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Sample records for irradiated uteri cytologic

  1. Specific features of cytological and colposcopical pattern in pregnant women with benign cervix uteri pathology in anamnesis.

    PubMed

    Bysaha, Nataliya Yu

    2016-01-01

    a tendency of increasing incidence of the cervix uteri precancer and cancer in women of reproductive age is noticed recently being related to the growth of number of the sexually-transmitted infections. The cervix uteri pathology incidence in women of fertile age is 20-25%. to study the specific features of the cytological and colposcopical pattern in pregnant patients with benign cervix uteri pathology in the anamnesis and the character of its change post partum. we have examined 195 women during their pregnancy and 3-5 months post partum. All pregnant women, alongside with generally accepted clinical and laboratory examinations, were subjected to the simple and extended colposcopy, cytology of the targeted smears and, according to indications, the histological studies of bioptate. according to the results of the colcoscopical studies and the signs of the cervix uteri pathology found, the patients were divided into several groups. A control group included 49 pregnant women. The clinical and instrumental examination of 146 women with cervix uteri pathology has been carried out both during pregnancy and post partum. the structure of the clinical forms of benign and premalignant changes in the cervix uteri epithelium in pregnant patients has been found. Specific features of the cytological and colposcopical pattern in pregnant patients with benign cervix uteri pathology in anamnesis have been studied. The relationship between the parity of pregnancy, delivery, route of delivery and regress of both benign and premalignant changes in the cervix uteri epithelium 3-5 months post partum has been determined.

  2. CINtec PLUS immunocytochemistry as a tool for the cytologic diagnosis of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Ravarino, Alberto; Nemolato, Sonia; Macciocu, Elena; Fraschini, Matteo; Senes, Giancarlo; Faa, Gavino; Negri, Giovanni

    2012-11-01

    Cytologic findings of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri are often difficult to evaluate. We studied the usefulness of CINtec PLUS p16/Ki-67 double stain (mtm laboratories, Heidelberg, Germany) for the diagnosis of glandular lesions. The study included 47 abnormal results on liquid-based cytologic tests with a subsequent histologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in situ or with early invasion, and 16 samples with negative results on follow-up. All samples were stained with CINtec PLUS p16/Ki-67 double stain. Of the neoplastic samples, 7 were excluded because of insufficient residual cellularity or loss of neoplastic cells. Of the samples that were adequate, 92.5% were stained with CINtec PLUS, whereas 7.5% were judged inconclusive. All inconclusive cases were at least 3 years old. Of the 16 negative samples, 15 (93.8%) stained negative and only 1 (6.2%) showed several positive clusters of cells. Our study shows that CINtec PLUS is a robust and useful tool for the diagnosis of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri.

  3. Comparison of human papillomavirus DNA tests, liquid-based cytology and conventional cytology for the early detection of cervix uteri cancer.

    PubMed

    Girianelli, Vania R; Thuler, Luiz Claudio S; Szklo, Moyses; Donato, Alexandre; Zardo, Lucilia M G; Lozana, José A; Almeida Neto, Olimpio F; Carvalho, Aurenice C L; Matos, Jorge H; Figueiredo, Valeska

    2006-12-01

    To compare the performance of human papillomavirus DNA tests (samples collected by a healthcare professional and self-collected) and liquid-based cytology with conventional cytology in the detection of cervix uteri cancer and its precursor lesions. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 1777 women living in poor communities in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Eligibility criteria included ages 25-59 years and not having had a Papanicolau test within at least 3 years prior to the study. Cytology (conventional or liquid-based) and human papillomavirus DNA (collected by a healthcare professional or self-collected) tests were performed using samples collected in a single visit. Women with abnormalities in at least one test and a systematic sample of 70 women with negative test results were referred to a colposcopic examination. Test readings were double-masked, and the outcome of interest was high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse. The pathology report was used as the gold standard. The prevalence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse was 2.0%. Human papillomavirus DNA test collected by a health professional alone or combined with conventional cytology had the highest sensitivity (91.4 and 97.1%, respectively). The highest specificity was found for conventional cytology (91.6%) and for a human papillomavirus DNA test collected by a healthcare professional (90.2%). On the basis of only test performance, the use of human papillomavirus DNA tests, alone or combined with cytology, would seem to be recommended. Its population-wide implementation, however, is conditional on a cost-effectiveness analysis.

  4. [Possibilities of cytologic and histologic methods of diagnosing flat condyloma of the cervix uteri].

    PubMed

    Andreev, A I

    1990-02-01

    A comprehensive study in 165 women has employed cytologic, colposcopic and histologic evaluation. Flat cervical condylomas were identified in 27 women (mean age, 29 years). Over 50% of these condylomas coexisted with dysplasia of various severity and 2 condylomas with squamous cell carcinoma in situ. The most reliable diagnostic techniques for flat condylomas are cytologic and histologic tests of selectively excised tissue samples.

  5. [Human papillomavirus associated cervix uteri morbidity in Hungary: epidemiology and correlation with the HPV types and the simultaneous cytological diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Szentirmay, Zoltán; Veleczki, Zsuzsa; Kásler, Miklós

    2017-08-01

    Persistent infection of human papillomavirus is known to cause cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cancer in the cervix uteri and other HPV-associated cancers in different localization. Based on epidemiological and biological data, principally the high risk HPV is responsible for development of cervical these cancers. However, we have no information about the frequently distribution of different HPV types and what is the correlation between the HPV types and cytological diagnosis in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). In this paper, we are going to present new data involving incidence and mortality of HPV-associated cancers during the period of 2009-2015 in Hungary. We are also going to investigate the correlation of cervical cytological diagnosis and HPV typing, and the preventive effect of HPV vaccination. The epidemiological data spring from the National Cancer Registry. HPV typing was performed by Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test. Simultaneous cytological diagnosis and HPV typing was carried out on 2048 cytological samples collected in period of 2009-2016. According to the epidemiologic data, the most frequently occurring HPV-associated cancer is the laryngeal carcinoma in man, and the cervical cancer in woman in Hungary. During the 2009-2015 time intervals, the frequency distribution of head and neck cancers was not changed in man, but the incidence of tongue root squamous cell carcinomas was gradually increasing in woman. We have defined the clinical significance of single and simultaneously multiple HPV infection and have investigated the correlation of the HPV frequency distribution and cytological diagnosis in CIN. It was found that in the cytological negativity of probably/possibly carcinogen pHR-HPV group classified by IACR was much more frequent as in HR-HPV group (56% versus 47%). The presence of simultaneous multiplex HPV infection betokens an increased cancer risk. According to the international publications, the ratio of HPV16 just twice as

  6. Cytologic characteristics of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the cervix uteri--case report.

    PubMed

    Barisić, Ana; Mahovlić, Vesna; Ovanin-Rakić, Ana; Skopljanac-Macina, Lada; Rajhvajn, Sanda; Juric, Danijela; Babić, Damir

    2010-03-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a rare malignancy, usually found in the salivary glands, although this unusual tumor can be found at other sites of the body. In particular, regarding adenoid cystic carcinoma of the cervix (ACCC) most frequently reports are given for postmenopausal women. In this respect, our work is one among very few in the literature that considers a cytologic picture of this uncommon cervix carcinoma. The case of 74 year old patient with postmenopausal bleeding is described. Both Pap smear and air dried smear of the uterine cervix were analyzed. The cytologic findings revealed very few small clusters of abnormal glandular cells, as well as some amorphous eosinophilic globule-like material, with granulomatous and necrotic background. The latter includes a lot of histiocytes, multinucleated giant cells, large aggregates of epitheloid cells and lymphocytes. Histology revealed the diagnosis of ACCC. We emphasize the importance of careful screening of Pap smear that might be crucial in the case of suspicious clinical findings in postmenopausal women, when the possibility of ACCC has to be considered.

  7. Cytological evidence for DNA chain elongation after UV irradiation in the S phase

    SciTech Connect

    Minka, D.F.; Nath, J.

    1981-04-01

    Human cells irradiated with UV light synthesize lower molecular weight DNA than unirradiated cells. This reduction in molecular weight is greater in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cells than in normal cells. The molecular weight of DNA is further reduced by the addition of caffeine to XP cells. By several hours after irradiation, DNA fragments are barely detectable. Cells from excision-proficient and excision-deficient XP patients were studied autoradiographically to produce cytological evidence of DNA chain elongation. Replicate cultures with and without caffeine were synchronized and irradiated with UV light during the S phase. Caffeine was removed in G2, and the cells were labeled with /sup 3/H-thymidine. Results showed significantly increased labeling during G2 of excision-deficient XP cells. Labeling was dependent on the time of irradiation and presence of caffeine. The XP variant cells had no increase in labeling for any irradiation time.

  8. Cytological effect of laser-irradiated peanut seeds and induction of mutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Lin; Chen, Rong; Lin, Tong; Li, Buhong; Zhuang, Weijian

    2005-01-01

    In this present paper, dry seeds of peanut of cytological effects and agro-character in F1 generation have been studied for YAG laser-irradiated at 1060 nm. With transmission electron microscope, the effects of ultrastructure of plumule cell were observed. There were difference in the cell on membrane system, fatbody and nucleus, especially in proteinbody, and there was chromosomal aberration of peanut root tip cell induced with laser 35.84w/cm2 power density. With irradiating time added from3s to 8s the rate of aberration increased from 0.16% up to 0.53%, and the types of chromosomal aberration also increased. Many aberration types, such as earlier separated mitosis metaphase, variability of number, sticky, non-equal division, polypolarity division, nucleus protrudes to cytoplasm and so on were found in 8s treatment but not in 3s. However, the dose of 8s treatment leads to lethal dose according to the seeds sprouting and growing. The seeds with 3s treatment, mine stem height, total pods per plant, mature pods per plant and weight per plant were more than the seeds unirradiated.

  9. [Precancerous changes in the epithelium of the cervix uteri: terminology and principles of differential diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Danilova, N V; Andreeva, Iu Iu; Mal'kov, P G

    2010-01-01

    Three most popular classifications of precancerous changes in the epithelium of the cervix uteri, their merits and demerits, morphological criteria, and principles of differential diagnosis are considered. The advantage of the SIL classification is the more accurate reflection of the biology of the process and a common terminological base proposed for histological and cytological classifications, which is particularly important to overcome difficulties in clinical interpretation. LGSIL provides a high rate of diagnostic errors; therefore elaboration of unique criteria for histological evaluation is a problem of great importance. HGSIL should be differentiated with regenerative and atrophic processes in the cervix uteri with a special accuracy.

  10. [The liquid cytology in clinical practice: a lecture].

    PubMed

    Shabalova, I P; Kasoian, K T; Savostikova, M V

    2011-12-01

    The lecture covers one of the most perspective directions in clinical cytology. The emergence of liquid cytology is related to preparation of thin-layer specimens of organism liquids. Nowadays, the liquid cytology spreads more and more due to eephi application in different areas of cytological diagnostics, including screening of cervix uteri diseases, automatic screening, punctate tests, endoscopic and other materials. The lecture presents the basics of method, the characteristics of pre-analytic stage, the approaches to preparation of cytological specimens and cell blocks. The main possibilities, characteristics and perspectives of liquid cytology on the stage of rapid development of molecular genetic studies are discussed.

  11. CYTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ORGANOTYPIC CULTURES OF RAT DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA FOLLOWING X-IRRADIATION IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Masurovsky, Edmund B.; Bunge, Mary Bartlett; Bunge, Richard P.

    1967-01-01

    Long-term organotypic cultures of rat dorsal root ganglia were exposed to a single 40 kR dose of 184 kvp X-rays and studied in the living and fixed states by light or electron microscopy at 1–14 day intervals thereafter. Within the first 4 days following irradiation, over 30% of the neurons display chromatolytic reactions (eccentric nuclei, peripheral dispersal of Nissl substance, central granular zone) as well as abnormal nucleolar changes and dissociation of ribosomes from endoplasmic reticulum cisternae. Some satellite cells undergo retraction or acute degeneration, leaving only basement membrane to cover the neuron in these areas. 8 days after irradiation, neurons also exhibit (a) areas in which ribosomes are substantially reduced, (b) regions of cytoplasmic sequestration, (c) extensive vacuolization of granular endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex, and (d) diversely altered mitochondria (including the presence of ribosome-like particles or association with abnormal glycogen and lipid deposits). Nucleolar components become altered or reoriented and may form abnormal projections and ringlike configurations. Sizeable areas of the neuronal soma are now denuded of satellite cells; underlying these areas, nerve processes are found abnormally invaginated into the neuronal cytoplasm. By the 14th day following irradiation, most neurons display marked degenerative changes including extensive regions of ribosome depletion, sequestration, vacuolization, autolysis, and, in some areas, swirls of filaments, myelin figures, and heterogeneous dense bodies. These observations demonstrate that X-irradiation produces profound cytopathological changes in nervous tissue isolated from the host and that many of these changes resemble the effects of radiation on nervous tissue in vivo. PMID:10976234

  12. CYTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ORGANOTYPIC CULTURES OF RAT DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA FOLLOWING X-IRRADIATION IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Masurovsky, Edmund B.; Bunge, Mary Bartlett; Bunge, Richard P.

    1967-01-01

    Under suitable conditions rat dorsal root ganglia differentiate and myelinate in culture, providing an organotypic model of the ganglion (8). Mature cultures of this type were irradiated with a 40 kR dose of 184 kvp X-rays and, after daily observation in the living state, were fixed for light and electron microscopy. Within 24 hr after irradiation, numerous Schwann cells investing unmyelinated axons acutely degenerate. The axons thus denuded display little change. Conversely, few ultrastructural changes develop in Schwann cells investing myelinated axons until after the 4th day. During the 4–14 day period, these Schwann cells and their related myelin sheaths undergo progressive deterioration. Associated axons decrease in diameter but are usually maintained. Myelin deterioration begins as a nodal lengthening and then progresses along two different routes. In intact Schwann cells, fragmentation of myelin begins in a pattern reminiscent of Wallerian degeneration, but its slow breakdown thereafter suggests metabolic disturbances in these Schwann cells. The second pattern of myelin deterioration, occurring after complete degeneration of the related Schwann cell, involves unusual configurational changes in the myelin lamellae. Atypical repeating periods are formed by systematic splitting of lamellae at each major dense line with further splitting at the intraperiod line (Type I) or by splitting in the region of every other intraperiod line (Type II); some sheaths display a compact, wavy, inner zone and an abnormally widened lamellar spacing peripherally (Type III). Extensive blebbing of myelin remnants characterizes the final stages of this extracellular myelin degradation. These observations provide the first description of ultrastructural changes produced by ionizing radiation in nerve fascicles in vitro. PMID:10976235

  13. Trehalose treatment accelerates the healing of UVB-irradiated corneas. Comparative immunohistochemical studies on corneal cryostat sections and corneal impression cytology.

    PubMed

    Cejková, Jitka; Cejka, Cestmír; Luyckx, Jacques

    2012-08-01

    The UVB-irradiated cornea is damaged by oxidative stress. Toxic oxygen products induced by UVB radiation in the cornea are insufficiently removed by antioxidants, whose numbers decrease with increasing UVB irradiation. In addition, the UVB-irradiated cornea suffers from hypoxic conditions because damaged corneal cells cannot utilize oxygen normally, although the supply of oxygen to the cornea is unchanged (normal). This contributes to attenuated re-epithelialization, corneal neovascularization and apoptotic cell death. Our previous publications reported that trehalose applied on the corneal surface during irradiation significantly suppressed UVB-induced corneal oxidative damage. The results of this study provide for the first time important evidence that trehalose applied on the surface of corneas for two weeks following repeated UVB irradiation (312 nm, daily dose 0.5 J/cm2) accelerated corneal healing, restored corneal transparency and suppressed corneal neovascularization. Compared to buffered saline treatment, following which caspase-3, nitrotyrosine, malondialdehyde and urokinase-type plasminogen activator were still strongly expressed in the corneal epithelium two weeks after irradiation and corneal neovascularization was evident, apoptotic cell death was already significantly reduced after one week of trehalose application. The expression of other markers of injury returned to normal levels during two weeks of trehalose treatment. In conclusion, our results show that trehalose accelerated healing of the UVB irradiated cornea, very probably via suppression of hypoxia-response injury. In addition, immunohistochemical results on corneal cryostat sections corresponded with those obtained using corneal impression cytologies, thus confirming that corneal impression cytologies are useful for diagnostic purposes.

  14. Corpus uteri cancer: the results of surgical, combined and complex therapy.

    PubMed

    Vishnevskaya, E E

    1991-01-01

    The Author has examined the survival rates of 1543 cases of corpus uteri cancer, comparing the patients with and without pre-operative adjuvant treatment. Pre-operative treatment consisted of irradiation therapy and also in combined chemohormonal-radiotherapy. The results also referred to the type of radiotherapy and to the clinical background of patients (older age, severe general somatic diseases). The conclusions of this study underline the benefits of pre-operative irradiation therapy.

  15. Trends in cancer incidence in female breast, cervix uteri, corpus uteri, and ovary in India.

    PubMed

    Yeole, Balkrishna B

    2008-01-01

    Trends in breast, cervix uteri, corpus uteri and ovarian cancers in six population based cancer registries (Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Bhopal, and Barshi) were evaluated over a period of the last two decades. For studying trends we used a model that fits this data is the logarithm of Y=ABx which represents a Linear Regression model. This approach showed a decreasing trend for cancer of the cervix and increasing trends for cancers of breast, ovary and corpus uteri throughout the entire period of observation in most of the registries. The four cancers, breast, cervix, corpus uteri and ovary, constitute more than 50% of total cancers in women. As all these cancers are increasing, to understand their etiology in depth, analytic epidemiology studies should be planned in a near future on a priority basis.

  16. Precancerous lesions of the cervix uteri in infertile women.

    PubMed Central

    Holst, N; Abyholm, T

    1983-01-01

    A study of 318 patients with tubal infertility and a control group of 200 unselected infertile women yielded 14 (4.4%) and 1 (0.5%), respectively, with precancerous lesions of the cervix uteri. The one patient in the control group with severe dysplasia was later shown to have tubal infertility. The overall incidence of premalignant lesions of the cervix uteri as reported to the National Cancer Registry of Norway was 0.1% for the age group and period studied. Women with tubal infertility represent a small but comparatively high risk group for the development of precancerous lesions of the cervix uteri. PMID:6412931

  17. [Anal cytology].

    PubMed

    Tóth, Béla; Sápi, Zoltán; Bánhegyi, Dénes; Marschalkó, Márta; Kárpáti, Sarolta

    2015-01-04

    The incidence of anal cancer has increased in recent decades, particularly among human immunodeficiency virus infected men who have sex with men. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is a potential precursor lesion of anal cancer. Anal cytology is the primary screening test for anal intraeptithelial neoplasia. The authors aimed to analyze the results of anal cytology of patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection at the National Centre of STD, Department of Dermatology, Dermatooncology and Venereology, Semmelweis University. 155 anal cytological examinations were performed in 140 patients between November 1, 2012 and August 31, 2014. 44% of patients were found to have anal dysplasia, and only 1.6% of patients had high-grade lesions. This rate is lower as compared to published studies including larger number of patients. The study underlines the necessity of screening for anal lesions in the population at-risk.

  18. [Morphological index for prediction of cervix uteri cancer].

    PubMed

    Gatenadze, Ts Z; Ungiadze, D Iu; Chakhoian, O P; Nakashidze, M G; Sulaberidze, I M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the research is evaluation of morphological parameters which would allow predicting cervix uteri cancer. The case histories of 505 patients (from 20 to 70 years old) with I-III clinical stages of primary cervical uteri cancer (PUC), which got surgical and combined treatment in oncological center in Batumi from 1970-2005 were evaluated. The factors that influence on the prognosis of PUC are revealed: cancer cell emboli in vessels of tumour stroma, sharpness of the tumour edges, the tumor tissue types, and the depth of invasion. The imaging characteristics of the tumours are described. Planocellular cancer has more favourable prognosis in comparison with glandular cancer.

  19. Urothelial cells in smears from cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Palaoro, Luis Alberto; Guerra, Fernando; Angeleri, Anabela; Palamas, Marta; Melba, Sardi-Segovia; Rocher, Adriana Esther

    2012-01-01

    To establish the cytological criteria to identify the urothelial cells in cervical smears in order to avoid mistakes in the cytological diagnosis. Cervical smears from 34 post menopausal women with vesicovaginal fistulas, advanced bladder prolapse and genital erosive lichen planes (vulvar kraurosis) (Group 1) and transitional cell metaplasia of the cervix (TCM, Group 2) were stained with Papanicolaou technique. The cervical samples were taken during the routine annual examination for prevention of the uterine cancer. The smears of cervix from Group 1 showed urothelial cells from the three layers of the transitional epithelium. The umbrella cells are the bigger ones with relatively large nuclei. Frequently, they are multinucleated with single or multiple nucleoli and a typical "frothy" cytoplasm (cytoplasmic vacuoles). The cells of the Group 2 showed nuclei with oval to spindled shapes, some tapered ends, less cytoplasm than squamous metaplastic cells, powdery chromatin, small nucleoli and nuclear grooves. The umbrella cells may be mistaken for dysplastic cells originating in low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions lesions (LSILs) due to their nuclear and cytoplasm sizes. Therefore, it is important to know the possibility of their appearance in the cervical smears, especially in post menopausal patients in order to avoid a false diagnosis of an intraepithelial lesion. It is unlikely that deeper cells of urothelium would be confused with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) cells. However, their presence might be a reason of mistake in the diagnosis. TCM is an under-recognized metaplastic phenomenon of the cervix and vagina, which is a mimicker of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. The differential characteristic between umbrella cells, cells from TCM and the deeper urothelial cells, and LSIL and HSIL are detailed in the present paper.

  20. Urothelial cells in smears from cervix uteri

    PubMed Central

    Palaoro, Luis Alberto; Guerra, Fernando; Angeleri, Anabela; Palamas, Marta; Melba, Sardi-Segovia; Rocher, Adriana Esther

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To establish the cytological criteria to identify the urothelial cells in cervical smears in order to avoid mistakes in the cytological diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Cervical smears from 34 post menopausal women with vesicovaginal fistulas, advanced bladder prolapse and genital erosive lichen planes (vulvar kraurosis) (Group 1) and transitional cell metaplasia of the cervix (TCM, Group 2) were stained with Papanicolaou technique. The cervical samples were taken during the routine annual examination for prevention of the uterine cancer. Results: The smears of cervix from Group 1 showed urothelial cells from the three layers of the transitional epithelium. The umbrella cells are the bigger ones with relatively large nuclei. Frequently, they are multinucleated with single or multiple nucleoli and a typical “frothy” cytoplasm (cytoplasmic vacuoles). The cells of the Group 2 showed nuclei with oval to spindled shapes, some tapered ends, less cytoplasm than squamous metaplastic cells, powdery chromatin, small nucleoli and nuclear grooves. Conclusions: The umbrella cells may be mistaken for dysplastic cells originating in low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions lesions (LSILs) due to their nuclear and cytoplasm sizes. Therefore, it is important to know the possibility of their appearance in the cervical smears, especially in post menopausal patients in order to avoid a false diagnosis of an intraepithelial lesion. It is unlikely that deeper cells of urothelium would be confused with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) cells. However, their presence might be a reason of mistake in the diagnosis. TCM is an under-recognized metaplastic phenomenon of the cervix and vagina, which is a mimicker of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. The differential characteristic between umbrella cells, cells from TCM and the deeper urothelial cells, and LSIL and HSIL are detailed in the present paper. PMID:22438615

  1. Malignant lymphoma of the cervix uteri: histology and ultrastructure.

    PubMed Central

    Carr, I; Hill, A S; Hancock, B; Neal, F F

    1976-01-01

    Two cases of primary lymphoma of the cervix uteri are described. Both responded to radiotherapy; both were composed at the ultrastructural level of mature macrophages and immature, apparently neoplastic lymphoreticular cells and are classified as reticulum cell lymphoma. Images PMID:783205

  2. Control of cancer of the cervix uteri*

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Cancer of the uterine cervix is a global problem. It is the most common cancer in women in developing countries and is the second most common cancer in women worldwide, with approximately half a million new cases each year. It is strongly linked with an early onset of sexual activity and multiple sexual partners; recent evidence points to a causal link between some of the precursor lesions of this cancer and specific papillomavirus infections. Cervical cancer has significant morbidity and mortality if it is not detected before it reaches an advanced stage with symptoms. If the disease is detected in an early asymptomatic stage it is nearly always curable by surgery or radiotherapy. Therefore today, cytological screening is the mainstay for control of cervical cancer. In some developed countries, screening programmes for cervical carcinoma have been in operation for many years. In places where large well-organized programmes have been functioning, significant decreases in mortality, in the range of 50-60%, have been observed. The favourable effects result primarily from the removal of intraepithelial lesions preventing the occurrence of invasive tumours. In countries where resources are limited, the aim should be to screen every woman once in her lifetime between 35 and 40 years of age. When more resources are available the frequency of screening should be increased to once every ten or five years for the age groups 35 to 55 years and, ideally, once every three years for women aged between 25 and 60 years. PMID:3490930

  3. Radiation changes in vaginal and cervical cytology in carcinoma of the cervix uteri

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Gupta, Y.N.; Sanyal, B.

    1982-02-01

    Radiation changes are observed in all postirradiated smears of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix from 56 females, although to a variable degree. After 1 year the changes subside gradually. A high cornification index is a good guide for recurrence. The significance of dysplastic cells as premonition for recurrence is debatable. The presence of malignant cells at any stage was considered of grave significance, and indicates poor radiation response or recurrence.

  4. Decreased type III collagen expression in human uterine cervix of prolapse uteri

    PubMed Central

    IWAHASHI, MASAAKI; MURAGAKI, YASUTERU

    2011-01-01

    The precise mechanism of prolapse uteri is not fully understood. There is evidence to suggest that abnormalities of collagen, the main component of extracellular matrix, or its repair mechanism, may predispose women to prolapse. To investigate the characteristic structure of human uterine cervix of patients with prolapse uteri, various types of collagen expression in the uterine cervix tissues of the prolapse uteri were compared to those of normal uterine cervix. After informed consent, 36 specimens of uterine cervical tissues were obtained at the time of surgery from 16 postmenopausal women with prolapse uteri (stage III–IV by the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification examination) and 20 postmenopausal women without prolapse uteri (control group). Collagens were extracted from the uterine cervix tissues by salt precipitation methods. The relative levels of various collagens were evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The uterine cervix was longer in the patients with prolapse uteri than those of postmenopausal controls without prolapse uteri. The ratios of type III to type I collagen in the uterine cervical tissues were significantly decreased in the prolapse uteri, as compared to those of the postmenopausal uterine cervix without prolapse. These results suggest that decreased type III collagen expression may play an important role in determing the physiology and structure of the uterine cervix tissues of prolapse uteri. PMID:22977496

  5. Minimally Invasive Hysterectomy for Uteri Greater Than One Kilogram.

    PubMed

    Ito, Traci E; Vargas, Maria V; Moawad, Gaby N; Opoku-Anane, Jessica; Shu, Michael K M; Marfori, Cherie Q; Robinson, James K

    2017-01-01

    To assess the feasibility and safety of minimally invasive hysterectomy for uteri >1 kg. Clinical and surgical characteristics were collected for patients in an academic tertiary care hospital. Included were patients who underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy by 1 of 3 fellowship-trained gynecologists from January 1, 2009, to July 1, 2015 and subsequently had confirmed uterine weights of 1 kg or greater on pathology report. Both robotic and conventional laparoscopic procedures were included. During the study period, 95 patients underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy with confirmed uterine weight over 1 kg. Eighty-eight percent were performed with conventional laparoscopy and 12.6% with robot-assisted laparoscopy. The median weight (range) was 1326 g (range, 1000-4800). The median estimated blood loss was 200 mL (range, 50-2000), and median operating time was 191 minutes (range, 75-478). Five cases were converted to laparotomy (5.2%). Four cases were converted secondary to hemorrhage and one secondary to extensive adhesions. There were no conversions after 2011. Intraoperative transfusion was given in 6.3% of cases and postoperative transfusion in 6.3% of cases. However, after 2013, the rate of intraoperative transfusion decreased to 1.0% and postoperative transfusion to 2.1%. Of the 95 cases, there were no cases with malignancy. This provides the largest case series of hysterectomy over 1 kg completed by a minimally invasive approach. Our complication rate improved with experience and was comparable to other studies of minimally invasive hysterectomy for large uteri. When performed by experienced surgeons, minimally invasive hysterectomy for uteri >1 kg can be considered feasible and safe.

  6. Minimally Invasive Hysterectomy for Uteri Greater Than One Kilogram

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Maria V.; Moawad, Gaby N.; Opoku-Anane, Jessica; Shu, Michael K. M.; Marfori, Cherie Q.; Robinson, James K.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To assess the feasibility and safety of minimally invasive hysterectomy for uteri >1 kg. Methods: Clinical and surgical characteristics were collected for patients in an academic tertiary care hospital. Included were patients who underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy by 1 of 3 fellowship-trained gynecologists from January 1, 2009, to July 1, 2015 and subsequently had confirmed uterine weights of 1 kg or greater on pathology report. Both robotic and conventional laparoscopic procedures were included. Results: During the study period, 95 patients underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy with confirmed uterine weight over 1 kg. Eighty-eight percent were performed with conventional laparoscopy and 12.6% with robot-assisted laparoscopy. The median weight (range) was 1326 g (range, 1000–4800). The median estimated blood loss was 200 mL (range, 50–2000), and median operating time was 191 minutes (range, 75–478). Five cases were converted to laparotomy (5.2%). Four cases were converted secondary to hemorrhage and one secondary to extensive adhesions. There were no conversions after 2011. Intraoperative transfusion was given in 6.3% of cases and postoperative transfusion in 6.3% of cases. However, after 2013, the rate of intraoperative transfusion decreased to 1.0% and postoperative transfusion to 2.1%. Of the 95 cases, there were no cases with malignancy. Conclusions: This provides the largest case series of hysterectomy over 1 kg completed by a minimally invasive approach. Our complication rate improved with experience and was comparable to other studies of minimally invasive hysterectomy for large uteri. When performed by experienced surgeons, minimally invasive hysterectomy for uteri >1 kg can be considered feasible and safe. PMID:28352147

  7. Apoplexia uteri: a rarely described post-mortem finding.

    PubMed

    Beggan, C; Jaber, K; Leader, M

    2013-08-01

    We present a case of apoplexia uteri, a rarely described condition of haemorrhagic necrosis in an atrophic endometrium and myometrium associated with terminal stress. This entity is well recognised in older literature but few recent publications have addressed this condition. It is thought to occur in association with hypoperfusion with passive hyperaemia and reperfusion injury. This case serves to highlight this rarely encountered entity as a possible cause of haemorrhage in an atrophic endometrium in the 'perimortem' period. Incidental findings are occasionally observed in the course of forensic autopsy practice and knowledge of rarely encountered entities, such as that described in this case, is essential to prevent diagnostic uncertainty and misdiagnosis.

  8. [Cytology in uropathological diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Gaisa, N T; Lindemann-Docter, K

    2015-11-01

    Cytology in uropathological diagnostics is mainly performed for oncological purposes. The assessment of malignancy by urothelial cell morphology is therefore decisive; however, cytology is only sensitive enough to detect high-grade tumor cells and the different low-grade tumors cannot be reliably diagnosed. Thus, the four-tier classification system of cytological findings (i.e. negative, atypical cells but significance uncertain, suspicious and positive) refers to high-grade tumor cells only. Furthermore, for valid cytological diagnostics not only the cytological specimen but also clinical information on cystoscopy findings and, if applicable, a biopsy should be evaluated together. In difficult differential diagnostic settings, e.g. differentiation between reactive versus neoplastic atypia or difficult to access lesions in the upper urinary tract, additional fluorescence in situ hybridization of cytological preparations might be helpful. At the moment there are no indications for further immunocytology or additional biomarker tests.

  9. [Ultrasound of cervix uteri transvaginal in preterm birth].

    PubMed

    Onofriescu, M; Târnovanu, Mihaela; Scurtu, B; Luca, A; Radu, E; Iftime, Irina

    2006-01-01

    Premature birth is a social problem due to its implications in the natal mortality and morbidity. This is the reason why it is necessary to establish new methods which could identify pregnant women with high risk of premature birth. Besides the measurable biochemical factors such as fetal fibronectin and salivary estriol, I1-6 sonography is a simple method highly efficient and of reasonable financial costs among all the sonographic means of observing the cervix uteri. The transvaginal sonography is the "golden standard", permitting the most faithful assessment of the pursued parameters--the length of the cervix, the aspect of the internal os (funneling), the cervix index. The experience gathered up to now shows that all of these investigations have a predictive value which is more negative than positive, but when used together they could lead to an improved result.

  10. Congenital pouch colon in a girl associated with bilateral atresia of cervix uteri and uterus didelphys.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Rajiv; Puri, Manju; Saxena, Rahul; Agarwala, Surendrakumar; Puri, Archana; Choudhury, Subhasis Roy

    2013-04-01

    This report describes a girl with congenital pouch colon (CPC), uterus didelphys with septate vagina, and a cloacal anomaly. The girl underwent cloacal reconstruction at the age of 15 months. Subsequently, at puberty, the child had primary amenorrhea with severe cyclic abdominal pain due to endometriosis of both the uteruses and adnexal cysts with hematometra and hematosalpinx. Laparotomy with removal of both uteri and the left fallopian tube was performed. Both uteri had atresia of the cervix uteri. This report emphasizes the need for comprehensive evaluation and a long-term management strategy for associated gynecologic anomalies in girls with CPC, especially with regard to patency of the outflow tract.

  11. Cytology of Bone.

    PubMed

    Barger, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Cytology of bone is a useful diagnostic tool. Aspiration of lytic or proliferative lesions can assist with the diagnosis of inflammatory or neoplastic processes. Bacterial, fungal, and protozoal organisms can result in significant osteomyelitis, and these organisms can be identified on cytology. Neoplasms of bone including primary bone tumors such as osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, synovial cell sarcoma, and histiocytic sarcoma and tumors of bone marrow including plasma cell neoplasia and lymphoma and metastatic neoplasia can result in significant bone lysis or proliferation and can be diagnosed effectively with cytology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chloride channels mediate sodium sulphide-induced relaxation in rat uteri.

    PubMed

    Mijušković, Ana; Kokić, Aleksandra Nikolić; Dušić, Zorana Oreščanin; Slavić, Marija; Spasić, Mihajlo B; Blagojević, Duško

    2015-07-01

    Hydrogen sulphide reduces uterine contractility and is of potential interest as a treatment for uterine disorders. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism of sodium sulphide (Na2 S)-induced relaxation of rat uterus, investigate the importance of redox effects and ion channel-mediated mechanisms, and any interactions between these two mechanisms. Organ bath studies were employed to assess the pharmacological effects of Na2 S in uterine strips by exposing them to Na2 S with or without Cl(-) channel blockers (DIDS, NFA, IAA-94, T16Ainh-A01, TA), raised KCl (15 and 75 mM), K(+) channel inhibitors (glibenclamide, TEA, 4-AP), L-type Ca(2+) channel activator (S-Bay K 8644), propranolol and methylene blue. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in homogenates of treated uteri. The expression of bestrophin channel 1 (BEST-1) was determined by Western blotting and RT-PCR. Na2 S caused concentration-dependent reversible relaxation of spontaneously active and calcium-treated uteri, affecting both amplitude and frequency of contractions. Uteri exposed to 75 mM KCl were less sensitive to Na2 S compared with uteri in 15 mM KCl. Na2 S-induced relaxations were abolished by DIDS, but unaffected by other modulators or by the absence of extracellular HCO3 (-) , suggesting the involvement of chloride ion channels. Na2 S in combination with different modulators provoked specific changes in the anti-oxidant profiles of uteri. The expression of BEST-1, both mRNA and protein, was demonstrated in rat uteri. The relaxant effects of Na2 S in rat uteri are mediated mainly via a DIDS-sensitive Cl(-) -pathway. Components of the relaxation are redox- and Ca(2+) -dependent. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Chloride channels mediate sodium sulphide-induced relaxation in rat uteri

    PubMed Central

    Mijušković, Ana; Kokić, Aleksandra Nikolić; Dušić, Zorana Oreščanin; Slavić, Marija; Spasić, Mihajlo B; Blagojević, Duško

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hydrogen sulphide reduces uterine contractility and is of potential interest as a treatment for uterine disorders. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism of sodium sulphide (Na2S)-induced relaxation of rat uterus, investigate the importance of redox effects and ion channel-mediated mechanisms, and any interactions between these two mechanisms. Experimental Approach Organ bath studies were employed to assess the pharmacological effects of Na2S in uterine strips by exposing them to Na2S with or without Cl− channel blockers (DIDS, NFA, IAA-94, T16Ainh-A01, TA), raised KCl (15 and 75 mM), K+ channel inhibitors (glibenclamide, TEA, 4-AP), L-type Ca2+ channel activator (S-Bay K 8644), propranolol and methylene blue. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in homogenates of treated uteri. The expression of bestrophin channel 1 (BEST-1) was determined by Western blotting and RT-PCR. Key Results Na2S caused concentration-dependent reversible relaxation of spontaneously active and calcium-treated uteri, affecting both amplitude and frequency of contractions. Uteri exposed to 75 mM KCl were less sensitive to Na2S compared with uteri in 15 mM KCl. Na2S-induced relaxations were abolished by DIDS, but unaffected by other modulators or by the absence of extracellular HCO3−, suggesting the involvement of chloride ion channels. Na2S in combination with different modulators provoked specific changes in the anti-oxidant profiles of uteri. The expression of BEST-1, both mRNA and protein, was demonstrated in rat uteri. Conclusions and Implications The relaxant effects of Na2S in rat uteri are mediated mainly via a DIDS-sensitive Cl−-pathway. Components of the relaxation are redox- and Ca2+-dependent. PMID:25857480

  14. Oxytocin receptors in dioestrous and anoestrous canine uteri.

    PubMed

    Tamminen, T M; Sahlin, L; Masironi, B; Taponen, J; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, O; Katila, T

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to localize oxytocin receptors (OTR) and measure mRNA expression of OTR in the canine uterus with and without the influence of progesterone. Uterine samples were taken from nine anoestrous and eight dioestrous bitches during ovariohysterectomy. Histological changes were evaluated in haematoxylin and eosin (HE)-stained samples. Purified polyclonal antibody for OTR was used in immunohistochemistry to localize receptors in uterine layers. Relative mRNA concentration of OTR was evaluated with real-time PCR from full-thickness uterine samples taken from the middle horn and the body. Myometrial smooth muscle cells, endometrial luminal epithelium (LE) and deep and superficial glandular epithelium were positively stained for oxytocin receptors in non-pregnant animals. No significant difference in staining intensity was detected between uterine middle horn and body. However, the staining intensity of LE was significantly higher in dioestrous than in anoestrous uteri (p < .05). Leucocytes and endothelium of blood vessels were also positively stained for OTR. Real-time PCR showed no significant differences in OTR mRNA expression between the middle horn and the body of the uterus, or between anoestrous and dioestrous uterus. No correlation was noted between OTR mRNA expression and blood progesterone concentration. In conclusion, despite the apparent inactivity, the uterus of the non-pregnant bitch expresses OTR. The distribution or relative expression of OTR does not differ between uterine horn and body in dioestrus or anoestrus except in LE. LE may have more oxytocin-dependent activity during dioestrus than anoestrus.

  15. [The accuracy of the causes of death and the estimated trend: the case of cervix uteri].

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Pamela; Sacchettini, Claudio; Vicentini, Massimo; Caroli, Stefania; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    reduction in cervical cancer mortality is the ultimate goal of the screening. Quality of death certificate reports has been improved over time, but they are still inaccurate, making it difficult to assess time trends in mortality. to evaluate the accuracy of the topographic coding of causes of death and to estimate the mortality time trend for cervical cancer through the method of incidence-based mortality (IBM) using cancer registry (CR) data. from the mortality registry (MR), we extracted data on deaths for cervix uteri cancer, corpus uteri cancer, and uterus cancer not otherwise specified (NOS) referred to residents in Reggio Emilia (Emilia-Romagna Region, Northern Italy) from 1997 to 2013. Deaths were checked with the CR to verify the topographical site of the primary tumour. Furthermore, by using CR data, we constructed a cohort of incident cervical cancer cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2009 with a 5-year follow-up. We calculated cause-specific IBM (excluding ovary) and IBM for all cause, crude and standardized, and annual percentage change (APC). out of 369 deaths for uterine cancer, 269 were reported in the RT: 32 for cervix uteri cancer, 76 for corpus uteri cancer, 161 for uterus cancer NOS. 28 of the 32 persons who died for cervical cancer were incidents for cervix uteri cancer. 63 of the 76 who died for corpus uteri cancer were incidents for corpus uteri cancer. Of the 161 who died of uterus cancer NOS, 80 were incidents for corpus uteri cancer, 45 for cervix uteri cancer, 28 for uterus cancer NOS, 5 for vagina cancer, and 3 for cancer of other non-specified organs. Applying these proportions of misclassification, we can estimate that the real number of cervical cancer deaths is 2.4 folds the number of cases reported in the MR as cervical cancer. IBM for all causes decreased significantly over the years (APC: -9.5; 95%CI -17.1;-1.1); cause-specific IBM decreases, but not significantly (APC: -5.1; 95%IC -16.1;+7.3). There is no improvement in survival (r

  16. Evaluation of human papillomavirus elimination from cervix uteri by infrared laser exposure.

    PubMed

    Dymkovets, V P; Ezhov, V V; Manykin, A A; Belov, S V; Danileiko, Yu K; Osiko, V V; Salyuk, V A

    2011-12-01

    Elimination of types 16 and 18 human papilloma virus from the surface of cervix uteri for secondary prevention of cervical cancer was evaluated. The method is protected by patent of invention of the Russian Federation. Infrared laser therapy of cervix uteri was carried out in patients with precancer diseases of cervix uteri at Department of Gynecology of Municipal Clinical Hospital No. 52 (Moscow). Papillomavirus infection was eliminated using a Russian diode laser (lambda=1.06 μ, radiation power 10 W) with a collimating headpiece using carbon die at a distance of 10-12 cm from the exposed surface. The treatment resulted in a high percentage of elimination of types 16 and 18 oncogenic virus 4-6 weeks and during delayed periods after exposure.

  17. [Cervix uteri cancer in Poland--epidemiological opening balance and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Didkowska, Joanna; Wojciechowska, Urszula; Zatoński, Witold

    2006-09-01

    Cancer is one of the main causes of death among young and middle-aged females. In case of some cancer sites there is a possibility of undertaking an intervention, which would diminish the risk of death--to this group belongs first of all malignant neoplasm of cervix uteri. The date of beginning first cervix uteri cancer screening in Poland is approaching, therefore presenting epidemiological opening balance and possible scenarios of changes it worthwhile. This work uses data on morbidity and mortality due to malignant neoplasm of cervix uteri cancer in Polish population. Time trends analysis was based on so-called "breakpoint" (joinpoint analysis). Cervix uteri cancer mortality trend is characterized by two breakpoints (1971 and 1993). In the period of 1963-1970 there was an increase of mortality and then after the trend reversed: percentage decline was estimated at the level of 0.8% yearly in 1971-1992 and 2.4% yearly in 1993-2002. Hypothetical scenarios of changes in cervix uteri cancer mortality show, that lack of intervention will cause mortality among Polish females at the level recorded in Finland 25 years ago. Optimistic variant would allow on diminishing mortality in Poland down to the level observed currently in Finland, in around 30 years. Implementing preventive cervix uteri cancer screening is currently the most urgent challenge of public health. If the preventive screening program will still be in the phase of plans and projects, then in 30 years time Poland will be in the point which Finland reached in the end of 1970s, and our civilizing underdevelopment will reach half a century.

  18. Hernia uteri inguinalis in a case of ovotesticular disorder of sexual differentiation.

    PubMed

    Venkataram, Aniketh; Shivaswamy, Sadashivaiah; Babu, Rajashekara; Santhosh, Shivashankar

    2013-02-01

    An 18-year-old phenotypic male presented with an irreducible left inguinal mass, gynecomastia, and hypospadias. This mass on exploration was found to be a nonfunctional uterus with ipsilateral ovary and was excised. Further investigation confirmed the presence of a contralateral testis and a genotype of 46, XX. This confirmed the diagnosis of ovotesticular disorder of sexual differentiation (formerly true hermaphroditism) with obstructed hernia uteri inguinalis. The patient was raised as a male. Subcutaneous mastectomy for gynecomastia and neourethra construction with full thickness skin graft for hypospadias were performed. Hernia uteri inguinalis is rarely seen in this condition with only 2 cases being reported worldwide thus far, including our case.

  19. Using vaginal cytology to assess the estrogenic activity of phytoestrogen-rich herb.

    PubMed

    Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Chansri, Kullakanya; Kijkuokul, Pisamai; Urasopon, Nontakorn; Cherdshewasart, Wichai

    2006-10-11

    To assess the estrogenic activities of synthetic estrogen, synthetic phytoestrogen, Pueraria lobata and three distinct cultivars of Pueraria mirifica, a phytoestrogen-rich herb, a vaginal cytology assay in ovariectomized rats were used. Rats were ovariectomized and treated with DW, estradiol valerate (1 mg/kg BW), genistein (0.25-2.5 mg/kg BW), Pueraria lobata and Pueraria mirifica (10-1,000 mg/kg BW) for 14 days. The vaginal cytology was checked daily and the uteri were dissected and weighed at the end of treatment or post-treatment periods. The treatments of DW, genistein and Pueraria lobata did not influence the vaginal epithelium, but the injection of estradiol valerate induced a vaginal cornification from day-3 of treatment to day-14 of post-treatment period. The occurrence of vaginal cornification after treatment and the recovery after the cessation was dependent on dosages and cultivars of Pueraria mirifica. The increments of uterus weight in all rats agreed with the cornification of vaginal epithelium. Although both uterotropic and vaginal cytology assays can be used to assess the estrogenic activity of phytoestrogen-rich herb, however, using vaginal cytology assay has two advantages: (1) we do not need to kill the animals and (2) we can follow up the recovery after the cessation of treatment.

  20. [The morphological features of the nervous and vascular components of communication systems in the cervix uteri].

    PubMed

    Dorosevich, A E; Bekhtereva, I A; Sudilovskaia, V V

    2009-01-01

    The investigation has indicated the presence of adrenergic and cholinergic autonomic nerve terminals (ANT) in the tissues of squamous cell carcinomas of the cervix uteri in a tumor growth area and contralaterally. Heterogeneity of the local neuromediator background in the tumor growth area and contralaterally may be explained, by studying the specific features of the cell microenvironment of ANT.

  1. [Turning points in cytology].

    PubMed

    Scharf, J H

    1990-01-01

    There is given a concise and woodcut-like survey over the history of cytology with was born by the pioneering of Hooke, Grew, Malpighi, and van Leeuwenhoek at the end of XVIIth century and three crises of this science. The first crisis of cytology resulted from barren discussions of the so-called preformation hypothesis and the monadism of Leibniz. These philosophical speculations caused a melting away of the concrete facts during the XVIIth century. After the rebuilding of cytology by Meyen and Brown during the XIXth century's early thirties and the propounding of the early cell-theory by Schleiden and Schwann, the second crisis was provoked since Schleiden and Schwann, clearer than Meyen, kept the hypothesis of equivocal or spontaneous generation that was alive since Aristotéles. This 2nd crisis showed a belated sequel in the middle of XXth century brought about by sloppy investigations of Lepesinskaja. The third crisis concerns the question whether there is or whether there is not existent a membran enveloping every animal cell. Whereas Schwann himself presupposed the cell membran as an integral part of each cell, Max Schultze negates its existence. After the creation of the membran theory of synapse by Sherrington, the neuron theory by Ramón y Cajal, and the membran theory of narcosis by Meyer and Overton, the negation of the cell membran was being combined successively with the neovitalistic hypothesis of neuronal networks of Bethe and others. This spectre could really wiped out not before the modern histochemistry and electron microscopy were established in the fifties of our century.

  2. Informatics applied to cytology

    PubMed Central

    Hornish, Maryanne; Goulart, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Automation and emerging information technologies are being adopted by cytology laboratories to augment Pap test screening and improve diagnostic accuracy. As a result, informatics, the application of computers and information systems to information management, has become essential for the successful operation of the cytopathology laboratory. This review describes how laboratory information management systems can be used to achieve an automated and seamless workflow process. The utilization of software, electronic databases and spreadsheets to perform necessary quality control measures are discussed, as well as a Lean production system and Six Sigma approach, to reduce errors in the cytopathology laboratory. PMID:19495402

  3. Informatics applied to cytology.

    PubMed

    Pantanowitz, Liron; Hornish, Maryanne; Goulart, Robert A

    2008-12-29

    Automation and emerging information technologies are being adopted by cytology laboratories to augment Pap test screening and improve diagnostic accuracy. As a result, informatics, the application of computers and information systems to information management, has become essential for the successful operation of the cytopathology laboratory. This review describes how laboratory information management systems can be used to achieve an automated and seamless workflow process. The utilization of software, electronic databases and spreadsheets to perform necessary quality control measures are discussed, as well as a Lean production system and Six Sigma approach, to reduce errors in the cytopathology laboratory.

  4. Fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed Central

    Lever, J V; Trott, P A; Webb, A J

    1985-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology is an inexpensive, atraumatic technique for the diagnosis of disease sites. This paper describes the technique and illustrates how it may be applied to the management of tumours throughout the body. The limitations of the method, the dangers of false positive reports, and the inevitability of false negative diagnoses are emphasised. In a clinical context the method has much to offer by saving patients from inappropriate operations and investigations and allowing surgeons to plan quickly and more rationally. It is an economically valuable technique and deserves greater recognition. Images PMID:2578481

  5. Pap-tests with non-hyperchromatic dyskariosis are often associated with squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix uteri with eosinophilic features.

    PubMed

    Bellisano, Giulia; Ambrosini-Spaltro, Andrea; Faa, Gavino; Ravarino, Alberto; Piccin, Andrea; Peer, Irmgard; Kasal, Armin; Vittadello, Fabio; Negri, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    Squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix uteri with eosinophilic features (eosinophilic dysplasia, ED) are a peculiar type of dysplasia with metaplastic phenotype which was described in histological specimens. The cytological features of these lesions have not been studied yet. Histological samples from 66 women with features of ED and positive p16(INK4a) staining were included in the study. Within the previous year, all women had at least one pap-test, whose features were recorded and compared with 31 control samples with high-grade dysplasia of usual type. The previous pap-test showed high-grade dysplastic cells with non-hyperchromatic nuclei in 56/66 (84.8%) cases and metaplastic features in 60/66 (90.9%) cases. Conversely, the dysplastic cells of the usual lesions showed non-hyperchromatic nuclei in 6/31 (19.4%) and metaplastic features in 4/31 (12.9%) cases. Statistical analysis showed significant differences in distribution of the non-hyperchromatic nuclei (P < 0.001), metaplastic features (P < 0.001), presence of both non-hyperchromatic nuclei and metaplastic features (P < 0.001) and usual dysplastic features (P < 0.001) among the study and control groups. A high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion with non-hyperchromatic nuclei or metaplastic features is often found in the pap-test previous to the histological diagnosis of ED and may represent the cytologic correlate of this particular type of dysplasia. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:783-786. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Aspiration cytology of radiation-induced changes of normal breast epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Bondeson, L.

    1987-05-01

    From a case illustrated, it appears that irradiation may induce changes in normal breast epithelium indistinguishable from malignancy by means of aspiration cytology. This fact must be considered in the choice of diagnostic methods for the evaluation of lesions in irradiated breast tissue.

  7. Basics of cytology

    PubMed Central

    Al-Abbadi, Mousa A.

    2011-01-01

    This overview is intended to give a general outline about the basics of Cytopathology. This is a field that is gaining tremendous momentum all over the world due to its speed, accuracy and cost effectiveness. This review will include a brief description about the history of cytology from its inception followed by recent developments. Discussion about the different types of specimens, whether exfoliative or aspiration will be presented with explanation of its rule as a screening and diagnostic test. A brief description of the indications, utilization, sensitivity, specificity, cost effectiveness, speed and accuracy will be carried out. The role that cytopathology plays in early detection of cancer will be emphasized. The ability to provide all types of ancillary studies necessary to make specific diagnosis that will dictate treatment protocols will be demonstrated. A brief description of the general rules of cytomorphology differentiating benign from malignant will be presented. Emphasis on communication between clinicians and pathologist will be underscored. The limitations and potential problems in the form of false positive and false negative will be briefly discussed. Few representative examples will be shown. A brief description of the different techniques in performing fine needle aspirations will be presented. General recommendation for the safest methods and hints to enhance the sensitivity of different sample procurement will be given. It is hoped that this review will benefit all practicing clinicians that may face certain diagnostic challenges requiring the use of cytological material. PMID:23210005

  8. Lymphatic drainage pathways from the cervix uteri: implications for radical hysterectomy?

    PubMed

    Kraima, A C; Derks, M; Smit, N N; Van Munsteren, J C; Van der Velden, J; Kenter, G G; DeRuiter, M C

    2014-01-01

    Radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy is the treatment of choice for early-stage cervical cancer. Wertheim's original technique has been often modified, mainly in the extent of parametrectomy. Okabayashi's technique is considered as the most radical variant regarding removal of the ventral parametrium and paracolpal tissues. Surgical outcome concerning recurrence and survival is good, but morbidity is high due to autonomic nerve damage. While the autonomic network has been studied extensively, the lymphatic system is less understood. This study describes the lymphatic drainage pathways of the cervix uteri and specifically the presence of lymphatics in the vesico-uterine ligament (VUL). A developmental series of 10 human female fetal pelves was studied. Paraffin embedded blocks were sliced in transverse sections of 8 or 10 μm. Analysis was performed by staining with antibodies against LYVE-1 (lymphatic endothelium), S100 (Schwann cells), alpha-Smooth Muscle Actin (smooth muscle cells) and CD68 (macrophages). The results were three-dimensionally represented. Two major pathways drained the cervix uteri: a supra-ureteral pathway, running in the cardinal ligament superior to the ureter, and a dorsal pathway, running in the utero-sacral ligament towards the rectal pillars. No lymph vessels draining the cervix uteri were detected in the VUL. In the paracolpal parametrium lymph vessels draining the upper vagina fused with those from the bladder. The VUL does not contain lymphatics from the cervix uteri. Hence, the favorable survival outcomes of the Okabayashi technique cannot be explained by radical removal of lymphatic pathways in the ventrocaudal parametrium. © 2013.

  9. [Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with perineural differentiation (malignant perineurinoma) of the cervix uteri].

    PubMed

    Dolzhikov, A A; Mukhina, T S

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a case of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with perineural differentiation and at the rare site of the cervix uteri in a 57-year-old patient. The diagnosis was established on the basis of extensive immunohistochemical examination, by excluding the similar neoplasms and detecting an immunophenotype characteristic of perineural differentiation. There are data available in the literature on the morphological and immunophenotypical characteristics of this tumor.

  10. Cytological diagnosis of xanthogranulomatous appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Rajni; Gulati, Anchana; Vedant, Deepak; Kaushal, Vijay

    2017-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous reaction can occur in any organ but the most common sites are kidney and gallbladder. Xanthogranulomatous appendicitis (XA) is a rare clinical entity. There are a few case reports of XA diagnosed on histopathology but none on cytology. Here we report a case of a 47-year-old lady who presented with acute abdomen and was found to have a mass lesion in the right iliac fossa. She was diagnosed with XA intraoperatively on imprint cytology that was subsequently confirmed on histopathological examination. Due to the rarity of XA itself and the use of imprint cytology for intraoperative diagnosis the case is being presented. PMID:28182060

  11. Analytical cytology applied to detection of induced cytogenetic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.W.; Lucas, J.; Straume, T.; Pinkel, D.

    1987-08-06

    Radiation-induced biological damage results in formation of a broad spectrum of cytogenetic changes such as translocations, dicentrics, ring chromosomes, and acentric fragments. A battery of analytical cytologic techniques are now emerging that promise to significantly improve the precision and ease with which these radiation induced cytogenetic changes can be quantified. This report summarizes techniques to facilitate analysis of the frequency of occurrence of structural and numerical aberrations in control and irradiated human cells. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  12. In vitro effects of L-arginine on spontaneous and homocysteine-induced contractility of pregnant canine uteri.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Annalisa; Trisolini, Carmelinda; Spedicato, Massimo; Mutinati, Maddalena; Minoia, Giuseppe; Sciorsci, Raffaele Luigi

    2011-09-01

    The L-Arginine-Nitric Oxide Synthase-Nitric Oxide (L-Arg-NOS-NO) system exerts a pivotal role in the maintenance of uterine quiescence during pregnancy, whereas Homocysteine (Hcy) promotes uterine contractility. The aim of this study was to test the in vitro effects of L-Arg on spontaneous and Hcy-induced contractions of uteri excised from pregnant bitches. 104 strips cut from pregnant uteri were mounted in an organ bath. 40 out of 104 strips (16 from mid-gestation uteri and 24 from close to term uteri, respectively) were exposed to cumulative doses of L-Arg; 40 strips (16 from mid-gestation-uteri and 24 from close to term-uteri, respectively) were exposed to N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a NOS antagonist; the remaining 24 strips (from close-to-term uteri) were first exposed to a single dose of Hcy and then to increasing doses of L-Arg. L-Arg showed no effects on spontaneous contractility both in mid-gestation- and close to term-uterine strips, whereas it promoted a relaxant effect on Hcy-induced contractility. On the contrary, L-NAME increased amplitude of contraction both in mid-gestation and close to term strips. These findings suggest that the L-Arg-NO system is present in the uterus of pregnant bitches and that Hcy is able to modulate its actions. Further investigation of this system may provide the basis of future obstetrical therapies in bitches.

  13. Myofibroblasts Are Evidence of Chronic Tissue Microtrauma at the Endometrial-Myometrial Junctional Zone in Uteri With Adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed Gamal; Sillem, Martin; Plendl, Johanna; Chiantera, Vito; Sehouli, Jalid; Mechsner, Sylvia

    2017-10-01

    Adenomyosis (AM) uteri exhibit hyperperistalsis. The latter causes a chronic tissue trauma at the endometrial-myometrial junctional zone (EMJZ). Upon tissue trauma, microdehiscences in the myometrium facilitate the translocation of basal endometrial fragments into the myometrium. There, a metaplasia (mediated by transforming growth factor β1 [TGFβ1] and connective tissue growth factor [CTGF]) occurs and AM lesions develop. The abundance of myofibroblasts in a tissue hallmarks metaplasia and points to a tissue microtrauma. To study if myofibroblasts-as an evidence of tissue microtrauma-are more abundant at EMJZ in AM-uteri, a case-control experimental study was carried out at Charité University Hospital-Endometriosis Research Centre. In all, 18 uteri with AM and 14 uteri without AM were obtained during laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy. The immunolabeling of myofibroblastic metaplasia (alpha smooth muscle actin [ASMA] and collagen I), differentiated smooth muscle marker (desmin) and metaplasia mediators (TGF-β receptors 1, 2, 3 and CTGF) was investigated. The ultrastructure of myofibroblasts at EMJZ of AM uterus was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, in addition to an in vitro study to characterize myofibroblasts in the endometrium of non-AM uterus. Immunolabeling of ASMA and collagen I was significantly higher at EMJZ of AM uteri versus non-AM uteri. Furthermore, myofibroblasts were ultrastructurally characterized at EMJZ of AM. Endometrium of non-AM uterus exhibited 5% to 8% of its cells, expressing ASMA and collagen I. No difference was noted regarding metaplasia mediators immunolabeling between both the groups. The abundant and persistent myofibroblasts (expressing ASMA/collagen I) at EMJZ in AM uteri are ultra-/microscopic evidence of chronic tissue trauma. They are of nonmyometrial origin, as they lack desmin immunolabeling.

  14. Exfoliative cytology for diagnosing oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sayánsm, M; Somoza-Martín, J M; Barros-Angueira, F; Reboiras-López, M D; Gándara-Vila, P; Gándara Rey, J M; García-García, A

    2010-04-28

    Exfoliative cytology is a minimally invasive technique for obtaining oral cell specimens from patients for diagnostic purposes. Classical applications of oral cytology studies, such as oral candidiasis, have been extended to include oral precancerous and cancerous lesions. A number of analytical methods are available for studying cytology specimens. The development of molecular analysis techniques, the oral cancer etiopathogenic process, and improvements in liquid-based exfoliative cytology are leading to renewed interest in exfoliative cytology. Results sometimes are disputed, so the aim of our review was to clarify the applicability of exfoliative cytology to the diagnosis of oral precancerous and cancerous lesions.

  15. Robotic hysterectomy using the Vessel Sealer for myomatous uteri: technique and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Hoste, Griet; Van Trappen, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Robotic procedures using the Vessel Sealer are not well reported in the literature, especially given the advantages of sealing devices already studied in standard laparoscopic procedures. This study reports our experience with the EndoWrist(®) One™ Vessel Sealer in robotic hysterectomy for myomatous uteri. In this retrospective cohort study of the first 50 consecutive patients with myomatous uteri undergoing a robotic hysterectomy, we report our experience with the EndoWrist(®) One™ Vessel Sealer (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) during this procedure. The learning curve was evaluated, and the operative times as well as the complications were recorded. After the first 10 cases, the median console and total (skin-to-skin) operative time dropped significantly from 110 to 60min and from 158 to 105min, respectively (p=0.018 and p=0.008 respectively). The body mass index (≤ or >30kg/m(2)), uterine weight (≤ or >250g), and uterine size had no statistical significant effect on the total operative time. Median blood loss during surgery was 63mL in all cases (range: 0-400mL). The morbidity was low, and approximately 50% of cases could be discharged from the hospital after one to two days. Robotic hysterectomy using the Vessel Sealer has, after a short learning curve of 10 cases, similar operative times than other published reports on robotic hysterectomy or laparoscopic hysterectomy using a sealing device for myomatous or large uteri. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ovotesticular Disorders of Sexual Development: A Case of Hernia Uteri Inguinalis.

    PubMed

    Barham, David W; DeRosa, Raffaella; Pederson, Anita M; Freeman, Judy H; Rooks, Veronica J; McMann, Leah P

    2016-07-01

    Ovotesticular disorders of sexual development result in the presence of both testis and ovarian tissue. Most commonly, gonadal structures in the scrotum or inguinal canal are comprised of testis tissue. The presence of a uterus within an inguinal hernia sac in a phenotypically male patient is referred to as hernia uteri inguinalis. This condition has rarely been reported in patients with ovotesticular disorders of sexual development. We present a patient with rare mosaicism in combination with an unusual location of Müllerian duct structures within an inguinal hernia sac.

  17. [A case of hernia uteri inguinalis with a left crossed ectopic testis].

    PubMed

    Hihara, T; Nagata, Y; Katsuoka, Y; Kinoshita, H; Kawamura, N

    1985-11-01

    A 70-year-old man with the complaint of dysuria and painless swelling of the right scrotal sac and inguinal region was operated on for suspected right inguinal hernia. The hernia sac contained two testis and immature uterine tissue, which were pathognomonic of left crossed ectopic testis complicated by hernia uteri inguinalis. The chromosomes were normal. Statistics on 57 similar cases indicated that this was the eldest of all such patients reported in Japan; since he had two children, he seems to have been fertile.

  18. A rare case of primary mesenteric gastrointestinal stromal tumor with metastasis to the cervix uteri

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nupur; Mittal, Suneeta; Lal, Neena; Misra, Renu; Kumar, Lalit; Bhalla, Sunita

    2007-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are CD117 (C Kit) positive mesenchymal neoplasms, that may arise anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract. Their current therapy is imatinib mesylate before or after surgery. Case presentation We describe a case of 17-year-old female with metastasis to the cervix uteri of a primary mesenteric gastrointestinal tumor. Conclusion Surgery remains the mainstay of known curative treatment. The manifestations of GIST are not restricted to the typical locations within the bowel; may have very unusual metastatic sites or infiltrations per continuitatem. PMID:18045506

  19. [Complications of surgical stage of treatment in patients with cancer of cervix uteri stage IIB].

    PubMed

    Kryzhanivs'ka, A Ie

    2013-11-01

    The results of treatment of 127 patients, suffering cervix uteri cancer stage IIB in period of 1998 - 2012 yrs, were analyzed. Complications of surgical stage of the combined treatment have had occurred in 40.9% patients, including 40.5% patients, to whom neoadjuvant chemotherapy was conducted and in 41.5%--radiation therapy (RTH). The main postoperative complications--retroperitoneal lymphatic cysts--were revealed in 35.4% patients. The factors, raising the risk of postoperative complications occurrence, are following: the primary tumor spreading, metastatic affection of lymphatic nodes of pelvic cavity, preoperative conduction of RTH or chemotherapy.

  20. Successful pregnancy after uterovaginal anastomosis in patients with congenital atresia of cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Prorocic, M; Vasiljevic, M; Tasic, L; Brankovic, S

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of successful pregnancy after effective uterovaginal anastomosis in a 26-years-old patient with congenital atresia of the cervix uteri. She spontaneously achieved pregnancy after four years of uterovaginal anastomosis. Gestation was at the eighth lunar month and the delivery was done by cesarean section due to rapidly progressing fetal asphyxia. The patient gave birth to a live healthy male, weighing 1,950 g, with an Apgar score of 5 and 8 at 1 and 5 min, respectively. The postoperative course was uneventful, and leakage of lochia was normal.

  1. A treatment planning study comparing volumetric arc modulation with RapidArc and fixed field IMRT for cervix uteri radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Luca; Dinshaw, Ketayun Ardeshir; Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Engineer, Reena; Deshpande, Deepak Dattatray; Jamema, S V; Vanetti, Eugenio; Clivio, Alessandro; Nicolini, Giorgia; Fogliata, Antonella

    2008-11-01

    A treatment planning study was performed to evaluate the performance of the novel volumetric modulated single arc radiotherapy on cervix uteri cancer patients. Conventional fixed field IMRT was used as benchmark. CT datasets of eight patients were included in the study. Plans were optimised with the aim to assess organs at risk and healthy tissue sparing while enforcing highly conformal target coverage. Planning objectives for PTV were: maximum significant dose lower than 52.5 Gy and minimum significant dose higher than 47.5 Gy. For organs at risk, the median and maximum doses were constrained to be lower than 30 (rectum), 35 (bladder) and 25 Gy (small bowel) and 47.5 Gy; additional objectives were set on various volume thresholds. Plans were evaluated on parameters derived from dose volume histograms and on NTCP estimates. Peripheral doses at 5, 10 and 15 cm from the PTV surface were recorded to assess the low-level dose bath. The MU and delivery time were scored to measure expected treatment efficiency. Both RapidArc and IMRT resulted in equivalent target coverage but RapidArc had an improved homogeneity (D(5%)-D(95%) = 3.5 +/- 0.6 Gy for RapidArc and 4.3 +/- 0.8 Gy for IMRT) and conformity index (CI(90%) = 1.30 +/- 0.06 for RapidArc and 1.41 +/- 0.15 for IMRT). On rectum the mean dose was reduced by about 6 Gy (10 Gy for the rectum fraction not included in the PTV). Similar trends were observed for the various dose levels with reductions ranging from approximately 3 to 14.4 Gy. For the bladder, RapidArc allowed a reduction of mean dose ranging from approximately 4 to 6Gy and a reduction from approximately 3 to 9 Gy w.r.t. IMRT. Similar trends but with smaller absolute differences were observed for the small bowel and left and right femur. NTCP calculations on bladder and rectum confirmed the DVH data with a potential relative reduction ranging from 30 to 70% from IMRT to RapidArc. The healthy tissue was significantly less irradiated in the medium to high dose

  2. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Exams and Tests for Cancer Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer Waiting to hear test results ... biopsies used to look for cancer Types of cytology tests used to look for cancer What happens ...

  3. Sequential gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist/low-dose oral contraceptive treatment for leiomyomata uteri.

    PubMed

    Balasch, J; Manau, D; Mimó, J; Durán, M; Puerto, B; Vanrell, J A

    1995-03-01

    On the basis that gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) induce a significant but transient shrinkage of leiomyomas and that oral contraceptive use may be associated with a decreased risk of fibroids, we tested the hypothesis that sequential GnRHa/low-dose oral contraceptive treatment could be a therapeutic alternative in perimenopausal women with uterine fibroids. Six premenopausal women with leiomyomata uteri were treated with D-tryptophan-6-luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (D-Trp-6-LHRH) depot (Decapeptyl 3.75) for 6 months and demonstrated a significant reduction in mean uterine volume. A low-dose oral contraceptive containing 30 micrograms of ethinyl oestradiol plus 150 micrograms of desogestrel was given during the ensuing 12 months. When GnRHa therapy was discontinued, there was a rapid regrowth of the uterine fibroids and the uterine volume had reached, or even exceeded, pretreatment values by the eighth to 12th month of contraceptive therapy. Sequential GnRHa/low-dose oral contraceptive treatment is not a useful tool for leiomyomata uteri.

  4. Multiple primary cancers of breast and cervix uteri: An epidemiological approach to analysis

    PubMed Central

    Prior, P.; Waterhouse, J. A. H.

    1981-01-01

    Index sites of breast and cervix uteri were selected from populationbased data held at the West Midlands and Birmingham Regional Cancer Registry, and the expected numbers of second primary cancers in cervix and breast were computed (sequence analyses). In the breast series (17,756 patients) a small deficit of cervical tumours was observed (O = 16, E = 2·119, O/E = 0·76, P > 0·05), while in the cervix series (4817 patients) a small excess of breast tumours was found (O = 29, E = 23·38, O/E = 1·24, P > 0·05) over a period of 15 years. A theoretical statement of the combined risk of the 2 tumours occurring in the same individual of a general population was developed and was compared with the practical approach of summing the sequence analyses (complementary analysis). Complementary analysis indicated that there was no excess of women with the 2 primary tumours (O = 45, E = 44·57, O/E = 1·01) and that cancers of the breast and cervix uteri are not aetiologically related. PMID:7248147

  5. Serological responses to papillomavirus group-specific antigens in women with neoplasia of the cervix uteri.

    PubMed Central

    Dillner, L; Moreno-Lopez, J; Dillner, J

    1990-01-01

    Certain types of human papillomaviruses have been linked to the development of carcinoma of the cervix uteri. We have analyzed 114 serum specimens from women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or carcinoma of the cervix uteri for the presence of serum antibodies against purified, disrupted bovine papillomavirus (BPV). The titers of immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies against BPV were slightly elevated (P less than 0.025) in the sera from CIN or cervical carcinoma patients compared with the titers of 139 serum specimens from sex- and age-matched healthy controls. In contrast, both the IgG and IgM serum antibody titers against BPV were significantly decreased for CIN and cervical carcinoma patients compared with those of healthy controls (P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.005, respectively). These results suggest that the difference between IgA and IgG or IgM antibodies to papillomavirus group-specific antigens may represent interesting serological parameters that could possibly be used in the epidemiologic study of women at risk for CIN. PMID:2157738

  6. [Algorithm for the differential diagnosis of precancerous and regenerative changes in the cervix uteri].

    PubMed

    Sazonova, V Iu; Fedorova, V E; Danilova, N V

    2013-01-01

    Pretumoral changes in the epithelium of the cervix uteri include cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). CIN III should be differentiated with regenerative changes during epidermization of endocervicoses. Epidermization is proliferation of undifferentiated reserve cells that differentiate towards the squamous epithelium, by superseding the ectopic endocervical glandular epithelium. This process was called immature squamous metaplasia (ISM). The objective of the investigation was to define the significance of different morphological signs in the differential diagnosis of CIN III and ISM. One hundred and twelve cervical, CIN III, and immature squamous metaplasia biopsies were selected for examination. The selected cervical specimens were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of p16 and CK17 expression. The p16+, CK17- cases were taken as true CIN III and the pl 6-, CK17+ as a regenerative process. The basis for this investigation is the signs included by O.K. Khmelnitsky into an algorithm for the differential diagnosis of epidermizing pseudoerosion and intraepithelial cancer of the cervix uteri. The algorithm was reconsidered to objectify. The investigation established great differences in the number of significant mitoses in the study groups. A clear trend was found for differences in the number of acanthotic strands. A new differential diagnostic algorithm for CIN III and ISM, which included the number of significant mitoses and acanthotic strands and p16 and CK17 expression, was proposed.

  7. 42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology, the...

  8. 42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology, the...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology, the...

  10. 42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology, the...

  11. 42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology, the...

  12. [Cytological methods for the diagnosis of pleuritis].

    PubMed

    Grigoruk, O G; Bazulina, L M; Lazarev, A F

    2010-01-01

    Data are presented on a cytological examination of 2948 patients with pleuritis carried out during 7 years. Routine methods alongside centrifuging, cytological material staining, immunocytochemical and morphometric procedures were used. Each stage of the investigation was evaluated. Thanks to use of complex procedures, sensitivity of cytological methods for pleuritis diagnosis was raised to 95.2%, specificity--to 100%.

  13. Microfilaria in hydrocele fluid cytology.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Patricia Ann; Jayaram, Gita; Mahmud, Rohela; Anuar, A Khairul

    2004-12-01

    Filariasis, a parasitic infection endemic in parts of India, Myanmar, islands of the South Pacific, West and East Africa and Saudi Arabia can be diagnosed from various types of cytopathological specimens. This case documents the detection of filarial infection from hydrocele fluid cytology in a 30-year-old Myanmar migrant worker in Malaysia.

  14. Cytology exam of pleural fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lungs. This area is called the pleural space. Cytology means the study of cells. ... A sample of fluid from the pleural space is needed. The sample is taken using a procedure called thoracentesis . The procedure is done in the following way: You sit on a ...

  15. Confocal microscopy and exfoliative cytology

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Shyam Prasad; Ramani, Pratibha; Nainani, Purshotam

    2013-01-01

    Context: Early detection of potentially malignant lesions and invasive squamous-cell carcinoma in the oral cavity could be greatly improved through techniques that permit visualization of subtle cellular changes indicative of the neoplastic transformation process. One such technique is confocal microscopy. Combining rapidity with reliability, an innovative idea has been put forward using confocal microscope in exfoliative cytology. Aims: The main objective of this study was to assess confocal microscopy for cytological diagnosis and the results were compared with that of the standard PAP stain. Settings and Design: Confocal microscope, acridine orange (AO) stain, PAP (Papanicolaou) stain. The study was designed to assess confocal microscopy for cytological diagnosis. In the process, smears of patients with (clinically diagnosed and/or suspected) oral squamous cell carcinoma as well as those of controls (normal people) were stained with acridine orange and observed under confocal microscope. The results were compared with those of the standard PAP method. Materials and Methods: Samples of buccal mucosa smears from normal patients and squamous cell carcinoma patients were made, fixed in 100% alcohol, followed by AO staining. The corresponding set of smears was stained with PAP stain using rapid PAP stain kit. The results obtained were compared with those obtained with AO confocal microscopy. Results: The study had shown nuclear changes (malignant cells) in the smears of squamous cell carcinoma patients as increased intensity of fluorescence of the nucleus, when observed under confocal microscope. Acridine orange confocal microscopy showed good amount of sensitivity and specificity (93%) in identifying malignant cells in exfoliative cytological smears. Conclusion: Confocal microscopy was found to have good sensitivity in the identification of cancer (malignant) cells in exfoliative cytology, at par with the PAP method. The rapidity of processing and screening a

  16. Confocal microscopy and exfoliative cytology.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Shyam Prasad; Ramani, Pratibha; Nainani, Purshotam

    2013-05-01

    Early detection of potentially malignant lesions and invasive squamous-cell carcinoma in the oral cavity could be greatly improved through techniques that permit visualization of subtle cellular changes indicative of the neoplastic transformation process. One such technique is confocal microscopy. Combining rapidity with reliability, an innovative idea has been put forward using confocal microscope in exfoliative cytology. The main objective of this study was to assess confocal microscopy for cytological diagnosis and the results were compared with that of the standard PAP stain. Confocal microscope, acridine orange (AO) stain, PAP (Papanicolaou) stain. The study was designed to assess confocal microscopy for cytological diagnosis. In the process, smears of patients with (clinically diagnosed and/or suspected) oral squamous cell carcinoma as well as those of controls (normal people) were stained with acridine orange and observed under confocal microscope. The results were compared with those of the standard PAP method. Samples of buccal mucosa smears from normal patients and squamous cell carcinoma patients were made, fixed in 100% alcohol, followed by AO staining. The corresponding set of smears was stained with PAP stain using rapid PAP stain kit. The results obtained were compared with those obtained with AO confocal microscopy. The study had shown nuclear changes (malignant cells) in the smears of squamous cell carcinoma patients as increased intensity of fluorescence of the nucleus, when observed under confocal microscope. Acridine orange confocal microscopy showed good amount of sensitivity and specificity (93%) in identifying malignant cells in exfoliative cytological smears. Confocal microscopy was found to have good sensitivity in the identification of cancer (malignant) cells in exfoliative cytology, at par with the PAP method. The rapidity of processing and screening a specimen resulted in saving of time. It added a certain amount of objectivity to the

  17. Adenocarcinoma of the Cervix Uteri and Endometrium Combined With the Kartagener Syndrome on FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin; Chen, Yue; Huang, Zhanwen; Zhou, Fan

    2015-11-01

    A 45-year-old woman with pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the cervix uteri and endometrium underwent FDG PET/CT for staging. No metastasis was found. However, the images revealed bronchiectasis, sinusitis, and situs inversus totalis, which are the triad of Kartagener syndrome.

  18. [Potentialities of low-field magnetic resonance tomography in the diagnosis and treatment of invasive cancer of cervix uteri].

    PubMed

    Shatov, A V

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of low-field (0.14 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer of the cervix uteri. Low-field MRI was performed in 39 patients with cancer of the cervix uteri to define the stage of the tumor and to follow up the outcomes of their treatment. Particular emphasis was laid on the determination of the size of the tumor and the presence of parametral invasion and on metastatic lesions of lymph nodes. MRI data were compared with clinical, morphological, and surgical staging results. In detecting the stage of cancer of the cervix uteri, the accuracy of MRI was 72% whereas that of clinical study was 51%. In determining parametral invasion, the accuracy of clinical study and low-field MRI was 71 and 90%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI were 83 and 92%, respectively. The anterioposterior tumor size was an important prognostic factor in following up the outcomes of treatment as there was its close association and the incidence of tumor recurrences. The present study has indicated that the high efficiency of low-field MRI in detecting the stage of invasive cancer of cervix uteri makes it the method of choice in planning treatment and monitoring the outcomes of combined radiation therapy.

  19. Microarray analysis of inflammatory response-related gene expression in the uteri of dogs with pyometra.

    PubMed

    Bukowska, D; Kempisty, B; Zawierucha, P; Jopek, K; Piotrowska, H; Antosik, P; Ciesiółka, S; Woźna, M; Brüssow, K P; Jaśkowski, J M

    2014-01-01

    Pyometra, which is accompanied by bacterial contamination of the uterus, is defined as a complex disease associated with the activation of several systems, including the immune system. The objective of the study was to evaluate the gene expression profile in dogs with pyometra compared with those that were clinically normal. The study included uteri from 43 mongrel bitches (23 with pyometra, 20 clinically healthy). RNA used for the microarray study was pooled to four separated vials for control and pyometra. A total of 17,138 different transcripts were analyzed on the uteri of female dogs with pyometra and of healthy controls. From 264 inflammatory response-related transcripts, we found 23 transcripts that revealed a 10- to 77-fold increased expression. Thereby, the expression of interleukin 8 (IL8), interleukin-1-beta (IL1B), interleukin 18 receptor (IL18RAP), interleukin 1-alpha (IL1A), interleukin receptor antagonist (IL1RN) and interleukin 6 (IL6) increased 77-, 20-, 17-, 13-, 13- and 11-fold, respectively. Furthermore, the expression of the calcium binding proteins S100A8 was 44-fold higher, and that of S100A12 and S100A9 37-fold, respectively, in the uteri of canines with pyometra compared with that of the controls. Moreover, the expression of the transcripts of toll-like receptors (TLR8 and TLR2), integrin beta 2 (ITGB2), chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3), semaphorin 7A (SEMA7A), CD14 and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) was increased between 10- and 18-fold. Furthermore, after using RT-qPCR we found an increased expression of AOAH, IL1A, IL8, CCL3, IL1RN and SERPINE 1 mRNAs which can be served also as markers of the occurrence of pyometra in domestic bitches. In summary, it is concluded that up-regulation of interleukins may be used as a marker of the inflammatory response in dogs with pyometra. Moreover, all of the 23 up-regulated transcripts may be novel molecular markers of the pathogenesis of canine pyometra. Several proteins--–products of these

  20. Improvization of conventional cytology by centrifuged liquid-based cytology in oral exfoliative cytology specimen

    PubMed Central

    Nambiar, Shwetha; Hegde, Veda; Yadav, Nikhil; Hallikeri, Kaveri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exfoliative cytology is the microscopic examination of shed or desquamated cells from the epithelial surface. Centrifuged liquid-based cytology (CLBC) is a modified technique that was used in the current study. Aims: To compare the efficacy of CLBC with conventional cytology in apparently normal mucosa after staining with Papanicolaou (PAP) stain. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of apparently normal mucosa from healthy subjects were selected for the study. The first sample was taken and spread on the slide by the conventional technique. The second sample was flushed out in a suspending solution, centrifuged, and the cell pellet obtained was used to make the smear. The stained smears were compared for seven parameters such as adequate cellularity, clear background, uniform distribution, cellular overlapping, cellular elongation, mucus, and inflammatory cells. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis and P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between CLBC and conventional cytology with parameters such as adequate cellularity (P = 0.001), clear background (P = 0.001), uniform distribution (0.005), cellular overlapping, and cellular elongation (P = 0). The presence of mucus and inflammatory cells was minimal as the samples were collected from healthy subjects. Conclusion: CLBC has better efficacy over the conventional method in all the parameters analyzed. PMID:27756981

  1. [Radionuclide diagnosis of upper urinary tract patency in patients with cancer of the cervix uteri ].

    PubMed

    Ashrafian, L A; Fomin, D K; Trushin, V I; Trepin, A V

    2011-01-01

    The experience with dynamic renal scintigraphy has shown its high informative value and safety in evaluating the degree of intrarenal urine outflow disorders. However, failure to make an objective assessment of ureteral patency considerably limits its study. The set of studies, which is given in this paper, is devoted to precisely this, highly urgent, problem. The authors have developed an original procedure for diagnosing impaired urine outflow along the ureters during dynamic renal scintigraphy. The visual and digital characteristics of normal and impaired urine outflow in the supravesical segment are defined. The criteria characterizing severe impairments of renal urine derivation along the ureters are denoted. Risk factors for urine outflow disorders are identified in patients with cancer of the cervix uteri, who receive various treatment modalities.

  2. Wound healing process in the portio vaginalis uteri after CO2-laser treatment.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, K; Honda, S; Endo, C; Sato, A; Sekimoto, S

    1993-07-01

    In order to determine the would healing process in the portio vaginalis uteri, 3[H]-thymidine incorporation and hydroxyproline concentration in the granulation tissue were measured histochemically after CO2-laser treatment. As a result, the squamous epithelium showed the thymidine uptake in extended regions in the first week and in basel cell hyperplastic regions in the second week. The uptake was seen in the reserve cell hyperplastic regions of the epithelium from the 2nd week. Hydroxyproline concentration peaks mostly appeared within one week after the laser treatment. After cryosurgery, the peaks mostly appeared after two weeks or more. These results indicated that, the stromas and then the squamous and columnar epithelial cells in turn were regenerated after CO2-laser treatment, and that the regeneration occurred earlier after laser treatment than after cryosurgery.

  3. [Multiparameter magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of cancer of the cervix uteri].

    PubMed

    Tarachkova, E V; Strel'tsova, O N; Panov, V O; Bazaeva, I Ya; Tyurin, I E

    2015-01-01

    Cancer of the cervix uteri (CCU) ranks third in the incidence of malignancies in women. The choice of CCU treatment mainly depends on the extent of the tumor process, i.e., the stage of the disease. Determining the stage of CCU is based on the clinical classification of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) (2009) and has a number of substantial limitations in evaluating parametrial invasion, tumor spread to the pelvic wall, and involvement of regional lymph nodes and in determining the true tumor sizes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now the method of choice in staging invasive CCU. Multiparameter MRI will be able to enhance the efficiency of diagnosing microinvasive CCU as well (FIGO 2009), to plan surgical and/or chemoradiation treatment, to evaluate its efficiency, and to diagnose locally recurrent CCU.

  4. Functional and molecular characterization of voltage-gated sodium channels in uteri from nonpregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Seda, Marian; Pinto, Francisco M; Wray, Susan; Cintado, Cristina G; Noheda, Pedro; Buschmann, Helmut; Candenas, Luz

    2007-11-01

    We investigated the function and expression of voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSC) in the uteri of nonpregnant rats using organ bath techniques, intracellular [Ca(2+)] fluorescence measurements, and RT-PCR. In longitudinally arranged whole-tissue uterine strips, veratridine, a VGSC activator, caused the rapid appearance of phasic contractions of irregular frequency and amplitude. After 50-60 min in the continuous presence of veratridine, rhythmic contractions of very regular frequency and slightly increasing amplitude occurred and were sustained for up to 12 h. Both the early and late components of the contractile response to veratridine were inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by tetrodotoxin (TTX). In small strips dissected from the uterine longitudinal smooth muscle layer and loaded with Fura-2, veratridine also caused rhythmic contractions, accompanied by transient increases in [Ca(2+)](i), which were abolished by treatment with 0.1 microM TTX. Using end-point and real-time quantitative RT-PCR, we detected the presence of the VGSC alpha subunits Scn2a1, Scn3a, Scn5a, and Scn8a in the cDNA from longitudinal muscle. The mRNAs of the auxiliary beta subunits Scbn1b, Scbn2b, Scbn4b, and traces of Scn3b were also present. These data show for the first time that Scn2a1, Scn3a, Scn5a, and Scn8a, as well as all VGSC beta subunits are expressed in the longitudinal smooth muscle layer of the rat myometrium. In addition, our data show that TTX-sensitive VGSC are able to mediate phasic contractions maintained over long periods of time in the uteri of nonpregnant rats.

  5. Distribution of lymphatic tissues and autonomic nerves in supporting ligaments around the cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianping; Feng, Lanlan; Lu, Yi; Guo, Dongxia; Xi, Tengteng; Wang, Xiaochun

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the distribution of lymphatic tissues and nerves in the supporting ligaments around the cervix uteri for their tomographical relationship, 9 adult female cadavers were used in this study. Following the incision of all supporting ligaments around the cervix, hematoxylin and esosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining of various sections of these ligaments was performed to enable the distribution of lymph tissues and autonomic nerves to be observed. Four lymph nodes were identified in three cadaver specimens. Three lymph nodes were present at a distance of 2.0 cm from the cervix in the cranial side of the cardinal ligaments (CLs), and one lymph node was located at a distance of 4.0 cm from the cervix in the cranial side of the uterosacral ligament (USL). The lymphatic vessels were dispersed in the CLs, scattered in the cervical side of the USLs, and occasionally distributed in the vesicouterine ligaments (VULs). In the CLs, parasympathetic nerves were located at the pelvic lateral wall and went downwards and medially into the cervix, while sympathetic fibers were located in the middle and lower parts of the ligaments. In the USLs, the autonomic nerves, which consisted primarily of sympathetic fibers, went downwards and laterally from the pelvic wall to the cervix. In the VULs, parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves were located in the inner sides of the vesical veins in the deep layers of the ligaments. It is concluded that there are few lymphatic tissues in the supporting ligaments around the cervix uteri, and that nerve‑sparing radical hysterectomy (NSRH) may be a safe method for the treatment of early‑stage cervical cancer.

  6. Paratesticular angioleiomyoma with cytological atypia.

    PubMed

    Del Sordo, Rachele; Leite, Silvia; Petroni, Pietro Antonio; Sidoni, Angelo

    2008-04-01

    Angioleiomyomas are common benign smooth muscle neoplasms in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue of limbs. Very rarely have they been described in the external male genitalia with only two cases in the paratesticular tissues and another intratesticular. We report a case of a paratesticular angioleiomyoma with cytological atypia and a peculiar vascular pattern, found incidentally as a painless nodule in a 75-year-old man. The main clinicopathological features together with the differential diagnoses and the pertinent published reports are reviewed.

  7. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... a diagnosis of HSIL, adenocarcinoma, or other malignant neoplasm for which histology results were available for comparison; (v) Gynecologic cases where cytology and histology are discrepant; and...

  8. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... a diagnosis of HSIL, adenocarcinoma, or other malignant neoplasm for which histology results were available for comparison; (v) Gynecologic cases where cytology and histology are discrepant; and...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... a diagnosis of HSIL, adenocarcinoma, or other malignant neoplasm for which histology results were available for comparison; (v) Gynecologic cases where cytology and histology are discrepant; and...

  10. Cytological endometritis at artificial insemination in dairy cows: Prevalence and effect on pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Bogado Pascottini, O; Hostens, M; Sys, P; Vercauteren, P; Opsomer, G

    2017-01-01

    The aims of our field study in dairy cows were (1) to consolidate cytotape (CT) as a valid technique to diagnose cytological endometritis (CYTO) during artificial insemination (AI); (2) to establish a cutoff point concerning the polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) proportion to diagnose CYTO at AI; (3) to assess the prevalence of CYTO at AI; and (4) to evaluate the effect of CYTO on the pregnancy outcome of that AI. The investigation was performed using 1,625 AI-CT samples harvested from 873 Holstein-Friesian cows from 18 dairy farms in the Flemish region of Belgium. The CT device consisted of adapting a 1.5-cm piece of paper tape on the top of a conventional AI catheter covered with a double guard sheet, allowing an endometrial cytology sample to be taken when performing an AI. A receiving operator characteristic curve was built to assess the threshold level above which the PMN proportion significantly affected the AI success. Multilevel generalized mixed-effect models were built to identify factors affecting the pregnancy outcome of the AI under investigation. Only 7 samples (0.4%) harvested in 5 cows were discarded because of low-quality parameters. The cutoff point for CYTO at AI was set at ≥1% PMN (sensitivity=33.8%, specificity=88.6%). Prevalence of CYTO at AI was 27.8%. The conception rate for CYTO-positive samples was 32.7%, whereas it was 47% for CYTO-negative samples. A CYTO-negative AI had 1.8 [odds ratio (OR)] more chances to become pregnant than a CYTO-positive one. Other factors identified as detrimental for the pregnancy outcome were body condition score ≤1.5 (OR=0.6), relative 305-d milk yield (OR=0.9), dystocia (OR=0.3), parity ≥2 (OR=0.7), and warm months of the year. In conclusion, CT is a consolidated technique to diagnose CYTO at AI, PMN 1% is the threshold level to diagnose CYTO at AI, around one-quarter of inseminated uteri suffer from CYTO, and affected uteri having a significantly lower chance to become pregnant from that insemination

  11. Intramural adenocarcinoma of the uterus, arisen from adenomyosis uteri, showing unique histologic appearances. Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kuwashima, Y; Uehara, T; Kishi, K; Tajima, H; Shiromizu, K; Matsuzawa, M; Takayama, S

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of uterine adenocarcinoma which grew mainly in myometrium and showed unique histologic appearances are reported. Both cases were considered to have arisen from adenomyosis uteri because transitional figures were observed between carcinoma cells and adenmyotic glands in one case, and carcinomatous glands were scattered in myometrium and were associated with endometrial stroma which mimicked benign adenomyosis in another. The former case was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and the latter was well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Interestingly, in the latter case, the carcinoma cells were transformed into papillary adenocarcinoma such as has been observed in the thyroid gland, and formed well-demarcated nodular mass. These findings indicate that adenocarcinoma which arise from adenomyosis uteri could show various histologic appearances, in addition to usual endometrioid adenocarcinoma.

  12. Quantitative analyses of epidermal growth factor receptors, HER-2/neu oncoprotein and cathepsin D in nonmalignant and malignant uteri.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, J S; Miseljic, S; Yang, A R; Doering, D L; Shaheen, R M; Wittliff, J L

    1996-02-15

    Hormone receptors and oncoproteins are receiving increased attention as possible prognostic factors in different carcinomas. Few data are available regarding quantification of their levels of expression in gynecologic malignancies. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor specific binding capacities and affinities were measured by ligand binding assay using [125I]EGF in a competition mode with Accufit software (Lundon Software, Inc., Middlefield, OH). HER-2/neu oncoprotein was extracted from membranes and measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cathepsin D was measured by an immunoradiometric assay using cytosols for steroid receptor analyses. EGF receptors in 23 nonmalignant uteri ranged from undetectable to 50 fmol/mg membrane protein (median, 0), with dissociation constant values of 1.2 x 10(-9) M to 8.5 x 10(-10) M, compared with EGF receptors in 76 endometrial cancers that ranged from undetectable to 7674 fmol/mg (median, 52). HER-2/neu oncoprotein ranged from undetectable to 2.9 HER-2/neu units (HNU)/microg protein (median, 0.6) in 41 nonmalignant uteri and from undetectable to 5.8 HNU/microg protein (median, 2.5) in endometrial cancers (n = 53). Cathepsin D ranged from 5 to 32 pmol/mg cytosol protein (median, 11) in 42 nonmalignant uteri and 18 to 144 pmol/mg protein (median, 42) in 29 endometrial cancers. Determination of the frequency and levels of EGF receptors, HER-2/neu protein, and cathepsin D in uteri with and without cancer and the availability of reference materials developed in our laboratory, will allow evaluation of their prognostic value in cancers of the uterus.

  13. Embryonation ability of Ascaridia galli eggs isolated from worm uteri or host faeces.

    PubMed

    Rahimian, Shayan; Gauly, Matthias; Daş, Gürbüz

    2016-01-15

    Experimental infection models for Ascaridia galli rely on the use of eggs isolated either directly from worm uteri or from host faeces. We investigated whether A. galli eggs isolated from the two sources differ in their embryonation ability. A. galli eggs originating from 12 worm infrapopulations were isolated both from faeces of the living host (faecal eggs) and directly from worm uteri after host necropsy (uterine eggs). The isolated eggs from each infrapopulation and source were incubated in Petri dishes (n=24) containing a potassium-dichromate (0.1%) medium for 28 days (d) at room temperature. Starting from the day of egg isolation (d0), in ovo larval development was evaluated every second day by examining morphological characteristics of 200 eggs/petri dish. A total of 72,000 eggs were classified into undeveloped, early development, vermiform or fully embryonated stages. Isolation procedures caused similar damage to uterine and faecal eggs (2.2% and 0.5%, respectively; P=0.180). The first sign of in ovo embryonic development in faecal eggs (7%) was observed during the 24-h period when faeces were collected. On d28, a higher percentage of uterine eggs remained undeveloped when compared with faecal eggs (58.6% vs 11.0%; P<0.001). Although a higher (P<0.001) percentage of faecal eggs entered both the early developmental and vermiform stages, which took place primarily within the first two weeks of incubation, there was no time-shift between the development of faecal and uterine eggs. Starting from day 10, higher (P<0.05) percentages of faecal eggs completed embryonation compared with uterine equivalents. Eggs from both sources reached a plateau of embryonation by the end of 2nd week of incubation, with faecal eggs having a greater than two-fold higher embryonation ability. Cumulative mortality was higher in uterine eggs (14.3%) than in faecal eggs (0.2%). We conclude that faecal eggs have a higher embryonation ability than uterine eggs possibly due to maturation

  14. Detection of human papillomavirus in intraepithelial lesions and carcinoma of the cervix uteri in southern Thai women.

    PubMed

    Tungsinmunkong, Kobkul; Suwiwat, Supaporn; Sriplung, Hutcha

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of high-risk type human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) in preneoplastic lesions and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix uteri in southern Thai women. A total of 148 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks of cervix tissue were retrieved from the files of the Department of Pathology, Prince of Songkla University Hospital. They were classified as negative for intraepithelial lesion (NIL) in 37 cases, low grade lesion (LGL) in 58 cases, high grade lesion (HGL) in 39 cases and SCC in 14 cases. HR-HPV DNA was tested with an Amplicor HPV (Roche Diagnostics) detection kit. Of the 111 cases, 42 of 58 LGLs (72.4%), 34 of 39 HGLs (87.2%) and 13 of 14 SCCs (92.9%) were positive for HR-HPV DNA. In 37 cases of histologically normal cervix, there were 15 cases that showed the presence of HR-HPV DNA. Applying the HR-HPV results for NILs to the general population, the age standardized incidence rate of HR-HPV infection in the normal Thai population was 12.8%. HR-HPV DNA can be found in all grades of intraepithelial lesions and carcinoma of the cervix uteri, even in the histologically "normal" looking cervix. These results provide strong evidence for a role in carcinogenesis of the cervix uteri and the existence of a non-productive or latent period of HPV infection.

  15. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...). (ii) Cases must be randomly selected from the total caseload and include negatives and those from... must be completed before reporting patient results. (2) Laboratory comparison of clinical information, when available, with cytology reports and comparison of all gynecologic cytology reports with...

  16. The cytologic criteria of malignancy.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Andrew H; Zhao, Chengquan; Li, Qing Kay; Gustafson, Karen S; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin; Tambouret, Rosemary; Benstein, Barbara; Savaloja, Lynnette C; Kulesza, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Cytology and cell biology are two separate fields that share a focus on cancer. Cancer is still diagnosed based on morphology, and surprisingly little is known about the molecular basis of the defining structural features. Cytology uses the smallest possible biopsy for diagnosis by reducing morphologic "criteria of malignancy" to the smallest scale. To begin to develop common ground, members of the American Society of Cytopathology Cell Biology Liaison Working Group classify some of the "criteria of malignancy" and review their relation to current cell biology concepts. The criteria of malignancy are extremely varied, apparently reflecting many different pathophysiologies in specific microenvironments. Criteria in Group 1 comprise tissue-level alterations that appear to relate to resistance to anoikis, alterations in cell adhesion molecules, and loss of apical-basal polarity. Criteria in Group 2 reflect genetic instability, including chromosomal and possibly epigenetic instability. Criteria in Groups 3 are subcellular structural changes involving cytoplasmic components, nuclear lamina, chromatin and nucleoli that cannot be accounted for by genetic instability. Some distinct criteria in Group 3 are known to be induced by cancer genes, but their precise structural basis remains obscure. The criteria of malignancy are not closely related to the histogenetic classification of cancers, and they appear to provide an alternative, biologically relevant framework for establishing common ground between cytologists and cell biologists. To understand the criteria of malignancy at a molecular level would improve diagnosis, and likely point to novel cell physiologies that are not encompassed by current cell biology concepts.

  17. [Quantification of proteinthiols in morphologically normal basal cells and pathological squamous cells of the cervix uteri].

    PubMed

    Bajardi, F; Schauenstein, E; Nöhammer, G; Unger-Ullmann, C

    1978-01-01

    Smears taken from eight probands with carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma of the cervix uteri have been stained with DDD and Fast Blue B. The extinctions microspectrometrically measured at 560 nm are directly proportional to the quantity of protein-SH-groups. The extinctions of the total cell (Eges) and of the cell nucleus (EK) are measured in 67 basal cells (BAS), 78 dysplatic cells (DYS), 122 undifferentiated cancer cells (UNIF) and 89 differentiated cancer cells (POLY). From BAS through DYS and UNIF to POLY EK increases by a total of 176%. In all four cell types investigated, linear correlations between EK and Eges have been found to occur with a probability of over 99%. The straight lines ascertained represent a relation between EK and Eges which is obviously very characteristic for each cell type, and it becomes apparent that the measuring points corresponding to each single cell are in each instance so close to the straight line that in most cases a differentiation of the three pathological cell types is possible even without a morphological criterion. The straight lines corresponding to BAS, DYS and UNIF start from a common origin, whereas the straight line corresponding to POLY branches off from the UNIF line only. This is in accordance with the formal genesis of pathological variants observed in the cervical squamous epithelium or in differentiated carcinomas of the squamous epithelium respectively.

  18. Estrogenicity of outer scales of onion on uteri of immature mice.

    PubMed

    Alrefaie, Zienab A; Amin, Hanan A; Elgayed, Sabah H

    2011-11-01

    We aimed to investigate the estrogen-like activities of the outer scales of onion and garlic on the uteri of immature mice. This work compared the estrogenic effects induced by estradiol with the effects of plant extract (onion, garlic) in models of immature mice (n = 72). The animals were divided into 6 groups, with 12 animals in each group, as follows: Group I (control group), Group II (estradiol-treated group), Group III (onion extract treated group), Group IV (onion extract treated group after blockage of estrogen receptors), Group V (garlic extract treated group), and Group VI (garlic extract treated group after blockage of estrogen receptors). Uterine wet weight/body mass ratios were determined. Uterotrophic bioassay, immunohistochemical assay for estrogen receptor and proliferative marker Ki67, uterine contractility, and serum estrogen levels were investigated. Onion extract induced proliferative changes in the uterus, it also increased the uterine mass and epithelial cell height. Also, the frequency and amplitude of myometrial contractility were significantly increased in the group treated with onion extract. This estrogenic activity could be attributed to the quercetin and daidzein content, and activation of estrogenic receptors, as these effects disappeared after blockage of E2 receptors. Our results support the possible estrogenic properties of the onion extract, which could be attributed to quercetin and daidzein, but not that of garlic extract.

  19. Establishment and characterization of a differentiated epithelial cell culture model derived from the porcine cervix uteri

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cervical uterine epithelial cells maintain a physiological and pathogen-free milieu in the female mammalian reproductive tract and are involved in sperm-epithelium interaction. Easily accessible, differentiated model systems of the cervical epithelium are not yet available to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms within these highly specialized cells. Therefore, the aim of the study was to establish a cell culture of the porcine cervical epithelium representing in vivo-like properties of the tissue. Results We tested different isolation methods and culture conditions and validated purity of the cultured cells by immunohistochemistry against keratins. We could reproducibly culture pure epithelial cells from cervical tissue explants. Based on a morphology score and the WST-1 Proliferation Assay, we optimized the growth medium composition. Primary porcine cervical cells performed best in conditioned Ham's F-12, containing 10% FCS, EGF and insulin. After cultivation in an air-liquid interface for three weeks, the cells showed a discontinuously multilayered phenotype. Finally, differentiation was validated via immunohistochemistry against beta catenin. Mucopolysaccharide production could be shown via alcian blue staining. Conclusions We provide the first suitable protocol to establish a differentiated porcine epithelial model of the cervix uteri, based on easily accessible cells using slaughterhouse material. PMID:22429795

  20. Diagnostic value of cytology of voided urine.

    PubMed

    Milicić, Valerija; Prvulović, Ivana; Panda, Natalija; Bilić-Kirin, Vesna; Kraljik, Nikola; Serić, Vatroslav

    2014-06-01

    There are 961 new cases and approximately 366 deaths from urothelial carcinoma registered annually in Croatia. Exfoliative urinary cytology has important role in detection of high grade urinary tumors, invasive and in situ lesions respectively. In contrast to cystoscopy and biopsy, cytology is a noninvasive method which is easily repeated. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess value of urinary cytology in our institution. For this purpose only patients with histological diagnosis and clinical follow up were considered. There were 138 urine specimens with cytological diagnosis of dyskaryosis, suspicious for malignancy or malignant and histology and follow up data examined at our Department of Clinical Cytology between 2004 and 2011. Cytological diagnosis suspicious for malignancy and malignant were considered positive and the results were correlated with histological diagnosis according to the WHO histological classification of tumors of the urinary tract. Patients with negative histological findings were followed for the next two years. The positive predictive value of cytological detection of malignant urothelial lesions was 91.8%. In 10 cases cytological diagnosis of malignancy was not confirmed histologically or clinically which makes the total of 8.2% of false positive reports. Of the total of detected malignant urothelial lesions 90.9% are high grade lesions and only 9.1% low-grade lesions; 67.3% are invasive lesions and 32.7% non-invasive lesions. Cytological findings of dyskariotyc cells requires further urological investigation because such findings in further processing prove the presence of tumor in 93.8% of cases. In conclusion: cytology is very good diagnostic tool for detection of high grade invasive and noninvasive carcinomas of the urinary tract. In order to make it more efficient we need to study its limits carefully, define diagnostic criteria and reach consensus in nomenclature.

  1. 42 CFR 493.1471 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the cytology...

  2. 42 CFR 493.1471 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the cytology...

  3. 42 CFR 493.1471 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the cytology...

  4. 42 CFR 493.1471 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the cytology...

  5. 42 CFR 493.1471 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the cytology...

  6. 42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified to supervise cytology services...

  7. 42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified to supervise cytology services...

  8. 42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified to supervise cytology services...

  9. Current organisation of clinical cytology in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Milicić-Juhas, Valerija; Loncar, Branka; Mahovlić, Vesna; Kardum-Skelin, Ika; Pajtler, Marija

    2010-03-01

    Current cytological service in Croatia is organised in 46 cytological organisational units in 23 towns with total of 350 employees: 101 specialists of clinical cytology, 20 residents in clinical cytology, 141 cytotechnologists (cytoscreeners), 45 health technicians, and 25 administrators and 18 auxiliary personnel. In spite of employment of significant number of cytotechnologists in the last ten years, there is still an unacceptable ratio of number of cytologists and cytotechnologists (1:1.4) which is the result of unresolved education of cytotechnologists which should be permanent, complete and acknowledged. Education and scientific promotion of cytologists is continuous and today our profession has 31 masters of science and 9 doctors of science, one of which is the assistant professor, and four of them are associate or full professors at medical schools in Zagreb and Osijek. Croatian cytology, in average, is in its "best years", i.e. an average cytologist is 46-years-old and cytotechnologist is averagely 43-years-old, but "suffers" from personnel deficit. With regard to the type of activity, the most numerous are units dealing the entire diagnostic cytology (72%), 13% general cytology without gynaecological cytology, while 15% are engaged in one diagnostic field (gynaecological, pulmological or thyroid cytology). According to accessible data, total of 770996 cytological examinations were done in Croatia in 2008. The increasing application of additional methods (cytochemical, immunocytochemical, molecular, cytogenetics and computer-assisted image analysis) has become a trend in numerous cytological units. Exclusively morphological analysis of standard stained samples is performed in 37% of units, morphological and cytochemical staining methods are used in 17% of units, and additional immunocytochemical methods in 30% of units. According to the long tradition of cytology in Croatia, that has progressed thanks to the enthusiasm and great effort of our teachers, we

  10. [Imprint cytology in the diagnosis of tumors of the thyroid].

    PubMed

    Pluot, M; Faroux, M J; Rain, J; Patey, M; Mallaisy, T; Simatos, A

    1989-01-01

    We have correlated imprint cytology findings in thyroid tumors to the results of preoperative fine needle aspiration and operative specimen histology. Specificity of imprint cytology proved greater than that of fine needle aspiration cytology and topographic correlations were particularly helpful. Imprint cytology can improve the intraoperative histologic diagnosis. Because abundant cells are available, imprint thyroid cytology is ideal for teaching and training cytologists. Imprint cytology provides enough cells to perform special techniques, such as quantitative cytology, that are useful for the diagnosis of some tumor varieties (e.g. follicular tumors).

  11. Gastric metastasis of cervix uteri carcinoma, rare cause of lower gastric stenosis.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, B; Banu, E; Pocreaţă, D; Buiga, R; Rogoz, S; Pripisi, L; Cimpeanu, L; Moldovan, A; Jeder, O; Badea, A; Biris, P

    2012-01-01

    the paper presents a rare case of metachronous gastric metastasis of uterine cervix cancer, clinically manifested through severe pyloric stenosis. 49-year-old patient, operated on in January 2009, with uterine cervix cancer (Squamous cell carcinoma T2bN1M0), is hospitalized in August 2011 with pyloric stenosis: epigastric pains, abundant, stasis, late postprandial emesis, significant weight loss, stomach form visible upon abdomen inspection. Endoscopy: antral stenosis with intact gastric mucosa, and CT-scan: circumferential intramural gastric tumor, stomach dilated in the upper part, lack of cleavage between the tumor and the liver bed of the gall bladder. CEA increased to 13,78 (below 5), CA 19-9 slightly increased 29.9 (below 27). The case is considered as a second neoplasia and a D2 subtotal gastrectomy was performed, with 1 positive ganglion out of 27 on block with atypical hepatectomy of segments 4-5 for liver invasion, the final mounting being Y Roux. The histopathological examination shows a gastric metastasis of squamous carcinoma, of uterine cervix origin, the invaded perigastric ganglion having the same aspect of uterine cervix carcinoma. The post-surgery evolution was favorable, under chemo radiotherapy the patient being alive without relapse at 9 months post-surgery. In the literature there are 2 more cases of gastric metastasis of uterine cervix carcinoma, and 4 of uterine carcinoma without topographic indication, but without the histological documentation of the tumor filiation, without data related to resecability or follow-up, the case at hand being, from this perspective, the first documented resectable metachronous gastric metastasis from a cervix uteri carcinoma. Celsius.

  12. Identification and characterization of cancer stem-like cells from primary carcinoma of the cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dingqing; Peng, Cheng; Li, Cairong; Zhou, Ying; Li, Min; Ling, Bin; Wei, Haiming; Tian, Zhigang

    2009-11-01

    Like many other solid tumors, cervical cancer contains a heterogeneous population of cancer cells. Several investigators have identified putative stem cells from solid tumors and cancer cell lines via the capacity to self renew and drive tumor formation. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize a cancer stem-like cell population from primary carcinoma of the cervix uteri. Cervical carcinoma from 19 patients staged I-II following International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) criteria were disaggregated and subjected to growth conditions selective for stem cells. Eight of nineteen tumor-derived cultures encompassed stem-like cells capable of self-renewal, extensive proliferation as clonal non-adherent spherical clusters. Cell markers of spheroid were identified as CD44+CK17+. Cell survival assays showed the sphere-forming cells were only 48% inhibited by doxorubicin whereas 78% inhibited by paclitaxel. Chemo-resistance may partly attribute to the exclusive expression of ABC transporter. To investigate the tumorigenicity of these stem-like cells, xenoengraftment of 10(5) dissociated spheroid cells allowed full recapitulation of the original tumor, whereas the same amount of tumor cells without non-adherent spheroid selection remained non-tumorigenic. Stemness properties of these spheroid cells were further established by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting, demonstrating the expression of embryonic and adult stemness-related genes (Oct-4, Piwil2, C-myc, Stat3 and Sox2). Based on these findings, we assert that cervical cancer contain a subpopulation of tumor initiating cells with stem-like properties, thus facilitating the approach to therapeutic strategies aimed at eradicating the tumorigenic subpopulation within cervical cancer.

  13. Isoflavone Genistein Induces Fluid Secretion and Morphological Changes in the Uteri of Post-Pubertal Rats

    PubMed Central

    Salleh, Naguib; Helmy, Mohd Mokhtar; Fadila, Kasim Nor; Yeong, Soh Onn

    2013-01-01

    A reported increase in the incidence of infertility following high genistein intake could be related to alteration in the normal fluid volume and morphology of the uterus in adult female. In view of this, we investigated the effect of this compound on fluid secretion, fluid volume and morphology of the uterus in post-pubertal rats. Methods: Ovariectomised SD rats were treated with 17-β oestradiol (E) (0.8 X 10-4 mg/kg/day) and genistein (0.5, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day) for three days. Following drug treatment, in-vivo uterine perfusion was performed and the rate of fluid secretion and the volume of fluid in the uterus were determined via changes in weight (μl/min) and F-dextran concentration of the perfusate respectively. The animals were then sacrificed and the uteri were removed for weight determination, morphological analyses and proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression analyses by Western blotting. Results: Subcutaneous genistein treatment resulted in a dose-dependent increase in fluid secretion rate, fluid volume and uterine wet weight. Treatment with 100 mg/kg/day genistein resulted in a remarkable increase in the rate of uterine fluid secretion, the volume of the uterine luminal fluid as well as the circumference of the uterine and uterine glandular lumen suggesting an excessive fluid accumulation. Meanwhile, there were evidence of glandular hyperplasia and an increase in the expression of PCNA following treatment with 50 and 100 mg/kg/day genistein. Conclusion: High genistein intake could potentially cause adverse effects on the uterus by inducing excessive fluid secretion and accumulation as well as hyperplasia. PMID:23569430

  14. Isoflavone genistein induces fluid secretion and morphological changes in the uteri of post-pubertal rats.

    PubMed

    Salleh, Naguib; Helmy, Mohd Mokhtar; Fadila, Kasim Nor; Yeong, Soh Onn

    2013-01-01

    A reported increase in the incidence of infertility following high genistein intake could be related to alteration in the normal fluid volume and morphology of the uterus in adult female. In view of this, we investigated the effect of this compound on fluid secretion, fluid volume and morphology of the uterus in post-pubertal rats. Ovariectomised SD rats were treated with 17-β oestradiol (E) (0.8 X 10(-4) mg/kg/day) and genistein (0.5, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day) for three days. Following drug treatment, in-vivo uterine perfusion was performed and the rate of fluid secretion and the volume of fluid in the uterus were determined via changes in weight (μl/min) and F-dextran concentration of the perfusate respectively. The animals were then sacrificed and the uteri were removed for weight determination, morphological analyses and proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression analyses by Western blotting. Subcutaneous genistein treatment resulted in a dose-dependent increase in fluid secretion rate, fluid volume and uterine wet weight. Treatment with 100 mg/kg/day genistein resulted in a remarkable increase in the rate of uterine fluid secretion, the volume of the uterine luminal fluid as well as the circumference of the uterine and uterine glandular lumen suggesting an excessive fluid accumulation. Meanwhile, there were evidence of glandular hyperplasia and an increase in the expression of PCNA following treatment with 50 and 100 mg/kg/day genistein. High genistein intake could potentially cause adverse effects on the uterus by inducing excessive fluid secretion and accumulation as well as hyperplasia.

  15. Neoplasia of the cervix uteri and contraception: a possible adverse effect of the pill.

    PubMed

    Vessey, M P; Lawless, M; McPherson, K; Yeates, D

    1983-10-22

    The incidence of biopsy-proven cervical neoplasia during a 10-year follow-up was determined in 6838 parous women who entered the Oxford-Family Planning Association contraceptive study while using oral contraceptives and 3154 parous women who entered the study while using an intrauterine device (IUD). Risk factors for cervical neoplasia, continuation of attendance at family planning clinics, and frequency of examination by cervical cytology were similar in the two groups. All 13 cases of invasive cancer occurred in women in the oral contraceptive group; 9 had more than 6 years' use of the pill. Both carcinoma-in-situ and dysplasia also occurred more frequently in the oral contraceptive group than in the IUD group, and when the two conditions were considered together there was a trend in incidence with duration of oral contraceptive use. The incidence for all three forms of neoplasia combined rose from 0.9 per 1000 woman-years in those with up to 2 years' pill use to 2.2 per 1000 woman-years in those with more than 8 years' pill use. Amongst IUD users, there was no such trend in incidence with duration of use: the rate fluctuated around 1.0 per 1000 woman-years. The great majority of cases of invasive cancer were detected by means of cervical smears and were treated while the disease was still curable. Long-term users of oral contraceptives should have regular cervical cytological examination.

  16. Conservative Treatment Seems the Best Choice in Adenocarcinoma In Situ of the Cervix Uteri.

    PubMed

    Baalbergen, Astrid; Molijn, Anco C; Quint, Wim G V; Smedts, Frank; Helmerhorst, Theo J M

    2015-07-01

    To study diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, outcomes, and follow-up in a large series of women with adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) of the uterine cervix and investigate if human papillomavirus (HPV) typing among women with negative cytology reports would have helped with early AIS detection. Records of 132 AIS cases diagnosed between 1989 and 2012 were retrieved. Clinical and pathological data were reviewed and analyzed. Mean age at diagnosis was 37 years. Seventy-two percent (n = 95) of all patients were asymptomatic; diagnosis was established using cytology and biopsy. Primary treatment for 124 patents was cold knife cone or loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). Positive margins were found in 18% of those women treated with CKC versus 40% in those treated with LEEP. The mean follow-up time was 62 months (range, 2-217 months; median, 46 months). Three recurrences were found after conservative treatment in 86 patients. High-risk HPV (hrHPV) positivity was detected in 115 (96%) of 120 patients, with HPV-18 being the most commonly occurring subtype (51%). There is a small risk of relapse after conservative therapy with cold knife cone or LEEP when resection margins are negative in women with AIS. Patients should be given the options of hysterectomy or conservative therapy with strict follow-up.

  17. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of postirradiation sarcomas, including angiosarcoma, with immunocytochemical confirmation

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, J.F.; Lannin, D.L.; Larkin, E.W.; Feldman, P.; Frable, W.J. )

    1989-01-01

    Postirradiation sarcomas are an unusual but well-recognized late effect of cancer therapy. In this article, a fine-needle aspiration (FNA) series of four cases is presented. There were three female patients and one male patient, with an age range of 28-55 yr (mean, 41). Two of the patients were irradiated for uterine cervical carcinoma while the other two received irradiation for malignant lymphoma. The time interval to the development of the postirradiation sarcoma ranged from 10 to greater than 20 yr. There were a postirradiation synovial sarcoma of the buttock region, malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the bone (femur), and rhabdomyosarcoma and angiosarcoma of the retroperitoneum. A spectrum of cytologic findings was encountered, reflecting the specific types of sarcomas. Immunocytochemical studies performed on the aspirated material from the angiosarcoma demonstrated the utility of immunoperoxidase stains for ULEX europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1) and, to a lesser degree, factor VIII-related antigen antibody, confirming the vascular nature of this malignancy. The FNA findings from all four cases demonstrated cytologic features that allowed recognition of this unusual complication of irradiation treatment. This article confirms the utility of FNA cytology in following patients with previous malignancies and differentiating a postirradiation sarcoma from recurrent carcinoma.

  18. Conjunctival impression cytology in computer users.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Bansal, R; Khare, A; Malik, K P S; Malik, V K; Jain, K; Jain, C

    2013-01-01

    It is known that the computer users develop the features of dry eye. To study the cytological changes in the conjunctiva using conjunctival impression cytology in computer users and a control group. Fifteen eyes of computer users who had used computers for more than one year and ten eyes of an age-and-sex matched control group (those who had not used computers) were studied by conjunctival impression cytology. Conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) results in the control group were of stage 0 and stage I while the computer user group showed CIC results between stages II to stage IV. Among the computer users, the majority ( > 90 %) showed stage III and stage IV changes. We found that those who used computers daily for long hours developed more CIC changes than those who worked at the computer for a shorter daily duration. © NEPjOPH.

  19. [Role of cytology in hematopathological diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Bode, B; Tinguely, M

    2012-07-01

    The role of cytology has so far been underrecognized in the diagnostic process of hematopathological questions. This article presents an algorithm which allows a stepwise work-up of cytology specimens obtained by minimally invasive ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in patients with unexplained lymph node swelling. Moreover, it is shown how the selective separation of cytology specimens allows the application of immunophenotypic analysis including flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry as well as molecular analyses, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) strategies. With the integrative procedure presented, cytology offers an excellent cost-effective tool for the diagnostic approach of patients with suspected hematopathological malignancies allowing a high diagnostic accuracy, ideal for initial diagnosis or follow-up.

  20. Gastric mucormycosis: Diagnosis by imprint cytology.

    PubMed

    Tathe, Shilpa P; Dani, Aarti A; Chawhan, Sanjay M; Meshram, Saroj A; Randale, Archana A; Raut, Waman K

    2016-10-01

    The fungi in the order of Mucorales commonly target diabetics and other immunocompromised hosts, producing fatal respiratory and or CNS infections. Gastrointestinal mucormycosis is uncommon and seldom diagnosed in living patients due to nonspecific clinical manifestations. We report a case of gastric mucormycosis in an immmunocompetent male patient, diagnosed by imprint cytology-a rare site and a rare setting. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second report of gastric mucormycosis being diagnosed on cytology. As the disease is rapidly progressive and often fatal, early diagnosis is critical to the patient survival. Imprint cytology or brush cytology is extremely useful for the rapid diagnosis of gastric mucormycosis as these organisms are morphologically distinct. Familiarity with the cytomorphology of these organisms assists in the correct diagnosis of this disease. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:820-822. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. [What is the contribution of aspiration cytology?].

    PubMed

    Pluot, M

    1999-01-01

    Aspiration cytology of thyroid nodules is essentially designed to determine the benign nature of the nodule in order to avoid purely diagnosis surgery. It is reliable in the diagnosis of anaplastic papillary and medullary carcinomas and most lymphomas, but is more problematical for the diagnosis of the benign or malignant nature of Hürthle cell tumours and certain vesicular tumours, in which cytology reveals a suspicious, doubtful or undetermined appearance. However, whether they are unambiguous or doubtful, fine needle aspiration cytology results help the surgeon to define the therapeutic strategy under the best possible conditions. A therapeutic approach is proposed, based on the formulation of aspiration cytology results into benign, malignant, suspicious and inadequate.

  2. Genistein-induced fluid accumulation in ovariectomised rats' uteri is associated with increased cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator expression

    PubMed Central

    Chinigarzadeh, Asma; Kassim, Normadiah M.; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: High genistein doses have been reported to induce fluid accumulation in the uteri of ovariectomised rats, although the mechanism underlying this effect remains unknown. Because genistein binds to the oestrogen receptor and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator mediates uterine fluid secretion, we hypothesised that this genistein effect involves both the oestrogen receptor and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator. METHODS: Ovariectomised adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day genistein for three consecutive days with and without the ER antagonist ICI 182780. One day after the final drug injection, the animals were humanely sacrificed, and the uteri were removed for histology and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator mRNA and protein expression analysis using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator protein distribution was analysed visually by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The histological analysis revealed an increase in the circumference of the uterine lumen with increasing doses of genistein, which was suggestive of fluid accumulation. Moreover, genistein stimulated a dose-dependent increase in the expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator protein and mRNA, and high-intensity cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator immunostaining was observed at the apical membrane of the luminal epithelium following 50 and 100 mg/kg/day genistein treatment. The genistein-induced increase in uterine luminal circumference and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator expression was antagonised by treatment with ICI 182780. CONCLUSION: Genistein-induced luminal fluid accumulation in ovariectomised rats' uteri involves the oestrogen receptor and up-regulation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator expression, and these findings reveal the mechanism underlying the effect of this compound on changes in fluid volume in the uterus after

  3. Genistein-induced fluid accumulation in ovariectomised rats' uteri is associated with increased cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator expression.

    PubMed

    Chinigarzadeh, Asma; Kassim, Normadiah M; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2014-02-01

    High genistein doses have been reported to induce fluid accumulation in the uteri of ovariectomised rats, although the mechanism underlying this effect remains unknown. Because genistein binds to the oestrogen receptor and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator mediates uterine fluid secretion, we hypothesised that this genistein effect involves both the oestrogen receptor and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator. Ovariectomised adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day genistein for three consecutive days with and without the ER antagonist ICI 182780. One day after the final drug injection, the animals were humanely sacrificed, and the uteri were removed for histology and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator mRNA and protein expression analysis using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator protein distribution was analysed visually by immunohistochemistry. The histological analysis revealed an increase in the circumference of the uterine lumen with increasing doses of genistein, which was suggestive of fluid accumulation. Moreover, genistein stimulated a dose-dependent increase in the expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator protein and mRNA, and high-intensity cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator immunostaining was observed at the apical membrane of the luminal epithelium following 50 and 100 mg/kg/day genistein treatment. The genistein-induced increase in uterine luminal circumference and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator expression was antagonised by treatment with ICI 182780. Genistein-induced luminal fluid accumulation in ovariectomised rats' uteri involves the oestrogen receptor and up-regulation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator expression, and these findings reveal the mechanism underlying the effect of this compound on changes in fluid volume in the uterus after menopause.

  4. Pancreatic cytology: standardised terminology and nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Perez-Machado, M A

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic cytology can make a real difference to the management of patients. However it is a challenge in those cases where a definitive diagnosis of malignancy cannot be made with confidence. This creates the need for a unified terminology and nomenclature system that provides intra- and interdepartmental guidance for diagnosis. The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology (PSC) has published new guidelines for pancreaticobiliary cytology, addressing indications, techniques, terminology and nomenclature, ancillary studies, and postprocedure management.

  5. Impression cytology diagnosis of ulcerative eyelid malignancy.

    PubMed

    Sen, S; Lyngdoh, A D; Pushker, N; Meel, R; Bajaj, M S; Chawla, B

    2015-02-01

    The utility of impression cytology in ocular diseases has predominantly been restricted to the diagnosis of dry eye, limbal stem cell deficiency and conjunctival neoplasias. Its role in malignant eyelid lesions remains largely unexplored. Although scrape cytology is more popular for cutaneous lesions, impression cytology, being non-traumatic, has an advantage in small and delicate areas such as the eyelid. The present study has been designed to evaluate its role in the diagnosis and management of malignant eyelid lesions. Thirty-two histopathologically proven malignant eyelid lesions diagnosed over a 2-year period, including 13 basal cell carcinomas, 11 sebaceous carcinomas, four squamous cell carcinomas, two malignant melanomas and two poorly differentiated carcinomas, formed the study group. The results of impression cytology were compared with those of histopathology in the study group and with an age- and sex-matched group of benign cases as controls. The sensitivity of impression cytology was 84% (27/32) for the diagnosis of malignancy and 28% (9/32) for categorization of the type of malignancy. Impression cytology is a simple, useful, non-invasive technique for the detection of malignant ulcerative eyelid lesions. It is especially useful as a follow-up technique for the detection of recurrences. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of cytologic findings in feline conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Hillström, Anna; Tvedten, Harold; Källberg, Maria; Hanås, Sofia; Lindhe, Anna; Holst, Bodil Ström

    2012-06-01

    Cytologic examination of smears prepared from ocular swabs of conjunctiva from cats with conjunctivitis permits identification of the type of inflammation and possibly specific microorganisms. Results of studies of the diagnostic utility of cytology for detection of infectious causes of feline conjunctivitis have been inconsistent. The objectives of this study were to describe cytologic findings in cats with conjunctivitis and to compare those findings with results of PCR analysis for feline herpesvirus (FHV-1), Chlamydophila felis (C felis), and Mycoplasma felis (M felis). Conjunctival smears from 88 cats with conjunctivitis and 10 healthy control cats were stained with a Romanowsky stain and evaluated for the type of inflammation and evidence of an infectious agent. PCR analysis for FHV-1, C felis, and M felis was performed. Infectious agents identified by PCR analysis were FHV-1 in 9 cats (10%), C felis in 8 cats (9%), and M felis in 6 cats (7%). Inclusions interpreted as chlamydial inclusions were found in all cytologic smears from cats positive for C felis by PCR analysis and in 3 PCR-negative cats. Inclusions interpreted as Mycoplasma organisms were found in 3 of 6 cats that were PCR-positive for M felis and in 1 PCR-negative cat. FHV-1 inclusion bodies were not detected on cytologic examination. Cytologic examination can be diagnostic for C felis infection when many typical inclusions are present. Cytologic examination was unreliable in diagnosing M felis infection, and viral inclusions of FHV-1 were not found in specimens stained with Romanowsky stains. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  7. Pancreatobiliary cytology in the multidisciplinary setting.

    PubMed

    Dina, R; Tran-Dang, M-A; Mauri, F; Gudi, M; Cohen, P; Ahmad, R; Batav, L; Vlavianos, P; Spalding, D

    2013-06-01

    This review article discusses the role of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS FNA) cytology in the clinical management of patients with pancreatic tumours in the setting of a multidisciplinary team (MDT). The commonest diagnosis encountered is pancreatic adenocarcinoma, which is seldom diagnosed early enough for surgical resection. Thus, cytology is likely to be the only form of diagnosis in the majority of cases. Nevertheless, about half the lesions discussed at the MDT meeting are lesions other than primary adenocarcinoma and a wide differential diagnosis must be considered in order to identify tumours, including neuroendocrine tumours, that are amenable to surgical resection. Cytology is not always definitive and the diagnosis may be helped by categorizing results according to whether they are malignant, suspicious, atypical/indeterminate, benign or inadequate. Discussion at MDT meetings and correlation with clinical and imaging findings along with review of cytology slides may allow equivocal results to be clarified before treatment is decided. Inadequate cytology results are avoided by rapid on-site evaluation of slides; although this is cost-effective in terms of overall patient care, attendance of cytopathologists on-site may not be feasible. At Imperial College NHS Trust, specially trained biomedical scientists successfully carry out rapid on-site evaluation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Nasseem Husain: homage to a pioneer of cytology automation.

    PubMed

    Kocjan, G; Herbert, A

    2015-08-01

    Dr Oliver Anthony Nasseem Husain, who died on 22 September 2014, aged 90 years, was one of the great names of European cytology, a pioneer of automated cervical screening and a founding member of both the British Society for Clinical Cytology (BSCC) and the European Federation of Cytology Societies (EFCS). The life of this one remarkable man involved much of the pioneering work, which is reviewed in this article, that has brought conventional cytology to the complex multimodal discipline it is today.

  9. Endometrial flushing αVβ3 integrin, glycodelin and PGF2α levels for evaluating endometrial receptivity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, myoma uteri and endometrioma.

    PubMed

    Demir, Mustafa; Ince, Onur; Ozkan, Bulent; Kelekci, Sefa; Sutcu, Recep; Yilmaz, Bulent

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study is to compare endometrial flushing fluid levels of αVβ3 integrin, glycodelin and PGF2α during the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, n = 20), myoma uteri (n = 20) and endometrioma (n = 19) with the healthy controls (n = 20). After collecting samples at the midluteal phase of ovulatory volunteers and storing them at -80 °C, αVβ3 integrin, glycodelin and PGF2α levels were analyzed using ELISA. The mean ages of the groups were 28.90 ± 5.45, 37.25 ± 2.73, 32.84 ± 6.62 and 32.15 ± 5.18 in PCOS, myoma uteri, endometrioma and control groups, respectively. The αVβ3 integrin level (ng/ml) was statistically significantly higher in endometrioma group (9.70 ± 1.72, p < 0.05) as compared to myoma uteri and control groups. Similarly, glycodelin level (ng/ml) was significantly higher in endometrioma group (341.04 ± 93.32) than PCOS (p < 0.01), myoma uteri (p < 0.001) and healthy subjects (p < 0.001). Moreover, PGF2α level (350.04 ± 464.50 ng/ml) was significantly higher in PCOS group relative to myoma uteri (p < 0.001), endometrioma (p < 0.05) and control (p < 0.05) groups. In conclusion, αVβ3 integrin level was significantly higher in endometrioma subjects than those with myoma uteri and control groups; glycodelin level was significantly higher in endometrioma group than other three groups, and lastly, PCOS patients had significantly higher PGF2α levels than those patients with myoma uteri, endometrioma and controls.

  10. The incidence rate of corpus uteri cancer among females in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    PubMed Central

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; El-Sheemy, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), adjusted by region and year of diagnosis. Methods A retrospective, descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted of all the corpus uteri cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and a simple linear model. Results A total of 1,060 corpus uteri cancer cases were included. Women aged 60–74 years of age were most affected by the disease. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 4.4 cases per 100,000 female patients, followed by the eastern region, at 4.2, and Makkah, at 3.7. Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest average ASIRs, ranging from 0.8 to 1.4. A Poisson regression model using Jazan as the reference revealed that the corpus uteri cancer incidence rate ratio was significantly higher for the regions of Makkah, at 16.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–23.0), followed by Riyadh, at 16.0 times (95% CI: 9.0–22.0), and the eastern region, at 9.9 times (95% CI: 5.6–17.6). The northern region experienced the highest changes in ASIRs of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients between 2001 and 2008. Conclusion There was a slight increase in the crude incidence rates and ASIRs for corpus uteri cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Older Saudi women were most affected by the disease. Riyadh, the eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall disease ASIRs and incidence rate ratios, while Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest rates. Finally, the northern region experienced the greatest changes in ASIR during the studied period. Further analytical studies are necessary to determine potential risk factors of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi

  11. 42 CFR 493.945 - Cytology; gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493.945 Section... Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.945 Cytology; gynecologic... gynecologic examinations (Pap smears) in cytology, a program must provide test sets composed of 10- and 20...

  12. 42 CFR 493.945 - Cytology; gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493.945 Section... Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.945 Cytology; gynecologic... gynecologic examinations (Pap smears) in cytology, a program must provide test sets composed of 10- and 20...

  13. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493... Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap smears...

  14. 42 CFR 493.945 - Cytology; gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493.945 Section... Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.945 Cytology; gynecologic... gynecologic examinations (Pap smears) in cytology, a program must provide test sets composed of 10- and 20...

  15. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493... Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap smears...

  16. 42 CFR 493.945 - Cytology; gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493.945 Section... Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.945 Cytology; gynecologic... gynecologic examinations (Pap smears) in cytology, a program must provide test sets composed of 10- and 20...

  17. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493... Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap smears...

  18. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493... Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap smears...

  19. 42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... qualifications. 493.1469 Section 493.1469 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified to supervise cytology...

  20. 42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... qualifications. 493.1469 Section 493.1469 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified to supervise cytology...

  1. Cervical cytology in serous and endometrioid endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Roelofsen, Thijs; Geels, Yvette P; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A; van Ham, Maaike A P C; Zomer, Saskia F; van Tilburg, Johanna M Wiersma; Snijders, Marc P M L; Siebers, Albert G; Bulten, Johan; Massuger, Leon F A G

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of abnormal cervical cytology in preoperative cervical cytology of patients diagnosed with uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) and endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC). In addition, associations between abnormal cervical cytology and clinicopathologic factors were evaluated. In this multicentre study, EEC patients diagnosed at two hospitals from 1999 to 2009 and UPSC patients diagnosed at five hospitals from 1992 to 2009, were included. Revision of the histologic slides was performed systematically and independently by 3 gynecopathologists. Cervical cytology within six months before histopathologic diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma was available for 267 EEC and 80 UPSC patients. Cervical cytology with atypical, malignant, or normal endometrial cells in postmenopausal women was considered as abnormal cytology, specific for endometrial pathology. Abnormal cervical cytology was found in 87.5% of UPSC patients, compared with 37.8% in EEC patients. In UPSC, abnormal cytology was associated with extrauterine spread of disease (P=0.043). In EEC, abnormal cytology was associated with cervical involvement (P=0.034). In both EEC and UPSC patients, abnormal cervical cytology was not associated with survival. In conclusion, abnormal cervical cytology was more frequently found in UPSC patients. It was associated with extrauterine disease in UPSC patients, and with cervical involvement in EEC patients. More prospective research should be performed to assess the true clinical value of preoperative cervical cytology in endometrial cancer patients.

  2. Accuracy of reading liquid based cytology slides using the ThinPrep Imager compared with conventional cytology: prospective study

    PubMed Central

    d'Assuncao, Jefferson; Irwig, Les; Macaskill, Petra; Chan, Siew F; Richards, Adele; Farnsworth, Annabelle

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the accuracy of liquid based cytology using the computerised ThinPrep Imager with that of manually read conventional cytology. Design Prospective study. Setting Pathology laboratory in Sydney, Australia. Participants 55 164 split sample pairs (liquid based sample collected after conventional sample from one collection) from consecutive samples of women choosing both types of cytology and whose specimens were examined between August 2004 and June 2005. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was accuracy of slides for detecting squamous lesions. Secondary outcomes were rate of unsatisfactory slides, distribution of squamous cytological classifications, and accuracy of detecting glandular lesions. Results Fewer unsatisfactory slides were found for imager read cytology than for conventional cytology (1.8% v 3.1%; P<0.001). More slides were classified as abnormal by imager read cytology (7.4% v 6.0% overall and 2.8% v 2.2% for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 1 or higher). Among 550 patients in whom imager read cytology was cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or higher and conventional cytology was less severe than grade 1, 133 of 380 biopsy samples taken were high grade histology. Among 294 patients in whom imager read cytology was less severe than cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 and conventional cytology was grade 1 or higher, 62 of 210 biopsy samples taken were high grade histology. Imager read cytology therefore detected 71 more cases of high grade histology than did conventional cytology, resulting from 170 more biopsies. Similar results were found when one pathologist reread the slides, masked to cytology results. Conclusion The ThinPrep Imager detects 1.29 more cases of histological high grade squamous disease per 1000 women screened than conventional cytology, with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 as the threshold for referral to colposcopy. More imager read slides than conventional slides were

  3. Sensitivity to antibiotics of Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Escherichia coli from the uteri of cows with metritis/endometritis.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Edward; Lassa, Henryka; Markiewicz, Hanna; Kaptur, Maciej; Nadolny, Marek; Niewitecki, Wiesław; Ziętara, Jacek

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the in vitro sensitivity of 161 Arcanobacterium pyogenes strains and 99 Escherichia coli strains isolated from the uteri of 312 cows with metritis/endometritis. Animals with pathological discharges were clinically diagnosed per rectum and per vaginum, and then swabs from the lumen of the uterus were aseptically collected. Bacteriological examination of swabs was according to commonly accepted procedures with the additional use of API tests. Sensitivity to antibiotics was tested by the disk diffusion method and performed in Mueller-Hinton agar. Arc. pyogenes strains were the most sensitive to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (Amc) (97.3%), bacitracin (96.7%), ceftiofur (95.8%) and cephapirin (77.5%). E. coli strains were the most sensitive to norfloxacin (98.1%), marbofloxacin (95.8%), gentamycin (88%), Amc (80.7%) and ceftiofur (73.1%). Arc. pyogenes and E. coli were most resistant to oxytetracycline (63.7% and 31%, respectively).

  4. Outcome of cervix uteri cancer patients: Clinical treatment results and toxicity profile in a retrospective study from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    El Sayed, Mohamed E; Bahadur, Yasir A; Hassouna, Ashraf H; Fawzy, Ehab E; Nasr, Azza M; Sadiq, Bakr B; Dada, Reyad; Sait, Khalid H; Anfinan, Nisrin M

    2016-03-21

    This study evaluated the survival outcome, pattern of failure and prognostic factors in cervix uteri cancer patients. We reviewed the data of 60 patients with stages IB-IVA cancer who were treated between January 2004 and December 2010. Most patients (n = 50; 83%) had squamous cell carcinoma. Stage IIB was the most common presentation (n = 41; 68%). Forty-seven patients (78%) received Cisplatin concurrent with radiotherapy (CRT). The 2- and 4-year overall survival (OS) was 82% and 79%, respectively. Prolongation of the overall treatment time (OAT) for greater than 56 days, advanced stage and pretreatment hemoglobin (Hb) levels (<10 g/dL) negatively predicted OS (P = 0.039, P = 0.044 and P = 0.008, respectively). The 2- and 4-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 80% and 69%, respectively. Vaginal infiltration and brachytherapy (orthogonal versus CT-based planning) were significant factors for the prediction of relapse (P = 0.048 and P = 0.049, respectively). The 2- and 4-year loco-regional control (LRC) rates were 78% and 70%, respectively, and the distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates were 82% and 79%, respectively. Vaginal infiltration was the only negative predictive factor for LRC (P = 0.045), and pathological tumor grade was the only factor indicative of distant metastases (P = 0.037). Grade 3 or 4 late rectal reactions were reported in two patients (3%), and no patients developed grade 3 or 4 urinary reactions. The treatment results in our cervix uteri cancer patients and the prognostic factors are comparable to those of previous reports. Orthogonal brachytherapy planning and vaginal infiltration negatively predicted relapse. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Cytology by Infrared Micro-Spectroscopy: Automatic Distinction of Cell Types in Urinary Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Benjamin; Romeo, Melissa J.; Diem, Max; Bedrossian, Kristi; Laver, Nora; Naber, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    We report microscopically collected infrared spectra of cells found in human urine in an effort to develop automatic methods for bladder cancer screening. Unsupervised multivariate analysis of the observed spectral patterns reveals distinct spectral classes, which correlated very well with visual cytology. Therefore, we believe that spectral analysis of individual cells can aid cytology in rendering reliable diagnoses based on objective measurements and discriminant algorithms. PMID:19768107

  6. Cytologic diagnosis of diseases of hedgehogs.

    PubMed

    Juan-Sallés, Carles; Garner, Michael M

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on neoplastic diseases because they may be the most frequent disease processes in captive hedgehogs according to the literature and authors' case files and the most common cases submitted for cytologic diagnosis in these species, particularly the African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

  7. Worm-like artifacts in exfoliative cytology.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Girón, Rafael; González-López, José Rafael; Esteban, José-Guillermo; García-Miralles, María Teresa; Alvarez-de-los-Heros, Carlos; Ribas-Barceló, Andrés

    2006-09-01

    The presence of worms in cytological smears is occasionally reported, although various other structures exist that may be confused with such parasites. We present eight worm-like artifacts observed in routine Papanicolaou smears. Recognition of these structures is important to avoid overvaluation or confusion with true worms. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Bladder aspergillosis detected by urine cytology.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Girón, Rafael; Martínez-Torre, Santiago; Mosquera-Martínez, Joaquín

    2015-05-01

    Bladder aspergillosis is an unusual infection. We report the case of a 79-year-old man with clinical records of transitional cell carcinoma diagnosed 5 years ago. The presence of a fruiting body and septate hyphae in urine cytological smears were the key for a final diagnosis of fungal bladder infection caused by Aspergillus niger.

  9. Difference Between Cryotherapy and Follow Up Low Grade Squamous Lesion of Cervix Uteri.

    PubMed

    Jahic, Mahira; Jahic, Elmir; Mulavdic, Mirsada; Hadzimehmedovic, Azra

    2017-08-01

    Cervical cancer can be successfully prevented by effective treatment. Analyse of success of cryotherapy in LSIL and ASCUS. In retrospective study between January 2016 to March 2017, 3244 PAP test were analysed. 257 patients who had been diagnosed with LSIL and ASCUS from PAP smear were divided in two groups: women who had HPV positive, colposcopic positive and cytologic finding of LSIL or ASCUS treathed with cryotherapy and women with LSIL, ASCUS and negative colposcopy. χ(2) test was used for statistical analysis of data. Analysis of 3244 PAP smears showed negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) in 90,10% (N-2923), and abnormal in 9,8% (N-321) of women. ASCUS was found in 4,8% (N-156) and ASC-H in 0,2% (N-6), LSIL in 3,1% (N-101), HSIL in 0,64% (N-21). The average age of patients with ASCUS lesion was 41 ± 12 years. After cryotherapy, HSIL had progression in 1,5% (N-1), persistence in 6,3% (N-4) and regression in 91,7% (N-58). Progression occured in 10,5% (N-4) of HSIL, persistence in 52,6% (N-20) and regression in 36,7% (N-14) in 38 women with LSIL lesion after repeated PAP test. Progression occured in 8% (N-10) of LSIL and 4% HSIL (N-5), persistence in 58% (N-72) and regression in 29,8% (N-37) in 124 women with ASCUS lesion after treatment and repeated PAP test. Difference in progression lesions in HSIL between women with cryotherapy (1,5%) and follow-up (10,5%) after LSIL is not significant, but progression to CIN II occured after cryotherapy. CIN III or cervical cancer was not found. Cryotherapy prevents progression of LSIL in HSIL and in cervical cancer. Because of that cryotherapy is successful method in prevention of cervical cancer.

  10. Cytological Results of Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology for Thyroid Nodules: Emphasis on Correlation with Sonographic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Jung; Hong, Soon Won; Chung, Woung Youn; Kwak, Jin Young; Kim, Min Jung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To compare the cytological results of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) cytology of thyroid nodules to sonographic findings and determine whether US findings are helpful in the interpretation of cytological results. Materials and Methods Among the thyroid nodules that underwent US-FNA cytology, we included the 819 nodules which had a conclusive diagnosis. Final diagnosis was based on pathology from surgery, repeated FNA cytology or follow-up of more than one year. Cytological results were divided into five groups: benign, indeterminate (follicular or Hurthle cell neoplasm), suspicious for malignancy, malignant, and inadequate. US findings were categorized as benign or suspicious. Cytological results and US categories were analyzed. Results Final diagnosis was concluded upon in 819 nodules based on pathology (n=311), repeated FNA cytology (n=204) and follow-up (n=304), of which 634 were benign and 185 were malignant. There were 560 benign nodules, 141 malignant nodules, 49 nodules with inadequate results, 21 with indeterminate results, and 48 that were suspicious for malignancy. The positive and negative predictive values of the US categories were 59.1% and 97.0%, and those of the cytological results were 93.7% and 98.9%. The US categories were significantly correlated with final diagnosis in the benign (p=0.014) and suspicious for malignancy (p<0.001) cytological result groups, but not in the inadequate and indeterminate cytological results groups. The false positive and negative rates of cytological results were 1.9% and 3.2%. Conclusion Sonographic findings can be useful when used alongside cytological results, especially in nodules with cytological results that are benign or suspicious for malignancy. PMID:21786450

  11. Pulmonary cytology in chrysotile asbestos workers

    SciTech Connect

    Kobusch, A.B.; Simard, A.; Feldstein, M.; Vauclair, R.; Gibbs, G.W.; Bergeron, F.; Morissette, N.; Davis, R.

    1984-01-01

    The prevalence of atypical cytology has been determined in relation to age, smoking and asbestos exposure for male workers employed in 3 mines in the Province of Quebec. Overall participation was 71%. Out of 867 participating workers, 626 (72%) presented a deep cough specimen within normal limits, 74 (8.5%) a specimen with mild atypical metaplasia and 10 (1.2%) a specimen with moderate atypical metaplasia. Four lung carcinoma were identified. Five percent of the workers initially interviewed did not return their specimen and 12.7% had unsatisfactory test results. Proportions of cellular atypical increased with age and asbestos exposure. Using logistic regression analysis, estimated probabilities of abnormal cytology for workers aged 25 years when started mining increased with both years of asbestos exposure and exposure index measured in fibres per cubic centimeter.

  12. Evaluation of cetacean and sirenian cytologic samples.

    PubMed

    Varela, René A; Schmidt, Kimberly; Goldstein, Juli D; Bossart, Gregory D

    2007-01-01

    Cytology is a fundamental part of marine mammal veterinary medicine that is involved in preventive medicine programs in captive animals and in the health assessment of wild populations. Marine mammals often exhibit few clinical signs of disease; thus, the cost-effective and widely accessible nature of cytologic sampling renders it one of the most important diagnostic procedures with these species. Many of these mammals are endangered, protected, and located in developing nations in which resources may be scarce. This article can be used as a field guide to advise a veterinarian, biologist, or technician working with cetaceans or sirenians. A simplistic cost-effective staining technique is used, which is ideal for situations in which funds, facilities, or time may be a limiting factor in clinical practice.

  13. Immunocytochemistry: an indispensable technique in routine cytology.

    PubMed

    Skoog, L; Tani, E

    2011-08-01

    Immunocytology is today accepted as an indispensable adjunct to cytomorphology. It has led to a dramatic increase in diagnostic accuracy and also allowed the identification of markers both for prognosis and targeted therapies. Most commercially available antibodies will perform in a reproducible and reliable way provided that the cytological specimen has been prepared and fixed properly. In this review various aspects of immunocytochemistry such as preparation of cytological specimens, fixation and choice of antibodies will be discussed. The specificity of the most commonly used antibodies is summarized and staining panels for various tumours are suggested. In addition, the use of markers for targeted therapy and theranostics is discussed, as well as a brief section on the identification of infectious agents.

  14. Fine needle aspiration cytology in fibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Tanwar, Pranay; Gupta, Nalini; Vasishta, Rakesh Kumar; Singh, Gurpreet

    2012-01-01

    Fibromatosis form a spectrum of clinicopathologic entities characterized by the infiltrative proliferation of fibroblasts that lack malignant cytologic features. The fibromatosis can be localized or infiltrative and multicentric and can involve internal tissues and organs as the mesentery, retroperitoneum, breast, and almost every organ and region of the body, including the bones, the meninges and the central nervous system. We report a case of 37-year-old male who presented with a right supraclavicular mass with superficial infiltrative type of fibromatosis and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was performed. We report this case because of limited literature of FNAC in fibromatosis and quick role of FNAC in the diagnosis of fibromatosis. PMID:22438623

  15. A Cervical Cytology Program in General Practice

    PubMed Central

    Lane, R. F.

    1965-01-01

    In a six-year period 723 women were examined using cervical cytology smears. Fifteen cancers of the cervix were discovered, including two invasive growths and 13 carcinoma in situ. A careful follow-up was carried out, and the later appearance of cancer was noted in 12 of 41 patients who initially showed only atypical cells. It is recommended that all patients showing “positive” cells (atypical, suspicious, or cancer morphology cells) undergo cone biopsy for definitive histological diagnosis. Target lesions should have punch biopsy. Four cancers were found in 170 obstetrical patients, and it is recommended that this proved high-risk group be screened both prenatally and postnatally. The importance of annual screening of all women over 20 years of age for cancer of the cervix by cytological methods is emphasized. PMID:14292886

  16. Cytologic findings of urogenital mesenteric cyst.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Maral; Kumar, Perikala Vijayananda

    2013-07-01

    Mesenteric cysts are heterogeneous groups of lesions. Most of them are developmental cysts of lymphatic and enteric origin or cystic neoplasm such as mesothelioma or cystic teratoma. Urogenital cysts are a subcategory of developmental cysts of the mesentery. They are thought to arise from vestigial remnants of urogenital apparatus. These cysts may show evidence of mesonephric or metanephric differentiation. An 11 -year -old boy was presented with undescended testis. During preoperative work- up, an incidental cystic lesion was discovered which was attached to the ileum. Aspiration cytology of the cyst content revealed cuboidal to columnar cells; some of them were ciliated. Histologic examination showed a cyst with fibromuscular wall, lined by Mullerian type ciliated epithelium; so the diagnosis of urogenital mesenteric cyst of Mullerian type was made. Urogenital cysts are rare lesions, but they should be considered in differential diagnosis of any cystic lesion of the mesentery. Cytology could be a useful method for evaluation and revealing the nature of these cysts.

  17. Cytological Diagnosis of Primary Thyroid Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Goyal, P; Mittal, D; Ghosh, S; Agrawal, D; Sehgal, S; Singh, S

    2015-01-01

    Primary thyroid tuberculosis is an extremely rare disease, even in countries where other forms of tuberculosis are abundant. TT has no age bar but usually affects women in fourth and fifth decade. Hereby, we report a case of 16-years-old girl presented with complaint of progressively increasing, painful thyroid swelling. Diagnosis of TT was made on cytology and there was no evidence of involvement of any other organ by tuberculosis. Despite of its rarity, TT is usually misdiagnosed. So, a clinician should always consider this entity in the differential diagnosis of thyroid swelling. Fine needle aspiration cytology is the best diagnostic method and can result in the avoidance of unnecessary thyroid surgeries.

  18. Impact of digital image manipulation in cytology.

    PubMed

    Pinco, Jeffery; Goulart, Robert A; Otis, Christopher N; Garb, Jane; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2009-01-01

    Digital images have become an important component of cytology practice. They are used in telecytology, automated screening, educational material, and Web sites and have potential for use in proficiency testing. However, there has been no formal evaluation to date to determine if digital image manipulation (intentional or unintentional) can affect their interpretation. To investigate whether alteration of digital cytology images affects diagnosis. Acquired digital images of ThinPrep Papanicolaou test slides were manipulated (rotated 90 degrees and brightness, contrast, red-green-blue color, and luminosity adjusted) using Photoshop. A test composed of these altered images, along with their original (unaltered) image and exact duplicates was given to 22 cytologists (13 cytotechnologists, 8 cytopathologists, and 1 fellow). All images were rated as negative, atypical (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, or positive for cancer. Weighted kappa and heterogeneity chi(2) statistics were used to measure levels of agreement and assess concordance between groups. The level of agreement for identical duplicate images was excellent (kappa = 0.81), compared with the poor agreement for manipulated image pairs (kappa = 0.21), a statistically significant difference (P < .001). For all altered image types agreement was poor. There was no significant difference between cytotechnologists and cytopathologists in level of agreement (P = .56). Manipulation of a Papanicolaou test digital image, irrespective of the specific category of cytologic material photographed, significantly affects its interpretation by both cytotechnologists and cytopathologists. This suggests that care needs to be taken when digital cytology images are used, to specifically ensure that their alteration does not affect diagnosis.

  19. Reproducibility of a quantitative cutaneous cytological technique.

    PubMed

    Udenberg, Tyler J; Griffin, Craig E; Rosenkrantz, Wayne S; Ghubash, Rudayna M; Angus, John C; Polissar, Nayak L; Neradilek, Moni B

    2014-10-01

    Cutaneous cytology is a valuable tool for diagnosis of canine superficial pyoderma. Current published reproducible techniques are semiquantitative. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of a quantitative method for skin surface cytology in dogs with superficial pyoderma. Impression smears were collected from five normal dogs and 20 dogs with clinical and cytological evidence of superficial pyoderma. Four investigators evaluated 10 oil immersion fields (OIF) on 25 slides, selecting fields with inflammatory cells, nuclear streaming and or keratinocytes under ×10 magnification. Investigators repeated blinded evaluations of all slides at least twice. For each OIF, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), intracellular (IC) cocci, extracellular (EC) cocci, IC rods, EC rods and yeast were quantified. Nuclear streaming was scored as present or absent. For each parameter, within-reader and between-reader agreements were expressed by the intraclass correlation (ICC) value (≤0.20 poor, 0.21-0.40 fair, 0.41-0.60 moderate, 0.61-0.80 good and 0.81-1.00 excellent) or kappa statistic (κ). Reproducible parameters included: PMNs (ICC = 0.58), nuclear streaming (ICC = 0.68), EC cocci (ICC = 0.64) and IC cocci (ICC = 0.32). When qualified as present or absent, within-reader κ for IC cocci was 0.71. The method demonstrated 93% sensitivity in identifying dogs with superficial pyoderma and 51% specificity in identifying normal dogs according to established criteria. However, if criteria for normal dogs were limited to the absence of PMNs and IC bacteria, sensitivity of 64% and specificity of 98% were demonstrated. For several parameters, including PMNs, nuclear streaming, EC cocci and IC cocci, a reproducible, quantitative cytological technique was identified. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  20. Audit of cytology of upper urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Malta, F; Lenos, M; Leotsakos, I; Katafigiotis, I; Gakiopoulou, H; Constantinides, C; Mikou, P

    2016-10-01

    Cytology is an essential tool for the investigation of urinary tract malignancy. In this audit, we aimed to assess our laboratory performance in the diagnosis of upper urinary tract malignancy and to use the information provided to improve our service. We retrieved cytology reports of upper urinary tract specimens from two periods, re-evaluated the cases, compared the reports with histology data and estimated the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV). In the time interval between the two periods, we adopted new terminology, established better communication with clinicians and gained experience in the field. Finally, the data from the two periods were compared. In phase A, we estimated a sensitivity of 73%, specificity of 86% and PPV of 84.6%. As a result of the cytological re-evaluation, correlation with histology and clinical follow-up, plus communication with the clinicians during the audit, we established new terminology and a new request form. A three tiered grading system of atypia (mild, moderate and severe) was replaced by a two tiered grading system. The first category "atypia probably benign" corresponded to "mild atypia" while the second category "atypia, not otherwise specified" corresponded to "moderate atypia". The cases diagnosed as "severe atypia" were reclassified as "suspicious for malignancy". In phase B, the sensitivity, specificity and PPV were 75%, 89% and 90%, respectively. Our laboratory performance is in concordance with reported data and has been improved through this study. The audit process is extremely valuable for the identification of problems, for taking action and, finally, for the improvement of the clinical cytology service in the field of upper urinary tract malignancy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Endometrial aspiration cytology in gynecological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Meenal V.; Phatke, Anjali S.; Kadgi, Nalini Vinayak; Rane, Sharda R.; Kulkarni, Kalpana K.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Endometrial aspiration is not a popular modality for the study of the endometrium despite its simplicity and potential utility. Aim: The present study was aimed at evaluating the utility of endometrial aspiration in various gynecological disorders. Materials and Methods: In this diagnostic accuracy study, 55 prospectively registered women with various gynecological disorders were evaluated clinically and subjected to endometrial aspiration cytology and study of endometrial histology. Endometrial aspiration was performed by infant feeding tube in 10 cases and intra cath cannula in 45 cases. The slides were stained with rapid Papanicolaou (PAP) stain and Leishman stain. Results: Endometrial aspiration cytology showed 90% and 94.6% sampling adequacy with infant feeding tube and intra cath cannula, respectively. Intra cath cannula was very convenient to handle and superior to infant feeding tube in aspirating the endometrium. Of the two stains used, rapid PAP stain was less time-consuming and superior to Leishman stain in studying the nuclear details. Leishman stain was helpful in detecting cytoplasmic vacuoles of secretory endometrium. Overall diagnostic accuracy of endometrial cytology was 90.4% while that for morphological hormonal evaluation was 97.6%. It enjoyed a sensitivity of 91.66%, a specificity of 88.23%, positive predictive value of 94.28%, and negative predictive value of 83.33%. Conclusion: Intra cath cannula emerged as an inexpensive, effective, and convenient device for endometrial aspiration. Endometrial aspiration proved to be a fairly effective, simple, and informative diagnostic modality. PMID:27011435

  2. Impact of Internet on Cytology Information Management.

    PubMed

    Luić, Ljerka; Molnar, Livia

    2016-01-01

    Internet technologies and services impose global information standards in the sphere of healthcare as a whole, which are then implied and applied in the domain of cytology laboratories. Web-based operations form a significant operating segment of any contemporary cytology laboratory as they enable operations by the use of technology, which is usually free of the restrictions imposed by the traditional way of business (geographic area and narrow localisation of activities). In their operations, almost all healthcare organisations currently create and use electronic data anddocuments, which can originate both inside and outside the organisation. An enormous amount of information thus used and exchanged may be processed timely and in a high-quality way only by integrated information systems, given three basic safety requirements: data confidentiality, integrity and availability. In the Republic of Croatia, integration of private and public healthcare information systems has been ongoing for several years but the private healthcare does not yet operate as an integrated system. Instead, each office operates using its own separate information system, i.e. This paper elaborates the argument that the sample private cytology laboratory possesses an IT system that meets current market and stakeholder needs of the healthcare sector in Croatia, given that private doctors' offices/polyclinics use IT technologies in their operations but make only partial use of Internet capacities in the segment of communication with their business associates and patients, implying the need to continue the research on a statistically relevant sample of EU countries.

  3. Routine Treatment of Cervical Cytological Cell Changes

    PubMed Central

    Huber, J.; Pötsch, B.; Gantschacher, M.; Templ, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Diagnosis and treatment of vaginal and cervical cytological cell changes are described in European and national guidelines. The aim of this data collection was to evaluate the remission rates of PAP III and PAP III D cytological findings in patients over a period of 3–4 months. Method: The current state of affairs in managing suspicious and cytological findings (PAP III, and III D) in gynecological practice was assessed in the context of a data collection survey. An evaluation over a period of 24 months was conducted on preventative measures, the occurrence and changes to normal/suspect/pathological findings and therapy management (for suspicious or pathological findings). Results: 307 female patients were included in the analysis. At the time of the survey 186 patients (60.6 %) had PAP III and 119 (38.8 %) had PAP III D findings. The spontaneous remission rate of untreated PAP III patients was 6 % and that of untreated PAP III D patients was 11 %. The remission rates of patients treated with a vaginal gel were 77 % for PAP III and 71 % for PAP III D. Conclusion: A new treatment option was used in gynecological practice on patients with PAP III and PAP III D findings between confirmation and the next follow-up with excellent success. PMID:27761030

  4. Exposure to ethinyl estradiol prenatally and/or after sexual maturity induces endometriotic and precancerous lesions in uteri and ovaries of mice.

    PubMed

    Koike, Eiji; Yasuda, Yoshiko; Shiota, Mitsuru; Shimaoka, Masao; Tsuritani, Mitsuhiro; Konishi, Hiroyoshi; Yamasaki, Harufumi; Okumoto, Katsumi; Hoshiai, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    Unrecognizable exposure to estrogenic substance may cause estrogen-dependent diseases, endometriosis and cancer. Pregnant mice (ICR/Jcl, CLEA) were exposed to 0.01 mg ethinyl estradiol (EE2 )/kg per day or vehicle (olive oil) through oral intubation from day 11 to 17 of gestation. They delivered their offspring and raised them. When the experimental female F1 mice were at 8 weeks of age, they were not exposed to EE2 or to the same dose of EE2 or to vehicle twice a week until 20 weeks of age. The control female F1 mice were exposed to the same dose of EE2 or vehicle alone, similarly. All mice were killed at 28 weeks of age. The resected uteri and ovaries were processed for microscopic examinations and for determination of the aromatase mRNA levels and aromatase protein through quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Adenomyosis and adenocarcinomatous changes were significantly discernible in the EE2 -exposed uteri, and incidence of ectopic glands and serous cysts were significantly increased in the prenatally EE2 -exposed ovaries as compared with respective controls. Significant upregulation of the aromatase mRNA was seen in the prenatally EE2 -exposed uteri and in the EE2 -exposed ovaries. The aromatase protein was identified in all ovaries examined, and in EE2 -exposed uteri but not in controls and confirmed its localization in eutopic and ectopic glands, abnormally proliferated lesions and the lining of the cysts. Taken together, continuous EE2 exposure may cause endometriotic and precancerous lesions due to excessive estrogen synthesis in both target organs.

  5. Reliability of recording uterine cancer in death certification in France and age-specific proportions of deaths from cervix and corpus uteri.

    PubMed

    Rogel, Agnès; Belot, Aurélien; Suzan, Florence; Bossard, Nadine; Boussac, Marjorie; Arveux, Patrick; Buémi, Antoine; Colonna, Marc; Danzon, Arlette; Ganry, Olivier; Guizard, Anne-Valérie; Grosclaude, Pascale; Velten, Michel; Jougla, Eric; Iwaz, Jean; Estève, Jacques; Chérié-Challine, Laurence; Remontet, Laurent

    2011-06-01

    French uterine cancer recordings in death certificates include 60% of "uterine cancer, Not Otherwise Specified (NOS)"; this hampers the estimation of mortalities from cervix and corpus uteri cancers. The aims of this work were to study the reliability of uterine cancer recordings in death certificates using a case matching with cancer registries and estimate age-specific proportions of deaths from cervix and corpus uteri cancers among all uterine cancer deaths by a statistical approach that uses incidence and survival data. Deaths from uterine cancer between 1989 and 2001 were extracted from the French National database of causes of death and case-to-case matched to women diagnosed with uterine cancer between 1989 and 1997 in 8 cancer registries. Registry data were considered as "gold-standard". Among the 1825 matched deaths, cancer registries recorded 830 cervix and 995 corpus uteri cancers. In death certificates, 5% and 40% of "true" cervix cancers were respectively coded "corpus" and "uterus, NOS" and 5% and 59% of "true" corpus cancers respectively coded "cervix" and "uterus, NOS". Miscoding cervix cancers was more frequent at advanced ages at death and in deaths at home or in small urban areas. Miscoding corpus cancers was more frequent in deaths at home or in small urban areas. From the statistical method, the estimated proportion of deaths from cervix cancer among all uterine cancer deaths was higher than 95% in women aged 30-40 years old but declined to 35% in women older than 70 years. The study clarifies the reason for poor encoding of uterus cancer mortality and refines the estimation of mortalities from cervix and corpus uteri cancers allowing future studies on the efficacy of cervical cancer screening. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Markers of stromal invasion during background and precancerous changes of the glandular epithelium and in adenocarcinoma of the cervix uteri].

    PubMed

    Danilova, N V; Andreeva, Iu Iu; Zavalishina, L É; Mal'kov, P G

    2012-01-01

    It is very difficult to identify stromal invasion when the glandular epithelium of the cervix uteri is involved. It is necessary to draw a clear distinction between its glandular structures and adenocarcinoma in situ, involving the preexisting crypts and invasive glands. An attempt was made to assess the possibilities of using as markers of invasion the following stromal proteins and adhesion molecules: CD44, E-cadherin, beta-catenin, tenascin, and laminin. Fifty-three cases of benign glandular changes, 66 cases of dysplasias and adenocarcinomas in situ, and 47 cases of invasive adenocarcinoma were examined. An immunohistochemical study was performed according to the standard protocol using the antibodies to CD44, laminin, tenascin, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin and a semiquantitative assessment of results was made. CD44 was found to be redistributed from the cells to the tumor stroma. CD44 was not detected in the stroma surrounding the intact glands, so were benign epithelial changes. In the tumor environment, there was, on the contrary, a reaction with CD44 in 74.5% of invasive adenocarcinomas cases (p < 0.05). The expression of tenascin in the invasive adenocarcinomas and around the foci of early stromal invasion significantly exceeded that in the stroma around the intact glands and dysplastic changes (p < 0.05). All the study groups showed a membrane reaction with E-cadherin and beta-catenin, which probably suggested that changes were absent in the Wnt signaling pathway. In 70.2% of invasive adenocarcinomas, laminin demonstrated a significant cytoplasmic expression in 5-30% of the tumor cells predominantly located along the tumor invasion area or in the deepest tumor complexes (p > 0.05). CD44 and tenascin are of great diagnostic value in examining invasive and microinvasive adenocarcinomas of the cervix uteri. E-cadherin and beta-catenin are of no diagnostic value in the study groups of pathological processes. Laminin is a potential marker of stromal invasion

  7. [Differential diagnosis of precancerous and regenerative changes in the epithelium of the cervix uteri, by applying an immunohistochemical study].

    PubMed

    Danilova, N V; Andreeva, Iu Iu; Mal'kov, P G

    2011-01-01

    Precancerous changes in the epithelium of the cervix uteri include low- and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSIL and HGSIL). Morphologically, these must be differentiated, among other conditions, immature squamous metaplasia (ISM) of the cervix uteri. This study involved 119 cases divided into 3 groups: 1) LGSIL (n = 28); 2) HGSIL (n = 56); 3) ISM (n = 35). An immunohistochemical study was conducted using antibodies to p16INK4a, CK17, and Ki-67 according to the standard protocol. Ki-67 expression was mainly low and moderate in 67.9% of cases in the LGSIL group; it was seen in 100% of cases in the HGSIL group, being significant in 73.5%. In the ISM group, Ki-67 was identified in 65.7% of cases, most of which demonstrated a low-to-moderate expression. In the LGSIL group, the expression of p16INK4a was recorded in 46.4% of cases. In the HGSIL group, the reaction was observed in 73.2% of cases; of them 57.2% it was strong. In the ISM group, the reaction was chiefly low in 38.6% of cases. In the LGSIL group, CK17 expression was found in 17.9% of cases. In the HGSIL group, the reaction was recorded in 19.7% of cases, the expression being predominantly low. In the ISM group, the marker was detectable in 88.5% of cases; of them 51.4% showing a high expression. The expressions of p16NK4a and Ki-67 were statistically significantly higher in the HGSIL group (p < 0.05) than those in the LGSIL and ISM groups. On the contrary, the expression of CK1 7 was significantly higher in the ISM group (p < 0.05) than in the HGSIL and LGSIL groups. Thus, evaluation of p16INK4a, Ki-67, and CK17 expressions is a valuable diagnostic tool in the differential diagnosis of HGSIL, LGSIL, and ISM.

  8. [Why is cytology a profession (branch), not a method? Ten rules for success of the cytology profession].

    PubMed

    Kardum-Skelin, Ika

    2011-09-01

    Clinical cytology is an interdisciplinary medical diagnostic profession that integrates clinical, laboratory and analytical fields along with final cytologist's expert opinion. Cytology involves nonaggressive, minimally invasive and simple for use procedures that are fully acceptable for the patient. Cytology offers rapid orientation, while in combination with additional technologies on cytologic smear analysis (cytochemistry, immunocytochemistry for cell marker analysis, computer image analysis) or sophisticated methods on cytologic samples (flow cytometry, molecular and cytogenetic analysis) it plays a major role in the diagnosis, subtyping and prognosis of malignant tumors. Ten rules for successful performance in cytology are as follows: 1) due knowledge of overall cytology (general cytologist); 2) inclusion in all stages of cytologic sample manipulation from sampling through reporting; 3) due knowledge of additional technologies to provide appropriate interpretation and/or rational advice in dubious cases; 4) to preserve dignity of the profession because every profession has its advantages, shortcomings and limitations; 5) to insist on quality control of the performance, individual cytologists and cytology team; 6) knowledge transfer to young professionals; 7) assisting fellow professionals in dubious cases irrespective of the time needed and fee because it implies helping the patient and the profession itself; 8) experience exchange with other related professionals to upgrade mutual understanding; 9) to prefer the interest of the profession over one's own interest; and 10) to love cytology.

  9. Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from the Uteri Horn, Mouth, and Rectum of Bitches Suffering from Pyometra: Virulence Factors, Antimicrobial Susceptibilities, and Clonal Relationships among Strains

    PubMed Central

    Agostinho, Juliana M. A.; de Souza, Andressa; Schocken-Iturrino, Ruben P.; Beraldo, Lívia G.; Borges, Clarissa A.; Ávila, Fernando A.; Marin, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch, and Escherichia coli is the major pathogen associated with this disease. In this study, 70 E. coli isolates from the uteri horn, mouth, and rectum of bitches suffering from the disease and 43 E. coli isolates from the rectum of clinically healthy bitches were examined for the presence of uropathogenic virulence genes and susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. DNA profiles of isolates from uteri horn and mouth in bitches with pyometra were compared by REP, ERIC, and BOX-PCR. Virulence gene frequencies detected in isolates from canine pyometra were as follows: 95.7% fim, 27.1% iss, 25.7% hly, 18.5% iuc, and 17.1% usp. Predominant resistance was determined for cephalothin, ampicillin, and nalidixic acid among the isolates from all sites examined. Multidrug resistance was found on ∼50% pyometra isolates. Using the genotypic methods some isolates from uteri, pus, and saliva of the same bitch proved to have identical DNA profiles which is a reason for concern due to the close relationship between household pets and humans. PMID:24734047

  10. Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from the Uteri Horn, Mouth, and Rectum of Bitches Suffering from Pyometra: Virulence Factors, Antimicrobial Susceptibilities, and Clonal Relationships among Strains.

    PubMed

    Agostinho, Juliana M A; de Souza, Andressa; Schocken-Iturrino, Ruben P; Beraldo, Lívia G; Borges, Clarissa A; Avila, Fernando A; Marin, José M

    2014-01-01

    Pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch, and Escherichia coli is the major pathogen associated with this disease. In this study, 70 E. coli isolates from the uteri horn, mouth, and rectum of bitches suffering from the disease and 43 E. coli isolates from the rectum of clinically healthy bitches were examined for the presence of uropathogenic virulence genes and susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. DNA profiles of isolates from uteri horn and mouth in bitches with pyometra were compared by REP, ERIC, and BOX-PCR. Virulence gene frequencies detected in isolates from canine pyometra were as follows: 95.7% fim, 27.1% iss, 25.7% hly, 18.5% iuc, and 17.1% usp. Predominant resistance was determined for cephalothin, ampicillin, and nalidixic acid among the isolates from all sites examined. Multidrug resistance was found on ∼ 50% pyometra isolates. Using the genotypic methods some isolates from uteri, pus, and saliva of the same bitch proved to have identical DNA profiles which is a reason for concern due to the close relationship between household pets and humans.

  11. Diagnosis of pediatric neuroblastoma by urine cytology: A case report.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Shiori; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Tokumitsu, Takako; Ohno, Akinobu; Moriguchi-Goto, Sayaka; Maekawa, Kazunari; Asada, Yujiro; Moritake, Hiroshi; Kinoshita, Mariko; Yamada, Ai; Takamura, Kazunari; Sato, Yuichiro

    2017-10-06

    Neuroblastomas are embryonal tumors arising from the neuronal crest cells of the synaptic nervous system. Findings from aspiration cytology have been reported, but there have been no reports of urine cytology findings. Here, we report a case of pediatric neuroblastoma characterized by urine cytology. A 2-year-old boy presented with abdominal pain, nausea, and loss of appetite. Computed tomography revealed a large tumor in the left suprarenal region with massive infiltration into the kidney. Urinary cytology showed highly cellular clusters composed of small, round, atypical cells with little cytoplasm and high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio; nuclear molding was also noted in some places. Immunocytochemical staining was positive for synaptophysin and chromogranin A, and neuroblastoma was suggested by urine cytology. A biopsy of the left adrenal tumor later confirmed a diagnosis of poorly differentiated neuroblastoma. Urine cytology may be useful for rapid diagnosis and management of similar cases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Atypical squamous epithelium in cytologic specimens from the pancreas: cytological differential diagnosis and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Layfield, L J; Cramer, H; Madden, J; Gopez, E V; Liu, K

    2001-07-01

    Atypical squamous epithelium is an uncommon finding in cytologic specimens obtained from pancreatic lesions. A variety of pathologic conditions can result in the presence of these cells, including primary or metastatic carcinomas, chronic pancreatitis, and squamous metaplasia related to pancreatic or biliary duct stent placement. Primary adenosquamous and squamous-cell carcinomas of the pancreas are rare, representing 3.4% and 1.4 % of pancreatic carcinomas, respectively. Cytologic separation of these malignancies from less ominous metaplasias has immense clinical importance. We reviewed Indiana University Hospital's and Duke University's experiences with atypical squamous epithelium occurring within pancreatic aspirates. Study cases were identified using a computer to search the cytology records of these two institutions. Nine cases with a diagnosis of squamous-cell carcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, or atypical squamous epithelium were retrieved from the two institutions' Department of Pathology files. One case of pure squamous-cell carcinoma occurred in a patient with a known pulmonary primary; a single case of adenosquamous carcinoma was diagnosed in a patient with a coexistent endometrial primary; a single sample of adenocarcinoma with squamous differentiation was diagnosed in a patient without other known disease; and four primary squamous-cell carcinomas of the pancreas were detected. In addition, a single case of atypical squamous metaplasia associated with a stent was identified, and one case of atypical squamous epithelium associated with chronic pancreatitis was diagnosed. Despite the reactive atypia present in the examples of metaplastic squamous epithelium, separation of these cases from true squamous-cell carcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma was achievable by cytologic evaluation. No cytologic criteria aided in separating primary pancreatic carcinomas with squamous differentiation from metastatic lesions. In this study, we report our findings in a

  13. Microfilaria in pleural fluid cytology: A rare finding

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Subrata; Bose, Kingshuk; Sharma, Abhishek; Sikder, Mrinal

    2017-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is endemic in India and Southeast Asia. Detection of microfilaria is infrequently reported during cytological evaluation of various lesions or body cavity fluids. Presence of microfilaria in pleural fluid cytology is very rare finding even in endemic areas. Few cases of accidental finding of microfilaria have been reported in association with malignant pleural effusion. But pleural effusion of filarial origin is extremely rare manifestation. Here we report a classical case of microfilaria in pleural fluid cytology. PMID:28367033

  14. Preparation of Cytology Samples: Tricks of the Trade.

    PubMed

    Moore, A Russell

    2017-01-01

    General principles and techniques for collection, preparation, and staining of cytologic samples in the general practice setting are reviewed. Tips for collection of digital images are also discussed.

  15. The perceived and actual diagnostic utility of veterinary cytological samples.

    PubMed

    Skeldon, N; Dewhurst, E

    2009-04-01

    To establish the proportion of cytology samples sent to a commercial veterinary laboratory that yields diagnostically useful information in the context of current use and perceptions of cytology. Nine hundred and forty-five cytology submissions were retrospectively collected and categorised according to diagnostic utility. A survey into the use and perceptions of cytology was distributed at the British Small Animal Veterinary Association Congress 2008. A specific diagnosis was reached in 23.1 per cent of samples and a cytological diagnosis in 35.3 per cent. 22.4 per cent of samples yielded some useful information, but 19.2 per cent were unacceptable. Seventy-four participants in the survey took an average of 3.9 cytological samples per week, of which they examined 27.0 per cent in-house only, 21.6 per cent in-house before sending to an external laboratory and 51.4 per cent were sent externally without prior examination. "To obtain a definitive diagnosis" was the principal reason cited for performing cytology. Results suggest that cytology is underused and may be applied in an inappropriate context in the UK. It is hoped that illustrating the diagnostic outcome of samples received by a commercial laboratory will encourage increased, appropriate use of cytology.

  16. Comparison of two preparatory techniques for urine cytology.

    PubMed Central

    Dhundee, J; Rigby, H S

    1990-01-01

    Two methods of preparation of urine for cytology were compared retrospectively. In method 1 cells in the urine were fixed after the preparation of the smear; in method 2 the cells were fixed before smear preparation. Urine cytology reports were correlated with subsequent histological analysis. The specificities of urine cytology using both methods were high (99%). The sensitivity using method 1 was 87%; using method 2 it was 65%. This difference was significant. The cell preparation technique therefore significantly changes the sensitivity of urine cytology. Cellular fixation after smear preparation is preferable to smear preparation after fixation. PMID:2266176

  17. Advanced Cytologic Techniques for the Detection of Malignant Pancreatobiliary Strictures

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Luna, Laura E.; Kipp, Benjamin; Halling, Kevin C.; Sebo, Thomas J.; Kremers., Walter K.; Roberts, Lewis R.; Barr Fritcher, Emily G.; Levy, Michael J.; Gores, Gregory J.

    2006-01-01

    Background & Aims Two advanced cytologic techniques for detecting aneuploidy, digital image analysis (DIA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) have recently been developed to help identify malignant pancreatobiliary strictures. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical utility of cytology, DIA, and FISH for the identification of malignant pancreatobiliary strictures. Methods Brush cytologic specimens from 233 consecutive patients undergoing ERCP for pancreatobiliary strictures were examined by all three techniques. Strictures were stratified as proximal (n=33) or distal (n=114) based on whether they occurred above or below the cystic duct, respectively. Strictures in patients with PSC (n=86) were analyzed separately. Results Despite the stratification, the performances of the tests were similar. Routine cytology has a low sensitivity (5–20%) but 100% specificity. Because of the high specificity for cytology, we assessed the performance of the other tests when routine cytology was negative. In this clinical context, FISH had an increased sensitivity (35–60%) when assessing for chromosomal gains (polysomy) while preserving the specificity of cytology. The sensitivity and specificity of DIA was intermediate as compared to routine cytology and FISH, but was additive to FISH values demonstrating only trisomy of chromosome 7 or chromosome 3. Conclusions These findings suggest that FISH and DIA increase the sensitivity for the diagnosis of malignant pancreatobiliary tract strictures over that obtained by conventional cytology while maintaining an acceptable specificity. PMID:17030177

  18. Fine needle aspiration cytology of thymic carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Wang, D Y; Kuo, S H; Chang, D B; Yang, P C; Lee, Y C; Hsu, H C; Luh, K T

    1995-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors of the thymus are very rare, and their cytologic findings have not been reported previously in English. Retrospective study of fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic features in four histopathologically verified thymic carcinoid tumors are described here in detail. The FNA cytology of thymic carcinoids is characterized by predominantly single and some loose clusters of small, round to oval cells with scanty cytoplasm, interspersed with some larger cells with moderate to abundant, granular cytoplasm. The differential diagnosis of the cytologic features between carcinoid tumor and other mediastinal tumors is also discussed.

  19. Primary anorectal mucosal melanoma detected by anorectal cytology.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ryan Paul; Chiaffarano, Jeanine; Alexander, Melissa; Octavius, Jolene; Azar, Omar; Shi, Yan; Yee-Chang, Melissa

    2017-05-01

    The detection of primary anorectal melanoma on anal cytology is a rare and challenging diagnosis. We report a case where anorectal cytology showed isolated malignant cells with oval nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and elongated wispy cytoplasmic projections. There was no evidence of squamous dysplasia or melanin pigment identified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a primary anorectal melanoma detected in anorectal cytology. Detection of malignancies other than squamous cell carcinoma can be seen on anorectal cytology and should be considered when there is no evidence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:452-455. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Abnormal cervicovaginal cytology in women with rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Mercado, Ulises

    2010-02-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk of infections and cancer. A link between RA and abnormal cervicovaginal cytology has rarely been reported. The aim of this study was to review cervicovaginal cytology results in women with RA and compare them with a control population. Sexual behavior also was investigated. Cervicovaginal cytology results of 95 women with RA were compared to those of a control population of 1,719 women attending at the same hospital and followed until June 2009. Records of RA patients were reviewed to obtain clinical data, particularly sexual behavior. Of 95 RA patients, 13/95 had an abnormal cervicovaginal cytology result, compared with 120/1,719 controls. Twelve/13 had squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL), compared with 27/120 controls. There was no significant difference in sexual partners between women with RA and controls. Women with RA without abnormal cervicovaginal cytology had less sexual partners than those with RA and abnormal cytology. Two women with RA and abnormal cervicovaginal cytology had a history of condylomata and herpes genital. Three/13 women with RA developed abnormal cervicovaginal cytology after 12 to 36 months initiating their illness. None from them had ever received immunosuppressants. Women with RA have an increased prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology, compared with a control population. It may be related to chronic inflammatory disease and sexual behavior.

  1. Glutathione S-transferase (placental) as a marker of transformation in the human cervix uteri: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Randall, B. J.; Angus, B.; Akiba, R.; Hall, A.; Cattan, A. R.; Proctor, S. J.; Jones, R. A.; Horne, C. H.

    1990-01-01

    Using an indirect immunohistochemical technique on paraffin sections, employing a polyclonal antibody to the acidic (placental) form of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), we have evaluated cytoplasmic and nuclear staining in a series of 67 cervical biopsies including normal non neoplastic tissue, immature squamous metaplasia, all grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and invasive carcinomas of keratinising and non-keratinising types. No differences in cytoplasmic staining between the varied lesions studied were seen. However, there were marked differences in nuclear staining. While normal non-neoplastic stratified squamous epithelium showed weak staining of the lower one-third of the epithelium only, in immature squamous metaplasia and in all grades of CIN there was intense nuclear staining in all layers of the epithelium. Invasive carcinomas showed generally less intense nuclear staining than CIN lesions. Endocervical cell nuclei also showed intense nuclear staining. These findings indicate that GST is of limited use as a marker of transformation in the human cervix uteri. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2223578

  2. External Beam Boost for Cancer of the Cervix Uteri When Intracavitary Therapy Cannot Be Performed

    SciTech Connect

    Barraclough, Lisa Helen Swindell, Ric; Livsey, Jacqueline E.; Hunter, Robin D.; Davidson, Susan E.

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To assess the outcome of patients treated with radical radiotherapy for cervical cancer who received an external beam boost, in place of intracavitary brachytherapy (ICT), after irradiation to the whole pelvis. Methods and Materials: Case notes were reviewed for all patients treated in this way in a single center between 1996 and 2004. Patient and tumor details, the reasons why ICT was not possible, and treatment outcome were documented. Results: Forty-four patients were identified. The mean age was 56.4 years (range, 26-88 years). Clinical International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics or radiologic stage for Stages I, II, III, and IV, respectively, was 16%, 48%, 27%, and 7%. A total radiation dose of 54-70 Gy was given (75% received {>=}60 Gy). Reasons for ICT not being performed were technical limitations in 73%, comorbidity or isolation limitations in 23%, and patient choice in 4%. The median follow-up was 2.3 years. Recurrent disease was seen in 48%, with a median time to recurrence of 2.3 years. Central recurrence was seen in 16 of the 21 patients with recurrent disease. The 5-year overall survival rate was 49.3%. The 3-year cancer-specific survival rate by stage was 100%, 70%, and 42% for Stages I, II, and III, respectively. Late Grades 1 and 2 bowel, bladder, and vaginal toxicity were seen in 41%. Late Grade 3 toxicity was seen in 2%. Conclusion: An external beam boost is a reasonable option after external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis when it is not possible to perform ICT.

  3. Cytological evaluation and significance of cell cannibalism in effusions and urine cytology.

    PubMed

    Ahmed Wani, Farooq; Bhardwaj, Subhash

    2015-12-01

    Cell cannibalism is believed to be an indicator of high-grade aggressive cancers with increased metastatic potential. It denotes both anaplastic grade and invasiveness and is valuable in assessing tumor behavior. The present study was a 2-year retrospective and 1-year prospective study conducted in the Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Jammu. PAP and MGG stained smears of effusions and urinary cytology were evaluated for cannibalism. Cannibalism was assessed by parameters like cellularity of cannibalism, diameter of cannibalistic cells, chromatin pattern and background of the smears. Of 350 cases evaluated, 260 (74.2%) were benign and 90 (25.8%) were malignant. Cannibalism was absent in all benign cases. Cannibalism was present in 14 ascitic fluids, 7 pleural fluids, 1 pericardial fluid and 3 cases of urine cytology. Comparison of distribution of cannibalism in effusions and urine did not yield statistically significant result (X2=0.8678 and p>0.05). Comparison of other parameters between effusions and urine samples also did not yield significant results. We conclude that cytological parameters of cellular cannibalism are better observed in malignant effusions than in urine cytology but did not reach statistical significance. Cannibalism can be assessed morphologically in malignant body fluids and is an indicator of increased tumour growth.

  4. Overall accuracy of cervical cytology and clinicopathological significance of LSIL cells in ASC-H cytology.

    PubMed

    Kim, S H; Lee, J M; Yun, H G; Park, U S; Hwang, S U; Pyo, J-S; Sohn, J H

    2017-02-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of Papanicolaou (Pap) smears and (ii) to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of the presence of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) cells in atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) (ASC-H) cytology. We retrospectively reviewed paired cytological and histological findings from 3141 patients. ASC-H cytology was classified as either ASC-H or LSIL with some features suggestive of the presence of a concurrent HSIL (LSIL-H). Clinicopathological characteristics were evaluated through a retrospective study and meta-analysis. The accuracy of the cytological diagnosis was 93.7% (2942 of 3141 cases). The positive predictive value (PPV) of ASC-H for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN 2+ ) was 51.4%. In cases of LSIL-H, CIN 2+ histology was more prevalent in the pre-menopausal period (19-44 years) than in peri- and postmenopausal periods (older than 45 years) (P = 0.024). There was no difference in the ability of LSIL-H and ASC-H to predict CIN 2+. The Pap smear is a good cervical cancer screening method. Although there was no difference in the predictive value for CIN 2+ between LSIL-H and ASC-H, the presence of definite LSIL cells was more predictive of CIN 2+ in younger patients than in older patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. How technology is reshaping the practice of nongynecologic cytology: frontiers of cytology symposium.

    PubMed

    Bibbo, Marluce

    2007-01-01

    To pay tribute to the Founders of Acta Cytologica, this Golden Anniversary symposium on nongynecologic cytology revives the written symposium style of the 1950s. Participants from countries throughout the world were asked how new technologies are currently applied in their laboratories and whether future advances and challenges can be predicted. The specific questions and the participants' answers follow.

  6. Raman spectroscopy and oral exfoliative cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Aditi; Shah, Nupur; Mahimkar, Manoj; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Nair, Sudhir; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Early detection of oral cancers can substantially improve disease-free survival rates. Ex vivo and in vivo Raman spectroscopic (RS) studies on oral cancer have demonstrated the applicability of RS in identifying not only malignant and premalignant conditions but also cancer-field-effects: the earliest events in oral carcinogenesis. RS has also been explored for cervical exfoliated cells analysis. Exfoliated cells are associated with several advantages like non-invasive sampling, higher patient compliance, transportation and analysis at a central facility: obviating need for on-site instrumentation. Thus, oral exfoliative cytology coupled with RS may serve as a useful adjunct for oral cancer screening. In this study, exfoliated cells from healthy controls with and without tobacco habits, premalignant lesions (leukoplakia and tobacco-pouch-keratosis) and their contralateral mucosa were collected using a Cytobrush. Cells were harvested by vortexing and centrifugation at 6000 rpm. The cellular yield was ascertained using Neubauer's chamber. Cell pellets were placed on a CaF2 window and Raman spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe (40X objective) coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Approximately 7 spectra were recorded from each pellet, following which pellet was smeared onto a glass slide, fixed in 95% ethanol and subjected to Pap staining for cytological diagnosis (gold standard). Preliminary PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out cross validation indicate delineation of cells from healthy and all pathological conditions. A tendency of classification was also seen between cells from contralateral, healthy tobacco and site of premalignant lesions. These results will be validated by cytological findings, which will serve as the basis for building standard models of each condition.

  7. [Clinical importance of thyroid gland cytology].

    PubMed

    Ting, S; Synoracki, S; Bockisch, A; Führer, D; Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The cytological evaluation of fine needle biopsies (FNB) of the thyroid gland crucially depends on a close cooperation between clinicians and cytopathologists. Scintigraphy, sonography as well as clinical data and patient history are necessary for a correct interpretation of the indications for FNB; moreover, these data are of outstanding importance for cytopathologists for the correct interpretation of the cytomorphological findings. This overview describes the present standards in the acquisition, technical workup and cytopathological interpretation of thyroid gland tissue obtained by FNB, particularly focusing on the rapidly growing relevance of additional molecular pathological investigations to increase the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid FNB.

  8. Urine Cytology: Collection, Film Preparation, and Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Vap, Linda M; Shropshire, Sarah B

    2017-01-01

    Cytologic examination of the urine sediment in animals suspected of having urinary tract disease or lower urinary tract masses is one of the best means of distinguishing inflammation, infection, and neoplasia and can help determine if a positive dipstick result for hemoglobin/blood is due to hemorrhage or blood contamination. The quality of the specimen collection and handling plays an important role in the quality of results, the validity of interpretations, and selection of appropriate course of action. The method of sample collection aids localization of pathology. Air dry but do not heat fix, freeze, or expose films to formalin fumes, temperature extremes, or condensation.

  9. Effectiveness of histology and cytology on musculoskeletal tumor diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Pablo Moura de Andrade; Oliveira, Marcelo Parente; Ferreira, George Rocha; Lima, Túlio Paes de Medeiros; Lima, Jairo de Andrade; de Mello, Roberto José Vieira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare cytology and histology on the diagnosis of musculoskeletal neoplasms. METHOD: Fifty eight cases available to evaluation were analyzed both by cytology and histology. The results of the biopsies studied by histology and cytology were compared to the results obtained on the surgical specimen or immunohistochemistry. We determined the percentage of correct results, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy of each method. RESULTS: Twelve per cent of biopsies were inconclusive by cytology. The percentage of correct diagnosis was 70.7% and 81% (p=.179), the ability to differentiate benign lesions from malignant ones was 84.5% and 93.1% (p=0.18) respectively, for cytology and histology. Cytology showed sensitivity of 87.8%, specificity of 76.5%, positive predictive value of 90%, negative predictive value of 72% and accuracy 84.5%. Histology showed sensitivity of 90.2%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, negative predictive value of 81% and accuracy of 93.1%. The Youden index for cytology was 64.3% and for histology it was 90.2%. CONCLUSION: Despite promising, cytology obtained by thin needle aspiration is less accurate and reliable than the histological evaluation on musculoskeletal tumors diagnosis. Level of Evidence II, Diagnostic Studies. PMID:25061418

  10. Evaluation of abnormal cervical cytology during pregnancy with colposcopy.

    PubMed

    Ostergard, D R; Nieberg, R K

    1979-08-01

    During a 6 1/2 year study period the authors used colposcopy to evaluate 174 pregnant patients with abnormal cervical cytology. The technique of colposcopy proved safe, accurate, and effective in determining the presence or absence of cervical cancer in the present patient's cervix. Colposcopy is mandatory for the evaluation of abnormal cervical cytology during pregancy.

  11. Evaluation of the cytologic diagnosis of canine prostatic disorders.

    PubMed

    Powe, Joshua R; Canfield, Paul J; Martin, Patricia A

    2004-01-01

    Canine prostatic disease is commonly investigated using cytologic techniques, especially now that ultrasound-guided fine needle cell aspiration (US-FNA) is widely available. Few studies, however, have evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of prostatic cytology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of cytologic investigation of prostatic disease using US-FNA and other methods in comparison with histopathologic diagnosis. Cytologic and histopathologic specimens of prostate or paraprostatic tissue from 25 adult dogs were retrospectively evaluated. Cytologic samples were obtained by US-FNA, prostatic massage, or direct impression smears or aspirates of tissue at surgery. Histopathologic sections were obtained from tissue collected by biopsy or at necropsy. Cytologic diagnoses were categorized as nondiagnostic (n = 2); cyst (n = 1); squamous metaplasia (n = 2); inflammation (n = 4); benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH; n = 5); inflammation and BPH (n = 3); inflammation, BPH, and neoplasia (n = 1); inflammation and neoplasia (n = 3); and neoplasia (n = 4). Cytologic diagnoses agreed with final histologic diagnoses in 20 of the 25 cases (80%). Of those samples collected by US-FNA, 75% were concordant. Four samples obtained by US-FNA and 1 sample obtained by prostatic massage and wash had discordant results. The results of this study suggest strong agreement between cytologic and histopathologic diagnoses for prostatic conditions. Discordance in results obtained by US-FNA usually was the result of the pathologic process rather than a failure to obtain an appropriate sample.

  12. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493... Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Participation...

  13. Hypercalcitoninemia and thyroid nodules: when cytology (still) matters.

    PubMed

    Giovanella, Luca; Giugliano, Gioacchino; Maffini, Fausto A; Chiesa, Fausto; Bongiovanni, Massimo

    2014-11-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) can assume various cytomorphological and architectural forms, mimicking other thyroid and extra-thyroid tumors and rendering the cytological and histological diagnosis challenging. Consequently, measurement of calcitonin (CT) levels is generally considered to be more accurate than cytology in diagnosing MTC. Here, we report on a patient with a multinodular goiter and significantly elevated basal CT levels; based on cytology examination and CT immunocytostains, neither MTC nor C-cell hyperplasia was detected upon final histopathological examination. CT testing has a high false-positive rate and low positive predictive value for detecting clinically relevant MTC. Judicious integration of cytological examination with immunocytochemical stains (when needed) may be useful for selecting the most appropriate therapy and avoiding overtreatment (i.e., central neck lymph node dissection in the present case). This case demonstrates that cytological examination with ancillary techniques is still valuable in patients with thyroid nodules and suspicious MTC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Cytology of bone lesions by intraoperative sampling during fracture treatment.

    PubMed

    Kinias, Ioannis S; Rammou-Kinia, Rea

    2002-03-01

    Cytology was performed on 314 patients who were treated by surgery for hip joint fracture, to determine and evaluate the role, accuracy, and perspective of intraoperative bone sampling. Specimens were collected from bone lesions during surgery by imprints or driller washing in normal saline. The results were compared with those of subsequent biopsies or clinical follow-up. All 13 neoplastic cases (malignant or benign) were identified by cytology. An accuracy rate of 69.2% was achieved by this method when the type and origin of the neoplasms were to be conclusive. There were no false-positive diagnoses, and all benign conditions showed negative results on cytology (specificity and sensitivity of 100%). Cytology can play a valuable role in the diagnosis of bone lesions. The morphologic diagnostic criteria allow for a high level of diagnostic accuracy of cytologic assessments in most cases of bone lesions, no matter the sampling technique.

  15. Cytological analysis of ginseng carpel development.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jeniffer; Kim, Yu-Jin; Xiao, Dexin; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Hu, Tingting; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Hu, Jianping; Yang, Deok-Chun; Zhang, Dabing

    2017-02-02

    Panax ginseng Meyer, commonly known as ginseng, is considered one of the most important herbs with pharmaceutical values due to the presence of ginsenosides and is cultivated for its highly valued root for medicinal purposes. Recently, it has been recognized that ginseng fruit contains high contents of triterpene such as ginsenoside Re as pharmaceutical compounds. However, it is unclear how carpel, the female reproductive tissue of flowers, is formed during the three-year-old growth before fruit is formed in ginseng plants. Here, we report P. ginseng carpel development at the cytological level, starting from the initial stage of ovule development to seed development. The carpel of P. ginseng is composed of two free stigmas, two free styles, and one epigynous bilocular ovary containing one ovule in each locule. Based on our cytological study, we propose that the female reproductive development in P. ginseng can be classified into seven stages: early phase of ovule development, megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis, pre-fertilization, fertilization, post-fertilization, and seed development. We also describe the correlation of the female and male gametophyte development and compare morphological differences in carpel development between ginseng and other higher plants. One unique feature for ginseng seed development is that it takes 40 days for the embryo to develop to the early torpedo stage and that the embryo is small relative to the seed size, which could be a feature of taxonomic importance. This study will provide an integral tool for the study of the reproductive development and breeding of P. ginseng.

  16. Cytology of the canine reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Wright, P J; Parry, B W

    1989-09-01

    The methods for semen collection, its laboratory examination, and the interpretation of findings are presented in this article. The lack of comprehensive data for normal dogs and the lack of data associating actual percentages of spermatozoa with specific abnormalities with fertility or infertility are highlighted. Consequently, there is a need for standardization and completeness of semen examination procedures, especially in studies destined for publication. Collection and analysis of prostatic samples then is discussed, and the distinguishing cytological features of benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatic adenocarcinoma, prostatis (including prostatic abscessation), and prostatic cysts are presented. This is followed by an assessment of the clinical usefulness of vaginal cytology, particularly to assist in the management of normal canine reproduction and in the diagnosis of reproductive disorders. The ways in which vaginal smears can facilitate the diagnosis of the stage of the estrous cycle and the diagnosis of abnormalities of the cycle and other disorders of reproduction are presented. Further consideration is given to its use to estimate the time of ovulation retrospectively and estimate the time of whelping prospectively. Finally, two specific diseases that can affect dogs and bitches are reviewed, namely, canine brucellosis and transmissible venereal tumor.

  17. Testosterone Induces Increase in Aquaporin (AQP)-1, 5, and 7 Expressions in the Uteri of Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Salleh, Naguib; Mokhtar, Helmy Mohd; Kassim, Normadiah M; Giribabu, Nelli

    2015-12-01

    Testosterone has been reported to cause a decrease in uterine fluid volume in which this could involve the aquaporins (AQPs). This study aimed to investigate effect of testosterone on uterine AQP-1, 5, and 7 expressions in order to explain the reported reduction in uterine fluid volume under testosterone influence. Ovariectomized adult female rats received peanut oil, testosterone (1 mg/kg/day), estrogen (0.2 µg/kg/day), or combined estrogen plus testosterone for three consecutive days. Other groups received 3 days estrogen followed by 2 days either peanut oil or testosterone with or without flutamide or finasteride. A day after last injection, uteri were harvested, and the levels of AQP-1, 5, and 7 messenger RNA (mRNA) in uterine tissue homogenates were analyzed by real-time PCR (qPCR). Distributions of AQP-1, 5, and 7 proteins in uterus were observed by immunofluorescence. Levels of AQP-1 mRNA were elevated in rats receiving either estrogen or testosterone-only treatment; however, levels of AQP-5 and 7 mRNAs were elevated in rats receiving testosterone-only treatment. In rats pre-treated with estrogen, testosterone treatment resulted in higher AQP-1, 5, and 7 mRNA levels compared to vehicle treatment. Testosterone effects were antagonized by flutamide but not finasteride. Immunofluorescence study showed that AQP-1 was highly distributed in uterine lumenal epithelium following estrogen or testosterone-only treatment. However, AQP-5 and 7 distributions were high in uterine lumenal epithelium following testosterone-only treatment. Testosterone-induced up-regulation of AQP-1, 5, and 7 expressions in uterus could explain the observed reduction in uterine fluid volume as reported under this condition.

  18. Galectin 15 (LGALS15): a gene uniquely expressed in the uteri of sheep and goats that functions in trophoblast attachment.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Shaye K; Farmer, Jennifer L; Burghardt, Robert C; Newton, Gary R; Johnson, Greg A; Adelson, David L; Bazer, Fuller W; Spencer, Thomas E

    2007-12-01

    Galectins are a family of secreted animal lectins with biological roles in cell adhesion and migration. In sheep, galectin 15 (LGALS15) is expressed specifically in the endometrial luminal (LE) and superficial glandular (sGE) epithelia of the uterus in concert with blastocyst elongation during the peri-implantation period. The present study examined LGALS15 expression in the uterus of cattle, goats, and pigs. Although the bovine genome contains an LGALS15-like gene, expressed sequence tags encoding LGALS15 mRNA were found only for sheep, and full-length LGALS15 cDNAs were cloned only from endometrial total RNA isolated from pregnant sheep and goats, but not pregnant cattle or pigs. Ovine and caprine LGALS15 were highly homologous at the mRNA (95%) and protein (91%) levels, and all contained a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain and RGD recognition sequence for integrin binding. Endometrial LGALS15 mRNA levels increased after Day 11 of both the estrous cycle and pregnancy, and were considerably increased after Day 15 of pregnancy in goats. In situ hybridization detected abundant LGALS15 mRNA in endometrial LE and sGE of early pregnant goats, but not in cattle or pigs. Immunoreactive LGALS15 protein was present in endometrial epithelia and conceptus trophectoderm of goat uteri and detected within intracellular crystal structures in trophectoderm and LE. Recombinant ovine and caprine LGALS15 proteins elicited a dose-dependent increase in ovine trophectoderm cell attachment in vitro that was comparable to bovine fibronectin. These results support the hypothesis that LGALS15 is uniquely expressed in Caprinae endometria and functions as an attachment factor important for peri-implantation blastocyst elongation.

  19. Usefulness of lavage cytology during endoscopic transpapillary catheterization into the gallbladder in the cytological diagnosis of gallbladder disease.

    PubMed

    Naito, Yoshiki; Okabe, Yoshinobu; Kawahara, Akihiko; Taira, Tomoki; Isida, Yusuke; Kaji, Ryouhei; Sata, Michio; Ureshino, Hiroki; Mikagi, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Hisafumi; Yasumoto, Makiko; Kusano, Hironori; Kage, Masayoshi; Yano, Hirohisa

    2009-06-01

    Many studies have reported methods of cell collection involving percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage (PTCD) and fine-needle aspiration cytology for the diagnosis of gallbladder disease. However, few studies have described the use of a transpapillary approach, i.e., endoscopic transpapillary catheterization into the gallbladder (ETCG). In this study, we analyzed cells collected by ETCG to evaluate its usefulness in the cytological diagnosis of gallbladder disease. The subjects were 19 patients who had undergone ETCG for the diagnosis of gallbladder disease. Of these patients, 11 and 8 had gallbladder cancer and benign gallbladder disease, respectively. We also evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of PTCD cytology performed in 15 patients with gallbladder cancer.Specimens were cytologically diagnosed as normal or benign, indeterminate, suspected malignancy, malignant, and inadequate in 47% (9/19), 11% (2/19), 0% (0/19), 37% (7/19), and 5% (1/19) of patients, respectively. Specimens were diagnosed as malignant, indeterminate, normal or benign, and inadequate in 7, 2, 1, and 1, respectively, of the 11 patients diagnosed with gallbladder cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of ETCG cytology were 78 and 100%, respectively, whereas the diagnostic accuracy of PTCD cytology was 20% (3/15). None of the patients developed complications of ETCG. Despite its technical difficulty, ETCG for bile cytology allows the collection of adequate cell numbers from patients with benign disease or gallbladder cancer and facilitates a cytological diagnosis, making it a useful method for collecting cells. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Impression cytology: a novel sampling technique for conjunctival cytology of the feline eye.

    PubMed

    Eördögh, Réka; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Tichy, Alexander; Nell, Barbara

    2015-07-01

    Impression cytology is a noninvasive investigation of the ocular surface. It uses the adhesive features of different filter papers to collect a monolayer of epithelial cells from the cornea and/or conjunctiva. Samples obtained by impression cytology exhibit all characteristics of an ideal cytology specimen. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of impression cytology and determine the most appropriate filter paper to achieve maximum diagnostic value of the feline eye. Ten healthy cats. The study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, eight different filter papers (FPs) with various pore sizes were tested: 3.0-, 1.2-, 0.8-, 0.45-, 0.22-, 0.05- and 0.025-μm cellulose acetate papers and a 0.4-μm Biopore membrane (BM). Samples were obtained from the superior bulbar and from the inferior palpebral conjunctiva. In the second phase, three different sampling methods - with and without topical anesthesia, and with topical anesthesia and drying of the conjunctiva - were compared employing the BM encased in the intended BM device (BMD). Samples were evaluated for cellularity and quality of cells. In the first phase, samples obtained from the superior bulbar conjunctiva with the BM had the most sufficient cellularity and quality. In the second phase, BMD with topical anesthesia and additional drying of the conjunctiva was the most ideal method. The BMD may prove to be a suitable diagnostic tool for clinicians. Sampling is quick, processing is simple, and a large area of intact cells can be harvested. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  1. Oral hairy leukoplakia: An exfoliative cytology study

    PubMed Central

    Reginald, Ajay; Sivapathasundharam, B.

    2010-01-01

    Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is a white, hyperplastic, vertically corrugated lesion that occurs on the lateral border of the tongue, usually unilateral. Caused by the Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV), the lesion is said to be an early indicator of an immune deficiency status, thereby unmasking subclinical systemic conditions. OHL mimics many other white lesions of the oral cavity; therefore, it becomes imperative to identify the lesion. This study used exfoliative cytology, a noninvasive procedure, which helped in identifying the cellular changes brought about by the virus in the oral epithelium. The study revealed a subclinical phase of OHL, where the cellular changes were seen even before the appearance of the clinical lesion. PMID:22114370

  2. Urine cytology in patients with calculi.

    PubMed Central

    Highman, W; Wilson, E

    1982-01-01

    The cytological changes in voided urines were analysed in 154 patients with calculi. No abnormality was seen in 52.6%; 40.9% contained smooth-bordered clusters of transitional cells with essentially normal, centrally placed nuclei. These, when found in routine urines, were reliable in predicting calculi in 62.5% of cases. Of the calculus urines, 6.5% showed features suspicious of differentiated transitional carcinoma. Although their morphological features overlapped with those observed in urines from 40 cases of proved differentiated transitional carcinoma, they contained significantly fewer single and clusters of transitional cells with abnormal nuclear morphology. Histological examination of urothelium adjacent to calculi in eight patients showed no evidence of malignancy although one case showed hyperplasia and severe epithelial atypia. Images PMID:7068927

  3. Prediction of histological types of endometrial cancer by endometrial cytology.

    PubMed

    Okadome, Masao; Saito, Toshiaki; Nishiyama, Naoko; Ariyoshi, Kazuya; Shimamoto, Kumi; Shimada, Takako; Kodama, Keisuke; Imamura, Shogo; Nishiyama, Ken-ichi; Taguchi, Kenichi

    2014-07-01

    Few studies have examined the accuracy of preoperative endometrial cytology in diagnosing low- and high-risk histology in women with endometrial cancer (EC). This single-institutional retrospective study compared the accuracy of endometrial cytology and biopsy in preoperatively predicting low-risk and high-risk histology of EC. Between January 2006 and March 2013, 198 women with EC were examined by endometrial cytology, endometrial biopsy and hysterectomy specimen in National Kyushu Cancer Center. Among these women, 110 had endometrial cytology samples available to compare with endometrial biopsy, and were enrolled in our study (mean age ± standard deviation: 59.57 ± 10.32 years). Single-use plastic endometrial suction curettes were used in 12 of the 110 cases and thin metallic curettes for the rest. For type 2 EC, which includes grade 3 endometrioid adenocarcinoma and non-endometrioid histology, biopsy was 67.6% sensitive (25/37) and 84.9% specific (62/73); whereas cytology was 70.3% sensitive (26/37) and 91.8% specific (67/73). Cytology precisely diagnosed only one of 14 cases of serous carcinoma, but it diagnosed 11 of the 14 cases as type 2 EC, and its accuracy in distinguishing EC types was not inferior to endometrial biopsy (10/14). For EC, 9.1% (10/110) were unevaluable using biopsy, significantly more than the 0% (0/110) by cytology (P = 0.002). Although preoperative prediction of serous carcinoma was difficult, endometrial cytology had a higher evaluable rate for EC types. Endometrial cytology may complement endometrial biopsy in preoperative women with EC. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Cytology of benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma in peritoneal washings.

    PubMed

    Assaly, M; Bongiovanni, M; Kumar, N; Egger, J-F; Pelte, M-F; Genevay, M; Finci, V; Tschanz, E; Pache, J-C

    2008-08-01

    To describe the cytological aspect of peritoneal washings in benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma (BMPM). Three peritoneal washing specimens stained by standard cytological and histological procedures and analysed by light microscopy. The specimens showed an abundance of monomorphous mesothelial cells devoid of atypia or mitoses. The mesothelial cells were calretinin positive. They also showed numerous squamous metaplastic cells arranged in flat sheets or isolated cells. The background contained some inflammatory cells. The combination of cytology of the peritoneal washing, histology (cell block and surgical specimen) and clinical history allow differentiation of BMPM from other cystic lesions (cystic lymphangioma and malignant mesothelioma).

  5. Urine cytology in the detection of bladder tumor recurrence.

    PubMed

    Orandi, A; Orandi, M

    1976-11-01

    Of 118 patients with primary bladder tumors seen since 1966, 73 have been followed with urine cytology since 1969. Of the 406 tests there have been 85 positive, 296 negative and 25 ambiguous reports. The incidence of falsely positive results is estimated at 4% but the incidence of falsely negative results cannot be assessed in this study. Currently, 51 patients are living, 2 of whom had been seen in 1966. Of the 51 patients 43 are being followed with urine cytology. Bimonthly urine cytology has been found to be a relaible, convenient, safe, less hazardous and less costly method for the detection of bladder tumor recurrence.

  6. Detection of EGFR mutational profile by direct dideoxy sequencing in cytology and non-cytology biopsy samples.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Connull; Giardina, Tindaro; Carrello, Amerigo; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Amanuel, Benhur

    2014-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutational analysis is recommended in the diagnostic work-up of non-small cell lung carcinoma. The first diagnostic biopsy is usually obtained by a minimally invasive procedure, especially in patients with unresectable disease. This paper aims to compare the types of somatic EGFR mutations detected by cytology and non-cytology samples by direct dideoxy sequencing and propose practical guidelines for handling such material. Only samples with sufficient polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product were considered, a total 310 samples (302 patients), of which 168 samples were cytology material and 142 samples were non-cytology biopsy material. All samples were assessed for tumour content and bidirectional direct sequencing was performed on exons 18, 19, 20 and 21. There were 49 cases with EGFR mutation detected (16.2%), without a significant difference in the detection of mutations between either cytology or non-cytology material. EGFR mutation was detected in most sample types including endoscopic ultrasound guided FNA, bronchial washings/brushings and pleural/peritoneal fluid samples. Cytology material can provide an adequate source of material for EGFR mutational analysis, with coordinated effort between clinicians and pathologists critical for best outcome.

  7. A comparative study of glycodelin concentrations in uterine flushings in women with subseptate uteri, history of unexplained recurrent miscarriage and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Salim, R; Miel, J; Savvas, M; Lee, C; Jurkovic, D

    2007-07-01

    To compare the concentration of glycodelin in uterine flushing at the implantation window obtained from women with subseptate uteri, women with a history of recurrent first trimester miscarriage and fertile controls. Glycodelin concentration was assessed using Enzyme Linked Immunohistochemistry (ELISA) at The Early Pregnancy & Gynaecology Assessment Unit, King's College Hospital, London, England. Eight women with a subseptate uterus, 20 women with a history of unexplained recurrent first trimester miscarriage and 16 fertile controls had uterine cavity flushing, for glycodelin concentration, done 7 days after the luteinising hormone surge. Glycodelin concentrations in uterine flushing obtained from women with subseptate uteri (n=8) (median 32.9 ng/ml, range 17.1-52.4 ng/ml) and recurrent miscarriage (n=20) (median 26.8 ng/ml, range 9.7-78.5 ng/ml) were significantly lower than in the control group (n=16) (median 67.7 ng/ml, range 59.0-77.6 ng/ml) (chi(2)=19.565, p<0.001). Peri-implantation levels of glycodelin are lower in women at high risk of early pregnancy failure.

  8. Enhanced expression of sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE)-1, 2 and 4 in the uteri of rat model for post-menopause under phytoestrogen genistein influence.

    PubMed

    Chinigarzadeh, Asma; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2015-07-01

    Maintaining near normal uterine fluid pH is important for restoring uterine function after menopause. We hypothesized that genistein could restore uterine fluid pH via its effect on NHE expression. This study therefore investigated changes in uterine NHE-1, 2 and 4 expression under genistein influence. Ovariectomized female rats received genistein (25, 50 or 100mg/kg/day) for seven consecutive days. Uteri were harvested and NHE-1, 2 and 4 mRNA expression were analyzed by Real-time PCR while distribution of these transporters' protein was observed by immunohistochemistry. Expression of NHE-1, 2 and 4 mRNA increased with increasing doses of genistein which was antagonized by ICI 182780. Under genistein influence, NHE-1, 2 and 4 proteins were found to be distributed at apical membrane of endometrial luminal epithelia. Enhanced expression of NHE-1, 2 and 4 in ovariectomised rat uteri by genistein might help to restore pH of uterine fluid which could be useful for women after menopause. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Foreign structures in cytological appearance of otolaryngological specimens].

    PubMed

    Makowska, W

    1990-01-01

    The alien structure, being not the own cells of patient observed in cytologic specimens in otolaryngologic practice were described. The pollen, Actinomyces and mycotic cells as well as the inorganic particles were found.

  10. Internal quality assurance in cervical cytology one laboratory's experience.

    PubMed

    Cross, P A

    1996-02-01

    The results of an internal quality assurance exercise in one cervical cytology laboratory in England are presented, using different types of partial percentage re-screening of cervical smears. An overall false negative dyskaryotic rate of up to 4.3% was demonstrated, with the final cytology report diagnosis differing from the primary screening dignosis in 1.3% of cases. These finding are discussed, with the aim of helping to foster debate on the setting of national laboratory internal quality assurance standards.

  11. Cytology of pulmonary Fusobacterium nucleatum infection. A case report.

    PubMed

    Hsu, C Y; Luh, K T

    1995-01-01

    A patient with pulmonary Fusobacterium nucleatum infection presenting as a solitary nodule is reported. The infectious nature of the lung nodule was disclosed by ultrasound-guided percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) with Liu's stain. The cytologic characteristics of F nucleatum infection are described. The usefulness of real-time ultrasound in fine needle aspiration diagnosis of a peripheral lung lesion is demonstrated, and the role of Liu's stain in FNAC is emphasized.

  12. Cytology of the oral cavity: a re-evaluation.

    PubMed

    Navone, R

    2009-02-01

    Oral exfoliative cytology, while an economical and practical tool for diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant lesions, is not extensively used. The results of conventional (n = 89) and liquid-based (n = 411) oral diagnostic cytology cases are reported and compared to histological diagnosis. Cells were collected using either a Cytobrush device for conventional smears or a dermatological curette (AcuDispo) for liquid-based (Thin Prep) cytology. The "curette technique" allowed for the collection of "accidental" tissue fragments, utilized as microbiopsies. The sensitivity was 86.5% in conventional and 94.7% in liquid-based cytology; specificity was 94.3% and 98.9%, respectively; inadequate samples were present in 12.4% and 8.8% of cases, respectively. Although conventional cytology may be useful in oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant lesions, liquid-based cytology gives better results, enhances both the sensitivity and specificity, and also provides material for further investigations, e.g. DNA ploidy studies, microhistology, etc.

  13. Pulmonary microvascular cytology in the diagnosis of lymphangitic carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Masson, R G; Krikorian, J; Lukl, P; Evans, G L; McGrath, J

    1989-07-13

    The diagnosis of lymphangitic spread of carcinoma in the lungs is sometimes difficult. We studied the cytologic characteristics of blood drawn through a wedged pulmonary-artery catheter from eight patients in whom lymphangitic carcinomatosis was confirmed by subsequent autopsy, lung biopsy, or clinical evaluation. The sites of the primary tumors were the prostate, breast, esophagus, and lung. Malignant cells were found in seven of the eight patients. Cytologic findings were normal in 16 of 17 patients with cancer but without pulmonary metastases and in 22 of 23 patients with nonmalignant pulmonary disorders. In a patient with cancer with tumor embolism to the lungs, the findings were positive, probably because of extensive intravascular tumor in large hepatic veins. One false positive finding occurred in a patient with extensive pulmonary infarction. Megakaryocytes, which are present in large numbers in the pulmonary capillary bed, are the hallmark of a satisfactory pulmonary vascular blood sample for pulmonary microvascular cytologic study. Familiarity with the cytologic characteristics of these cells in Papanicolaou preparations is essential to avoid mistakenly identifying them as malignant. Although transbronchial lung biopsy remains the diagnostic procedure of choice in this disorder, our findings suggest that the presence of malignant cells in pulmonary microvascular-cytology preparations in patients with cancer and unexplained dyspnea constitutes presumptive evidence of lymphangitic carcinomatosis. Pulmonary microvascular cytology may be particularly valuable when lung biopsy is refused or is thought to be too hazardous.

  14. Tissue irradiator

    DOEpatents

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-12-16

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in- vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood- carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170.

  15. [Food irradiation].

    PubMed

    Migdał, W

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permission for irradiation for: spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables.

  16. Role of micronucleus in oral exfoliative cytology

    PubMed Central

    Shashikala, R.; Indira, A. P.; Manjunath, G. S.; rao, K. Arathi; Akshatha, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years, the interest for oral cytology as a diagnostic and prognostic methodology, for monitoring patients in oral potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer has re-emerged substantially. In 1983, buccal mucosal micronuclei assay was first proposed to evaluate genetic instability. There are biomarkers that predict if a potentially malignant disorder is likely to develop into an aggressive tumor. These genotoxic and carcinogenic chemicals have been reported to be potent clastogenic and mutagenic agents which are thought to be responsible for the induction of chromatid/chromosomal aberrations resulting in the production of micronuclei. Various studies have concluded that the gradual increase in micronucleus (MN) counts from normal oral mucosa to potentially malignant disorders to oral carcinoma suggested a link of this biomarker with neoplastic progression. MN scoring can be used as a biomarker to identify different preneoplastic conditions much earlier than the manifestations of clinical features and might specifically be exploited in the screening of high-risk population for a specific cancer. Hence, it can be used as a screening prognostic and educational tool in community centers of oral cancer. PMID:26538888

  17. Conjunctival impression cytology: bright hope of children.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    A practical method of screening for pre-clinical xerophthalmia due to vitamin A deficiency, called conjunctival impression cytology (CIC), is described as it is being used in a training stage in the Philippines. The noninvasive technic consists of touching the conjunctiva with a filter paper disc, and fixing and staining the disc on a slide for histology. Normally goblet cells with mucin spots are seen among sheets of epithelial cells. In abnormal conjunctiva from vitamin A deficient individuals, the epithelial cells are enlarged, and goblet cells are lacking. These specimens may be obtained from areas of the conjunctiva that appear clinically normal. The equipment needed is millipore paper, a hand-held suction pump with 5 feet of tubing, tissue or gauze, screw-top vials, labels, fixative, Papanicolaou stain, and a microscope. Vitamin A supplements can be given to affected children, or to the whole population at risk. With CIC training materials donated by International Center for Epidemiologic and Preventive Ophthalmology (ICEPO) at the Wilmer Institute, and the School of Hygiene and Public Health of the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, the 1st training class was certified by the Nutrition Center of the Philippines. Twice yearly training of physicians and technologists has been recommended.

  18. THE RELEVANCE OF CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC IN THE MAMMARY GLAND CANCER.

    PubMed

    Anton, E; Ancuta, E; Doroftei, B; Ioanid, N; Anton, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women, while in Eastern Europe the most common form of diagnosed cancer. Out of the multiple possibilities of early detection of mammary neoplasia that have been elaborated, only mammography has proved to be a simple, efficient method and of a high sensitivity, almost 90% However, the cytological confirmation of diagnosis allows us to perform the preoperative radiotherapy treatment or poly chemotherapy. we analyzed the informative value of these diagnosis methods in stage I mammary gland cancer (MGC). In this way, in the present paper we demonstrated that collecting samples through fine-needle aspiration biopsy allows the cytological confirmation of the diagnosis of stage I MGC in 30.7% cases. In stage I MGC young patients, under 35 years, the cytological confirmation rate is 22.2% and is lower as compared to the cytological confirmation rate in patients older than 35 years which is 37.9% Also, for a tumor diameter < 0.5 cm, the prevalence of cytological confirmation was only 10.3%, while for the diameter of 0.6-1.0 cm the cytological confirmation was around 40.0%. Therefore, in order to improve the cytological diagnosis confirmation rate the tumor biopsy through the USG of the mammary glands is required. Moreover, the cytological investigation of the smear obtained by the first and second puncture was instrumental in confirming the diagnosis in 41.3% and 17.4% cases; the subsequent repetition of the punctures was not useful as it helped to confirmation of the diagnosis only in 9.3% cases. The frequency of diagnosis cytological confirmation depends on the tumor histopathological form and type of growth. Thus, the lowest prevalence was in the mixed forms--12.5% cases, lobular cancer--24.4% cases, while regarding the type of growth, for the rare forms the cytological confirmation rate was 7.7% and 31.5% cases for the schiros growth type.

  19. The possible role of female sex hormones in milk from pregnant cows in the development of breast, ovarian and corpus uteri cancers.

    PubMed

    Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Sato, Akio

    2005-01-01

    The continued increase in incidence of some hormone-related cancers worldwide is of great concern. Although estrogen-like substances in the environment were blamed for this increase, the possible role of endogenous estrogens from food has not been widely discussed. We are particularly concerned about cows' milk, which contains a considerable quantity of estrogens. When we name cows' milk as one of the important routes of human exposure to estrogens, the general response of Western people is that "man has been drinking cows' milk for around 2000 years without apparent harm." However, the milk that we are now consuming is quite different from that consumed 100 years ago. Unlike their pasture-fed counterparts of 100 years ago, modern dairy cows are usually pregnant and continue to lactate during the latter half of pregnancy, when the concentration of estrogens in blood, and hence in milk, increases. The correlation of incidence and mortality rates with environmental variables in worldwide countries provides useful clues to the etiology of cancer. In this study, we correlated incidence rates for breast, ovarian, and corpus uteri cancers (1993-97 from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents) with food intake (1961-97 from FAOSTAT) in 40 countries. Meat was most closely correlated with the breast cancer incidence (r=0.827), followed by milk (0.817) and cheese (0.751). Stepwise multiple-regression analysis (SMRA) identified meat as the factor contributing most greatly to the incidence of breast cancer ([R]=0.862). Milk was most closely correlated with the incidence of ovarian cancer (r=0.779), followed by animal fats (0.717) and cheese (0.697). SMRA revealed that milk plus cheese make the greatest contribution to the incidence of ovarian cancer ([R]=0.767). Milk was most closely correlated with corpus uteri cancer (r=0.814), followed by cheese (0.787). SMRA revealed that milk plus cheese make the most significant contribution to the incidence of corpus uteri cancer ([R]=0

  20. Cytology Specimen Management, Triage and Standardized Reporting of Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsies of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Won Jae; Bishop Pitman, Martha

    2015-01-01

    The recent advances in pancreas cytology specimen sampling methods have enabled a specific cytologic diagnosis in most cases. Proper triage and processing of the cytologic specimen is pivotal in making a diagnosis due to the need for ancillary testing in addition to cytological evaluation, which is especially true in the diagnosis of pancreatic cysts. Newly proposed terminology for pancreaticobiliary cytology offers a standardized language for reporting that aims to improve communication among patient caregivers and provide for increased flexibility in patient management. This review focuses on these updates in pancreas cytology for the optimal evaluation of solid and cystic lesions of the pancreas. PMID:26265683

  1. Randomized comparison of fine-needle aspiration cytology and Biopty-Cut needle biopsy after unsatisfactory initial cytology of discrete breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Carty, N J; Ravichandran, D; Carter, C; Mudan, S; Royle, G T; Taylor, I

    1994-09-01

    In a minority of patients with a discrete breast lump the initial cytological assessment is either unsatisfactory or at variance with the results of other methods of diagnosis. A randomized comparison of repeat cytology and needle-core biopsy provided clinically useful information in 14 of 31 patients receiving repeat cytology and in 26 of 29 randomized to core biopsy. Nineteen patients had carcinoma: ten who received repeat cytology, which indicated malignancy in only three (diagnostic of malignancy in one, suspicious in two), while all nine patients who underwent core biopsy had a correct diagnosis (only suspicious of malignancy in one). The sensitivity for the definitive diagnosis of carcinoma on repeat cytology and core biopsy was 10 and 89 per cent respectively. Patients with a discrete breast lump and unclear cytology results require needle-core biopsy. This has more diagnostic value than repeat cytology.

  2. Cytological grading of canine cutaneous mast cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Scarpa, Filippo; Sabattini, Silvia; Bettini, Giuliano

    2016-09-01

    A cytological grading for mast cell tumours (MCTs) would be highly desirable, allowing to select the most appropriate therapeutic intervention prior to surgery. This study evaluates the applicability on fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) of the novel Kiupel grading system, based on number of mitoses, multinucleated cells, bizarre nuclei and presence of karyomegaly. Fifty consecutive cases with pre-operative cytological diagnosis were included. In cytological specimens, approximately 1000 cells were evaluated, and the histological grade was assessed on the corresponding resected specimens. On cytology, the above parameters were significantly different between histologically low-grade and high-grade tumours (P < 0.001). The cytograding correctly predicted the histological grade in 47 cases (accuracy, 94%; sensitivity, 84.6%; specificity, 97.3%). Two high-grade MCTs (4%) were not detected on cytology. The cytograding can provide helpful insights to assist clinical decisions in most cases. However, the risk of underestimation in a minority of patients represents a limit to the overall utility of the technique. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Tumour markers in peritoneal washing fluid - contribution to cytology.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Mustafa; Suren, Dınc; Yıldız, Mustafa; Alikanoglu, Arsenal Sezgın; Kaya, Vildan; Doluoglu, Suleyman Gunhan; Aydın, Ozgur; Yılmaz, Necat; Sezer, Cem; Karaca, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Peritoneal washing cytology (PWC) that shows the microscopic intra-peritoneal spread of gynaecologic cancers is not used in staging but is known as prognostic factor and effective in planning the intensity of the therapy. False negative or false positive results clearly affect the ability to make the best decision for therapy. In this study we assessed levels of tumour markers, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) and carbohydrate antigen (CA19-9), in peritoneal washing fluid to establish any possible contribution to the peritoneal washing cytology in patients operated for gynaecologic cancer. Preoperative tumour markers were studied in serum of blood samples obtained from the patients for preoperative evaluation of a gynaecologic operation. In the same group peritoneal tumour markers were studied in the washing fluid obtained for intraoperative cytological evaluation. This study included a total of 94 patients, 62 with malignant and 32 with benign histopathology. The sensitivity of the cytological examination was found to be 21% with a specificity of 100%. When evaluated with CEA the sensitivity of the cytological examination has increased to 37%. In addition to examination of PWC, the level of CEA, a tumour marker, in peritoneal washing fluid can make a diagnostic contribution. Determining the level of CEA in peritoneal washing fluid will be useful in the management of gynaecologic cancers.

  4. Adequacy and accuracy of salivary gland fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Mohammed Nur, M; Murphy, M

    2016-08-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a widely utilized procedure in the preoperative assessment of salivary gland mass lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the adequacy of salivary gland FNA specimens and the accuracy of the cytological diagnoses made at a single institution over a 13-year period. All salivary gland FNAs performed at University Hospital Waterford between 2000 and 2013 were reviewed. Specimens were categorized into those performed by pathologists, radiologists or surgeons and adequacy determined for each. Cases with subsequent surgery had their histology reviewed and compared with cytology for concordance. Of 262 salivary gland FNAs 93.1 % were from parotids and 6.9 % from submandibular glands. Thirty-four FNAs (13 %) were inadequate. The inadequacy rates for pathologists, radiologists and surgeons were 11, 9.1 and 20 %, respectively (p = 0.101). Pleomorphic adenoma was the most frequent cytological diagnosis (53.5 %) followed by primary and secondary malignancies (15.8 %), inflammatory conditions (11.4 %) and Warthin tumour (10.1 %). The histology and cytology were discordant in 13.3 % of 143 cases. The sensitivity and specificity for malignancies were 80.7 and 98.2 %, respectively. Salivary gland FNAC has good sensitivity and specificity. Radiologists and pathologists have the best adequacy rates and image guidance makes radiologists good aspirators.

  5. Effect of low-energy laser (He-Ne) irradiation on embryo implantation rate in the rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Anat; Kraicer, P. F.; Oron, Uri

    1997-12-01

    Attempts to date to increase the rate of embryo implantation, for example by assisting embryo hatching from the zona pellucida, have failed. Recently, several studies have suggested the biostimulating effect of low power laser irradiation. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the potential of low power laser irradiation of the uterus to enhance embryo implantation rate in the rat. Rat potential of low power laser irradiation of the uterus to enhance embryo implantation rate in the rat. Rat blastocysts were flushed from the uterus on day 5 of gestation. They were transferred to the uteri of pseudopregnant recipients on day 4 or 5 of pseudopregnancy. One cornu of the recipient uterus was irradiated; the other was used as control. On day 5 of pregnancy, irradiation did not change implantation rate after 10 or 30 sec of irradiation while 120 sec. of irradiation significantly decreased embryonic implantation. On the other hand, on day 4 of pregnancy, 120 sec. of radiation allowed embryonic implantation to a level similar to that seen after synchronized transfer. Conclusion: He-Ne laser irradiation of the exposed rat uterus can attenuate embryo implantation rate.

  6. Irradiation subassembly

    DOEpatents

    Seim, O.S.; Filewicz, E.C.; Hutter, E.

    1973-10-23

    An irradiation subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which includes a bundle of slender elongated irradiation -capsules or fuel elements enclosed by a coolant tube and having yieldable retaining liner between the irradiation capsules and the coolant tube. For a hexagonal bundle surrounded by a hexagonal tube the yieldable retaining liner may consist either of six segments corresponding to the six sides of the tube or three angular segments each corresponding in two adjacent sides of the tube. The sides of adjacent segments abut and are so cut that metal-tometal contact is retained when the volume enclosed by the retaining liner is varied and Springs are provided for urging the segments toward the center of the tube to hold the capsules in a closely packed configuration. (Official Gazette)

  7. Discrepant HPV/cytology cotesting results: Are there differences between cytology-negative versus HPV-negative cervical intraepithelial neoplasia?

    PubMed

    Tracht, Jessica M; Davis, Antoinette D; Fasciano, Danielle N; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin A

    2017-08-17

    The objective of this study was to compare cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions subcategorized as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia-3 (CIN-3)-positive after a negative cytology result but positive for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing to those with a negative HR-HPV test but positive cytology (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASCUS]-positive/HPV-negative) and to assess reasons for discrepancies. The authors retrospectively analyzed women who underwent screening with cytology and HPV testing from 2010 through 2013. After a review of surgical specimens and cytology, discrepancies were classified as sampling or interpretation error. Clinical and pathologic findings were compared. In total, 15,173 women (age range, 25-95 years; 7.1% were aged < 30 years) underwent both HPV and cytologic testing, and 1184 (8.4%) underwent biopsy. Cytology was positive in 19.4% of specimens, and HPV was positive in 14.5%. Eighty-four CIN-3-positive specimens were detected, including 55 that tested ASCUS-positive/HPV-positive, 11 that tested negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM)/HPV-positive, 10 that tested ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative, 3 that tested NILM/HPV-negative, and 5 tests that were unsatisfactory. There was no significant difference between NILM/HPV-positive and ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative CIN-3 in terms of size, time to occurrence, the presence of a cytopathic effect, screening history, race, or age. Six of 11 NILM/HPV-positive cases were reclassified as ASCUS, indicating an interpreting error of 55% and a sampling error of 45%. No ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative cases were reclassified. Seven cases of CIN-3 with positive cytology were HPV-negative. There are no significant clinical or pathologic differences between NILM/HPV-positive and ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative CIN-3-positive specimens. Cytologic sampling or interpretation remains the main reason for discrepancies. However, HPV-negative CIN-3 with positive

  8. Adrenal histoplasmosis: a diagnosis on fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Rana, Chanchal; Kumari, Niraj; Krishnani, Narendra

    2011-06-01

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal disease endemic in central and eastern states of United States, South America, Africa, and Asia. It may present as chronic pulmonary infection or in disseminated form of infection. The disseminated form of histoplasmosis frequently affects the adrenal gland and is more likely to affect immunocompromised patients as compared to immunocompetent individuals. There are very few cases of adrenal histoplasmosis diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. In the present era when fine needle aspiration has become popular modality for diagnosis, adrenal fine needle aspiration is still a less commonly practiced technique. We report eight cases of adrenal histoplasmosis diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology in patients with bilateral adrenal masses. The present case series supports the role of fine needle aspiration cytology of adrenal gland infections where surgery can be prevented and a definitive diagnosis can be made on which treatment can be offered. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Cytological features of ossifying fibromyxoid tumor of soft parts

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Rodríguez, F; Jiménez-Heffernan, JA; Salas, C; Pastrana, M; Sanz, E

    2012-01-01

    A case of ossifying fibromyxoid tumor (OFMT) evaluated during an intraoperative pathological consultation is presented. The patient, a 70-year-old woman was being followed because of a tumor in the left buttock. Cytological smears were obtained after scrapping the tumoral cut surface and revealed a myxoid background with fragments composed of a denser, fibrillar metachromatic stroma with accompanying round to oval tumoral nuclei and no vessels. Single cells were predominantly monomorphic with a round to oval morphology and scarce cytoplasm. The most relevant feature of the tumor was its peripheral, plaque-like, calcified consistency. The review of the cytological descriptions of four cases revealed similar findings that can be presumed as those of a low-grade myxoid tumor of round to oval cells. A specific recognition of OFMT based solely on cytological features seems difficult. However, when such features are coupled with characteristic radiological findings (peripheral calcification) this entity must be considered. PMID:23112466

  10. Cytological features of ossifying fibromyxoid tumor of soft parts.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rodríguez, F; Jiménez-Heffernan, Ja; Salas, C; Pastrana, M; Sanz, E

    2012-07-01

    A case of ossifying fibromyxoid tumor (OFMT) evaluated during an intraoperative pathological consultation is presented. The patient, a 70-year-old woman was being followed because of a tumor in the left buttock. Cytological smears were obtained after scrapping the tumoral cut surface and revealed a myxoid background with fragments composed of a denser, fibrillar metachromatic stroma with accompanying round to oval tumoral nuclei and no vessels. Single cells were predominantly monomorphic with a round to oval morphology and scarce cytoplasm. The most relevant feature of the tumor was its peripheral, plaque-like, calcified consistency. The review of the cytological descriptions of four cases revealed similar findings that can be presumed as those of a low-grade myxoid tumor of round to oval cells. A specific recognition of OFMT based solely on cytological features seems difficult. However, when such features are coupled with characteristic radiological findings (peripheral calcification) this entity must be considered.

  11. Applications of exfoliative cytology in the diagnosis of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Diniz-Freitas, Márcio; García-García, Abel; Crespo-Abelleira, Antonio; Martins-Carneiro, José Luis; Gándara-Rey, José Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Exfoliative cytology is a simple non-aggressive technique that is well accepted by the patient, and that is therefore an attractive option for the early diagnosis of oral cancer, including epithelial atypias and especially squamous cell carcinoma. However, traditional exfoliative cytology methods show low sensitivity (i.e. a high proportion of false negatives) in the diagnosis of these pathologies. This low sensitivity is attributable to various factors, including inadequate sampling, procedural errors, and the need for subjective interpretation of the findings. More recently, the continuing development of automated cytomorphometric methods, DNA content determination, tumour marker detection, and diverse molecular-level analyses has contributed to renewed interest in exfoliative cytology procedures for the diagnosis of oral cancer. The present study briefly reviews developments in these areas.

  12. The practical use of cytology for diagnosis in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, E; Brunetti, G; Del Vecchio, M; Ruocco, V

    2011-02-01

    Exfoliative cytology for diagnostic purposes is rarely used in Dermatology despite the rapid and reliable results which this procedure can offer in many clinical conditions. This simple procedure may prove advantageous in a wide range of skin diseases, including genodermatoses (Hailey-Hailey disease), infections (mainly herpetic infections, molluscum contagiosum, leishmaniasis), immune disorders (early oral pemphigus) and tumours (basal and squamous cell carcinomas, Paget disease, erythroplasia of Queyrat, and others). The specific circumstances where cytological examination provides a very helpful and practical aid to confirmation or exclusion of a clinically suspected diagnosis are briefly reviewed. Cytological patterns, along with some technical hints on how to take and stain Tzanck smears correctly, are described in connection with the diseases considered.

  13. Incisional endometriosis: diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Veda, P; Srinivasaiah, M

    2010-07-01

    Incisional endometriosis (IE) is a rare entity reported in 0.03-1.08% of women following obstetric or gynecologic surgeries. Most cases reported in literature have appeared after cesarean sections and were often clinically mistaken for hernia, abscess, suture granuloma or lipoma. We hereby report a case of IE following a second trimester hysterotomy, which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Our patient was 26 years old, presenting with a mass over anterior abdominal wall, associated with incapacitating pain during each menstrual cycle. FNAC showed epithelial cells, stromal cells and hemosiderin laden macrophages. Based on the typical history, clinical and cytological features, the diagnosis of IE was established. Wide surgical excision was done and the resulting rectus sheath defect was repaired. Patient was followed for 6 months during which time she was symptom free. This article also reviews the spectrum of cytological features and the rare possibility of malignant transformation that can occur in IE.

  14. Aspiration cytology of ameloblastic fibroma: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neeta; Jain, Shyama

    2003-08-01

    Ameloblastic fibroma of the jaw is a rare, benign mixed odontogenic tumor, having little tendency for local invasion and a low recurrence rate. Cytologic distinction from ameloblastoma, ameloblastic fibrosarcoma, and intraosseous adenoid cystic carcinoma is necessary, in view of the different biologic behavior. A painful, slow-growing swelling of the jaw in a 5-yr-old child clinicoradiologically considered as a benign cystic lesion was aspirated. Sheets of small monomorphic epithelial cells with peripheral palisading by columnar cells were seen on cytology smears. The striking feature was central hyaline globules in some tubules. A cytologic possibility of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor was suggested. Histopathology, however, confirmed it to be an ameloblastic fibroma. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Cytological image segmentation based on iterative generalized Hough transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhuofu; Liu, Meimei; Sui, Lihua; Cheng, Li

    2006-09-01

    Automatic exact segmentation of medical images is very important, since applications need to extract precisely the interesting organic features in the human body. An important example is cell detection in cytological and histological images for the diagnosis of breast cancer. In this paper, we propose a time- and memory-efficient algorithm, called Iterative Generalized Hough Transform (IGHT) for automated cytological image segmentation. In addition to lowering memory requirement, the proposed algorithm reduces the excessive time with image scaling. Instead of being applied to a full-sized image, the IGHT scales down to half-sized and quarter-sized images. The proposed algorithm efficiently exploits both region and edge information. The results show that it is a reliable method for segmenting nuclei in cytological images and for extracting components of interest, which is a key step for diagnosing breast cancer and predicting the course of the disease.

  16. Transrectal fine needle aspiration cytology of granulomatous prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Mondal, A; Mukherjee, B; Ghosh, E

    1994-07-01

    Transrectal fine needle aspiration cytology by Franzen technique was carried out from January, 1985 till January, 1992 on 567 patients having prostatomegaly which were suspicious of malignancy by clinical per rectal examination. Granulomatous prostatitis was diagnosed in 56 cases. Analysis showed 34 cases were tuberculous prostatitis and 22 cases were nonspecific granulomatous prostatitis. Comparison of aspiration cytology with bacteriological study of the aspirated material and histopathology showed correct diagnosis of granulomatous prostatitis by fine needle aspiration. The findings indicate that transrectal fine needle aspiration cytology is a reliable procedure for diagnosis of granulomatous prostatitis which can clinically mimic prostatic malignancy when it presents as a diffuse or nodular enlargement with firm to hard consistency.

  17. Ancillary Studies, Including Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Studies, in Pancreatic Cytology.

    PubMed

    Reid, Michelle D; Centeno, Barbara A

    2014-03-01

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the pancreas is indicated for sampling of solid and cystic masses. Preoperative cytologic diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and cystic lesions on cytology can be problematic, and ancillary studies may help confirm diagnosis. Ancillary studies in pancreatic cytology include special stains, immunohistochemistry, mutational analyses of specific genes, cyst fluid analysis of tumor markers and enzymes, and, in some instances, flow cytometry. Proteomics, microRNA sequencing, and whole-exome gene sequencing have been used to illustrate the progression of pancreatic neoplasms and identify key diagnostic markers. This article summarizes recent literature on ancillary studies in pancreatic fine-needle aspiration samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Squash cytology of tanycytic ependymoma: A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Priyanka Maity; Chaudhuri, Shubhamitra; Chakrabarty, Debashis; Chatterjee, Sandip; Datta, Chhanda; Chaudhuri, Manoj Kumar; Chatterjee, Uttara

    2017-03-01

    Tanycytic ependymoma is a rare variant of ependymoma which has a predilection for the spinal cord. It is a WHO grade II tumour with favourable outcome. Although squash cytology of ependymoma is well described, there is sparse literature available on squash cytomorphology of tanycytic variant. Here we present two cases of squash cytology of tanycytic ependymoma. In the first case the diagnosis of tanycytic ependymoma was considered. However, in the second case a diagnosis of usual ependymoma was offered. Subsequently histopathology confirmed tanycytic nature in both the cases. In this article we discuss the squash cytological features of tanycytic ependymoma along with its differential diagnosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:270-273. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Committee I: Indications for pulmonary cytology sampling methods.

    PubMed

    Michael, Claire W; Hoda, Rana S; Saqi, Anjali; Kazakov, Jordan; Elsheikh, Tarik; Azar, Nami; Ohori, N Paul

    2016-12-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pulmonary cytology including indications for bronchial brushings, washings and endobronchial ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration, technical recommendations for cytologic sampling, recommended terminology and classification scheme, recommendations for ancillary testing and recommendations for postcytologic diagnosis management and follow-up. All recommendation documents are based on the expertise of the authors, extensive literature review and feedback from presentations at national and international conferences. This document selectively presents the results of these discussions. The present document summarizes the recommendations for clinical and imaging evaluation of pulmonary lesions along with the indications for cytologic studies regarding these abnormalities. Preprocedural requirements regarding brushing, washing and needle aspiration procedures are discussed also. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:1010-1023. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Techniques for cytologic sampling of pancreatic and bile duct lesions.

    PubMed

    Brugge, William; Dewitt, John; Klapman, Jason B; Ashfaq, Raheela; Shidham, Vinod; Chhieng, David; Kwon, Richard; Baloch, Zubair; Zarka, Matthew; Staerkel, Gregg

    2014-04-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy, techniques of the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing, and postbiopsy management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18-month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology website [www.papsociety.org]. This document presents the results of these discussions regarding the use of ancillary testing in the cytological diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic lesions. This document summarizes the current state of the art for techniques in acquiring cytology specimens from the biliary tree as well as solid and cystic lesions of the pancreas. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Cytometry: The Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology, Supplement 6, 1993: Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Mayall, B.H.; Landay, A.L.; Shapiro, H.M.; Visser, J.W.M.

    1993-12-31

    This contains the 465 presentation and poster abstracts for the XVI Congress of the International Society for Analytical Cytology, March 1993. Plenary Sessions included the following: Industrial Cytometry; Clinical Issues (in Cytology); Molecular Pathology; biotechnology; new biology; temporal cytometry.

  2. Irradiated foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... it reduces the risk for food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes, and to control insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

  3. Knowledge and Acceptability of Anal Cytology Screening Among Women.

    PubMed

    Blankenship, Stephanie A; Debnath, Priyanka; Szlachta-McGinn, Alec W; Maguire, Karla; Garcia, Jorge J; Aserlind, Alexandra; Lipshultz, Emma; Potter, JoNell E

    2016-01-01

    Medical providers have initiated anal cytology screening among women to detect anal neoplasia early. Lack of knowledge of the human papillomavirus (HPV) and anticipated screening discomfort may limit patient acceptance. This study investigates attitudes toward anal cytology screening among women. Women seen for gynecologic care at an urban university medical center were invited to complete an anonymous survey assessing their understanding of HPV and interest in anal cytology screening. Subjects reported the level of pain, discomfort, and embarrassment they expected from screening on a 100-mm visual analog scale. Four hundred four women with mean (SD) age 36 (13) years met criteria for participation. Three hundred thirty-five women reported their race: 52% were white and 36% were African American. Three hundred forty-eight women reported their ethnicities: 76% were Hispanic and 12% were Haitian. Twenty-two percent had never heard of HPV, 57% were not familiar with anal cytology screening, 67% acknowledged that screening was very helpful in detecting anal neoplasia early, and 28% were very interested in undergoing screening. Mean (SD) level of anticipated pain, discomfort, and embarrassment during screening was 62 (32), 68 (30), and 58 (34) mm, respectively. Level of familiarity with anal cytology screening (p < .001), belief in its utility in detecting anal neoplasia (p < .001), and level of anticipated pain (p = .004) were significant predictors of acceptability. Medical providers should improve counseling about anal cytology screening among at-risk women to familiarize them with the procedure, describe its role in detecting anal neoplasia, and address expectations surrounding pain to increase its acceptability.

  4. Morphologic features of endometriosis in various types of cytologic specimens.

    PubMed

    Barkan, Güliz A; Naylor, Bernard; Gattuso, Paolo; Küllü, Sevgi; Galan, Kristine; Wojcik, Eva M

    2013-11-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. This study evaluates the cytomorphologic features of endometriosis in various cytologic specimen types [fine-needle aspiration (FNA), effusion cytology (EF), touch imprint (ToP), and cervical smear (PAP)], and assesses the key elements helpful in recognizing this lesion. A total of 18 cases (8 FNA, 4 EF, 5 ToP, and 1 PAP) of cytologically diagnosed and histologically/clinically confirmed endometriosis diagnosed between 1988 and 2006 comprises the material for this study. The morphologic features evaluated of the three components included: cellularity, presence of sheets of glandular cells, three-dimensional (3D) glandular clusters, tubular structures, single cells, syncytial groups of stromal cells, stromal cells entrapped within basement membrane (BM)-like material, cytologic atypia, presence of mitotic figures, and hemosiderin-laden histiocytes. Endometrial glands, stroma, and hemosiderin-laden histiocytes were all identified in 14/18 (77.8%) cases. FNA specimens were more cellular than that of both EF and ToP specimens. Tubular structures, 3D glandular clusters, stromal cells entrapped in BM and syncytial stromal groups were more common in FNAs, and ToPs compared with the EFs. The ratio of the endometrial glandular and stromal cells was similar in all specimen types. Atypia and mitotic figures were rarely encountered. Diagnosis of endometriosis could be made independently on either smears/ThinPrep(™) slides or on cell blocks in all cases where these preparations were available. On follow up, none of the patients developed malignancy. Endometriosis can be reliably and safely diagnosed in various cytologic materials. Cytologic atypia is uncommon. Components of endometriosis could show minor morphologic alterations in different specimen types.

  5. Morphologic features of endometriosis in various types of cytologic specimens.

    PubMed

    Barkan, Güliz A; Naylor, Bernard; Gattuso, Paolo; Küllü, Sevgi; Galan, Kristine; Wojcik, Eva M

    2013-03-20

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. This study evaluates the cytomorphologic features of endometriosis in various cytologic specimen types [fine-needle aspiration (FNA), effusion cytology (EF), touch imprint (ToP), and cervical smear (PAP)], and assesses the key elements helpful in recognizing this lesion. A total of 18 cases (8 FNA, 4 EF, 5 ToP, and 1 PAP) of cytologically diagnosed and histologically/clinically confirmed endometriosis diagnosed between 1988 and 2006 comprises the material for this study. The morphologic features evaluated of the three components included: cellularity, presence of sheets of glandular cells, three-dimensional (3D) glandular clusters, tubular structures, single cells, syncytial groups of stromal cells, stromal cells entrapped within basement membrane (BM)-like material, cytologic atypia, presence of mitotic figures, and hemosiderin-laden histiocytes. Endometrial glands, stroma, and hemosiderin-laden histiocytes were all identified in 14/18 (77.8%) cases. FNA specimens were more cellular than that of both EF and ToP specimens. Tubular structures, 3D glandular clusters, stromal cells entrapped in BM and syncytial stromal groups were more common in FNAs, and ToPs compared with the EFs. The ratio of the endometrial glandular and stromal cells was similar in all specimen types. Atypia and mitotic figures were rarely encountered. Diagnosis of endometriosis could be made independently on either smears/ThinPrep(™) slides or on cell blocks in all cases where these preparations were available. On follow up, none of the patients developed malignancy. Endometriosis can be reliably and safely diagnosed in various cytologic materials. Cytologic atypia is uncommon. Components of endometriosis could show minor morphologic alterations in different specimen types. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Cytological image analysis with a genetic fuzzy finite state machine.

    PubMed

    Estévez, J; Alayón, S; Moreno, L; Sigut, J; Aguilar, R

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this research is to design a pattern recognition system based on a Fuzzy Finite State Machine (FFSM). We try to find an optimal FFSM with Genetic Algorithms (GA). In order to validate this system, the classifier has been applied to a real problem: distinction between normal and abnormal cells in cytological breast fine needle aspirate images and cytological peritoneal fluid images. The characteristic used in the discrimination between normal and abnormal cells is a texture measurement of the chromatin distribution in cellular nuclei. Furthermore, the effectiveness of this method as a pattern classifier is compared with other existing supervised and unsupervised methods and evaluated with Receiver Operating Curves (ROC) methodology.

  7. Adenoid cystic carcinoma - Clinical presentation and cytological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Dutta, N N; Baruah, R; Das, L

    2002-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a tumor arising from the minor salivary glands, the palate being the commonest site. It accounts for about 1% of all head and neck malignancies. We report a case with the typical presentation of a palatal growth with extensive intra-cranial invasion. The diagnosis of this case and a brief review of literature is discussed. Final diagnosis of this case was made from cytological reports. The dry smears stained with MGG were found to be definitely superior to the alcohol fixed slides stained with papanicolaou. The aim here is to highlight the importance of cytology in the diagnosis of such tumors.

  8. Cytologic characteristics and histomorphologic correlations of 21 salivary duct carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Klijanienko, J; Vielh, P

    1998-11-01

    Fine-needle samplings (FNS) of 21 salivary duct carcinomas, histologically correlated, including 19 primaries, one local recurrence, and one lymph node metastasis from 19 patients, are reported. Cytologic diagnosis of high-grade adenocarcinoma was established in 15 (71%). Five (24%) cases were misclassified as high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas and one (5%) as squamous-cell carcinoma. The histologic evaluation in all cases showed cytomorphologic features resembling mammary duct carcinoma with marked cytonuclear atypia and occasional oncocytic appearance. Our cytohistologic correlations indicate that irregular clusters of high-grade adenocarcinoma cells with necrotic background and oncocytic features suggest a cytologic diagnosis of either primary salivary duct carcinoma or metastatic mammary carcinoma.

  9. Foray of Cytologically Diagnosed Intramuscular Sarcocystosis- A Rarity

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Anoosha; Puttaveerachary, Ashok Kagathur; Govindashetty, Abhishek Mandya; Sahni, Swati

    2015-01-01

    Sarcocystosis is an uncommonly encountered zoonotic coccidial protozoal infestation of human beings. The sarcocystis species is known to produce intestinal and muscular infestations in humans. We report a rare case of a 35-year-old female with an intramuscular swelling in the lumbar region diagnosed cytologically as “Intramuscular Sarcocystosis” and subsequently confirmed on histopathology. This case highlights the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the identification of Sarcocystis and its role in differentiating it from other intramuscular parasites which is of immense value in precise diagnosis and appropriate patient management. PMID:26155487

  10. Cytological aspects of antimicrobial antibiosis. I. Cytological changes associated with the exposure of Escherichia coli to colistin sulfate.

    PubMed

    CHAPMAN, G B

    1962-07-01

    Chapman, George B. (Cornell University Medical College, New York, N.Y.). Cytological aspects of antimicrobial antibiosis. I. Cytological changes associated with the exposure of Escherichia coli to colistin sulfate. J. Bacteriol. 84:169-179. 1962-Broth cultures of Escherichia coli were exposed to different concentrations of the antibiotic colistin sulfate for various lengths of time. Control (untreated) and treated cells were fixed, dehydrated, and embedded in methacrylate or Epon. Ultrathin sections were examined in an RCA EMU2-D electron microscope. Two conspicuous cytological changes were noted. First, the nuclear material disappeared from its normal sites and was no longer demonstrable. Second, the cytoplasm lost its granularity and became homogeneous. Cells which showed these changes were nonviable.

  11. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE....1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general supervisor who meets the qualification...

  12. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE....1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general supervisor who meets the qualification...

  13. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE....1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general supervisor who meets the qualification...

  14. Cytological diagnosis of adamantinoma of long bone in a 78-year-old man.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Mimi; Pramanik, Raghunath; Chakrabarty, Subrata; Bera, Pranati

    2011-01-01

    A clinicohistopathological study of a rare case of adamantinoma of long bone in a 78-year-old patient is presented. The cytological features when evaluated in conjunction with clinical and radiologic features are sufficiently diagnostic. The primary knowledge of its existence and knowledge of its cytological features are important for a correct preoperative cytological diagnosis.

  15. [Pediatric lymphomas diagnosis after needle biopsy in Abidjan: value of cytology versus MYC translocation examination].

    PubMed

    Yao, Gnangoran Victor; Toutain, Jérôme; Enoh, Jacob; Tre-Yavo, Mireille; Dachary, Dominique; Couitchere, Line; Koffi, Kouakou Emmanuel; Doukoure, Brahima; Ando, Joseph; De Mascarel, Antoine; Merlio, Jean-Philippe

    2012-02-01

    In Africa, lymphomas are widely represented by pediatric Burkitt lymphomas. In Abidjan, cytology performed after needle biopsy may be an examination of choice for pediatric lymphomas because of its low cost. We evaluated the value of this cytological examination in comparison with MYC rearrangement assessment. A cytological examination was performed after needle biopsy of masses suspected for lymphoma. The reliability of this cytological examination was assessed versus a cytogenetic technique of fluorescence in situ hybridization with a probe targeting locus 8q24 (MYC) which is recurrently rearranged in Burkitt lymphomas. Thirty-four patients were enrolled in this study. The median age was 8 years old. The main locations of the suspicious masses were maxillofacial and abdominal. Thirty cytological examinations identified cytological aspects of Burkitt lymphoma. Among these cases, the cytogenetic technique identified 24 cytogenetic rearrangements compatible with a translocation involving MYC as described in Burkitt lymphoma. Six cytological examinations identified cytological aspects of Burkitt lymphoma without MYC translocation. Two cytological examinations were not compatible with Burkitt lymphoma and a normal MYC status was observed. Two cytological examinations were technically not contributive. The cytological examination showed good performance, notably with excellent sensitivity. The cytological examinations compatible with a Burkitt lymphoma without MYC translocation (6/30=20.0%) could be explained by the absence of translocation involving locus 8q24 (MYC) in some endemic Burkitt lymphomas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Cytological and molecular characterization of three gametoclones of citrus clementina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three gametoclonal plants of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., cv. Nules, designated ESP, FRA, and ITA (derived from three labs in Spain, France, and Italy, respectively), were selected for cytological and molecular characterization in order to elucidate genomic rearrangements provoked by haploidizat...

  17. Microfluidic processing of synovial fluid for cytological analysis.

    PubMed

    Krebs, John C; Alapan, Yunus; Dennstedt, Barbara A; Wera, Glenn D; Gurkan, Umut A

    2017-06-01

    Cytological analysis of synovial fluid is widely used in the clinic to assess joint health and disease. However, in general practice, only the total number of white blood cells (WBCs) are available for cytologic evaluation of the joint. Moreover, sufficient volume of synovial aspirates is critical to run conventional analyses, despite limited volume of aspiration that can normally be obtained from a joint. Therefore, there is a lack of consistent and standardized synovial fluid cytological tests in the clinic. To address these shortcomings, we developed a microfluidic platform (Synovial Chip), for the first time in the literature, to achieve repeatable, cost- and time-efficient, and standardized synovial fluid cytological analysis based on specific cell surface markers. Microfluidic channels functionalized with antibodies against specific cell surface antigens are connected in series to capture WBC subpopulations, including CD4+, CD8+, and CD66b+ cells, simultaneously from miniscule volumes (100 μL) of synovial fluid aspirates. Cell capture specificity was evaluated by fluorescent labeling of isolated cells in microchannels and was around 90% for all three WBC subpopulations. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of synovial fluid viscosity on capture efficiency in the microfluidic channels and utilized hyaluronidase enzyme treatment to reduce viscosity and to improve cell capture efficiency (>60%) from synovial fluid samples. Synovial Chip allows efficient and standardized point-of-care isolation and analysis of WBC subpopulations in miniscule volumes of patient synovial fluid samples in the clinic.

  18. Cytological characterization of anther development in Panax ginseng Meyer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Jin; Jang, Moon-Gi; Zhu, Lu; Silva, Jeniffer; Zhu, Xiaolei; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Yang, Deok-Chun; Zhang, Dabing

    2016-07-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng), a valued medicinal herb, is a slow-growing plant that flowers after 3 years of growth with the formation of a solitary terminal umbel inflorescence. However, little is known about cytological events during ginseng reproduction, such as the development of the male organ, the stamen. To better understand the mechanism controlling ginseng male reproductive development, here, we investigated the inflorescence and flower structure of ginseng. Moreover, we performed cytological analysis of anther morphogenesis and showed the common and specialized cytological events including the formation of four concentric cell layers surrounding male reproductive cells followed by subsequent cell differentiation and degeneration of tapetal cells, as well as the formation of mature pollen grains via meiosis and mitosis during ginseng anther development. Particularly, our transverse section and microscopic observations showed that the ginseng tapetal layer exhibits obvious nonsynchronous cell division evidenced by the observation of one or two tapetal layers frequently observed in one anther lobe, suggesting the unique control of cell division. To facilitate the future study on ginseng male reproduction, we grouped the anther development into 10 developmental stages according to the characterized cytological events.

  19. Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland of adults.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Heffernan, José A; Bárcena, Carmen; Agra, Carolina; Asunción, Alfonso

    2015-08-01

    It is well known that the histology of normal pineal gland may resemble not only pineal tumors but also gliomas, owing to its cellularity which is much greater than that of normal white or gray matter. Our recent experience with a case in which part of a normal gland was submitted for intraoperative consultation, together with the scarcity of cytologic descriptions, led us to perform a cyto-histologic correlation study. In addition to the intraoperative case, we collected five pineal glands from consecutive adult autopsies. During the squash procedure, we often noted the presence of calcified grains. Smears were hypercellular, distributed in tissue fibrillary fragments and as numerous single cells, with crystalline structures. Pineal gland cells (pineocytes) were large, round, epithelioid with ill-defined cytoplasms and moderate nuclear pleomorphism. Spindle cells with greater fibrillary quality were less common. One of the most remarkable findings seen in all cases was the presence of cytoplasmic pigment. Histological evaluation and immunohistochemical staining confirmed that the tissue was normal pineal gland. The histology showed a characteristic lobular aspect and frequent corpora arenacea. The pigment seen cytologically was also encountered in histology and corresponded to lipofuscin. Cytologic features of the pineal gland are peculiar when compared to other normal structures of the central nervous system. These features correlate closely with what is seen on histology. In an adequate clinical context, and in combination with frozen sections, cytology allows a specific recognition of the pineal gland during intraoperative pathologic consultations.

  20. Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland on squash preparations.

    PubMed

    Murro, Diana; Alsadi, Alaa; Nag, Sukriti; Arvanitis, Leonidas; Gattuso, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    As primary pineal lesions are extremely rare, many surgical pathologists are unfamiliar with normal pineal cytologic features. We describe cytologic features of the normal pineal gland in patients of varying ages and identify common diagnostic pitfalls. We performed a retrospective review of pineal gland biopsies performed at our institution, where approximately 30,000 surgical specimens are accessioned yearly, for the last 23 years. Only two pineal gland biopsies were found. Although both cases were initially diagnosed as low-grade gliomas on frozen section, the final diagnosis was benign pineal tissue based on light microscopy and immunohistochemistry results. Additionally, we performed squash preparations of five normal pineal gland autopsy specimens with Papanicolaou and Diff-Quik® (Dade Behring, Newark, DE) stains. Infant preparations were highly cellular smears composed of numerous, uniform, single cells with indistinct cytoplasm, small round-to-oval nuclei, fine chromatin, and absent nucleoli and calcifications. The vague microfollicular pattern mimicked a pineocytoma and the fine fibrillary background mimicked a glial neoplasm. Young adult smears were similar; however, microcalcifications were present with fewer background single cells. Older patients had much less cellular smears composed of small clusters of cells with fusiform-to-spindle nuclei, a fine chromatin pattern, and indistinct cytoplasmic borders. There were fewer background single cells and more microcalcifications. The cytologic features of the native pineal gland vary with age. Normal pineal tissue can be confused with a pineocytoma or low-grade glioma. Familiarity with normal pineal gland cytological features will help to avoid a potential misdiagnosis.

  1. Application of Bethesda System for Cervical Cytology in Unhealthy Cervix

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Veena; Kaur, Tejinder

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Women presenting with unhealthy cervix needs to be evaluated with Papanicolaou (Pap) smear for epithelial abnormalities. Aim: To detect epithelial cell abnormalities in unhealthy cervix using the 2001Bethesda system of reporting for cervical cytology and to confirm histopathologicaly the findings of Pap smear. Materials and Methods: In this study, 125 women with clinical diagnosis of unhealthy cervix underwent conventional cytology. Cervical biopsies were taken from abnormal areas seen on colposcopy and sent for histopathology. Results: Out of 125 Pap smears, 122 were satisfactory for evaluation (19 normal, 86 negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy and 17 with epithelial cell abnormality) and 3 were unsatisfactory (one hemorrhagic and two severe inflammation). Out of 17 (13.60%) cases with epithelial cell abnormality, ASC-US was seen in 6 (4.80%), LSIL in 7 (5.60%), HSIL in 1 (0.80%), squamous cell carcinoma in 1 (0.80%), AGC endocervical in 1 (0.80%) and adenocarcinoma in 1 (0.80%) patients. Cervical biopsy was taken in 67 women. Diagnostic accuracy of Pap smear for preinvasive and invasive disease was 81.15% with overall sensitivity and specificity 78.57% and 88.67% respectively and predictive value of 64.71%. Conclusion: Women with clinical diagnosis of unhealthy cervix should be evaluated by cytology to detect any premalignant or malignant lesions. The Bethesda system for cervical cytology reporting should be used universally as it will give a standardized interpretation. PMID:25386491

  2. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology Utility in Salivary Gland Tumor Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Aniruddha; Sharma, Nishi; Sharma, Shweta

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to improve the diagnostic accuracy of tumors by using immunocytochemistry (IHC) on destained smears to correlate the cytological findings with histopathology and/or IHC for final evaluation of results. We have done a randomized and prospective double-blind study. Forty-six clinically suspected patients of salivary gland tumor were enrolled for study. Those with non-neoplastic\\ inflammatory salivary gland pathologies and swellings other than salivary gland origin were excluded from the study. The Fine needle aspiration cytological (FNAC) diagnosis of all the patients was compared with the corresponding histopathology. Sensitivity and specificity of FNAC in diagnosing malignancy were 91.3 and 100 %. Diagnostic accuracy of FNAC for malignant tumors was 95.65 %. In our study kappa value came out to be 0.88 (p value <0.00), which indicated an excellent agreement between histological and cytological typing of salivary gland tumors. FNAC is a highly sensitive and specific technique for diagnosis of salivary gland tumors. Histopathology however is the gold standard for diagnosis, classification and grading of tumors. Immuno-cytochemistry can act as adjuvant in diagnosing salivary gland tumors, however it did not help in improving the diagnostic accuracy of FNAC in our study. Considering an excellent agreement between cytology and histology, a type specific diagnosis can be reached on FNAC of salivary gland tumors.

  3. Back to the roots - should gastroenterologists perform their own cytology?

    PubMed

    Hocke, M; Ignee, A; Topalidis, T; Dietrich, C F

    2013-02-01

    Onsite cytology is widely recommended to improve cytological results in endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle punctures. The question is how well a gastroenterologist can be trained to perform an immediate bedside cytology. From September 2008 to May 2011 157 endosonographic fine-needle punctures with a 22 G needle where performed in a municipal hospital. A medium amount of 26 loaded slides resulted from every puncture and air drying was used to preserve the specimen. 2 promising slides were kept whereas the remaining slides were sent on to a professional laboratory for final examination. The preliminary diagnosis was compared with the results from the professional cytologist for final evaluation. 152/157 fine-needle punctures were evaluable. In 6 cases the final result was regarded as uncertain. 73 malignant specimens and 73 benign specimens could be used for comparison. The gastroenterologist's evaluation achieved a sensitivity of 87.7 % and specificity of 90.4 % when the decision between a benign and malignant specimen was made. The specification of the tumour could not be done reliably by the gastroenterologist. Doing a delayed onsite diagnosis of the specimen by a gastroenterologist can help to speed up the diagnostic process with reasonable certainty. However, it cannot replace a professional cytological diagnosis because of the possible misevaluation and the uncertainty in tumour specification. Additionally, advanced methods like immunocytology cannot be performed in an onsite hospital setting. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. [Factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Fan, Ling; Zou, Li-ying; Wu, Yu-mei; Zhang, Wei-yuan

    2010-02-01

    To investigate the risk factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology findings in pregnant women. From Sep. 2007 to Sep. 2008, 12,112 pregnant women who underwent their antenatal examinations at 12-36 gestational weeks in Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital were enrolled in this study. They were all excluded from the following pathologic obstetrics factors including threatened abortion, premature rupture of membranes or placental previa. Thinprep cytology test (TCT) were given at their first examination, meanwhile, a personal clinic file was established to record her occupation, education, address, family income, nationality, age of first intercourse, number of sex partners, contraception, marriage and pregnancy, current gynecologic diseases, family history of gynecologic tumors, history of gynecologic diseases and smoking and result of pelvic examination. Those risk factors leading to abnormal cervical cytology were analyzed. The complete clinical data were collected from 11 906 cases (98.30%, 11,906/12,112). It was found that 10,354 women were shown with normal TCT result, however, 1134 women (9.52%, 1134/11,906) with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 112 women (0.94%, 112/11,906) with atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS), 229 women (1.92%, 229/11,906) with low grade squamous intraepithelial (LSIL), 74 women (0.62%, 74/11,906) with high grade squamous intraepithelial (HSIL). Multiple factorial non-conditioned logistic regression analysis showed that age of first sexual intercourse (OR(ASCUS) = 2.90, OR(AGUS) = 7.32), number of sex partners (OR(ASCUS) = 1.49, OR(AGUS) = 2.02), number of abortion (OR(ASCUS) = 1.68, OR(AGUS) = 3.50) were correlated with ASCUS and AGUS. In LSIL group and HSIL group, age of first sexual intercourse (OR(LSIL) = 6.34, OR(HSIL) = 9.26), number of sex partners (OR(LSIL) = 1.69, OR(HSIL) = 1.65), number of abortion (OR(LSIL) = 1.53, OR(HSIL) = 5.33), smoking (OR(LSIL) = 1

  5. Cytological features of myxomatous fibroadenoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Rin; Tanaka, Maki; Yokoyama, Toshiro; Nonaka, Yasuhide; Mizushima, Yasuko; Kawahara, Akihiko; Yoshida, Tomoko; Ito, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Miki; Kage, Masayoshi; Yano, Hirohisa

    2012-04-01

    Fibroadenoma (FA) is a benign tumor that must be differentiated from carcinomas. FAs often exhibit myxedematous changes (myxomatous FA, M-FA). We previously reported on the clinical significance of M-FA. M-FA and (mucinous) carcinoma share clinical findings, rapid growth and a relatively large size, a high-depth/width (D/W) ratio, a relatively round shape, and posterior echo enhancement with internal hyperechogenicity on ultrasonography (US). Next, a biopsy is required for differential diagnosis. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic significance of the cytological findings of M-FA with US findings. Among 13 FAs that were diagnosed by cytology, we compared (i) a group of six mucinous carcinomas with acellular mucin and a D/W ratio ≥ 0.7 (a suspicious factor for malignancy) with a group with a D/W ratio of <0.7, and (ii) the frequency of metachromasia on Giemsa stain between M-FAs and non-M-FAs among eight FA cases confirmed by histology. (i) FA lesions (7 of 13) showed metachromasia with Giemsa staining significantly more frequently than did mucinous carcinoma (0/6) (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.044). FA lesions with a D/W ratio ≥ 0.7 (6/7) showed metachromasia significantly more frequently than did FA with a D/W ratio <0.7 (1/6) (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.029). Among eight FA cases confirmed by histology, M-FA cases (6/6) demonstrated metachromasia significantly more frequently than non-M-FA cases (0/2) (P < 0.036). M-FA cytologically exhibits marked metachromasia on Giemsa staining. Combining cytological examination and understanding the clinical features of M-FA may allow us to choose cytological examination as a first-line diagnostic method for tumor-forming lesions.

  6. [Analysis of nasal cytology in children and adolescents with rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Lozano, Natalia A; Saranz, Ricardo J; Lozano, Alejandro; Bovina Martijena, María Del Pilar; Ramirez, Maximiliano; Ponzio, Marina F; Berardi, Yanina V; Sosa, Ana G; Cóncari, Eugenia

    2017-01-01

    Nasal cytology in a easy-to apply method to differentiate rhinitis phenotypes from a physiopathogenic and diagnostic perspective. There are controversies about the relationship between clinical severity of rhinitis and inflammatory patterns expressed in the nasal cytology. To study the characteristic of the eosinophil and neutrophil patterns in the nasal scraping for Allergic Rhinitis (AR) and Non Allergic Rhinitis (NAR) and its relationship with the clinical grades of rhinitis established by the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthama Guideline (ARIA) Methods: In a observational, cross-sectional study we included patients aged 5 to 18 years presenting symptoms of either allergic (AR) or non- allergic rinitis (NAR) without asthma. Cytology was performed by analyzing nasal scraping obtained from the mucosal surface of the inferior turbinate and samples were stained using thr hematoxylin and eosin stain procedure. Inflammatory patterns between AR and NAR and between clinical grades of rhinitis classified by ARIA guide were compared. A total of 231 patients were included. Patients with AR exhibited higher percentage of eosinophils in nasal cytology than those with NAR (p = 0.0012) but no differences were observed in neutrophil count (p = 0.4011). No differences in the percentage of eosinophils and neutrophils between different grades of AR (p = 0.7342 and p = 0.0797 respectively) and NAR (p = 0.1010 and p = 0.1422 respectively) were observed. Eosinophil count in the nasal cytology was useful to differentiate rhinitis with a positive allergen skin test from rhinitis with negative skin test, but as neutrophils count, does not help to distinguish clinical grades of AR and NAR as classified by ARIA.

  7. Agreement Between Cytology and Histopathology for Regional Lymph Node Metastasis in Dogs With Melanocytic Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Janet A; Matz, Brad M; Christopherson, Pete W; Koehler, Jey W; Cappelle, Kelsey K; Hlusko, Katelyn C; Smith, Annette

    2017-07-01

    Melanocytic neoplasms are common in dogs and frequently occur within the oral cavity or in haired skin. The behavior of melanocytic neoplasms is variable and depends on tumor location, size, and histopathologic features. This study compared cytopathology and histopathology of 32 lymph nodes from 27 dogs diagnosed with melanocytic neoplasms. Agreement between the original cytology report, cytology slide review, original histopathology report, and histopathology slide review was determined for each lymph node. A subset of lymph nodes was subjected to immunohistochemistry (Melan-A) and additional histochemical stains/techniques (Prussian blue, bleach) to assist in differentiation of melanocytes and melanophages. Agreement ranged from slight to fair for each of the variables evaluated with weighted kappa (κw) or kappa (κ) analysis (original cytology vs cytology review κw = 0.24; original cytology vs original histopathology κw = 0.007; original cytology vs histopathology review κw = 0.23; cytology review vs original histopathology κw = 0.008; cytology review vs histopathology review κw = 0.006; and original histopathology vs histopathology review κ = 0.18). The diagnoses (metastatic, equivocal, or negative for metastasis) of the original report and slide review for both cytology and histopathology were not significantly correlated with survival in this population of patients. Overall, agreement between cytology and histopathology was poor even with a single clinical or anatomic pathologist performing slide review. Consensus between routine cytology and histopathology for staging of lymph nodes in patients with melanocytic neoplasms is poor and does not correlate with survival.

  8. Usefulness of p16ink4a, ProEX C, and Ki-67 for the diagnosis of glandular dysplasia and adenocarcinoma of the cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Negri, Giovanni; Bellisano, Giulia; Carico, Elisabetta; Faa, Gavino; Kasal, Armin; Antoniazzi, Sonia; Egarter-Vigl, Eduard; Piccin, Andrea; Dalla Palma, Paolo; Vittadello, Fabio

    2011-07-01

    Although the diagnostic criteria of in-situ and invasive adenocarcinomas of the cervix uteri are well established, the differentiation from benign mimics may be difficult and the morphologic features of the precursors of endocervical adenocarcinoma are still debated. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of p16ink4a (p16), ProEX C, and Ki-67 for the diagnosis of endocervical adenocarcinoma and its precursors. Immunohistochemistry with p16, ProEX C, and Ki-67 was performed in 82 glandular lesions including 15 invasive adenocarcinomas, 29 adenocarcinomas in situ (AIS), 22 non-neoplastic samples, and 16 cases of glandular dysplasia (GD), which showed significant nuclear abnormalities but did not meet the diagnostic criteria for AIS. The immunohistochemical expression pattern was scored according to the percentage of the stained cells (0, 1+, 2+, and 3+ when 0% to 5%, 6% to 25%, 26% to 50%, and more than 50% of the cells were stained, respectively) and was evaluated for each antibody. p16 was at least focally expressed (1+ or more) in 14 of 15 invasive adenocarcinomas, in all AIS and in 7 negative samples. ProEX C and Ki-67 both scored 1+ or more in all adenocarcinomas and AIS and in 8 and 6 negative samples, respectively. Of the GD 15, 14, and 15 expressed p16, ProEX C, and Ki-67, respectively. The score differences between neoplastic and non-neoplastic samples were highly significant for each marker (P<0.001); however, the score distribution by marker differed significantly only in GD (P=0.006) in which, compared with the other markers, p16 showed more often a 3+ pattern. Our study shows that p16, Ki-67, and ProEX C may be helpful for the diagnosis of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri and may also improve the diagnostic accuracy of endocervical GD. In particularly problematic cases, the combination of p16 and a proliferation marker can provide additional help for the interpretation of these lesions.

  9. Role of Scrape Cytology as an Adjunct to Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Diagnosis of Thyroid Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Khuroo, Mehnaaz Sultan; Mushtaq, Shaista; Beigh, Ambreen; Nazir, Naila; Reshi, Ruby

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Scrape cytology is an important diagnostic tool. It has been used in many tissue types as an adjunct or replacement for frozen section/ intra operative consultation. Aim This study was done to evaluate the role of scrape cytology in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions, its role as an adjunct to Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) and application of this technique for intra-operative consultation. Materials and Methods A prospective study on 50 thyroid neoplasms received over a period of 18 months (Nov 2014- March 2016) was conducted. Scrapings obtained from the fresh cut surface of thyroid specimens before formalin fixation, were smeared uniformly on to glass slides, and immediately fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol for rapid Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E). Cytological findings were compared with pre-operative FNAC findings and histopathological diagnosis. Variables taken in to consideration while assessing the smears included cellularity, nuclear, cytological details and amount of colloid. Results There were total of 50 patients. Out of the 50 patients, 15 were diagnosed as benign on scrape; of which 100% of cases were true negative for malignancy and five malignant cases were diagnosed as benign-false negative rate of 16.1%; four (8%) were deferred (non-diagnostic) with a true positive rate of 83.3%. Histopathological correlation was available in all cases. The overall diagnostic accuracy of scrape cytology was 89.1% with sensitivity and specificity of 83.87% (C.I.; 66.27% to 94.55%) and 100% (C.I; 76.84% to 100.00%) respectively. Fine Needle Aspiration results were available in 41 cases of which 2 were non-diagnostic. Of the remaining 39 cases 19 were benign and 20 were malignant with false negative rate of 40% and true positive rate of 60%. The overall diagnostic accuracy of FNAC was 64.1% with sensitivity and specificity of 60% (C.I.; 40.6% to77.3 %) and 77.78% (C.I; 39.9% to 97.1%) respectively. Conclusion We conclude that scrape cytology can act as a

  10. Randomized and non-randomized prospective controlled cohort studies in matched pair design for the long-term therapy of corpus uteri cancer patients with a mistletoe preparation (Iscador).

    PubMed

    Grossarth-Maticek, R; Ziegler, Renatus

    2008-03-31

    Mistletoe preparations such as Iscador are in common use as complementary/anthroposophic medications for many cancer indications, particularly for solid cancers. Efficacy of this complementary therapy is still discussed controversially. Does the long-term therapy with Iscador show any effect on survival or psychosomatic self-regulation of patients with corpus uteri cancer? Prospective recruitment and long-term follow-up in the following 4 controlled cohort studies. (1) Two randomized matched-pairs studies: corpus uteri cancer patients without (30 pairs) and with distant metastases (26 pairs) that never used any kind of mistletoe therapy were matched for prognostic factors. By pairwise random allocation, one of the patients was suggested mistletoe therapy to be applied by the attending physician. (2) Two non-randomized matched-pairs studies: corpus uteri cancer patients without (103 pairs) and with distant metastases (95 pairs) that already received mistletoe (Iscador) therapy were matched by the same criteria to control patients without Iscador therapy. Concerning overall survival in the randomized studies, a significant effect in favour of Iscador therapy was present only in the first study, the second showed no evidence for an effect: estimate of the hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval: 0.36 (0.16, 0.82) and 1.00 (0.46, 2.16) respectively. In the non-randomized studies, the results that adjusted for relevant prognostic variables were: 0.41 (0.26, 0.63), and 0.61 (0.39, 0.93). The effect of therapy with Iscador within 12 months on psychosomatic self-regulation as a measure of autonomous coping with the disease shows a significant rise in the Iscador group against the control group in the randomized as well as in the non-randomized study on patients with corpus uteri cancer without metastases: estimate of the median difference and 95% confidence interval: 0.40 (0.15, 0.70) and 0.70 (0.25, 1.15) respectively. The mistletoe preparation Iscador in these studies

  11. Cytology-based treatment decision in primary lung cancer: is it accurate enough?

    PubMed

    Sakr, Lama; Roll, Patrice; Payan, Marie-José; Liprandi, Agnès; Dutau, Hervé; Astoul, Philippe; Robaglia-Schlupp, Andrée; Loundou, Anderson; Barlesi, Fabrice

    2012-03-01

    Accurate distinction of lung cancer types has become increasingly important as recent trials have shown differential response to chemotherapy among non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) subtypes. Cytological procedures are frequently used but their diagnostic accuracy has been previously questioned. However, new endoscopic and cytological techniques might have improved cytological accuracy in comparison with prior findings. The aim of this study was to reassess cytological accuracy for diagnosis of lung cancer subtypes. A retrospective chart review of subjects who underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) for suspicion of lung cancer in 2007-2008, was undertaken. Reports of bronchoscopically derived cytological specimens were compared to those of histological material. Endoscopic findings and specific investigational techniques were taken into account. A total of 467 FOB with both cytological and histological diagnostic techniques were performed in 449 subjects. Patients consisted of 345 men and 104 women (median age, 65 yrs). Cytology proved malignancy in 157 patients. Cytologically diagnosed carcinomas were classified into squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) in 56, adenocarcinoma (ADC) in 6, small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) in 12, non-small cell lung carcinoma not otherwise specified (NSCLC-NOS) in 71, and unclassified carcinoma in 12. Cytology correlated fairly with biopsy specimens, as agreement was observed in 83% of SCLC, 100% of ADC, 74% of SqCC and 8% of NSCLC-NOS. Interestingly, 61% of cytologically identified NSCLC-NOS were classified as ADC by histology. Cytological accuracy improved in case of an endobronchial lesion, mainly for SqCC. These results indicate that cytological accuracy remains fair with regard to diagnosis of squamous and non-squamous lung cancer subtypes. Improvement of cytological accuracy is expected however with novel diagnostic strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Using cytology to increase small animal practice revenue.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Joanne

    2013-11-01

    Diagnostic cytology is a useful, noninvasive test with practical foundations in high-quality medicine and applications to practice building. Cytology will generate practice revenue whether assessed in-house or sent to a clinical pathologist. Thorough in-house evaluation is adequate in some cases, but expert opinion is important in many cases. Specimen slides should at least be reviewed in-house for assessment of cellularity and potential artifacts before submission to a reference laboratory. Reference laboratories also provide special stains and advanced molecular diagnostics to help further characterize many neoplastic processes, search for organisms, identify pigments, and address other important aspects of the lesion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Building and using a PACS in pathology and cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Drunen, Rudi; van Teylingen, Geert; Boon, Mathilde E.; Kok, Lambrecht P.

    2001-08-01

    Applications of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) in Pathology and Cytology are currently hardly used in the diagnostic process. Here we describe a system that, together with existing equipment, stores data from cervix smears, and aids the physician in the diagnostic process. The system comprises of a scanning system for the specimen and a multi-level storage system partly on disk and partly on optical media. The system adds additional benefits in the diagnostic process while at the same time provides a safe long-term storage and archive of the data. Due to the open nature and the cost-effectiveness of this solution applications of this system can be found not only in cervical cytology but also in pathology or other parts of medicine where image processing or storage is a major issue.

  14. [Combined choroidal biopsy and cytology for diagnosis of intraocular tumour].

    PubMed

    Sala-Puigdollers, A; Rodríguez-de la Rúa, E; Saornil, M A; García-Álvarez, C; García-Lagarto, E; Ovelar Arribas, Y

    2013-09-01

    No intraocular biopsy technique is free of risk and all have the possibility of giving false negatives due to the difficulty in obtaining a sufficient sample. A modified chorioretinal biopsy was performed on a patient with suspected choroidal melanoma after negative biopsy with 25G vitrectomy. In addition to removing a solid fragment of tumor material using bimanual surgery, material from the lesion was obtained with the vitreotome to perform cytology, which confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma. Cytology obtained through the vitreotome in association with removing a solid sample of the choroidal lesion may improve the efficiency of intraocular biopsy. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Phytosanitary Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, Guy J.; Blackburn, Carl M.

    2016-01-01

    Phytosanitary treatments disinfest traded commodities of potential quarantine pests. Phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments use ionizing radiation to accomplish this, and, since their international commercial debut in 2004, the use of this technology has increased by ~10% annually. Generic PI treatments (one dose is used for a group of pests and/or commodities, although not all have been tested for efficacy) are used in virtually all commercial PI treatments, and new generic PI doses are proposed, such as 300 Gy, for all insects except pupae and adult Lepidoptera (moths). Fresh fruits and vegetables tolerate PI better than any other broadly used treatment. Advances that would help facilitate the use of PI include streamlining the approval process, making the technology more accessible to potential users, lowering doses and broadening their coverage, and solving potential issues related to factors that might affect efficacy. PMID:28231103

  16. Detection of microRNAs in archival cytology urine smears.

    PubMed

    Simonato, Francesca; Ventura, Laura; Sartori, Nicola; Cappellesso, Rocco; Fassan, Matteo; Busund, Lill-Tove; Fassina, Ambrogio

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs' dysregulation and profiling have been demonstrated to be clinically relevant in urothelial carcinoma (UC). Urine cytology is commonly used as the mainstay non-invasive test for secondary prevention and follow-up of UC patients. Ancillary tools are needed to support cytopathologists in the diagnosis of low-grade UC. The feasibility and reliability of microRNAs profiling by qRT-PCR analysis (miR-145 and miR-205) in archival routine urine cytology smears (affected by fixation/staining [Papanicolau] and room temperature storage) was tested in a series of 15 non-neoplastic and 10 UC urine specimens. Only samples with >5,000 urothelial cells and with <50% of inflammatory cells/red blood cells clusters were considered. Overall, a satisfactory amount of total RNA was obtained from all the considered samples (mean 1.27±1.43 µg, range 0.06-4.60 µg). Twenty nanograms of total RNA have been calculated to be the minimal total RNA concentration for reliable and reproducible miRNAs expression profiling analysis of archival cytological smears (slope= -3.4084; R-squared=0.99; efficiency=1.94). miR-145 and miR-205 were significantly downregulated in UC samples in comparison to non-tumor controls. These findings demonstrate that urine archival cytology smears are suitable for obtaining high-quality RNA to be used in microRNAs expression profiling. Further studies should investigate if miRNAs profiling can be successfully translated into clinical practice as diagnostic or prognostic markers.

  17. Aspiration cytology of metastatic chordoma. A case report.

    PubMed

    Elliott, E C; McKinney, S; Banks, H; Fulks, R M

    1983-01-01

    A patient with previously diagnosed sacrococcygeal chordoma presented with multiple skin nodules. Cytologic examination of an aspirate from one of these nodules showed syncytial clusters of hyperchromatic cells surrounded by extracellular mucin. The characteristic physaliphorous cells, although present in a biopsy of the primary sacrococcygeal tumor, were not observed in the aspirate or on histopathologic examination of three excised skin metastases. That chordoma metastases may lack physaliphorous cells should be recognized.

  18. Cell bioprocessing in space - Applications of analytical cytology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.; Hymer, W. C.; Goolsby, C. L.; Hatfield, J. M.; Morrison, D. R.

    1988-01-01

    Cell bioprocessing experiments in space are reviewed and the development of on-board cell analytical cytology techniques that can serve such experiments is discussed. Methods and results of experiments involving the cultivation and separation of eukaryotic cells in space are presented. It is suggested that an advanced cytometer should be developed for the quantitative analysis of large numbers of specimens of suspended eukaryotic cells and bioparticles in experiments on the Space Station.

  19. Cell bioprocessing in space - Applications of analytical cytology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.; Hymer, W. C.; Goolsby, C. L.; Hatfield, J. M.; Morrison, D. R.

    1988-01-01

    Cell bioprocessing experiments in space are reviewed and the development of on-board cell analytical cytology techniques that can serve such experiments is discussed. Methods and results of experiments involving the cultivation and separation of eukaryotic cells in space are presented. It is suggested that an advanced cytometer should be developed for the quantitative analysis of large numbers of specimens of suspended eukaryotic cells and bioparticles in experiments on the Space Station.

  20. Clinical and cytological correlations in pericardial effusions with cardiac tamponade.

    PubMed

    Petcu, D P; Petcu, C; Popescu, Carmen Florina; Bătăiosu, C; Alexandru, D

    2009-01-01

    We studied 27 patients diagnosed with pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade on which pericardiocentesis was performed. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the benefits and limits of the cytological examination of the pericardial liquid in the etiological diagnosis and the treatment of patients with cardiac tamponade. The pericardial liquid taken was examined macroscopically, biochemically (content of proteins, glucose, cholesterol, and LDH), cytologically (MGG stained smears from pericardial liquid) and bacteriologically. The obtained results were compared to the clinical data, the laboratory and paraclinical tests, to differentiate the cause and therapeutically procedure. The cardiac tamponade remitted after pericardiocentesis in all patients. The pericardial liquid was exudate (Ligth criteria) in 82% of all patients. The cytological examination of the pericardial liquid showed malignant smear in 40.74% of the patients, smear of the TBC specific inflammation type in 7.40% patients, smear of non-specific inflammation type in 25.94% of patients, reactive type smear in 25.9% of patients.

  1. CytometryML: a markup language for analytical cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.; Leif, Stephanie H.; Leif, Suzanne B.

    2003-06-01

    Cytometry Markup Language, CytometryML, is a proposed new analytical cytology data standard. CytometryML is a set of XML schemas for encoding both flow cytometry and digital microscopy text based data types. CytometryML schemas reference both DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) codes and FCS keywords. These schemas provide representations for the keywords in FCS 3.0 and will soon include DICOM microscopic image data. Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS) list-mode has been mapped to the DICOM Waveform Information Object. A preliminary version of a list mode binary data type, which does not presently exist in DICOM, has been designed. This binary type is required to enhance the storage and transmission of flow cytometry and digital microscopy data. Index files based on Waveform indices will be used to rapidly locate the cells present in individual subsets. DICOM has the advantage of employing standard file types, TIF and JPEG, for Digital Microscopy. Using an XML schema based representation means that standard commercial software packages such as Excel and MathCad can be used to analyze, display, and store analytical cytometry data. Furthermore, by providing one standard for both DICOM data and analytical cytology data, it eliminates the need to create and maintain special purpose interfaces for analytical cytology data thereby integrating the data into the larger DICOM and other clinical communities. A draft version of CytometryML is available at www.newportinstruments.com.

  2. Classification of breast cancer cytological specimen using convolutional neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żejmo, Michał; Kowal, Marek; Korbicz, Józef; Monczak, Roman

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a deep learning approach for automatic classification of breast tumors based on fine needle cytology. The main aim of the system is to distinguish benign from malignant cases based on microscopic images. Experiment was carried out on cytological samples derived from 50 patients (25 benign cases + 25 malignant cases) diagnosed in Regional Hospital in Zielona Góra. To classify microscopic images, we used convolutional neural networks (CNN) of two types: GoogLeNet and AlexNet. Due to the very large size of images of cytological specimen (on average 200000 × 100000 pixels), they were divided into smaller patches of size 256 × 256 pixels. Breast cancer classification usually is based on morphometric features of nuclei. Therefore, training and validation patches were selected using Support Vector Machine (SVM) so that suitable amount of cell material was depicted. Neural classifiers were tuned using GPU accelerated implementation of gradient descent algorithm. Training error was defined as a cross-entropy classification loss. Classification accuracy was defined as the percentage ratio of successfully classified validation patches to the total number of validation patches. The best accuracy rate of 83% was obtained by GoogLeNet model. We observed that more misclassified patches belong to malignant cases.

  3. Prostatic sarcomatoid carcinoma in a dog: cytologic and immunohistochemical findings.

    PubMed

    Pinto da Cunha, Nazarél; Ghisleni, Gabriele; Romussi, Stefano; Caniatti, Mario

    2007-12-01

    An 8-year-old neutered male Boxer was presented with tenesmus, hemorrhagic urethral discharge, and dysuria. Abdominal ultrasound and radiographic examinations revealed irregular prostatic enlargement. Laparotomy was performed and intraoperative cytology was done on imprint smears of a biopsy specimen obtained from a prostatic mass. The cytologic preparation was highly cellular and contained a predominant population of atypical, large, loosely cohesive spindle cells, with rare multinucleated cells and mitotic figures. The cytologic findings were consistent with undifferentiated sarcoma. At necropsy, a large cystic prostatic mass and numerous satellite nodules in the soft tissues around the pelvis were found. On histologic examination the tumor was composed primarily of bundles of neoplastic spindle cells. Rare pseudo-acinar structures and signet-ring cells also were observed. On immunohistochemical examination, the neoplastic cells co-expressed cytokeratin and vimentin. Based on histologic and immunohistochemical findings, the tumor was diagnosed as primary prostatic sarcomatoid carcinoma. This is a rare tumor in dogs, in which biphasic morphology of epithelial and mesenchymal cells can complicate the diagnosis, requiring immunochemical stains for confirmation.

  4. Storage alters feline bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytological analysis.

    PubMed

    Nafe, Laura A; DeClue, Amy E; Reinero, Carol R

    2011-02-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) collection is a valuable respiratory diagnostic procedure in cats. This study evaluated effects of BALF storage on total nucleated cell counts (TNCCs) and differential cell counts (DCC), cell morphology, and cytological diagnosis. Forty-five research cats with neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and mixed inflammation, and healthy controls were enrolled. BALF samples were processed within 1h (baseline) or stored at 4°C (4C24) or room temperature (RT24) for 24h, or 4°C (4C48) or room temperature (RT48) for 48h before processing. Stored BALF at RT48 had decreased TNCC compared to baseline. The RT24 and RT48 samples had greater eosinophil % and the RT24, 4C48, and RT48 samples had decreased neutrophil % compared with baseline. Cellular morphology deteriorated in all stored samples. Storage resulted in a change in cytological diagnosis in up to 57% of stored samples. We conclude that cytological analysis of BALF in cats should be performed promptly for optimal results.

  5. Graph-based segmentation of abnormal nuclei in cervical cytology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Kong, Hui; Liu, Shaoxiong; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping; Sonka, Milan

    2017-03-01

    A general method is reported for improving the segmentation of abnormal cell nuclei in cervical cytology images. In automation-assisted reading of cervical cytology, one of the essential steps is the segmentation of nuclei. Despite some progress, there is a need to improve the sensitivity, particularly the segmentation of abnormal nuclei. Our method starts with pre-segmenting the nucleus to define the coarse center and size of nucleus, which is used to construct a graph by image unfolding that maps ellipse-like border in the Cartesian coordinate system to lines in the polar coordinate system. The cost function jointly reflects properties of nucleus border and nucleus region. The prior constraints regarding the context of nucleus-cytoplasm position are utilized to modify the local cost functions. The globally optimal path in the constructed graph is then identified by dynamic programming with an iterative approach ensuring an optimal closed contour. Validation of our method was performed on abnormal nuclei from two cervical cell image datasets, Herlev and H&E stained manual liquid-based cytology (HEMLBC). Compared with five state-of-the-art approaches, our graph-search based method shows superior performance.

  6. Urine cytology of micropapillary carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Takahiko; Furuta, Michiko; Mimura, Akihiro; Tanigawa, Naoto; Takamizu, Ryuichi; Kawano, Kiyoshi

    2011-11-01

    A case of micropapillary carcinoma (MPC) of urinary bladder is presented, in which the urine smear was studied in detail in an attempt to better characterize the cytologic findings of MPC. When the voided urine was examined in low power, cancer cells were scattered in the specimens as compact papillary/spheroidal clusters composed of pleomorphic cancer cells. Solitary carcinoma cells were occasionally observed. High power view of the smear revealed that the papillae/spheroids consisted of high-grade urothelial carcinoma cells. The cancer cells had pleomorphic nuclei with coarsely granular chromatin and thickened, irregular nuclear membrane, and thick cytoplasm. Histologically, the tumor in the resected bladder appeared as small nests with surrounding hallo both in the luminal surface and in the site of wall involvement. These tightly bound papillary/spheroidal clusters comprised of highly atypical cancer cells were the most specific cytologic finding in the urine of MPC, which were considered as a key diagnostic clue of MPC. The background of the urine smear showed numerous granulocytes and bacilli compatible with cystitis, which is a previously known complication of MPC. Differential diagnoses of MPC from those with pertinent cytologic findings such as conventional UC (including glandular differentiation), and primary/secondary adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder are discussed with a brief review of literature. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Cytologic diagnosis of spinal cord ependymoma in cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Kalogeraki, A; Tamiolakis, D; Sinatkas, V; Xekalou, A; Papadakis, M; Stathopoulos, E N

    2012-12-01

    Ependymoma cells are known to rarely exfoliate into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, the frequency of CSF involvement in patients with ependymoma is unclear, and to the author's knowledge the cytomorphologic features of tumour cells have not been well described to date. In this study, the CSF findings in a patient with ependymoma and the cytopathological features of this tumor are reported. The patient presented at the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, suffering from a chest to back pain. Computed tomography, scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed and a mass of 3x2 cm in the thoracic aspect of the spinal cord was found. A sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was sent for cytologic examination and a diagnosis of ependymoma was made. A biopsy was performed and histology confirmed the cytologic diagnosis of ependymoma grade II (WHO). Exfoliated cells from ependymomas of spinal cord are rarely recognizable in CSF samples. Except in patients with myxopapillary tumours and anaplastic tumours, cytomorphologic features of ependymoma have been described only in case reports of intraoperative imprinting or fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNABs) and not in CSF cytology.

  8. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Viguer, José M; Jiménez-Heffernan, José A; López-Ferrer, Pilar; Banaclocha, Marcos; Vicandi, Blanca

    2005-04-01

    Cytological features of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were reviewed in an attempt to select cytological criteria that permit a specific recognition of metastases. For this purpose, 54 fine-needle aspiration (FNA) procedures from 43 patients with NPC were analyzed. Thirty-two (59.3%) procedures were performed before the histological diagnosis. In 25 (46.3%) procedures, smears showed many neoplastic single cells, clusters, and abundant lymphoid cells (mixed pattern). A dissociated (single cell) pattern consisting of individual neoplastic and lymphoid cells was seen in 18 (33.3%) cases. Finally, 11 (20.4%) cases showed cohesive epithelial clusters (cohesive pattern) without relevant cellular dissociation or lymphoid cells. Squamous-cell differentiation was seen in three of these cases. Most single neoplastic cells presented as large, pleomorphic naked nuclei. Other interesting findings were granulomas (n = 3), prominent eosinophilic infiltrates (n = 4), and suppurative changes (n = 5). In most smears with mixed and dissociated patterns, a nasopharyngeal origin could be suggested. On the contrary, those smears with a cohesive pattern were indistinguishable from other head and neck carcinomas. The presence (on cervical lymph nodes) of a dissociated or mixed (single cells and groups) architectural pattern of large, anaplastic cells and naked nuclei accompanied by an abundant lymphoid component is highly suggestive of undifferentiated NPC. Cytology offers a rapid diagnosis, establishes the necessity of a complete cavum examination, and helps in avoiding unnecessary and harmful biopsies.

  9. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma: A diagnostic challenge on cytology.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kanika; Agarwal, Charu; Pujani, Mukta; Verma, Pragya; Chauhan, Varsha

    2017-03-06

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (Ca ex PA) is a malignant neoplasm arising from primary or recurrent benign pleomorphic adenoma. It is rare with an annual incidence rate of 0.17 tumors per million. Histopathology remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of Ca ex PA, with only a handful of cases reported on cytology. In our case a 66-year-old male presented with the right parotid mass for 5 years rapidly increasing for the last 3 months. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears showed malignant tumor cells in clusters along with benign myoepithelial cells in chondromyxoid background. Histopathologically, highly pleomorphic malignant epithelial cells in sheets along with foci of comedonecrosis and areas corresponding to benign pleomorphic adenoma were observed on careful scrutiny. Immunohistochemistry revealed positivity for cytokeratin (CK 7) and gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (GCDFP-15) while CK5/6 and high molecular weight CK (34 βE12) were negative in the malignant tumor cells. So, the final impression was Ca ex PA with salivary duct carcinoma as malignant component. We hereby report this case to highlight the significance of FNAC in the diagnosis of Ca ex PA which can be easily missed on cytopathology. However, it is important to corroborate the cytological findings with clinical suspicion of malignancy as well as radiology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Multitarget fluorescence in situ hybridization assay for the detection of lung cancer in bronchial cytology specimens: A Comparison With Routine Cytology.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Jing

    2015-10-01

    Routine bronchial cytology is an important diagnostic tool in suspected lung cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of LAVysion FISH assay over routine cytology for the detection of malignant bronchial cytology specimens. Forty six patients who underwent bronchoscopic examination in a period of 6 months were included. Bronchial brushing and/or washing specimens were accompanied by concurrent endobronchial biopsy and/or FNA, which were used as gold standard for diagnosis. The smears for FISH assay were made from the discarded residual fluid after being processed for routine cytology. Twenty seven of the 46 patients were diagnosed of malignancy. For bronchial brushing specimens, the sensitivity of routine cytology and FISH for the detection of malignancy was 18% (3/17) and 35% (6/17) respectively (p = 0.08); the specificity of routine cytology and FISH was the same, 80% (8/10). For bronchial washing specimens, the sensitivity of routine cytology and FISH for the detection of malignancy was 8% (2/24) and 29% (7/24) respectively (p = 0.01); the specificity of routine cytology and FISH was the same, 94% (16/17). Our data shows that routine bronchial cytology appears to have a very low sensitivity for the detection of malignancy. FISH assay appears to increase the sensitivity for the detection of malignancy, but does not appear to improve it to a desirable level. A larger prospective study is necessary to further evaluate the role of FISH assay in the detection of malignancy in bronchial cytology specimens. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Resistance of two planarian species to UV-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kalafatić, Mirjana; Kovacević, Goran; Franjević, Damjan

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effects of 20, 25 and 30 minute UV-irradiation periods lambda = 253.5 nm to two planarian species Dugesia tigrina (Gir.) and Polycelis felina (Daly.). In vivo, UV light effects have been reported to affect intracellular receptors and disrupt simple behaviour. The effects of UV-rays on mortality and behavior as well as morphological, cytological and histological changes in the two planarian species were assessed, and the course and the dynamics of regenerative processes were compared between them. Experimental populations of Dugesia tigrina and Polycelis felina species were maintained in laboratory conditions at room temperature. Mortality, behavioral and morphological changes were monitored daily by means of a light stereomicroscope. For cytological and histopathological analysis, planarians were fixed in Bouine fixative on the first, second, third, fifth and seventh day after exposure to UV-irradiation, respectively. They were embedded in paraffin, cut on a microtome, stained with toluidin blue and embedded in Canada-balsam. UV-rays caused mortality, behavioral, morphological, cytological and histological changes in each planarian species. In regeneration of damaged body parts reticular cells and neoblasts played the main role. Neoblasts as totipotent cells extremely increased in number in the area of damaged tissue, immediately after UV-exposure. Dugesia tigrina was more sensitive to UV-rays than Polycelis felina due to possession of less pigmented cells. The course of regeneration in both species was similar. Most individuals of both species regenerated in 5 to 12 days after UV-irradiation.

  12. Intraperitoneal cytology after laparoscopic hysterectomy in patients with endometrial cancer: A retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tomohito; Terai, Yoshito; Maeda, Kazuya; Ashihara, Keisuke; Kogata, Yuhei; Maruoka, Hiroshi; Terada, Shinichi; Yamada, Takashi; Ohmichi, Masahide

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dissemination of cancer cells at laparoscopic hysterectomy according to the intraperitoneal cytology.Patients with endometrial cancer underwent total laparoscopic modified radical hysterectomy. Peritoneal wash cytology was performed on entering the peritoneal cavity before surgical preparation and just after hysterectomy.Seventy-eight patients underwent laparoscopic hysterectomy for endometrial cancer. Among the 15 patients who had positive intraperitoneal cytology on entering the peritoneal cavity, 10 converted to negative intraperitoneal cytology after hysterectomy. In contrast, among the 63 patients who had negative intraperitoneal cytology on entering the peritoneal cavity, 2 converted to positive intraperitoneal cytology after hysterectomy.While surgery can reduce the number of cancer cells in the peritoneal cavity, leakage can occur, as seen in some cases of hysterectomy. Careful washing must be performed after hysterectomy.

  13. An observational study of women with positive HPV-DNA tests and normal cytology and colposcopy.

    PubMed

    Paraskevaidis, E; Davidson, E J; Malamou-Mitsi, V; Hirsch, P M; Pappa, L; Koliopoulos, G; Lolis, E; Zikopoulos, K; Paschopoulos, M; Doussias, V; Agnantis, N

    2002-01-01

    High risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) are implicated in the aetiology of malignant cervical disease. The usefulness of HPV DNA tests in identifying women at risk of cervical cancer as an adjunct to cervical cytology is under evaluation. This is a retrospective analysis of 47 women positive for high risk HPV but with negative cytology and negative colposcopy at the start of the study. Women were observed for three years or more (in 96% cases) using six-monthly combined HPV DNA tests, cytological and colposcopic evaluation. At the end of follow-up, 29/47 (62%) women were still positive for high risk HPV, 45/47 (96%) women had normal cytology and 47/47 (100%) women continued to have normal colposcopy. Normal colposcopy has an excellent negative predictive value for HPV positive women with normal cytology. These women can be safely screened cytologically on a three-yearly basis.

  14. Newly developed liquid-based cytology. TACAS™: cytological appearance and HPV testing using liquid-based sample.

    PubMed

    Kubushiro, Kaneyuki; Taoka, Hideki; Sakurai, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Kurasaki, Akiko; Asakawa, Yasuyuki; Iwahara, Minoru; Takahashi, Kei

    2011-09-01

    Cell profiles determined by the thin-layer advanced cytology assay system (TACAS™), a liquid-based cytology technique newly developed in Japan, were analyzed in this study. Hybrid capture 2 (HC-2) was also performed using the liquid-based samples prepared by TACAS to ascertain its ability to detect human papillomavirus (HPV). Cell collection samples from uterine cervix were obtained from 359 patients and examined cytologically. A HC-2 assay for HPV was carried out in the cell specimens. All specimens were found to show background factors such as leukocytes. After excluding the 5 unsatisfactory cases from the total 354 cases, 82 cases (23.2%) were positive and 272 cases (76.8%) were negative for HPV. Cell specimens from 30 HPV-positive cases and 166 HPV-negative cases were subjected to 4 weeks of preservation at room temperature. Then, when subsequently re-assayed, 28 cases (93.3%) in the former group were found to be HPV positive and 164 cases (98.8%) in the latter group were found to be HPV negative. These results supported the excellent reproducibility of TACAS for HPV testing. A reasonable inference from the foregoing analysis is that TACAS may be distinguished from other liquid-based cytological approaches, such as ThinPrep and SurePath, in that it can retain the cell backgrounds. Furthermore, this study raises the possibility that cell specimens prepared using TACAS could be preserved for at least 4 weeks prior to carrying out a HC-2 assay for HPV.

  15. Diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis on fine needle aspiration cytology: a case report and review of the cytology literature.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neeta; Sayed, Shahin; Vinayak, Sudhir

    2011-01-20

    A case of multifocal Langerhans cell histiocytosis in a two-year-old child is presented where fine needle aspiration was helpful in achieving a rapid and accurate diagnosis in an appropriate clinical and radiological setting. This can avoid unnecessary biopsy and guide the management especially where access to histopathology is limited. The highly characteristic common and rare cytological features are highlighted with focus on differential diagnoses and causes of pitfalls.

  16. CYTOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ANTIMICROBIAL ANTIBIOSIS. III. CYTOLOGICALLY DISTINGUISHABLE STAGES IN ANTIBIOTIC ACTION OF COLISTIN SULFATE ON ESCHERICHIA COLI.

    PubMed

    KAYE, J J; CHAPMAN, G B

    1963-09-01

    Kaye, Jeremy J. (Cornell University Medical College, New York, N.Y.) and George B. Chapman. Cytological aspects of antimicrobial antibiosis. III. Cytologically distinguishable stages in antibiotic action of colistin sulfate on Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 86:536-543. 1963.-Broth cultures of Escherichia coli were subjected to a constant concentration of colistin sulfate for varying periods of time. Controls and treated cells were fixed, dehydrated, and embedded in methacrylate, and ultrathin sections were examined in an electron microscope. Three stages in the antibiotic process were discerned. Stage 1 was characterized by a disruption of the axial orientation of the nuclear material and by an invasion of nuclear areas by tufts of material presumably of cytoplasmic origin; no loss of cellular contents could be detected cytologically. Stage 2 was characterized by the loss of nuclear material and by a loss of typical cytoplasmic granularity, an increase in cytoplasmic electron density, and an agglomeration of the cytoplasm into packed tufts of material; in contrast to the nuclear material, there was no loss of cytoplasmic material in this stage. Stage 3 was characterized by the loss of the altered cytoplasmic material but with the persistence of mesosomes, plasma membrane, and cell wall. Speculation that each and all of these changes might have resulted from an altered intracellular milieu secondary to a primary effect of the antibiotic on the plasma membrane is presented.

  17. Touch imprint cytology: a rapid diagnostic tool for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Geetha, L; Astekar, M; Ashok, K N; Sowmya, G V

    2015-07-01

    Techniques for intraoperative pathologic examination of oral squamous cell carcinoma are rare in the literature. We evaluated the advantages and limitations of touch imprint cytology for intraoperative diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. We used 30 incisional biopsies of clinically diagnosed oral squamous cell carcinoma and compared touch imprint cytology to histopathological sections. Touch imprint cytology showed 24 specimens positive for malignancy, two suspicious for malignancy and four inadequate specimens. The accuracy of the test was 93.2%. Touch imprint cytology is an accurate, simple, rapid and cost-effective method that aids diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma during operation, but it does not replace incisional biopsy.

  18. The contribution of rapid intraoperative cytology in the evaluation of endometrial cancer spread.

    PubMed

    Anastasiadis, Panagiotis; Koutlaki, Nikoleta; Liberis, Vasilios; Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Dimitraki, Marina; Liberis, Anastasios; Galazios, George

    2011-02-01

    Peritoneal washing cytology and imprint cytology of pelvic lymph nodes samples were used to evaluate the rapid cytologic detection of peritoneal and retroperitoneal spread of endometrial cancer. We undertook a study on 194 endometrial cancer patients who underwent primary treatment in the Gynecologic Clinic, Democritus University of Thrace. All patients were subjected to peritoneal washing (PW) cytology and imprint cytology performed on lymph node sampling. The cytologic specimens were stained by May-Grünwald Giemsa (MGG) and Haematoxylin eosin (HE) techniques. Cell-blocks prepared from peritoneal washings (PWs) and the lymph node samples were sent for histologic examination. The cytologic fi ndings were correlated to histologic results. Rapid intraoperative cytology provides a useful diagnostic technique for the assessment of endometrial cancer spread. HE and MGG stain presented different values of sensitivity and specifi city in the detection of peritoneal and retroperitoneal spread of endometrial cancer. Cytologic assessment of intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal spread of endometrial cancer is a rapid, intraoperative procedure, which provides the surgeon with useful information regarding the stage of the disease and the subsequent therapeutic approach.

  19. Cytological and molecular diagnosis of solid variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Troncone, Giancarlo; Russo, Maria; Malapelle, Umberto; Accardo, Marina; Ferraro, Angelo; Cozzolino, Immacolata; Palombini, Lucio

    2008-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) composed by predominant solid areas is diagnosed as a distinct variant on histological samples. Here we present a case of PTC recognized preoperatively by fine needle cytology as a solid variant. This diagnosis was made by combining cytology with the detection of the BRAFVK600-1E mutation, the molecular hallmark of the solid variant of PTC. Histological and molecular evaluation of the surgical specimen confirmed this pre-operative diagnosis. Thus combining cytology to BRAF molecular analysis is useful to refine the cytological diagnosis of this variant also on FNC specimens. PMID:18353179

  20. Oncocytic papillary cystadenoma of major salivary glands: Three rare cases with diverse cytologic features.

    PubMed

    Chin, Susie; Kim, Hee Kyung; Kwak, Jeong Ja

    2014-01-01

    Oncocytic papillary cystadenoma (OPC) in the major salivary glands is extremely rare. We report three cases of these cystadenomas arising in major salivary glands, with varied cytologic features. Case 1: A 38-year-old man presented with a right parotid gland mass that showed papillary clusters of oncocytic cells on cytologic examination. Case 2: An 84-year-old man presented with a left parotid gland mass. Cytology revealed an acellular smear. Case 3: A 57-year-old man presented with a mass in the right submandibular gland. Cytology revealed irregular sheets of epithelial cells. Histologic diagnoses of OPC were made for all three cases.

  1. Cytologic diagnosis of papillary carcinoma of the breast in needle aspirates.

    PubMed

    Naran, S; Simpson, J; Gupta, R K

    1988-03-01

    Eleven cases of rare papillary carcinoma of the breast diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) are reported. Five of these were pure papillary carcinomas and six were mixed papillary and ductal, lobular, or mucinous carcinomas. In each case, cytological material was collected by washing the needle and syringe contents into 30% alcohol in saline, and the Gelman cytosieve method was used for the cytological preparations. In this article, the cytological features of these tumors are described, including the presence of single papillae and papillary clusters, tall columnar cells, diathesis of blood with hemosiderin-laden macrophages, naked nuclei, and high cell recovery.

  2. Quercetin Induces Dose-Dependent Differential Morphological and Proliferative Changes in Rat Uteri in the Presence and in the Absence of Estrogen

    PubMed Central

    Shahzad, Huma; Giribabu, Nelli; Sekaran, Muniandy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Quercetin could have profound effects on uterine morphology and proliferation, which are known to be influenced by estrogen. This study investigated the effect of quercetin on these uterine parameters in the presence and in the absence of estrogen. Ovariectomized adult female rats received peanut oil, quercetin (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day), estrogen, or estrogen+quercetin (10, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day) treatment for 7 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment, uteri were harvested for histological and molecular biological analyses. Distribution of proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein in the uterus was observed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of expression of PCNA protein and mRNA in uterine tissue homogenates were determined by Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Our findings indicated that administration of 10 mg/kg/day of quercetin either alone or with estrogen resulted in decreased uterine expression of PCNA protein and mRNA with the percentage of PCNA-positive cells in uterine luminal and glandular epithelia markedly reduced compared with estrogen-only treatment. Changes in uterine morphology were the opposite of changes observed following estrogen treatment. Treatment with 100 mg/kg/day of quercetin either alone or with estrogen resulted in elevated PCNA protein and mRNA expression. In addition, the percentages of PCNA-positive cells in the epithelia, which line the lumen and glands, were increased with morphological features mimicking changes that occur following estrogen treatment. Following 50 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment, the changes observed were in between those changes that occur following 10 and 100 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment. In conclusion, changes in uterine morphology and proliferation following 10 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment could be attributed to quercetin's antiestrogenic properties, while changes that occur following 100 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment could be

  3. Quercetin Induces Dose-Dependent Differential Morphological and Proliferative Changes in Rat Uteri in the Presence and in the Absence of Estrogen.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Huma; Giribabu, Nelli; Sekaran, Muniandy; Salleh, Naguib

    2015-12-01

    Quercetin could have profound effects on uterine morphology and proliferation, which are known to be influenced by estrogen. This study investigated the effect of quercetin on these uterine parameters in the presence and in the absence of estrogen. Ovariectomized adult female rats received peanut oil, quercetin (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day), estrogen, or estrogen+quercetin (10, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day) treatment for 7 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment, uteri were harvested for histological and molecular biological analyses. Distribution of proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein in the uterus was observed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of expression of PCNA protein and mRNA in uterine tissue homogenates were determined by Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Our findings indicated that administration of 10 mg/kg/day of quercetin either alone or with estrogen resulted in decreased uterine expression of PCNA protein and mRNA with the percentage of PCNA-positive cells in uterine luminal and glandular epithelia markedly reduced compared with estrogen-only treatment. Changes in uterine morphology were the opposite of changes observed following estrogen treatment. Treatment with 100 mg/kg/day of quercetin either alone or with estrogen resulted in elevated PCNA protein and mRNA expression. In addition, the percentages of PCNA-positive cells in the epithelia, which line the lumen and glands, were increased with morphological features mimicking changes that occur following estrogen treatment. Following 50 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment, the changes observed were in between those changes that occur following 10 and 100 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment. In conclusion, changes in uterine morphology and proliferation following 10 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment could be attributed to quercetin's antiestrogenic properties, while changes that occur following 100 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment could be attributed to

  4. Estradiol, progesterone and genistein differentially regulate levels of aquaporin (AQP)-1, 2, 5 and 7 expression in the uteri of ovariectomized, sex-steroid deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Chinigarzadeh, Asma; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2016-11-01

    In this study, effects of estradiol, progesterone and genistein on uterine aquaporin (AQP)-1, 2, 5 and 7 expression were investigated in sex-steroid deficient state which could help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying uterine fluid volume changes that were reported under these hormone and hormone-like compound influences. Uteri from ovariectomized, female Sprague-Dawley rats receiving seven days estradiol, progesterone or genistein (25, 50 and 100mg/kg/day) were harvested and levels of AQP-1, 2, 5 and 7 proteins and mRNAs were determined by Western blotting and Real-time PCR (qPCR) respectively. Distribution of these proteins in uterus was observed by immunohistochemistry. Genistein caused a dose-dependent increase in uterine AQP-1, 2, 5 and 7 protein and mRNA expression, however at the levels lower than following estradiol or progesterone stimulations. Effects of genistein were antagonized by estradiol receptor blocker, ICI 182780. Estradiol caused the highest AQP-2 protein and mRNA expression while progesterone caused the highest AQP-1, 5 and 7 protein and mRNA expression in uterus. AQP-1, 2, 5 and 7 protein were found to be distributed in the myometrium as well as in uterine luminal and glandular epithelia and endometrial blood vessels. In conclusion, the observed effects of estradiol, progesterone and genistein on uterine AQP-1, 2, 5 and 7 expression could help to explain the differences in the amount of fluid accumulated in the uterus under these different conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of a 3-D multi-group SN particle transport code with Monte Carlo for intracavitary brachytherapy of the cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Kent A; Wareing, Todd A; Failla, Gregory; Horton, John L; Eifel, Patricia J; Mourtada, Firas

    2009-12-03

    A patient dose distribution was calculated by a 3D multi-group S N particle transport code for intracavitary brachytherapy of the cervix uteri and compared to previously published Monte Carlo results. A Cs-137 LDR intracavitary brachytherapy CT data set was chosen from our clinical database. MCNPX version 2.5.c, was used to calculate the dose distribution. A 3D multi-group S N particle transport code, Attila version 6.1.1 was used to simulate the same patient. Each patient applicator was built in SolidWorks, a mechanical design package, and then assembled with a coordinate transformation and rotation for the patient. The SolidWorks exported applicator geometry was imported into Attila for calculation. Dose matrices were overlaid on the patient CT data set. Dose volume histograms and point doses were compared. The MCNPX calculation required 14.8 hours, whereas the Attila calculation required 22.2 minutes on a 1.8 GHz AMD Opteron CPU. Agreement between Attila and MCNPX dose calculations at the ICRU 38 points was within +/- 3%. Calculated doses to the 2 cc and 5 cc volumes of highest dose differed by not more than +/- 1.1% between the two codes. Dose and DVH overlays agreed well qualitatively. Attila can calculate dose accurately and efficiently for this Cs-137 CT-based patient geometry. Our data showed that a three-group cross-section set is adequate for Cs-137 computations. Future work is aimed at implementing an optimized version of Attila for radiotherapy calculations.

  6. Differentiating between endocervical glandular neoplasia and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in endocervical crypts: cytological features in ThinPrep and SurePath cervical cytology samples.

    PubMed

    Thiryayi, Sakinah A; Marshall, Janet; Rana, Durgesh N

    2009-05-01

    A recent audit at our institution revealed a higher number of cases diagnosed as endocervical glandular neoplasia on ThinPrep (TP) cervical cytology samples (9 cases) as opposed to SurePath (SP) (1 case), which on histology showed only high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) with endocervical crypt involvement (CI). We attempted to ascertain the reasons for this finding by reviewing the available slides of these cases, as well as slides of cases diagnosed as glandular neoplasia on cytology and histology; cases diagnosed as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) on cytology which had CIN with CI on histology and cases with mixed glandular and squamous abnormalities diagnosed both cytologically and histologically. Single neoplastic glandular cells and short pseudostratified strips were more prevalent in SP than TP with the cell clusters in glandular neoplasia 3-4 cells thick, in contrast to the dense crowded centre of cell groups in HSIL with CI. The cells at the periphery of groups can be misleading. Cases with HSIL and glandular neoplasia have a combination of the features of each entity in isolation. The diagnosis of glandular neoplasia remains challenging and conversion from conventional to liquid based cervical cytology requires a period of learning and adaptation, which can be facilitated by local audit and review of the cytology slides in cases with a cytology-histology mismatch. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Use of Irradiated Foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1985-01-01

    The safety of irradiated foods is reviewed. Guidelines and regulations for processing irradiated foods are considered. The radiolytic products formed in food when it is irradiated and its wholesomeness is discussed. It is concluded that food irradiation processing is not a panacea for all problems in food processing but when properly used will serve the space station well.

  8. Use of Irradiated Foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1985-01-01

    The safety of irradiated foods is reviewed. Guidelines and regulations for processing irradiated foods are considered. The radiolytic products formed in food when it is irradiated and its wholesomeness is discussed. It is concluded that food irradiation processing is not a panacea for all problems in food processing but when properly used will serve the space station well.

  9. Detection of irradiated liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shengchu, Qi; Jilan, Wu; Rongyao, Yuan

    D-2,3-butanediol is formed by irradiation processes in irradiated liquors. This radiolytic product is not formed in unirradiated liquors and its presence can therefore be used to identify whether a liquor has been irradiated or not. The relation meso/dl≈1 for 2,3-butanediol and the amount present in irradiated liquors may therefore be used as an indication of the dose used in the irradiation.

  10. Introduction of liquid-based cytology and human papillomavirus testing in cervical cancer screening in Luxembourg.

    PubMed

    Latsuzbaia, Ardashel; Hebette, Gaëtan; Fischer, Marc; Arbyn, Marc; Weyers, Steven; Vielh, Philippe; Schmitt, Fernando; Mossong, Joël

    2017-05-01

    In 2014, liquid-based cytology with HPV triage replaced conventional cytology. The aim of our study was to compare conventional and liquid-based cytology (LBC), estimate the prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology and high risk HPV (hrHPV) infection and their correlation, among screened women in Luxembourg. Between the first January 2013 and 31st December 2015, 315,868 cervical samples from 150,815 women (mean age 42.2 years) were investigated by the national cytology laboratory. Slides were prepared and screened according to European Guidelines. All cytological results were classified according to the Bethesda 2001 system terminology. The prevalence of abnormal cervical lesions was as follows: atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), 1.3%; low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 1.9%; high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), 0.4%. The detection rate of cytological lesions was significantly higher with LBC than with conventional cytology. Based on 11,838 samples with concomitant cytology and HPV testing, hrHPV was detected in 9.5, 45.3, 70.0, and 92.6% of women with negative cytology, ASC-US, LSIL, and HSIL, respectively. More cervical lesions were identified using LBC compared to conventional cytology. HrHPV infection was correlated with the severity of intraepithelial lesions. The current findings provide important information to evaluate the prevention of cervical cancer in Luxembourg and for monitoring the future impact of HPV vaccination. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:384-390. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The value of a transformation zone component in anal cytology to detect HSIL.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jennifer M; Jin, Fengyi; Thurloe, Julia K; Ekman, Deborah; Adams, Marjorie K; McDonald, Ross L; Biro, Clare; Poynten, I Mary; Grulich, Andrew E; Farnsworth, Annabelle

    2016-08-01

    In a cytology-based screening program intended to prevent anal cancer, the anal transformation zone (TZ) should be adequately sampled because it is the site most susceptible to the development of the cancer precursor, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). An adequate TZ component is defined as comprising at least 10 rectal columnar or squamous metaplastic cells. In the current study, the authors examined whether the presence of a TZ component in anal cytology correlated with the detection of histological HSIL. In a natural history study of anal human papillomavirus infection in homosexual men, all participants underwent liquid-based cytology and high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) with or without biopsy at each visit. True-negative cytology (negative cytology with non-HSIL biopsy or negative HRA), false-negative cytology (negative cytology with HSIL biopsy), and true-positive cytology (abnormal cytology with HSIL biopsy) were compared with regard to the presence or absence of a TZ component. Of 617 participants, baseline results included 155 true-positive results, 191 true-negative results, and 31 false-negative results. The absence of an adequate TZ component was found to be significantly higher for false-negative (32.3%) than for either true-positive (11.0%; P = .0034) or true-negative (13.1%; P = .0089) results. Significantly more false-negative cases lacked a TZ component compared with either true-positive or true-negative cases. TZ cells may be an important indicator of sample quality for anal cytology because, unlike cervical sampling, the anal canal is not visualized during cytology sampling. Cancer Cytopathol 2016;124:596-601. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  12. Impression Cytology in Different Types of Contact Lens Users.

    PubMed

    Iskeleli, Guzin; Arici, Ceyhun; Deger Bilgec, Mustafa; Demirkesen, Cuyan; Serap Arslan, Hilal

    2015-01-01

    This study compared tear function tests and cytologic changes on the conjunctival surface in asymptomatic patients wearing contact lens of different materials. Included in this study were 40 eyes wearing daily wear 4 week replacement hydrogel (H) lenses, 32 eyes wearing silicone hydrogel (SiH) lenses, 18 eyes wearing rigid gas-permeable (RGP) lenses, and 21 healthy eyes (no lenses) as the control group. Epithelial morphology of the conjunctival surface was evaluated, based on Nelson classification with conjunctival impression cytology (CIC), after the tear break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer test were performed. The mean values of the Schirmer and TBUT tests were significantly higher in the control group than in the other lens groups (p < 0.001). Grade 0 was the most frequent CIC in the control group (66.7%) and least frequent in the SiH lens group (40.6%); grade I was least frequent in the control and RGP groups (33.3%) and most frequent in the SiH lens group (40.6%). Moreover, grade 2 was most frequent in the SiH lens group (18.8%). There was no statistically significant difference in goblet cell densities between the groups (p = 0.462). In addition to the different Schirmer and TBUT test results between contact lens wearers and healthy non-wearers, some cytologic changes may occur on the ocular surface with direct mechanical effects of contact lenses. This simple and noninvasive technique may be used to evaluate the ocular surface with regard to intolerance to contact lenses.

  13. Thyroid Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology Results.

    PubMed

    Manning, Amy M; Yang, Huaitao; Falciglia, Mercedes; Mark, Jonathan R; Steward, David L

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate changes in distribution of reported thyroid nodule fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytopathology results since implementation of the Bethesda classification and revised 2015 American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines for selecting nodules for biopsy. Study Design Retrospective review. Setting Tertiary academic medical center. Subjects and Methods Evaluation of ultrasound (US)-guided thyroid FNA by a single surgeon using 2015 ATA nodule selection criteria and Bethesda reporting on 211 thyroid nodules in a 1-year period (2015). Comparison is made to an earlier sample wherein any nodule >1 cm underwent US FNA with cytology reported prior to Bethesda consensus (2006). Results The current cohort involved mostly women (79%); nodules ranged from 1 to 7 cm (mean ± SEM, 2.4 ± 0.07 cm). Mean ± SEM age was 53.5 ± 1.1 years. Bethesda reporting yielded 6% nondiagnostic, 57% benign, 3% malignant, and 34% indeterminate (27% atypia of undetermined significance [AUS]/follicular lesion of undetermined significance [FLUS], 4% follicular neoplasm [FN]/Hürthle neoplasm [HN], and 2% suspicious for malignancy [SFM]). The malignancy rate in indeterminate nodules was 26% (18% AUS/FLUS, 33% FN/HN, and 80% SFM). Age, sex, or nodule size did not correlate with indeterminate cytology. The comparator sample of 447 nodules had significantly different distribution, with 7% nondiagnostic, 80% benign, 5% malignant, and 8% indeterminate ( P < .00001). Conclusion We observed a significantly increased proportion of indeterminate cytology and corresponding decrease in benign nodules compared with an earlier sample, predominately from an increase in AUS/FLUS. Multiple factors are likely involved, including selection of sonographically suspicious nodules for biopsy based upon 2015 ATA guidelines coupled with cytopathological interpretation by a new generation of cytopathologists trained in the era of Bethesda reporting; further study is required to make a definitive conclusion.

  14. Impression Cytology in Different Types of Contact Lens Users

    PubMed Central

    ISKELELI, Guzin; ARICI, Ceyhun; DEGER BILGEC, Mustafa; DEMIRKESEN, Cuyan; SERAP ARSLAN, Hilal

    2015-01-01

    This study compared tear function tests and cytologic changes on the conjunctival surface in asymptomatic patients wearing contact lens of different materials. Included in this study were 40 eyes wearing daily wear 4 week replacement hydrogel (H) lenses, 32 eyes wearing silicone hydrogel (SiH) lenses, 18 eyes wearing rigid gas-permeable (RGP) lenses, and 21 healthy eyes (no lenses) as the control group. Epithelial morphology of the conjunctival surface was evaluated, based on Nelson classification with conjunctival impression cytology (CIC), after the tear break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer test were performed. The mean values of the Schirmer and TBUT tests were significantly higher in the control group than in the other lens groups (p < 0.001). Grade 0 was the most frequent CIC in the control group (66.7%) and least frequent in the SiH lens group (40.6%); grade I was least frequent in the control and RGP groups (33.3%) and most frequent in the SiH lens group (40.6%). Moreover, grade 2 was most frequent in the SiH lens group (18.8%). There was no statistically significant difference in goblet cell densities between the groups (p = 0.462). In addition to the different Schirmer and TBUT test results between contact lens wearers and healthy non-wearers, some cytologic changes may occur on the ocular surface with direct mechanical effects of contact lenses. This simple and noninvasive technique may be used to evaluate the ocular surface with regard to intolerance to contact lenses. PMID:27350951

  15. [Evaluation of conjunctival epithelium of filtering blebs by impression cytology].

    PubMed

    Muniesa, M J; González, S; Buetas, P; López, S; Sánchez, C; Matias-Guiu, X

    2014-06-01

    To study the ocular surface in filtering blebs using impression cytology, comparing the bleb side and areas outside the bleb edges. Twelve filtering blebs of 8 patients were included: 4 cases of trabeculectomy without mitomycin C (MMC), 6 cases of trabeculectomy with MMC, and 2 cases of non-penetrating glaucoma surgery. Impression cytology specimens were taken from filtering blebs as well as outside the bleb area. A classification scale from 0 to 3 was used to describe the distribution of epithelial cells and the density of goblet cells. Grade 0 indicated cohesive epithelial cells and abundant goblet cells; and the grade 3 indicated loss of epithelial cohesion and absence of goblet cells. The mean grade of cytology in filtering blebs was 2.4 ± 0.9, and in the outside bleb area of 0.8 ± 0.3 (P<.001). These differences were independent of the use of MMC (P=.48). The large majority (83%) of filtering blebs showed a decrease in epithelial cohesion and absence of goblet cells. Outside the bleb area, 100% of the cases had cohesive epithelial cells with different grades of goblet cells. The conjunctival epithelium overlying the filtering blebs showed significant changes that consisted of increased intercellular spaces and loss of goblet cells. These increased intercellular spaces could explain the trans-epithelial pathway of aqueous humor. The least amount of mucin due to loss of goblet cells could contribute to increase the risk of infection in filtering blebs. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimal z-axis scanning parameters for gynecologic cytology specimens

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Amber D.; Mukherjee, Maheswari S.; Lyden, Elizabeth R.; Bridge, Julia A.; Lele, Subodh M.; Wright, Najia; McGaughey, Mary F.; Culberson, Alicia M.; Horn, Adam J.; Wedel, Whitney R.; Radio, Stanley J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The use of virtual microscopy (VM) in clinical cytology has been limited due to the inability to focus through three dimensional (3D) cell clusters with a single focal plane (2D images). Limited information exists regarding the optimal scanning parameters for 3D scanning. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal number of the focal plane levels and the optimal scanning interval to digitize gynecological (GYN) specimens prepared on SurePath™ glass slides while maintaining a manageable file size. Subjects and Methods: The iScanCoreo Au scanner (Ventana, AZ, USA) was used to digitize 192 SurePath™ glass slides at three focal plane levels at 1 μ interval. The digitized virtual images (VI) were annotated using BioImagene's Image Viewer. Five participants interpreted the VI and recorded the focal plane level at which they felt confident and later interpreted the corresponding glass slide specimens using light microscopy (LM). The participants completed a survey about their experiences. Inter-rater agreement and concordance between the VI and the glass slide specimens were evaluated. Results: This study determined an overall high intra-rater diagnostic concordance between glass and VI (89-97%), however, the inter-rater agreement for all cases was higher for LM (94%) compared with VM (82%). Survey results indicate participants found low grade dysplasia and koilocytes easy to diagnose using three focal plane levels, the image enhancement tool was useful and focusing through the cells helped with interpretation; however, the participants found VI with hyperchromatic crowded groups challenging to interpret. Participants reported they prefer using LM over VM. This study supports using three focal plane levels and 1 μ interval to expand the use of VM in GYN cytology. Conclusion: Future improvements in technology and appropriate training should make this format a more preferable and practical option in clinical cytology. PMID:24524004

  17. Evaluation of static telepathology in veterinary diagnostic cytology.

    PubMed

    Maiolino, Paola; Restucci, Brunella; Papparella, Serenella; De Vico, Gionata

    2006-09-01

    Telepathology is the process of diagnostic pathology performed on digital images viewed on a display screen rather than by conventional light microscopy with glass slides. At present, electronic mail (e-mail) attachment is the most common communication medium for telepathology, because it is relatively simple and incurs minimal cost. Our objective was to test whether telediagnosis through Internet e-mail could be applied to veterinary diagnostic cytology. Using 20 cytology cases, on which a consensus diagnosis was reached by 3 experienced pathologists, a total of 130 images were digitized and sent as e-mail attachments from the Unit of Anatomic Pathology of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Naples to the Unit of Pathology of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Messina, Italy. The images were reviewed at the Unit of Pathology of Messina, where the consulting pathologist formulated his diagnoses by visualizing the images on the monitor of a computer. The telediagnoses were compared with the consensus diagnoses and with the consulting pathologist's interpretation using conventional light microscopy at a later date. The median time to capture images was approximately 30 minutes for each case. The median time to make a telecytodiagnosis was a few seconds for each case. Overall, there was good agreement (85%) between the consensus diagnosis and the consultant's telediagnosis. In 100% of the cases there was agreement between the consulting pathologist's telediagnosis and conventional glass slide diagnosis. Telepathology by e-mail provides acceptable efficacy and a faster turnaround time than post and can be applied to veterinary diagnostic cytology.

  18. [Exfoliative vaginal cytology in the bitch--indications, procedure, interpretation].

    PubMed

    Wehrend, A; von Plato, K; Goericke-Pesch, S

    2013-01-01

    Exfoliative vaginal cytology as an essential part of the gynaecological examination is a simple, non-invasive method for the determination of the phases of the oestrous cycle (anoestrus, prooestrus/oestrus, metoestrus) and is additionally applied in cases of silent heat, or suspected ovarian cysts, ovarian remnant syndrome, postpartal disturbances in the endometrial involution or Sticker sarcoma. The exfoliated cells reflect the hormonal, in particular the oestrogenic state, of the bitch. Due to the oestrogenic influence, an increase in cell layers, keratinisation and exfoliation is observed in the follicular phase during prooestrus, such that the 3-4 layered epithelium in anoestrus becomes 20-layered during oestrus. The cells change characteristically in size and nuclear morphology. In anoestrus, predominantly parabasal cells with a large nucleus and homogenous cytoplasm are found. During early prooestrus, single parabasal cells are identified among erythrocytes and intermediate cells. As this phase progresses, the percentage of large intermediate cells and nucleated superficial cells increases. The oestrus is characterised by a high cell number, initially superficial cells with pyknotic nuclei, later anucleated squamous cells that are located in cell nests. The switch to metoestrus is associated with a large number of neutrophil granulocytes and a sudden change of cytology within 24-48 hours. Vaginal cytology can be performed in any practice due to its simplicity and the limited equipment necessary (speculum, cotton wool wad, slide, staining and microscope). Because the results are rapidly available, it is a useful addition to gynaecological examination to differentiate the stage of the cycle (anoestrus, prooestrus/oestrus, metoestrus) and to diagnose infectious, inflammatory and tumorous conditions in the bitch.

  19. Fine needle aspiration cytology of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ostović, Karmen Trutin; Haris, Visnja; Miletić, Zorana; Lambasa, Smiljka; Lajtman, Zoran; Stoos-Veić, Tajana

    2010-06-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is uncommon cutaneous malignant neuroendocrine tumour of the elderly people with rapidly growing skin nodules found frequently on sun-exposed areas of the body. MCC is often an aggressive tumour with high tendency for local recurrence, lymph node involvement and distant metastases. This paper reports a case of metastatic MCC diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), flow cytometric deoxiribonucleated acid (DNA) analysis, pathohistology and electron microscopy. The cytological features in aspirate (stained with Papenheim and Papanicolaou staining) included increased cellularity, discohesive groups of small-to-medium size malignant cells with uniform, round-to-oval nuclei with moulding effect, fine chromatin, multiple micronucleoli and scanty cytoplasm. DNA flow cytometric analysis of the aspirate showed unexpected results for clinically aggressive behaviour of this tumour (the patient died after 21 months), and revealed that tumour contained diploid peak with DNA index of 1.1. The proliferation was high with elevated S-phase fraction (21%). The cytological diagnosis of possible metastatic MCC was confirmed by histological one as well as by electron microscopy presented the pathognomonic features for this tumour: dense-core neurosecretory granules with diameter of 100-250 nm surrounded by whorls of intermediate filaments. MCC provides an enormous challenge for the morphologist because of a wide range of differential diagnosis and for the clinician because this tumour has a highly malignant potential for local recurrence, nodal and distant spread and very often is combined with other tumours. Therefore it is important to perform FNAC of different lesions in the same patient because it can distinguish MCC from the other tumours.

  20. Gamma-irradiated onions as a biological indicator of radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Vaijapurkar, S G; Agarwal, D; Chaudhuri, S K; Senwar, K R; Bhatnagar, P K

    2001-10-01

    Post-irradiation identification and dose estimation are required to assess the radiation-induced effects on living things in any nuclear emergency. In this study, radiation-induced morphological/cytological changes i.e., number of root formation and its length, shooting length, reduction in mitotic index, micronuclei formation and chromosomal aberrations in the root tip cells of gamma-irradiated onions at lower doses (50-2000 cGy) are reported. The capabilities of this biological species to store the radiation-induced information are also studied.

  1. Mechanistic studies on the reactions of molybdenum(VI), tungsten(VI), vanadium(V), and arsenic(V) tetraoxo anions with the Fe{sup II}Fe{sup III} form of purple acid phosphatase from porcine uteri (Uteroferrin)

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, J.S.; Aquino, M.A.S.; Skyes, A.G.

    1996-01-31

    The Fe{sup II}-Fe{sup III} form of purple acid phosphatase (PAP{sub r}) from porcine uteri (uteroferrin) catalyses the hydrolysis of phosphate esters. Here, kinetic studies have been extended to include the complexing of tetraoxo XO{sub 4} anions of molybdate(VI), tungstate(VI), vanadate(V), and arsenate(V) with PAP{sub r}. UV-vis absorbance changes are small and the range of concentrations is restricted by the need to maximise monomer XO{sub 4} forms. Rate constants k{sub obs}(25{degrees}C) were determined by stopped-flow monitoring of the reactions at {approximately}520 nm.

  2. Botany, Taxonomy and Cytology of Crocus sativus series

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, R. B.

    2010-01-01

    Saffron is produced from the dried styles of Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae) which is unknown as wild plant, representing a sterile triploid. These belong to subgenus Crocus series Crocus sativus – series are closely related species; and are difficult to be separated taxonomically and have a complex cytology. Botany of C. sativus – series, taxonomy of their species and their infraspecific taxa are presented, and their distribution, ecology and phenology; full description and chromosome counts are provided with key to their identification. PMID:22131743

  3. A Neural Architecture for Potentially Classifying Cytology Specimens by Machines*

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, R.L.; DiCaprio, P.N.; Heinemann, K.G.; Silverman, M.L.; Dugan, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a general purpose vision system. We have applied the system to classifying cytology specimens. The system uses neural network and conventional processing modules to model biological vision systems. The modules make up a locating channel and a classifying channel. The locating channel finds individual cells in the field-of-view. The classifying channel learns and recognizes the cells. Learning is by example. We tested the classifying channel on 156 cell images from human cervical smears. Results suggest one can drive the false negative and false positive rates below a few percent for initial screening. Training would require several hundred cells of normal and abnormal types. ImagesFigure 3

  4. Isolation of microRNA from conjunctival impression cytology.

    PubMed

    Pilson, Qistina; Jefferies, Caroline A; Gabhann, Joan Ní; Murphy, Conor C

    2015-03-01

    Impression cytology (IC) is an easy and safe technique that has been used in the past for harvesting epithelial cells from the cornea and conjunctiva for various applications including histology, immunohistology and molecular studies. Previous investigations have shown the usage of different types of membranes for the purpose of investigating pathophysiology and staging of diseases. This contributes to a better understanding of ocular surface conditions and helps to provide information for diagnosis, therapeutic options and prognosis. Recently, there has been a shift of focus in research towards understanding the contribution of microRNAs (miRs) to ocular disease. Thus far, impression cytology has been explored for measuring gene expression but not for quantifying miR expression. This study describes how miRs and mRNA can be isolated from conjunctival epithelial cells obtained by impression cytology and determines the optimum membrane and technique for this purpose. The IC technique was optimized using Biopore, Immobilon-P(SQ) and Millicell Hanging Cell Culture Insert membranes on healthy controls. miRs and mRNAs were isolated from the conjunctival epithelial cells (CEC) obtained and measured. Biopore membrane provided the optimum yield of miRs (38.8 ng/μL ± 10.8) and mRNA (155.3 ng/μL ± 20.1) as well as subjectively found to be best tolerated with minimum discomfort. Appreciable levels of miRs and mRNAs were detected from the CEC from healthy controls, confirming that it is possible to isolate miR and mRNA from CEC. Here, we give a detailed description of the application of conjunctival impression cytology to isolate miRs and the convenience of the technique by using the best membrane available. This method can be readily adopted in both clinical and laboratory settings. This technique will facilitate the measurement of miRs to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of ocular surface conditions as well as potentially identifying novel therapeutic

  5. [Cytological examination of the intrathoracic lymph nodes (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Simeĉek, C

    1978-01-01

    During the last few years, cytological examinations of the intrathoracic lymph nodes have become a usual method of bronchological examinations, being applied by way of routine. Taking the analysis of 3408 perbronchial and pertracheal lymph node punctions as a basis, the author discusses the results. Mostly the intrathoracic nodes of lung cancer patients were examined. A metastasization could be detected in 58 per cent. At sarcoidosis and tuberculosis the results correspond to those of mediastinoscopy. The occurrence of the cholesterol crystals is mentioned. Occasionally, megacaryocytes and immature cells of the hematopoiesis are found in the lymph nodes. Due to the favourable anatomic conditions, also normal lymph nodes are accessible to perbronchial punction.

  6. University of California Program for Analytical Cytology five-year report, 1982-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, S.; Calkins, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Program for Analytical Cytology (PAC) was created by the Regents of the University of California on June 17, 1982. The purposes of the Program are to encourage research into theoretical, scientific, and engineering aspects of analytical cytology and into its biological and clinical applications.

  7. New diagnostic reporting format for endometrial cytology based on cytoarchitectural criteria

    PubMed Central

    Yanoh, K; Norimatsu, Y; Hirai, Y; Takeshima, N; Kamimori, A; Nakamura, Y; Shimizu, K; Kobayashi, T K; Murata, T; Shiraishi, T

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a new reporting format for endometrial cytology that would standardize the diagnostic criteria and the terminology used for reporting. Methods: In previous studies, cytoarchitectural criteria were found to be useful for the cytological assessment of endometrial lesions. To apply these criteria, an appropriate cytological specimen is imperative. In this article, the requirements of an adequate endometrial cytological specimen for the new diagnostic criteria are first discussed. Then, the diagnostic criteria, standardized on a combination of conventional and cytoarchitectural criteria, are presented. Third, terminology that could be used, not only for reporting the histopathological diagnosis, but also for providing better guidance for the gynaecologist to determine further clinical action, is introduced. The proposed reporting format was investigated using endometrial cytology of 58 cases that were cytologically underestimated or overestimated compared to the histopathological diagnosis made on the subsequent endometrial biopsy or surgical specimens. Results: Of the 58 cases, 12 were reassessed as being unsatisfactory for evaluation. Among the remaining 46 cases, 25 of the 27 cases, which had been underestimated and subsequently diagnosed as having endometrial carcinoma or a precursor stage on histopathological examination,were reassessed as recommended for endometrial biopsy. On the other hand, 19 cases overestimated by cytology were all reassessed as not requiring biopsy. Conclusions: The reporting format for endometrial cytology proposed in this article may improve diagnostic accuracy and reduce the number of patients managed inappropriately. PMID:18657157

  8. Role of biliary tract cytology in the evaluation of extrahepatic cholestatic jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mamta; Pai, Radha R.; Dileep, Devi; Gopal, Sandeep; Shenoy, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic evaluation is critical in assessing the cause of obstructive jaundice. Cytological techniques including bile aspiration and biliary brushings have become the initial diagnostic modality. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of endoscopic biliary tract cytology as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of extrahepatic cholestatic jaundice. Materials and Methods: A total of 56 biliary tract specimens including 34 bile aspirations and 22 biliary brushings from 41 consecutive patients who had presented with obstructive jaundice and underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) were assessed by cytological examination. The smears prepared were analyzed for standard cytological features. Results: Cytologic diagnosis was adenocarcinoma in 13 (31.7%) cases, atypical in 2 (4.9%), reactive in 3 (7.3%) and benign changes in 19 (46.3%) cases. 4 (9.8%) cases were non-diagnostic. Serum bilirubin was significantly elevated in the malignant group. Biliary stricture was the most common finding on ERCP (68.3%). On cytological examination, presence of solitary, intact atypical cells, enlarged nuclei, irregular nuclear membrane, coarse chromatin and nucleoli were important cytologic criteria for differentiating malignant from benign biliary specimens. Conclusions: Regular use of bile cytology and brushings during ERCP evaluation of extrahepatic cholestatic jaundice is invaluable in obtaining a morphologic diagnosis. A systematic approach, use of strict cytomorphologic criteria and inclusion of significant atypia as malignant diagnosis may improve the sensitivity. PMID:24130407

  9. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For...

  10. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For...

  11. Risk Factors for Abnormal Anal Cytology over Time in HIV-infected Women

    PubMed Central

    BARANOSKI, Amy S; TANDON, Richa; WEINBERG, Janice; HUANG, Faye; STIER, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess incidence of, and risk factors for abnormal anal cytology and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) 2–3 in HIV-infected women. Study Design This prospective study assessed 100 HIV-infected women with anal and cervical specimens for cytology and high risk HPV testing over three semi-annual visits. Results Thirty-three women were diagnosed with an anal cytologic abnormality at least once. Anal cytology abnormality was associated with current CD4 count <200 cells/mm3, anal HPV infection and history of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Twelve subjects were diagnosed with AIN2-3: four after AIN1 diagnosis and four after ≥1 negative anal cytology. AIN2-3 trended towards an association with history of cervical cytologic abnormality and history of STI. Conclusions Repeated annual anal cytology screening for HIV-infected women, particularly for those with increased immunosuppression, anal and/or cervical HPV, history of other STIs, or abnormal cervical cytology, will increase the likelihood of detecting AIN2-3. PMID:22520651

  12. Histopathology-like categories based on endometrial imprint cytology in dysfunctional uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Baxi, Seema N; Panchal, Nirav S

    2015-01-01

    Cytology of the endometrium is an underused technique in diagnostic pathology. It has been used in the past for endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma. Only few studies have used cytology in the diagnosis of dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB). Endometrial imprint cytology has been rarely used except for application of immunocytochemistry in diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma. The present study was conducted to evaluate whether it is possible to assign histopathology-like diagnosis by imprint cytology and also to evaluate its usefulness in the assessment of patients of dysfunctional uterine bleeding of low clinical suspicion. Imprint smears were made from 93 curettage materials during a study of DUB. Blinded analysis of imprint smears was performed by using McKenzie's criteria and some criteria devised for the requirements of this study. Results of cytology were correlated with histopathology. Statistical analysis was carried out by GraphpadInStat Demo. Majority of the patterns classifiable in histopathology could also be classified in this study on imprint cytology. The overall sensitivity and specificity of cytology in the detection of endometrial patterns in DUB patients were 91.23% and 83.87%, respectively, although the sensitivities and specificities differ according to the phase of endometrium. Histopathology-like categories can be assigned on imprint smears in the diagnosis of DUB. Endometrial imprint cytology can be helpful in centers where histopathology laboratories are not available and even in well-established institutes. It is possible to improve the sensitivity and specificity with better imprinting techniques.

  13. Pre-operative axillary staging: should core biopsy be preferred to fine needle aspiration cytology?

    PubMed

    Vidya, Raghavan; Iqbal, Fahad Mujtaba; Bickley, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology and core needle biopsy (CNB) of axillary lymph nodes pre-operatively in newly diagnosed operable primary breast cancer. An observational study for all patients who underwent pre-operative FNA cytology or CNB during September 2013-August 2014 was conducted at our institution (County Hospital, Stafford, UK). The accuracy of pre-operative axillary staging was compared to the post-operative histology. For this sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated. A total of 81 consecutive patients were evaluated by axillary ultrasound. Patients identified with potentially abnormal axillary lymph nodes underwent definitive surgery. Seven patients had positive cytology/histology who did not undergo definitive surgery and were excluded (N = 74) from the study. CNB had a sensitivity of 100% versus 72% (p = 0.006) for FNA cytology. Both had 100% specificity and PPV. The NPV of CNB was 100% versus 72% for FNA cytology. Among 35% of patients that underwent FNA cytology required repeat procedure versus 2.6% of patients who underwent CNB. 0/38 patients that had CNB required a second operation while 7/43 patients with negative FNA cytology had positive lymph nodes identified at sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) requiring surgical re-intervention with axillary node clearance. CNB was superior to FNA cytology when interrogating the axilla. We recommend CNB to be adopted routinely in pre-operative axillary staging to reduce surgical re-intervention.

  14. Comparison of conventional Papanicolaou cytology samples with liquid-based cervical cytology samples from women in Pernambuco, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Costa, M.O.L.P.; Heráclio, S.A.; Coelho, A.V.C.; Acioly, V.L.; Souza, P.R.E.; Correia, M.T.S.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we compared the performance of a ThinPrep cytological method with the conventional Papanicolaou test for diagnosis of cytopathological changes, with regard to unsatisfactory results achieved at the Central Public Health Laboratory of the State of Pernambuco. A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed with women aged 18 to 65 years, who spontaneously sought gynecological services in Public Health Units in the State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, between April and November 2011. All patients in the study were given a standardized questionnaire on sociodemographics, sexual characteristics, reproductive practices, and habits. A total of 525 patients were assessed by the two methods (11.05% were under the age of 25 years, 30.86% were single, 4.4% had had more than 5 sexual partners, 44% were not using contraception, 38.85% were users of alcohol, 24.38% were smokers, 3.24% had consumed drugs previously, 42.01% had gynecological complaints, and 12.19% had an early history of sexually transmitted diseases). The two methods showed poor correlation (k=0.19; 95%CI=0.11–0.26; P<0.001). The ThinPrep method reduced the rate of unsatisfactory results from 4.38% to 1.71% (χ2=5.28; P=0.02), and the number of cytopathological changes diagnosed increased from 2.47% to 3.04%. This study confirmed that adopting the ThinPrep method for diagnosis of cervical cytological samples was an improvement over the conventional method. Furthermore, this method may reduce possible losses from cytological resampling and reduce obstacles to patient follow-up, improving the quality of the public health system in the State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. PMID:26247400

  15. Liquid-based cytology can improve efficiency of cervical smear readers: evidence from timing surveys in two NHS cytology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Dowie, R; Stoykova, B; Crawford, D; Desai, M; Mather, J; Morgan, K; Shirt, M

    2006-04-01

    Cervical screening programmes in England and Wales were advised by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence in 2003 to adopt liquid-based cytology (LBC) in place of conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) cytology to facilitate laboratory efficiency. Pilot evaluations in England and Scotland monitored daily or weekly workloads of smear readers and concluded that LBC could increase hourly throughput rates. This study, instead, used timing surveys to determine screening rates. Two National Health Service cytology laboratories in Manchester and Stockport were partially converted to the LBC ThinPrep process for a cervical screening trial. Three 1-week timing surveys were conducted over 7 months. The surveys covered all LBC-trained staff. The first survey in Manchester also covered staff undertaking conventional Pap screening. The smear readers used timers to record time taken for examining and reporting each slide. In Manchester, in the first survey, nearly 1 minute per slide was saved by the LBC method during primary microscopy. In both laboratories, the mean microscopy time for primary screening of LBC slides was reduced by almost 1 minute between the first and second surveys. There was no difference between the second and third surveys. Microscopy by cytopathologists was also 1 minute per slide quicker with LBC than conventional Pap. The LBC inadequate rates for both laboratories were <2.0%. Organizational factors impacted on the hourly LBC primary screening rates in the laboratories, the rate for Stockport being higher than the rates in the pilot evaluations. The timing surveys confirm that the LBC ThinPrep technology can improve laboratory efficiency. However, decision-makers should also consider the overall costs and benefits of introducing the technology in screening programmes, including the capital investment and workforce implications.

  16. Diagnostic terminology for reporting thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology: European Federation of Cytology Societies thyroid working party symposium, Lisbon 2009.

    PubMed

    Kocjan, G; Cochand-Priollet, B; de Agustin, P P; Bourgain, C; Chandra, A; Daneshbod, Y; Deery, A; Duskova, J; Ersoz, C; Fadda, G; Fassina, A; Firat, P; Jimenez-Ayala, B; Karakitsos, P; Koperek, O; Matesa, N; Poller, D; Thienpont, L; Ryska, A; Schenck, U; Sauer, T; Schmitt, F; Tani, E; Toivonen, T; Tötsch, M; Troncone, G; Vass, L; Vielh, P

    2010-04-01

    A European Federation of Cytology Societies (EFCS) working party of 28 members from 14 European countries met at the European Congress of Cytology in Lisbon in September 2009, with two observers from the USA, to discuss the need for standardising thyroid FNA nomenclature in the light of the National Institute of Cancer (NCI) recommendations resulting from the State of the Science conference in Bethesda in 2007. The data were obtained through two questionnaires sent by email and a transcript of the live discussion at the congress, which is presented in full. The surveys and discussion showed that there were currently no national terminologies for reporting thyroid FNA in the different European countries except in Italy and the UK. Personal, 'local', surgical pathology and descriptive terminologies were in use. All but one of the working party members agreed that thyroid FNA reporting should be standardised. Whilst almost a third would adopt the NCI Bethesda terminology, which offers the advantages of a 'risk of cancer' correlation and is linked to clinical recommendations, more than half favoured a translation of local terminology as the first step towards a unified nomenclature, as has been done recently in the UK. There was some disagreement about the use of: a) the six-tiered as opposed to four or five-tiered systems, b) the use of an indeterminate category and c) the 'follicular neoplasm' category, which was felt by some participants not to be different from the 'suspicious of malignancy' category. The conclusions will be passed to the different national societies of cytology for discussion, who will be asked to map their local terminologies to the Bethesda classification, observe its acceptance by clinicians and audit its correlation with outcome.

  17. Squash cytology findings of subependymomas: A report of three cases and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Tokumitsu, Takako; Sato, Yuichiro; Fukushima, Tsuyoshi; Takeshima, Hideo; Sato, Shinya; Asada, Yujiro

    2017-10-12

    Subependymomas are slowly growing glial tumors, corresponding to WHO grade I. Few descriptions of the cytologic features of this neoplasm are available. This study describes the cytologic features of three subependymomas, as well as their differential diagnosis based on cytology. Three men, aged 52, 56, and 63 years, presented with headache. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a nodular intraventricular mass in all three patients. Intraoperative squash cytology specimens from the three intraventricular tumors showed nodular clusters with microcystic changes. Nuclei were round to oval in shape, but showed no evidence of severe nuclear atypia or mitoses. Histological examination showed features of subependymoma. Squash cytology findings, including nodular clusters, mild cellular atypia, microcystic changes, and mucoid material, are useful in the rapid intraoperative diagnosis of subependymoma. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [Quality assurance of fine-needle aspiration cytology of the organized mammography screening].

    PubMed

    Bak, Mihály; Konyár, Eva; Schneider, Ferenc; Bidlek, Mária; Szabó, Eva; Nyári, Tibor; Godény, Mária; Kásler, Miklós

    2010-08-08

    The National Public Health Program has established the organized mammography screening in Hungary. The aim of our study was to determine the quality assurance of breast aspiration cytology. Cytology results were rated to 5 categories (C1, C2, C3, C4 and C5). All cytology reports were compared with the final histology diagnosis. 1361 women had aspiration cytology diagnosis performed from a total of 47718 mammography non-negative lesions. There were 805 (59.1%) benign and 187 (13.7%) malignant alterations. Sensitivity was 91%, specificity 88%, positive predictive value 96.6% and negative predictive value turned to be 71% (p<0.001). The auditing values of fine needle aspiration cytology in our laboratory meet, or in certain aspects exceed the proposed minimum threshold values.

  19. Sexual polyploidization in plants – cytological mechanisms and molecular regulation

    PubMed Central

    De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

    2013-01-01

    In the plant kingdom, events of whole genome duplication or polyploidization are generally believed to occur via alterations of the sexual reproduction process. Thereby, diploid pollen and eggs are formed that contain the somatic number of chromosomes rather than the gametophytic number. By participating in fertilization, these so-called 2n gametes generate polyploid offspring and therefore constitute the basis for the establishment of polyploidy in plants. In addition, diplogamete formation, through meiotic restitution, is an essential component of apomixis and also serves as an important mechanism for the restoration of F1 hybrid fertility. Characterization of the cytological mechanisms and molecular factors underlying 2n gamete formation is therefore not only relevant for basic plant biology and evolution, but may also provide valuable cues for agricultural and biotechnological applications (e.g. reverse breeding, clonal seeds). Recent data have provided novel insights into the process of 2n pollen and egg formation and have revealed multiple means to the same end. Here, we summarize the cytological mechanisms and molecular regulatory networks underlying 2n gamete formation, and outline important mitotic and meiotic processes involved in the ectopic induction of sexual polyploidization. PMID:23421646

  20. Diagnosis of erythema nodosum leprosum (type 2 reaction) by cytology.

    PubMed

    Ray, Rudranarayan; Mondal, Rajib Kumar; Pathak, Swapan

    2014-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to evaluate the possible role of cytology in erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) and its use for early treatment of the disease. We present a prospective study conducted with 15 clinically diagnosed ENL cases. Among them, 13 cases had previously been diagnosed with lepromatous leprosy (LL) and 2 patients were new LL cases with signs and symptoms of ENL lesions. Haematoxylin and eosin stain with modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain was performed on fine needle aspiration material. One case was sent for biopsy. Complete cytological diagnosis of ENL was done in all 15 cases. Histopathological study revealed classical ENL lesions which also showed ENL features in cytodiagnosis. In the past, the accurate mode of diagnosis of ENL lesions was histopathology. However, clinicians have to wait a long time for the report and generally they start treatment only on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms. Cytodiagnosis of ENL lesions is an early, effective method for accurate diagnosis and helps to initiate treatment for these painful lesions. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. [Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in parotid tumours].

    PubMed

    Zerpa Zerpa, Vanessa; Cuesta Gonzáles, Maria Teresa; Agostini Porras, Gabriela; Marcano Acuña, Martin; Estellés Ferriol, Enrique; Dalmau Galofre, José

    2014-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a globally accepted technique in the preoperative evaluations of head and neck tumours; however, the effectiveness in the interpretation of salivary glands neoplastic lesions is still controversial. The objective of this study consisted of assessing the efficacy of FNAC in preoperative diagnosis of parotid tumours. This retrospective study was conducted using 93 patient samples with parotid gland tumoral pathology, treated at the Otorhinolaryngology Department in our institution during the 2007-2011 period. Preoperative FNAC was employed and the patients subsequently submitted to surgical excision with histopathological diagnosis of the specimen. Cytology results were classified as negative for malignancy, positive for malignancy or insufficient sample, and later compared with the definitive histological diagnosis. The mean age of the studied sample was 52.9 years (range: 11 to 88 years); 55.9% were men. The FNAC showed significant sensitivity of 57.1%, with a specificity of 95.1%, for detecting malignancy in parotid gland tumours. The positive and negative predictive values for malignancy were 50 and 96.3%, respectively. FNAC is considered a simple test but of limited use for diagnostic guidance in tumour pathology of the parotid gland in our environment, mainly because of its low sensitivity. However, the high specificity and high negative predictive value of FNAC makes it a more accurate test in benign or negative result cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. [Oral cytology: historical development, current status, and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Hullmann, M; Reichert, T E; Dahse, R; von Eggeling, F; Pistner, H; Kosmehl, H; Driemel, O

    2007-01-01

    Oral cytology has aroused new interest caused by introduction of the cytobrush as a sampling device and the use of additional analytical methods. By brushing it is possible to reach deeper layers of the oral mucosa where squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (SIN) begins. The biological potential of the oral epithelial cells obtained can be evaluated by the following additional methods: computer-assisted image analysis (OralCDx), DNA cytometry, immunohistochemistry, monolayer cytology, and molecular biological analysis. All of those methods can increase sensitivity (up to 100%) and specificity (up to 100%) of oral brush biopsy. Nevertheless, there are reports that oral epithelial carcinomas were not identified. No comparative study exists allowing conclusions to be drawn about the value of the single methods. Immunocytochemistry with commercial antibodies against laminin-5 is generally available and methodologically easy. Oral brush biopsy as a non invasive diagnostic method can be useful for the early detection of oral mucosal lesions. Positive findings or progression of the lesion despite negative findings are indications to refer the patient to a specialized clinic where a surgical biopsy should be performed, followed by histopathological analysis. Histopathology remains the gold standard for the definitive diagnosis of oral malignant lesions.

  3. [Education concerning pathological/cytological diagnosis at 4-year colleges].

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Toshio; Yoshida, Tomomi

    2007-06-01

    Recent students of clinical technologist training courses at 4-year colleges aiming to qualify as medical technologists or cytotechnologists have diverse future prospects, for the following reasons: (1) Abundant information can be easily obtained due to the advancement of IT, (2) 4-year college education is increasing available professions, and (3) graduate schools for laboratory medicine have been established, enabling acquisition of a degree. For departments of pathological/cytological diagnosis, cooperation with pathologists and clinicians based on a reliable relationship is important, and medical technologists, cytotechnologists, and pathologists are organically linked in performing tests. To strengthen this reliable relationship and broaden professions as medical care staff, not only students but also instructors have to consistently increase their level of consciousness and energy. In addition to the establishment of the current cytotechnologist education system, introduction of the 'qualification of senior cytotechnologist' established in other countries or 'pathologist's assistant (tentative name)' as a pathological specialist should be seriously considered. The established graduate schools in the field of laboratory medicine started to produce human resources capable of performing basic research based on the knowledge and techniques of laboratory and cytology tests, and were granted a degree. Many universities have established graduate courses combined with employment, and an increasing number of cytotechnologists have acquired specialized knowledge and perform research activities based on knowledge from their routine work.

  4. Picture archiving and communication systems in digital cytology.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Sandra; Grigioni, Mauro; Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria; Balzano, Simone; Giansanti, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes a fundamental feature of digital cytology relevant to the implementation of the technology in the hospital net services: the electronic recording of the virtual slides (VS) in the hospital information system (HIS) through a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). Starting from the digital cytology (D-CYT) state of art and considering the most important products in the field, particular attention has been devoted in this review to the comparison with the digital radiology (D-RAD). Two main indications emerged from the study: 1. there is not a standard in the digital files relevant to the virtual slides in D-CYT, while in D-RAD the standard digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM), introduced by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA), has been adopted from several years; 2. the PACS in D-CYT are not standardized from manufacturers. The study makes a proposal of a useful software architecture to improve the PACS integration for D-CYT applications, with potentialities in the HIS.

  5. Interobserver reproducibility of The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology.

    PubMed

    Long, Theresa; Layfield, Lester J; Esebua, Magda; Frazier, Shellaine R; Giorgadze, D Tamar; Schmidt, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology represents a significant improvement in classification of urinary specimens. The system acknowledges the difficulty in cytologically diagnosing low-grade urothelial carcinomas and has developed categories to deal with this issue. The system uses six categories: unsatisfactory, negative for high-grade urothelial carcinoma (NHGUC), atypical urothelial cells, suspicious for high-grade urothelial carcinoma, high-grade urothelial carcinoma, other malignancies and a seventh subcategory (low-grade urothelial neoplasm). Three hundred and fifty-seven urine specimens were independently reviewed by four cytopathologists unaware of the previous diagnoses. Each cytopathologist rendered a diagnosis according to the Paris System categories. Agreement was assessed using absolute agreement and weighted chance-corrected agreement (kappa). Disagreements were classified as low impact and high impact based on the potential impact of a misclassification on clinical management. The average absolute agreement was 65% with an average expected agreement of 44%. The average chance-corrected agreement (kappa) was 0.32. Nine hundred and ninety-nine of 1902 comparisons between rater pairs were in agreement, but 12% of comparisons differed by two or more categories for the category NHGUC. Approximately 15% of the disagreements were classified as high clinical impact. Our findings indicated that the scheme recommended by the Paris System shows adequate precision for the category NHGUC, but the other categories demonstrated unacceptable interobserver variability. This low level of diagnostic precision may negatively impact the applicability of the Paris System for widespread clinical application.

  6. Cytological evaluation of Apiaceae Lindl. from Western Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Jeelani, S M; Rani, S; Kumari, S; Gupta, R C

    2014-01-01

    The present paper deals with cytological studies on 31 populations covering 17 species belonging to 10 genera of Apiaceae from Western Himalayas. The chromosome numbers in the two species as Chaerophyllum capnoides (n = 11) and Heracleum brunonis (n = 11), along with additional cytotypes for Pimpinella acuminata (n = 9) and Sium latijugum (n = 12) have been reported for the first time on world-wide basis. The genus Pleurospermum, although cytologically worked out earlier from outside India, its species densiflorum (n = 11) makes first representation of the genus from India. Besides, the chromosome number in Chaerophyllum aromaticum (n = 11) have been worked out for the first time from India. The course of meiosis varies from normal to abnormal in different populations of Chaerophyllum villosum, Pimpinella achilleifolia and Sium latijugum while abnormal meiotic course has been observed in all the studied populations of Chaerophyllum acuminatum, C. aromaticum, C. capnoides, Pimpinella acuminata, P. diversifolia, Pleurospermum densiflorum and Vicatia coniifolia. Such taxa are marked with meiotic abnormalities in the form of cytomixis, chromatin stickiness, formation of laggards and bridges resulting into abnormal microsporogenesis. The occurrence of structural heterozygosity has been recorded in the Chaerophyllum acuminatum and C. aromaticum. The effect of these abnormalities is clearly seen on the pollen size and fertility.

  7. Impression Smear Agreement with Acetate Tape Preparation for Cytologic Sampling.

    PubMed

    Layne, Elizabeth A; Zabel, Sonja

    Cutaneous cytologic sampling techniques are used to detect bacteria, yeast, and inflammatory cells for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring. Studies have examined slide evaluation techniques, ear swab cytology staining methods, and observer variations; few studies compare common clinical sampling techniques. The primary aim of this study was to measure detection of microorganisms and neutrophils by impression smear compared to acetate tape preparation; comparison of agreement between two acetate tape staining methods was a secondary aim. Thirty lesions consistent with superficial pyoderma were sampled via impression smear and acetate tape preparation. Acetate tape preparations were either stained with modified Romanowksy stain solutions two and three or solution three alone. Impression smears were stained in the standard manner. Bacteria, yeast, and neutrophils were evaluated using a semi-quantitative scale [0-4]. Quantities were aggregated and compared using Cohen's kappa to measure agreement between methods. When impression smears were compared to acetate tape, the lowest agreement occurred for neutrophils, with impression smears detecting more neutrophils. Comparison of acetate tape staining methods had the highest agreement for yeast detection. Sampling technique and staining method did not differ for detection of bacteria. Impression smears detected more neutrophils, and yeast detection appeared equivalent for acetate tape staining methods.

  8. Toward a Cytological Characterization of the Rice Genome

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhukuan; Buell, C. Robin; Wing, Rod A.; Gu, Minghong; Jiang, Jiming

    2001-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) will be the first major crop, as well as the first monocot plant species, to be completely sequenced. Integration of DNA sequence-based maps with cytological maps will be essential to fully characterize the rice genome. We have isolated a set of 24 chromosomal arm-specific bacterial artificial chromosomes to facilitate rice chromosome identification. A standardized rice karyotype was constructed using meiotic pachytene chromosomes of O. sativa spp. japonica rice var. Nipponbare. This karyotype is anchored by centromere-specific and chromosomal arm-specific cytological landmarks and is fully integrated with the most saturated rice genetic linkage maps in which Nipponbare was used as one of the mapping parents. An ideogram depicting the distribution of heterochromatin in the rice genome was developed based on the patterns of 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining of the Nipponbare pachytene chromosomes. The majority of the heterochromatin is distributed in the pericentric regions with some rice chromosomes containing a significantly higher proportion of heterochromatin than other chromosomes. We showed that pachytene chromosome-based fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis is the most effective approach to integrate DNA sequences with euchromatic and heterochromatic features. PMID:11731505

  9. Malignant biliary stenosis: conventional cytology versus DNA image cytometry.

    PubMed

    Binek, Janek; Lindenmann, Nadja; Meyenberger, Christa M; Hell, Margarete; Ulmer, Hanno; Spieler, Peter; Borovicka, Jan

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the utility of image cytometry (ICM)-DNA analysis on cytological brush specimens in improving the sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy for biliary neoplasias. A total of 71 patients with 89 samples of biliary tree brushing from a stenosis were included in this prospective study. Conventional cytology (CC) and DNA ploidy using ICM of the brushing were performed. Benign or malignant findings were confirmed by surgical exploration or a clinical follow-up of at least 12 months. Diagnosis was confirmed by clinical follow-up in 44 cases and surgical investigation or histology in 41 cases. A definitive diagnosis of the smears resulted in 40 malignant and 49 benign diagnoses. The sensitivity was 0.666 for CC and 0.658 for ICM, and the specificity was 0.920 and 0.937, respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV) was 0.866 for CC and 0.900 for ICM. McNemar's test did not reveal a significant difference between CC and ICM (P=0.803). Agreement of the two methods was found in 73 samples, raising specificity to 0.998 but not sensitivity (0.725). ICM-DNA seems not to improve significantly the PPV and NPV for detecting neoplasias of the biliary tract compared to CC. Nevertheless a clinical advantage can be seen in the agreement of the two methods in diagnosing dysplasia or cancer, since it did not show false positive results.

  10. CYTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF FIBER TYPES IN SKELETAL MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Geraldine F.; Padykula, Helen A.

    1966-01-01

    A comparative investigation of the mammalian diaphragm has revealed a correlation between certain cytological aspects of red and white muscle fibers and functional activity. This skeletal muscle presents the advantage of a similar and constant function among the mammals, but its functional activity varies in a quantitative manner. Both the rate of breathing (and hence the rate of contraction of the diaphragm) and metabolic activity are known to be inversely related to body size; and this study has demonstrated a relationship between cytological characteristics of the diaphragm and body size of the animal. Small fibers rich in mitochondria (red fibers) are characteristic of small mammals, which have high metabolic activity and fast breathing rates; and large fibers with relatively low mitochondrial content predominate in large mammals, which have lower metabolic activity and slower breathing rates. In mammals with body size intermediate between these two groups (including the laboratory rat), the diaphragm consists of varying mixtures of fiber types. In general, the mitochondrial content of diaphragm fibers is inversely related to body size. It appears, then, that the red fiber reflects a high degree of metabolic activity or a relatively high rate of contraction within the range exhibited by this muscle. PMID:5950272

  11. Primary mammary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma: cytological and histological findings.

    PubMed

    Sentani, Kazuhiro; Tashiro, Takashi; Uraoka, Naohiro; Aosaki, Yoriyuki; Yano, Satomi; Takaeko, Fumio; Yasui, Wataru

    2012-07-01

    Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (MCA), commonly encountered in the ovary or pancreas, is rare in the breast and was only recently described as a distinct variant of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. Only 11 cases of primary mammary MCA have been reported. In this article, we report a case of primary mammary MCA with focus on cytological and histological findings. A 65-year-old female noticed right palpable breast mass. Sonography showed an irregularly shaped 2.8 × 2.4 cm lesion in the upper outer quadrant of the right breast. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was performed on the right breast nodule, and cytopathologic examination suggested an adenocarcinoma composed of tall columnar cells with mucin. A partial mastectomy of the right breast and the axillary lymph nodes dissection was performed. The gross examination revealed a well-demarcated and mucus-filled tumor. Histologically, it had complex papillae, some of which were supported by delicate fibrovascular stroma lined by simple to slightly stratified columnar neoplastic epithelial cells with intracellular mucin, coexisting with MCA in situ and ordinary intraductal carcinoma component (ICC). Immunohistochemically, ICC was HER2-negative and estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor-positive, while MCA was triple negative. MCA might be derived from a metaplasia of ordinary ICC, but its pathogenesis and biologic behavior remains unclear. Despite the invasive nature of mammary MCA, these carcinomas appear to be associated with a good prognosis. The patient has remained well and disease-free for 6 months after the operation.

  12. Susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated from uteri of postpartum dairy cows to antibiotic and environmental bacteriophages. Part I: Isolation and lytic activity estimation of bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Bicalho, R C; Santos, T M A; Gilbert, R O; Caixeta, L S; Teixeira, L M; Bicalho, M L S; Machado, V S

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate bacteriophages from environmental samples of 2 large commercial dairy farms using Escherichia coli isolated from the uteri of postpartum Holstein dairy cows as hosts. A total of 11 bacteriophage preparations were isolated from manure systems of commercial dairy farms and characterized for in vitro antimicrobial activity. In addition, a total of 57 E. coli uterine isolates from 5 dairy cows were phylogenetically grouped by triplex PCR. Each E. coli bacterial host from the uterus was inoculated with their respective bacteriophage preparation at several different multiplicities of infections (MOI) to determine minimum inhibitory MOI. The effect of a single dose (MOI=10(2)) of bacteriophage on the growth curve of all 57 E. coli isolates was assessed using a microplate technique. Furthermore, genetic diversity within and between the different bacteriophage preparations was assessed by bacteriophage purification followed by DNA extraction, restriction, and agarose gel electrophoresis. Phylogenetic grouping based on triplex PCR showed that all isolates of E. coli belonged to phylogroup B1. Bacterial growth was completely inhibited at considerably low MOI, and the effect of a single dose (MOI=10(2)) of bacteriophage preparations on the growth curve of all 57 E. coli isolates showed that all bacteriophage preparations significantly decreased the growth rate of the isolates. Bacteriophage preparation 1230-10 had the greatest antimicrobial activity and completely inhibited the growth of 71.7% (n=57) of the isolates. The combined action of bacteriophage preparations 1230-10, 6375-10, 2540-4, and 6547-2, each at MOI=10(2), had the broadest spectrum of action and completely inhibited the growth (final optical density at 600 nm

  13. Laparoscopic Supracervical Hysterectomy and Laparoscopic Total Hysterectomy in Patients with Very Large Uteri: a Retrospective Single-Center Experience at a Major University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Schöller, Dorit; Taran, Florin-Andrei; Wallwiener, Markus; Schönfisch, Birgitt; Krämer, Bernhard; Abele, Harald; Neis, Felix; Wallwiener, Christian W.; Brucker, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Objective The main objectives of our study were to demonstrate that laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy (LSH) or total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) can be performed safely even in patients with a uterine weight ≥ 500 g, to analyze the rate of conversions to laparotomy due to uterine size and to estimate the incidence and type of intraoperative and long-term postoperative complications. Study Design Retrospective open, single-center, comparative interventional study of LSH and TLH. Results The present study comprised a total of 138 patients that underwent laparoscopic hysterectomy with a uterine weight ≥ 500 g; 109 patients (79.0 %) underwent LSH and 29 patients (21.0 %) underwent TLH. Median uterine weight across the entire cohort was 602 g, with the largest uterus weighing 1860 g. A total of 24 cases (17.4 %) among the 138 hysterectomies were converted to a laparotomy due to lack of adequate intraabdominal space and size of the uterus. Mean uterine weight of the patients in the LSH group that underwent conversion was 883 g (SD 380 g, n = 13) and 757 g (SD 371 g, n = 11) in the TLH group. The rate of conversion to laparotomy due to the uterine weight was significantly lower in the LSH group (11.9 %) compared to the TLH group (37.9 %) (p = 0.002). Intraoperative complications requiring laparotomy for other reasons but uterine size occurred in 6 patients of the study cohort (6/138; 4.3 %). Long-term postoperative complications occurred in 2 patients (2/138, 1.4 %), both patients from LSH group had to be re-operated on due to adhesions. Conclusions Our study adds further insight in the limited data set of laparoscopic hysterectomy for increased uterine weight and shows that LSH and TLH are safe and feasible even in patients with very large uteri (≥ 500 g).

  14. [Quantitative analysis of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images during chemoradiation therapy for cancer of the cervix uteri: Prognostic role of pretreatment diffusion coefficient values].

    PubMed

    Kharuzhyk, S A

    2015-01-01

    to carry out a quantitative analysis of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images (DWI) in cancer of the cervix uteri (CCU) and to estimate the possibility of using pretreatment measured diffusion coefficient (MDC) to predict chemoradiation therapy (CRT). The investigation prospectively enrolled 46 women with morphologically verified Stages IB-IVB CCU. All the women underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of pelvic organs before and after treatment. A semiautomatic method was used to determine tumor signal intensity (SI) on DWI at b 1000 s/mm2 (SI b1000) and tumor MDC. The reproducibility of MDC measurements was assessed in 16 randomly selected women. The investigators compared the pretreatment quantitative DWI measures in complete and incomplete regression (CR and IR) groups and the presence and absence of tumor progression during a follow-up. An association of MDC with progression-free and overall survivals (PFS and OS) was determined in the patients. A semiautomatic tumor segmentation framework could determine the pretreatment quantitative DMI measures with minimal time spent and high reproducibility. The mean tumor MDC was 0.82 +/- 0.14 x 10(-3) mm2/s. CR and IR were established in 28 and 18 women, respectively. The MDC < or = 0.83 x 10(-3) mm2/s predicted CR with a sensitivity of 64.3% and a specificity of 77.8% (p=0.007). The median follow-up was 47 months (range, 3-82 months). With the MDC < or = 0.86 x 10(-3) mm2/s, 5-year PFS was 74.1% versus 42.1% with a higher MDC (p=0.023) and 5-year OS was 70.4 and 40.6%, respectively (p=0.021). The survival difference was insignificant in relation to the degree of tumor regression. The pretreatment IS at b1000 was of no prognostic value. The pretreatment tumor MDC may serve as a biomarker for predicting the efficiency of CRT for CCU.

  15. Incidence and mortality rates in breast, corpus uteri, and ovarian cancers in Poland (1980–2013): an analysis of population-based data in relation to socioeconomic changes

    PubMed Central

    Banas, Tomasz; Juszczyk, Grzegorz; Pitynski, Kazimierz; Nieweglowska, Dorota; Ludwin, Artur; Czerw, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to analyze incidence and mortality trends in breast cancer (BC), corpus uteri cancer (CUC), and ovarian cancer (OC) in Poland in the context of sociodemographic changes. Materials and methods Incidence and mortality data (1980–2013) were retrieved from the Polish National Cancer Registry, while socioeconomic data (1960–2013) were obtained from the World Bank. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated by direct standardization, and join-point regression was performed to describe trends using the average annual percentage change (AAPC). Results A significant decrease in birth and fertility rates and a large increase in gross domestic product were observed together with a decrease in the total mortality rate among women, as well as an increase in life expectancy for women. A large, significant increase in BC incidence was observed (AAPC1980–1990 2.14, AAPC1990–1996 4.71, AAPC1996–2013 2.21), with a small but significant decrease in mortality after a slight increase (AAPC1980–1994 0.52, AAPC1994–2013 −0.66). During the period 1980–2013, a significant increase in CUC incidence (AAPC1980–1994 3.7, AAPC1994–2013 1.93) was observed, with an initial mortality-rate reduction followed by a significant increase (AAPC1980–2006 −1.12, AAPC2006–2013 3.74). After the initial increase of both OC incidence and mortality from 1994, the incidence rate decreased significantly (AAPC1980–1994 2.98, AAPC1994–2013 −0.49), as did the mortality rate (AAPC1980–1994 0.52, AAPC1994–2013 −0.66). Conclusion After 1994, a decrease in OC incidence was found, while the incidence of BC and CUC continued to increase. A reduction in mortality rate was observed for BC and OC predominantly at the end of the study period, while for CUC, after a long decreasing mortality trend, a significant increase was observed. PMID:27660470

  16. Accuracy of routine cytology and immunocytochemistry in preoperative diagnosis of oral amelanotic melanomas in dogs.

    PubMed

    Przeździecki, Rafał; Czopowicz, Michał; Sapierzyński, Rafał

    2015-12-01

    Amelanotic melanomas are one of the most common oral malignancies. The cytologic and histopathologic differentiation between amelanotic melanoma, sarcoma, and poorly differentiated carcinoma is often difficult or even impossible. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of routine cytology and immunocytochemistry in preoperative diagnosis of canine oral amelanotic melanoma. Cytologic preparations from undifferentiated canine oral tumors were stained with Giemsa and by immunocytochemistry (ICC) using anti-cytokeratin, anti-vimentin, and anti-Melan A antibodies. The final cytologic diagnosis (including ICC) was compared to the final diagnosis based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) results, and sensitivity and specificity of cytologic examination were determined. Final cytologic diagnoses of 38 cases agreed well with the histopathologic/immunohistochemical diagnoses, thus both specificity and sensitivity of combined routine cytology and ICC were 100% (95% confidence interval 90.8-100%). Of 32 oral tumors, diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma, sarcoma, and carcinoma was made using routine cytology and ICC. In 4 of 6 aspirates taken from lymph nodes, a preliminary diagnosis of metastatic amelanotic melanoma corresponded with the final diagnosis. Both sensitivity and specificity of routine cytology in diagnosis of amelanotic melanomas were considered moderate (66.7% and 85.7%, respectively). In conclusion, routine cytology is a reliable diagnostic method for canine oral amelanotic melanoma and metastatic amelanotic melanoma, and ICC, using anti-cytokeratin, anti-vimentin, and anti-Melan A antibodies, is an excellent supporting method for presurgical diagnosis of poorly differentiated oral malignancies in dogs. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  17. Cervical cytology and the diagnosis of cervical cancer in older women

    PubMed Central

    Landy, Rebecca; Castanon, Alejandra; Dudding, Nick; Lim, Anita Wey Wey; Hollingworth, Antony; Hamilton, Willie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Most non-screen-detected cervical cancers are advanced stage. We assess the potential for cytology to expedite diagnosis when used outside of routine call and recall screening for cervical cancer. Methods Two cohorts of women with cytology that did not appear to have been taken as part of routine screening, nested within a census of cervical cytology, in England between April 2007 and March 2010 were studied: 93,322 women aged 40–69 at first cytology, and 14,668 women aged ≥70. The diagnostic performance of high grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or worse cytology was estimated. We also estimated case-fatality from stage distribution in women aged ≥66 with and without cytology in the year prior to diagnosis. Results There were 259 cancers diagnosed in women aged 40–69 at first cytology, and 78 in women aged ≥70. The sensitivity of cytology ≥ HSIL for cancer was 89% and 83% respectively, and the number of women needed to test to identify one cancer was 404 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 355–462) and 226 (95% CI: 177–292) respectively. Women aged ≥66 with cytology within a year of diagnosis had earlier stage cancers than those without, corresponding to a 17–22% reduction in case fatality. Conclusions Cervical cytology is an excellent identifier of cancer among women tested outside routine screening call and recall. Its use as a triage tool, for instance in women with vague gynaecological symptoms, could facilitate earlier stage diagnosis and reduce cervical cancer mortality. PMID:26346038

  18. Cervical cytology and the diagnosis of cervical cancer in older women.

    PubMed

    Landy, Rebecca; Castanon, Alejandra; Dudding, Nick; Lim, Anita Wey Wey; Hollingworth, Antony; Hamilton, Willie; Sasieni, Peter D

    2015-12-01

    Most non-screen-detected cervical cancers are advanced stage. We assess the potential for cytology to expedite diagnosis when used outside of routine call and recall screening for cervical cancer. Two cohorts of women with cytology that did not appear to have been taken as part of routine screening, nested within a census of cervical cytology, in England between April 2007 and March 2010 were studied: 93,322 women aged 40-69 at first cytology, and 14,668 women aged ≥70. The diagnostic performance of high grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or worse cytology was estimated. We also estimated case-fatality from stage distribution in women aged ≥66 with and without cytology in the year prior to diagnosis. There were 259 cancers diagnosed in women aged 40-69 at first cytology, and 78 in women aged ≥70. The sensitivity of cytology ≥ HSIL for cancer was 89% and 83% respectively, and the number of women needed to test to identify one cancer was 404 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 355-462) and 226 (95% CI: 177-292) respectively. Women aged ≥66 with cytology within a year of diagnosis had earlier stage cancers than those without, corresponding to a 17-22% reduction in case fatality. Cervical cytology is an excellent identifier of cancer among women tested outside routine screening call and recall. Its use as a triage tool, for instance in women with vague gynaecological symptoms, could facilitate earlier stage diagnosis and reduce cervical cancer mortality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. The unintended consequences of cervical screening: distress in women undergoing cytologic surveillance.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Linda; Cotton, Seonaidh; Cruickshank, Margaret; Gray, Nicola M; Harrild, Kirsten; Smart, Louise; Walker, Leslie G; Little, Julian

    2014-04-01

    It is well known that receipt of an initial abnormal cervical cytology test can trigger considerable anxiety among women. Less is known about the impact of follow-up by repeat cytology tests. We quantified prevalence, and identified predictors, of distress after repeat cytologic testing in women with a single low-grade test. Within the framework of the TOMBOLA randomized controlled trial of alternative managements, 844 women aged 20 to 59 years with a single routine cytology test showing borderline nuclear abnormalities (BNA; broadly equivalent to atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance) were assigned to follow-up by repeat cytology in primary care (the first test was due 6 months after the initial BNA result). Women completed sociodemographic and psychosocial questionnaires at recruitment and the Impact of Event Scale (IES) 6 weeks after their first follow-up cytology test. Factors associated with significant psychologic distress (IES ≥ 9) were identified using logistic regression. The response rate was 74% (n = 621/844). Of all the respondents, 39% scored in the range for significant distress. Distress varied by follow-up cytology result: negative, 36%; BNA or mild dyskaryosis, 42%; other (including high grade and inadequate), 55%. After adjusting for the cytology result, risk of distress was significantly raised in women who had significant anxiety at recruitment, reported experiencing pain after the follow-up cytology, had children, or were dissatisfied with support they had received after their initial BNA test. Substantial proportions of women experience surveillance-related psychologic distress after a follow-up cytology test, even when the result is negative. This is an important, albeit unintended, consequence of cervical screening. Strategies to alleviate this distress merit attention.

  20. Immunocytochemical staining for p53 and Ki-67 helps to characterise urothelial cells in urine cytology.

    PubMed

    Courtade-Saïdi, M; Aziza, J; d'Aure, D; Bérard, E; Evrard, S; Basset, C; Lacoste-Collin, L

    2016-12-01

    The presence of atypical cells in urine cytology is unsatisfactory for both cytologists and clinicians. The objective of this study was to test whether p53 and Ki-67 immunostaining could improve urothelial carcinoma (UC) detection on urinary cytology. A total of 196 urine samples were analysed, 142 from the bladder, 41 from the upper tract and 13 from ileal bladder replacement. Cytology results were expressed as normal (N) (n = 81), atypia cannot exclude low-grade UC (ALG) (n = 25), suspicious for high-grade UC (SHG) (n = 39) and high-grade UC (HG) (n = 51). Actual diagnoses were confirmed by histopathological analysis, cystoscopic examination or follow-up for at least 1 year. Immunocytochemistry performed on CytoSpin(™) slides allowed the determination of the percentage of positive cells with p53 and Ki-67. The median percentage values [first to third quartile] of p53 and Ki-67 were 0 [0-5] and 0 [0-1] for N cytology, 5 [0-40] and 2 [1-10] for ALG, 10 [0-30] and 6 [3-25] for SHG, and 30 [10-80] and 20 [10-30] for HG, respectively. Statistically higher values were observed for both tests (P < 0.001) in positive cytologies (ALG, SHG and HG). The optimal cut-offs were 5% for p53 and 3% for Ki-67. The sensitivity and specificity for the detection of all UC were 86.4% and 76.7% for cytology alone, 81.3% and 93.2% for cytology and p53, 75.7% and 88% for cytology and Ki-67, and 68.9% and 97.5% for cytology, p53 and Ki-67, respectively. Using p53 and/or Ki-67 in addition to cytology increases the specificity without penalising the sensitivity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Positive pleural cytology is an indicator for visceral pleural invasion in metastatic pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Froudarakis, Marios E; Plojoux, Jerôme; Kaspi, Elise; Anevlavis, Stavros; Laroumagne, Sophie; Karpathiou, Georgia; Roca, Elisa; Adler, Dan; Dutau, Hervé; Astoul, Philippe

    2017-02-28

    In case of undiagnosed pleural effusions, it is necessary to conduct thoracentesis with pleural fluid (PF) cytology. Yet, sensitivity of PF cytology is widely variable as a result of sample size, experience, and preparation method. The aim of this study was to assess whether pleural fluid (PF) cytology is correlated to visceral or parietal pleural invasion as assessed by thoracoscopy in metastatic pleural effusions. All records of patients with pleural effusion were reviewed. The inclusion criteria were as follows: PF cytology, reported appearance of macroscopic pleural invasion during thoracoscopy and malignant diagnosis. Patients with mesothelioma were excluded. Finally, 287 patients who met all criteria were selected. According to the thoracoscopy findings, the extent of the disease on the pleura was analyzed in relation to the PF cytology. In this study, 160 patients (55.7%) had a positive PF cytology (Group A) while 127 (44.3%) recorded negative PF cytology (Group B). From Group A, patients with visceral pleural invasion were 120 (75%) while only 49 patients (38.5%) were found from Group B and the difference was statistically significant (P < .00001). In univariate analysis, visceral pleural invasion was strongly associated with positive PF cytology (P < .001). Other significant associations with positive PF cytology included PF bloody aspect (P = .012), and endoscopic mixed pattern of pleural invasion (P = .0039). Only visceral pleural invasion was statistically significant in multivariate analysis (P < .001). In patients with pleural metastatic disease, visceral pleural invasion is the only significant factor associated with positive pleural fluid cytology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Five-Year Cervical (Pre)Cancer Risk of Women Screened by HPV and Cytology Testing.

    PubMed

    Uijterwaal, Margot H; Polman, Nicole J; Van Kemenade, Folkert J; Van Den Haselkamp, Sander; Witte, Birgit I; Rijkaart, Dorien; Berkhof, Johannes; Snijders, Peter J F; Meijer, Chris J L M

    2015-06-01

    Primary human papillomavirus (HPV)-based cervical screening will be introduced in the Netherlands in 2016. We assessed the 5-year cervical (pre)cancer risk of women with different combinations of HPV and cytology test results. Special attention was paid to risks for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 and 2 or more (CIN3+/2+) of HPV-positive women with a negative triage test, because this determines the safety of a 5-year screening interval for HPV-positive, triage test-negative women. In addition, age-related effects were studied. A total of 25,553 women were screened by HPV testing and cytology in a screening setting. Women were managed on the presence of HPV and/or abnormal cytology. Five-year cumulative incidences for CIN3+/2+ were calculated. Five-year CIN3+(2+) risk was 10.0% (17.7%) among HPV-positive women. When stratified by cytology, the CIN3+(CIN2+) risk was 7.9% (12.9%) for women with normal cytology and 22.2% (45.3%) for women with equivocal or mildly abnormal (i.e., BMD) cytology. For HPV-negative women, the 5-year CIN3+(2+) risk was 0.09% (0.21%). Additional triage of HPV-positive women with normal cytology by repeat cytology at 12 months showed a 5-year CIN3+(2+) risk of 4.1% (7.0%). HPV-non 16/18-positive women with normal cytology at baseline had comparable risks of 3.5% (7.9%). HPV-non 16/18-positive women with normal baseline cytology and normal repeat cytology had a 5-year CIN3+ risk of 0.42%. No age-related effects were detected. In conclusion, HPV-positive women with normal cytology and a negative triage test, either repeat cytology after 12 months or baseline HPV 16/18 genotyping, develop a non-negligible CIN3+ risk over 5 years. Therefore, extension of the screening interval over 5 years only seems possible for HPV screen-negative women. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Commercial food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Black, E.F.; Libby, L.M.

    1983-06-01

    Food irradiation is discussed. Irradiation exposes food to gamma rays from a cobalt-60 or a cesium-137 source, or to high-energy electrons emitted by an electron accelerator. A major advantage is that food can be packaged either before or after treatment. FDA regulations with regard to irradiation are discussed. Comments on an 'Advance Notice' on irradiation, published by the FDA in 1981 are summarized.

  4. Relationship between plant growth and cytological effect in root apical meristem after exposure of wheat dry seeds to carbon ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingfang; Wang, Zhuanzi; Zhou, Libin; Qu, Ying; Lu, Dong; Yu, Lixia; Du, Yan; Jin, Wenjie; Li, Wenjian

    2013-06-01

    In order to analyze the relationship between plant growth and cytological effects, wheat dry seeds were exposed to various doses of 12C6+ beams and the biological endpoints reflecting plant growth and root apical meristem (RAM) activities were investigated. The results showed that most of the seeds were able to germinate normally within all dose range, while the plant survival rate descended at higher doses. The seedling growth including root length and seedling height also decreased significantly at higher doses. Mitotic index (MI) in RAM had no changes at 10 and 20 Gy and decreased obviously at higher doses and the proportion of prophase cells had the same trend with MI. These data suggested that RAM cells experienced cell cycle arrest, which should be responsible for the inhibition of root growth after exposure to higher doses irradiation. Moreover, various types of chromosome aberrations (CAs) were observed in the mitotic cells. The frequencies of mitotic cells with lagging chromosomes and these with anaphase bridges peaked around 60 Gy, while the frequencies of these with fragments increased as the irradiation doses increased up to 200 Gy. The total frequencies of mitotic cells with CAs induced by irradiation increased significantly with the increasing doses. The serious damage of mitotic chromosomes maybe caused cell cycle arrest or cell death. These findings suggested that the influences of 12C6+ beams irradiation on plant growth were related to the alternation of mitotic activities and the chromosomal damages in RAM.

  5. Quality assurance of canine vaginal cytology: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Moxon, R; Copley, D; England, G C W

    2010-08-01

    Regulatory controls of quality assurance in veterinary laboratories are less common than in human reproduction laboratories and the intra- and inter-technician variation in the assessment of canine vaginal cytology has not been reported. This study was designed to determine whether variation in classification of vaginal epithelial cells and interpretation of vaginal cytology smears existed within and between technicians in a canine reproductive laboratory. Sixteen vaginal cytology smears representing different known stages of the oestrous cycle were examined twice by one experienced technician and three inexperienced technicians in a blinded random order study design. Seven assessments were made; counting and classifying one hundred vaginal epithelial cells into four morphological classifications and assessment of three cellular categories. Technicians also interpreted their results and reported the stage of the cycle they thought each slide represented. In addition, selected samples were sent to four external commercial laboratories for interpretation. For the experienced technician, intra-technician variation was low for the morphological classifications and cellular assessments (r = 0.69-0.95). There was more intra-technician variation between results from Examination One and Examination Two for the inexperienced technicians (r = 0.53-0.92 where correlations were found). When inexperienced technicians' results were compared to results from the experienced technician, the inter-technician variation was low; results were correlated for 17 of the 21 observations (four morphological classifications and three cellular assessments across the three technicians) (r = 0.38-0.87). When technician interpretations of stage of the oestrous cycle were compared to the known stage of the cycle for each smear, the experienced technician correctly interpreted 19 of the 32 smears, whilst the three inexperienced technicians correctly interpreted 14, 16, and 18 of the 32 smears. The

  6. [Value of fine needle aspiration cytology and core needle biopsy in the head and neck region].

    PubMed

    Thierauf, J; Hoffmann, T K; Bommer, M; Veit, J A; Lindemann, J

    2015-05-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core-needle biopsy (CNB) represent 2 minimal invasive methods for further assessment of suspect lesions of the head and neck area. However, only limited data on the direct comparison of both methods has been published. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of FNAC and CNB and to compare their sensitivity and specificity. Between 2005 and 2012, CNB was performed in 86 patients and FNAC in 408 patients. 52 of 86 CNB-patients and 224 of 408 FNAC-patients underwent surgery afterwards and were included into the study (n=276). In order to compare the results of both methods the corresponding final histopathological finding from surgery was considered. The sensitivity of the FNAC-group was higher (85%) compared to the CNB-group (80%), the specificity (87 vs. 94%) as well as the positive predictive value (64 vs. 97%) was lower. The negative predictive value (92 vs. 71%) and also the false negative value of the FNAC (5 vs. 13%) were superior to the results of the CNB-group. Concerning the false positive value the CNB-group showed better results (2 vs. 15%). Both methods are well suited to clarify the dignity of lesions in the head and neck region. In the current case series, FNAC seemed particularly suitable for diagnosis of hematologic diseases and the exclusion of malignancy in suspicious lymph nodes. The GNP has proven to be valid in the detection of tumor recurrences in irradiated or previously operated tissue, furthermore the definitive oncological treatment can be planed, based on the histopathological results obtained by GNP. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Cytological Sampling Versus Forceps Biopsy During Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage and Analysis of Factors Predicting Success

    SciTech Connect

    Tapping, C. R.; Byass, O. R.; Cast, J. E. I.

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of cytological sampling and forceps biopsy in obstructing biliary lesions and to identify factors predictive of success. Methods: Consecutive patients (n = 119) with suspected malignant inoperable obstructive jaundice treated with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage during 7 years were included (60 male; mean age 72.5 years). All patients underwent forceps biopsy plus cytological sampling by washing the forceps device in cytological solution. Patient history, procedural and pathological records, and clinical follow-up were reviewed. Statistical analysis included chi-square test and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Histological diagnosis after forceps biopsy was more successful than cytology: Sensitivity was 78 versus 61%, and negative predictive value was 30 versus 19%. Cytology results were never positive when the forceps biopsy was negative. The cytological sample was negative and forceps sample positive in 2 cases of cholangiocarcinoma, 16 cases of pancreatic carcinoma, and 1 case of benign disease. Diagnostic accuracy was predicted by low bilirubin (p < 0.001), aspartate transaminase (p < 0.05), and white cell count (p {<=} 0.05). Conclusions: This technique is safe and effective and is recommended for histological diagnosis during PTBD in patients with inoperable malignant biliary strictures. Diagnostic yield is greater when bilirubin levels are low and there is no sepsis; histological diagnosis by way of forceps biopsy renders cytological sampling unnecessary.

  8. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of ameloblastoma and malignant ameloblastoma: a study of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Klapsinou, Eirini; Stavros, Archondakis; Smaragda, Angeli; Despoina, Proestou; Dimitra, Daskalopoulou

    2013-03-01

    Ameloblastoma is an odontogenic tumor with aggressive biological behavior, high recurrence rate, and a complex microscopic appearance with many different histologic patterns. Primary ameloblastoma is also described in extragnathic locations. Because of its wide morphologic spectrum, which is mirrored also in cytologic smears, a thorough study of distinctive features is required to reach a reliable diagnosis. Twelve cases of ameloblastoma were examined both cytologically and histologically. The patients were seven women and five men 24-85 years old, mean age being 64 years. Eleven cases were primary tumors of the mandible and maxilla, and one case was a lung tumor metastatic from the tibia. The epithelial element in the cytologic smears of the various cases was morphologically diverse. The basaloid pattern and minimal nuclear atypia were rather constant findings, and the most helpful features toward reaching a cytological diagnosis. However in most cases, careful consideration of the clinical, radiological, cytological, and occasionally immunocytochemical data was required to rule out other entities with similar cytological findings. In some cases, the final diagnosis was only possible by histologic examination. Due to their variable microscopic morphology, ameloblastomas are quite often misdiagnosed for other entities, both benign and malignant. Nevertheless, when one is aware of their distinctive features, an accurate diagnosis can be made by fine-needle aspiration cytology, in conjunction with clinical and radiological findings. Both the preoperative surgical planning and the postoperative follow-up of the patients benefit significantly from this method. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Correlation of hybrid II capture cytologic exam in diagnosis of cervical lesions related to HPV].

    PubMed

    Saturnino, Ana Conceição Ribeiro Dantas; Diniz, Veruska Cassandra; Sisenando, Herbert Ary Arzabe Anteza Costa Nóbrega; de Souza, Eroisa Maria Conceição Oliveira; de Paiva, Magnus Sérgio Martins; de Brito, Maria Helena Marques Fonseca; Ramos, Eleni Souto Nóbrega

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was confront the results of the cytological examination with hybrid capture II in the diagnosis of induced cervical intraepithelial lesion-HPV, correlating the cytological findings with biomoleculares. The research was carried through in a group of 160 sexually active women who had espontaneamente looked its gynecologists for consultation of routine, having been submitted to the collection of cervicovaginal material for cytology and for examination of hybrid capture II in the Centro de Patologia Clínica and the Hospital e Maternidade Promater, in the city of the Natal-RN. The results had shown to relatively high numbers of positive cases for HPV using hybrid capture II (41.87%) and the cytology (23.75%). The agreement between the two studied methods relatively was raised (59.38%). It was evident also that the viruses with high oncogênico potential had presented found in the compatible cytology with Lesion of low risk (11.88%), followed of Lesion of high risk (NIC II and III); already the viruses with low oncogênico potential were more associates the Lesion of low risk (6.25%), followed of Lesion of high risk. The cytology, exactly with its limitations, is an important method in the detention of attributable patologias to the HPV, emphasizing that the molecular method comes to complement it and to consolidate the cytological findings.

  10. Abnormal cervical cytology is associated with increased nitric oxide release in the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Rahkola, Paivi; Mikkola, Tomi S; Nieminen, Pekka; Ylikorkala, Olavi; Vaisanen-Tommiska, Mervi

    2009-01-01

    The human uterine cervix is capable of producing nitric oxide (NO). We studied the impact of cytological changes on the release of cervical NO. Population-based case-control study. City of Helsinki, Finland. Cervical cytology tests and cervical fluid samples were collected in 297 women. Cervical cytology tests, classified according to Bethesda criteria, were specifically analyzed for changes typically seen in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and the level of NO metabolites (NOx) in cervical fluid was assessed by Griess reaction. The difference in cervical fluid NOx between normal and abnormal cytology. Cervical cytology was normal in 219 women and abnormal in 78 women. Among women with abnormal cytology there was both a higher detection rate (89% vs. 71%) and a higher concentration of NOx (median 22.5 micromol/l, 95% CI 14.6-31.9 vs. 11.0 micromol/l, 95% CI 8.0-16.7) compared to women with normal cytology. Age, parity, use of oral contraceptives, phase of the menstrual cycle, or history of miscarriage or termination of early pregnancy were not linked to an increased cervical NOx level. Cervical cell changes (suggestive of HPV infection) are accompanied by an increased release of NO in the human cervix. The significance of this finding remains uncertain, but in theory, increased release of NO could modify the outcome of cervical infection.

  11. Evaluation of endometrial cytology: cytohistological correlations in 1,441 cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Yoshifumi; Takano, Masashi; Miyamoto, Morikazu; Nakamura, Kazuto; Kaneta, Yoshibumi; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Ohwada, Michitaka; Sakamoto, Takanori; Hirakawa, Takashi; Fujiwara, Keiichi; Suzuki, Mitsuaki

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial cytology by direct intrauterine sampling is the most common test for an initial evaluation of the endometrium in Japan. However, its diagnostic value for endometrial cancer remains unknown. Here, we assess the correlation between cytopathology and histopathology to evaluate the diagnostic value of cytology for endometrial cancer. Patients with histologically confirmed endometrial cancer and controls with a normal endometrium confirmed by hysterectomy had all undergone preoperative endometrial cytology between 2001 and 2010 at our eight institutions and were retrospectively analyzed. The cytological results were compared by clinical stage, histological type, differentiation, and sampling instrument. We analyzed 1,441 endometrial cancer and 1,361 control cases. Endometrial cytology detected cancer in 1,279 (916 positive and 363 suspicious) cases with a sensitivity (positive plus suspicious cases) of 88.8% and a specificity of 98.5%. The positive rate was high in advanced-stage, nonendometrioid, and undifferentiated cases, but there was no significant difference in sensitivity between these clinical conditions. Endometrial cytology shows a relatively high sensitivity and specificity for endometrial cancer, and neither statistical measure is significantly affected by clinical stage, histological type, differentiation, sample numbers, or sampling instrument. These findings form a superior dataset for evaluating the efficacy of endometrial cytology. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Cervical cytology screening: experience of a general hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Sargeant, E. J.; Qizilbash, A. H.; Johnson, F. L.

    1977-01-01

    At Henderson General Hospital, Hamilton, a program was introduced whereby cervical smears were taken routinely for cytologic study from all women admitted aged 17 years or older. The procedure was performed by a specially trained nurse. In a 5-year period 53% of eligible patients were screened. Of these, 32% had not had a cervical smear taken before. In 7681 smears nine instances of invasive disease were discovered: three of the cervix, three of the endometrium and three metastatic. There were 20 cases of carcinoma in situ and 2 of severe dysplasia. Evidence of infection was present in a high percentage of the smears. Hospital admission affords an excellent opportunity of applying this valuable screening procedure. PMID:912627

  13. [Biphenotypic acute leukaemia with Burkitt-like cytology].

    PubMed

    Coche, D; Bergues, B; Harrivel, V; Guillaume, N

    2009-01-01

    Biphenotypic acute leukaemia (BAL) represents about 5% of adult acute leukaemia. Based on a previously described scoring system, the European Group for Immunologic Classification of Leukaemia (EGIL) proposed a set of diagnostic criteria for BAL. This scoring system is based on the number and degree of the specificity of several markers for myeloid or T/B lymphoid blasts. Here, we report the case of a BAL with Burkitt-like cytology, corresponding to "the acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, Burkitt type" L3 for the FAB classification. By flow cytometry, the blasts showed a positivity for B lymphoid cytoplasmic (CD79a and mu) and membrane (CD19, CD22, CD24, IgM) markers AND a positivity for the myeloid (CD13, CD33, CD65, CD15) markers.

  14. Myelography and cytology in the treatment of medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, M.; Reigel, D.H.

    1981-06-01

    Eight of 22 children with newly diagnosed medulloblastoma had asymptomatic spinal cord involvement detected by myelography. Two additional patients had demonstrable spinal cord lesions at the time of relapse in the posterior fossa. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) cytology results were inaccurate in predicting cord involvement. Seven patients have relapsed 9 to 69 months from completion of radiotherapy. Three had initial cord involvement and also had subsequent cord involvement at the time of intracranial relapse or afterwards. Frontal lobe involvement as the initial site of relapse occurred in 3 patients. Computerized tomography has been valuable in the early detection of intracranial relapse. Three children are alive and well 10, 18 and 19 months, respectively, from time of relapse. All were retreated with radiotherapy in conjunction with misonidazole and subsequent chemotherapy.

  15. Cytological characterization of Vicia oroboides Wulfen in Jacq.

    PubMed

    Ruffini Castiglione, Monica; Frediani, M; Ravalli, C; Venora, G; Cremonini, R

    2009-07-01

    Vicia oroboides, a rare taxon belonging to section Atossa of subgenus Vicia, was recovered and analysed by means of cytological and karyological methods with the aim of both characterising this species and integrating our knowledge on phylogeny of subgenus Vicia. Automated karyotype analysis and nuclear DNA content have been determined after Feulgen's reaction; chromosome banding was performed by fluorochrome staining to evidence heterochromatic blocks along the chromosome complement. The chromosome number is in line with the values of the species of section Atossa; the GC- and AT-rich sites were identified by CMA and DAPI staining. Karyomorphological parameters, based on symmetry indices, provide information about the phylogenetic position of this species inside the subgenus Vicia. DNA content is reported for the first time.

  16. Clinical utility of head and neck aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Karayianis, S L; Francisco, G J; Schumann, G B

    1988-01-01

    Over the past 3.5 yr, we have examined 195 head and neck fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens from three diverse medical settings. Specimens were collected in saline solution or Saccomanno fixative and processed using cytocentrifugation or membrane filtration. This allowed us simultaneously to perform cytologic evaluations, special stains, and immunologic marker studies from a single specimen. Good correlation between clinical experience with FNA and obtaining satisfactory specimens was demonstrated. Our sensitivity (89%) and specificity (94%) reflect problems associated with specimen collection in a training environment where clinician experience with the procedure is low. A definitive diagnosis was possible in most cases, and the treatment plan was often based on the FNA results. In patients without a history of a primary malignancy, a FNA done early in the clinical course helped direct the initial workup of the patient, saving time and expense.

  17. The cytology of a thyroid granular cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Mei; Wei, Chang-Kuo; Tseng, Chih-En

    2009-01-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) of the thyroid is rare. Before this report, only four cases of thyroid GCT have been reported, none of which presented a cytopathological examination. In this paper, we report the fine needle aspiration cytology and pathological analysis of a thyroid GCT from a 12-year-old girl who presented with a painless neck mass. The tumor cells were single, in syncytial clusters, or pseudofollicles, contained small round, oval, or spindle nuclei, indistinct nucleoli, and a large amount of grayish, granular fragile cytoplasm. The background contained granular debris and naked nuclei. A differential diagnosis of thyroid GCT with more frequent thyroid lesions containing cytoplasmic granules, including Hurthle cells, macrophages, follicular cells, and cells of black thyroid syndrome, was also performed.

  18. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Diagnosis of Pure Neuritic Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Bipin; Pradhan, Anju

    2011-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infection affecting mainly the skin and peripheral nerve. Pure neuritic form of this disease manifests by involvement of the nerve in the absence of skin lesions. Therefore, it can sometimes create a diagnostic problem. It often requires a nerve biopsy for diagnosis, which is an invasive procedure and may lead to neural deficit. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of an affected nerve can be a valuable and less invasive procedure for the diagnosis of such cases. We report five suspected cases of pure neuritic Hansen's disease involving the common and superficial peroneal, ulnar, and median nerve, who underwent FNAC. Smears revealed nerve fibers infiltrated by chronic inflammatory cells in all cases, presence of epithelioid cells granulomas, and Langhans giant cells in three cases, and acid fast bacilli in two cases. In conclusion, FNAC is a safe, less invasive, and time saving procedure for the diagnosis of pure neuritic leprosy. PMID:21660285

  19. Endometriosis mimicking glandular atypia in a cervical cytology

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez–Urrego, Paula A; Dulcey–Hormiga, Isabel C; Barrera–Herrera, Luis E; Suarez–Zamora, David A; Palau–Lazaro, Mauricio A; Buritica–Cifuentes, Catalina

    2017-01-01

    Endometriosis involving the uterine cervix is a rare condition that can lead to diagnostic errors in the interpretation of Pap smear. We report the case of a 41-year-old patient in whom the initial Pap smear revealed three-dimensional clusters of glandular cells with elongated nuclei, occasional mitosis, and atypia, which was interpreted as atypical glandular cells, not otherwise specified (NOS). The patient was taken to colposcopy and endocervical biopsy. Colposcopy was normal and the biopsy presented glands with elongated nuclei and surrounded by endometrial stroma admixed with normal endocervical glands. Immunohistochemical studies were reactive for CD10 in the stromal cells and vimentin in endometrioid glands. The findings were consistent with cervical endometriosis. Endometriosis in the cervix is an uncommon pathology that mimics malignancy and may be interpreted as atypical or glandular neoplasia in the cytology. PMID:28182083

  20. DICOM-compatible format for analytical cytology data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.; Leif, Suzanne B.

    1998-04-01

    The addition of a list mode data type to the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine standard, DICOM will enhance the storage and transmission of digital microscopy data and extend DICOM to include flow cytometry data. This would permit the present International Society for analytical Cytology Flow Cytometry Standard to be retired. DICOM includes: image graphics objects, specifications for describing: studies, reports, the acquisition of the data, work list management, and the individuals involved (physician, patient, etc.) The glossary of terms (objects) suitable for use with DICOM has been extended to include the collaborative effort of Logical Observation Identifier Names and Codes (LOINC) and Systematized Nomenclature of Human and Veterinary Medicine (SNOMED) to create a consistent, unambiguous clinical reference terminology. It also appears that DICOM will be a significant part of the Common Object Request Broker Architecture, CORBA.

  1. Welding irradiated stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.; Chandler, G.T.; Nelson, D.Z.; Franco-Ferreira, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    Conventional welding processes produced severe underbead cracking in irradiated stainless steel containing 1 to 33 appm helium from n,a reactions. A shallow penetration overlay technique was successfully demonstrated for welding irradiated stainless steel. The technique was applied to irradiated 304 stainless steel that contained 10 appm helium. Surface cracking, present in conventional welds made on the same steel at the same and lower helium concentrations, was eliminated. Underbead cracking was minimal compared to conventional welding methods. However, cracking in the irradiated material was greater than in tritium charged and aged material at the same helium concentrations. The overlay technique provides a potential method for repair or modification of irradiated reactor materials.

  2. [Recollections of the development of clinical cytology at Merkur University Hospital].

    PubMed

    Crepinko, Inga

    2011-09-01

    My recollections of the development of clinical cytology at Merkur University Hospital cover a 30-year period, from 1955 to 1985, and succession of generations. The beginning is always exciting, pervaded by youthful enthusiasm, while memories are quite nostalgic. That is how I also felt at the "Ruzdić's" medical biochemistry laboratory. The founders of clinical cytology at Merkur University Hospital were the clinicians Erik Hauptmann (hematologist), Zdenko Skrabalo (endocrinologist) and Zvonimir Singer (gynecologist, cytogeneticist), with great contribution by Ibrahim Ruzdić (biochemist). As the first head of cytology laboratory at University Department of Medicine, I realized what was crucial for such a successful development of clinical cytology at our Hospital; it was so because new technologies were continuously introduced in agreement with clinicians, along with the basic routine cytodiagnosis, while paying special attention to staff education (postgraduate study in clinical cytology since 1967; residency in cytology since 1974; education of cytotechnologists since 1968). A number of MS theses and doctoral dissertations have been defended at our cytology laboratories. The Section of Cytology (now Croatian Society of Clinical Cytologists, Croatian Medical Association) was founded in 1970, owing to the efforts invested by E. Hauptmann. Clinical cytologists from Merkur University Hospital contributed to the foundation of the Association of Clinical Cytologists of the then Yugoslavia and organized their first congress in 1979; in 1972, we were adopted members of the EFCS, while Z. Singer and I. Crepinko are IAC members. I wish that written memories help remember the foundation and development of clinical cytology at Merkur University Hospital because we should not forget that every future has its origin.

  3. The performance of anal cytology as a screening test for anal HSILs in homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fengyi; Grulich, Andrew E; Poynten, I Mary; Hillman, Richard J; Templeton, David J; Law, Carmella L H; Farnsworth, Annabelle; Garland, Suzanne M; Fairley, Christopher K; Roberts, Jennifer M

    2016-06-01

    Studies regarding the performance of anal cytology in which both the screening test (cytology) and the diagnostic test (high-resolution anoscopy [HRA]) are performed in all members of a screening population are rare. The authors evaluated the performance of liquid-based anal cytology in a cohort of homosexual men in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The Study of the Prevention of Anal Cancer (SPANC) is a 3-year prospective study of the natural history of anal human papillomavirus infection in homosexual men aged ≥35 years. At baseline, all participants underwent a liquid-based anal cytology test and HRA at the same clinical visit. Biopsies were obtained for histological assessment if lesions suspicious for human papillomavirus infection were visible during HRA. Using any cytological abnormality as the threshold, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated against histologically diagnosed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs). Among 617 men recruited, the median age was 49 years (range, 35-79 years) and 35.7% were positive for the human immunodeficiency virus. Overall, the sensitivity of cytology was 83.2%, the specificity was 52.6%, the positive predictive value was 45.8%, and the negative predictive value was 86.7%. Specificity improved with increasing age (P for trend =.041). Sensitivity was significantly higher in men with >1 anal octant of biopsy-confirmed HSIL (92.9% vs 77.7%; P = .010), and in those who had ≥10 metaplastic cells present on their cytology slides (87.5% vs 70.2%; P = .007). Anal cytology was found to have a higher specificity in older men while maintaining sensitivity. Sensitivity was higher among those with more extensive HSILs and men with metaplastic cells present on cytology. Cancer Cytopathol 2016;124:415-24. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  4. Vaginal Cytology Results in Follow-up of Endometrial Carcinoma After Hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chengquan; Karunamurthy, Arivarasan; Jain, Sarika; Austin, R Marshall

    2016-08-01

    Our study examined accumulated data on vaginal cytology follow-up results of women treated for endometrial carcinoma (EmCa) by hysterectomy in a large academic women's hospital practice. This study analyzed cases of EmCa treated by hysterectomy from January 2006 to December 2008 with documented follow-up vaginal cytology and/or vaginal biopsy results available prior to September 2013. Of 607 patients with EmCa who had documented hysterectomy findings, 420 had either follow-up vaginal biopsy or cytology results during a mean follow-up period of 42.5 months, and 414 (98.6%) had at least one vaginal cytology follow-up result. Of 414 patients followed with vaginal cytology results, 48 (11.6%) had biopsy results while 366 (88.4%) had only vaginal cytology results. Recurrent EmCa in the vagina was documented by biopsy in 11 patients, eight within 2 years of hysterectomy. Cytology findings of neoplastic glandular cells triggered diagnostic vaginal biopsies in two of 11 cases. Vaginal recurrences of EmCa were diagnosed in 11 (2.6%) of 420 patients with documented vaginal follow-up testing. Abnormal vaginal cytology findings directly led to vaginal biopsy diagnoses of EmCa in two of the 11 patients. Vaginal cytology is no longer a recommended routine surveillance option for detection of vaginal cuff recurrence of EmCa. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Cytological nuclear atypia classification can predict prognosis in patients with endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, T; Kawahara, A; Hattori, S; Taira, T; Abe, H; Sanada, S; Akiba, J; Nishio, S; Ushijima, K; Kamura, T; Kage, M

    2015-06-01

    Endometrial cancer is one of the leading causes of malignancy in females. Nuclear findings are important for patients with cancer, and can provide valuable information to treating oncologists. We investigated whether nuclear findings were a useful prognostic factor in patients with endometrial cancer. We investigated 71 cases of endometrial carcinoma with paired histology and cytology at Kurume University Hospital. We classified endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EEC) G1 and G2 as type I carcinomas, and uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC), clear cell carcinoma (CC) and EEC G3 as type II carcinomas. For the establishment of the cytological nuclear atypia classification, we examined the following nuclear factors on the cytological smears: mitotic figures, prominent nucleoli, nuclear area and anisonucleosis. There was a significant difference in mitotic figures (P < 0.001) and anisonucleosis (P = 0.026) in cytological smears between type I and type II carcinomas. Based on these findings, we categorized cytological nuclear atypia into three groups, nuclear atypia-1 (57.7%), nuclear atypia-2 (19.7%) and nuclear atypia-3 (22.5%), and this classification system correlated well with prognosis in patients with endometrial cancer (P < 0.001). Furthermore, this classification system was able to extract patients with a good prognosis from those with high-grade carcinomas, such as UPSC+CC+EEC G3, and patients with a poor prognosis from those with EEC G1. Our system of cytological nuclear atypia classification based on endometrial cytology can predict patient prognosis. Cytological nuclear atypia classification and histological typing may be useful for the treatment and follow-up of patients with endometrial cancer, and should be routinely incorporated into cytological reports. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Cytological Grading of Malignant Neoplasms of The Breast and Its Correlation With The Histological Grading

    PubMed Central

    Vasudev, Vidya; R., Rangaswamy; V., Geethamani

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Breast carcinoma is one of the leading causes of malignancy in females. The diagnosis of breast carcinoma is often made by fine needle aspiration cytology. Nuclear grading is an important prognostic factor. It is important to grade breast carcinomas, which will provide valuable information to the treating oncologists to plan their management. The purpose of this study was to compare the cytological grading and typing with the histological grading and typing and the regional lymph node metastasis. Methodology: This retrospective and prospective study was done on 60 cases with malignant and suspicious diagnoses on FNAC, which had histopathological correlations, from January 2004 to December 2007. The cytological grading was done by Robinson's Method and the histopathological grading was done by the modified Scarff Bloom Richardson method. Cytological and histological typings were also done. The statistical analysis was done by using the SPSS software: The Chi square test was used and a contingency tale analysis (cross tabs procedure) was also done. Results: The cytohistological grading correlation was accurate in 7 cases (100%) of grade 1, 22 cases (71%) of grade 3 and 9 cases (42.9%) of grade 2 cancers. The accuracy was 62.7% (P < 0.001). A higher cytological grade was associated with a nodal metastasis. (cc : 0.399, P < .006) The cytological typing was accurate in 44 cases out of the 60 cases. Interpretation and Conclusion: The cytological grade correlated well with the histological grading accuracy (62.7%) and a higher grade was associated with a nodal metastasis (P < 0.006), Hence the cytological grading and typing should be routinely incorporated in the cytology reports and they can be of great value in guiding the choice of the treatment protocols. PMID:23905097

  7. Role of brush cytology in the diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus: an analysis of eight cases.

    PubMed

    Padmavathy, Femila; Siddaraju, Neelaiah; Sistla, Sarath Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Although debatable, role of cytology in diagnosing Barrett's esophagus has been stressed by some authors. Our brief report analyses the role of brush cytology (BC) in its diagnosis. Eight patients who presented with upper gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations and subsequently diagnosed to have Barrett's esophagus with or without adenocarcinoma on brush cytology (BC) or, endoscopic biopsy (EB) or, a combination of both the techniques were included in the study. In all the cases routine cytologic smears and histologic sections with relevant special stains (when essential) were studied. On cytology, the diagnosis of "Barrett's esophagus" was made when the esophageal brushings obtained from a region beyond 3 cm from the gastroesophageal junction showed closely intermingled clusters of squamous and columnar cells, or when there was evidence of intestinal metaplasia. Adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus was diagnosed by the usual criteria for malignancy with features of adenocarcinoma. Cytologic diagnoses were correlated with the histologic diagnoses. Of the eight cases, seven had histopathologic correlation of which six had evidence of BE on BC; four had cytohistologic concordance, of which three cases revealed adenocarcinoma arising in BE. Two endoscopic biopsies were nonrepresentative. In one case, cytology missed Barrett's esophagus. For two cases in which cytology detected Barrett's mucosa, biopsies were nonrepresentative. Our study showed brush cytology (BC) to be a fairly reliable test for detecting Barrett's esophagus. Owing to its inherent advantage of sampling a wider and circumferential area, a technically well performed brushing procedure is likely to be more representative and superior than multiple endoscopic biopsies. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. [HPV infection associated with nonclassic cytological signs in patients from Mérida, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Méndez Toro, Luisana; Rodríguez Meza, Andry; López de Sánchez, Mercedes; Toro de Méndez, Morelva

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to identify those nonclassic cytological signs that would allow the prediction of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Cytology samples taken from outpatients that attended public and private gynecological practices, between January of 2006 and December of 2008, were studied. The cytological samples were informed following the criteria of the Bethesda system 2001. Those reports with a cytological interpretation of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion/HPV (LSIL/HPV) were selected. Age data and other cytologic characteristics were also taken. 25,565 Pap smears were revised, of which 291 were LSIL/HPV. The age average of the patients was 32.01 years and the age range was between 15 and 67 years. 55.10% of the patients were below 30 years of age. The koilocytosis was the most frequent viral cytological sign (66.1%). Among the HPV infection associated nonclassic cytologic signs were in order of frequency: nuclear enlargement (44%), megalocytosis (38.5%), followed by binucleation and lightly irregular chromatin distribution, in the same proportion (33.7%) and the typical parakeratotic cells (33.3%). Discreet nuclear hyperchromasia and hiper-keratotic cells were the less frequent morphological changes (28.5%). The indirect signs significantly associated to the infection were: binucleation, lightly irregular chromatin distribution, discreet nuclear hyperchromasia and para-keratotic cells. The combination of HPV infection associated with nonclassic cytological signs would allow the identification of a high proportion of patients with this infection, increasing in this way the sensibility of the cytological study in the detection of HPV and the possibility of selecting subgroups at risk for the development of cervical lesions and their opportune study.

  9. A cytological-physical map of 22q11

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, E.A.; Rizzu, P.; Gaddini, L.

    1994-09-01

    Our laboratory is involved in the construction of a cytological-physical map of 22q11 and isolation of expressed sequences from the region involved in DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) and Velo-Cardio-Facial syndrome (VCFS). One of the goals of the mapping is an understanding of the molecular mechanisms which generate the 22q11 microdeletions observed with high frequency in DGS and VCFS. Our of over 60 deleted patients studied in our laboratory, all but one were deleted for two loci approximately 1-2 Mb apart. There is evidence from patients with balanced and unbalanced translocations that deletion of the whole region is not necessary for determination of the clinical phenotype. Therefore, it is possible that deletion breakpoints occur as a consequence of structural characteristics of the DNA that predispose to rearrangements. A striking characteristic of the 22q11 region is the abundance of low copy repeat sequences. It is reasonable to think that recombination between these repeats may lead to microdeletions. However, a direct demonstration of such mechanism is not available yet. The presence of repeats makes standard physical mapping techniques based on hybridization or STS mapping often difficult to interpret. For example, we have found clones positive for the same STS that are located in different positions within 22q11. For this reason we have used high resolution cytological mapping as a supporting technique for map validation. We present the current status map which includes known polymorphic and non-polymorphic loci, newly isolated clones and chromosomal deletion breakpoints. The map extends from the loci D22S9/D22S24 to TOP1P2. Extended chromatin hybridization experiments visually demonstrate the presence of at least two repeat islands flanking (or at) the region where chromosomal breakpoints of the commonly deleted region occur.

  10. Quantitative risk stratification of oral leukoplakia with exfoliative cytology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao; Li, Jianying; Liu, Xiaoyong; Liu, Xudong; Khawar, Waqaar; Zhang, Xinyan; Wang, Fan; Chen, Xiaoxin; Sun, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Exfoliative cytology has been widely used for early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Test outcome is reported as "negative", "atypical" (defined as abnormal epithelial changes of uncertain diagnostic significance), and "positive" (defined as definitive cellular evidence of epithelial dysplasia or carcinoma). The major challenge is how to properly manage the "atypical" patients in order to diagnose OSCC early and prevent OSCC. In this study, we collected exfoliative cytology data, histopathology data, and clinical data of normal subjects (n=102), oral leukoplakia (OLK) patients (n=82), and OSCC patients (n=93), and developed a data analysis procedure for quantitative risk stratification of OLK patients. This procedure involving a step called expert-guided data transformation and reconstruction (EdTAR) which allows automatic data processing and reconstruction and reveals informative signals for subsequent risk stratification. Modern machine learning techniques were utilized to build statistical prediction models on the reconstructed data. Among the several models tested using resampling methods for parameter pruning and performance evaluation, Support Vector Machine (SVM) was found to be optimal with a high sensitivity (median>0.98) and specificity (median>0.99). With the SVM model, we constructed an oral cancer risk index (OCRI) which may potentially guide clinical follow-up of OLK patients. One OLK patient with an initial OCRI of 0.88 developed OSCC after 40 months of follow-up. In conclusion, we have developed a statistical method for qualitative risk stratification of OLK patients. This method may potentially improve cost-effectiveness of clinical follow-up of OLK patients, and help design clinical chemoprevention trial for high-risk populations.

  11. Optimizing the DNA yield for molecular analysis from cytologic preparations.

    PubMed

    Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita; Chow, Chi-Wan; Kane, Mary K; Yao, Hui; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Stewart, John; Staerkel, Gregg

    2016-04-01

    Cytology smears and cytospin preparations are increasingly being used for molecular testing. With these limited samples, optimizing tissue extraction to maximize the DNA yield is, therefore, critical. This study examined 2 common methods of tissue extraction and compared DNA yields from different types of glass slides. The H226 lung cancer cell line and 5 clinical samples of cellular effusions were used to prepare Diff-Quik-stained cytospins on 4 types of glass slides: fully frosted (FF), nonfrosted (NF), positively charged (PC), and silane-coated (SC). Tissue extraction was performed by either scalpel-blade scraping or cell lifting with the Pinpoint Slide DNA Isolation System (Zymo Research). DNA was extracted with the QIAamp DNA Mini Kit (Qiagen) and was quantified with the Quant-iT PicoGreen Kit (Life Technologies). The DNA yield in cell-line cytospins was significantly lower from FF slides versus NF, PC, and SC slides with both scraping and cell-lifting methods. In addition, scraping yielded significantly more DNA than cell lifting (P = .005). DNA yields from 5 clinical effusion cases with FF and NF slides showed results similar to the results for cell-line samples, with scraping consistently yielding more DNA than cell lifting and with NF slides outperforming FF slides. Optimizing the DNA yield extracted from cytology specimens maximizes the chances of successful molecular testing and is critical in cases of low or marginal cellularity. This study demonstrates the following: 1) scraping yields more DNA than cell lifting, and 2) NF slides yield more DNA than FF slides. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  12. [Five-year application experience of cytological method in dacryological practice].

    PubMed

    At'kova, E L; Fedorov, A A; Reznikova, L V; Krakhovetskiĭ, N N; Iartsev, V D

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the results of a long-term study on application of cytological examination in dacryology. A total of 194 patients (288 eyes) with dacryostenosis, dacryocystitis, and obliteration of lacrimal canaliculi orifices were assessed. Pathogenically oriented conservative treatment, in accordance with the results of clinical, instrumental, and cytological examination, was given to all patients with dacryostenosis. Patients with dacryocystitis and lacrimal canaliculi orifice obliteration received surgical treatment: microendoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy, transcanalicularis laser dacryocystorhinostomy, and microendoscopic canaliculocystorhinostomy. Cytological examination, among other methods, was used to evaluate treatment results. The method has been demonstrated as objective and can be included into the assessment and follow-up algorithm for patients with lacrimal ducts pathology.

  13. Diagnostic cytology in veterinary medicine: a comparative and evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Leslie C; Wellman, Maxey L

    2011-03-01

    Diagnostic cytology is a core veterinary pathology service involving specimens from domestic animals, laboratory animals, and exotic species. Evidence-based application of cytopathology involves management of preanalytical factors, and thorough evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of the technique in each species and for all specimen types. Unique to veterinary medicine is the reliance on cytology as the basis for crucial medical decisions such as humane euthanasia, especially when the patient is critically ill or when financial considerations limit diagnostic and therapeutic options. This article reviews the cytologic criteria for the diagnosis of selected neoplastic and infectious diseases.

  14. p16 immunocytochemistry on cell blocks as an adjunct to cervical cytology: Potential reflex testing on specially prepared cell blocks from residual liquid-based cytology specimens.

    PubMed

    Shidham, Vinod B; Mehrotra, Ravi; Varsegi, George; D'Amore, Krista L; Hunt, Bryan; Narayan, Raj

    2011-01-31

    p16 (INK4a) (p16) is a well-recognized surrogate molecular marker for human papilloma virus (HPV) related squamous dysplasia. Our hypothesis is that the invasive interventions and related morbidities could be avoided by objective stratification of positive cytologic interpretations by p16 immunostaining of cell block sections of cytology specimens. Nuclear immunoreactivity for p16 was evaluated in cell block sections in 133 adequate cases [20 negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy, 28 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), 50 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 21 atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H), and 14 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS)] and analyzed with cervical biopsy results. (a) HSIL cytology (28): 21 (75%) were p16 positive (11 biopsies available - 92% were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1 and above) and 7 (25%) were p16 negative (3 biopsies available - all showed only HPV with small atypical parakeratotic cells). (b) LSIL cytology (50): 13 (26%) cases were p16 positive (12 biopsies available - all were CIN1 or above) and 37 (74%) were p16 negative (12 biopsies available - all negative for dysplasia. However, 9 (75%) of these biopsies showed HPV). (c) ASC-H cytology (21): 14 (67%) were p16 positive (6 biopsies available - 5 showed CIN 3/Carcinoma in situ/Ca and 1 showed CIN 1 with possibility of under-sampling. Cytomorphologic re-review favored HSIL) and 7 (33%) were p16 negative (5 biopsies available - 3 negative for dysplasia. Remaining 2 cases - 1 positive for CIN 3 and 1 showed CIN 1 with scant ASC-H cells on cytomorphologic re-review with possibility under-sampling in cytology specimen). (d) ASCUS cytology (14): All (100%) were p16 negative on cell block sections of cervical cytology specimen. HPV testing performed in last 6 months in 7 cases was positive in 3 (43%) cases. p16 immunostaining on cell block sections of cervical cytology specimens

  15. Economic analysis of human papillomavirus triage, repeat cytology, and immediate colposcopy in management of women with minor cytological abnormalities in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ostensson, Ellinor; Fröberg, Maria; Hjerpe, Anders; Zethraeus, Niklas; Andersson, Sonia

    2010-10-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of using human papillomavirus testing (HPV triage) in the management of women with minor cytological abnormalities in Sweden. An economic analysis based on a clinical trial, complemented with data from published meta-analyses on accuracy of HPV triage. The study takes perspective of the Swedish healthcare system. The Swedish population-based cervical cancer screening program. A decision analytic model was constructed to evaluate cost-effectiveness of HPV triage compared to repeat cytology and immediate colposcopy with biopsy, stratifying by index cytology (ASCUS = atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, and LSIL = low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) and age (23-60 years, <30 years and ≥30 years). Costs, incremental cost, incremental effectiveness and incremental cost per additional high-grade lesion (CIN2+) detected. For women with ASCUS ≥30 years, HPV triage is the least costly alternative, whereas immediate colposcopy with biopsy provides the most effective option at an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of SEK 2,056 per additional case of CIN2+ detected. For LSIL (all age groups) and ASCUS (23-60 years and <30 years), HPV triage is dominated by immediate colposcopy and biopsy. Model results were sensitive to HPV test cost changes. With improved HPV testing techniques at lower costs, HPV triage can become a cost-effective alternative for follow-up of minor cytological abnormalities. Today, immediate colposcopy with biopsy is a cost-effective alternative compared to HPV triage and repeat cytology.

  16. The potential of liquid-based cytology in lymph node cytological evaluation: the role of morphology and the aid of ancillary techniques.

    PubMed

    Rossi, E D; Martini, M; Straccia, P; Bizzarro, T; Fadda, G; Larocca, L M

    2016-02-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of liquid-based cytology (LBC) on lymph node fine needle aspiration (FNA). FNA may fulfil a challenging role in the evaluation of the majority of primary (benign and malignant) diagnoses as well as metastatic lymph node lesions. Although the morphological features may be quite easily recognized, cytological samples with a scant cellular component may raise some issues. We appraised 263 cytological lymph nodes from different body regions analysed between January and December 2013, including 137 male and 126 female patients, and processed with LBC. The cytological diagnoses included 160 benign and 103 malignant lesions. We reported 35 benign and 73 malignant lesions from 108 with surgical follow-up. The latter malignant series included 68 metastatic lesions, four suspicious for malignancy and one inadequate sample. The cytological diagnoses were supported by 62 conclusive immunocytochemical and 28 molecular analyses. Of the 108 cases, we documented 35 true negatives, 72 true positives, one false negative and no false positives, resulting in 98.6% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 99% diagnostic accuracy, 97.2% negative predictive value and 100% positive predictive value. FNA represents the first diagnostic tool in lymph node management and a reliable approach in order to avoid an excision biopsy. Furthermore, LBC is a feasible method for ancillary tests for which methanol-fixed samples are suitable, such as immunocytochemistry and molecular analysis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. [Costs and quality of the timely detection of cervix uteri cancer at a public clinica and at a non-government organization].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Jauregui, J

    2001-01-01

    To compare the costs and quality of cervical cancer screening between a non-governmental organization (NGO) and a Ministry of Health clinic. A quantitative and qualitative cross-sectional study was conducted between April and July 1999, in two healthcare clinics in Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. Cervical cancer screening production processes were compared along four components: a) Pap smear collection; b) its transportation to the cytology center; c) analysis and interpretation; and d) notification of results. The framework developed by Bruce was used for assessing the quality of care. The framework includes users' perceptions on information received and waiting times, as well as providers' perceptions of space and equipment availability. The unitary cost of the production process in the public clinic ($144 pesos or US$15.5) was 26% higher than in the NGO ($114 pesos or US$12.3). Women attending NGO services reported a higher satisfaction with the quality of care than those who attended the public clinic. The waiting time prior to screening and the time each woman has to wait to receive test results were the main sources of insatisfaction. Analysis of costs and quality of care results suggest that NGOs should be considered as an alternative in the provision of cervical cancer screening. The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  18. Influence of short distance transportation on tracheal bacterial content and lower airway cytology in horses.

    PubMed

    Allano, Marion; Labrecque, Olivia; Rodriguez Batista, Edisleidy; Beauchamp, Guy; Bédard, Christian; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Leclere, Mathilde

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of short distance transportation on airway mucus, cytology and bacterial culture to identify potential biases in the diagnosis of airway diseases in referral centres. Eight healthy adult horses were studied using a prospective cross-over design. Mucus scores, tracheal wash (cytology, bacterial culture) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF; cytology) were obtained while stabled and following 2.5 h transportation (with and without hay). Neutrophil counts, percentages and BALF neutrophilia frequency increased following transport without hay (P <0.05). No effect was observed on tracheal cytology and bacterial count (P > 0.05). BALF neutrophilia could develop solely as a result of transportation or due to interactions between repeated transports, ambient temperature, head position or other environmental factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cytologic features of central giant-cell granuloma of the jaw.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Kirti; Dey, Pranab; Goldsmith, Ritalin; Vasishta, R K

    2004-08-01

    In this present series, we studied in detail the cytologic features of five histopathologically verified cases of central giant-cell granuloma (CGCG). All the patients in this series were female, with an age range of 11-60 years. There were three cases with involvement of the lower jaw and two cases had upper jaw involvement. Cytology smears showed dispersed single cells in the background. Nuclei of the individual cells were round to ovoid with fine chromatin and inconspicuous nucleoli. The cytoplasm of these cells was moderate in amount with indistinct cell borders. Many randomly scattered multinucleated giant cells with 10-20 nuclei were present in the background. Combination of clinical features, radiologic pictures, and cytologic features may be helpful for diagnosis of CGCG on fine-needle aspiration cytology. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Prognosis and treatment of patients with positive peritoneal cytology in advanced gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Frattini, Francesco; Rausei, Stefano; Chiappa, Corrado; Rovera, Francesca; Boni, Luigi; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Positive peritoneal cytology in gastric cancer is classified as M1 disease by the 7th Edition of American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system. With the introduction of laparoscopy and peritoneal washing cytology in the staging of gastric cancer a new category of patients has been identified. These are patients with no macroscopic peritoneal metastases but with peritoneal cytology positive (P0C1). Prognosis and treatment of such patients represent a controversial issue. We evaluate the state of the art of staging system in gastric cancer and discuss standardisation in staging and treatment procedures. There is still a lack of uniformity in the use of laparoscopy with peritoneal cytology in clinical decision making and in the surgical treatment for gastric cancer. Survival of this patient subset remains poor. Multimodal therapies and new therapeutic strategies are required to improve the survival of these patients. PMID:23710290

  1. Prognosis and treatment of patients with positive peritoneal cytology in advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Frattini, Francesco; Rausei, Stefano; Chiappa, Corrado; Rovera, Francesca; Boni, Luigi; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo

    2013-05-27

    Positive peritoneal cytology in gastric cancer is classified as M1 disease by the 7(th) Edition of American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system. With the introduction of laparoscopy and peritoneal washing cytology in the staging of gastric cancer a new category of patients has been identified. These are patients with no macroscopic peritoneal metastases but with peritoneal cytology positive (P0C1). Prognosis and treatment of such patients represent a controversial issue. We evaluate the state of the art of staging system in gastric cancer and discuss standardisation in staging and treatment procedures. There is still a lack of uniformity in the use of laparoscopy with peritoneal cytology in clinical decision making and in the surgical treatment for gastric cancer. Survival of this patient subset remains poor. Multimodal therapies and new therapeutic strategies are required to improve the survival of these patients.

  2. Fine needle aspiration cytology in isolated thyroid swellings: a prospective two year evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sayer, H M; Krukowski, Z H; Williams, V M; Matheson, N A

    1985-01-01

    During 1 September 1981 to August 1982 aspiration cytology was carried out in all isolated thyroid swellings referred to the Aberdeen Thyroid Clinic: cytological findings were not disclosed, did not influence management, and were compared retrospectively with the histological diagnosis. In a total of 70 swellings sensitivity for the detection of neoplasia was 86% and overall accuracy 92%; the positive predictive value was 80% and negative predictive value 96%. During the second year (1 September 1982 to 31 August 1983), when cytological findings were used to influence management, the frequency of operation for isolated thyroid swellings decreased by 25% and the proportion of operations for neoplasia increased from 31% to 50%. In terms of bed occupancy the potentially avoidable surgical workload for benign disease was reduced by 34%. Aspiration cytology, carried out at the first clinic attendance, makes a sound basis for selective surgery and leads to economy in the management of isolated thyroid swellings. PMID:3922546

  3. Cytological aspects of antimicrobial antibiosis. II. Cytological changes associated with the exposure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus megaterium to colistin sulfate.

    PubMed

    CHAPMAN, G B

    1962-07-01

    Chapman, George B. (Cornell University Medical College, New York, N.Y.). Cytological aspects of antimicrobial antibiosis. II. Cytological changes associated with the exposure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus megaterium to colistin sulfate. J. Bacteriol. 84:180-185. 1962-Broth cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus megaterium were exposed to the antibiotic colistin sulfate. Control (unexposed) and exposed cells were fixed, dehydrated, and embedded in methacrylate. Ultrathin sections were examined in an RCA EMU2-D electron microscope. Two conspicuous cytological changes were noted in P. aeruginosa. The nuclear material was no longer demonstrable in its normal sites, leaving an empty space, and the cytoplasm lost its granularity, becoming homogeneous. In B. megaterium, the latter change was also noted. The nuclear material, however, although no longer demonstrable, did not leave an empty space. Rather, it seemed that cytoplasmic material had engulfed and masked nuclear areas. Cells which showed these changes were nonviable.

  4. p16/Ki-67 dual labeling and urinary cytology results according to the New Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology: Impact of extended follow-up.

    PubMed

    Piaton, Eric; Advenier, Anne-Sophie; Carré, Christian; Decaussin-Petrucci, Myriam; Mège-Lechevallier, Florence; Hutin, Karine; Nennig, Cindy; Colombel, Marc; Ruffion, Alain

    2017-07-01

    Overexpression of p16(INK4a) has been identified in urothelial malignancies both cytologically and histologically. In addition, p16/Ki-67 dual labeling has been shown to identify high-grade urothelial cancer cells and some progression cases within a 12-month delay. The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology (TPS) was published in late 2015. Its aim is to clarify the criteria for diagnosing or, conversely, excluding high-grade urothelial carcinoma (HGUC). Dual labeling was performed on archived ThinPrep-based Papanicolaou slides. A total of 208 samples (negative for high-grade urothelial carcinoma [NHGUC], 59; consistent with low-grade urothelial neoplasia [LGUN], 24; atypical urothelial cells [AUC], 15; and suspicious for or showing HGUC, 110) were analyzed for p16/Ki-67 after reclassification according to TPS. We assessed the oncologic status of the patients with cystoscopy, urinary cytology, histology, and prolonged 36-month follow-up data. The sensitivity of p16/Ki-67 for life-threatening lesions was not different from that of urinary cytology (82.8% vs 83.6%; P = 1). However, among patients with samples classified as NHGUC and AUC, disease-free survival was significantly shorter for dual-labeled cases versus cases with negative dual labeling (P < .0001). The same tendency was observed in patients with histologically proven LGUN (P < .0001). As for specificity in patients with negative cystoscopy and cytology combined, prolonged follow-up showed 90% overall survival at 24 months. A long-term evaluation of p16/Ki-67 dual labeling may identify HGUC and progression in cases with negative/low-grade urinary cytology results, and there are potential implications for the clinical management of patients after the conservative treatment of non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:552-62. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  5. Pre-operative axillary staging: should core biopsy be preferred to fine needle aspiration cytology?

    PubMed Central

    Vidya, Raghavan; Iqbal, Fahad Mujtaba; Bickley, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology and core needle biopsy (CNB) of axillary lymph nodes pre-operatively in newly diagnosed operable primary breast cancer. Methods An observational study for all patients who underwent pre-operative FNA cytology or CNB during September 2013–August 2014 was conducted at our institution (County Hospital, Stafford, UK). The accuracy of pre-operative axillary staging was compared to the post-operative histology. For this sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated. Results A total of 81 consecutive patients were evaluated by axillary ultrasound. Patients identified with potentially abnormal axillary lymph nodes underwent definitive surgery. Seven patients had positive cytology/histology who did not undergo definitive surgery and were excluded (N = 74) from the study. CNB had a sensitivity of 100% versus 72% (p = 0.006) for FNA cytology. Both had 100% specificity and PPV. The NPV of CNB was 100% versus 72% for FNA cytology. Among 35% of patients that underwent FNA cytology required repeat procedure versus 2.6% of patients who underwent CNB. 0/38 patients that had CNB required a second operation while 7/43 patients with negative FNA cytology had positive lymph nodes identified at sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) requiring surgical re-intervention with axillary node clearance. Conclusion CNB was superior to FNA cytology when interrogating the axilla. We recommend CNB to be adopted routinely in pre-operative axillary staging to reduce surgical re-intervention. PMID:28386294

  6. Cerebrospinal Fluid Cytological Diagnosis in Multiple Myeloma With Leptomeningeal Involvement: A Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Ren, Haitao; Zou, Yueli; Zhao, Yanhuan; Li, Jian; Han, Xiao; He, Junying; Guan, Hongzhi

    2017-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) with central nervous system (CNS) infiltration is uncommon and the diagnosis is more complicated than that of MM. Here we report two cases of CNS MM that was diagnosed by cerebrospinal fluid cytology examination. Cerebrospinal fluid cytology examination can help to detect malignant cells and immunocytochemistry stain is of great value in identifying an unknown tumor. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:66-68. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Integration of tablet technologies in the e-laboratory of cytology: a health technology assessment.

    PubMed

    Giansanti, Daniele; Pochini, Marco; Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria

    2014-10-01

    Although tablet systems are becoming a powerful technology, particularly useful in every application of medical imaging, to date no one has investigated the acceptance and performance of this technology in digital cytology. The specific aims of the work were (1) to design a health technology assessment (HTA) tool to assess, in terms of performance and acceptance, the introduction of tablet technologies (wearable, portable, and non portable) in the e-laboratories of cytology and (2) to test the tool in a first significant application of digital cytology. An HTA tool was proposed operating on a domain of five dimensions of investigation comprising the basic information of the product of digital cytology, the perceived subjective quality of images, the assessment of the virtual navigation on the e-slide, the assessment of the information and communication technologies features, and the diagnostic power. Six e-slides regarding studies of cervicovaginal cytology digitalized by means of an Aperio ( www.aperio.com ) scanner and uploaded onto the www.digitalslide.it Web site were used for testing the methodology on three different network connections. Three experts of cytology successfully tested the methodology on seven tablets found suitable for the study in their own standard configuration. Specific indexes furnished by the tool indicated both a high degree of performance and subjective acceptance of the investigated technology. The HTA tool thus could be useful to investigate new tablet technologies in digital cytology and furnish stakeholders with useful information that may help them make decisions involving the healthcare system. From a global point of view the study demonstrates the feasibility of using the tablet technology in digital cytology.

  8. Diagnostic pitfalls in fine-needle aspiration cytology of temporomandibular chondroblastoma: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Rafael Adame; Almeida, Margarida; Mendonça, M Evelina; Frable, W J

    2006-06-01

    Chondroblastoma is a benign bone neoplasm, which usually presents in the epiphysis of long bones, but can occur in unusual locations. This report describes the clinical, radiologic, and cytologic features on FNA of two chondroblastomas of the temporomandibular region that were only recognized by histopathologic study. This emphasizes the diagnostic pitfalls of this entity and expands the cytologic differential diagnosis of tumors of the parotid region.

  9. Is there a role for the thinprep imaging system in reporting anal cytology?

    PubMed

    Margaret Roberts, Jennifer; Jin, Fengyi; Ekman, Deborah; Kay Adams, Marjorie; Lindsay McDonald, Ross; Kathleen Thurloe, Julia; Richards, Adele; Mary Poynten, Isobel; Law, Carmella; Kincaid Fairley, Christopher; John Hillman, Richard; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Marie Cornall, Alyssa; James Templeton, David; Marie Garland, Suzanne; Edwin Grulich, Andrew; Farnsworth, Annabelle

    2016-05-01

    The ThinPrep Imaging System (TIS) is an accurate time-saving method of reading cervical ThinPrep slides in screening programs. As anal and cervical cytology are morphologically similar, TIS can potentially be used for anal cytology. We assessed the performance of TIS on anal ThinPrep slides from homosexual men in a natural history study of human papillomavirus-related anal abnormalities. Four hundred nineteen anal cytology slides were processed by TIS and classified by a cytologist as either No further review (slide archived) or Manual review (slide requiring full manual screen). The results were compared with the original manual screening report for all slides and specifically for those screening episodes accompanied by a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) on concurrent biopsy. One hundred seventy six of 419 (42.0%) slides were classified as No further review, with a trend of decreasing proportions as the degree of severity of the cytological abnormality increased. Thirteen (27.7%) slides with an original unsatisfactory report were classified as No further review. Eighty two (92.1%) of those with biopsy HSIL and cytological abnormality were classified for Manual review, including all 45 (100%) with cytological HSIL. The cervical algorithm of TIS performed best on anal samples when HSIL was present both cytologically and histologically. The 27.7% unsatisfactory slides classified as No further review may indicate need for use of different criteria from cervical cytology. Because of the high prevalence of abnormalities, and hence the large proportion of slides needing manual review, the cytologist time-saving would compare unfavorably with use of TIS in cervical screening. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Histopathology-like categories based on endometrial imprint cytology in dysfunctional uterine bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Baxi, Seema N.; Panchal, Nirav S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cytology of the endometrium is an underused technique in diagnostic pathology. It has been used in the past for endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma. Only few studies have used cytology in the diagnosis of dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB). Endometrial imprint cytology has been rarely used except for application of immunocytochemistry in diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma. Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate whether it is possible to assign histopathology-like diagnosis by imprint cytology and also to evaluate its usefulness in the assessment of patients of dysfunctional uterine bleeding of low clinical suspicion. Materials and Methods: Imprint smears were made from 93 curettage materials during a study of DUB. Blinded analysis of imprint smears was performed by using McKenzie's criteria and some criteria devised for the requirements of this study. Results of cytology were correlated with histopathology. Statistical analysis was carried out by GraphpadInStat Demo. Results: Majority of the patterns classifiable in histopathology could also be classified in this study on imprint cytology. The overall sensitivity and specificity of cytology in the detection of endometrial patterns in DUB patients were 91.23% and 83.87%, respectively, although the sensitivities and specificities differ according to the phase of endometrium. Conclusion: Histopathology-like categories can be assigned on imprint smears in the diagnosis of DUB. Endometrial imprint cytology can be helpful in centers where histopathology laboratories are not available and even in well-established institutes. It is possible to improve the sensitivity and specificity with better imprinting techniques. PMID:26229245

  11. Pleural fluid tumour markers in malignant pleural effusion with inconclusive cytologic results.

    PubMed

    Antonangelo, L; Sales, R K; Corá, A P; Acencio, M M P; Teixeira, L R; Vargas, F S

    2015-10-01

    The presence of tumour cells in pleural fluid or tissue defines an effusion as malignant. Cytology analysis of the pleural fluid has about 60% diagnostic sensitivity. Several tests have been proposed to improve diagnosis-among them, the concentrations of tumour markers in pleural fluid. We evaluated whether the concentrations of tumour markers in pleural fluid could improve the diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion (mpe) when cytology is doubtful. Lymphocytic pleural fluids secondary to tuberculosis or malignancy from 156 outpatients were submitted for cytology and tumour marker quantification [carcinoembryonic antigen (cea), cancer antigen 15-3 (ca15-3), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (ca19-9), cancer antigen 72-4 (ca72-4), cancer antigen 125 (ca125), and cyfra 21-1). Oneway analysis of variance, the Student t-test or Mann-Whitney test, and receiver operating characteristic curves were used in the statistical analysis. Concentrations of the tumour markers cea, ca15-3, ca125, and cyfra 21-1 were higher in mpes than they were in the benign effusions (p < 0.001), regardless of cytology results. The markers ca19-9 and ca72-4 did not discriminate malignant from benign effusions. When comparing the concentrations of tumour markers in mpes having positive, suspicious, or negative cytology with concentrations in benign effusions, we observed higher levels of cea, ca15-3, cyfra 21-1, and ca125 in malignant effusions with positive cytology (p = 0.003, p = 0.001, p = 0.002, and p = 0.001 respectively). In pleural fluid, only ca125 was higher in mpes with suspicious or negative cytology (p = 0.001) than in benign effusions. Given high specificity and a sensitivity of about 60%, the concentrations of tumour markers in pleural effusions could be evaluated in cases of inconclusive cytology in patients with a high pre-test chance of malignancy or a history of cancer.

  12. ImmunoCyt™ and cytology for diagnosis of bladder carcinoma: a meta analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Minggen; Zheng, Zhouda; Zhuang, Zhiming; Zhao, Xiaokun; Xu, Zhenqiang; Lin, Haili

    2014-01-01

    Currently, cystoscopy and urine cytology are standard modalities in therapy monitoring and follow-up of bladder carcinoma (BC). Cystoscopy is an invasive and uncomfortable procedure while cytology has a limited value because it is operator-dependent and has low sensitivity. This study was to assess the accuracy of ImmunoCyt in detecting BC by comparing it with cytology using systemic analyses of studies published in both English and Chinese. Cochrane systematic evaluation was used to search through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CMCC, and CNKI for studies regarding ImmunoCyt and cytology for detection of BC. Data were extracted and analyzed by the software MetaDiSc 1.4. In total 42 relevant studies were searched, of which 15 were enrolled and 12 491 patients were included. Heterogeneity, except for threshold effects, was found within these studies. A meta-analysis was performed using the random effect model. Pooled accuracy indicators like sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio of ImmunoCyt™ and cytology were 0.75 (0.73-0.77) vs. 0.45 (0.43-0.48), 0.73 (0.72-0.74) vs. 0.97 (0.96-0.97), and 10.97 (7.53-15.99) vs. 16.40 (10.57-25.46), respectively. The sensitivity of both was increased with the increase of tumor grade and stage. The area under summary receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.834 4 and 0.853 4 and the Q index 0.766 7 and 0.785 3 for ImmunoCyt and cytology, respectively. Combination of both can obviously improve the accuracy of diagnosis. ImmunoCyt has a high sensitivity in detecting BC, but its specificity is low. As an important adjunct, ImmunoCyt™ can not replace cytology, but combined with cytology it could improve sensitivity with high specificity in the detection and postoperative monitoring of BC.

  13. Yield of Cytology Surveillance After High-Grade Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia or Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuroki, Lindsay M; Frolova, Antonina I; Wu, Ningying; Liu, Jingxia; Powell, Matthew; Thaker, Premal H; Massad, L Stewart

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the risk of high-grade cervical and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN/VAIN 2+) and cancer among women treated surgically for high-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (HGVIN) and vulvar cancer. We performed a retrospective cohort study of women who underwent surgery for HGVIN/vulvar cancer between 2006 and 2010. Univariate and multivariate analyses using stepwise selection were used to identify correlates of abnormal cytology after treatment for VIN and vulvar cancer. Among 191 women under surveillance for a median of 3.7 years who underwent treatment for HGVIN/vulvar cancer, primary vulvar lesions included VIN 2 (10, 5%), VIN 3 (102, 53%), and carcinoma (79, 41%). During follow-up, 71 (37%) had abnormal cytology, including 47 (25%) low grade, 23 (12%) high grade, and 1 (0.5%) carcinoma. Subsequent risk for VAIN 2+ was 11% (6/57) after previous hysterectomy and 8% for CIN 2+ (10/124) with intact cervix. Overall risk for CIN 3+ was 5%. Correlates of high-grade cytology after treatment for HGVIN/vulvar cancer included nonwhite race (odds ratio [OR] = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.50-7.36), immunodeficiency (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.76-9.94), and previous abnormal cytology (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.29-5.78). Stepwise multivariate analysis revealed immunosuppression as the only significant correlate of high-grade cytology after vulvar treatment (adjusted OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.26-10.83). Women with HGVIN/cancer should have cervical/vaginal cytology before vulvar surgery. Those with a negative cervical or vaginal cytology result should undergo cytology testing at 1- to 3-year intervals, based on the threshold for CIN 3+ set forth by the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology.

  14. Impact of technology on cytology outcome in cervical cancer screening of young and older women.

    PubMed

    Rask, J; Lynge, E; Franzmann, M; Hansen, B; Hjortebjerg, A; Rygaard, C; Schledermann, D; Wåhlin, A; Rebolj, M

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about age-dependent variation in outcomes of cervical cytology with modern technologies. This population-based study evaluated age-dependent changes after routine implementation of ThinPrep and SurePath technology in two independent laboratories, and controlled for time trends in a third laboratory using manually read conventional cytology continually. Data were collected from the Danish National Health Care Registers. For each laboratory, we compared proportions of abnormal cytology defined as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse (ASCUS+) by age and technology phase. The study included 489,960 cytological samples with no recent abnormality from women aged 23-59 years, routinely screened between 1998 and 2007. Implementation of SurePath liquid-based cytology (LBC) was followed by an increase in abnormal cytology in women aged 23-29 years from 4.6 to 6.1%, relative proportion (RP): 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.61], and a decrease in women aged 45-59 years from 2.9 to 2.0%, RP: 0.71 (95% CI: 0.60-0.83). Implementation of ThinPrep LBC was followed by a decrease in abnormal cytology both in women aged 23-29 years from 7.7 to 6.8%, RP: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.78-1.02) and in women aged 45-59 years from 3.4 to 1.0%, RP: 0.30 (95% CI: 0.24-0.37). With implementation of imaging-assisted reading, regardless of the brand of technology, the proportion of abnormality increased by around 30% in all age groups (range from 19 to 41%). In the laboratory with unchanged technology no trends in abnormality proportions were observed. The impact of LBC implementation on cytological abnormality proportions varied considerably across age groups.

  15. External cobalt 60 irradiation alone for stage IIB carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Z.Z.; He, F.Z.

    1989-02-01

    From 1964 to 1980, 97 patients with Stage IIb carcinoma of cervix uteri were treated by external 60Co irradiation alone. Of these 97 patients, 94 (96.9%) had squamous cell carcinoma. The parametrial extension of the lesion almost reached the pelvic wall in 73.2% and vaginal extension reached to the upper half of vaginal in 24.7% of the patients. A tumor dose of 60 Gy was given to the whole pelvis by a four field technic (opposing parallel AP and lateral portals) in 6-8 weeks. A booster dose of 10 Gy was delivered to the cervix by a pair of reduced opposing parallel AP portals or a perineal portal in a week. The doses delivered were equivalent to the Time-Dose-Fractionation (TDF) value of 110-130 at the center of pelvis and 90-110 in the whole pelvis. The 5-year survival rate for all 97 patients was 56.7%. It was 59.8% when those who died of other diseases were excluded. The prognosis of patients without residual tumor on the cervix and/or vagina was better than that with residual tumor (p less than 0.01). Thirty-seven patients died of cancer (23 died of recurrence, 8 of distant metastases, 2 of both, and 4 were lost before the fifth year). Of these 37 patients, 97.3% died within 3 years after initial treatment. During the radiation treatment, reactions were moderate. Late complications included 19 (19.6%) with mild cystitis and 16 (16.5%) with mild proctitis, 2 (2.7%) developed recto-vaginal fistula. These results were slightly poorer than those using intracavitary and external irradiation or the combination of preoperative irradiation plus surgery. Yet, for patients with extensions nearing the pelvic wall or with contra-indications to surgery or intracavitary radiotherapy, external irradiation alone is still of value.

  16. Thermoluminescence of irradiated foodstuffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oduko, J. M.; Spyrou, N. M.

    Measurements have been made of the thermoluminescent response of a number of foodstuffs, namely spices, chicken bone, eggshell and strawberries. From the results, irradiated samples can be clearly distinguished from unirradiated ones for several weeks after irradiation of 5-10 kGy, or in the case of some spices for up to 20 months. It is concluded that measurement of thermoluminescence is a promising technique for detecting the irradiation of foodstuffs.

  17. Synovial fluid cytology in experimental acute canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis).

    PubMed

    Theodorou, Konstantina; Leontides, Leonidas; Siarkou, Victoria I; Petanides, Theodoros; Tsafas, Konstantinos; Harrus, Shimon; Mylonakis, Mathios E

    2015-05-15

    Evidence-based information of a cause-and-effect relationship between Ehrlichia canis infection and polyarthritis in naturally- or experimentally-infected dogs is currently lacking. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate whether synovial fluid cytological evidence of arthritis could be documented in dogs with acute monocytic ehrlichiosis. Direct synovial fluid cytology smears from eight Beagle dogs experimentally infected with E. canis were examined prior to, and on 21, 35 and 63 days post-inoculation. The cytological variables assessed included cellularity, percentages of mononuclear cells and neutrophils, macrophage reactivity and evidence of E. canis morulae. The median cellularity and percentages of mononuclear cells and neutrophils prior to inoculation did not differ when compared to post-inoculation cytological evaluation. Increased cellularity, E. canis morulae or cytological evidence of arthritis or macrophage reactivity were not observed throughout the course of the study. In the present study, no cytological evidence of arthritis was found in dogs with experimental acute canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, suggesting that E. canis infection should be considered a rather uncommon cause of arthritis in dogs.

  18. ALK and ROS1 testing on lung cancer cytologic samples: Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Pisapia, Pasquale; Lozano, Maria D; Vigliar, Elena; Bellevicine, Claudio; Pepe, Francesco; Malapelle, Umberto; Troncone, Giancarlo

    2017-07-25

    Cytologic sampling is the mainstay of diagnosing advanced lung cancer. Moreover, to select patients for personalized first-line or second-line treatment, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and c-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1) rearrangements are tested on cytologic preparations. Commercially available fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunocytochemistry (ICC) assays have primarily been used for the identification of cells harboring ALK or ROS1 gene fusions on histologic rather than cytologic preparations. However, it is now recognized that FISH and ICC also can be applied on cytologic samples provided the cytopathologist is aware that FISH and ICC results are not always concordant and that the performance of ICC largely depends on antibody clones, signal detection systems, and scoring systems. Notably, the routine clinical use of FISH and ICC may be replaced by emerging next-generation sequencing and digital, color-coded barcode technologies, which have the advantage of simultaneously evaluating ALK, ROS1, and EGFR alterations in a single analysis. Although their use in clinical cytologic practice remains to be fully established, it is conceivable that this technology will replace both FISH and ICC analyses in future diagnostic algorithms. Here, the authors review studies devoted to testing ALK and ROS1 on cytology specimens in an attempt to provide an update for the cytopathologist regarding current and evolving practice. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  19. The utility and management of vaginal cytology after treatment for endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Novetsky, Akiva P; Kuroki, Lindsay M; Massad, L Stewart; Hagemann, Andrea R; Thaker, Premal H; Powell, Matthew A; Mutch, David G; Zighelboim, Israel

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the accuracy of vaginal cytology in postoperative surveillance for detecting recurrent endometrial cancer and to estimate the optimal management of squamous abnormalities detected in this setting. This review included women who underwent hysterectomy for endometrial cancer between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2010, and had at least one postoperative Pap test. Clinical and demographic data were collected and outcomes including abnormal vaginal cytology, results of colposcopic examination, and endometrial cancer recurrence were assessed. A Cox regression model to estimate the risk of abnormal cytology was created. Sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values of detecting vaginal recurrences were calculated. Four hundred thirty-three women contributed 2,378 Pap tests. At least one abnormal cytology result was found during follow-up of 55 (13%) women, representing 3% of all Pap tests. No recurrent endometrial cancers were diagnosed on the basis of isolated abnormal cytology. No cases of recurrent cancer were diagnosed in women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) Pap test results. In multivariable analysis, abnormal cytology was highly associated with prior postoperative radiation therapy (P<.001). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of an abnormal Pap test result in detecting a local recurrence are 40%, 87.9%, 7.3%, and 98.4%, respectively. Colposcopy is not needed after a Pap test result read as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or LSIL. III.

  20. Cytological and microbiological findings in guttural pouch lavages of clinically normal horses with head restraint.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, O A; Cuenca, R; Mayayo, E; Guarro, J; Santamaria, J; Stchigel, A M

    2002-04-01

    To evaluate the cytological and microbiological contents of guttural pouch washes of ten randomly selected horses restrained so as to prevent them lowering their heads, and to assess the possible effects on the guttural pouch environment in these horses. Cytological and microbiological studies were performed on guttural pouch washes of ten clinically normal horses restrained in a standing position so as to prevent them from lowering their heads below normal, as would happen during transportation on long journeys. They were restrained for 12 or 24 h and cytological, bacteriological and mycological findings in guttural pouch washes were recorded. The cytological gradings and neutrophil concentrations of guttural pouch washings were higher in horses that had their heads restrained for a longer period. Washings from these horses were more likely to contain cultivable bacteria and were the only washes yielding potentially pathogenic bacterial species. Variation in the cytological differential counts and bacterial cultures of guttural pouch lavages may be found in clinically normal horses which have had their heads restrained in an elevated position for periods from 12 to 24 h. This should be considered when examining this site and care must be taken when interpreting cytology of guttural pouch lavages in samples taken after transportation for more than 12 h. Restriction of head movement could also affect the normal pouch enviroment and predispose it to disease.

  1. Role of oral exfoliative cytology in predicting premalignant potential of oral submucous fibrosis: A short study.

    PubMed

    Jaitley, Shweta; Agarwal, Pankaj; Upadhyay, Ramballabh

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken with an aim of determining the cytological features observed in mucosal smears of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) patients and comparing them with that of features of normal mucosal cells. The observed features were than analyzed for their reliability in detecting malignant changes in this premalignant condition. Objective of the study was to conduct an oral exfoliative cytology (OEC) study on 30 clinically diagnosed cases of OSF and 30 cases of clinically normal mucosa with no other systemic disease. We observed that all the smears from clinically normal buccal mucosa showed Class I cytology. The exfoliated cells were of normal size and shape with normal staining intensity and normal nuclear characteristics. All the 30 cases of our study group showed features suggestive of benign atypical cytological changes (Class II cytology). In the present study, despite the small number of cases, cytological features consistently observed in all the cases, were indicative of a premalignant change and emphasized a regular follow-up of patients. Early detection of a premalignant oral lesion promises to improve the survival rate of patients suffering from these conditions.

  2. The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology: The Quest to Develop a Standardized Terminology.

    PubMed

    Barkan, Güliz A; Wojcik, Eva M; Nayar, Ritu; Savic-Prince, Spasenija; Quek, Marcus L; Kurtycz, Daniel F I; Rosenthal, Dorothy L

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of urine cytology is to detect high-grade urothelial carcinoma. With this principle in mind, The Paris System (TPS) Working Group, composed of cytopathologists, surgical pathologists, and urologists, has proposed and published a standardized reporting system that includes specific diagnostic categories and cytomorphologic criteria for the reliable diagnosis of high-grade urothelial carcinoma. This paper outlines the essential elements of TPS and the process that led to the formation and rationale of the reporting system. TPS Working Group, organized at the 2013 International Congress of Cytology, conceived a standardized platform on which to base cytologic interpretation of urine samples. The widespread dissemination of this approach to cytologic examination and reporting of urologic samples and the scheme's universal acceptance by pathologists and urologists is critical for its success. For urologists, understanding the diagnostic criteria, their clinical implications, and limitations of TPS is essential if they are to utilize urine cytology and noninvasive ancillary tests in a thoughtful and practical manner. This is the first international/inclusive attempt at standardizing urinary cytology. The success of TPS will depend on the pathology and urology communities working collectively to improve this seminal paradigm shift, and optimize the impact on patient care.

  3. The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology: The Quest to Develop a Standardized Terminology.

    PubMed

    Barkan, Güliz A; Wojcik, Eva M; Nayar, Ritu; Savic-Prince, Spasenija; Quek, Marcus L; Kurtycz, Daniel F I; Rosenthal, Dorothy L

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of urine cytology is to detect high-grade urothelial carcinoma (HGUC). With this principle in mind, The Paris System (TPS) Working Group, composed of cytopathologists, surgical pathologists, and urologists, has proposed and published a standardized reporting system that includes specific diagnostic categories and cytomorphologic criteria for the reliable diagnosis of HGUC. This paper outlines the essential elements of TPS and the process that led to the formation and rationale of the reporting system. The Paris System Working Group, organized at the 2013 International Congress of Cytology, conceived a standardized platform on which to base cytologic interpretation of urine samples. The widespread dissemination of this approach to cytologic examination and reporting of urologic samples and the scheme's universal acceptance by pathologists and urologists is critical for its success. For urologists, understanding the diagnostic criteria, their clinical implications, and the limitations of TPS is essential if they are to utilize urine cytology and noninvasive ancillary tests in a thoughtful and practical manner. This is the first international/inclusive attempt at standardizing urinary cytology. The success of TPS will depend on the pathology and urology communities working collectively to improve this seminal paradigm shift, and optimize the impact on patient care.

  4. Brush cytology: an adjunct to diagnostic upper GI endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Patwari, A K; Anand, V K; Malhotra, V; Balani, B; Gangil, A; Jain, A; Kapoor, G

    2001-06-01

    Endoscopic brush cytology (EBC) was performed in antral and duodenal brushings of children subjected to upper GI endoscopy for the detection of H. pylori (Hp) and trophozoites of Giardia lamblia (Glt) in addition to routine endoscopic grasp biopsy (EGB). It was hospital based prospective study. EBC was performed in children subjected to upper GI endoscopy with a sheathed cytology brush. Mucosal brushings were collected from antrum, body of the stomach and second or third part of duodenum by gently rubbing the surface of the brush with the mucosal wall in all the directions, brush withdrawn and brushings performed on a glass slide. The smears were placed in 95% ethyl alcohol and later examined for Glt and Hp using Giemsa and Hematoxylin & Eosin stain. EGB was taken from antrum, body of the stomach and duodenum from sites other than those used for brushings. One hundred and seventy children between 1-13 years (median age = 5 years) were subjected to upper GI endoscopy for malabsorption (n = 94), recurrent abdominal pain (n = 49), failure to thrive (n = 16) and recurrent vomiting/regurgitation (n = 11) and EBC was performed in addition to routine EGB. Thirty five children (20.4%) were colonized by Hp, 14 (8.2%) were detected to have Glt and in 6 cases (3.5%) both Hp as well as Glt were detected. Out of 41 cases colonized by Hp, 24 cases (58.5%) were detected by EGB and 27 cases (65.8%) were detected by EBC. Out of 20 children in whom Glt were detected from their duodenum, the detection was by EBG in 12 cases (60%) and by EBC in as many as 19 cases (95%). Comparison of EGB and EBC suggested that detection rates with EBC were higher than EGB. Detection by EBC was significantly higher for Glt than Hp. There were no complications attributed to EBC and procedure time for endoscopy was not significantly prolonged. On the contrary, detection of Hp and particularly Glt in higher proportion of cases with the help of EBC was helpful in their appropriate management. Our results

  5. Susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated from uteri of postpartum dairy cows to antibiotic and environmental bacteriophages. Part II: In vitro antimicrobial activity evaluation of a bacteriophage cocktail and several antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Santos, T M A; Gilbert, R O; Caixeta, L S; Machado, V S; Teixeira, L M; Bicalho, R C

    2010-01-01

    The use of pathogenic-specific antimicrobials, as proposed by bacteriophage therapy, is expected to reduce the incidence of resistance development. Eighty Escherichia coli isolated from uteri of Holstein dairy cows were phenotypically characterized for antimicrobial resistance to ampicillin, ceftiofur, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, spectinomycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline by broth microdilution method. The lytic activity of a bacteriophage cocktail against all isolates was performed by a similar method. Additionally, the effect of different concentrations of antimicrobials and multiplicities of infections (MOI) of the bacteriophage cocktail on E. coli growth curve was measured. Isolates exhibited resistance to ampicillin (33.7%), ceftiofur (1.2%), chloramphenicol (100%), and florfenicol (100%). All strains were resistant to at least 2 of the antimicrobial agents tested; multidrug resistance (>or=3 of 7 antimicrobials tested) was observed in 35% of E. coli isolates. The major multidrug resistance profile was found for ampicillin-chloramphenicol-florfenicol, which was observed in more than 96.4% of the multidrug-resistant isolates. The bacteriophage cocktail preparation showed strong antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant E. coli. Multiplicity of infection as low as 10(-4) affected the growth of the E. coli isolates. The ratio of 10 bacteriophage particles per bacterial cell (MOI=10(1)) was efficient in inhibiting at least 50% of all isolates. Higher MOI should be tested in future in vitro studies to establish ratios that completely inhibit bacterial growth during longer periods. All isolates resistant to florfenicol were resistant to chloramphenicol and, because florfenicol was recently introduced into veterinary clinics, this finding suggests that the selection pressure of chloramphenicol, as well as other antimicrobials, may still play a relevant role in the emergence and dissemination of florfenicol resistance in E. coli. The bacteriophage

  6. Colposcopy, cervicography, speculoscopy and endoscopy. International Academy of Cytology Task Force summary. Diagnostic Cytology Towards the 21st Century: An International Expert Conference and Tutorial.

    PubMed

    van Niekerk, W A; Dunton, C J; Richart, R M; Hilgarth, M; Kato, H; Kaufman, R H; Mango, L J; Nozawa, S; Robinowitz, M

    1998-01-01

    The colposcope was developed in 1925 and is well established in clinical gynecologic practice for defining and delineating cytologically detected lesions mainly of the cervix but also the vagina and vulva. Additionally, various endoscopic procedures in gastroenterology, pulmonary and urologic lesions enhance the cytologic detection and histologic verification of precancerous and cancerous lesions. The cost-effectiveness of all these devices and their applicability, particularly in countries with a limited health budget, is a major issue. This task force considered aspects of the present state of the art and the challenges in the 21st century. Automated cytology can interface with colposcopic examination in a number of significant ways. Automated cytologic analysis of conventional cervical smears can potentially direct colposcopic examination by predicting the nature of a lesion, assist in determining which patients should receive colposcopy and, in some settings, thereby reduce the number of colposcopies. Potentially, various combinations of automated cytology and colposcopy may be used to generate screening protocols that might result in more effective and inexpensive screening. The role of cervicography, or high-resolution cervical photography, as a screening device remains to be defined. Sensitivity for high grade lesions is generally no greater than that in cytology, and specificity appears lower. The interpretation of cervical photographs in triage of mildly abnormal cytology may prove to be useful in countries with established cytology programs. In areas of the world where cytology screening programs are not in place, the interpretation of cervical photographs may have its most dramatic effect. Cost-effectiveness analyses are needed. There are, at present, insufficient data for the evaluation of speculoscopy, a procedure using chemiluminescent illumination of the cervix for visualization of acetowhite areas. Basic training in colposcopy should be integrated

  7. Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer in ex vivo urine cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, C. Y.; Ng, B. K.; Razul, S. Gulam; Olivo, Malini C.; Lau, Weber K. O.; Tan, P. H.; Chin, William

    2006-02-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth common malignant disease worldwide, accounting for 4% of all cancer cases. In Singapore, it is the ninth most common form of cancer. The high mortality rate can be reduced by early treatment following precancerous screening. Currently, the gold standard for screening bladder tumors is histological examination of biopsy specimen, which is both invasive and time-consuming. In this study ex vivo urine fluorescence cytology is investigated to offer a timely and biopsy-free means for detecting bladder cancers. Sediments in patients' urine samples were extracted and incubated with a novel photosensitizer, hypericin. Laser confocal microscopy was used to capture the fluorescence images at an excitation wavelength of 488 nm. Images were subsequently processed to single out the exfoliated bladder cells from the other cells based on the cellular size. Intensity histogram of each targeted cell was plotted and feature vectors, derived from the histogram moments, were used to represent each sample. A difference in the distribution of the feature vectors of normal and low-grade cancerous bladder cells was observed. Diagnostic algorithm for discriminating between normal and low-grade cancerous cells is elucidated in this paper. This study suggests that the fluorescence intensity profiles of hypericin in bladder cells can potentially provide an automated quantitative means of early bladder cancer diagnosis.

  8. Fine needle aspiration cytology: a diagnostic aid for oral lesions.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Sumir; Lata, Jeevan; Gandhi, Nitasha

    2011-06-01

    Oral lesions usually lead to a diagnostic dilemma. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is an important diagnostic aid for making a preoperative diagnosis of oral lesions. It does not supplant histopathology but augments it. FNAC of oral lesions was undertaken in 45 patients, and all the lesions were subjected to histopathologic examination. Aspiration was performed with 23- to 25-gauge needles held in a Cameco syringe holder (Amar Udyog, Chandigarh, India). We diagnosed benign lesions in 22 cases, malignant lesions in 15, and inflammatory lesions in 7 by FNAC, whereas in 1 case the specimen was insufficient for diagnosis. One result was false negative, but there was no false-positive result. Specificity and sensitivity of FNAC were 95.45% and 93.75%, respectively. FNAC gave a diagnostic accuracy of 90.0% for benign lesions, 94.0% for malignant lesions, and 100% for inflammatory lesions. The procedure does not have any side effects or complications. Hence FNAC can be used as a reliable diagnostic aid for oral lesions because it is safe, accurate, convenient, and cost-effective. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. How to prepare cytological samples for molecular testing.

    PubMed

    Bellevicine, Claudio; Malapelle, Umberto; Vigliar, Elena; Pisapia, Pasquale; Vita, Giulia; Troncone, Giancarlo

    2017-10-01

    This review is focused on the challenges in standardising and optimising molecular testing workflow in cytopathology. Although cytological samples yield optimal quality DNA, whose minimal amounts in most cases suffice even for multigene mutational profiling, the success of molecular testing is strongly dependent on standardised preanalytical protocols for maximising DNA yield and quality. Sample cytopreparation influences, even more, the quality of RNA and consequently the potential success of reverse transcription-PCR. Here, the educational and technical involvement of the cytopathologist as a relevant component of a multidisciplinary team, in the issues related to test request, specimen collection, fixation, processing, staining, tumour fraction enrichment, DNA quality/quantity assessment and storage conditions is discussed. In addition, the specific sample requirements related to more recent technological developments are examined, underlining the modern role of the cytopathologist, whose continuous education is crucial to meet the opportunities of molecular medicine. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. [Exfoliative conjunctival cytology in Sjögren's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sallì, L; Damiani, S; Jacò, V; Compagno, M; Pappalardo, A

    1996-10-01

    The study has been performed in order to give a contribution to the knowledge of the conjunctival cytology in Sjögren's syndrome. Exfoliated cells were obtained by a tampon from the inferior conjunctival sac of 11 patients affected by primary or secondary Sjögren's syndrome; the material was placed onto a microscope slide and it was stained with May-Grumwald-Giemsa, after the ferning test had been performed. Tear production had been previously assessed in all patients by Schirmer's I test and basic secretion test that showed an evident tear fluid hyposecretion. Cytoanalysis of tear fluid showed, in all patients, a marked lymphocytosis, presence of epithelial cells (sometimes cell-adhesion) and a number of "snake-cells", with a nucleus-cytoplasm ratio in favour of cytoplasm. Some of those cells have a thicker cytoplasmic membrane and/or a spindle-shaped peripheral nucleus, characteristic finding of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. In all cases we found mucus and fibrin (sometimes with included cells), organic debris and big crystals, some of which aggregated.

  11. Cytological and molecular characterization of Vicia barbazitae Ten. & Guss.

    PubMed

    Ruffini Castiglione, M; Frediani, M; Gelati, M T; Venora, G; Giorgetti, L; Caputo, P; Cremonini, R

    2012-07-01

    Vicia barbazitae, a taxon belonging to section Vicia of subgenus Vicia, was recovered and analysed by cytological, karyological and molecular methods with the aim of both proposing a general characterisation of this species and studying the relationships among the species of section Vicia . Phylogenetic relationships among the species of the section Vicia and those of the sections Microcarinae, Wiggersia and Atossa were also analysed. Automated karyotype analysis has been determined after Feulgen's reaction; chromosome banding was performed by sequence-specific fluorochrome staining. Fluorescent chromosome banding showed CMA(+)/DAPI(-) NOR-associated heterochromatin in the satellite pair. Karyomorphological parameters, based on symmetry indices, the dendrogram of linkage distance constructed on 37 chromosome parameters, as well as the molecular data based on internal transcribed spacer sequences provided information about phylogenetic position of this species inside the section Vicia and among the species belonging to the sections Microcarinae, Wiggersia, Atossa and Vicia. From our karyological and molecular results, it emerges that V. barbazitae can be considered a natural member of section Vicia.

  12. Cytological and molecular characterization of three gametoclones of Citrus clementina

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Three gametoclonal plants of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., cv. Nules, designated ESP, FRA, and ITA (derived from three labs in Spain, France, and Italy, respectively), were selected for cytological and molecular characterization in order to elucidate genomic rearrangements provoked by haploidization. The study included comparisons of their ploidy, homozygosity, genome integrity, and gene dosage, using chromosome counting, flow cytometry, SSR marker genotyping, and array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization (array-CGH). Results Chromosome counting and flow cytometry revealed that ESP and FRA were haploid, but ITA was tri-haploid. Homozygous patterns, represented by a single peak (allele), were observed among the three plants at almost all SSR loci distributed across the entire diploid donor genome. Those few loci with extra peaks visualized as output from automated sequencing runs, generally low or ambiguous, might result from amplicons of paralogous members at the locus, non-specific sites, or unexpected recombinant alleles. No new alleles were found, suggesting the genomes remained stable and intact during gametogenesis and regeneration. The integrity of the haploid genome also was supported by array-CGH studies, in which genomic profiles were comparable to the diploid control. Conclusions The presence of few gene hybridization abnormalities, corroborated by gene dosage measurements, were hypothetically due to the segregation of hemizygous alleles and minor genomic rearrangements occurring during the haploidization procedure. In conclusion, these plants that are valuable genetic and breeding materials contain completely homozygous and essentially intact genomes. PMID:24020638

  13. Abnormal cervical cytology after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Negri, Giovanni; Herz, Martina; Deola, Sara; Piccin, Andrea; Casini, Marco; Babich, Bianca; Tauber, Martina; Messini, Sergio; Marucci, Maria Raffaella; Vittadello, Fabio

    2014-08-01

    Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a procedure mostly used for high-risk hematologic malignances. In women, follow-up protocols after BMT include gynecologic checkups with Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. We evaluated 117 Pap smears in 54 women who underwent allogeneic BMT and correlated the smear morphology with the BMT-related medical treatment. Abnormal Pap smears after BMT were found in 13 (24.1%) women. Four (7.4%) women had at least one smear with atypical squamous cells of unknown significance, six (11.1%) had a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, and three (5.6%) had atypical squamous cells/high-grade lesion cannot be excluded (ASC-H). The three patients with ASC-H showed high-grade atypia mimicking cancer but had a negative follow-up. Nine women, including the three with ASC-H, had undergone a conditioning therapy for BMT that included busulfan. No association between other drugs and therapy-related atypia was found. Pap smears after BMT show a high incidence of dysplastic lesions. Moreover, conditioning including busulfan is often associated with therapy-related cytologic atypia, which may lead to unnecessary colposcopies and biopsies. Knowledge of the patient's history and a careful evaluation of the smears are mandatory in these cases. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  14. External quality assurance in nongynecologic cytology: The Australasian experience.

    PubMed

    Shield, Paul W; Frost, Felicity; Finnimore, Jo L; Wright, R Gordon; Cummings, Margaret C

    2017-05-01

    The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Cytopathology Quality Assurance Program has operated an external quality assurance program in nongynecologic cytopathology since 1993. Glass slide preparations of a wide range of nongynecologic cases were circulated to approximately 200 cytopathology laboratories in 16 countries. General nongynecologic cytology cases were manufactured from residual specimens after routine diagnosis. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cases were made by sampling fresh tissue and making direct specimens. The majority of cases consisted of both air-dried and fixed preparations. Results returned to laboratories included illustrated case discussions highlighting diagnostic features, key differential diagnoses, and useful adjunctive tests. The current study reviewed >22,000 results for 123 nongynecologic cases. Cases found to cause the most diagnostic difficulties included serous effusion cases with metastatic carcinoma in a dispersed pattern, well-differentiated carcinoma, and cellular reactive cases; urine specimens with sparse malignant cells; reactive pneumocytes in a bronchoalveolar lavage; breast FNA cases with papillary lesions; gestational specimens; and fibroadenoma. FNA specimens from the lung and thyroid, particularly papillary thyroid carcinoma, generally were well reported. The use of multiple preparations of the same specimen has allowed interlaboratory comparison, and the quality assurance program has played an educational role as well as informing the laboratory accreditation process. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:349-361. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  15. Relationship between prostatomegaly, prostatic mineralization, and cytologic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Christina A; Westropp, Jodi L; Pollard, Rachel E

    2009-01-01

    Canine prostatic disease is commonly evaluated with abdominal ultrasound and radiographs. Mineralization of the prostate is often reported, but the clinical relevance of this finding is currently not known. The-purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship between ultrasonographic and radiographic prostate mineralization and the final diagnosis. Medical records of 55 dogs with evidence of prostatomegaly or prostatic mineralization and a cytologic diagnosis were evaluated. Radiographs and ultrasound images were assessed for caudal retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, vertebral lesions, or other signs of metastasis, and mineralization was assessed semiquantitatively. Twenty-two of 55 (40%) dogs had prostatic neoplasia. Regarding neoplasia, mineralization in neutered dogs had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%, a negative predictive value (NPV) of 50%, and a sensitivity and specificity of 84% and 100%, respectively. Mineralization in intact dogs had a PPV of 22%, an NPV of 96%, and a sensitivity and specificity of 67% and 77%, respectively. All neutered dogs with prostatomegaly but not prostatic neoplasia had bacterial prostatitis and were castrated within the previous 3 months. Intact dogs with prostatomegaly and mineralization but not neoplasia had paraprostatic cysts (n = 3), benign prostatic hyperplasia (n = 2) or prostatitis (n = 2). Mineralization score was not indicative of neoplasia. In conclusion, neutered dogs with prostatic mineralization were very likely to have prostatic neoplasia. Intact dogs were unlikely to have prostatic neoplasia if no mineralization was found on radiographs or ultrasound.

  16. Cytological events during zygote formation of the fern Ceratopteris thalictroides.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jian-Guo; Wang, Quan-Xi; Yang, Nai-Ying; Bao, Wen-Mei

    2010-03-01

    The cytological events, including nuclear fusion, digestion of male organelles and rebuilding of the plasmalemma and cell wall, during zygote formation of the fern Ceratopteris thalictroides (L.) Brongn. are described based on the observations of transmission electron microscopy. When the spermatozoid enters the egg and contacts the cytoplasm, the male chromatin relaxes continually. The microtubular ribbon (MTr) is separated from the male nucleus and then an envelope reappears around the male nucleus. During nuclear fusion, the egg nucleus becomes highly irregular and extends some nuclear protrusions. It is proposed that the protrusions fuse with the male nucleus actively. After nuclear fusion the irregular zygotic nucleus contracts gradually. It becomes spherical before the zygote divides. The male chromatin is identifiable as fibrous structure in the zygotic nucleus in the beginning, but it gradually becomes diffused completely. The male organelles, including the MTr, multilayered structure, flagella and the male mitochondria are finally digested in the zygotic cytoplasm. Finally a new plasmalemma and cell wall are formed outside the protoplast. The organelles in the zygote are rearranged, which produces a horizontal polarity zygote. The zygote divides with an oblique-vertical cell plate facing the apical notch of the gametophyte.

  17. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: the added value of cytology.

    PubMed

    Roelens, Marie; Dossier, Claire; Fenneteau, Odile; Couque, Nathalie; Da Costa, Lydie

    2016-06-01

    We report the case of a 2 year-old boy hospitalized into the emergency room for influenza pneumonia infection. The evolution was marked by a respiratory distress syndrome, a severe hemolytic anemia, associated with thrombocytopenia and kidney failure. First, a diagnosis of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) has been judiciously suggested due to the classical triad: kidney failure, hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. But, strikingly, blood smears do not exhibit schizocytes, but instead ghosts and hemighosts, some characteristic features of a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Our hypothesis has been confirmed by enzymatic dosage and molecular biology. The unusual initial aplastic feature of this anemia could be the result of a transient erythroblastopenia due to the viral agent, at the origin of the G6PD crisis on a background of a major erythrocyte anti-oxydant enzyme defect. This case of G6PD defect points out the continuously importance of the cytology, which was able to redirect the diagnosis by the hemighost and ghost detection.

  18. Potentiation of cigarette smoking and radiation: evidence from a sputum cytology survey among uranium miners and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Band, P.; Feldstein, M.; Saccomanno, G.; Watson, L.; King, G.

    1980-03-15

    To assess the effect of cigarette smoking and of exposure to radon daughters, a prospective survey consisting of periodic sputum cytology evaluation was initiated among 249 underground uranium miners and 123 male controls. Sputum cytology specimens showing moderate atypia, marked atypia, or cancer cells were classified as abnormal. As compared to control smokers, miners who smoke had a significantly higher incidence of abnormal cytology (P = 0.025). For miner smokers, the observed frequencies of abnormal cytology were linearly related to cumulative exposure to radon daughters and to the number of years of uranium mining. A statistical model relating the probability of abnormal cytology to the risk factors was investigated using a binary logistic regression. The estimated frequency of abnormal cytology was significantly dependent, for controls, on the duration of cigarette smoking, and for miners, on the duration of cigarette smoking and of uranium mining.

  19. Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel

    DOEpatents

    Bauer, Roger E.; Straalsund, Jerry L.; Chin, Bryan A.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

  20. MASSIVE LEAKAGE IRRADIATOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Szilard, L.; Christy, R.F.; Friedman, F.L.

    1961-05-30

    An irradiator designed to utilize the neutrons that leak out of a reactor around its periphery is described. It avoids wasting neutron energy and reduces interference with the core flux to a minimum. This is done by surrounding all or most of the core with removable segments of the material to be irradiated within a matrix of reflecting material.

  1. Perspective on food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    Recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of irradiation treatment for fruit, vegetables and pork has stimulated considerable discussion in the popular press on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of food. This perspective is designed to summarize the current scientific information available on this issue.

  2. Screening for cervical cancer precursors with p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology: results of the PALMS study.

    PubMed

    Ikenberg, Hans; Bergeron, Christine; Schmidt, Dietmar; Griesser, Henrik; Alameda, Francisco; Angeloni, Claudio; Bogers, Johannes; Dachez, Roger; Denton, Karin; Hariri, Jalil; Keller, Thomas; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Neumann, Heinrich H; Puig-Tintore, Luis M; Sideri, Mario; Rehm, Susanne; Ridder, Ruediger

    2013-10-16

    Pap cytology is known to be more specific but less sensitive than testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) for the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). We assessed whether p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology, a biomarker combination indicative of transforming HPV infections, can provide high sensitivity for CIN2+ in screening while maintaining high specificity. Results were compared with Pap cytology and HPV testing. A total of 27,349 women 18 years or older attending routine cervical cancer screening were prospectively enrolled in five European countries. Pap cytology, p16/Ki-67 immunostaining, and HPV testing were performed on all women. Positive test results triggered colposcopy referral, except for women younger than 30 years with only positive HPV test results. Presence of CIN2+ on adjudicated histology was used as the reference standard. Two-sided bias-corrected McNemar P values were determined. The p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology positivity rates were comparable with the prevalence of abnormal Pap cytology results and less than 50% of the positivity rates observed for HPV testing. In women of all ages, dual-stained cytology was more sensitive than Pap cytology (86.7% vs 68.5%; P < .001) for detecting CIN2+, with comparable specificity (95.2% vs 95.4%; P = .15). The relative performance of the tests was similar in both groups of women: younger than age 30 and 30 years or older. HPV testing in women 30 years or older was more sensitive than dual-stained cytology (93.3% vs 84.7%; P = .03) but less specific (93.0% vs 96.2%; P < .001). The p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology combines superior sensitivity and noninferior specificity over Pap cytology for detecting CIN2+. It suggests a potential role of dual-stained cytology in screening, especially in younger women where HPV testing has its limitations.

  3. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  4. Diagnosis of anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement in cytological samples through a fluorescence in situ hybridization-based assay: Cytological smears versus cell blocks.

    PubMed

    Zito Marino, Federica; Rossi, Giulio; Brunelli, Matteo; Malzone, Maria Gabriella; Liguori, Giuseppina; Bogina, Giuseppe; Morabito, Alessandro; Rocco, Gaetano; Franco, Renato; Botti, Gerardo

    2017-02-14

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) status analysis of lung cytological specimens should be successfully encouraged in routine practice because biopsy specimens are not always available. To date, the US Food and Drug Administration has approved both fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) as diagnostic tests for identifying ALK-positive patients eligible for treatment with crizotinib. Although ALK IHC is an optimal diagnostic tool, FISH becomes mandatory in equivocal cases. ALK FISH of paraffin-embedded tissue material is still the gold standard, whereas the cytological specimen assay has not yet been completely standardized. Many controversial data have been reported on the adequacy of cytology cell blocks (CBs) versus conventional smears for FISH testing. This review discusses some critical issues related to ALK FISH of cytological samples, including the triaging of collected specimens to optimize the material, the use of CBs versus conventional smears, and alternative methods for an ALK rearrangement diagnosis. Conventional smears have the advantages of an immediate evaluation, no probe tissue-related artifactual loss, no fixation-related alterations, and usually sufficient material for an analytic preparation. On the other hand, CBs have several advantages, including the appropriate conservation of the tissue architecture, an absence of problems related to cell overlapping, and the ability to evaluate neoplastic cells in a dark field. Cancer Cytopathol 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  5. Computerized training and proficiency testing. International Academy of Cytology Task Force summary. Diagnostic Cytology Towards the 21st Century: An International Expert Conference and Tutorial.

    PubMed

    Vooijs, G P; Davey, D D; Somrak, T M; Goodell, R M; Grohs, D H; Knesel, E A; Mango, L J; Mui, K K; Nielsen, M L; Wilbur, D C

    1998-01-01

    Computerized technologies probably will revolutionize the field of gynecologic cytology in the next century. Such technologies will be useful in both training and evaluating proficiency. However, manual screening/review of gynecologic cytology preparations is the current "gold standard" for both training and assessment of proficiency. Training programs for cytotechnologists and pathologists should provide instruction and experience in new technologies, but their introduction may depend on the availability of equipment and staff. Advantages of digital images for training include standardization of teaching sets and interactive capabilities, allowing educational feedback. Computerized support/assistance devices aid in complete screening of the slide during training and provide feedback to cytologists on screening techniques. Liquid-based cytopreparatory instruments facilitate multiple glass slides for teaching or testing. Proficiency testing (PT) in cytology has similar quality assurance goals as in other areas of the laboratory, but the subjective nature of cytologic analysis poses many challenges for implementation. There is consensus that all cytology practitioners would like to know the proficiency of the laboratory. However, the majority question the value and validity of any large-scale formal testing programs. Locator and diagnostic skills are both critical in cytology, but assessment of each skill may occur in different ways using computerized technologies. Any type of assessment should provide educational feedback to participants. Psychometric issues in PT include the consideration of different types of validity, including face, content, construct and criterion related. The reliability or consistency of the testing event is also critical. A valid and reliable correlation between work performance and performance on a PT needs to be established. The goal is to ensure that PT will identify submarginal practitioners and that persons successful on PT are in fact

  6. Cytology in the diagnosis of cervical cancer in symptomatic young women: a retrospective review

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Anita WW; Landy, Rebecca; Castanon, Alejandra; Hollingworth, Antony; Hamilton, Willie; Dudding, Nick; Sasieni, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer in young women presents a diagnostic challenge because gynaecological symptoms are common but underlying disease is rare. Aim To explore the potential for using cytology as a diagnostic aid for cervical cancer in young women. Design and setting Retrospective review of primary care records and cytology data from the national cervical screening database and national audit of cervical cancers. Method Four datasets of women aged 20–29 years in England were examined: primary care records and national screening data from an in-depth study of cervical cancers; cytology from the national audit of cervical cancers; whole-population cytology from the national screening database; and general-population primary care records from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. The authors explored the sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of symptomatic cytology (earliest <12 months before diagnosis) to cervical cancer. Results The estimated prevalence of cervical cancer among symptomatic women was between 0.4% and 0.9%. The sensitivity of moderate dyskaryosis (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [HSIL]) or worse in women aged 20–29 years was 90.9% to 96.2% across datasets, regardless of symptom status. The PPV was estimated to be between 10.0% and 30.0%. For women aged 20–24 years, the PPV of ‘?invasive squamous carcinoma’ was 25.4%, and 2.0% for severe or worse cytology. Conclusion Cytology has value beyond screening, and could be used as a diagnostic aid for earlier detection of cervical cancer in young women with gynaecological symptoms by ruling in urgent referral. PMID:27777232

  7. Cytology in the diagnosis of cervical cancer in symptomatic young women: a retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Lim, Anita Ww; Landy, Rebecca; Castanon, Alejandra; Hollingworth, Antony; Hamilton, Willie; Dudding, Nick; Sasieni, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Cervical cancer in young women presents a diagnostic challenge because gynaecological symptoms are common but underlying disease is rare. To explore the potential for using cytology as a diagnostic aid for cervical cancer in young women. Retrospective review of primary care records and cytology data from the national cervical screening database and national audit of cervical cancers. Four datasets of women aged 20-29 years in England were examined: primary care records and national screening data from an in-depth study of cervical cancers; cytology from the national audit of cervical cancers; whole-population cytology from the national screening database; and general-population primary care records from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. The authors explored the sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of symptomatic cytology (earliest <12 months before diagnosis) to cervical cancer. The estimated prevalence of cervical cancer among symptomatic women was between 0.4% and 0.9%. The sensitivity of moderate dyskaryosis (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [HSIL]) or worse in women aged 20-29 years was 90.9% to 96.2% across datasets, regardless of symptom status. The PPV was estimated to be between 10.0% and 30.0%. For women aged 20-24 years, the PPV of '?invasive squamous carcinoma' was 25.4%, and 2.0% for severe or worse cytology. Cytology has value beyond screening, and could be used as a diagnostic aid for earlier detection of cervical cancer in young women with gynaecological symptoms by ruling in urgent referral. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  8. Accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions: routine diagnostic experience in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nguansangiam, Sudarat; Jesdapatarakul, Somnuek; Dhanarak, Nisarat; Sosrisakorn, Krittika

    2012-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is well accepted as a safe, reliable, minimal invasive and cost-effective method for diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. This study evaluated the accuracy and diagnostic performance of FNA cytology in Thailand. A consecutive series of 290 samples from 246 patients during January 2001-December 2009 were evaluated from the archive of the Anatomical Pathology Department of our institution and 133 specimens were verified by histopathologic diagnoses, obtained with material from surgical excision or biopsy. Cytologic diagnoses classified as unsatisfactory, benign, suspicious for malignancy and malignant were compared with the histopathological findings. Among the 133 satisfactory specimens, the anatomic sites were 70 (52.6%) parotid glands and 63 (47.4 %) submandibular glands. FNA cytological diagnoses showed benign lesions in 119 cases (89.5 %), suspicious for malignancy in 3 cases (2.2 %) and malignant in 11 cases (8.3%). From the subsequent histopathologic diagnoses, 3/133 cases of benign cytology turned out to be malignant lesions, the false negative rate being 2.2 % and 1/133 case of malignant cytology turned out to be a benign lesion, giving a false positive rate was 0.8%. The overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 97.0% (95% CI, 70.6%-99.4%), 81.3% (95% CI, 54.4%-96.0%), 99.1% (95% CI, 95.4%-100%), 92.9% (95% CI, 66.1%-99.8), 97.5% (95% CI, 92.8%-99.5%), respectively. This study indicated that FNA cytology of salivary gland is a reliable and highly accurate diagnostic method for diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. It not only provides preoperative diagnosis for therapeutic management but also can prevent unnecessary surgery.

  9. Type-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus by cervical cytology among women in Brasov, Romania.

    PubMed

    Moga, Marius Alexandru; Irimie, Marius; Oanta, Alexandru; Pascu, Alina; Burtea, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    The oncogenic role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in triggering cervical cancer, the second most common cancer in women worldwide, is well established. Romania ranks in first place in Europe in terms of the incidence of cervical cancer. Geographical widespread data on HPV type-distribution are essential for estimating the impact of HPV vaccines and cervical cancer screening programmes. In this study we aimed to identify the prevalence of HPV genotypes and to establish correlations with abnormal cervical cytology among the female population of Brasov County, Romania. A total of 1,000 women aged 17.3-57 years, attending routine cervical examination in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Brasov, Romania, and undergoing both cytological examination and HPV genotyping were screened. Infection with 35 different HPV genotypes was detected in 39.6% of cytological specimens. Overall HPV infections were highest in young women under 25 years (p<0.0001), in which cervical cytological abnormalities also reached the highest prevalence. Patients infected by HPV-16 or HPV-18 showed the highest prevalence of cervical cytological abnormalities. Some 48.2% of women with abnormal cytology were infected with high-risk HPV types whereas less than 3% of them were infected only with low-risk HPV types. Our study showed that the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection among Romanian women is higher compared to other studies in other geographic areas. Thus, we consider that in areas where there is an increased prevalence of high-risk HPV infections, HPV genotyping should be performed in all women aged between 18 and 45 years, and Pap test should be performed every 6 months in women with high-risk HPV infection, even those with previous normal cervical cytology.

  10. The impact of subdividing the "atypical" category for urinary cytology on patient management.

    PubMed

    Glass, Ryan; Cocker, Rubina; Rosen, Lisa; Coutsouvelis, Constantinos; Chau, Karen; Slim, Farah; Brenkert, Ryan; Sheikh-Fayyaz, Silvat; Farmer, Peter; Das, Kasturi

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine the impact of subdividing the "atypical" cytology interpretation into two groups: Atypical urothelial cells of uncertain significance (AUC-US) and Atypical urothelial cells suspicious for high-grade urothelial carcinoma (AUC-H/SHGUC), on management of patients with no prior history of UC. This is a retrospective study of "atypical" urine cytology with subsequent tissue examination occurring within six months. Cytology reports with "atypical" interpretation were reclassified into AUS-UC and AUC-H based on morphologic features identified by the Johns Hopkins system and the Paris system for urine cytology. Follow-up and categorical outcomes were compared between the reclassified AUC-US and AUC-H groups. There was no significant difference (P < 0.4539) in the rate of cytology follow-up, the follow-up cytology result (P < 0.1845), or time between follow-up cytologies (P < 0.0869) between the reclassified atypical group of AUC-H and AUC-US. There was a significant association (P < 0.0001) of rate of malignancy with the reclassified AUC-H (87.18%) compared to the AUC-US (58.68%) groups. There was no difference in follow-up between the AUC-H and AUC-US, however there was a difference in the rates of malignancy in the two groups. The AUC-H group is similar to the SHGUC group of the Paris system and can be considered as such, whereas the AUC-US group should continue to be considered atypical. We conclude that reclassification of the "atypical" category into AUC-US and AUC-H/SHGUC can reduce the rate of atypia and help in focused follow-up and targeted management. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:477-482. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Comparative Study of Core Needle Biopsy and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Palpable Breast Lumps: Scenario in Developing Nations.

    PubMed

    Tikku, Gargi; Umap, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of core needle biopsy as a diagnostic tool for palpable breast lumps in developing countries as compared to fine needle aspiration cytology. All patients attending the surgery outpatient department with palpable breast lumps were subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology and core needle biopsy by the same operator in a single session. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed by the standard technique. Core needle biopsy was done freehand using a 14G manual core biopsy needle. Reporting categories of the two techniques were taken from the standard National Health Service Breast Screening Programme criteria and were compared with the final histopathology results. A total of 107 patients underwent fine needle aspiration cytology and core needle biopsy simultaneously. Histopathology was available for 85 cases. Statistical analysis of fine needle aspiration cytology and core needle biopsy showed no significant difference between the diagnoses offered by core needle biopsy and histopathology while there was a significant difference between fine needle aspiration cytology and histopathology diagnoses. Core needle biopsy detected more breast carcinomas as compared to fine needle aspiration cytology with a sensitivity 95.83% as opposed to 64.58%. Though both the techniques were equally specific (100%), Core needle biopsy was able to correctly categorize borderline / inadequate lesions into definitely benign and malignant categories. We suggest that core needle biopsy should be preferred over fine needle aspiration cytology for the diagnosis of palpable breast lumps with fine needle aspiration cytology being reserved for definitely benign lesions.

  12. Inter-observer reproducibility of endometrial cytology by the Osaki Study Group method: utilising the Becton Dickinson SurePath(™) liquid-based cytology.

    PubMed

    Norimatsu, Y; Yamaguchi, T; Taira, T; Abe, H; Sakamoto, H; Takenaka, M; Yanoh, K; Yoshinobu, M; Irino, S; Hirai, Y; Kobayashi, T K

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the reproducibility of the cytological diagnosis of endometrial lesions by the Osaki Study Group (OSG) method of new cytological diagnostic criteria using BD SurePath(™) (SP)-liquid-based cytology (LBC). This cytological classification using the OSG method consists of six categories: (i) normal endometrium (NE), (ii) endometrial glandular and stromal breakdown (EGBD), (iii) atypical endometrial cells, cannot exclude atypical endometrial hyperplasia or more (ATEC-A), (iv) adenocarcinoma including atypical endometrial hyperplasia or malignant tumour (Malignancy), (v) endometrial hyperplasia without atypia (EH) and (vi) atypical endometrial cells of undetermined significance (ATEC-US). For this study, a total 244 endometrial samplings were classified by two academic cytopathologists as follows: 147 NE cases , 36 EGBD cases , 47 Malignant cases, eight ATEC-A cases, two EH cases and four ATEC-US cases. To confirm the reproducibility of the diagnosis and to study the inter- and intra-observer agreement further, a second review round followed at 3-month intervals, which included three additional cytopathologists. The inter-observer agreement of NE classes improved progressively from 'good to fair' to 'excellent', with values increasing from 0.70 to 0.81. Both EGBD and Malignancy classes improved progressively from 'good to fair' to 'excellent', with values increasing from 0.62-0.63 to 0.84-0.95, respectively. The overall intra-observer agreement between the first and the second rounds was 'good to fair' to 'excellent', with values changing from 0.79 to 0.85. All kappa improvements were significant (P < 0.0001). In this study, it seemed that the use of the OSG method as the new diagnostic criteria for SP-LBC preparation, may be a valid method to improve the precision (reproducibility) of endometrial cytology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Fine needle aspiration cytology of 650 thyroid nodules operated for multinodular goiter: a cyto-histological correlation based on the new Italian cytological classification (siapec 2014).

    PubMed

    Tartaglia, F; Giuliani, A; Tromba, L; Carbotta, S; Karpathiotakis, M; Tortorelli, G; Pelle, F; Merola, R; Donello, C; Carbotta, G; De Anna, L; Conzo, G; Sorrenti, S; Ulisse, S

    2016-01-01

    The new Italian cytological classification (SIAPEC 2014) of thyroid nodules, in line with those of Bethesda and BTA-RCPath, replaces the previous TIR3 class with two new classes (TIR3A and TIR3B), which correspond to different risks of malignancy and clinical actions required. The present study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the new SIAPEC classification as opposed to its previous version (SIAPEC 2007). Preoperative cytology was compared with the final histology obtained from 650 consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for multinodular goiter. Of this total, 434 patients (group A) had their cytological diagnosis based on the old SIAPEC 2007 classification and 216 patients (group B) had their cytological diagnosis based on the SIAPEC 2014 classification. In group A 111 patients (25.6%) had a TIR3 diagnosis, while in group B 52 patients (24.1%) received a TIR3 diagnosis, of whom 30 had TIR3A and 22 had TIR3B. In group A, 46 (41.4%) out of the 111 patients with TIR3 diagnosis had, based on histology, a thyroid carcinoma. In group B, only 2 (6.7%) out of 30 patients with TIR3A diagnosis had a thyroid carcinoma. This rate of malignancy was significantly lower (p less than 0.001) than that observed in patients with TIR3B diagnosis, in which 12 (54.5%) out of 22 patients had a carcinoma. The observations here reported show that, in respect to the previous version, the new Italian cytological classification provides greater diagnostic accuracy for detecting thyroid nodule malignancy.

  14. Reliability of a rapid hematology stain for sputum cytology*

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Jéssica; Pizzichini, Emilio; Pizzichini, Marcia Margaret Menezes; Steidle, Leila John Marques; Rocha, Cristiane Cinara; Ferreira, Samira Cardoso; Zimmermann, Célia Tânia

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the reliability of a rapid hematology stain for the cytological analysis of induced sputum samples. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study comparing the standard technique (May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain) with a rapid hematology stain (Diff-Quik). Of the 50 subjects included in the study, 21 had asthma, 19 had COPD, and 10 were healthy (controls). From the induced sputum samples collected, we prepared four slides: two were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa, and two were stained with Diff-Quik. The slides were read independently by two trained researchers blinded to the identification of the slides. The reliability for cell counting using the two techniques was evaluated by determining the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for intraobserver and interobserver agreement. Agreement in the identification of neutrophilic and eosinophilic sputum between the observers and between the stains was evaluated with kappa statistics. Results: In our comparison of the two staining techniques, the ICCs indicated almost perfect interobserver agreement for neutrophil, eosinophil, and macrophage counts (ICC: 0.98-1.00), as well as substantial agreement for lymphocyte counts (ICC: 0.76-0.83). Intraobserver agreement was almost perfect for neutrophil, eosinophil, and macrophage counts (ICC: 0.96-0.99), whereas it was moderate to substantial for lymphocyte counts (ICC = 0.65 and 0.75 for the two observers, respectively). Interobserver agreement for the identification of eosinophilic and neutrophilic sputum using the two techniques ranged from substantial to almost perfect (kappa range: 0.91-1.00). Conclusions: The use of Diff-Quik can be considered a reliable alternative for the processing of sputum samples. PMID:25029648

  15. Smoking worsens the prognosis of mild abnormalities in cervical cytology.

    PubMed

    Guarisi, Renata; Sarian, Luis Otavio; Hammes, Luciano Serpa; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Derchain, Sophie F M; Roteli-Martins, Cecília; Naud, Paulo; Erzen, Mojca; Branca, Margherita; Tatti, Sílvio; Costa, Silvano; Syrjänen, Stina; Bragança, Joana F; Syrjänen, Kari

    2009-01-01

    To examine the effect of smoking on the incidence of low- and high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in women with a baseline Pap smear of atypical squamous cells (ASC) or a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). Prospective study in which a cohort of women with normal colposcopy and ASC/LSIL at baseline were followed at 6-month intervals of up to 36 months. Women were grouped in post-hoc analysis according to their smoking behavior: never (or past) smokers and current smokers. This report was based on data from the Latin American Screening Study, conducted in Sao Paulo, Campinas, Porto Alegre (Brazil) and Buenos Aires (Argentina). A subset of 150 women derived from a cohort of 1,011 women. Multivariate Cox analysis and Kaplan-Meier curves were used. Low- and high-grade CIN during follow-up. The only factor related to an increased risk of developing CIN was the positive high-risk (hr) HPV status (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.42; 95% CI: 1.11-9.43). A total of 21 cases of incident CIN were detected during follow-up. Of these, 11 appeared in the group of 67 smokers and 10 among the 83 non-smoker women (log-rank, p=0.33). Smoking status was not associated with the risk of developing CIN (HR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.40-1.33). However, when restricting the analysis to high-grade CIN only (11 cases), the probability of developing the disease was significantly higher among smokers (p=0.04). Smoking contributes additional risk for developing high-grade CIN in women with ASC or LSIL cytology but normal colposcopy.

  16. Diagnosis of Lung Cancer in Small Biopsies and Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Travis, William D.; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Noguchi, Masayuki; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Geisinger, Kim; Yatabe, Yasushi; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Wistuba, Ignacio; Flieder, Douglas B.; Franklin, Wilbur; Gazdar, Adi; Hasleton, Philip S.; Henderson, Douglas W.; Kerr, Keith M.; Petersen, Iver; Roggli, Victor; Thunnissen, Erik; Tsao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The new International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society lung adenocarcinoma classification provides, for the first time, standardized terminology for lung cancer diagnosis in small biopsies and cytology; this was not primarily addressed by previous World Health Organization classifications. Until recently there have been no therapeutic implications to further classification of NSCLC, so little attention has been given to the distinction of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in small tissue samples. This situation has changed dramatically in recent years with the discovery of several therapeutic options that are available only to patients with adenocarcinoma or NSCLC, not otherwise specified, rather than squamous cell carcinoma. This includes recommendation for use of special stains as an aid to diagnosis, particularly in the setting of poorly differentiated tumors that do not show clear differentiation by routine light microscopy. A limited diagnostic workup is recommended to preserve as much tissue for molecular testing as possible. Most tumors can be classified using a single adenocarcinoma marker (eg, thyroid transcription factor 1 or mucin) and a single squamous marker (eg, p40 or p63). Carcinomas lacking clear differentiation by morphology and special stains are classified as NSCLC, not otherwise specified. Not otherwise specified carcinomas that stain with adenocarcinoma markers are classified as NSCLC, favor adenocarcinoma, and tumors that stain only with squamous markers are classified as NSCLC, favor squamous cell carcinoma. The need for every institution to develop a multidisciplinary tissue management strategy to obtain these small specimens and process them, not only for diagnosis but also for molecular testing and evaluation of markers of resistance to therapy, is emphasized. PMID:22970842

  17. Diagnostic usefulness of the cytological study of the transport buffer in transrectal prostate core biopsies.

    PubMed

    López, J I; Cáceres, F; Pérez, A; Caamaño, V; Larrinaga, G; Lecumberri, D; Arruza, A

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of the cytological study of the transport buffer in the diagnosis of prostate adenocarcinoma in transrectal core biopsies. A total of 256 consecutively biopsied patients have been included in the analysis, 100 of them diagnosed of prostate adenocarcinoma. The procedure included the cytological analysis of the transport buffer and conventional histology. Cytological evaluation was performed in a blind way by the same pathologist. Overall sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values to detect malignancy in the cytological slides were 54%, 98%, 94% and 76%, respectively. When restricted the analysis to cases with Gleason score higher than 8, sensitivity and negative predictive value increased to 85% and 97%, respectively. Similarly, when the analysis focused exclusively to cases with more than 5mm of cancer in the biopsy, sensitivity and positive predictive value increased to 66% and 96%, respectively. This study shows that whilst specificity was maintained in 98%, sensitivity, and positive and negative predictive values significantly improved in high grade and high volume adenocarcinomas. Our findings confirm that the cytological study of the transport buffer may complement the histology in the diagnosis of prostate adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Fine-needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of parotid lesions.

    PubMed

    Piccioni, L O; Fabiano, B; Gemma, M; Sarandria, D; Bussi, M

    2011-02-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology guided by ultrasound imaging is a widely used diagnostic tool to evaluate neoplastic or inflammatory lesions of salivary glands. From February 2002 to February 2008 all the parotid lesions removed surgically in our Unit of Otolaryngology were reviewed. Study focused on sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, predictive values, likelihood ratios, and Kappa statistics for fine-needle aspiration cytology vs histological diagnosis in 176 cases. Fine-needle aspiration cytology sensitivity and specificity were 81% and 99%, respectively. Accuracy for malignancy was 97%, accuracy for benignity was 83%; positive and negative predictive values were 93% and 98%, respectively; likelihood ratio of positive and negative test results were 100.3 and 0.19, respectively ("positive" was used to define "malignant"). The prevalence of malignancy was 0.114. Kappa statistics for the degree of agreement between fine-needle aspiration cytology and histological results were 0.85 (95% CI = 0.71-0.99). Pre-operative fine-needle aspiration cytology diagnosis improves surgical treatment of parotid masses.

  19. Thyroid Paraganglioma: "Naked" Nuclei as a Clue to Diagnosis on Imprint Cytology.

    PubMed

    Taweevisit, Mana; Bunyayothin, Wasakorn; Thorner, Paul Scott

    2015-09-01

    A cytologic diagnosis of paraganglioma of the thyroid is difficult to make because the thyroid gland is an unusual location for such a tumor and the cytologic findings overlap with other benign and malignant thyroid tumors. We report the case of a 28-year-old female presenting with a solitary mass of the right thyroid gland. A diagnosis of paraganglioma was made on the resected specimen. At the time of tumor resection, imprint cytology was performed. The imprint was hypercellular with cohesive sheets of round cells showing anisokaryosis and anisocytosis. Moreover, there was a second cell type consisting of oval nuclei with dispersed nuclear chromatin present within the sheets and separate as "naked" nuclei. By immunohistochemistry, the cohesive round cells were positive for chromogranin A, indicating chief cells. The naked nuclei were positive for S-100 protein, indicating sustentacular cells. To the best our knowledge, this is the first case report describing naked nuclei as a cytologic feature of paraganglioma. Identification of sustentacular cells provides a clue for the cytologic diagnosis of paraganglioma.

  20. The role of cytology in oral lesions: a review of recent improvements.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Historically, sensitivity and specificity of oral cytology is poor. Using conventional oral cytology for the diagnosis of cancer and its precursors has not had the success that cytologists had hoped for; however, with improved methodology, oral cytology has enjoyed a resurgence of interest. This renewed interest is partly due to the introduction of a specialized brush that collects a full-thickness epithelial sample and not just superficially sloughed cells, as well as analysis of that sample with computer assistance; in addition, a variety of adjunctive techniques have been introduced to potentially enhance the diagnosis of the cytologic specimens including DNA analysis, immunocytochemistry, molecular analysis, and liquid-based preparations. An increase in sensitivity (>96%) and specificity (>90%) of the oral brush biopsy with computer-assisted diagnosis has been reported for identification of malignant and premalignant lesions. Brush cytology is valuable to prevent misdiagnosing doubtful oral lesions, i.e., those lesions without a definitive etiology, diagnosing large lesions where excision of the entire tissue is not possible or practicable, evaluating patients with recurrent malignancies, and monitoring premalignant lesions.

  1. Is liquid-based cytology the magic bullet for performing molecular techniques?

    PubMed

    Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Vielh, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The role of pathology has evolved from the first microscopic definitions of diseases by Virchow to the new concept of molecular cytopathology. The management of diseases is now a multidisciplinary approach with the translation of morphological, imagery and molecular findings to therapeutic protocols. Obtaining the most reliable diagnostic material is the essential part of the medical management of patients. Here, we try to gain a concise insight into the available data regarding the role of cytology in the application of molecular techniques, focusing on cancer cytopathology. Obtaining cytological material is now feasible by different methods, and in some cases it is the only possible approach to a lesion which is not easily accessible for tissue sampling. The methods of obtaining cytological material have evolved in recent years in parallel with rapid advances in high-throughput molecular techniques, opening new windows for the diagnosis and management of diseases. Different kinds of cytological material are reliable for the application of molecular techniques. Cytological material obtained in a liquid base has advantages such as the better preservation of cytomorphological features and the use of the remaining liquid for nucleic acid extraction even after long storage and the application of molecular methods.

  2. All lesions great and small, part 2. Diagnostic cytology in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Leslie C; Seelig, Davis M; Overmann, Jed

    2014-06-01

    This is the second in a two-part review of diagnostic cytopathology in veterinary medicine. As in human medicine, cytopathology is a minimally invasive, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic modality with broad utilization. In this second part, the diagnostic applications of cytology in respiratory, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, endocrine, ocular, and central nervous system tissues are discussed with a section describing fluid analysis in veterinary medicine. As noted in the previous manuscript, which characterized the cytology of the skin/subcutis, musculoskeletal, and lymphoid tissues, the interpretation of veterinary cytology samples must be undertaken with extensive knowledge of the breadth of animal species, including familiarity with the frequency and clinical progression of diseases, both of which can be influenced by species, breed, and husbandry conditions. Similar to part one, this review focuses on the most common domestic companion animal species (dog, cat, and horse) and highlights lesions that are either unique to veterinary species or have relevant correlates in people. The cytologic features and biological behavior of similar lesions are compared, and selected mechanisms of disease and ancillary diagnostics are reviewed when appropriate. Supporting figures illustrate a subset of lesions. While not an exhaustive archive of veterinary cytology, the goal is to give cytopathologists working in human medicine a general impression of correlates and unique entities in veterinary practice. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Intranuclear Pseudo-inclusions and Grooves in Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Maral; Kumar, Perikala Vijayananda

    2016-02-01

    Cytologic findings of pulmonary carcinoid have been well described. We report new cytological findings in a case of carcinoid tumor. The patient is a 36-year-old man presenting with hemoptysis of about six months in duration. Chest CT scans showed a well-defined round polypoid lesion measuring 1 × 1 cm within the right upper lobe of the bronchus with hyperinflation of the right upper lobe. Trans-bronchial fine needle aspiration and biopsy were done. Cytologic smears showed isolated and loose clusters of uniform round to spindle shape cells with round centrally located nuclei, fine granular (salt and pepper) chromatin and pale cytoplasm. Intranuclear pseudo-inclusions and grooves were seen in some tumor cells. No mitotic figures or necrosis were evident. A cytological diagnosis of carcinoid tumor was made and histopathologic examination and subsequent immunohistochemical study confirmed the diagnosis. Carcinoid tumor may be reliably diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology smears. Intranuclear pseudo-inclusions and grooves may be evident in tumor cells.

  4. Accuracy of Fine Needle Cytology in Histological Prediction of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Variants: a Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Cipolletta Campanile, Anna; Malzone, Maria Gabriella; Losito, Nunzia Simona; Botti, Gerardo; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Siciliano, Roberta; Colao, Annamaria; Pezzullo, Luciano; Fulciniti, Franco

    2017-06-21

    Fine needle cytology (FNC) is a crucial procedure in the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid tumors. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), in its classic variant (cPTC), is the most common malignant neoplasm of the thyroid. Several histological variants of PTC have been described, each one with its own characteristics and prognosis. The ability of FNC to identify the variants represents a challenge even for a skilled pathologist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic cytological accuracy of FNC in PTC and to look for specific features that could predict the different variants. This was a single center prospective study on 128 patients who received a diagnosis of PTC on FNC. The smears were blindly reviewed by two cytopathologists to create a frequency score (0, 1, 2, 3) of the features for each variant. The cytological parameters were divided into three groups: architectural, nucleo-cytoplasmic, and background features. Univariate analysis was performed by chi-square test with Yates correction and Fisher exact test as appropriate. Multiple regression analysis was performed among the variables correlated at the linear correlation. The correlation study between cytology and histology showed an accuracy of FNC in classic, follicular, and oncocytic PTC variants of 63.5, 87.5, and 87% respectively. Familiarity with cytological features may allow an early diagnosis of a given PTC variant on FNC samples. This is fundamental in a preoperative evaluation for the best surgical approach and subsequent treatment.

  5. Molecular classification of cancer with the 92-gene assay in cytology and limited tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Brachtel, Elena F; Operaña, Theresa N; Sullivan, Peggy S; Kerr, Sarah E; Cherkis, Karen A; Schroeder, Brock E; Dry, Sarah M; Schnabel, Catherine A

    2016-05-10

    Detailed molecular evaluation of cytology and limited tissue samples is increasingly becoming the standard for cancer care. Reproducible and accurate diagnostic approaches with reduced demands on cellularity are an ongoing unmet need. This study evaluated the performance of a 92-gene assay for molecular diagnosis of tumor type/subtype in cytology and limited tissue samples. Clinical validation of accuracy for the 92-gene assay in limited tissue samples such as cytology cell blocks, core biopsies and small excisions was conducted in a blinded multi-institutional study (N = 109, 48% metastatic, 53% grade II and III). Analytical success rate and diagnostic utility were evaluated in a consecutive series of 644 cytology cases submitted for clinical testing. The 92-gene assay demonstrated 91% sensitivity (95% CI [0.84, 0.95]) for tumor classification, with high accuracy maintained irrespective of specimen type (100%, 92%, and 86% in FNA/cytology cell blocks, core biopsies, and small excisions, respectively; p = 0.26). The assay performed equally well for metastatic versus primary tumors (90% vs 93%, p = 0.73), and across histologic grades (100%, 90%, 89%, in grades I, II, and III, respectively; p = 0.75). In the clinical case series, a molecular diagnosis was reported in 87% of the 644 samples, identifying 23 different tumor types and allowing for additional mutational analysis in selected cases. These findings demonstrate high accuracy and analytical success rate of the 92-gene assay, supporting its utility in the molecular diagnosis of cancer for specimens with limited tissue.

  6. Review of fine-needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland neoplasms, with emphasis on differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Mukunyadzi, Perkins

    2002-12-01

    The widespread use of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of salivary gland lesions in many centers is testimony to its usefulness and acceptance as a diagnostic technique. Many pertinent questions concerning a mass arising in the salivary gland can be answered by evaluation of FNA cytologic material, and these include whether the mass is truly of salivary gland origin, whether the lesion is inflammatory or neoplastic, and if neoplastic, whether benign or malignant. On diagnosis of a neoplastic salivary gland lesion, the next important issue is to correctly classify the tumor, particularly if malignant. Specific cytologic diagnoses can be achieved in the majority of cases, thus enabling the clinician and patient to make appropriate informed decisions. The cytologic evaluation of salivary gland tumors, however, is limited by the wide range and heterogeneous nature of benign and malignant tumors arising in this area, many of which share similar or show overlapping cytologic features, making the diagnosis of rare tumors problematic. In this review, the cytologic features of the major salivary gland neoplasms, the differential diagnoses, and the salient points that, if examined carefully, help achieve a specific diagnosis are discussed.

  7. [Cytologic-colposcopic-histopathologic correlations in preinvasive cervical lesions and cervical Human Papillomavirus infections].

    PubMed

    von der Meden Alarcón, J W; Ruiz Moreno, J A; García León, J F; Kably Ambe, A

    1995-09-01

    Cervico-uterine cancer is the most frequent gynecological neoplasia in Mexico and cervico-vaginal cytology is the most practical and dependable resource in lesions detection. During the last years precursory lesions detection (NIC and HPV infection) has increased. So, every patient presenting with an abnormal cytology should be included in an evaluation program, that includes a colposcopic study with biopsy of suspicious lesions, in order to know cellular abnormality degree, as these studies combination increases diagnosis certainty. Ninety three patients were evaluated by colposcopy, as the Papanicolaou showed abnormality ICN type in any degree or HPV infection data, during the first three years of the Unidad de Colposcopia de la Beneficiencia del Hospital ABC. In 49 patients histopathological study, was done. A correlation of all studies was carried out. There was a correlation cytology-histopathology of 59.18%; and colposcopy-histopathology of 89.79%. It was concluded that evaluation by cytology is insufficient to establish a final diagnosis and treatment, and that colposcopic study is fundamental in the evaluation of the patient with abnormal exfoliative cytology.

  8. Acetic acid visualization of the cervix: an alternative to cytologic screening.

    PubMed

    Megevand, E; Denny, L; Dehaeck, K; Soeters, R; Bloch, B

    1996-09-01

    To investigate the value of acetic acid visualization of the cervix as an alternative to cytologic screening. A prospective study was conducted in a squatter area in Cape Town, South Africa, on 2426 women who underwent speculum examination, naked-eye inspection of the cervix after application of acetic acid, and cytologic smear. The smears were stained and processed at the screening site. Patients with a positive reading after acetic acid or a smear indicating a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) were referred for immediate colposcopy, biopsy, and when indicated, treatment by large loop excision of the transformation zone. Therefore, histology was obtained on all patients with a positive acetic acid test or a positive cytology. Seventy-six women with positive reactions to acetic acid. Among the 2350 women with negative reactions, 254 had positive cervical smears; only 11 of these had histologic high-grade SIL. In contrast, 20 of the 61 women with positive cytology and positive acetic acid test had high-grade SIL on histology. Therefore, the acetic acid reaction enabled the observer to detect 20 of the 31 women (64%) who exhibited a high-grade SIL both on cytology and histology. In locations where access to cytopathology is limited, naked-eye visualization of the cervix after application of diluted acetic acid warrants consideration as an alternative in the detection of cervical premalignant lesions.

  9. Diagnostic Value of Urine Cytology in Bladder Cancer. A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qingnan; Huang, Zhen; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Xin; Liu, Jianwei; Zhang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Yu

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of urine cytology in detecting bladder cancer using meta-analysis. Public databases, including PubMed, Embase, Springer, Elsevier Science Direct, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar, were searched before February 2015. Sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (LR), negative LR, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of urine cytology in individual studies were calculated using random effects model or fixed effect model. The summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve was applied for performance of urine cytology. Publication bias of the included studies was evaluated by Egger's test. A total of 17 separate studies consisting of 5,908 patients with bladder cancer were included in the meta-analysis. Significant heterogeneity between the studies (I2 = 98.6%, p < 0.01) and effect sizes were pooled using random effects model. Overall sensitivity, specificity, positive LR, negative LR, and DOR of urine cytology were 0.37 (95% CI 0.35-0.39), 0.95 (95% CI 0.94-0.95), 7.39 (95% CI 4.97-10.98), 0.56 (95% CI 0.47-0.68), and 15.76 (95% CI 9.03-27.50), respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) and Q* index were 0.80 and 0.74, respectively. No publication bias was observed (p = 0.12). Our data indicate that urine cytology might be more suitable as an assistant method in bladder cancer detection by combining with other diagnostic methods with high sensitivity.

  10. Diagnosis of pancreaticobiliary malignancy by detection of minichromosome maintenance protein 5 in biliary brush cytology

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Margaret G; Huggett, Matthew T; Chapman, Michael H; Johnson, Gavin J; Webster, George J; Thorburn, Douglas; Mackay, James; Pereira, Stephen P

    2017-01-01

    Background: Biliary brush cytology is the standard method of evaluating biliary strictures, but is insensitive at detecting malignancy. In pancreaticobiliary cancer minichromosome maintenance replication proteins (MCM 2–7) are dysregulated in the biliary epithelium and MCM5 levels are elevated in bile samples. This study aimed to validate an immunocolorimetric ELISA assay for MCM5 as a pancreaticobiliary cancer biomarker in biliary brush samples. Methods: Biliary brush specimens were collected prospectively at ERCP from patients with a biliary stricture. Collected samples were frozen at −80 °C. The supernatant was washed and lysed cells incubated with HRP-labelled anti-MCM5 mouse monoclonal antibody. Test positivity was determined by optical density absorbance. Patients underwent biliary brush cytology or additional investigations as per clinical routine. Results: Ninety-seven patients were included in the study; 50 had malignant strictures. Median age was 65 years (range 21–94) and 51 were male. Compared with final diagnosis the MCM5 assay had a sensitivity for malignancy of 65.4% compared with 25.0% for cytology. In the 72 patients with paired MCM5 assay and biliary brush cytology, MCM5 demonstrated an improved sensitivity (55.6% vs 25.0% P=0.0002) for the detection of malignancy. Conclusions: Minichromosome maintenance replication protein5 is a more sensitive indicator of pancreaticobiliary malignancy than standard biliary brush cytology. PMID:28081547

  11. Pancreatic neuroendocrine microadenomatosis: A case report of cytology and histology correlation.

    PubMed

    Vo, Nguyen; Cohen, David W; Dillhoff, Mary E; Jin, Ming

    2017-02-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasia is categorized by grade, size, and functional status. Neuroendocrine microadenoma (NEMA) is defined as a neuroendocrine tumor (NET) that measures less than 0.5 cm in diameter. Multiple NEMAs are termed neuroendocrine adenomatosis (NEMAtosis). The surgical pathology and clinical aspects of pancreatic NEMAtosis have been reported, but there has been no report regarding EUS-FNA cytology of NEMAtosis. We report a case of NEMAtosis with cytologic correlation and illustrate the diagnostic challenges and potential pitfalls. The pre-operative cytology can be problematic. The main differential diagnosis of the EUS-FNA specimen includes NET, normal pancreas, and islet cell hyperplasia/aggregation associated with chronic pancreatitis. The helpful cytopathologic feature of NEMAtosis is the presence of two intermingled populations of loosely-cohesive neuroendocrine cell clusters and tight acinar cell groups arranged in microacinar and/or grape-like structures. Although neuroendocrine cells and acinar cells possess different cytomorphology, the distinction is not always straightforward because both types of cells are small and cytologically bland. Cytologic assessment of both architecture and individual cell morphology is imperative to avoid interpretation error and further guide appropriate clinical management. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:143-147. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Papillary neoplasms of the breast: clues in fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Aracil, V; Mayayo, E; Azua, J; Arraiza, A

    2002-02-01

    Papillary neoplasms of the breast include a wide spectrum of mammary lesions. The differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions can be problematic not only cytologically, but also histopathologically. Aspiration smears can demonstrate that cytological differentiation is feasible. A retrospective study of 30 cases of papillary tumour of the breast, 15 papillary carcinomas and 15 papillomas, was performed to find the cytological differences between the pathologies. Cytological samples of papillary carcinomas were characterized by an abundance of cellular material, three-dimensional papillary clusters without fibrovascular connective tissue cores, small papillae arranged in cell balls, tall columnar cells and isolated naked nuclei. Numerous haemosiderin-laden macrophages were seen. There were no eosinophilic bipolar cytoplasmic granules, bipolar naked nuclei or apocrine metaplasia. In the papillomas there was less material; the papillae had cohesive stalks surrounded by columnar cells in a honeycomb pattern. We also found fewer small papillae and isolated columnar cells. In addition, the presence of apocrine metaplasia and bipolar naked nuclei was noted. We suggest that papillary carcinoma of the breast can be diagnosed by cytology and differentiated from papilloma.

  13. Computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer using cytological images: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Saha, Monjoy; Mukherjee, Rashmi; Chakraborty, Chandan

    2016-10-01

    Cytological evaluation by microscopic image-based characterization [imprint cytology (IC) and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC)] plays an integral role in primary screening/detection of breast cancer. The sensitivity of IC and FNAC as a screening tool is dependent on the image quality and the pathologist's level of expertise. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is used to assists the pathologists by developing various machine learning and image processing algorithms. This study reviews the various manual and computer-aided techniques used so far in breast cytology. Diagnostic applications were studied to estimate the role of CAD in breast cancer diagnosis. This paper presents an overview of image processing and pattern recognition techniques that have been used to address several issues in breast cytology-based CAD including slide preparation, staining, microscopic imaging, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction and diagnostic classification. This review provides better insights to readers regarding the state of the art the knowledge on CAD-based breast cancer diagnosis to date. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Alaskan Commodities Irradiation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.; Das, D.K.; Lewis, C.E.; Workman, W.G.; Tumeo, M.A.; Hok, C.I.; Birklid, C.A.; Bennett, F.L.

    1988-12-01

    The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology. 40 refs., 50 figs., 53 tabs.

  15. Test reactor irradiation coordination

    SciTech Connect

    Heartherly, D.W.; Siman Tov, I.I.; Sparks, D.W.

    1995-10-01

    This task was established to supply and coordinate irradiation services needed by NRC contractors other than ORNL. These services include the design and assembly of irradiation capsules as well as arranging for their exposure, disassembly, and return of specimens. During this period, the final design of the facility and specimen baskets was determined through an iterative process involving the designers and thermal analysts. The resulting design should permit the irradiation of all test specimens to within 5{degrees}C of their desired temperature. Detailing of all parts is ongoing and should be completed during the next reporting period. Procurement of the facility will also be initiated during the next review period.

  16. A comparison of cytology and fluorescence in situ hybridization for the detection of lung cancer in bronchoscopic specimens.

    PubMed

    Halling, Kevin C; Rickman, Otis B; Kipp, Benjamin R; Harwood, Aaron R; Doerr, Clinton H; Jett, James R

    2006-09-01

    To determine the relative sensitivity and specificity of cytology and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the detection of lung cancer in bronchoscopically obtained specimens. Cytology and FISH were performed on brushing and washing specimens obtained from patients undergoing bronchoscopy for suspected lung cancer. FISH utilized the LAVysion probe set (Abbott Molecular; Des Plaines, IL), which contains locus-specific probes to 5p15, 7p12 (EGFR), 8q24 (C-MYC), and a centromeric probe to chromosome 6. Single-center, academic, tertiary medical center. One hundred thirty-seven patients referred for bronchoscopy for suspicion of lung cancer. Cytology and FISH were performed on bronchoscopic brushings and washings. One hundred thirty-seven patients undergoing bronchoscopy had pathology, FISH, and cytology results. FISH and cytology were performed on 123 washing and 78 brushing specimens. Sensitivities of FISH and cytology were 71% and 51% (p = 0.007), respectively, for brushing specimens, and 49% and 44% (p = 0.541) for washing specimens. When FISH and cytology results were combined, sensitivities were 75% and 61%, respectively, for brushing and washing specimens, which was significantly better (p < 0.001) than cytology alone. Specificities of FISH and cytology for patients with negative findings at the time of initial bronchoscopy were 83% and 100% (p = 0.125), respectively, for brushing specimens, and 95% and 100% (p = 0.500) for washing specimens. These findings show that FISH is significantly more sensitive than conventional cytology for detecting lung cancer in bronchial brushing specimens; when combined with cytology, FISH can improve the diagnostic sensitivity of detecting malignancy in bronchial brushing and washing specimens.

  17. Detection of EGFR and KRAS Mutation by Pyrosequencing Analysis in Cytologic Samples of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Eun; Lee, So-Young; Park, Hyung-Kyu; Oh, Seo-Young; Kim, Hee-Joung; Lee, Kye-Young; Kim, Wan-Seop

    2016-08-01

    EGFR and KRAS mutations are two of the most common mutations that are present in lung cancer. Screening and detecting these mutations are of issue these days, and many different methods and tissue samples are currently used to effectively detect these two mutations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the testing for EGFR and KRAS mutations by pyrosequencing method, and compared the yield of cytology versus histology specimens in a consecutive series of patients with lung cancer. We retrospectively reviewed EGFR and KRAS mutation results of 399 (patients with EGFR mutation test) and 323 patients (patients with KRAS mutation test) diagnosed with lung cancer in Konkuk University Medical Center from 2008 to 2014. Among them, 60 patients had received both EGFR and KRAS mutation studies. We compared the detection rate of EGFR and KRAS tests in cytology, biopsy, and resection specimens. EGFR and KRAS mutations were detected in 29.8% and 8.7% of total patients, and the positive mutation results of EGFR and KRAS were mutually exclusive. The detection rate of EGFR mutation in cytology was higher than non-cytology (biopsy or resection) materials (cytology: 48.5%, non-cytology: 26.1%), and the detection rate of KRAS mutation in cytology specimens was comparable to non-cytology specimens (cytology: 8.3%, non-cytology: 8.7%). We suggest that cytology specimens are good alternatives that can readily substitute tissue samples for testing both EGFR and KRAS mutations. Moreover, pyrosequencing method is highly sensitive in detecting EGFR and KRAS mutations in lung cancer patients.

  18. Utility of peritoneal washing cytology in staging and prognosis of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms: a 10-year retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Whitney; Madan, Rashna; O'Neil, Maura; Tawfik, Ossama W; Fan, Fang

    2016-06-01

    The prognostic significance of peritoneal washing cytology in gynecologic neoplasms is controversial. The presence of neoplastic cells in peritoneal washings is currently part of the Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics and American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging systems in cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms without metastasis beyond the pelvis. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed all cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms in which cytologic studies were performed. The utility of cytology in tumor staging and the relationship between cytology results and patient outcome are studied. All cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms in our institution between July 2002 and July 2012 were reviewed. Primary tumor characteristics including type and pelvic extension were collected, categorized, and correlated with peritoneal washing cytology. Final tumor staging was reviewed and the impact of positive cytology was evaluated. A total of 120 cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms without extrapelvic metastasis were identified within the study period. Peritoneal washing cytology was positive in 24% (29/120) of neoplasms and upstaged the tumor 83% (24/29) of the time when positive. Overall, 20% (24/120) of reviewed cases were upstaged based on positive cytology results. Peritoneal washing cytology remains a useful staging tool for ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms limited to the pelvic cavity. Positive cytology results in upstaging in a significant proportion of the cases regardless of the tumor type. A larger study is needed to analyze follow-up data to determine if upstaging based on positive cytology adversely affects outcome.

  19. [The irradiation process].

    PubMed

    Barillot, I; Chauvet, B; Hannoun Lévi, J M; Lisbona, A; Leroy, T; Mahé, M A

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the regulatory framework of the radiotherapy practice in France, the external irradiation and brachytherapy process and the guidelines for patient follow-up.

  20. Food irradiation in perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henon, Y. M.

    1995-02-01

    Food irradiation already has a long history of hopes and disappointments. Nowhere in the world it plays the role that it should have, including in the much needed prevention of foodborne diseases. Irradiated food sold well wherever consumers were given a chance to buy them. Differences between national regulations do not allow the international trade of irradiated foods. While in many countries food irradiation is still illegal, in most others it is regulated as a food additive and based on the knowledge of the sixties. Until 1980, wholesomeness was the big issue. Then the "prerequisite" became detection methods. Large amounts of money have been spent to design and validate tests which, in fact, aim at enforcing unjustified restrictions on the use of the process. In spite of all the difficulties, it is believed that the efforts of various UN organizations and a growing legitimate demand for food safety should in the end lead to recognition and acceptance.

  1. AGC-2 Irradiation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rohrbaugh, David Thomas; Windes, William; Swank, W. David

    2016-06-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a helium-cooled, very high temperature reactor (VHTR) with a large graphite core. In past applications, graphite has been used effectively as a structural and moderator material in both research and commercial high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) designs.[ , ] Nuclear graphite H 451, used previously in the United States for nuclear reactor graphite components, is no longer available. New nuclear graphites have been developed and are considered suitable candidates for the new NGNP reactor design. To support the design and licensing of NGNP core components within a commercial reactor, a complete properties database must be developed for these current grades of graphite. Quantitative data on in service material performance are required for the physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of each graphite grade with a specific emphasis on data related to the life limiting effects of irradiation creep on key physical properties of the NGNP candidate graphites. Based on experience with previous graphite core components, the phenomenon of irradiation induced creep within the graphite has been shown to be critical to the total useful lifetime of graphite components. Irradiation induced creep occurs under the simultaneous application of high temperatures, neutron irradiation, and applied stresses within the graphite components. Significant internal stresses within the graphite components can result from a second phenomenon—irradiation induced dimensional change. In this case, the graphite physically changes i.e., first shrinking and then expanding with increasing neutron dose. This disparity in material volume change can induce significant internal stresses within graphite components. Irradiation induced creep relaxes these large internal stresses, thus reducing the risk of crack formation and component failure. Obviously, higher irradiation creep levels tend to relieve more internal stress, thus allowing the

  2. Primary screening for cervical cancer precursors by the combined use of liquid-based cytology, computer-assisted cytology and HPV DNA testing.

    PubMed

    Vassilakos, P; Petignat, P; Boulvain, M; Campana, A

    2002-02-01

    Primary screening for cervical cancer precursors has considerably evolved with the introduction of new technology to improve the early detection of disease. The objective of this study was to elaborate a diagnostic pathway integrating liquid-based and computer-assisted cytology and human papillomavirus DNA testing to focus screening on women at risk which may be more cost-effective for the healthcare system. A single laboratory analysis was conducted during a 5-month period using liquid-based cytology followed by human papillomavirus DNA testing for women with an abnormal result or with previous abnormal cytology. Human papillomavirus prevalence was estimated by testing 909 consecutive unselected samples. All slides were then rescreened using automated cytologic testing and triaged into a high- or low-score group according to computer results. Of the 8676 slides scanned, 352 had a test result of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse. Two hundred and ninety-seven (84.3%) samples with an atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse result and 100% of those with detection of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and carcinomas (HSIL+) were triaged into the high-score group. The combination of instrument scores and human papillomavirus results indicated that 51.0% of high score/human papillomavirus-positive cases should be considered as ASCUS+, while 99.6% of low-score/human papillomavirus negative cases remained negative in the final cytologic diagnosis, representing 49.0% of all cases. Of the screened women 89.5% should test negative for human papillomavirus and be reported as such in the final cytologic diagnosis. In conclusion, preliminary results suggest that this diagnostic pathway has the potential to improve primary cervical cancer screening and cost-effectiveness. By using a combination of testing methods to focus screening and clinical attention to cases at risk, it would be possible to lengthen screening

  3. A brief chronicle of cytology: from Janssen to Papanicolaou and beyond.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Aristides; Beloukas, Apostolos I; Kalogeraki, Alexandra M; Magiorkinis, Emmanouil

    2013-06-01

    The aim of our study was to outline and present the major hallmarks in the history of clinical cytology. For this purpose, an extensive research in modern literature and the PubMed database was undertaken. Furthermore, we studied original papers and books of the pioneers in cytopathology. The development of the first microscope by Hans and Sacharias Janssen is a hallmark in biological sciences, since the study of microcosmos was made feasible. From the discovery of single cells by Robert Hooke and the cell theory by Schleiden and Schwann till the establishment of exfoliative cytology by George Papanicolaou and the invention of fine-needle aspiration biopsy technique by Martin and Ellis, there is a three-century continuum of important discoveries and research. Today, flow cytometry and the introduction of molecular techniques have revolutionized medicine and are expected to change the face of cytology in the near future. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The role of cytology in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal neoplasms: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Pablo Moura de Andrade; Oliveira, Marcelo Parente; da Silva, Hilton Justino; de Mello, Roberto José Vieira

    2012-01-01

    The authors systematically reviewed the literature of the last decade on the role of cytology in the evaluation of musculoskeletal neoplasms, and its diagnostic accuracy. A search was carried out on the databases PubMed, MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO, selecting articles in which cytology was used in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal neoplasms. Limits were used for English, Spanish and Portuguese, and only articles published since 2000 were selected. 757 articles were retrieved, 24 of which were selected based on criteria of inclusion and exclusion. It was concluded that although promising in the assessment of musculoskeletal neoplasms, cytology obtained by fine needle aspiration is less accurate and reliable than histological evaluation of such lesions. PMID:24453581

  5. Digital cytology: current state of the art and prospects for the future.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, David C

    2011-01-01

    The growth of digital methods in pathology is accelerating. Digital images can be used for a variety of applications in cytology, including rapid interpretations, primary diagnosis and second opinions, continuing education and proficiency testing. All of these functions can be performed using small static digital images, real-time dynamic digital microscopy, or whole-slide images. This review will discuss the general principles of digital pathology, its methods and applications to cytologic specimens. As cytologic specimens have unique features compared to histopathology specimens, the key differences will be discussed. Technical and administrative issues in digital pathology applications and the outlook for the future of the field will be presented. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Application of cytology and molecular biology in diagnosing premalignant or malignant oral lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mehrotra, Ravi; Gupta, Anurag; Singh, Mamta; Ibrahim, Rahela

    2006-01-01

    Early detection of a premalignant or cancerous oral lesion promises to improve the survival and the morbidity of patients suffering from these conditions. Cytological study of oral cells is a non-aggressive technique that is well accepted by the patient, and is therefore an attractive option for the early diagnosis of oral cancer, including epithelial atypia and squamous cell carcinoma. However its usage has been limited so far due to poor sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing oral malignancies. Lately it has re-emerged due to improved methods and it's application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. Newer diagnostic techniques such as "brush biopsy" and molecular studies have been developed. Recent advances in cytological techniques and novel aspects of applications of scraped or exfoliative cytology for detecting these lesions and predicting their progression or recurrence are reviewed here. PMID:16556320

  7. [The impact of subsidized healthcare insurance on access to cervical cytology in Medellin, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Atehortúa, Sara C; Palacio-Mejía, Lina S

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the impact of subsidized healthcare insurance on access to cervical cytology in Medellin, Colombia. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used with 2008 Life Quality Survey in Colombia figures to obtain a control group comparable to a treatment group. This involved using stratification estimates, the k-nearest-neighbor algorithm and kernel density for calculating impact size Access to cytology for 19 to 49 year-old women having subsidized healthcare insurance were 2.2 % to 2.9 % lower compared to women who did not have any healthcare insurance. Estimates were not statistically significant for women over 50 years-old. Women lacking healthcare insurance having increased access to cytology could be explained by charities or social programs aiding the population lacking healthcare insurance.

  8. Fine needle aspiration cytology of chondroblastoma: A report of two cases with brief review of pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Krishnappa, Amita; Shobha, SN; Shankar, S Vijay; Aradhya, Sushma

    2016-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rare, giant cell-rich, benign neoplasm of bone. Since the past few decades fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has gained momentum in preoperative diagnosis of bone lesions. At cytology, other giant cell-rich tumors and tumorlike lesions such as aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), giant cell tumor, and chondromyxoid fibroma fall under the differential diagnosis of chondroblastoma. Due to the difference in the treatment protocol and prognosis, preoperative diagnosis is mandatory. We describe the cytomorphology in two cases of chondroblastoma diagnosed at FNAC and confirmed by histopathology. At cytology, the presence of giant cells, chondroid matrix, mononuclear cells with nuclear indentation, and grooving along with glassy, vacuolated cytoplasm are characteristic of chondroblastoma. In addition to this, the presence of chicken wire calcification is a useful clue to the accurate diagnosis of chondroblastoma at FNAC. PMID:27011442

  9. Application of cytology and molecular biology in diagnosing premalignant or malignant oral lesions.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Ravi; Gupta, Anurag; Singh, Mamta; Ibrahim, Rahela

    2006-03-23

    Early detection of a premalignant or cancerous oral lesion promises to improve the survival and the morbidity of patients suffering from these conditions. Cytological study of oral cells is a non-aggressive technique that is well accepted by the patient, and is therefore an attractive option for the early diagnosis of oral cancer, including epithelial atypia and squamous cell carcinoma. However its usage has been limited so far due to poor sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing oral malignancies. Lately it has re-emerged due to improved methods and it's application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. Newer diagnostic techniques such as "brush biopsy" and molecular studies have been developed. Recent advances in cytological techniques and novel aspects of applications of scraped or exfoliative cytology for detecting these lesions and predicting their progression or recurrence are reviewed here.

  10. [Attention to the impression cytology in the evaluation of ocular surface tumors].

    PubMed

    Li, B; Liang, Q F

    2016-10-11

    Impression cytology (IC) has been widely used as a method for evaluating the ocular surface and superficial cells layers in the diagnosis and follow-up after treatment of several ocular surface tumors of both epithelial and melanocytic origin. Compared with exfoliative cytology with spatula, IC is less traumatic to the patient's eye. It provides a precise location of the area being studied and allows accurate observation of the cells the way they exist in vivo. The additional advantage of IC is the preservation of limbal stem cells responsible for continuous corneal epithelium renewal. In certain cases, ophthalmologists may prefer interventions less invasive than surgical biopsy such as impression cytology for both initial diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of the treatment for ocular surface lesions. The purpose of this article is to comment the effect for the diagnosis and management of ocular surface tumors and to discuss the requirement for further investigation on the subject. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 721-723).

  11. Pure primary signet ring cell carcinoma breast: A rare cytological diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Jashan; Dubey, V. K.; Makkar, Manisha; Suri, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    Signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of the breast is a rare tumor and it is classified by World Health Organization in 2003 classification under ‘mucin producing carcinomas’. Pure form of SRCC breast is an extremely rare entity and very few cases have been reported in literature so far. We present a case of pure primary SRCC of the breast in a 70-year-old female, which was diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. Cytological features generally show cellular smears with tumor cells showing eccentrically placed large, irregular nuclei showing indentations at places with cytoplasmic vacuoles. This case is being presented in view of its characteristic cytological features and its rarity. PMID:24130416

  12. Female infertility: role of vaginal hormonal cytology, endometrial biopsy and endocrinological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Nishat; Singh, Mamta; Verma, Manju; Bansal, Vandana

    2006-03-01

    Female infertility can be categorised into those who fail to ovulate (anovulatory infertility) because of some defect at hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and those who are ovulatory (ovulatory infertility), but are infertile because of some lesion present in genital tract. The role of vaginal hormonal cytology, endometrial biopsy and endocrinological evaluation in the detection of ovulation and various ovulatory dysfunction was studied in 42 infertile female patients. On the basis of cytological findings, of the 42 patients, 14 were found to be ovulatory, 26 anovulatory (which include 5 cases of atrophic changes) and 2 inconsistent due to inflammatory changes. Endometrial biopsy showed evidence of ovulation in 15, anovulation in 27 cases. Hormonal evaluation indicated some sort of endocrinological disorders in 15 patients, which may underlie anovulatory infertility in these patients, while results were within normal range in the rest 27 patients. Results of vaginal cytology and endometrial biopsy showed correlation in respect to ovulation in 93.33% of the cases.

  13. Immunoglobulin concentrations in cervical mucus in patients with normal and abnormal cervical cytology.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, B M; Skinner, G R

    1977-02-01

    The cervical mucus of 31 patients with normal and 16 patients with abnormal cervical cytology was investigated at each stage of the menstrual cycle for immunoglobulin IgG, IgA and IgM. IgG and IgA were present in every mucus sample, while IgM was only occasionally found in trace amounts. IgG and IgA increased towards the last week of the menstrual cycle, the increase being in general more marked for IgA. Patients with abnormal cervical cytology showed increased IgG and, more strikingly, IgA concentrations in their cervical mucus, but there was no correlation between the IgG and IgA concentrations at any stage of the menstrual cycle. Whereas in patients with normal cervical cytology the IgG and IgA concentrations correlated throughout the menstrual cycle.

  14. Techniques for cytologic sampling of pancreatic and bile duct lesions: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Brugge, William R; De Witt, John; Klapman, Jason B; Ashfaq, Raheela; Shidham, Vinod; Chhieng, David; Kwon, Richard; Baloch, Zubair; Zarka, Matthew; Staerkel, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology, including indications for endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy, techniques of the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing, and postbiopsy management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of literature, discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18 month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology website [www.papsociety.org]. This document presents the results of these discussions regarding the use of sampling techniques in the cytological diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic lesions. This document summarizes the current state of the art for techniques in acquiring cytology specimens from the biliary tree as well as solid and cystic lesions of the pancreas.

  15. Total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  16. Subacute granulomatous (De Quervain's) thyroiditis: Fine-needle aspiration cytology and ultrasonographic characteristics of 21 cases

    PubMed Central

    Vural, Çigdem; Paksoy, Nadir; Gök, Nazlı D; Yazal, Kadri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis (SGT) is an inflammatory disease that presents with different clinical and cytological characteristics. Although the diagnosis is generally made clinically, imaging methods and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) may provide assistance, particularly in atypical cases. The objective of this study is to reveal the ultrasonographic (USG) and cytological characteristics of SGT. Materials and Methods: The clinical, USG and cytological findings of 21 cases diagnosed with SGT were reviewed. Results: Ultrasonographic data was available in 20 cases. A hypoechoic thyroid nodule with irregular margins was detected in 12 of the 20 total cases. Of these, 9 cases complained about pain in the thyroid lodge and generally had unilateral lesions, heterogeneous and hypoechoic areas with indistinct margins, rather than nodular lesions, which were seen in 7 cases. Cytologically, the multinuclear giant cells (MNGCs) found in all cases were accompanied by a dirty background containing varying numbers of granulomatous structures, including isolated epithelioid histiocytes, proliferated/regenerated follicle epithelium cells and inflammatory cells and colloid. Conclusion: Though hypoechoic and heterogeneous areas with irregular margins are strongly associated with thyroiditis, SGT may also appear as painful or painless hypoechoic, solid nodules and generate challenges in differential diagnosis. Although the most remarkable characteristic observed in FNA cytology was the presence of multiple MNGCs with cytoplasm, a dirty background accompanied by mild-moderate cellularity, degenerated-proliferated follicular epithelium cells, rare epithelioid granulomas and mixed type inflammatory cells are characteristic for SGT. The assessment of these radiological and cytological findings in conjunction with clinical findings will assist in the achievement of an accurate diagnosis. PMID:26085833

  17. Lung malignancy: Diagnostic accuracies of bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial brushing, and fine needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Sareen, Rateesh; Pandey, C L

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early diagnosis of lung cancer plays a pivotal role in reducing lung cancer death rate. Cytological techniques are safer, economical and provide quick results. Bronchoscopic washing, brushing and fine needle aspirations not only complement tissue biopsies in the diagnosis of lung cancer but also comparable. Objectives: (1) To find out diagnostic yields of bronchioalveolar lavage, bronchial brushings, FNAC in diagnosis of lung malignancy. (2) To compare relative accuracy of these three cytological techniques. (3) To correlate the cytologic diagnosis with clinical, bronchoscopic and CT findings. (4) Cytological and histopathological correlation of lung lesions. Methods: All the patients who came with clinical or radiological suspicion of lung malignancy in two and a half year period were included in study. Bronchoalveolar lavage was the most common type of cytological specimen (82.36%), followed by CT guided FNAC (9.45%) and bronchial brushings (8.19%). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value for all techniques and correlation with histopathology was done using standard formulas. Results: The most sensitive technique was CT FNAC – (87.25%) followed by brushings (77.78%) and BAL (72.69%). CT FNAC had highest diagnostic yield (90.38%), followed by brushings (86.67%) and BAL (83.67%). Specificity and positive predictive value were 100 % each of all techniques. Lowest false negatives were obtained in CT FNAC (12.5%) and highest in BAL (27.3%). Highest negative predictive value was of BAL 76.95 % followed by BB 75.59% and CT FNAC 70.59%. Conclusion: Before administering antitubercular treatment every effort should be made to rule out malignancy. CT FNAC had highest diagnostic yield among three cytological techniques. BAL is an important tool in screening central as well as in accessible lesions. It can be used at places where CT guided FNAC is not available or could not be done due to technical or financial limitations PMID:27890992

  18. Diagnostic value of liquid‐based cytology with fine needle aspiration specimens for cervical lymphadenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Takashi; Akahane, Toshiaki; Ohnuki, Natsumi; Yamaguchi, Tomomi; Kamada, Hajime; Harabuchi, Yasuaki; Tanaka, Shinya; Nishihara, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical lymphadenopathy is a symptom that is frequently seen among outpatients, and it is important to differentiate malignant lesions from reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology has been widely used for the diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy. However, some limitations of the diagnostic accuracy using conventional smear (CS) cytology have been pointed out. The diagnostic value of liquid‐based cytology (LBC) with FNA specimens has not yet been fully proven. Methods Forty‐two patients with cervical lymphadenopathy who underwent FNA with CS cytology from 2007 to 2011 and 123 patients who underwent FNA with LBC utilizing LBCPREP2™ from 2011 to 2015 were studied. Diagnostic values were compared between the CS and the LBC groups. Results Of the total 165 patients representing the combined CS and LBC groups, 81 (49.1%) were diagnosed as benign lymph node and 84 (50.9%) were malignant diseases including 37 (22.4%) of metastatic carcinoma except for thyroid carcinoma, 30 (18.2%) of metastatic thyroid carcinoma, and 17 (10.3%) of malignant lymphoma. The overall statistical values including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of the CS were 75%, 100%, 100%, 78.9%, and 87.1%, respectively, whereas those values for LBC were 91.2%, 100%, 100%, 90.7%, and 95.3%, respectively. The sensitivity of LBC for malignant diseases tended to be higher than that of CS cytology (p = 0.081). Conclusion LBC with FNA specimens from cervical lymphadenopathy is a useful and reliable method for the diagnosis of malignant diseases, especially of metastatic carcinomas, due to its increased sensitivity compared with CS cytology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:169–176. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26748563

  19. [Comparison of the Conventional Centrifuged and Filtrated Preparations in Urine Cytology].

    PubMed

    Sekita, Nobuyuki; Shimosakai, Hirofumi; Nishikawa, Rika; Sato, Hiroaki; Kouno, Hiroyoshi; Fujimura, Masaaki; Mikami, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    The urine cytology test is one of the most important tools for the diagnosis of malignant urinary tract tumors. This test is also of great value for predicting malignancy. However, the sensitivity of this test is not high enough to screen for malignant cells. In our laboratory, we were able to attain a high sensitivity of urine cytology tests after changing the preparation method of urine samples. The differences in the cytodiagnosis between the two methods are discussed here. From January 2012 to June 2013, 2,031 urine samples were prepared using the conventional centrifuge method (C method) ; and from September 2013 to March 2015, 2,453 urine samples were prepared using the filtration method (F method) for the cytology test. When the samples included in category 4 or 5, were defined as cytological positive, the sensitivities of this test with samples prepared using the F method were significantly high compared with samples prepared using the C method (72% vs 28%, p<0.001). The number of cells on the glass slides prepared by the F method was significantly higher than that of the samples prepared by the C method (p<0.001). After introduction of the F method, the number of f alse negative cases was decreased in the urine cytology test because a larger number of cells was seen and easily detected as atypical or malignant epithelial cells. Therefore, this method has a higher sensitivity than the conventional C method as the sensitivity of urine cytology tests relies partially on the number of cells visualized in the prepared samples.

  20. Cytologic features of stratified mucin producing intraepithelial lesion of the cervix--a case report.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Abha; Yang, Bin

    2014-09-01

    Stratified mucin-producing intraepithelial lesion (SMILE) of the cervix is a human papilloma virus (HPV) associated high grade intraepithelial columnar cell neoplasm that is thought to arise from the reserve cells of the transformation zone. It is composed of immature stratified cells that display intracytoplasmic mucin and is commonly associated with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), and invasive carcinoma. Here, we describe the cytologic features of SMILE and discuss its pitfalls in cervical cytology. A 51-year-old woman was diagnosed with SMILE on a cervical biopsy. Histologically, the dysplastic epithelium showed enlarged nuclei with increased nuclear density and presence of mucin-producing columnar cells throughout its thickness. The slides from the last two Pap tests (ThinPrep) performed on the patient were reviewed and compared with the histology. Cytologically, groups of atypical endocervical glandular cells were seen on both Pap tests. These groups showed mild nuclear crowding, slightly enlarged nuclei, nuclear hyperchromasia, and indistinct nucleoli. The borders of these cell groups were relatively smooth. Original cytologic diagnosis was atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) in both instances. HPV (Hybrid Capture 2) testing was positive on both occasions. Similar to the histology, cytologic features of SMILE are subtle. The features are not typical for AIS or for HSIL and could easily be misinterpreted as reactive. This report emphasizes that careful review of crowded groups of glandular cells in HPV positive women is absolutely critical. Based on our knowledge, this is the first description of the cytologic features of these lesions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.