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Sample records for irradiated chestnuts preliminary

  1. Detection of irradiated chestnuts: preliminary study using three analytical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiacotti, Michele; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio; Marchesani, Giuliana; De Sio, Antonio; Boniglia, Concetta; Bortolin, Emanuela; Onori, Sandro

    2009-07-01

    Irradiation of chestnuts has recently been considered as an alternative treatment to fumigation to reduce the considerable amount of the product normally lost during post-harvest period. The treatment is allowed in countries such as Korea and, in view of a possible extension to European countries, to permit the legal controls as required by the directive 1999/2/EC [ European Parliament and Council Directive, 1999/2/EC, on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation. Official Journal of the European Communities. L 66/16 of 13.3.1999] and meet consumer consensus, reliable methods for detecting irradiated chestnuts have to be proposed. The aim of the present work was to test the efficacy of the European Standard EN 13751, EN 1788, EN 1787 and EN 13708 in detecting irradiated chestnuts. For this purpose, six sets of "Montella" chestnuts, a typical Italian variety recognized as a PGI (protected geographical indication), non-irradiated and irradiated at different doses in the 0.1-1 kGy range, were analysed by thermoluminescence (TL), photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) (screening and calibrated PSL) and ESR techniques. PSL and TL analysis results revealed the low luminescence sensitivity of the chestnuts. Nevertheless, PSL screening data were in the intermediate band above the negative threshold (at all doses except at the lowest one) and TL analysis led to correct positive classifications even at the lowest dose tested (0.15 Gy). On the contrary, no radio-induced ESR signal could be registered with the irradiated samples of chestnut shell or pulp.

  2. Influence of gamma irradiation in the antioxidant potential of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) fruits and skins.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Amilcar L; Fernandes, Angela; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M Luisa; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-09-01

    As seasonal products chestnuts have to be post-harvest treated to increase their shelf-life. The most common preservation method for chestnuts is the chemical fumigation with methyl bromide, a toxic agent that is under strictly Montreal Protocol due to its adverse effects on human health and environment. Food irradiation is a possible feasible alternative to substitute the traditional quarantine chemical fumigation treatment. This preliminary study evaluated the influence of gamma irradiation in the antioxidant potential of chestnut fruits and skins, through several chemical and biochemical parameters. The bioactive compounds (phenolics and flavonoids) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of β-carotene bleaching capacity were determined. The obtained results seem to indicate that the storage favoured chestnuts antioxidant potential. Furthermore, the application of gamma irradiation also seems to be advantageous for antioxidant activity, independently of the dose used (0.27 ± 0.04 kGy or 0.54 ± 0.04 kGy).

  3. Chemometric characterization of gamma irradiated chestnuts from Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreira, João C. M.; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Günaydi, Tugba; Alkan, Hasan; Bento, Albino; Luisa Botelho, M.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2012-09-01

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) is a valuable natural resource, with high exportation levels. Due to their water content, chestnuts are susceptible to storage problems like dehydration or development of insects and microorganisms. Irradiation has been revealing interesting features to be considered as an alternative conservation technology, increasing food products shelf-life. Any conservation methodology should have a wide application range. Hence, and after evaluating Portuguese cultivars, the assessment of irradiation effects in foreign cultivars might act as an important indicator of the versatility of this technology. In this work, the effects of gamma irradiation (0.0, 0.5 and 3.0 kGy) on proximate composition, sugars, fatty acids (FA) and tocopherols composition of Turkish chestnuts stored at 4 °C for different periods (0, 15 and 30 days) were evaluated. Regarding proximate composition, the storage time (ST) had higher influence than the irradiation dose (ID), especially on fat, ash, carbohydrates and energetic value. Sucrose exhibited similar behavior in response to the assayed ST and ID. The prevalence of ST influence was also verified for FA, tocopherols and sucrose. Lauric, palmitoleic and linolenic acids were the only FA that underwent some differences with ID. Saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected either by storage or irradiation. α-Tocopherol was the only vitamer with significant differences among the assayed ST and ID. Overall, Turkish cultivars showed a compositional profile closely related with Portuguese cultivars, and seemed to confirm that gamma irradiation in the applied doses did not change chestnut chemical and nutritional composition.

  4. Trials to identify irradiated chestnut (Castanea bungena) with different analytical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hyung-Wook; Delincée, Henry; Han, Sang-Bae; Hong, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Hee-Yun; Kim, Myung-Chul; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2004-09-01

    Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) measurement, DNA comet assay, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and thermoluminescence (TL) measurement were applied to identify irradiated chestnut. Samples were irradiated with 60Co γ-rays at 0-0.5kGy. The PSL photon counts for irradiated chestnuts were too low to be distinguished from those of the non-irradiated sample. There was no difference in DNA comets between non-irradiated and irradiated chestnuts. ESR spectroscopy did not show any radiation-induced specific signals but a symmetric singlet. However, using TL, the shape of the glow curve (Glow 1) made it possible to identify the irradiated chestnuts. In addition, the TL glow ratio (Glow 1/Glow 2) obtained by normalization was less than 0.01 for the non-irradiated sample and >=0.10 for irradiated ones, respectively.

  5. Competitiveness of gamma irradiation with fumigation for chestnuts associated with quarantine and quality security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kwon, Yong-Jung; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2004-09-01

    Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and methyl bromide (MeBr) fumigation were determined for fresh chestnut on mortality of pests and quality stability. Chestnut was exposed to both irradiation at 0-10 kGy and MeBr fumigation in commercial conditions, and then subjected to the corresponding study during storage at 5°C for 6 months. Pests with quarantine importance for chestnut were found Curculio sikkimensis Heller and Dichocrocis punctiferalis Guenee, which showed 100% mortality by MeBr at the 3rd day after fumigation and by irradiation at 0.5 kGy in about 4 weeks. Sprouting was controlled for 6 months with treatments of 0.25 kGy or more and of MeBr, but rotting rate dramatically increased from 2 months after fumigation. Irradiation over 1 kGy as well as fumigation significantly caused changes in the color of stored chestnut. Considering the cumulative mortality of chestnut pests, irradiation at the range of 0.5 kGy is recommendable as one of alternatives to MeBr fumigation for both quarantine and sprout control purposes.

  6. Assessing the effects of gamma irradiation and storage time in energetic value and in major individual nutrients of chestnuts.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Angela; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Bento, Albino; Luisa Botelho, M; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-09-01

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) is an important food resource all over the world. In the present study, it is intended to evaluate if the application of gamma irradiation doses ≤ 3 kGy maintain chestnuts chemical and nutritional profiles unaffected. Furthermore, possible interactions among irradiation dose and storage time were accessed using linear discriminate analysis (LDA). The nutritional composition was evaluated through determination of proteins, fat, ash, carbohydrates and energetic value. The chemical composition was focused in the main nutrients found in chestnuts: sugars - sucrose, fatty acids - palmitic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids, tocopherols - γ-tocopherol. The obtained results seem to indicate that the irradiation treatment did not affect the nutritional and chemical quality of chestnut fruits. Otherwise, storage time exerted more evident influence in those parameters. The application of gamma irradiation emerges as a promising technology for chestnuts chemical quality, but food safety issues have to be evaluated in order to recommend its application as a useful conservation alternative.

  7. Analysis of organic acids in electron beam irradiated chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.): Effects of radiation dose and storage time.

    PubMed

    Carocho, Márcio; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Kaluska, Iwona; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-05-01

    Since 2010, methyl bromide, a widely used fumigant was banned from the European Union under the Montreal Protocol guidelines, due to its deleterious effects on health and risk to the environment. Since then, many alternatives for chestnut conservation have been studied (hot water dip treatment being the most common), among them, electron beam irradiation has been proposed as being a safe, clean and cheap alternative. Herein, the effects of this radiation at different doses up to 6kGy and over storage up to 60days in the amounts and profile of nutritionally important organic acids were evaluated. Chestnuts contained important organic acids with quinic and citric acids as main compounds. Storage time, which is traditionally well accepted by consumers, caused a slight decrease on quinic (13-9mg/g), ascorbic (1.2-0.8mg/g), malic (5-4mg/g), fumaric (0.4-0.3mg/g) and total organic (33-26mg/g) acids content. Otherwise, irradiation dose did not cause appreciable changes, either individually or in total (28-27mg/g) organic acid contents. Electron beam irradiation might constitute a valuable alternative for chestnut conservation.

  8. Comparative effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the antioxidant potential of Portuguese chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.).

    PubMed

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L; Barros, Lillian; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M Luisa; Kaluska, Iwona; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-10-01

    Chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) are widely consumed all over the world, and have been recently studied for their antioxidant potential. The present study reports the effect of e-beam and gamma radiation (doses of 0, 0.5, 1 and 3 kGy) on the antioxidant potential of Portuguese chestnuts. Irradiation might be an alternative preservation method, since Methyl Bromide, a widely used fumigant, was banished by the European Union in 2010 due to its toxicity. The antioxidant activity was evaluated through 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity assay, reducing power by the Ferricyanide/Prussian blue assay, and lipid peroxidation inhibition by β-carotene/linoleate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assays. The analysis of total phenolics and flavonoids was performed by spectrophotometric assays. Irradiated samples preserved total phenolics content (but not flavonoids) and revealed higher antioxidant activity (lower EC50 values) than the control samples. The most indicated doses to maintain antioxidants content, and to increase antioxidant activity were 1 and 3 kGy for electron beam and gamma radiation, respectively.

  9. Low dose γ-irradiation as a suitable solution for chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) conservation: effects on sugars, fatty acids, and tocopherols.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ângela; Antonio, Amilcar L; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M Luisa; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-09-28

    Along with dehydration, the development of insects and microorganisms is the major drawback in chestnut conservation. Irradiation has been regaining interest as an alternative technology to increase food product shelf life. In the present work, the effects of low dose gamma irradiation on the sugar, fatty acid, and tocopherol composition of chestnuts stored at 4 °C for different storage periods (0, 30, and 60 days) was evaluated. The irradiations were performed in a 60Co experimental equipment, for 1 h (0.27±0.04 kGy) and 2 h (0.54±0.04 kGy). Changes in sugars and tocopherols were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to refraction index and fluorescence detections, respectively, while changes in fatty acids were analyzed by gas-chromatography coupled to flame ionization detection. Regarding sugar composition, storage time proved to have a higher effect than irradiation treatment. Fructose and glucose increased after storage, with the corresponding decrease of sucrose. Otherwise, the tocopherol content was lower in nonirradiated samples, without a significant influence of storage. Saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected, either by storage or irradiation. Nevertheless, some individual fatty acid concentrations were influenced by one of two factors, such as the increase of palmitic acid in irradiated samples or the decrease of oleic acid after 60 days of storage. Overall, the assayed irradiation doses seem to be a promising alternative treatment to increase chestnut shelf life, without affecting the profile and composition in important nutrients.

  10. [Horse breeding: genetic tests for the coat colors chestnut, bay and black. Results from a preliminary study in the Swiss Freiberger horse breed].

    PubMed

    Henner, J; Poncet, P A; Aebi, L; Hagger, C; Stranzinger, G; Rieder, S

    2002-08-01

    Coat color played an important role during domestication and formation of breeds. Livestock breeders often had special preferences for particular color phenotypes because they believed them to be associated with performance or fitness traits. Socio-cultural reasons might have had an influence on color selection as well. Recently genetic tests on DNA level got available to genotype in any individual horse for basic horse coat colors (chestnut, bay, black). In particular, hidden carriers of the recessive chestnut and black allele are recognizable with these tests. A sample of 162 Franches-Montagnes horses from Switzerland was genotyped for the alleles for chestnut and black. The analysis of allele frequencies revealed a high prevalence of the chestnut allele and a low frequency of the black allele in this population. Rare colors are in demand on the market. The statistical analysis of 1369 offspring from five stallions indicate, that darker shades of basic color phenotypes (dark chestnut, dark bay) follow a recessive mode of inheritance in the Franches-Montagnes horse breed.

  11. Chestnut, European (Castanea sativa).

    PubMed

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Development of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa) would provide an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees that are tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. Overexpression of genes encoding PR proteins (such as thaumatin-like proteins), which display antifungal activity, may represent an important advance in control of the disease. We have used a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1) isolated from European chestnut cotyledons and have achieved overexpression of the gene in chestnut somatic embryogenic lines used as target material. We have also acclimatized the transgenic plants and grown them on in the greenhouse. Here, we describe the various steps of the process, from the induction of somatic embryogenesis to the production of transgenic plants.

  12. 110. WEST CHESTNUT STREET PAPTIST CHURCH AT 1725 WEST CHESTNUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. WEST CHESTNUT STREET PAPTIST CHURCH AT 1725 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, WEST SIDE - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  13. Effect of preliminary irradiation on the bond strength between a veneering composite and alloy.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yoshifumi; Furuchi, Mika; Oshima, Akiko; Tanoue, Naomi; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Matsumura, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    The shear bond strength of a veneering composite (Solidex) and silver-palladium-copper-gold alloy (Castwell M.C.12) was evaluated for different duration times and irradiance for preliminary photo-polymerization. A veneering composite was applied onto a cast disk. Preliminary photo irradiation was performed using different duration times or irradiance. After final polymerization, the bond strength and the spectral distribution of each curing unit were determined. Shear bond strength was significantly higher for 90 s (12.4 MPa), than that for 0 s (8.3 MPa). With regard to the effect of irradiance, that from Solidilite (11.4 MPa) was significantly higher than that from Sublite S at 3 cm (8.7 MPa). The irradiance of Hyper LII and Sublite S at 3 cm was higher than Sublite S at 15 cm or Solidilite unit. Long time irradiation and low intensity is effective for preliminary irradiation in order to enhance the bond strength.

  14. Ectomycorrhizal characterization of an American chestnut (Castanea dentata)-dominated community in Western Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Jonathan M; Lindner, Daniel L; Volk, Thomas J

    2008-12-01

    Circa 1900, a farmer from the eastern US planted 11 American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seeds on a newly established farm near West Salem in western Wisconsin. These trees were very successful, producing a large stand of over 6,000 trees. Since this area is well outside the natural range of chestnut, these trees remained free from chestnut blight until 1987. In the West Salem stand, chestnuts are the dominant species of a mixed forest community, reminiscent of the chestnut-oak ecosystems of pre-1900 Appalachia. To identify putative mycorrhizal associates of chestnut in this unique forest, our approach was twofold: (1) an extensive fruiting body survey was conducted for four seasons that yielded approximately 100 putative mycorrhizal species and (2) a belowground molecular approach was used to generate DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region from ectomycorrhizae. Unexpectedly, chestnut did not appear to be the dominant underground ectomycorrhizal-forming plant species. This study highlights the need to identify the plant host species when conducting belowground molecular-based surveys and provides preliminary identification of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with a disjunct stand of American chestnut.

  15. West Chestnut Ridge hydrologic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, J.L.; Huff, D.D.; Jones, J.R.

    1985-08-01

    Preliminary site characterization work for the proposed West Chestnut Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility included collection and analysis of data on stream flows, watershed areas, precipitation, water levels at piezometer sites, and physiochemical properties of surface water. Seven temporary water-flow-gaging installations were established and used to characterize runoff patterns in the study area. Chip-floating and regression techniques were used to estimate stream flows after some of the temporary structures were destroyed during high flows. Stream flow fluctuations were quantified using coefficients of variation and percent change in total flow between adjacent sampling dates. The difference between precipitation and observed flows (net loss) was calculated for all stations. Two headwater stations (4 and 6) exhibited lower flows per watershed area and channel length, and higher levels of fluctuation in flow than the other stations. These two stations were also similar in watershed area and flow magnitude. Two other headwater stations (5 and 7) with comparable flows had total drainage areas that were similar in size and smaller than those of the other stations. Stations 5 and 7 exhibited high flows per drainage area and section length, especially in the dry period of the year when flows were higher than at all other stations. Fluctuations in flows were lowest at these two stations. Data indicate that these two sections are fed by sources of dependable groundwater. 7 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Preliminary Low Temperature Electron Irradiation of Triple Junction Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.; Mueller, Robert L.; Scrivner, Roy L.; Helizon, Roger S.

    2007-01-01

    For many years extending solar power missions far from the sun has been a challenge not only due to the rapid falloff in solar intensity (intensity varies as inverse square of solar distance) but also because some of the solar cells in an array may exhibit a LILT (low intensity low temperature) degradation that reduces array performance. Recent LILT tests performed on commercial triple junction solar cells have shown that high performance can be obtained at solar distances as great as approx. 5 AU1. As a result, their use for missions going far from the sun has become very attractive. One additional question that remains is whether the radiation damage experienced by solar cells under low temperature conditions will be more severe than when measured during room temperature radiation tests where thermal annealing may take place. This is especially pertinent to missions such as the New Frontiers mission Juno, which will experience cell irradiation from the trapped electron environment at Jupiter. Recent testing2 has shown that low temperature proton irradiation (10 MeV) produces cell degradation results similar to room temperature irradiations and that thermal annealing does not play a factor. Although it is suggestive to propose the same would be observed for low temperature electron irradiations, this has not been verified. JPL has routinely performed radiation testing on commercial solar cells and has also performed LILT testing to characterize cell performance under far sun operating conditions. This research activity was intended to combine the features of both capabilities to investigate the possibility of any room temperature annealing that might influence the measured radiation damage. Although it was not possible to maintain the test cells at a constant low temperature between irradiation and electrical measurements, it was possible to obtain measurements with the cell temperature kept well below room temperature. A fluence of 1E15 1MeV electrons was

  17. Preliminary low temperature electron irradiation of triple junction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.; Mueller, Robert L.; Scrivner, Roy L.; Helizon, Roger S.

    2005-01-01

    JPL has routinely performed radiation testing on commercial solar cells and has also performed LILT testing to characterize cell performance under far sun operating conditions. This research activity was intended to combine the features of both capabilities to investigate the possibility of any room temperature annealing that might influence the measured radiation damage. Although it was not possible to maintain the test cells at a constant low temperature between irradiation and electrical measurements, it was possible to obtain measurements with the cell temperature kept well below room temperature.

  18. Efficacy of oleuropein against UVB irradiation: preliminary evaluation.

    PubMed

    Perugini, P; Vettor, M; Rona, C; Troisi, L; Villanova, L; Genta, I; Conti, B; Pavanetto, F

    2008-04-01

    Oleuropein, a phenolic compound derived from olive leaves and oil, is known to possess several biological properties, many of which may be attributed to its antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities. Nevertheless, up to now, the cosmetic activity of this molecule has not been extensively investigated. The aim of this work was to evaluate the cosmetic properties of oleuropein against UVB-induced erythema. To this end, an emulsion and an emulgel containing oleuropein were prepared, applied and evaluated on healthy volunteers who had undergone UVB irradiation to investigate its protective and/or lenitive activity. Protective effect was assayed by application of topical preparations before irradiation and lenitive effect was evaluated after erythema induction. Vitamin E was used as the reference compound. Our study was carried out by using noninvasive techniques to assess specific skin parameters: barrier function, skin colour and microcirculation. Results clearly showed that oleuropein formulations highlighted lenitive efficacy by reducing erythema, transepidermal water loss and blood flow of about 22%, 35% and 30% respectively. The study allowed us to point out the lenitive property of oleuropein, opening the way to further trials to deepen our specific knowledge about this natural molecule, which could be used in association with other active ingredients in cosmetics to repair UV damages.

  19. Preliminary analysis of irradiation effects on CLAM after low dose neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Lei; Huang, Qunying; Li, Chunjing; Liu, Shaojun

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the irradiation effects on a new version of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (RAFMs) i.e. China Low Activation Martensitic steel (CLAM), neutron irradiation experiments has been being carried out under wide collaboration in China and overseas. In this paper, the mechanical properties of CLAM heats 0603A, 0408B, and 0408D were investigated before and after neutron irradiation to ˜0.02 dpa at 250 °C. The test results showed that ultimate strength and yield stress of CLAM HEAT 0603A increased about 10-30 MPa and ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) shift was about 5 °C. For CLAM heats 0408B and 0408D, ultimate strength and yield stress increased about 80-150 MPa.

  20. Effect of thermal processing on the physicochemical properties of chestnut starch and textural profile of chestnut kernel.

    PubMed

    Kan, Lina; Li, Qian; Xie, Shuangshuang; Hu, Jiaqi; Wu, Yanwen; Ouyang, Jie

    2016-10-20

    The present study focused on the effect of thermal processing on the physicochemical properties of chestnut starch and textural profile of chestnut kernel. After thermal processing, the total starch content in both boiled and roasted chestnuts decreased significantly (P<0.05), while the amylose content of boiled chestnut increased and that of roasted chestnut remained stable. The granular microstructure of the starch in cooked chestnut was gradually destroyed during the thermal processing. The starch in cooked chestnut still exhibited C-type X-ray diffraction patterns, but the intensity of diffraction peaks and the crystallinity were obviously declined compared with those of fresh chestnut. Textural profile analysis of chestnut starch gel and chestnut kernel showed that the main textural characterizations of roasted chestnut were higher than those of boiled chestnuts. These results are helpful for better understanding the texture change in fresh, boiled and roasted chestnuts, which indicated that roasting is an alternative industrial thermal processing method for chestnut kernel.

  1. Preliminary microwave irradiation of water solutions changes their channel-modifying activity.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, E E; Geletyuk, V I; Kazachenko, V N; Chemeris, N K

    1995-06-05

    Earlier we have shown that millimetre microwaves (42.25 GHz) of non-thermal power, upon direct admittance into an experiment bath, greatly influence activation characteristics of single Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels (in particular, the channel open state probability, Po). Here we present new data showing that similar changes in Po arise due to the substitution of a control bath solution for a preliminary microwave irradiated one of the same composition (100 mmol/l KCl with Ca2+ added), with irradiation time being 20-30 min. Therefore, due to the exposure to the field the solution acquires some new properties that are important for the channel activity. The irradiation terminated, the solution retains a new state for at least 10-20 min (solution memory). The data suggest that the effects of the field on the channels are mediated, at least partially, by changes in the solution properties.

  2. Preliminary investigations into the bioconversion of gamma irradiated agricultural waste by Pleurotus spp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gbedemah, C. M.; Obodai, M.; Sawyerr, L. C.

    1998-06-01

    The application of gamma irradiation for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials for their hydrolysis and to increase their digestibility for rumen animal have been reported in the literature. Gamma irradiation of corn stover in combination with sodium hydroxide for bioconversion of polysaccharide into protein by Pleurotus spp has also been reported. In this study experiments were designed to find out whether gamma radiation could serve both as a decontaminating agent as well as hydrolytic agent of sawdust for the bioconversion of four varieties of Pleurotus spp. Preliminary results indicate that a dose of 20kGy of gamma irradiation increase the yield of Pleurotus eous var ET-8 whilst decreasing the yield of other varieties.

  3. XX1 Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus, is an invasive pest of chestnut in Japan, Europe, and the United States. D. kuriphilus induces formation of galls on all chestnut species. Damage caused by galling reduces commercial chestnut yields and threatens restoration of American chestnut i...

  4. [Sarcoma developed in irradiated area: Preliminary results of the SARI trial].

    PubMed

    Maingon, P; Mirjolet, C; Diallo, I; Veres, C; Collin, F; Italiano, A; Chibon, F; Merlin, J L; Coindre, J M

    2016-10-01

    Radiotherapy and surgery are the two main pillars of the locoregional treatment of cancer. The risk of second malignancy is better evaluated and constitutes a major issue regarding radioprotection of the patients. Among malignant disease observed in the surviving irradiated patients, the occurrence of sarcoma is a rare event but associated with a poor outcome since the 5 year overall survival is estimated at 10 to 35 %. The SARI protocol, written in 2011, included 120 patients and 240 controlled patients, irradiated in the same conditions but without sarcoma observed during the follow up. The main objective was to identify the clinical and biological factors associated with the occurrence of such a complication. The secondary objective was to identify the dosimetric characteristics of the treatment of the primary. Preliminary results will be presented during the 2016 meeting of the French radiation oncology society.

  5. Effects of electron-beam radiation on nutritional parameters of Portuguese chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.).

    PubMed

    Carocho, Márcio; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Bento, Albino; Kaluska, Iwona; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-08-08

    Chestnuts are a widely consumed fruit around the world, with Portugal being the fourth biggest producer in Europe. Storage of these nuts is an important step during processing, and the most widely used fumigant was banned in the European Union under the Montreal Protocol because of its toxicity. Recently, radiation has been introduced as a cheap and clean conservation method. Previous studies of our research group proved that γ radiation had no negative effect on the nutritional value of chestnuts; in fact, storage time had a much bigger influence on the chestnut quality. In the present study, we report the effect of a less ionizing radiation, electron beam, with doses of 0, 0.5, 1, 3, and 6 kGy in the nutritional value of chestnuts (ash, energy, fatty acids, sugars, and tocopherols), previously stored at 4 °C for 0, 30, and 60 days. The storage time seemed to reduce fat and energetic values but reported a tendency for higher values of dry matter. With regard to fatty acids, there was a higher detected quantity of C20:2 in non-irradiated samples and four fatty acids were only detected in trace quantities (C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, and C12:0). γ-Tocopherol decreased during storage time but did not alter its quantity for all of the radiation doses (as like α-, β-, and δ-tocopherol); in fact, these compounds were present in higher concentrations in the irradiated samples. Sucrose and total sugars were lower in non-irradiated samples, and raffinose was only detected in irradiated samples. Electron-beam irradiation seems to be a suitable methodology, because the effects on chemical and nutritional composition are very low, while storage time seems to be quite important in chestnut deterioration.

  6. Chestnut, American (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Maynard, Charles A; McGuigan, Linda D; Oakes, Allison D; Zhang, Bo; Newhouse, Andrew E; Northern, Lilibeth C; Chartrand, Allison M; Will, Logan R; Baier, Kathleen M; Powell, William A

    2015-01-01

    The key to successful transformation of American chestnut is having the correct combination of explant tissue, selectable markers, a very robust DNA delivery system, and a reliable regeneration system. The most important components of this transformation protocol for American chestnut are the following: starting out with rapidly dividing somatic embryos, treating the embryos gently throughout the Agrobacterium inoculation and cocultivation steps, doing the cocultivation step in desiccation plates, and finally transferring the embryos into temporary-immersion bioreactors for selection. None of these departures from standard Agrobacterium transformation protocols is sufficient by itself to achieve transgenic American chestnut, but each component makes a difference, resulting in a highly robust protocol. The average transformation efficiency that can be expected using the described protocol is approximately 170 stable embryogenic transformation events per gram of somatic embryo tissue, a considerable improvement over the 20 transformation events per gram we reported in 2006 (Maynard et al. American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) Agrobacterium protocols, 2nd ed., 2006). We have regenerated nearly 100 of these events, containing 23 different gene constructs, into whole plants. As of the fall of 2013, we had a total of 1,275 transgenic chestnut trees planted at eight locations in New York State and one in Virginia. Based on a combination of field-trial inoculations, greenhouse small-stem inoculations, and detached-leaf assays, we have identified three transgenes that produce stronger resistance to chestnut blight than non-transgenic American chestnut. Depending on the transgene and the event, this resistance can be either intermediate between American chestnut and Chinese chestnut, approximately equal to or even higher than the resistance naturally found in Chinese chestnut.

  7. Comparisons of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) to Preliminary SDO EVE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) launched February 11,2010 from Kennedy Space Center and started normal science operations in April 2010. One of the instruments onboard SDO, the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE), will measure the solar EUV irradiance from 0.1-105 nm with 0.1 nm spectral resolution as well as a measure of the broad-band Lyman-Alpha emission (121.6 nm), all with less than 10 percent uncertainties. One of the biggest improvements of EVE over its predecessors is its ability to continuously measure the complete spectrum every 10 seconds, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. This temporal coverage and cadence will greatly enhance the knowledge of the solar EUV variations during solar flares. This paper will present a comparison of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM), which can produce an estimated EUV spectrum at 10 seconds temporal resolution, to the preliminary results from SDO EVE. The discussion will focus on the short-term EUV flare variations and evolution.

  8. Flare Comparisons of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) to Preliminary SDO EVE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlon, Phillip C.

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) launched February 11, 2010 from Kennedy Space Center and started normal science operations in April 2010. One of the instruments onboard SDO, the EUV Variability- Experiment (EVE), will measure the solar EUV irradiance from 0.1-105 nm with 0.1 nm spectral resolution as well as a measure of the broad-band Lyman-Alpha emission (121.0 rim), all with less than 10 percent uncertainties. One of the biggest improvements of EVE over its predecessors is its ability to continuously measure the complete spectrum ever y 10 seconds, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. This temporal coverage and cadence will greatly enhance the knowledge of the solar EUV variations during solar flares. This paper will present a comparison of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM), which can produce an estimated EUV spectrum at 10 seconds temporal resolution, to the preliminary flare observation results from SDO EVE. The discussion will focus on the short-term EUV flare variations and evolution.

  9. AGR-1 Irradiated Test Train Preliminary Inspection and Disassembly First Look

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Demkowicz; Lance Cole; Scott Ploger; Philip Winston; Binh Pham; Michael Abbott

    2011-01-01

    The AGR-1 irradiation experiment ended on November 6, 2009, after 620 effective full power days in the Advanced Test Reactor, achieving a peak burnup of 19.6% FIMA. The test train was shipped to the Materials and Fuels Complex in March 2010 for post-irradiation examination. The first PIE activities included non-destructive examination of the test train, followed by disassembly of the test train and individual capsules and detailed inspection of the capsule contents, including the fuel compacts and the graphite fuel holders. Dimensional measurements of the compacts, graphite holders, and steel capsules shells were performed using a custom vision measurement system (for outer diameters and lengths) and conventional bore gauges (for inner diameters). Gamma spectrometry of the intact test train gave a preliminary look at the condition of the interior components. No evidence of damage to compacts or graphite components was evident from the isotopic and gross gamma scans. Neutron radiography of the intact Capsule 2 showed a high degree of detail of interior components and confirmed the observation that there was no major damage to the capsule. Disassembly of the capsules was initiated using procedures qualified during out-of-cell mockup testing. Difficulties were encountered during capsule disassembly due to irradiation-induced changes in some of the capsule components’ properties, including embrittled niobium and molybdenum parts that were susceptible to fracture and swelling of the graphite fuel holders that affected their removal from the capsule shells. This required various improvised modifications to the disassembly procedure to avoid damage to the fuel compacts. Ultimately the capsule disassembly was successful and only one compact from Capsule 4 (out of 72 total in the test train) sustained damage during the disassembly process, along with the associated graphite holder. The compacts were generally in very good condition upon removal. Only relatively minor

  10. AGR-2 Irradiated Test Train Preliminary Inspection and Disassembly First Look

    SciTech Connect

    Ploger, Scott; Demkowciz, Paul; Harp, Jason

    2015-05-01

    The AGR 2 irradiation experiment began in June 2010 and was completed in October 2013. The test train was shipped to the Materials and Fuels Complex in July 2014 for post-irradiation examination (PIE). The first PIE activities included nondestructive examination of the test train, followed by disassembly of the test train and individual capsules and detailed inspection of the capsule contents, including the fuel compacts and their graphite fuel holders. Dimensional metrology was then performed on the compacts, graphite holders, and steel capsule shells. AGR 2 disassembly and metrology were performed with the same equipment used successfully on AGR 1 test train components. Gamma spectrometry of the intact test train gave a preliminary look at the condition of the interior components. No evidence of damage to compacts or graphite components was evident from the isotopic and gross gamma scans. Disassembly of the AGR 2 test train and its capsules was conducted rapidly and efficiently by employing techniques refined during the AGR 1 disassembly campaign. Only one major difficulty was encountered while separating the test train into capsules when thermocouples (of larger diameter than used in AGR 1) and gas lines jammed inside the through tubes of the upper capsules, which required new tooling for extraction. Disassembly of individual capsules was straightforward with only a few minor complications. On the whole, AGR 2 capsule structural components appeared less embrittled than their AGR 1 counterparts. Compacts from AGR 2 Capsules 2, 3, 5, and 6 were in very good condition upon removal. Only relatively minor damage or markings were visible using high resolution photographic inspection. Compact dimensional measurements indicated radial shrinkage between 0.8 to 1.7%, with the greatest shrinkage observed on Capsule 2 compacts that were irradiated at higher temperature. Length shrinkage ranged from 0.1 to 0.9%, with by far the lowest axial shrinkage on Capsule 3 compacts

  11. Enhancement of American chestnut somatic seedling production.

    PubMed

    Andrade, G M; Merkle, S A

    2005-08-01

    Somatic embryogenesis holds promise for mass propagation of American chestnut trees bred or genetically engineered for resistance to chestnut blight. However, low germination frequency of chestnut somatic embryos has limited somatic seedling production for this forest tree. We tested the effects of culture regime (semi-solid versus liquid), cold treatment, AC and somatic embryo morphology (i.e., cotyledon number) on germination and conversion of the somatic embryos. Cold treatment for 12 weeks was critical for conversion of chestnut somatic embryos to somatic seedlings, raising conversion frequencies for one line to 47%, compared to 7% with no cold treatment. AC improved germination and conversion frequency for one line to 77% and 59%, respectively, and kept roots from darkening. For two lines that produced embryos with one, two or three-plus cotyledons, cotyledon number did not affect germination or conversion frequency. We also established embryogenic American chestnut suspension cultures and adapted a fractionation/plating system that allowed us to produce populations of relatively synchronous somatic embryos for multiple lines. Embryos derived from suspension cultures of two lines tested had higher conversion frequencies (46% and 48%) than those from cultures maintained on semi-solid medium (7% and 30%). The improvements in manipulation of American chestnut embryogenic cultures described in this study have allowed over a 100-fold increase in somatic seedling production efficiency over what we reported previously and thus constitute a substantial advance toward the application of somatic embryogenesis for mass clonal propagation of the tree.

  12. 8. CHESTNUT ST. (vertical line) LOOKING WEST BETWEEN FIFTH (upper) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. CHESTNUT ST. (vertical line) LOOKING WEST BETWEEN FIFTH (upper) AND FOURTH (lower) STS., SHOWING SECOND BANK OF U.S. - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 7. NORTH SIDE CHESTNUT ST. (horizontal line) BETWEEN THIRD (left) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. NORTH SIDE CHESTNUT ST. (horizontal line) BETWEEN THIRD (left) AND BREAD (right) STS., SHOWING OLD BUILDINGS - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, CHESTNUT ST. (lower horizontal line) TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, CHESTNUT ST. (lower horizontal line) TO WALNUT ST. (upper horizontal line), SHOWING SECOND BANK OF U.S. - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 16. INDEPENDENCE HALL LOOKING SOUTH ON CHESTNUT ST. (horizontal line) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INDEPENDENCE HALL LOOKING SOUTH ON CHESTNUT ST. (horizontal line) BETWEEN SIXTH (right) AND FIFTH (left) STS. - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. Dirhenium decacarbonyl-loaded PLLA nanoparticles: influence of neutron irradiation and preliminary in vivo administration by the TMT technique.

    PubMed

    Hamoudeh, Misara; Fessi, Hatem; Mehier, Henri; Faraj, Achraf Al; Canet-Soulas, Emmanuelle

    2008-02-04

    neutron irradiation, yielding an absorbed dose of 450kGy, can be a terminal method for nanoparticles sterilisation. Thereafter, in a preliminary in vivo experiment, superparamagnetic non radioactive nanoparticles loaded with Re(2)(CO)(10) and oleic-acid coated magnetite have been successfully injected into a mice animal model via targeted multi therapy (TMT) technique which would be our selected administration method for future in vivo studies. In conclusion, although some induced neutron irradiation damage to nanoparticles occurs, dirhenium decacarbonyl-loaded PLLA nanoparticles retain their chemical identity and remain almost as re-dispersible and injectable nanoparticles by the TMT technique. These nanoparticles represent a novel interesting candidate for local intra-tumoral radiotherapy.

  17. Proliferative effect of green light emitting diode irradiation on chicken fibroblasts in hyperglycaemic circumstances: a preliminary in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinck, Elke; Cagnie, Barbara; Declercq, Heidi; Cornelissen, Ria; Cambier, Dirk

    2004-09-01

    A reduced mortality due to hyperglycaemia was noted since the development of insulin treatment for type I diabetes and various oral hypoglycaemic agents for type II diabetes. Nevertheless the chronic metabolic disorder, Diabetes Mellitus, remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality due to a series of common secondary metabolic complications. Patients with diabetes have an increased tendency to develop infections of the skin. Healing of skin lesions in diabetics evolves often relatively slow and the lesions tend to be more severe than in non-diabetics. Endeavouring to accelerate the healing process of skin lesions in diabetic patients, this preliminary in vitro study investigates the efficacy of green Light Emitting Diode (LED) irradiation on fibroblast proliferation of cells in hyperglycaemic circumstances. In an attempt to imitate the diabetic environment, embryonic chicken fibroblasts were cultured in hyperglycaemic medium (30.000mg Glucose per litre Hanks Medium). LED irradiation was performed three consecutive days with a wavelength of 540 nm and a power output of 10 mW, at 0,6 cm distance from the fibroblasts. Each treatment lasted 3 minutes, resulting in a surface energy density of 0,2 J/cm2. Statistical analysis revealed that LED irradiation at the applied parameters induced a higher rate of proliferation in hyperglycaemic circumstances after irradiation than in the same circumstances without irradiation. Regarding these results the effectiveness of green LED irradiation on cells in hyperglycaemic circumstances is proven. To ensure the effectiveness and to evaluate the value of LED irradiation in vivo, further research is required.

  18. Effects of gamma radiation on the biological, physico-chemical, nutritional and antioxidant parameters of chestnuts - a review.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Amilcar L; Carocho, Márcio; Bento, Albino; Quintana, Begoña; Luisa Botelho, M; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-09-01

    Gamma radiation has been used as a post-harvest food preservation process for many years. Chestnuts are a seasonal product consumed fresh or processed, and gamma irradiation emerged recently as a possible alternative technology for their post-harvest processing, to fulfil the requirements of international phytosanitary trade laws. After harvest and storage, several problems may occur, such as the presence of infestations and development of microorganisms, namely rotting and fungi. These diminish the quality and safety of the product, decreasing the yield along the production chain. In fruits, gamma irradiation treatment is for two main purposes: conservation (ripening delay) and insect disinfestation (phytosanitary treatment). In this review, the application of gamma irradiation to chestnuts is discussed, including production data, the irradiated species and the effects on biological (sprouting, rotting, respiration rate, insects, worms and fungi), physico-chemical (color, texture, and drying rate), nutritional (energetic value, proteins, sugars and fatty acids) and antioxidant (tocopherols, ascorbic acid, phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity) parameters. These changes are the basis for detecting if the food product has been irradiated or not. The validation of standards used for detection of food irradiation, as applied to chestnuts, is also discussed.

  19. Assessment of the chestnut production weather dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Mário; Caramelo, Liliana; Gouveia, Célia; Gomes-Laranjo, José

    2010-05-01

    The vegetative cycle of chestnut trees is highly dependent on weather. Photosynthesis and pollen germination are mainly conditioned by the air temperature while heavy precipitation and strong wind have significant impacts during the flushing phase period (Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2005, 2006). In Portugal, chestnut tree orchads are located in mountainous areas of the Northeast region of Trás-os-Montes, between 600 and 1000 m of altitude. Topography controls the atmospheric environment and assures adequate conditions for the chestnut production. In the above mentioned context, remote sensing plays an important role because of its ability to monitor and characterise vegetation dynamics. A number of studies, based on remote sensing, have been conducted in Europe to analyse the year-to-year variations in European vegetation greenness as a function of precipitation and temperature (Gouveia et al., 2008). A previous study focusing on the relationship between meteorological variables and chestnut productivity provides indication that simulation models may benefit from the incorporation of such kind of relationships. The aim of the present work is to provide a detailed description of recent developments, in particular of the added value that may be brought by using satellite data. We have relied on regional fields of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) dataset, at 8-km resolution, provided by the Global Inventory Monitoring and Modelling System (GIMMS) group. The data are derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR), and cover the period from 1982 to 2006. Additionally we have used the chestnut productivity dataset, which includes the annual values of chestnut production and area of production provided by INE, the National Institute of Statistics of Portugal and the meteorological dataset which includes values of several variables from different providers (Meteorod, NCEP/NCAR, ECA&D and national Meteorological Institute). Results show that

  20. A preliminary study on anti-irradiation performance of epoxy shape memory polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xuelian; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2009-07-01

    As a new class of smart material, shape memory polymer (SMP) receives more and more attention. In this paper, in addition to the fabrication of a new type of epoxy SMP, the thermo-mechanical properties of the polymer with/without gamma irradiation were investigated and compared systematically. The radiation source is Co-60 and the total dosage of radiation is 1×104Gy. Changes of network structures of the polymer were investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The influence of gamma irradiation on thermo and mechanical properties of the polymer were investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) and tensile test, respectively. Furthermore, shape recovery behaviors of the polymer before/after the irradiation were compared too. Results show that the epoxy SMP possesses good chemical stability, glass transition temperature (Tg) determined by DSC decreased by 7°C after the irradiation. The gamma radiation has a slight influence on storage modulus, loss modulus and tan delta, respectively. No considerable change was found both in tensile strength and elongation at break after the gamma radiation. Finally, the shape recovery ratio of the polymer is near 100% with and without the gamma irradiation. Based on the above results, it can be demonstrated that the epoxy SMP prepared in the study possesses not only good thermo-mechanical properties but unique anti irradiation performance. The epoxy SMP shows potential for application of aerospace fields.

  1. A preliminary investigation of cell growth after irradiation using a modulated x-ray intensity pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromley, Regina; Davey, Ross; Oliver, Lyn; Harvie, Rozelle; Baldock, Clive

    2006-08-01

    In this study we have investigated a spatial distribution of cell growth after their irradiation using a modulated x-ray intensity pattern. An A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cell line was grown in a 6-well culture. Two of the wells were the unirradiated control wells, whilst another two wells were irradiated with a modulated x-ray intensity pattern and the third two wells were uniformly irradiated. A number of plates were incubated for various times after irradiation and stained with crystal violet. The spatial distribution of the stained cells within each well was determined by measurement of the crystal violet optical density at multiple positions in the plate using a microplate photospectrometer. The crystal violet optical density for a range of cell densities was measured for the unirradiated well and this correlated with cell viability as determined by the MTT cell viability assay. An exponential dose response curve was measured for A549 cells from the average crystal violet optical density in the uniformly irradiated well up to a dose of 30 Gy. By measuring the crystal violet optical density distribution within a well the spatial distribution of cell growth after irradiation with a modulated x-ray intensity pattern can be plotted. This method can be used for in vitro investigation into the changes in radiation response associated with treatment using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT).

  2. Sequential hemibody and local irradiation with combination chemotherapy for small cell lung carcinoma: a preliminary analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, B.L.; Jackson, D.V. Jr.; Scarantino, C.W.; Pope, E.; Choplin, R.; Craig, J.B.; Atkins, J.N.; Cooper, M.R.; Hopkins, J.O.; McMahan, R.

    1985-03-01

    Sequential hemibody irradiation (SHB) was integrated with combination chemotherapy and local irradiation (LRT) in the induction and consolidation phases of a therapeutic protocol for small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Forty-one previously untreated patients were entered into this program. Among 38 evaluable patients (20 with limited disease (LD) and 18 with extensive disease (ED)), the overall response rate was 63% (90% in LD and 33% in ED patients). The estimated overall survival is 8.1 months. The major toxicity has been myelosuppression - especially thrombocytopenia. The frequency of previously described acute radiation syndromes and radiation pneumonitis associated with hemibody irradiation have been substantially decreased at the current dosage with premedication and shielding techniques.

  3. 342. BAPTIZED PENTECOSTAL CHURCH AT 1606 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    342. BAPTIZED PENTECOSTAL CHURCH AT 1606 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, EAST SIDE - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  4. Preliminary Analysis of the General Performance and Mechanical Behavior of Irradiated FeCrAl Base Alloys and Weldments

    SciTech Connect

    Gussev, Maxim N.; Field, Kevin G.; Briggs, Samuel A.; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2016-09-30

    The iron-based, iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys are promising, robust materials for deployment in current and future nuclear power plants. This class of alloys demonstrates excellent performance in a range of environments and conditions, including high-temperature steam (>1000°C). Furthermore, these alloys have the potential to have prolonged survival under loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions compared to the more traditional cladding materials that are either Zr-based alloys or austenitic steels. However, one of the issues associated with FeCrAl alloys is cracking during welding. The present project investigates the possibility of mitigating welding-induced cracking via alloying and precise structure control of the weldments; in the frame work of the project, several advanced alloys were developed and are being investigated prior to and after neutron irradiation to provide insight into the radiation tolerance and mechanical performance of the weldments. The present report provides preliminary results on the post-irradiation characterization and mechanical tests performed during United States Fiscal Year (FY) 2016. Chapter 1 provides a general introduction, and Chapter 2 describes the alloy compositions, welding procedure, specimen geometry and manufacturing parameters. Also, a brief discussion of the irradiation at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is provided. Chapter 3 is devoted to the analysis of mechanical tests performed at the hot cell facility; tensile curves and mechanical properties are discussed in detail focusing on the irradiation temperature. Limited fractography results are also presented and analyzed. The discussion highlights the limitations of the testing within a hot cell. Chapter 4 underlines the advantages of in-situ testing and discusses the preliminary results obtained with newly developed miniature specimens. Specimens were moved to the Low Activation Materials Development and Analysis (LAMDA) laboratory and prepared for

  5. Preliminary report on the irradiation conditions of the HFIR JP-23 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ermi, A.M.; Gelles, D.S.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this effort was to irradiate a series of alloys over the temperature range 300 to 600{degrees}C to approximately 10 dpa in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The alloys covered a wide range of materials and treatments. The Japanese specimen matrix consisted of ferritic steels, vanadium alloys, copper alloys, molybdenum alloys, and titanium-aluminum compounds. The US specimen matrix consisted of vanadium alloys, 316 stainless steels, and isotopically tailored ferritic and austenitic alloys.

  6. Cryogenic irradiation of an EMCCD for the WFIRST coronagraph: preliminary performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Nathan; Hall, David; Holland, Andrew; Burgon, Ross; Murray, Neil; Gow, Jason; Jordan, Douglas; Demers, Richard; Harding, Leon K.; Nemati, Bijan; Hoenk, Michael; Michaels, Darren; Peddada, Pavani

    2016-08-01

    The Wide Field Infra-Red Survey Telescope (WFIRST) is a NASA observatory scheduled to launch in the next decade that will settle essential questions in exoplanet science. The Wide Field Instrument (WFI) offers Hubble quality imaging over a 0.28 square degree field of view and will gather NIR statistical data on exoplanets through gravitational microlensing. An on-board coronagraph will for the first time perform direct imaging and spectroscopic analysis of exoplanets with properties analogous to those within our own solar system, including cold Jupiters, mini Neptunes and potentially super Earths. The Coronagraph Instrument (CGI) will be required to operate with low signal flux for long integration times, demanding all noise sources are kept to a minimum. The Electron Multiplication (EM)-CCD has been baselined for both the imaging and spectrograph cameras due its ability to operate with sub-electron effective read noise values with appropriate multiplication gain setting. The presence of other noise sources, however, such as thermal dark signal and Clock Induced Charge (CIC), need to be characterized and mitigated. In addition, operation within a space environment will subject the device to radiation damage that will degrade the Charge Transfer Effciency (CTE) of the device throughout the mission lifetime. Irradiation at the nominal instrument operating temperature has the potential to provide the best estimate of performance degradation that will be experienced in-flight, since the final population of silicon defects has been shown to be dependent upon the temperature at which the sensor is irradiated. Here we present initial findings from pre- and post- cryogenic irradiation testing of the e2v CCD201-20 BI EMCCD sensor, baselined for the WFIRST coronagraph instrument. The motivation for irradiation at cryogenic temperatures is discussed with reference to previous investigations of a similar nature. The results are presented in context with those from a previous

  7. 6. VIEW FROM CHESTNUT ST. (upper), WALNUT ST. (lower) THIRD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW FROM CHESTNUT ST. (upper), WALNUT ST. (lower) THIRD ST. (right) AND FOURTH ST. (left), SHOWING CARPENTERS HALL, FIRST BANK OF U.S. AND SECOND BANK OF U.S. - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 97. Catalog B, Higher Plants, 200 2 American Chestnut Tree, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. Catalog B, Higher Plants, 200 2 American Chestnut Tree, Negative No. 6032 (Photographer and date unknown) THIS GHOST FOREST OF BLIGHTED CHESTNUTS ONCE STOOD APPROXIMATELY AT THE LOCATION OF THE BYRD VISITOR CENTER. - Skyline Drive, From Front Royal, VA to Rockfish Gap, VA , Luray, Page County, VA

  9. Islands of Chestnut Trees Castanea dentata (Marsh) Borkh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surrarrer, T. C.; Laurence, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to emphasize the importance of conserving the genetic pool of the American chestnut stock. Readers are encouraged to seek sprouts and plant them in islands so they can grow and survive. The authors describe the diseases that have effected the chestnut tree. (PR)

  10. Genetic Structure of Water Chestnut Beetle: Providing Evidence for Origin of Water Chestnut.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Tian; Zheng, Fu-Shan; Qin, Jing; Lu, Ming-Xing; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Water chestnut beetle (Galerucella birmanica Jacoby) is a pest of the water chestnut (Trapa natans L.). To analyze the phylogeny and biogeography of the beetle and provide evidence for the origin of T. natans in China, we conducted this by using three mitochondrial genes (COI, COII and Cytb) and nuclear ITS2 ribosomal DNA of G. birmanica. As for mtDNA genes, the beetle could be subdivided into three groups: northeastern China (NEC), central-northern-southern China (CC-NC-SC) and southwestern China (SWC) based on SAMOVA, phylogenetic analyses and haplotype networks. But for ITS2, no obvious lineages were obtained but individuals which were from NEC region clustered into one clade, which might be due to sequence conservation of ITS2. Significant genetic variation was observed among the three groups with infrequent gene flow between groups, which may have been restricted due to natural barriers and events in the Late Pleistocene. Based on our analyses of genetic variation in the CC-NC-SC geographical region, the star-like haplotype networks, approximate Bayesian computation, niche modelling and phylogeographic variation of the beetle, we concluded that the beetle population has been lasting in the lower, central reaches of the Yangtze River Basin with its host plant, water chestnut, which is consistent with archaeological records. Moreover, we speculate that the CC-NC-SC population of G. birmanica may have undergone a period of expansion coincident with domestication of the water chestnut approximately 113,900-126,500 years ago.

  11. Segmental pancreatic allograft survival in baboons treated with combined irradiation and cyclosporine: a preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.; Smit, B.; Louw, G.; Zuurmond, T.; Laker, L.; Els, D.; Weideman, A.; Wolfe-Coote, S.; van der Merwe, E.A.

    1985-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of cyclosporine (CS) alone, total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) alone, and CS in combination with total body irradiation (TBI) in suppressing segmental pancreatic allograft rejection in totally pancreatectomized outbred chacma baboons. The administration of CS 25 mg/kg/day and 50 mg/ kg/day resulted in mean graft survival of 21.5 days and 24.5 days, respectively. CS 85 mg/kg/day resulted in median graft survival of 9 days. There was a wide daily fluctuation of CS serum trough levels exhibited between primates receiving the same oral dose. TBI in excess of 300 rads resulted in irreversible bone marrow suppression. Modest results were achieved in recipients of TBI-76 rads (38 x 2 rads), with median graft survival of 21 days, results not different from recipients treated with CS. TLI recipients of 600 rads (150 x 4 rads) resulted in median pancreatic graft survival of 16 days. TBI together with oral CS administration exhibited no synergistic or additive effect and a single peroperative donor-specific blood transfusion did not enhance pancreatic allograft survival in this model. However, of 10 primates receiving TBI 100 rads (50 x 2 rads) and CS 25 mg/kg/day administered orally indefinitely, four remained normoglycemic for more than 60 days. TBI 100 rads (50 x 2 rads) together with oral and parenteral CS resulted in necrotizing enterocolitis in four of six recipients.

  12. Anti-LPS antibodies reduce endotoxemia in whole body Co-60 irradiated primates - A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, M.T.; Gaffin, S.L.; Wessels, B.C.; Brock-Utne, J.G.; Jordaan, J.P. )

    1990-09-01

    A previously established primate model was used to evaluate the role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) in radiation sickness. Vervet monkeys were Co-60 irradiated with an LD100 exposure and had periodic blood samples taken for the determination of LPS and anti-LPS lgG antibodies and for bacteriological studies. On day 2 postirradiation, primates were treated with either sterile 0.9 percent saline, or equine anti-LPS hyperimmune plasma, or tripotassium-dicitrato-bismuthate (Denol). Results indicate that anti-LPS-treated animals survived significantly longer than both the other groups and, since LPS may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, and headaches, it is suggested that Anti-LPS administration may be of value in reducing plasma LPS concentration in humans and improving their performance and survivability. 24 refs.

  13. Systemic irradiation for selected stage IV and recurrent pediatric solid tumors: method, toxicity, and preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Wharam, M.D.; Kaizer, H.; Leventhal, B.G.; Munoz, L.; Tutschka, P.J.; Santos, G.W.; Elfenbein, G.J.; Order, S.E.

    1980-02-01

    Eight patients with advanced pediatric solid tumors received either sequential upper and lower half-body irradiation (HBI) (7.5 rad/min to 500 rad total) or total body irradiation (TBI) (7.5 rad/min to 800 rad total) as part of two multimodality treatment regimens. All patients received combination chemotherapy; drugs were determined by the tumor type. The TBI regimen was selected for two patients who had progression of disease with conventional chemotherapy and for two patients with stage IV neuroblastoma. This intensive regimen consisted of bone marrow harvesting, followed by local radiation to gross disease, marrow-ablative chemotherapy, TBI, and re-infusion of the cryopreserved autologous marrow. Significant acute toxicity was followed by hematologic reconstitution in each patient within seven weeks. At this writing, two patients survived, one of whom is disease free two and one half years without maintenance chemotherapy. A less intensive, outpatient regimen was selected for four patients; three had a complete or good partial response to chemotherapy. The fourth patient had tumor-involved bone marrow not responsive to chemotherapy and was therefore ineligible for marrow cryopreservation and TBI. Each of these four patients received HBI after chemotherapy and local radiation to the primary and/or metastatic sites. Acute toxicity was limited to nausea and vomiting. Significant leukopenia and thrombocytopenia occurred in three patients. All four patients were alive 10 to 26 months post HBI. This pilot study demonstrates that chemotherapy can be integrated with local fractionated radiation, and systemic radiation given as HBI or TBI with acceptable toxicity; sufficient bone marrow stem cells can be harvested after conventional chemotherapy and then cryopreserved to permit hematologic reconstitution of the patient who receives marrow ablative therapy.

  14. Preliminary estimates of economic impact of liver fluke infection in Thailand and the feasibility of irradiation as a control measure.

    PubMed

    Loaharanu, P; Sornmani, S

    1991-12-01

    Liver fluke infection by Opisthorchis viverrini is the leading cause of food-borne parasitic disease in Thailand. Approximately one third of the population in the northeastern region of the country, ie, 6-7 million, are infected by this parasite through the habit of consuming raw or insufficiently cooked freshwater fish, especially those of cyprinoid family. A recent survey showed that 60% of the work force in the Northeast between the age of 15 and 60 is infected. The estimated wage loss of this population may be approximately Baht 1,620 million (US$65 million) per annum. The estimated direct cost of medical care may be as high as Baht 495 million (US$19.4 million) per annum. Thus, the total direct cost of the infected work force is estimated to be Baht 2115 million (US$84.6 million) per annum. Irradiation of fish flesh infected by metacercaria of O. viverrini has been demonstrated as an effective method of control. A minimum dose of 0.1 kGy is effective without changing physiochemical properties of the fish flesh. This technology, therefore, shows promise as a method to control infection by O. viverrini acquired by the habit of consuming raw freshwater fish in the country. Preliminary economic analyses indicate that the public health benefit from preventing infection with this parasite could outweigh the investment cost of irradiation facilities. Detailed economic feasibility studies should be carried out to demonstrate the practical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the treatment as a public health intervention measure in the country.

  15. Subsurface characterization and geohydrologic site evaluation West Chestnut Ridge site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-25

    The West Chestnut Ridge Site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is being considered for use as a repository for low-level radioactive waste. The purposes of this study were to provide a geohydrological characterization of the site for use in pathways analysis, and to provide preliminary geotechnical recommendations that would be used for development of a site utilization plan. Subsurface conditions were investigated at twenty locations and observation wells were installed. Field testing at each location included the Standard Penetration Test and permeability tests in soil and rock. A well pumping test was ocmpleted at one site. Laboratory testing included permeability, deformability, strength and compaction tests, as well as index and physical property tests. The field investigations showed that the subsurface conditions include residual soil overlying a weathered zone of dolomite which grades into relatively unweathered dolomite at depth. The thickness of residual soil is typically 80 ft (24 m) on the ridges, but can be as little as 10 ft (3 m) in the valleys. Trench excavations to depths of 30 ft (9 m) should not present serious slope stability problems above the water table. On-site soils can be used for liners or trench backfill but these soils may require moisture conditioning to achieve required densities. 19 figures, 8 tables.

  16. Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Caramelo, L.; Gouveia, C.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Magalhães, M.

    2011-10-01

    Due to its economic and nutritional value, the world production of chestnuts is increasing as new stands are being planted in various regions of the world. This work focuses on the relation between weather and annual chestnut production to model the role of weather, to assess the impacts of climate change and to identify appropriate locations for new groves. The exploratory analysis of chestnut production time series and the striking increase of production area have motivated the use for chestnut productivity. A large set of meteorological variables and remote sensing indices were computed and their role on chestnut productivity evaluated with composite and correlation analyses. These results allow for the identification of the variables cluster with a high correlation and impact on chestnut production. Then, different selection methods were used to develop multiple regression models able to explain a considerable fraction of productivity variance: (i) a simulation model (R2-value = 87%) based on the winter and summer temperature and on spring and summer precipitation variables; and, (ii) a model to predict yearly chestnut productivity (R2-value of 63%) with five months in advance, combining meteorological variables and NDVI. Goodness of fit statistic, cross validation and residual analysis demonstrate the model's quality, usefulness and consistency of obtained results.

  17. Preliminary results of post-irradiation examination of the AGR-1 TRISO fuel compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Demkowicz; John Hunn; Robert Morris; Jason Harp; Philip Winston; Charles Baldwin; Fred Montgomery; Scott Ploger; Isabella van Rooyen

    2012-10-01

    Five irradiated fuel compacts from the AGR-1 experiment have been examined in detail in order to assess in-pile fission product release behavior. Compacts were electrolytically deconsolidated and analyzed using the leach-burn-leach technique to measure fission product inventory in the compact matrix and identify any particles with a defective SiC layer. Loose particles were then gamma counted to measure the fission product inventory. One particle with a defective SiC layer was found in the five compacts examined. The fractional release of Ag 110m from the particles was significant. The total fraction of silver released from all the particles within a compact ranged from 0-0.63 and individual particles within a single compact often exhibited a very wide range of silver release. The average fractional release of Eu-154 from all particles in a compact was 2.4×10-4—1.3×10-2, which is indicative of release through intact coatings. The fractional Cs-134 inventory in the compact matrix was <2×10-5 when all coatings remained intact, indicating good cesium retention. Approximately 1% of the palladium inventory was found in the compact matrix for two of the compacts, indicating significant release through intact coatings.

  18. PGNAA system preliminary design and measurement of In-Hospital Neutron Irradiator for boron concentration measurement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zizhu; Chong, Yizheng; Chen, Xinru; Jin, Congjun; Yang, Lijun; Liu, Tong

    2015-12-01

    A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system has been recently developed at the 30-kW research reactor In-Hospital Neutron Irradiator (IHNI) in Beijing. Neutrons from the specially designed thermal neutron beam were used. The thermal flux of this beam is 3.08×10(6) cm(-2) s(-1) at a full reactor power of 30 kW. The PGNAA system consists of an n-type high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector of 40% efficiency, a digital spectrometer, and a shielding part. For both the detector shielding part and the neutron beam shielding part, the inner layer is composed of (6)Li2CO3 powder and the outer layer lead. The boron-10 sensitivity of the PGNAA system is approximately 2.5 cps/ppm. Two calibration curves were produced for the 1-10 ppm and 10-50 ppm samples. The measurement results of the control samples were in accordance with the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) results.

  19. Preliminary Tl And Osl Investigation Of A Naturally And Artificially Irradiated Obsidian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polymeris, G. S.; Gogou, D.; Afouxenidis, D.; Rapti, S.; Tsirliganis, N. C.; Kitis, G.

    Obsidian is a volcaniclastic mineral extremely hard to break, which was used in prehistoric Greece (and elsewhere in the World), in order to provide tools, weapons, knives and arrowheads. The present work aims to characterize this extremely precious tool stone by using both thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) techniques and investigate its potential use for luminescence dating purposes. Basic TL and OSL properties, such as TL and OSL thermal and optical stability, repeatability, TL and LM-OSL glow curve shape and mainly the linearity of the TL and OSL signals as a function of beta dose were investigated. Artificially irradiated samples indicate all promising luminescence features, such as the 110 oC TL peak and dose response sub-linearity for intermediate doses, quick and effective bleaching all over the entire TL glow curve, along with quite linear CW-OSL dose response for doses larger than 5 Gy. The lack of predose sensitisation indicates the suitability of the material for single aliquot measurements. Furthermore, several features provide indications that the signal does not relate to quartz, but in fact to other silicates. Unfortunately, both lack of bleaching ability for NTL signal, along with a peculiar shape of NOSL, provide major difficulties in dating applications.

  20. Effect of chestnut extract and chestnut fiber on viability of potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains under gastrointestinal tract conditions.

    PubMed

    Blaiotta, Giuseppe; La Gatta, Barbara; Di Capua, Marika; Di Luccia, Aldo; Coppola, Raffaele; Aponte, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The main challenge to probiotics, during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract, are the acidic gastric secretions of the stomach, and the bile salts released into the duodenum. The survival of the strains, in this phase, is strongly influenced by the food used for their delivery. This work is part of a project studying the development of novel food processes, based on the use of chestnuts from cultivar "Castagna di Montella". In detail, the effect of indigestible chestnut fiber and of chestnut extract on the viability of selected lactic acid bacteria strains was evaluated. Among 28 cultures, twelve strains were selected, on the basis of tolerance to low pH values and bile salts, and submitted to exposition to simulated gastric or bile juice in presence of chestnut extract with or without immobilization in chestnut fiber. The presence of chestnut extract proved to play a significant role on the gastric tolerance improvement of lactobacilli. The recorded protective effect could not be simply related to the starch or reducing sugars content. RP-HPLC demonstrated that in the chestnut flour, there are one or more hydrophobic peptides or oligopeptides, which specifically offer a marked resistance to simulated gastric juice, albeit present at low concentration. These beneficial effects proved to be dependent by the cultivar used to produce the flour.

  1. Genetic Structure of Water Chestnut Beetle: Providing Evidence for Origin of Water Chestnut

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jing; Lu, Ming-Xing; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Water chestnut beetle (Galerucella birmanica Jacoby) is a pest of the water chestnut (Trapa natans L.). To analyze the phylogeny and biogeography of the beetle and provide evidence for the origin of T. natans in China, we conducted this by using three mitochondrial genes (COI, COII and Cytb) and nuclear ITS2 ribosomal DNA of G. birmanica. As for mtDNA genes, the beetle could be subdivided into three groups: northeastern China (NEC), central-northern-southern China (CC-NC-SC) and southwestern China (SWC) based on SAMOVA, phylogenetic analyses and haplotype networks. But for ITS2, no obvious lineages were obtained but individuals which were from NEC region clustered into one clade, which might be due to sequence conservation of ITS2. Significant genetic variation was observed among the three groups with infrequent gene flow between groups, which may have been restricted due to natural barriers and events in the Late Pleistocene. Based on our analyses of genetic variation in the CC-NC-SC geographical region, the star-like haplotype networks, approximate Bayesian computation, niche modelling and phylogeographic variation of the beetle, we concluded that the beetle population has been lasting in the lower, central reaches of the Yangtze River Basin with its host plant, water chestnut, which is consistent with archaeological records. Moreover, we speculate that the CC-NC-SC population of G. birmanica may have undergone a period of expansion coincident with domestication of the water chestnut approximately 113,900–126,500 years ago. PMID:27459279

  2. 300. VACANT LOTS BETWEEN WEST MADISON ALLEY AND WEST CHESTNUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    300. VACANT LOTS BETWEEN WEST MADISON ALLEY AND WEST CHESTNUT STREET, TOWARD WEST - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  3. 315. 1730 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, PART OF WEST SIDE, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    315. 1730 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, PART OF WEST SIDE, AND 617, PART OF NORTH SIDE - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  4. [Horse chestnut--remedy for chronic venous insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Methlie, Camilla Borthen; Schjøtt, Jan

    2009-02-26

    Horse- chestnut seed extract is widely used throughout Europe, and has been used to treat a variety of medical conditions. The most common indication is currently chronic venous insufficiency, for which conventional therapy includes use of compression stockings. Horse chestnut seed extract is generally well tolerated; the most common side effects are gastrointestinal disturbances, dizziness and calf-muscle spasms. Clinical trials have shown that horse- chestnut seed extract and placebo are associated with similar side effects Horse- chestnut may interact with anticoagulants and antidiabetics, and caution is advised in patients taking these drugs. A number of clinical trials have shown that horse- chestnut seed extract may be beneficial to patients with mild to moderate chronic venous insufficiency. However, inadequate randomization, short duration and use of different end-points in these trials makes it difficult to conclude regarding effectiveness and safety, especially in long-term use. Horse- chestnut seed extract appears to be a short-term treatment option in patients with mild to moderate chronic venous insufficiency, but more rigorous trials are required to confirm the efficacy of this treatment.

  5. Feasibility study of effect of ultrasound on water chestnuts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junru; Wu, Meiyin

    2006-04-01

    Water chestnut (Trapa natans L.), an annual aquatic plant with floating leaves was first introduced into North America in 1874. Since then, wild populations have quickly become established in many locations within Northeastern USA. Due to its detrimental effects on the overall health of aquatic ecosystems, millions of dollars have been spent to control the water chestnut infestations in the North America through mechanical harvesting and manual removal, with limited success. The potential for continued expansion of the infestations demonstrates an urgent need for an effective control method. This study examined the potential of ultrasound application as an alternative control strategy for water chestnut management. Various frequencies and amplitudes of ultrasound generated by submerged transducers were applied directly to water chestnuts harvested from Lake Champlain. Substantial damages on water chestnut cells as well as penetrated petitoles were observed at the following tested frequencies of ultrasound, 20 kHz, 187 kHz, 469 kHz, 519 kHz and 2.34 MHz. Among them, 20 kHz ultrasound of 1.9 MPa acoustic pressure amplitude demonstrated the most significant damages within 10 s of ultrasound exposure. The treated plants started to die within 72 h and the mortality rate of water chestnut plants treated with the ultrasound application was 100%.

  6. Chestnut extract induces apoptosis in AGS human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Sook; Kim, Eun Ji; Kim, Sun Hyo

    2011-06-01

    In Korea, chestnut production is increasing each year, but consumption is far below production. We investigated the effect of chestnut extracts on antioxidant activity and anticancer effects. Ethanol extracts of raw chestnut (RCE) or chestnut powder (CPE) had dose-dependent superoxide scavenging activity. Viable numbers of MDA-MD-231 human breast cancer cells, DU145 human prostate cancer cells, and AGS human gastric cancer cells decreased by 18, 31, and 69%, respectively, following treatment with 200 µg/mL CPE for 24 hr. CPE at various concentrations (0-200 µg/mL) markedly decreased AGS cell viability and increased apoptotic cell death dose and time dependently. CPE increased the levels of cleaved caspase-8, -7, -3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase in a dose-dependent manner but not cleaved caspase-9. CPE exerted no effects on Bcl-2 and Bax levels. The level of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein decreased within a narrow range following CPE treatment. The levels of Trail, DR4, and Fas-L increased dose-dependently in CPE-treated AGS cells. These results show that CPE decreases growth and induces apoptosis in AGS gastric cancer cells and that activation of the death receptor pathway contributes to CPE-induced apoptosis in AGS cells. In conclusion, CPE had more of an effect on gastric cancer cells than breast or prostate cancer cells, suggesting that chestnuts would have a positive effect against gastric cancer.

  7. Heterozygote advantage in the American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Stilwell, Kevin L; Wilbur, Henry M; Werth, Charles R; Taylor, Douglas R

    2003-02-01

    The American chestnut (Castanea dentata; Fagaceae) was a dominant canopy tree in the Appalachian Mountains of North America. Since the introduction of the chestnut blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica; Valsaceae) in America, the American chestnut has been reduced to a predominantly clonal, understory species. Our objective was to determine whether the ecological changes and absence of new recruits have influenced the population genetics of American chestnut. Leaf samples were collected from four populations in southwestern Virginia. Electrophoretic data from five polymorphic loci were used to determine the genetic diversity and population structure of the populations and subpopulations. Growth data and infection status were recorded for one of the populations to determine their relationship with heterozygosity. F statistics revealed a significant amount of differentiation among subpopulations and an excess of heterozygotes within subpopulations. Heterozygous individuals also had higher rates of vegetative growth. The superior performance and excess of heterozygotes suggests that selection favors heterozygous individuals. The prolonged absence of sexual reproduction in C. dentata has allowed subtle fitness differences to accumulate to the extent that they have had significant effects on the genetics of chestnut populations.

  8. New quinolinone alkaloids from chestnut (Castanea crenata Sieb) honey.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Yong; Bae, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Myeong-Lyeol; Choi, Yong-Soo; Jin, Byung-Rae; Lee, Hyoung Jae; Jeong, Hang Yeon; Lee, Yu Geon; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2015-04-08

    Two new quinolinone alkaloids and 13 known compounds were isolated from chestnut (Castanea crenata Sieb) honey. Two new compounds were determined to be 3-dihydro-spiro[2(1H),3'(1'H)-diquinoline]-3',4,4'-trione (spirodiquinolinone) and 3-(2'-piperidine)-kynurenic acid. In addition, 2,3-dihydropyrrolo[1,2-a]quinazolin-5(1H)-one was identified for the first time from nature. In addition, 2,3-dihydropyrrolo[1,2-a]quinazolin-5(1H)-one was newly identified from chestnut honey, although this compound has been synthesized before. The structures were determined by the NMR and electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS). Three compounds were qualified and quantitated in chestnut honey by selective multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) detection of LC-ESI-MS using the isolated compounds as external standards.

  9. Production of fermented chestnut purees by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Blaiotta, G; Di Capua, M; Coppola, R; Aponte, M

    2012-09-03

    The objective of this study was to develop a new chestnut-based puree, in order to seasonally adjust the offer and use the surplus of undersized production, providing, at the same time, a response to the growing demand for healthy and environmentally friendly products. Broken dried chestnuts have been employed to prepare purees to be fermented with six different strains of Lactobacillus (Lb.) rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei. The fermented purees were characterized by a technological and sensorial point of view, while the employed strains were tested for their probiotic potential. Conventional in vitro tests have indicated the six lactobacilli strains as promising probiotic candidates; moreover, being the strains able to grow and to survive in chestnut puree at a population level higher than 8 log₁₀ CFU/mL along 40 days of storage at 4 °C, the bases for the production of a new food, lactose-free and with reduced fat content, have been laid.

  10. Yoghurt with candied chestnut: freeze drying, physical, and rheological behaviour.

    PubMed

    Sakin-Yilmazer, Melike; Dirim, S Nur; Di Pinto, Davide; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

    2014-12-01

    As a novel product, yoghurt powder was produced by freeze drying and with added candied chestnut puree at ratios of 5, 10, and 20 % by weight. During the freeze drying process, mass loss, water activity, and the moisture content of the samples were determined and the colour (Hunter L, a, b) of the yoghurt powder products was measured. Results showed that increasing the percentage of candied chestnut puree resulted in an increase in water activity, moisture content, and colour change values of the end product. The drying behaviour, drying rate versus free moisture content, was also investigated. It was observed that yoghurt with or without added candied chestnut puree could be satisfactorily freeze-dried. Moreover, the performance of the dried product was observed in a ready-to-use, reconstituted form. For this purpose, the obtained powders were reconstituted to their original moisture contents. Shear stress and apparent viscosity against shear rate in a range of 1-1,000 (1/sec) was then measured by a Haake-Mars rotary viscometer. According to the results, the apparent viscosities of reconstituted products, as plain yoghurt and the one with an added 5 % chestnut puree were lower than that of fresh yoghurt. However, reconstituted yoghurts containing 10 % and 20 % chestnut puree had apparent viscosities higher than fresh yoghurt. Power Law explained well the rheological behaviour of reconstituted yoghurt samples for the applied shear rate range. Based on rheological data and sensory analysis, it was concluded that the freeze dried yoghurt containing 10 % (w/w) candied chestnut puree was an acceptable novel product.

  11. Nondestructive detection of infested chestnuts based on NIR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect feeding is a significant postharvest problem for processors of Chestnuts (Castanea sativa, Miller). In most cases, damage from insects is 'hidden', i.e. not visually detectable on the fruit surface. Consequently, traditional sorting techniques, including manual sorting, are generally inadequa...

  12. Betaines and related ammonium compounds in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.).

    PubMed

    Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; Casale, Rosario; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Cautela, Domenico; Paolucci, Marina; Siano, Francesco; Volpe, Maria Grazia; Castaldo, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    Chestnut fruits, being poor of simple sugars and consisting mainly of fibers and starch, are among the constituents of Mediterranean diet. While numerous studies report on content of proteins and amino acids in chestnut, no one has appeared so far on betaines, an important class of nitrogen compounds ubiquitous in plants for their protective action in response to abiotic stress. In this study, we analyzed by HPLC-ESI-tandem mass spectrometry, in fruits and flours of varieties of chestnut cultivated in Italy, the composition of betaines and ammonium compounds intermediates of their biosynthesis. Besides the parent amino acids, the compounds quantified were choline, glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine, glycine betaine, N-methylproline, proline betaine (stachydrine), β-alanine betaine, 4-guanidinobutyric acid, trigonelline, N,N,N-trimethyllysine. Interestingly, some uncommon derivatives of pipecolic acid, such as N-methylpipecolic acid, 4-hydroxypipecolic acid and 4-hydroxy-N-methylpipecolic acid were identified for the first time in chestnut samples and characterized by MS(n) tandem mass spectrometry.

  13. Dynamics of Cryphonectria hypovirus infection in chestnut blight cankers.

    PubMed

    Bryner, Sarah Franziska; Prospero, Simone; Rigling, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Virulent strains of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica cause lethal bark cankers on chestnut trees. Infection of C. parasitica with Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 in Europe biologically controls this disease, leading to nonlethal and inactive cankers. Unexpectedly, virus-free C. parasitica strains have been isolated from inactive cankers. In this study, we compared the virulence of virus-infected and virus-free C. parasitica strains isolated from either inactive or active cankers on chestnut seedlings and sprouts. In the seedling experiment, we assessed canker growth and seedling mortality. In the sprout experiment, we also assessed canker growth and made fungal reisolations to determine virus infection and immigration of foreign vegetative compatibility (vc) types over a period of 13 years in a coppice forest. Overall, the virulence of virus-free C. parasitica strains isolated from inactive versus active cankers did not differ. Significant differences were only attributed to virus infection. Virus infection and fungal strain composition in cankers changed over time. Foreign vc types immigrated into cankers and virus-free cankers became virus-infected within a few years. Most of the cankers were callused over time and became inactive. However, we observed that the virus did not always persist in these cankers. This study demonstrates that virus spread occurs effectively in European chestnut forests and that this biocontrol system is highly dynamic.

  14. Electroantennographic responses of the lesser chestnut weevil curculio sayi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to volatile organic compounds identified from chestnut reproductive plant tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary insect pest of the developing chestnut industry in the central United States is the lesser chestnut weevil, Curculio sayi (Gyllenhal), which is a specialist on only Castanea trees. Recent research has shown this insect is attracted to and feeds upon the reproductive tissues of the chestn...

  15. Electron microscopic evaluation and fission product identification of irradiated TRISO coated particles from the AGR-1 experiment: A preliminary Study

    SciTech Connect

    I J van Rooyen; D E Janney; B D Miller; J L Riesterer; P A Demkowicz

    2012-10-01

    ABSTRACT Post-irradiation examination of coated particle fuel from the AGR-1 experiment is in progress at Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In this presentation a brief summary of results from characterization of microstructures in the coating layers of selected irradiated fuel particles with burnup of 11.3% and 19.3% FIMA will be given. The main objective of the characterization were to study irradiation effects, fuel kernel porosity, layer debonding, layer degradation or corrosion, fission-product precipitation, grain sizes, and transport of fission products from the kernels across the TRISO layers. Characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy were used. A new approach to microscopic quantification of fission-product precipitates is also briefly demonstrated. The characterization emphasized fission-product precipitates in the SiC-IPyC interface, SiC layer and the fuel-buffer interlayer, and provided significant new insights into mechanisms of fission-product transport. Although Pd-rich precipitates were identified at the SiC-IPyC interlayer, no significant SiC-layer thinning was observed for the particles investigated. Characterization of these precipitates highlighted the difficulty of measuring low concentration Ag in precipitates with significantly higher concentrations of contain Pd and U. Different approaches to resolving this problem are discussed. Possible microstructural differences between particles with high and low releases of Ag particles are also briefly discussed, and an initial hypothesis is provided to explain fission-product precipitate compositions and locations. No SiC phase transformations or debonding of the SiC-IPyC interlayer as a result of irradiation were observed. Lessons learned from the post-irradiation examination are described and future actions are recommended.

  16. Lichenized fungi of a chestnut grove in Livari (Rumija, Montenegro)

    PubMed Central

    Mayrhofer, Helmut; Drescher, Anton; Stešević, Danijela; Bilovitz, Peter O.

    2016-01-01

    Sixty taxa (59 species and 1 variety) of lichenized fungi are reported from a chestnut grove in Livari. The majority of them (55 species and 1 variety) occurred on Castanea sativa. The recently described Xylographa soralifera is new to the Balkan Peninsula. The lichenicolous fungus Monodictys epilepraria growing on Lepraria rigidula is new to Montenegro. The lichen mycota is compared with similar localities in Italy and Switzerland. The species composition in Livari is most similar to the Montieri site in Tuscany. PMID:26869743

  17. Biochemical analysis of two varieties of water chestnuts (Trapa sp.).

    PubMed

    Faruk, M Omar; Amin, M Ziaul; Sana, Niranjan Kumar; Shaha, Ranajit Kumar; Biswas, Kamal Krishna

    2012-11-01

    In this study, two varieties (Green and red) of water chestnuts (Trapa sp.) have been selected for their biochemical analysis as well as nutrient composition using standard methods. The proximate composition of green water chestnuts revealed moisture 62.5, ash 1.04, crude fiber 2.13%, total soluble sugar 0.92%, reducing sugar 0.33%, non-reducing sugar 0.59%, starch 8.7%, lipid 0.84%. One hundred gram of green variety contained water soluble protein 0.275 mg, beta-Carotene 60 microg, vitamin-C 1.1 mg and total phenol 0.5 mg. The minerals contents of green variety were potassium 5.22%, sodium 0.64%, calcium 0.25%, phosphorus 6.77%, sulpher 0.38%, and iron, copper, manganese and zinc 200, 430, 90 and 600 ppm, respectively. The red variety contained moisture 62.7%, ash 1.30%, crude fiber 2.27%, total soluble sugar 0.90%, reducing sugar 0.30%, non-reducing sugar 0.60%, starch 8.2%, lipid 0.83%. The red variety contained water soluble protein 0.251 mg, beta-Carotene 92 microg, vitamin-C 0.9 mg and total phenol 0.60 mg per 100 g. The red variety contained potassium 5.32%, sodium 0.59%, calcium 0.26% phosphorus 6.77%, sulpher 0.32%, Iron 200 ppm, copper 450 ppm, manganese 110 ppm and zinc 650 ppm. The free amino acids, glutamic acid, tryptophan, tyrosine, alanine, lysine and leucine were commonly found in both varieties. In addition, green and red variety contained cysteine, arginine and proline and glutamine and asparagines, respectively. Thus, the present study sheds light on the nutrient contents of the two varieties of water chestnuts and suggests that water chestnuts may play a crucial role in human nutrition.

  18. Interaction between two invasive organisms on the European chestnut: does the chestnut blight fungus benefit from the presence of the gall wasp?

    PubMed

    Meyer, Joana B; Gallien, Laure; Prospero, Simone

    2015-11-01

    The impact of invasive fungal pathogens and pests on trees is often studied individually, thereby omitting possible interactions. In this study the ecological interaction between the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica and the chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus was investigated. We determined if abandoned galls could be colonized by C. parasitica and thereby act as an entry point and a source of pathogen inoculum. Moreover we assessed the identity and diversity of other gall-colonizing fungal species. A total of 1973 galls were randomly sampled from 200 chestnut trees in eight Swiss stands. In a stand C. parasitica was isolated from 0.4-19.2% of the galls. The incidence of C. parasitica on the galls and the fungal diversity significantly increased with the residence time of D. kuriphilus in a stand. All but one C. parasitica cultures were virulent. The predominant fungus isolated from galls was Gnomoniopsis castanea whose abundance influenced negatively that of C. parasitica. This study shows that D. kuriphilus galls can be colonized by virulent strains of the chestnut blight fungus C. parasitica. This can have effects on the chestnut blight incidence even in chestnut stands where the disease is successfully controlled by hypovirulence. The gall wasp presence influences also the fungal species composition on chestnut trees.

  19. Specific features of oil biodegradation in meadow-chestnut soils of the Stavropol region (model experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibatullina, I. Z.; Semenova, T. A.; Yakovlev, A. S.

    2012-03-01

    Oil biodegradation in oil-contaminated meadow-chestnut soils under the impact of different biological preparations was studied in a model experiment. The soils differed from one another in the age of contamination and in the presence/absence of the stage of preliminary biological remediation. Background uncontaminated soils served as the control. To characterize oil degradation, the indices of basal respiration (BR) and dehydrogenase activity (DA) and data on oil concentrations in the soil were applied. It was shown that the most complete biodegradation of oil takes place in the soils with recent oil contamination in comparison with the soils contaminated with oil for 6.5 and 19.5 months. Maximum BR values were observed in the soils contaminated with oil for 19.5 months, whereas maximum DA values were observed in the soils contaminated with oil for 6.5 months. According to the multivariate analysis of variance, the major factors affecting the rate of oil biodegradation were the age of oil contamination, the biological preparation applied, and the presence (or absence) of the stage of preliminary biological remediation. These factors specified 18, 72, and 3% of the total variance of the residual oil content in the samples, respectively. The type of the applied biological preparations had the major effect on the BR and DA indices specifying 63 and 53% of their total variances, respectively. The results obtained in this study can be used as recommendations for remediation of oil-contaminated soils in the Stavropol region.

  20. Comparison of cell repair mechanisms by means of chromosomal aberration induced by proton and gamma irradiation - preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalska, A.; Czerski, K.; Kaczmarski, M.; Lewocki, M.; Masojć, B.; Łukowiak, A.

    2015-03-01

    DNA damage of peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to gamma and proton irradiation is studied by means of chromosome aberrations to validate the efficiency of the repair mechanisms of individual cells. A new method based on an observed deviation from the Poisson statistics of the chromosome aberration number is applied for estimation of a repair factor ( RF) defined as a ratio between originally damaged cells to the amount of finally observed aberrations. The repair factors are evaluated by studying the variance of individual damage factors in a collective of healthy persons at a given dose as well as by using the chi-square analysis for the dose-effect curves. The blood samples from fifteen donors have been irradiated by Co60 gamma rays and from nine persons by 150 MeV protons with different doses up to 2 Gy. A standard extraction of lymphocyte has been used whereby dicentrics, acentrics and rings have been scored under a microscope. The RF values determined for the proton radiation are slightly larger than for gamma rays, indicating that up to 70% DNA double strand breaks can be repaired.

  1. Chestnut species and jasmonic acid treatment influence development and community interactions of galls produced by the Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus.

    PubMed

    Cooper, William R; Rieske, Lynne K

    2011-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant-signaling hormone involved in defenses against insects and pathogens as well as the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of galls on their host plants, which house immature wasps and provide them with nutrition and protection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of JA application on gall development and defenses. Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galls on American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkhausen (Fagales: Fagaceae), and Chinese chestnut, C. mollissima Blume, were treated with JA or a JA- inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA), to determine the effects of these treatments on gall characteristics and defenses. Chinese chestnut galls treated with JA had greater volume and dry weight, thicker sclerenchyma layers, and fewer external fungal lesions compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species treated with JA contained a lower proportion of empty chambers, and elevated tannin levels compared with controls. The effects of DIECA on galls were generally opposite from those of JA. American chestnut galls treated with DIECA had lower dry weight and fewer feeding punctures caused by the lesser chestnut weevil compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species that were treated with DIECA were smaller and had more external fungal lesions compared with controls. Compared to American chestnut galls, Chinese chestnut galls had increased parasitism rates and fewer gall wasps. This study is the first to investigate the effects of JA on an insect gall, and indicates that JA treatments benefit gall wasps by increasing gall size and defenses.

  2. Ecology and pathology of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the deciduous forests of the Caucasus Mountains in southern Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pridnya, M.V.; Cherpakov, V.V.; Paillet, Frederick L.

    1996-01-01

    Chestnut-dominated forests of the Caucasus Mountain area of Russia are very similar to former chestnut-dominated forests in eastern North America. The distribution, pathology, and reproductive status of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the Caucasus are described and compared to that of American chestnut (C. dentata). Chestnut forests are distributed continuously along the southern slope of the Caucasus mountains near the Black Sea, and are found in isolated populations on the north side of the Caucasus, at elevations ranging from 200 to 1300 meters. Chestnut blight was apparently introduced into the region after 1880 and continues to destroy chestnut forests today. Chestnut in the Caucasus is also infected by several other fungal and bacterial parasites and the joint infection of blight and bacteria may be especially dangerous for chestnut trees. Chestnut-dominated forests comprise only a few percent of total forest cover in the Caucasus Biosphere Preserve, and usually occur in mountain valleys or coves with deep brown soil. The age structure and reproductive status of chestnut in the Caucasus was investigated on six study plots in the Caucasus Biosphere Forest Preserve near the upper altitudinal limit of chestnut. Although chestnut is at least 70 percent of the overstory on these sites, there are very few trees less than 50 years old, and very few recent seedlings on any of the plots. Most large chestnut trees appear to have originated as basal spouts from previously established stems. Although chestnut seed production appears adequate, we suspect that competition with shrubs and other tree seedlings, and predation by herbivores and rodents, now prevent the establishment and survival of chestnut seedlings in the Biosphere Preserve.

  3. Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight: Invasion history, population biology and disease control.

    PubMed

    Rigling, Daniel; Prospero, Simone

    2017-01-31

    Chestnut blight, caused by Cryphonectria parasitica, is a devastating disease infecting American and European chestnut trees. The pathogen is native to East Asia and was spread to other continents via infected chestnut plants. This review summarizes the current state of research on this pathogen with a special emphasis on its interaction with a hyperparasitic mycovirus that acts as a biological control agent of chestnut blight. Taxonomy: Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr. is a Sordariomycete (ascomycete) fungus in the family Cryphonetriaceae (Order Diaporthales). Closely related species that can also be found on chestnut include Cryphonectria radicalis, Cryphonectria naterciae, and Cryphonectria japonica. Host range: Major hosts are species in the genus Castanea (Fam. Fagaceae), particularly the American chestnut (C. dentata), the European chestnut (C. sativa), the Chinese chestnut (C. mollissima), and the Japanese chestnut (C. crenata). Minor, incidental hosts include oaks (Quercus spp.), maples (Acer spp.), European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.), and American chinkapin (Castanea pumila). Disease symptoms: C. parasitica causes perennial necrotic lesions (so-called cankers) on the bark of stems and branches of susceptible host trees, eventually leading to wilting of the plant part distal to the infection. Chestnut blight cankers are characterized by the presence of mycelial fans and fruiting bodies of the pathogen. Below the canker the tree may react by producing epicormic shoots. Non-lethal, superficial or callusing cankers on susceptible host trees are usually associated with mycovirus-induced hypovirulence. Disease control: After the introduction of C. parasitica into a new area, eradication efforts by cutting and burning the infected plants/trees have mostly failed. In Europe, the mycovirus Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV-1) acts as a successful biological control agent of chestnut blight by causing so-called hypovirulence. CHV-1 infects C. parasitica and

  4. Resource limitation in natural populations of phytophagous insects. A long-term study case with the chestnut weevil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debouzie, Domitien; Desouhant, Emmanuel; Oberli, Frantz; Menu, Frédéric

    2002-03-01

    The chestnut weevil, Curculio elephas (Gyll.), is a non-outbreaking species whose populations and food resources, the European chestnut, Castanea sativa, can be precisely defined. Thirteen and 17 generations of this insect were studied in two isolated sites. Field observations and experiments allowed us to estimate the absolute abundance, availability and use of chestnuts for weevil oviposition, and the number of weevil females emerging per site. Unavailable chestnuts were defined as the fruits either infested first by the chestnut moth ( Cydia splendana) larvae (because of competition between the two species) or those avoided by chestnut weevil females when selecting their egg-laying sites, independently of chestnut moth presence. From a third to a half of the chestnuts were not available on the average for weevil infestation. Only one-fourth, on the average, of those available for oviposition were actually used by chestnut weevil females. Regardless of year and site, the number of available chestnuts per weevil female was higher than that of weevil-infested fruits per female, considering global food resources independently of their temporal variation in quality. However, realized fecundity of weevil females was positively correlated with the mean number of available chestnuts per female. We concluded that food resources can be limiting without being fully exploited by females because of temporal variation in chestnut quality.

  5. The effect of Cinnamaldehyde on mucositis and salivary antioxidant capacity in gamma-irradiated rats (a preliminary study)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cinnamaldehyde on mucositis and salivary total antioxidant capacity in gamma-irradiated rats. Methods The study was conducted on 28 male Wistar rats, 7–11 weeks of age and 160 ± 20 g body weight, divided into four groups of seven rats each. The first group receiving normal saline (S), the second group receiving saline and gamma radiation (SR), the third group receiving 50 mg/kg cinnamaldehyde 98% (C), and the fourth group receiving 50 mg/kg cinnamaldehyde 98% and gamma radiation (CR). SR and CR groups were exposed to 15 Gy gamma irradiation for 7 min and 39 s. Rats were intraperitoneally injected each day during the 10-day period of the experiment, and their tongues and lips were examined to assess the incidence and severity of mucositis. The saliva samples were taken from the animals three times on day zero, six, and ten. Results The mean mucositis incidence appeared to be delayed in the CR than the SR group (P = 0.024), and the severity was significantly higher in the SR compared to the CR group;the difference was statistically significant on the second day (P = 0.027). In the evaluation of salivary antioxidant capacity, salivary antioxidant concentration was significantly higher in the C than the S, SR, and CR groups on the tenth day of the experiment (p <0.05). Conclusion The clinical effects in the CR group seem to be due to antioxidant, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of cinnamaldehyde; this conclusion, however, requires further investigations. Delayed antioxidant effect in the CR group was evident in ip cinnamaldehyde injection, the exact mechanism is not clear. PMID:23351595

  6. Detection of mold-damaged chestnuts by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mold infection is a significant postharvest problem for processors of chestnuts (Castanea sativa, Miller).Fungal disease causes direct loss of product or reduced value due to the lower-quality grade of the chest-nut lot. In most cases, fungal infection is not detectable using traditional sorting tec...

  7. Composition of European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and association with health effects: fresh and processed products.

    PubMed

    De Vasconcelos, Maria C B M; Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Ferreira-Cardoso, Jorge V

    2010-08-15

    Chestnut fruits are highly regarded and widely consumed throughout Europe, America and Asia. Various commercial forms are available, e.g. fresh and industrially processed. There have been various reviews on the composition of chestnut fruits but there has not been a comprehensive review of the different health benefits that this fruit can provide. This review is focused on the composition and associated health effects of European fresh chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) fruits and their home-processed and industrial products, e.g. boiled, roasted, frozen, and 'marron glacées'. We also expand the knowledge of chestnut uses by presenting data for other chestnut materials that have potential applications as new foods, as sources of antioxidants, and as sources of other useful bioactives. There is considerable literature data on nutrients in fresh chestnut fruits but less information on bioactive non-nutrients such as phenolics. Chestnuts are mostly consumed as processed forms, and the different types of processing clearly affect the nutrient and non-nutrient composition of the fruits. The benefits that this fruit can provide for human and animal health are numerous, but it is clear that improvements can be made for both production and quality of chestnut products, e.g. genetic selection and optimizing industrial processing.

  8. Cancer mortality following cardiac catheterization: a preliminary follow-up study on 4,891 irradiated children

    SciTech Connect

    Spengler, R.F.; Cook, D.H.; Clarke, E.A.; Olley, P.M.; Newman, A.M.

    1983-02-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted on the risk of radiation-induced cancer mortality following cardiac catheterization. The study included 4,891 children with congenital heart disease who were assessed by cardiac catheterization during 1946 to 1968 at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto. The cohort was matched against the Ontario cancer death file from 1950 to 1975. The average period of follow-up was 13 years and more than 66,000 person-years have been accrued from the cohort. No deaths from breast cancer or thyroid cancer were identified. Five cancer deaths were observed and compared with 4.8 expected deaths based on Ontario cancer death rates. The five cancer deaths resulted from three leukemias, one Wilms' tumor, and one unspecified nervous system tumor. The preliminary findings did not demonstrate a significant leukemia risk arising from diagnostic cardiac catheterizations. Continued follow-up of this cohort is required to evaluate the risk of breast and thyroid cancers which can occur more than 20 years following radiation exposure.

  9. Cancer mortality following cardiac catheterization: a preliminary follow-up study on 4,891 irradiated children

    SciTech Connect

    Spengler, R.F.; Cook, D.H.; Clarke, E.A.; Olley, P.M.; Newman, A.M.

    1983-02-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted on the risk of radiation-induced cancer mortality following cardiac catheterization. The study included 4,891 children with congenital heart disease who were assessed by cardiac catheterization during 1946 to 1968 at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto. The cohort was matched against the Ontario cancer death file from 1950 to 1975. The average period of follow-up was 13 years and more than 66,000 person-years have been accrued from the cohort. No deaths from breast cancer or thyroid cancer were identified. Five cancer deaths were observed and compared with 4.8 expected deaths based on Ontario cancer death rates. The five cancer deaths resulted from three leukemias, one Wilms tumor, and one unspecified nervous system tumor. The preliminary findings did not demonstrate a significant leukemia risk arising from diagnostic cardiac catheterizations. Continued follow-up of this cohort is required to evaluate the risk of breast and thyroid cancers which can occur more than 20 years following radiation exposure.

  10. A new approach for the modelling of chestnut wood photo-degradation monitored by different spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Bonifazi, G; Calienno, L; Capobianco, G; Monaco, A Lo; Pelosi, C; Picchio, R; Serranti, S

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this work is to study the colour and chemical modifications of the surfaces in chestnut wood samples as a consequence of irradiating in a controlled environment. The changes were investigated by a new analytical approach by combining traditional techniques such as reflectance spectrophotometry in the visible range and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with new hyperspectral imaging, in order to obtain forecast models to describe the phenomenon. The statistical elaboration of the experimental data allowed to validate the measurements and to obtain models enabling to relate the investigated parameters; the elaboration of the hyperspectral images by chemometric methods allowed for studying the changes in the reflectance spectra. A result of great importance is the possibility to correlate the oxidation of wood chemical components with the colour change in a totally non-invasive modality. This result is particularly relevant in the field of cultural heritage and in general in the control processes of wooden materials.

  11. Replacement of native oak and hickory tree species by the introduced American chestnut (Castanea dentata) in southwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Rutter, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    American chestnut was introduced at West Salem, Wisconsin, about 1880 and had begun to replace native tree species in adjacent oak-hickory woodland before 1930. Chestnut is now an important canopy species over c20 ha of forested ridge extending N and S of the original plantation. A smaller area of <5 ha is dominated by chestnut in both canopy and understory. Chestnut seedlings and small saplings are more numerous along woodland edges and in recently disturbed soil, they are rare in the interior of ungrazed pasture and entirely absent from intensively grazed areas adjacent to chestnut-dominated woodland. Random sampling of recently established seedlings indicates that 1-5 seedlings/(yr.ha) became established in undisturbed woodland between 1986-1988. The general pattern of chestnut distribution indicates the importance of woodland edges in chestnut propagation and the effects of livestock grazing in excluding chestnut. Replacement of native species by chestnut appears to have occurred in 2 steps: isolated groups of trees become established at favorable locations, after which many additional chestnut stems became established in the understory. The West Salem site may not be available for study of blight-free chestnut in the future. -from Authors

  12. Chestnut shell as unexploited source of fermentable sugars: effect of different pretreatment methods on enzymatic saccharification.

    PubMed

    Maurelli, Luisa; Ionata, Elena; La Cara, Francesco; Morana, Alessandra

    2013-07-01

    Chestnut shell (CS) is an agronomic residue mainly used for extraction of antioxidants or as adsorbent of metal ions. It also contains some polysaccharide that has not been considered as potential source of fermentable sugars for biofuel production until now. In this study, the effect of different pretreatment methods on CS was evaluated in order to obtain the greatest conversion of cellulose and xylan into fermentable sugars. Hot acid impregnation, steam explosion (acid-catalysed or not), and aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) were selected as pretreatments. The pretreated biomass was subjected to saccharification with two enzyme cocktails prepared from commercial preparations, and evaluation of the best pretreatment and enzyme cocktail was based on the yield of fermentable sugars produced. As AAS provided the best result after preliminary experiments, enhancement of sugar production was attempted by changing the concentrations of ammonium hydroxide, enzymes, and CS. The optimal pretreatment condition was 10 % ammonium hydroxide, 70 °C, 22 h with CS at 5 % solid loading. After saccharification of the pretreated CS for 72 h at 50 °C and pH 5.0 with a cocktail containing cellulase (Accellerase 1500), beta-glucosidase (Accellerase BG), and xylanase (Accellerase XY), glucose and xylose yields were 67.8 and 92.7 %, respectively.

  13. Effect of cooking methods on nutritional quality and volatile compounds of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume).

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Shi, Xianhe; Zhao, Qiaojiao; Cui, Yahui; Ouyang, Jie; Xu, Fang

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different cooking methods on the content of important nutrients and volatiles in the fruit of Chinese chestnut. The nutritional compounds, including starch, water-soluble protein, free amino acids, reducing sugar, sucrose, organic acids and total flavonoids, of boiled, roasted and fried chestnuts were significantly (P<0.05) lower than those of fresh chestnuts after cooking, while the amylose, fat, crude protein and total polyphenol content varied slightly (P>0.05). L-Aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid and L-arginine were found to be the main reduced free amino acids in cooked chestnuts. The main aromatic compositions in fresh chestnuts were aldehydes and esters, while ketones, furfural and furan were formed in cooked chestnuts due to the Maillard reaction and degradation of saccharides, amino acids and lipids. Principle component analysis demonstrated that roasting and frying had a similar effect on the nutritional composition of chestnuts, which differed from that of the boiling process.

  14. Transgenic American chestnuts show enhanced blight resistance and transmit the trait to T1 progeny.

    PubMed

    Newhouse, Andrew E; Polin-McGuigan, Linda D; Baier, Kathleen A; Valletta, Kristia E R; Rottmann, William H; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Maynard, Charles A; Powell, William A

    2014-11-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata) is a classic example of a native keystone species that was nearly eradicated by an introduced fungal pathogen. This report describes progress made toward producing a fully American chestnut tree with enhanced resistance to the blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica). The transgenic American chestnut 'Darling4,' produced through an Agrobacterium co-transformation procedure to express a wheat oxalate oxidase gene driven by the VspB vascular promoter, shows enhanced blight resistance at a level intermediate between susceptible American chestnut and resistant Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima). Enhanced resistance was identified first with a leaf-inoculation assay using young chestnuts grown indoors, and confirmed with traditional stem inoculations on 3- and 4-year-old field-grown trees. Pollen from 'Darling4' and other events was used to produce transgenic T1 seedlings, which also expressed the enhanced resistance trait in leaf assays. Outcrossed transgenic seedlings have several advantages over tissue-cultured plantlets, including increased genetic diversity and faster initial growth. This represents a major step toward the restoration of the majestic American chestnut.

  15. Identification of horse chestnut coat color genotype using SNaPshot®

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The Cantabrian Coast horse breeds of the Iberian Peninsula have mainly black or bay colored coats, but alleles responsible for a chestnut coat color run in these breeds and occasionally, chestnut horses are born. Chestnut coat color is caused by two recessive alleles, e and ea, of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene, whereas the presence of the dominant, wild-type E allele produces black or bay coat horses. Because black or bay colored coats are considered as the purebred phenotype for most of the breeds from this region, it is important to have a fast and reliable method to detect alleles causing chestnut coat color in horses. Findings In order to assess coat color genotype in reproductive animals with a view to avoiding those bearing chestnut alleles, we have developed a reliable, fast and cost-effective screening device which involves Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) detection based on SNaPshot® (Applied Biosystems) methodology. We have applied this method to four native breeds from the Iberian Cantabrian Coast: Pottoka and Jaca Navarra pony breeds, in which only black or bay coats are acceptable, and Euskal Herriko Mendiko Zaldia and Burguete heavy breeds, in which chestnut coats are acceptable. The frequency of the chestnut alleles ranged between f = 0.156-0.322 in pony breeds and between f = 0.604-0.716 in heavy breeds. Conclusions This study demonstrates the usefulness of the DNA methodology reported herein as a device for identifying chestnut alleles; the methodology constitutes a valuable tool for breeders to decrease the incidence of chestnut animals among Cantabrian Coast pony breeds. PMID:20015355

  16. Tannin analysis of chestnut bark samples (Castanea sativa Mill.) by HPLC-DAD-MS.

    PubMed

    Comandini, Patrizia; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto Francisco; Toschi, Tullia Gallina

    2014-08-15

    In the present investigation, an HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS method for the complete analysis of tannins and other phenolic compounds of different commercial chestnut bark samples was developed. A total of seven compounds (vescalin, castalin, gallic acid, vescalagin, 1-O-galloyl castalagin, castalagin and ellagic acid) were separated and quantified, being 1-O-galloyl castalagin tentatively identified and found for the first time in chestnut bark samples. Thus, this method provided information regarding the composition and quality of chestnut bark samples, which is required since these samples are commercialised due to their biochemical properties as ingredients of food supplements.

  17. Survival and growth of chestnut backcross seeds and seedlings on surface mines.

    PubMed

    Skousen, J; Cook, T; Wilson-Kokes, L; Pena-Yewtukhiw, E

    2013-01-01

    Some scientists consider the loss of the American chestnut from forests in the eastern United States as one of the greatest forest ecological disasters in the 20th century. The American Chestnut Foundation has been attempting to restore chestnut by backcrossing blight-resistant Chinese chestnut to American chestnut and selecting those strains with blight resistance. Third-generation backcross seeds and seedlings have been produced and planted by researchers. Surface-mined lands provide a land base where these backcross chestnut seedlings may be introduced back into forests. In 2008, seeds of two parent species of chestnut (100% American and 100% Chinese) and three breeding generations (BF, BF, and BF backcrosses) were planted into loosely graded mine soils with and without tree shelters. First-year establishment from seeds averaged 81%. After the fourth year, survival without shelters declined for all chestnut stock types except for Chinese (80%): American 40%, BF 70%, BF 40%, and BF 55%. Survival with shelters was only slightly better after the fourth year (average, 60% with shelters and 57% without). Height growth was not different among stock types, and average height after the fourth year was 43 cm without shelters and 56 cm with shelters. In 2009, seeds and seedlings of the same chestnut stock types were planted into brown (pH 4.5) or gray (pH 6.6) mine soils. Only six out of 250 seeds germinated, which was very poor considering 81% average seed germination in 2008. Transplanted chestnut seedling survival was much better. After the third year, seedling survival was 85% in brown and 80% in gray soil, but significant differences were found with stock types. Survival was significantly higher with American, Chinese, and BF stock types (75%) than with BF and BF (60%). Height after the third season averaged 90 cm on brown and 62 cm on gray soil. Chestnut backcrosses displayed no hybrid vigor and were not better in survival and growth than the parent stock. All five

  18. Cataract surgery training using pig eyes filled with chestnuts of various hardness.

    PubMed

    Mekada, A; Nakajima, J; Nakamura, J; Hirata, H; Kishi, T; Kani, K

    1999-05-01

    This method uses pig eyes filled with cooked chestnuts serving as pseudonuclei with the goal of teaching dividing techniques of phacoemulsification and aspiration. The pseudonuclei simulate the various degrees of human lens nuclear sclerosis. The chestnuts are trimmed to lens size. After lens extraction through a self-sealing straight incision from the pig eyes, the chestnuts are inserted in the capsular bag through the incision, which is then sutured. These preparatory procedures were initially performed by experienced surgeons but after practicing phacoemulsification technique several times, inexperienced surgeons were able to complete the entire procedure, allowing them to practice phaco chop, divide and conquer, and nondividing phacoemulsification.

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Chestnut-flanked white-eye (Zosterops erythropleurus).

    PubMed

    Li, Yumei; Yao, Jiyuan; Zhao, Xin; Li, Lingyu; Yan, Shouqing

    2016-09-01

    The Chestnut-flanked white-eye (Zosterops erythropleurus) is a species of family Zosteropidae, which is distributed widely in the world. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Chestnut-flanked white-eye was determined. It has a total length of 17 811 bp, and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosome RNA genes and 2 control regions. The total base composition was 30.2% for A, 31.0% for C, 14.2% for G and 24.6% for T. The phylogenetic tree of Chestnut-flanked white-eye and 13 other species belonging to the order Passeriformes was built. The molecular data presented here will be useful to study the evolutionary relationships and genetic diversity of Chestnut-flanked white-eye.

  20. Sourdough fermentation and chestnut flour in gluten-free bread: A shelf-life evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Caligiani, Augusta; Scazzina, Francesca; Chiavaro, Emma

    2017-06-01

    The effect of sourdough fermentation combined with chestnut flour was investigated for improving technological and nutritional quality of gluten-free bread during 5day shelf life by means of chemico-physical and nutritional properties. Sourdough fermentation by itself and with chestnut flour reduced volume of loaves and heterogeneity in crumb grain. Sourdough technology allowed increasing crumb moisture content with no significant variations during shelf-life. Chestnut flour darkened crumb and crust while no effects on colour were observed for sourdough. Sourdough and/or chestnut flour addition caused a significant increase in crumb hardness at time 0 while a significant reduction of staling was observed only at 5days, even if a decrease in amylopectin fusion enthalpy was observed. The percentage of hydrolysed starch during in vitro digestion was significantly reduced by sourdough fermentation with a presumable lower glycaemic index.

  1. Starch characterization in seven raw, boiled and roasted chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Silva, A P; Oliveira, I; Silva, M E; Guedes, C M; Borges, O; Magalhães, B; Gonçalves, B

    2016-01-01

    Changes occurring in seven chestnut (Castanea sativa sp.) cultivars, caused by boiling and roasting, on starch content, cell and starch granules dimension were evaluated, and morphological changes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Three clear patterns of variation were detected after processing, namely: i) decrease of starch content with processing; ii) starch increase with the applied treatments; iii) increase of starch with boiling and decrease with roasting. Starch granules of raw chestnuts presented round, oval or elliptical form, external smooth surface and eccentric hilum, with rather ellipsoid-shaped growth rings. Processing resulted in modifications of the granules, with fusion of individual granules, and gelatinization taking place with the formation of elongated clusters. The present results indicate that boiling and roasting, besides changing the starch content of chestnut, causes important modifications in the starch granules, which can affect the sensory, rheological and chemical characteristics of chestnuts.

  2. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis) on Chestnut Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Du, Yanli; Zhang, Jiaxin; Yan, Zengguang; Ma, Yongqiang; Yang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Minzhao; Zhang, Zhiyong; Qin, Ling; Cao, Qingqin

    2016-01-01

    Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng), we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant-volatile-mediated host

  3. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis) on Chestnut Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yanli; Zhang, Jiaxin; Yan, Zengguang; Ma, Yongqiang; Yang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Minzhao; Zhang, Zhiyong; Qin, Ling; Cao, Qingqin

    2016-01-01

    Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng), we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant-volatile-mediated host

  4. Nutritional and microbiological evaluations of chocolate-coated Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) fruit for commercial use.

    PubMed

    Gounga, Mahamadou E; Xu, Shi-ying; Wang, Zhang

    2008-09-01

    In recent years, China has become an increasingly important and the largest chestnut producer in the world. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional value and microbiological quality of the roasted freeze-dried Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) (RFDC) coated with dark chocolate (DCC) and milk chocolate (MCC) for industrial use and commercial consumption. Chocolate coating significantly improved the nutritional value of chestnut. RFDC had high levels of starch (66.23%) and fibers (3.85%) while DCC and MCC contained significantly high amounts of sucrose, protein, fat and minerals. Furthermore, the protein content doubled in MCC rather than in DCC. This could be attributed to the different formulations in the two products. Milk powder and whey protein constituted the source of protein in MCC while cocoa powder added to MCC formulation constituted an additional source of minerals. The amino acid profile showed differences in amino acid composition related to the sample's protein content, indicating their good nutritional quality. The moisture contents in all RFDC, DCC and MCC were suitable for industrial processing. These results provide information about the additional nutrients of chocolate-coated chestnut and confirm that the product is an interesting nutritional food. The combination of freeze-drying and chocolate-coating generally results in greater reductions on microbiological loads, extending shelf life of harvested chestnut for commercial application. This is an alternative strategy to add value to chestnut, minimizing the significant losses in harvested fruits and providing a wider range of choices of new products to the consumer disposal.

  5. Potential of ultrasonic pulse velocity for evaluating the dimensional stability of oak and chestnut wood.

    PubMed

    Dündar, Türker; Wang, Xiping; As, Nusret; Avcı, Erkan

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of ultrasonic velocity as a rapid and nondestructive method to predict the dimensional stability of oak (Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Lieblein) and chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) that are commonly used in flooring industry. Ultrasonic velocity, specific gravity, and radial, tangential and volumetric shrinkages were measured on seventy-four 20×20×30-mm(3) specimens obtained from freshly cut oak and chestnut stems. The ultrasonic velocities of the specimens decreased with increasing moisture content (MC). We found that specific gravity was not a good predictor of the transverse shrinkages as indicated by relatively weak correlations. Ultrasonic velocity, on the other hand, was found to be a significant predictor of the transverse shrinkages for both oak and chestnut. The best results for prediction of shrinkages of oak and chestnut were obtained when the ultrasonic velocity and specific gravity were used together. The multiple regression models we developed in this study explained 77% of volumetric shrinkages in oak and 72% of volumetric shrinkages in chestnut. It is concluded that ultrasonic velocity coupled with specific gravity can be employed as predicting parameters to evaluate the dimensional stability of oak and chestnut wood during manufacturing process.

  6. Use of quinoline alkaloids as markers of the floral origin of chestnut honey.

    PubMed

    Truchado, Pilar; Martos, Isabel; Bortolotti, Laura; Sabatini, Anna G; Ferreres, Federico; Tomas-Barberan, Francisco A

    2009-07-08

    To identify potential floral markers of chestnut honey, the phytochemicals present in chestnut floral nectar collected by bees were analyzed. Two nitrogen-containing compounds were detected, isolated, and identified as 4-hydroxyquinaldic acid (kynurenic acid) and 4-quinolone-2-carboxylic acid by (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. In addition, chestnut nectar contained the monoterpene 4-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)cyclohexa-1,3-diene-1-carboxylic acid, its gentiobioside ester, and the flavonol quercetin 3-pentosylhexoside. These nectar markers were found in different chestnut unifloral honey samples, although the flavonol was not detected in all samples analyzed. The terpenoid derivatives had previously been found in linden and tilia honeys. These results show that quinoline alkaloids are potentially good markers of chestnut honey, as they were not detected in any other unifloral honey analyzed so far. They are present at concentrations ranging from 34 to 65 mg/100 g of honey in the samples analyzed. In addition, the terpenoid and flavonoid derivatives present in nectar, although not exclusively characteristic of this floral origin, are good complementary markers for the determination of the floral origin of chestnut honey.

  7. Non-target effects of transgenic blight-resistant American chestnut (Fagales: Fagaceae) on insect herbivores.

    PubMed

    Post, K H; Parry, D

    2011-08-01

    American chestnut [Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkhausen], a canopy dominant species across wide swaths of eastern North America, was reduced to an understory shrub after introduction of the blight fungus [Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr] in the early 1900s. Restoration of American chestnut by using biotechnology is promising, but the imprecise nature of transgenesis may inadvertently alter tree phenotype, thus potentially impacting ecologically dependent organisms. We quantified effects of genetic engineering and fungal inoculation of trees on insect herbivores by using transgenic American chestnuts expressing an oxalate oxidase gene and wild-type American and Chinese (C. mollissima Blume) chestnuts. Of three generalist folivores bioassayed, only gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (L.)] was affected by genetic modification, exhibiting faster growth on transgenic than on wild-type chestnuts, whereas growth of polyphemus moth [Antheraea polyphemus (Cramer)] differed between wild-type species, and fall webworm [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)] performed equally on all trees. Inoculation of chestnuts with blight fungus had no effect on the growth of two herbivores assayed (polyphemus moth and fall webworm). Enhanced fitness of gypsy moth on genetically modified trees may hinder restoration efforts if this invasive herbivore's growth is improved because of transgene expression.

  8. Chestnut Lodge and the psychoanalytic approach to psychosis.

    PubMed

    Kafka, John S

    2011-02-01

    The study of psychosis has a long history in psychoanalysis, as does the debate over the suitability of psychoanalysis for treating schizophrenia. For decades, Chestnut Lodge was not only a hospital but also a clinical research and educational institution. A unique patient-staff ratio--about twenty analytic therapists for a hundred patients--made possible prolonged and intense clinical work with schizophrenic and other severely disturbed patients. Interstaff discussions were encouraged and facilitated. This quasi-academic approach to in-depth individual case studies led to clinical findings and theoretical formulations that had a significant impact on developments in psychoanalysis, both here and abroad. Many of these findings and theoretical formulations are relevant to current studies and treatments of psychotic and nonpsychotic patients.

  9. Purification of castamollin, a novel antifungal protein from Chinese chestnuts.

    PubMed

    Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2003-11-01

    A novel antifungal protein, designated castamollin, was isolated from Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollisima) seeds with a procedure involving ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sepharose and FPLC-gel filtration on Superdex 75. Castamollin possessed a novel N-terminal sequence demonstrating little similarity to N-terminal sequences of Castanea sativa chitinase. Castamollin exhibited a molecular mass of 37kDa in gel filtration and SDS-PAGE. It inhibited the activity of human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 7microM and translation in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with an IC(50) of 2.7microM. Castamollin displayed antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, Physalospora piricola, and Coprinus comatus but was devoid of lectin activity.

  10. Toxigenic Aspergillus and Penicillium isolates from weevil-damaged chestnuts.

    PubMed

    Wells, J M; Payne, J A

    1975-10-01

    Aspergillus and Penicillium were among the most common genera of fungi isolated on malt-salt agar from weevil-damaged Chinese chestnut kernels (16.8 and 40.7% occurrence, respectively). Chloroform extracts of 21 of 50 Aspergillus isolates and 18 of 50 representative Penicillium isolates, grown for 4 weeks at 21.1 C on artificial medium, were toxic to day-old cockerels. Tweleve of the toxic Aspergillus isolates were identified as A. wentii, eight as A. flavus, and one as A. flavus var. columnaris. Nine of the toxic Penicillium isolates were identified as P. terrestre, three as P. steckii, two each as P. citrinum and P. funiculosum, and one each as P. herquei (Series) and P. roqueforti (Series). Acute diarrhea was associated with the toxicity of A. wentii and muscular tremors with the toxicity of P. terrestre, one isolate of P. steckii, and one of P. funiculosum.

  11. Acute Effusive Pericarditis due to Horse Chestnut Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Edem, Efe; Kahyaoğlu, Behlül; Çakar, Mehmet Akif

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 32 Final Diagnosis: Pericardial effusion related to the consumption of herbal product Symptoms: Dyspnea Medication: Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) Clinical Procedure: Pericardial and pleural effusions were drained through a pericardiopleural window Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: There are many well-known causes of pericardial effusion, such as cancer metastasis, bacterial or viral pericarditis, and uremic pericarditis; however, no reports exist in the literature demonstrating a pericardial effusion that led to cardiac tamponade following consumption of an herbal remedy. Case Report: A 32-year-old male patient was referred to our cardiology outpatient clinic with a complaint of dyspnea. The patient’s medical history was unremarkable; however, he had consumed 3 boxes of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) paste over the previous 1.5 months. His chest x-ray examination revealed an enlarged cardiac shadow and bilateral pleural effusion. On transthoracic echocardiographic examination, his ejection fraction was found to be 55% with circumferentially extended pericardial effusion that reached 3.9 cm at its maximal thickness. No growth had been detected in the pericardial and pleural biopsies or blood samples; there was no evidence of an infectious process in the physical examination. Based on this information, we diagnosed pericarditis resulting from the use of herbal remedies. This is the first report to demonstrate that herbal remedy consumption may cause this type of clinical condition. Conclusions: Besides other well-known causes, pericardial effusion related to the consumption of herbal remedies should always be considered when treating patients with pericardial effusion caused by unclear etiologies. PMID:27141926

  12. Assessing potential changes of chestnut productivity in Europe under future climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calheiros, T.; Pereira, M. G.; Pinto, J. G.; Caramelo, L.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Dacamara, C. C.

    2012-04-01

    The European chestnut is cultivated for its nuts and wood. Several studies point to the dependency of chestnut productivity on specific soil and climate characteristics. For instance, this species dislikes chalky and poorly drained soils, appreciates sedimentary, siliceous and acidic to neutral soils. Chestnut trees also seems to appreciate annual mean values of sunlight spanning between 2400 and 2600 h, rainfall ranging between 600 and 1500 mm, mean annual temperature between 9 and 13°C, 27°C being the mean of the maximum temperature (Heiniger and Conedera, 1992; Gomes-Laranjo et al.,2008). The amount of heat between May and October must range between 1800°D and 2400°D (Dinis et al., 2011) . In Poland, the growing season is defined as the period of time when the mean 24-h temperature is greater than 5°C (Wilczynski and Podalski, 2007). In Portugal, maximum photosynthetic activity occurs at 24-28°C for adult trees, but exhibits more than 50% of termoinhibition when the air temperature is above 32°C, which is frequent during summer (Gomes- Laranjo et al., 2006, 2008). Recently Pereira et al (2011) identified a set of meteorological variables/parameters with high impact on chestnut productivity. The main purpose of this work is to assess the potential impacts of future climate change on chestnut productivity in Portugal as well as on European chestnut orchards. First, observed data from the European Climate assessment (ECA) and simulations with the Regional Circulation Model (RCM) COSMO-CLM for recent climate conditions are used to assess the ability of the RCM to model the actual meteorological conditions. Then, ensemble projections from the ECHAM5/COSMO-CLM model chain for two climate scenarios (A1B and B1) are used to estimate the values of relevant meteorological variables and parameters und future climate conditions. Simulated values are then compared with those obtained for present climate. Results point to changes in the spatial and temporal

  13. Effect of cooking on total vitamin C contents and antioxidant activity of sweet chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.).

    PubMed

    Barros, Ana I R N A; Nunes, Fernando M; Gonçalves, Berta; Bennett, Richard N; Silva, Ana Paula

    2011-09-01

    In this work the total vitamin C contents (ascorbic acid+dehydroascorbic acid) and antioxidant activity of raw and cooked chestnuts was evaluated. The vitamin C contents of raw chestnuts varied significantly between the different cultivars (cv) studied and it varied from 400mg/kg dry weight (cv Lada) to 693mg/kg dry weight (cv Martaínha). The different cultivars behave differently during the cooking process concerning the loss of vitamin C. A significant decrease in the vitamin C content of the chestnuts was observed, 25-54% for the boiling process and 2-77% for the roasting process. Boiled and roasted chestnuts can be good sources of vitamin C since it may represent 22.4%, 16.2%, 26.8% and 19.4%, respectively, of the recommended dietary intake for an adult man and woman. The cooking process significantly changed the antioxidant activity of the chestnuts. A difference was observed between the cultivars during the cooking processes, concerning the antioxidant activity. For the raw chestnuts the variation in vitamin C content of the chestnuts explains 99% of the antioxidant activity variation but for the roasted and boiled chestnuts this percentage significantly decreases to 51% and 88%, respectively. Although a high antioxidant activity is still present in the cooked chestnuts, the cause for this antioxidant activity is less dependent on the vitamin C content of the chestnuts, probably due to the conversion of ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid. The increase in gallic acid during the cooking process, presumably transferred from the peels to the fruit, also contributes to the high antioxidant activity observed for the cooked chestnuts.

  14. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1, (OU1) which consists of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP). The CRSP are located {approximately}800 ft southeast of the central portion of the Y-12 Plant atop Chestnut Ridge, which is bounded to the northwest by Bear Creek Valley and to the southeast by Bethel Valley. Operated from 1973 to 1988, the CRSP consisted of a series of trenches used for the disposal of classified hazardous and nonhazardous waste materials. Disposal of hazardous waste materials was discontinued in December 1984, while nonhazardous waste disposal ended on November 8, 1988. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern (COC), support an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA), support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this Work Plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU1. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the overall risk posed to human health and the environment by OU1.

  15. Flavonoids in horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) seeds and powdered waste water byproducts.

    PubMed

    Kapusta, Ireneusz; Janda, Bogdan; Szajwaj, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Piacente, Sonia; Pizza, Cosimo; Franceschi, Federico; Franz, Chlodwig; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2007-10-17

    Horse chestnut extracts are widely used in pharmacy and cosmetic industries. The main active constituents are saponins of oleane type, but seeds of horse chestnut also contain flavonoids, being glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. Their contribution to the overall activity of the extracts was not clear. In the present work, the main flavonoids from horse chestnut seeds were isolated and their structures established with spectral methods. Seven glycosides were isolated, out of which six ( 2, 3, 4, 7, 11, 13) were previously reported and one ( 9) was identified as a new tamarixetin 3- O- [beta- d-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)]- O-beta- d-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)- O-beta- d-glucopyranoside. The structures of three additional compounds 1, 10, and 12, not previously reported, were deduced on the basis of their LC-ESI/MS/MS fragmentation characteristics. A new ultraperformance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method has been developed for profiling and quantitation of horse chestnut flavonoids. The method allowed good separation over 4.5 min. Thirteen compounds could be identified in the profile, out of which di- and triglycoisdes of quercetin and kaempferol were the dominant forms and their acylated forms occurred in just trace amounts. The total concentration of flavonoids in the powdered horse chestnut seed was 0.88% of dry matter. The alcohol extract contained 3.46%, and after purification on C18 solid phase, this concentration increased to 9.40% of dry matter. The flavonoid profile and their content were also measured in the horse chestnut wastewater obtained as byproduct in industrial processing of horse chestnut seeds. The total flavonoid concentration in the powder obtained after evaporation of water was 2.58%, while after purification on solid phase, this increased to 11.23% dry matter. It was concluded that flavonoids are present in a horse chestnut extract in a relatively high amount and have the potential to contribute to the overall activity of these extracts

  16. Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi causes chestnut canker symptoms in Castanea sativa shoots in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Pasche, Sabrina; Calmin, Gautier; Auderset, Guy; Crovadore, Julien; Pelleteret, Pegah; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Barja, François; Paul, Bernard; Jermini, Mauro; Lefort, François

    2016-02-01

    A screening of Castanea sativa scions for grafting for the presence of endophytes showed that the opportunistic fungal pathogen Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi was the most abundant member of the endophytic flora. This fungus is known as a pathogen affecting chestnut fruits in Italy and Australia. Here, we present evidence that it causes cankers very similar to the ones due to Cryphonectria parasitica infection on twigs and scions of chestnut trees. We found natural infections of G. smithogilvyi in healthy grafted plants as well as in scions from chestnut trees. The identity of the fungus isolated from asymptomatic tissues was verified by applying Koch's postulates and corroborated by DNA sequencing of four different gene regions. In contrast to C. parasitica that appears on the bark as yellow to orange pycnidia, stromata and slimy twisted tendrils, G. smithogilvyi forms orange to red and black pycnidia, gray stromata and cream-colored to beige slimy twisted tendrils on the bark. These Swiss strains are closely related to G. smithogilvyi strains from Australia and from New Zealand, Gnomoniopsis sp. and Gnomoniopsis castanea from New Zealand, Italy, France and Switzerland. While the strains from Ticino are genetically very close to G. smithogilvyi and G. castanea from Italy, the differences between the strains from Ticino and Geneva suggest two different origins. The present study supports the hypothesis that a single species named G. smithogilvyi, which is known to be the agent of chestnut rot, also causes wood cankers on chestnut.

  17. Necessity of screening water chestnuts for microcystins after cyanobacterial blooms break out.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fu-Gang; Zhao, Xiao-Lian; Tang, Jian; Gu, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Niu, Wei-Min

    2009-08-01

    Water chestnut is one of the most popular vegetables in Asian countries that grows in shallow water. Eighteen water chestnut samples were collected from Lake Tai and six samples were bought at markets in Wuxi, China, in October 2007. Extraction solution of water chestnut was cleaned up with a solid phase extraction column and immunoaffinity chromatography cartridges, then the microcystin (MC) level was detected by indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The results of ELISA showed that there were six samples collected from Lake Tai which contained MCs; the highest level of total MCs was 7.02 ng/g. The results of LC-MS confirmed that MC-LR and MC-RR were present in five samples. The highest level of MC-LR was 1.02 ng/g and that of MC-RR was 4.44 ng/g. Heavy cyanobacterial blooms had occurred, and MCs were detected in water at the points in Lake Tai where MCs occurred in water chestnuts collected in 2007. MCs were not detected in the six samples bought at Wuxi markets. The results suggest that MCs can accumulate in water chestnuts, which is a potential hazard for human health.

  18. Sensitization from chestnuts and bananas in patients with urticaria and anaphylaxis from contact with latex.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Corres, L; Moneo, I; Muñoz, D; Bernaola, G; Fernández, E; Audicana, M; Urrutia, I

    1993-01-01

    We present eight patients allergic to latex and fruit (chestnut and banana), seven of whom are women, and aged 17 to 42 years (mean 25 years). Four had family and five personal atopic histories. The total IgE varied from 41 to 520 Ku/L (mean 263). The symptoms followed ingestion of fruit (anaphylaxis) in four patients and contact with rubber (contact urticaria and anaphylaxis) in the other four. Skin prick test (SPT) with latex and radioallergosorbent test to latex were positive in all the patients. Histamine release (HR) to latex was carried out on six patients and was positive in three. In the six patients with symptoms after having eaten chestnuts the SPT was positive and specific IgE was detected in five of them. Histamine release to chestnuts was positive in three of the six patients tested and one of them (-SPT and + IgE) tolerated the fruit. Two out of five patients with symptomatic banana allergy had negative SPT with banana while the test was positive in one patient who tolerated this fruit, this being the only case with specific IgE to banana. Histamine release with banana was only positive in one case. The important correlation between SPT, RAST, and HR results to latex and chestnut together with the total inhibition of the chestnut RAST with a serum pool by preincubation with latex suggests cross-reactivity among these allergens.

  19. 78 FR 36769 - Chestnut Flats Lessee, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Chestnut Flats Lessee, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Chestnut Flats Lessee, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  20. 75 FR 59258 - Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC's application for market-based...

  1. Assessment of total- and partial-body irradiation in a baboon model: preliminary results of a kinetic study including clinical, physical, and biological parameters.

    PubMed

    Hérodin, Francis; Richard, Sandrine; Grenier, Nancy; Arvers, Philippe; Gérome, Patrick; Baugé, Stéphane; Denis, Josiane; Chaussard, Hervé; Gouard, Stéphane; Mayol, Jean-François; Agay, Diane; Drouet, Michel

    2012-08-01

    This biodosimetry study used irradiated baboons to investigate the efficacy of a kinetic multiparameter (clinical, physical, and biological) approach for discriminating partial-body irradiation (PBI) and total-body irradiation (TBI). Animals were unilaterally (front) exposed to 60Co gamma rays (8 to 32 cGy min) using either TBI or vertical left hemi-body irradiation (HBI), as follows: 2.5 Gy TBI (n = 2), 5 Gy TBI (n = 2), 5 Gy HBI (n = 2), and 10 Gy HBI (n = 2). Midline tissue doses were measured at the anterior iliac crest level with an ionization chamber, and body dosimetry was performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters. Blood samples were collected before exposure and from 1 h until 200 d after irradiation. Clinical status, complete blood cell count, biochemical parameters, and cytogenetic analysis were evaluated. The partial least square discriminant analysis chosen for statistical analysis showed that the four groups of irradiated baboons were clearly separated. However, the dicentric chromosome assay may not distinguish HBI from TBI in confounding situations where equivalent whole-body doses are similar and the time of exposure is sufficient for peripheral blood lymphocyte homogenization. Interestingly, as bone marrow shielding in HBI animals prevented aplasia from happening, hematologic parameters such as the platelet count and Flt-3 ligand level helped to distinguish HBI and TBI. Moreover, the ratio of neutrophil to lymphocyte counts, creatine kinase, and citrulline levels may be discriminating biomarkers of dose or injury. Both early and delayed clinical signs and bioindicators appear to be useful for assessment of heterogeneous irradiation.

  2. Salicylic acid inhibits enzymatic browning of fresh-cut Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) by competitively inhibiting polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Li, Lin; Wu, Yanwen; Fan, Junfeng; Ouyang, Jie

    2015-03-15

    The inhibitory effect and associated mechanisms of salicylic acid (SA) on the browning of fresh-cut Chinese chestnut were investigated. Shelled and sliced chestnuts were immersed in different concentrations of an SA solution, and the browning of the chestnut surface and interior were inhibited. The activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) extracted from chestnuts were measured in the presence and absence of SA. SA at concentrations higher than 0.3g/L delayed chestnut browning by significantly inhibiting the PPO activity (P<0.01), and the POD activity was not significantly affected (P>0.05). The binding and inhibition modes of SA with PPO and POD, determined by AUTODOCK 4.2 and Lineweaver-Burk plots, respectively, established SA as a competitive inhibitor of PPO.

  3. Preliminary investigations on a new method of retaining the colour of shucked cockles ( Anadara Granosa), and the extension of shelflife by gamma irradiation and vacuum packing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Cher Siang; Low, Lai Kim; Chia, Lawrence H. L.

    Live cockles were incubated in atmospheres containing different concentrations of carbon monoxide. Since CO combines more readily with myoglobin and haemoglobin than oxygen, the formation of in vivo deoxygenated haemoglobins and post mortem formation of methaemoglobin were retarded by the more stable carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO). The bright red colour of the stable HbCO is retained during storage, giving the desired colour to the cockles. The colour of normal, chilled cockle meat deteriorated after 3 days ice storage while those treated with 50 and 100% CO retained the bright deep orange colour up to 10 days storage. Irradiation caused faster colour deterioration in both CO and non-CO treated samples. Vacuum packing influenced the colour of the cockles with irradiation and with CO treatments. In non-CO treated, irradiated samples, the effect of vacuum packing was not obvious. In CO treated, irradiated samples, vacuum packing retarded the deterioration of colour. Odour developments were influenced by irradiation, vacuum packing and storage temperature, and were not influenced by CO treatments. Irradiation suppressed the development of odour for the first 11 days storage (0°C) while vacuum packing depressed the odour by lowering its intensity instead. Odour development was slowed down by lowering the storage temperature. The odour of shucked cockles was rejected within one day at room temperature (26-28°C) while at 0°C the odour of the shucked cockles was still acceptable after 10 days. Suitable chemical indices for quality are K value and TVBN. Treatment with CO did not influence the K value development. Vacuum packing produced the highest K values after 19 days storage (0°C), while irradiated samples had higher K values than non-irradiated samples. The TVBN increased with storage and is an indicator of the odour development. The use of CO treatment extended the shelflife of the cockles based on appearance. A combination of CO treatment, vacuum packing, ice storage

  4. Annual report of 1991 groundwater monitoring data for the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin at the Y-12 Plant: Ground water surface elevations

    SciTech Connect

    Shevenell, L.; Switek, J.

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a summary and interpretation of hydraulic head measurements obtained from wells surrounding the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin sites at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Periodic water level observations are presented using hydrographs and water table contour maps based on data obtained from quarterly sampling during calendar year 1991. Generalized, preliminary interpretation of results are presented. The two sites covered by this report have interim status under the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). A subset of the wells at each rate are used for groundwater monitoring purposes under the requirements of RCRA. A discussion of the up-gradient and down-gradient directions for each of the sites is included.

  5. Triacylglycerols profiling as a chemical tool to identify mushrooms submitted to gamma or electron beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ângela; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2014-09-15

    In order to define irradiation treatment as a routine conservation methodology, it is imperative to develop chemometric indicators with the ability to distinguish irradiated from unirradiated foodstuffs. Electron spin resonance, photostimulated luminescence and thermoluminescence methods were employed to monitor radiation-induced markers, as well as different chemical compounds produced from the lipidic fraction of different foodstuffs. Apart from these methods, the specificity of triacylglycerol profiles has previously been detected in mushroom species, as has the effect of irradiation treatment in the triacylglycerol profiles of chestnut. Accordingly, the feasibility of using this as a chemometric indicator of irradiated mushrooms was evaluated. In line with the obtained results in literature, the effects of each type of irradiation were significantly different, as can be concluded from the correlations among discriminant functions and variables within each statistical test. Triacylglycerol profiling proved to be a useful tool to detect irradiated mushrooms, independently of the species or irradiation source, especially for doses above 1 kGy.

  6. Repeated Small Bowel Obstruction Caused by Chestnut Ingestion without the Formation of Phytobezoars.

    PubMed

    Satake, Ryu; Chinda, Daisuke; Shimoyama, Tadashi; Satake, Miwa; Oota, Rie; Sato, Satoshi; Yamai, Kiyonori; Hachimori, Hisashi; Okamoto, Yutaka; Yamada, Kyogo; Matsuura, Osamu; Hashizume, Tadashi; Soma, Yasushi; Fukuda, Shinsaku

    2016-01-01

    A small number of cases of small bowel obstruction caused by foods without the formation of phytobezoars have been reported. Repeated small bowel obstruction due to the ingestion of the same food is extremely rare. We present the case of 63-year-old woman who developed small bowel obstruction twice due to the ingestion of chestnuts without the formation of phytobezoars. This is the first reported case of repeated small bowel obstruction caused by chestnut ingestion. Careful interviews are necessary to determine the meal history of elderly patients and psychiatric patients.

  7. Intercomparisons of the solar irradiance measurements from the Nimbus-7 SBUV, the NOAA-9 and NOAA-11 SBUV/2, and the STS-34 SSBUV instruments - A preliminary study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cebula, R. P.; Deland, M. T.; Heath, D. F.; Hilsenrath, E.; Hudson, R. D.; Schlesinger, B. M.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented of solar irradiance measurements in the spectral range 160-400 nm at approximately 0.15-0.20-nm intervals and at 1-nm resolution performed continually since November 1978. Solar irradiance data from the Nimbus-7 SBUV satellite instrument, the SBUV/2 instruments on the NOAA-9 and NOAA-11 satellites, and the October 1989 flight of the Shuttle SBUV instrument are presented and compared. Uncertainties in the instruments' absolute and long-term radiometric calibrations, which vary among the four instruments, are discussed. Comparisons of the initial solar spectra from the four instruments show agreement to within approximately 10 percent, with spectral biases on the order of +/-4 percent. Irradiances measured by the two NOAA instruments and SSBUV agree to within about 5 percent overall from 270 to 360 nm, with spectral biases on the order of about +/-2 percent. The Nimbus-7 SBUV irradiances are an additional 5-10 percent lower in this region than those measured by the other three instruments.

  8. Assessing potential changes of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Mário; Calheiros, Tomas; Pinto, Joaquim; Caramelo, Liliana

    2013-04-01

    Weather conditions play an important role during different phases of the vegetative cycle of the chestnut trees and, consequently, several meteorological parameters seem to be associated chestnut productivity (Heiniger and Conedera, 1992, Cesaraccio et al., 2001, Wilczynski and Podalski, 2007, Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008, Dinis et al., 2011, Pereira et al., 2011). Observed data from European Climate Assessment and simulated data by COSMO-CLM model for the actual (C20) and future (A1B and B1) climate scenarios were used in this study to: (i) assess the model ability to reproduce weather parameters distribution; and, (ii) to assess future changes in the distribution of meteorological parameters which play an important role in the productivity of chestnut for different future periods. Results points to statistical significant changes in the mean and in variance in the future, more prominent in temperature than in precipitation based parameters. Changes in precipitation will be more significant in Northwestern Iberian Peninsula and France in the end of the 21st century for A1B scenario conditions. As expected, more significant changes will be expected to occur during spring and summer, in the Mediterranean areas and in the later period. The number of days with Tmax<28°C will generally decrease in both scenarios, while the changes in the number of days with 24°Cchestnut in Europe, in some areas of production. Heiniger,U. And Conedera, M., 1992: "Chestnut forests and chestnut cultivation in Switzerland". Proceedings of the

  9. Chestnut Ridge Borrow Area Waste Pile work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R. )

    1991-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), through its contractor Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., has constructed a storage facility, the Chestnut Ridge Borrow Area Waste Pile (CRBAWP), for mercury-contaminated soil excavated from the Oak Ridge Civic Center properties and the Oak Ridge Sewer Line Beltway. Excavation of the soil from the Civic Center began in September 1984 and was completed in early 1985. Similar soils from other areas of the city were added to the pile until 1987. Approximately 3000 yd{sup 3} are stored at the present time. An Interim Status RCRA permit was initially sought for this facility. Samples from the waste pile passed the Extraction Procedure Toxicity Test (EP Tox). The Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (now the Tennessee Department of Conservation-TDC) denied the permit based on their conclusion that the waste was not a RCRA-regulated waste. On September 25, 1990 the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) superseded the EP Tox test. TCLP tests are not proposed to satisfy a request by TDC and to make a final determination of the nature of the soils in order to close the CRBAWP as a solid waste disposal facility under Tennessee State rule 1200-1-7-.04. The objectives of this work are to summarize existing site information and detail actions necessary to sample and characterize soils from the waste pile as hazardous or nonhazardous per the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Within the scope of this plan, a site investigation will be discussed; a field sampling plan will be described in terms of sampling locations, procedures, and quality assurance; and ancillary activities such as waste management, data management, and health and safety will be outlines. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Ectomycorrhizal inoculum potential of northeastern US forest soils for American chestnut restoration: results from field and laboratory bioassays.

    PubMed

    Dulmer, Kristopher M; Leduc, Stephen D; Horton, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was once a dominant overstory tree in eastern USA but was decimated by chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica). Blight-resistant chestnut is being developed as part of a concerted restoration effort to bring this heritage tree back. Here, we evaluate the potential of field soils in the northern portion of the chestnut's former range to provide ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungus inoculum for American chestnut. In our first study, chestnut seedlings were grown in a growth chamber using soil collected from three sites dominated by red oak (Quercus rubra) as inoculum and harvested after 5 months. Of the 14 EM fungi recovered on these seedlings, four species dominated in soils from all three sites: Laccaria laccata, a Tuber sp., Cenococcum geophilum, and a thelephoroid type. Seedlings grown in the nonsterilized soils were smaller than those growing in sterilized soils. In the second study, chestnut seedlings were grown from seed planted directly into soils at the same three sites. Seedlings with intermingling roots of established trees of various species were harvested after 5 months. Seventy-one EM fungi were found on the root tips of the hosts, with 38 occurring on chestnut seedlings. Multiple versus single host EM fungi were significantly more abundant and frequently encountered. The fungi observed dominating on seedlings in the laboratory bioassay were not frequently encountered in the field bioassay, suggesting that they may not have been active in mycelial networks in the field setting but were in the soils as resistant propagules that became active in the bioassay. These results show that soil from red oak stands can be used to inoculate American chestnut with locally adapted ectomycorrhizal fungi prior to outplanting, a relatively cost effective approach for restoration efforts.

  11. Functional properties and in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial effectiveness of pigskin gelatin films incorporated with hydrolysable chestnut tannin.

    PubMed

    Peña-Rodriguez, Cristina; Martucci, Josefa F; Neira, Laura M; Arbelaiz, Aitor; Eceiza, Arantxa; Ruseckaite, Roxana A

    2015-04-01

    The impact of the incorporation of 10% w/w of hydrolyzable chestnut tannin into pigskin gelatin (G) films plasticized with glycerol (Gly) on the physicochemical properties as well as the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial effectiveness against food-borne pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Streptococcus aureus was investigated. A higher tendency to both redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) coloration characterized gelatin films incorporated with chestnut tannin. The reduced lightness (L) and transparency of gelatin-chestnut tannin films plasticized with 30% w/w Gly might be associated with certain degree of phase separation which provoked the migration of the plasticizer to the film surface. The incorporation of chestnut tannin and glycerol affected the chemical structure of the resultant films due to the establishment of hydrogen interactions between components as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These interactions reduced gelatin crystallinity and seemed to be involved in the substantial decrease of the water uptake of films with tannin, irrespective of the glycerol level. Such interactions had minor effect on tensile properties being similar to those of the control films (without chestnut tannin) at the same glycerol level. Films modified with 10% w/w chestnut tannin showed significant (P < 0.05) 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, ca. from 0 ± 0.033 to 87.1 ± 0.002% for chestnut tannin-free and chestnut tannin-containing gelatin films. The limited inhibitory activity of films incorporated with 10% w/w chestnut tannin against the selected bacteria evidenced by disk diffusion method probably resulted from the interactions within the film restricting the diffusion of the active agent into the agar medium. The more modest protective effect observed against a Gram-positive bacterium (S. aureus) was also discussed.

  12. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This document outlines the activities necessary to conduct a Remedial Investigation (RI) of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The CRSP, also designated Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 1, is one of four OUs along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The purpose of the RI is to collect data to (1) evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminants, (2) support an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) and a Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA), (3) support the feasibility study in the development and analysis of remedial alternatives, and (4) ultimately, develop a Record of Decision (ROD) for the site. This chapter summarizes the regulatory background of environmental investigation on the ORR and the approach currently being followed and provides an overview of the RI to be conducted at the CRSP. Subsequent chapters provide details on site history, sampling activities, procedures and methods, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, and waste management related to the RI.

  13. The treatment of advanced stage favorable histology non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a preliminary report of a randomized trial comparing single agent chemotherapy, combination chemotherapy, and whole body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, R.T.; Kushlan, P.; Kaplan, H.S.; Rosenberg, S.A.; Brown, B.W.

    1981-09-01

    Between 1975 and 1978, 51 patients with favorable histology non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, pathologic stage III-IV, were treated prospectively on a randomized treatment protocol. Treatment options were single alkylating agent chemotherapy, combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (CVP), or fractionated whole body irradiation followed by low dose involved field irradiation. The median follow-up interval in this group of patients is not 41 mo. Actuarial survival is excellent, 84% at 4 yr for the entire group, with similar survival observed for each of the three treatment options. Initial complete remission rates (64%, 88%, and 71%) were not significantly different in the three treatment arms. Frequent relapse after initial remission induction was noted, however, with a freedom from relapse at 4 yr of only 25%. The toxicities of the three therapies were acceptable. Acute complications of therapy were most numerous in the group of patients treated with CVP; however, long-term hematologic depression was most commonly observed in patients treated with whole body irradiation. In general, hematologic complications were more frequent among patients who had marrow involvement and intact spleens at the time of initial therapy. The relationship of this study to other clinical trials in the management of patients with advanced stage favorable histology lymphomas and its implications for future clinical trials are discussed.

  14. Sexually mature transgenic American chestnut trees via embryogenic suspension-based transformation.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Gisele M; Nairn, Campbell J; Le, Huong T; Merkle, Scott A

    2009-09-01

    The availability of a system for direct transfer of anti-fungal candidate genes into American chestnut (Castanea dentata), devastated by a fungal blight in the last century, would offer an alternative or supplemental approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees resistant to the blight fungus and other pathogens. By taking advantage of the strong ability of embryogenic American chestnut cultures to proliferate in suspension, a high-throughput Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol for stable integration of foreign genes into the tree was established. Proembryogenic masses (PEMs) were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strain AGL1 harboring the plasmid pCAMBIA 2301, followed by stringent selection with 50 or 100 mg/l Geneticin. A protocol employing size-fractionation to enrich for small PEMs to use as target material and selection in suspension culture was applied to rapidly produce transgenic events with an average efficiency of four independent transformation events per 50 mg of target tissue and minimal escapes. Mature somatic embryos, representing 18 transgenic events and derived from multiple American chestnut target genotypes, were germinated and over 100 transgenic somatic seedlings were produced and acclimatized to greenhouse conditions. Multiple vigorous transgenic somatic seedlings produced functional staminate flowers within 3 years following regeneration.

  15. Infectivity and sporulation of Phytophthora ramorum on northern red oak and chestnut oak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Branches from northern red and chestnut oak seedlings were dip-inoculated with 5,000 sporangia per milliliter of Phytophthora ramorum and incubated at 100 percent relative humidity in dew chambers for 6 days. Three plants were then used to assess sporangia production, while the other three plants w...

  16. Sporulation capacity of Phytophthora ramorum on northern red oak and chestnut oak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Branches from six 2 to 3-year old northern red and chestnut oak seedlings were dip-inoculated with ca. 5,000 sporangia per milliliter of Phytophthora ramorum isolate Pr-6 and incubated at 100 percent relative humidity in dew chambers for 6 days. Three plants were then used to assess sporangia produ...

  17. Widespread Distribution of Fungivorus Aphelenchoides spp. in Blight Cankers on American Chestnut Trees.

    PubMed

    Griffin, G J; Eisenback, J D; Oldham, K

    2012-12-01

    Previously we showed in laboratory studies that the fungivorus nematode, Aphelenchoides hylurgi, was attracted to and fed upon the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, from American chestnut bark cankers and was a carrier of biocontrol, white hypovirulent C. parasitica strains. In the present field study, we recovered Aphelenchoides spp. in almost all (97.0 %) of 133 blight canker tissue assays (three 5-g samples each) from four eastern states. High mean population densities (227 to 474 nematodes per 5 g tissue) of Aphelenchoides spp. were recovered from cankers in Virginia, West Virginia, and Tennessee but not from New Hampshire (mean = 75 nematodes per 5 g tissue). Overall, most canker assays yielded population densities less than 200 nematodes per 5 g tissue. All of 12 very small or young cankers yielded a few to many Aphelenchoides spp. Regression analysis indicated greatest recovery of Aphelenchoides spp. occurred in the month of May (r = 0.94). The results indicate that Aphelenchoides spp. appear to be widespread in blight cankers on American chestnut trees and could play a role in biocontrol of chestnut blight.

  18. Novel insights into the emergence of pathogens: the case of chestnut blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exotic, invasive pathogens have emerged repeatedly and continue to emerge to threaten the world’s forests. Ecosystem structure and function can be permanently changed when keystone tree species such as the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) are eliminated from a whole range by disease. The fungal ...

  19. Chemical composition and functional properties of native chestnut starch (Castanea sativa Mill).

    PubMed

    Cruz, Bruno R; Abraão, Ana S; Lemos, André M; Nunes, Fernando M

    2013-04-15

    Starch isolation methods can change their physico-chemical and functional characteristics hindering the establishment of a starch-food functionality relation. A simple high yield and soft isolation method was applied for chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill) starch consisting in steeping and fruit disintegration in a 25 mM sodium bisulfite solution and purification by sedimentation. Starch integrity, physico-chemical composition, morphology and functional properties were determined, being observed significant differences from previous described methods for chestnut starch isolation. The X-ray pattern was of B-type, with a degree of crystallinity ranging from 51% to 9%, dependent on the starch moisture content. The onset, peak, and conclusion gelatinization temperatures were 57.1°C, 61.9°C and 67.9°C, respectively. Total amylose content was 26.6%, and there was not found any evidence for lipid complexed amylose. Swelling power at 90°C was 19 g/g starch, and the amount of leached amylose was 78% of the total amylose content. Native chestnut starch presents a type B pasting profile similar to corn starch but with a lower gelatinization (56.1°C) and peak viscosity (79.5°C) temperatures, making native chestnut starch a potential technological alternative to corn starch, especially in application where lower processing temperatures are needed.

  20. The American Chestnut Blight: An Agent of Biological and Cultural Catastrophe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, Eddie

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the history and habits of the fungus commonly referred to as the "chestnut blight." Considers the impact of the blight and efforts to control it, offers personal and cultural reflections on the blight, and gives tips for incorporating the information into cross-disciplinary lessons. Contains 17 references. (WRM)

  1. Thyreophagus corticalis as a vector of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica in chestnut stands.

    PubMed

    Simoni, Sauro; Nannelli, Roberto; Roversi, Pio Federico; Turchetti, Tullio; Bouneb, Mabrouk

    2014-03-01

    The natural spread of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr. occurs in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill) stands and orchards in Italy and other European countries, leading to spontaneous recovery of the diseased trees. Little is known about how hypovirulence spreads in chestnut stands but various corticolous mite species frequently detected on chestnut cankers could be one of the many factors playing a role in the spread. Artificial virulent cankers created in inoculation field tests and treated with Thyreophagus corticalis (Acari, Sarcoptiformes, Acaridae) raised on hypovirulent cultures showed similar growth to those treated with mycelia of the hypovirulent strain over 18 months of inoculation. Cultures re-isolated from virulent cankers treated with mites were found to contain hypovirus like those derived from pairings of virulent and hypovirulent strains. Viral dsRNA could be carried externally and/or ingested by mites from the hypovirulent mycelia and then transmitted to the mycelia of virulent strains, causing their conversion. In a laboratory study, all fecal pellets collected from mites reared on hypovirulent and virulent strains grown on semi-selective media gave rise to colonies of C. parasitica with similar morphological characters and virulence to the original cultures. Field inoculation of stump sprouts with the resulting colonies revealed that mite digestive tract passage did not alter the virulence of the studied strains. These results are of interest for the biological control of chestnut blight.

  2. Does Gnomoniopsis castanea contribute to the natural biological control of chestnut gall wasp?

    PubMed

    Vannini, Andrea; Vettraino, AnnaMaria; Martignoni, Diana; Morales-Rodriguez, Carmen; Contarini, Mario; Caccia, Romina; Paparatti, Bruno; Speranza, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Gnomoniopsis castanea has been reported as the causal agent of necrosis of chestnut wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) galls. The fungus is frequently observed on galls in chestnut stands infested by the insect in Italy. In the present study the impact of gall necrosis and the dynamic of its development have been studied in mature and young Castanea sativa stands in Central Italy during spring and early summer, before the D. kuriphilus adult flies. Results suggest that gall necrosis develops from resident endophytic inoculum of G. castanea. During the 2 y of monitoring, no differences were found in incidence and severity of the disease. Gall necrosis increased exponentially during the season, reaching 75,4% of galls totally necrotized in the investigated site in mid July. Gall necrosis was shown to have a severe impact on D. kuriphilus vitality, mostly impacting the adults inside the galls. Gall necrosis by G. castanea appears to efficiently control gall wasp in chestnut stands, although the high virulence of the fungus to chestnut fruits precludes its use as biocontrol agent in biological control strategies.

  3. Novel insights into the emergence of pathogens: the case of chestnut blight.

    PubMed

    Grünwald, Niklaus J

    2012-08-01

    Exotic, invasive pathogens have emerged repeatedly and continue to emerge to threaten the world's forests. Ecosystem structure and function can be permanently changed when keystone tree species such as the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) are eliminated from a whole range by disease. The fungal ascomycete pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica is responsible for causing chestnut blight. Once the pathogen was introduced into the Eastern US, where chestnuts were predominant, chestnuts were all but eliminated. This pathogen is currently causing extensive damage in Europe. A study in this issue of Molecular Ecology sheds new light on the pattern and process of emergence of this devastating plant pathogen (Dutech et al. 2012). The authors used microsatellite markers to investigate the evolutionary history of C. parasitica populations introduced into North America and Europe. To infer sources of migrants and the migration events, the authors included putative source populations endemic to China and Japan, inferred potentially unsampled populations and conducted a multivariate population genetic and complex ABC analysis. Cryphonectria parasitica emerges as an example of an introduced pathogen with limited genotypic diversity and some admixture in the invaded ranges, yet repeated invasions into different areas of Europe and the United States. This work sheds new light on the emergence of C. parasitica providing compelling evidence that this pathogen emerged by repeated migration and occasional admixture.

  4. [Intoxication by powdered seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) used nasally as snuff - a case report].

    PubMed

    Zając, Maciej; Wiśniewski, Marek; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    There are only few reports in the medical literature about side effects and toxicity of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum). We report a 15-year-old woman who was admitted to the hospital because of symptoms including: vomiting, dyspnea, burning in the nose and throat, and syncope, after intranasal snuff of powdered horse chestnut seeds. Laboratory tests showed no abnormalities. After 2 days of hospitalization the female was discharged home with subjective and objective improvement. Preparation and use of snuff is related to the tradition of the kashubian region. The powder formed from horse chestnuts, which is white in color, effects after about 5-10 minutes, and causes severe irritation of the nasal mucous membranes, which results in sneezing. Responsible for side effects is mainly aescin. The most frequently observed aescin intoxication symptoms were gastrointestinal irritation and allergic reactions. Intoxication by powdered seeds of horse chestnut used nasally as snuff may lead, as it was in our case, to sudden and self-limiting clinical symptoms. Supportive therapy and a short hospital observation seems to be sufficient in such cases.

  5. Hepatoprotective potential of chestnut bee pollen on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damages in rats.

    PubMed

    Yıldız, Oktay; Can, Zehra; Saral, Ozlem; Yuluğ, Esin; Oztürk, Ferhat; Aliyazıcıoğlu, Rezzan; Canpolat, Sinan; Kolaylı, Sevgi

    2013-01-01

    Bee pollen has been used as an apitherapy agent for several centuries to treat burns, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, and various other diseases. The aim of our study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of chestnut bee pollen against carbon tetrachloride (CCI4)-induced liver damage. Total phenolic content, flavonoid, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and DPPH radical activity measurements were used as antioxidant capacity determinants of the pollen. The study was conducted in rats as seven groups. Two different concentrations of chestnut bee pollens (200 and 400 mg/kg/day) were given orally and one group was administered with silibinin (50 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for seven days to the rats following the CCI4 treatment. The protective effect of the bee pollen was monitored by aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (AST) activities, histopathological imaging, and antioxidant parameters from the blood and liver samples of the rats. The results were compared with the silibinin-treated and untreated groups. We detected that CCI4 treatment induced liver damage and both the bee pollen and silibinin-treated groups reversed the damage; however, silibinin caused significant weight loss and mortality due, severe diarrhea in the rats. The chestnut pollen had showed 28.87 mg GAE/g DW of total phenolic substance, 8.07 mg QUE/g DW of total flavonoid, 92.71 mg Cyn-3-glu/kg DW of total anthocyanins, and 9 mg β -carotene/100 g DW of total carotenoid and substantial amount of antioxidant power according to FRAP and DPPH activity. The results demonstrated that the chestnut bee pollen protects the hepatocytes from the oxidative stress and promotes the healing of the liver damage induced by CCI4 toxicity. Our findings suggest that chestnut bee pollen can be used as a safe alternative to the silibinin in the treatment of liver injuries.

  6. Chestnut green waste composting for sustainable forest management: Microbiota dynamics and impact on plant disease control.

    PubMed

    Ventorino, Valeria; Parillo, Rita; Testa, Antonino; Viscardi, Sharon; Espresso, Francesco; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-15

    Making compost from chestnut lignocellulosic waste is a possible sustainable management strategy for forests that employs a high-quality renewable organic resource. Characterization of the microbiota involved in composting is essential to better understand the entire process as well as the properties of the final product. Therefore, this study investigated the microbial communities involved in the composting of chestnut residues obtained from tree cleaning and pruning. The culture-independent approach taken highlighted the fact that the microbiota varied only slightly during the process, with the exception of those of the starting substrate and mature compost. The statistical analysis indicated that most of the bacterial and fungal species in the chestnut compost persisted during composting. The dominant microbial population detected during the process belonged to genera known to degrade recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. Specifically, we identified fungal genera, such as Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Mucor, and prokaryotic species affiliated with Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria. The suppressive properties of compost supplements for the biocontrol of Sclerotinia minor and Rhizoctonia solani were also investigated. Compared to pure substrate, the addition of compost to the peat-based growth substrates resulted in a significant reduction of disease in tomato plants of up to 70 % or 51 % in the presence of Sclerotinia minor or Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. The obtained results were related to the presence of putative bio-control agents and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Streptomyces and Actinomyces in the chestnut compost. The composting of chestnut waste may represent a sustainable agricultural practice for disposing of lignocellulosic waste by transforming it into green waste compost that can be used to

  7. Preliminary assessment of the impact of incorporating a detailed algorithm for the effects of nuclear irradiation on combat crew performance into the Janus combat simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Warshawsky, A.S.; Uzelac, M.J.; Pimper, J.E. )

    1989-05-01

    The Crew III algorithm for assessing time and dose dependent combat crew performance subsequent to nuclear irradiation was incorporated into the Janus combat simulation system. Battle outcomes using this algorithm were compared to outcomes based on the currently used time-independent cookie-cutter'' assessment methodology. The results illustrate quantifiable differences in battle outcome between the two assessment techniques. Results suggest that tactical nuclear weapons are more effective than currently assumed if performance degradation attributed to radiation doses between 150 to 3000 rad are taken into account. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  8. 75 FR 76453 - Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Minco...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ...-000; EG10-70-000; EG10-71-000] Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Minco Wind, LLC; Arizona Solar One LLC; Criterion Power Partners, LLC; Sundevil...

  9. Biodegradation of chestnut shell and lignin-modifying enzymes production by the white-rot fungi Dichomitus squalens, Phlebia radiata.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ya-Chen; Dai, Yi-Ning; Xu, Teng-Yang; Cai, Jin; Chen, Qi-He

    2014-05-01

    As a discarded lignocellulosic biomass, chestnut shell is of great potential economic value, thus a sustainable strategy is needed and valuable for utilization of this resource. Herein, the feasibility of biological processes of chestnut shell with Dichomitus squalens, Phlebia radiata and their co-cultivation for lignin-modifying enzymes (LMEs) production and biodegradation of this lignocellulosic biomass was investigated under submerged cultivation. The treatment with D. squalens alone at 12 days gained the highest laccase activity (9.42 ± 0.73 U mg(-1)). Combined with the data of laccase and manganese peroxidase, oxalate and H2O2 were found to participate in chestnut shell degradation, accompanied by a rapid consumption of reducing sugar. Furthermore, specific surface area of chestnut shell was increased by 77.6-114.1 % with the selected fungi, and total pore volume was improved by 90.2 % with D. squalens. Meanwhile, the surface morphology was observably modified by this fungus. Overall, D. squalens was considered as a suitable fungus for degradation of chestnut shell and laccase production. The presence of LMEs, H2O2 and oxalate provided more understanding for decomposition of chestnut shell by the white-rot fungi.

  10. Insolubilization of Chestnut Shell Pigment for Cu(II) Adsorption from Water.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zeng-Yu; Qi, Jian-Hua; Hu, Yong; Wang, Ying

    2016-03-28

    Chestnut shell pigment (CSP) is melanin from an agricultural waste. It has potential as an adsorbent for wastewater treatment but cannot be used in its original state because of its solubility in water. We developed a new method to convert CSP to insolubilized chestnut shell pigment (ICSP) by heating, and the Cu(II) adsorption performance of ICSP was evaluated. The conversion was characterized, and the thermal treatment caused dehydration and loss of carboxyl groups and aliphatic structures in CSP. The kinetic adsorption behavior obeyed the pseudo-second-order rate law, and the equilibrium adsorption data were well described with both the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherms. ICSP can be used as a renewable, readily-available, easily-producible, environmentally-friendly, inexpensive and effective adsorbent to remove heavy-metal from aquatic environments.

  11. Anthraquinones isolated from the browned Chinese chestnut kernels (Castanea mollissima blume)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. L.; Qi, J. H.; Qin, L.; Wang, F.; Pang, M. X.

    2016-08-01

    Anthraquinones (AQS) represent a group of secondary metallic products in plants. AQS are often naturally occurring in plants and microorganisms. In a previous study, we found that AQS were produced by enzymatic browning reaction in Chinese chestnut kernels. To find out whether non-enzymatic browning reaction in the kernels could produce AQS too, AQS were extracted from three groups of chestnut kernels: fresh kernels, non-enzymatic browned kernels, and browned kernels, and the contents of AQS were determined. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods were used to identify two compounds of AQS, rehein(1) and emodin(2). AQS were barely exists in the fresh kernels, while both browned kernel groups sample contained a high amount of AQS. Thus, we comfirmed that AQS could be produced during both enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning process. Rhein and emodin were the main components of AQS in the browned kernels.

  12. Thermodynamic effects after Diode and Er:YAG laser irradiation of grade IV and V titanium implants placed in bone - an ex vivo study. Preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Matys, Jacek; Botzenhart, Ute; Gedrange, Tomasz; Dominiak, Marzena

    2016-10-01

    Many inserted implants are affected by peri-implantitis. The aim of our study was to evaluate increases in implant temperature, depending on the diameter and chemical composition of implants. In particular we measured the time it takes for the temperature of an implant to rise by 10°C and evaluated laser power settings required to prevent thermal injury when an implant surface is decontaminated during the treatment of peri-implantitis. The study analysed six implants placed in porcine ribs and divided into two groups according to their diameter and chemical composition (grade IV and grade V titanium). The implants were irradiated with Diode and Er:YAG lasers using different laser parameters. The temperature was measured with a K-type thermocouple. The temperature on the implant surface rose as the laser power increased and the implant diameter decreased. The time required to increase the temperature of an implant by 10°C was less than it was for titanium grade IV. The temperature gradient was below 10°C for all implants treated using a laser power up to 1 W. It is important to choose the correct laser parameters, depending on the chemical composition and diameter of the implant, so that decontamination of the implant surface is thorough, effective and safe.

  13. A Preliminary Analysis of Solar Irradiance Measurements at TNB Solar Research Centre for Optimal Orientation of Fixed Solar Panels installed in Selangor Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, A. M.; Ali, M. A. M.; Ahmad, B.; Shafie, R. M.; Rusli, R.; Aziz, M. A.; Hassan, J.; Wanik, M. Z. C.

    2013-06-01

    The well established rule for orienting fixed solar devices is to face south for places in the northern hemisphere and northwards for the southern hemisphere. However for regions near the equator such as in Selangor Malaysia, the position of the sun at solar noon is always near zenith both to the north and south depending on location and month of year. This paper reports an analysis of global solar radiation data taken at TNB Solar Research Centre, Malaysia. The solar radiation is measured using both shaded and exposed pyranometers together with a pyrheliometer which is mounted on a sun-tracker. The analysis on the solar measurements show that a near regular solar irradiation pattern had occurred often enough during the year to recommend an optimum azimuth orientation of installing the fixed solar panels tilted facing towards east. Even though all the solar measurements were done at a single location in TNBR Solar Research Centre at Bangi, for locations near the equator with similar weather pattern, the recommended azimuth direction of installing fixed solar panels and collectors tilted eastward will also be generally valid.

  14. Utilization of water chestnut for reclamation of water environment and control of cyanobacterial blooms.

    PubMed

    Akao, Satoshi; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Fujiwara, Taku

    2014-02-01

    Overgrowth of water chestnut (Trapa spp.) is a regional problem throughout Asia and North America because of waterway blockage and water fouling upon decomposition. In the present study, we investigated the potential of water chestnut to control cyanobacterial blooms, via a high content of phenolic compounds. In addition, we assessed the impact of biomass harvesting and crude extract application on nutrient balance. We showed that the floating parts of water chestnut contained high concentrations of total phenolics (89.2 mg g(-1) dry weight) and exhibited strong antioxidant activity (1.31 mmol g(-1) dry weight). Methanol-extracted phenolics inhibited growth of Microcystis aeruginosa; the half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of the extracted phenolics was 5.8 mg L(-1), which was obtained from only 103 mg L(-1) of dry biomass (the floating and submerged parts). However, the crude extracts also added important quantities of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (1.49, 1.05, and 16.3 mg g(-1), respectively; extracted dry biomass weight basis); therefore, in practice, nutrient removal before and/or after the extraction is essential. On the other hand, biomass harvesting enables recovery of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium from the water environment (23.1, 2.9, and 18.7 mg g(-1), respectively; dry biomass weight basis). Our findings indicate that water chestnut contains high concentrations of phenolics and exhibits strong antioxidant activity. Utilization of these resources, including nutrients, will contribute to reclamation of the water environment, and also to disposal of wet biomass.

  15. Antioxidant potential of chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) and almond (Prunus dulcis L.) by-products.

    PubMed

    Barreira, J C M; Ferreira, I C F R; Oliveira, M B P P; Pereira, J A

    2010-06-01

    The antioxidant properties of almond green husks (Cvs. Duro Italiano, Ferraduel, Ferranhês, Ferrastar and Orelha de Mula), chestnut skins and chestnut leaves (Cvs. Aveleira, Boa Ventura, Judia and Longal) were evaluated through several chemical and biochemical assays in order to provide a novel strategy to stimulate the application of waste products as new suppliers of useful bioactive compounds, namely antioxidants. All the assayed by-products revealed good antioxidant properties, with very low EC(50) values (lower than 380 μg/mL), particularly for lipid peroxidation inhibition (lower than 140 μg/mL). The total phenols and flavonoids contents were also determined. The correlation between these bioactive compounds and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of β-carotene bleaching and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in pig brain tissue through formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was also obtained. Although, all the assayed by-products proved to have a high potential of application in new antioxidants formulations, chestnut skins and leaves demonstrated better results.

  16. In vitro germination and transient GFP expression of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) pollen.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Danilo D; Richards, Javonna L; Kikkert, Julie R

    2006-05-01

    The development of the male reproductive structures of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) is described to advance our understanding of its reproductive behavior. This information has been vital in the development of a strategy to collect pollen grains from male catkins suitable for in vitro germination and transformation experiments. Cutting male catkins into small segments and rolling them over a culture plate resulted in evenly dispersed and large amounts of pollen with minimal unwanted accessory floral parts. To optimize pollen viability, the effect of various storage conditions on in vitro germination was examined. Our results showed that initial storage at 4 degrees C for 2 weeks significantly increased percent germination as compared to freshly collected pollen and those stored directly at -20 degrees C or -80 degrees C. This also means that for long-term storage of American chestnut pollen, the catkins should first be kept at 4 degrees C for a couple of weeks and then at -80 degrees C. The use of pollen grains with high viability is necessary for the transformation of American chestnut pollen. To optimize pollen transformation via particle bombardment, the effects of target distance, target pressure, and pollen developmental stage were examined. Statistical analysis showed that bombardment of ungerminated pollen at 1,100 psi resulted in the highest percent transient GFP expression (4.1%).

  17. Hydrolyzable Tannins from Sweet Chestnut Fractions Obtained by a Sustainable and Eco-friendly Industrial Process.

    PubMed

    Campo, Margherita; Pinelli, Patrizia; Romani, Annalisa

    2016-03-01

    Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) wood extracts, rich in Hydrolyzable Tannins (HTs), are traditionally used in the tanning and textile industries, but recent studies suggest additional uses. The aim of this work is the HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS characterization of Sweet Chestnut aqueous extracts and fractions obtained through a membrane separation technology system without using other solvents, and the evaluation of their antioxidant and antiradical activities. Total tannins range between 2.7 and 138.4 mM; gallic acid ranges between 6% and 100%; castalagin and vescalagin range between 0% and 40%. Gallic Acid Equivalents, measured with the Folin-Ciocalteu test, range between 0.067 and 56.99 g/100 g extract weight; ORAC test results for the marketed fractions are 450.4 and 3050 µmol/g Trolox Equivalents/extract weight. EC₅₀ values, measured with the DPPH test, range between 0.444 and 2.399 µM. These results suggest a new ecofriendly and economically sustainable method for obtaining chestnut fractions with differentiated, stable and reproducible chemical compositions. Such fractions can be marketed for innovative uses in several sectors.

  18. Wheat-water chestnut flour blends: effect of baking on antioxidant properties of cookies.

    PubMed

    Shafi, Musarat; Baba, Waqas N; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Bazaz, Rafiya

    2016-12-01

    Proximate composition, mineral content, functional, pasting and antioxidant properties of water chestnut flour (WCF) were compared with refined wheat flour. WCF showed higher phenolic (4.25 gGAE/1000 g), flavonoid (1.92 g QE/1000 g) and mineral content (K, Mg, Zn, Cu) than wheat flour. WCF showed greater retrogradation tendency but lower peak viscosity than wheat flour. Wheat flour - WCF blends and cookies were evaluated for water activity, physical & textural properties. Water activity of cookies decreased significantly (0.415-0.311) with increase in level of WCF in wheat flour. Total phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity (DPPH• scavenging capacity, FRAP) of WCF - wheat flour blends as well as their cookies was also determined. Baking led to a greater increase in DPPH• scavenging capacity of WCF cookies (33.8%) than WF cookies (25%). Baking had a similar effect on FRAP value. Wheat flour cookies showed a decrease of 51%, and 62% while WCF cookies showed a decrease of 36%, and 34% in TPC and TFC values respectively. WCF cookies thus showed better retention of antioxidant activities suggesting greater stability of WC phenolics than wheat phenolics. Sensory analysis showed cookies made from water chestnut (100%) had fair acceptability due to their characteristic flavor. Thus, water chestnut flour serves both as a gluten free as well as antioxidant rich flour for production of cookies.

  19. Cytotoxic triterpenoids isolated from sweet chestnut heartwood (Castanea sativa) and their health benefits implication.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Andy J; Pecio, Łukasz; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Kontek, Renata; Gajek, Gabriela; Stopinsek, Lidija; Mirt, Ivan; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław

    2017-03-28

    For centuries wood containers have been used in aging of wines and spirits, due to the pleasant flavors they give to the beverages. Together with oak, sweet chestnut wood (Castanea sativa) have been often used for such purpose. The maturation process involves the transfer of secondary metabolites, mainly phenolics, from the wood to the liquid. At the same time, other metabolites, such as triterpenoids and their glycosides, can also be released. Searching for the extractable triterpenoids from sweet chestnut heartwood (C. sativa), two new ursane-type triterpenoid saponins named chestnoside A (1) and chestnoside B (2), together with two known oleanen-type analogs (3 and 4) were isolated and characterized. The cytotoxicity of isolated compounds was tested against two cancer cell lines (PC3 and MCF-7), and normal lymphocytes. Breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were more affected by tested compounds than prostate cancer cells (PC3). Chestnoside B (2) exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity with an IC50 of 12.3 μM against MCF-7 cells, lower than those of positive controls, while it was moderately active against normal lymphocytes (IC50 = 67.2 μM). These results highlight the occurrence of triterpenoid saponins in sweet chestnut heartwood and their potential for the chemoprevention of breast cancer.

  20. Effects of Pleistocene glaciations on population structure of North American chestnut-backed chickadees.

    PubMed

    Burg, Theresa M; Gaston, Anthony J; Winker, Kevin; Friesen, Vicki L

    2006-08-01

    The postglacial recolonization of northern North America was heavily influenced by the Pleistocene glaciation. In the Pacific Northwest, there are two disjunct regions of mesic temperate forest, one coastal and the other interior. The chestnut-backed chickadee is one of the species associated with this distinctive ecosystem. Using seven microsatellite markers we found evidence of population structure among nine populations of chestnut-backed chickadees. High levels of allelic variation were found in each of the populations. Northern British Columbia and central Alaska populations contained a large number of private alleles compared to other populations, including those from unglaciated regions. The disjunct population in the interior was genetically distinct from the coastal population. Genetic and historical records indicate that the interior population originated from postglacial inland dispersal. Population structuring was found within the continuous coastal population, among which the peripheral populations, specifically those on the Queen Charlotte Islands and the central Alaska mainland, were genetically distinct. The pattern of population structure among contemporary chickadee populations is consistent with a pioneer model of recolonization. The persistence of genetic structure in western North American chestnut-backed chickadees may be aided by their sedentary behaviour, linear distribution, and dependence on cedar-hemlock forests.

  1. Phylogeography of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) in the Japanese Archipelago based on chloroplast DNA haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, Kanako; Kaneko, Yuko; Ito, Satoshi; Yamanaka, Keisuke; Sakio, Hitoshi; Hoshizaki, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Wajiro; Yamanaka, Norikazu; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata: Hippocastanaceae) is one of the typical woody plants that grow in temperate riparian forests in the Japanese Archipelago. To analyze the phylogeography of this plant in the Japanese Archipelago, we determined cpDNA haplotypes for 337 samples from 55 populations covering the entire distribution range. Based on 1,313 bp of two spacers, we determined ten haplotypes that are distinguished from adjacent haplotypes by one or two steps. Most of the populations had a single haplotype, suggesting low diversity. Spatial analysis of molecular variance suggested three obvious phylogeographic structures in western Japan, where Japanese horse chestnut is scattered and isolated in mountainous areas. Conversely, no clear phylogeographic structure was observed from the northern to the southern limit of this species, including eastern Japan, where this plant is more common. Rare and private haplotypes were also found in southwestern Japan, where Japanese horse chestnuts are distributed sparsely. These findings imply that western Japan might have maintained a relatively large habitat for A. turbinata during the Quaternary climatic oscillations, while northerly regions could not.

  2. Preparation and characterisation of the oligosaccharides derived from Chinese water chestnut polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sheng-Jun; Yu, Lin

    2015-08-15

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a strong oxidant that cleaves glycosidic bonds in polysaccharides. In this study, the oligosaccharides were prepared by removing the starch from Chinese water chestnuts through hydrolysis using α-amylase and then hydrolysing the remaining polysaccharides with H2O2, during which the oligosaccharide yield was monitored. The yield of oligosaccharide was affected by reaction time, temperature, and H2O2 concentration. Extended reaction times, high temperatures, and high H2O2 concentrations decreased oligosaccharide yield. Under optimum conditions (i.e., reaction time of 4h, reaction temperature of 80°C, and 2.5% H2O2 concentration), the maximum oligosaccharide yield was 3.91%. The oligosaccharides derived from Chinese water chestnuts polysaccharides exhibited strong hydroxyl and 2,2-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity when applied at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. The results indicate that the oligosaccharides derived from Chinese water chestnuts polysaccharides possessed good antioxidant properties and can be developed as a new dietary supplement and functional food.

  3. Magnetic monitoring of pollution deposited on leaves, bark and soil: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górka-Kostrubiec, B.; Jeleńska, M.; Król, E.

    2012-04-01

    We report preliminary results of magnetic study of pollution deposited on leaves, bark and soil in six locations in Warsaw of various level of contamination. Leaves and bark samples were taken at about 1.5m height from different spots of tree crown and at about 0.5m from surface, respectively. Top-soil samples were taken at a distance of no more than 2.5 m from a tree. Samples of leaves and bark were collected from horse chestnut trees in spring and autumn after few rainless days. In spring in several places lime tree leaves were sampled. Dry leaves were crashed and closely packed in plastic boxes. Mass specific susceptibility was measured in three frequency of magnetic filed as a detector of magnetic particles of pollution. Comparison of autumn and spring data provides information about the amount of pollution deposited during vegetation season. Data for horse chestnut and lime tree leaves show that horse chestnut is better collector of particulates. Because of that we decided not to collect leaves from lime tree in the autumn. The relationship of soil susceptibility (X) with X of leaves and bark reveal linear correlation with correlation coefficient R=0.97 and 0.5 for leaves and bark, respectively. Distribution of X values well agree with exposition on roadside particulate pollution. These preliminary results demonstrate that leaves and bark can be used for magnetic monitoring as detector of pollution level and can provide us with information about seasonal variation of this level.

  4. Calendar year 1996 annual groundwater monitoring report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge west of Scarboro Road and east of an unnamed drainage feature southwest of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (unless otherwise noted, directions are in reference to the Y-12 Plant administrative grid). The Chestnut Ridge Regime contains several sites used for management of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes associated with plant operations. Groundwater and surface water quality monitoring associated with these waste management sites is performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Included in this annual monitoring report are the groundwater monitoring data obtained in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit for the Chestnut Ridge Regime (post-closure permit) issued by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in June 1996. Besides the signed certification statement and the RCRA facility information summarized below, condition II.C.6 of the post-closure permit requires annual reporting of groundwater monitoring activities, inclusive of the analytical data and results of applicable data evaluations, performed at three RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) units: the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin), the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and Kerr Hollow Quarry.

  5. Comparisons of ectomycorrhizal colonization of transgenic american chestnut with those of the wild type, a conventionally bred hybrid, and related fagaceae species.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Katherine M; Horton, Thomas R; Maynard, Charles A; Stehman, Stephen V; Oakes, Allison D; Powell, William A

    2015-01-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata [Marsh.] Borkh.) dominated the eastern forests of North America, serving as a keystone species both ecologically and economically until the introduction of the chestnut blight, Cryphonectria parasitica, functionally eradicated the species. Restoration efforts include genetic transformation utilizing genes such as oxalate oxidase to produce potentially blight-resistant chestnut trees that could be released back into the native range. However, before such a release can be undertaken, it is necessary to assess nontarget impacts. Since oxalate oxidase is meant to combat a fungal pathogen, we are particularly interested in potential impacts of this transgene on beneficial fungi. This study compares ectomycorrhizal fungal colonization on a transgenic American chestnut clone expressing enhanced blight resistance to a wild-type American chestnut, a conventionally bred American-Chinese hybrid chestnut, and other Fagaceae species. A greenhouse bioassay used soil from two field sites with different soil types and land use histories. The number of colonized root tips was counted, and fungal species were identified using morphology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and DNA sequencing. Results showed that total ectomycorrhizal colonization varied more by soil type than by tree species. Individual fungal species varied in their colonization rates, but there were no significant differences between colonization on transgenic and wild-type chestnuts. This study shows that the oxalate oxidase gene can increase resistance against Cryphonectria parasitica without changing the colonization rate for ectomycorrhizal species. These findings will be crucial for a potential deregulation of blight-resistant American chestnuts containing the oxalate oxidase gene.

  6. The content of phenolic compounds in leaf tissues of white (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) and red horse chestnut (Aesculus carea H.) colonized by the horse chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić).

    PubMed

    Oszmiański, Jan; Kalisz, Stanisław; Aneta, Wojdyło

    2014-09-15

    Normally, plant phenolics are secondary metabolites involved in the defense mechanisms of plants against fungal pathogens. Therefore, in this study we attempted to quantify and characterize phenolic compounds in leaves of white and red horse chestnut with leaf miner larvae before and after Cameraria ohridella attack. A total of 17 phenolic compounds belonging to the hydroxycinnamic acid, flavan-3-ols and flavonol groups were identified and quantified in white and red horse chestnut leaf extracts. Significantly decreased concentrations of some phenolic compounds, especially of flavan-3-ols, were observed in infected leaves compared to the non-infected ones. Additionally, a higher content of polyphenolic compounds especially (-)-epicatechin and procyanidins in leaves of red-flowering than in white-flowering horse chestnut may explain their greater resistance to C. ohridella insects.

  7. Isolation, purification and identification of etiolation substrate from fresh-cut Chinese water-chestnut (Eleocharis tuberosa).

    PubMed

    Pan, Yong-Gui; Li, Yi-Xiao; Yuan, Meng-Qi

    2015-11-01

    Fresh cut Chinese water-chestnut is a popular ready-to-eat fresh-cut fruit in China. However, it is prone to etiolation and the chemicals responsible for this process are not known yet. To address this problem, we extracted phytochemicals from etiolated Chinese water-chestnut and separated them using MPLC and column chromatography. Four compounds were obtained and their structures were determined by interpretation of UV, TLC, HPLC and NMR spectral data and by comparison with reported data. We identified these compounds as eriodictyol, naringenin, sucrose and ethyl D-glucoside. Among those, eriodictyol and naringenin were both isolated for the first time in fresh-cut Chinese water-chestnut and are responsible for the yellowing of this fruit cutting.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Water Chestnut Extract on Cytokine Responses via Nuclear Factor-κB-signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bora; Kim, Jin Eun; Choi, Byung-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Water chestnut (Trapa japonica Flerov.) is an annual aquatic plant. In the present study, we showed that the treatment of water chestnut extracted with boiling water resulted in a significant increase 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and decrease the intracellular H2O2-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species. In addition, water chestnut extract (WCE) inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide production and suppressed mRNA and protein expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene. The cytokine array results showed that WCE inhibited inflammatory cytokine secretion. Also, WCE reduced tumor necrosis factor-α-and interleukin-6-induced nuclear factor-αB activity. Furthermore, during sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)-induced irritation of human skin, WCE reduced SLS-induced skin erythema and improved barrier regeneration. These results indicate that WCE may be a promising topical anti-inflammatory agent.

  9. The effect of feed moisture and temperature on tannin content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extruded chestnuts.

    PubMed

    Obiang-Obounou, Brice Wilfried; Ryu, Gi Hyung

    2013-12-15

    This study focuses on the effect of extrusion processing on tannin reduction, phenolic content, flavonoid content, antioxidant and anitimicrobial activity. Extrusion temperature (120 and 140 °C) and feed moisture (25% and 28%) were used on the tannin content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Extrusion cooking reduced tannin content up to 78%, and improved antioxidant activity from 12.89% to 21.17% in a concentration dependant manner without affecting its antimicrobial activity that varied from 250 to 500 mg. The time-kill assay confirmed the ability of extruded chestnut to reduce Pseudomonas aeruginosa count below detectable limit that reduced the original inoculum by 3log10 CFU/mL. Overall, the results showed that extrusion cooking might serve as a tool for tannin reduction and could improve the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of chestnut, which might be helpful for chestnut related products in the food industry.

  10. Nutraceutical properties of chestnut flours: beneficial effects on skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Frati, Alessia; Landi, Debora; Marinelli, Cristian; Gianni, Giacomo; Fontana, Lucia; Migliorini, Marzia; Pierucci, Federica; Garcia-Gil, Mercedes; Meacci, Elisabetta

    2014-11-01

    Plants contain a wide range of non-nutritive phytochemicals, many of which have protective or preventive properties for human diseases. The aim of the present work has been to investigate the nutraceutical properties of sweet chestnut flour extracts obtained from fruits collected from 7 geographic areas of Tuscany (Italy), and their ability in modulating skeletal muscle atrophy. We found that the cultivars from different geographic areas are characterized by the composition and quantity of various nutrients and specific bioactive components, such as tocopherols, polyphenols and sphingolipids. The nutraceutical properties of chestnut sweet flours have been evaluated in C2C12 myotubes induced to atrophy by serum deprivation or dexamethasone. We found that the pretreatment with both total extracts of tocopherols and sphingolipids is able to counterbalance cell atrophy, reducing the decrease in myotube size and myonuclei number, and attenuating protein degradation and the increase in expression of MAFbx/atrogin-1 (a muscle-specific atrophy marker). By contrast, polyphenol extracts were not able to prevent atrophy. Since we also found that γ-tocopherol is the major form of tocopherol in sweet flour and its content differs depending on the procedure of sweet flour preparation, the mechanisms by which γ-tocopherol as well as sphingolipids affect skeletal muscle cell atrophy have been also investigated. This is the first evidence that chestnut sweet flour is a natural source of specific bioactive components with a relevant role in the prevention of cell degeneration and maintenance of skeletal muscle mass, opening important implications in designing appropriate nutritional therapeutic approaches to skeletal muscle atrophy.

  11. Ability of chestnut oak to tolerate acorn pruning by rodents. The role of the cotyledonary petiole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xianfeng; Curtis, Rachel; Bartlow, Andrew W.; Agosta, Salvatore J.; Steele, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Acorns of many white oak species germinate soon after autumn seed fall, a characteristic widely interpreted as a general adaptation to escape predation by small rodents. However, the mechanism by which early, rapid germination allows escape and/or tolerance of seed damage remains unclear. Here we reported how specific germination traits of chestnut oak ( Quercus montana) acorns, and those of other white oak species, allow successful escape from acorn pruning by rodents. During germination, chestnut oak acorns develop elongated cotyledonary petioles, which extend beyond the distal end of the acorn (1-2 cm) to the point at which the epicotyl and radicle diverge. However, granivorous rodents often prune the taproots above or below the plumule when eating or caching these germinated acorns in autumn. Hence, we hypothesized elongation of cotyledonary petioles allows chestnut oaks to escape acorn pruning by rodents. We simulated pruning by rodents by cutting the taproot at different stages of germination (radicle length) to evaluate the regeneration capacity of four resulting seedling remnants following taproot pruning: acorns with the plumule (remnant I), acorns without the plumule (remnant II), and pruned taproots with (remnant III) or without the plumule (remnant IV). Our results showed that remnant I germinated into seedlings regardless of the length of the taproot previously pruned and removed. Remnant III successfully germinated and survived provided that taproots were ≥6 cm in length, whereas remnant IV was unable to produce seedlings. Remnant II only developed adventitious roots near the severed ends of the cotyledonary petioles. Field experiments also showed that pruned taproots with the plumule successfully regenerated into seedlings. We suggest that the elongated cotyledonary petioles, typical of most white oak species in North America, represent a key adaptation that allows frequent escape from rodent damage and predation. The ability of pruned taproots to

  12. Synthesis of chestnut-bur-like palladium nanostructures and their enhanced electrocatalytic activities for ethanol oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Seong Ji; Kim, Do Youb; Kang, Shin Wook; Choi, Kyeong Woo; Han, Sang Woo; Park, O. Ok

    2014-03-01

    We report a facile method for the synthesis of Pd nanostructures with highly open structure and huge surface area by reducing Na2PdCl4 with ascorbic acid and using cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) as a surfactant in an aqueous solution. The prepared Pd nanostructures had an average overall size of 70 nm and were composed of dozens of needle-like thin arms, originating from the same core, with an average thickness of 2.3 nm; the arms looked like chestnut-burs. Time evolution of Pd nanostructures implied that small Pd particles generated at the early stage of the reaction by fast reduction grew via the particle attachment growth mechanism. The morphology and size of the Pd nanostructures could be readily controlled by varying the concentration of CPC; depending on the amount of CPC, the reduction rates varied the morphology of the Pd nanostructures. Because of the huge surface area and possible catalytically active sites, the prepared chestnut-bur-like Pd nanostructures exhibited greater electrocatalytic activity toward ethanol electrooxidation compared to other Pd nanocatalysts, including cubic and octahedral Pd nanocrystals, and even commercial Pd/C.We report a facile method for the synthesis of Pd nanostructures with highly open structure and huge surface area by reducing Na2PdCl4 with ascorbic acid and using cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) as a surfactant in an aqueous solution. The prepared Pd nanostructures had an average overall size of 70 nm and were composed of dozens of needle-like thin arms, originating from the same core, with an average thickness of 2.3 nm; the arms looked like chestnut-burs. Time evolution of Pd nanostructures implied that small Pd particles generated at the early stage of the reaction by fast reduction grew via the particle attachment growth mechanism. The morphology and size of the Pd nanostructures could be readily controlled by varying the concentration of CPC; depending on the amount of CPC, the reduction rates varied the morphology

  13. Identifying Unmet Therapeutic Domains in Schizophrenia Patients: The Early Contributions of Wayne Fenton From Chestnut Lodge

    PubMed Central

    McGlashan, Thomas H.; Carpenter, William T.

    2007-01-01

    Wayne Fenton, MD, died on September 3, 2006, while giving emergency clinical care. His leadership at National Institute of Mental Health provided a framework for therapeutic discovery. He crafted a new approach to psychosis based on poor functional outcomes and the psychopathology domains underlying long-term morbidity. His research and clinical observations during his career at the Chestnut Lodge clarified the unmet therapeutic needs in schizophrenia and provided the foundation for his vision. The results have radically changed the paradigm for discovery with emphasis on impaired cognition and negative symptom psychopathology. PMID:17634414

  14. Hydrologic study and evaluation of Ish Creek watershed (West Chestnut Ridge proposed disposal site)

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, D.D.; Elmore, J.L.; Farmer, D.C.

    1984-03-01

    As part of site characterization work for the proposed West Chestnut Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility, hydrologic information has been assembled from literature sources and direct field measurements. Earlier studies provide the basis for estimating flow frequency and expected high and low flows for catchments on Knox Group formations. Seven waterflow-gaging installations were established and used to characterize runoff patterns in the study area. Based on findings of this study, a practical design capacity for a flume to measure site runoff would range between 1 and 3000 L/s, although flows up to 4500 L/s (10-year recurrence interval) may be encountered. 7 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  15. [KINETICS OF PHOTO-INDUCED FREE RADICALS IN THE HUMAN HAIR CHESTNUT COLOR AFTER SHORT PERIODS OF RED, GREEN, BLUE AND WHITE LIGHT EXPOSURE].

    PubMed

    Tskhvediani, N; Chikvaidze, E; Tsibadze, A; Kvachadze, I; Gogoladze, T; Katsitadze, A

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the kinetics of photo-induced free radicals in the human hair chestnut color with short-term exposure to visible light in different frequency ranges. Studies carried out on human volunteers aged 17-21 years (n=37). Hairs of volunteers of the study were not treated with dyes and other active cosmetic preparations. Hairs bundled in a bun had a length - 1.5 cm, weight - 40 mg. At the beginning background EPR-spectrum of a sample was measured and then hairs were irradiated with visible light (blue, green, red and white) of different wavelength subsequently; exposure duration - 60 minutes; after the exposure the kinetics of photo-induced free radicals was measured within 60 minutes. The radiation source was selected LED array of the four crystals that provides a nearly monochromatic radiation spectrum having no parasitic infrared and ultraviolet radiations. The studies give a reason to assume that the impact on hairs by visible electromagnetic rays a leading factor is their frequency characteristics: on the one hand - the proximity of the blue light to ultraviolet radiation, and on the other - the red light to the infrared range.

  16. Soluble material secreted from Penicillium chrysogenum isolate exhibits antifungal activity against Cryphonectria parasitica- the causative agent of the American Chestnut Blight.

    PubMed

    Florjanczyk, Aleksandr; Barnes, Rebecca; Kenney, Adam; Horzempa, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    The American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was once the dominant canopy tree along the eastern region of the United States. Cryphonectria parasitica, the causative agent of chestnut blight, was introduced from Asia in the early 1900's, and obliterated the chestnut population within 50 years. We sought to identify environmental microbes capable of producing factors that were fungicidal or inhibited growth of C. parasitica in the hopes developing a biological control of chestnut blight. We isolated a filamentous fungus that significantly inhibited the growth of C. parasitica upon co-cultivation. Extracellular fractions of this fungal isolate prevented C. parasitica growth, indicating that a potential fungicide was produced by the novel isolate. Sequence analysis of 18S rRNA identified this inhibitory fungus as Penicillium chrysogenum. Furthermore, these extracellular fractions were tested as treatments for blight in vivo using chestnut saplings. Scarred saplings that were treated with the P. chrysogenum extracellular fractions healed subjectively better than those without treatment when inoculated with C. parasitica. These data suggest that material secreted by P. chrysogenum could be used as a treatment for the American chestnut blight. This work may assist the reclamation of the American chestnut in association with breeding programs and blight attenuation. Specifically, treatment of small groves under the right conditions may allow them to remain blight free. Future work will explore the mechanism of action and specific target of the extracellular fraction.

  17. Soluble material secreted from Penicillium chrysogenum isolate exhibits antifungal activity against Cryphonectria parasitica- the causative agent of the American Chestnut Blight

    PubMed Central

    Florjanczyk, Aleksandr; Barnes, Rebecca; Kenney, Adam; Horzempa, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was once the dominant canopy tree along the eastern region of the United States. Cryphonectria parasitica, the causative agent of chestnut blight, was introduced from Asia in the early 1900's, and obliterated the chestnut population within 50 years. We sought to identify environmental microbes capable of producing factors that were fungicidal or inhibited growth of C. parasitica in the hopes developing a biological control of chestnut blight. We isolated a filamentous fungus that significantly inhibited the growth of C. parasitica upon co-cultivation. Extracellular fractions of this fungal isolate prevented C. parasitica growth, indicating that a potential fungicide was produced by the novel isolate. Sequence analysis of 18S rRNA identified this inhibitory fungus as Penicillium chrysogenum. Furthermore, these extracellular fractions were tested as treatments for blight in vivo using chestnut saplings. Scarred saplings that were treated with the P. chrysogenum extracellular fractions healed subjectively better than those without treatment when inoculated with C. parasitica. These data suggest that material secreted by P. chrysogenum could be used as a treatment for the American chestnut blight. This work may assist the reclamation of the American chestnut in association with breeding programs and blight attenuation. Specifically, treatment of small groves under the right conditions may allow them to remain blight free. Future work will explore the mechanism of action and specific target of the extracellular fraction. PMID:27274909

  18. Status of Post Irradiation Examination of FCAB and FCAT Irradiation Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Howard, Richard H.

    2016-09-29

    A series of irradiation programs are ongoing to address the need for determining the radiation tolerance of FeCrAl alloys. These irradiation programs, deemed the FCAT and FCAB irradiation programs, use the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) to irradiate second generation wrought FeCrAl alloys and early-generation powder-metallurgy (PM) oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys. Irradiations have been or are being performed at temperatures of 200°C, 330°C, and 550°C from doses of 1.8 dpa up to 16 dpa. Preliminary post-irradiation examination (PIE) on low dose (<2 dpa) irradiation capsules of tensile specimens has been performed. Analysis of co-irradiated SiC thermometry have shown reasonable matching between the nominal irradiation temperatures and the target irradiation temperatures. Room temperature tensile tests have shown typical radiation-induced hardening and embrittlement at irradiations of 200°C and 330°C, but a propensity for softening when irradiated to 550°C for the wrought alloys. The PM-ODS FeCrAl specimens showed less hardening compared to the wrought alloys. Future PIE includes high temperature tensile tests on the low dose irradiation capsules as well as the determination of reference fracture toughness transition temperature, To, in alloys irradiated to 7 dpa and higher.

  19. Biological control of chestnut blight: an example of virus-mediated attenuation of fungal pathogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Nuss, D L

    1992-01-01

    Environmental concerns have focused attention on natural forms of disease control as potentially safe and effective alternatives to chemical pesticides. This has led to increased efforts to develop control strategies that rely on natural predators and parasites or that involve genetically engineered microbial pest control agents. This review deals with a natural form of biological control in which the virulence of a fungal pathogen is attenuated by an endogenous viral RNA genetic element: the phenomenon of transmissible hypovirulence in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Recent progress in the molecular characterization of a hypovirulence-associated viral RNA has provided an emerging view of the genetic organization and basic expression strategy of this class of genetic elements. Several lines of evidence now suggest that specific hypovirulence-associated virus-encoded gene products selectively modulate the expression of subsets of fungal genes and the activity of specific regulatory pathways. The construction of an infectious cDNA clone of a hypovirulence-associated viral RNA represents a major advancement that provides exciting new opportunities for examining the molecular basis of transmissible hypovirulence and for engineering hypovirulent strains for improved biocontrol. These developments have significantly improved the prospects of using this system to identify molecular determinants of virulence and elucidate signal transduction pathways involved in pathogenic responses. In addition, novel approaches are now available for extending the application of transmissible hypovirulence for management of chestnut blight and possibly other fungal diseases. Images PMID:1480109

  20. Complex of solonetzes and vertic chestnut soils in the manych-gudilo depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovda, I. V.; Morgun, E. P.; Il'ina, L. P.

    2013-01-01

    Morphological, physicochemical, and isotopic properties of a two-member soil complex developed under dry steppe have been studied in the central part of the Manych Depression. The soils are formed on chocolate-colored clayey sediments, and have pronounced microrelief and the complex vegetation pattern. A specific feature of the studied soil complex is the inverse position of its components: vertic chestnut soil occupies the microhigh, while solonetz is in the microlow. The formation of such complexes is explained by the biological factor, i.e., by the destruction of the solonetzic horizon under the impact of vegetation and earth-burrowing animals with further transformation under steppe plants and dealkalinization of the soil in the microhighs. The manifestation of vertic features and shrink-swell process in soils of the complex developing in dry steppe are compared with those in the vertic soils of the Central Pre-Caucasus formed under more humid environment. It is supposed that slickensides in the investigated vertic chestnut soil are relict feature inherited from the former wetter stage of the soil development and are subjected to a gradual degradation at present. In the modern period, vertic processes are weak and cannot be distinctly diagnosed. However, their activation may take place upon an increase of precipitation or the rise in the groundwater level.

  1. Pyrosequencing of environmental soil samples reveals biodiversity of the Phytophthora resident community in chestnut forests.

    PubMed

    Vannini, Andrea; Bruni, Natalia; Tomassini, Alessia; Franceschini, Selma; Vettraino, Anna Maria

    2013-09-01

    Pyrosequencing analysis was performed on soils from Italian chestnut groves to evaluate the diversity of the resident Phytophthora community. Sequences analysed with a custom database discriminated 15 pathogenic Phytophthoras including species common to chestnut soils, while a total of nine species were detected with baiting. The two sites studied differed in Phytophthora diversity and the presence of specific taxa responded to specific ecological traits of the sites. Furthermore, some species not previously recorded were represented by a discrete number of reads; among these species, Phytophthora ramorum was detected at both sites. Pyrosequencing was demonstrated to be a very sensitive technique to describe the Phytophthora community in soil and was able to detect species not easy to be isolated from soil with standard baiting techniques. In particular, pyrosequencing is an highly efficient tool for investigating the colonization of new environments by alien species, and for ecological and adaptive studies coupled with biological detection methods. This study represents the first application of pyrosequencing for describing Phytophthoras in environmental soil samples.

  2. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma castaneae', a novel phytoplasma taxon associated with chestnut witches' broom disease.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee-Young; Sawayanagi, Toshimi; Kakizawa, Shigeyuki; Nishigawa, Hisashi; Miyata, Shin-ichi; Oshima, Kenro; Ugaki, Masashi; Lee, Joon-Tak; Hibi, Tadaaki; Namba, Shigetou

    2002-09-01

    In Korea, Japanese chestnut trees (Castanea crenata Sieb. and Zucc.) showing symptoms indicative of witches' broom disease, including abnormally small leaves and yellowing of young leaves, were examined. Since the symptoms were suggestive of a phytoplasma infection, tissues were assayed for phytoplasmas by PCR analysis using a pair of universal primers that amplify a 1.4-kbp phytoplasma 16S rDNA fragment. The phytoplasma-specific fragment was amplified from diseased plants, but not from healthy plants, indicating that a phytoplasma was the causal agent of the chestnut witches' broom (CnWB) disease. The phylogenetic relationship of the CnWB phytoplasma to other phytoplasmas was examined by sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences of the phytoplasmas placed the CnWB phytoplasma within a distinct subgroup in the phytoplasma clade of the class Mollicutes. The phylogenetic tree indicated that the CnWB phytoplasma is related most closely to coconut phytoplasmas and suggested that they share a common ancestor. The unique properties of the CnWB phytoplasma sequences clearly establish that it represents a novel taxon, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma castaneae'.

  3. Phenols, lignans and antioxidant properties of legume and sweet chestnut flours.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Alessandra; Turfani, Valeria; Azzini, Elena; Maiani, Giuseppe; Carcea, Marina

    2013-10-15

    Total phenols (TPC) and antioxidant properties were determined in chick-pea, green and red lentils and sweet chestnut flours, in both aqueous-organic extracts and their residues, by the Folin Ciocalteau method and by the FRAP assay, respectively. Plant lignans were quantified in flours by means of HPLC. In addition, the FRAP of plant lignans (secoisolariciresinol, lariciresinol, isolariciresinol, pinoresinol, matairesinol), their mixture and enterolignans (enterodiol and enterolactone) were determined. In all flours, the highest TPC values were found in the residue. Specific and varietal significant differences were observed in all parameters. The highest TPC (737.32 and 1492.93mg/100gd.w.) and FRAP (140.32 and 101.25μmol/gd.w.) values were reached by green lentils in both aqueous-organic extract and residue, respectively. Sweet chestnuts had the highest total lignans (980.03μg/100gd.w.). It was also found that the plant lignans standards have a higher antioxidant activity than enterolignans standards and that matairesinol has the highest activity.

  4. Species-specific duplications of NBS-encoding genes in Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima)

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yan; Li, Yingjun; Huang, Kaihui; Cheng, Zong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The disease resistance (R) genes play an important role in protecting plants from infection by diverse pathogens in the environment. The nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) class of genes is one of the largest R gene families. Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) is resistant to Chestnut Blight Disease, but relatively little is known about the resistance mechanism. We identified 519 NBS-encoding genes, including 374 NBS-LRR genes and 145 NBS-only genes. The majority of Ka/Ks were less than 1, suggesting the purifying selection operated during the evolutionary history of NBS-encoding genes. A minority (4/34) of Ka/Ks in non-TIR gene families were greater than 1, showing that some genes were under positive selection pressure. Furthermore, Ks peaked at a range of 0.4 to 0.5, indicating that ancient duplications arose during the evolution. The relationship between Ka/Ks and Ks indicated greater selective pressure on the newer and older genes with the critical value of Ks = 0.4–0.5. Notably, species-specific duplications were detected in NBS-encoding genes. In addition, the group of RPW8-NBS-encoding genes clustered together as an independent clade located at a relatively basal position in the phylogenetic tree. Many cis-acting elements related to plant defense responses were detected in promoters of NBS-encoding genes. PMID:26559332

  5. [Micrococcus sp.--the pathogen of leaf necrosis of horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.) in Kiev].

    PubMed

    Iakovleva, L M; Makhinia, L V; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E

    2013-01-01

    A group of phytopathogenic bacteria was isolated from patterns of drying horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.), which grow in Kyiv. The properties of slowly growing, highly aggressive microorganisms have been described in the paper. They grow up on the 8-10th day after sowing. The investigated microorganisms form very small (0.5-1 mm in diameter) colonies on the potato agar. Bacteria are protuberant, shining, smooth with flat edges, they are pale yellow, yellow, or pink. The bacteria are Gram-positive, spherical, are disposed in smears singly, in pairs, as accumulations, or netting. They are aerobes, do not form spores, are not mobile. They are inert in respect of different sources of carbon. They reduce nitrates, do not dilute gelatin, do not hydrolyze starch, do not release hydrogen sulphide and indole. The bacteria are catalase-positive, oxidase-negative. They do not cause potato and carrot rot. They lose quickly their viability under the laboratory conditions. The saturated acids C 14:0; C 15:0; C16:0; C18:0 have been revealed in the composition of cellular fatty acids. Microorganisms are identified as Micrococcus sp. Under artificial inoculation this highly aggressive pathogen causes drying of the horse-chestnut buds and necrosis, which occupies 1/3-1/2 of the leaf plate. A wide zone of chlorosis, surrounding necrosis, may occupy the whole leaf surface. The infected leaves use to twist up from the top (apex) or along a midrib and to dry.

  6. Environmental fate of emamectin benzoate after tree micro injection of horse chestnut trees.

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic and depends on the decomposition of the leaf. In compost piles, where decomposition of leaves was fastest, a cumulative emamectin benzoate degradation half-life time of 20 d was measured. In leaves immersed in water, where decomposition was much slower, the degradation half-life time was 94 d, and in leaves left on the ground in contact with soil, where decomposition was slowest, the degradation half-life time was 212 d. The biphasic decline and the correlation with leaf decomposition might be attributed to an extensive sorption of emamectin benzoate residues to leaf macromolecules. This may also explain why earthworms ingesting leaves from injected trees take up very little emamectin benzoate and excrete it with the feces. Furthermore, no emamectin benzoate was found in water containing decomposing leaves from injected trees. It is concluded, that emamectin benzoate present in abscised leaves from horse chestnut trees injected with the insecticide is not available to nontarget organisms present in soil or water bodies.

  7. Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (D-025): Summary of closure under Rules Governing Hazardous Waste Management in Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.E.

    1989-07-01

    On February 29, 1988, the Revised Closure Plan for Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin,'' Y/TS-390 (Reference 1) was submitted to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for review and transmittal to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE). The closure activities described in the closure plan have been performed. The purpose of this document is to summarize the closure activities for the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal (CRSDB). The closure of CRSDB is a final closure. The Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (CRSDB), Unit D-025, was an unlined, man-made sediment disposal facility on Chestnut Ridge, south of New Hope Pond (NHP). The CRSDB was constructed during 1972--73 for the disposal of sediments hydraulically dredged from NHP. It was designed to hold approximately 30,000 cubic yards of sediments. Since 1973, the basin had been used for the periodic disposal of sediments excavated from NHP and its appurtenant structures. NHP has previously received discharges form RCRA-related waste streams. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Transcriptomic identification and expression of starch and sucrose metabolism genes in the seeds of chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) seed provides a rich source of carbohydrates as food and feed. However, little is known about starch biosynthesis in the seeds. The objectives of this study were to determine seed composition profiles and identify genes involved in starch and sucrose metabo...

  9. Solute accumulation of chestnut oak and dogwood leaves in response to throughfall manipulation of an upland oak forest.

    PubMed

    Gebre, G Michael; Tschaplinski, Timothy J

    2002-03-01

    To determine the biochemical basis of osmotic adjustment, seasonal and treatment differences in foliar water- soluble organic solutes and inorganic ions were investigated for two hardwood species that exhibited osmotic adjustment in a Throughfall Displacement Experiment at the Walker Branch Watershed near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Leaf samples of overstory and understory chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.) and understory dogwood (Cornus florida L.) were collected during the 1994 (wet) and 1995 (dry) growing seasons from each of three treatments: dry (-33% throughfall), ambient (control) and wet (+33% throughfall). Foliar soluble carbohydrates and organic acids were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. During May 1994, when the demand for sucrose was greatest, dogwood accumulated small amounts of glucose, quinic acid and Mg2+, offsetting a decline in nitrate concentration. As the mild drought continued and tree growth slowed, there was a significant accumulation of sucrose in dogwood in the dry treatment in June, and a trend toward increased K+. In overstory chestnut oak in the dry treatment over the same period, there were significant accumulations of fructose, glucose and K+, and a trend toward increased quinic acid accumulation. Sucrose did not become a key osmotically active compound in chestnut oak until August 1994. In 1995, with the exception of understory chestnut oak, there was no accumulation of K+ in either species. During the severe drought of 1995, monosaccharides, particularly glucose and fructose, accounted for most of the osmotic adjustment in both species. Among solutes, glucose constituted the largest accumulation in dogwood in the dry treatment in August 1995, followed by fructose and sucrose. There was only a moderate increase in solutes in chestnut oak trees in 1995, with fructose and glucose constituting over 50% of the predicted solute accumulation in July. Both species accumulated a wider array of solutes during the dry year than during

  10. [Food irradiation].

    PubMed

    Migdał, W

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permission for irradiation for: spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables.

  11. Tissue irradiator

    DOEpatents

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-12-16

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in- vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood- carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170.

  12. Comparisons of Ectomycorrhizal Colonization of Transgenic American Chestnut with Those of the Wild Type, a Conventionally Bred Hybrid, and Related Fagaceae Species

    PubMed Central

    D'Amico, Katherine M.; Horton, Thomas R.; Maynard, Charles A.; Stehman, Stephen V.; Oakes, Allison D.

    2014-01-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata [Marsh.] Borkh.) dominated the eastern forests of North America, serving as a keystone species both ecologically and economically until the introduction of the chestnut blight, Cryphonectria parasitica, functionally eradicated the species. Restoration efforts include genetic transformation utilizing genes such as oxalate oxidase to produce potentially blight-resistant chestnut trees that could be released back into the native range. However, before such a release can be undertaken, it is necessary to assess nontarget impacts. Since oxalate oxidase is meant to combat a fungal pathogen, we are particularly interested in potential impacts of this transgene on beneficial fungi. This study compares ectomycorrhizal fungal colonization on a transgenic American chestnut clone expressing enhanced blight resistance to a wild-type American chestnut, a conventionally bred American-Chinese hybrid chestnut, and other Fagaceae species. A greenhouse bioassay used soil from two field sites with different soil types and land use histories. The number of colonized root tips was counted, and fungal species were identified using morphology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and DNA sequencing. Results showed that total ectomycorrhizal colonization varied more by soil type than by tree species. Individual fungal species varied in their colonization rates, but there were no significant differences between colonization on transgenic and wild-type chestnuts. This study shows that the oxalate oxidase gene can increase resistance against Cryphonectria parasitica without changing the colonization rate for ectomycorrhizal species. These findings will be crucial for a potential deregulation of blight-resistant American chestnuts containing the oxalate oxidase gene. PMID:25326296

  13. Primary and secondary metabolite composition of kernels from three cultivars of Portuguese chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) at different stages of industrial transformation.

    PubMed

    Do Carmo Barbosa Mendes De Vasconcelos, Maria; Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Ferreira Cardoso, Jorge Ventura

    2007-05-02

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa) is an important basic food in rural diets and a major starch crop used in a similar way to potatoes. Chestnuts are a fundamental economic resource in the "chestnut regions" not only for the fruit but also for the chestnut wood. Chestnuts have become increasingly important with respect to human health, for example, as an alternative gluten-free flour source. Chestnuts are also a rich source of other beneficial compounds, but there have been few studies on the composition during processing. In this study, we analyzed the chemical composition of three Portuguese cultivars at different stages of industrial processing. The chestnut cultivars were Longal, Judia, and Martaínha. All three cultivars had high moisture contents but were low in ash, crude fat, and crude protein contents, with high starch and low fiber contents. The free amino acid contents, including various essential amino acids, varied depending on the cultivar. All three cultivars also had a significant content of polyphenolics with gallic acid; ellagic acid was predominant among hydrolyzable and condensed tannins. Many of these compounds are known to exert significant positive effects on human health. The one-way analysis of variance for fresh chestnut shows significant differences among the three cultivars for most of the studied parameters. The same statistical analysis applied to each one of the two cultivars (Judia and Longal) sampled for the four processing steps analyzed indicates a significant effect of this factor in practically all of the constituents. On the other hand, the two-way analysis of variance shows that, besides the residual, the processing step and the interaction cultivar x processing step were the factors that more contributed for the total variation observed in the constituents analyzed, while the contribution of cultivar was much less significant.

  14. Irradiation subassembly

    DOEpatents

    Seim, O.S.; Filewicz, E.C.; Hutter, E.

    1973-10-23

    An irradiation subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which includes a bundle of slender elongated irradiation -capsules or fuel elements enclosed by a coolant tube and having yieldable retaining liner between the irradiation capsules and the coolant tube. For a hexagonal bundle surrounded by a hexagonal tube the yieldable retaining liner may consist either of six segments corresponding to the six sides of the tube or three angular segments each corresponding in two adjacent sides of the tube. The sides of adjacent segments abut and are so cut that metal-tometal contact is retained when the volume enclosed by the retaining liner is varied and Springs are provided for urging the segments toward the center of the tube to hold the capsules in a closely packed configuration. (Official Gazette)

  15. Horse chestnut extract contracts bovine vessels and affects human platelet aggregation through 5-HT(2A) receptors: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Felixsson, Emma; Persson, Ingrid A-L; Eriksson, Andreas C; Persson, Karin

    2010-09-01

    Extract from seeds and bark of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) is used as an herbal medicine against chronic venous insufficiency. The effect and mechanism of action on veins, arteries, and platelets are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of horse chestnut on the contraction of bovine mesenteric veins and arteries, and human platelet aggregation. Contraction studies showed that horse chestnut extract dose-dependently contracted both veins and arteries, with the veins being the most sensitive. Contraction of both veins and arteries were significantly inhibited by the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist ketanserin. No effect on contraction was seen with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, the alpha(1) receptor antagonist prazosin or the angiotensin AT(1) receptor antagonist saralasin neither in veins nor arteries. ADP-induced human platelet aggregation was significantly reduced by horse chestnut. A further reduction was seen with the extract in the presence of ketanserin. In conclusion, horse chestnut contraction of both veins and arteries is, at least partly, mediated through 5-HT(2A) receptors. Human platelet aggregation is reduced by horse chestnut. The clinical importance of these findings concerning clinical use, possible adverse effects, and drug interactions remains to be investigated.

  16. Influence of inclusion of chestnut in the finishing diet on fatty acid profile of dry-cured ham from Celta pig breed.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Roberto; Franco, Inmaculada; Franco, Daniel; Carballo, Javier; Lorenzo, José M

    2012-12-01

    The effect of the inclusion of chestnut in the finishing diet on fatty acid profile of dry-cured Celta ham was studied. Twelve hams of each type (from three different diets: concentrate, mixed and chestnut) were used. Significant differences between treatments (P<0.001) were found regarding total saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Ham samples from the mixed and chestnut groups had less SFA (35.57% and 35.63%, respectively) with respect to ham samples from the concentrate group (40.33%), while hams from the mixed and chestnut batches showed higher values of MUFA than hams from the concentrate group (50.70 vs. 49.79 vs. 43.85, P<0.001, respectively). From a nutritional point of view, Celta hams from chestnut diets could be considered as healthier regarding their fatty acid profiles (low n-6/n-3 ratio and high hypocholesterolemic/Hypercholesterolemic ratio). Discriminant analysis selected five variables (C(16:0), C(16:1cis-9), C(20:2), C(20:3n-6) and C(20:4n-6)) and calculated two discriminating functions which verifies the presence of chestnut in the finishing diet.

  17. Effect of whey protein isolate-pullulan edible coatings on the quality and shelf life of freshly roasted and freeze-dried Chinese chestnut.

    PubMed

    Gounga, M E; Xu, S-Y; Wang, Z; Yang, W G

    2008-05-01

    Harvested chestnut is characterized by a short shelf life, exposing many Chinese producers to a storage problem as product losses are very high. The objective of this study was to develop a suitable technology to extend the shelf life of harvested chestnut fruits for commercial use. The effect of whey protein isolate-pullulan (WPI-Pul) coating on fresh-roasted chestnuts (FRC) and roasted freeze-dried chestnut (RFDC) quality and shelf life was studied under 2 different storage temperature (4 and 20 degrees C) conditions. Coatings were formed directly onto the surface of the fruits by dipping them into a film solution. SEM micrographs showed homogeneous WPI-Pul to cover the whole surface of chestnut with good adherence and perfect integrity. Moisture loss or gain, fruit quality, and shelf life were evaluated by weight loss or gain, surface color development, and visible decay during the storage period of 15 to 120 d at 4 and 20 degrees C, respectively. WPI-Pul coating had a low, yet significant effect on reducing moisture loss and decay incidence of FRC, hence delaying changes in their external color. The results were satisfactory when the coating was done with freeze-drying at low temperature storage, thus improving the quality and increasing the shelf life. This provides an alternative strategy to minimize the significant losses in harvested chestnut.

  18. AGC-1 Experiment and Final Preliminary Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robert L. Bratton; Tim Burchell

    2006-08-01

    This report details the experimental plan and design as of the preliminary design review for the Advanced Test Reactor Graphite Creep-1 graphite compressive creep capsule. The capsule will contain five graphite grades that will be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory to determine the irradiation induced creep constants. Seven other grades of graphite will be irradiated to determine irradiated physical properties. The capsule will have an irradiation temperature of 900 C and a peak irradiation dose of 5.8 x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} [E > 0.1 MeV], or 4.2 displacements per atom.

  19. The effect of chestnut coppice forests abandon on slope stability: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergani, Chiara; Bassanelli, Chiara; Rossi, Lorenzo; Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Battista Bischetti, Gian

    2013-04-01

    Sweet chestnut has been fundamental for Italian mountainous economies for many centuries. This kind of forest was traditionally managed by coppicing in shortly rotation (15-20 years) to rapidly produce wood biomass until half of XX century. In the last decades these forests were in large part abandoned due to change in economy which made coppiced forest management unprofitable, especially in steeper slopes and where forest viability is scarce. As a consequence most of them are over aged and very dense, leading to an observed increasing in localized slope instability, primary because of the uprooting of stools (Vogt et al., 2006). In this work the effect of the abandon of chestnut coppice on slope stability was analyzed, focusing on shallow landslides triggering. The mechanical contribution to soil shear strength of differently managed chestnut stand was estimated and compared in terms of additional root cohesion. The study area is located in the Valcuvia Valley (Lombardy Prealps - Northern Italy) at an elevation about 600 m a.s.l., where two different stands, one managed and the other abandoned (over 40 year aged), were chosen. The two sampling stands are on cohesionless slopes (quaternary moraine deposits) and are homogeneous with regard to the substrate, exposure and elevation. Slope steepness influences heavily forestry practices and steeper stands are more frequently abandoned than stands on gentler terrain: in fact in the abandoned coppice the slope was higher (35 degrees against 13 in the managed stand) and no stands completely homogeneous can be found. In each site the main characteristics of the stand were surveyed and a trench in each stand was excavated to analyze root diameter and number distribution with depth; root specimens were also collected for the tensile force determination through laboratory tensile tests. Root distribution and force were then used to estimate root cohesion values through a Fiber Boundle Model (Pollen and Simon, 2005). Results

  20. East Chestnut Ridge hydrogeologic characterization: A geophysical study of two karst features

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Permitting and site selection activities for the proposed East Chestnut Ridge landfill, located on the Oak Ridge Reservation, have required additional hydrogeologic studies of two karst features. Geophysical testing methods were utilized for investigating these karst features. The objectives of the geophysical testing was to determine the feasibility of geophysical techniques for locating subsurface karst features and to determine if subsurface anomalies exist at the proposed landfill site. Two karst features, one lacking surface expression (sinkhole) but with a known solution cavity at depth (from previous hydrologic studies), and the other with surface expression were tested with surface geophysical methods. Four geophysical profiles, two crossing and centered over each karst feature were collected using both gravimetric and electrical resistivity techniques.

  1. Emodin, a toxic metabolite of Aspergillus wentii isolated from weevil-damaged chestnuts.

    PubMed

    Wells, J M; Cole, R J; Kirksey, J W

    1975-07-01

    A diarrheagenic toxin from culture extracts of Aspergillus wentii Wehmer isolated from weevil-damaged Chinese chestnuts was identified as emodin (2-methyl-4,5,7-trihydroxyanthraquinone). The orange-red, crystalline toxin (mp 255 to 257 C) showed ultraviolet absorption maxima in ethyl alcohol at 223, 250, 267, 290, and 442 nm, and infrared absorption maxima at 3,400 cm-1 (OH), 1,635, and 1,625 CM-1. Chemical shifts and coupling constants of the proton magnetic resonance spectra of the A. wentii toxin and of authentic emodin agreed. Mean lethal dose of emodin orally administered to 1-day-old DeKalb cockerels was 3.7 mg/kg.

  2. Identification of major phenolic compounds of Chinese water chestnut and their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    You, Yanli; Duan, Xuewu; Wei, Xiaoyi; Su, Xinguo; Zhao, Mouming; Sun, Jian; Ruenroengklin, Neungnapa; Jiang, Yueming

    2007-04-25

    Chinese water chestnut (CWC) is one of the most popular foods among Asian people due to its special taste and medical function. Experiments were conducted to test the antioxidant activity and then determine the major phenolic compound components present in CWC. CWC phenolic extract strongly inhibited linoleic acid oxidation and exhibited a dose-dependent free-radical scavenging activity against alpha,alpha-diphenyl-beta-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals, which was superior to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), two commercial used antioxidants. Furthermore, the CWC extract was found to have a relatively higher reducing power, compared with BHT. The major phenolic compounds present in CWC tissues were extracted, purified and identified by high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) as (-)-gallocatechin gallate, (-)-epicatechin gallate and (+)-catechin gallate. This study suggests that CWC tissues exhibit great potential for antioxidant activity and may be useful for their nutritional and medicinal functions.

  3. Phenolic compounds in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) heartwood. Effect of toasting at cooperage.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Hernández, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel

    2010-09-08

    The phenolic and tannic composition of heartwood extracts from Castanea sativa Mill., before and after toasting in cooperage, were studied using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS, and some low molecular weight phenolic compounds and hydrolyzable tannins were found. The low molecular weight phenolic compounds were lignin constituents as the acids gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, ferulic, and ellagic, the aldehydes protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, coniferylic, and sinapic, and the coumarin scopoletin. Their patterns were somewhat different those of oak because oak does not contain compounds such protocatechuic acid and aldehyde and is composed of much lower amounts of gallic acid than chestnut. Vescalagin and castalagin were the main ellagitannins, and acutissimin was tentatively identified for the first time in this wood. Moreover, some gallotannins were tentatively identified, including different isomers of di, tri, tetra, and pentagalloyl glucopyranose, and di and trigalloyl-hexahydroxydiphenoyl glucopyranose, comprising 20 different compounds, as well as some ellagic derivatives such as ellagic acid deoxyhexose, ellagic acid dimer dehydrated, and valoneic acid dilactone. These ellagic derivatives as well as some galloyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl derivatives were tentatively identified for the first time in this wood. The profile of tannins was therefore different from that of oak wood because oak only contains tannins of the ellagitannins type. Seasoned and toasted chestnut wood showed a very different balance between lignin derivatives and tannins because toasting resulted in the degradation of tannins and the formation of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignin degradation. Moreover, the different toasting levels provoked different balances between tannins and lignin constituents because the intensity of lignin and tannin degradation was in relation to the intensity of toasting.

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of Gene Expression during Chinese Water Chestnut Storage Organ Formation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Libao; Li, Shuyan; Chen, Sainan; Wang, Yan; Yu, Meizhen; Chen, Xuehao; Li, Liangjun; Yin, Jingjing

    2016-01-01

    The product organ (storage organ; corm) of the Chinese water chestnut has become a very popular food in Asian countries because of its unique nutritional value. Corm formation is a complex biological process, and extensive whole genome analysis of transcripts during corm development has not been carried out. In this study, four corm libraries at different developmental stages were constructed, and gene expression was identified using a high-throughput tag sequencing technique. Approximately 4.9 million tags were sequenced, and 4,371,386, 4,372,602, 4,782,494, and 5,276,540 clean tags, including 119,676, 110,701, 100,089, and 101,239 distinct tags, respectively, were obtained after removal of low-quality tags from each library. More than 39% of the distinct tags were unambiguous and could be mapped to reference genes, while 40% were unambiguous tag-mapped genes. After mapping their functions in existing databases, a total of 11,592, 10,949, 10,585, and 7,111 genes were annotated from the B1, B2, B3, and B4 libraries, respectively. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in B1/B2, B2/B3, and B3/B4 libraries showed that most of the DEGs at the B1/B2 stages were involved in carbohydrate and hormone metabolism, while the majority of DEGs were involved in energy metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism at the B2/B3 and B3/B4 stages. All of the upregulated transcription factors and 9 important genes related to product organ formation in the above four stages were also identified. The expression changes of nine of the identified DEGs were validated using a quantitative PCR approach. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of gene expression during corm formation in the Chinese water chestnut.

  5. Structure of Oxalacetate Acetylhydrolase, a Virulence Factor of the Chestnut Blight Fungus

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chen; Sun, Qihong; Narayanan, Buvaneswari; Nuss, Donald L.; Herzberg, Osnat

    2010-11-15

    Oxalacetate acetylhydrolase (OAH), a member of the phosphoenolpyruvate mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily, catalyzes the hydrolysis of oxalacetate to oxalic acid and acetate. This study shows that knock-out of the oah gene in Cryphonectria parasitica, the chestnut blight fungus, reduces the ability of the fungus to form cankers on chestnut trees, suggesting that OAH plays a key role in virulence. OAH was produced in Escherichia coli and purified, and its catalytic rates were determined. Oxalacetate is the main OAH substrate, but the enzyme also acts as a lyase of (2R,3S)-dimethyl malate with {approx}1000-fold lower efficacy. The crystal structure of OAH was determined alone, in complex with a mechanism-based inhibitor, 3,3-difluorooxalacetate (DFOA), and in complex with the reaction product, oxalate, to a resolution limit of 1.30, 1.55, and 1.65 {angstrom}, respectively. OAH assembles into a dimer of dimers with each subunit exhibiting an ({alpha}/{beta})8 barrel fold and each pair swapping the 8th {alpha}-helix. An active site 'gating loop' exhibits conformational disorder in the ligand-free structure. To obtain the structures of the OAH {center_dot} ligand complexes, the ligand-free OAH crystals were soaked briefly with DFOA or oxalacetate. DFOA binding leads to ordering of the gating loop in a conformation that sequesters the ligand from the solvent. DFOA binds in a gem-diol form analogous to the oxalacetate intermediate/transition state. Oxalate binds in a planar conformation, but the gating loop is largely disordered. Comparison between the OAH structure and that of the closely related enzyme, 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase, suggests potential determinants of substrate preference.

  6. Physicochemical, pasting, rheological, thermal and morphological properties of horse chestnut starch.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, Syed Insha; Jan, Kulsum; Singh, Sukhcharn; Saxena, D C

    2015-09-01

    Indian Horse chestnuts contain high content of starch which can be explored to be used in various applications in food industry as encapsulating agent, stabilizer, binder, thickener, gelling agents and many more. Horse chest nut is locally available and can be a boon for food industry if the inherent properties are explored. Hence, horse chest nut starch can be a better option for the replacement of conventional starches to meet the industrial demand of starch. Physicochemical, pasting, rheological, thermal and morphological properties of starch isolated from Indian Horse chestnut (HCN) were determined. Amylose content was found to be 26.10 %. Peak viscosity obtained from RVA profile was 4110 cP. Hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness and gumminess were determined by Texture Profile Analyser. Particle size analysis showed a typical Uni modal size distribution profile with particle distribution ranging from 7.52 to 27.44 μm. The shape of starch granules varied from round, irregular, oval, and elliptical with smooth surface. X- ray diffraction revealed that HCN starch showed a typical C-type pattern with characteristic peaks at 5.7, 15.0, 17.3 and 22.3°. The transition temperatures (To, Tp, and Tc) and enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔH) values were 53.35, 58.81, 63.57 °C and 8.76 J/g, respectively. The rheological properties were determined in terms of variation of storage modulus (G (/)), loss modulus (G (//)) and loss factor (tan δ) at different temperatures. Peak G (/), peak G (//) and peak tan δ values were observed as 10,400 Pa, 1,710 Pa, and 0.164, respectively.

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of Gene Expression during Chinese Water Chestnut Storage Organ Formation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sainan; Wang, Yan; Yu, Meizhen; Chen, Xuehao; Li, Liangjun; Yin, Jingjing

    2016-01-01

    The product organ (storage organ; corm) of the Chinese water chestnut has become a very popular food in Asian countries because of its unique nutritional value. Corm formation is a complex biological process, and extensive whole genome analysis of transcripts during corm development has not been carried out. In this study, four corm libraries at different developmental stages were constructed, and gene expression was identified using a high-throughput tag sequencing technique. Approximately 4.9 million tags were sequenced, and 4,371,386, 4,372,602, 4,782,494, and 5,276,540 clean tags, including 119,676, 110,701, 100,089, and 101,239 distinct tags, respectively, were obtained after removal of low-quality tags from each library. More than 39% of the distinct tags were unambiguous and could be mapped to reference genes, while 40% were unambiguous tag-mapped genes. After mapping their functions in existing databases, a total of 11,592, 10,949, 10,585, and 7,111 genes were annotated from the B1, B2, B3, and B4 libraries, respectively. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in B1/B2, B2/B3, and B3/B4 libraries showed that most of the DEGs at the B1/B2 stages were involved in carbohydrate and hormone metabolism, while the majority of DEGs were involved in energy metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism at the B2/B3 and B3/B4 stages. All of the upregulated transcription factors and 9 important genes related to product organ formation in the above four stages were also identified. The expression changes of nine of the identified DEGs were validated using a quantitative PCR approach. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of gene expression during corm formation in the Chinese water chestnut. PMID:27716802

  8. [Peculiar "chestnuts in burrs" formation in MGIT cultures of pulmonary Mycobacterium xenopi cases].

    PubMed

    Abe, Keiko; Yamazato, Masaya; Ohtani, Sumire; Shinozawa, Youko; Nakamura, Haruki; Miura, Takao; Hasegawa, Naoki; Hara, Masamichi

    2007-12-01

    We report 3 patients whose sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cultures for acid fast bacteria in MGIT liquid media grew colonies of Mycobacterium xenopi (M. xenopi) with a characteristic chestnut burr like appearance. Patients I, II, and III were a 74-year-old man, 47-year-old woman, and 62-year-old woman, respectively. Chest X ray showed a pulmonary cavity in each case. Patient I had a history of pulmonary and renal tuberculosis. The past medical history of patient II was unremarkable. Patient III had a history of lung cancer. Eight sputum samples and 4 BALF samples from patient I, 3 sputum samples and 1 BALF sample from patient II, and 4 sputum samples from patient III were positive for acid fast bacteria, and the organism was identified as M. xenopi in 9 samples. Smears of these MGIT-positive cultures were stained by the Ziehl Neelsen method, and examined under a microscope. Large and small, spherical shaped, 15-100 microm clusters of thin, elongated bacteria, with a chestnut burr-like or spherical moss like and partly budding appearance, were scattered throughout the smear preparation. Although only 34 cases of M. xenopi infection were reported in Japan between 1984 and 2005, the number of reported cases has been on the increase in recent years. Since no report from Japan, Europe, or the United States have noted the characteristic appearance of M. xenopi in cultures, we consider that the feature described in this communication is useful to presumptively identify M. xenopi.

  9. DNA Fingerprinting and Analysis of Population Structure in the Chestnut Blight Fungus, Cryphonectria Parasitica

    PubMed Central

    Milgroom, M. G.; Lipari, S. E.; Powell, W. A.

    1992-01-01

    We analyzed DNA fingerprints in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, for stability, inheritance, linkage and variability in a natural population. DNA fingerprints resulting from hybridization with a dispersed moderately repetitive DNA sequence of C. parasitica in plasmid pMS5.1 hybridized to 6-17 restriction fragments per individual isolate. In a laboratory cross and from progeny from a single perithecium collected from a field population, the presence/absence of 11 fragments in the laboratory cross and 12 fragments in the field progeny set segregated in 1:1 ratios. Two fragments in each progeny set cosegregated; no other linkage was detected among the segregating fragments. Mutations, identified by missing bands, were detected for only one fragment in which 4 of 43 progeny lacked a band present in both parents; no novel fragments were detected in any progeny. All other fragments appeared to be stably inherited. Hybridization patterns did not change during vegetative growth or sporulation. However, fingerprint patterns of single conidial isolates of strains EP155 and EP67 were found to be heterogenous due to mutations that occurred during culturing in the laboratory since these strains were first isolated in 1976-1977. In a population sample of 39 C. parasitica isolates, we found 33 different fingerprint patterns with pMS5.1. Most isolates differed from all other isolates by the presence or absence of several fragments. Six fingerprint patterns each occurred twice. Isolates with identical fingerprints occurred in cankers on the same chestnut stems three times; isolates within the other three pairs were isolated from cankers more than 5 m apart. The null hypothesis of random mating in this population could not be rejected if the six putative clones were removed from the analysis. Thus, a rough estimate of the clonal fraction of this population is 6 in 39 isolates (15.4%). PMID:1353735

  10. Environmental Fate of Emamectin Benzoate After Tree Micro Injection of Horse Chestnut Trees

    PubMed Central

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic and depends on the decomposition of the leaf. In compost piles, where decomposition of leaves was fastest, a cumulative emamectin benzoate degradation half-life time of 20 d was measured. In leaves immersed in water, where decomposition was much slower, the degradation half-life time was 94 d, and in leaves left on the ground in contact with soil, where decomposition was slowest, the degradation half-life time was 212 d. The biphasic decline and the correlation with leaf decomposition might be attributed to an extensive sorption of emamectin benzoate residues to leaf macromolecules. This may also explain why earthworms ingesting leaves from injected trees take up very little emamectin benzoate and excrete it with the feces. Furthermore, no emamectin benzoate was found in water containing decomposing leaves from injected trees. It is concluded, that emamectin benzoate present in abscised leaves from horse chestnut trees injected with the insecticide is not available to nontarget organisms present in soil or water bodies. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;9999:1–6. © 2014 The Authors. Published 2014 SETAC PMID:25363584

  11. Spatial patterns of shiny cowbird brood parasitism on chestnut-capped blackbirds

    PubMed

    Lyon

    1997-10-01

    Shiny cowbirds, Molothrus bonariensisparasitized a high frequency (average 48%) of nests in five colonies of chestnut-capped blackbirds, Agelaius ruficapillusin Argentina. Two distinct egg morphs occurred, spotted and immaculate white eggs, as well as a few very lightly spotted intermediate eggs. The clear differences between morphs, combined with considerable variation in spotting pattern between spotted morph eggs, made it possible to visually match eggs into groups that were probably laid by single females. Eggs attributed to a single female were more similar in size and shape than eggs attributed to different females. Using egg dimensions and colour patterns to infer spatial patterns of laying by individual females indicated that: (1) individual brood parasites often laid several eggs in the same colony, (2) females also laid eggs in more than one colony, and (3) several females laid eggs in each colony, and often in the same host nests, ruling out the notion that parasites defend exclusive territories with respect to host nests. Multiple cowbird eggs per host nest invariably resulted from several females laying in the same host nest: egg morphs and visual comparisons of spotting patterns at 14 nests indicated that individual females never laid more than a single egg in the same host nest. Experimental parasitism of nests with spotted and white morph eggs, combined with observations of naturally parasitized nests, demonstrated that chestnut-capped blackbirds accept all morphs of cowbird eggs. Since other important host species reject white eggs, however, the adaptive maintenance of the white morph is difficult to explain.Copyright 1997 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour1997The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour

  12. Irradiated foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... it reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes, and to control insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

  13. Horse Chestnut

    MedlinePlus

    60036 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/horsechestnut ... us ... 60036 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/horsechestnut ... Herbal Medicine ... Herbal Medicine/Specifics ... us ... 60036 ... https:// ...

  14. Application of a new purification method of West-Kazakhstan chestnut soil microbiota DNA for metagenomic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergaliev, N. Kh.; Kakishev, M. G.; Zhiengaliev, A. T.; Volodin, M. A.; Andronov, E. E.; Pinaev, A. G.

    2015-04-01

    A method for the extraction of soil microbial DNA has been tested on chestnut soils (Kastanozems) of the West Kazakhstan region. The taxonomic analysis of soil microbiome libraries has shown that the phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria constitute the largest part of microbial communities in the analyzed soils. The Archaea form an appreciable part of the microbiome in the studied samples. In the underdeveloped dark chestnut soil, their portion is higher than 11%. This is of interest, as the proportion of Archaea in the soil communities of virgin lands usually does not exceed 5%. In addition to the phyla mentioned above, there are representatives of the phyla Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadales, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia, which are all fairly common in soil communities.

  15. Polyphenolic compounds as chemical markers of wine ageing in contact with cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Simón, B; Sanz, M; Cadahía, E; Martínez, J; Esteruelas, E; Muñoz, A M

    2014-01-15

    The nonanthocyanic phenolic composition of four red wines, one white, and one rosé aged using barrels and chips of cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood was studied by LC-DAD-ESI/MS, to identify the phenolic compounds that woods other than oak contribute to wines, and if some of them can be used as chemical markers of ageing with them. A total of 68 nonanthocyanic phenolic compounds were identified, 15 found only in wines aged with acacia wood, 6 with cherry wood, and 1 with chestnut wood. Thus, the nonanthocyanic phenolic profile could be a useful tool to identify wines aged in contact with these woods. In addition, some differences in the nonanthocyanic phenolic composition of wines were detected related to both the levels of compounds provided by each wood species and the different evolution of flavonols and flavanols in wines during ageing in barrels or in contact with chips.

  16. Exploration of a rare population of Chinese chestnut in North America: stand dynamics, health and genetic relationships

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Amy C.; Woeste, Keith E.; Anagnostakis, Sandra L.; Jacobs, Douglass F.

    2014-01-01

    With the transport of plants around the globe, exotic species can readily spread disease to their native relatives; however, they can also provide genetic resistance to those relatives through hybrid breeding programmes. American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was an abundant tree species in North America until its decimation by introduced chestnut blight. To restore chestnut in North America, efforts are ongoing to test putative blight-resistant hybrids of Castanea dentata and Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima), but little is known about the ecology of C. mollissima. In a forest in northeastern USA in which C. mollissima has become established, we explored questions of stand dynamics, health and genetic relationships of C. mollissima offspring to an adjacent parent orchard. We found that C. mollissima was adapted and randomly distributed among native species in this relatively young forest. The genetics of the C. mollissima population compared with its parents indicated little effect of selection pressure as each of the parent trees contributed at least one offspring. The ease with which this exotic species proliferated calls to question why C. mollissima is rare elsewhere in forests of North America. It is likely that a time window of low animal predation allowed seedlings to establish, and the shallow soil at this site limited the maximum forest canopy height, permitting the characteristically short-statured C. mollissima to avoid suppression. Our results indicate that because C. mollissima exhibited pioneer species characteristics, hybrids between C. mollissima and C. dentata have the potential to be successful pioneer species of future forests in North America, and we challenge the paradigm that exotic tree species are wholly detrimental to native biodiversity. We contend that exotic tree species should be assessed not only by their level of threat to native species, but also by their potential positive impacts on ecosystems via hybrid breeding programmes

  17. Exploration of a rare population of Chinese chestnut in North America: stand dynamics, health and genetic relationships.

    PubMed

    Miller, Amy C; Woeste, Keith E; Anagnostakis, Sandra L; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2014-10-20

    With the transport of plants around the globe, exotic species can readily spread disease to their native relatives; however, they can also provide genetic resistance to those relatives through hybrid breeding programmes. American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was an abundant tree species in North America until its decimation by introduced chestnut blight. To restore chestnut in North America, efforts are ongoing to test putative blight-resistant hybrids of Castanea dentata and Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima), but little is known about the ecology of C. mollissima. In a forest in northeastern USA in which C. mollissima has become established, we explored questions of stand dynamics, health and genetic relationships of C. mollissima offspring to an adjacent parent orchard. We found that C. mollissima was adapted and randomly distributed among native species in this relatively young forest. The genetics of the C. mollissima population compared with its parents indicated little effect of selection pressure as each of the parent trees contributed at least one offspring. The ease with which this exotic species proliferated calls to question why C. mollissima is rare elsewhere in forests of North America. It is likely that a time window of low animal predation allowed seedlings to establish, and the shallow soil at this site limited the maximum forest canopy height, permitting the characteristically short-statured C. mollissima to avoid suppression. Our results indicate that because C. mollissima exhibited pioneer species characteristics, hybrids between C. mollissima and C. dentata have the potential to be successful pioneer species of future forests in North America, and we challenge the paradigm that exotic tree species are wholly detrimental to native biodiversity. We contend that exotic tree species should be assessed not only by their level of threat to native species, but also by their potential positive impacts on ecosystems via hybrid breeding programmes.

  18. Calendar year 1994 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1994 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure 1). These sites lie within the boundaries of the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant (Figure 2). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to protect local groundwater resources in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations, DOE Orders, and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) corporate policy. The annual GWQR for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Because it contains information needed to comply with reporting requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring, the Part 1 GWQR is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY); Energy Systems submitted the 1994 Part 1 GWQR for the Chestnut Ridge Regime to the TDEC in February 1995 (HSW Environmental Consultants, Inc. 1995a).

  19. Potential Anticancer Effects of Polyphenols from Chestnut Shell Extracts: Modulation of Cell Growth, and Cytokinomic and Metabolomic Profiles.

    PubMed

    Sorice, Angela; Siano, Francesco; Capone, Francesca; Guerriero, Eliana; Picariello, Gianluca; Budillon, Alfredo; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Paolucci, Marina; Costantini, Susan; Volpe, Maria Grazia

    2016-10-21

    In this study, a hydroalcoholic chestnut shell extract was characterized and tested on six different human cell lines. Gallic, ellagic, and syringic acids were the most abundant non-condensed compounds in the chestnut extract, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Tannins were mainly represented by condensed monomeric units of epigallocatechin and catechin/epicatechin. After 48 h of treatment, only the human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells reached an inhibition corresponding to IC50 with an increase of apoptosis and mitochondrial depolarization. The cytokinome evaluation before and after treatment revealed that the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α decreased after the treatment, suggesting a potential anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory effect of this extract. Moreover, the metabolome evaluation by ¹H-NMR evidenced that the polyphenols extracted from chestnut shell (PECS) treatment affected the levels of some amino acids and other metabolites. Overall, these data highlight the effects of biomolecules on cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle and mitochondrial depolarization, and on cytokinomics and metabolomics profiles.

  20. Multiple introductions and recombination in Cryphonectria hypovirus 1: perspective for a sustainable biological control of chestnut blight

    PubMed Central

    Feau, Nicolas; Dutech, Cyril; Brusini, Jérémie; Rigling, Daniel; Robin, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1) is a mycovirus which decreases the virulence of its fungal host Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight recently introduced in Europe. The understanding of the evolutionary processes which have shaped CHV1 populations in Europe is required to develop a sustainable biocontrol strategy targeting chestnut blight and effective in European chestnut forests. To retrace the evolutionary history of CHV1, we analyzed sequences from two genomic regions on a collection of 55 CHV1 strains from France and northern Spain, two countries where multiple introductions of C. parasitica occurred. Several recombination events and variable selection pressures contributed to CHV1 evolution, agreeing with a non-clock-like diversification rate. These two mechanisms may be at the origin of CHV1 population diversity observed in western Europe. Considering the actual prevalence of CHV1 and its association with host genotypes, multiple introductions of CHV1 may have occurred in Europe, some of them directly from Asia and some of them through North America. Although some viral strains remained with low frequency in their introduction area, multiple infections might have allowed homologous recombination within parental sequences. Some of these recombinant lineages are associated with the spread of CHV1 in European regions. PMID:24944571

  1. Multiple introductions and recombination in Cryphonectria hypovirus 1: perspective for a sustainable biological control of chestnut blight.

    PubMed

    Feau, Nicolas; Dutech, Cyril; Brusini, Jérémie; Rigling, Daniel; Robin, Cécile

    2014-05-01

    Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1) is a mycovirus which decreases the virulence of its fungal host Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight recently introduced in Europe. The understanding of the evolutionary processes which have shaped CHV1 populations in Europe is required to develop a sustainable biocontrol strategy targeting chestnut blight and effective in European chestnut forests. To retrace the evolutionary history of CHV1, we analyzed sequences from two genomic regions on a collection of 55 CHV1 strains from France and northern Spain, two countries where multiple introductions of C. parasitica occurred. Several recombination events and variable selection pressures contributed to CHV1 evolution, agreeing with a non-clock-like diversification rate. These two mechanisms may be at the origin of CHV1 population diversity observed in western Europe. Considering the actual prevalence of CHV1 and its association with host genotypes, multiple introductions of CHV1 may have occurred in Europe, some of them directly from Asia and some of them through North America. Although some viral strains remained with low frequency in their introduction area, multiple infections might have allowed homologous recombination within parental sequences. Some of these recombinant lineages are associated with the spread of CHV1 in European regions.

  2. Leaf physiology and biomass allocation of backcross hybrid American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seedlings in response to light and water availability.

    PubMed

    Brown, Caleb E; Mickelbart, Michael V; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2014-12-01

    Partial canopy cover promotes regeneration of many temperate forest trees, but the consequences of shading on seedling drought resistance are unclear. Reintroduction of blight-resistant American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) into eastern North American forests will often occur on water-limited sites and under partial canopy cover. We measured leaf pre-dawn water potential (Ψpd), leaf gas exchange, and growth and biomass allocation of backcross hybrid American chestnut seedlings from three orchard sources grown under different light intensities (76, 26 and 8% full photosynthetically active radiation (PAR)) and subjected to well-watered or mid-season water-stressed conditions. Seedlings in the water-stress treatment were returned to well-watered conditions after wilting to examine recovery. Seedlings growing under medium- and high-light conditions wilted at lower leaf Ψpd than low-light seedlings. Recovery of net photosynthesis (Anet) and stomatal conductance (gs) was greater in low and medium light than in high light. Seed source did not affect the response to water stress or light level in most cases. Between 26 and 8% full PAR, light became limiting to the extent that the effects of water stress had no impact on some growth and morphological traits. We conclude that positive and negative aspects of shading on seedling drought tolerance and recovery are not mutually exclusive. Partial shade may help American chestnut tolerate drought during early establishment through effects on physiological conditioning.

  3. Inhibitory effects of polyphenols from water chestnut (Trapa japonica) husk on glycolytic enzymes and postprandial blood glucose elevation in mice.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Midori; Yasutake, Kenichiro; Hino, Madoka; Ohwatari, Hitomi; Ohmagari, Nozomi; Takedomi, Kazumi; Tanaka, Takashi; Nonaka, Gen-Ichiro

    2014-12-15

    Water chestnut is an annual aquatic plant that grows in Asia and Europe. Although water chestnut has been used as food and herbal medicine, its physiological functions and active ingredients are unknown. Here, we extracted polyphenols from the husk of the Japanese water chestnut (Trapa japonica) and assessed their effects on blood glucose levels. Three hydrolysable polyphenolics (WCPs), eugeniin, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-d-glucopyranose, and trapain, were predominant with dry-weight contents of 2.3 ± 0.0, 2.7 ± 0.1, and 1.2 ± 0.1g/100g, respectively. These WCPs exhibited inhibitory activity against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Whereas (-)-epigallocatechin gallate does not inhibit α-amylase, WCPs exhibited high inhibitory activity (>80% at 0.15 mg/mL). In mice, administration of WCPs (40 mg/kg) significantly reduced blood glucose and serum insulin levels as assessed by the carbohydrate tolerance test.

  4. Antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein haplotypes and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys.

    PubMed

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein (CN) haplotypes (αs1-, β-, κ-CN) and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys. The CN haplotype was determined by isoelectric focusing, whereas antioxidant activity of yogurt was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. The statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the studied factors. The results showed that chestnut honey presented the highest phenolic acid and flavonoid contents, which are closely associated with its high antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of fortified yogurt samples was affected both by different CN haplotypes and by type of honey added. Yogurts fortified with chestnut honey showed higher antioxidant activity than those fortified with sulla honey. The different behavior observed among the fortified yogurts led us to hypothesize that the effects of protein-polyphenol complex on antioxidant activity are interactive. The results suggest that milk proteins polymorphism and polyphenols play different roles in affecting the bioavailability and the antioxidant activity of yogurt.

  5. New gall wasp species attacking chestnut trees: Dryocosmus zhuili n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on Castanea henryi from southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dao-Hong; Liu, Zhiwei; Lu, Peng-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Hui; Su, Cheng-Yuan; Liu, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A new gall wasp species, Dryocosmus zhuili Liu et Zhu, is herein described from the southeastern Fujian province of China. The new species induces galls on trees of Henry's chestnut, Castanea henryi, which is also a native host for the notorious Oriental chestnut gall wasp (OCGW, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu). D. zhuili overlaps with OCGW in emergence time and induces galls morphologically similar to that of OCGW on similar plant parts. In a previous study, we reported considerable divergence between mtDNA CO1 (mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) sequences of these wasps and the true OCGW wasps and suggested the existence of a cryptic species. Herein, we confirm the identity of the new species based on morphological and biological differences and provide a formal description. Although the new species is relatively easily separated from OCGW on basis of morphology, field identification involving the two species can still be problematic because of their small body size, highly similar gall morphology, and other life history traits. We further discussed the potential of the new species to be a pest for the chestnut industry and the consequences of accidental introduction of this species into nonnative areas, especially with regard to the bisexual reproduction mode of the new species in contrast to the parthenogenetic reproduction mode of OCGW.

  6. New Gall Wasp Species Attacking Chestnut Trees: Dryocosmus zhuili n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on Castanea henryi from Southeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dao-Hong; Liu, Zhiwei; Lu, Peng-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Hui; Su, Cheng-Yuan; Liu, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A new gall wasp species, Dryocosmus zhuili Liu et Zhu, is herein described from the southeastern Fujian province of China. The new species induces galls on trees of Henry’s chestnut, Castanea henryi, which is also a native host for the notorious Oriental chestnut gall wasp (OCGW, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu). D. zhuili overlaps with OCGW in emergence time and induces galls morphologically similar to that of OCGW on similar plant parts. In a previous study, we reported considerable divergence between mtDNA CO1 (mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) sequences of these wasps and the true OCGW wasps and suggested the existence of a cryptic species. Herein, we confirm the identity of the new species based on morphological and biological differences and provide a formal description. Although the new species is relatively easily separated from OCGW on basis of morphology, field identification involving the two species can still be problematic because of their small body size, highly similar gall morphology, and other life history traits. We further discussed the potential of the new species to be a pest for the chestnut industry and the consequences of accidental introduction of this species into nonnative areas, especially with regard to the bisexual reproduction mode of the new species in contrast to the parthenogenetic reproduction mode of OCGW. PMID:26516167

  7. [Effects of different water-saving irrigation modes on chestnut growth and fruiting in drought hilly land].

    PubMed

    Tian, Shou-Le; Shen, Guang-Ning; Xu, Lin; Sun, Xiao-Li

    2012-03-01

    Taking the chestnut trees in a semi-arid and semi-humid hilly orchard of Tai' an, Shandong Province of East China as test objects, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different water-saving irrigation modes (pottery jar storing water, small hole storing water, and border irrigation with covering) on the soil moisture characteristics and the growth, fruiting, and development of chestnut roots. Comparing with the control (border irrigation), all the three water-saving irrigation modes could prolong the period of soil keeping moist, and the best effect came from pottery, jar treatment, with the soil keeping moist for 32 days, 13 days longer than the control. Under water-saving irrigations, the bearing branches length and number, leaf area and mass, and shoot mixed buds all increased obviously. Both pottery jar storing water and small hole storing water could irrigate deeper roots and induce root growth in deeper soil layers, and thus, relieve the drought stress on superficial roots. The three water-saving irrigation modes could increase chestnut yield markedly, with an increment of 18.8%, 16.5%, and 14.2%, respectively, as compared with the control.

  8. Aphelenchoides hylurgi as a carrier of white, hypovirulent Cryphonectria parasitica and its possible role in Hypovirulence spread on blight-controlled american chestnut trees.

    PubMed

    Griffin, G J; Eisenback, J D; Yancey, M M; Templeton, J

    2009-12-01

    Individual nematodes were isolated from American chestnut blight-controlled cankers to determine if they were carriers of biocontrol (hypovirulent) isolates of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. These hypovirulent isolates have a white fungal colony phenotype due to infection by the virus CHV1. Of 1,620 individual Aphelenchoides hylurgi isolated, 29.4% carried propagules of the blight fungus and 8.2% of these yielded white hypovirulent isolates. In attraction and movement tests in Petri plates, A. hylurgi moved 2 cm over 24 hr to mycelial discs of white hypovirulent C. parasitica and pigmented C. parasitica strains in nearly equal numbers. After 2 days of nematode movement to fungal colonies on agar in Petri plates and 21 days of nematode growth, large numbers of A. hylurgi were extracted from both white hypovirulent and pigmented C. parasitica strain colonies. Lower numbers of A. hylurgi were extracted from excised young American chestnut blight cankers that were inoculated with A. hylurgi and incubated for 22 days. A. hylurgi inoculated on the surface of an excised American chestnut canker moved within 24 hr to the small, spore-bearing C. parasitica reproductive structures (stromata) on the canker surface. The results indicate that A. hylurgi may play a role in the spread of hypovirulence on American chestnut trees.

  9. Reprocessing technology development for irradiated beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, H.; Sakamoto, N.; Tatenuma, K.

    1995-09-01

    At present, beryllium is under consideration as a main candidate material for neutron multiplier and plasma facing material in a fusion reactor. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the beryllium reprocessing technology for effective resource use. And, we have proposed reprocessing technology development on irradiated beryllium used in a fusion reactor. The preliminary reprocessing tests were performed using un-irradiated and irradiated beryllium. At first, we performed beryllium separation tests using un-irradiated beryllium specimens. Un-irradiated beryllium with beryllium oxide which is a main impurity and some other impurities were heat-treated under chlorine gas flow diluted with Ar gas. As the results high purity beryllium chloride was obtained in high yield. And it appeared that beryllium oxide and some other impurities were removed as the unreactive matter, and the other chloride impurities were separated by the difference of sublimation temperature on beryllium chloride. Next, we performed some kinds of beryllium purification tests from beryllium chloride. And, metallic beryllium could be recovered from beryllium chloride by the reduction with dry process. In addition, as the results of separation and purification tests using irradiated beryllium specimens, it appeared that separation efficiency of Co-60 from beryllium was above 96%. It is considered that about 4% Co-60 was carried from irradiated beryllium specimen in the form of cobalt chloride. And removal efficiency of tritium from irradiated beryllium was above 95%.

  10. Aerobiology of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in north-west Croatia.

    PubMed

    Hrga, Ivana; Mitić, Bozena; Alegro, Antun; Dragojlović, Dragoslav; Stjepanović, Barbara; Puntarić, Dinko

    2010-06-01

    The aims of the study were to analyse characteristics of the Castanea airborne pollen and to compare aeropalynological data obtained from two sampling stations in north-west Croatia. The study was conducted in Zagreb and Samobor during the 2003-2006 periods, using the seven-day volumetric samplers of the Hirst design. In both study areas, the seasons of chestnut pollination were similar and lasted from June to the end of July, which is comparable to other European cities. A general rule was noticed--the shorter the main pollen season, the higher the pollen peak concentration. Although the pollen season of Fagales pollen is prolonged to summer in the area of inland west-north Croatia due to the genus Castanea summer pollination, the number of days with pollen air concentration higher than 50 per m3 was low and was not likely to have any major effects in allergic individuals. Airborne pollen concentration of Castanea showed positive statistically significant correlation with air temperature and negative non-significant correlation with precipitation. Because of the non-significant differences between the two stations, for a possible long-term forecast model for Fagales airborne pollen for this part of north-west Croatia, aerobiological data obtained from only one station are sufficient.

  11. Effect of infrared and microwave radiations on properties of Indian Horse Chestnut starch.

    PubMed

    Shah, Umar; Gani, Adil; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Shah, Asima; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    Starch extracted from Indian Horse Chestnut (IHCN) was subjected to infrared and microwave radiations for different time intervals (15 s, 30 s, & 45 s) at constant dose. The structural change of MW and IR radiated IHCN starches were determined by Fourier transform-infra red spectroscopy. The increased peak intensity at 3240 cm(-1) of treated starch represents more exposure of hydroxyl groups due to radiation. Granule morphology of native starch showed round and elliptical granules with smooth surfaces. However radiation treatment resulted in the development of surface cracks. Effect of radiation on physicochemical properties of starch revealed increase in water absorption capacity and light transmittance and decrease in apparent amylose content, pH, and syneresis. The peak, trough, final, and setback viscosities were significantly reduced with increase in treatment time. Radiated starches displayed significantly lower values of To,Tp, and ΔHgel than native starch. Further antioxidant activities were evaluated by DPPH and FRAP assays. Results showed significant improvement in antioxidant activity of starch by both MW and IR treatments.

  12. Antitumor, Antioxidant, and Nitrite Scavenging Effects of Chinese Water Chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) Peel Flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ge; Pan, Leiqing; Tu, Kang; Jiao, Shunshan

    2016-10-01

    The preparation, quantification, and characterization of flavonoid compounds from Chinese water chestnut peel (CWCP) flavonoid extract and ethyl acetate fraction (EF), n-butanol fraction, and water fraction were studied. Among these, EF showed the maximum free radical levels (IC50 values of 0.36, 0.40, and 0.37 mg/mL for DPPH•, ABTS•(+) , and •OH, respectively), nitrite scavenging effects (IC50 = 1.89 mg/mL), and A549 cell inhibitory activities (IC50 = 776.12 μg/mL) with the highest value of total flavonoid content (TFC, 421.32 mg/g). Moreover, the contents of 8 flavonoids in this fraction were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography, and fisetin, diosmetin, luteolin, and tectorigenin were the 4 major flavonoids with levels of 31.66, 29.91, 13.69, and 12.41 mg/g, respectively. Luteolin produced a greater inhibition of human lung cancer A549 cells (IC50 = 59.60 μg/mL) than did fisetin, diosmetin, and tectorigenin. Flow cytometry revealed that the cellular mechanisms of luteolin inhibition of A549 cells were achieved via the induction of cell proliferation arrest at G1 phase and apoptosis/necrosis. Our findings suggest that flavonoids are closely associated with antitumor, antioxidant, and nitrite scavenging effects of CWCP.

  13. Phosphatase activity in the surface and buried chestnut soils of the Volga-Don interfluve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomutova, T. E.; Demkina, T. S.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; Demkin, V. A.

    2012-04-01

    The phosphatase activity (PA) was studied in the chestnut paleosols buried in 1718-1720 under the Anna Ivanovna rampart in the southern part of the Privolzhskaya Upland and in the middle of the third millennium BC under the burial mound of the Bronze Age on the Northern Yergeni Upland; the background analogues of these soils were also examined. The PA values in the fresh soil samples varied from 2.5 to 37 mg of P2O5/10 g of soil per h with maximums in the A1 horizon of the surface soils and in the B1 horizon of the paleosols. The PA values depended on the time of storage of the samples: with time, they increased by 2.6-2.9 times in the A1 horizon of the background surface soil and decreased by 20-60% in the other soil samples. The specific distribution patterns of the PA values in the soil profiles remained the same independently of the time of storage of the samples. Relatively small amounts of the soil samples were sufficient for the reliable determination of the PA: 1-2 g for the A1 horizon and 3-5 g for the B1 and B2 horizons. The time of incubation with the substrate had to be increased up to 4 h for the long-stored samples.

  14. Sequential sampling plan for Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on horse chestnut tree.

    PubMed

    Ferracini, Chiara; Alma, Alberto

    2007-12-01

    A fixed precision sequential sampling plan for estimating the density of the horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum L., leafminer Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was developed. Data were collected from 2002 to 2004 in Turin, northwestern Italy, with the aim of developing a sampling strategy for estimating populations of C. ohridella mines. Taylor's power law was used as a regression model. Sampling parameters were estimated from 216 data sets, and an additional 110 independent data sets were used to validate the fixed precision sequential sampling plan with resampling software. Covariance analysis indicated that there were not significant differences in the coefficient of Taylor's power law between heights of the foliage, months, and years. Dispersion patterns of C. ohridella were determined to be aggregated. The parameters of the Taylor's power law were used to calculate minimum sample sizes and sampling stop lines for different precision levels. Considering a mean density value of five mines per leaf, an average sample number of only 49 leaves was necessary to achieve a desired precision level of 0.25. As the precision level was increased to 0.10, the average sample size increased to 303 leaves. The sequential sampling plan should provide an effective management of C. ohridella in the urban areas, minimizing sampling time and cost, and at the same should be an effective tool to reduce insecticide applications and prevent the esthetic damage.

  15. Cryopreservation of zygotic embryonic axes and somatic embryos of European chestnut.

    PubMed

    Vieitez, Ana M; San-José, M Carmen; Corredoira, Elena

    2011-01-01

    For Castanea sativa (European chestnut), a species with recalcitrant seeds that is not easily propagated vegetatively, cryopreservation is one of the most promising techniques for maintaining genetic resource diversity and for conservation of selected germplasms. Long-term conservation of selected seeds and valuable embryogenic lines can be achieved through the cryopreservation of zygotic embryonic axes and somatic embryos, respectively. This chapter describes methods for the desiccation-based cryostorage of zygotic embryonic axes, and the vitrification-based cryopreservation of somatic embryos. For zygotic embryonic axes, the highest post-thaw survival and plantlet recovery rates are obtained by desiccation in a laminar flow hood to 20-25% moisture content, followed by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. For somatic embryos, embryogenesis resumption rates of over 60% are achieved by preculture of embryo clumps for 3 days on solid medium containing 0.3 M sucrose, incubation in PVS2 vitrification solution for 60 min at 0°C, and direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. Plantlet recovery from cryostored embryogenic lines requires proliferation of the thawed embryos and subsequent maturation before germination and conversion into plantlets.

  16. Study on Woody Species Diversity in the Chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) Forests, Guilan, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poorbabaei, Hassan; Faghir, Marzia B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study diversity of woody species in the Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) forests, Guilan, north of Iran. These forests are located in the Shafaroud and Emamzadeh Ebrahim regions. The Emamzadeh Ebrahim region is consisted of Visroud, Kishkhaleh, Askeh Koh, Male Lab, Doroudkhan, Galeroudkhan, Siahmazgy and Mali Anbar sites. Sampling was done in a selective manner in each site with a plot area of 50 m×50 m for tree and shrub layers and a circle 1000 m2 for tree saplings. In each plot, all trees ⩾10 cm in diameter at breast height (DBH) were identified and the DBH was measured, and shrub and tree sapling species were identified and recorded. In total, 68 sampling plots were taken using GPS device in the two regions. The results revealed that the mean richness, Simpson's index, Hill's N2, Shannon Wiener's function and N1 were higher in the Shafaroud region than other sites in tree, shrub and tree sapling layers. The highest and lowest mean values of evenness were obtained in the Kishkhaleh and Askekoh sites, respectively in tree layer, and similarly were in the Askekoh and Visroud in the shrub layer. The highest and lowest mean values of evenness were obtained in the Male Lab and Askeh Koh, respectively in the tree sapling layer.

  17. Functional analysis of an S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase homolog of chestnut blight fungus.

    PubMed

    Liao, Suhuan; Li, Ru; Shi, Liming; Wang, Jinzi; Shang, Jinjie; Zhu, Pingchuan; Chen, Baoshan

    2012-11-01

    S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), formed after donation of the methyl group of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to a methyl acceptor, is reversibly hydrolyzed to adenosine (ADO) and homocysteine (HCY) by S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH). In chestnut blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica), sahh, a hypovirus-regulated gene that encodes a deduced SAHH protein was shown to have an SAHH enzymatic activity in vitro. Deletion of sahh resulted in the increased accumulation of intracellular SAH and SAM but decreased ADO, and a remarkably increased accumulation of transcripts that encode adenosine kinase, methionine adenosyltransferase, and an O-methyltransferase, key components of the methylation pathway. The Δsahh knockout mutants showed a phenotype of slower growth rate, fewer aerial hyphae, loss of orange pigment, absence of asexual fruiting bodies and conidia, and a significant reduction in virulence. Deletion of sahh significantly reduced the accumulation level of transcripts of the cyp1 that encodes cyclophilin A as well as genes of the heterotrimeric G-protein signaling pathways including cpga1, cpgb1, and cpgc1 and ste12, a target activated by the MAP kinase cascade. Taken together, we demonstrated that SAHH is required for virulence and multiple traits of phenotype in C. parasitica, by regulation of the expression of genes involved in key process of the cell.

  18. Sample preparation for metalloprotein analysis: A case study using horse chestnuts.

    PubMed

    de Magalhães, Cristiana Schmidt; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi

    2007-03-30

    In the present work, 11 different procedures for protein and metalloprotein extraction from horse chestnuts (Aescullus hippocastanum L.) in natura were tested. After each extraction, total protein was determined and, after protein separation through sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), those metals belonging to the protein structure were mapped by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF). After mapping the elements (Cr, Fe and Mn) in the protein bands (ca. 33 and 23.7kDa), their concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS). Good results were obtained for protein extraction using a combination of grinding and sonication. However, this strategy was not suitable to preserve metal ions in the protein structure. In fact, there was 42% decrease on Mn concentration using this procedure, compared to that performed with sample agitation in water (taken as reference). On the other hand, when grinding and agitation with an extracting buffer was used, there was a 530% increase of Mn concentration, when compared to the reference procedure. These results indicate agreement between metal identification and determination in proteins as well as the great influence of the extraction procedure (i.e., the sample preparation step) for preserving metals in the protein structures.

  19. Independent cultural evolution of two song traditions in the chestnut-sided warbler.

    PubMed

    Byers, Bruce E; Belinsky, Kara L; Bentley, R Alexander

    2010-10-01

    In oscine songbirds, song phenotypes arise via gene-culture coevolution, in which genetically transmitted learning predispositions and culturally transmitted song forms influence one another's evolution. To assess the outcome of this process in a population of chestnut-sided warblers (Dendroica pensylvanica), we recorded songs at intervals over a 19-year period. These recordings revealed the pattern of cultural evolution of songs in our study area, from which we inferred likely learning predispositions and mechanisms of cultural transmission. We found that the species' two song categories form two distinct cultural traditions, each with its own pattern of change over time. Unaccented-ending songs have undergone continual, rapid turnover of song and element types, consistent with a model of neutral cultural evolution. Accented-ending songs, in contrast, persisted virtually unchanged for the entire study period, with extraordinarily constant song form and only one appearance of a new song type. Our results indicate that in songbirds, multiple independent cultural traditions and probably multiple independent learning predispositions can evolve concurrently, especially when different signal classes have become specialized for different communicative functions.

  20. [Accelerated senescence of fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut tissues in relation to hydrogen peroxide accumulation].

    PubMed

    Peng, Li-Tao; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Yang, Shu-Zhen; Pan, Si-Yi

    2005-10-01

    Accelerated senescence of fresh-cut Chinese water chestnut (CWC) tissues in relation to active oxygen species (AOS) metabolism was investigated. Fresh-cut CWC (2 mm thick) and intact CWC were stored at 4 degrees C in trays wrapped with plastic films. Changes in superoxide anion production rate, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were monitored, while contents of hydrogen peroxide, ascorbic acid, MDA as well as electrolyte leakage were measured. Fresh-cutting of CWC induced activities of SOD, CAT and APX to a certain extent (Fig. 2B and Fig. 3), but simultaneously stimulated superoxide anion production markedly (Fig. 2A), enhanced hydrogen peroxide accumulation and accelerated loss in ascorbic acid (Figs. 4 and 5), which resulted in increased lipid peroxidation indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA) content and electrolyte leakage (Fig. 1). Statistics analysis indicated that there was a significantly positive correlation among hydrogen peroxide accumulation, MDA content and electrolyte leakage (Table 1). Histochemical detection with 3, 3'-diaminobenzidine further demonstrated that hydrogen peroxide accumulation increased in fresh-cut CWC during storage (Fig. 5). AOS production rate and activities of SOD, CAT and APX changed little while no obvious hydrogen peroxide accumulation was observed, in intact CWC during storage.

  1. Preliminary design of pseudo satellites: Basic methods and feasibility criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, N. N.

    2016-12-01

    Analytical models of weight and energy balances, aerodynamic models, and solar irradiance models to perform pseudo-satellite preliminary design are presented. Feasibility criteria are determined in accordance with the aim of preliminary design dependent on mission scenario and type of payload.

  2. Phytosanitary Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, Guy J.; Blackburn, Carl M.

    2016-01-01

    Phytosanitary treatments disinfest traded commodities of potential quarantine pests. Phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments use ionizing radiation to accomplish this, and, since their international commercial debut in 2004, the use of this technology has increased by ~10% annually. Generic PI treatments (one dose is used for a group of pests and/or commodities, although not all have been tested for efficacy) are used in virtually all commercial PI treatments, and new generic PI doses are proposed, such as 300 Gy, for all insects except pupae and adult Lepidoptera (moths). Fresh fruits and vegetables tolerate PI better than any other broadly used treatment. Advances that would help facilitate the use of PI include streamlining the approval process, making the technology more accessible to potential users, lowering doses and broadening their coverage, and solving potential issues related to factors that might affect efficacy. PMID:28231103

  3. Morphological Characterization and Chemical Composition
of Fruits of the Traditional Croatian Chestnut Variety
‘Lovran Marron’

    PubMed Central

    Poljak, Igor; Vahčić, Nada; Gačić, Milica

    2016-01-01

    Summary ‘Lovran Marron’ is the only known traditional Croatian variety of the sweet chestnut. The objective of this study is to specify qualitative and quantitative morphological characteristics and to analyze the chemical composition of the ‘Lovran Marron’ fruits as well as to compare them to Marušnjak fruits (trees from the ‘Lovran Marron’ seed) and fruits from the local natural sweet chestnut population. Seven morphological characteristics were measured: fruit mass, height, width and thickness, scar length and width, and the length of the longest intrusion of the seed coat into the kernel. Eight qualitative characteristics were estimated: embryony, degree of penetration of the seed coat into the kernel, fruit shape, glossiness and colour, kernel colour, hairiness towards the top of the fruit and the existence of longitudinal stripes. ‘Lovran Marron’ has desirable qualitative and quantitative fruit characteristics. The Marušnjak trees mostly have intermediate morphological traits of fruits in comparison with ‘Lovran Marron’ and trees from the natural population. ‘Lovran Marron’ had the smallest mass fractions on average of: K, Mg, Ca, Na, Mn, Cu and Fe. The highest mass fractions on average of these macro- and microelements were characteristic of the trees from the natural population. The highest average content of carbohydrates was recorded in the ‘Lovran Marron’ and the lowest in the fruits from the natural population. The Marušnjak fruits had intermediate water, protein, ash, carbohydrates, and macro- and microelement content. The content of Cd and Pb was lower in all samples than the maximum allowed amounts in the sweet chestnut fruits. PMID:27904409

  4. L-Ascorbic acid metabolism during fruit development in an ascorbate-rich fruit crop chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt).

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin

    2014-09-01

    Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a fruit crop that contains unusually high levels of l-ascorbic acid (AsA; ∼1300 mg 100g(-1) FW). To explore the mechanisms underlying AsA metabolism, we investigated the distribution and abundance of AsA during fruit development. We also analyzed gene expression patterns, enzyme activities, and content of metabolites related to AsA biosynthesis and recycling. AsA first accumulated during late fruit development and continued to accumulate during ripening, with the highest accumulation rate near fruit maturity. The redox state of AsA in fruit was also enhanced during late fruit development, while leaf and other tissues had much lower levels of AsA and the redox state of AsA was lower. In mature fruit, AsA was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of the mesocarp. Correlation analysis suggested that the gene expression patterns, enzyme activities, and related metabolite concentrations involved in the l-galactose pathway showed relatively high correlations with the accumulation rate of AsA. The gene expression pattern and activity of dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) correlated strongly with AsA concentration, possibly indicating the crucial role of DHAR in the accumulation of high levels of AsA in chestnut rose fruit. Over expression of DHAR in Arabidopsis significantly increased the reduced AsA content and redox state. This was more effective than over expression of the l-galactose pathway gene GDP-d-mannose-3,5-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.18). These findings will enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating accumulation of AsA in chestnut rose.

  5. A controlled trial on the effect of feeding dietary chestnut extract and glycerol monolaurate on liver function in newborn calves.

    PubMed

    Wieland, M; Weber, B K; Hafner-Marx, A; Sauter-Louis, C; Bauer, J; Knubben-Schweizer, G; Metzner, M

    2015-02-01

    Beginning in the fall of 2010, an increasing and alarming number of cases of calves suffering from liver dystrophy were reported in the south of Germany. An epidemiological investigation was carried out by the authors between November 2010 and July 2011, leading to the implication of a commercial dietary supplement as the potential cause for this outbreak. The components of this product were first tested in a cell culture model and two of them (dietary chestnut extract and glycerol monolaurate) showed a cytotoxic effect. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding of both components alone or in combination on liver function in newborn calves on a commercial dairy farm. Ten calves were enrolled in each of the three treatment groups and the control group (group O) following a blocked design. Treatment consisted of supplementation with chestnut extract at 0.02% of birth body mass (BM) (group C), supplementation with glycerol monolaurate at 0.006% of BM (group G) or a combined treatment (group CG) for five consecutive days. The effect of treatments on liver function was evaluated clinically and by measurement of glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities as well as the determination of the concentrations of glucose, L-lactate and total bilirubin in serum. There was a significant increase in GLDH and AST activities and a significant decrease in glucose concentration in treatment groups C and CG compared with the control group (p ≤ 0.035), whereas no difference was shown for group G. Survival was significantly decreased in groups C (p = 0.029) and CG (p = 0.001) compared with both group G and the control group. These results suggest that dietary chestnut extract in an amount of 0.02% of BM alone or in combination has a toxic effect on liver function in newborn calves.

  6. Morphological Characterization and Chemical Composition
of Fruits of the Traditional Croatian Chestnut Variety
'Lovran Marron'.

    PubMed

    Poljak, Igor; Vahčić, Nada; Gačić, Milica; Idžojtić, Marilena

    2016-06-01

    'Lovran Marron' is the only known traditional Croatian variety of the sweet chestnut. The objective of this study is to specify qualitative and quantitative morphological characteristics and to analyze the chemical composition of the 'Lovran Marron' fruits as well as to compare them to Marušnjak fruits (trees from the 'Lovran Marron' seed) and fruits from the local natural sweet chestnut population. Seven morphological characteristics were measured: fruit mass, height, width and thickness, scar length and width, and the length of the longest intrusion of the seed coat into the kernel. Eight qualitative characteristics were estimated: embryony, degree of penetration of the seed coat into the kernel, fruit shape, glossiness and colour, kernel colour, hairiness towards the top of the fruit and the existence of longitudinal stripes. 'Lovran Marron' has desirable qualitative and quantitative fruit characteristics. The Marušnjak trees mostly have intermediate morphological traits of fruits in comparison with 'Lovran Marron' and trees from the natural population. 'Lovran Marron' had the smallest mass fractions on average of: K, Mg, Ca, Na, Mn, Cu and Fe. The highest mass fractions on average of these macro- and microelements were characteristic of the trees from the natural population. The highest average content of carbohydrates was recorded in the 'Lovran Marron' and the lowest in the fruits from the natural population. The Marušnjak fruits had intermediate water, protein, ash, carbohydrates, and macro- and microelement content. The content of Cd and Pb was lower in all samples than the maximum allowed amounts in the sweet chestnut fruits.

  7. Volatile compounds in acacia, chestnut, cherry, ash, and oak woods, with a view to their use in cooperage.

    PubMed

    de Simón, Brígida Fernández; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel M; Cadahía, Estrella; Sanz, Miriam

    2009-04-22

    Extracts of wood from acacia, European ash, American ash, chestnut, cherry, and three oak species (Quercus pyrenaica, Quercus alba and Quercus petraea) before and after toasting in cooperage were studied by GC-MS. 110 compounds were detected, and 97 of them were identified. In general, all studied woods showed more lignin derivatives than lipid and carbohydrate derivatives, with a higher variety of compounds detected and abundance of them. The toasting led to an increase in the concentrations of most of these compounds, and this increase is especially important in acacia, chestnut and ash woods. The cis and trans isomers of beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone and isobutyrovanillone were only detected in oak wood, 3,4-dimethoxyphenol and 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde only in acacia wood, and p-anisaldehyde and benzylsalicylate only in cherry wood, before and after toasting, and these compounds could be considered chemical markers for each one of these woods. Moreover, each wood has a characteristic volatile composition, from a quantitative point of view, and therefore we can expect a characteristic sensorial profile. The oak wood turned out to be the most balanced, since although it provides a lot of volatile compounds to the aroma and flavor of aged wine, it can do so without masking their primary and secondary aroma. On the whole, toasted acacia and chestnut woods showed a very high richness of studied compounds, as lignin as lipid and carbohydrate derivatives, while cherry and ash were much richer than toasted oak wood in lignin derivatives, but much poorer in lipid and carbohydrate derivatives.

  8. Nontargeted GC-MS approach for volatile profile of toasting in cherry, chestnut, false acacia, and ash wood.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel María

    2014-05-01

    By using a nontargeted GC-MS approach, 153 individual volatile compounds were found in extracts from untoasted, light toasted and medium-toasted cherry, chestnut, false acacia, as well as European and American ash wood, used in cooperage for aging wines, spirits and other beverages. In all wood types, the toasting provoked a progressive increase in carbohydrate derivatives, lactones and lignin constituents, along with a variety of other components, thus increasing the quantitative differences among species with the toasting intensity. The qualitative differences in the volatile profiles allow for identifying woods from cherry (being p-anisylalcohol, p-anisylaldehyde, p-anisylacetone, methyl benzoate and benzyl salicylate detected only in this wood), chestnut (cis and trans whisky lactone) and false acacia (resorcinol, 3,4-dimethoxyphenol, 2,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde, 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone, 2,4-dihydroxypropiophenone and 2,4-dihydroxy-3-methoxyacetophenone), but not those from ash, because of the fact that all compounds present in this wood are detected in at least one other. However, the quantitative differences can be clearly used to identify toasted ash wood, with tyrosol being most prominent, but 2-furanmethanol, 3- and 4-ethylcyclotene, α-methylcrotonolactone, solerone, catechol, 3-methylcatechol and 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde as well. Regarding oak wood, its qualitative volatile profile could be enough to distinguish it from cherry and acacia woods, and the quantitative differences from chestnut (vanillyl ethyl ether, isoacetovanillone, butirovanillone, 1-(5-methyl-2-furyl)-2-propanone and 4-hydroxy-5,6-dihydro-(2H)-pyran-2-one) and ash toasted woods.

  9. Diversity and infection prevalence of endosymbionts in natural populations of the chestnut weevil: relevance of local climate and host plants.

    PubMed

    Toju, Hirokazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2011-02-01

    Many insects are ubiquitously associated with multiple endosymbionts, whose infection patterns often exhibit spatial and temporal variations. How such endosymbiont variations are relevant to local adaptation of the host organisms is of ecological interest. Here, we report a comprehensive survey of endosymbionts in natural populations of the chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis, whose larvae are notorious pests of cultivated chestnuts and also infest acorns of various wild oaks. From 968 insects representing 55 localities across the Japanese Archipelago and originating from 10 host plant species, we identified six distinct endosymbiont lineages, namely Curculioniphilus, Sodalis, Serratia, Wolbachia, Rickettsia and Spiroplasma, at different infection frequencies (96.7%, 12.8%, 82.3%, 82.5%, 28.2% and 6.8%, respectively) and with different geographical distribution patterns. Multiple endosymbiont infections were very common; 3.18±0.61 (ranging from 1.74 to 5.50) endosymbionts per insect on average in each of the local populations. Five pairs of endosymbionts (Curculioniphilus-Serratia, Curculioniphilus-Wolbachia, Sodalis-Rickettsia, Wolbachia-Rickettsia and Rickettsia-Spiroplasma) co-infected the same host individuals more frequently than expected, while infections with Serratia and Wolbachia were negatively correlated to each other. Infection frequencies of the endosymbionts were significantly correlated with climatic and ecological factors: for example, higher Sodalis, Wolbachia and Rickettsia infections at localities of higher temperature; lower Wolbachia and Rickettsia infections at localities of greater snowfall; and higher Curculioniphilus, Sodalis, Serratia, Wolbachia and Rickettsia infections on acorns than on chestnuts. These patterns are discussed in relation to potential host-endosymbiont co-evolution via local adaptation across geographical populations.

  10. Transcriptomic identification and expression of starch and sucrose metabolism genes in the seeds of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Lin, Qing; Feng, Yanzhi; Fan, Xiaoming; Zou, Feng; Yuan, De-Yi; Zeng, Xiaochun; Cao, Heping

    2015-01-28

    The Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) seed provides a rich source of carbohydrates as food and feed. However, little is known about starch biosynthesis in the seeds. The objectives of this study were to determine seed composition profiles and identify genes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism. Metabolite analysis showed that starch was the major component and rapidly accumulated during seed endosperm development. Amylopectin was approximately 3-fold of amylose content in chestnut starch. Illumina platform-based transcriptome sequencing generated 56671 unigenes in two cDNA libraries from seed endosperms collected at 45 and 75 days after flowering (DAF). A total of 1537 unigenes showed expression differences ≥2-fold in the two stages of seeds including 570 up-regulated and 967 down-regulated unigenes. One hundred and fifty-two unigenes were identified as involved in starch and sucrose metabolism, including 1 for glycogenin glucosyltransferase, 4 for adenylate transporter (brittle1-type), 3 for ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP, not brittle2- or shrunken2-type), 3 for starch synthase (SS), 2 for starch branching enzyme, 5 for starch debranching enzyme, 11 for sucrose synthase, and 3 for sucrose-phosphate synthase. Among them, 58 unigenes showed a ≥2-fold expression difference between the 45 and 75 DAF seeds including 11 up- and 47 down-regulated unigenes. The expression of 21 unigenes putatively coding for major enzymes in starch and sucrose metabolism was validated by qPCR using RNA from five seed stages. Expression profiles and correlation analysis indicated that the mRNA levels of AGP (large and small subunits), granule-bound SS2, and soluble SS1 and SS4 were well-correlated with starch accumulation in the seeds. This study suggests that the starch biosynthesis pathway in Chinese chestnut is similar to that of potato tuber/Arabidopsis leaf and differs from that of maize endosperm. The information provides valuable metabolite and genetic resources

  11. Isolation and characterization of esters of indole-3-acetic acid from the liquid endosperm of the horse chestnut (Aesculus species)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domagalski, W.; Schulze, A.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    Esters of indole-3-acetic acid were extracted and purified from the liquid endosperm of immature fruits of various species of the horse chestnut (Aesculus parviflora, A. baumanni, A. pavia rubra, and A. pavia humulis). The liquid endosperm contained, at least 12 chromatographically distinct esters. One of these compounds was purified and characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and myo-inositol. A second compound was found to be an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and the disaccharide rutinose (glucosyl-rhamnose). A third compound was partially characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and a desoxyaminohexose.

  12. Genetic control of horizontal virus transmission in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica.

    PubMed Central

    Cortesi, P; McCulloch, C E; Song, H; Lin, H; Milgroom, M G

    2001-01-01

    Vegetative incompatibility in fungi has long been known to reduce the transmission of viruses between individuals, but the barrier to transmission is incomplete. In replicated laboratory assays, we showed conclusively that the transmission of viruses between individuals of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica is controlled primarily by vegetative incompatibility (vic) genes. By replicating vic genotypes in independent fungal isolates, we quantified the effect of heteroallelism at each of six vic loci on virus transmission. Transmission occurs with 100% frequency when donor and recipient isolates have the same vic genotypes, but heteroallelism at one or more vic loci generally reduces virus transmission. Transmission was variable among single heteroallelic loci. At the extremes, heteroallelism at vic4 had no effect on virus transmission, but transmission occurred in only 21% of pairings that were heteroallelic at vic2. Intermediate frequencies of transmission were observed when vic3 and vic6 were heteroallelic (76 and 32%, respectively). When vic1, vic2, and vic7 were heteroallelic, the frequency of transmission depended on which alleles were present in the donor and the recipient. The effect of heteroallelism at two vic loci was mostly additive, although small but statistically significant interactions (epistasis) were observed in four pairs of vic loci. A logistic regression model was developed to predict the probability of virus transmission between vic genotypes. Heteroallelism at vic loci, asymmetry, and epistasis were the dominant factors controlling transmission, but host genetic background also was statistically significant, indicating that vic genes alone cannot explain all the variation in virus transmission. Predictions from the logistic regression model were highly correlated to independent transmission tests with field isolates. Our model can be used to estimate horizontal transmission rates as a function of host genetics in natural

  13. Plant growth-promoting and antifungal activity of yeasts from dark chestnut soil.

    PubMed

    Ignatova, Lyudmila V; Brazhnikova, Yelena V; Berzhanova, Ramza Z; Mukasheva, Togzhan D

    2015-06-01

    538 yeast strains were isolated from dark chestnut soil collected from under the plants of the legume family (Fabaceae). The greatest number of microorganisms is found at soil depth 10-20 cm. Among the 538 strains of yeast 77 (14.3%) strains demonstrated the ability to synthesize IAA. 15 strains were attributed to high IAA-producing yeasts (above 10 μg/ml). The most active strains were YA05 with 51.7 ± 2.1 μg/ml of IAA and YR07 with 45.3 ± 1.5 μg/ml. In the study of effect of incubation time on IAA production the maximum accumulation of IAA coincided with maximum rates of biomass: at 120 h for YR07 and at 144 h for strain YA05. IAA production increased when medium was supplemented with the L-tryptophan. 400 μg/ml of L-tryptophan showed maximum IAA production. 10 strains demonstrated the ability to inhibit the growth and development of phytopathogenic fungi. YA05 and YR07 strains formed the largest zones of inhibition compared to the other strains--from 21.6 ± 0.3 to 30.6 ± 0.5 mm. Maximum zone of inhibition was observed for YA05 against Phytophtora infestans and YR07 strains against Fusarium graminearum. YA05 and YR07 strains were identified as Aureobasidium pullulans YA05 (GenBank accession No JF160955) and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa YR07 (GenBank accession No JF160956).

  14. Evaluation of health effects of air pollution in the Chestnut Ridge area

    SciTech Connect

    Gruhl, J.; Schweppe, F.C.

    1980-01-01

    This project involves several tasks designed to take advantage of a very extensive air pollution monitoring system that is operating in the Chestnut Ridge region of Western Pennsylvania and the very well developed analytic dispersion models that have been previously fine-tuned to this particular area. The major task in this project is to establish, through several distinct epidemiologic approaches, health data to be used to test hypotheses about relations of air pollution exposures to morbidity and mortality rates in this region. This project affords a cost-effective opportunity for state-of-the-art techniques to be used in both costly areas of air pollution and health effects data collection. The closely spaced network of monitors, plus the dispersion modeling capabilities, allow for the investigation of health impacts of various pollutant gradients in neighboring geographic areas, thus minimizing the confounding effects of social, ethnic, and economic factors. The pollutants that are monitored in this network include total gaseous sulfur, sulfates, total suspended particulates, NOx, NO, ozone/oxidants, and coefficient of haze. In addition to enabling the simulation of exposure profiles between monitors, the air quality modeling, along with extensive source and background inventories, will allow for upgrading the quality of the monitored data as well as simulating the exposure levels for about 25 additional air pollutants. Another important goal of this project is to collect and test the many available models for associating health effects with air pollution, to determine their predictive validity and their usefulness in the choice and siting of future energy facilities.

  15. Effects of escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb from horse chestnuts on gastric emptying in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Li, Y; Murakami, T; Yamahara, J; Yoshikawa, M

    1999-03-05

    Inhibitory effects of the saponin fraction and its principal constituents, escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb, from horse chestnuts on gastric emptying were investigated in mice loaded with a non-nutrient or nutrient meal. The saponin fraction and escins Ia-IIb inhibited gastric emptying of a 1.5% carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt (CMC-Na) meal by 11.1-54.2% (12.5-200 mg/kg). Escins Ia-IIb (50 mg/kg) also inhibited gastric emptying of a 40% glucose meal by 21.1-23.5% except for escin Ia, a milk meal by 18.4-33.1%, and a 30% ethanol meal by 13.5-15.9%. The effects of escins Ia-IIb on gastric emptying of the CMC-Na meal were attenuated by pretreatment with streptozotocin (100 mg/kg, i.v.), capsaicin (75 mg/kg in total, s.c.), or insulin (1 U/kg, s.c.). The effect of insulin was reduced by glucose (2 g/kg, i.v.) which can directly nourish the brain, but not by fructose (2 g/kg, i.v.) which cannot be utilized by the brain. The effects of escins Ia-IIb (50 mg/kg) were overridden in 60% ethanol-loaded mice, in which the central nervous system was suppressed by ethanol. These results suggest that capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves and central nervous system partly participate in the effects of escins Ia-IIb.

  16. Use of Irradiated Foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1985-01-01

    The safety of irradiated foods is reviewed. Guidelines and regulations for processing irradiated foods are considered. The radiolytic products formed in food when it is irradiated and its wholesomeness is discussed. It is concluded that food irradiation processing is not a panacea for all problems in food processing but when properly used will serve the space station well.

  17. Abundance and Frequency of the Asiatic Oak Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Defoliation on American, Chinese, and Hybrid Chestnut (Castanea).

    PubMed

    Case, Ashley E; Mayfield, Albert E; Clark, Stacy L; Schlarbaum, Scott E; Reynolds, Barbara C

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus Roelofs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a nonnative defoliator of trees in the Fagaceae family in the United States but has not been studied on Castanea species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Planted trees of Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. (Fagales: Fagaceae), Castanea mollissima Blume (Fagales: Fagaceae), and four hybrid breeding generations were evaluated in 2012 for insect defoliation and C. castaneus abundance and frequency. Defoliation was visually assessed throughout the growing season at two sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains (western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee). C. castaneus abundance and frequency were monitored on trees using beat sheets and emergence was recorded from ground traps. Asiatic oak weevils were more abundant and more frequently collected on American chestnut (Ca. dentata) and its most closely related BC3F3 hybrid generation than on the Asian species Ca. mollissima. In most months, C. castaneus colonization of hybrid generations was not significantly different than colonization of parental species. Frequency data for C. castaneus suggested that adults were distributed relatively evenly throughout the study sites rather than in dense clusters. Emergence of C. castaneus was significantly higher under a canopy dominated by Quercus species than under non-Quercus species or open sky. C. castaneus emergence began in May and peaked in late June and early July. These results may be useful for resource managers trying to restore blight-resistant chestnut to the Southern Appalachians while minimizing herbivory by insect pests.

  18. Comparison of quantitative trait loci for adaptive traits between oak and chestnut based on an expressed sequence tag consensus map.

    PubMed

    Casasoli, Manuela; Derory, Jeremy; Morera-Dutrey, Caroline; Brendel, Oliver; Porth, Ilga; Guehl, Jean-Marc; Villani, Fiorella; Kremer, Antoine

    2006-01-01

    A comparative genetic and QTL mapping was performed between Quercus robur L. and Castanea sativa Mill., two major forest tree species belonging to the Fagaceae family. Oak EST-derived markers (STSs) were used to align the 12 linkage groups of the two species. Fifty-one and 45 STSs were mapped in oak and chestnut, respectively. These STSs, added to SSR markers previously mapped in both species, provided a total number of 55 orthologous molecular markers for comparative mapping within the Fagaceae family. Homeologous genomic regions identified between oak and chestnut allowed us to compare QTL positions for three important adaptive traits. Colocation of the QTL controlling the timing of bud burst was significant between the two species. However, conservation of QTL for height growth was not supported by statistical tests. No QTL for carbon isotope discrimination was conserved between the two species. Putative candidate genes for bud burst can be identified on the basis of colocations between EST-derived markers and QTL.

  19. Comparison of Quantitative Trait Loci for Adaptive Traits Between Oak and Chestnut Based on an Expressed Sequence Tag Consensus Map

    PubMed Central

    Casasoli, Manuela; Derory, Jeremy; Morera-Dutrey, Caroline; Brendel, Oliver; Porth, Ilga; Guehl, Jean-Marc; Villani, Fiorella; Kremer, Antoine

    2006-01-01

    A comparative genetic and QTL mapping was performed between Quercus robur L. and Castanea sativa Mill., two major forest tree species belonging to the Fagaceae family. Oak EST-derived markers (STSs) were used to align the 12 linkage groups of the two species. Fifty-one and 45 STSs were mapped in oak and chestnut, respectively. These STSs, added to SSR markers previously mapped in both species, provided a total number of 55 orthologous molecular markers for comparative mapping within the Fagaceae family. Homeologous genomic regions identified between oak and chestnut allowed us to compare QTL positions for three important adaptive traits. Colocation of the QTL controlling the timing of bud burst was significant between the two species. However, conservation of QTL for height growth was not supported by statistical tests. No QTL for carbon isotope discrimination was conserved between the two species. Putative candidate genes for bud burst can be identified on the basis of colocations between EST-derived markers and QTL. PMID:16204213

  20. Preparation and CO2 adsorption properties of soft-templated mesoporous carbons derived from chestnut tannin precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Kimberly M.; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Mayes, Richard T.; Teague, Craig M.; Binder, Andrew J.; Baggetto, Loic; Veith, Gabriel M.; Dai, Sheng; Williamson, Ben

    2015-10-09

    This paper presents a soft templating approach for mesoporous carbon using the polyphenolic heterogeneous biomass, chestnut tannin, as the carbon precursor. By varying synthesis parameters such as tannin:surfactant ratio, cross-linker, reaction time and acid catalyst, the pore structure could be controllably modulated from lamellar to a more ordered hexagonal array. Carbonization at 600 °C under nitrogen produced a bimodal micro-mesoporous carbonaceous material exhibiting enhanced hydrogen bonding with the soft template, similar to that shown by soft-templating of phenolic-formaldehyde resins, allowing for a tailorable pore size. By utilizing the acidic nature of chestnut tannin (i.e. gallic and ellagic acid), hexagonal-type mesostructures were formed without the use of an acid catalyst. The porous carbon materials were activated with ammonia to increase the available surface area and incorporate nitrogen-containing functionality which led to a maximum CO2 adsorption capacity at 1 bar of 3.44 mmol/g and 2.27 mmol/g at 0 °C and 25 °C, respectively. The ammonia-activated carbon exhibited multiple peaks in the adsorption energy distribution which indicates heterogeneity of adsorption sites for CO2 capture.

  1. Preparation and CO2 adsorption properties of soft-templated mesoporous carbons derived from chestnut tannin precursors

    DOE PAGES

    Nelson, Kimberly M.; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Mayes, Richard T.; ...

    2015-10-09

    This paper presents a soft templating approach for mesoporous carbon using the polyphenolic heterogeneous biomass, chestnut tannin, as the carbon precursor. By varying synthesis parameters such as tannin:surfactant ratio, cross-linker, reaction time and acid catalyst, the pore structure could be controllably modulated from lamellar to a more ordered hexagonal array. Carbonization at 600 °C under nitrogen produced a bimodal micro-mesoporous carbonaceous material exhibiting enhanced hydrogen bonding with the soft template, similar to that shown by soft-templating of phenolic-formaldehyde resins, allowing for a tailorable pore size. By utilizing the acidic nature of chestnut tannin (i.e. gallic and ellagic acid), hexagonal-type mesostructuresmore » were formed without the use of an acid catalyst. The porous carbon materials were activated with ammonia to increase the available surface area and incorporate nitrogen-containing functionality which led to a maximum CO2 adsorption capacity at 1 bar of 3.44 mmol/g and 2.27 mmol/g at 0 °C and 25 °C, respectively. The ammonia-activated carbon exhibited multiple peaks in the adsorption energy distribution which indicates heterogeneity of adsorption sites for CO2 capture.« less

  2. Abundance and Frequency of the Asiatic Oak Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Defoliation on American, Chinese, and Hybrid Chestnut (Castanea)

    PubMed Central

    Case, Ashley E.; Mayfield, Albert E.; Clark, Stacy L.; Schlarbaum, Scott E.; Reynolds, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus Roelofs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a nonnative defoliator of trees in the Fagaceae family in the United States but has not been studied on Castanea species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Planted trees of Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. (Fagales: Fagaceae), Castanea mollissima Blume (Fagales: Fagaceae), and four hybrid breeding generations were evaluated in 2012 for insect defoliation and C. castaneus abundance and frequency. Defoliation was visually assessed throughout the growing season at two sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains (western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee). C. castaneus abundance and frequency were monitored on trees using beat sheets and emergence was recorded from ground traps. Asiatic oak weevils were more abundant and more frequently collected on American chestnut (Ca. dentata) and its most closely related BC3F3 hybrid generation than on the Asian species Ca. mollissima. In most months, C. castaneus colonization of hybrid generations was not significantly different than colonization of parental species. Frequency data for C. castaneus suggested that adults were distributed relatively evenly throughout the study sites rather than in dense clusters. Emergence of C. castaneus was significantly higher under a canopy dominated by Quercus species than under non-Quercus species or open sky. C. castaneus emergence began in May and peaked in late June and early July. These results may be useful for resource managers trying to restore blight-resistant chestnut to the Southern Appalachians while minimizing herbivory by insect pests. PMID:27001964

  3. A horse chestnut extract, which induces contraction forces in fibroblasts, is a potent anti-aging ingredient.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Tsutomu; Tsukahara, Kazue; Moriwaki, Shigeru; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori

    2006-01-01

    Contraction forces generated by non-muscle cells, such as fibroblasts, play important roles in determining cell morphology, vasoconstriction, and/or wound healing. We have searched among various plant extracts for ingredients that generate cell contraction forces using fibroblast-populated collagen gels. Using that model, we found that an extract of horse chestnuts (Aesculus hippocastanum) is able to generate such contraction forces in fibroblasts. The involvement of stress fiber formation in that response is suggested by the inhibition of such force generation by cytochalasin D and rhodamine phalloidin stain. Clinical testing of the extract was carried out using 40 healthy female volunteers. A gel formulation that included 3% of the extract was applied topically to the skin around the eye three times daily for nine weeks. The efficacy of the extract to diminish wrinkles was evaluated by visual scoring based on photo scales. After six weeks, significant decreases in the wrinkle scores at the corners of the eye or in the lower eyelid skin were observed compared with controls. After nine weeks, similar results were obtained. Taken together, our results suggest that an extract of horse chestnuts can generate contraction forces in fibroblasts and is a potent anti-aging ingredient.

  4. Compositional analysis of Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) cell-wall material from parenchyma, epidermis, and subepidermal tissues.

    PubMed

    Grassby, Terri; Jay, Andrew J; Merali, Zara; Parker, Mary L; Parr, Adrian J; Faulds, Craig B; Waldron, Keith W

    2013-10-09

    Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis (Burman f.) Trin ex Henschel) is a corm consumed globally in Oriental-style cuisine. The corm consists of three main tissues, the epidermis, subepidermis, and parenchyma; the cell walls of which were analyzed for sugar, phenolic, and lignin content. Sugar content, measured by gas chromatography, was higher in the parenchyma cell walls (931 μg/mg) than in the subepidermis (775 μg/mg) or epidermis (685 μg/mg). The alkali-extractable phenolic content, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, was greater in the epidermal (32.4 μg/mg) and subepidermal cell walls (21.7 μg/mg) than in the cell walls of the parenchyma (12.3 μg/mg). The proportion of diferulic acids was higher in the parenchyma. The Klason lignin content of epidermal and subepidermal cell walls was ~15%. Methylation analysis of Chinese water chestnut cell-wall polysaccharides identified xyloglucan as the predominant hemicellulose in the parenchyma for the first time, and also a significant pectin component, similar to other nongraminaceous monocots.

  5. Calendar Year 1997 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report For The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime At The U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.B.

    1998-02-01

    This report contains the groundwater monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1997 in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit (PCP) for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). In July 1997, the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) approved modifications to several of the permit conditions that address RCRA pow-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and RCIU4 post-closure detection groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin) and Kerr Hollow Quarry. This report has been prepared in accordance with these modified permit requirements. Also included in this report are the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during CY 1997 for the purposes ofi (1) detection monitoring at nonhazardous solid waste disposal facilities (SWDFS) in accordance with operating permits and applicable regulations, (2) monitoring in accordance with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Recove~ Act Records of Decision (now pefiormed under the Integrated Water Quality Program for the Oak Ridge Reservation), and (3) monitoring needed to comply with U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.1.

  6. Production comparisons of Chinese water chestnut [Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Hensch] functional corms grown in hydroponics versus flooded sand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chinese water chestnut [Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Hensch.] corms are used as a canned or raw vegetable worldwide and may have potential use as a functional vegetable for human health uses. The accessions in the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit do not produce very many...

  7. A threshold level of oxalate oxidase transgene expression reduces Cryphonectria parasitica-induced necrosis in a transgenic American chestnut (Castanea dentata) leaf bioassay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Oakes, Allison D; Newhouse, Andrew E; Baier, Kathleen M; Maynard, Charles A; Powell, William A

    2013-10-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was transformed with a wheat oxalate oxidase (oxo) gene in an effort to degrade the oxalic acid (OA) secreted by the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica, thus decreasing its virulence. Expression of OxO was examined under two promoters: a strong constitutive promoter, CaMV 35S, and a predominantly vascular promoter, VspB. Oxo gene transcription was quantified by RT-qPCR. Relative expression of OxO varied approximately 200 fold among events produced with the 35S-OxO. The lowest 35S-OxO event expressed approximately 3,000 fold higher than the highest VspB-OxO event. This was potentially due to the tissue-specific nature of the VspB-controlled expression, the strength of the CaMV 35S constitutive promoter, or position effects. Leaf assays measuring necrotic lesion length were conducted to better understand the relationship between OxO expression level and the blight fungus in planta. A threshold response was observed between the OxO expression level and the C. parasitica lesion length. Five events of the 35S-OxO line showed significantly reduced lesion length compared to the blight-susceptible American chestnut. More importantly, the lesion length in these five events was reduced to the same level as the blight-resistant Chinese chestnut, C. mollissima. This is the first report on enhanced pathogen resistance in transgenic American chestnut.

  8. Best management practices plan for the Chestnut Ridge-Filled Coal Ash Pond at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Chestnut Ridge Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP) Project has been established to satisfy Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements for the Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2. FCAP is on Chestnut Ridge, approximately 0.5 miles south of the Y-12 Plant. A 62-foot high earthen dam across Upper McCoy Branch was constructed in 1955 to create a pond to serve as a settling basin for fly and bottom ashes generated by burning coal at the Y-12 Steam Plant. Ash from the steam was mixed with water to form a slurry and then pumped to the crest of Chestnut Ridge and released through a large pipe to flow across the Sluice Channel area and into the pond. The ash slurry eventually overtopped the dam and flowed along Upper McCoy Branch to Rogers Quarry. The purpose of this document is to provide a site-specific Best Management Practices (BMP) Plan for construction associated with environmental restoration activities at the FCAP Site.

  9. Genetic transformation of European chestnut somatic embryos with a native thaumatin-like protein (CsTL1) gene isolated from Castanea sativa seeds.

    PubMed

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Allona, Isabel; Aragoncillo, Cipriano; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2012-11-01

    The availability of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) would offer an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. For the first time, a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1), isolated from chestnut cotyledons, has been overexpressed in three chestnut somatic embryogenic lines. Transformation experiments have been performed using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens Smith and Townsend vector harboring the neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII) selectable and the green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter genes. The transformation efficiency, determined on the basis of the fluorescence of surviving explants, was clearly genotype dependent and ranged from 32.5% in the CI-9 line to 7.1% in the CI-3 line. A total of 126 independent transformed lines were obtained. The presence and integration of chestnut CsTL1 in genomic DNA was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that CsTL1 expression was up to 13.5-fold higher in a transgenic line compared with its corresponding untransformed line. In only one of the 11 transformed lines tested, expression of the CsTL1 was lower than the control. The remaining 115 transformed lines were successfully subjected to cryopreservation. Embryo proliferation was achieved in all of the transgenic lines regenerated and the transformed lines showed a higher mean number of cotyledonary stage embryos and total number of embryos per embryo clump than their corresponding untransformed lines. Transgenic plants were regenerated after maturation and germination of transformed somatic embryos. Furthermore, due to the low plantlet conversion achieved, axillary shoot proliferation cultures were established from partially germinated embryos (only shoot development), which were multiplied and rooted according to procedures already

  10. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities associated with the US DOE Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994. Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management sites located within the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of the Y-12 Plant and is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual GWQR for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, the Part 1 GWQR is submitted to the TDEC by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY). Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis activities.

  11. Effects of inbreeding on fighting ability measured in Aosta Chestnut and Aosta Black Pied cattle.

    PubMed

    Sartori, C; Mantovani, R

    2012-09-01

    Aosta Black Pied (ABP) and Aosta Chestnut (AC) are dual-purpose cattle indigenous to the western Alps and famous for their fighting ability in traditional Italian Batailles de Reines. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of inbreeding on breeding values for fighting ability achieved in participants. Inbreeding (F) and average relatedness (AR) were obtained from the entire pedigree information available (19,554 and 87,967 records for ABP and AC, respectively). Data (n = 23,998) relating to 8,259 cows competing in years 2001-2009 were analyzed to obtain heritability (h(2)) estimates and breeding values for the trait. A placement score was chosen as a phenotype for fighting ability and both a classical quantitative model (NORM) and its implementation, used to identify its indirect genetic effects (COMP), were analyzed using the expectation maximization-REML (EM-REML) method. The F and AR trends in animals born between 1990 and 2009 were generally low and were greater for ABP (+0.06%/yr) than for AC (+0.03%/yr) populations, which also presented a greater mean F (about 2.8% ± 1.7% vs. 0.8% ± 1.5% for ABP and AC, respectively) and mean AR among individuals (about 1.0% ± 0.8% vs. 0.4% ± 0.3% for ABP and AC, respectively). Heritability estimates from 0.083 ± 0.036 to 0.120 ± 0.037 were obtained using the NORM model, accounting for or not accounting for F, respectively. Similar results were obtained also for the COMP model, with h(2) estimates of 0.12 ± 0.037, whether or not F was taken into consideration. Linear regression analyses carried out on the 33 major lineages to which most of participants belonged (n = 6,087) revealed an overall negative trend of EBV compared with the increase of either F (b = -21.3, P < 0.01) or AR (b = -50.1, P < 0.01). However, a great variability in the relationship between EBV and F or AR was found by analyzing data within lineages. Despite the variability, an unfavorable effect of inbreeding was detected in the

  12. Irradiation creep of vanadium-base alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Billone, M.C.; Strain, R.V.; Smith, D.L.; Matsui, H.

    1998-03-01

    A study of irradiation creep in vanadium-base alloys is underway with experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in the United States. Test specimens are thin-wall sealed tubes with internal pressure loading. The results from the initial ATR irradiation at low temperature (200--300 C) to a neutron damage level of 4.7 dpa show creep rates ranging from {approx}0 to 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}/dpa/MPa for a 500-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy. These rates were generally lower than reported from a previous experiment in BR-10. Because both the attained neutron damage levels and the creep strains were low in the present study, however, these creep rates should be regarded as only preliminary. Substantially more testing is required before a data base on irradiation creep of vanadium alloys can be developed and used with confidence.

  13. Evaluation of Calendar Year 1997 Groundwater and Surface Water Quality Data For The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime At The U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.B.

    1998-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring data obtained in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1997. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge bordered by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) to the north, Scarboro Road to the eas~ Bethel Valley Road to the south, and an unnamed drainage basin southwest of the Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). Groundwater quality monitoring is performed at hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities in the regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The CY 1997 monitoring data are presented in Calendar Year 1997 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeolo~"c Regime at the US. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (MA Technical Services, Inc. 1998), which also presents results of site-specific monitoring data evaluations required under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCIL4) post-closure permit (PCP) for the Chestnut Ridge Regime

  14. Commercial food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Black, E.F.; Libby, L.M.

    1983-06-01

    Food irradiation is discussed. Irradiation exposes food to gamma rays from a cobalt-60 or a cesium-137 source, or to high-energy electrons emitted by an electron accelerator. A major advantage is that food can be packaged either before or after treatment. FDA regulations with regard to irradiation are discussed. Comments on an 'Advance Notice' on irradiation, published by the FDA in 1981 are summarized.

  15. [Effects of biological organic fertilizer on microbial community's metabolic activity in a soil planted with chestnut (Castanea mollissima)].

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Gu, Jie; Hu, Ting; Gao, Hua; Chen, Zhi-Xue; Qin, Qing-Jun; Wang, Xiao-Juan

    2013-06-01

    A field experiment was conducted in Zhashui County of Shaanxi Province, Northwest China in 2011 to study the effects of biological organic fertilizer on the microbial community's metabolic activity in a soil planted with chestnut (Castanea mollissima). Three treatments were installed, i. e., control, compound fertilizer, and biological organic fertilizer. Soil samples were collected at harvest, and the metabolic activity was tested by Biolog method. In the treatment of biological organic fertilizer, the average well color development, Shannon evenness, richness, and McIntosh indices of microbial community were all significantly higher than the other two treatments. As compared with the control, applying biological organic fertilizer improved the ability of soil microbes in utilizing the carbon sources of carbohydrates and polymers, while applying compound fertilizer was in opposite. The principal component analysis demonstrated that there was an obvious difference in the soil microbial community among different treatments, mainly depending on the species of carbohydrates and amino acids.

  16. The content of available mineral phosphorus compounds in chestnut soils of Northern Mongolia upon application of different forms of phosphorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubugunov, L. L.; Enkhtuyaa, B.; Merkusheva, M. G.

    2015-06-01

    The effect of different forms of phosphorite (activated and crude ground) of the Burenkhansk deposit on the phosphate status of chestnut soils and the productivity of spring wheat was studied in Northern Mongolia. It was found that the transformation of mineral soil phosphates upon the application of activated phosphorite (together with NK) is similar to that upon superphosphate application, and the available phosphorus concentration is even a gradation higher. The application of crude ground phosphorite helped to preserve the content of mineral phosphates in the soil at the initial level. Optimum concentrations of available phosphorus and the sum of loosely bound and calcium phosphates in the plow horizon were estimated 33-35 mg/kg) and 16-18 mg/100 g, respectively. Under these concentrations, high and sustainable yields of spring wheat were obtained upon application of activated phosphorite.

  17. Ecological Meaning and Consideration of Economic Forest Carbon Sinks in China----Take Yan-Shan Chestnut for Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Li, H.; Zhang, W. W.; Liu, S. R.

    Along with our country scientific researchers' study on native forest carbon sinks as well as the summary of the increasing amount of China's forest carbon, With the deepening of our scientists on the study of the national forest carbon sinks, forest carbon sinks has become a favorable support for climate diplomacy. Currently, a lot of work has focused on the carbon cycle, the level of carbon sinks of forest ecosystems, but the characteristics of economic forest carbon sinks are in a blank state. Beijing chestnut is one of the national food strategic security stockpiles, and estimate the potential of economic forest carbon sinks has important scientific significance to the establishment of carbon sink function area, and expansion of sustainable economic and social development of response measures.

  18. Antioxidant activities and structural characterization of flavonol O-glycosides from seeds of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata BLUME).

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hideto; Ogawa, Satoshi; Ishihara, Tomoe; Maruoka, Mahoko; Tokuyama-Nakai, Shota; Jisaka, Mitsuo; Yokota, Kazushige

    2017-08-01

    We attempted to evaluate the contents and distribution of antioxidants in the whole seeds, seed shells, and peeled seeds of the Japanese horse chestnut. The seed shells exhibited the highest antioxidant activities due to the presence of highly polymeric proanthocyanidins as we have reported recently. On the other hand, the peeled seeds predominantly contained flavonols such as quercetin and kaempferol at a high level of 66.7% of total polyphenols, also contributing to the predominant antioxidant activities. The instrumental analysis of the extract from the whole seeds revealed the identification of eight flavonol O-glycosides, including six compounds with quercetin and two species with kaempferol as aglycones. The isolated species exhibited different antioxidant activities depending on the types of aglycones, glycosides, and acylated moieties. The results indicate that the peeled seeds are a good source of flavonol O-glycosides serving as antioxidants to be used for food additives and dietary supplements.

  19. Chestnut and lemon balm based ingredients as natural preserving agents of the nutritional profile in matured "Serra da Estrela" cheese.

    PubMed

    Carocho, Márcio; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Fernández-Ruiz, Virginia; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-08-01

    Chestnut flowers, lemon balm plants and their decoctions were incorporated into "Serra da Estrela" cheese, to assess their potential to preserve its nutritional properties and provide new foodstuffs. The analyses were carried out after the normal ripening period of 1month and after 6months of storage. The most abundant nutrients were proteins and fats. The most abundant minerals were Ca and Na, while C16:0 and C18:1 were the main fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids were the most abundant, followed by the monounsaturated. Moisture seemed to be lower in the samples with the plants incorporated. The dried plants, when incorporated, seemed to be more efficient as preservers then the decoctions, although these better preserved the proteins. These plants can be regarded as promising natural preservers in foodstuffs cheese, given the preservation of key parameters and the slight impact on the nutritional value.

  20. Volatile compounds and sensorial characterisation of red wine aged in cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood barrels.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Simón, B; Martínez, J; Sanz, M; Cadahía, E; Esteruelas, E; Muñoz, A M

    2014-03-15

    The wood-related volatile profile of wines aged in cherry, acacia, ash, chestnut and oak wood barrels was studied by GC-MS, and could be a useful tool to identify the wood specie used. Thus, 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde in wines aged in acacia barrels, and ethyl-2-benzoate in cherry barrels could be used as chemical markers of these wood species, for authenticity purposes. Also, the quantitative differences obtained in the volatile profiles allow a good classification of all wines regarding wood species of barrels, during all aging time, and they contributed with different intensities to aromatic and gustative characteristics of aged wines. Wines aged in oak were the best valuated during all aging time, but the differences were not always significant. The lowest scores were assigned to wines aged in cherry barrels from 6 months of aging, so this wood could be more suitable in short aging times.

  1. 13C MAS NMR studies of the effects of hydration on the cell walls of potatoes and Chinese water chestnuts.

    PubMed

    Tang, H; Belton, P S; Ng, A; Ryden, P

    1999-02-01

    13C NMR with magic angle spinning (MAS) has been employed to investigate the cell walls of potatoes and Chinese water chestnuts over a range of hydration levels. Both single-pulse excitation (SPEMAS) and cross-polarization (CPMAS) experiments were carried out. Hydration led to a substantial increase in signal intensities of galactan and galacturonan in the SPEMAS spectra and a decrease in line width, implying mobilization in the backbone and side chains of pectin. In CPMAS spectra of both samples, noncellulose components showed signal loss as hydration increased. However, the signals of some galacturonan in the 3(1) helix configuration remained in the spectra even when the water content was as high as 110%. Cellulose was unaffected. It is concluded that the pectic polysaccharides experience a distribution of molecular conformations and mobility, whereas cellulose remained as typical rigid solid.

  2. Fluorescence diagnostics for foods subjected to gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulawansa, Digala M.; Menzel, E. R.; Banford, H. M.

    1996-03-01

    We have examined the inherent fluorescence of pepper and cinnamon samples exposed to radiation from a 60Co gamma source. We find that in the pepper the fluorescence intensity increases with radiation dose and the ratio of fluorescence intensity at two specific wavelengths, 566 and 674 nm, increases with radiation dose. In contrast, in the cinnamon the distinction between unirradiated and irradiated is not clear. Our preliminary work on gamma ray irradiated pepper indicates that laser-induced fluorescence may be utilized to detect the absorbed dose of irradiation of food samples.

  3. Transforming Growth Factor β-1 (TGF-β1) Is a Serum Biomarker of Radiation Induced Fibrosis in Patients Treated With Intracavitary Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: Preliminary Results of a Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Boothe, Dustin L.; Coplowitz, Shana; Greenwood, Eleni; Barney, Christian L.; Christos, Paul J.; Parashar, Bhupesh; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chao, K. S. Clifford; Wernicke, A. Gabriella

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To examine a relationship between serum transforming growth factor β -1 (TGF-β1) values and radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF). Methods and Materials: We conducted a prospective analysis of the development of RIF in 39 women with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage 0-I breast cancer treated with lumpectomy and accelerated partial breast irradiation via intracavitary brachytherapy (IBAPBI). An enzyme-linked immunoassay (Quantikine, R and D, Minneapolis, MN) was used to measure serum TGF-β1 before surgery, before IBAPBI, and during IBAPBI. Blood samples for TGF-β1 were also collected from 15 healthy, nontreated women (controls). The previously validated tissue compliance meter (TCM) was used to objectively assess RIF. Results: The median time to follow-up for 39 patients was 44 months (range, 5-59 months). RIF was graded by the TCM scale as 0, 1, 2, and 3 in 5 of 20 patients (25%), 6 of 20 patients (30%), 5 of 20 patients (25%), and 4 of 20 patients (20%), respectively. The mean serum TGF-β1 values were significantly higher in patients before surgery than in disease-free controls, as follows: all cancer patients (30,201 ± 5889 pg/mL, P=.02); patients with any type of RIF (32,273 ± 5016 pg/mL, P<.0001); and women with moderate to severe RIF (34,462 ± 4713 pg/mL, P<0.0001). Patients with moderate to severe RIF had significantly elevated TGF-β1 levels when compared with those with none to mild RIF before surgery (P=.0014) during IBAPBI (P≤0001), and the elevation persisted at 6 months (P≤.001), 12 months (P≤.001), 18 months (P≤.001), and 24 months (P=.12). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of TGF-β1 values predicting moderate to severe RIF was generated with an area under the curve (AUC){sub ROC} of 0.867 (95% confidence interval 0.700-1.000). The TGF-β1 threshold cutoff was determined to be 31,000 pg/mL, with associated sensitivity and specificity of 77.8% and 90.0%, respectively. Conclusions: TGF-β1 levels correlate with

  4. Sugars profiles of different chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and almond (Prunus dulcis) cultivars by HPLC-RI.

    PubMed

    Barreira, João C M; Pereira, José Alberto; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-03-01

    Sugar profiles of different almond and chestnut cultivars were obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), by means of a refractive index (RI) detector. A solid-liquid extraction procedure was used in defatted and dried samples. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a Eurospher 100-5 NH(2) column using an isocratic elution with acetonitrile/water (70:30, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. All the compounds were separated in 16 min. The method was optimized and proved to be reproducible and accurate. Generally, more than 95% of sugars were identified for both matrixes. Sugars profiles were quite homogeneous for almond cultivars; sucrose was the main sugar (11.46 +/- 0.14 in Marcona to 22.23 +/- 0.59 in Ferragnes g/100 g of dried weight), followed by raffinose (0.71 +/- 0.05 in Ferraduel to 2.11 +/- 0.29 in Duro Italiano), glucose (0.42 +/- 0.12 in Pegarinhos two seeded to 1.47 +/- 0.19 in Ferragnes) and fructose (0.11 +/- 0.02 in Pegarinhos two seeded to 0.59 +/- 0.05 in Gloriette). Commercial cultivars proved to have higher sucrose contents, except in the case of Marcona. Nevertheless, chestnut cultivars revealed a high heterogeneity. Sucrose was the main sugar in Aveleira (22.05 +/- 1.48), Judia (23.30 +/- 0.83) and Longal (9.56 +/- 0.91), while glucose was slightly prevalent in Boa Ventura (6.63 +/- 0.49). The observed variance could serve for inter-cultivar discrimination.

  5. Welding irradiated stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.; Chandler, G.T.; Nelson, D.Z.; Franco-Ferreira, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    Conventional welding processes produced severe underbead cracking in irradiated stainless steel containing 1 to 33 appm helium from n,a reactions. A shallow penetration overlay technique was successfully demonstrated for welding irradiated stainless steel. The technique was applied to irradiated 304 stainless steel that contained 10 appm helium. Surface cracking, present in conventional welds made on the same steel at the same and lower helium concentrations, was eliminated. Underbead cracking was minimal compared to conventional welding methods. However, cracking in the irradiated material was greater than in tritium charged and aged material at the same helium concentrations. The overlay technique provides a potential method for repair or modification of irradiated reactor materials.

  6. Ion irradiation effects on metallic nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kluth, P.; Johannessen, B.; Giulian, R.; Schnohr, C.S.; Foran, G.J.; Cookson, D.J.; Byrne, A.P.; Ridgway, M.C.

    2008-04-02

    We have investigated structural and morphological properties of metallic nanocrystals (NCs) exposed to ion irradiation. NCs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy in combination with advanced synchrotron-based analytical techniques, in particular X-ray absorption spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. A number of different effects were observed depending on the irradiation conditions. At energies where nuclear stopping is predominant, structural disorder/amorphization followed by inverse Ostwald ripening/dissolution due to ion beam mixing was observed for Au and Cu NCs embedded in SiO{sub 2}. The ion-irradiation-induced crystalline to amorphous transition in the NCs, which cannot be achieved in the corresponding bulk metals, was attributed to their initially higher structural energy as compared to bulk material and possibly preferential nucleation of the amorphous phase at the NC/SiO{sub 2} interface. At very high irradiation energies (swift heavy ion irradiation), where the energy loss is nearly entirely due to electronic stopping, a size-dependent shape transformation of the NCs from spheres to rod like shapes was apparent in Au NCs. Our preliminary results are in good agreement with considerations on melting of the NCs in the ion track as one mechanism involved in the shape transformation.

  7. [Tonsillectomy with a laser dissector. Preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Lenz, H

    1984-11-01

    A so called laser-dissector with a flexible beam guide system for tonsillectomy is described. With this instrument the tissue is irradiated for a very short time resulting in a coagulation of the peritonsillar tissue with closure of the small vessels even before mechanical dissection is performed. A preliminary report of 10 patients is given. The main advantage is that the procedure could be performed without or with much less bleeding as in tonsillectomy without using vasoconstrictors.

  8. A comparative study of the antihyaluronidase, antiurease, antioxidant, antimicrobial and physicochemical properties of different unifloral degrees of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) honeys.

    PubMed

    Kolayli, Sevgi; Can, Zehra; Yildiz, Oktay; Sahin, Huseyin; Karaoglu, Sengul Alpay

    2016-01-01

    This study was planned to investigate some physicochemical and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial properties of three different degrees of unifloral characters of chestnut honeys. Antihyaluronidase, antiurease and antimicrobial activities were evaluated as anti-inflammatory characteristics. Total phenolic contents, flavonoids, tannins, phenolic profiles, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), scavenging activities of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS(+)) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals were evaluated as antioxidant properties. Color, optical rotation, conductivity, moisture, pH and ash content were evaluated as physicochemical parameters, and some sugars content, prolin, diastase, HMF and minerals (Na, K, Ca, P, Fe, Cu and Zn) were evaluated as chemical and biochemical parameters. All studied physicochemical and biological active properties were changed in line with the unifloral character of the chestnut honeys. A higher unifloral character was found associated with greater apitherapeutic capacity of the honey, as well as biological active compounds.

  9. Extraction of high quality of RNA and construction of a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library from chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt).

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Wen, Xiaopeng; Tao, Nengguo; Hu, Zhiyong; Yue, Hailin; Deng, Xiuxin

    2006-04-01

    Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a rare fruit crop of promising economical importance in fruit and ornamental exploitation in China. Isolation of high quality RNA from chestnut rose is difficult due to its high levels of polyphenols, polysaccharides and other compounds, but a modified CTAB extraction procedure without phenol gave satisfactory results. High concentrations of PVP (2%, w/v), CTAB (2%, w/v) and beta-mercaptoethanol (4%, v/v) were used in the extraction buffer to improve RNA quality. The average yield was about 200 microg RNA g(-1) fresh leaves. The isolated RNA was of sufficient quality for construction of suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH) library, which allowed the isolation of several pathogen-induced defense genes.

  10. Modification of structure and digestibility of chestnut starch upon cooking: a solid state (13)C CP MAS NMR and enzymatic degradation study.

    PubMed

    Pizzoferrato, L; Rotilio, G; Paci, M

    1999-10-01

    The modification of starch, which is the major component of the polysaccharide fraction of chestnuts (Castanea sativa), has been studied from the point of view of structure and digestibility to understand the modifications induced by cooking and, specifically, by the Maillard reaction. The study was carried out by enzymatic degradation kinetics, monitoring the glucose released upon time, and by solid state (13)C CP MAS NMR, which has the potential of monitoring the solid state phase changes occurring upon chemical modification due to the cooking process. Results obtained reveal that large changes are induced in the macromolecular structure of starchy materials and that these changes are correlated with changes of digestibility in terms of enzymatic degradation resistance. In the system studied, the extension of the Maillard reaction is not such as to exert a significant influence on structure and/or digestibility of chestnut starch.

  11. Effect of irradiation and thermal annealing on quartz materials luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korovkin, M. V.; Ananyeva, L. G.

    2017-01-01

    X-ray and gamma-quanta irradiation of radiation-resistant quartz materials including natural and synthetic quartz crystals and high-purity quartzite causes the luminescence in the ultraviolet range (365 nm), thermally stimulated luminescence and radiofrequency electromagnetic emission. Preliminary radiation and thermal annealing improves luminescence properties of quartz materials.

  12. Assessment of the living and total biomass of microbial communities in the background chestnut soil and in the paleosols under burial mounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomutova, T. E.; Kashirskaya, N. N.; Demkin, V. A.

    2011-12-01

    The contents of phospholipids and carbon of the total microbial biomass were determined in the modern chestnut soil and in the paleosols buried under mounds of the Bronze and Early Iron Ages (5000-1800 years ago) in the dry steppe of the Lower Volga River basin. Judging from data on the ratio between the contents of phospholipids and organic carbon in the microbial cells, the carbon content of the living microbial biomass was calculated and compared with the total microbial biomass and total organic carbon in the studied soils. In the background chestnut soil, the content of phospholipids in the A1, B1, and B2 horizons amounted to 452, 205, and 189 nmol/g, respectively; in the paleosols, it was 28-130% of the present-day level. The maximum content was measured in the paleosols buried 5000 and 2000 years ago, in the periods with an increased humidity of the climate. In the background chestnut soil, the total microbial biomass was estimated at 5680 (the A1 horizon), 3380 (B1), and 4250 (B2) μg C/g; in the paleosols, it was by 2.5-7.0 times lower. In the upper horizons of the background soil, the portion of the living microbial biomass in the total biomass was much less than that in the paleosols under the burial mounds; it varied within 8.5-15.3% and 15-81%, respectively. The portion of living microbial biomass in the total organic carbon content of the background chestnut soil was about 4-8%. In the paleosols buried in the Early Iron Age (2000 and 1800 years ago), this value did not exceed 3-8%; in the paleosols of the Bronze Age (5000-4000 years ago), it reached 40% of the total organic carbon.

  13. Effect of the inclusion of chestnut in the finishing diet on volatile compounds during the manufacture of dry-cured "Lacón" from Celta pig breed.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Franco, Daniel; Carballo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the finishing diet on the volatile compounds throughout the manufacture of dry-cured "lacón" (a Spanish traditional meat product), from the Celta pig breed was studied. Thirty-six pigs were separated into three groups according to the type of feeding during the finish-fattening period of three months (concentrate, mixed diet and chestnut). From the pigs of each diet, four batches of dry-cured "lacón" were manufactured. From each batch, samples of fresh meat, meat after salting, after post-salting, and after 14, 28, 56 and 84 days of drying-ripening were taken. Volatiles were extracted by a purge-and-trap method and analyzed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Seventy-six volatile compounds were identified and quantified from dry-cured "lacón" samples in pigs finished with chestnut, eighty-two for concentrate fed pigs and eighty in pigs fed with the mixed diet. The number of identified volatile compounds increased during the manufacturing process; at 84 days of drying-ripening, in the dry-cured "lacón" samples from pigs finished with concentrate, mixed diet and chestnut, 54, 58 and 62 volatile compounds were detected, respectively. The most abundant group of flavour compounds at the end of the manufacturing process was hydrocarbons in the three feeding systems, followed by aldehydes, ketones and alcohols. Discriminant analysis selected six variables (dodecane, butadienol, pentenol, 2-pentenal, decen-3-ona and pyridine-2-methyl) and calculated two discriminating functions which allowed verification of chestnut in the finishing diet.

  14. Comparison of results of two dye-tracer tests at the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstrand, P.M.; Haas, J.

    1994-01-01

    Personnel from Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) manage a closed hazardous waste disposal unit the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP), located on the crest of Chestnut Ridge near the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. To investigate the discharge of groundwater from CRSP to springs and streams located along the flanks and base of Chestnut Ridge, an initial dye-tracer study was conducted during 1990. A hydraulic connection was inferred to exist between the injection well (GW-178) on Chestnut Ridge and several sites to the east-northeast, east, and southeast of CRSP. A second dye-tracer study was conducted in 1992 to verify the results of the initial test and identify additional discharge points that are active during wet-weather conditions. No definitive evidence for the presence of dye was identified at any of the 35 locations monitored during the second dye study. Although interpretations of the initial dye test suggest a hydraulic connection with several sites and CRSP, reevaluation of the spectrofluorescence data from this test suggests that dye may not have been detected during the initial test. A combination of relatively high analytical detection limits during the initial test, and high natural background interference spectral peaks observed during the second test, suggest that high natural background emission spectra near the wavelength of the dye used during the initial test may have caused the apparently high reported concentrations. The results of these two tests do not preclude that a hydraulic connection exists; dye may be present in concentrations below the analytical detection limits or has yet to emerge from the groundwater system. The dye injection well is not completed within any significant karst features. Dye migration therefore, may be within a diffuse, slow-flow portion of the aquifer, at least in the immediate vicinity of the source well.

  15. Hierarchical chestnut-like MnCo2O4 nanoneedles grown on nickel foam as binder-free electrode for high energy density asymmetric supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Kwun Nam; Hui, Kwan San; Tang, Zikang; Jadhav, V. V.; Xia, Qi Xun

    2016-10-01

    Hierarchical chestnut-like manganese cobalt oxide (MnCo2O4) nanoneedles (NNs) are successfully grown on nickel foam using a facile and cost-effective hydrothermal method. High resolution TEM image further verifies that the chestnut-like MnCo2O4 structure is assembled by numerous 1D MnCo2O4 nanoneedles, which are formed by numerous interconnected MnCo2O4 nanoparticles with grain diameter of ∼10 nm. The MnCo2O4 electrode exhibits high specific capacitance of 1535 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and good rate capability (950 F g-1 at 10 A g-1) in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. An asymmetric supercapacitor is fabricated using MnCo2O4 NNs on Ni foam (MnCo2O4 NNs/NF) as the positive electrode and graphene/NF as the negative electrode. The device shows an operation voltage of 1.5 V and delivers a high energy density of ∼60.4 Wh kg-1 at a power density of ∼375 W kg-1. Moreover, the device exhibits an excellent cycling stability of 94.3% capacitance retention after 12000 cycles at 30 A g-1. This work demonstrates that hierarchical chestnut-like MnCo2O4 NNs could be a promising electrode for the high performance energy storage devices.

  16. Neoplastic potential of gastric irradiation. IV. Risk estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Griem, M.L.; Justman, J.; Weiss, L.

    1984-12-01

    No significant tumor increase was found in the initial analysis of patients irradiated for peptic ulcer and followed through 1962. A preliminary study was undertaken 22 years later to estimate the risk of cancer due to gastric irradiation for peptic ulcer disease. A population of 2,049 irradiated patients and 763 medically managed patients has been identified. A relative risk of 3.7 was found for stomach cancer and an initial risk estimate of 5.5 x 10(-6) excess stomach cancers per person rad was calculated. A more complete follow-up is in progress to further elucidate this observation and decrease the ascertainment bias; however, preliminary data are in agreement with the Japanese atomic bomb reports.

  17. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the main Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is {approximately} 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends {approximately}1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of {approximately}1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top.

  18. Stored energy in irradiated silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, L.L.; Burchell, T.D.

    1997-04-01

    This report presents a short review of the phenomenon of Wigner stored energy release from irradiated graphite and discusses it in relation to neutron irradiation of silicon carbide. A single published work in the area of stored energy release in SiC is reviewed and the results are discussed. It appears from this previous work that because the combination of the comparatively high specific heat of SiC and distribution in activation energies for recombining defects, the stored energy release of SiC should only be a problem at temperatures lower than those considered for fusion devices. The conclusion of this preliminary review is that the stored energy release in SiC will not be sufficient to cause catastrophic heating in fusion reactor components, though further study would be desirable.

  19. Graphite irradiation testing for HTR technology at the High Flux Reactor in Petten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vreeling, J. A.; Wouters, O.; Laan, J. G. van der

    2008-10-01

    In 2001 the Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group started a large graphite irradiation program for the development of High Temperature Reactor technology in the European framework. The irradiation experiments, containing present day available graphite grades, are performed at the High Flux Reactor in Petten. The grades are NBG-10, NBG-17, NBG-18, NBG-20, NBG-25, PCEA, PPEA, PCIB, LPEB, IG-110 and IG-430. In the fifth framework programme (2001-2004) and sixth framework programme (2005-2009) four irradiation experiments are foreseen, resulting in design curves at irradiation temperatures between 650 °C and 950 °C. The post-irradiation testing is focused on dimensional changes, dynamic Young's modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion and coefficient of thermal conductivity. The irradiation programme and preliminary results from the first irradiation experiment at 750 °C to 8 dpa will be discussed in this paper.

  20. X-ray irradiation of yeast cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, Alessandra; Batani, Dimitri; Previdi, Fabio; Conti, Aldo; Pisani, Francesca; Botto, Cesare; Bortolotto, Fulvia; Torsiello, Flavia; Turcu, I. C. Edmond; Allott, Ric M.; Lisi, Nicola; Milani, Marziale; Costato, Michele; Pozzi, Achille; Koenig, Michel

    1997-10-01

    Saccharomyces Cerevisiae yeast cells were irradiated using the soft X-ray laser-plasma source at Rutherford Laboratory. The aim was to produce a selective damage of enzyme metabolic activity at the wall and membrane level (responsible for fermentation) without interfering with respiration (taking place in mitochondria) and with nuclear and DNA activity. The source was calibrated by PIN diodes and X-ray spectrometers. Teflon stripes were chosen as targets for the UV laser, emitting X-rays at about 0.9 keV, characterized by a very large decay exponent in biological matter. X-ray doses to the different cell compartments were calculated following a Lambert-Bouguet-Beer law. After irradiation, the selective damage to metabolic activity at the membrane level was measured by monitoring CO2 production with pressure silicon detectors. Preliminary results gave evidence of pressure reduction for irradiated samples and non-linear response to doses. Also metabolic oscillations were evidenced in cell suspensions and it was shown that X-ray irradiation changed the oscillation frequency.

  1. Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel

    DOEpatents

    Bauer, Roger E.; Straalsund, Jerry L.; Chin, Bryan A.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

  2. Perspective on food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    Recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of irradiation treatment for fruit, vegetables and pork has stimulated considerable discussion in the popular press on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of food. This perspective is designed to summarize the current scientific information available on this issue.

  3. MASSIVE LEAKAGE IRRADIATOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Szilard, L.; Christy, R.F.; Friedman, F.L.

    1961-05-30

    An irradiator designed to utilize the neutrons that leak out of a reactor around its periphery is described. It avoids wasting neutron energy and reduces interference with the core flux to a minimum. This is done by surrounding all or most of the core with removable segments of the material to be irradiated within a matrix of reflecting material.

  4. Effect of ion irradiation on the interdiffusion growth of aluminide phases in Ti Al diffusion couple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romankov, S. E.; Mamaeva, A.; Vdovichenko, E.; Ermakov, E.

    2005-08-01

    During annealing on the Ti surface coated by the Al film, different aluminide phases were formed as the result of reactions between Ti and Al. Preliminary irradiation of the Al film with the thickness of 7 μm by Ti + ions had a strong effect on the interdiffusion growth of aluminide phases on the Ti substrate. Preliminary ion irradiation resulted in the development of more homogeneous and fine-grain microstructure during subsequent annealing. During ion irradiation of the two-phase (TiAl + Ti 3Al) overlayer the decomposition of the TiAl compound and the formation of Ti 3Al happened. In the processing of subsequent annealing, diffusion cementation of the overlayer occurred faster on the surface of the irradiated samples. After irradiation by different ions (Ti + and Al +), and during subsequent annealing the kinetics of structural formation developed in a different way.

  5. Medical waste irradiation study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, R.J.; Stein, J.; Nygard, J.

    1998-07-25

    The North Star Research Corporation Medical Waste project is described in this report, with details of design, construction, operation, and results to date. The project began with preliminary design of the accelerator. The initial design was for a single accelerator chamber with a vacuum tube cavity driver built into the chamber itself, rather than using a commercial tube separate from the RF accelerator. The authors believed that this would provide more adjustability and permit better coupling to be obtained. They did not have sufficient success with that approach, and finally completed the project using a DC accelerator with a unique new scanning system to irradiate the waste.

  6. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  7. The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time.

    PubMed

    Koskella, Britt; Parr, Nicole

    2015-08-19

    Insight to the spatial and temporal scales of coevolution is key to predicting the outcome of host-parasite interactions and spread of disease. For bacteria infecting long-lived hosts, selection to overcome host defences is just one factor shaping the course of evolution; populations will also be competing with other microbial species and will themselves be facing infection by bacteriophage viruses. Here, we examine the temporal and spatial patterns of bacterial adaptation against natural phage populations from within leaves of horse chestnut trees. Using a time-shift experiment with both sympatric and allopatric phages from either contemporary or earlier points in the season, we demonstrate that bacterial resistance is higher against phages from the past, regardless of spatial sympatry or how much earlier in the season phages were collected. Similarly, we show that future bacterial hosts are more resistant to both sympatric and allopatric phages than contemporary bacterial hosts. Together, our results suggest the evolution of relatively general bacterial resistance against phages in nature and are contrasting to previously observed patterns of phage adaptation to bacteria from the same tree hosts over the same time frame, indicating a potential asymmetry in coevolutionary dynamics.

  8. Effects of chestnut tannins on the meat quality, welfare, and antioxidant status of heat-stressed lambs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huawei; Li, Ke; Mingbin, Lv; Zhao, Jinshan; Xiong, Benhai

    2016-06-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chestnut tannins (CT) on the meat quality, welfare and antioxidant status of heat-stressed lambs. Lambs in one group were raised at 20°C and fed a basal diet (N), and three other groups (32°C) were fed a basal diet with 0 (CT0), 5 (CT5), and 10 g (CT10) of CT/kg. Addition of CT increased the b* and L* values of meat and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity in the serum and liver of heat-stressed lambs. The malondialdehyde concentration in meat, serum, and liver of heat-stressed lambs was decreased by dietary CT supplementation. Lambs in the CT0 group had higher cortisol, T3, and T4 levels, creatine kinase activity, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio and a lower lymphocyte count than that in the N and CT10 groups. In conclusion, the addition of CT improved meat quality, certain stress parameters, and the antioxidant status of heat-stressed lambs.

  9. A tangled tale of two teal: Population history of the grey Anas gracilis and chestnut teal a. castanea of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joseph, L.; Adcock, G.J.; Linde, C.; Omland, K.E.; Heinsohn, R.; Terry, Chesser R.; Roshier, D.

    2009-01-01

    Two Australian species of teal (Anseriformes: Anatidae: Anas), the grey teal Anas gracilis and the chestnut teal A. castanea, are remarkable for the zero or near-zero divergence recorded between them in earlier surveys of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity. We confirmed this result through wider geographical and population sampling as well as nucleotide sampling in the more rapidly evolving mtDNA control region. Any data set where two species share polymorphism as is the case here can be explained by a model of gene flow through hybridization on one hand or by incomplete lineage sorting on the other hand. Ideally, analysis of such shared polymorphism would simultaneously estimate the likelihood of both phenomena. To do this, we used the underlying principle of the IMa package to explore ramifications to understanding population histories of A. gracilis and A. castanea. We cannot reject that hybridization occurs between the two species but an equally or more plausible finding for their nearly zero divergence is incomplete sorting following very recent divergence between the two, probably in the mid-late Pleistocene. Our data add to studies that explore intermediate stages in the evolution of reciprocal monophyly and paraphyletic or polyphyletic relationships in mtDNA diversity among widespread Australian birds. ?? 2009 J. Avian Biol.

  10. Allozyme and RAPD analysis of the genetic diversity and geographic variation in wild populations of the American chestnut (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Huang, H; Dane, F; Kubisiak, T

    1998-07-01

    Genetic variation among 12 populations of the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was investigated. Population genetic parameters estimated from allozyme variation suggest that C. dentata at both the population and species level has narrow genetic diversity as compared to other species in the genus. Average expected heterozygosity was relatively low for the population collected in the Black Rock Mountain State Park, Georgia (He = 0.096 +/- 0.035), and high for the population in east central Alabama (He = 0.196 +/- 0.048). Partitioning of the genetic diversity based on 18 isozyme loci showed that ~10% of the allozyme diversity resided among populations. Cluster analysis using unweighted pair-group method using arithmetric averages of Rogers' genetic distance and principal components analysis based on allele frequencies of both isozyme and RAPD loci revealed four groups: the southernmost population, south-central Appalachian populations, north-central Appalachian populations, and northern Appalachian populations. Based on results presented in this study, a conservation strategy and several recommendations related to the backcross breeding aimed at restoring C. dentata are discussed.

  11. The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time

    PubMed Central

    Koskella, Britt; Parr, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Insight to the spatial and temporal scales of coevolution is key to predicting the outcome of host–parasite interactions and spread of disease. For bacteria infecting long-lived hosts, selection to overcome host defences is just one factor shaping the course of evolution; populations will also be competing with other microbial species and will themselves be facing infection by bacteriophage viruses. Here, we examine the temporal and spatial patterns of bacterial adaptation against natural phage populations from within leaves of horse chestnut trees. Using a time-shift experiment with both sympatric and allopatric phages from either contemporary or earlier points in the season, we demonstrate that bacterial resistance is higher against phages from the past, regardless of spatial sympatry or how much earlier in the season phages were collected. Similarly, we show that future bacterial hosts are more resistant to both sympatric and allopatric phages than contemporary bacterial hosts. Together, our results suggest the evolution of relatively general bacterial resistance against phages in nature and are contrasting to previously observed patterns of phage adaptation to bacteria from the same tree hosts over the same time frame, indicating a potential asymmetry in coevolutionary dynamics. PMID:26150663

  12. Pathway Analysis and Metabolites Identification by Metabolomics of Etiolation Substrate from Fresh-Cut Chinese Water Chestnut (Eleocharis tuberosa).

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Xiao; Pan, Yong-Gui; He, Feng-Ping; Yuan, Meng-Qi; Li, Shang-Bin

    2016-12-01

    Fresh-cut Chinese water chestnuts (CWC) turn yellow after being peeled, reducing their shelf life and commercial value. Metabolomics, the systematic study of the full complement of small molecular metabolites, was useful for clarifying the mechanism of fresh-cut CWC etiolation and developing methods to inhibit yellowing. In this study, metabolic alterations associated with etiolation at different growth stages (0 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days) from fresh-cut CWC were investigated using LC-MS and analyzed by pattern recognition methods (principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA)). The metabolic pathways of the etiolation molecules were elucidated. The main metabolic pathway appears to be the conversion of phenylalanine to p-coumaroyl-CoA, followed by conversion to naringenin chalcone, to naringenin, and naringenin then following different pathways. Firstly, it can transform into apigenin and its derivatives; secondly, it can produce eriodictyol and its derivatives; and thirdly it can produce dihydrokaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin. The eriodictyol can be further transformed to luteolin, cyanidin, dihydroquercetin, dihydrotricetin, and others. This is the first reported use of metabolomics to study the metabolic pathways of the etiolation of fresh-cut CWC.

  13. Optimization of water curing for the preservation of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) and evaluation of microbial dynamics during process.

    PubMed

    Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Di Capua, Marika; Romano, Annalisa; Coppola, Raffaele; Aponte, Maria

    2014-09-01

    Chestnuts are very perishable fruits, whose quality may be compromised during postharvest handling. Damage can be caused both by insects and fungi. Water curing, a commonly used postharvest method, is based on soaking fruits in water typically for about one week. Factors that affect effectiveness of water curing have only been explained partially. A decrease in pH, likely imputable to a light fermentation caused by lactic acid bacteria, may inhibit the growth of moulds. In this study a Lactobacillus pentosus strain was selected for its ability to inhibit fungi, and used as a starter culture during water curing. As second goal, a reduction of the environmental impact of the process was evaluated by using water that had been re-cycled from a previous curing treatment. Experiments were performed on pilot as well as on farm scale. In all trials, microbial dynamics were evaluated by means of a polyphasic approach including conventional and molecular-based analyses. According to results, the employment of an adjunct culture appears as a very promising opportunity. Even if no reduction in the duration of the process was achieved, waters exhibited a minor microbial complexity and fruits did not lose the natural lustre after the process.

  14. An oxidative burst of superoxide in embryonic axes of recalcitrant sweet chestnut seeds as induced by excision and desiccation.

    PubMed

    Roach, Thomas; Ivanova, Mariyana; Beckett, Richard P; Minibayeva, Farida V; Green, Ian; Pritchard, Hugh W; Kranner, Ilse

    2008-06-01

    Recalcitrant seeds are intolerant of desiccation and cannot be stored in conventional seed banks. Cryopreservation allows storage of the germplasm of some recalcitrant seeded species, but application to a wide range of plant diversity is still limited. The present work aimed at understanding the stresses that accompany the first steps in cryopreservation protocols, wounding and desiccation, both of which are likely to lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Extracellular ROS production was studied in isolated embryonic axes of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa). Axis excision was accompanied by a burst of superoxide (O(2)(*-)), demonstrated by a colorimetric assay using epinephrine, electron spin resonance and staining with nitroblue tetrazolium. Superoxide was immediately produced on the cut surface after isolation of the axis from the seed, with an initial 'burst' in the first 5 min. Isolated axes subjected to variable levels of desiccation stress showed a decrease in viability and vigour and increased electrolyte leakage, indicative of impaired membrane integrity. The pattern of O(2)(*-) production showed a typical Gaussian pattern in response to increasing desiccation stress. The results indicate a complex interaction between excision and subsequent drying and are discussed with a view of manipulating ROS production for optimisation of cryopreservation protocols.

  15. Thermal stability of texture in Chinese water chestnut may be dependent on 8,8'-diferulic acid (aryltetralyn form).

    PubMed

    Parker, Charlotte C; Parker, Mary L; Smith, Andrew C; Waldron, Keith W

    2003-03-26

    Ferulic acid (FA) cross-links have been implicated in the thermal stability of texture in Chinese water chestnut (CWC) tissues. The aim of the current study has been to investigate this concept further. CWC tissue strips were measured for their mechanical properties before and after extraction in increasing strengths of alkali. The mechanical properties were related to the associated mode of fracture (cell separation or breakage) at the fracture surfaces and the phenolic composition of the cell walls. CWC tissue softened after prolonged extraction in cold alkali due to an increase in the ease of cell separation. Analysis of wall-bound phenolics demonstrated that most FA moieties, including five of the six dehydrodimers, were released before tissue strength was reduced. Loss of strength was, however, coincident with the loss of 8,8'-diferulic acid, aryltetralin (AT) form. It has been suggested that this dehydrodimer may be particularly concentrated at the edge of the cell faces. These results provide further evidence for the involvement of this dehydrodimer in conferring thermal stability of cell-cell adhesion and hence texture in CWC. However, they do not exclude the other diferulates from involvement in cell adhesion.

  16. [Effects of the conversion from native shrub forest to Chinese chestnut plantation on soil carbon and nitrogen pools].

    PubMed

    Shang, Su-Yun; Li, Yong-Fu; Jiang, Pei-Kun; Zhou, Guo-Mo; Liu, Juan; Wu, Jia-Sen; Lin, Lin

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the effects of the conversion from native shrub forest (NF) to Chinese chestnut plantation (CP) on the soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools, soil samples were collected from the adjacent NF and CP in Anji County of Zhejiang Province, with their water-soluble organic C (WSOC), microbial biomass C (MBC), readily oxidizable C (ROC), water-soluble organic N (WSON), and microbial biomass N (MBN) determined. The spectral characteristics of soil organic C were also determined by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique. After the conversion from NF to CP, the soil alkalyzable N, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents increased significantly, while the soil WSOC, MBC, ROC, WSON, and MBN were in adverse. The soil organic C in both NF and CP was dominated by alkyl C and O-alkyl C, but the proportions of O-alkyl C and carbonyl C in soil organic C decreased while the proportions of alkyl C and aromatic C as well as the alkyl C/O-alkyl C ratio and the aromaticity of soil organic C all increased significantly after the conversion from NF to CP, indicating that this conversion increased the stability of soil organic C pool significantly. In conclusion, the conversion from NF to CP and the intensive management of CP decreased the contents of soil labile C and soil N but increased the stability of soil C pool significantly.

  17. Influence of chestnut tannins on welfare, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and lipid oxidation in rabbits under high ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huawei; Zhou, Daowei; Tong, Jianming; Vaddella, Venkata

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of chestnut tannins (CT) on welfare, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and lipid oxidation in rabbits under high ambient temperature. Rabbits in one group were raised at 20°C and fed with basal diet (N) and other three groups (33°C) were fed basal diet with 0 (C), 5 (CT5), and 10 g (CT10) of CT/kg of diet. Compared with the C group, rabbits in CT10 had higher pH(24) and lower cooking loss and thiobarbituric acid reacting substance values at 0, 30, and 60 min of forced oxidation. Rabbits in C group had higher cortisol levels, creatine kinase activities, white blood cell counts, neutrophil percentage, neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio and lower T(3), T(4) levels, lymphocyte percentage than N and CT10 groups. Supplementation of CT seemed to have a positive effect on growth performance, welfare, and meat quality of rabbits under high ambient temperature.

  18. Alaskan Commodities Irradiation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.; Das, D.K.; Lewis, C.E.; Workman, W.G.; Tumeo, M.A.; Hok, C.I.; Birklid, C.A.; Bennett, F.L.

    1988-12-01

    The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology. 40 refs., 50 figs., 53 tabs.

  19. A nanotube based electron microbeam cellular irradiator for radiobiology research

    SciTech Connect

    Bordelon, David E.; Zhang Jian; Graboski, Sarah; Cox, Adrienne; Schreiber, Eric; Chang, Sha; Zhou, Otto Z.

    2008-12-15

    A prototype cellular irradiator utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) based field emission electron source has been developed for microscopic image-guided cellular region irradiation. The CNT cellular irradiation system has shown great potential to be a high temporal and spatial resolution research tool to enable researchers to gain a better understanding of the intricate cellular and intercellular microprocesses occurring following radiation deposition, which is essential to improving radiotherapy cancer treatment outcomes. In this paper, initial results of the system development are reported. The relationship between field emission current, the dose rate, and the dose distribution has been investigated. A beam size of 23 {mu}m has been achieved with variable dose rates of 1-100 Gy/s, and the system dosimetry has been measured using a radiochromic film. Cell irradiation has been demonstrated by the visualization of H2AX phosphorylation at DNA double-strand break sites following irradiation in a rat fibroblast cell monolayer. The prototype single beam cellular irradiator is a preliminary step to a multipixel cell irradiator that is under development.

  20. Status of FeCrAl ODS Irradiations in the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Howard, Richard H.

    2016-08-19

    FeCrAl oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys are an attractive sub-set alloy class of the more global FeCrAl material class for nuclear applications due to their high-temperature steam oxidation resistance and hypothesized enhanced radiation tolerance. A need currently exists to determine the radiation tolerance of these newly developed alloys. To address this need, a preliminary study was conducted using the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) to irradiate an early generation FeCrAl ODS alloy, 125YF. Preliminary post-irradiation examination (PIE) on these irradiated specimens have shown good radiation tolerance at elevated temperatures (≥330°C) but possible radiation-induced hardening and embrittlement at irradiations of 200°C to a damage level of 1.9 displacement per atom (dpa). Building on this experience, a new series of irradiations are currently being conceptualized. This irradiation series called the FCAD irradiation program will irradiate the latest generation FeCrAl ODS and FeCr ODS alloys to significantly higher doses. These experiments will provide the necessary information to determine the mechanical performance of irradiated FeCrAl ODS alloys at light water reactor and fast reactor conditions.

  1. [Determination the Change of Main Trace Elements in the Ovary with Self- and Cross-Pollination of Chinese Chestnut by ICP-MS].

    PubMed

    Zou, Feng; Guo, Su-Juan; Wang, Jing; Peng, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Na; Peng, Ya-Qin

    2015-10-01

    Castanea mollissima Blume has potential as an non-wood forest trees that have been cultivated for thousands of years in China. In order to elucidate the trace elements of chestnut ovary, the major trace elements of self- and cross-pollination chestnut ovary were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed that self- and cross-pollination 5-50 d, six trace elements trends showed fluctuations. After cross-pollination 20 d, the content of Ca was up to 6.50 mg x g(-1), while the self-pollination 10 d, the content of Ca reached up to 7.77 mg x g(-1). After cross- and self-pollination pollination 30 d, the content of Mg were highest, 4.19 and 4.69 mg x g(-1), respectively. After cross-pollination 5 d, the content of Zn reached the highest, 0.038 7 mg x g(-1), while self-pollination 10d the content of Zn was 0.039 9 mg x g(-1). After self- and cross-pollination 35 d, the content of Fe were 0.022, 0.019 mg x g(-1), respectively. After cross- and self-pollination 20 d, the content of Cu were 0.056, 0.045 mg x g(-1), respectively. After self-pollination 40d, the content of Mn reaching the highest was 1.204 mg x g(-1), while cross-pollination 30 d, the content of Mn reached its maximum 0.845 mg x g(-1). The results can provide a reference for spraying fertilizer on the ovary development, thereby improving chestnut production.

  2. Calendar year 1994 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1994 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1994 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure 1). These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y- 12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The GWQR for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two-parts: Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference containing the groundwater quality data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY). Part 2 of the annual groundwater report, to be issued mid-year, will contain a regime-wide evaluation of groundwater quality, present the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describe changes in monitoring priorities, and present planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis activities.

  3. Remedial investigation work plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 4 (Rogers Quarry/Lower McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant includes - 800 acres near the northeast comer of the reservation and adjacent to the city of Oak Ridge (Fig. 1-1). The plant is a manufacturing and developmental engineering facility that produced components for various nuclear weapons systems and provides engineering support to other Energy Systems facilities. More than 200 contaminated sites have been identified at the Y-12 Plant that resulted from past waste management practices. Many of the sites have operable units (OUs) based on priority and on investigative and remediation requirements. This Remedial Investigation RI work plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Chestnut Ridge OU 4 consists of Rogers Quarry and Lower McCoy Branch (MCB). Rogers Quarry, which is also known as Old Rogers Quarry or Bethel Valley Quarry was used for quarrying from the late 1940s or early 1950s until about 1960. Since that time, the quarry has been used for disposal of coal ash and materials from Y-12 production operations, including classified materials. Disposal of coal ash ended in July 1993. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern, support an Ecological Risk Assessment and a Human Health Risk Assessment, support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this work plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the risk posed to human health and the environment by OU 4.

  4. [Effects of compound fertilizer of (NH2)2CO and KH2PO4 on the chestnut photosynthesis characteristics, growth and fruiting].

    PubMed

    Tian, Shou-le; Sun, Xiao-li; Shen, Guang-ning; Xu, Lin

    2015-03-01

    Compound fertilizer can improve the fertilizer use efficiency and tree nutrition status to ensure balanced fertilization. Taking 7 year-old chestnut trees as test material, with (NH2)2CO and KH2PO4 being mixed at the different ratios, the effects of different compound fertilizers on the photosynthesis characteristics as well as the growth and fruiting of chestnut were studied quantitatively by trunk injection method. Results showed that compound fertilizer of (NH2)2CO and KH2PO4 induced positive synergistic effects to enhance photosynthetic capacity, yield and quality of chestnut obviously. The content of chlorophyll was decreased by (NH2)2CO and increased by KH2PO4, but increased obviously by the compound fertilizer. The contents of N, P, K of leaf and branch rose under the four compounded fertilization treatments, among which 0.3%(NH2)2CO+0.3%KH2PO4 was the best. All fertilizer treatments could advance the photosynthetic parameters, while the compound fertilizer performed better. 0.3% (NH2)2CO + 0.3% KH2PO4 treatment significantly increased the photosynthetic rate, the maximum net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, carboxylation efficiency, instantaneous water use efficiency and nitrogen use efficiency. Compound fertilizer could promote the growth of branch in diameter and length synchronously, and increase the number of mixed buds, while (NH2)2CO only promoted the growth of branch in length, and did little in the number of mixed buds. The compound fertilizer did better in advancing nuts yield and quality than single fertilization of N or P. The nuts yield, mass and total sugar were increased by 68.2%, 25.5% and 14.9% respectively under 0.3% (NH2)2CO+0.3%KH2PO4 treatment compared with the control.

  5. Helium effects on irradiation dmage in V alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Doraiswamy, N.; Alexander, D.

    1996-10-01

    Preliminary investigations were performed on V-4Cr-4Ti samples to observe the effects of He on the irradiation induced microstructural changes by subjecting 3 mm electropolished V-4Cr-4Ti TEM disks, with and without prior He implantation, to 200 keV He irradiation at room temperature and monitoring, in-situ, the microstructural evolution as a function of total dose with an intermediate voltage electron microscope directly connected to an ion implanter. A high density of black dot defects were formed at very low doses in both He pre-implanted and unimplanted samples.

  6. Recycling Irradiated Nuclear Graphite - A Greener Path Forward

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D; Pappano, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the successful recycle of irradiated graphite to fabricate new nuclear graphite using conventional manufacturing processes (albeit on a bench scale). Radiological concerns such as the containment of contamination in industrial scale manufacturing plants, or the release of 14C, were not considered. Moreover, a study of the annealing kinetics was conducted to elucidate the extent of property recovery over a representative temperature range. The goal of the preliminary work reported here was to determine if nuclear graphite, produced through the normal graphite fabrication process, but using crushed, previously irradiated nuclear graphite could be manufactured with sufficient mechanical integrity to warrant further investigation.

  7. Recycling Irradiated Nuclear Graphite - A Greener Path Forward

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D; Pappano, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    Here we report the successful recycle of irradiated graphite to fabricate new nuclear graphite using conventional manufacturing processes (albeit on a on a bench scale). Radiological concerns such as the containment of contamination in industrial scale manufacturing plants, or the release of 14C, were not considered. Moreover, a study of the annealing kinetics was conducted to elucidate the extent of property recovery over a representative temperature range. The goal of the preliminary work reported here was to determine if nuclear graphite, produced through the normal graphite fabrication process, but using crushed, previously irradiated nuclear graphite, could be manufactured with sufficient mechanical integrity to warrant further investigation

  8. Effect of solar irradiation on extracellular enzymes of Aeromonas proteolytica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, B. G.

    1973-01-01

    The bacterium Aeromonas proteolytica was selected for studying the effects of solar irradiation on extracellular enzymes because it produces an endopeptidase that is capable of degrading proteins and a hemolysin that is active in lysing human erythrocytes. Possible alterations in the rate of enzyme production in response to the test conditions are currently underway and are not available for this preliminary report. Completed viability studies are indicative that little difference exists among the survival curves derived for cells exposed to various components of ultraviolet irradiation in space.

  9. Food irradiation in perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henon, Y. M.

    1995-02-01

    Food irradiation already has a long history of hopes and disappointments. Nowhere in the world it plays the role that it should have, including in the much needed prevention of foodborne diseases. Irradiated food sold well wherever consumers were given a chance to buy them. Differences between national regulations do not allow the international trade of irradiated foods. While in many countries food irradiation is still illegal, in most others it is regulated as a food additive and based on the knowledge of the sixties. Until 1980, wholesomeness was the big issue. Then the "prerequisite" became detection methods. Large amounts of money have been spent to design and validate tests which, in fact, aim at enforcing unjustified restrictions on the use of the process. In spite of all the difficulties, it is believed that the efforts of various UN organizations and a growing legitimate demand for food safety should in the end lead to recognition and acceptance.

  10. [The irradiation process].

    PubMed

    Barillot, I; Chauvet, B; Hannoun Lévi, J M; Lisbona, A; Leroy, T; Mahé, M A

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the regulatory framework of the radiotherapy practice in France, the external irradiation and brachytherapy process and the guidelines for patient follow-up.

  11. The 1952-1953 Chestnut Lodge Seminar on Intuition and Empathy in the Treatment of Schizophrenia: Launching Alberta Szalita's Focus on Empathy.

    PubMed

    Silver, Ann-Louise S

    2015-01-01

    This article presents background to, and the text of an organizational meeting of, a historic Chestnut Lodge seminar organized by Frieda Fromm-Reichmann and including herself and Marvin Adland, Donald Burnham, Harold Searles, and Alberta Szalita. It forms the foundation for Szalita's interest in empathy, which then was the organizing concept of her paper given as the 18th Frieda Fromm-Reichmann Memorial Lecture. The transcript gives us an opportunity to observe these great contributors to our understanding of the psychodynamics of schizophrenia as they exchange ideas and reactions regarding the transcript of recorded sessions.

  12. Groundwater quality assessment for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant. 1991 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste- management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (CRHR), which is one of the three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring and remediation (Figure 2). The Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Division of the Y-12 Plant Environmental Management Department manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP).

  13. Total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  14. Blood irradiation: Rationale and technique

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Upon request by the local American Red Cross, the Savannah Regional Center for Cancer Care irradiates whole blood or blood components to prevent post-transfusion graft-versus-host reaction in patients who have severely depressed immune systems. The rationale for blood irradiation, the total absorbed dose, the type of patients who require irradiated blood, and the regulations that apply to irradiated blood are presented. A method of irradiating blood using a linear accelerator is described.

  15. Nutritional value, chemical composition, antioxidant activity and enrichment of cream cheese with chestnut mushroom Agrocybe aegerita (Brig.) Sing.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Jovana; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Stojković, Dejan; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2015-10-01

    A very well-known and appreciated mushroom, Agrocybe aegerita (Brig.) Sing, was the subject of chemical profiling, antioxidant assays and sensory evaluation test in cream cheese. Methanolic extract obtained from a wild sample of A. aegerita fruiting body was fully chemically identified. Sample was found to be rich in carbohydrates (84.51 g/100 g dw), ash and proteins (6.69 g/100 g dw and 6.68 g/100 g dw, respectively). Trehalose was the main free sugar while malic acid was the most abundant organic acid. Four isoforms of tocopherols were identified; γ- tocopherol was the dominant isoform with 86.08 μg/100 g dw, followed by β- tocopherol, δ-tocopherol and α-tocopherol (8.80 μg/100 g dw, 3.40 μg/100 g dw and 2.10 μg/100 g dw, respectively). Polyunsaturated fatty acids were predominant, with linoleic acid as the most prominent one (78.40 %). Methanolic extract of chestnut mushroom exhibited high antioxidant activity. Sensory evaluation test included grading by panelists and comparing the overall acceptability of cream cheese alone and enriched cream cheese with dry powder of A. aegerita. General conclusion of the participants was that the newly developed product was more likeable in comparison to cream cheese alone. Due to the health-beneficial effects of antioxidants and wealth of chemically identified nutrients, A. aegerita is a promising starting material for incorporation on larger scale products.

  16. Occurrence of diverse dsRNA in a Korean population of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung-Moon; Kim, Jung-Mi; Chung, Hea-Jong; Lim, Jin-Young; Kwon, Bo-Ra; Lim, Jung-Gu; Kim, Jung-Ae; Kim, Myoung-Ju; Cha, Byeong-Jin; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Yong-Sub; Yang, Moon-Sik; Kim, Dae-Hyuk

    2008-10-01

    We analysed 676 isolates from 33 Korean Cryphonectria parasitica subpopulations in Korea for dsRNA incidence and diversity. dsRNA was detected in 84 isolates. Although the dsRNA banding patterns varied in several minor bands, infected isolates could be categorized into two groups. The most common banding pattern occurred in 77 isolates and contained a 12.7-kb band indicative of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1), and several accompanying minor bands with sizes ranging from 0.9-5kb. Northern blot analysis revealed that all 12.7-kb fragments in the dsRNA-containing isolates hybridized to probes corresponding to open reading frames (ORFs) A and B from the reference CHV1 strain (GenBank accession no. M57938). In addition, the sequence of a 1.4-kb cDNA fragment from a representative isolate of the most common group showed 99% sequence similarity to ORF A of CHV1. However, the other group of seven isolates had distinctive bands of 3.5 and 3.3kb, but not the 12.7-kb band. Sequence comparison showed that cloned fragments of these dsRNAs were similar to those of the coat protein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes of chrysovirus, which indicates the occurrence of chrysovirus in the Korean population. Fungal strain identity was assessed via RFLP analysis of the ITS regions. Among the 84 tested isolates, six had different ITS-RFLP patterns (RFLP-II) from that (RFLP-I) of C. parasitica, and are believed to be C. nitschkei, a sympatric species reported on chestnut trees in Japan. The chrysovirus and CHV1 were detected in strains showing both RFLP patterns. However, the chrysovirus was more frequent in the RFLP-II group.

  17. The price of associating with breeders in the cooperatively breeding chestnut-crowned babbler: foraging constraints, survival and sociality.

    PubMed

    Sorato, Enrico; Griffith, Simon C; Russell, Andy F

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the costs of living with breeders might offer new insights into the factors that counter evolutionary transitions from selfish individuals to cooperative societies. While selection on early dispersal is well understood, it is less clear whether costs are also associated with remaining with family members during subsequent breeding, a prerequisite to the evolution of kin-based cooperation. We propose and test the hypothesis that living in groups containing breeders is costly and that such costs are exacerbated by increasing group size. For example, in group-living central-place foragers, group members might suffer from resource depletion when foraging in a restricted area during breeding and significant costs of repeatedly travelling between foraging patches and the site of offspring. Using the cooperatively breeding chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps), for which grouping during breeding is obligatory, we show that reproduction is associated with substantially reduced foraging areas and evidence of resource depletion, particularly in larger groups. Such effects largely persisted from the onset of incubation through to offspring independence 4-5 months later. All group members, irrespective of their breeder or helper status, lost significant body mass over this period, and, in males, mass loss was associated with reduced interannual survival. Although babblers are constrained from living outside of breeding groups due to high risks of predation and the poor success of breeding without helpers, we suggest that the effects we describe may generally select against group living during breeding attempts in species where constraints to independent breeding and costs of dispersal are less acute.

  18. Radionuclide migration pathways analysis for the Oak Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility on the West Chestnut Ridge site

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, F.G.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Lee, D.W.; Cannon, J.B.; Ketelle, R.H.

    1984-10-01

    A dose-to-man pathways analysis is performed for disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the Central Waste Disposal Facility on the West Chestnut Ridge Site. Both shallow land burial (trench) and aboveground (tumulus) disposal methods are considered. The waste volumes, characteristics, and radionuclide concentrations are those of waste streams anticipated from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The site capacity for the waste streams is determined on the basis of the pathways analysis. The exposure pathways examined include (1) migration and transport of leachate from the waste disposal units to the Clinch River (via the groundwater medium for trench disposal and Ish Creek for tumulus disposal) and (2) those potentially associated with inadvertent intrusion following a 100-year period of institutional control: an individual resides on the site, inhales suspended particles of contaminated dust, ingests vegetables grown on the plot, consumes contaminated water from either an on-site well or from a nearby surface stream, and receives direct exposure from the contaminated soil. It is found that either disposal method would provide effective containment and isolation for the anticipated waste inventory. However, the proposed trench disposal method would provide more effective containment than tumuli because of sorption of some radionuclides in the soil. Persons outside the site boundary would receive radiation doses well below regulatory limits if they were to ingest water from the Clinch River. An inadvertent intruder could receive doses that approach regulatory limits; however, the likelihood of such intrusions and subsequent exposures is remote. 33 references, 31 figures, 28 tables.

  19. Effects of escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb from horse chestnuts on gastrointestinal transit and ileus in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Li, Y; Yoshikawa, M

    1999-08-01

    The effects of saponin fraction and its principal constituents escins Ia (1), Ib (2), IIa (3), and IIb (4) from horse chestnuts on gastrointestinal transit (GIT) and ileus were investigated in mice. Ileus was induced by acetic acid peritoneal irritation or by laparotomy with manipulation. One hour after the oral administration, the saponin fraction (12.5-100 mg/kg) and 14 (12.5-50 mg/ kg, except for 3 at 12.5 mg/kg) dose-dependently accelerated GIT. The optimal effects of the saponin fraction (25 mg/kg) occurred 5-240 min (applied intervals between the fraction and the charcoal meal) after the oral administration. The fraction (12.5-100 mg/ kg) and 1-4 (12.5-50 mg/kg, except for 1 and 2 at 12.5 mg/kg) dose-dependently prevented the inhibition of GIT induced by the acetic acid peritoneal irritation. They (12.5-100mg/kg) also dose-dependently prevented the inhibition of GIT induced by the laparotomy with manipulation. Desacylescins I (5) and II (6) (50 mg/kg) showed no such effects. These results demonstrated that the saponin fraction and 1-4 accelerated GIT and prevented the experimental ileus, and indicate that the 21, 22-acyl groups are essential for the accelerative effects of 1-4. The accelerations of GIT by 1-4 were completely abolished by the pretreatment with streptozotocin (100 mg/kg, iv), but not by the pretreatment with capsaicin (75 mg/kg in total, sc) or atropine (10 mg/kg, sc). These results imply that the sympathetic nervous system may be, but neither capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves nor the cholinergic mechanism, involved in the accelerations of GIT by escins 1-4.

  20. Strategic influence on deep groundwater flow in the Knox Group Copper Ridge dolomite on the West Chestnut Ridge site

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.R.; Ketelle, R.H.

    1987-10-01

    The Copper Ridge Dolomite of the Upper Cambrian Knox Group underlies a site at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, under consideration by the Department of Energy (DOE) for a belowground waste disposal facility. The Copper Ridge was studied for DOE to understand the influence of lithology on deep groundwater flow. Three facies types are distinguished which comprise laterally continuous 1 to 4-m-thick rock units interpreted to represent upward-shallowing depositional cycles having an apparently significant effect on groundwater flow at depth. Rock core observations indicate one of the recurring facies types is characterized by thin to medium-bedded, fine-grained dolostone with planar cryptalgal laminae and thin shaley partings. Distinctive fracturing in this facies type, that may have resulted from regional structural deformation, is considered to be responsible for weathering at depth and the development of stratabound pathways of preferred groundwater flow. In addition, geophysical data suggest that one occurrence of this weathered facies type coincides with an apparent geochemical interface at depth. Geophysical data also indicate the presence of several fluid invasion horizons, traceable outside the study area, which coincide with the unweathered occurrence of this fine-grained facies type. The subcropping of recurrent zones of preferred groundwater flow at the weathered/unweathered interface may define linear traces of enhanced aquifer recharge paralleling geologic strike. Vertical projection of these zones from the weathered/unweathered rock interface to the ground surface may describe areas of enhanced infiltration. Tests to determine the role of stratigraphic controls on groundwater flow are key components of future investigations on West Chestnut Ridge.

  1. ORNL irradiation creep facility

    SciTech Connect

    Reiley, T.C.; Auble, R.L.; Beckers, R.M.; Bloom, E.E.; Duncan, M.G.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, R.H.

    1980-09-01

    A machine was developed at ORNL to measure the rates of elongation observed under irradiation in stressed materials. The source of radiation is a beam of 60 MeV alpha particles from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). This choice allows experiments to be performed which simulate the effects of fast neutrons. A brief review of irradiation creep and experimental constraints associated with each measurement technique is given. Factors are presented which lead to the experimental choices made for the Irradiation Creep Facility (ICF). The ICF consists of a helium-filled chamber which houses a high-precision mechanical testing device. The specimen to be tested must be thermally stabilized with respect to the temperature fluctuations imposed by the particle beam which passes through the specimen. Electrical resistance of the specimen is the temperature control parameter chosen. Very high precision in length measurement and temperature control are required to detect the small elongation rates relevant to irradiation creep in the test periods available (approx. 1 day). The apparatus components and features required for the above are presented in some detail, along with the experimental procedures. The damage processes associated with light ions are discussed and displacement rates are calculated. Recent irradiation creep results are given, demonstrating the suitability of the apparatus for high resolution experiments. Also discussed is the suitability of the ICF for making high precision thermal creep measurements.

  2. Castanea sativa (European Chestnut) Leaf Extracts Rich in Ursene and Oleanene Derivatives Block Staphylococcus aureus Virulence and Pathogenesis without Detectable Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Quave, Cassandra L.; Lyles, James T.; Kavanaugh, Jeffery S.; Nelson, Kate; Parlet, Corey P.; Crosby, Heidi A.; Heilmann, Kristopher P.; Horswill, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean is home to a rich history of medical traditions that have developed under the influence of diverse cultures over millennia. Today, many such traditions are still alive in the folk medical practices of local people. Investigation of botanical folk medicines used in the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections led us to study Castanea sativa (European Chestnut) for its potential antibacterial activity. Here, we report the quorum sensing inhibitory activity of refined and chemically characterized European Chestnut leaf extracts, rich in oleanene and ursene derivatives (pentacyclic triterpenes), against all Staphylococcus aureus accessory gene regulator (agr) alleles. We present layers of evidence of agr blocking activity (IC50 1.56–25 μg mL-1), as measured in toxin outputs, reporter assays hemolytic activity, cytotoxicity studies, and an in vivo abscess model. We demonstrate the extract’s lack of cytotoxicity to human keratinocytes and murine skin, as well as lack of growth inhibitory activity against S. aureus and a panel of skin commensals. Lastly, we demonstrate that serial passaging of the extract does not result in acquisition of resistance to the quorum quenching composition. In conclusion, through disruption of quorum sensing in the absence of growth inhibition, this study provides insight into the role that non-biocide inhibitors of virulence may play in future antibiotic therapies. PMID:26295163

  3. Quality assurance project plan for the Chestnut Ridge Fly Ash Pond Stabilization Project at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The Chestnut Ridge Fly Ash Pond Stabilization (CRFAPS) Project will stabilize a 19-m-high (62-ft-high) earthen embankment across Upper McCoy Branch situated along the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge. This task will be accomplished by raising the crest of the embankment, reinforcing the face of the embankment, removing trees from the face and top of the embankment, and repairing the emergency spillway. The primary responsibilities of the team members are: Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) will be responsible for project integration, technical support, Title 3 field support, environmental oversight, and quality assurance (QA) oversight of the project; Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation (FWENC) will be responsible for design and home office Title 3 support; MK-Ferguson of Oak Ridge Company (MK-F) will be responsible for health and safety, construction, and procurement of construction materials. Each of the team members has a QA program approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations. This project-specific QA project plan (QAPP), which is applicable to all project activities, identifies and integrates the specific QA requirements from the participant`s QA programs that are necessary for this project.

  4. Efficacy test of horse chestnut leaf extract (ALH-L1005) as matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors in ligature-induced periodontitis in canine model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Eun; Kim, Tae Hyun; Park, Shin Ae; Kim, Won Tae; Park, Young Woo; Ahn, Jae Sang; Jeong, Manbok; Kim, Min-Young; Seo, Kangmoon

    2016-08-10

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the main proteinase associated with periodontal tissue destruction and remodeling. Therefore, inhibition of the host-derived MMPs is accounted to play a key role in the prevention and reduction of the periodontitis progression. Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) extracts had been used as a remedy for inflammatory disease, traditionally. This study was performed to assess the clinical effect of ALH-L1005 on the periodontitis as MMPs inhibitor. ALH-L1005 was obtained from horse chestnut leaf and the MMPs inhibitory activities were estimated. Periodontitis was induced in beagles which were assigned to 4 groups and medicated during 6 weeks: LT (ALH-L1005, 100 mg/kg/day), HT (ALH-L1005, 200 mg/kg/day), PC (doxycycline, 10 mg/kg/day), and NC (placebo). Before and after the administration, clinical indices of the teeth and MMPs quantity of gingival tissues using zymography were measured. Clinical conditions of LT, HT and PC groups were significantly improved after 6-week medication. In zymographic evaluations, gelatinolytic and caseinolytic activities were suppressed in LT, HT and PC groups compared to NC groups. These results suggest that ALH-L1005 could be an effective agent for prevention and treatment of periodontitis clinically by inhibiting the activity of gelatinase and collagenase which can detach periodontal ligaments from alveolar bone.

  5. Antiamnesic effects of ethyl acetate fraction from chestnut (Castanea crenata var. dulcis) inner skin on Aβ(25-35)-induced cognitive deficits in mice.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hee-Rok; Jo, Yu Na; Jeong, Ji Hee; Jin, Dong Eun; Song, Byung Gi; Choi, Soo Jung; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Heo, Ho Jin

    2012-12-01

    To investigate neuronal cell protective effects of an ethyl acetate fraction from chestnut inner skin, in vitro assays, including 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), were performed. Intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species resulting from hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) treatment of PC12 cells was significantly reduced when ethyl acetate fractions were present in the medium compared to PC12 cells treated with H(2)O(2) only. In a cell viability assay using MTT, the ethyl acetate fraction protected against H(2)O(2)-induced neurotoxicity, and inhibited LDH release into the medium. In addition, the ethyl acetate fraction improved in vivo cognitive ability against amyloid β-peptide (Aβ)-induced neuronal deficit. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses showed that gallic acid, catechin, and epicatechin were predominant phenolics in the ethyl acetate fraction. Consequently, the results suggest that chestnut inner skin, including above phenolics, could ameliorate Aβ-induced learning and memory deficiency, and be utilized as effective substances for neurodegenerative disorders, notably Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Effects of substituting a concentrated diet for chestnuts on the lipid traits of muscle and adipose tissues in corsican and corsican × large white pigs reared in a sylvo-pastoral system in corsica.

    PubMed

    Coutron-Gambotti, C; Gandemer, G; Casabianca, F

    1998-10-01

    In the sylvo-pastoral extensive system in Corsica, pigs are fattened with chestnuts. The decrease in chestnut resource forces the farmers to use more and more concentrated diets for feeding the pigs but so far they have disregarded the consequences of this on meat quality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of substituting a concentrated diet for chestnuts during the fattening period on the lipid composition of adipose and muscle tissues of ham in Corsican and Corsican × Large-White pigs. The results showed that the Corsican × Large-White pigs had heavier carcasses (125kg versus 106kg) and hams (12·5kg versus 10·2kg) but the genotype affected neither the carcass fatness nor the lipid composition of the adipose and muscle tissues. In addition, compared to chestnuts, the concentrated diet used did not affect live-weight, carcass and ham weights, or the carcass fatness of the pigs at slaughter. However, pigs fattened with a concentrated diet had adipose tissue lipids, intramuscular triglycerides and phospholipids with a lower proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (8·1% versus 6·2%, 5·8% versus 4·5%, and 47·7% versus 37·1%, respectively).

  7. A new integrated test structure for on-chip post-irradiation annealing in MOS devices

    SciTech Connect

    Chabrerie, C.; Flament, O.; Boudenot, J.C.

    1998-06-01

    The authors have developed a prototype test structure (named THERMOS) demonstrating the feasibility and the interest of the on-chip heating in a Silicon-On-Insulator technology. This circuit has been specially designed for the study of post-irradiation effects in a radiation-hardened CMOS technology. Preliminary results are presented here for the on-chip annealing of irradiated n-channel transistors.

  8. FOOD IRRADIATION REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Leyse, C.F.; Putnam, G.E.

    1961-05-01

    An irradiation apparatus is described. It comprises a pressure vessel, a neutronic reactor active portion having a substantially greater height than diameter in the pressure vessel, an annular tank surrounding and spaced from the pressure vessel containing an aqueous indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution of approximately 600 grams per liter concentration, means for circulating separate coolants through the active portion and the space between the annular tank and the pressure vessel, radiator means adapted to receive the materials to be irradiated, and means for flowing the indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution through the radiator means.

  9. Fuel or irradiation subassembly

    DOEpatents

    Seim, O.S.; Hutter, E.

    1975-12-23

    A subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which incorporates a loose bundle of fuel or irradiation pins enclosed within an inner tube which in turn is enclosed within an outer coolant tube and includes a locking comb consisting of a head extending through one side of the inner sleeve and a plurality of teeth which extend through the other side of the inner sleeve while engaging annular undercut portions in the bottom portion of the fuel or irradiation pins to prevent movement of the pins.

  10. Whole bone marrow irradiation for the treatment of multiple myeloma

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, M.; Saletan, S.; Wolf, D.; Nisce, L.; Wasser, J.; McIntyre, O.R.; Tulloh, M.

    1982-04-01

    Nine patients with multiple myeloma were treated with whole bone marrow irradiation. Six had heavily pretreated disease refractory to chemotherapy. Three had stable disease lightly pretreated by chemotherapy. A modification of the ''three and two'' total nodal radiation technique was employed. Although varying and often severe treatment related cytopenia occurred, infectious complications, clinical bleeding, and nonhematalogic complications were minimal. Five of nine patients showed a decrease in monoclonal protein components, and one showed an increase during treatment. These preliminary results indicate that a reduction of tumor cell burden may occur in patients following whole bone marrow irradiation and that the technique is feasible. Whole bone marrow irradiation combined with chemotherapy represents a new conceptual therapeutic approach for multiple myeloma.

  11. Effects of long-term supplementation of chestnut and valonea extracts on methane release, digestibility and nitrogen excretion in sheep.

    PubMed

    Wischer, G; Greiling, A M; Boguhn, J; Steingass, H; Schollenberger, M; Hartung, K; Rodehutscord, M

    2014-06-01

    The long-term effects of adding chestnut (CHE; Castanea sativa) and valonea (VAL; Quercus valonea) tannin-rich extracts to sheep feed were investigated. In Experiment 1, sheep (65 kg BW) were fed 842 g/day of a ryegrass-based hay. The control-treated animals (CON) received 464 g/day of concentrate, and tannin-treated animals received the same amount of concentrate additionally containing 20 g of the respective tannin-rich extract. Hay and concentrates were offered together in one meal. After the onset of treatment, methane release was measured in respiration chambers for 23.5-h intervals (nine times) in a 190-days period. Faeces and urine were collected three times (including once before the onset of the tannin treatment) to assess digestibility and urinary excretion of purine derivatives. Based on the results obtained from Experiment 1, a second experiment (Experiment 2) was initiated, in which the daily tannin dosage was almost doubled (from 0.9 (Experiment 1) to 1.7 g/kg BW0.75). With the exception of the dosage and duration of the treatment (85 days), Experiment 2 followed the same design as Experiment 1, with the same measurements. In an attempt to compare in vitro and in vivo effects of tannin supplementation, the same substrates and tannin treatments were examined in the Hohenheim gas test. In vitro methane production was not significantly different between treatments. None of the tannin-rich extract doses induced a reduction in methane in the sheep experiments. On the 1st day of tannin feeding in both experiments, tannin inclusion tended to decrease methane release, but this trend disappeared by day 14 in both experiments. In balance period 3 of Experiment 1, lower dry matter and organic matter digestibility was noted for tannin treatments. The digestibility of CP, but not NDF or ADF, was reduced in both experiments. A significant shift in N excretion from urine to faeces was observed for both tannin-rich extracts in both experiments, particularly in

  12. Irradiating insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a non-technical article focusing on phytosanitary uses of irradiation. In a series of interview questions, I present information on the scope of the invasive species problem and the contribution of international trade in agricultural products to the movement of invasive insects. This is foll...

  13. Update on meat irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.

    1997-12-01

    The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petition is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at {approximately}2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food irradiation clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of irradiated meat and poultry.

  14. Phytosanitary applications of irradiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytosanitary treatments are used to disinfest agricultural commodities of quarantine pests so the commodities can be shipped across quarantine barriers to trade. Ionizing irradiation is a promising treatment that is increasing in use. Almost 19,000 tons of sweet potatoes and several fruits, plus ...

  15. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zeala...

  16. NSUF Irradiated Materials Library

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, James Irvin

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Science User Facilities has been in the process of establishing an innovative Irradiated Materials Library concept for maximizing the value of previous and on-going materials and nuclear fuels irradiation test campaigns, including utilization of real-world components retrieved from current and decommissioned reactors. When the ATR national scientific user facility was established in 2007 one of the goals of the program was to establish a library of irradiated samples for users to access and conduct research through competitively reviewed proposal process. As part of the initial effort, staff at the user facility identified legacy materials from previous programs that are still being stored in laboratories and hot-cell facilities at the INL. In addition other materials of interest were identified that are being stored outside the INL that the current owners have volunteered to enter into the library. Finally, over the course of the last several years, the ATR NSUF has irradiated more than 3500 specimens as part of NSUF competitively awarded research projects. The Logistics of managing this large inventory of highly radioactive poses unique challenges. This document will describe materials in the library, outline the policy for accessing these materials and put forth a strategy for making new additions to the library as well as establishing guidelines for minimum pedigree needed to be included in the library to limit the amount of material stored indefinitely without identified value.

  17. Food irradiation: Activities and potentialities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doellstaedt, R.; Huebner, G.

    After the acceptance of food irradiation up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy recommended by the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food in October 1980, the G.D.R. started a programme for the development of techniques for food irradiation. A special onion irradiator was designed and built as a pilot plant for studying technological and economic parameters of the irradiation of onions. The new principle of bulk-cargo irradiation allows the integration of this technology into the usual harvest technology for onions on the way from field to storage. Scientific and applied research work has been carried out in the past 3 yr on the irradiation of spices, potatoes, eviscerated chicken, animal feeds, fodder yeast, drugs and vaccines. In connection with the irradiation of eviscerated chicken, fodder yeast and animal feeds the basis of an antisalmonella programme has been discussed. Germ-count-reduced spices were employed for the production of test charges of preserves and tinned products. The results have led to the decision to design and build a new multipurpose irradiator for food irradiation. In order to cover the legal aspects of food irradiation the Ministry of Health issued regulations concerning the recommendation of irradiated food in the G.D.R.

  18. Beneficial uses of nuclear byproducts/sewage sludge irradiation project. Progress report, October 1981-March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Zak, B.D.

    1982-12-01

    A cooperative agreement was made between Albuquerque and DOE during FY81 for sewage sludge irradiation in upgrading the sewage treatment facilities. Other potential sites for implementation of sludge irradiation technology were also considered. Sludge was irradiated in the SIDSS for agronomy and animal feeding experiments. Sludge was also irradiated for use on turf areas. Cooperative work was also performed on grapefruit irradiation for fruit fly disinfestation, and on irradiation of sugar cane waste (bagasse) for enhanced ruminant digestibility. Preliminary design work began on a shipping cask to accomodate WESF Cs-137 capsules. The shielding performance, steady-state thermal response, and response to specified regulatory accident sequences have been evaluated. Work has been initiated on pathogen survival and post-irradiation pathogen behavior. Agronomy field, greenhouse, and soil chemistry studies continue. Various field experiments are ongoing. The fifth year of a five-year program to evaluate the potential use of a sludge product as a range feed supplement for cows is now in its fifth year. In agricultural economics, a preliminary marketing plan has been prepared for Albuquerque.

  19. Preliminary evaluation of implantable MOSFET radiation dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Beddar, A S; Salehpour, M; Briere, T M; Hamidian, H; Gillin, M T

    2005-01-07

    In this paper, we report on measurements performed on a new prototype implantable radiation detector that uses metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) designed for in vivo dosimetry. The dosimeters, which are encapsulated in hermetically sealed glass cylinders, are used in an unbiased mode during irradiation, unlike other MOSFET detectors previously used in radiotherapy applications. They are powered by radio frequency telemetry for dose measurements, obviating the need for a power supply within each capsule. We have studied the dosimetric characteristics of these MOSFET detectors in vitro under irradiation from a 60Co source. The detectors show a dose reproducibility generally within 5% or better, with the main sources of error being temperature fluctuations occurring between the pre- and post-irradiation measurements as well as detector orientation. A better temperature-controlled environment leads to a reproducibility within 2%. Our preliminary in vitro results show clearly that true non-invasive in vivo dosimetry measurements are feasible and can be performed remotely using telemetric technology.

  20. Solar flare irradiation records in Antarctic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goswami, J. N.

    1981-01-01

    The observation of tracks from solar flare heavy nuclei in Antarctic meteorite samples is reported. In an analysis of nuclear track densities in eight L and H chondrites of low metamorphic grade, it was found that two interior specimens of sample 77216, an L-3 chondrite, contain olivine grains with track densities much higher than the average track densities, indicating precompaction irradiation by solar flares in different shielding conditions. Preliminary data from mass spectroscopic analyses show a large excess of noble gases, with a Ne-20/Ne-22 ratio of greater than or equal to 10, indicating the presence of solar-type noble gas. Results of track density measurements in the other Antarctic meteorites range from 10,000 to 4,000,000/sq cm, which is within the range observed in non-Antarctic L-group meteorites

  1. Preliminary Drill Sites

    DOE Data Explorer

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Preliminary locations for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or resource confirmation wells based on compilation of geological, geophysical and geochemical data prior to carrying out the DOE-funded reflection seismic survey.

  2. ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF SOLIDS

    DOEpatents

    Damask, A.C.

    1959-11-01

    A method is presented for altering physical properties of certain solids, such as enhancing the usefulness of solids, in which atomic interchange occurs through a vacancy mechanism, electron irradiation, and temperature control. In a centain class of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, diffusion or displacement of atoms occurs through a vacancy mechanism, i.e., an atom can only move when there exists a vacant atomic or lattice site in an adjacent position. In the process of the invention highenergy electron irradiation produces additional vacancies in a solid over those normally occurring at a given temperature and allows diffusion of the component atoms of the solid to proceed at temperatures at which it would not occur under thermal means alone in any reasonable length of time. The invention offers a precise way to increase the number of vacancies and thereby, to a controlled degree, change the physical properties of some materials, such as resistivity or hardness.

  3. BIOLOGICAL IRRADIATION FACILITY

    DOEpatents

    McCorkle, W.H.; Cern, H.S.

    1962-04-24

    A facility for irradiating biological specimens with neutrons is described. It includes a reactor wherein the core is off center in a reflector. A high-exposure room is located outside the reactor on the side nearest the core while a low-exposure room is located on the opposite side. Means for converting thermal neutrons to fast neutrons are movably disposed between the reactor core and the high and low-exposure rooms. (AEC)

  4. Surface segregation during irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rehn, L.E.; Lam, N.Q.

    1985-10-01

    Gibbsian adsorption is known to alter the surface composition of many alloys. During irradiation, four additional processes that affect the near-surface alloy composition become operative: preferential sputtering, displacement mixing, radiation-enhanced diffusion and radiation-induced segregation. Because of the mutual competition of these five processes, near-surface compositional changes in an irradiation environment can be extremely complex. Although ion-beam induced surface compositional changes were noted as long as fifty years ago, it is only during the past several years that individual mechanisms have been clearly identified. In this paper, a simple physical description of each of the processes is given, and selected examples of recent important progress are discussed. With the notable exception of preferential sputtering, it is shown that a reasonable qualitative understanding of the relative contributions from the individual processes under various irradiation conditions has been attained. However, considerably more effort will be required before a quantitative, predictive capability can be achieved. 29 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Biparental incubation in the chestnut-vented tit-babbler Parisoma subcaeruleum: Mates devote equal time, but males keep eggs warmer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auer, S.K.; Bassar, R.D.; Martin, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    Biparental care in birds is less common during incubation than in other nesting stages. Males share in incubating eggs in a minority of bird species, and male effort is generally thought to be lower than females when sharing does occur. However, male assistance and incubation efficacy is poorly studied in such species. We examined sex differences in incubation effort in 12 pairs of a species with biparental incubation, the chestnut-vented tit-babbler Parisoma subcaeruleum. Males and females did not differ in the amount of time spent incubating during the day, time of day spent incubating, nor in their ability to rewarm eggs. Yet, males consistently maintained eggs at higher temperatures than their female partners, despite the absence of a brood patch. ?? Journal of Avian Biology.

  6. Population density and total biomass of microbial communities in chestnut soils and solonetzes of the dry steppe zone in the Lower Volga region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashirskaya, N. N.; Khomutova, T. E.; Chernysheva, E. V.; El'tsov, M. V.; Demkin, V. A.

    2015-03-01

    The population density and total biomass of microbial communities were determined in chestnut soils and solonetzes of the dry steppe zone in the Lower Volga region with the use of the methods of sequential fractionation of the soil and direct counting. The mean weighted values of the population density of the microbial communities in the soil profiles (A1 + B1 + B2 horizons) in the studied soils varied within 3.8-8.0 × 1011 cells/g of soil. The total microbial biomass in the soils of the Privolzhskaya Upland reached 0.9-2.4 mg C/g of soil; in the soils of the Ergeni Upland, it was 20 to 75% lower. The microbial cells in the soils of the Privolzhskaya Upland were larger than those in the soils of the Ergeni Upland. Sequential fractionation of the soil prior to direct counting contributed to the more complete assessment of the population density of the microbial communities.

  7. The chestnut blight fungus for studies on virus/host and virus/virus interactions: from a natural to a model host.

    PubMed

    Eusebio-Cope, Ana; Sun, Liying; Tanaka, Toru; Chiba, Sotaro; Kasahara, Shin; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2015-03-01

    The chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, is an important plant pathogenic ascomycete. The fungus hosts a wide range of viruses and now has been established as a model filamentous fungus for studying virus/host and virus/virus interactions. This is based on the development of methods for artificial virus introduction and elimination, host genome manipulability, available host genome sequence with annotations, host mutant strains, and molecular tools. Molecular tools include sub-cellular distribution markers, gene expression reporters, and vectors with regulatable promoters that have been long available for unicellular organisms, cultured cells, individuals of animals and plants, and certain filamentous fungi. A comparison with other filamentous fungi such as Neurospora crassa has been made to establish clear advantages and disadvantages of C. parasitica as a virus host. In addition, a few recent studies on RNA silencing vs. viruses in this fungus are introduced.

  8. Fabrication and Preliminary Evaluation of Metal Matrix Microencapsulated Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Terrani, Kurt A; Kiggans, Jim; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2012-01-01

    The metal matrix microencapsulated (M3) fuel concept for light water reactors (LWRs), consisting of coated fuel particles dispersed in a zirconium metal matrix, is introduced. Fabrication of M3 fuels by hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing, or extrusion methodologies has been demonstrated over the temperature range 800-1050 C. Various types of coated fuel particles with outermost layers of pyrocarbon, SiC, ZrC, and TiN have been incorporated into the zirconium metal matrix. Mechanical particle-particle and chemical particle-matrix interactions have been observed during the preliminary characterization of as-fabricated M3 specimens. Irradiation of three M3 rodlets with surrogate coated fuel particles was carried out at mean rod temperature of 400 C to 4.6 dpa in the zirconium metal matrix. Due to absence of texture in the metal matrix no irradiation growth strain (<0.09%) was detected during the post-irradiation examination.

  9. The success of the horse-chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella, in the UK revealed with hypothesis-led citizen science.

    PubMed

    Pocock, Michael J O; Evans, Darren M

    2014-01-01

    Citizen science is an increasingly popular way of undertaking research and simultaneously engaging people with science. However, most emphasis of citizen science in environmental science is on long-term monitoring. Here, we demonstrate the opportunities provided by short-term hypothesis-led citizen science. In 2010, we ran the 'Conker Tree Science' project, in which over 3500 people in Great Britain provided data at a national scale of an insect (horse-chestnut leaf-mining moth, Cameraria ohridella) undergoing rapid range-expansion. We addressed two hypotheses, and found that (1) the levels of damage caused to leaves of the horse-chestnut tree, Aesculus hippocastanum, and (2) the level of attack by parasitoids of C. ohridella larvae were both greatest where C. ohridella had been present the longest. Specifically there was a rapid rise in leaf damage during the first three years that C. ohridella was present and only a slight rise thereafter, while estimated rates of parasitism (an index of true rates of parasitism) increased from 1.6 to 5.9% when the time C. ohridella had been present in a location increased from 3 to 6 years. We suggest that this increase is due to recruitment of native generalist parasitoids, rather than the adaptation or host-tracking of more specialized parasitoids, as appears to have occurred elsewhere in Europe. Most data collected by participants were accurate, but the counts of parasitoids from participants showed lower concordance with the counts from experts. We statistically modeled this bias and propagated this through our analyses. Bias-corrected estimates of parasitism were lower than those from the raw data, but the trends were similar in magnitude and significance. With appropriate checks for data quality, and statistically correcting for biases where necessary, hypothesis-led citizen science is a potentially powerful tool for carrying out scientific research across large spatial scales while simultaneously engaging many people with

  10. Mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers reveal a Balkan origin for the highly invasive horse-chestnut leaf miner Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae).

    PubMed

    Valade, R; Kenis, M; Hernandez-Lopez, A; Augustin, S; Mari Mena, N; Magnoux, E; Rougerie, R; Lakatos, F; Roques, A; Lopez-Vaamonde, C

    2009-08-01

    Biological invasions usually start with a small number of founder individuals. These founders are likely to represent a small fraction of the total genetic diversity found in the source population. Our study set out to trace genetically the geographical origin of the horse-chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella, an invasive microlepidopteran whose area of origin is still unkown. Since its discovery in Macedonia 25 years ago, this insect has experienced an explosive westward range expansion, progressively colonizing all of Central and Western Europe. We used cytochrome oxidase I sequences (DNA barcode fragment) and a set of six polymorphic microsatellites to assess the genetic variability of C. ohridella populations, and to test the hypothesis that C. ohridella derives from the southern Balkans (Albania, Macedonia and Greece). Analysis of mtDNA of 486 individuals from 88 localities allowed us to identify 25 geographically structured haplotypes. In addition, 480 individuals from 16 populations from Europe and the southern Balkans were genotyped for 6 polymorphic microsatellite loci. High haplotype diversity and low measures of nucleotide diversities including a significantly negative Tajima's D indicate that C. ohridella has experienced rapid population expansion during its dispersal across Europe. Both mtDNA and microsatellites show a reduction in genetic diversity of C. ohridella populations sampled from artificial habitats (e.g. planted trees in public parks, gardens, along roads in urban or sub-urban areas) across Europe compared with C. ohridella sampled in natural stands of horse-chestnuts in the southern Balkans. These findings suggest that European populations of C. ohridella may indeed derive from the southern Balkans.

  11. FDA perspective on food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pauli, G.H.

    1994-12-31

    The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) monitors the safety of food irradiation. A few limited uses are regulated, and occasionally CFSAN receives a petition for a new use. Despite extensive studies (more than 400) showing the safety of food irradiation, a cloud of suspicion continues to hang over this issue in the mind of the public. People perceive food irradiation and direct body irradiation as having similar implications. Food irradiation is banned in two states in the United States. Food is irradiated for the following purposes: delay of ripening, prevention of sprouting, eradication of pests and sterilization, and allowing commodities to be stored unrefrigerated for long periods of time. The dosage depends on the purpose of the irradiation. Radiolytic products are formed during irradiation and during storage afterward. Most of these products are also formed during conventional preservation. In 1980, CFSAN, then the Bureau of Foods, introduced the term unique radiolytic products for compounds not identified in foods after conventional processing. Although the existence of URPs was never proven chemically, the term has caused anxiety. Irradiation of foods in the commercially useful range does not generate radioactivity above natural background. Because radiolytic products formed from beef, chicken, and pork are primarily the same, irradiated foods of similar food groups may be evaluated generically.

  12. Replacement of 137Cs irradiators with x-ray irradiators.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Brian; Vetter, Richard J

    2009-02-01

    Self-shielded 137Cs irradiators have been used for many years to irradiate blood products to prevent graft vs. host disease and to irradiate cells and small animals in research. A report by the National Academy of Sciences recommends that careful consideration be given to replacement of 137Cs irradiators with x-ray irradiators. Several manufacturers and users of x-ray irradiators were contacted to determine costs of replacing and maintaining 137Cs irradiators with x-ray units and to assess users' experience with x-ray irradiators. Purchase costs of x-ray units are similar to 137Cs irradiators, but maintenance costs are significantly higher if annual service contracts are used. Performance of the two irradiator types appears to be equivalent, but in some cases x-ray irradiations may need to be performed in multiple configurations to achieve adequate uniformity in dose. No literature reports were found that evaluated the biological effectiveness of x rays vs. 137Cs gamma rays; therefore, a careful study should be conducted to determine the biological effectiveness of x rays vs. 137Cs gamma rays for biological responses relevant to transfusion medicine and immunological research. Throughput may be problematic for large transfusion medicine programs, and back-up plans may be necessary in case the x-ray unit needs to be taken out of service for extended maintenance. Disposition of a 137Cs irradiator will add to the cost of replacement with an x-ray unit, but disposal may be possible through the U.S. Department of Energy's Off-Site Source Recovery Program.

  13. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeological Regime, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1995 Groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1995 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number for the Y-12 Plant is TN.

  14. Craniospinal irradiation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Scarlatescu, Ioana Avram, Calin N.; Virag, Vasile

    2015-12-07

    In this paper we present one treatment plan for irradiation cases which involve a complex technique with multiple beams, using the 3D conformational technique. As the main purpose of radiotherapy is to administrate a precise dose into the tumor volume and protect as much as possible all the healthy tissues around it, for a case diagnosed with a primitive neuro ectoderm tumor, we have developed a new treatment plan, by controlling one of the two adjacent fields used at spinal field, in a way that avoids the fields superposition. Therefore, the risk of overdose is reduced by eliminating the field divergence.

  15. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Data for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). Groundwater monitoring is performed at several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities located in the regime per the requirements of applicable operating/post closure permits and governing state/federal regulations and guidelines, including DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A require evaluation of available monitoring data with regard to: (1) groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by Y-12 Plant operations, (2) the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) long-term trends in groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant. This report presents the results of these DOE Order 5400.1A evaluations based on available data for the network of monitoring wells and springs in the Chestnut Ridge Regime sampled during calendar year (CY) 1998. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the illustrations (maps and trend graphs) and data summary tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

  16. Establishing American Chestnut Test Orchards on two TNARNG Installations: Contributing to the Efforts to Restore an Ecological and Cultural Giant to the Forest Ecosystems of the Eastern United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-23

    readiness. Because the orchards were to be direct seeded and chestnut seeds germinate and survive best when planted by early March, there was not...For purposes 1) healthy ger planting locat category, also planting of a s falling from a were planted. made to find t Seed success germinants th...between the Germinants Dead Failed seed Undetermined oosa as of ted d) will contin the American site on three f DY = se (b D = dea d DS = de

  17. Remedial investigation report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This report comprises appendices A--J which support the Y-12 Plant`s remedial action report involving Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch). The appendices cover the following: Sampling fish from McCoy Branch; well and piezometer logs; ecological effects of contaminants in McCoy Branch 1989-1990; heavy metal bioaccumulation data; microbes in polluted sediments; and baseline human health risk assessment data.

  18. Isolation of TIR and non-TIR NBS--LRR resistance gene analogues and identification of molecular markers linked to a powdery mildew resistance locus in chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt).

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Wen, Xiaopeng; Deng, Xiuxin

    2005-09-01

    Toll and interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) and non-TIR nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR) resistance gene analogues (RGAs) were obtained from chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) by two PCR-based amplification strategies (direct amplification and overlap extension amplification) with degenerate primers designed to the conserved P-loop, kinase-2, and Gly-Leu-Pro-Leu (GLPL) motifs within the NBS domain of plant resistance gene (R gene) products. Thirty-four of 65 cloned PCR fragments contained a continuous open reading frame (ORF) and their predicted protein products showed homology to the NBS-LRR class R proteins in the GenBank database. These 34 predicted protein sequences exhibited a wide range (19.5--99.4%) of sequence identity among them and were classified into two distinct groups by phylogenetic analysis. The first group consisted of 23 sequences and seemed to belong to the non-TIR NBS-LRR RGAs, since they contained group specific motifs (RNBS-A-non-TIR motif) that are often present in the coiled-coil domain of the non-TIR NBS-LRR class R genes. The second group comprised 11 sequences that contained motifs found in the TIR domain of TIR NBS-LRR class R genes. Restriction fragment length polymorphic (RFLP) markers were developed from some of the RGAs and used for mapping powdery mildew resistance genes in chestnut rose. Three markers, RGA 22 C, RGA 4 A, and RGA 7 B, were identified to be linked to a resistance gene locus, designated CRPM 1 for chestnut rose powdery mildew resistance 1, which accounted for 72% of the variation in powdery mildew resistance phenotype in an F1 segregating population. To our knowledge, this is the first report on isolation, phylogenetic analysis and potential utilization as genetic markers of RGAs in chestnut rose.

  19. Irradiation of northwest agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, D. E.; Tingey, G. I.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect ocntrol procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, this program was conducted to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

  20. Food irradiation and the consumer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A Thomas, P.

    The poster presents a review of research work undertaken on the perception and understanding that consumers have of food irradiation. Food irradiation is not a revolutionary new food processing technique, in fact it is probably one of the most investigated methods presently available. Many countries such as Belgium, France, Denmark, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands and the United States of America permit food irradiation. In Britain it is presently banned although this is currently under review. Awareness of food irradiation by the general public in Britain, although not extensively researched would appear to be increasing, especially in the light of recent media coverage. New quantitative and qualitative work indicates that the general public are concerned about the safety and effectiveness of food irradiation. Research has shown that a large proportion of consumers in Britain, if given the opportunity to purchase irradiated food, would not do so. Further exploration into this response revealed the fact that consumers are confused over what food irradiation is. In addition, there is concern over the detection of irradiated food. The views presented in this paper, of the consumer reaction to irradiated food are of great importance to those involved in the food industry and industries allied to it, which are ultimately dependent on the consumer for their commercial survival.

  1. Food irradiation and sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  2. Wholesomeness of irradiated food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlermann, Dieter A. E.

    2016-12-01

    Just with the emergence of the idea to treat food by ionizing radiation, the concerns were voiced whether it would be safe to consume such food. Now, we look back on more than hundred years of research into the 'wholesomeness', a terminology developed during those efforts. This review will cover the many questions which had been raised, explaining the most relevant ones in some detail; it will also give place to the concerns and elucidate their scientific relevance and background. There has never been any other method of food processing studied in such depth and in such detail as food irradiation. The conclusion based on science is: Consumption of any food treated at any high dose is safe, as long as the food remains palatable. This conclusion has been adopted by WHO, also by international and national bodies. Finally, this finding has also been adopted by Codex Alimentarius in 2003, the international standard for food. However, this conclusion has not been adopted and included at its full extent in most national regulations. As the literature about wholesomeness of irradiated food is abundant, this review will use only a few, most relevant references, which will guide the reader to further reading.

  3. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 2000 Groundwater Monitoring Data Evaluation Report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 2000 from sampling locations in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure A.1). Prepared by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), this monitoring data evaluation report addresses applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1 -- General Environmental Protection Program -- that require: (1) an evaluation of the quantity and quality of groundwater in areas that are, or could be, impacted by Y-12 operations, (2) an evaluation of the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants from Y-12 facilities are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) an evaluation of long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1 (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). Illustrations (maps and trend graphs) and data summary tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

  4. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This annual groundwater report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual groundwater report for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two-parts; Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline.

  5. Ultraviolet irradiation in transplantation biology. Manipulation of immunity and immunogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.

    1988-05-01

    Ultraviolet irradiation, particularly in the UVB range, has profound effects on immunological mechanisms. Optimum and tolerable doses of exposure vary from species to species, and from organ to organ. As a result of limited depth penetration and possibly significant energy absorption in nontargeted cells, every model requires diligent determination of an effective nontoxic approach. Nevertheless, it is clear that UVB and UVC irradiation can abolish proliferative and stimulatory ability as well as accessory/antigen-presenting ability of leukocytes in vitro. UV treatment alters cell-surface properties, calcium mobilization, cytokine production and release, and other subcellular processes. Preliminary data suggest that these manipulations also suppress immunity and reduce immunogenicity in vivo. Exposure of solid organs and of large volumes of blood is difficult due to technical problems--in particular poor depth penetration and absorption of UV energy in generally available transfusion bags. 111 references.

  6. Preliminary Cruise Report - Iguana Expedition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A preliminary cruise report of Expedition Iguana , 31 March 1972-11 May 1972, gives some preliminary results, list of equipment and, personnel, stations and data gathered, and track and topographic plots. (Author)

  7. Preliminary AirMSPI Datasets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-06

    ... Preliminary AirMSPI Datasets   The data files available through this web page and ftp links are preliminary ... geometric corrections. Caution should be used for science analysis. At a later date, more qualified versions will be made public.   ...

  8. White spot syndrome virus inactivation study by using gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidareh, Marzieh; Sedeh, Farahnaz Motamedi; Soltani, Mehdi; Rajabifar, Saeed; Afsharnasab, Mohammad; Dashtiannasab, Aghil

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). White spot syndrome virus is a pathogen of major economic importance in cultured penaeid shrimp industries. White spot disease can cause mortalities reaching 100% within 3-10 days of gross signs appearing. During the period of culture, immunostimulant agents and vaccines may provide potential methods to protect shrimps from opportunistic and pathogenic microrganisms. In this study, firstly, WSSV was isolated from infected shrimp and then multiplied in crayfish. WSSV was purified from the infected crayfish haemolymph by sucrose gradient and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. In vivo virus titration was performed in shrimp, Penaeus semisulcatus. The LD50 of live virus stock was calculated 10 5.4/mL. Shrimp post-larvae (1-2 g) were treated with gamma-irradiated (different doses) WSSV (100 to 10-4 dilutions) for a period of 10 days. The dose/survival curve for irradiated and un-irradiated WSSV was drawn; the optimum dose range for inactivation of WSSV and unaltered antigenicity was obtained 14-15 kGy. This preliminary information suggests that shrimp appear to benefit from treatment with gammairradiated WSSV especially at 14-15 KGy.

  9. Authentication of the botanical origin of honey by front-face fluorescence spectroscopy. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ruoff, Kaspar; Karoui, Romdhane; Dufour, Eric; Luginbühl, Werner; Bosset, Jacques-Olivier; Bogdanov, Stefan; Amado, Renato

    2005-03-09

    The potential of front-face fluorescence spectroscopy for the authentication of unifloral and polyfloral honey types (n = 57 samples) previously classified using traditional methods such as chemical, pollen, and sensory analysis was evaluated. Emission spectra were recorded between 280 and 480 nm (excit: 250 nm), 305 and 500 nm (excit: 290 nm), and 380 and 600 nm (excit: 373 nm) directly on honey samples. In addition, excitation spectra (290-440 nm) were recorded with the emission measured at 450 nm. A total of four different spectral data sets were considered for data analysis. After normalization of the spectra, chemometric evaluation of the spectral data was carried out using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The rate of correct classification ranged from 36% to 100% by using single spectral data sets (250, 290, 373, 450 nm) and from 73% to 100% by combining these four data sets. For alpine polyfloral honey and the unifloral varieties investigated (acacia, alpine rose, honeydew, chestnut, and rape), correct classification ranged from 96% to 100%. This preliminary study indicates that front-face fluorescence spectroscopy is a promising technique for the authentication of the botanical origin of honey. It is nondestructive, rapid, easy to use, and inexpensive. The use of additional excitation wavelengths between 320 and 440 nm could increase the correct classification of the less characteristic fluorescent varieties.

  10. Commercial implementation of food irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welt, M. A.

    In July 1981, the first specifically designed multi-purpose irradiation facility for food irradiation was put into service by the Radiation Technology, Inc. subsidiary Process Technology, Inc. in West Memphis, Arkansas. The operational experience gained, resulted in an enhanced design which was put into commercial service in Haw River, North Carolina, by another subsidiary, Process Technology (N.C.), Inc. in October 1983. These facilities have enabled the food industry to assess the commercial viability of food irradiation. Further impetus towards commercialization of food irradiation was gained in March 1981 with the filing in the Federal Register, by the FDA, of an Advanced Proposed Notice of Rulemaking for Food Irradiation. Two years later in July 1983, the FDA approved the first food additive regulation involving food irradiation in nineteen years, when they approved the Radiation Technology, Inc. petition calling for the sanitization of spices, onion powder and garlic powder at a maximum dosage of 10 kGy. Since obtaining the spice irradiation approval, the FDA has accepted four additional petitions for filing in the Federal Register. One of the petitions which extended spice irradiation to include insect disinfestation has issued into a regulation while the remaining petitions covering the sanitization of herbs, spice blends, vegetable seasonings and dry powdery enzymes as well as the petition to irradiate hog carcasses and pork products for trichinae control at 1 kGy, are expected to issue either before the end of 1984 or early in 1985. More recently, food irradiation advocates in the United States received another vote of confidence by the announcement that a joint venture food irradiation facility to be constructed in Hawaii by Radiation Technology, is backed by a contractual committment for the processing of 40 million pounds of produce per year. Another step was taken when the Port of Salem, New Jersey announced that the Radiation Technology Model RT-4104

  11. A Study of Irradiation Stability of Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Aitkaliyeva, Assel; Martin, Michael; Shao, Lin; Peng, Luohan; Saenz, Daniel; Wijesundera, Dharshana; Wang Xuemei; Chu, W.-K.

    2009-03-10

    We report preliminary results on studying the radiation stability of carbon nanotubes (CNs). Three different combinations of radiation and in situ characterization are used. Experiments include 30 keV electron bombardment with in situ characterization using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), 30 keV Ga ion bombardment with in situ SEM characterization, and 2 MeV proton irradiation with in situ electric resistance measurements. The study shows the degradation of CNs with dimensional shrinkage upon radiation, and the existence of a quasi steady state of defect creation and annealing.

  12. Study of neutron irradiation-induced colors in Brazilian topaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, A. S.; Krambrock, K.; Ribeiro, L. G. M.; Menezes, M. Â. B. C.; Vermaercke, P.; Sneyers, L.

    2007-09-01

    In this work, preliminary results of the investigation of the coloring mechanisms in topaz from different regions of Brazil, irradiated by the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 and BR1 nuclear reactors of the CDTN/CNEN (Brazil) and SCK.CEN(Belgium), respectively, are presented . The samples were analyzed by the k0-NAA method for impurities and total activity. The color and color centers were investigated by optical absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The total integrated flux dependence of the induced blue colors and color centers is discussed.

  13. Pallet irradiators for food processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, R. G.; Chu, R. D. H.

    This paper looks at the various design concepts for the irradiation processing of food products, with particular emphasis on handling the products on pallets. Pallets appear to offer the most attractive method for handling foods from many considerations. Products are transported on pallets. Warehouse space is commonly designed for pallet storage and, if products are already palletized before and after irradiation, then labour could be saved by irradiating on pallets. This is also an advantage for equipment operation since a larger carrier volume means lower operation speeds. Different pallet irradiator design concepts are examined and their suitability for several applications are discussed. For example, low product holdup for fast turn around will be a consideration for those operating an irradiation "service" business; others may require a very large source where efficiency is the primary requirement and this will not be consistent with low holdup. The radiation performance characteristics and processing costs of these machines are discussed.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of beta-spodumene as a fusion reactor structural material

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, P.V. Jr.; Schmunk, R.E.; Henslee, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Beta-spodumene was investigated as a candidate material for use in fusion reactor environments. Properties which support the use of beta-spodumene include good thermal shock resistance, a very low coefficient of thermal expansion, a low-Z composition which would result in minimum impact on the plasma, and flexibility in fabrication processes. Specimens were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to a fluence of 5.3 x 10/sup 22/ n/m/sup 2/, E > 0.1 MeV, and 4.9 x 10/sup 23/ n/m/sup 2/ thermal fluence in order to obtain a preliminary evaluation of the impact of irradiation on the material. Preliminary data indicate that the mechanical properties of beta-spodumene are little affected by irradiation. Gas production and release have also been investigated.

  15. Endocrine function after immunosuppression of pancreatic allograft by ionizing irradiation in the primate

    SciTech Connect

    Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.; Smit, B.; Louw, G.; Zuurmond, T.; Laker, L.; Els, D.; Weideman, A.; Wolfe-Coote, S.; Du Toit, L.B.

    1986-05-01

    The object of this preliminary study was to evaluate the endocrine function after heterotopic intraperitoneal segmental pancreatic allotransplantation with unligated duct in irradiated, totally pancreatectomized primates. All allograft recipients received, pre- and peroperative donor-specific blood transfusions and peroperative external irradiation from a linear accelerator; 200 rads was administered weekly and increased to a total dose of 1,500 rads. Pancreatic transplantation was performed between 2 and 6 weeks after completion of irradiation and preoperative blood transfusions. As previously reported, only minimal pancreatic allograft survival was achieved following preoperative irradiation. One recipient remained normoglycaemic for greater than 100 days after transplantation, the longest surviving pancreatic allograft recipient reported from this laboratory. Intravenous glucose tolerance test results in this recipient revealed normoglycaemia, reduced K-value, hypoinsulinaemia, normal glucagon response, reduced C-peptide values, and moderate glucose intolerance. Aortography and electron-microscopic examination of allograft biopsy tissue confirmed the presence of a functioning allograft.

  16. Nanocrystals distribution inside the writing lines in a glass matrix using Argon laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Haro-González, P; Martín, I R; Creus, Alberto Hernández

    2010-01-18

    Localized modification in strontium barium niobate glass doped with Ho(3+) under laser irradiation has been carried out. The preliminary samples of this study have been fabricated by the melt quenching method and doped with 2.5% mol of Ho(3+). A 3.5W cw multiline Ar-laser has been focused and shifted in a line during laser irradiation. The formation of Strontium Barium Niobate nanocrystals has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope image and fluorescence. They have been localized in the irradiation line and change the optical properties of the sample. These nanocrystals have been obtained due to the excitation of the Ho(3+) ions which under nonradiative processes produced the heating of the sample. In this work, it has been demonstrated that the diffusion of the Nb(5+) ions to the border of the irradiated line controls the growth of the nanocrystals in the sample.

  17. Initial Results of Aperture Area Comparisons for Exo-Atmospheric Total Solar Irradiance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. Carol; Litorja, Maritoni; Fowler, Joel B.; Butler, James J.

    2009-01-01

    In the measurement of exo-atmospheric total solar irradiance (TSI), instrument aperture area is a critical component in converting solar radiant flux to irradiance. In a May 2000 calibration workshop for the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE), the solar irradiance measurement community recommended that NASA and NISI coordinate an aperture area measurement comparison to quantify and validate aperture area uncertainties and their overall effect on TSI uncertainties. From May 2003 to February 2006, apertures from 4 institutions with links to the historical TSI database were measured by NIST and the results were compared to the aperture area determined by each institution. The initial results of these comparisons are presented and preliminary assessments of the participants' uncertainties are discussed.

  18. Hydrogen Release from Irradiated Vanadium Alloy V-4Cr-4Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Klepikov, A. Kh.; Romanenko, O. G.; Chikhray, E. V.; Tazhibaeva, I. L.; Shestakov, V. P.; Longhurst, Glen Reed

    1999-09-01

    The present work is an attempt to obtain data concerning the influence of neutron and ? irradiation upon hydrogen retention in V-4Cr-4Ti vanadium alloy. The experiments on in-pile loading of vanadium alloy specimens at the neutron flux density 1014 n/cm2s, hydrogen pressure of 80 Pa, and temperatures of 563, 613, and 773 K were carried out using the IVG.1M reactor of the Kazakhstan National Nuclear Center. A preliminary set of loading/degassing experiments with non-irradiated material has been carried out to obtain data on hydrogen interaction with vanadium alloy. The, data presented in this work are related both to non-irradiated and irradiated samples.

  19. Preliminary results from the {sup 51}Cr neutrino source experiment in GALLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Hampel, W.; Heusser, G.; Kiko, J.

    1996-09-01

    The GALLEX collaboration performed a second {sup 51}Cr neutrino source experiment during fall 1995. The full results from this second source experiment will not be available before the end of 1996. Meanwhile, we present a short description and preliminary results in this informal note. The (preliminary) value of the activity obtained form direct measurements has been found equal to (68.7 {+-}0.7) PBq (with 1-sigma error). This value, which is about 10% higher than the activity of the first source, was achieved by optimizing the irradiation conditions in the Silo{acute e} reactor and doing a longer irradiation of the enriched chromium. Preliminary results show that the ratio, R, of the radiochemically determined activity from {sup 71}Ge counting (57.1 {+-} PBq) to the directly measured activity is (0.83 {+-} 0.10). The combined value of R for the two source experiments is (0.92 {+-} 0.08).

  20. Milk fatty acid composition, rumen microbial population, and animal performances in response to diets rich in linoleic acid supplemented with chestnut or quebracho tannins in dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Buccioni, A; Pauselli, M; Viti, C; Minieri, S; Pallara, G; Roscini, V; Rapaccini, S; Marinucci, M Trabalza; Lupi, P; Conte, G; Mele, M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate milk fatty acid (FA) profile, animal performance, and rumen microbial population in response to diets containing soybean oil supplemented or not with chestnut and quebracho tannins in dairy ewes. Eighteen Comisana ewes at 122±6 d in milking were allotted into 3 experimental groups. Diets were characterized by chopped grass hay administered ad libitum and by 800 g/head and day of 3 experimental concentrates containing 84.5 g of soybean oil/kg of dry matter (DM) and 52.8 g/kg of DM of bentonite (control diet), chestnut tannin extract (CHT diet), or quebracho tannin extract (QUE diet). The trial lasted 4 wk. Milk yield was recorded daily, and milk composition and blood parameters were analyzed weekly. At the end of the experiment, samples of rumen fluid were collected to analyze pH, volatile fatty acid profile, and the relative proportions of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus in the rumen microbial population. Hepatic functionality, milk yield, and gross composition were not affected by tannin extracts, whereas milk FA composition was characterized by significant changes in the concentration of linoleic acid (CHT +2.77% and QUE +9.23%), vaccenic acid (CHT +7.07% and QUE +13.88%), rumenic acid (CHT -1.88% and QUE +24.24%), stearic acid (CHT + 8.71% and QUE -11.45%), and saturated fatty acids (CHT -0.47% and QUE -3.38%). These differences were probably due to the ability of condensed versus hydrolyzable tannins to interfere with rumen microbial metabolism, as indirectly confirmed by changes in the relative proportions of B. fibrisolvens and B. proteoclasticus populations and by changes in the molar proportions of volatile fatty acids. The effect of the CHT diet on the milk FA profile and microbial species considered in this trial was intermediate between that of QUE and the control diet, suggesting a differential effect of condensed and hydrolyzable tannins on rumen microbes. Compared with control animals

  1. Phytosanitary irradiation - Development and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Guy J.; Loaharanu, Paisan

    2016-12-01

    Phytosanitary irradiation, the use of ionizing radiation to disinfest traded agricultural commodities of regulated pests, is a growing use of food irradiation that has great continued potential for increase in commercial application. In 2015 approximately 25,000 t of fresh fruits and vegetables were irradiated globally for phytosanitary purposes. Phytosanitary irradiation has resulted in a paradigm shift in phytosanitation in that the final burden of proof of efficacy of the treatment has shifted from no live pests upon inspection at a port of entry (as for all previous phytosanitary treatments) to total dependence on certification that the treatment for target pests is based on adequate science and is commercially conducted and protected from post-treatment infestation. In this regard phytosanitary irradiation is managed more like a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) approach more consistent with food safety than phytosanitation. Thus, phytosanitary irradiation offers a more complete and rigorous methodology for safeguarding than other phytosanitary measures. The role of different organizations in achieving commercial application of phytosanitary irradiation is discussed as well as future issues and applications, including new generic doses.

  2. New facility for post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    1995-09-01

    Beryllium is expected as a neutron multiplier and plasma facing materials in the fusion reactor, and the neutron irradiation data on properties of beryllium up to 800{degrees}C need for the engineering design. The acquisition of data on the tritium behavior, swelling, thermal and mechanical properties are first priority in ITER design. Facility for the post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium was constructed in the hot laboratory of Japan Materials Testing Reactor to get the engineering design data mentioned above. This facility consist of the four glove boxes, dry air supplier, tritium monitoring and removal system, storage box of neutron irradiated samples. Beryllium handling are restricted by the amount of tritium;7.4 GBq/day and {sup 60}Co;7.4 MBq/day.

  3. Proton irradiation of simple gas mixtures: Influence of irradiation parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, Norbert J.; Schuster, R.; Hofmann, A.

    1990-01-01

    In order to get information about the influence of irradiation parameters on radiolysis processes of astrophysical interest, methane gas targets were irradiated with 6.5 MeV protons at a pressure of 1 bar and room temperature. Yields of higher hydrocarbons like ethane or propane were found by analysis of irradiated gas samples using gas chromatography. The handling of the proton beam was of great experimental importance for determining the irradiation parameters. In a series of experiments current density of the proton beam and total absorbed energy were shown to have a large influence on the yields of produced hydrocarbons. Mechanistic interpretations of the results are given and conclusions are drawn with regard to the chemistry and the simulation of various astrophysical systems.

  4. Tensile and impact properties of vanadium-base alloys irradiated at low temperatures in the ATR-A1 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Nowicki, L.J.; Billone, M.C.; Chung, H.M.; Smith, D.L.

    1998-03-01

    Subsize tensile and Charpy specimens made from several V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys were irradiated in the ATR-A1 experiment to study the effects of low-temperature irradiation on mechanical properties. These specimens were contained in lithium-bonded subcapsules and irradiated at temperatures between {approx}200 and 300 C. Peak neutron damage was {approx}4.7 dpa. Postirradiation testing of these specimens has begun. Preliminary results from a limited number of specimens indicate a significant loss of work-hardening capability and dynamic toughness due to the irradiation. These results are consistent with data from previous low-temperature neutron irradiation experiments on these alloys.

  5. The radiation swelling effect on fracture properties and fracture mechanisms of irradiated austenitic steels. Part I. Ductility and fracture toughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margolin, B.; Sorokin, A.; Shvetsova, V.; Minkin, A.; Potapova, V.; Smirnov, V.

    2016-11-01

    The radiation swelling effect on the fracture properties of irradiated austenitic steels under static loading has been studied and analyzed from the mechanical and physical viewpoints. Experimental data on the stress-strain curves, fracture strain, fracture toughness and fracture mechanisms have been represented for austenitic steel of 18Cr-10Ni-Ti grade (Russian analog of AISI 321 steel) irradiated up to neutron dose of 150 dpa with various swelling. Some phenomena in mechanical behaviour of irradiated austenitic steels have been revealed and explained as follows: a sharp decrease of fracture toughness with swelling growth; untypical large increase of fracture toughness with decrease of the test temperature; some increase of fracture toughness after preliminary cyclic loading. Role of channel deformation and channel fracture has been clarified in the properties of irradiated austenitic steel and different tendencies to channel deformation have been shown and explained for the same austenitic steel irradiated at different temperatures and neutron doses.

  6. Byproducts Utilization Program: Sewage Sludge Irradiation Project. Progress report, July-December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Engineering support for a demonstration-scale irradiator design included assisting the City of Albuquerque in preparing a comprehensive site plan for their proposed sludge handling and treatment facilities. The solar sludge dryer has been delivered to SNLA. A preliminary sludge drying experiment indicated the importance of optimizing stirring and air flow. Installation of instrumentation and mechanical equipment continued. The Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids (SIDSS) was used to irradiate 23 tons of dried, digested sewage sludge for the New Mexico State University (NMSU) Department of Crop and Soil Sciences. Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) operations included irradiation of ground pork for Toxoplasma gondii inactivation experiments, irradiation of surgical supplies and soil samples. Beneficial Uses Shipping Systems (BUSS) cask activities included near completion of the two full-scale cask bodies. Work continued on the Cask Safety Analysis Report (SAR) including additional analyses to reconfigure the six strontium fluoride capsules and/or reduce the number of capsules accommodated. NMSU has indicated no regrowth of salmonellae occurred in the irradiated sludge stockpile, while salmonellae did regrow in the unirradiated stockpile. Analyses of raw and digested sewage sludge from the Albuquerque Waste Water Treatment Plant showed levels of Yersinia enterocolitica (a human pathogen of emerging significance) to be below detection limits.

  7. On Preliminary Breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, W. H.; Petersen, D.

    2013-12-01

    The preliminary breakdown phase of a negative cloud-to-ground lightning flash was observed in detail. Observations were made with a Photron SA1.1 high-speed video camera operating at 9,000 frames per second, fast optical sensors, a flat-plate electric field antenna covering the SLF to MF band, and VHF and UHF radio receivers with bandwidths of 20 MHz. Bright stepwise extensions of a negative leader were observed at an altitude of 8 km during the first few milliseconds of the flash, and were coincident with bipolar electric field pulses called 'characteristic pulses'. The 2-D step lengths of the preliminary processes were in excess of 100 meters, with some 2-D step lengths in excess of 200 meters. Smaller and shorter unipolar electric field pulses were superposed onto the bipolar electric field pulses, and were coincident with VHF and UHF radio pulses. After a few milliseconds, the emerging negative stepped leader system showed a marked decrease in luminosity, step length, and propagation velocity. Details of these events will be discussed, including the possibility that the preliminary breakdown phase consists not of a single developing lightning leader system, but of multiple smaller lightning leader systems that eventually join together into a single system.

  8. (Irradiation creep of graphite)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.R.

    1990-12-21

    The traveler attended the Conference, International Symposium on Carbon, to present an invited paper, Irradiation Creep of Graphite,'' and chair one of the technical sessions. There were many papers of particular interest to ORNL and HTGR technology presented by the Japanese since they do not have a particular technology embargo and are quite open in describing their work and results. In particular, a paper describing the failure of Minor's law to predict the fatigue life of graphite was presented. Although the conference had an international flavor, it was dominated by the Japanese. This was primarily a result of geography; however, the work presented by the Japanese illustrated an internal program that is very comprehensive. This conference, a result of this program, was better than all other carbon conferences attended by the traveler. This conference emphasizes the need for US participation in international conferences in order to stay abreast of the rapidly expanding HTGR and graphite technology throughout the world. The United States is no longer a leader in some emerging technologies. The traveler was surprised by the Japanese position in their HTGR development. Their reactor is licensed and the major problem in their graphite program is how to eliminate it with the least perturbation now that most of the work has been done.

  9. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-07-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies.

  10. The transfer of radiocesium from the bark to the stemflow of chestnut trees (Castanea crenata) contaminated by radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yoshito; Abe, Hironobu; Mitachi, Katsuaki; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Ishii, Yasuo; Niizato, Tadafumi

    2016-09-01

    We report on the behavior of radiocesium in tree bark and its transfer into the stemflows of chestnut trees in a forest in the Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. In stems that were present at the time of the accident, the radiocesium concentration of the bark was found to be approximately 10 times that of the wood. The average (137)Cs concentration of the dissolved fraction (<0.45 μm) in the stemflow was measured to be around 10 Bq/L. The (137)Cs concentration ratio [present at the time of the accident (Bq/kg) in the bark/the dissolved fraction in the stemflow (Bq/L)] was approximately 10(3). A strong positive correlation was observed between the radiocesium concentration and the electrical conductivity of the dissolved fraction of the stemflow; this result suggests that radiocesium and electrolytes have the same elution mechanism from the tree. The size fractionation analysis of the <0.45 μm fraction through ultrafiltration revealed that the radiocesium was present as an almost dissolved species. Some of the particles in the particulate fraction (>0.45 μm) of the stemflow were strongly adsorbed radiocesium.

  11. Changes in the biological activity of chestnut soils upon the long-term application of fertilizers in a rotation with oil-bearing crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleshev, R. E.; Bakenova, Z. B.

    2012-11-01

    Experimental studies showed that irrigated chestnut soils on the piedmont of the Zailiiskiy Alatau Range are characterized by the moderate activity of the hydrolytic and redox enzymes. The use of these soils in the crop rotation system increases the hydrolytic activity of the enzymes (invertase, urease, and ATP synthase) by 30% in comparison with the monoculture; at the same time, it does not have a significant impact on the changes in the biological activity of the redox enzymes (catalase and dehydrogenase). The hydrolytic activity of the soils is activated to a greater extent in the crop rotation and in the monoculture against the background application of organic fertilizers. In this case, the recommended rates of mineral fertilizers do not inhibit the activity of the hydrolytic and redox enzymes. An increase in the hydrolytic activity of the enzymes directly affects the yield of oilseed flax. Therefore, indices of the hydrolytic activity of soils can be used as a test for the diagnostics of the efficiency of fertilizers both in crop rotation and monoculture systems.

  12. Effective pretreatment of dilute NaOH-soaked chestnut shell with glycerol-HClO4-water media: structural characterization, enzymatic saccharification, and ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    He, Yu-Cai; Liu, Feng; Di, Jun-Hua; Ding, Yun; Gao, Da-Zhou; Zhang, Dan-Ping; Tao, Zhi-Cheng; Chong, Gang-Gang; Huang, Mei-Zi; Ma, Cui-Luan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, an effective pretreatment of dilute NaOH-soaked chestnut shell (CNS) with glycerol-HClO4-water (88.8:1.2:10, w/w/w) media at 130 °C for 30 min was successfully demonstrated. Results revealed that the combination pretreatment removed 66.0 % of lignin and 73.7 % of hemicellulose in untreated CNS. The changes in the structural features (crystallinity, morphology, and porosity) of the solid residue of CNS were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescent microscope, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Biotransformation of glycerol-HClO4-water pretreated-NaOH-soaked CNS (50 g/L) with a cocktail of enzymes for 72 h, the reducing sugars and glucose were 39.7 and 33.4 g/L, respectively. Moreover, the recovered hydrolyzates containing 20 g/L glucose had no inhibitory effects on the ethanol-fermenting microorganism, and the ethanol production was 0.45 g/g glucose within 48 h. In conclusion, this combination pretreatment shows promise as pretreatment solvent for wheat straw, although the in-depth exploration of this subject is needed.

  13. Valorization of solid wastes from chestnut industry processing: Extraction and optimization of polyphenols, tannins and ellagitannins and its potential for adhesives, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Aires, Alfredo; Carvalho, Rosa; Saavedra, Maria José

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential of chestnut peels to produce pomaces enhanced with tannins to be used in the formulations of wood adhesives, leather tanning or as natural antioxidants in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. An analytical procedure was planned as 2 factorial design to analyze the influence of solvent (water, Na2SO3 and NaOH at different concentrations of 1, 2, 4, and 8% in water) and extraction time (30, 60, and 120, 240, 480 and 960min) on extraction yield, pH, Stiasny index, and tannins. HPLC-diode array detector equipped with an ionization mass spectrophotometer was used to assess the polyphenol composition. Our results showed that both extraction properties and phytochemicals were significantly affected (P<0.001) by all independent factors. The main tannins identified were the hydrolyzable gallic acid, vescalagin castalagin and ellagic acid, and the condensed epigallocatechin, catechin and epicatechin. The solvent 1% Na2SO3 was more effective to extract the condensed tannins whilst hydrolyzable tannins were extracted efficiently by 1% NaOH. The multivariable analysis and the Pearson's correlation coefficients showed a direct association between Stiasny number and the average levels of condensed tannins.

  14. Development and characterization of fourteen novel microsatellite markers for the chestnut short-tailed fruit bat (Carollia castanea), and cross-amplification to related species.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Katherine A; Waits, Lisette P; Hohenlohe, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Rapid anthropogenic land use change threatens the primary habitat of the Chestnut short-tailed bat (Carollia castanea) throughout much of its range. Information on population genetic structure can inform management strategies for this widespread frugivorous bat, and effective protection of C. castanea will also benefit the more than 20 mutualistic plant species of which this bat is the primary seed disperser. To facilitate understanding of population genetic structure in this species, fourteen novel microsatellite markers were developed using restriction-site-associated DNA libraries and Illumina sequencing and tested on 28 individuals from 13 locations in Costa Rica. These are the first microsatellite markers developed for C. castanea. All loci were polymorphic, with number of alleles ranging from 2-11 and average observed heterozygosity of 0.631. Markers were also cross-amplified in three additional frugivorous bat species threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation: Sowell's short-tailed bat (Carollia sowelli), Seba's short-tailed bat (Carollia perspicillata), and the Jamaican fruit bat (Artibeus jamaicensis), and 10, 11, and 8 were polymorphic, respectively.

  15. [Comparison of the bioavailability of beta-aescin after single oral administration of two different drug formulations containing an extract of horse-chestnut seeds].

    PubMed

    Schrader, E; Schwankl, W; Sieder, C; Christoffel, V

    1995-09-01

    The relative oral bioavailability of beta-escine (CAS 11072-93-8) from a sugar-coated tablet formulation was compared to a reference preparation available in capsule form in 18 healthy, male volunteers over a 48 h period. The study design was randomized, single-blind and cross-over. Both the test and the reference preparation contained 50 mg standardized horse chestnut seed extract; beta-escine was taken as the reference substance. By means of a newly developed, validated radioimmunosorbent assay (RIA), beta-escine in plasma was determined (blind samples) after oral intake of a single dose of each drug formulation. The confidence limits calculated for the AUC, Cmax and Tmax of the test preparation exceed the upper limit of the specified equivalence range of 80%--125%, but do never fall below the lower limit. Therefore, bioin-equivalence cannot be rejected statistically. All the bioavailability data for the test preparation--measured with the newly developed RIA--exceed the corresponding values for the reference preparation. As the rate of absorption of aesculetinic triterpene glycosides is low, the higher bioavailability of the test preparation is desirable from a therapeutical point of view. Since the reference preparation is classified as being clinically effective, the test preparation must also be estimated as being clinically effective. Adverse drug effects were not observed with either the test preparation or the reference preparation.

  16. Effect of addition of green tea, chestnut and grape extract on the shelf-life of pig liver pâté.

    PubMed

    Pateiro, M; Lorenzo, J M; Amado, I R; Franco, D

    2014-03-15

    The effect of the addition of natural antioxidants (tea, chestnut and grape seed extracts) on physico-chemical and oxidative stability of refrigerated stored pig pâtés was studied. This effect was compared with that showed by the synthetic antioxidant BHT. Pâté samples were analysed at 0, 4, 8 and 24 weeks of refrigerated storage (4°C). Colour parameters were affected by storage period and antioxidant extract. Samples with CHE and GRA extracts showed lower total colour difference between 0 and 24 weeks. The amount of TBARS gradually increased during refrigerated storage with the exception of pâtés that have CHE extract in composition. At the sampling end point, the lower TBARS values were obtained in samples with TEA and GRA extracts. Finally, the evolution of volatile compounds during storage showed an increase in the lipid-derived volatile values after refrigerated storage, since samples with TEA and GRA extract showed the lowest values.

  17. Host tracking or cryptic adaptation? Phylogeography of Pediobius saulius (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the highly invasive horse-chestnut leafminer

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-López, Antonio; Rougerie, Rodolphe; Augustin, Sylvie; Lees, David C; Tomov, Rumen; Kenis, Marc; Çota, Ejup; Kullaj, Endrit; Hansson, Christer; Grabenweger, Giselher; Roques, Alain; López-Vaamonde, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Classical biological control is often advocated as a tool for managing invasive species. However, accurate evaluations of parasitoid species complexes and assessment of host specificity are impeded by the lack of morphological variation. Here, we study the possibility of host races/species within the eulophid wasp Pediobius saulius, a pupal generalist parasitoid that parasitize the highly invasive horse-chestnut leaf-mining moth Cameraria ohridella. We analysed the population genetic structure, host associations and phylogeographic patterns of P. saulius in Europe using the COI mitochondrial gene. This marker strongly supports a division into at least five highly differentiated parasitoid complexes, within two of which clades with differing degrees of host specialization were found: a Balkan clade that mainly (but not only) attacks C. ohridella and a more generalist European group that attacks many hosts, including C. ohridella. The divergence in COI (up to 7.6%) suggests the existence of cryptic species, although this is neither confirmed by nuclear divergence nor morphology. We do not find evidence of host tracking. The higher parasitism rates observed in the Balkans and the scarcity of the Balkan–Cameraria haplotypes out of the Balkans open the possibility of using these Balkan haplotypes as biological control agents of C. ohridella elsewhere in Europe. PMID:25568046

  18. Winter starch reserves of white oak as a predictor of attack by the twolined chestnut borer, Agrilus bilineatus (Weber) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Dunn, J P; Kimmerer, T W; Potter, D A

    1987-12-01

    The twolined chestnut borer, Agrilus bilineatus (Weber) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), attacks oaks (Quercus spp.) and is associated with extensive mortality of trees in the eastern deciduous forests of North America. We tested the hypothesis that winter starch reserves of oak roots are an indicator of tree vigor and that only trees low in stored starch would be attacked by A. bilineatus. We measured the levels of stored starch in the roots of 200 non-infested healthy white oaks during the dormant season and determined their correlation with A. bilineatus attacks the following spring. There was a significant increase in A. bilineatus captures on sticky traps with a decrease in winter starch reserves. Trees low in stored starch that were also stressed by phloem-girdling attracted 3.7 times as many beetles as did non-girdled trees that were low in starch. However, non-girdled trees that had low winter starch reserves were also attacked. Only oaks that had had extremely low winter root starch reserves (<5mg/g dry weight of root sapwood tissue) were heavily attacked by A. bilineatus and subsequently died. One third of non-girdled low starch trees and 67% of phloem-girdled low starch trees died, whereas none of the trees with root starch >5 mg/g dry wt died. These results indicate that winter starch reserves are a good predictor of A. bilineatus attack.

  19. Development and characterization of fourteen novel microsatellite markers for the chestnut short-tailed fruit bat (Carollia castanea), and cross-amplification to related species

    PubMed Central

    Waits, Lisette P.; Hohenlohe, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid anthropogenic land use change threatens the primary habitat of the Chestnut short-tailed bat (Carollia castanea) throughout much of its range. Information on population genetic structure can inform management strategies for this widespread frugivorous bat, and effective protection of C. castanea will also benefit the more than 20 mutualistic plant species of which this bat is the primary seed disperser. To facilitate understanding of population genetic structure in this species, fourteen novel microsatellite markers were developed using restriction-site-associated DNA libraries and Illumina sequencing and tested on 28 individuals from 13 locations in Costa Rica. These are the first microsatellite markers developed for C. castanea. All loci were polymorphic, with number of alleles ranging from 2–11 and average observed heterozygosity of 0.631. Markers were also cross-amplified in three additional frugivorous bat species threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation: Sowell’s short-tailed bat (Carollia sowelli), Seba’s short-tailed bat (Carollia perspicillata), and the Jamaican fruit bat (Artibeus jamaicensis), and 10, 11, and 8 were polymorphic, respectively. PMID:27688969

  20. Interfacing VPSC with finite element codes. Demonstration of irradiation growth simulation in a cladding tube

    SciTech Connect

    Patra, Anirban; Tome, Carlos

    2016-03-23

    This Milestone report shows good progress in interfacing VPSC with the FE codes ABAQUS and MOOSE, to perform component-level simulations of irradiation-induced deformation in Zirconium alloys. In this preliminary application, we have performed an irradiation growth simulation in the quarter geometry of a cladding tube. We have benchmarked VPSC-ABAQUS and VPSC-MOOSE predictions with VPSC-SA predictions to verify the accuracy of the VPSCFE interface. Predictions from the FE simulations are in general agreement with VPSC-SA simulations and also with experimental trends.

  1. Design considerations of the irradiation test vehicle for the advanced test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1997-08-01

    An irradiation test vehicle (ITV) for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is being jointly developed by the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMIT) and the U.S. Fusion Program. The vehicle is intended for neutron irradiation testing of candidate structural materials, including vanadium-based alloys, silicon carbide composites, and low activation steels. It could possibly be used for U.S./Japanese collaboration in the Jupiter Program. The first test train is scheduled to be completed by September 1998. In this report, we present the functional requirements for the vehicle and a preliminary design that satisfies these requirements.

  2. Irradiation of Northwest agricultural products

    SciTech Connect

    Eakin, D.E.; Tingey, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect control procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this program to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

  3. Irradiation pretreatment for coal desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Process using highly-penetrating nuclear radiation (Beta and Gamma radiation) from nuclear power plant radioactive waste to irradiate coal prior to conventional desulfurization procedures increases total extraction of sulfur.

  4. Slag recycling of irradiated vanadium

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, Patrick K.

    1995-04-05

    An experimental inductoslag apparatus to recycle irradiated vanadium was fabricated and tested. An experimental electroslag apparatus was also used to test possible slags. The testing was carried out with slag materials that were fabricated along with impurity bearing vanadium samples. Results obtained include computer simulated thermochemical calculations and experimentally determined removal efficiencies of the transmutation impurities. Analyses of the samples before and after testing were carried out to determine if the slag did indeed remove the transmutation impurities from the irradiated vanadium.

  5. Consumer attitudes toward irradiated food

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, S.

    1994-12-31

    Throughout history, new methods of food preservation have been met with skepticism and fear. Such processes as pasteurization and canning were denounced as being dangerous, detrimental to nutrients, or an excuse for dirty products. Now comes irradiation, and activists argue against this new process for the same reasons. Publicly, the perception is that consumers, distrustful of nuclear power, will never buy or accept irradiated food.

  6. Calculating Irradiance For Photosynthesis In The Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Donald J.; Davis, Curtiss O.; Booth, C. Rockwell; Kiefer, Dale A.; Stallings, Casson

    1990-01-01

    Mathematical model predicts available and usable irradiances. Yields estimates of irradiance available for photosynthesis (Epar) and irradiance usable for photosynthesis (Epur) as functions of depth in ocean. Describes Epur and Epar in terms of spectral parameters measured remotely (from satellites or airplanes). These irradiances useful in studies of photosynthetic productivity of phytoplankton in euphotic layer.

  7. Irradiance-dependent UVB Photocarcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Cheng-Che E.; Wu, Ching-Shuang; Huang, Shu-Mei; Wu, Chin-Han; Lai, Hsiao-Chi; Peng, Yu-Ting; Hou, Pao-Sheng; Yang, Hui-Jun; Chen, Gwo-Shing

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation from the sun may lead to photocarcinogenesis of the skin. Sunscreens were used to protect the skin by reducing UVB irradiance, but sunscreen use did not reduce sunburn episodes. It was shown that UVB-induced erythema depends on surface exposure but not irradiance of UVB. We previously showed that irradiance plays a critical role in UVB-induced cell differentiation. This study investigated the impact of irradiance on UVB-induced photocarcinogenesis. For hairless mice receiving equivalent exposure of UVB radiation, the low irradiance (LI) UVB treated mice showed more rapid tumor development, larger tumor burden, and more keratinocytes harboring mutant p53 in the epidermis as compared to their high irradiance (HI) UVB treated counterpart. Mechanistically, using cell models, we demonstrated that LI UVB radiation allowed more keratinocytes harboring DNA damages to enter cell cycle via ERK-related signaling as compared to its HI UVB counterpart. These results indicated that at equivalent exposure, UVB radiation at LI has higher photocarcinogenic potential as compared to its HI counterpart. Since erythema is the observed sunburn at moderate doses and use of sunscreen was not found to associate with reduced sunburn episodes, the biological significance of sunburn with or without sunscreen use warrants further investigation. PMID:27869214

  8. Computing Solar EUV Irradiance Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, H. P.

    2014-12-01

    The solar EUV irradiance plays a central role in determining the state of the Earth's upper atmosphere. The EUV irradiance at the shortest wavelengths, which is highly variable over time scales from seconds to decades, is particularly important for many aspects of space weather. Systematic spectrally resolved observations at the shortest EUV wavelengths, however, have been rare and there is a need to develop a methodology for estimating and forecasting the solar irradiance at all EUV wavelengths from sparse data sets. In this presentation we report on our efforts to use AIA DEM calculations to estimate the solar EUV irradiance at wavelength below 450 Å, where the emission is predominately optically thin. To validate our AIA DEM calculations we have performed extensive comparisons with simultaneous observations from the EVE instrument on SDO and the EIS instrument on Hinode and find that with the proper constraints we can generally reproduce the results obtained with detailed spectroscopic observations. Using a proxy for solar activity derived from photospheric magnetic field measurements we extend our model calculations to previous solar cycles and discuss how the model can be used to forecast EUV irradiance variability over short time scales. Finally, we speculate on what is needed to further develop semi-empirical and physical models for use in understanding the solar spectral irradiance at these wavelengths.

  9. Targeted cytoplasmic irradiation and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinhua; Zhang, Bo; Wuu, Yen-Ruh; Davidson, Mercy M; Hei, Tom K

    2017-03-01

    The effect of ionizing irradiation on cytoplasmic organelles is often underestimated because the general dogma considers direct DNA damage in the nuclei to be the primary cause of radiation induced toxicity. Using a precision microbeam irradiator, we examined the changes in mitochondrial dynamics and functions triggered by targeted cytoplasmic irradiation with α-particles. Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by targeted cytoplasmic irradiation led to activation of autophagy, which degraded dysfunctional mitochondria in order to maintain cellular energy homeostasis. The activation of autophagy was cytoplasmic irradiation-specific and was not detected in nuclear irradiated cells. This autophagic process was oxyradical-dependent and required the activity of the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin related protein 1 (DRP1). The resultant mitochondrial fission induced phosphorylation of AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) which leads to further activation of the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) 1/2 with concomitant inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) to initiate autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy resulted in delayed DNA damage repair and decreased cell viability, which supports the cytoprotective function of autophagy. Our results reveal a novel mechanism in which dysfunctional mitochondria are degraded by autophagy in an attempt to protect cells from toxic effects of targeted cytoplasmic radiation.

  10. Iron in hereditary retinal degeneration: PIXE microanalysis. Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeant, C.; Gouget, B.; Llabador, Y.; Simonoff, M.; Yefimova, M.; Courtois, Y.; Jeanny, J. C.

    1999-10-01

    Several types of hereditary retinal degeneration with progressive alteration of photoreceptors exist in men and animals. Recent immunohistochemical results have shown strong degradation of transferrin, the protein responsible for iron transport, in retinas of rats with hereditary retinal degeneration. Freeze-dried thin sections of rat retinas from different stages of the disease, and respective coeval control sections, have been analyzed using nuclear microprobe. In this first part of the study, the rat retinas at post-natal stages of 35 and 45 days have been analyzed. The sample preparation and the post-irradiation staining to determine precisely the retinal layers involved are described. Preliminary results of element distributions (K, Ca, Fe) in the rat retina layers are discussed. A very high content of calcium in the choriocapillaris of dystrophic rat retinas was observed. Preliminary results on iron distribution in the rat retina layers are presented.

  11. Preliminary Studies on Pulsed Electric Field Breakdown of Lead Azide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    subjected to combinations of 400.0 nm irradiation (strongly absorbed by Pb(N_)-) and strong field, for both polarities, again with no effect . It has...II n»Kt*tmy mad I4mtlty by MeeM mmt»mr) .± Lead Azide Electric Field Initiation Contact Effects Surface Effects Radiation Effect ! A9STMACT...reported. Specifically, ws-d4*eu«s the effects of contacts on the initiation of explosives by electric fields, and present preliminary weaouresents

  12. Breast conservation treatment with perioperative interstitial irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, L.; Mansfield, C.M.; Jewell, W.R.; Reddy, E.K.; Thomas, J.H.; Krishnan, E.C.

    1987-10-01

    Limited resection of the breast combined with radiation has proved to be as effective as more radical surgery in treating early breast cancer. At the University of Kansas Medical Center, the radiotherapy consists of an interstitial implant at the time of lumpectomy to deliver an interstitial boost dose to the tumor bed with iridium-192 immediately following the surgical procedure. An axillary node dissection is also performed at the time of lumpectomy. A dose of 2000 cGy is delivered to the tumor bed between 40 and 60 h. Two to three weeks later, 4500-5000 cGy is delivered to the entire breast with external beam radiation over 5-5.5 weeks. One hundred breasts in 98 patients were so treated between June 1982 and February 1986, with 2 carcinomas in situ, 40 stage I, 51 stage II, and 7 stage III cancers, consisting of 2 TIS, 54 T1, 39 T2, and 5 T3 lesions. Locoregional control with a median follow-up of 31 months was 98%. One recurrence was in a different quadrant, and the other revealed predominantly the in situ component. Immediate implant did not compromise wound healing or cosmesis. The cosmetic result was graded as good to excellent in 88% of the breasts. Our preliminary results appear to suggest a better local control with immediate interstitial irradiation.

  13. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  14. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  15. Irradiation hardening of pure tungsten exposed to neutron irradiation

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Xunxiang; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Fukuda, Makoto; ...

    2016-08-26

    In this paper, pure tungsten samples have been neutron irradiated in HFIR at 90–850 °C to 0.03–2.2 dpa. A dispersed barrier hardening model informed by the available microstructure data has been used to predict the hardness. Comparison of the model predictions and the measured Vickers hardness reveals the dominant hardening contribution at various irradiation conditions. For tungsten samples irradiated in HFIR, the results indicate that voids and dislocation loops contributed to the hardness increase in the low dose region (<0.3 dpa), while the formation of intermetallic second phase precipitation, resulting from transmutation, dominates the radiation-induced strengthening beginning with a relativelymore » modest dose (>0.6 dpa). Finally, the precipitate contribution is most pronounced for the HFIR irradiations, whereas the radiation-induced defect cluster microstructure can rationalize the entirety of the hardness increase observed in tungsten irradiated in the fast neutron spectrum of Joyo and the mixed neutron spectrum of JMTR.« less

  16. Irradiation hardening of pure tungsten exposed to neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xunxiang; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Fukuda, Makoto; Kumar, N. A. P. Kiran; Snead, Lance L.; Wirth, Brian D.; Katoh, Yutai

    2016-08-26

    In this paper, pure tungsten samples have been neutron irradiated in HFIR at 90–850 °C to 0.03–2.2 dpa. A dispersed barrier hardening model informed by the available microstructure data has been used to predict the hardness. Comparison of the model predictions and the measured Vickers hardness reveals the dominant hardening contribution at various irradiation conditions. For tungsten samples irradiated in HFIR, the results indicate that voids and dislocation loops contributed to the hardness increase in the low dose region (<0.3 dpa), while the formation of intermetallic second phase precipitation, resulting from transmutation, dominates the radiation-induced strengthening beginning with a relatively modest dose (>0.6 dpa). Finally, the precipitate contribution is most pronounced for the HFIR irradiations, whereas the radiation-induced defect cluster microstructure can rationalize the entirety of the hardness increase observed in tungsten irradiated in the fast neutron spectrum of Joyo and the mixed neutron spectrum of JMTR.

  17. Proposed modifications to the RCRA post-closure permit for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This report presents proposed modifications to several conditions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit (PCP) for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (CRHR) (permit number TNHW-088, EPA ID No. TN3 89 009 0001). These permit conditions define the requirements for RCRA post-closure detection groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (CRSDB) and Kerr Hollow Quarry (KHQ), and RCRA post-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSPs). Modification of these PCP conditions is requested to: (1) clarify the planned integration of RCRA post-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the CRSPs with the monitoring program to be established in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) record of decision (ROD), (2) revise several of the current technical requirements for groundwater monitoring based on implementation of the RCRA monitoring programs during 1996, (3) replace several of the technical procedures included in the PCP with updated versions recently issued by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), and (4) correct inaccurate regulatory citations and references to permit conditions and permit attachments. With these modifications, the Y- 12 Plant will continue to meet the full intent of all regulatory obligations for post-closure care of these facilities. Section 2 provides the technical justification for each proposed permit modification. Section 3.0 contains proposed changes to Section II of the PCP. Modifications to site-specific permit conditions are presented in Section 4.0 (CRSDB), Section 5.0 (CRSPs), and Section 6.0 (KHQ). Sections 7.0 and 8.0 reference updated and revised procedures for groundwater sampling, and monitoring well plugging and abandonment, respectively. Appendix A includes all proposed revisions to the permit attachments.

  18. Irradiation Effects on RIA Fragmentation CU Beam Dump

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Boles, J L; Ahle, L E; Stein, W; Wirth, B D

    2005-05-20

    Within the scope of conceptual research and development (R&D) activities in support of the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) facility, high priority is given to the development of high-power fragmentation beam dumps. A pre-study was made of a static water-cooled Cu beam dump that can meet requirements for a 400 MeV/u uranium beam. The issue of beam sputtering was addressed and found to be insignificant. Preliminary radiation transport simulations show significant damage (in displacements per atom, DPA) in the vicinity of the Bragg peak of the uranium ions. Experimental data show that defects in Cu following neutron or high-energy particle irradiation tend to saturate at doses between 1 and 5 DPA, and this saturation in defect density also results in saturation of mechanical property degradation. However, effects of swift heavy ion irradiation and the production of gaseous and solid transmutant elements still need to be addressed. Initial calculations indicate that He concentrations on the order of 400 appm are produced in the beam dump after several weeks of continuous operation and He embrittlement may be a concern. Recommendations are made for further investigation of Cu irradiation effects for RIA-relevant conditions.

  19. Irradiation Effects on RIA Fragmentation CU Beam Dump

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Boles, J L; Ahle, L E; Stein, W; Wirth, B D

    2005-05-09

    Within the scope of conceptual research and development (R&D) activities in support of the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) facility, high priority is given to the development of high-power fragmentation beam dumps. A pre-study was made of a static water-cooled Cu beam dump that can meet requirements for a 400 MeV/u uranium beam. The issue of beam sputtering was addressed and found to be insignificant. Preliminary radiation transport simulations show significant damage (in displacements per atom, DPA) in the vicinity of the Bragg peak of the uranium ions. Experimental data show that defects in Cu following neutron or high-energy particle irradiation tend to saturate at doses between 1 and 5 DPA, and this saturation in defect density also results in saturation of mechanical property degradation. However, effects of swift heavy ion irradiation and the production of gaseous and solid transmutant elements still need to be addressed. Initial calculations indicate that He concentrations on the order of 400 appm are produced in the beam dump after several weeks of continuous operation and He embrittlement may be a concern. Recommendations are made for further investigation of Cu irradiation effects for RIA-relevant conditions.

  20. Irradiation damage to the lung

    SciTech Connect

    Fennessy, J.J.

    1987-07-01

    While some degree of injury to normal, non-tumor-bearing, intrathoracic structures always occurs following irradiation for cure or palliation of neoplastic disease, clinical expression of this injury is uncommon. However, under certain circumstances, clinical manifestations may be severe and life threatening. Acute radiographic manifestations of pulmonary injury usually appear either synchronous with or, more typically, seven to ten days after the onset of the clinical syndrome. The acute signs of edema and slight volume loss within the irradiated zone are nonspecific except for their temporal and spatial relationship to the irradiation of the patient. Resolution of the acute changes is followed by pulmonary cicatrization, which is almost always stable within one year after completion of therapy. Change in postirradiation scarring following stabilization of the reaction must always be assumed to be due to some other process. While the radiograph primarily reveals pulmonary injury, all tissues, including the heart and major vessels, are susceptible, and the radiologist must recognize that any change within the thorax of a patient who has undergone thoracic irradiation may be a complication of that treatment. Differentiation of irradiation injury from residual or recurrent tumor, drug reaction, or opportunistic infection may be difficult and at times impossible.

  1. Food irradiation: Public opinion surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Canadian government are discussing the legislation, regulations and practical protocol necessary for the commercialization of food irradiation. Food industry marketing, public relations and media expertise will be needed to successfully introduce this new processing choice to retailers and consumers. Consumer research to date including consumer opinion studies and market trials conducted in the Netherlands, United States, South Africa and Canada will be explored for signposts to successful approaches to the introduction of irradiated foods to retailers and consumers. Research has indicated that the terms used to describe irradiation and information designed to reduce consumer fears will be important marketing tools. Marketers will be challenged to promote old foods, which look the same to consumers, in a new light. Simple like or dislike or intention to buy surveys will not be effective tools. Consumer fears must be identified and effectively handled to support a receptive climate for irradiated food products. A cooperative government, industry, health professional, consumer association and retailer effort will be necessary for the successful introduction of irradiated foods into the marketplace. Grocery Products Manufacturers of Canada is a national trade association of more than 150 major companies engaged in the manufacture of food, non-alcoholic beverages and array of other national-brand consumer items sold through retail outlets.

  2. Radiograaff, a proton irradiation facility for radiobiological studies at a 4 MV Van de Graaff accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constanzo, J.; Fallavier, M.; Alphonse, G.; Bernard, C.; Battiston-Montagne, P.; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, C.; Dauvergne, D.; Beuve, M.

    2014-09-01

    A horizontal beam facility for radiobiological experiments with low-energy protons has been set up at the 4 MV Van de Graaff accelerator of the Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon. A homogeneous irradiation field with a suitable proton flux is obtained by means of two collimators and two Au-scattering foils. A monitoring chamber contains a movable Faraday cup, a movable quartz beam viewer for controlling the intensity and the position of the initial incident beam and four scintillating fibers for beam monitoring during the irradiation of the cell samples. The beam line is ended by a thin aluminized Mylar window (12 μm thick) for the beam extraction in air. The set-up was simulated by the GATE v6.1 Monte-Carlo platform. The measurement of the proton energy distribution, the evaluation of the fluence-homogeneity over the sample and the calibration of the monitoring system were performed using a silicon PIPS detector, placed in air in the same position as the biological samples to be irradiated. The irradiation proton fluence was found to be homogeneous to within ±2% over a circular field of 20 mm diameter. As preliminary biological experiment, two Human Head and Neck Squamous Carcinoma Cell lines (with different radiosensitivities) were irradiated with 2.9 MeV protons. The measured survival curves are compared to those obtained after X-ray irradiation, giving a Relative Biological Efficiency between 1.3 and 1.4.

  3. Verification of the new detection method for irradiated spices based on microbial survival by collaborative blind trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyahara, M.; Furuta, M.; Takekawa, T.; Oda, S.; Koshikawa, T.; Akiba, T.; Mori, T.; Mimura, T.; Sawada, C.; Yamaguchi, T.; Nishioka, S.; Tada, M.

    2009-07-01

    An irradiation detection method using the difference of the radiation sensitivity of the heat-treated microorganisms was developed as one of the microbiological detection methods of the irradiated foods. This detection method is based on the difference of the viable cell count before and after heat treatment (70 °C and 10 min). The verification by collaborative blind trial of this method was done by nine inspecting agencies in Japan. The samples used for this trial were five kinds of spices consisting of non-irradiated, 5 kGy irradiated, and 7 kGy irradiated black pepper, allspice, oregano, sage, and paprika, respectively. As a result of this collaboration, a high percentage (80%) of the correct answers was obtained for irradiated black pepper and allspice. However, the method was less successful for irradiated oregano, sage, and paprika. It might be possible to use this detection method for preliminary screening of the irradiated foods but further work is necessary to confirm these findings.

  4. Papain-like protease p29 as a symptom determinant encoded by a hypovirulence-associated virus of the chestnut blight fungus.

    PubMed Central

    Craven, M G; Pawlyk, D M; Choi, G H; Nuss, D L

    1993-01-01

    Viral double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) responsible for virulence attenuation (hypovirulence) of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, profoundly influence a range of host functions in addition to virulence. The 5'-proximal open reading frame, A, of the prototypical hypovirulence-associated viral dsRNA, L-dsRNA, present in hypovirulent strain EP713, was recently shown by DNA-mediated transformation analysis to suppress fungal sporulation, pigmentation, and accumulation of the enzyme laccase (G. H. Choi and D. L. Nuss, EMBO J. 11:473-477, 1992). We mapped this suppressive activity to the autocatalytic papain-like protease, p29, present within the amino-terminal portion of open reading frame A-encoded polyprotein p69. Mutational analysis revealed that the ability of p29 to alter fungal phenotype is dependent upon release from the polyprotein precursor but is independent of intrinsic proteolytic activity. Deletion of the p29-coding domain within the context of an infectious L-dsRNA cDNA clone resulted in a replication-competent viral dsRNA that exhibited intermediate suppressive activity while retaining the ability to confer hypovirulence. Thus, p29 is necessary but not sufficient for the level of virus-mediated suppression of fungal pigmentation, sporulation, and laccase accumulation observed for wild-type hypovirulent strain EP713 and is nonessential for viral RNA replication and virulence attenuation. These results also illustrate the feasibility of engineering infectious viral cDNA for construction of hypovirulent fungal strains with specific phenotypic traits. Images PMID:8411354

  5. The impact of long-term irrigation on the degree of aggregation and the mineralogical composition of the clay fraction in dark chestnut soils of the Transvolga region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizhikova, N. P.; Baranovskaya, V. A.; Khitrov, N. B.

    2011-08-01

    Dark chestnut soils of the Ershov Experimental Station in the Transvolga region are characterized by the even distribution and aggregation of clay minerals in the profile. Hydromica, chlorite, kaolinite, and smectitic minerals predominate in the clay (<1 μm) fraction. The smectitic phase consists of randomly ordered mixed-layered minerals of the following types: mica-smectite with a low (<50%) content of smectite layers, mica-smectite with a high (>50%) content of smectite layers, and chlorite-smectite. In some horizons, the smectitic phase occurs in the superdispersed state. The long-term irrigation of these soils with fresh water of the Volga River has led to certain changes in the composition and properties of the clay particles. The weakening of bonds between them has taken place. As a result, the content of water-peptizable clay has increased by two times, and the content of aggregated clay of the first category (AC1) has increased by 1.5 times at the expense of a decrease in the contents of tightly bound clay (TBC) and aggregated clay of the second category (AC2). Also, the redistribution of organic matter bound with clay particles has taken place: its content in the AC1 fraction has decreased, whereas its content in the AC2 and TBC fractions has increased. In the topsoil horizon, the amount of the smectitic phase has lowered, whereas the contents of hydromica, kaolinite, and fine-dispersed quartz in the clay fraction have increased. In general, some amorphization of the clay material has occurred. The periodic alkalization of the soil solutions upon irrigation has led to the conversion of the smectitic phase into the superdispersed state in the entire soil profile.

  6. Histological Examination of Horse Chestnut Infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi and Non-Destructive Heat Treatment to Stop Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    de Keijzer, Jeroen; van den Broek, Lambertus A. M.; Ketelaar, Tijs; van Lammeren, André A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts) approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phloem and cambium, which can ultimately lead to dieback. The events after host entry leading to extensive necrosis are not well documented. In this work, the histopathology of this interaction is investigated and heat-treatment is explored as method to eradicate bacteria associated with established infections. The early wound-repair responses of A. hippocastanum, both in absence and presence of P. s. pv. aesculi, included cell wall lignification by a distinct layer of phloem and cortex parenchyma cells. The same cells also deposited suberin lamellae later on, suggesting this layer functions in compartmentalizing healthy from disrupted tissues. However, monitoring bacterial ingress, its construction appeared inadequate to constrain pathogen spread. Microscopic evaluation of bacterial dispersal in situ using immunolabelling and GFP-tagging of P. s. pv. aesculi, revealed two discriminative types of bacterial colonization. The forefront of lesions was found to contain densely packed bacteria, while necrotic areas housed bacterial aggregates with scattered individuals embedded in an extracellular matrix of bacterial origin containing alginate. The endophytic localization and ability of P. s. pv aesculi to create a protective matrix render it poorly accessible for control agents. To circumvent this, a method based on selective bacterial lethality at 39°C was conceived and successfully tested on A. hippocastanum saplings, providing proof of concept for controlling this disease by heat-treatment. This may be applicable for curing other tree cankers, caused by related phytopathogens. PMID:22808044

  7. Histological examination of horse chestnut infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi and non-destructive heat treatment to stop disease progression.

    PubMed

    de Keijzer, Jeroen; van den Broek, Lambertus A M; Ketelaar, Tijs; van Lammeren, André A M

    2012-01-01

    Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts) approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phloem and cambium, which can ultimately lead to dieback. The events after host entry leading to extensive necrosis are not well documented. In this work, the histopathology of this interaction is investigated and heat-treatment is explored as method to eradicate bacteria associated with established infections. The early wound-repair responses of A. hippocastanum, both in absence and presence of P. s. pv. aesculi, included cell wall lignification by a distinct layer of phloem and cortex parenchyma cells. The same cells also deposited suberin lamellae later on, suggesting this layer functions in compartmentalizing healthy from disrupted tissues. However, monitoring bacterial ingress, its construction appeared inadequate to constrain pathogen spread. Microscopic evaluation of bacterial dispersal in situ using immunolabelling and GFP-tagging of P. s. pv. aesculi, revealed two discriminative types of bacterial colonization. The forefront of lesions was found to contain densely packed bacteria, while necrotic areas housed bacterial aggregates with scattered individuals embedded in an extracellular matrix of bacterial origin containing alginate. The endophytic localization and ability of P. s. pv aesculi to create a protective matrix render it poorly accessible for control agents. To circumvent this, a method based on selective bacterial lethality at 39 °C was conceived and successfully tested on A. hippocastanum saplings, providing proof of concept for controlling this disease by heat-treatment. This may be applicable for curing other tree cankers, caused by related phytopathogens.

  8. The role of host tree condition in attack of white oaks by the twolined chestnut borer, Agrilus bilineatus (Weber) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Dunn, James P; Kimmerer, Thomas W; Nordin, Gerald L

    1986-11-01

    The twolined chestnut borer, Agrilus bilineatus (Weber) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), attacks stressed oaks (Quercus spp.) and is associated with extensive mortality of trees in the eastern deciduous forests of North America. We examined host location by the insect and subsequent host mortality in experimentally stressed trees. A. bilineatus adults were able to rapidly and specifically locate stressed oak trees. Up to 160 beetles per week were captured on sticky band traps on the trunks of stressed trees, while beetles rarely landed on unstressed control trees. This suggests that adult borers have an acute perception of host tree "quality", and that this perception is from a distance. One mechanism of host location may be detection of volatile compounds produced by stressed trees.The condition of the host tree appears to regulate both beetle attraction and successful colonization. Mortally wounded (xylem-girdled) trees attracted beetles only until the cambium died. Xylem-girdled trees were attacked early in the beetle flight season, but larvae did not survive to emerge as adults from these trees. In contrast, phloemgirdled trees continued to attract beetles throughout the flight period. Phloem-girdled trees which were heavily attacked by A. bilineatus died late in the season in which they were attacked. Lightly attacked trees survived until the following growing season, and were then heavily attacked and killed. In one stand, phloem-girdled trees were not attacked, healed over the girdling wounds and were still alive three years after girdling. These results indicate that oak trees are only attractive to A. bilineatus within a narrow range of physiological conditions following stress but prior to mortality. A. bilineatus appears to be a proximate agent of mortality in stressed oaks in eastern North America.

  9. Neutron irradiation of beryllium pebbles

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.; Ermi, R.M.; Tsai, H.

    1998-03-01

    Seven subcapsules from the FFTF/MOTA 2B irradiation experiment containing 97 or 100% dense sintered beryllium cylindrical specimens in depleted lithium have been opened and the specimens retrieved for postirradiation examination. Irradiation conditions included 370 C to 1.6 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, 425 C to 4.8 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, and 550 C to 5.0 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}. TEM specimens contained in these capsules were also retrieved, but many were broken. Density measurements of the cylindrical specimens showed as much as 1.59% swelling following irradiation at 500 C in 100% dense beryllium. Beryllium at 97% density generally gave slightly lower swelling values.

  10. Fracture surfaces of irradiated composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milkovich, Scott M.; Sykes, George F., Jr.; Herakovich, Carl T.

    1987-01-01

    Electron microscopy was used to analyze the fracture surfaces of T300/934 graphite/epoxy unidirectional off-axis tensile coupons which were subjected to 1.0-MeV electron radiation at a rate of 50 Mrad/h for a total dose of 10 Grad. Fracture surfaces from irradiated and nonirradiated specimens tested at 116 K, room temperature, and 394 K were analyzed to assess the influence of radiation and temperature on the mode of failure and variations in constituent material as a function of environmental exposure. Micrographs of fracture surfaces indicate that irradiated specimens are more brittle than nonirradiated specimens at low temperatures. However, at elevated temperatures the irradiated specimens exhibit significantly more plasticity than nonirradiated specimens.

  11. [The state of the mitochondrial energy-supplying system of blood leukocytes in the dynamics of Guerin's carcinoma growth under the low-level irradiation conditions].

    PubMed

    Marchenko, M M; Voloshchuk, O N

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial NADH-dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase activities of peripheral blood leukocytes of rats with the grafted Guerin's carcinoma were studied in the dynamics of oncogenesis under the conditions of the preliminary low-level irradiation. Tumor growth was accompanied by a decrease in NADH-dehydrogenase activity, an increase of succinate dehydrogenase activity. Cytochrome oxidase activity of leucocytes remained at the control level up to the terminal stages of tumor growth. Preliminary low-level irradiation of the tumor bearing animals caused a tendency to the decrease of enzymatic activities studied. This tendency was observed from the initial stages of oncogenesis.

  12. Effects of irradiation on PVC compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bataille, P.; Ulkem, I.; Schreiber, H. P.

    1995-11-01

    PVC compounds containing CaCO 3 filler and plasticizers were prepared with or without a trifunctional acrylic crosslinking agent and irradiated by 60Co γ-rays under air or nitrogen atmosphere. The samples without crosslinking agent did not respond to irradiation. The mechanical properties of the other samples such as tensile strength, yield strength and % elongation showed a great sensitivity to irradiation. Lower values of Young's modulus were observed for samples irradiated in air compared with samples irradiated in nitrogen indicating the effect of atmosphere in the range of irradiation studied.

  13. Healing in the irradiated wound

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.H.; Rudolph, R. )

    1990-07-01

    Poor or nonhealing of irradiated wounds has been attributed to progressive obliterative endarteritis. Permanently damaged fibroblasts may also play an important part in poor healing. Regardless of the cause, the key to management of irradiated skin is careful attention to prevent its breakdown and conservative, but adequate, treatment when wounds are minor. When wounds become larger and are painful, complete excision of the wound or ulcer is called for and coverage should be provided by a well-vascularized nonparasitic distant flap.16 references.

  14. Modeling Solar Lyman Alpha Irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, J.; Hudson, H. S.; Rottman, G. J.; Willson, R. C.; Donnelly, R. F.; London, J.

    1990-01-01

    Solar Lyman alpha irradiance is estimated from various solar indices using linear regression analyses. Models developed with multiple linear regression analysis, including daily values and 81-day running means of solar indices, predict reasonably well both the short- and long-term variations observed in Lyman alpha. It is shown that the full disk equivalent width of the He line at 1083 nm offers the best proxy for Lyman alpha, and that the total irradiance corrected for sunspot effect also has a high correlation with Lyman alpha.

  15. An in vitro L-band electron paramagnetic resonance study of highly irradiated whole teeth.

    PubMed

    Zdravkova, M; Wieser, A; El-Faramawy, N; Gallez, B; Debuyst, R

    2002-01-01

    Regarding in vivo L-band dosimetry with human teeth, a number of preliminary experiments were carried out that were linked to the resonators response and the relative contribution of enamel to the EPR signal intensity of irradiated whole teeth. The sensitivity of the extended loop resonator varies in the antenna plane, but this variation tends to vanish when the sample is moved away from this plane. When the loop antenna is placed just above the highly irradiated molar, around 88% of the dosimetric signal is due to the crown enamel. The sensitivity inside a birdcage cavity is approximately equal over the volume of a molar; only 30% of the molar's total dosimetric signal results from enamel. Some decrease in the intensity of the dosimetric signal from enamel is observed after irradiation. At room temperature, the signal is reduced by about 20% within 90 days and approaches a plateau with a time constant of about 35 days.

  16. A PRELIMINARY JUPITER MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, W. B.; Militzer, B.

    2016-03-20

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen–helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity.

  17. Vascular spasm complicates continuous wave but not pulsed laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gal, D.; Steg, P.G.; Rongione, A.J.; DeJesus, S.T.; Clarke, R.H.; Isner, J.M. )

    1989-11-01

    Preliminary clinical experience with laser angioplasty has suggested that arterial spasm may complicate attempts to employ laser light to accomplish vascular recanalization. The present study was designed to investigate the role of energy profile on the development of arterial spasm during laser angioplasty. Laser irradiation was delivered percutaneously in vivo to New Zealand white rabbits and to Yucatan microswine with or without atherosclerotic lesions induced by a combination of balloon endothelial denudation and atherogenic diet. Continuous wave (CW) laser irradiation from an argon ion gas laser (wavelength 488 to 514 nm) was applied to 23 arteries, while 16 arteries were irradiated using a pulsed xenon chloride (308 nm) or xenon fluoride (351 nm) excimer laser. Arterial spasm, defined as greater than 50% reduction in luminal diameter narrowing, complicated delivery of laser light to 17 (74%) of the 23 arteries irradiated with the CW argon laser. Spasm was consistently observed at powers greater than 2 W, at cumulative exposures greater than 200 seconds, and at total energy greater than 200 joules. Spasm was typically diffuse (including the length of the vessel) and protracted (lasting up to 120 minutes). Intra-arterial nitroglycerin (up to 300 micrograms) produced only temporary and incomplete resolution of laser-induced spasm. In contrast, spasm was never observed in any of the 16 arteries in which laser angioplasty was performed using a pulsed laser (0.95 to 6.37 joules/cm2, 10 to 50 Hz, 48 to 370 seconds). Thus CW but not pulsed laser angioplasty may be complicated by arterial spasm

  18. Single-cell Raman spectroscopy of irradiated tumour cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Quinn

    incubation time post-irradiation, and to arise from biochemical differences in lipids, nucleic acids, amino acids, and conformational protein structures between irradiated and unirradiated cells. This study is the first use of RS to observe radiation induced biochemical effects in single cells, and is the first use of vibrational spectroscopy to observe such effects independent from cell cycle or cell death related processes. The same methods are then applied to a panel of human tumour cell lines, derived from prostate (DU145, PC3, LNCaP and PacMet), breast (MDA-MB-231 and MCF7) and lung (H460), which vary by p53 gene status and intrinsic radiosensitivity. One radiation induced PCA component is detected for each cell line by statistically significant changes in the PCA score distributions for irradiated samples, as compared to unirradiated samples, in the first 24 to 72 hours post-irradiation. These RS response signatures arise from radiation induced changes in cellular concentrations of aromatic amino acids, conformational protein structures, and certain nucleic acid and lipid functional groups. Correlation analysis between the radiation induced PCA components separates the cell lines into three unique RS response categories: R1 (H460, MCF7 and PacMet), R2 (MDA-MB-231 and PC3), and R3 (DU145 and LNCaP). These RS categories partially segregate according to radiosensitivity; the R1 and R2 cell lines are radioresistant and the R3 cell lines are radiosensitive (PacMet radiosensitivity (R1) unknown). The R1 and R2 cell lines further segregate according to p53 gene status, corroborated by cell cycle analysis post-irradiation. Preliminary results obtained from a mouse prostate tumour cell line (TRAMP-C2), irradiated both in vitro and in vivo, indicate that RS signatures of radiation response may also be detectable from tumour cells obtained from an in vivo system during radiation therapy treatment. These results indicate the potential for future RS studies designed to investigate

  19. Determination of Four Major Saponins in Skin and Endosperm of Seeds of Horse Chestnut (Aesculus Hippocastanum L.) Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Positive Confirmation by Thin Layer Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Abudayeh, Zead Helmi Mahmoud; Al Azzam, Khaldun Mohammad; Naddaf, Ahmad; Karpiuk, Uliana Vladimirovna; Kislichenko, Viktoria Sergeevna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To separate and quantify four major saponins in the extracts of the skin and the endosperm of seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) using ultrasonic solvent extraction followed by a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) with positive confirmation by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Methods: The saponins: escin Ia, escin Ib, isoescin Ia and isoescin Ib were extracted using ultrasonic extraction method. The optimized extraction conditions were: 70% methanol as extraction solvent, 80 °C as extraction temperature, and the extraction time was achieved in 4 hours. The HPLC conditions used: Zorbax SB-ODS-(150 mm × 2.1 mm, 3 μm) column, acetonitrile and 0.10% phosphoric acid solution (39:61 v/v) as mobile phase, flow rate was 0.5 mL min−1 at 210 nm and 230 nm detection. The injection volume was 10 μL, and the separation was carried out isothermally at 30 °C in a heated chamber. Results: The results indicated that the developed HPLC method is simple, sensitive and reliable. Moreover, the content of escins in seeds decreased by more than 30% in endosperm and by more than 40% in skin upon storage for two years. Conclusion: This assay can be readily utilized as a quality control method for horse chestnut and other related medicinal plants. PMID:26819933

  20. Functional characterization of the three mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAP2Ks) present in the Cryphonectria parasitica genome reveals the necessity of Cpkk1 and Cpkk2, but not Cpkk3, for pathogenesis on chestnut (Castanea spp.).

    PubMed

    Moretti, Marino; Rossi, Marika; Ciuffo, Marina; Turina, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    The biological function(s) of the cpkk1, cpkk2 and cpkk3 genes, encoding the three mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAP2Ks) of Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight, were examined through knockout strains. Cpkk1, the Mkk1 orthologue, acts in a phosphorylation cascade essential for cell integrity; Cpkk2 is the Ste7 orthologue involved in the pheromone response pathway; Cpkk3 is the Pbs2 orthologue, the MAP2K activated during the high-osmolarity response. Our analysis confirmed the role of each MAP2K in its respective signalling cascade with some peculiarities: abnormal hyphae with a reduced number of septa and thinner cell walls were observed in Δcpkk1 mutants, and a strong growth defect on solid media was evident in Δcpkk2 mutants, when compared with the controls. Virulence on chestnut was affected in both the Δcpkk1 and Δcpkk2 strains, which were also unable to complete the developmental steps essential for mating. No alterations were reported in Δcpkk3, except under hyperosmotic conditions and in the presence of fludioxonil. Δcpkk2 mutants, however, showed higher sensitivity during growth in medium containing the antibiotic G418 (Geneticin).

  1. Ste12 Transcription Factor Homologue CpST12 Is Down-Regulated by Hypovirus Infection and Required for Virulence and Female Fertility of the Chestnut Blight Fungus Cryphonectria parasitica▿

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Fuyou; Allen, Todd D.; Nuss, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    A putative homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ste12 transcription factor was identified in a series of expressed sequence tag-based microarray analyses as being down-regulated in strains of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, infected by virulence-attenuating hypoviruses. Cloning of the corresponding gene, cpst12, confirmed a high level of similarity to Ste12 homologues of other filamentous fungi. Disruption of cpst12 resulted in no alterations in in vitro growth characteristics or colony morphology and an increase in the production of asexual spores, indicating that CpST12 is dispensable for vegetative growth and conidiation on artificial medium. However, the disruption mutants showed a very substantial reduction in virulence on chestnut tissue and a complete loss of female fertility, two symptoms normally conferred by hypovirus infection. Both virulence and female fertility were restored by complementation with the wild-type cpst12 gene. Analysis of transcriptional changes caused by cpst12 gene disruption with a custom C. parastica cDNA microaray chip identified 152 responsive genes. A significant number of these putative CpST12-regulated genes were also responsive to hypovirus infection. Thus, cpst12 encodes a cellular transcription factor, CpST12, that is down-regulated by hypovirus infection and required for female fertility, virulence and regulated expression of a subset of hypovirus responsive host genes. PMID:17114597

  2. Annual report of 1991 groundwater monitoring data for the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin at the Y-12 Plant: Reporting and statistical evaluation of the subsequent year (sixth) data

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, L.W.; Mercier, T.M.

    1992-02-01

    This annual report has historically been prepared to meet the annual reporting requirements of the Tennessee Department of and Environment and Conservation (TDEC), Hazardous Waste Management Regulation 1200-1-11-.05 (6)(e), for detection monitoring data collected on Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) wells in place around facilities which are accorded interim status. The regulatory authority for these units at the Y-12 Plant is currently in transition. A Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) with an effective date of January 1, 1992, has been negotiated with the Department of Energy (DOE) for the Oak Ridge Reservation. This agreement provides a framework for remediation of the Oak Ridge Reservation so that both RCRA and CERCLA requirements are integrated into the remediation process and provides for State, EPA, and DOE to proceed with CERCLA as the lead regulatory requirement and RCRA as an applicable or relevant and appropriate requirement. This report is presented for the RCRA certified wells for two interim status units at the Y-12 Plant. These units are Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin. Kerr Hollow is currently undergoing clean closure under RCRA. The Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (CRSDB) was closed in 1989 under a TDEC approved RCRA closure plan. The relevance of a RCRA Post-Closure Permit to either of these units is a matter of contention between DOE and TDEC since the FFA does not contemplate post-closure permits.

  3. Biological effects of millimeter-wave irradiation: living bacterial organisms. Final report 15 July 1982-14 October 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhi, O.P.; Hill, D.W.; Furia, L.; Iskander, M.F.; Ghodgaonkar, D.

    1984-04-01

    The report describes experiments on the effects of millimeter-wave irradiation on the mutation rates of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535 and TA 1538. No frequency-sensitive irradiation effects have been observed in spite of closely spaced frequencies used in the 42-48 and 65-75 GHz bands. Some preliminary experiments performed with yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have given rates of growth that are dependent on the irradiation frequency. However, on account of the high degree of variability, accurate frequency resettability is a must before firm conclusions can be drawn. A new method for measuring complex permittivities of biological media in vitro and in vivo has been proposed and tested for feasibility. Raman laser spectroscopy is proposed as a means of searching for frequency-specific biological effects of millimeter-wave irradiation. The Raman system setup for these studies is used for pilot studies with vesicular stomatitis, Sindbis, and LaCrosse viruses and with bacillus megaterium.

  4. Anisotropic swelling and microcracking of neutron irradiated Ti3AlC2-Ti5Al2C3 materials

    DOE PAGES

    Ang, Caen K.; Silva, Chinthaka M.; Shih, Chunghao Phillip; ...

    2015-12-17

    Mn + 1AXn (MAX) phase materials based on Ti–Al–C have been irradiated at 400 °C (673 K) with fission neutrons to a fluence of 2 × 1025 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV), corresponding to ~ 2 displacements per atom (dpa). We report preliminary results of microcracking in the Al-containing MAX phase, which contained the phases Ti3AlC2 and Ti5Al2C3. Equibiaxial ring-on-ring tests of irradiated coupons showed that samples retained 10% of pre-irradiated strength. Volumetric swelling of up to 4% was observed. Phase analysis and microscopy suggest that anisotropic lattice parameter swelling caused microcracking. Lastly, variants of titanium aluminum carbide may bemore » unsuitable materials for irradiation at light water reactor-relevant temperatures.« less

  5. Thermal effects in tissues induced by interstitial irradiation of near infrared laser with a cylindrical diffuser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Kelvin; Johsi, Chet; Figueroa, Daniel; Goddard, Jessica; Li, Xiaosong; Towner, Rheal A.; Saunders, Debra; Smith, Nataliya; Liu, Hong; Hode, Tomas; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

    2011-03-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT), using non-invasive laser irradiation, has resulted in promising outcomes in the treatment of late-stage cancer patients. However, the tissue absorption of laser light limits the clinical applications of LIT in patients with dark skin, or with deep tumors. The present study is designed to investigate the thermal effects of interstitial irradiation using an 805-nm laser with a cylindrical diffuser, in order to overcome the limitations of the non-invasive mode of treatment. Cow liver and rat tumors were irradiated using interstitial fiber. The temperature increase was monitored by thermocouples that were inserted into the tissue at different sites around the cylinder fiber. Three-dimensional temperature distribution in target tissues during and after interstitial laser irradiation was also determined by Proton Resonance Frequency. The preliminary results showed that the output power of laser and the optical parameters of the target tissue determined the light distribution in the tissue. The temperature distributions varied in the tissue according to the locations relative to the active tip of the cylindrical diffuser. The temperature increase is strongly related to the laser power and irradiation time. Our results using thermocouples and optical sensors indicated that the PRF method is reliable and accurate for temperature determination. Although the inhomogeneous biological tissues could result in temperature fluctuation, the temperature trend still can be reliable enough for the guidance of interstitial irradiation. While this study provides temperature profiles in tumor tissue during interstitial irradiation, the biological effects of the irradiation remain unclear. Future studies will be needed, particularly in combination with the application of immunostimulant for inducing tumor-specific immune responses in the treatment of metastatic tumors.

  6. Hair dosimetry following neutron irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lebaron-Jacobs, L; Gaillard-Lecanu, E; Briot, F; Distinguin, S; Boisson, P; Exmelin, L; Racine, Y; Berard, P; Flüry-Herard, A; Miele, A; Fottorino, R

    2007-05-01

    Use of hair as a biological dosimeter of neutron exposure was proposed a few years ago. To date, the (32)S(n,p)(32)P reaction in hair with a threshold of 2.5 MeV is the best choice to determine the fast neutron dose using body activation. This information is essential with regards to the heterogeneity of the neutron transfer to the organism. This is a very important parameter for individual dose reconstruction from the surface to the deeper tissues. This evaluation is essential to the adapted management of irradiated victims by specialized medical staff. Comparison exercises between clinical biochemistry laboratories from French sites (the CEA and COGEMA) and from the IRSN were carried out to validate the measurement of (32)P activity in hair and to improve the techniques used to perform this examination. Hair was placed on a phantom and was irradiated at different doses in the SILENE reactor (Valduc, France). Different parameters were tested: variation of hair type, minimum weight of hair sample, hair wash before measurement, delivery period of results, and different irradiation configurations. The results obtained in these comparison exercises by the different laboratories showed an excellent correlation. This allowed the assessment of a dose-activity relationship and confirmed the feasibility and the interest of (32)P measurement in hair following fast neutron irradiation.

  7. Irradiation enhancement of biomass conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G. S.; Kiesling, H. E.; Galyean, M. L.; Bader, J. R.

    The vast supply of cellulosic agricultural residues and industrial by-products that is produced each year is a prospective resource of biomass suitable for conversion to useful products such as feedstock for the chemicals industry and feedstuffs for the livestock industry. Conversions of such biomass is poor at present, and utilization is inefficient, because of physio-chemical barriers to biological degradation and (or) anti-quality components such as toxicants that restrict biological usages. Improvements in biodegradability of ligno-cellulosic materials have been accomplished by gamma-ray and electron-beam irradiation at intermediate dosage (˜ 50 Mrad; .5 MGy); but applications of the technology have been hampered by questionable interpretations of results. Recent research with organic wastes such as sewage sludge and straw suggests opportunity for important applications of irradiation technology in enhancement of biomass conversion. Data from experiments using irradiated straw as feed for ruminants are presented and discussed in relation to research on prospective usage of sewage products as feed for ruminants. Findings are discussed in regard to prospective applications in industrial fermentation processes. Possible usage of irradiation technology for destruction of toxicants in exotic plants is considered in regard to prospective new feedstuffs.

  8. Irradiance Variability of the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froehlich, Claus

    1990-01-01

    Direct measurements of the solar constant--the total irradiance at mean Sun-Earth distance--during the last ten years from satellites show variations over time scales from minutes to years and decades. At high frequencies the spectral power is determined by granulation, super- and mesogranulation. In the 5-minute range, moreover, it is dominated by power from the solar p-mode oscillations. Their power and frequencies change with time, yielding information about changes in the convection zone. During periods of several hours, the power is steadily increasing and may be partly due to solar gravity modes. The most important variance is in the range from days to several months and is related to the photospheric features of solar activity, decrease of the irradiance during the appearance of sunspots, and increasing by faculae and the magnetic network. Long-term modulation by the 11-year activity cycle are observed conclusively with the irradiance being higher during solar maximum. All these variations can be explained--at least qualitatively--by their manifestation on the photosphere. For the long-term changes, the simultaneous changes of the frequencies of solar p-mode oscillations suggest a more global origin of the variations. Indeed, it seems that the observed irradiance modulation is a true luminosity change with the magnetic cycle of the Sun.

  9. Microstructural processes in irradiated materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Thak Sang; Morgan, Dane; Jiao, Zhijie; Almer, Jonathan; Brown, Donald

    2016-04-01

    These proceedings contain the papers presented at two symposia, the Microstructural Processes in Irradiated Materials (MPIM) and Characterization of Nuclear Reactor Materials and Components with Neutron and Synchrotron Radiation, held in the TMS 2015, 144th Annual Meeting & Exhibition at Walt Disney World, Orlando, Florida, USA on March 15-19, 2015.

  10. Food Irradiation Research and Technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food Irradiation is a safe and effective U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved process that can be used to disinfest or delay the maturation of fruits and vegetables, improve the microbiological safety of shellfish, eggs, raw meat and poultry, spices, and seeds used for sprouting. FDA ap...

  11. Food irradiation research and technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food Irradiation is a safe and effective U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved process that can be used to disinfest or delay the maturation of fruits and vegetables, improve the microbiological safety of shellfish, eggs, raw meat and poultry, spices, and seeds used for sprouting. FDA ap...

  12. Internal irradiation for cystic craniopharyngioma

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, T.; Kageyama, N.; Ohara, K.

    1981-12-01

    The authors report the results of internal irradiation with labeled chromic phosphate (32P) and gold-198 (198Au) colloid in eight cases of cystic craniopharyngiomas. They used a newly developed dosimetric formula, by which the radiation dose at the cyst wall and at any point far from the radioactive source can be calculated. Ten courses of irradiation in eight patients were carried out by injection of either 32P or 198Au colloid into the cyst through an Ommaya drainage system that had been placed at craniotomy. Follow-up studies ranging from 13 to 156 months revealed that all cysts were effectively treated, with elimination of fluid or collapse of the cyst. This was confirmed by Conray cystography and/or computerized tomography. Not only the dose delivered to the wall but also the thickness of the cyst wall and the location of the cyst are important factors in planning internal irradiation. A safe and adequate dose to the cyst wall could range between 9000 to 30,000 rads for craniopharyngioma. This treatment is suitable for large cysts that are thought to be difficult to remove radically, recurrent cysts resistant to previous treatment, or multiple cysts. Internal irradiation may also be applicable in other cystic intracranial tumors if dosimetry is calculated accurately.

  13. Statistical criteria for characterizing irradiance time series.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2010-10-01

    We propose and examine several statistical criteria for characterizing time series of solar irradiance. Time series of irradiance are used in analyses that seek to quantify the performance of photovoltaic (PV) power systems over time. Time series of irradiance are either measured or are simulated using models. Simulations of irradiance are often calibrated to or generated from statistics for observed irradiance and simulations are validated by comparing the simulation output to the observed irradiance. Criteria used in this comparison should derive from the context of the analyses in which the simulated irradiance is to be used. We examine three statistics that characterize time series and their use as criteria for comparing time series. We demonstrate these statistics using observed irradiance data recorded in August 2007 in Las Vegas, Nevada, and in June 2009 in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  14. Ultrasonic Transducer Irradiation Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, Joshua; Palmer, Joe; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Keller, Paul; Montgomery, Robert; Chien, Hual-Te; Kohse, Gordon; Tittmann, Bernhard; Reinhardt, Brian; Rempe, Joy

    2015-02-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high-accuracy and -resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other ongoing efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of identified ultrasonic transducer materials capable of long term performance under irradiation test conditions. For this reason, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an ATR NSUF project to evaluate the performance of promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducers in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 1021 n/cm2. The goal of this research is to characterize and demonstrate magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer operation during irradiation, enabling the development of novel radiation-tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs). As such, this test is an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data is collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers. To date, one piezoelectric

  15. Kinetic Studies on Photodeposition of Polydiacetylene Thin Film from Solution: Preliminary Determination of the Rate Law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paley, M. S.; Armstrong, S.; Witherow, W. K.; Frazier, D. O.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary kinetic studies were undertaken on the photodeposition of thin films of a polydiacetylene derivative of 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline from monomer solutions onto quartz substrates. Solutions of the monomer, DAMNA, in 1,2-dichloroethane at various concentrations were irradiated at 364 nm using an argon-ion laser at several intensities. It was found that the rate of polydiacetylene (PDAMNA) film photodeposition varies linearly with UV light intensity and as the square root of monomer concentration.

  16. Biological effects of ultraviolet irradiation on bees

    SciTech Connect

    Es`kov, E.K.

    1995-09-01

    The influence of natural solar and artificial ultraviolet irradiation on developing bees was studied. Lethal exposures to irradiation at different stages of development were determined. The influence of irradiation on the variability of the morphometric features of bees was revealed. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Schedule and status of irradiation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Grossbeck, M.L.

    1997-04-01

    To provide an updated summary of the status of irradiation experiments for the neutron-interactive materials program. The current status of reactor irradiation experiments is presented in tables summarizing the experimental objectives, conditions, and schedule. Currently, the program has two irradiation experiments in reactor; and 8 experiments in the planning or design stages. Postirradiation examination and testing is in progress on 18 experiments.

  18. Preliminary reference Earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziewonski, Adam M.; Anderson, Don L.

    1981-06-01

    A large data set consisting of about 1000 normal mode periods, 500 summary travel time observations, 100 normal mode Q values, mass and moment of inertia have been inverted to obtain the radial distribution of elastic properties, Q values and density in the Earth's interior. The data set was supplemented with a special study of 12 years of ISC phase data which yielded an additional 1.75 × 10 6 travel time observations for P and S waves. In order to obtain satisfactory agreement with the entire data set we were required to take into account anelastic dispersion. The introduction of transverse isotropy into the outer 220 km of the mantle was required in order to satisfy the shorter period fundamental toroidal and spheroidal modes. This anisotropy also improved the fit of the larger data set. The horizontal and vertical velocities in the upper mantle differ by 2-4%, both for P and S waves. The mantle below 220 km is not required to be anisotropic. Mantle Rayleigh waves are surprisingly sensitive to compressional velocity in the upper mantle. High S n velocities, low P n velocities and a pronounced low-velocity zone are features of most global inversion models that are suppressed when anisotropy is allowed for in the inversion. The Preliminary Reference Earth Model, PREM, and auxiliary tables showing fits to the data are presented.

  19. Preliminary Analysis of Photoreading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, Danielle S.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to provide a preliminary analysis of a reading strategy called PhotoReading. PhotoReading is a technique developed by Paul Scheele that claims to increase reading rate to 25,000 words per minute (Scheele, 1993). PhotoReading itself involves entering a "relaxed state" and looking at, but not reading, each page of a text for a brief moment (about I to 2 seconds). While this technique has received attention in the popular press, there had been no objective examinations of the technique's validity. To examine the effectiveness of PhotoReading, the principal investigator (i.e., trainee) participated in a PhotoReading workshop to learn the technique. Parallel versions of two standardized and three experimenter-created reading comprehension tests were administered to the trainee and an expert user of the PhotoReading technique to compare the use of normal reading strategies and the PhotoReading technique by both readers. The results for all measures yielded no benefits of using the PhotoReading technique. The extremely rapid reading rates claimed by PhotoReaders were not observed; indeed, the reading rates were generally comparable to those for normal reading. Moreover, the PhotoReading expert generally showed an increase in reading time when using the PhotoReading technique in comparison to when using normal reading strategies to process text. This increase in reading time when PhotoReading was accompanied by a decrease in text comprehension.

  20. Enhanced preliminary assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    An Enhanced Preliminary Assessment was conducted at Fort Benjamin Harrison (FBH) Indiana, which is located approximately 12 miles from downtown Indianapolis in Lawrence Township, Marion County. FBH contains 2,501 acres, of which approximately 1,069 acres is covered by woodlands. Activities at FBH include administration, training, housing, and support. Sensitive environments at FBH include wetlands, habitat areas for the endangered Indiana bat, endangered plants, and historically and archeologically significant areas. FBH is a U.S. Army Soldier Support Center under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC). Based on information obtained during and subsequent to a site visit (15 through 18 October 1991), 36 types of Areas Requiring Environmental Evaluation (AREEs) were identified and grouped by the following categories: Facility Operations; Maintenance/Fueling Operations; Water Treatment Operations; Training Areas; Hazardous Materials Storage/Waste Handling Areas; Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Plants; Storage Tanks; Landfills/Incinerators; Medical Facilities; Burn Pit Areas; Spill Areas; Ammunition Storage; Coal Storage; and Facility-wide AREEs. This report presents a summary of findings for each AREE and recommendations for further action.

  1. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Burchell, M.; Burghammer, M.; Butterworth, A. L.; Cloetens, P.; Cody, G.; Ferroir, T.; Floss, C.; Flynn, G. J.; Frank, D.; Gainsforth, Z.; Grün, E.; Hoppe, P.; Kearsley, A.; Lemelle, L.; Leroux, H.; Lettieri, R.; Marchant, W.; Mendez, B.; Nittler, L. R.; Ogliore, R.; Postberg, F.; Sandford, S. A.; Schmitz, S.; Silversmit, G.; Simionovici, A.; Srama, R.; Stadermann, F. J.; Stephan, T.; Stroud, R. M.; Susini, J.; Sutton, S.; Trieloff, M.; Tsou, P.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Tyliczszak, T.; Vekemans, B.; Vincze, L.; Warren, J.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2009-03-01

    The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the Stardust interstellar dust collection and collector using non-destructive techniques. We summarize the status of the ISPE.

  2. 32 CFR 651.49 - Preliminary phase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary phase. 651.49 Section 651.49... Preliminary phase. In the preliminary phase, the proponent agency or office identifies, as early as possible... tentative list of the affected parties to be notified. A key part of this preliminary identification is...

  3. Laser irradiation to produce amorphous pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Titapiwatanakun, Varin; Tankul, Junlathip; Basit, Abdul W; Gaisford, Simon

    2016-11-30

    Using a high-power CO2 laser to irradiate powder beds, it was possible to induce phase transformation to the amorphous state. Irradiation of a model drug, indometacin, resulted in formation of a glass. Varying the settings of the laser (power and raster speed) was shown to change the physicochemical properties of the glasses produced and all irradiated glasses were found to be more stable than a reference glass produced by melt-quenching. Irradiation of a powder blend of paracetamol and polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 was found to produce a solid amorphous dispersion. The results suggest that laser-irradiation might be a useful method for making amorphous pharmaceuticals.

  4. The effect of α-tocopherol, sweet chestnut wood extract and their combination on oxidative stress in vivo and the oxidative stability of meat in broilers.

    PubMed

    Voljč, M; Levart, A; Zgur, S; Salobir, J

    2013-01-01

    1. This study examined the effect of α-tocopherol (α-T), sweet chestnut wood extract (SCW) and their combination on oxidative stress in vivo and oxidative stability of meat in broilers given diets rich in PUFA. 2. A total of 60 male broilers were individually caged and divided into 6 groups of 10. The C-PALM group received a diet with 7·5% palm fat and the other 5 groups with 7·5% linseed oil. The linseed oil groups were either un-supplemented (C-LIN) or supplemented with α-T or/and SCW as follows: αT-85 (C-LIN diet + 68 IU vit E as all-rac-α-T/kg), αT-200 (C-LIN diet + 183 IU vit E as all-rac-α-T/kg), SCW (C-LIN diet + 3 g SCW/kg) and αT-SCW (C-LIN diet + 68 IU vit E as all-rac-α-T/kg + 3 g SCW/kg). Different parameters of oxidative stress were measured. 3. Linseed oil induced DNA fragmentation and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, while α-T reduced both parameters, and SCW reduced the DNA damage. A combination (αT-SCW) also reduced plasma MDA. Larger antioxidant capacity of lipid soluble compounds were recorded in groups αT-85, αT-200 and αT-SCW than in the controls but there were no differences between these groups in antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant status. A combination (αT-SCW) increased tocopherol concentrations in breast muscle and in comparison to the C-LIN group MDA concentrations were reduced in groups αT-85, αT-200 and αT-SCW. 4. It can be concluded that neither of the α-T concentrations were able to prevent all the negative effects of lipid oxidation in vivo and only high concentrations of α-T improved the stability of meat. With the exception of DNA damage, SCW had no impact on in vivo and in vitro measured markers of oxidative stress but may have a sparing or regenerating effect on α-T.

  5. Burkholderia acidipaludis sp. nov., aluminum-tolerant bacteria isolated from Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) growing in highly acidic swamps in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Tomoko; Bao Ve, Nguyen; Vijarnsorn, Pisoot; Nakajima, Mutsuyasu; Sunairi, Michio

    2010-09-01

    Two strains of aluminium-tolerant bacteria, SA33(T) and 7A078, were isolated from Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) growing in highly acidic swamps (pH 2-4) in actual acid sulfate soil areas of Vietnam (SA33(T)) and Thailand (7A078). The strains were Gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming rods, 0.6-0.7 mum wide and 1.3-1.7 mum long. These strains showed good growth at pH 3.0-8.0 and 17-37 degrees C. The organisms contained ubiquinone Q-8 as the predominant isoprenoid quinone and C(16 : 0), C(18 : 1) ω 7c and C(17 : 0) cyclo as the major fatty acids. Their fatty acid profiles were similar to those reported for other Burkholderia species. The DNA G+C content of these strains was 64 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the strains were shown to belong to the genus Burkholderia. Although the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values calculated for strain SA33(T) to 7A078 and the type strains of Burkholderia kururiensis, B. sacchari and B. tuberum were 100, 97.3, 97.1 and 97.0 %, respectively, strains SA33(T) and 7A078 formed a group that was distinct in the phylogenetic trees; the DNA-DNA relatedness of strain SA33(T) to 7A078 and these three type strains were respectively 90, 47, 46 and 45 %. The results of physiological and biochemical tests, including whole-cell protein pattern analysis, allowed phenotypic differentiation of these strains from described Burkholderia species. Therefore, strains SA33(T) and 7A078 represent a novel species, for which the name Burkholderia acidipaludis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SA33(T) (=NBRC 101816(T) =VTCC-D6-6(T)). Strain 7A078 (=NBRC 103872 =BCC 36999) is a reference strain.

  6. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry can be used for dose estimation in irradiated pork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Oca, M. C.; Bartolotta, A.; Cammilleri, M. C.; Giuffrida, S. A.; Parlato, A.; Di Noto, A. M.; Caracappa, S.

    2009-07-01

    Food safety can be improved using ionizing radiation to reduce food spoilage and to extend its shelf life. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been validated by the European Community as a powerful method to identify irradiated food containing fat. The preliminary goals of our research were: (i) to set up this method, based on the detection of radiation induced 2-dodecylcyclobutanones (2-DCB) in pork muscle samples and (ii) to check the microbiological efficacy of the treatment. The main objective was to render the GC/MS a quantitative technique for dose estimation, through the measurement of the 2-DCB concentration in the irradiated sample. Our results show that the reduction of the microbial population is substantially reduced even at 2 kGy, and that a clear identification of irradiated samples can be achieved also one month after irradiation at 2 kGy in frozen-stored samples. The 2-DCB concentration showed a linear dependence on dose in the range 1-10 kGy, no matter the origin of the sample; a unique calibration function was obtained, that allowed dose estimation in irradiated pork samples. A retrospective evaluation on the quality of the treatment could be carried out this way.

  7. Atomic hydrogen in. gamma. -irradiated hydroxides of alkaline-earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Spitsyn, V.I.; Yurik, T.K.; Barsova, L.I.

    1982-04-01

    Atomic hydrogen is an important intermediate product formed in the radiolysis of compounds containing X-H bonds. H atoms have been detected in irradiated matrices of H/sub 2/ and inert gases at 4/sup 0/K, in irradiated ice and frozen solutions of acids in irradiated salts and in other systems. Here results are presented from a study of the ESR spectra of H atoms generated in polycrystalline hydroxides of alkaline-earth elements that have been ..gamma..-irradiated at 77/sup 0/K, after preliminary treatment at various temperatures. For the first time stabilization of atomic hydrogen in ..gamma..-irradiated polycrystalline alkaline-earth element hydroxides has been detected. Depending on the degree of dehydroxylation, several types of hydrogen atoms may be stabilized in the hydroxides, these hydrogen atoms having different radiospectroscopic parameters. In the magnesium-calcium-strontium-barium hydroxide series, a regular decrease has been found in the hfi constants for H atoms with the cations in the immediate surroundings. A direct proportionality has been found between the parameters ..delta..A/A/sub 0/ and the polarizability of the cation.

  8. Status of the Norwegian thorium light water reactor (LWR) fuel development and irradiation test program

    SciTech Connect

    Drera, S.S.; Bjork, K.I.; Kelly, J.F.; Asphjell, O.

    2013-07-01

    Thorium based fuels offer several benefits compared to uranium based fuels and should thus be an attractive alternative to conventional fuel types. In order for thorium based fuel to be licensed for use in current LWRs, material properties must be well known for fresh as well as irradiated fuel, and accurate prediction of fuel behavior must be possible to make for both normal operation and transient scenarios. Important parameters are known for fresh material but the behaviour of the fuel under irradiation is unknown particularly for low Th content. The irradiation campaign aims to widen the experience base to irradiated (Th,Pu)O{sub 2} fuel and (Th,U)O{sub 2} with low Th content and to confirm existing data for fresh fuel. The assumptions with respect to improved in-core fuel performance are confirmed by our preliminary irradiation test results, and our fuel manufacture trials so far indicate that both (Th,U)O{sub 2} and (Th,Pu)O{sub 2} fuels can be fabricated with existing technologies, which are possible to upscale to commercial volumes.

  9. Food irradiation development in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, I.

    The large scale trials were held to extend the storage life of potatoes, onions and dry fruits by gamma radiation. It was concluded that radiation preservation of potatoes and onions was much cheaper as compared to conventional methods. A dose of 1 kGy can control the insects in dry fruits and nuts. The consumers' acceptability and market testing performed during the last four years are also conducive to the commercialization of the technology in this country. The Government of Pakistan has accorded clearance for the irradiation of some food items like potatoes, onions, garlic and spices for human consumption. The Pakistan Radiation Services (PARAS), the commercial irradiator (200 Kci) at Lahore, has already started functioning in April, 1987. It is planned to start large scale sterilization of spices by gamma radiation in PARAS shortly.

  10. Particular applications of food irradiation fresh produce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Anuradha

    2016-12-01

    On fresh fruits and vegetables, irradiation at low and medium dose levels can effectively reduce microbial counts which can enhance safety, inhibit sprouting to extend shelf-life, and eliminate or sterilize insect pests which can serve to facilitate trade between countries. At the dose levels used for these purposes, the impact on quality is negligible. Despite the fact that regulations in many countries allow the use of irradiation for fresh produce, the technology remains under-utilized, even in the light of an increase in produce related disease outbreaks and the economic benefits of extended shelf life and reduced food waste. Putative concerns about consumer acceptance particularly for produce that is labeled as irradiated have deterred many companies from using irradiation and retailers to carry irradiated produce. This section highlights the commercial use of irradiation for fresh produce, other than phytosanitary irradiation which is covered in supplementary sections.

  11. Blood Irradiator Interactive Tool Beta Version

    SciTech Connect

    Howington, John; Potter, Charles; DeGroff, Tavias; Best, Derek

    2016-04-15

    The “Blood Irradiator Interactive Tool” compares a typical Cs-137 Blood Irradiator with that of the capabilities of an average X-ray Irradiator. It is designed to inform the user about the potential capabilities that an average X-ray Irradiator could offer them. Specifically the tool compares the amount of blood bags that can be irradiated by the users’ machine with that of the average X-ray capability. It also forcasts the amount of blood that can be irradiated on yearly basis for both the users’ machine and an average X-ray Device. The Average X-ray capabilities are taken from the three X-ray devices currently on the market: The RS 3400 Rad Source X-ray Blood Irradiator and both the 2.0L and 3.5 L versions of the Best Theratronis Raycell MK2

  12. Future Satellite Observations of Solar Irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, R. F.; Rottman, G.; Woods, T.; Lawrence, G.; Harder, J.; McClintock, W.; Kopp, G.

    2003-01-01

    Required solar irradiance measurements for climate studies include those now being made by the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) and the Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM) onboard the SORCE satellite, part of the Earth Observing System fleet of NASA satellites. Equivalent or better measures of Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and Spectral Solar Irradiance (SSI, 200 to 2000 nm) are planned for the post-2010 satellites of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System ("OESS). The design life of SORCE is 5 years, so a "Solar Irradiance Gap Filler" EOS mission is being planned for launch in the 2007 time frame, to include the same TSI and SSI measurements. Besides avoiding any gap, overlap of the data sources is also necessary for determination of possible multi-decadal trends in solar irradiance. We discuss these requirements and the impacts of data gaps, and data overlaps, that may occur in the monitoring of the critical solar radiative forcing.

  13. Microstructure evolution in irradiated materials

    SciTech Connect

    Caturla, M

    1999-11-30

    Study the interaction of defects produced during irradiation or deformation of a metal with the microstructure of that particular material, such as dislocations and grain boundaries. In particular we will study the interaction of dislocation with interstitial loops and stacking fault tetrahedral, and the production of displacement cascades close to dislocations and grain boundaries. The data obtained from these simulations will be used as input to diffusion models and dislocation dynamics models.

  14. RERTR-8 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

    2011-12-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-8, was designed to test monolithic mini-fuel plates fabricated via hot isostatic pressing (HIP), the effect of molybdenum (Mo) content on the monolithic fuel behavior, and the efficiency of ternary additions to dispersion fuel particles on the interaction layer behavior at higher burnup. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-8 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis, thermal analysis and hydraulic testing results.

  15. RERTR-6 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

    2011-12-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-6 was designed to evaluate several modified fuel designs that were proposed to address the possibility of breakaway swelling due to porosity within the (U. Mo) Al interaction product observed in the full-size plate tests performed in Russia and France1. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-6 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analyses, thermal analyses and hydraulic testing results.

  16. Microstructural processes in irradiated materials

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, Thak Sang; Morgan, Dane; Jiao, Zhijie; Almer, Jonathan; Brown, Donald

    2016-04-01

    This is an editorial article (preface) for the publication of symposium papers in the Journal of Nuclear materials: These proceedings contain the papers presented at two symposia, the Microstructural Processes in Irradiated Materials (MPIM) and Characterization of Nuclear Reactor Materials and Components with Neutron and Synchrotron Radiation, held in the TMS 2015, 144th Annual Meeting & Exhibition at Walt Disney World, Orlando, Florida, USA on March 15–19, 2015.

  17. FFTF utilization for irradiation testing

    SciTech Connect

    Corrigan, D.C.; Julyk, L.J.; Hoth, C.W.; McGuire, J.C.; Sloan, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    FFTF utilization for irradiation testing is beginning. Two Fuels Open Test Assemblies and one Vibration Open Test Assembly, both containing in-core contact instrumentation, are installed in the reactor. These assemblies will be used to confirm plant design performance predictions. Some 100 additional experiments are currently planned to follow these three. This will result in an average core loading of about 50 test assemblies throughout the early FFTF operating cycles.

  18. Radical Irradiation of Extracranial Oligometastases

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Joseph K.; Milano, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in radiotherapy planning and delivery have been used to treat patients with limited metastatic disease. With these techniques, high rates of treated metastasis control and low toxicity have been reported. Some patients have long disease-free intervals after radiotherapy similar to those seen after surgical resection. Ongoing studies will determine the benefit of these irradiation techniques to treat limited metastases, identify appropriate candidates, and assist in integrating these treatments into management strategies for specific diseases. PMID:25113765

  19. Licensing a new industrial irradiator.

    PubMed

    Bates, Nicolas K; Entwistle, Frederick B

    2010-02-01

    After nearly three decades of medical product sterilization, 3M launched a major new project to build and license an irradiator facility. 3M Corporate Health Physics was responsible for the licensing aspect of this project. The licensing process consisted of six amendments, over 30 submissions to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC) and four U.S. NRC site visits. It took approximately 22 months to complete. The six license amendments are reviewed and several of the submissions are discussed. These include 3M's response to the U.S. NRC's interest in the shielding calculations used for the bioshield, the development of a protocol of radiation safety system test methods, and an analysis to show that a dropped cask during loading operations would not fall on sealed sources. A number of lessons were learned during the course of licensing the new irradiator. Among these were the importance of understanding the U.S. NRC license reviewer's perspective, the need to thoroughly review the irradiator manufacturer's licensing package during project negotiations, the benefits of leaving the Health Physics Office and meeting with the non-health physicists involved in the project, and the necessity of maintaining the solid relationships that already existed with the site Radiation Safety Officer and Sterilization Engineer.

  20. In vivo radioprotection by alpha-TMG: preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Satyamitra, M; Devi, P U; Murase, H; Kagiya, V T

    2001-08-08

    alpha-TMG is a novel water-soluble derivative of Vitamin E that has shown excellent antioxidant activity. The parent compound has demonstrated protection against radiation induced chromosomal damage in vivo. Hence, the preliminary experiments to determine the radioprotective activity of alpha-TMG were carried out in adult Swiss albino mice. Acute toxicity of the drug was studied taking 24h, 72 h and 30 day mortality after a single intraperitoneal injection of 500-2000 mg/kg body weight of the drug. The drug LD(50) for 24h and 72 h/30 day survival were found to be 1120 and 1000 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The optimum time of drug administration and drug dose-dependent effect on in vivo radiation protection of bone marrow chromosomes was studied in mice. Injection of 600 mg/kg of the drug 15 min before or within 5, 15 or 30min after 3Gy whole body gamma radiation resulted in a significant decrease in the aberrant metaphases percent at 24h post-irradiation; the maximum effect was seen when the drug was given immediately after irradiation. Injection of 200-800 mg/kg TMG within 5 min of irradiation with 3 Gy produced a significant dose-dependent reduction in the radiation induced percent aberrant metaphases and in the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes at 24h after exposure, with a corresponding decrease in the different types of aberrations. The optimum dose for protection without drug toxicity was 600 mg/kg body weight. At this dose, TMG produced 70 and >60% reduction in the radiation induced percent aberrant metaphases and micronucleated erythrocytes, respectively. The high water solubility and effectiveness when administered post-irradiation favor TMG as a likely candidate for protection in case of accidental exposures.