binding properties of transferrin, thus allowing infectious bacteria access to this iron pool. The present study demonstrates that S. aureus can use either of two carboxylate-type siderophores, staphyloferrin A and staphyloferrin B, via the transporters Hts and Sir, respectively, to access the transferrin iron pool. Growth of staphyloferrin-producing S. aureus in serum or in the presence of holotransferrin was not enhanced in the presence of catecholamines. However, catecholamines significantly enhanced the growth of staphyloferrin-deficient S. aureus in human serum or in the presence of human holotransferrin. It was further demonstrated that the Sst transporter was essential for this activity as well as for the utilization of bacterial catechol siderophores. The substrate binding protein SstD was shown to interact with ferrated catecholamines and catechol siderophores, with low to submicromolar affinities. Experiments involving mice challenged intravenously with wild-type S. aureus and isogenic mutants demonstrated that the combination of Hts, Sir, and Sst transport systems was required for full virulence of S. aureus.

  2. Linking carbon and iron cycles by investigating transport, fate and mineralogy of iron-bearing colloids from peat-draining rivers - Scotland as model for high-latitude rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Deborah; Crocket, Kirsty; Brand, Tim; Stutter, Marc; Wilson, Clare; Schröder, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Linking carbon and iron cycles by investigating transport, fate and mineralogy of iron-bearing colloids from peat-draining rivers - Scotland as model for high-latitude rivers Wood, D.A¹, Crocket, K², Brand, T², Stutter, M³, Wilson, C¹ & Schröder, C¹ ¹Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA ²Scottish Association for Marine Science, University of the Highlands and Islands, Dunbeg, Oban, PA37 1QA ³James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, AB15 8QH The biogeochemical iron cycle exerts significant control on the carbon cycle¹. Iron is a limiting nutrient in large areas of the world's oceans and its bioavailability controls CO2 uptake by marine photosynthesizing microorganisms. While atmospheric iron inputs to the open ocean have been extensively measured, global river inputs have likely been underestimated because most major world rivers exhibit extensive iron removal by flocculation and sedimentation during seawater mixing. Iron minerals and organic matter mutually stabilise each other², which results in a 'rusty carbon sink' in sediments³ on the one hand but may also enhance transport beyond the salinity gradient on the other. Humic-rich, high latitude rivers have a higher iron-carrying capacity⁴-⁶ but are underrepresented in iron flux calculations. The West Coast sea lochs in Scotland are fed by predominantly peatland drainage catchments, and the rivers entering the sea lochs carry a high load of organic matter. The short distance between many of these catchments and the coastal ocean facilitates source-to-sea research investigating transport, fate and mineralogy of iron-bearing colloids providing a good analogue for similar high latitude fjordic systems. We use SeaFAST+ICP-MS and Mössbauer spectroscopy to survey trace metal concentrations, with emphasis on iron concentrations, speciation and mineralogy, across salinity gradients. In combination with ultra-filtration techniques, this allows

  3. Long-range transport of hydrothermal iron facilitated by dissolved-particulate exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsch, K.; Fitzsimmons, J. N.; German, C. R.; Sherrell, R. M.

    2016-02-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal venting has a strong impact on ocean chemistry close to vent sites; however, effects of these systems on basin- and global-scale ocean biogeochemistry have only started to be observed and modeled. The U.S. GEOTRACES Eastern Pacific Zonal Transect investigated potential long-range hydrothermal influences by sampling the length of the 15°S Southern East Pacific Rise (EPR) plume as far as 150°W, following a plume extending >4000 km from the EPR based on He-3 distributions and the distribution of metal-rich sediments. It was recently reported that dissolved iron (dFe) in this plume is apparently transported conservatively >4000km across the South Pacific, with potential for ultimate upwelling in the Fe-limited Southern Ocean. The mechanism by which this dissolved Fe is maintained in solution, however, remains a topic of active debate. Here we show that hydrothermal Fe in the particulate phase, which exceeds the dissolved Fe concentration over much of the plume, is also enriched relative to background across the same 4300 km transect but that maximum pFe concentrations both decrease non-conservatively and deepen progressively relative to dissolved 3He anomalies across the section. Stokesian settling would require an FeOOH particle size of 0.5 µm in order to explain the 500 m "sag" observed over the 50 y of plume transport. A striking feature of the dissolved Fe plume is that it, too, descends in the water column over the length of the plume, following the particulate Fe plume. This suggests an active exchange between dissolved and particulate Fe species on timescales that are short relative to plume advection across the South Pacific. Thus, the large-scale distribution of particulate Fe appears to influence the preservation of the dFe pool, suggesting that the basin-scale impact of hydrothermal vent systems needs to consider both Fe phases and their long-term interactions.

  4. Compact magnetic levitation transportation system

    SciTech Connect

    Suppes, G.J.

    1992-09-15

    This patent describes a magnetic levitation transportation system, it comprises: vehicle loading and unloading stations, at least one primary pair of laterally spaced rails comprises of magnetically interactive material extending between the vehicle loading and unloading stations, a vehicle of a size, a magnetic levitation means, energy conversion means for energizing the magnetic levitation means on the vehicle and for maintaining the speed and acceleration of the vehicle during travel, braking control means for creating a net braking force on the vehicle in a braking condition, and speed control means on the vehicle for accelerating and decelerating the vehicle.

  5. Dual regulation of the Arabidopsis high-affinity root iron uptake system by local and long-distance signals.

    PubMed

    Vert, Grégory A; Briat, Jean-François; Curie, Catherine

    2003-06-01

    Regulation of the root high-affinity iron uptake system by whole-plant signals was investigated at the molecular level in Arabidopsis, through monitoring FRO2 and IRT1 gene expression. These two genes encode the root ferric-chelate reductase and the high-affinity iron transporter, respectively, involved in the iron deficiency-induced uptake system. Recovery from iron-deficient conditions and modulation of apoplastic iron pools indicate that iron itself plays a major role in the regulation of root iron deficiency responses at the mRNA and protein levels. Split-root experiments show that the expression of IRT1 and FRO2 is controlled both by a local induction from the root iron pool and through a systemic pathway involving a shoot-borne signal, both signals being integrated to tightly control production of the root iron uptake proteins. We also show that IRT1 and FRO2 are expressed during the day and down-regulated at night and that this additional control is overruled by iron starvation, indicating that the nutritional status prevails on the diurnal regulation. Our work suggests, for the first time to our knowledge, that like in grasses, the root iron acquisition in strategy I plants may also be under diurnal regulation. On the basis of the new molecular insights provided in this study and given the strict coregulation of IRT1 and FRO2 observed, we present a model of local and long-distance regulation of the root iron uptake system in Arabidopsis.

  6. Transportable and Hybrid Transportable AC Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-11

    Systems (TACS) 10 2.1.1 Objectives 10 2.1.2 Primary Results 10 2.1.3 Lessons Learned 13 2.1.4 Phase 1 Summary...Lessons Learned 15 2.2.4 Phase 2 Summary 16 2.3 Last Known Status of all Fielded Units under ARO 16 3.0 FUTURE EFFORTS...Substrate 6 Figure 2 – Foldable Solar Subarrays also know as Power Flex ™ modules 7 Figure 3 – Foldable modules - Left with anti-glint; Right

  7. Effects of sulfate on heavy metal release from iron corrosion scales in drinking water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huifang; Shi, Baoyou; Yang, Fan; Wang, Dongsheng

    2017-05-01

    Trace heavy metals accumulated in iron corrosion scales within a drinking water distribution system (DWDS) could potentially be released to bulk water and consequently deteriorate the tap water quality. The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate the release of trace heavy metals in DWDS under changing source water conditions. Experimental pipe loops with different iron corrosion scales were set up to simulate the actual DWDS. The effects of sulfate levels on heavy metal release were systemically investigated. Heavy metal releases of Mn, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cr and As could be rapidly triggered by sulfate addition but the releases slowly decreased over time. Heavy metal release was more severe in pipes transporting groundwater (GW) than in pipes transporting surface water (SW). There were strong positive correlations (R(2) > 0.8) between the releases of Fe and Mn, Fe and Ni, Fe and Cu, and Fe and Pb. When switching to higher sulfate water, iron corrosion scales in all pipe loops tended to be more stable (especially in pipes transporting GW), with a larger proportion of stable constituents (mainly Fe3O4) and fewer unstable compounds (β-FeOOH, γ-FeOOH, FeCO3 and amorphous iron oxides). The main functional iron reducing bacteria (IRB) communities were favorable for the formation of Fe3O4. The transformation of corrosion scales and the growth of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) accounted for the gradually reduced heavy metal release with time. The higher metal release in pipes transporting GW could be due to increased Fe6(OH)12CO3 content under higher sulfate concentrations.

  8. Cytosolic Iron-Sulfur Cluster Assembly (CIA) System: Factors, Mechanism, and Relevance to Cellular Iron Regulation*

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anil K.; Pallesen, Leif J.; Spang, Robert J.; Walden, William E.

    2010-01-01

    FeS cluster biogenesis is an essential process in virtually all forms of life. Complex protein machineries that are conserved from bacteria through higher eukaryotes facilitate assembly of the FeS cofactor in proteins. In the last several years, significant strides have been made in our understanding of FeS cluster assembly and the functional overlap of this process with cellular iron homeostasis. This minireview summarizes the present understanding of the cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly (CIA) system in eukaryotes, with a focus on information gained from studies in budding yeast and mammalian systems. PMID:20522543

  9. Cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly (CIA) system: factors, mechanism, and relevance to cellular iron regulation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anil K; Pallesen, Leif J; Spang, Robert J; Walden, William E

    2010-08-27

    FeS cluster biogenesis is an essential process in virtually all forms of life. Complex protein machineries that are conserved from bacteria through higher eukaryotes facilitate assembly of the FeS cofactor in proteins. In the last several years, significant strides have been made in our understanding of FeS cluster assembly and the functional overlap of this process with cellular iron homeostasis. This minireview summarizes the present understanding of the cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly (CIA) system in eukaryotes, with a focus on information gained from studies in budding yeast and mammalian systems.

  10. THE EFFECT OF WATER CHEMISTRY ON THE PROPERTIES OF IRON PARTICLES AND IRON SUSPENSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The structure and properties of iron colloids in aquatic systems is important in understanding their behavior in environmental and engineering systems. For example the adsorption of contaminants onto iron colloids and subsequent transport through ground water aquifers and surface...

  11. Modelling of Soluble Iron Formation, Transport and Deposition to the North Pacific Ocean, Role of Anthropogenic Pollutants.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solmon, F.; Chuang, P.; Meskhidze, N.

    2006-12-01

    Soluble iron deposited via atmospheric processes represents an important nutrient for open ocean ecosystems, which might influence phytoplancton productivity and atmospheric carbon uptake. Atmospheric deposition of mineral dust is known to be the essential supply of iron to the ocean. However, most of the iron contained in mineral particles is unsoluble, whereas only the soluble fraction of the iron is thought to be effectively bio-available. There is still a great deal of uncertainties in the estimation of this fraction and the representation of iron solubilisation processes in the atmosphere. In this scope, we present a modeling study aiming at better representing such processes. In particular, we focus on the different roles of anthropogenic chemical compounds in the atmospheric iron cycle and deposition. These roles are of two orders : (i) the acidification of mineral particles by anthropogenic compounds influencing the solubilisation of the iron transported and (ii) the direct emission, transport and deposition of iron emitted by anthropogenic activities. For this study, we implement a set of specific mechanisms in the global chemistry transport model GEOS- CHEM. Our study focuses on the East Asia - North pacific outflow, a region where interactions between dust and pollution are particularly likely to occur and where the ocean ecosystem is known to be iron limited.

  12. DIVALENT METAL TRANSPORTER-1 REGULATION BY IRON AND VANADIUM MODULATES HYDROGEN PEROXIDE-INDUCED DNA DAMAGE IN LUNG CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) participates in the detoxification of metals that can damage lung epithelium. Elevated iron levels increase the expression of DMT1 in bronchial epithelial cells stimulating its uptake and storage in ferritin, thus making iron unavailable t...

  13. DIVALENT METAL TRANSPORTER-1 REGULATION BY IRON AND VANADIUM MODULATES HYDROGEN PEROXIDE-INDUCED DNA DAMAGE IN LUNG CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) participates in the detoxification of metals that can damage lung epithelium. Elevated iron levels increase the expression of DMT1 in bronchial epithelial cells stimulating its uptake and storage in ferritin, thus making iron unavailable t...

  14. High-Throughput Screening Assay for Inhibitors of TonB-Dependent Iron Transport.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Mathew; Jordan, Lorne D; Shipelskiy, Yan; Newton, Salete M; Klebba, Phillip E

    2016-03-01

    The TonB-dependent Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane protein FepA actively transports the siderophore ferric enterobactin (FeEnt) into the periplasm. We developed a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay that observes FeEnt uptake through FepA in living Escherichia coli, by monitoring fluorescence quenching that occurs upon binding of FeEnt, and then unquenching as the bacteria deplete it from solution by transport. We optimized the labeling and spectroscopic methods to screen for inhibitors of TonB-dependent iron uptake through the outer membrane. The assay works like a molecular switch that is on in the presence of TonB activity and off in its absence. It functions in 96-well microtiter plates, in a variety of conditions, with Z factors of 0.8-1.0. TonB-dependent iron transport is energy dependent, and the inhibitory effects of the metabolic inhibitors carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, 2,4-dinitrophenol, azide, cyanide, and arsenate on FeEnt uptake were readily detected by the assay. Because iron acquisition is a determinant of bacterial pathogenesis, HTS with this method may identify inhibitors that block TonB function and constitute novel therapeutics against infectious disease caused by Gram-negative bacteria. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  15. Transport coefficients and entropy-scaling law in liquid iron up to Earth-core pressures.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qi-Long; Wang, Pan-Pan; Huang, Duo-Hui; Yang, Jun-Sheng; Wan, Ming-Jie; Wang, Fan-Hou

    2014-03-21

    Molecular dynamics simulations were applied to study the structural and transport properties, including the pair distribution function, the structure factor, the pair correlation entropy, self-diffusion coefficient, and viscosity, of liquid iron under high temperature and high pressure conditions. Our calculated results reproduced experimentally determined structure factors of liquid iron, and the calculated self-diffusion coefficients and viscosity agree well with previous simulation results. We show that there is a moderate increase of self-diffusion coefficients and viscosity along the melting curve up to the Earth-core pressure. Furthermore, the temperature dependencies of the pair correlation entropy, self-diffusion, and viscosity under high pressure condition have been investigated. Our results suggest that the temperature dependence of the pair correlation entropy is well described by T(-1) scaling, while the Arrhenius law well describes the temperature dependencies of self-diffusion coefficients and viscosity under high pressure. In particular, we find that the entropy-scaling laws, proposed by Rosenfeld [Phys. Rev. A 15, 2545 (1977)] and Dzugutov [Nature (London) 381, 137 (1996)] for self-diffusion coefficients and viscosity in liquid metals under ambient pressure, still hold well for liquid iron under high temperature and high pressure conditions. Using the entropy-scaling laws, we can obtain transport properties from structural properties under high pressure and high temperature conditions. The results provide a useful ingredient in understanding transport properties of planet's cores.

  16. Preliminary Hazards Assessment: Iron disulfide purification system

    SciTech Connect

    1991-07-30

    A process for the purification (washing) of iron disulfide (FeS{sub 2}) powder is conducted in the Northeast corner (Area 353) of the main plant building (Building 100). This location is about 130 feet from the fenced boundary of the Partnership School/Child Development Center. In the first steps of the process, raw iron disulfide powder is ground and separated by particle size. The ground and sized powder is then purified in a three-step acid washing process using both hydrochloric acid (HCI) and hydrofluoric (HF) acid. The iron disulfide process is an intermittent batch process conducted four to eight times a year. This study is a Preliminary Hazards Assessment (PHA) to assess the hazards associated with the iron disulfide process. This is a preliminary study and will be used to determine if additional safety analysis is necessary. The scope of the PHA includes assessment of the process steps of grinding, size classification, and purification. The purpose is to identify major hazards and determine if the current and newly added safeguards are adequate for operation. The PHA also lists recommendations for additional safety features that should be added to reduce the risks of operation.

  17. Gibberellins regulate iron deficiency-response by influencing iron transport and translocation in rice seedlings (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Wang, Baolan; Wei, Haifang; Xue, Zhen; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2017-04-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are a class of plant hormones with diverse functions. However, there has been little information on the role of GAs in response to plant nutrient deficiency. To evaluate the roles of GAs in regulation of Fe homeostasis, the effects of GA on Fe accumulation and Fe translocation in rice seedlings were investigated using wild-type, a rice mutant ( eui1 ) displaying enhnaced endogenous GA concentrations due to a defect in GA deactivation, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsEUI . Exposure to Fe-deficient medium significantly reduced biomass of rice plants. Both exogenous application of GA and an endogenous increase of bioactive GA enhanced Fe-deficiency response by exaggerating foliar chlorosis and reducing growth. Iron deficiency significantly suppressed production of GA 1 and GA 4 , the biologically active GAs in rice. Exogenous application of GA significantly decreased leaf Fe concentration regardless of Fe supply. Iron concentration in shoot of eui1 mutants was lower than that of WT plants under both Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient conditions. Paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, alleviated Fe-deficiency responses, and overexpression of EUI significantly increased Fe concentration in shoots and roots. Furthermore, both exogenous application of GA and endogenous increase in GA resulting from EUI mutation inhibited Fe translocation within shoots by suppressing OsYSL2 expression, which is involved in Fe transport and translocation. The novel findings provide compelling evidence to support the involvement of GA in mediation of Fe homeostasis in strategy II rice plants by negatively regulating Fe transport and translocation.

  18. Thermoelectric Transport Properties of Gold-Iron at Millikelvin Temperatures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesire, Daniel Patrick

    Measurements of the electrical resistivity, and both static and isoelectric thermopower have been made on a fine Au wire containing 1 ppm Fe over a range of temperatures between 7 K and 24 mK. A shallow minimum at higher temperatures and unitary limit in the resistivity data characteristic of the Kondo effect were observed in the lower temperature ranges. The minimum coincides with that observed by other workers. Both the resistivity and the two thermopowers were measured with a Superconducting Quantum Interference Detector (SQUID) which has extremely high sensitivity and a very good signal-to-noise ratio. The static and isoelectric thermopowers were measured under two different boundary conditions. The static thermopower was measured by keeping the electric current through the sample equal to zero by using a compensating current source. The isoelectric thermopower was measured under the condition that the electric field across the sample was kept equal to zero by using a superconducting short. The static and isoelectric thermopowers both exhibited a broad minimum attributed to the interaction of a dilute concentration of Fe impurities with the Au conduction electrons. The data have been analyzed in terms of linear transport theory, using the Mueller-Hartmann expression for the Kondo contribution. Since the measurements were made at low temperatures, the diffusion and phonon drag thermopowers were small enough that the major contribution to the measured thermopower was from the Kondo effect. The theory was shown to fit the data well down to 0.2 K. Below this temperature, the theoretical expression for the thermopower did not agree well with the measurements in this work. The static thermopower, S, was found to be related to the isoelectric thermopower, (SIGMA)(,E=0), and the resistivity, (rho), by the simple relation S = (rho)(SIGMA)(,E=0). The isoelectric data was found to have a better signal-to-noise ratio than the static thermopower and a large enough signal at

  19. Urban Transportation Planning Short Course: Evaluation of Alternative Transportation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This urban transportation pamphlet delves into the roles of policy groups and technical staffs in evaluating alternative transportation plans, evaluation criteria, systems to evaluate, and evaluation procedures. The introduction admits the importance of subjective, but informed, judgment as an effective tool in weighing alternative transportation…

  20. Copper and ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis transport protein COPT1 alter iron homeostasis in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Andrés-Bordería, Amparo; Andrés, Fernando; Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Perea-García, Ana; Domingo, Concha; Puig, Sergi; Peñarrubia, Lola

    2017-06-19

    Copper deficiency and excess differentially affect iron homeostasis in rice and overexpression of the Arabidopsis high-affinity copper transporter COPT1 slightly increases endogenous iron concentration in rice grains. Higher plants have developed sophisticated mechanisms to efficiently acquire and use micronutrients such as copper and iron. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between both metals remain poorly understood. In the present work, we study the effects produced on iron homeostasis by a wide range of copper concentrations in the growth media and by altered copper transport in Oryza sativa plants. Gene expression profiles in rice seedlings grown under copper excess show an altered expression of genes involved in iron homeostasis compared to standard control conditions. Thus, ferritin OsFER2 and ferredoxin OsFd1 mRNAs are down-regulated whereas the transcriptional iron regulator OsIRO2 and the nicotianamine synthase OsNAS2 mRNAs rise under copper excess. As expected, the expression of OsCOPT1, which encodes a high-affinity copper transport protein, as well as other copper-deficiency markers are down-regulated by copper. Furthermore, we show that Arabidopsis COPT1 overexpression (C1 (OE) ) in rice causes root shortening in high copper conditions and under iron deficiency. C1 (OE) rice plants modify the expression of the putative iron-sensing factors OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 and enhance the expression of OsIRO2 under copper excess, which suggests a role of copper transport in iron signaling. Importantly, the C1 (OE) rice plants grown on soil contain higher endogenous iron concentration than wild-type plants in both brown and white grains. Collectively, these results highlight the effects of rice copper status on iron homeostasis, which should be considered to obtain crops with optimized nutrient concentrations in edible parts.

  1. Hepatocyte divalent metal-ion transporter-1 is dispensable for hepatic iron accumulation and non-transferrin-bound iron uptake in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chia-Yu; Knutson, Mitchell D.

    2015-01-01

    Divalent metal-ion transporter-1 (DMT1) is required for iron uptake by the intestine and developing erythroid cells. DMT1 is also present in the liver, where it has been implicated in the uptake of transferrin-bound iron (TBI) and non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI), which appears in the plasma during iron overload. To test the hypothesis that DMT1 is required for hepatic iron uptake, we examined mice with the Dmt1 gene selectively inactivated in hepatocytes (Dmt1liv/liv). We found that Dmt1liv/liv mice and controls (Dmt1flox/flox) did not differ in terms of hepatic iron concentrations or other parameters of iron status. To determine if hepatocyte DMT1 is required for hepatic iron accumulation, we crossed Dmt1liv/liv mice with Hfe−/− and hypotransferrinemic (Trfhpx/hpx) mice that develop hepatic iron overload. Double-mutant Hfe−/−;Dmt1liv/liv and Trfhpx/hpx;Dmt1liv/liv mice were found to accumulate similar amounts of hepatic iron as did their respective controls. To directly assess the role of DMT1 in NTBI and TBI uptake, we injected 59Fe-labeled ferric citrate (for NTBI) or 59Fe-transferrin into the plasma of Dmt1liv/liv and Dmt1flox/flox mice and measured the uptake of 59Fe by the liver. Dmt1liv/liv mice displayed no impairment of hepatic NTBI uptake, but TBI uptake was 40% lower. Hepatic levels of transferrin receptors 1 and 2 and ZIP14 (ZRT/IRT-like protein 14), which may also participate in iron uptake, were unaffected in Dmt1liv/liv mice. Additionally, liver iron levels were unaffected in Dmt1liv/liv mice fed an iron-deficient diet. Conclusion Hepatocyte DMT1 is dispensable for hepatic iron accumulation and NTBI uptake. Although hepatocyte DMT1 is partially required for hepatic TBI uptake, hepatic iron levels were unaffected in Dmt1liv/liv mice, suggesting that this pathway is a minor contributor to the iron economy of the liver. PMID:23508576

  2. System and method for making metallic iron with reduced CO.sub.2 emissions

    DOEpatents

    Kiesel, Richard F; Englund, David J; Schlichting, Mark; Meehan, John; Crouch, Jeremiah; Wilson, Logan

    2014-10-14

    A method and system for making metallic iron nodules with reduced CO.sub.2 emissions is disclosed. The method includes: assembling a linear hearth furnace having entry and exit portions, at least a conversion zone and a fusion zone, and a moving hearth adapted to move reducible iron bearing material through the furnace on contiguous hearth sections; assembling a shrouded return substantially free of air ingress extending adjacent at least the conversion and fusion zones of the furnace through which hearth sections can move from adjacent the exit portion to adjacent the entry portion of the furnace; transferring the hearth sections from the furnace to the shrouded return adjacent the exit portion; reducing reducible material in the linear hearth furnace to metallic iron nodules; and transporting gases from at least the fusion zone to the shrouded return to heat the hearth sections while in the shrouded return.

  3. 21 CFR 862.1410 - Iron (non-heme) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as iron deficiency anemia, hemochromatosis (a disease associated... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron (non-heme) test system. 862.1410 Section 862....1410 Iron (non-heme) test system. (a) Identification. An iron (non-heme) test system is a device...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1410 - Iron (non-heme) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as iron deficiency anemia, hemochromatosis (a disease associated... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron (non-heme) test system. 862.1410 Section 862....1410 Iron (non-heme) test system. (a) Identification. An iron (non-heme) test system is a device...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1410 - Iron (non-heme) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as iron deficiency anemia, hemochromatosis (a disease associated... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron (non-heme) test system. 862.1410 Section 862....1410 Iron (non-heme) test system. (a) Identification. An iron (non-heme) test system is a device...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1410 - Iron (non-heme) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as iron deficiency anemia, hemochromatosis (a disease associated... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron (non-heme) test system. 862.1410 Section 862....1410 Iron (non-heme) test system. (a) Identification. An iron (non-heme) test system is a device...

  7. SORTING NEXIN1 is required for modulating the trafficking and stability of the Arabidopsis IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER1.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Rumen; Brumbarova, Tzvetina; Blum, Ailisa; Jantke, Anna-Maria; Fink-Straube, Claudia; Bauer, Petra

    2014-03-01

    Dicotyledonous plants growing under limited iron availability initiate a response resulting in the solubilization, reduction, and uptake of soil iron. The protein factors responsible for these steps are transmembrane proteins, suggesting that the intracellular trafficking machinery may be involved in iron acquisition. In search for components involved in the regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana iron deficiency responses, we identified the members of the SORTING NEXIN (SNX) protein family. SNX loss-of-function plants display enhanced susceptibility to iron deficiency in comparison to the wild type. The absence of SNX led to reduced iron import efficiency into the root. SNX1 showed partial colocalization with the principal root iron importer IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER1 (IRT1). In SNX loss-of-function plants, IRT1 protein levels were decreased compared with the wild type due to enhanced IRT1 degradation. This resulted in diminished amounts of the IRT1 protein at the plasma membrane. snx mutants exhibited enhanced iron deficiency responses compared with the wild type, presumably due to the lower iron uptake through IRT1. Our results reveal a role of SNX1 for the correct trafficking of IRT1 and, thus, for modulating the activity of the iron uptake machinery.

  8. SORTING NEXIN1 Is Required for Modulating the Trafficking and Stability of the Arabidopsis IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER1[W

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Rumen; Brumbarova, Tzvetina; Blum, Ailisa; Jantke, Anna-Maria; Fink-Straube, Claudia; Bauer, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Dicotyledonous plants growing under limited iron availability initiate a response resulting in the solubilization, reduction, and uptake of soil iron. The protein factors responsible for these steps are transmembrane proteins, suggesting that the intracellular trafficking machinery may be involved in iron acquisition. In search for components involved in the regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana iron deficiency responses, we identified the members of the SORTING NEXIN (SNX) protein family. SNX loss-of-function plants display enhanced susceptibility to iron deficiency in comparison to the wild type. The absence of SNX led to reduced iron import efficiency into the root. SNX1 showed partial colocalization with the principal root iron importer IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER1 (IRT1). In SNX loss-of-function plants, IRT1 protein levels were decreased compared with the wild type due to enhanced IRT1 degradation. This resulted in diminished amounts of the IRT1 protein at the plasma membrane. snx mutants exhibited enhanced iron deficiency responses compared with the wild type, presumably due to the lower iron uptake through IRT1. Our results reveal a role of SNX1 for the correct trafficking of IRT1 and, thus, for modulating the activity of the iron uptake machinery. PMID:24596241

  9. Vesicular transport systems in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Marcio L; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Schrank, Augusto; Vainstein, Marilene H; Casadevall, Arturo; Nimrichter, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Canonical and unconventional mechanisms of secretion in many eukaryotic cells are relatively well known. In contrast to the situation in animal cells, mechanisms of secretion in fungi must include the capacity for trans-cell wall passage of macromolecules to the extracellular space. Although these mechanisms remain somewhat elusive, several studies in recent years have suggested that vesicular transport is required for trans-cell wall secretion of large molecules. Several fungal molecules, including proteins, lipids, polysaccharides and pigments, are released to the extracellular space in vesicles. In pathogenic fungi, a number of these vesicular components are associated with fungal virulence. Indeed, extracellular vesicles produced by fungi can interfere with the immunomodulatory activity of host cells. Fungal vesicles share many functional aspects with mammalian exosomes and extracellular vesicles produced by bacteria, plants and protozoa, but their cellular origin remains unknown. Here, we discuss the involvement of vesicular transport systems in fungal physiology and pathogenesis, making parallels with the mammalian, bacterial, protozoan and plant cell literature. PMID:22082294

  10. Research on the Iron-Nitrogen System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1949-01-01

    Micro- Kjeldahl Methods 101 XIV Results of Preliminary Nitrogenizing Experiments 104 𔃾 -vii- Table Number Pae XV Influence of Cooling Atmosphere on the...Several iso-fugacity and isothermal sections are presented. -95- Appendix I DETEBMINATION OF NITROGEN IN IRON- NITROGEN ALLOYS The micro- Kjeldahl method...scription of the apparatus and procedure and the results of s’,.me trial determinations are presented below. The micro- Kjeldahl method used for nitrogen

  11. Phase stable RF transport system

    DOEpatents

    Curtin, Michael T.; Natter, Eckard F.; Denney, Peter M.

    1992-01-01

    An RF transport system delivers a phase-stable RF signal to a load, such as an RF cavity of a charged particle accelerator. A circuit generates a calibration signal at an odd multiple frequency of the RF signal where the calibration signal is superimposed with the RF signal on a common cable that connects the RF signal with the load. Signal isolating diplexers are located at both the RF signal source end and load end of the common cable to enable the calibration to be inserted and extracted from the cable signals without any affect on the RF signal. Any phase shift in the calibration signal during traverse of the common cable is then functionally related to the phase shift in the RF signal. The calibration phase shift is used to control a phase shifter for the RF signal to maintain a stable RF signal at the load.

  12. Field-scale transport and transformation of carboxymethylcellulose-stabilized nano zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Richard L; Nurmi, James T; O'Brien Johnson, Graham S; Fan, Dimin; O'Brien Johnson, Reid L; Shi, Zhenqing; Salter-Blanc, Alexandra J; Tratnyek, Paul G; Lowry, Gregory V

    2013-02-05

    The fate of nano zerovalent iron (nZVI) during subsurface injection was examined using carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) stabilized nZVI in a very large three-dimensional physical model aquifer with detailed monitoring using multiple, complementary detection methods. A fluorescein tracer test in the aquifer plus laboratory column data suggested that the very-aggressive flow conditions necessary to achieve 2.5 m of nZVI transport could be obtained using a hydraulically constrained flow path between injection and extraction wells. However, total unoxidized nZVI was transported only about 1 m and <2% of the injected nZVI concentration reached that distance. The experimental data also indicated that groundwater flow changed during injection, likely due to hydrogen bubble formation, which diverted the nZVI away from the targeted flow path. The leading edge of the iron plume became fully oxidized during transport. However, within the plume, oxidation of nZVI decreased in a fashion consistent with progressive depletion of aquifer "reductant demand". To directly quantify the extent of nZVI transport, a spectrophotometric method was developed, and the results indicated that deployment of unoxidized nZVI for groundwater remediation will likely be difficult.

  13. OsFRDL1 is a citrate transporter required for efficient translocation of iron in rice.

    PubMed

    Yokosho, Kengo; Yamaji, Naoki; Ueno, Daisei; Mitani, Namiki; Ma, Jian Feng

    2009-01-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporters represent a large family in plants, but their functions are poorly understood. Here, we report the function of a rice (Oryza sativa) MATE gene (Os03g0216700, OsFRDL1), the closest homolog of barley (Hordeum vulgare) HvAACT1 (aluminum [Al]-activated citrate transporter 1), in terms of metal stress (iron [Fe] deficiency and Al toxicity). This gene was mainly expressed in the roots and the expression level was not affected by either Fe deficiency or Al toxicity. Knockout of this gene resulted in leaf chlorosis, lower leaf Fe concentration, higher accumulation of zinc and manganese concentration in the leaves, and precipitation of Fe in the root's stele. The concentration of citrate and ferric iron in the xylem sap was lower in the knockout line compared to the wild-type rice. Heterologous expression of OsFRDL1 in Xenopus oocytes showed transport activity for citrate. Immunostaining showed that OsFRDL1 was localized at the pericycle cells of the roots. On the other hand, there was no difference in the Al-induced secretion of citrate from the roots between the knockout line and the wild-type rice. Taken together, our results indicate that OsFRDL1 is a citrate transporter localized at the pericycle cells, which is necessary for efficient translocation of Fe to the shoot as a Fe-citrate complex.

  14. Manned transportation system study - Evaluation of candidate transportation architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, Nicholas; Klemer, R.; Sooter, C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall evaluation process, the tool developed to perform the evaluation, and the evaluation results in determining the right approach to meet the nation's mannned transportation needs are presented. To address the various considerations, architecture sets consisting of the candidate transportation systems are constructed. As this methodology results in multiple architectures to examine, an architecture evaluation tool was developed to facilitate the evaluation of the architecture attribute values from the system values of the attributes.

  15. Sustainability Analysis of Innovative Transport System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiere, Ieva; Bazbauers, Gatis

    2011-01-01

    The focus of the research is to develop a new approach to transport solution based on the use of a conveyortype system and to compare the environmental impact of the new system with the existing ones. The new transport system consists of a conveyor driven by an electric motor, with a wind power plant supplying electricity, hydrogen storage and a fuel cell for matching the wind power production with the motor load. The research tasks included the evaluation of the consumption of fossil fuels and the associated environmental impact of existing transport system and a comparison with energy consumption and associated environmental impact of the new system. The energy balance of the conveyor transport system was modelled on an hourly basis by using the EnergyPLAN computer program [1] which allows to analyze a combination of intermittent renewable energy technologies, storage and transport systems. The results show that the existing transport system has greater impact on the environment than the proposed one.

  16. Classical transport in disordered systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, Antonios

    This thesis reports on the manifestation of structural disorder on molecular transport and it consists of two parts. Part I discusses the relations between classical transport and the underlying structural complexity of the system. Both types of molecular diffusion, namely Gaussian and non- Gaussian are presented and the relevant time regimes are discussed. In addition the concept of structural universality is introduced and connected with the diffusion metrics. One of the most robust techniques for measuring molecular mean square displacements is magnetic resonance. This method requires encoding and subsequently reading out after an experimentally controlled time, a phase φ to the spins using magnetic field gradients. The main limitation for probing short diffusion lengths L(t) ˜ 1micro m with magnetic resonance is the requirement to encode and decode the phase φ in very short time intervals. Therefore, to probe such displacements a special probe was developed equipped with a gradient coil capable of delivering magnetic field gradients of approximately 90 G/cmA . The design of the probe is reported. Part I also includes a discussion of experiments of transport in two qualitatively different disordered phantoms and reports on a direct observation of universality in one-dimension. The results reveal the universal power law scaling of the diffusion coefficient at the long-time regime and illustrate the essence of structural universality by experimentally determining the structure correlation function of the phantoms. In addition, the scaling of the diffusive permeability of the phantoms with respect to the pore size is investigated. Additional work presented includes a detailed study of adsorption of methane gas in Vycor disordered glass. The techniques described in Part I of this thesis are widely used for measuring structural parameters of porous media, such as the surface-to-volume ratio or diffusive permeability. Part II of this thesis discusses the

  17. Method and system for producing metallic iron nuggets

    DOEpatents

    Iwasaki, Iwao; Kiesel, Richard F.; Englund, David J; Hendrickson, Dave

    2012-12-18

    A method and system for producing metallic iron nuggets may include providing multiple layers of agglomerates, such as briquettes, balls and extrusions, of a reducible mixture of reducing material (such as carbonaceous material) and of a reducible iron bearing material (such as iron oxide) on a hearth material layer (such as carbonaceous material) and providing a coarse overlayer of carbonaceous material over at least some of the agglomerates. Heating the agglomerates of reducible mixture to 1425.degree. C. or 1400.degree. C. or 1375.degree. C. results in formation of an intermediate product of one or more metallic iron nuggets, which may have a sulfur content of less than 0.03%, and slag, which may have less than 5% mass MgO, which may have a ratio of percent by weight sulfur in the slag over percent by weight sulfur in the metallic nuggets of at least about 12 or at least about 15.

  18. Repeated Iron-Soot Exposure and Nose-to-brain Transport of Inhaled Ultrafine Particles.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Laurie E; Laing, Emilia A; Peake, Janice L; Uyeminami, Dale; Mack, Savannah M; Li, Xueting; Smiley-Jewell, Suzette; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2017-01-01

    Particulate exposure has been implicated in the development of a number of neurological maladies such as multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Only a few studies have focused on the olfactory pathway as a portal through which combustion-generated particles may enter the brain. The primary objective of this study was to define the deposition, uptake, and transport of inhaled ultrafine iron-soot particles in the nasal cavities of mice to determine whether combustion-generated nanoparticles reach the olfactory bulb via the olfactory epithelium and nerve fascicles. Adult female C57B6 mice were exposed to iron-soot combustion particles at a concentration of 200 μg/m(3), which included 40 μg/m(3) of iron oxide nanoparticles. Mice were exposed for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 5 consecutive weeks (25 total exposure days). Our findings visually demonstrate that inhaled ultrafine iron-soot reached the brain via the olfactory nerves and was associated with indicators of neural inflammation.

  19. Transport properties of iron at Earth's core conditions: The effect of spin disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drchal, V.; Kudrnovský, J.; Wagenknecht, D.; Turek, I.; Khmelevskyi, S.

    2017-07-01

    The electronic and thermal transport properties of the Earth's core are crucial for many geophysical models such as the geodynamo model of the Earth's magnetic field and of its reversals. Here we show, by considering bcc iron and an iron-rich iron-silicon alloy as a representative of the Earth's core composition and applying first-principles modeling, that the spin disorder at the Earth's core conditions not considered previously provides an essential contribution, of order 20 μ Ω cm, to the electrical resistivity. This value is comparable in magnitude with the electron-phonon and with the recently estimated electron-electron scattering contributions. The origin of the spin-disorder resistivity (SDR) consists of the existence of fluctuating local moments that are stabilized at high temperatures by the magnetic entropy even at pressures at which the ground state of iron is nonmagnetic. We find that electron-phonon and SDR contributions are not additive at high temperatures. We thus observe a large violation of the Matthiessen rule, not common in conventional metallic alloys at ambient conditions.

  20. The yersiniabactin transport system is critical for the pathogenesis of bubonic and pneumonic plague.

    PubMed

    Fetherston, Jacqueline D; Kirillina, Olga; Bobrov, Alexander G; Paulley, James T; Perry, Robert D

    2010-05-01

    Iron acquisition from the host is an important step in the pathogenic process. While Yersinia pestis has multiple iron transporters, the yersiniabactin (Ybt) siderophore-dependent system plays a major role in iron acquisition in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we determined that the Ybt system is required for the use of iron bound by transferrin and lactoferrin and examined the importance of the Ybt system for virulence in mouse models of bubonic and pneumonic plague. Y. pestis mutants unable to either transport Ybt or synthesize the siderophore were both essentially avirulent via subcutaneous injection (bubonic plague model). Surprisingly, via intranasal instillation (pneumonic plague model), we saw a difference in the virulence of Ybt biosynthetic and transport mutants. Ybt biosynthetic mutants displayed an approximately 24-fold-higher 50% lethal dose (LD(50)) than transport mutants. In contrast, under iron-restricted conditions in vitro, a Ybt transport mutant had a more severe growth defect than the Ybt biosynthetic mutant. Finally, a Delta pgm mutant had a greater loss of virulence than the Ybt biosynthetic mutant, indicating that the 102-kb pgm locus encodes a virulence factor, in addition to Ybt, that plays a role in the pathogenesis of pneumonic plague.

  1. The Yersiniabactin Transport System Is Critical for the Pathogenesis of Bubonic and Pneumonic Plague▿

    PubMed Central

    Fetherston, Jacqueline D.; Kirillina, Olga; Bobrov, Alexander G.; Paulley, James T.; Perry, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    Iron acquisition from the host is an important step in the pathogenic process. While Yersinia pestis has multiple iron transporters, the yersiniabactin (Ybt) siderophore-dependent system plays a major role in iron acquisition in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we determined that the Ybt system is required for the use of iron bound by transferrin and lactoferrin and examined the importance of the Ybt system for virulence in mouse models of bubonic and pneumonic plague. Y. pestis mutants unable to either transport Ybt or synthesize the siderophore were both essentially avirulent via subcutaneous injection (bubonic plague model). Surprisingly, via intranasal instillation (pneumonic plague model), we saw a difference in the virulence of Ybt biosynthetic and transport mutants. Ybt biosynthetic mutants displayed an ∼24-fold-higher 50% lethal dose (LD50) than transport mutants. In contrast, under iron-restricted conditions in vitro, a Ybt transport mutant had a more severe growth defect than the Ybt biosynthetic mutant. Finally, a Δpgm mutant had a greater loss of virulence than the Ybt biosynthetic mutant, indicating that the 102-kb pgm locus encodes a virulence factor, in addition to Ybt, that plays a role in the pathogenesis of pneumonic plague. PMID:20160020

  2. Differential expression of two siderophore-dependent iron-acquisition pathways in Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937: characterization of a novel ferrisiderophore permease of the ABC transporter family.

    PubMed

    Mahé, B; Masclaux, C; Rauscher, L; Enard, C; Expert, D

    1995-10-01

    In planta expression of a high-affinity iron-uptake system involving the siderophore chrysobactin in Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 contributes greatly to invasive growth of this pathogen on its natural host, African violets. A previous study reported that global regulation by iron in this strain was mediated at the transcriptional level via the cbr locus which, when inactivated by insertional mutation, prevents the chrysobactin system from being tightly repressed by FeCl3. Herein, we report the nucleotide sequence of this locus and the functional analysis of its encoded products. Sequence analysis of a 4.8 kb genomic segment of a plasmid encompassing the cbr locus and characterization of the cognate translated products made it possible to uncover a system exhibiting similarity with prokaryotic transporters implicated in the transport of iron complexes. Accordingly, the CbrA product was shown to be the periplasmic component of a permease complex also including two integral membrane proteins, CbrB and CbrC, and the ATP-binding unit CbrD. This system allowed internalization of Fe(III) when supplied to bacterial cells as 59FeCl3 or 59Fe dicitrate, via complexation to a second siderophore recently detected in strain 3937. Most notably, we demonstrate that this second siderophore-mediated iron-acquisition system is operational in bacterial cells grown in the presence of FeCl3. The regulatory effect of cbr was further assessed on a lacZ chrysobactin operon fusion indicating that the transcriptional control exerted by cbr on expression of the chrysobactin system is of homeostatic nature. in conclusion, E. chrysanthemi provides an interesting model in which iron acquisition involves an inductive process resulting in differential expression of two siderophore-mediated pathways in relation to external iron accessibility.

  3. Influence of permeability on nanoscale zero-valent iron particle transport in saturated homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media.

    PubMed

    Strutz, Tessa J; Hornbruch, Götz; Dahmke, Andreas; Köber, Ralf

    2016-09-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) particles can be used for in situ groundwater remediation. The spatial particle distribution plays a very important role in successful and efficient remediation, especially in heterogeneous systems. Initial sand permeability (k 0) influences on spatial particle distributions were investigated and quantified in homogeneous and heterogeneous systems within the presented study. Four homogeneously filled column experiments and a heterogeneously filled tank experiment, using different median sand grain diameters (d 50), were performed to determine if NZVI particles were transported into finer sand where contaminants could be trapped. More NZVI particle retention, less particle transport, and faster decrease in k were observed in the column studies using finer sands than in those using coarser sands, reflecting a function of k 0. In heterogeneous media, NZVI particles were initially transported and deposited in coarse sand areas. Increasing the retained NZVI mass (decreasing k in particle deposition areas) caused NZVI particles to also be transported into finer sand areas, forming an area with a relatively homogeneous particle distribution and converged k values despite the different grain sizes present. The deposited-particle surface area contribution to the increasing of the matrix surface area (θ) was one to two orders of magnitude higher for finer than coarser sand. The dependency of θ on d 50 presumably affects simulated k changes and NZVI distributions in numerical simulations of NZVI injections into heterogeneous aquifers. The results implied that NZVI can in principle also penetrate finer layers.

  4. The chloroplast permease PIC1 regulates plant growth and development by directing homeostasis and transport of iron.

    PubMed

    Duy, Daniela; Stübe, Roland; Wanner, Gerhard; Philippar, Katrin

    2011-04-01

    The membrane-spanning protein PIC1 (for permease in chloroplasts 1) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was previously described to mediate iron transport across the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts. The albino phenotype of pic1 knockout mutants was reminiscent of iron-deficiency symptoms and characterized by severely impaired plastid development and plant growth. In addition, plants lacking PIC1 showed a striking increase in chloroplast ferritin clusters, which function in protection from oxidative stress by sequestering highly reactive free iron in their spherical protein shell. In contrast, PIC1-overexpressing lines (PIC1ox) in this study rather resembled ferritin loss-of-function plants. PIC1ox plants suffered from oxidative stress and leaf chlorosis, most likely originating from iron overload in chloroplasts. Later during growth, plants were characterized by reduced biomass as well as severely defective flower and seed development. As a result of PIC1 protein increase in the inner envelope membrane of plastids, flower tissue showed elevated levels of iron, while the content of other transition metals (copper, zinc, manganese) remained unchanged. Seeds, however, specifically revealed iron deficiency, suggesting that PIC1 overexpression sequestered iron in flower plastids, thereby becoming unavailable for seed iron loading. In addition, expression of genes associated with metal transport and homeostasis as well as photosynthesis was deregulated in PIC1ox plants. Thus, PIC1 function in plastid iron transport is closely linked to ferritin and plastid iron homeostasis. In consequence, PIC1 is crucial for balancing plant iron metabolism in general, thereby regulating plant growth and in particular fruit development.

  5. Non-equilibrium Transport in Carbon based Adsorbate Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fürst, Joachim; Brandbyge, Mads; Stokbro, Kurt; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2007-03-01

    We have used the Atomistix Tool Kit(ATK) and TranSIESTA[1] packages to investigate adsorption of iron atoms on a graphene sheet. The technique of both codes is based on density functional theory using local basis sets[2], and non-equilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) to calculate the charge distribution under external bias. Spin dependent electronic structure calculations are performed for different iron coverages. These reveal adsorption site dependent charge transfer from iron to graphene leading to screening effects. Transport calculations show spin dependent scattering of the transmission which is analysed obtaining the transmission eigenchannels for each spin type. The phenomena of electromigration of iron in these systems at finite bias will be discussed, estimating the so-called wind force from the reflection[3]. [1] M. Brandbyge, J.-L. Mozos, P. Ordejon, J. Taylor, and K. Stokbro. Physical Review B (Condensed Matter and Materials Physics), 65(16):165401/11-7, 2002. [2] Jose M. Soler, Emilio Artacho, Julian D. Gale, Alberto Garcia, Javier Junquera, Pablo Ordejon, and Daniel Sanchez-Portal. Journal of Physics Condensed Matter, 14(11):2745-2779, 2002. [3] Sorbello. Theory of electromigration. Solid State Physics, 1997.

  6. Transport in closed nanoscale systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushong, Neil

    2005-03-01

    An alternative way to describe electrical transport in nanoscale systems has been recently proposed where two large but finite charged electrodes discharge across a nanoscale junction (M. Di Ventra and T. Todorov, J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 16, 8025 (2004)). We have applied this concept to describe the dynamics of a finite quasi-one dimensional gold wire using both a simple tight-binding model and time-dependent density-functional theory. After an initial transient, a quasi-steady state sets in whose lifetime increases with system size. This quasi-steady state is due to the wave properties of the electron wavefunctions and the resultant uncertainty principle and is established without inelastic effects. The corresponding current-voltage characteristics at steady state are in very good agreement with those calculated from the static scattering approach. We discuss local electron distributions, electrostatic potentials, and local resistivity dipoles formed at the quasi-steady state and compare these findings with the static open-boundary problem. A relation between information entropy and electron dynamics is discussed. Work supported by NSF.

  7. Mechanisms of transport of nontransferrin-bound iron in basolateral and canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.L.; Lake, J.R. )

    1990-09-01

    Although most iron in plasma is bound to transferrin, recent evidence suggests that the nontransferrin-bound fraction contributes to hepatic iron loading and toxicity seen in iron-overload disorders. Our studies of isolated perfused rat liver previously demonstrated saturable uptake of nontransferrin-bound iron that continues despite hepatic iron overload. To further characterize the mechanism of transport of this form of iron, we measured binding of 55Fe-labeled ferrous ascorbate to rat liver plasma membrane vesicles under varying conditions. Binding of 5 mumol/L iron by both basolateral and canalicular membranes was time-dependent and linear for the first 5 sec. Initial rate of binding of ferrous ascorbate to basolateral membrane vesicles was temperature dependent and increased by calcium but, in contrast to the perfused rat liver, was not inhibited by other divalent cations. Binding velocities by basolateral membrane vesicles were saturable at increasing iron concentration (Km = 33 mumol/L, Vmax = 16 pmol/mg protein/sec). Ferrous iron binding by canalicular membrane vesicles was also temperature dependent, but initial association rates were not saturable over the concentration range studied (2 to 20 mumol/L). We conclude that nontransferrin-bound iron associates with basolateral liver plasma membrane vesicles by a saturable mechanism sensitive to temperature and calcium and consistent with a membrane carrier. Other divalent cations do not inhibit membrane association but may compete for a subsequent cytosolic binding site.

  8. Use of a molecular decoy to segregate transport from antigenicity in the FrpB iron transporter from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Muhammad; Prince, Stephen M; Rigby, Stephen E J; Imran, Muhammad; Patel, Hema; Chan, Hannah; Sanders, Holly; Maiden, Martin C J; Feavers, Ian M; Derrick, Jeremy P

    2013-01-01

    FrpB is an outer membrane transporter from Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of meningococcal meningitis. It is a member of the TonB-dependent transporter (TBDT) family and is responsible for iron uptake into the periplasm. FrpB is subject to a high degree of antigenic variation, principally through a region of hypervariable sequence exposed at the cell surface. From the crystal structures of two FrpB antigenic variants, we identify a bound ferric ion within the structure which induces structural changes on binding which are consistent with it being the transported substrate. Binding experiments, followed by elemental analysis, verified that FrpB binds Fe(3+) with high affinity. EPR spectra of the bound Fe(3+) ion confirmed that its chemical environment was consistent with that observed in the crystal structure. Fe(3+) binding was reduced or abolished on mutation of the Fe(3+)-chelating residues. FrpB orthologs were identified in other Gram-negative bacteria which showed absolute conservation of the coordinating residues, suggesting the existence of a specific TBDT sub-family dedicated to the transport of Fe(3+). The region of antigenic hypervariability lies in a separate, external sub-domain, whose structure is conserved in both the F3-3 and F5-1 variants, despite their sequence divergence. We conclude that the antigenic sub-domain has arisen separately as a result of immune selection pressure to distract the immune response from the primary transport function. This would enable FrpB to function as a transporter independently of antibody binding, by using the antigenic sub-domain as a 'molecular decoy' to distract immune surveillance.

  9. Transport of Oil-in-Water Emulsions Designed to Deliver Reactive Iron Particles in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocker, J. J.; Berge, N. D.; Ramsburg, C. A.

    2007-05-01

    Treatment of subsurface regions contaminated with DNAPL is a significant challenge to environmental restoration. The focus of remediation has recently shifted from technologies that recover the contamination to technologies that destroy the contamination in situ. One method of in situ contaminant destruction employs nano- or submicron-size particles of reactive iron metal. Application of iron-based destruction technologies is currently limited by poor delivery of the reactive particles (i.e., lack of contact between the iron particles and the DNAPL). Encapsulation of the reactive particles within an oil-in-water emulsion is a novel approach that may facilitate delivery. The goal of this project was to investigate the transport behavior of emulsions (Tallow oil, Tween 80, and Span 80) within porous media. One-dimensional column experiments were conducted to evaluate pore-clogging when emulsions containing encapsulated reactive particles were passed through two homogeneous sands with an order of magnitude difference in intrinsic permeability. In these experiments, passing an emulsion through the sand column (4.8 cm i.d.) at a constant flow rate (0.86 mL/min) increased the hydraulic gradient by a factor of approximately three. The hydraulic gradient in each experiment was observed to stabilize after one pore volume of emulsion. Subsequent flushing with water recovered the initial hydraulic gradient. Together, these observations indicate that conductivity reductions during emulsion flushing were the result of viscosity and not the result of extensive pore-clogging. Analysis of effluent samples confirmed that there was minimal retention of the emulsion within the sand column. Results from these experiments suggest that emulsion encapsulation may be an effective means for transporting reactive iron particles within the subsurface environment.

  10. A vacuolar iron transporter in tulip, TgVit1, is responsible for blue coloration in petal cells through iron accumulation.

    PubMed

    Momonoi, Kazumi; Yoshida, Kumi; Mano, Shoji; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Nakamori, Chihiro; Shoji, Kazuaki; Nitta, Akira; Nishimura, Mikio

    2009-08-01

    Blue color in flowers is due mainly to anthocyanins, and a considerable part of blue coloration can be attributed to metal-complexed anthocyanins. However, the mechanism of metal ion transport into vacuoles and subsequent flower color development has yet to be fully explored. Previously, we studied the mechanism of blue color development specifically at the bottom of the inner perianth in purple tulip petals of Tulipa gesneriana cv. Murasakizuisho. We found that differences in iron content were associated with the development of blue- and purple-colored cells. Here, we identify a vacuolar iron transporter in T. gesneriana (TgVit1), and characterize the localization and function of this transporter protein in tulip petals. The amino acid sequence of TgVit1 is 85% similar that of the Arabidopsis thaliana vacuolar iron transporter AtVIT1, and also showed similarity to the AtVIT1 homolog in yeast, Ca(2+)-sensitive cross-complementer 1 (CCC1). The gene TgVit1 was expressed exclusively in blue-colored epidermal cells, and protein levels increased with increasing mRNA expression and blue coloration. Transient expression experiments revealed that TgVit1 localizes to the vacuolar membrane, and is responsible for the development of the blue color in purple cells. Expression of TgVit1 in yeast rescued the growth defect of ccc1 mutant cells in the presence of high concentrations of FeSO(4). Our results indicate that TgVit1 plays an essential role in blue coloration as a vacuolar iron transporter in tulip petals. These results suggest a new role for involvement of a vacuolar iron transporter in blue flower color development.

  11. Calorie restriction up-regulates iron and copper transport genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Praveen Kumar; Mittal, Nitish; Deswal, Sumit; Roy, Nilanjan

    2011-02-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a non genetic intervention, known to confer longevity benefits across the various phyla from unicellular yeast to mammals. CR also invokes homeostatic responses similar to stress, however the sequence of molecular events leading to longevity is still illusive. In this study, we analysed the whole genome gene expression profile in response to CR, mutations mimicking CR, heat shock and H(2)O(2) from a gene ontology perspective. Our analysis revealed that mitochondrion is a common hub in the gene expression programme under these conditions and the electron transport chain (ETC) is a major player. Consequently the genes involved in the metal ion transport were also significantly up-regulated. We confirmed the results of the in silico analysis using quantitative real time PCR which showed up-regulation of genes involved in respiration and transport of iron and copper. The promoter activity of one of the representative genes, FET3, was also found to be higher upon calorie restriction. Altogether, our results indicate that upon calorie restriction the levels of iron and copper fall in cells, which elicits a transcriptional response up-regulating the genes involved in their uptake to maintain cellular homeostasis.

  12. Influence of electrolyte and voltage on the direct current enhanced transport of iron nanoparticles in clay.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Helena I; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B; Pamukcu, Sibel

    2014-03-01

    Zero valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) transport for soil and groundwater remediation is slowed down or halted by aggregation or fast depletion in the soil pores. Direct electric current can enhance the transport of nZVI in low permeability soils. However operational factors, including pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), voltage and ionic strength of the electrolyte can play an important role in the treatment effectiveness. Experiments were conducted to enhance polymer coated nZVI mobility in a model low permeability soil medium (kaolin clay) using low direct current. Different electrolytes of varying ionic strengths and initial pH and high nZVI concentrations were applied. Results showed that the nZVI transport is enhanced by direct current, even considering concentrations typical of field application that favor nanoparticle aggregation. However, the factors considered (pH, ORP, voltage and electrolyte) failed to explain the iron concentration variation. The electrolyte and its ionic strength proved to be significant for pH and ORP measured during the experiments, and therefore will affect aggregation and fast oxidation of the particles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The security of mass transport ticketing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sel, Marc; Seys, Stefaan; Verheul, Eric

    Mass transport ticketing systems in most developed countries are making a rapid transition from ‘traditional’ paper or carton-based ticketing systems towards a contactless ‘smart card‘ based approach. This article discusses the main IT security aspects of mass transport ticketing systems (metro, bus, etc).

  14. Modeling Polymer Stabilized Nano-scale Zero Valent Iron Transport Experiments in Porous Media to Understand the Transport Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, P.; Krol, M.; Sleep, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    A wide variety of groundwater contaminants can be treated with nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI). However, delivery of nZVI in the subsurface to the treatment zones is challenging as the bare nZVI particles have a higher tendency to agglomerate. The subsurface mobility of nZVI can be enhanced by stabilizing nZVI with polymer, such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). In this study, numerical simulations were conducted to evaluate CMC stabilized nZVI transport behavior in porous media. The numerical simulations were based on a set of laboratory-scale transport experiments that were conducted in a two-dimensional water-saturated glass-walled sandbox (length - 55 cm; height - 45 cm; width - 1.4 cm), uniformly packed with silica sand. In the transport experiments: CMC stabilized nZVI and a non-reactive dye tracer Lissamine Green B (LGB) were used; water specific discharge and CMC concentration were varied; movements of LGB, and CMC-nZVI in the sandbox were tracked using a camera, a light source and a dark box. The concentrations of LGB, CMC, and CMC-nZVI at the sandbox outlet were analyzed. A 2D multiphase flow and transport model was applied to simulate experimental results. The images from LGB dye transport experiments were used to determine the pore water velocities and media permeabilities in various layers in the sand box. These permeability values were used in the subsequent simulations of CMC-nZVI transport. The 2D compositional simulator, modified to include colloid filtration theory (CFT), treated CMC as a solute and nZVI as a colloid. The simulator included composition dependent viscosity to account for CMC injection and mixing, and attachment efficiency as a fitting parameter for nZVI transport modeling. In the experiments, LGB and CMC recoveries were greater than 95%; however, CMC residence time was significantly higher than the LGB residence time and the higher CMC concentration caused higher pressure drops in the sandbox. The nZVI recovery was lower than 40

  15. A National MagLev Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    The case for a national high-speed magnetic-levitation (MagLev) transportation system is presented. Focus is on current issues facing the country, such as national security, the economy, transportation, technology, and the environment. NASA s research into MagLev technology for launch assist is also highlighted. Further, current socio-cultural norms regarding motor-vehicle-based transportation systems are questioned in light of the problems currently facing the U.S. The multidisciplinary benefits of a long-distance MagLev system support the idea that such a system would be an important element of a truly multimodal U.S. transportation infrastructure.

  16. Binding of iron-free siderophore, a common feature of siderophore outer membrane transporters of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Hoegy, Françoise; Celia, Hervé; Mislin, Gaëtan L; Vincent, Michel; Gallay, Jacques; Schalk, Isabelle J

    2005-05-27

    TonB-dependent iron transporters present in the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria transport ferric-siderophore complexes into the periplasm. This requires proton motive force and an integral inner membrane complex, TonB-ExbB-ExbD. Recognition of iron-free siderophores by TonB-dependent outer membrane transporters (OMT) has only been described for a subfamily called OMT(N). These OMT(N)s have an additional domain at the N terminus, which interacts with an inner membrane regulatory protein to activate a cytoplasmic sigma factor. This induces transcription of iron transport genes. Here we showed that the ability to bind aposiderophores is not specific to the OMT(N) subfamily but may be a more general feature of OMTs. FhuA, the ferrichrome OMT in Escherichia coli, and FptA, the pyochelin (Pch) OMT in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were both able to bind in vitro and in vivo the apo-forms and the ferric forms of their corresponding siderophore at a common binding site. FptA produced in P. aeruginosa cells grown in an iron-deficient medium copurifies with a ligand that, as characterized by fluorescence, is iron-free Pch. As described previously for the FpvA transporter (pyoverdine OMT in P. aeruginosa), it appears that in conditions of iron limitation all the FptA receptors at the cell surface are loaded with apoPch. This FptA-Pch complex is less stable in vitro than the previously described copurified FpvA-Pvd complex and can be loaded with iron in vitro in the presence of Pch-Fe, citrate-Fe, or ferrichrome-Fe. These findings improved our understanding of the iron uptake mechanism via siderophores in Gram-negative bacteria.

  17. System and method for producing metallic iron

    SciTech Connect

    Bleifuss, Rodney L; Englund, David J; Iwasaki, Iwao; Fosnacht, Donald R; Brandon, Mark M; True, Bradford G

    2012-01-17

    A hearth furnace 10 for producing metallic iron material has a furnace housing 11 having a drying/preheat zone 12, a conversion zone 13, a fusion zone 14, and optionally a cooling zone 15, the conversion zone 13 is between the drying/preheat zone 12 and the fusion zone 14. A moving hearth 20 is positioned within the furnace housing 11. A hood or separation barrier 30 within at least a portion of the conversion zone 13, fusion zone 14 or both separates the fusion zone 14 into an upper region and a lower region with the lower region adjacent the hearth 20 and the upper region adjacent the lower region and spaced from the hearth 20. An injector introduces a gaseous reductant into the lower region adjacent the hearth 20. A combustion region may be formed above the hood or separation barrier.

  18. System and method for producing metallic iron

    DOEpatents

    Bleifuss, Rodney L; Englund, David J; Iwasaki, Iwao; Fosnacht, Donald R; Brandon, Mark M; True, Bradford G

    2013-09-17

    A hearth furnace for producing metallic iron material has a furnace housing having a drying/preheat zone, a conversion zone, a fusion zone, and optionally a cooling zone, the conversion zone is between the drying/preheat zone and the fusion zone. A moving hearth is positioned within the furnace housing. A hood or separation barrier within at least a portion of the conversion zone, fusion zone or both separates the fusion zone into an upper region and a lower region with the lower region adjacent the hearth and the upper region adjacent the lower region and spaced from the hearth. An injector introduces a gaseous reductant into the lower region adjacent the hearth. A combustion region may be formed above the hood or separation barrier.

  19. mRNA Levels of Placental Iron and Zinc Transporter Genes Are Upregulated in Gambian Women with Low Iron and Zinc Status.

    PubMed

    Jobarteh, Modou Lamin; McArdle, Harry J; Holtrop, Grietje; Sise, Ebrima A; Prentice, Andrew M; Moore, Sophie E

    2017-07-01

    Background: The role of the placenta in regulating micronutrient transport in response to maternal status is poorly understood.Objective: We investigated the effect of prenatal nutritional supplementation on the regulation of placental iron and zinc transport.Methods: In a randomized trial in rural Gambia [ENID (Early Nutrition and Immune Development)], pregnant women were allocated to 1 of 4 nutritional intervention arms: 1) iron and folic acid (FeFol) tablets (FeFol group); 2) multiple micronutrient (MMN) tablets (MMN group); 3) protein energy (PE) as a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS; PE group); and 4) PE and MMN (PE+MMN group) as LNS. All arms included iron (60 mg/d) and folic acid (400 μg/d). The MMN and PE+MMN arms included 30 mg supplemental Zn/d. In a subgroup of ∼300 mother-infant pairs, we measured maternal iron status, mRNA levels of genes encoding for placental iron and zinc transport proteins, and cord blood iron levels.Results: Maternal plasma iron concentration in late pregnancy was 45% and 78% lower in the PE and PE+MMN groups compared to the FeFol and MMN groups, respectively (P < 0.001). The mRNA levels of the placental iron uptake protein transferrin receptor 1 were 30-49% higher in the PE and PE+MMN arms than in the FeFol arm (P < 0.031), and also higher in the PE+MMN arm (29%; P = 0.042) than in the MMN arm. Ferritin in infant cord blood was 18-22% lower in the LNS groups (P < 0.024). Zinc supplementation in the MMN arm was associated with higher maternal plasma zinc concentrations (10% increase; P < 0.001) than in other intervention arms. mRNA levels for intracellular zinc-uptake proteins, in this case zrt, irt-like protein (ZIP) 4 and ZIP8, were 96-205% lower in the PE+MMN arm than in the intervention arms without added zinc (P < 0.025). Furthermore, mRNA expression of ZIP1 was 85% lower in the PE+MMN group than in the PE group (P = 0.003).Conclusion: In conditions of low maternal iron and in the absence of supplemental zinc, the

  20. Transport of carboxymethyl cellulose stabilized nanoscale zerovalent iron in porous media, an experimental and modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleep, Brent; Mondal, Pulin; Furbacher, Paul; Cui, Ziteng; Krol, Magdalena

    2015-04-01

    Nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI) is capable of reacting with a wide variety of groundwater contaminants. Therefore, during the last decade nZVI has received significant attention for application in subsurface remediation, particularly for sites contaminated with chlorinated compounds and heavy metals. However, due to agglomeration of the nZVI, delivery into the contaminated subsurface zones is challenging. Polymer stabilization of nZVI can enhance the mobility of the iron particles in the subsurface. In this study, a set of laboratory-scale transport experiments and numerical simulations were performed to evaluate carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) polymer stabilized nZVI transport in porous media. Experiments were conducted in a two-dimensional water-saturated lab-scale glass-walled sandbox, uniformly packed with silica sand, to identify the effects of water specific discharge and CMC concentration on nZVI transport. Experiments were also performed using Lissamine Green B (LGB) dye as a non-reactive tracer to characterize the sand media. The CMC stabilized nZVI was synthesized freshly at a concentration of 1000 mg/L before each transport experiment. The synthesized CMC-nZVI mixture was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and UV-visual spectrophotometry. The movement of the LGB dye and nZVI in the sandbox during the experiments was monitored using time-lapsed images captured using a light source and a dark box. The transport of LGB, CMC, and CMC-nZVI was evaluated through analysis of the breakthrough curves at the outlet and the retained nZVI in the sandbox. The LGB, CMC, and nZVI transport was also modeled using a multiphase flow and transport model considering LGB and CMC as solutes, and nZVI as a colloid. Analysis of the breakthrough data showed that the mass recovery of LGB and CMC was greater than 95 % indicating conservative transport in silica sand. However, the mean residence time of CMC was significantly higher than

  1. Regulation of cellular iron metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Pantopoulos, Kostas

    2011-01-01

    Iron is an essential but potentially hazardous biometal. Mammalian cells require sufficient amounts of iron to satisfy metabolic needs or to accomplish specialized functions. Iron is delivered to tissues by circulating transferrin, a transporter that captures iron released into the plasma mainly from intestinal enterocytes or reticuloendothelial macrophages. The binding of iron-laden transferrin to the cell-surface transferrin receptor 1 results in endocytosis and uptake of the metal cargo. Internalized iron is transported to mitochondria for the synthesis of haem or iron–sulfur clusters, which are integral parts of several metalloproteins, and excess iron is stored and detoxified in cytosolic ferritin. Iron metabolism is controlled at different levels and by diverse mechanisms. The present review summarizes basic concepts of iron transport, use and storage and focuses on the IRE (iron-responsive element)/IRP (iron-regulatory protein) system, a well known post-transcriptional regulatory circuit that not only maintains iron homoeostasis in various cell types, but also contributes to systemic iron balance. PMID:21348856

  2. Iron, copper, and zinc transport: inhibition of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and human copper transporter 1 (hCTR1) by shRNA.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Alejandra; Le Blanc, Solange; Olivares, Manuel; Pizarro, Fernando; Ruz, Manuel; Arredondo, Miguel

    2012-05-01

    Iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) fulfill various essential biological functions and are vital for all living organisms. They play important roles in oxygen transport, cell growth and differentiation, neurotransmitter synthesis, myelination, and synaptic transmission. Because of their role in many critical functions, they are commonly used in food fortification and supplementation strategies globally. To determine the involvement of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and human copper transporter 1 (hCTR1) on Fe, Cu, and Zn uptake, Caco-2 cells were transfected with four different shRNA plasmids to selectively inhibit DMT1 or hCTR1 transporter expression. Fe and Cu uptake and total Zn content measurements were performed in shRNA-DMT1 and shRNA-hCTR1 cells. Both shRNA-DMT1 and shRNA-hCTR1 cells had lower apical Fe uptake (a decrease of 51% and 41%, respectively), Cu uptake (a decrease of 25.8% and 38.5%, respectively), and Zn content (a decrease of 23.1% and 22.7%, respectively) compared to control cells. These results confirm that DMT1 is involved in active transport of Fe, Cu, and Zn although Zn showed a different relative capacity. These results also show that hCTR1 is able to transport Fe and Zn.

  3. Zip14 is a complex broad-scope metal-ion transporter whose functional properties support roles in the cellular uptake of zinc and nontransferrin-bound iron

    PubMed Central

    Pinilla-Tenas, Jorge J.; Sparkman, Brian K.; Shawki, Ali; Illing, Anthony C.; Mitchell, Colin J.; Zhao, Ningning; Liuzzi, Juan P.; Cousins, Robert J.; Knutson, Mitchell D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that overexpression of the transmembrane protein Zrt- and Irt-like protein 14 (Zip14) stimulates the cellular uptake of zinc and nontransferrin-bound iron (NTBI). Here, we directly tested the hypothesis that Zip14 transports free zinc, iron, and other metal ions by using the Xenopus laevis oocyte heterologous expression system, and use of this approach also allowed us to characterize the functional properties of Zip14. Expression of mouse Zip14 in RNA-injected oocytes stimulated the uptake of 55Fe in the presence of l-ascorbate but not nitrilotriacetic acid, indicating that Zip14 is an iron transporter specific for ferrous ion (Fe2+) over ferric ion (Fe3+). Zip14-mediated 55Fe2+ uptake was saturable (K0.5 ≈ 2 μM), temperature-dependent (apparent activation energy, Ea = 15 kcal/mol), pH-sensitive, Ca2+-dependent, and inhibited by Co2+, Mn2+, and Zn2+. HCO3− stimulated 55Fe2+ transport. These properties are in close agreement with those of NTBI uptake in the perfused rat liver and in isolated hepatocytes reported in the literature. Zip14 also mediated the uptake of 109Cd2+, 54Mn2+, and 65Zn2+ but not 64Cu (I or II). 65Zn2+ uptake also was saturable (K0.5 ≈ 2 μM) but, notably, the metal-ion inhibition profile and Ca2+ dependence of Zn2+ transport differed from those of Fe2+ transport, and we propose a model to account for these observations. Our data reveal that Zip14 is a complex, broad-scope metal-ion transporter. Whereas zinc appears to be a preferred substrate under normal conditions, we found that Zip14 is capable of mediating cellular uptake of NTBI characteristic of iron-overload conditions. PMID:21653899

  4. Yersinia pestis TonB: Role in Iron, Heme, and Hemoprotein Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Robert D.; Shah, Jessica; Bearden, Scott W.; Thompson, Jan M.; Fetherston, Jacqueline D.

    2003-01-01

    In Yersinia pestis, the siderophore-dependent yersiniabactin (Ybt) iron transport system and heme transport system (Hmu) have putative TonB-dependent outer membrane receptors. Here we demonstrate that hemin uptake and iron utilization from Ybt are TonB dependent. However, the Yfe iron and manganese transport system does not require TonB. PMID:12819108

  5. Phenolsulfonphthalein transport by potential-sensitive urate transport system.

    PubMed

    Itagaki, Shirou; Shimamoto, Soji; Sugawara, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Michiya; Miyazaki, Katsumi; Hirano, Takeshi; Iseki, Ken

    2005-08-22

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the transporter-mediated secretion systems for phenolsulfonphthalein in brush-border membranes. In human and rat renal brush-border membranes, a potential-sensitive transport system has been shown to be involved in the efflux of organic anions. The uptake of phenolsulfonphthalein into rat renal brush-border membrane vesicles was stimulated by an inside-positive membrane potential. This potential-sensitive uptake of phenolsulfonphthalein was inhibited by probenecid, pyrazinoate and urate. p-Aminohippurate had no effect on the potential-sensitive uptake of phenolsulfonphthalein. Moreover, urate competitively inhibited the uptake of phenolsulfonphthalein. On the other hand, the uptake of phenolsulfonphthalein was slightly increased in the presence of an outward Cl- gradient. These results suggest that phenolsulfonphthalein has high affinity for the potential-sensitive urate transport system but has low affinity for an anion exchanger.

  6. Combined transport, magnetization and neutron scattering study of correlated iridates and iron pnictide superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhital, Chetan

    The work performed within this thesis is divided into two parts, each focusing primarily on the study of magnetic phase behavior using neutron scattering techniques. In first part, I present transport, magnetization, and neutron scattering studies of materials within the iridium oxide-based Ruddelsden-Popper series [Srn+1IrnO3n+1] compounds Sr 3Ir2O7 (n=2) and Sr2IrO4 (n=1). This includes a comprehensive study of the doped bilayer system Sr 3(Ir1-xRux )2O7. In second part, I present my studies of the effect of uniaxial pressure on magnetic and structural phase behavior of the iron-based high temperature superconductor Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2. Iridium-based 5d transition metal oxides host rather unusual electronic/magnetic ground states due to strong interplay between electronic correlation, lattice structure and spin-orbit effects. Out of the many oxides containing iridium, the Ruddelsden-Popper series [Srn+1IrnO 3n+1] oxides are some of the most interesting systems to study both from the point of view of physics as well as from potential applications. My work is focused on two members of this series Sr3Ir2O 7 (n=2) and Sr2IrO4 (n=1). In particular, our combined transport, magnetization and neutron scattering studies of Sr 3Ir2O7 (n=2) showed that this system exhibits a complex coupling between charge transport and magnetism. The spin magnetic moments form a G-type antiferromagnetic structure with moments oriented along the c-axis, with an ordered moment of 0.35+/-0.06 muB/Ir. I also performed experiments doping holes in this bilayer Sr3(Ir1-xRu x)2O7 system in order to study the role of electronic correlation in these materials. Our results show that the ruthenium-doped holes remain localized within the Jeff=1/2 Mott insulating background of Sr3Ir2O7, suggestive of 'Mott blocking' and the presence of strong electronic correlation in these materials. Antiferromagnetic order however survives deep into the metallic regime with the same ordering q-vector, suggesting an

  7. Role of uteroferrin in placental iron transport: effect of maternal iron treatment on fetal iron and uteroferrin content and neonatal hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Ducsay, C A; Buhi, W C; Bazer, F W; Roberts, R M; Combs, G E

    1984-11-01

    Uteroferrin, an Fe-containing, progesterone-induced glycoprotein is involved in maternal to fetal Fe transport in swine. These studies examined the effect of im Fe injection of dam on conceptus and piglet Fe stores. In Exp. I, eight gilts were bred and assigned to either treatment I (no Fe injections) or treatment II (total of 22 mg iron-dextran/kg body weight on d 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 of gestation) and hysterectomized on d 90 to determine whether Fe injections increased Fe stores in the conceptus. Total Fe in allantoic fluid (P less than .10) as well as uteroferrin concentration (P less than .05) and total uteroferrin (P less than .05) in placentae were greater for gilts in treatment II. In Exp. II, 19 cross-bred sows were bred and assigned to treatments I and II (d 40, 50 and 60 of gestation), as in Exp. I, and treatment III (total of 22 mg iron-dextran/kg body weight on d 90, 100 and 110 of gestation) to determine effects of treatment on hemoglobin (Hb) values of the piglets at 8 +/- 1 h and d 4 postpartum. Piglets from treatment II had higher (P less than .01) Hb at 8 +/- 1 h, but not on d 4 postpartum. Experiment III was a replication of Exp. II except that Hb values were determined at 8 +/- 1 h, d 4 and d 7 postpartum. On d 7, piglets from treatment II had higher (P less than .05) Hb, but differences at 8 +/- 1 h and d 4 were not significant (P greater than .10).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Vesicular transport and apotransferrin in intestinal iron absorption, as shown in the Caco-2 cell model.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Mizue; Linder, Maria C

    2006-02-01

    The potential roles of vesicular transport and apotransferrin (entering from the blood) in intestinal Fe absorption were investigated using Caco-2 cell monolayers with tight junctions in bicameral chambers as a model. As shown previously, addition of 39 microM apotransferrin (apoTf) to the basolateral fluid during absorption studies markedly stimulated overall transport of 1 microM (59)Fe from the apical to the basal chamber and stimulated its basolateral release from prelabeled cells, implicating endo- and exocytosis. Rates of transport more than doubled. Uptake was also stimulated, but only 20%. Specific inhibitors of aspects of vesicular trafficking were applied to determine their potential effects on uptake, retention, and basolateral (overall) transport of (59)Fe. Nocodazole and 5'-(4-fluorosulfonylbenzoyl)-adenosine each reduced uptake and basolateral transport up to 50%. Brefeldin A inhibited about 10%. Tyrphostin A8 (AG10) reduced uptake 35% but markedly stimulated basolateral efflux, particularly that dependent on apoTf. Cooling of cells to 4 degrees C (which causes depolymerization of microtubules and lowers energy availability) profoundly inhibited uptake and basolateral transfer of Fe (7- to 12-fold). Apical efflux (which was substantial) was not temperature affected. Our results support the involvement of apoTf cycling in intestinal Fe absorption and indicate that as much as half of the iron uses apoTf and non-apoTf-dependent vesicular pathways to cross the basolateral membrane and brush border of enterocytes.

  9. OsABCB14 functions in auxin transport and iron homeostasis in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanxia; Zhang, Saina; Guo, Haipeng; Wang, Suikang; Xu, Ligen; Li, Chuanyou; Qian, Qian; Chen, Fan; Geisler, Markus; Qi, Yanhua; Jiang, De An

    2014-07-01

    Members of the ATP Binding Cassette B/Multidrug-Resistance/P-glyco-protein (ABCB/MDR/PGP) subfamily were shown to function primarily in Oryza sativa (rice) auxin transport; however, none of the rice ABCB transporters have been functionally characterized. Here, we describe that a knock-down of OsABCB14 confers decreased auxin concentrations and polar auxin transport rates, conferring insensitivity to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). OsABCB14 displays enhanced specific auxin influx activity in yeast and protoplasts prepared from rice knock-down alleles. OsABCB14 is localized at the plasma membrane, pointing to an important directionality under physiological conditions. osabcb14 mutants were surprisingly found to be insensitive to iron deficiency treatment (-Fe). Their Fe concentration is higher and upregulation of Fe deficiency-responsive genes is lower in osabcb14 mutants than in wild-type rice (Nipponbare, NIP). Taken together, our results strongly support the role of OsABCB14 as an auxin influx transporter involved in Fe homeostasis. The functional characterization of OsABCB14 provides insights in monocot auxin transport and its relationship to Fe nutrition. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Arabidopsis copper transport protein COPT2 participates in the cross talk between iron deficiency responses and low-phosphate signaling.

    PubMed

    Perea-García, Ana; Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Andrés-Colás, Nuria; Vera-Sirera, Francisco; Pérez-Amador, Miguel A; Puig, Sergi; Peñarrubia, Lola

    2013-05-01

    Copper and iron are essential micronutrients for most living organisms because they participate as cofactors in biological processes, including respiration, photosynthesis, and oxidative stress protection. In many eukaryotic organisms, including yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and mammals, copper and iron homeostases are highly interconnected; yet, such interdependence is not well established in higher plants. Here, we propose that COPT2, a high-affinity copper transport protein, functions under copper and iron deficiencies in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). COPT2 is a plasma membrane protein that functions in copper acquisition and distribution. Characterization of the COPT2 expression pattern indicates a synergic response to copper and iron limitation in roots. We characterized a knockout of COPT2, copt2-1, that leads to increased resistance to simultaneous copper and iron deficiencies, measured as reduced leaf chlorosis and improved maintenance of the photosynthetic apparatus. We propose that COPT2 could play a dual role under iron deficiency. First, COPT2 participates in the attenuation of copper deficiency responses driven by iron limitation, possibly to minimize further iron consumption. Second, global expression analyses of copt2-1 versus wild-type Arabidopsis plants indicate that low-phosphate responses increase in the mutant. These results open up new biotechnological approaches to fight iron deficiency in crops.

  11. Induction of root Fe(lll) reductase activity and proton extrusion by iron deficiency is mediated by auxin-based systemic signalling in Malus xiaojinensis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ting; Zhang, Heng-Tao; Wang, Yi; Jia, Wen-Suo; Xu, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Xin-Zhong; Han, Zhen Hai

    2012-01-01

    Iron is a critical cofactor for a number of metalloenzymes involved in respiration and photosynthesis, but plants often suffer from iron deficiency due to limited supplies of soluble iron in the soil. Iron deficiency induces a series of adaptive responses in various plant species, but the mechanisms by which they are triggered remain largely unknown. Using pH imaging and hormone localization techniques, it has been demonstrated here that root Fe(III) reductase activity and proton extrusion upon iron deficiency are up-regulated by systemic auxin signalling in a Fe-efficient woody plant, Malus xiaojinensis. Split-root experiments demonstrated that Fe-deprivation in a portion of the root system induced a dramatic increase in Fe(III) reductase activity and proton extrusion in the Fe-supplied portion, suggesting that the iron deficiency responses were mediated by a systemic signalling. Reciprocal grafting experiments of M. xiaojinensis with Malus baccata, a plant with no capability to produce the corresponding responses, indicate that the initiation of the systemic signalling is likely to be determined by roots rather than shoots. Iron deficiency induced a substantial increase in the IAA content in the shoot apex and supplying exogenous IAA analogues (NAA) to the shoot apex could mimic the iron deficiency to trigger the corresponding responses. Conversely, preventing IAA transport from shoot to roots blocked the iron deficiency responses. These results strongly indicate that the iron deficiency-induced physiological responses are mediated by systemic auxin signalling. PMID:22058407

  12. Global gene expression analysis of iron-inducible genes in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takeyuki; Okamura, Yoshiko; Calugay, Ronie J; Takeyama, Haruko; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2006-03-01

    Iron uptake systems were identified by global expression profiling of Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1. feo, tpd, and ftr, which encode ferrous iron transporters, were up-regulated under iron-rich conditions. The concomitant rapid iron uptake and magnetite formation suggest that these uptake systems serve as iron supply lines for magnetosome synthesis.

  13. Global Gene Expression Analysis of Iron-Inducible Genes in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takeyuki; Okamura, Yoshiko; Calugay, Ronie J.; Takeyama, Haruko; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2006-01-01

    Iron uptake systems were identified by global expression profiling of Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1. feo, tpd, and ftr, which encode ferrous iron transporters, were up-regulated under iron-rich conditions. The concomitant rapid iron uptake and magnetite formation suggest that these uptake systems serve as iron supply lines for magnetosome synthesis. PMID:16513757

  14. Metal transports and enrichments in iron depositions hosted in basaltic rocks. II: Metal rich fluids and Fe origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ronghua; Zhang, Xuetong; Hu, Shumin

    2015-12-01

    This study focuses on revealing the mechanism of metal transport, enrichment and Fe origin of iron deposition during water basalt interactions occurred in basaltic rocks. Observations of the iron deposits (anhydrite-magnetite-pyroxene type deposits) hosted in K-rich basaltic rocks in the Mesozoic volcanic area of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River valley, China, indicate that the mechanism of metal transport and enrichment for those deposits are significant objective to scientists, and the Fe origin problem is not well resolved. Here the metal transport, enrichment and iron origin have been investigated in high temperature experiments of water basaltic interactions. These deposits were accompanying a wide zone with metal alteration. The effects of hydrothermal alteration on major rock-forming element concentrations in basaltic rock were investigated by systematically comparing the chemical compositions of altered rocks with those of fresh rocks. In the deposits, these metals are distributed throughout altered rocks that exhibit vertical zoning from the deeper to the shallow. Then, combined with the investigations of the metal-alterations, we performed kinetic experiments of water-basaltic rock interactions using flow-through reactors in open systems at temperatures from 20 °C to 550 °C, 23-34 MPa. Release rates for the rock-forming elements from the rocks have been measured. Experiments provide the release rates for various elements at a large temperature range, and indicate that the dissolution rates (release rates) for various elements vary with temperature. Si, Al, and K have high release rates at temperatures from 300 °C to 500 °C; the maximum release rates (RMX) for Si are reached at temperatures from 300 °C to 400 °C. The RMXs for Ca, Mg, and Fe are at low temperatures from 20 °C to 300 °C. Results demonstrate that Fe is not released from 400 °C to 550 °C, and indicate that when deep circling fluids passed through basaltic rocks, Fe was not mobile, and

  15. Brain iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Moos, Torben

    2002-11-01

    transferrin were, however, restricted to areas situated in close proximity to the ventricular and pial surfaces. In particular, transferrin injected into the ventricles was never observed in regions distant from the CSF. It was concluded that choroid plexus-derived transferrin is not likely to play a significant role for binding and transporting iron in the brain interstitium. Transferrin secretion from oligodendrocytes probably plays the key role in this process. In the third part of the thesis, the uptake of iron by neurons devoid of projections beyond the blood-brain barrier and glia is addressed. Given the fact that the demonstration of plasma proteins in brain sections can be hampered by several methodological factors, a mapping of the cellular distribution of transferrin in the brain was performed employing extensive use of tissue-processing and staining protocols. In order to aid in the understanding of cellular iron uptake in the intact brain, attempts were made to identify iron, transferrin, and transferrin receptors at the light microscopic level. Consistent with the widespread distribution of transferrin receptors in neurons, the ligand transferrin was also found in neurons throughout the CNS. When examined at high resolution, transferrin was found to be distributed to the cytoplasm of neurons, exhibiting a dotted appearance, which is probably consistent with a distribution in the endosomallysosomal system. In contrast to the consistent presence of transferrin receptors on neurons, it was not possible to detect transferrin receptors on glial cells. Related to these observations, the presence of non-transferrin-bound iron in the brain suggests that glial cells may take it up by a mechanism that does not involve the transferrin receptor. The widespread distribution of ferritin in glial cells clearly indicates that the glial cells acquire iron. Dietary iron-overload did not change the distribution of transferrin receptors or ferritin in the brain. By contrast, iron

  16. Integration of Genome-Scale Metabolic Nodels of Iron-Reducing Bacteria With Subsurface Flow and Geochemical Reactive Transport Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibe, T. D.; Mahadevan, R.; Fang, Y.; Garg, S.; Long, P. E.; Lovley, D. M.

    2008-12-01

    Several field and laboratory experiments have demonstrated that the growth and activity of iron-reducing bacteria can be stimulated in many subsurface environments by amendment of groundwater with a soluble electron donor. Under strong iron-reducing conditions, these organisms mediate reactions that can impact a wide range of subsurface contaminants including chlorinated hydrocarbons, metals, and radionuclides. Therefore there is strong interest in in-situ bioremediation as a potential technology for cleanup of contaminated aquifers. To evaluate and design bioremediation systems, as well as to evaluate the viability of monitored natural attenuation as an alternative, quantitative models of biogeochemically reactive transport are needed. To date, most such models represent microbial activity in terms of kinetic rate (e.g., Monod- type) formulations. Such models do not account for fundamental changes in microbial functionality (such as utilization of alternative respiratory pathways) that occur as the result of spatial and temporal variations in the geochemical environment experienced by microorganisms. Constraint-based genome-scale in silico models of microbial metabolism present an alternative to simplified rate formulations that provide flexibility to account for changes in microbial function in response to local geochemical conditions. We have developed and applied a methodology for coupling a constraint-based in silico model of Geobacter sulfurreducens with a conventional model of groundwater flow, transport, and geochemical reaction. Two uses of the in silico model are tested: 1) incorporation of modified microbial growth yield coefficients based on the in silico model, and 2) variation of reaction rates in a reactive transport model based on in silico modeling of a range of local geochemical conditions. Preliminary results from this integrated model will be presented.

  17. [Determination of iron with CentrifiChem System].

    PubMed

    Eisenwiener, H G

    1975-01-01

    The determination of iron was adapted to the CentrifiChem System. The iron bound to transferrin is freed with a detergent, reduced to Fe++ with sodium dithionite, and determined with bathophenanthroline disulphonate. The operation consists of one run for the blank value and one analytical run. Although the actual reaction time is extremely short, a reaction time of 8--10 min is recommended for both the blank value and the analysis. This ensures adequate clearing during centrifugation under the influence of Teepol. 2 times 100 mul serum are required, and 80 determinations per hour are possible.

  18. Deficiency of a alpha-1-antitrypsin influences systemic iron homeostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Background: There is evidence that proteases and anti-proteases participate in the iron homeostasis of cells and living systems. We tested the postulate that alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) polymorphism and the consequent deficiency of this anti-protease in humans are asso...

  19. Deficiency of a alpha-1-antitrypsin influences systemic iron homeostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Background: There is evidence that proteases and anti-proteases participate in the iron homeostasis of cells and living systems. We tested the postulate that alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) polymorphism and the consequent deficiency of this anti-protease in humans are asso...

  20. 20. SIMILAR TO THE SYSTEM INSTALLED IN THE GREY IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. SIMILAR TO THE SYSTEM INSTALLED IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY, MALLEABLE WORKERS FILLED MOLDS TRAVELING ON A CONVEYOR FROM LADLES ATTACHED TO OVERHEAD RAILS WHILE THEY STOOD ON A PLATFORM MOVING AT THE SAME SPEED AS THE CONVEYOR, CA. 1950 - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  1. Longevity of granular iron in groundwater treatment processes: changes in solute transport properties over time.

    PubMed

    Vikesland, Peter J; Klausen, Jörg; Zimmermann, Hubert; Roberts, A Lynn; Ball, William P

    2003-06-01

    Although progress has been made toward understanding the surface chemistry of granular iron and the mechanisms through which it attenuates groundwater contaminants, potential long-term changes in the solute transport properties of granular iron media have until now received relatively little attention. As part of column investigations of alterations in the reactivity of granular iron, studies using tritiated water (3H(2)O) as a conservative and non-partitioning tracer were periodically conducted to independently isolate transport-related effects on performance from those more directly related to surface reactivity. Hydraulic residence time distributions (HRTDs) within each of six 39-cm columns exposed to bicarbonate solutions were obtained over the course of 1100 days of operation. First moment analyses of the data revealed generally modest increases in mean pore water velocity (v) over time, indicative of decreasing water-filled porosity. Gravimetric measurements provided independent estimates of water-filled porosity that were initially consistent with those obtained from 3H(2)O tracer tests, although at later times, porosities derived from gravimetric measurements deviated from the tracer test results owing to mineral precipitation. The combination of gravimetric measurements and 3H(2)O tracer studies furnished estimates of precipitated mineral mass; depending on the assumed identity of the predominant mineral phase(s), the porosity decrease associated with solute precipitation amounted to 6-24% of the initial porosity. The accumulation of mineral and gas phases led to the formation of regions of immobile water and increased spreading of the tracer pulse. Application of a dual-region transport model to the 3H(2)O breakthrough curves revealed that the immobile water-filled region increased from initially negligible values to amounts ranging between 3% and 14% of the total porosity in later periods of operation. For the aged columns, mobile-immobile mass transfer

  2. Alginate nanoparticles protect ferrous from oxidation: Potential iron delivery system.

    PubMed

    Katuwavila, Nuwanthi P; Perera, A D L C; Dahanayake, Damayanthi; Karunaratne, V; Amaratunga, Gehan A J; Karunaratne, D Nedra

    2016-11-20

    A novel, efficient delivery system for iron (Fe(2+)) was developed using the alginate biopolymer. Iron loaded alginate nanoparticles were synthesized by a controlled ionic gelation method and was characterized with respect to particle size, zeta potential, morphology and encapsulation efficiency. Successful loading was confirmed with Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric Analysis. Electron energy loss spectroscopy study corroborated the loading of ferrous into the alginate nanoparticles. Iron encapsulation (70%) was optimized at 0.06% Fe (w/v) leading to the formation of iron loaded alginate nanoparticles with a size range of 15-30nm and with a negative zeta potential (-38mV). The in vitro release studies showed a prolonged release profile for 96h. Release of iron was around 65-70% at pH of 6 and 7.4 whereas it was less than 20% at pH 2.The initial burst release upto 8h followed zero order kinetics at all three pH values. All the release profiles beyond 8h best fitted the Korsmeyer-Peppas model of diffusion. Non Fickian diffusion was observed at pH 6 and 7.4 while at pH 2 Fickian diffusion was observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Knockdown of copper-transporting ATPase 1 (Atp7a) impairs iron flux in fully-differentiated rat (IEC-6) and human (Caco-2) intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jung-Heun; Doguer, Caglar; Collins, James F

    2016-09-01

    Intestinal iron absorption is highly regulated since no mechanism for iron excretion exists. We previously demonstrated that expression of an intestinal copper transporter (Atp7a) increases in parallel with genes encoding iron transporters in the rat duodenal epithelium during iron deprivation (Am. J. Physiol.: Gastrointest. Liver Physiol., 2005, 288, G964-G971). This led us to postulate that Atp7a may influence intestinal iron flux. Therefore, to test the hypothesis that Atp7a is required for optimal iron transport, we silenced Atp7a in rat IEC-6 and human Caco-2 cells. Iron transport was subsequently quantified in fully-differentiated cells plated on collagen-coated, transwell inserts. Interestingly, (59)Fe uptake and efflux were impaired in both cell lines by Atp7a silencing. Concurrent changes in the expression of key iron transport-related genes were also noted in IEC-6 cells. Expression of Dmt1 (the iron importer), Dcytb (an apical membrane ferrireductase) and Fpn1 (the iron exporter) was decreased in Atp7a knockdown (KD) cells. Paradoxically, cell-surface ferrireductase activity increased (>5-fold) in Atp7a KD cells despite decreased Dcytb mRNA expression. Moreover, increased expression (>10-fold) of hephaestin (an iron oxidase involved in iron efflux) was associated with increased ferroxidase activity in KD cells. Increases in ferrireductase and ferroxidase activity may be compensatory responses to increase iron flux. In summary, in these reductionist models of the mammalian intestinal epithelium, Atp7a KD altered expression of iron transporters and impaired iron flux. Since Atp7a is a copper transporter, it is a logical supposition that perturbations in intracellular copper homeostasis underlie the noted biologic changes in these cell lines.

  4. Moffett Field Funnel and Gate TCE Treatment System: Interpretation of Field Performance using Reactive Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Yabusaki, Steven B.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Sass, B. M.

    2001-06-30

    A multicomponent reactive transport simulator was used to understand the behavior of chemical components, including TCE and cis-1,2-DCE, in groundwater transported through the pilot-scale funnel and gate chemical treatment system at Moffett Field, California. Field observations indicated that zero-valent iron emplaced in the gate to effect the destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbons also resulted in increases in pH and hydrocarbons, as well as decreases in EH, alkalinity, dissolved O2 and CO2, and major ions (i.e., Ca, Mg, Cl, sulfate, nitrate). Of concern are chemical transformations that may reduce the effectiveness or longevity of the iron cell and/or create secondary contaminants. A coupled model of transport and reaction processes was developed to account for mobile and immobile components undergoing equilibrium and kinetic reactions including TCE degradation, parallel iron dissolution reactions, precipitation of secondary minerals, and complexation reactions. The model reproduced solution chemistry observed in the iron cell using reaction parameters from the literature and laboratory studies. Mineral precipitation in the iron zone, which is critical to correctly predicting the aqueous concentrations, was predicted to account for up to 3 percent additional mineral volume annually. Interplay between rates of transport and rates of reaction in the field was key to understanding system behavior.

  5. Method and system for producing metallic iron nuggets

    DOEpatents

    Iwasaki, Iwao; Lindgren, Andrew J.; Kiesel, Richard F.

    2013-06-25

    Method and system for producing metallic nuggets includes providing reducible mixture of reducing material (such as carbonaceous material) and reducible iron bearing material (such as iron oxide) that may be arranged in discrete portions, such as mounds or briquettes, on at least a portion of a hearth material layer (such as carbonaceous material). A coarse overlayer of carbonaceous material may be provided over at least some of the discrete portions. Heating the reducible mixture to 1425.degree. C. or 1400.degree. C. or 1375.degree. C. results in formation of an intermediate product of one or more metallic iron nuggets, which may have a sulfur content of less than 0.03%, and slag, which may have less than 5% mass MgO, which may have a ratio of percent by weight sulfur in the slag over percent by weight sulfur in the metallic nuggets of at least about 12 or at least about 15.

  6. STARS: The Space Transportation Architecture Risk System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Joel S.

    1997-01-01

    Because of the need to perform comparisons between transportation systems that are likely to have significantly different levels of risk, both because of differing degrees of freedom in achieving desired performance levels and their different states of development and utilization, an approach has been developed for performing early comparisons of transportation architectures explicitly taking into account quantitative measures of uncertainty and resulting risk. The approach considers the uncertainty associated with the achievement of technology goals, the effect that the achieved level of technology will have on transportation system performance and the relationship between transportation system performance/capability and the ability to accommodate variations in payload mass. The consequences of system performance are developed in terms of expected values and associated standard deviations of nonrecurring, recurring and the present value of transportation system life cycle cost. Typical results are presented to illustrate the application of the methodology.

  7. Characterizing mechanisms of extracellular electron transport in sulfur and iron-oxidizing electrochemically active bacteria isolated from marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, A. R.; Bird, L. J.; Lam, B. R.; Nealson, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Lithotrophic reactions, including the oxidation of mineral species, are often difficult to detect in environmental systems. This could be due to the nature of substrate or metabolite quantification or the rapid consumption of metabolic end products or intermediates by proximate biological or abiotic processes. Though recently genetic markers have been applied to detecting these processes in environmental systems, our knowledge of lithotrophic markers are limited to those processes catalyzed by organisms that have been cultured and physiologically characterized. Here we describe the use of electrochemical enrichment techniques to isolate marine sediment-dwelling microbes capable of the oxidation or insoluble forms of iron and sulfur including both the elemental species. All the organisms isolated fall within the Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria and are capable of acquiring electrons from an electrode while using either oxygen or nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor. Electrochemical analysis of these microbes has demonstrated that, though they have similar geochemical abilities (either sulfur or iron oxidation), they likely utilize different biochemical mechanisms demonstrated by the variability in dominant electron transfer modes or interactions (i.e., biofilm, planktonic or mediator facilitated interactions) and the wide range of midpoint potentials observed for dominant redox active cellular components (ranging from -293 to +50 mV vs. Ag/AgCl). For example, organisms isolated on elemental sulfur tended to have higher midpoint potentials than iron-oxidizing microbes. A variety of techniques are currently being applied to understanding the different mechanisms of extracellular electron transport for oxidizing an electrode or corresponding insoluble electron donor including both genomic and genetic manipulation experiments. The insight gained from these experiments is not limited to the physiology of the organisms isolated but will also aid in

  8. GEOCHEMISTRY OF SULFUR IN IRON CORROSION SCALES FOUND IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iron-sulfur geochemistry is important in many natural and engineered environments, including drinking water systems. In the anaerobic environment beneath scales of corroding iron drinking water distribution system pipes, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) produce sulfide from natu...

  9. Enhanced transport of Si-coated nanoscale zero-valent iron particles in porous media.

    PubMed

    HonetschlÄgerová, Lenka; Janouškovcová, Petra; Kubal, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory column experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of previously described silica coating method on the transport of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) in porous media. The silica coating method showed the potential to prevent the agglomeration of nZVI. Transport experiments were conducted using laboratory-scale sand-packed columns at conditions that were very similar of natural groundwater. Transport properties of non-coated and silica-coated nZVI are investigated in columns of 40 cm length, which were filled with porous media. A suspension was injected in three different Fe particle concentrations (100, 500, and 1000 mg/L) at flow 5  mL/min. Experimental results were compared using nanoparticle attachment efficiency and travel distances which were calculated by classical particle filtration theory. It was found that non-coated particles were essentially immobile in porous media. In contrast, silica-coated particles showed significant transport distances at the tested conditions. Results of this study suggest that silica can increase nZVI mobility in the subsurface.

  10. THE EFFECT OF CHLORIDE AND ORTHOPHOSPHATE ON THE RELEASE OF IRON FROM A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CAST IRON PIPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Colored water" describes the appearance of drinking water that contains suspended particulate iron although the actual suspension color may be light yellow to red depending on water chemistry and particle properties. The release of iron from distribution system materials such as...

  11. THE EFFECT OF CHLORIDE AND ORTHOPHOSPHATE ON THE RELEASE OF IRON FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CAST IRON MAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    “Colored water” resulting from suspended iron particles is a common drinking water consumer complaint which is largely impacted by water chemistry. A bench scale study, performed on a 90 year-old corroded cast-iron pipe section removed from a drinking water distribution system, w...

  12. THE EFFECT OF CHLORIDE AND ORTHOPHOSPHATE ON THE RELEASE OF IRON FROM A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CAST IRON PIPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    "Colored water" describes the appearance of drinking water that contains suspended particulate iron although the actual suspension color may be light yellow to red depending on water chemistry and particle properties. The release of iron from distribution system materials such a...

  13. THE EFFECT OF CHLORIDE AND ORTHOPHOSPHATE ON THE RELEASE OF IRON FROM A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CAST IRON PIPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    "Colored water" describes the appearance of drinking water that contains suspended particulate iron although the actual suspension color may be light yellow to red depending on water chemistry and particle properties. The release of iron from distribution system materials such a...

  14. THE EFFECT OF CHLORIDE AND ORTHOPHOSPHATE ON THE RELEASE OF IRON FROM A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CAST IRON PIPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Colored water" describes the appearance of drinking water that contains suspended particulate iron although the actual suspension color may be light yellow to red depending on water chemistry and particle properties. The release of iron from distribution system materials such as...

  15. THE EFFECT OF CHLORIDE AND ORTHOPHOSPHATE ON THE RELEASE OF IRON FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CAST IRON MAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    “Colored water” resulting from suspended iron particles is a common drinking water consumer complaint which is largely impacted by water chemistry. A bench scale study, performed on a 90 year-old corroded cast-iron pipe section removed from a drinking water distribution system, w...

  16. Enhanced Grain Iron Levels in Rice Expressing an IRON-REGULATED METAL TRANSPORTER, NICOTIANAMINE SYNTHASE, and FERRITIN Gene Cassette

    PubMed Central

    Boonyaves, Kulaporn; Wu, Ting-Ying; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Bhullar, Navreet K.

    2017-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition is widespread, especially in poor populations across the globe, and iron deficiency anemia is one of the most prevalent forms of micronutrient deficiencies. Iron deficiency anemia has severe consequences for human health, working ability, and quality of life. Several interventions including iron supplementation and food fortification have been attempted and met with varied degrees of success. Rice, which is a staple food for over half of the world’s population, is an important target crop for iron biofortification. The genetic variability of iron content in the rice germplasm is very narrow, and thus, conventional breeding has not been successful in developing high iron rice varieties. Therefore, genetic engineering approaches have targeted at increasing iron uptake, translocation, and storage in the rice endosperm. We previously reported that AtIRT1, when expressed together with AtNAS1 and PvFERRITIN (PvFER) in high-iron (NFP) rice, has a synergistic effect of further increasing the iron concentration of polished rice grains. We have now engineered rice expressing AtIRT1, AtNAS1, and PvFER as a single locus gene cassette and compared the resulting lines with transgenic lines expressing AtIRT1 and PvFER gene cassettes. We also evaluated the efficacies of the MsENOD12B and native AtIRT1 promoters for the expression of AtIRT1 in rice in both types of gene cassettes, and found the native AtIRT1 promoter to be a better choice for driving the AtIRT1 expression in our biofortification strategy. All the single insertion transgenic lines have significant increases of iron concentration, both in polished and unpolished grains, but the concerted expression of AtIRT1, AtNAS1, and PvFER resulted to be a more effective strategy in achieving the highest iron increases of up to 10.46 μg/g dry weight. Furthermore, the transformed high iron lines grew better under iron deficiency growth conditions and also have significantly increased grain zinc

  17. Transport and viability of Escherichia coli cells in clean and iron oxide coated sand following coating with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ngwenya, Bryne T; Curry, Philip; Kapetas, Leon

    2015-08-01

    A mechanistic understanding of processes controlling the transport and viability of bacteria in porous media is critical for designing in situ bioremediation and microbiological water decontamination programs. We investigated the combined influence of coating sand with iron oxide and silver nanoparticles on the transport and viability of Escherichia coli cells under saturated conditions. Results showed that iron oxide coatings increase cell deposition which was generally reversed by silver nanoparticle coatings in the early stages of injection. These observations are consistent with short-term, particle surface charge controls on bacteria transport, where a negatively charged surface induced by silver nanoparticles reverses the positive charge due to iron oxide coatings, but columns eventually recovered irreversible cell deposition. Silver nanoparticle coatings significantly increased cell inactivation during transit through the columns. However, when viability data is normalised to volume throughput, only a small improvement in cell inactivation is observed for silver nanoparticle coated sands relative to iron oxide coating alone. This counterintuitive result underscores the importance of net surface charge in controlling cell transport and inactivation and implies that the extra cost for implementing silver nanoparticle coatings on porous beds coated with iron oxides may not be justified in designing point of use water filters in low income countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Systems Studies of DDT Transport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, H. L.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Major consequences of present and additional environmental quantities of DDT pesticide are predictable by mathematical models of transport, accumulation and concentration mechanisms in the Wisconsin regional ecosystem. High solubility and stability produce increased DDT concentrations at high organism trophic levels within world biosphere…

  19. Systems Studies of DDT Transport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, H. L.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Major consequences of present and additional environmental quantities of DDT pesticide are predictable by mathematical models of transport, accumulation and concentration mechanisms in the Wisconsin regional ecosystem. High solubility and stability produce increased DDT concentrations at high organism trophic levels within world biosphere…

  20. Transport of zero-valent iron nanoparticles in carbonate-rich porous aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laumann, S.; Micic, V.; Hofmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    Use of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) for in situ dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater is a promising remediation technology, due to a high dechlorination efficiency of nZVI and possible applications in e.g., great depth or under above-ground infrastructure. The success of the in situ nZVI dechlorination strongly depends on the particle delivery to the contaminants. Previous studies reported a limited transport of nZVI through porous media (cm- to dm-range) and this has been recognized as one of the major obstacles in a widespread utilization of this technology (TRATNYEK & JOHNSON, 2006). Factors that limit the transport are particle aggregation and deposition onto the aquifer solids. Both depend on particle properties (e.g., size, shape, iron content, surface coating, surface charge), on concentrations of suspensions, and on site-specific parameters, such as the groundwater chemistry and the properties and inhomogeneity of the aquifer material. Adsorbed anionic polyelectrolyte coatings provide electrostatic double layer repulsions between negatively charged nZVI particles (SALEH ET AL., 2007), hindering their aggregation and also deposition on the negatively charged quartz surfaces (usually prevailing in aquifers). However, it is shown that the presence of surface charge heterogeneities in the aquifer effects the particle transport (JOHNSON ET AL., 1996). Carbonates, iron oxides, and the edges of clay minerals, for instance, carry a positive surface charge at neutral pH (often encountered in groundwater). This leads to a favorable deposition of negatively charged nZVI particles onto carbonates, metal oxide impurities or clay edges, and finally to a decreased particle transport. Considering the high proportion of carbonates commonly encountered in Alpine porous aquifers, in this study we aimed to evaluate the transport of commercially available polyelectrolyte coated nZVI (polyacrylic acid coated-nZVI, NANOIRON s.r.o., CZ) in both quartz and

  1. Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) in two iron ore mines.

    PubMed

    Martin, J R; Griffin, M; Moore, E; Lochead, J A; Edwards, A C; Williams, J; Khraishi, M M

    1999-04-01

    Six males with systemic sclerosis were observed in the work forces of two iron ore mines. The usual spectrum of clinical features encountered in systemic sclerosis patients were present. Histologic examination of pulmonary tissue was performed on three of the cases and showed features of both silicosis and scleroderma but to different degrees and stages of development. Exposure to high levels of silica-containing dusts had occurred in all six cases.

  2. TonB Energy Transduction Systems of Riemerella anatipestifer Are Required for Iron and Hemin Utilization.

    PubMed

    Liao, HeBin; Cheng, XingJun; Zhu, DeKang; Wang, MingShu; Jia, RenYong; Chen, Shun; Chen, XiaoYue; Biville, Francis; Liu, MaFeng; Cheng, AnChun

    2015-01-01

    Riemerella anatipestifer (R. anatipestifer) is one of the most important pathogens in ducks. The bacteria causes acute or chronic septicemia characterized by fibrinous pericarditis and meningitis. The R. anatipestifer genome encodes multiple iron/hemin-uptake systems that facilitate adaptation to iron-limited host environments. These systems include several TonB-dependent transporters and three TonB proteins responsible for energy transduction. These three tonB genes are present in all the R. anatipestifer genomes sequenced so far. Two of these genes are contained within the exbB-exbD-tonB1 and exbB-exbD-exbD-tonB2 operons. The third, tonB3, forms a monocistronic transcription unit. The inability to recover derivatives deleted for this gene suggests its product is essential for R. anatipestifer growth. Here, we show that deletion of tonB1 had no effect on hemin uptake of R. anatipestifer, though disruption of tonB2 strongly decreases hemin uptake, and disruption of both tonB1 and tonB2 abolishes the transport of exogenously added hemin. The ability of R. anatipestifer to grow on iron-depleted medium is decreased by tonB2 but not tonB1 disruption. When expressed in an E. coli model strain, the TonB1 complex, TonB2 complex, and TonB3 protein from R. anatipestifer cannot energize heterologous hemin transporters. Further, only the TonB1 complex can energize a R. anatipestifer hemin transporter when co-expressed in an E. coli model strain.

  3. TonB Energy Transduction Systems of Riemerella anatipestifer Are Required for Iron and Hemin Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Liao, HeBin; Cheng, XingJun; Zhu, DeKang; Wang, MingShu; Jia, RenYong; Chen, Shun; Chen, XiaoYue; Biville, Francis; Liu, MaFeng; Cheng, AnChun

    2015-01-01

    Riemerella anatipestifer (R. anatipestifer) is one of the most important pathogens in ducks. The bacteria causes acute or chronic septicemia characterized by fibrinous pericarditis and meningitis. The R. anatipestifer genome encodes multiple iron/hemin-uptake systems that facilitate adaptation to iron-limited host environments. These systems include several TonB-dependent transporters and three TonB proteins responsible for energy transduction. These three tonB genes are present in all the R. anatipestifer genomes sequenced so far. Two of these genes are contained within the exbB-exbD-tonB1 and exbB-exbD-exbD-tonB2 operons. The third, tonB3, forms a monocistronic transcription unit. The inability to recover derivatives deleted for this gene suggests its product is essential for R. anatipestifer growth. Here, we show that deletion of tonB1 had no effect on hemin uptake of R. anatipestifer, though disruption of tonB2 strongly decreases hemin uptake, and disruption of both tonB1 and tonB2 abolishes the transport of exogenously added hemin. The ability of R. anatipestifer to grow on iron-depleted medium is decreased by tonB2 but not tonB1 disruption. When expressed in an E. coli model strain, the TonB1 complex, TonB2 complex, and TonB3 protein from R. anatipestifer cannot energize heterologous hemin transporters. Further, only the TonB1 complex can energize a R. anatipestifer hemin transporter when co-expressed in an E. coli model strain. PMID:26017672

  4. 49 CFR 37.33 - Airport transportation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airport transportation systems. 37.33 Section 37.33 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.33 Airport transportation systems. (a) Transportation...

  5. 49 CFR 37.33 - Airport transportation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airport transportation systems. 37.33 Section 37.33 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.33 Airport transportation systems. (a) Transportation...

  6. Profiling iron corrosion coating on iron grains in a zerovalent iron system under the influence of dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian C; Huang, Yong H

    2006-07-01

    Rapid oxidation of Fe(0) by O(2) occurred when Fe(0) grains were bathed in 0.54 mM FeCl(2) solution saturated with dissolved oxygen (DO), forming a substantial corrosion coating on Fe(0) grains. A sonication method was developed to strip the corrosion coating off the iron grains layer by layer. The transformation of the constituents and the morphology of the corrosion coating along its depth and over reaction time were investigated with composition analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicate that the sonication method could consistently recover >90% iron oxides produced by the Fe(0)-DO redox reaction. Magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) and lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) were identified as the corrosion products. Initially, lepidocrocite was the preferential product in the presence of DO. As the oxide coating thickened, the inner layer transformed to magnetite, which retained as the only stable corrosion product once DO was depleted. The study confirms the phase transformations between gamma-FeOOH and Fe(3)O(4) within a stratified corrosion coating. The sonication technique exemplifies a new approach for investigating more complicated processes in Fe(0)/oxides/contaminants systems.

  7. A new analytical approach to understanding nanoscale lead-iron interactions in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Trueman, Benjamin F; Gagnon, Graham A

    2016-07-05

    High levels of iron in distributed drinking water often accompany elevated lead release from lead service lines and other plumbing. Lead-iron interactions in drinking water distribution systems are hypothesized to be the result of adsorption and transport of lead by iron oxide particles. This mechanism was explored using point-of-use drinking water samples characterized by size exclusion chromatography with UV and multi-element (ICP-MS) detection. In separations on two different stationary phases, high apparent molecular weight (>669 kDa) elution profiles for (56)Fe and (208)Pb were strongly correlated (average R(2)=0.96, N=73 samples representing 23 single-unit residences). Moreover, (56)Fe and (208)Pb peak areas exhibited an apparent linear dependence (R(2)=0.82), consistent with mobilization of lead via adsorption to colloidal particles rich in iron. A UV254 absorbance peak, coincident with high molecular weight (56)Fe and (208)Pb, implied that natural organic matter was interacting with the hypothesized colloidal species. High molecular weight UV254 peak areas were correlated with both (56)Fe and (208)Pb peak areas (R(2)=0.87 and 0.58, respectively). On average, 45% (std. dev. 10%) of total lead occurred in the size range 0.05-0.45 μm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Aerial Robotic System for Transportation and Logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Kakuya; Hashimoto, Naohisa; Komoriya, Kiyoshi

    The status quo of a research on a novel aerial robotic system for transportation and logistics is presented. Under a new concept for an aerial robotic transportation system, three-Dimensional Transportation Robots (3DTR) were constructed with twin turbojet engines equipped by high performance noise reduction system and a flexibly jointed delta wing controlled by 2-axis actuators. This vehicle is also stable in the air due to its pendulum structure. The first flight was successfully conducted on November 22, 2005. Flight examination of 3DTR indicates its short take-off and landing (STOL) capability.

  9. Transportation Systems. Curriculum Guide for Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chastain, Gary K.

    This curriculum guide for a 1-semester or 1-year course in transportation provides activities that show and explain many of the occupations, devices, and systems that are related to transportation on land, water, air, and space. The guide contains competencies (task lists), student competency records, and management sheets. Management sheets,…

  10. Transportation Systems. Curriculum Guide for Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chastain, Gary K.

    This curriculum guide for a 1-semester or 1-year course in transportation provides activities that show and explain many of the occupations, devices, and systems that are related to transportation on land, water, air, and space. The guide contains competencies (task lists), student competency records, and management sheets. Management sheets,…

  11. Dictyostelium Nramp1, which is structurally and functionally similar to mammalian DMT1 transporter, mediates phagosomal iron efflux.

    PubMed

    Buracco, Simona; Peracino, Barbara; Cinquetti, Raffaella; Signoretto, Elena; Vollero, Alessandra; Imperiali, Francesca; Castagna, Michela; Bossi, Elena; Bozzaro, Salvatore

    2015-09-01

    The Nramp (Slc11) protein family is widespread in bacteria and eukaryotes, and mediates transport of divalent metals across cellular membranes. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has two Nramp proteins. Nramp1, like its mammalian ortholog (SLC11A1), is recruited to phagosomal and macropinosomal membranes, and confers resistance to pathogenic bacteria. Nramp2 is located exclusively in the contractile vacuole membrane and controls, synergistically with Nramp1, iron homeostasis. It has long been debated whether mammalian Nramp1 mediates iron import or export from phagosomes. By selectively loading the iron-chelating fluorochrome calcein in macropinosomes, we show that Dictyostelium Nramp1 mediates iron efflux from macropinosomes in vivo. To gain insight in ion selectivity and the transport mechanism, the proteins were expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Using a novel assay with calcein, and electrophysiological and radiochemical assays, we show that Nramp1, similar to rat DMT1 (also known as SLC11A2), transports Fe(2+) and manganese, not Fe(3+) or copper. Metal ion transport is electrogenic and proton dependent. By contrast, Nramp2 transports only Fe(2+) in a non-electrogenic and proton-independent way. These differences reflect evolutionary divergence of the prototypical Nramp2 protein sequence compared to the archetypical Nramp1 and DMT1 proteins.

  12. Structural interaction with transportation and handling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Problems involved in the handling and transportation of finished space vehicles from the factory to the launch site are presented, in addition to recommendations for properly accounting for in space vehicle structural design, adverse interactions during transportation. Emphasis is given to the protection of vehicle structures against those environments and loads encountered during transportation (including temporary storage) which would exceed the levels that the vehicle can safely withstand. Current practices for verifying vehicle safety are appraised, and some of the capabilities and limitations of transportation and handling systems are summarized.

  13. Overlap of copper and iron uptake systems in mitochondria in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Vest, Katherine E; Wang, Jing; Gammon, Micah G; Maynard, Margaret K; White, Olivia L; Cobine, Jai A; Mahone, Wilkerson K; Cobine, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mitochondrial carrier family protein Pic2 imports copper into the matrix. Deletion of PIC2 causes defects in mitochondrial copper uptake and copper-dependent growth phenotypes owing to decreased cytochrome c oxidase activity. However, copper import is not completely eliminated in this mutant, so alternative transport systems must exist. Deletion of MRS3, a component of the iron import machinery, also causes a copper-dependent growth defect on non-fermentable carbon. Deletion of both PIC2 and MRS3 led to a more severe respiratory growth defect than either individual mutant. In addition, MRS3 expressed from a high copy number vector was able to suppress the oxygen consumption and copper uptake defects of a strain lacking PIC2. When expressed in Lactococcus lactis, Mrs3 mediated copper and iron import. Finally, a PIC2 and MRS3 double mutant prevented the copper-dependent activation of a heterologously expressed copper sensor in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Taken together, these data support a role for the iron transporter Mrs3 in copper import into the mitochondrial matrix.

  14. Overlap of copper and iron uptake systems in mitochondria in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Gammon, Micah G.; Maynard, Margaret K.; White, Olivia L.; Cobine, Jai A.; Mahone, Wilkerson K.

    2016-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mitochondrial carrier family protein Pic2 imports copper into the matrix. Deletion of PIC2 causes defects in mitochondrial copper uptake and copper-dependent growth phenotypes owing to decreased cytochrome c oxidase activity. However, copper import is not completely eliminated in this mutant, so alternative transport systems must exist. Deletion of MRS3, a component of the iron import machinery, also causes a copper-dependent growth defect on non-fermentable carbon. Deletion of both PIC2 and MRS3 led to a more severe respiratory growth defect than either individual mutant. In addition, MRS3 expressed from a high copy number vector was able to suppress the oxygen consumption and copper uptake defects of a strain lacking PIC2. When expressed in Lactococcus lactis, Mrs3 mediated copper and iron import. Finally, a PIC2 and MRS3 double mutant prevented the copper-dependent activation of a heterologously expressed copper sensor in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Taken together, these data support a role for the iron transporter Mrs3 in copper import into the mitochondrial matrix. PMID:26763345

  15. Iron-free pyoverdin binds to its outer membrane receptor FpvA in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a new mechanism for membrane iron transport.

    PubMed

    Schalk, I J; Hennard, C; Dugave, C; Poole, K; Abdallah, M A; Pattus, F

    2001-01-01

    Under iron limitation, Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes a fluorescent siderophore called pyoverdin, which, after complexing iron, is transported back into the cell via its outer membrane receptor FpvA. Previous studies demonstrated co-purification of FpvA with iron-free PaA and reported similar binding affinities of iron-free pyoverdin and ferric-pyoverdin to purified FpvA. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer between iron-free PaA and the FpvA receptor here reveals the existence of an FpvA-pyoverdin complex in P. aeruginosa in vivo, suggesting that the pyoverdin-loaded FpvA is the normal state of the receptor in the absence of iron. Using tritiated ferric-pyoverdin, it is shown that iron-free PaA binds to the outer membrane but is not taken up into the cell, and that in vitro and, presumably, in vivo ferric-pyoverdin displaces the bound iron-free pyoverdin on FpvA-PaA to form FpvA-PaA-Fe complexes. In vivo, the kinetics of formation of this FpvA-PaA-Fe complex are more than two orders of magnitude faster than in vitro and depend on the presence of TonB. In P. aeruginosa, two tonB genes have been identified (tonB1 and tonB2). TonB1 is directly involved in ferric-pyoverdin uptake, and TonB2 seems to be able partially to replace TonB1 in its role in iron acquisition. However, no effect of TonB1 or TonB2 on the apparent affinity of free pyoverdin to FpvA was observed, and a 17-fold difference was measured between the affinities of the two forms of pyoverdin (PaA and PaA-Fe) to FpvA in the absence of TonB1 or TonB2. The mechanism of iron uptake in P. aeruginosa via the pyoverdin pathway is discussed in view of these new findings.

  16. Impact of Subsurface Heterogeneities on nano-Scale Zero Valent Iron Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krol, M. M.; Sleep, B. E.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI) has been applied as a remediation technology at sites contaminated with chlorinated compounds and heavy metals. Although laboratory studies have demonstrated high reactivity for the degradation of target contaminants, the success of nZVI in the field has been limited due to poor subsurface mobility. When injected into the subsurface, nZVI tends to aggregate and be retained by subsurface soils. As such nZVI suspensions need to be stabilized for increased mobility. However, even with stabilization, soil heterogeneities can still lead to non-uniform nZVI transport, resulting in poor distribution and consequently decreased degradation of target compounds. Understanding how nZVI transport can be affected by subsurface heterogeneities can aid in improving the technology. This can be done with the use of a numerical model which can simulate nZVI transport. In this study CompSim, a finite difference groundwater model, is used to simulate the movement of nZVI in a two-dimensional domain. CompSim has been shown in previous studies to accurately predict nZVI movement in the subsurface, and is used in this study to examine the impact of soil heterogeneity on nZVI transport. This work also explores the impact of different viscosities of the injected nZVI suspensions (corresponding to different stabilizing polymers) and injection rates on nZVI mobility. Analysis metrics include travel time, travel distance, and average nZVI concentrations. Improving our understanding of the influence of soil heterogeneity on nZVI transport will lead to improved field scale implementation and, potentially, to more effective remediation of contaminated sites.

  17. Divalent metal transporter 1 regulates iron-mediated ROS and pancreatic β cell fate in response to cytokines.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Tonnesen, Morten Fog; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Hagedorn, Peter H; Friberg, Josefine; Grunnet, Lars Groth; Heller, R Scott; Nielsen, Anja Østergren; Størling, Joachim; Baeyens, Luc; Anker-Kitai, Leeat; Qvortrup, Klaus; Bouwens, Luc; Efrat, Shimon; Aalund, Mogens; Andrews, Nancy C; Billestrup, Nils; Karlsen, Allan E; Holst, Birgitte; Pociot, Flemming; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas

    2012-10-03

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to target-cell damage in inflammatory and iron-overload diseases. Little is known about iron transport regulation during inflammatory attack. Through a combination of in vitro and in vivo studies, we show that the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β induces divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) expression correlating with increased β cell iron content and ROS production. Iron chelation and siRNA and genetic knockdown of DMT1 expression reduce cytokine-induced ROS formation and cell death. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the absence of cytokines in Dmt1 knockout islets is defective, highlighting a physiological role of iron and ROS in the regulation of insulin secretion. Dmt1 knockout mice are protected against multiple low-dose streptozotocin and high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance, models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively. Thus, β cells become prone to ROS-mediated inflammatory damage via aberrant cellular iron metabolism, a finding with potential general cellular implications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Transportation of volatile elements in thermally evolving planetesimals: An important role of metallic iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashizume, K.; Sugiura, N.

    1994-01-01

    Ordinary chondrites are considered to have experienced thermal metamorphism in small bodies. We are interested in behaviors of volatile elements in such a kind of thermally evolving planetesimals. Volatile elements generally have high vapor pressures at high temperature. In porous bodies, with a high gas permeability, volatile elements are transported efficiently over a long range. Behavior of volatile elements transported by permeable gas flow can be handled by an equation whose form is similar to that of the equation of thermal diffusion. We can follow transportation of heats and volatile elements in planetesimals, when parameters in these equations, initial conditions and chemical behavior of volatile elements are given. Recently, we discovered that nitrogen in equilibrated H-chondrites is mainly trapped in taenite (f.c.c. Fe-Ni), probably dissolved in interstitial sites. Fegley suggests that metallic iron cannot trap nitrogen in the solar nebula gas due to its very low nitrogen partial pressure. Approximately 1 bar of nitrogen pressure is required to explain the nitrogen content in taenite. We may expect high nitrogen gas partial pressure (possibly produced by vaporization of nitrogen-bearing solids such as organic materials) at the interior of thermally evolving planetesimals. Kinetic behavior of nitrogen in taenite suggests that it can easily be equilibrated with the ambient nitrogen gas at temperatures of approximately 500 C or higher. We consider that nitrogen is trapped in taenite through a nitrogen redistribution process occurred during the thermal metamorphic event.

  19. Transportation of volatile elements in thermally evolving planetesimals: An important role of metallic iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashizume, K.; Sugiura, N.

    1994-01-01

    Ordinary chondrites are considered to have experienced thermal metamorphism in small bodies. We are interested in behaviors of volatile elements in such a kind of thermally evolving planetesimals. Volatile elements generally have high vapor pressures at high temperature. In porous bodies, with a high gas permeability, volatile elements are transported efficiently over a long range. Behavior of volatile elements transported by permeable gas flow can be handled by an equation whose form is similar to that of the equation of thermal diffusion. We can follow transportation of heats and volatile elements in planetesimals, when parameters in these equations, initial conditions and chemical behavior of volatile elements are given. Recently, we discovered that nitrogen in equilibrated H-chondrites is mainly trapped in taenite (f.c.c. Fe-Ni), probably dissolved in interstitial sites. Fegley suggests that metallic iron cannot trap nitrogen in the solar nebula gas due to its very low nitrogen partial pressure. Approximately 1 bar of nitrogen pressure is required to explain the nitrogen content in taenite. We may expect high nitrogen gas partial pressure (possibly produced by vaporization of nitrogen-bearing solids such as organic materials) at the interior of thermally evolving planetesimals. Kinetic behavior of nitrogen in taenite suggests that it can easily be equilibrated with the ambient nitrogen gas at temperatures of approximately 500 C or higher. We consider that nitrogen is trapped in taenite through a nitrogen redistribution process occurred during the thermal metamorphic event.

  20. Molecular and Evolutionary Analysis of NEAr-Iron Transporter (NEAT) Domains

    PubMed Central

    Honsa, Erin S.; Maresso, Anthony W.; Highlander, Sarah K.

    2014-01-01

    Iron is essential for bacterial survival, being required for numerous biological processes. NEAr-iron Transporter (NEAT) domains have been studied in pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria to understand how their proteins obtain heme as an iron source during infection. While a 2002 study initially discovered and annotated the NEAT domain encoded by the genomes of several Gram-positive bacteria, there remains a scarcity of information regarding the conservation and distribution of NEAT domains throughout the bacterial kingdom, and whether these domains are restricted to pathogenic bacteria. This study aims to expand upon initial bioinformatics analysis of predicted NEAT domains, by exploring their evolution and conserved function. This information was used to identify new candidate domains in both pathogenic and nonpathogenic organisms. We also searched metagenomic datasets, specifically sequence from the Human Microbiome Project. Here, we report a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of 343 NEAT domains, encoded by Gram-positive bacteria, mostly within the phylum Firmicutes, with the exception of Eggerthella sp. (Actinobacteria) and an unclassified Mollicutes bacterium (Tenericutes). No new NEAT sequences were identified in the HMP dataset. We detected specific groups of NEAT domains based on phylogeny of protein sequences, including a cluster of novel clostridial NEAT domains. We also identified environmental and soil organisms that encode putative NEAT proteins. Biochemical analysis of heme binding by a NEAT domain from a protein encoded by the soil-dwelling organism Paenibacillus polymyxa demonstrated that the domain is homologous in function to NEAT domains encoded by pathogenic bacteria. Together, this study provides the first global bioinformatics analysis and phylogenetic evidence that NEAT domains have a strong conservation of function, despite group-specific differences at the amino acid level. These findings will provide information useful for future projects

  1. Effective intermediate-spin iron in O2-transporting heme proteins.

    PubMed

    Schuth, Nils; Mebs, Stefan; Huwald, Dennis; Wrzolek, Pierre; Schwalbe, Matthias; Hemschemeier, Anja; Haumann, Michael

    2017-08-08

    Proteins carrying an iron-porphyrin (heme) cofactor are essential for biological O2 management. The nature of Fe-O2 bonding in hemoproteins is debated for decades. We used energy-sampling and rapid-scan X-ray Kβ emission and K-edge absorption spectroscopy as well as quantum chemistry to determine molecular and electronic structures of unligated (deoxy), CO-inhibited (carboxy), and O2-bound (oxy) hemes in myoglobin (MB) and hemoglobin (HB) solutions and in porphyrin compounds at 20-260 K. Similar metrical and spectral features revealed analogous heme sites in MB and HB and the absence of low-spin (LS) to high-spin (HS) conversion. Amplitudes of Kβ main-line emission spectra were directly related to the formal unpaired Fe(d) spin count, indicating HS Fe(II) in deoxy and LS Fe(II) in carboxy. For oxy, two unpaired Fe(d) spins and, thus by definition, an intermediate-spin iron center, were revealed by our static and kinetic X-ray data, as supported by (time-dependent) density functional theory and complete-active-space self-consistent-field calculations. The emerging Fe-O2 bonding situation includes in essence a ferrous iron center, minor superoxide character of the noninnocent ligand, significant double-bond properties of the interaction, and three-center electron delocalization as in ozone. It resolves the apparently contradictory classical models of Pauling, Weiss, and McClure/Goddard into a unifying view of O2 bonding, tuned toward reversible oxygen transport.

  2. Effects of symmetry and spin configuration on spin-dependent transport properties of iron-phthalocyanine-based devices

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Li-Ling; Yang, Bing-Chu Li, Xin-Mei; Cao, Can; Long, Meng-Qiu

    2014-07-21

    Spin-dependent transport properties of nanodevices constructed by iron-phthalocyanine (FePc) molecule sandwiched between two zigzag graphene nanoribbon electrodes are studied using first-principles quantum transport calculations. The effects of the symmetry and spin configuration of electrodes have been taken into account. It is found that large magnetoresistance, large spin polarization, dual spin-filtering, and negative differential resistance (NDR) can coexist in these devices. Our results show that 5Z-FePc system presents well conductive ability in both parallel (P) and anti-parallel (AP) configurations. For 6Z-FePc-P system, spin filtering effect and large spin polarization can be found. A dual spin filtering and NDR can also be shown in 6Z-FePc-AP. Our studies indicate that the dual spin filtering effect depends on the orbitals symmetry of the energy bands and spin mismatching of the electrodes. And all the effects would open up possibilities for their applications in spin-valve, spin-filter as well as effective spin diode devices.

  3. Low temperature charge transport and microwave absorption of carbon coated iron nanoparticles–polymer composite films

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, V.

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: ► Carbon coated Fe nanoparticle–PVC composite films were prepared by solution casting method. ► A low electrical percolation threshold of 2.2 was achieved. ► The low temperature electrical conductivity follows variable range hopping type conduction. ► An EMI shielding of 18 dB was achieved in 200 micron thick film. -- Abstract: In this paper, the low temperature electrical conductivity and microwave absorption properties of carbon coated iron nanoparticles–polyvinyl chloride composite films are investigated for different filler fractions. The filler particles are prepared by the pyrolysis of ferrocene at 980 °C and embedded in polyvinyl chloride matrix. The high resolution transmission electron micrographs of the filler material have shown a 5 nm thin layer graphitic carbon covering over iron particles. The room temperature electrical conductivity of the composite film changes by 10 orders of magnitude with the increase of filler concentration. A percolation threshold of 2.2 and an electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency (EMI SE) of ∼18.6 dB in 26.5–40 GHz range are observed for 50 wt% loading. The charge transport follows three dimensional variable range hopping conduction.

  4. Propulsion system for research VTOL transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertsma, L. W.; Zigan, S.

    1973-01-01

    In anticipation of an eventual VTOL requirement for civil aviation, NASA has been conducting studies directed toward determining and developing the technology required for a commercial VTOL transport. In this paper, the commercial transport configurations are briefly reviewed; the propulsion system specifications and components developed by the engine study contractor are presented and described; and methods for using the lift-propulsion system for aircraft attitude control are discussed.

  5. Exchange Bias Effects in Iron Oxide-Based Nanoparticle Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Phan, Manh-Huong; Alonso, Javier; Khurshid, Hafsa; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Chandra, Sayan; Stojak Repa, Kristen; Nemati, Zohreh; Das, Raja; Iglesias, Óscar; Srikanth, Hariharan

    2016-11-23

    The exploration of exchange bias (EB) on the nanoscale provides a novel approach to improving the anisotropic properties of magnetic nanoparticles for prospective applications in nanospintronics and nanomedicine. However, the physical origin of EB is not fully understood. Recent advances in chemical synthesis provide a unique opportunity to explore EB in a variety of iron oxide-based nanostructures ranging from core/shell to hollow and hybrid composite nanoparticles. Experimental and atomistic Monte Carlo studies have shed light on the roles of interface and surface spins in these nanosystems. This review paper aims to provide a thorough understanding of the EB and related phenomena in iron oxide-based nanoparticle systems, knowledge of which is essential to tune the anisotropic magnetic properties of exchange-coupled nanoparticle systems for potential applications.

  6. Exchange Bias Effects in Iron Oxide-Based Nanoparticle Systems

    DOE PAGES

    Phan, Manh-Huong; Alonso, Javier; Khurshid, Hafsa; ...

    2016-11-23

    The exploration of exchange bias (EB) on the nanoscale provides a novel approach to improving the anisotropic properties of magnetic nanoparticles for prospective applications in nanospintronics and nanomedicine. However, the physical origin of EB is not fully understood. Recent advances in chemical synthesis provide a unique opportunity to explore EB in a variety of iron oxide-based nanostructures ranging from core/shell to hollow and hybrid composite nanoparticles. Experimental and atomistic Monte Carlo studies have shed light on the roles of interface and surface spins in these nanosystems. This review paper aims to provide a thorough understanding of the EB and relatedmore » phenomena in iron oxide-based nanoparticle systems, knowledge of which is essential to tune the anisotropic magnetic properties of exchange-coupled nanoparticle systems for potential applications.« less

  7. Exchange Bias Effects in Iron Oxide-Based Nanoparticle Systems

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Manh-Huong; Alonso, Javier; Khurshid, Hafsa; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Chandra, Sayan; Stojak Repa, Kristen; Nemati, Zohreh; Das, Raja; Iglesias, Óscar; Srikanth, Hariharan

    2016-01-01

    The exploration of exchange bias (EB) on the nanoscale provides a novel approach to improving the anisotropic properties of magnetic nanoparticles for prospective applications in nanospintronics and nanomedicine. However, the physical origin of EB is not fully understood. Recent advances in chemical synthesis provide a unique opportunity to explore EB in a variety of iron oxide-based nanostructures ranging from core/shell to hollow and hybrid composite nanoparticles. Experimental and atomistic Monte Carlo studies have shed light on the roles of interface and surface spins in these nanosystems. This review paper aims to provide a thorough understanding of the EB and related phenomena in iron oxide-based nanoparticle systems, knowledge of which is essential to tune the anisotropic magnetic properties of exchange-coupled nanoparticle systems for potential applications. PMID:28335349

  8. Effect of Transport and Aging Processes on Metal Speciation in Iron Oxyhydroxide Aggregates, Tar Creek Superfund Site, Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estes, E. R.; Schaider, L. A.; Shine, J. P.; Brabander, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    Following the cessation of mining activity in the late 20th century, Tar Creek Superfund Site was left highly contaminated by Pb, Zn, and Cd. Tar Creek, which flows through the site and into the Neosho River, has been studied extensively because of its potential to transport metals from the mining site to downstream communities. Previous research identified aggregated iron oxyhydroxide material, which forms when mine seepage mixes with Tar Creek surface water, as a major transport vector of metals. Frequent flooding in Tar Creek deposits aggregates on downstream floodplains, where wetting and drying processes alter the speciation of iron and other metals. This study seeks to better quantify those changes and to determine how transport and aging affects the human and ecological health risk. Sequential extractions of aggregate samples collected from the creek demonstrate that Fe is present in both amorphous (10-35% of Fe extracted) and more crystalline (8-23% of Fe extracted) phases. Substantial portions of heavy metals sorb to amorphous iron oxyhydroxide phases (accounting for 10-30% of Pb and Zn extracted) but are not associated with more crystalline iron oxide phases (representing only 1% or less of the Pb and Zn extracted). Samples have a high organic matter content (18-25% mass loss on ignition), but only Fe was significantly extracted by the oxidizing step targeting organic matter (1-2% of Pb and Zn extracted, but 10-26% of Fe extracted). The majority of metals were extracted by the soluble or residual steps. If metals and organic matter inhibit transformation of amorphous iron oxyhydroxide material to nano and crystalline iron oxides, then a steady-state volume of amorphous iron oxyhydroxide material with a high total sorption capacity may exist within Tar Creek, enhancing the metal flux accommodated by this transport mechanism. Once transported downstream and deposited on floodplains, however, it is hypothesized that repeated changes in soil matrix

  9. Systemic Analysis Approaches for Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Air transportation system designers have had only limited success using traditional operations research and parametric modeling approaches in their analyses of innovations. They need a systemic methodology for modeling of safety-critical infrastructure that is comprehensive, objective, and sufficiently concrete, yet simple enough to be used with reasonable investment. The methodology must also be amenable to quantitative analysis so issues of system safety and stability can be rigorously addressed. However, air transportation has proven itself an extensive, complex system whose behavior is difficult to describe, no less predict. There is a wide range of system analysis techniques available, but some are more appropriate for certain applications than others. Specifically in the area of complex system analysis, the literature suggests that both agent-based models and network analysis techniques may be useful. This paper discusses the theoretical basis for each approach in these applications, and explores their historic and potential further use for air transportation analysis.

  10. BACTERIOPHAGE PRD1 AND SILICA COLLOID TRANSPORT AND RECOVERY IN AN IRON OXIDE-COATED SAND AQUIFER. (R826179)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacteriophage PRD1 and silica colloids were co-injected into
    sewage-contaminated and uncontaminated zones of an iron oxide-coated sand
    aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, and their transport was monitored over distances up to
    6 m in three arrays. After deposition, the attache...

  11. BACTERIOPHAGE PRD1 AND SILICA COLLOID TRANSPORT AND RECOVERY IN AN IRON OXIDE-COATED SAND AQUIFER. (R826179)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacteriophage PRD1 and silica colloids were co-injected into
    sewage-contaminated and uncontaminated zones of an iron oxide-coated sand
    aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, and their transport was monitored over distances up to
    6 m in three arrays. After deposition, the attache...

  12. Extracting archaeal populations from iron oxidizing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, L. M.; Hutchison, J.; Chrisler, W.; Jay, Z.; Moran, J.; Inskeep, W.; Kreuzer, H.

    2013-12-01

    Unique environments in Yellowstone National Park offer exceptional conditions for studying microorganisms in extreme and constrained systems. However, samples from some extreme systems often contain inorganic components that pose complications during microbial and molecular analysis. Several archaeal species are found in acidic, geothermal ferric-oxyhydroxide mats; these species have been shown to adhere to mineral surfaces in flocculated colonies. For optimal microbial analysis, (microscopy, flow cytometry, genomic extractions, proteomic analysis, stable isotope analysis, and others), improved techniques are needed to better facilitate cell detachment and separation from mineral surfaces. As a requirement, these techniques must preserve cell structure while simultaneously minimizing organic carryover to downstream analysis. Several methods have been developed for removing sediments from mixed prokaryotic populations, including ultra-centrifugation, nycodenz gradient, sucrose cushions, and cell straining. In this study we conduct a comparative analysis of mechanisms used to detach archaeal cell populations from the mineral interface. Specifically, we evaluated mechanical and chemical approaches for cell separation and homogenization. Methods were compared using confocal microscopy, flow cytometry analyses, and real-time PCR detection. The methodology and approaches identified will be used to optimize biomass collection from environmental specimens or isolates grown with solid phases.

  13. Space transportation systems supporting a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, C. C.; Woodcock, Gordon

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on preliminary design studies conducted by NASA and its contractors to define the transportation vehicle for the support of a human return to the moon mission. Attention is given to the transportation needs and requirements, the design solutions to meet these requirements, the rationale for the selection of the designs, and the ground/orbital support facilities for placing these systems into routine earth-moon transportation service. The reference system includes a partially reusable lunar transfer vehicle that operates between the earth and lunar orbits and a fully reusable lunar excursion vehicle that operates between the lunar orbit and the lunar surface. The system can deliver 27 metric tons of cargo to the lunar surface in an automated flight mode, and can transport a crew of four and deliver 15 tons of cargo in a piloted mode.

  14. The WIPP transportation system: Dedicated to safety

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, T.; McFadden, M.

    1993-12-01

    When developing a transportation system to transport transuranic (TRU) waste from ten widely-dispersed generator sites, the Department of Energy (DOE) recognized and addressed many challenges. Shipments of waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were to cover a twenty-five year period and utilize routes covering over twelve thousand miles in twenty-three states. Enhancing public safety by maximizing the payload, thus reducing the number of shipments, was the primary objective. To preclude the requirement for overweight permits, the DOE started with a total shipment weight limit of 80,000 pounds and developed an integrated transportation system consisting of a Type ``B`` package to transport the material, a lightweight tractor and trailer, stringent driver requirements, and a shipment tracking system referred to as ``TRANSCOM``.

  15. Expression systems for cloned xenobiotic transporters

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, John B.

    2005-05-01

    One challenge of modern biology is to be able to match genes and their encoded proteins with events at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organism levels, and thus, provide a multi-level understanding of gene function and dysfunction. How well this can be done for xenobiotic transporters depends on a knowledge of the genes expressed in the tissue, the cellular locations of the gene products (do they function for uptake or efflux?), and our ability to match substrates with transporters using information obtained from cloned transporters functioning in heterologous expression systems. Clearly, making a rational choice of expression system to use for the characterization and study of cloned xenobiotic transporters is a critical part of study design. This choice requires well-defined goals, as well as an understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of candidate expression systems.

  16. In Situ Probing Nucleation, Growth, and Aggregation of Iron Oxides in Geochemical Aquatic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Y.; Hu, Y.; Ray, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    dominant mechanism during in situ nanoparticle formation, among process such as nucleation, growth, Ostwald ripening, and aggregation. These results address critical deficits in our understanding of the complex and dynamic nature of surface coatings of iron oxide nanoparticles in geochemical aquatic systems. They will also help connect the gaps between empirical and molecular scale modeling approaches at the nanoscale and further help design a more rigorous reactive transport model to predict the fate and transport of contaminants in mesoscale approaches.

  17. The barium iron ruthenium oxide system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemmler-Sack, S.; Ehmann, A.

    1986-01-01

    In the system BaFe(1-x)Ru(x)O(3-y), three phases, separated by immiscibility gaps, are present: an Fe-rich phase (x = 0 to 0.75) with hexagonal BaTiO3 structure (6H; sequence (hcc)2), a Ru-rich phase (x = 0.9) of hexagonal 4H-type (sequence (hc)2), and the pure Ru compounds BaRuO3 with rhombohedral 9R structure (sequence (hhc)3). By vibrational spectroscopic investigations in the 6H phase a transition from n-type semiconduction (Fe-rich compounds with complete O lattice) can be detected. The 4H and 9R stacking polytypes are good, metal-like conductors. The lattice parameters are given.

  18. The Newcastle geothermal system, Iron County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Blackett, R.E.; Shubat, M.A.; Bishop, C.E. ); Chapman, D.S.; Forster, C.B.; Schlinger, C.M. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1990-03-01

    Geological, geophysical and geochemical studies contributed to conceptual hydrologic model of the blind'' (no surface expression), moderate-temperature (greater than 130{degree}C) Newcastle geothermal system, located in the Basin and Range-Colorado Plateau transition zone of southwestern Utah. Temperature gradient measurements define a thermal anomaly centered near the surface trace of the range-bounding Antelope Range fault with and elongate dissipative plume extending north into the adjacent Escalante Valley. Spontaneous potential and resistivity surveys sharply define the geometry of the dominant upflow zone (not yet explored), indicating that most of the thermal fluid issues form a short segment along the Antelope Range fault and discharges into a gently-dipping aquifer. Production wells show that this aquifer lies at a depth between 85 and 95 meter. Electrical surveys also show that some leakage of thermal fluid occurs over a 1.5 km (minimum) interval along the trace of the Antelope Range fault. Major element, oxygen and hydrogen isotopic analyses of water samples indicate that the thermal fluid is a mixture of meteoric water derived from recharge areas in the Pine Valley Mountains and cold, shallow groundwater. A northwest-southeast trending system of faults, encompassing a zone of increased fracture permeability, collects meteoric water from the recharge area, allows circulation to a depth of 3 to 5 kilometers, and intersects the northeast-striking Antelope Range fault. We postulate that mineral precipitates form a seal along the Antelope Range fault, preventing the discharge of thermal fluids into basin-fill sediments at depth, and allowing heated fluid to approach the surface. Eventually, continued mineral deposition could result in the development of hot springs at the ground surface.

  19. Transportation Telematics Systems Operation Efficiency Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siergiejczyk, Mirosław

    2012-03-01

    In the paper is presented a method of assessing of the exploitation efficiency of transport telematics systems. In order to obtain as an overall assessment of transport telematics systems, as the method for evaluating was accepted the multi-state analysis of the exploitation process. Then was elaborated the model of exploitation process of the telematics system. The problem of fundamental importance in the study of efficiency is to determine the partial measures of effectiveness. Using the characteristics of the exploitation process, a model of exploitation efficiency of telematics system was elaborated and the measures of its evaluation are presented.

  20. 49 CFR 37.25 - University transportation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false University transportation systems. 37.25 Section 37.25 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.25 University transportation systems. (a...

  1. 49 CFR 37.25 - University transportation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false University transportation systems. 37.25 Section 37.25 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.25 University transportation systems....

  2. 49 CFR 37.25 - University transportation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false University transportation systems. 37.25 Section 37.25 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.25 University transportation systems. (a...

  3. 49 CFR 37.25 - University transportation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false University transportation systems. 37.25 Section 37.25 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.25 University transportation systems. (a...

  4. Fire and materials modeling for transportation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Skocypec, R.D.; Gritzo, L.A.; Moya, J.L.; Nicolette, V.F.; Tieszen, S.R.; Thomas, R.

    1994-10-01

    Fire is an important threat to the safety of transportation systems. Therefore, understanding the effects of fire (and its interaction with materials) on transportation systems is crucial to quantifying and mitigating the impact of fire on the safety of those systems. Research and development directed toward improving the fire safety of transportation systems must address a broad range of phenomena and technologies, including: crash dynamics, fuel dispersion, fire environment characterization, material characterization, and system/cargo thermal response modeling. In addition, if the goal of the work is an assessment and/or reduction of risk due to fires, probabilistic risk assessment technology is also required. The research currently underway at Sandia National Laboratories in each of these areas is summarized in this paper.

  5. TRANSIMS: Transportation analysis and simulation system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.; Beckman, R.; Baggerly, K.

    1995-07-01

    This document summarizes the TRansportation ANalysis and SIMulation System (TRANSIMS) Project, the system`s major modules, and the project`s near-term plans. TRANSIMS will employ advanced computational and analytical techniques to create an integrated regional transportation systems analysis environment. The simulation environment will include a regional population of individual travelers and freight loads with travel activities and plans, whose individual interactions will be simulated on the transportation system, and whose environmental impact will be determined. We will develop an interim operational capability (IOC) for each major TRANSIMS module during the five-year program. When the IOC is ready, we will complete a specific case study to confirm the IOC features, applicability, and readiness.

  6. Influence of silicate on the transport of bacteria in quartz sand and iron mineral-coated sand.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhe; Yang, Haiyan; Wu, Dan; Ni, Jinren; Kim, Hyunjung; Tong, Meiping

    2014-11-01

    The influence of silicate on the transport and deposition of bacteria (Escherichia coli) in packed porous media were examined at a constant 20 mM ionic strength with different silicate concentrations (from 0 to 1 mM) at pH 7. Transport experiments were performed in two types of representative porous media, both bare quartz sand and iron mineral-coated quartz sand. In bare quartz sand, the breakthrough plateaus in the presence of silicate in suspensions were lower and the corresponding retained profiles were higher than those without silicate ions, indicating that the presence of silicate in suspensions decreased cell transport in bare quartz sand. Moreover, the decrease of bacteria transport in quartz sand induced by silicate was more pronounced with increasing silicate concentrations from 0 to 1 mM. However, when EPS was removed from cell surfaces, the presence of silicate in cell suspensions (with different concentrations) did not affect the transport behavior of bacteria in quartz sand. The interaction of silicate with EPS on cell surfaces negatively decreased the zeta potentials of bacteria, resulting in the decreased cell transport in bare quartz sand when silicate was copresent in bacteria suspensions. In contrast, the presence of silicate in suspensions increased cell transport in iron mineral-coated sand. Silicate ions competed with bacteria for the adsorption sites on mineral-coated sand, contributing to the increased cell transport in mineral-coated sand with silicate present in cell suspensions.

  7. Design of a lunar transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankaravelu, A.; Goddard, H.; Gold, R.; Greenwell, S.; Lander, J.; Nordell, B.; Stepp, K.; Styer, M.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a good transportation infrastructure is a major requirement for the establishment of a permanent lunar base. Transportation is characterized by the technology available in a specific time frame and the need to transport personnel and cargo between Earth and Moon, and between lunar bases. In our study, attention was first focused on developing a transportation system for the first generation lunar base. As a first step, a tracked-type multipurpose lunar transportation vehicle was considered as a possible mode of transportation and a detailed study was conducted on the various aspects of the vehicle. Since the vehicle is composed of many moving parts, exposing it to the environment of the Moon, where fine dust particles are prevalent, can cause problems associated with lubrication and friction. The vehicle also posed problems concerning weight and power. Hence, several modifications were made to the above design ideas conceptually, and a Lunar Articulated Remote Transportation System (Lunar ARTS) is proposed as a more effective alternative with the following objectives: (1) minimizing the transportation of construction material and fuel from Earth or maximizing the use of the lunar material; (2) use of novel materials and light-weight structures; (3) use of new manufacturing methods and technology such as magnetic levitation using superconducting materials; and (4) innovative concepts of effectively utilizing the exotic lunar conditions, i.e., high thermal gradients, lack of atmosphere, lower gravity, etc. To achieve the above objectives of designing transportation systems from concept to operation, the project was planned in three phases: (1) conceptual design; (2) detailed analysis and synthesis; and (3) construction, testing, evaluation, and operation. In this project, both phases 1 and 2 have been carried out and work on phase 3 is in progress. In this paper, the details of the Lunar ARTS are discussed and the future work on the vehicle are

  8. Design of a lunar transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankaravelu, A.; Goddard, H.; Gold, R.; Greenwell, S.; Lander, J.; Nordell, B.; Stepp, K.; Styer, M.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a good transportation infrastructure is a major requirement for the establishment of a permanent lunar base. Transportation is characterized by the technology available in a specific time frame and the need to transport personnel and cargo between Earth and Moon, and between lunar bases. In our study, attention was first focused on developing a transportation system for the first generation lunar base. As a first step, a tracked-type multipurpose lunar transportation vehicle was considered as a possible mode of transportation and a detailed study was conducted on the various aspects of the vehicle. Since the vehicle is composed of many moving parts, exposing it to the environment of the Moon, where fine dust particles are prevalent, can cause problems associated with lubrication and friction. The vehicle also posed problems concerning weight and power. Hence, several modifications were made to the above design ideas conceptually, and a Lunar Articulated Remote Transportation System (Lunar ARTS) is proposed as a more effective alternative with the following objectives: (1) minimizing the transportation of construction material and fuel from Earth or maximizing the use of the lunar material; (2) use of novel materials and light-weight structures; (3) use of new manufacturing methods and technology such as magnetic levitation using superconducting materials; and (4) innovative concepts of effectively utilizing the exotic lunar conditions, i.e., high thermal gradients, lack of atmosphere, lower gravity, etc. To achieve the above objectives of designing transportation systems from concept to operation, the project was planned in three phases: (1) conceptual design; (2) detailed analysis and synthesis; and (3) construction, testing, evaluation, and operation. In this project, both phases 1 and 2 have been carried out and work on phase 3 is in progress. In this paper, the details of the Lunar ARTS are discussed and the future work on the vehicle are

  9. Chromate transport through columns packed with surfactant-modified zeolite/zero valent iron pellets.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaohui; Kirk Jones, H; Zhang, Pengfei; Bowman, Robert S

    2007-08-01

    Chromate transport through columns packed with zeolite/zero valent iron (Z/ZVI) pellets, either untreated or treated with the cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA), was studied at different flow rates. In the presence of sorbed HDTMA, the chromate retardation factor increased by a factor of five and the pseudo first-order rate constant for chromate reduction increased by 1.5-5 times. The increase in rate constant from the column studies was comparable to a six-fold increase in the rate constant determined in a batch study. At a fast flow rate, the apparent delay in chromate breakthrough from the HDTMA modified Z/ZVI columns was primarily caused by the increase in chromate reduction rate constant. In contrast, at a slower flow rate, the retardation in chromate transport from the HDTMA modified Z/ZVI columns mainly originated from chromate sorption onto the HDTMA modified Z/ZVI pellets. Due to dual porosity, the presence of immobile water was responsible for the earlier breakthrough of chromate in columns packed with zeolite and Z/ZVI pellets. The results from this study further confirm the role of HDTMA in enhancing sorption and reduction efficiency of contaminants in groundwater remediation.

  10. Transcription termination within the iron transport-biosynthesis operon of Vibrio anguillarum requires an antisense RNA.

    PubMed

    Stork, Michiel; Di Lorenzo, Manuela; Welch, Timothy J; Crosa, Jorge H

    2007-05-01

    The iron transport-biosynthesis (ITB) operon in Vibrio anguillarum includes four genes for ferric siderophore transport, fatD, -C, -B, and -A, and two genes for siderophore biosynthesis, angR and angT. This cluster plays an important role in the virulence mechanisms of this bacterium. Despite being part of the same polycistronic mRNA, the relative levels of transcription for the fat portion and for the whole ITB message differ profoundly, the levels of the fat transcript being about 17-fold higher. Using S1 nuclease mapping, lacZ transcriptional fusions, and in vitro studies, we were able to show that the differential gene expression within the ITB operon is due to termination of transcription between the fatA and angR genes, although a few transcripts proceeded beyond the termination site to the end of this operon. This termination process requires a 427-nucleotide antisense RNA that spans the intergenic region and acts as a novel transcriptional terminator.

  11. Does a voltage-sensitive outer envelope transport mechanism contributes to the chloroplast iron uptake?

    PubMed

    Solti, Ádám; Kovács, Krisztina; Müller, Brigitta; Vázquez, Saúl; Hamar, Éva; Pham, Hong Diep; Tóth, Brigitta; Abadía, Javier; Fodor, Ferenc

    2016-12-01

    Based on the effects of inorganic salts on chloroplast Fe uptake, the presence of a voltage-dependent step is proposed to play a role in Fe uptake through the outer envelope. Although iron (Fe) plays a crucial role in chloroplast physiology, only few pieces of information are available on the mechanisms of chloroplast Fe acquisition. Here, the effect of inorganic salts on the Fe uptake of intact chloroplasts was tested, assessing Fe and transition metal uptake using bathophenantroline-based spectrophotometric detection and plasma emission-coupled mass spectrometry, respectively. The microenvironment of Fe was studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Transition metal cations (Cd(2+), Zn(2+), and Mn(2+)) enhanced, whereas oxoanions (NO3(-), SO4(2-), and BO3(3-)) reduced the chloroplast Fe uptake. The effect was insensitive to diuron (DCMU), an inhibitor of chloroplast inner envelope-associated Fe uptake. The inorganic salts affected neither Fe forms in the uptake assay buffer nor those incorporated into the chloroplasts. The significantly lower Zn and Mn uptake compared to that of Fe indicates that different mechanisms/transporters are involved in their acquisition. The enhancing effect of transition metals on chloroplast Fe uptake is likely related to outer envelope-associated processes, since divalent metal cations are known to inhibit Fe(2+) transport across the inner envelope. Thus, a voltage-dependent step is proposed to play a role in Fe uptake through the chloroplast outer envelope on the basis of the contrasting effects of transition metal cations and oxoaninons.

  12. Hyperspectral imaging utility for transportation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgelall, Raj; Rafert, J. Bruce; Tolliver, Denver

    2015-03-01

    The global transportation system is massive, open, and dynamic. Existing performance and condition assessments of the complex interacting networks of roadways, bridges, railroads, pipelines, waterways, airways, and intermodal ports are expensive. Hyperspectral imaging is an emerging remote sensing technique for the non-destructive evaluation of multimodal transportation infrastructure. Unlike panchromatic, color, and infrared imaging, each layer of a hyperspectral image pixel records reflectance intensity from one of dozens or hundreds of relatively narrow wavelength bands that span a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Hence, every pixel of a hyperspectral scene provides a unique spectral signature that offers new opportunities for informed decision-making in transportation systems development, operations, and maintenance. Spaceborne systems capture images of vast areas in a short period but provide lower spatial resolution than airborne systems. Practitioners use manned aircraft to achieve higher spatial and spectral resolution, but at the price of custom missions and narrow focus. The rapid size and cost reduction of unmanned aircraft systems promise a third alternative that offers hybrid benefits at affordable prices by conducting multiple parallel missions. This research formulates a theoretical framework for a pushbroom type of hyperspectral imaging system on each type of data acquisition platform. The study then applies the framework to assess the relative potential utility of hyperspectral imaging for previously proposed remote sensing applications in transportation. The authors also introduce and suggest new potential applications of hyperspectral imaging in transportation asset management, network performance evaluation, and risk assessments to enable effective and objective decision- and policy-making.

  13. Introduction to Metals in Biology 2017: Iron transport, storage, and the ramifications.

    PubMed

    Guengerich, F Peter

    2017-08-04

    In this tenth Thematic Series in Metals in Biology, six Minireviews deal with aspects of iron metabolism. A number of important proteins control iron homeostasis, including hepcidin and ferroportin, in various cells. Other aspects of iron dealt with here include biogenesis of iron-sulfur proteins and chaperones that deliver iron cofactors in cells. Additionally, an iron-regulated metastasis suppressor interacts with the epidermal growth factor receptor and mediates its downstream signaling activity. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Not planning a sustainable transport system

    SciTech Connect

    Finnveden, Göran Åkerman, Jonas

    2014-04-01

    The overall objective of the Swedish transport policy is to ensure the economically efficient and sustainable provision of transport services for people and business throughout the country. More specifically, the transport sector shall, among other things, contribute to the achievement of environmental quality objectives in which the development of the transport system plays an important role in the achievement of the objectives. The aim of this study is to analyse if current transport planning supports this policy. This is done by analysing two recent cases: the National Infrastructure Plan 2010–2021, and the planning of Bypass Stockholm, a major road investment. Our results show that the plans are in conflict with several of the environmental quality objectives. Another interesting aspect of the planning processes is that the long-term climate goals are not included in the planning processes, neither as a clear goal nor as factor that will influence future transport systems. In this way, the long-term sustainability aspects are not present in the planning. We conclude that the two cases do not contribute to a sustainable transport system. Thus, several changes must be made in the processes, including putting up clear targets for emissions. Also, the methodology for the environmental assessments needs to be further developed and discussed. - Highlights: • Two cases are studied to analyse if current planning supports a sustainable transport system. • Results show that the plans are in conflict with several of the environmental quality objectives. • Long-term climate goals are not included in the planning processes. • Current practices do not contribute to a sustainable planning processes. • Methodology and process for environmental assessments must be further developed and discussed.

  15. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of iron preparations.

    PubMed

    Geisser, Peter; Burckhardt, Susanna

    2011-01-04

    Standard approaches are not appropriate when assessing pharmacokinetics of iron supplements due to the ubiquity of endogenous iron, its compartmentalized sites of action, and the complexity of the iron metabolism. The primary site of action of iron is the erythrocyte, and, in contrast to conventional drugs, no drug-receptor interaction takes place. Notably, the process of erythropoiesis, i.e., formation of new erythrocytes, takes 3-4 weeks. Accordingly, serum iron concentration and area under the curve (AUC) are clinically irrelevant for assessing iron utilization. Iron can be administered intravenously in the form of polynuclear iron(III)-hydroxide complexes with carbohydrate ligands or orally as iron(II) (ferrous) salts or iron(III) (ferric) complexes. Several approaches have been employed to study the pharmacodynamics of iron after oral administration. Quantification of iron uptake from radiolabeled preparations by the whole body or the erythrocytes is optimal, but alternatively total iron transfer can be calculated based on known elimination rates and the intrinsic reactivity of individual preparations. Degradation kinetics, and thus the safety, of parenteral iron preparations are directly related to the molecular weight and the stability of the complex. High oral iron doses or rapid release of iron from intravenous iron preparations can saturate the iron transport system, resulting in oxidative stress with adverse clinical and subclinical consequences. Appropriate pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics analyses will greatly assist our understanding of the likely contribution of novel preparations to the management of anemia.

  16. Human Transportation System (HTS) study: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, N.; Geyer, M. S.; Gaunce, M. T.

    1993-01-01

    Work completed under the Human Transportation System Study is summarized. This study was conducted by the New Initiatives Office at JSC with the technical support of Boeing, General Dynamics, Lockheed, McDonnell-Douglas, Martin Marietta, and Rockwell. The study was designed to generate information on determining the appropriate path to follow for new system development to meet the Nation's space transportation needs. The study evaluates 18 transportation architecture options using a parametric set of mission requirements. These options include use of current systems as well as proposed systems to assess the impact of various considerations, such as the cost of alternate access, or the benefit of separating people and cargo. The architecture options are compared to each other with six measurable evaluation criteria or attributes. They are the following: funding profile, human safety, probability of mission success, architecture cost risk, launch schedule confidence, and environmental impact. Values for these attributes are presented for the architecture options, with pertinent conclusions and recommendations.

  17. Human Transportation System (HTS) study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, N.; Geyer, M. S.; Gaunce, M. T.

    1993-01-01

    Work completed under the Human Transportation System Study is summarized. This study was conducted by the New Initiatives Office at JSC with the technical support of Boeing, General Dynamics, Lockheed, McDonnell-Douglas, Martin Marietta, and Rockwell. The study was designed to generate information on determining the appropriate path to follow for new system development to meet the Nation's space transportation needs. The study evaluates 18 transportation architecture options using a parametric set of mission requirements. These options include use of current systems as well as proposed systems to assess the impact of various considerations, such as the cost of alternate access, or the benefit of separating people and cargo. The architecture options are compared to each other with six measurable evaluation criteria or attributes. They are the following: funding profile, human safety, probability of mission success, architecture cost risk, launch schedule confidence, and environmental impact. Values for these attributes are presented for the architecture options, with pertinent conclusions and recommendations.

  18. Study of aircraft in intraurban transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, E. G.

    1972-01-01

    A systems analysis was conducted to define the technical economic and operational characteristics of an aircraft transportation system for short-range intracity commutor operations. The analysis was for 1975 and 1985 in the seven county, Detroit, Michigan area. STOL and VTOL aircraft were studied in sizes from 40 to 120 passengers. The preferred vehicle for the Detroit area was the deflected slipstream STOL. Since the study was parametric in nature, it is applicable to generalization, and it was concluded that a feasible intraurban air transportation system could be developed in many viable situations.

  19. A laser-powered flight transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzberg, A.; Sun, K. C.; Jones, W. S.

    1978-01-01

    Laser energy transmitted from a solar-power satellite via a set of relay satellites is used to power a cruising air transport; i.e., a laser-powered airplane. The result is a nearly fuelless pollution-free flight transportation system which is cost competitive with the fuel-conservative airplane of the future. The major components of this flight system include a laser-power satellite, relay satellites, laser-powered turbofans, and a conventional airframe. The relay satellites are orbiting optical systems which intercept the beam from a power satellite and refocus and redirect the beam to its next target.

  20. A laser-powered flight transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzberg, A.; Sun, K. C.; Jones, W. S.

    1978-01-01

    Laser energy transmitted from a solar-power satellite via a set of relay satellites is used to power a cruising air transport; i.e., a laser-powered airplane. The result is a nearly fuelless pollution-free flight transportation system which is cost competitive with the fuel-conservative airplane of the future. The major components of this flight system include a laser-power satellite, relay satellites, laser-powered turbofans, and a conventional airframe. The relay satellites are orbiting optical systems which intercept the beam from a power satellite and refocus and redirect the beam to its next target.

  1. System for recycling char in iron oxide reducing kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, A.C.; Keran, V.P.

    1983-03-08

    A method and means for improving the efficiency of the process for directly reducing ore containing iron oxide in a rotary kiln using a solid carbonaceous reducing agent, such as coal, introduced from the ore feed and discharge ends of the kiln, as both fuel and reductant, is disclosed wherein the charred coal or char found in the discharge product is recycled into the process at the discharge end of the kiln rather than the feed end as in the prior art. In particular, the recovered char, both coarse and finer particles, are transported to a recycle bin from which they are returned at a preselected rate to the kiln process by being injected along with the coal blown into the discharge end of the kiln. Alternatively, the recycle char alone may be fed without any coal at the discharge end of the kiln.

  2. Advanced secondary power system for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. C.; Hansen, I. G.; Beach, R. F.; Plencner, R. M.; Dengler, R. P.; Jefferies, K. S.; Frye, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A concept for an advanced aircraft power system was identified that uses 20-kHz, 440-V, sin-wave power distribution. This system was integrated with an electrically powered flight control system and with other aircraft systems requiring secondary power. The resulting all-electric secondary power configuration reduced the empty weight of a modern 200-passenger, twin-engine transport by 10 percent and the mission fuel by 9 percent.

  3. Molecular archeological studies of transmembrane transport systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saier, Milton H.; Wang, Bin; Sun, Eric I.; Matias, Madeleine; Yen, Ming Ren

    We here review studies concerned with the evolutionary pathways taken for the appearance of complex transport systems. The transmembrane protein constituents of these systems generally arose by (1) intragenic duplications, (2) gene fusions, and (3) the superimposition of enzymes onto carriers. In a few instances, we have documented examples of “reverse” or “retrograde” evolution where complex carriers have apparently lost parts of their polypeptide chains to give rise to simpler channels. Some functional superfamilies of transporters that are energized by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) include several independently evolving permease families. The ubiquitous ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily couples transport to ATP hydrolysis where the ATPases are superimposed on at least three distinct, independently evolving families of permeases. The prokaryotic sugar transporting phosphotransferase system (PTS) uses homologous PEP-dependent general energy-coupling phosphoryl transfer enzymes superimposed on at least three independently arising families of permeases to give rise to complex group translocators that modify their sugar substrates during transport, releasing cytoplasmic sugar phosphates. We suggest that simple carriers evolved independently of the energizing enzymes, and that chemical energization of transport resulted from the physical and functional coupling of the enzymes to the carriers.

  4. Zea mays Fe deficiency-related 4 (ZmFDR4) functions as an iron transporter in the plastids of monocots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiu-Yue; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Qi; Pan, Xiao-Xi; Yan, Luo-Chen; Ma, Xiao-Juan; Zhao, Wei-Zhong; Qi, Xiao-Ting; Yin, Li-Ping

    2017-04-01

    Iron (Fe)-homeostasis in the plastids is closely associated with Fe transport proteins that prevent Fe from occurring in its toxic free ionic forms. However, the number of known protein families related to Fe transport in the plastids (about five) and the function of iron in non-green plastids is limited. In the present study, we report the functional characterization of Zea mays Fe deficiency-related 4 (ZmFDR4), which was isolated from a differentially expressed clone of a cDNA library of Fe deficiency-induced maize roots. ZmFDR4 is homologous to the bacterial FliP superfamily, coexisted in both algae and terrestrial plants, and capable of restoring the normal growth of the yeast mutant fet3fet4, which possesses defective Fe uptake systems. ZmFDR4 mRNA is ubiquitous in maize and is inducible by iron deficiency in wheat. Transient expression of the 35S:ZmFDR4-eGFP fusion protein in rice protoplasts indicated that ZmFDR4 maybe localizes to the plastids envelope and thylakoid. In 35S:c-Myc-ZmFDR4 transgenic tobacco, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting confirmed that ZmFDR4 is targeted to both the chloroplast envelope and thylakoid. Meanwhile, ultrastructure analysis indicates that ZmFDR4 promotes the density of plastids and accumulation of starch grains. Moreover, Bathophenanthroline disulfonate (BPDS) colorimetry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) indicate that ZmFDR4 is related to Fe uptake by plastids and increases seed Fe content. Finally, 35S:c-Myc-ZmFDR4 transgenic tobacco show enhanced photosynthetic efficiency. Therefore, the results of the present study demonstrate that ZmFDR4 functions as an iron transporter in monocot plastids and provide insight into the process of Fe uptake by plastids.

  5. Alternative battery systems for transportation uses

    ScienceCinema

    Michael Thackeray

    2016-07-12

    Argonne Distinguished Fellow Michael Thackeray highlights the need for alternative battery systems for transportation uses. Such systems will not only need to be smaller, lighter and more energy dense, but also able to make electric vehicles more competitive with internal combustion engine vehicles.

  6. Alternative battery systems for transportation uses

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Thackeray

    2012-07-25

    Argonne Distinguished Fellow Michael Thackeray highlights the need for alternative battery systems for transportation uses. Such systems will not only need to be smaller, lighter and more energy dense, but also able to make electric vehicles more competitive with internal combustion engine vehicles.

  7. Preliminary description of the transportation operations systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    This document presents a preliminary description of the transportation operations systems designed to ship spent fuel and high-level waste (HLW) from waste generator sites to authorized waste receiving facilities. It is an initial effort to define the operations system and identifies the activities and system components necessary to provide complete transportation capability. It is intended that this be a project level working document to facilitate dialog for further identification of system elements and functional requirements. This process will lead to issuance of a System Requirements and Description (SRD) document for the transportation operations systems and will identify detailed system functional requirements, performance criteria, and functional interfaces. The transportation system is quite complex and is influenced by a large number of external factors and interfaces. Some of these interfaces (such as the repository) are just now being developed. Others (such as utility-handling capabilities) are currently in existence and must be accommodated or modified. Additionally, the allocation of requirements is likewise both developing (with the repository) and somewhat fixed. 16 refs., 15 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. [Analysis of influence factors and control methods on iron release phenomenon in drinking water distribution system].

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhang-bin; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xiao-jian; He, Wen-Jie; Han, Hong-da; Yin, Pei-jun

    2006-02-01

    Variation rule of iron in drinking water distribution systems was studied, and it was found that the iron released from the scale to the bulk water was the primary reason for iron overstep. The main chemical composition of the scale in cast iron pipe and galvanized steel pipe was iron in a northern city in China. In the drinking water distribution systems, when the value of dissolved oxygen or chlorine residual was low, the iron release phenomenon was severe. The reason for that was the passivation layer of the corrosion scale was destroyed in reductive condition and the result was a great amount of iron in ferrous form was released. According to the research results, the control methods for iron release and 'red water' phenomenon were indicated.

  9. Kinetics of iron absorption by in situ ligated small intestinal loops of broilers involved in iron transporters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L Y; Liao, X D; Zhang, L Y; Lu, L; Luo, X G

    2016-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted with 28-d-old commercial male broilers to study the kinetics of iron (Fe) absorption and the effect of Fe treatment on divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin 1 (FPN1) mRNA levels in in situ ligated segments from different small intestinal regions of broilers. In Exp. 1, we compared Fe absorption in 3 small intestinal segments at different post-perfusion time points after perfusion with 0.45 m of Fe as Fe sulfate (FeSO ∙ 7HO), and found that the Fe absorption in the duodenum at 30, 45, and 60 min was greater ( < 0.006) than that in the jejunum, and at 60 min, the Fe absorption in the duodenum was greater ( = 0.034) than that in the ileum. In addition, the Fe absorption at 30 min was more than 85.0% of the maximum absorption in each segment. In Exp. 2, a kinetic study of Fe absorption was performed with the duodenal, jejunal, and ileal loops perfused with solutions containing 0 (control), 0.11, 0.22, 0.45, 0.80, 1.79, or 3.58 m of Fe as FeSO 7HO. The Fe concentrations in perfusates were measured at 30 min after perfusion, and in the control group and the group treated with 0.45 m Fe as FeSO 7HO, the DMT1 and FPN1 mRNA levels in the ligated duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were analyzed. The kinetic curves of Fe absorption showed that Fe absorption in the duodenum and jejunum depended on a saturated carrier-mediated process. The maximum absorption rate in the duodenal segment was greater ( < 0.0001) than that in the jejunum (42.75 vs. 8.16 nmol × cm × min), and the Michaelis-Menten constant value was higher ( < 0.0001) in the duodenum than in the jejunum (6.16 vs. 1.31 m). In the ileum, however, the Fe absorption was a non-saturated diffusion process, and the diffusive constant was 3.54 × 10 cm × min. The DMT1 and FPN1 mRNA levels in the duodenum were greater ( < 0.0001) than those in the jejunum and ileum, and greater ( < 0.009) in the jejunum than in the ileum. No differences ( > 0.25) were detected in the DMT1 and FPN1

  10. Cytotoxicity, Intestinal Transport, and Bioavailability of Dispersible Iron and Zinc Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeon-Jin; Bae, Song-Hwa; Kim, Hyoung-Jun; Kim, Kyoung-Min; Song, Jae Ho; Go, Mi-Ran; Yu, Jin; Oh, Jae-Min; Choi, Soo-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Iron or zinc deficiency is one of the most important nutritional disorders which causes health problem. However, food fortification with minerals often induces unacceptable organoleptic changes during preparation process and storage, has low bioavailability and solubility, and is expensive. Nanotechnology surface modification to obtain novel characteristics can be a useful tool to overcome these problems. In this study, the efficacy and potential toxicity of dispersible Fe or Zn supplement coated in dextrin and glycerides (SunActive FeTM and SunActive ZnTM) were evaluated in terms of cytotoxicity, intestinal transport, and bioavailability, as compared with each counterpart without coating, ferric pyrophosphate (FePP) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs), respectively. The results demonstrate that the cytotoxicity of FePP was not significantly affected by surface modification (SunActive FeTM), while SunActive ZnTM was more cytotoxic than ZnO-NPs. Cellular uptake and intestinal transport efficiency of SunActive FeTM were significantly higher than those of its counterpart material, which was in good agreement with enhanced oral absorption efficacy after a single-dose oral administration to rats. These results seem to be related to dissolution, particle dispersibility, and coating stability of materials depending on suspending media. Both SunActiveTM products and their counterpart materials were determined to be primarily transported by microfold (M) cells through the intestinal epithelium. It was, therefore, concluded that surface modification of food fortification will be a useful strategy to enhance oral absorption efficiency at safe levels. PMID:28503169

  11. Iron Absorption in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Mandilaras, Konstantinos; Pathmanathan, Tharse; Missirlis, Fanis

    2013-01-01

    The way in which Drosophila melanogaster acquires iron from the diet remains poorly understood despite iron absorption being of vital significance for larval growth. To describe the process of organismal iron absorption, consideration needs to be given to cellular iron import, storage, export and how intestinal epithelial cells sense and respond to iron availability. Here we review studies on the Divalent Metal Transporter-1 homolog Malvolio (iron import), the recent discovery that Multicopper Oxidase-1 has ferroxidase activity (iron export) and the role of ferritin in the process of iron acquisition (iron storage). We also describe what is known about iron regulation in insect cells. We then draw upon knowledge from mammalian iron homeostasis to identify candidate genes in flies. Questions arise from the lack of conservation in Drosophila for key mammalian players, such as ferroportin, hepcidin and all the components of the hemochromatosis-related pathway. Drosophila and other insects also lack erythropoiesis. Thus, systemic iron regulation is likely to be conveyed by different signaling pathways and tissue requirements. The significance of regulating intestinal iron uptake is inferred from reports linking Drosophila developmental, immune, heat-shock and behavioral responses to iron sequestration. PMID:23686013

  12. Iron absorption in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Mandilaras, Konstantinos; Pathmanathan, Tharse; Missirlis, Fanis

    2013-05-17

    The way in which Drosophila melanogaster acquires iron from the diet remains poorly understood despite iron absorption being of vital significance for larval growth. To describe the process of organismal iron absorption, consideration needs to be given to cellular iron import, storage, export and how intestinal epithelial cells sense and respond to iron availability. Here we review studies on the Divalent Metal Transporter-1 homolog Malvolio (iron import), the recent discovery that Multicopper Oxidase-1 has ferroxidase activity (iron export) and the role of ferritin in the process of iron acquisition (iron storage). We also describe what is known about iron regulation in insect cells. We then draw upon knowledge from mammalian iron homeostasis to identify candidate genes in flies. Questions arise from the lack of conservation in Drosophila for key mammalian players, such as ferroportin, hepcidin and all the components of the hemochromatosis-related pathway. Drosophila and other insects also lack erythropoiesis. Thus, systemic iron regulation is likely to be conveyed by different signaling pathways and tissue requirements. The significance of regulating intestinal iron uptake is inferred from reports linking Drosophila developmental, immune, heat-shock and behavioral responses to iron sequestration.

  13. The Integrated Air Transportation System Evaluation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Hees, Jing; Villani, James A.; Yackovetsky, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Throughout U.S. history, our nation has generally enjoyed exceptional economic growth, driven in part by transportation advancements. Looking forward 25 years, when the national highway and skyway systems are saturated, the nation faces new challenges in creating transportation-driven economic growth and wealth. To meet the national requirement for an improved air traffic management system, NASA developed the goal of tripling throughput over the next 20 years, in all weather conditions while maintaining safety. Analysis of the throughput goal has primarily focused on major airline operations, primarily through the hub and spoke system.However, many suggested concepts to increase throughput may operate outside the hub and spoke system. Examples of such concepts include the Small Aircraft Transportation System, civil tiltrotor, and improved rotorcraft. Proper assessment of the potential contribution of these technologies to the domestic air transportation system requires a modeling capability that includes the country's numerous smaller airports, acting as a fundamental component of the National Air space System, and the demand for such concepts and technologies. Under this task for NASA, the Logistics Management Institute developed higher fidelity demand models that capture the interdependence of short-haul air travel with other transportation modes and explicitly consider the costs of commercial air and other transport modes. To accomplish this work, we generated forecasts of the distribution of general aviation based aircraft and GA itinerant operations at each of nearly 3.000 airport based on changes in economic conditions and demographic trends. We also built modules that estimate the demand for travel by different modes, particularly auto, commercial air, and GA. We examined GA demand from two perspectives: top-down and bottom-up, described in detail.

  14. A Robust Scalable Transportation System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew; DeLaurentis, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    This report documents the 2005 Revolutionary System Concept for Aeronautics (RSCA) study entitled "A Robust, Scalable Transportation System Concept". The objective of the study was to generate, at a high-level of abstraction, characteristics of a new concept for the National Airspace System, or the new NAS, under which transportation goals such as increased throughput, delay reduction, and improved robustness could be realized. Since such an objective can be overwhelmingly complex if pursued at the lowest levels of detail, instead a System-of-Systems (SoS) approach was adopted to model alternative air transportation architectures at a high level. The SoS approach allows the consideration of not only the technical aspects of the NAS", but also incorporates policy, socio-economic, and alternative transportation system considerations into one architecture. While the representations of the individual systems are basic, the higher level approach allows for ways to optimize the SoS at the network level, determining the best topology (i.e. configuration of nodes and links). The final product (concept) is a set of rules of behavior and network structure that not only satisfies national transportation goals, but represents the high impact rules that accomplish those goals by getting the agents to "do the right thing" naturally. The novel combination of Agent Based Modeling and Network Theory provides the core analysis methodology in the System-of-Systems approach. Our method of approach is non-deterministic which means, fundamentally, it asks and answers different questions than deterministic models. The nondeterministic method is necessary primarily due to our marriage of human systems with technological ones in a partially unknown set of future worlds. Our goal is to understand and simulate how the SoS, human and technological components combined, evolve.

  15. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid on expression of iron transport and storage proteins in BV-2 microglia cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping; Li, Fei-Mi; Zhou, Yu-Fu; Qian, Christopher; Li, Juan; Jiang, Li-Rong; Qian, Zhong-Ming

    2017-02-01

    The antioxidant properties of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) are associated with its ability to reduce iron in cells and tissues, which is partly due to its inhibiting effect on iron uptake from transferrin and its promoting effect on iron deposition into ferritin. However, the relevant mechanisms are unknown. We therefore investigated the effects of ALA on the expression of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1), divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), ferroportin 1 (Fpn1) and ferritin in BV-2 microglia cells. We demonstrated that ALA significantly inhibited DMT1 expression, lowered ferritin-light-chain (Ft-L) and ferritin-heavy-chain (Ft-H) content, and had no effect on TfR1 and Fpn1 in BV-2 microglia cells. This indicated that the inhibiting effect of ALA on DMT1 might be one of the causes of the ALA-induced reduction in cellular transferrin-bound-iron uptake. We also demonstrated that ALA enhanced DMT1 and TfR1 expression in ferric ammonium citrate (FAC)-treated cells. FAC treatment led to a significant increase in Ft-L, Ft-H and Fpn1, and pre-treatment with ALA resulted in a further increase in the contents of Ft-L and Ft-H but not Fpn1 in cells. ALA could up-regulate TfR1, DMT1 and ferritin expression when iron is increased outside of the cell, promoting iron deposition into ferritin by increasing cell iron uptake, and then reducing free iron both inside and outside of the cell. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  16. Reactive transport modeling of dissolved organic matter and iron in the Bengal Basin and Mahomet Bedrock Valley aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mladenov, N.; Kulkarni, H. V.; Steward, D. R.; Datta, S.

    2016-12-01

    Despite their different geography, geology and hydrology, Bengal Basin (BB) and Mahomet Bedrock Valley (MBV) aquifers have some key processes in common that mobilize arsenic (As) into groundwater. Groundwater flow, transport of sedimentary labile carbon and dissolved organic matter (DOM) through a multi-layer aquifer system, and microbial interactions together play an important role in the discontinuous As distribution. This study characterized and compared the DOM in high and low As groundwaters in BB and MBV aquifers and developed refined hydrogeological flow models for each of the aquifers. Fluorescence indices suggested substantially more humified and decomposed DOM character in high As (>50 ppb) zones than in low As (<50 ppb) zones in both aquifers. Modeling results indicate North-West to South-East flow with velocity of 7.2 cm/day for the BB aquifer and South-East to North-West with velocity of 35 cm/day for the MBV aquifer. A transport model including advection, dispersion, sorption and reaction was developed to understand the distribution of dissolved iron (Fe) in domains. A modified Monod rate law was used to simulate acetotrophic Fe reduction influenced by the presence of humic-like DOM, based on experimental data. The model produced a Fe2+ distribution, which was similar to that observed in high and low As sites in the BB aquifer. Meanwhile, in the MBV aquifer model, the dispersion of Fe2+ was found to be lower due to higher hydraulic gradient. Model results further indicated that in 30 years these processes would mobilize Fe2+ up to 1.4 km and 5 km in BB and MBV aquifers, respectively. While the quality of DOM in the two aquifers showed similarities, diverse flow and transport conditions may result in more localized and widespread distributions of Fe2+ and As in the BB and MBV aquifers respectively.

  17. Iontophoretic Transport Across a Multiple Membrane System

    PubMed Central

    MOLOKHIA, SARAH A.; ZHANG, YANHUI; HIGUCHI, WILLIAM I.; LI, S. KEVIN

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the iontophoretic transport behavior across multiple membranes of different barrier properties. Spectra/Por® (SP) and Ionac membranes were the synthetic membranes and sclera was the biomembrane in this model study. The barrier properties of SP membranes were determined individually in passive and iontophoresis transport experiments with tetraethylammonium ion (TEA), chloride ion (Cl), and mannitol as the model permeants. Passive and iontophoretic transport experiments were then conducted with an assembly of SP membranes. The contribution of electroosmosis to iontophoresis was assessed using the mannitol data. Model analysis was performed to study the contribution of diffusion and electromigration to electrotransport across the multiple membrane system. The effects of membrane barrier thickness upon ion-exchange membrane-enhanced iontophoresis were examined with Ionac, SP, and sclera. The present study shows that iontophoretic transport of TEA across the membrane system was related to the thicknesses and permeability coefficients of the membranes and the electromobilities of the permeant across the individual membranes in the assembly. Model analysis suggests significant contribution of diffusion within the membranes across the membrane system, and this mechanism is relatively independent of the current density applied across the system in iontophoresis dominant transport. PMID:17990310

  18. 77 FR 24559 - Marine Transportation System National Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... Maritime Administration Marine Transportation System National Advisory Council ACTION: National Advisory Council public meeting. SUMMARY: The Maritime Administration announces that the Marine Transportation... on the integration of marine highways into the national transportation system and the development...

  19. Shuttle derived manned transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordway, Wayne L.

    1991-01-01

    Shuttle derivatives have been under study by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for a number of years. With Space Station Freedom and the Lunar/Mars Initiative established as national objectives, the demand for access to earth orbit is accelerating. These objectives have resulted in efforts to address additional launch requirements that must be met as the turn of the century approaches. Among the top level requirements are increased safety, higher reliability, lower cost, and the need for heavy lift launch capability. To satisfy these requirements, some of the largest technology demands will be placed upon the propulsion systems. Shuttle derived manned concepts are presented and the associated propulsion issues which arise from the top level requirements are discussed. These concepts are presented in terms of an overall architecture which can be achieved with modest up-front development.

  20. Amino acid transport by prosthecae of Asticcacaulis biprosthecum: evidence for a broad-range transport system.

    PubMed

    Tam, E; Pate, J L

    1985-10-01

    Prosthecae purified from cells of Asticcaulis biprosthecum possess active transport systems that transport all 20 amino acids tested. Using ascorbate-reduced phenazine methosulphate in the presence of oxygen, all 20 amino acids are accumulated against a concentration gradient by isolated prosthecae. Results of experiments testing the inhibition of transport of one amino acid by another, and of experiments testing the exchange of exogenous amino acids with those preloaded in prosthecae, along with characteristics of mutants defective in amino acid transport, suggest the presence in prosthecae of three amino acid transport systems. One, the general or G system, transports at least 18 of the 20 amino acids tested. Another system, referred to as the proline or P system, transports seven amino acids (including proline) that are also transported by the G system. The third system transports only glutamate and aspartate, and is referred to as the acidic amino acid transport system or A system.

  1. The Secure, Transportable, Autonomous Reactor System

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.W.; Hassberger, J.A.; Smith, C.; Carelli, M.; Greenspan, E.; Peddicord, K.L.; Stroh, K.; Wade, D.C.; Hill, R.N.

    1999-05-27

    The Secure, Transportable, Autonomous Reactor (STAR) system is a development architecture for implementing a small nuclear power system, specifically aimed at meeting the growing energy needs of much of the developing world. It simultaneously provides very high standards for safety, proliferation resistance, ease and economy of installation, operation, and ultimate disposition. The STAR system accomplishes these objectives through a combination of modular design, factory manufacture, long lifetime without refueling, autonomous control, and high reliability.

  2. Vapor-phase heat-transport system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedstrom, J. C.

    1983-11-01

    A vapor-phase heat-transport system is being tested in one of the passive test cells at Los Alamos. The system consists of one selective-surface collector and a condenser inside a water storage tank. The refrigerant, R-11, can be returned to the collector by gravity or with a pump. Results from several operating configurations are presented, together with a comparison with other passive systems. A new self-pumping concept is presented.

  3. Vapor-phase heat-transport system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedstrom, J. C.

    A vapor-phase heat-transport system is being tested in one of the passive test cells at Los Alamos. The system consists of one selective-surface collector and a condenser inside a water storage tank. The refrigerant, R-11, can be returned to the collector by gravity or with a pump. Results from several operating configurations are presented, together with a comparison with other passive systems. A new self-pumping concept is presented.

  4. A Mars/phobos Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A transportation system will be necessary to support construction and operation of bases on Phobos and Mars beginning in the year 2020 or later. An approach to defining a network of vehicles and the types of vehicles which may be used in the system are presented. The network will provide a convenient, integrated means for transporting robotically constructed bases to Phobos and Mars. All the technology needed for the current plan is expected to be available for use at the projected date of cargo departure from the Earth system. The modular design of the transportation system provides easily implemented contingency plans, so that difficulties with any one vehicle will have a minimal effect on the progress of the total mission. The transportation network proposed consists of orbital vehicles and atmospheric entry vehicles. Initially, only orbital vehicles will participate in the robotic construction phase of the Phobos base. The Interplanetary Transfer Vehicle (ITV) will carry the base and construction equipment to Phobos where the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicles (OMV's) will participate in the initial construction of the base. When the Mars base is ready to be sent, one or more ITV's will be used to transport the atmospheric entry vehicles from Earth. These atmospheric vehicles are the One Way Landers (OWL's) and the Ascent/Descent Vehicles (ADV's). They will be used to carry the base components and/or construction equipment. The OMV's and the Orbital Transfer Vehicles (OTV's) will assist in carrying the atmospheric entry vehicles to low Martian orbit where the OWL's or ADV's will descent to the planet surface. The ADV's were proposed to accommodate expansion of the system. Additionally, a smaller version of the ADV class is capable of transporting personnel between Mars and Phobos.

  5. Nitrate transport system in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Schloemen, R H; Garrett, R H

    1974-04-01

    Nitrate uptake in Neurospora crassa has been investigated under various conditions of nitrogen nutrition by measuring the rate of disappearance of nitrate from the medium and by determining mycelial nitrate accumulation. The nitrate transport system is induced by either nitrate or nitrite, but is not present in mycelia grown on ammonia or Casamino Acids. The appearance of nitrate uptake activity is prevented by cycloheximide, puromycin, or 6-methyl purine. The induced nitrate transport system displays a K(m) for nitrate of 0.25 mM. Nitrate uptake is inhibited by metabolic poisons such as 2,4-dinitrophenol, cyanide, and antimycin A. Furthermore, mycelia can concentrate nitrate 50-fold. Ammonia and nitrite are non-competitive inhibitors with respect to nitrate, with K(i) values of 0.13 and 0.17 mM, respectively. Ammonia does not repress the formation of the nitrate transport system. In contrast, the nitrate uptake system is repressed by Casamino Acids. All amino acids individually prevent nitrate accumulation, with the exception of methionine, glutamine, and alanine. The influence of nitrate reduction and the nitrate reductase protein on nitrate transport was investigated in wild-type Neurospora lacking a functional nitrate reductase and in nitrate non-utilizing mutants, nit-1, nit-2, and nit-3. These mycelia contain an inducible nitrate transport system which displays the same characteristics as those found in the wild-type mycelia having the functional nitrate reductase. These findings suggest that nitrate transport is not dependent upon nitrate reduction and that these two processes are separate events in the assimilation of nitrate.

  6. Geomicrobiological Regeneration of Iron Sulfides in Engineered barrier Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannela, R.; Adriaens, P.; Hayes, K. F.

    2005-12-01

    The reactive capacity of iron sulfide-based permeable reactive barriers (PRB) to complex and co-precipitate heavy metal ions from groundwater will depend on the potential for regeneration of reactive FeS during the expected lifetime of the PRB. FeS reactivity may decrease in a PRB in time as the result of the following processes: (i) oxidation of FeS and the formation of ferric iron (Fe(III)) oxide solids in the presence of oxygenated groundwater at the entrance of the PRB, (ii) oxidation of FeS in the presence of redox active metals like As(V) with the formation of ferric solids, (iii) co-precipitation of heavy metals within the PRB with the reactive FeS leading to the formation of insoluble metal sulfides co-precipitates with the concomitant release of ferrous iron and formation of ferrous (Fe(II) oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate solids, (iv) clogging of the PRB structure due to formation of precipitate products from processes (i) - (iii).. We have demonstrated the formation of triolite in the presence of an oxidized form of hydrous ferric oxide (HFO), various sulfate concentrations, and biomass densities for the sulfate reducing bacterium (SRB) Desulfovibrio vulgaris. This result has allowed us to demonstrate the feasibility of regeneration of FeS from the ferric oxide and hydroxide solids that may be produced under scenarios (i) and (ii) above as well as to establish the electron donor and acceptor requirements for this SRB. Using Desulfobacterium autotrophicum, both HFO and soluble complexed forms of ferric iron gave rise to the formation of mackinawite. The latter have been shown to react with As (V) and Cd (II) to form ferric solids. Both organisms will be used to generate FeS solids in the presence of crystalline forms of ferric solids expected to form from scenarios (i) and (ii) (e.g., goethite and the mixed Fe(II)/(Fe(III) magnetite, and green rusts) and ferrous iron solids from scenarios (iii) and (iv) (Fe(II) oxides and siderite). Similar to the study

  7. Iron Biogeochemistry in Aquatic Systems: From Source to Bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Norman, Louiza; Cabanesa, Damien J E; Blanco-Ameijeiras, Sonia; Moisset, Sophie A M; Hassler, Christel S

    2014-11-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential trace element for several key metabolic processes in phytoplankton; however Fe is present in low concentration in many aquatic systems including vast oceanic regions and large lakes. In these systems, Fe can limit the growth of phytoplankton and atmospheric carbon dioxide biological fixation. Indeed Fe limitation exerts a global impact on the carbon cycle and the imprint of aquatic systems on our climate. In order to understand how aquatic systems function and increase our ability to predict their response to changing conditions, it is therefore paramount to understand when and how Fe controls operate. This review presents the complex relationship between Fe chemistry and the biology of surface waters to highlight the parameters defining the forms of Fe that are accessible for phytoplankton growth (or bioavailable). Particular attention is given to the identification of Fe sources and Fe organic complexation as these, in conjunction with biological recycling and remineralisation, mostly control Fe residence time, chemistry and bioavailability.

  8. Pathogen transport in groundwater systems: contrasts with traditional solute transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Randall J.; Johnson, William P.

    2016-12-01

    Water quality affects many aspects of water availability, from precluding use to societal perceptions of fit-for-purpose. Pathogen source and transport processes are drivers of water quality because they have been responsible for numerous outbreaks resulting in large economic losses due to illness and, in some cases, loss of life. Outbreaks result from very small exposure (e.g., less than 20 viruses) from very strong sources (e.g., trillions of viruses shed by a single infected individual). Thus, unlike solute contaminants, an acute exposure to a very small amount of contaminated water can cause immediate adverse health effects. Similarly, pathogens are larger than solutes. Thus, interactions with surfaces and settling become important even as processes important for solutes such as diffusion become less important. These differences are articulated in "Colloid Filtration Theory", a separate branch of pore-scale transport. Consequently, understanding pathogen processes requires changes in how groundwater systems are typically characterized, where the focus is on the leading edges of plumes and preferential flow paths, even if such features move only a very small fraction of the aquifer flow. Moreover, the relatively short survival times of pathogens in the subsurface require greater attention to very fast (<10 year) flow paths. By better understanding the differences between pathogen and solute transport mechanisms discussed here, a more encompassing view of water quality and source water protection is attained. With this more holistic view and theoretical understanding, better evaluations can be made regarding drinking water vulnerability and the relation between groundwater and human health.

  9. Pathogen transport in groundwater systems: contrasts with traditional solute transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Randall J.; Johnson, William P.

    2017-06-01

    Water quality affects many aspects of water availability, from precluding use to societal perceptions of fit-for-purpose. Pathogen source and transport processes are drivers of water quality because they have been responsible for numerous outbreaks resulting in large economic losses due to illness and, in some cases, loss of life. Outbreaks result from very small exposure (e.g., less than 20 viruses) from very strong sources (e.g., trillions of viruses shed by a single infected individual). Thus, unlike solute contaminants, an acute exposure to a very small amount of contaminated water can cause immediate adverse health effects. Similarly, pathogens are larger than solutes. Thus, interactions with surfaces and settling become important even as processes important for solutes such as diffusion become less important. These differences are articulated in "Colloid Filtration Theory", a separate branch of pore-scale transport. Consequently, understanding pathogen processes requires changes in how groundwater systems are typically characterized, where the focus is on the leading edges of plumes and preferential flow paths, even if such features move only a very small fraction of the aquifer flow. Moreover, the relatively short survival times of pathogens in the subsurface require greater attention to very fast (<10 year) flow paths. By better understanding the differences between pathogen and solute transport mechanisms discussed here, a more encompassing view of water quality and source water protection is attained. With this more holistic view and theoretical understanding, better evaluations can be made regarding drinking water vulnerability and the relation between groundwater and human health.

  10. Crew Transportation System Design Reference Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mango, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Contains summaries of potential design reference mission goals for systems to transport humans to andfrom low Earth orbit (LEO) for the Commercial Crew Program. The purpose of this document is to describe Design Reference Missions (DRMs) representative of the end-to-end Crew Transportation System (CTS) framework envisioned to successfully execute commercial crew transportation to orbital destinations. The initial CTS architecture will likely be optimized to support NASA crew and NASA-sponsored crew rotation missions to the ISS, but consideration may be given in this design phase to allow for modifications in order to accomplish other commercial missions in the future. With the exception of NASA’s mission to the ISS, the remaining commercial DRMs are notional. Any decision to design or scar the CTS for these additional non-NASA missions is completely up to the Commercial Provider. As NASA’s mission needs evolve over time, this document will be periodically updated to reflect those needs.

  11. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOEpatents

    Stein, VanEric Edward [Allentown, PA; Carolan, Michael Francis [Allentown, PA; Chen, Christopher M [Allentown, PA; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew [Orefield, PA; Wahle, Harold W [North Canton, OH; Ohrn, Theodore R [Alliance, OH; Kneidel, Kurt E [Alliance, OH; Rackers, Keith Gerard [Louisville, OH; Blake, James Erik [Uniontown, OH; Nataraj, Shankar [Allentown, PA; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson [West Jordan, UT

    2008-02-26

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel.The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  12. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOEpatents

    Stein, VanEric Edward [Allentown, PA; Carolan, Michael Francis [Allentown, PA; Chen, Christopher M [Allentown, PA; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew [Orefield, PA; Wahle, Harold W [North Canton, OH; Ohrn, Theodore R [Alliance, OH; Kneidel, Kurt E [Alliance, OH; Rackers, Keith Gerard [Louisville, OH; Blake, James Erik [Uniontown, OH; Nataraj, Shankar [Allentown, PA; Van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson [West Jordan, UT

    2012-02-14

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  13. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOEpatents

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2007-02-20

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  14. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOEpatents

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2008-02-26

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel.The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  15. Automatic control system for uniformly paving iron ore pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bowen; Qian, Xiaolong

    2014-05-01

    In iron and steelmaking industry, iron ore pellet qualities are crucial to end-product properties, manufacturing costs and waste emissions. Uniform pellet pavements on the grate machine are a fundamental prerequisite to ensure even heat-transfer and pellet induration successively influences performance of the following metallurgical processes. This article presents an automatic control system for uniformly paving green pellets on the grate, via a mechanism mainly constituted of a mechanical linkage, a swinging belt, a conveyance belt and a grate. Mechanism analysis illustrates that uniform pellet pavements demand the frontend of the swinging belt oscillate at a constant angular velocity. Subsequently, kinetic models are formulated to relate oscillatory movements of the swinging belt's frontend to rotations of a crank link driven by a motor. On basis of kinetic analysis of the pellet feeding mechanism, a cubic B-spline model is built for numerically computing discrete frequencies to be modulated during a motor rotation. Subsequently, the pellet feeding control system is presented in terms of compositional hardware and software components, and their functional relationships. Finally, pellet feeding experiments are carried out to demonstrate that the control system is effective, reliable and superior to conventional methods.

  16. Deficiency of the ferrous iron transporter FeoAB is linked with metronidazole resistance in Bacteroides fragilis.

    PubMed

    Veeranagouda, Yaligara; Husain, Fasahath; Boente, Renata; Moore, Jane; Smith, C Jeffrey; Rocha, Edson R; Patrick, Sheila; Wexler, Hannah M

    2014-10-01

    Metronidazole is the most commonly used antimicrobial for Bacteroides fragilis infections and is recommended for prophylaxis of colorectal surgery. Metronidazole resistance is increasing and the mechanisms of resistance are not clear. A transposon mutant library was generated in B. fragilis 638R (BF638R) to identify the genetic loci associated with resistance to metronidazole. Thirty-two independently isolated metronidazole-resistant mutants had a transposon insertion in BF638R_1421 that encodes the ferrous transport fusion protein (feoAB). Deletion of feoAB resulted in a 10-fold increased MIC of metronidazole for the strain. The metronidazole MIC for the feoAB mutant was similar to that for the parent strain when grown on media supplemented with excess iron, suggesting that the increase seen in the MIC of metronidazole was due to reduced cellular iron transport in the feoAB mutant. The furA gene repressed feoAB transcription in an iron-dependent manner and disruption of furA resulted in constitutive transcription of feoAB, regardless of whether or not iron was present. However, disruption of feoAB also diminished the capacity of BF638R to grow in a mouse intraperitoneal abscess model, suggesting that inorganic ferrous iron assimilation is essential for B. fragilis survival in vivo. Selection for feoAB mutations as a result of metronidazole treatment will disable the pathogenic potential of B. fragilis and could contribute to the clinical efficacy of metronidazole. While mutations in feoAB are probably not a direct cause of clinical resistance, this study provides a key insight into intracellular metronidazole activity and the link with intracellular iron homeostasis. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2014. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Deficiency of the ferrous iron transporter FeoAB is linked with metronidazole resistance in Bacteroides fragilis

    PubMed Central

    Veeranagouda, Yaligara; Husain, Fasahath; Boente, Renata; Moore, Jane; Smith, C. Jeffrey; Rocha, Edson R.; Patrick, Sheila; Wexler, Hannah M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Metronidazole is the most commonly used antimicrobial for Bacteroides fragilis infections and is recommended for prophylaxis of colorectal surgery. Metronidazole resistance is increasing and the mechanisms of resistance are not clear. Methods A transposon mutant library was generated in B. fragilis 638R (BF638R) to identify the genetic loci associated with resistance to metronidazole. Results Thirty-two independently isolated metronidazole-resistant mutants had a transposon insertion in BF638R_1421 that encodes the ferrous transport fusion protein (feoAB). Deletion of feoAB resulted in a 10-fold increased MIC of metronidazole for the strain. The metronidazole MIC for the feoAB mutant was similar to that for the parent strain when grown on media supplemented with excess iron, suggesting that the increase seen in the MIC of metronidazole was due to reduced cellular iron transport in the feoAB mutant. The furA gene repressed feoAB transcription in an iron-dependent manner and disruption of furA resulted in constitutive transcription of feoAB, regardless of whether or not iron was present. However, disruption of feoAB also diminished the capacity of BF638R to grow in a mouse intraperitoneal abscess model, suggesting that inorganic ferrous iron assimilation is essential for B. fragilis survival in vivo. Conclusions Selection for feoAB mutations as a result of metronidazole treatment will disable the pathogenic potential of B. fragilis and could contribute to the clinical efficacy of metronidazole. While mutations in feoAB are probably not a direct cause of clinical resistance, this study provides a key insight into intracellular metronidazole activity and the link with intracellular iron homeostasis. PMID:25028451

  18. Route and Regulation of Zinc, Cadmium, and Iron Transport in Rice Plants (Oryza sativa L.) during Vegetative Growth and Grain Filling: Metal Transporters, Metal Speciation, Grain Cd Reduction and Zn and Fe Biofortification

    PubMed Central

    Yoneyama, Tadakatsu; Ishikawa, Satoru; Fujimaki, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) are essential but are sometimes deficient in humans, while cadmium (Cd) is toxic if it accumulates in the liver and kidneys at high levels. All three are contained in the grains of rice, a staple cereal. Zn and Fe concentrations in rice grains harvested under different levels of soil/hydroponic metals are known to change only within a small range, while Cd concentrations show greater changes. To clarify the mechanisms underlying such different metal contents, we synthesized information on the routes of metal transport and accumulation in rice plants by examining metal speciation, metal transporters, and the xylem-to-phloem transport system. At grain-filling, Zn and Cd ascending in xylem sap are transferred to the phloem by the xylem-to-phloem transport system operating at stem nodes. Grain Fe is largely derived from the leaves by remobilization. Zn and Fe concentrations in phloem-sap and grains are regulated within a small range, while Cd concentrations vary depending on xylem supply. Transgenic techniques to increase concentrations of the metal chelators (nicotianamine, 2′-deoxymugineic acid) are useful in increasing grain Zn and Fe concentrations. The elimination of OsNRAMP5 Cd-uptake transporter and the enhancement of root cell vacuolar Cd sequestration reduce uptake and root-to-shoot transport, respectively, resulting in a reduction of grain Cd accumulation. PMID:26287170

  19. Route and Regulation of Zinc, Cadmium, and Iron Transport in Rice Plants (Oryza sativa L.) during Vegetative Growth and Grain Filling: Metal Transporters, Metal Speciation, Grain Cd Reduction and Zn and Fe Biofortification.

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, Tadakatsu; Ishikawa, Satoru; Fujimaki, Shu

    2015-08-13

    Zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) are essential but are sometimes deficient in humans, while cadmium (Cd) is toxic if it accumulates in the liver and kidneys at high levels. All three are contained in the grains of rice, a staple cereal. Zn and Fe concentrations in rice grains harvested under different levels of soil/hydroponic metals are known to change only within a small range, while Cd concentrations show greater changes. To clarify the mechanisms underlying such different metal contents, we synthesized information on the routes of metal transport and accumulation in rice plants by examining metal speciation, metal transporters, and the xylem-to-phloem transport system.