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Sample records for irradiated uteri cytologic

  1. CINtec PLUS immunocytochemistry as a tool for the cytologic diagnosis of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Ravarino, Alberto; Nemolato, Sonia; Macciocu, Elena; Fraschini, Matteo; Senes, Giancarlo; Faa, Gavino; Negri, Giovanni

    2012-11-01

    Cytologic findings of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri are often difficult to evaluate. We studied the usefulness of CINtec PLUS p16/Ki-67 double stain (mtm laboratories, Heidelberg, Germany) for the diagnosis of glandular lesions. The study included 47 abnormal results on liquid-based cytologic tests with a subsequent histologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in situ or with early invasion, and 16 samples with negative results on follow-up. All samples were stained with CINtec PLUS p16/Ki-67 double stain. Of the neoplastic samples, 7 were excluded because of insufficient residual cellularity or loss of neoplastic cells. Of the samples that were adequate, 92.5% were stained with CINtec PLUS, whereas 7.5% were judged inconclusive. All inconclusive cases were at least 3 years old. Of the 16 negative samples, 15 (93.8%) stained negative and only 1 (6.2%) showed several positive clusters of cells. Our study shows that CINtec PLUS is a robust and useful tool for the diagnosis of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri.

  2. Comparison of human papillomavirus DNA tests, liquid-based cytology and conventional cytology for the early detection of cervix uteri cancer.

    PubMed

    Girianelli, Vania R; Thuler, Luiz Claudio S; Szklo, Moyses; Donato, Alexandre; Zardo, Lucilia M G; Lozana, José A; Almeida Neto, Olimpio F; Carvalho, Aurenice C L; Matos, Jorge H; Figueiredo, Valeska

    2006-12-01

    To compare the performance of human papillomavirus DNA tests (samples collected by a healthcare professional and self-collected) and liquid-based cytology with conventional cytology in the detection of cervix uteri cancer and its precursor lesions. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 1777 women living in poor communities in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Eligibility criteria included ages 25-59 years and not having had a Papanicolau test within at least 3 years prior to the study. Cytology (conventional or liquid-based) and human papillomavirus DNA (collected by a healthcare professional or self-collected) tests were performed using samples collected in a single visit. Women with abnormalities in at least one test and a systematic sample of 70 women with negative test results were referred to a colposcopic examination. Test readings were double-masked, and the outcome of interest was high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse. The pathology report was used as the gold standard. The prevalence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse was 2.0%. Human papillomavirus DNA test collected by a health professional alone or combined with conventional cytology had the highest sensitivity (91.4 and 97.1%, respectively). The highest specificity was found for conventional cytology (91.6%) and for a human papillomavirus DNA test collected by a healthcare professional (90.2%). On the basis of only test performance, the use of human papillomavirus DNA tests, alone or combined with cytology, would seem to be recommended. Its population-wide implementation, however, is conditional on a cost-effectiveness analysis.

  3. [Possibilities of cytologic and histologic methods of diagnosing flat condyloma of the cervix uteri].

    PubMed

    Andreev, A I

    1990-02-01

    A comprehensive study in 165 women has employed cytologic, colposcopic and histologic evaluation. Flat cervical condylomas were identified in 27 women (mean age, 29 years). Over 50% of these condylomas coexisted with dysplasia of various severity and 2 condylomas with squamous cell carcinoma in situ. The most reliable diagnostic techniques for flat condylomas are cytologic and histologic tests of selectively excised tissue samples.

  4. Cytologic characteristics of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the cervix uteri--case report.

    PubMed

    Barisić, Ana; Mahovlić, Vesna; Ovanin-Rakić, Ana; Skopljanac-Macina, Lada; Rajhvajn, Sanda; Juric, Danijela; Babić, Damir

    2010-03-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a rare malignancy, usually found in the salivary glands, although this unusual tumor can be found at other sites of the body. In particular, regarding adenoid cystic carcinoma of the cervix (ACCC) most frequently reports are given for postmenopausal women. In this respect, our work is one among very few in the literature that considers a cytologic picture of this uncommon cervix carcinoma. The case of 74 year old patient with postmenopausal bleeding is described. Both Pap smear and air dried smear of the uterine cervix were analyzed. The cytologic findings revealed very few small clusters of abnormal glandular cells, as well as some amorphous eosinophilic globule-like material, with granulomatous and necrotic background. The latter includes a lot of histiocytes, multinucleated giant cells, large aggregates of epitheloid cells and lymphocytes. Histology revealed the diagnosis of ACCC. We emphasize the importance of careful screening of Pap smear that might be crucial in the case of suspicious clinical findings in postmenopausal women, when the possibility of ACCC has to be considered.

  5. Cytological evidence for DNA chain elongation after UV irradiation in the S phase

    SciTech Connect

    Minka, D.F.; Nath, J.

    1981-04-01

    Human cells irradiated with UV light synthesize lower molecular weight DNA than unirradiated cells. This reduction in molecular weight is greater in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cells than in normal cells. The molecular weight of DNA is further reduced by the addition of caffeine to XP cells. By several hours after irradiation, DNA fragments are barely detectable. Cells from excision-proficient and excision-deficient XP patients were studied autoradiographically to produce cytological evidence of DNA chain elongation. Replicate cultures with and without caffeine were synchronized and irradiated with UV light during the S phase. Caffeine was removed in G2, and the cells were labeled with /sup 3/H-thymidine. Results showed significantly increased labeling during G2 of excision-deficient XP cells. Labeling was dependent on the time of irradiation and presence of caffeine. The XP variant cells had no increase in labeling for any irradiation time.

  6. Cytological effect of laser-irradiated peanut seeds and induction of mutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Lin; Chen, Rong; Lin, Tong; Li, Buhong; Zhuang, Weijian

    2005-01-01

    In this present paper, dry seeds of peanut of cytological effects and agro-character in F1 generation have been studied for YAG laser-irradiated at 1060 nm. With transmission electron microscope, the effects of ultrastructure of plumule cell were observed. There were difference in the cell on membrane system, fatbody and nucleus, especially in proteinbody, and there was chromosomal aberration of peanut root tip cell induced with laser 35.84w/cm2 power density. With irradiating time added from3s to 8s the rate of aberration increased from 0.16% up to 0.53%, and the types of chromosomal aberration also increased. Many aberration types, such as earlier separated mitosis metaphase, variability of number, sticky, non-equal division, polypolarity division, nucleus protrudes to cytoplasm and so on were found in 8s treatment but not in 3s. However, the dose of 8s treatment leads to lethal dose according to the seeds sprouting and growing. The seeds with 3s treatment, mine stem height, total pods per plant, mature pods per plant and weight per plant were more than the seeds unirradiated.

  7. CYTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ORGANOTYPIC CULTURES OF RAT DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA FOLLOWING X-IRRADIATION IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Masurovsky, Edmund B.; Bunge, Mary Bartlett; Bunge, Richard P.

    1967-01-01

    Long-term organotypic cultures of rat dorsal root ganglia were exposed to a single 40 kR dose of 184 kvp X-rays and studied in the living and fixed states by light or electron microscopy at 1–14 day intervals thereafter. Within the first 4 days following irradiation, over 30% of the neurons display chromatolytic reactions (eccentric nuclei, peripheral dispersal of Nissl substance, central granular zone) as well as abnormal nucleolar changes and dissociation of ribosomes from endoplasmic reticulum cisternae. Some satellite cells undergo retraction or acute degeneration, leaving only basement membrane to cover the neuron in these areas. 8 days after irradiation, neurons also exhibit (a) areas in which ribosomes are substantially reduced, (b) regions of cytoplasmic sequestration, (c) extensive vacuolization of granular endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex, and (d) diversely altered mitochondria (including the presence of ribosome-like particles or association with abnormal glycogen and lipid deposits). Nucleolar components become altered or reoriented and may form abnormal projections and ringlike configurations. Sizeable areas of the neuronal soma are now denuded of satellite cells; underlying these areas, nerve processes are found abnormally invaginated into the neuronal cytoplasm. By the 14th day following irradiation, most neurons display marked degenerative changes including extensive regions of ribosome depletion, sequestration, vacuolization, autolysis, and, in some areas, swirls of filaments, myelin figures, and heterogeneous dense bodies. These observations demonstrate that X-irradiation produces profound cytopathological changes in nervous tissue isolated from the host and that many of these changes resemble the effects of radiation on nervous tissue in vivo. PMID:10976234

  8. CYTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ORGANOTYPIC CULTURES OF RAT DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA FOLLOWING X-IRRADIATION IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Masurovsky, Edmund B.; Bunge, Mary Bartlett; Bunge, Richard P.

    1967-01-01

    Under suitable conditions rat dorsal root ganglia differentiate and myelinate in culture, providing an organotypic model of the ganglion (8). Mature cultures of this type were irradiated with a 40 kR dose of 184 kvp X-rays and, after daily observation in the living state, were fixed for light and electron microscopy. Within 24 hr after irradiation, numerous Schwann cells investing unmyelinated axons acutely degenerate. The axons thus denuded display little change. Conversely, few ultrastructural changes develop in Schwann cells investing myelinated axons until after the 4th day. During the 4–14 day period, these Schwann cells and their related myelin sheaths undergo progressive deterioration. Associated axons decrease in diameter but are usually maintained. Myelin deterioration begins as a nodal lengthening and then progresses along two different routes. In intact Schwann cells, fragmentation of myelin begins in a pattern reminiscent of Wallerian degeneration, but its slow breakdown thereafter suggests metabolic disturbances in these Schwann cells. The second pattern of myelin deterioration, occurring after complete degeneration of the related Schwann cell, involves unusual configurational changes in the myelin lamellae. Atypical repeating periods are formed by systematic splitting of lamellae at each major dense line with further splitting at the intraperiod line (Type I) or by splitting in the region of every other intraperiod line (Type II); some sheaths display a compact, wavy, inner zone and an abnormally widened lamellar spacing peripherally (Type III). Extensive blebbing of myelin remnants characterizes the final stages of this extracellular myelin degradation. These observations provide the first description of ultrastructural changes produced by ionizing radiation in nerve fascicles in vitro. PMID:10976235

  9. Corpus uteri cancer: the results of surgical, combined and complex therapy.

    PubMed

    Vishnevskaya, E E

    1991-01-01

    The Author has examined the survival rates of 1543 cases of corpus uteri cancer, comparing the patients with and without pre-operative adjuvant treatment. Pre-operative treatment consisted of irradiation therapy and also in combined chemohormonal-radiotherapy. The results also referred to the type of radiotherapy and to the clinical background of patients (older age, severe general somatic diseases). The conclusions of this study underline the benefits of pre-operative irradiation therapy.

  10. Trends in cancer incidence in female breast, cervix uteri, corpus uteri, and ovary in India.

    PubMed

    Yeole, Balkrishna B

    2008-01-01

    Trends in breast, cervix uteri, corpus uteri and ovarian cancers in six population based cancer registries (Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Bhopal, and Barshi) were evaluated over a period of the last two decades. For studying trends we used a model that fits this data is the logarithm of Y=ABx which represents a Linear Regression model. This approach showed a decreasing trend for cancer of the cervix and increasing trends for cancers of breast, ovary and corpus uteri throughout the entire period of observation in most of the registries. The four cancers, breast, cervix, corpus uteri and ovary, constitute more than 50% of total cancers in women. As all these cancers are increasing, to understand their etiology in depth, analytic epidemiology studies should be planned in a near future on a priority basis.

  11. Control of cancer of the cervix uteri*

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Cancer of the uterine cervix is a global problem. It is the most common cancer in women in developing countries and is the second most common cancer in women worldwide, with approximately half a million new cases each year. It is strongly linked with an early onset of sexual activity and multiple sexual partners; recent evidence points to a causal link between some of the precursor lesions of this cancer and specific papillomavirus infections. Cervical cancer has significant morbidity and mortality if it is not detected before it reaches an advanced stage with symptoms. If the disease is detected in an early asymptomatic stage it is nearly always curable by surgery or radiotherapy. Therefore today, cytological screening is the mainstay for control of cervical cancer. In some developed countries, screening programmes for cervical carcinoma have been in operation for many years. In places where large well-organized programmes have been functioning, significant decreases in mortality, in the range of 50-60%, have been observed. The favourable effects result primarily from the removal of intraepithelial lesions preventing the occurrence of invasive tumours. In countries where resources are limited, the aim should be to screen every woman once in her lifetime between 35 and 40 years of age. When more resources are available the frequency of screening should be increased to once every ten or five years for the age groups 35 to 55 years and, ideally, once every three years for women aged between 25 and 60 years. PMID:3490930

  12. Radiation changes in vaginal and cervical cytology in carcinoma of the cervix uteri

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Gupta, Y.N.; Sanyal, B.

    1982-02-01

    Radiation changes are observed in all postirradiated smears of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix from 56 females, although to a variable degree. After 1 year the changes subside gradually. A high cornification index is a good guide for recurrence. The significance of dysplastic cells as premonition for recurrence is debatable. The presence of malignant cells at any stage was considered of grave significance, and indicates poor radiation response or recurrence.

  13. Minimally Invasive Hysterectomy for Uteri Greater Than One Kilogram

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Maria V.; Moawad, Gaby N.; Opoku-Anane, Jessica; Shu, Michael K. M.; Marfori, Cherie Q.; Robinson, James K.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To assess the feasibility and safety of minimally invasive hysterectomy for uteri >1 kg. Methods: Clinical and surgical characteristics were collected for patients in an academic tertiary care hospital. Included were patients who underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy by 1 of 3 fellowship-trained gynecologists from January 1, 2009, to July 1, 2015 and subsequently had confirmed uterine weights of 1 kg or greater on pathology report. Both robotic and conventional laparoscopic procedures were included. Results: During the study period, 95 patients underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy with confirmed uterine weight over 1 kg. Eighty-eight percent were performed with conventional laparoscopy and 12.6% with robot-assisted laparoscopy. The median weight (range) was 1326 g (range, 1000–4800). The median estimated blood loss was 200 mL (range, 50–2000), and median operating time was 191 minutes (range, 75–478). Five cases were converted to laparotomy (5.2%). Four cases were converted secondary to hemorrhage and one secondary to extensive adhesions. There were no conversions after 2011. Intraoperative transfusion was given in 6.3% of cases and postoperative transfusion in 6.3% of cases. However, after 2013, the rate of intraoperative transfusion decreased to 1.0% and postoperative transfusion to 2.1%. Of the 95 cases, there were no cases with malignancy. Conclusions: This provides the largest case series of hysterectomy over 1 kg completed by a minimally invasive approach. Our complication rate improved with experience and was comparable to other studies of minimally invasive hysterectomy for large uteri. When performed by experienced surgeons, minimally invasive hysterectomy for uteri >1 kg can be considered feasible and safe. PMID:28352147

  14. Apoplexia uteri: a rarely described post-mortem finding.

    PubMed

    Beggan, C; Jaber, K; Leader, M

    2013-08-01

    We present a case of apoplexia uteri, a rarely described condition of haemorrhagic necrosis in an atrophic endometrium and myometrium associated with terminal stress. This entity is well recognised in older literature but few recent publications have addressed this condition. It is thought to occur in association with hypoperfusion with passive hyperaemia and reperfusion injury. This case serves to highlight this rarely encountered entity as a possible cause of haemorrhage in an atrophic endometrium in the 'perimortem' period. Incidental findings are occasionally observed in the course of forensic autopsy practice and knowledge of rarely encountered entities, such as that described in this case, is essential to prevent diagnostic uncertainty and misdiagnosis.

  15. [Ultrasound of cervix uteri transvaginal in preterm birth].

    PubMed

    Onofriescu, M; Târnovanu, Mihaela; Scurtu, B; Luca, A; Radu, E; Iftime, Irina

    2006-01-01

    Premature birth is a social problem due to its implications in the natal mortality and morbidity. This is the reason why it is necessary to establish new methods which could identify pregnant women with high risk of premature birth. Besides the measurable biochemical factors such as fetal fibronectin and salivary estriol, I1-6 sonography is a simple method highly efficient and of reasonable financial costs among all the sonographic means of observing the cervix uteri. The transvaginal sonography is the "golden standard", permitting the most faithful assessment of the pursued parameters--the length of the cervix, the aspect of the internal os (funneling), the cervix index. The experience gathered up to now shows that all of these investigations have a predictive value which is more negative than positive, but when used together they could lead to an improved result.

  16. Congenital pouch colon in a girl associated with bilateral atresia of cervix uteri and uterus didelphys.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Rajiv; Puri, Manju; Saxena, Rahul; Agarwala, Surendrakumar; Puri, Archana; Choudhury, Subhasis Roy

    2013-04-01

    This report describes a girl with congenital pouch colon (CPC), uterus didelphys with septate vagina, and a cloacal anomaly. The girl underwent cloacal reconstruction at the age of 15 months. Subsequently, at puberty, the child had primary amenorrhea with severe cyclic abdominal pain due to endometriosis of both the uteruses and adnexal cysts with hematometra and hematosalpinx. Laparotomy with removal of both uteri and the left fallopian tube was performed. Both uteri had atresia of the cervix uteri. This report emphasizes the need for comprehensive evaluation and a long-term management strategy for associated gynecologic anomalies in girls with CPC, especially with regard to patency of the outflow tract.

  17. Chloride channels mediate sodium sulphide-induced relaxation in rat uteri

    PubMed Central

    Mijušković, Ana; Kokić, Aleksandra Nikolić; Dušić, Zorana Oreščanin; Slavić, Marija; Spasić, Mihajlo B; Blagojević, Duško

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hydrogen sulphide reduces uterine contractility and is of potential interest as a treatment for uterine disorders. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism of sodium sulphide (Na2S)-induced relaxation of rat uterus, investigate the importance of redox effects and ion channel-mediated mechanisms, and any interactions between these two mechanisms. Experimental Approach Organ bath studies were employed to assess the pharmacological effects of Na2S in uterine strips by exposing them to Na2S with or without Cl− channel blockers (DIDS, NFA, IAA-94, T16Ainh-A01, TA), raised KCl (15 and 75 mM), K+ channel inhibitors (glibenclamide, TEA, 4-AP), L-type Ca2+ channel activator (S-Bay K 8644), propranolol and methylene blue. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in homogenates of treated uteri. The expression of bestrophin channel 1 (BEST-1) was determined by Western blotting and RT-PCR. Key Results Na2S caused concentration-dependent reversible relaxation of spontaneously active and calcium-treated uteri, affecting both amplitude and frequency of contractions. Uteri exposed to 75 mM KCl were less sensitive to Na2S compared with uteri in 15 mM KCl. Na2S-induced relaxations were abolished by DIDS, but unaffected by other modulators or by the absence of extracellular HCO3−, suggesting the involvement of chloride ion channels. Na2S in combination with different modulators provoked specific changes in the anti-oxidant profiles of uteri. The expression of BEST-1, both mRNA and protein, was demonstrated in rat uteri. Conclusions and Implications The relaxant effects of Na2S in rat uteri are mediated mainly via a DIDS-sensitive Cl−-pathway. Components of the relaxation are redox- and Ca2+-dependent. PMID:25857480

  18. Oxytocin receptors in dioestrous and anoestrous canine uteri.

    PubMed

    Tamminen, T M; Sahlin, L; Masironi, B; Taponen, J; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, O; Katila, T

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to localize oxytocin receptors (OTR) and measure mRNA expression of OTR in the canine uterus with and without the influence of progesterone. Uterine samples were taken from nine anoestrous and eight dioestrous bitches during ovariohysterectomy. Histological changes were evaluated in haematoxylin and eosin (HE)-stained samples. Purified polyclonal antibody for OTR was used in immunohistochemistry to localize receptors in uterine layers. Relative mRNA concentration of OTR was evaluated with real-time PCR from full-thickness uterine samples taken from the middle horn and the body. Myometrial smooth muscle cells, endometrial luminal epithelium (LE) and deep and superficial glandular epithelium were positively stained for oxytocin receptors in non-pregnant animals. No significant difference in staining intensity was detected between uterine middle horn and body. However, the staining intensity of LE was significantly higher in dioestrous than in anoestrous uteri (p < .05). Leucocytes and endothelium of blood vessels were also positively stained for OTR. Real-time PCR showed no significant differences in OTR mRNA expression between the middle horn and the body of the uterus, or between anoestrous and dioestrous uterus. No correlation was noted between OTR mRNA expression and blood progesterone concentration. In conclusion, despite the apparent inactivity, the uterus of the non-pregnant bitch expresses OTR. The distribution or relative expression of OTR does not differ between uterine horn and body in dioestrus or anoestrus except in LE. LE may have more oxytocin-dependent activity during dioestrus than anoestrus.

  19. Using vaginal cytology to assess the estrogenic activity of phytoestrogen-rich herb.

    PubMed

    Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Chansri, Kullakanya; Kijkuokul, Pisamai; Urasopon, Nontakorn; Cherdshewasart, Wichai

    2006-10-11

    To assess the estrogenic activities of synthetic estrogen, synthetic phytoestrogen, Pueraria lobata and three distinct cultivars of Pueraria mirifica, a phytoestrogen-rich herb, a vaginal cytology assay in ovariectomized rats were used. Rats were ovariectomized and treated with DW, estradiol valerate (1 mg/kg BW), genistein (0.25-2.5 mg/kg BW), Pueraria lobata and Pueraria mirifica (10-1,000 mg/kg BW) for 14 days. The vaginal cytology was checked daily and the uteri were dissected and weighed at the end of treatment or post-treatment periods. The treatments of DW, genistein and Pueraria lobata did not influence the vaginal epithelium, but the injection of estradiol valerate induced a vaginal cornification from day-3 of treatment to day-14 of post-treatment period. The occurrence of vaginal cornification after treatment and the recovery after the cessation was dependent on dosages and cultivars of Pueraria mirifica. The increments of uterus weight in all rats agreed with the cornification of vaginal epithelium. Although both uterotropic and vaginal cytology assays can be used to assess the estrogenic activity of phytoestrogen-rich herb, however, using vaginal cytology assay has two advantages: (1) we do not need to kill the animals and (2) we can follow up the recovery after the cessation of treatment.

  20. Evaluation of human papillomavirus elimination from cervix uteri by infrared laser exposure.

    PubMed

    Dymkovets, V P; Ezhov, V V; Manykin, A A; Belov, S V; Danileiko, Yu K; Osiko, V V; Salyuk, V A

    2011-12-01

    Elimination of types 16 and 18 human papilloma virus from the surface of cervix uteri for secondary prevention of cervical cancer was evaluated. The method is protected by patent of invention of the Russian Federation. Infrared laser therapy of cervix uteri was carried out in patients with precancer diseases of cervix uteri at Department of Gynecology of Municipal Clinical Hospital No. 52 (Moscow). Papillomavirus infection was eliminated using a Russian diode laser (lambda=1.06 μ, radiation power 10 W) with a collimating headpiece using carbon die at a distance of 10-12 cm from the exposed surface. The treatment resulted in a high percentage of elimination of types 16 and 18 oncogenic virus 4-6 weeks and during delayed periods after exposure.

  1. [Cervix uteri cancer in Poland--epidemiological opening balance and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Didkowska, Joanna; Wojciechowska, Urszula; Zatoński, Witold

    2006-09-01

    Cancer is one of the main causes of death among young and middle-aged females. In case of some cancer sites there is a possibility of undertaking an intervention, which would diminish the risk of death--to this group belongs first of all malignant neoplasm of cervix uteri. The date of beginning first cervix uteri cancer screening in Poland is approaching, therefore presenting epidemiological opening balance and possible scenarios of changes it worthwhile. This work uses data on morbidity and mortality due to malignant neoplasm of cervix uteri cancer in Polish population. Time trends analysis was based on so-called "breakpoint" (joinpoint analysis). Cervix uteri cancer mortality trend is characterized by two breakpoints (1971 and 1993). In the period of 1963-1970 there was an increase of mortality and then after the trend reversed: percentage decline was estimated at the level of 0.8% yearly in 1971-1992 and 2.4% yearly in 1993-2002. Hypothetical scenarios of changes in cervix uteri cancer mortality show, that lack of intervention will cause mortality among Polish females at the level recorded in Finland 25 years ago. Optimistic variant would allow on diminishing mortality in Poland down to the level observed currently in Finland, in around 30 years. Implementing preventive cervix uteri cancer screening is currently the most urgent challenge of public health. If the preventive screening program will still be in the phase of plans and projects, then in 30 years time Poland will be in the point which Finland reached in the end of 1970s, and our civilizing underdevelopment will reach half a century.

  2. Hernia uteri inguinalis in a case of ovotesticular disorder of sexual differentiation.

    PubMed

    Venkataram, Aniketh; Shivaswamy, Sadashivaiah; Babu, Rajashekara; Santhosh, Shivashankar

    2013-02-01

    An 18-year-old phenotypic male presented with an irreducible left inguinal mass, gynecomastia, and hypospadias. This mass on exploration was found to be a nonfunctional uterus with ipsilateral ovary and was excised. Further investigation confirmed the presence of a contralateral testis and a genotype of 46, XX. This confirmed the diagnosis of ovotesticular disorder of sexual differentiation (formerly true hermaphroditism) with obstructed hernia uteri inguinalis. The patient was raised as a male. Subcutaneous mastectomy for gynecomastia and neourethra construction with full thickness skin graft for hypospadias were performed. Hernia uteri inguinalis is rarely seen in this condition with only 2 cases being reported worldwide thus far, including our case.

  3. [Turning points in cytology].

    PubMed

    Scharf, J H

    1990-01-01

    There is given a concise and woodcut-like survey over the history of cytology with was born by the pioneering of Hooke, Grew, Malpighi, and van Leeuwenhoek at the end of XVIIth century and three crises of this science. The first crisis of cytology resulted from barren discussions of the so-called preformation hypothesis and the monadism of Leibniz. These philosophical speculations caused a melting away of the concrete facts during the XVIIth century. After the rebuilding of cytology by Meyen and Brown during the XIXth century's early thirties and the propounding of the early cell-theory by Schleiden and Schwann, the second crisis was provoked since Schleiden and Schwann, clearer than Meyen, kept the hypothesis of equivocal or spontaneous generation that was alive since Aristotéles. This 2nd crisis showed a belated sequel in the middle of XXth century brought about by sloppy investigations of Lepesinskaja. The third crisis concerns the question whether there is or whether there is not existent a membran enveloping every animal cell. Whereas Schwann himself presupposed the cell membran as an integral part of each cell, Max Schultze negates its existence. After the creation of the membran theory of synapse by Sherrington, the neuron theory by Ramón y Cajal, and the membran theory of narcosis by Meyer and Overton, the negation of the cell membran was being combined successively with the neovitalistic hypothesis of neuronal networks of Bethe and others. This spectre could really wiped out not before the modern histochemistry and electron microscopy were established in the fifties of our century.

  4. [The morphological features of the nervous and vascular components of communication systems in the cervix uteri].

    PubMed

    Dorosevich, A E; Bekhtereva, I A; Sudilovskaia, V V

    2009-01-01

    The investigation has indicated the presence of adrenergic and cholinergic autonomic nerve terminals (ANT) in the tissues of squamous cell carcinomas of the cervix uteri in a tumor growth area and contralaterally. Heterogeneity of the local neuromediator background in the tumor growth area and contralaterally may be explained, by studying the specific features of the cell microenvironment of ANT.

  5. Informatics applied to cytology.

    PubMed

    Pantanowitz, Liron; Hornish, Maryanne; Goulart, Robert A

    2008-12-29

    Automation and emerging information technologies are being adopted by cytology laboratories to augment Pap test screening and improve diagnostic accuracy. As a result, informatics, the application of computers and information systems to information management, has become essential for the successful operation of the cytopathology laboratory. This review describes how laboratory information management systems can be used to achieve an automated and seamless workflow process. The utilization of software, electronic databases and spreadsheets to perform necessary quality control measures are discussed, as well as a Lean production system and Six Sigma approach, to reduce errors in the cytopathology laboratory.

  6. Fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed Central

    Lever, J V; Trott, P A; Webb, A J

    1985-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology is an inexpensive, atraumatic technique for the diagnosis of disease sites. This paper describes the technique and illustrates how it may be applied to the management of tumours throughout the body. The limitations of the method, the dangers of false positive reports, and the inevitability of false negative diagnoses are emphasised. In a clinical context the method has much to offer by saving patients from inappropriate operations and investigations and allowing surgeons to plan quickly and more rationally. It is an economically valuable technique and deserves greater recognition. Images PMID:2578481

  7. Informatics applied to cytology

    PubMed Central

    Hornish, Maryanne; Goulart, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Automation and emerging information technologies are being adopted by cytology laboratories to augment Pap test screening and improve diagnostic accuracy. As a result, informatics, the application of computers and information systems to information management, has become essential for the successful operation of the cytopathology laboratory. This review describes how laboratory information management systems can be used to achieve an automated and seamless workflow process. The utilization of software, electronic databases and spreadsheets to perform necessary quality control measures are discussed, as well as a Lean production system and Six Sigma approach, to reduce errors in the cytopathology laboratory. PMID:19495402

  8. Basics of cytology

    PubMed Central

    Al-Abbadi, Mousa A.

    2011-01-01

    This overview is intended to give a general outline about the basics of Cytopathology. This is a field that is gaining tremendous momentum all over the world due to its speed, accuracy and cost effectiveness. This review will include a brief description about the history of cytology from its inception followed by recent developments. Discussion about the different types of specimens, whether exfoliative or aspiration will be presented with explanation of its rule as a screening and diagnostic test. A brief description of the indications, utilization, sensitivity, specificity, cost effectiveness, speed and accuracy will be carried out. The role that cytopathology plays in early detection of cancer will be emphasized. The ability to provide all types of ancillary studies necessary to make specific diagnosis that will dictate treatment protocols will be demonstrated. A brief description of the general rules of cytomorphology differentiating benign from malignant will be presented. Emphasis on communication between clinicians and pathologist will be underscored. The limitations and potential problems in the form of false positive and false negative will be briefly discussed. Few representative examples will be shown. A brief description of the different techniques in performing fine needle aspirations will be presented. General recommendation for the safest methods and hints to enhance the sensitivity of different sample procurement will be given. It is hoped that this review will benefit all practicing clinicians that may face certain diagnostic challenges requiring the use of cytological material. PMID:23210005

  9. Cytological diagnosis of xanthogranulomatous appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Rajni; Gulati, Anchana; Vedant, Deepak; Kaushal, Vijay

    2017-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous reaction can occur in any organ but the most common sites are kidney and gallbladder. Xanthogranulomatous appendicitis (XA) is a rare clinical entity. There are a few case reports of XA diagnosed on histopathology but none on cytology. Here we report a case of a 47-year-old lady who presented with acute abdomen and was found to have a mass lesion in the right iliac fossa. She was diagnosed with XA intraoperatively on imprint cytology that was subsequently confirmed on histopathological examination. Due to the rarity of XA itself and the use of imprint cytology for intraoperative diagnosis the case is being presented. PMID:28182060

  10. [Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with perineural differentiation (malignant perineurinoma) of the cervix uteri].

    PubMed

    Dolzhikov, A A; Mukhina, T S

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a case of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with perineural differentiation and at the rare site of the cervix uteri in a 57-year-old patient. The diagnosis was established on the basis of extensive immunohistochemical examination, by excluding the similar neoplasms and detecting an immunophenotype characteristic of perineural differentiation. There are data available in the literature on the morphological and immunophenotypical characteristics of this tumor.

  11. Analytical cytology applied to detection of induced cytogenetic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.W.; Lucas, J.; Straume, T.; Pinkel, D.

    1987-08-06

    Radiation-induced biological damage results in formation of a broad spectrum of cytogenetic changes such as translocations, dicentrics, ring chromosomes, and acentric fragments. A battery of analytical cytologic techniques are now emerging that promise to significantly improve the precision and ease with which these radiation induced cytogenetic changes can be quantified. This report summarizes techniques to facilitate analysis of the frequency of occurrence of structural and numerical aberrations in control and irradiated human cells. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Exfoliative cytology for diagnosing oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sayánsm, M; Somoza-Martín, J M; Barros-Angueira, F; Reboiras-López, M D; Gándara-Vila, P; Gándara Rey, J M; García-García, A

    2010-04-28

    Exfoliative cytology is a minimally invasive technique for obtaining oral cell specimens from patients for diagnostic purposes. Classical applications of oral cytology studies, such as oral candidiasis, have been extended to include oral precancerous and cancerous lesions. A number of analytical methods are available for studying cytology specimens. The development of molecular analysis techniques, the oral cancer etiopathogenic process, and improvements in liquid-based exfoliative cytology are leading to renewed interest in exfoliative cytology. Results sometimes are disputed, so the aim of our review was to clarify the applicability of exfoliative cytology to the diagnosis of oral precancerous and cancerous lesions.

  13. In vitro effects of L-arginine on spontaneous and homocysteine-induced contractility of pregnant canine uteri.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Annalisa; Trisolini, Carmelinda; Spedicato, Massimo; Mutinati, Maddalena; Minoia, Giuseppe; Sciorsci, Raffaele Luigi

    2011-09-01

    The L-Arginine-Nitric Oxide Synthase-Nitric Oxide (L-Arg-NOS-NO) system exerts a pivotal role in the maintenance of uterine quiescence during pregnancy, whereas Homocysteine (Hcy) promotes uterine contractility. The aim of this study was to test the in vitro effects of L-Arg on spontaneous and Hcy-induced contractions of uteri excised from pregnant bitches. 104 strips cut from pregnant uteri were mounted in an organ bath. 40 out of 104 strips (16 from mid-gestation uteri and 24 from close to term uteri, respectively) were exposed to cumulative doses of L-Arg; 40 strips (16 from mid-gestation-uteri and 24 from close to term-uteri, respectively) were exposed to N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a NOS antagonist; the remaining 24 strips (from close-to-term uteri) were first exposed to a single dose of Hcy and then to increasing doses of L-Arg. L-Arg showed no effects on spontaneous contractility both in mid-gestation- and close to term-uterine strips, whereas it promoted a relaxant effect on Hcy-induced contractility. On the contrary, L-NAME increased amplitude of contraction both in mid-gestation and close to term strips. These findings suggest that the L-Arg-NO system is present in the uterus of pregnant bitches and that Hcy is able to modulate its actions. Further investigation of this system may provide the basis of future obstetrical therapies in bitches.

  14. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Exams and Tests for Cancer Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer Waiting to hear a possible ... best decisions about your treatment. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer How is cancer diagnosed? Types ...

  15. [Cytological methods for the diagnosis of pleuritis].

    PubMed

    Grigoruk, O G; Bazulina, L M; Lazarev, A F

    2010-01-01

    Data are presented on a cytological examination of 2948 patients with pleuritis carried out during 7 years. Routine methods alongside centrifuging, cytological material staining, immunocytochemical and morphometric procedures were used. Each stage of the investigation was evaluated. Thanks to use of complex procedures, sensitivity of cytological methods for pleuritis diagnosis was raised to 95.2%, specificity--to 100%.

  16. Ovotesticular Disorders of Sexual Development: A Case of Hernia Uteri Inguinalis.

    PubMed

    Barham, David W; DeRosa, Raffaella; Pederson, Anita M; Freeman, Judy H; Rooks, Veronica J; McMann, Leah P

    2016-07-01

    Ovotesticular disorders of sexual development result in the presence of both testis and ovarian tissue. Most commonly, gonadal structures in the scrotum or inguinal canal are comprised of testis tissue. The presence of a uterus within an inguinal hernia sac in a phenotypically male patient is referred to as hernia uteri inguinalis. This condition has rarely been reported in patients with ovotesticular disorders of sexual development. We present a patient with rare mosaicism in combination with an unusual location of Müllerian duct structures within an inguinal hernia sac.

  17. [A case of hernia uteri inguinalis with a left crossed ectopic testis].

    PubMed

    Hihara, T; Nagata, Y; Katsuoka, Y; Kinoshita, H; Kawamura, N

    1985-11-01

    A 70-year-old man with the complaint of dysuria and painless swelling of the right scrotal sac and inguinal region was operated on for suspected right inguinal hernia. The hernia sac contained two testis and immature uterine tissue, which were pathognomonic of left crossed ectopic testis complicated by hernia uteri inguinalis. The chromosomes were normal. Statistics on 57 similar cases indicated that this was the eldest of all such patients reported in Japan; since he had two children, he seems to have been fertile.

  18. [Complications of surgical stage of treatment in patients with cancer of cervix uteri stage IIB].

    PubMed

    Kryzhanivs'ka, A Ie

    2013-11-01

    The results of treatment of 127 patients, suffering cervix uteri cancer stage IIB in period of 1998 - 2012 yrs, were analyzed. Complications of surgical stage of the combined treatment have had occurred in 40.9% patients, including 40.5% patients, to whom neoadjuvant chemotherapy was conducted and in 41.5%--radiation therapy (RTH). The main postoperative complications--retroperitoneal lymphatic cysts--were revealed in 35.4% patients. The factors, raising the risk of postoperative complications occurrence, are following: the primary tumor spreading, metastatic affection of lymphatic nodes of pelvic cavity, preoperative conduction of RTH or chemotherapy.

  19. Successful pregnancy after uterovaginal anastomosis in patients with congenital atresia of cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Prorocic, M; Vasiljevic, M; Tasic, L; Brankovic, S

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of successful pregnancy after effective uterovaginal anastomosis in a 26-years-old patient with congenital atresia of the cervix uteri. She spontaneously achieved pregnancy after four years of uterovaginal anastomosis. Gestation was at the eighth lunar month and the delivery was done by cesarean section due to rapidly progressing fetal asphyxia. The patient gave birth to a live healthy male, weighing 1,950 g, with an Apgar score of 5 and 8 at 1 and 5 min, respectively. The postoperative course was uneventful, and leakage of lochia was normal.

  20. Cytology exam of pleural fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lungs. This area is called the pleural space. Cytology means the study of cells. ... A sample of fluid from the pleural space is needed. The sample is taken using a procedure called thoracentesis . The procedure is done in the following way: You sit on a ...

  1. Microfilaria in hydrocele fluid cytology.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Patricia Ann; Jayaram, Gita; Mahmud, Rohela; Anuar, A Khairul

    2004-12-01

    Filariasis, a parasitic infection endemic in parts of India, Myanmar, islands of the South Pacific, West and East Africa and Saudi Arabia can be diagnosed from various types of cytopathological specimens. This case documents the detection of filarial infection from hydrocele fluid cytology in a 30-year-old Myanmar migrant worker in Malaysia.

  2. Confocal microscopy and exfoliative cytology

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Shyam Prasad; Ramani, Pratibha; Nainani, Purshotam

    2013-01-01

    Context: Early detection of potentially malignant lesions and invasive squamous-cell carcinoma in the oral cavity could be greatly improved through techniques that permit visualization of subtle cellular changes indicative of the neoplastic transformation process. One such technique is confocal microscopy. Combining rapidity with reliability, an innovative idea has been put forward using confocal microscope in exfoliative cytology. Aims: The main objective of this study was to assess confocal microscopy for cytological diagnosis and the results were compared with that of the standard PAP stain. Settings and Design: Confocal microscope, acridine orange (AO) stain, PAP (Papanicolaou) stain. The study was designed to assess confocal microscopy for cytological diagnosis. In the process, smears of patients with (clinically diagnosed and/or suspected) oral squamous cell carcinoma as well as those of controls (normal people) were stained with acridine orange and observed under confocal microscope. The results were compared with those of the standard PAP method. Materials and Methods: Samples of buccal mucosa smears from normal patients and squamous cell carcinoma patients were made, fixed in 100% alcohol, followed by AO staining. The corresponding set of smears was stained with PAP stain using rapid PAP stain kit. The results obtained were compared with those obtained with AO confocal microscopy. Results: The study had shown nuclear changes (malignant cells) in the smears of squamous cell carcinoma patients as increased intensity of fluorescence of the nucleus, when observed under confocal microscope. Acridine orange confocal microscopy showed good amount of sensitivity and specificity (93%) in identifying malignant cells in exfoliative cytological smears. Conclusion: Confocal microscopy was found to have good sensitivity in the identification of cancer (malignant) cells in exfoliative cytology, at par with the PAP method. The rapidity of processing and screening a

  3. [Algorithm for the differential diagnosis of precancerous and regenerative changes in the cervix uteri].

    PubMed

    Sazonova, V Iu; Fedorova, V E; Danilova, N V

    2013-01-01

    Pretumoral changes in the epithelium of the cervix uteri include cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). CIN III should be differentiated with regenerative changes during epidermization of endocervicoses. Epidermization is proliferation of undifferentiated reserve cells that differentiate towards the squamous epithelium, by superseding the ectopic endocervical glandular epithelium. This process was called immature squamous metaplasia (ISM). The objective of the investigation was to define the significance of different morphological signs in the differential diagnosis of CIN III and ISM. One hundred and twelve cervical, CIN III, and immature squamous metaplasia biopsies were selected for examination. The selected cervical specimens were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of p16 and CK17 expression. The p16+, CK17- cases were taken as true CIN III and the pl 6-, CK17+ as a regenerative process. The basis for this investigation is the signs included by O.K. Khmelnitsky into an algorithm for the differential diagnosis of epidermizing pseudoerosion and intraepithelial cancer of the cervix uteri. The algorithm was reconsidered to objectify. The investigation established great differences in the number of significant mitoses in the study groups. A clear trend was found for differences in the number of acanthotic strands. A new differential diagnostic algorithm for CIN III and ISM, which included the number of significant mitoses and acanthotic strands and p16 and CK17 expression, was proposed.

  4. Improvization of conventional cytology by centrifuged liquid-based cytology in oral exfoliative cytology specimen

    PubMed Central

    Nambiar, Shwetha; Hegde, Veda; Yadav, Nikhil; Hallikeri, Kaveri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exfoliative cytology is the microscopic examination of shed or desquamated cells from the epithelial surface. Centrifuged liquid-based cytology (CLBC) is a modified technique that was used in the current study. Aims: To compare the efficacy of CLBC with conventional cytology in apparently normal mucosa after staining with Papanicolaou (PAP) stain. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of apparently normal mucosa from healthy subjects were selected for the study. The first sample was taken and spread on the slide by the conventional technique. The second sample was flushed out in a suspending solution, centrifuged, and the cell pellet obtained was used to make the smear. The stained smears were compared for seven parameters such as adequate cellularity, clear background, uniform distribution, cellular overlapping, cellular elongation, mucus, and inflammatory cells. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis and P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between CLBC and conventional cytology with parameters such as adequate cellularity (P = 0.001), clear background (P = 0.001), uniform distribution (0.005), cellular overlapping, and cellular elongation (P = 0). The presence of mucus and inflammatory cells was minimal as the samples were collected from healthy subjects. Conclusion: CLBC has better efficacy over the conventional method in all the parameters analyzed. PMID:27756981

  5. Paratesticular angioleiomyoma with cytological atypia.

    PubMed

    Del Sordo, Rachele; Leite, Silvia; Petroni, Pietro Antonio; Sidoni, Angelo

    2008-04-01

    Angioleiomyomas are common benign smooth muscle neoplasms in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue of limbs. Very rarely have they been described in the external male genitalia with only two cases in the paratesticular tissues and another intratesticular. We report a case of a paratesticular angioleiomyoma with cytological atypia and a peculiar vascular pattern, found incidentally as a painless nodule in a 75-year-old man. The main clinicopathological features together with the differential diagnoses and the pertinent published reports are reviewed.

  6. Adenocarcinoma of the Cervix Uteri and Endometrium Combined With the Kartagener Syndrome on FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin; Chen, Yue; Huang, Zhanwen; Zhou, Fan

    2015-11-01

    A 45-year-old woman with pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the cervix uteri and endometrium underwent FDG PET/CT for staging. No metastasis was found. However, the images revealed bronchiectasis, sinusitis, and situs inversus totalis, which are the triad of Kartagener syndrome.

  7. Microarray analysis of inflammatory response-related gene expression in the uteri of dogs with pyometra.

    PubMed

    Bukowska, D; Kempisty, B; Zawierucha, P; Jopek, K; Piotrowska, H; Antosik, P; Ciesiółka, S; Woźna, M; Brüssow, K P; Jaśkowski, J M

    2014-01-01

    Pyometra, which is accompanied by bacterial contamination of the uterus, is defined as a complex disease associated with the activation of several systems, including the immune system. The objective of the study was to evaluate the gene expression profile in dogs with pyometra compared with those that were clinically normal. The study included uteri from 43 mongrel bitches (23 with pyometra, 20 clinically healthy). RNA used for the microarray study was pooled to four separated vials for control and pyometra. A total of 17,138 different transcripts were analyzed on the uteri of female dogs with pyometra and of healthy controls. From 264 inflammatory response-related transcripts, we found 23 transcripts that revealed a 10- to 77-fold increased expression. Thereby, the expression of interleukin 8 (IL8), interleukin-1-beta (IL1B), interleukin 18 receptor (IL18RAP), interleukin 1-alpha (IL1A), interleukin receptor antagonist (IL1RN) and interleukin 6 (IL6) increased 77-, 20-, 17-, 13-, 13- and 11-fold, respectively. Furthermore, the expression of the calcium binding proteins S100A8 was 44-fold higher, and that of S100A12 and S100A9 37-fold, respectively, in the uteri of canines with pyometra compared with that of the controls. Moreover, the expression of the transcripts of toll-like receptors (TLR8 and TLR2), integrin beta 2 (ITGB2), chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3), semaphorin 7A (SEMA7A), CD14 and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) was increased between 10- and 18-fold. Furthermore, after using RT-qPCR we found an increased expression of AOAH, IL1A, IL8, CCL3, IL1RN and SERPINE 1 mRNAs which can be served also as markers of the occurrence of pyometra in domestic bitches. In summary, it is concluded that up-regulation of interleukins may be used as a marker of the inflammatory response in dogs with pyometra. Moreover, all of the 23 up-regulated transcripts may be novel molecular markers of the pathogenesis of canine pyometra. Several proteins--–products of these

  8. Wound healing process in the portio vaginalis uteri after CO2-laser treatment.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, K; Honda, S; Endo, C; Sato, A; Sekimoto, S

    1993-07-01

    In order to determine the would healing process in the portio vaginalis uteri, 3[H]-thymidine incorporation and hydroxyproline concentration in the granulation tissue were measured histochemically after CO2-laser treatment. As a result, the squamous epithelium showed the thymidine uptake in extended regions in the first week and in basel cell hyperplastic regions in the second week. The uptake was seen in the reserve cell hyperplastic regions of the epithelium from the 2nd week. Hydroxyproline concentration peaks mostly appeared within one week after the laser treatment. After cryosurgery, the peaks mostly appeared after two weeks or more. These results indicated that, the stromas and then the squamous and columnar epithelial cells in turn were regenerated after CO2-laser treatment, and that the regeneration occurred earlier after laser treatment than after cryosurgery.

  9. [Multiparameter magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of cancer of the cervix uteri].

    PubMed

    Tarachkova, E V; Strel'tsova, O N; Panov, V O; Bazaeva, I Ya; Tyurin, I E

    2015-01-01

    Cancer of the cervix uteri (CCU) ranks third in the incidence of malignancies in women. The choice of CCU treatment mainly depends on the extent of the tumor process, i.e., the stage of the disease. Determining the stage of CCU is based on the clinical classification of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) (2009) and has a number of substantial limitations in evaluating parametrial invasion, tumor spread to the pelvic wall, and involvement of regional lymph nodes and in determining the true tumor sizes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now the method of choice in staging invasive CCU. Multiparameter MRI will be able to enhance the efficiency of diagnosing microinvasive CCU as well (FIGO 2009), to plan surgical and/or chemoradiation treatment, to evaluate its efficiency, and to diagnose locally recurrent CCU.

  10. Functional and molecular characterization of voltage-gated sodium channels in uteri from nonpregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Seda, Marian; Pinto, Francisco M; Wray, Susan; Cintado, Cristina G; Noheda, Pedro; Buschmann, Helmut; Candenas, Luz

    2007-11-01

    We investigated the function and expression of voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSC) in the uteri of nonpregnant rats using organ bath techniques, intracellular [Ca(2+)] fluorescence measurements, and RT-PCR. In longitudinally arranged whole-tissue uterine strips, veratridine, a VGSC activator, caused the rapid appearance of phasic contractions of irregular frequency and amplitude. After 50-60 min in the continuous presence of veratridine, rhythmic contractions of very regular frequency and slightly increasing amplitude occurred and were sustained for up to 12 h. Both the early and late components of the contractile response to veratridine were inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by tetrodotoxin (TTX). In small strips dissected from the uterine longitudinal smooth muscle layer and loaded with Fura-2, veratridine also caused rhythmic contractions, accompanied by transient increases in [Ca(2+)](i), which were abolished by treatment with 0.1 microM TTX. Using end-point and real-time quantitative RT-PCR, we detected the presence of the VGSC alpha subunits Scn2a1, Scn3a, Scn5a, and Scn8a in the cDNA from longitudinal muscle. The mRNAs of the auxiliary beta subunits Scbn1b, Scbn2b, Scbn4b, and traces of Scn3b were also present. These data show for the first time that Scn2a1, Scn3a, Scn5a, and Scn8a, as well as all VGSC beta subunits are expressed in the longitudinal smooth muscle layer of the rat myometrium. In addition, our data show that TTX-sensitive VGSC are able to mediate phasic contractions maintained over long periods of time in the uteri of nonpregnant rats.

  11. Distribution of lymphatic tissues and autonomic nerves in supporting ligaments around the cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianping; Feng, Lanlan; Lu, Yi; Guo, Dongxia; Xi, Tengteng; Wang, Xiaochun

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the distribution of lymphatic tissues and nerves in the supporting ligaments around the cervix uteri for their tomographical relationship, 9 adult female cadavers were used in this study. Following the incision of all supporting ligaments around the cervix, hematoxylin and esosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining of various sections of these ligaments was performed to enable the distribution of lymph tissues and autonomic nerves to be observed. Four lymph nodes were identified in three cadaver specimens. Three lymph nodes were present at a distance of 2.0 cm from the cervix in the cranial side of the cardinal ligaments (CLs), and one lymph node was located at a distance of 4.0 cm from the cervix in the cranial side of the uterosacral ligament (USL). The lymphatic vessels were dispersed in the CLs, scattered in the cervical side of the USLs, and occasionally distributed in the vesicouterine ligaments (VULs). In the CLs, parasympathetic nerves were located at the pelvic lateral wall and went downwards and medially into the cervix, while sympathetic fibers were located in the middle and lower parts of the ligaments. In the USLs, the autonomic nerves, which consisted primarily of sympathetic fibers, went downwards and laterally from the pelvic wall to the cervix. In the VULs, parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves were located in the inner sides of the vesical veins in the deep layers of the ligaments. It is concluded that there are few lymphatic tissues in the supporting ligaments around the cervix uteri, and that nerve‑sparing radical hysterectomy (NSRH) may be a safe method for the treatment of early‑stage cervical cancer.

  12. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... a diagnosis of HSIL, adenocarcinoma, or other malignant neoplasm for which histology results were available for comparison; (v) Gynecologic cases where cytology and histology are discrepant; and...

  13. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... a diagnosis of HSIL, adenocarcinoma, or other malignant neoplasm for which histology results were available for comparison; (v) Gynecologic cases where cytology and histology are discrepant; and...

  14. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... a diagnosis of HSIL, adenocarcinoma, or other malignant neoplasm for which histology results were available for comparison; (v) Gynecologic cases where cytology and histology are discrepant; and...

  15. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...). (ii) Cases must be randomly selected from the total caseload and include negatives and those from... must be completed before reporting patient results. (2) Laboratory comparison of clinical information, when available, with cytology reports and comparison of all gynecologic cytology reports with...

  16. The cytologic criteria of malignancy.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Andrew H; Zhao, Chengquan; Li, Qing Kay; Gustafson, Karen S; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin; Tambouret, Rosemary; Benstein, Barbara; Savaloja, Lynnette C; Kulesza, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Cytology and cell biology are two separate fields that share a focus on cancer. Cancer is still diagnosed based on morphology, and surprisingly little is known about the molecular basis of the defining structural features. Cytology uses the smallest possible biopsy for diagnosis by reducing morphologic "criteria of malignancy" to the smallest scale. To begin to develop common ground, members of the American Society of Cytopathology Cell Biology Liaison Working Group classify some of the "criteria of malignancy" and review their relation to current cell biology concepts. The criteria of malignancy are extremely varied, apparently reflecting many different pathophysiologies in specific microenvironments. Criteria in Group 1 comprise tissue-level alterations that appear to relate to resistance to anoikis, alterations in cell adhesion molecules, and loss of apical-basal polarity. Criteria in Group 2 reflect genetic instability, including chromosomal and possibly epigenetic instability. Criteria in Groups 3 are subcellular structural changes involving cytoplasmic components, nuclear lamina, chromatin and nucleoli that cannot be accounted for by genetic instability. Some distinct criteria in Group 3 are known to be induced by cancer genes, but their precise structural basis remains obscure. The criteria of malignancy are not closely related to the histogenetic classification of cancers, and they appear to provide an alternative, biologically relevant framework for establishing common ground between cytologists and cell biologists. To understand the criteria of malignancy at a molecular level would improve diagnosis, and likely point to novel cell physiologies that are not encompassed by current cell biology concepts.

  17. Diagnostic value of cytology of voided urine.

    PubMed

    Milicić, Valerija; Prvulović, Ivana; Panda, Natalija; Bilić-Kirin, Vesna; Kraljik, Nikola; Serić, Vatroslav

    2014-06-01

    There are 961 new cases and approximately 366 deaths from urothelial carcinoma registered annually in Croatia. Exfoliative urinary cytology has important role in detection of high grade urinary tumors, invasive and in situ lesions respectively. In contrast to cystoscopy and biopsy, cytology is a noninvasive method which is easily repeated. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess value of urinary cytology in our institution. For this purpose only patients with histological diagnosis and clinical follow up were considered. There were 138 urine specimens with cytological diagnosis of dyskaryosis, suspicious for malignancy or malignant and histology and follow up data examined at our Department of Clinical Cytology between 2004 and 2011. Cytological diagnosis suspicious for malignancy and malignant were considered positive and the results were correlated with histological diagnosis according to the WHO histological classification of tumors of the urinary tract. Patients with negative histological findings were followed for the next two years. The positive predictive value of cytological detection of malignant urothelial lesions was 91.8%. In 10 cases cytological diagnosis of malignancy was not confirmed histologically or clinically which makes the total of 8.2% of false positive reports. Of the total of detected malignant urothelial lesions 90.9% are high grade lesions and only 9.1% low-grade lesions; 67.3% are invasive lesions and 32.7% non-invasive lesions. Cytological findings of dyskariotyc cells requires further urological investigation because such findings in further processing prove the presence of tumor in 93.8% of cases. In conclusion: cytology is very good diagnostic tool for detection of high grade invasive and noninvasive carcinomas of the urinary tract. In order to make it more efficient we need to study its limits carefully, define diagnostic criteria and reach consensus in nomenclature.

  18. Intramural adenocarcinoma of the uterus, arisen from adenomyosis uteri, showing unique histologic appearances. Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kuwashima, Y; Uehara, T; Kishi, K; Tajima, H; Shiromizu, K; Matsuzawa, M; Takayama, S

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of uterine adenocarcinoma which grew mainly in myometrium and showed unique histologic appearances are reported. Both cases were considered to have arisen from adenomyosis uteri because transitional figures were observed between carcinoma cells and adenmyotic glands in one case, and carcinomatous glands were scattered in myometrium and were associated with endometrial stroma which mimicked benign adenomyosis in another. The former case was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and the latter was well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Interestingly, in the latter case, the carcinoma cells were transformed into papillary adenocarcinoma such as has been observed in the thyroid gland, and formed well-demarcated nodular mass. These findings indicate that adenocarcinoma which arise from adenomyosis uteri could show various histologic appearances, in addition to usual endometrioid adenocarcinoma.

  19. Estrogenicity of outer scales of onion on uteri of immature mice.

    PubMed

    Alrefaie, Zienab A; Amin, Hanan A; Elgayed, Sabah H

    2011-11-01

    We aimed to investigate the estrogen-like activities of the outer scales of onion and garlic on the uteri of immature mice. This work compared the estrogenic effects induced by estradiol with the effects of plant extract (onion, garlic) in models of immature mice (n = 72). The animals were divided into 6 groups, with 12 animals in each group, as follows: Group I (control group), Group II (estradiol-treated group), Group III (onion extract treated group), Group IV (onion extract treated group after blockage of estrogen receptors), Group V (garlic extract treated group), and Group VI (garlic extract treated group after blockage of estrogen receptors). Uterine wet weight/body mass ratios were determined. Uterotrophic bioassay, immunohistochemical assay for estrogen receptor and proliferative marker Ki67, uterine contractility, and serum estrogen levels were investigated. Onion extract induced proliferative changes in the uterus, it also increased the uterine mass and epithelial cell height. Also, the frequency and amplitude of myometrial contractility were significantly increased in the group treated with onion extract. This estrogenic activity could be attributed to the quercetin and daidzein content, and activation of estrogenic receptors, as these effects disappeared after blockage of E2 receptors. Our results support the possible estrogenic properties of the onion extract, which could be attributed to quercetin and daidzein, but not that of garlic extract.

  20. Current organisation of clinical cytology in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Milicić-Juhas, Valerija; Loncar, Branka; Mahovlić, Vesna; Kardum-Skelin, Ika; Pajtler, Marija

    2010-03-01

    Current cytological service in Croatia is organised in 46 cytological organisational units in 23 towns with total of 350 employees: 101 specialists of clinical cytology, 20 residents in clinical cytology, 141 cytotechnologists (cytoscreeners), 45 health technicians, and 25 administrators and 18 auxiliary personnel. In spite of employment of significant number of cytotechnologists in the last ten years, there is still an unacceptable ratio of number of cytologists and cytotechnologists (1:1.4) which is the result of unresolved education of cytotechnologists which should be permanent, complete and acknowledged. Education and scientific promotion of cytologists is continuous and today our profession has 31 masters of science and 9 doctors of science, one of which is the assistant professor, and four of them are associate or full professors at medical schools in Zagreb and Osijek. Croatian cytology, in average, is in its "best years", i.e. an average cytologist is 46-years-old and cytotechnologist is averagely 43-years-old, but "suffers" from personnel deficit. With regard to the type of activity, the most numerous are units dealing the entire diagnostic cytology (72%), 13% general cytology without gynaecological cytology, while 15% are engaged in one diagnostic field (gynaecological, pulmological or thyroid cytology). According to accessible data, total of 770996 cytological examinations were done in Croatia in 2008. The increasing application of additional methods (cytochemical, immunocytochemical, molecular, cytogenetics and computer-assisted image analysis) has become a trend in numerous cytological units. Exclusively morphological analysis of standard stained samples is performed in 37% of units, morphological and cytochemical staining methods are used in 17% of units, and additional immunocytochemical methods in 30% of units. According to the long tradition of cytology in Croatia, that has progressed thanks to the enthusiasm and great effort of our teachers, we

  1. [Imprint cytology in the diagnosis of tumors of the thyroid].

    PubMed

    Pluot, M; Faroux, M J; Rain, J; Patey, M; Mallaisy, T; Simatos, A

    1989-01-01

    We have correlated imprint cytology findings in thyroid tumors to the results of preoperative fine needle aspiration and operative specimen histology. Specificity of imprint cytology proved greater than that of fine needle aspiration cytology and topographic correlations were particularly helpful. Imprint cytology can improve the intraoperative histologic diagnosis. Because abundant cells are available, imprint thyroid cytology is ideal for teaching and training cytologists. Imprint cytology provides enough cells to perform special techniques, such as quantitative cytology, that are useful for the diagnosis of some tumor varieties (e.g. follicular tumors).

  2. [Role of cytology in hematopathological diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Bode, B; Tinguely, M

    2012-07-01

    The role of cytology has so far been underrecognized in the diagnostic process of hematopathological questions. This article presents an algorithm which allows a stepwise work-up of cytology specimens obtained by minimally invasive ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in patients with unexplained lymph node swelling. Moreover, it is shown how the selective separation of cytology specimens allows the application of immunophenotypic analysis including flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry as well as molecular analyses, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) strategies. With the integrative procedure presented, cytology offers an excellent cost-effective tool for the diagnostic approach of patients with suspected hematopathological malignancies allowing a high diagnostic accuracy, ideal for initial diagnosis or follow-up.

  3. Gastric mucormycosis: Diagnosis by imprint cytology.

    PubMed

    Tathe, Shilpa P; Dani, Aarti A; Chawhan, Sanjay M; Meshram, Saroj A; Randale, Archana A; Raut, Waman K

    2016-10-01

    The fungi in the order of Mucorales commonly target diabetics and other immunocompromised hosts, producing fatal respiratory and or CNS infections. Gastrointestinal mucormycosis is uncommon and seldom diagnosed in living patients due to nonspecific clinical manifestations. We report a case of gastric mucormycosis in an immmunocompetent male patient, diagnosed by imprint cytology-a rare site and a rare setting. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second report of gastric mucormycosis being diagnosed on cytology. As the disease is rapidly progressive and often fatal, early diagnosis is critical to the patient survival. Imprint cytology or brush cytology is extremely useful for the rapid diagnosis of gastric mucormycosis as these organisms are morphologically distinct. Familiarity with the cytomorphology of these organisms assists in the correct diagnosis of this disease. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:820-822. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [What is the contribution of aspiration cytology?].

    PubMed

    Pluot, M

    1999-01-01

    Aspiration cytology of thyroid nodules is essentially designed to determine the benign nature of the nodule in order to avoid purely diagnosis surgery. It is reliable in the diagnosis of anaplastic papillary and medullary carcinomas and most lymphomas, but is more problematical for the diagnosis of the benign or malignant nature of Hürthle cell tumours and certain vesicular tumours, in which cytology reveals a suspicious, doubtful or undetermined appearance. However, whether they are unambiguous or doubtful, fine needle aspiration cytology results help the surgeon to define the therapeutic strategy under the best possible conditions. A therapeutic approach is proposed, based on the formulation of aspiration cytology results into benign, malignant, suspicious and inadequate.

  5. Pancreatic cytology: standardised terminology and nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Perez-Machado, M A

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic cytology can make a real difference to the management of patients. However it is a challenge in those cases where a definitive diagnosis of malignancy cannot be made with confidence. This creates the need for a unified terminology and nomenclature system that provides intra- and interdepartmental guidance for diagnosis. The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology (PSC) has published new guidelines for pancreaticobiliary cytology, addressing indications, techniques, terminology and nomenclature, ancillary studies, and postprocedure management.

  6. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of postirradiation sarcomas, including angiosarcoma, with immunocytochemical confirmation

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, J.F.; Lannin, D.L.; Larkin, E.W.; Feldman, P.; Frable, W.J. )

    1989-01-01

    Postirradiation sarcomas are an unusual but well-recognized late effect of cancer therapy. In this article, a fine-needle aspiration (FNA) series of four cases is presented. There were three female patients and one male patient, with an age range of 28-55 yr (mean, 41). Two of the patients were irradiated for uterine cervical carcinoma while the other two received irradiation for malignant lymphoma. The time interval to the development of the postirradiation sarcoma ranged from 10 to greater than 20 yr. There were a postirradiation synovial sarcoma of the buttock region, malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the bone (femur), and rhabdomyosarcoma and angiosarcoma of the retroperitoneum. A spectrum of cytologic findings was encountered, reflecting the specific types of sarcomas. Immunocytochemical studies performed on the aspirated material from the angiosarcoma demonstrated the utility of immunoperoxidase stains for ULEX europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1) and, to a lesser degree, factor VIII-related antigen antibody, confirming the vascular nature of this malignancy. The FNA findings from all four cases demonstrated cytologic features that allowed recognition of this unusual complication of irradiation treatment. This article confirms the utility of FNA cytology in following patients with previous malignancies and differentiating a postirradiation sarcoma from recurrent carcinoma.

  7. Nasseem Husain: homage to a pioneer of cytology automation.

    PubMed

    Kocjan, G; Herbert, A

    2015-08-01

    Dr Oliver Anthony Nasseem Husain, who died on 22 September 2014, aged 90 years, was one of the great names of European cytology, a pioneer of automated cervical screening and a founding member of both the British Society for Clinical Cytology (BSCC) and the European Federation of Cytology Societies (EFCS). The life of this one remarkable man involved much of the pioneering work, which is reviewed in this article, that has brought conventional cytology to the complex multimodal discipline it is today.

  8. Cervical cytology in serous and endometrioid endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Roelofsen, Thijs; Geels, Yvette P; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A; van Ham, Maaike A P C; Zomer, Saskia F; van Tilburg, Johanna M Wiersma; Snijders, Marc P M L; Siebers, Albert G; Bulten, Johan; Massuger, Leon F A G

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of abnormal cervical cytology in preoperative cervical cytology of patients diagnosed with uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) and endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC). In addition, associations between abnormal cervical cytology and clinicopathologic factors were evaluated. In this multicentre study, EEC patients diagnosed at two hospitals from 1999 to 2009 and UPSC patients diagnosed at five hospitals from 1992 to 2009, were included. Revision of the histologic slides was performed systematically and independently by 3 gynecopathologists. Cervical cytology within six months before histopathologic diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma was available for 267 EEC and 80 UPSC patients. Cervical cytology with atypical, malignant, or normal endometrial cells in postmenopausal women was considered as abnormal cytology, specific for endometrial pathology. Abnormal cervical cytology was found in 87.5% of UPSC patients, compared with 37.8% in EEC patients. In UPSC, abnormal cytology was associated with extrauterine spread of disease (P=0.043). In EEC, abnormal cytology was associated with cervical involvement (P=0.034). In both EEC and UPSC patients, abnormal cervical cytology was not associated with survival. In conclusion, abnormal cervical cytology was more frequently found in UPSC patients. It was associated with extrauterine disease in UPSC patients, and with cervical involvement in EEC patients. More prospective research should be performed to assess the true clinical value of preoperative cervical cytology in endometrial cancer patients.

  9. 42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... qualifications. 493.1469 Section 493.1469 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified to supervise cytology...

  10. 42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... qualifications. 493.1469 Section 493.1469 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified to supervise cytology...

  11. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... interpreted by individuals qualified under §§ 493.1469 or 493.1483, to be negative for epithelial cell... screening are not required to include tissue pathology slides and previously examined cytology slides... or reparative changes or any of the following epithelial cell abnormalities: (i) Squamous cell....

  12. Internet-Based Cervical Cytology Screening Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    cancer is theoretically completely preventable by effective screening using cervical cytology methods (the Pap test). The process of preparing and...preparation and computerized primary screening make automated approaches to cervical cancer screening possible. In addition, advances in information technology... cervical cancer screening results - completed f) Adapt commercial software (Wellogic) to integrate screening results reporting with medical decision

  13. Bladder aspergillosis detected by urine cytology.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Girón, Rafael; Martínez-Torre, Santiago; Mosquera-Martínez, Joaquín

    2015-05-01

    Bladder aspergillosis is an unusual infection. We report the case of a 79-year-old man with clinical records of transitional cell carcinoma diagnosed 5 years ago. The presence of a fruiting body and septate hyphae in urine cytological smears were the key for a final diagnosis of fungal bladder infection caused by Aspergillus niger.

  14. Cytologic diagnosis of diseases of hedgehogs.

    PubMed

    Juan-Sallés, Carles; Garner, Michael M

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on neoplastic diseases because they may be the most frequent disease processes in captive hedgehogs according to the literature and authors' case files and the most common cases submitted for cytologic diagnosis in these species, particularly the African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

  15. Cytology by Infrared Micro-Spectroscopy: Automatic Distinction of Cell Types in Urinary Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Benjamin; Romeo, Melissa J.; Diem, Max; Bedrossian, Kristi; Laver, Nora; Naber, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    We report microscopically collected infrared spectra of cells found in human urine in an effort to develop automatic methods for bladder cancer screening. Unsupervised multivariate analysis of the observed spectral patterns reveals distinct spectral classes, which correlated very well with visual cytology. Therefore, we believe that spectral analysis of individual cells can aid cytology in rendering reliable diagnoses based on objective measurements and discriminant algorithms. PMID:19768107

  16. The incidence rate of corpus uteri cancer among females in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    PubMed Central

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; El-Sheemy, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), adjusted by region and year of diagnosis. Methods A retrospective, descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted of all the corpus uteri cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and a simple linear model. Results A total of 1,060 corpus uteri cancer cases were included. Women aged 60–74 years of age were most affected by the disease. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 4.4 cases per 100,000 female patients, followed by the eastern region, at 4.2, and Makkah, at 3.7. Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest average ASIRs, ranging from 0.8 to 1.4. A Poisson regression model using Jazan as the reference revealed that the corpus uteri cancer incidence rate ratio was significantly higher for the regions of Makkah, at 16.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–23.0), followed by Riyadh, at 16.0 times (95% CI: 9.0–22.0), and the eastern region, at 9.9 times (95% CI: 5.6–17.6). The northern region experienced the highest changes in ASIRs of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients between 2001 and 2008. Conclusion There was a slight increase in the crude incidence rates and ASIRs for corpus uteri cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Older Saudi women were most affected by the disease. Riyadh, the eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall disease ASIRs and incidence rate ratios, while Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest rates. Finally, the northern region experienced the greatest changes in ASIR during the studied period. Further analytical studies are necessary to determine potential risk factors of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi

  17. Sensitivity to antibiotics of Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Escherichia coli from the uteri of cows with metritis/endometritis.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Edward; Lassa, Henryka; Markiewicz, Hanna; Kaptur, Maciej; Nadolny, Marek; Niewitecki, Wiesław; Ziętara, Jacek

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the in vitro sensitivity of 161 Arcanobacterium pyogenes strains and 99 Escherichia coli strains isolated from the uteri of 312 cows with metritis/endometritis. Animals with pathological discharges were clinically diagnosed per rectum and per vaginum, and then swabs from the lumen of the uterus were aseptically collected. Bacteriological examination of swabs was according to commonly accepted procedures with the additional use of API tests. Sensitivity to antibiotics was tested by the disk diffusion method and performed in Mueller-Hinton agar. Arc. pyogenes strains were the most sensitive to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (Amc) (97.3%), bacitracin (96.7%), ceftiofur (95.8%) and cephapirin (77.5%). E. coli strains were the most sensitive to norfloxacin (98.1%), marbofloxacin (95.8%), gentamycin (88%), Amc (80.7%) and ceftiofur (73.1%). Arc. pyogenes and E. coli were most resistant to oxytetracycline (63.7% and 31%, respectively).

  18. Pulmonary cytology in chrysotile asbestos workers

    SciTech Connect

    Kobusch, A.B.; Simard, A.; Feldstein, M.; Vauclair, R.; Gibbs, G.W.; Bergeron, F.; Morissette, N.; Davis, R.

    1984-01-01

    The prevalence of atypical cytology has been determined in relation to age, smoking and asbestos exposure for male workers employed in 3 mines in the Province of Quebec. Overall participation was 71%. Out of 867 participating workers, 626 (72%) presented a deep cough specimen within normal limits, 74 (8.5%) a specimen with mild atypical metaplasia and 10 (1.2%) a specimen with moderate atypical metaplasia. Four lung carcinoma were identified. Five percent of the workers initially interviewed did not return their specimen and 12.7% had unsatisfactory test results. Proportions of cellular atypical increased with age and asbestos exposure. Using logistic regression analysis, estimated probabilities of abnormal cytology for workers aged 25 years when started mining increased with both years of asbestos exposure and exposure index measured in fibres per cubic centimeter.

  19. Fine needle aspiration cytology in fibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Tanwar, Pranay; Gupta, Nalini; Vasishta, Rakesh Kumar; Singh, Gurpreet

    2012-01-01

    Fibromatosis form a spectrum of clinicopathologic entities characterized by the infiltrative proliferation of fibroblasts that lack malignant cytologic features. The fibromatosis can be localized or infiltrative and multicentric and can involve internal tissues and organs as the mesentery, retroperitoneum, breast, and almost every organ and region of the body, including the bones, the meninges and the central nervous system. We report a case of 37-year-old male who presented with a right supraclavicular mass with superficial infiltrative type of fibromatosis and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was performed. We report this case because of limited literature of FNAC in fibromatosis and quick role of FNAC in the diagnosis of fibromatosis. PMID:22438623

  20. Immunocytochemistry: an indispensable technique in routine cytology.

    PubMed

    Skoog, L; Tani, E

    2011-08-01

    Immunocytology is today accepted as an indispensable adjunct to cytomorphology. It has led to a dramatic increase in diagnostic accuracy and also allowed the identification of markers both for prognosis and targeted therapies. Most commercially available antibodies will perform in a reproducible and reliable way provided that the cytological specimen has been prepared and fixed properly. In this review various aspects of immunocytochemistry such as preparation of cytological specimens, fixation and choice of antibodies will be discussed. The specificity of the most commonly used antibodies is summarized and staining panels for various tumours are suggested. In addition, the use of markers for targeted therapy and theranostics is discussed, as well as a brief section on the identification of infectious agents.

  1. A Cervical Cytology Program in General Practice

    PubMed Central

    Lane, R. F.

    1965-01-01

    In a six-year period 723 women were examined using cervical cytology smears. Fifteen cancers of the cervix were discovered, including two invasive growths and 13 carcinoma in situ. A careful follow-up was carried out, and the later appearance of cancer was noted in 12 of 41 patients who initially showed only atypical cells. It is recommended that all patients showing “positive” cells (atypical, suspicious, or cancer morphology cells) undergo cone biopsy for definitive histological diagnosis. Target lesions should have punch biopsy. Four cancers were found in 170 obstetrical patients, and it is recommended that this proved high-risk group be screened both prenatally and postnatally. The importance of annual screening of all women over 20 years of age for cancer of the cervix by cytological methods is emphasized. PMID:14292886

  2. Cytological Diagnosis of Primary Thyroid Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Goyal, P; Mittal, D; Ghosh, S; Agrawal, D; Sehgal, S; Singh, S

    2015-01-01

    Primary thyroid tuberculosis is an extremely rare disease, even in countries where other forms of tuberculosis are abundant. TT has no age bar but usually affects women in fourth and fifth decade. Hereby, we report a case of 16-years-old girl presented with complaint of progressively increasing, painful thyroid swelling. Diagnosis of TT was made on cytology and there was no evidence of involvement of any other organ by tuberculosis. Despite of its rarity, TT is usually misdiagnosed. So, a clinician should always consider this entity in the differential diagnosis of thyroid swelling. Fine needle aspiration cytology is the best diagnostic method and can result in the avoidance of unnecessary thyroid surgeries.

  3. Endometrial aspiration cytology in gynecological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Meenal V.; Phatke, Anjali S.; Kadgi, Nalini Vinayak; Rane, Sharda R.; Kulkarni, Kalpana K.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Endometrial aspiration is not a popular modality for the study of the endometrium despite its simplicity and potential utility. Aim: The present study was aimed at evaluating the utility of endometrial aspiration in various gynecological disorders. Materials and Methods: In this diagnostic accuracy study, 55 prospectively registered women with various gynecological disorders were evaluated clinically and subjected to endometrial aspiration cytology and study of endometrial histology. Endometrial aspiration was performed by infant feeding tube in 10 cases and intra cath cannula in 45 cases. The slides were stained with rapid Papanicolaou (PAP) stain and Leishman stain. Results: Endometrial aspiration cytology showed 90% and 94.6% sampling adequacy with infant feeding tube and intra cath cannula, respectively. Intra cath cannula was very convenient to handle and superior to infant feeding tube in aspirating the endometrium. Of the two stains used, rapid PAP stain was less time-consuming and superior to Leishman stain in studying the nuclear details. Leishman stain was helpful in detecting cytoplasmic vacuoles of secretory endometrium. Overall diagnostic accuracy of endometrial cytology was 90.4% while that for morphological hormonal evaluation was 97.6%. It enjoyed a sensitivity of 91.66%, a specificity of 88.23%, positive predictive value of 94.28%, and negative predictive value of 83.33%. Conclusion: Intra cath cannula emerged as an inexpensive, effective, and convenient device for endometrial aspiration. Endometrial aspiration proved to be a fairly effective, simple, and informative diagnostic modality. PMID:27011435

  4. Routine Treatment of Cervical Cytological Cell Changes

    PubMed Central

    Huber, J.; Pötsch, B.; Gantschacher, M.; Templ, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Diagnosis and treatment of vaginal and cervical cytological cell changes are described in European and national guidelines. The aim of this data collection was to evaluate the remission rates of PAP III and PAP III D cytological findings in patients over a period of 3–4 months. Method: The current state of affairs in managing suspicious and cytological findings (PAP III, and III D) in gynecological practice was assessed in the context of a data collection survey. An evaluation over a period of 24 months was conducted on preventative measures, the occurrence and changes to normal/suspect/pathological findings and therapy management (for suspicious or pathological findings). Results: 307 female patients were included in the analysis. At the time of the survey 186 patients (60.6 %) had PAP III and 119 (38.8 %) had PAP III D findings. The spontaneous remission rate of untreated PAP III patients was 6 % and that of untreated PAP III D patients was 11 %. The remission rates of patients treated with a vaginal gel were 77 % for PAP III and 71 % for PAP III D. Conclusion: A new treatment option was used in gynecological practice on patients with PAP III and PAP III D findings between confirmation and the next follow-up with excellent success. PMID:27761030

  5. Atypical squamous epithelium in cytologic specimens from the pancreas: cytological differential diagnosis and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Layfield, L J; Cramer, H; Madden, J; Gopez, E V; Liu, K

    2001-07-01

    Atypical squamous epithelium is an uncommon finding in cytologic specimens obtained from pancreatic lesions. A variety of pathologic conditions can result in the presence of these cells, including primary or metastatic carcinomas, chronic pancreatitis, and squamous metaplasia related to pancreatic or biliary duct stent placement. Primary adenosquamous and squamous-cell carcinomas of the pancreas are rare, representing 3.4% and 1.4 % of pancreatic carcinomas, respectively. Cytologic separation of these malignancies from less ominous metaplasias has immense clinical importance. We reviewed Indiana University Hospital's and Duke University's experiences with atypical squamous epithelium occurring within pancreatic aspirates. Study cases were identified using a computer to search the cytology records of these two institutions. Nine cases with a diagnosis of squamous-cell carcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, or atypical squamous epithelium were retrieved from the two institutions' Department of Pathology files. One case of pure squamous-cell carcinoma occurred in a patient with a known pulmonary primary; a single case of adenosquamous carcinoma was diagnosed in a patient with a coexistent endometrial primary; a single sample of adenocarcinoma with squamous differentiation was diagnosed in a patient without other known disease; and four primary squamous-cell carcinomas of the pancreas were detected. In addition, a single case of atypical squamous metaplasia associated with a stent was identified, and one case of atypical squamous epithelium associated with chronic pancreatitis was diagnosed. Despite the reactive atypia present in the examples of metaplastic squamous epithelium, separation of these cases from true squamous-cell carcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma was achievable by cytologic evaluation. No cytologic criteria aided in separating primary pancreatic carcinomas with squamous differentiation from metastatic lesions. In this study, we report our findings in a

  6. Microfilaria in pleural fluid cytology: A rare finding

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Subrata; Bose, Kingshuk; Sharma, Abhishek; Sikder, Mrinal

    2017-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is endemic in India and Southeast Asia. Detection of microfilaria is infrequently reported during cytological evaluation of various lesions or body cavity fluids. Presence of microfilaria in pleural fluid cytology is very rare finding even in endemic areas. Few cases of accidental finding of microfilaria have been reported in association with malignant pleural effusion. But pleural effusion of filarial origin is extremely rare manifestation. Here we report a classical case of microfilaria in pleural fluid cytology. PMID:28367033

  7. Preparation of Cytology Samples: Tricks of the Trade.

    PubMed

    Moore, A Russell

    2017-01-01

    General principles and techniques for collection, preparation, and staining of cytologic samples in the general practice setting are reviewed. Tips for collection of digital images are also discussed.

  8. Fine needle aspiration cytology of thymic carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Wang, D Y; Kuo, S H; Chang, D B; Yang, P C; Lee, Y C; Hsu, H C; Luh, K T

    1995-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors of the thymus are very rare, and their cytologic findings have not been reported previously in English. Retrospective study of fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic features in four histopathologically verified thymic carcinoid tumors are described here in detail. The FNA cytology of thymic carcinoids is characterized by predominantly single and some loose clusters of small, round to oval cells with scanty cytoplasm, interspersed with some larger cells with moderate to abundant, granular cytoplasm. The differential diagnosis of the cytologic features between carcinoid tumor and other mediastinal tumors is also discussed.

  9. Advanced Cytologic Techniques for the Detection of Malignant Pancreatobiliary Strictures

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Luna, Laura E.; Kipp, Benjamin; Halling, Kevin C.; Sebo, Thomas J.; Kremers., Walter K.; Roberts, Lewis R.; Barr Fritcher, Emily G.; Levy, Michael J.; Gores, Gregory J.

    2006-01-01

    Background & Aims Two advanced cytologic techniques for detecting aneuploidy, digital image analysis (DIA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) have recently been developed to help identify malignant pancreatobiliary strictures. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical utility of cytology, DIA, and FISH for the identification of malignant pancreatobiliary strictures. Methods Brush cytologic specimens from 233 consecutive patients undergoing ERCP for pancreatobiliary strictures were examined by all three techniques. Strictures were stratified as proximal (n=33) or distal (n=114) based on whether they occurred above or below the cystic duct, respectively. Strictures in patients with PSC (n=86) were analyzed separately. Results Despite the stratification, the performances of the tests were similar. Routine cytology has a low sensitivity (5–20%) but 100% specificity. Because of the high specificity for cytology, we assessed the performance of the other tests when routine cytology was negative. In this clinical context, FISH had an increased sensitivity (35–60%) when assessing for chromosomal gains (polysomy) while preserving the specificity of cytology. The sensitivity and specificity of DIA was intermediate as compared to routine cytology and FISH, but was additive to FISH values demonstrating only trisomy of chromosome 7 or chromosome 3. Conclusions These findings suggest that FISH and DIA increase the sensitivity for the diagnosis of malignant pancreatobiliary tract strictures over that obtained by conventional cytology while maintaining an acceptable specificity. PMID:17030177

  10. Exposure to ethinyl estradiol prenatally and/or after sexual maturity induces endometriotic and precancerous lesions in uteri and ovaries of mice.

    PubMed

    Koike, Eiji; Yasuda, Yoshiko; Shiota, Mitsuru; Shimaoka, Masao; Tsuritani, Mitsuhiro; Konishi, Hiroyoshi; Yamasaki, Harufumi; Okumoto, Katsumi; Hoshiai, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    Unrecognizable exposure to estrogenic substance may cause estrogen-dependent diseases, endometriosis and cancer. Pregnant mice (ICR/Jcl, CLEA) were exposed to 0.01 mg ethinyl estradiol (EE2 )/kg per day or vehicle (olive oil) through oral intubation from day 11 to 17 of gestation. They delivered their offspring and raised them. When the experimental female F1 mice were at 8 weeks of age, they were not exposed to EE2 or to the same dose of EE2 or to vehicle twice a week until 20 weeks of age. The control female F1 mice were exposed to the same dose of EE2 or vehicle alone, similarly. All mice were killed at 28 weeks of age. The resected uteri and ovaries were processed for microscopic examinations and for determination of the aromatase mRNA levels and aromatase protein through quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Adenomyosis and adenocarcinomatous changes were significantly discernible in the EE2 -exposed uteri, and incidence of ectopic glands and serous cysts were significantly increased in the prenatally EE2 -exposed ovaries as compared with respective controls. Significant upregulation of the aromatase mRNA was seen in the prenatally EE2 -exposed uteri and in the EE2 -exposed ovaries. The aromatase protein was identified in all ovaries examined, and in EE2 -exposed uteri but not in controls and confirmed its localization in eutopic and ectopic glands, abnormally proliferated lesions and the lining of the cysts. Taken together, continuous EE2 exposure may cause endometriotic and precancerous lesions due to excessive estrogen synthesis in both target organs.

  11. How technology is reshaping the practice of nongynecologic cytology: frontiers of cytology symposium.

    PubMed

    Bibbo, Marluce

    2007-01-01

    To pay tribute to the Founders of Acta Cytologica, this Golden Anniversary symposium on nongynecologic cytology revives the written symposium style of the 1950s. Participants from countries throughout the world were asked how new technologies are currently applied in their laboratories and whether future advances and challenges can be predicted. The specific questions and the participants' answers follow.

  12. Cytological evaluation and significance of cell cannibalism in effusions and urine cytology.

    PubMed

    Ahmed Wani, Farooq; Bhardwaj, Subhash

    2015-12-01

    Cell cannibalism is believed to be an indicator of high-grade aggressive cancers with increased metastatic potential. It denotes both anaplastic grade and invasiveness and is valuable in assessing tumor behavior. The present study was a 2-year retrospective and 1-year prospective study conducted in the Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Jammu. PAP and MGG stained smears of effusions and urinary cytology were evaluated for cannibalism. Cannibalism was assessed by parameters like cellularity of cannibalism, diameter of cannibalistic cells, chromatin pattern and background of the smears. Of 350 cases evaluated, 260 (74.2%) were benign and 90 (25.8%) were malignant. Cannibalism was absent in all benign cases. Cannibalism was present in 14 ascitic fluids, 7 pleural fluids, 1 pericardial fluid and 3 cases of urine cytology. Comparison of distribution of cannibalism in effusions and urine did not yield statistically significant result (X2=0.8678 and p>0.05). Comparison of other parameters between effusions and urine samples also did not yield significant results. We conclude that cytological parameters of cellular cannibalism are better observed in malignant effusions than in urine cytology but did not reach statistical significance. Cannibalism can be assessed morphologically in malignant body fluids and is an indicator of increased tumour growth.

  13. Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from the Uteri Horn, Mouth, and Rectum of Bitches Suffering from Pyometra: Virulence Factors, Antimicrobial Susceptibilities, and Clonal Relationships among Strains.

    PubMed

    Agostinho, Juliana M A; de Souza, Andressa; Schocken-Iturrino, Ruben P; Beraldo, Lívia G; Borges, Clarissa A; Avila, Fernando A; Marin, José M

    2014-01-01

    Pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch, and Escherichia coli is the major pathogen associated with this disease. In this study, 70 E. coli isolates from the uteri horn, mouth, and rectum of bitches suffering from the disease and 43 E. coli isolates from the rectum of clinically healthy bitches were examined for the presence of uropathogenic virulence genes and susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. DNA profiles of isolates from uteri horn and mouth in bitches with pyometra were compared by REP, ERIC, and BOX-PCR. Virulence gene frequencies detected in isolates from canine pyometra were as follows: 95.7% fim, 27.1% iss, 25.7% hly, 18.5% iuc, and 17.1% usp. Predominant resistance was determined for cephalothin, ampicillin, and nalidixic acid among the isolates from all sites examined. Multidrug resistance was found on ∼ 50% pyometra isolates. Using the genotypic methods some isolates from uteri, pus, and saliva of the same bitch proved to have identical DNA profiles which is a reason for concern due to the close relationship between household pets and humans.

  14. Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from the Uteri Horn, Mouth, and Rectum of Bitches Suffering from Pyometra: Virulence Factors, Antimicrobial Susceptibilities, and Clonal Relationships among Strains

    PubMed Central

    Agostinho, Juliana M. A.; de Souza, Andressa; Schocken-Iturrino, Ruben P.; Beraldo, Lívia G.; Borges, Clarissa A.; Ávila, Fernando A.; Marin, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch, and Escherichia coli is the major pathogen associated with this disease. In this study, 70 E. coli isolates from the uteri horn, mouth, and rectum of bitches suffering from the disease and 43 E. coli isolates from the rectum of clinically healthy bitches were examined for the presence of uropathogenic virulence genes and susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. DNA profiles of isolates from uteri horn and mouth in bitches with pyometra were compared by REP, ERIC, and BOX-PCR. Virulence gene frequencies detected in isolates from canine pyometra were as follows: 95.7% fim, 27.1% iss, 25.7% hly, 18.5% iuc, and 17.1% usp. Predominant resistance was determined for cephalothin, ampicillin, and nalidixic acid among the isolates from all sites examined. Multidrug resistance was found on ∼50% pyometra isolates. Using the genotypic methods some isolates from uteri, pus, and saliva of the same bitch proved to have identical DNA profiles which is a reason for concern due to the close relationship between household pets and humans. PMID:24734047

  15. Raman spectroscopy and oral exfoliative cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Aditi; Shah, Nupur; Mahimkar, Manoj; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Nair, Sudhir; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Early detection of oral cancers can substantially improve disease-free survival rates. Ex vivo and in vivo Raman spectroscopic (RS) studies on oral cancer have demonstrated the applicability of RS in identifying not only malignant and premalignant conditions but also cancer-field-effects: the earliest events in oral carcinogenesis. RS has also been explored for cervical exfoliated cells analysis. Exfoliated cells are associated with several advantages like non-invasive sampling, higher patient compliance, transportation and analysis at a central facility: obviating need for on-site instrumentation. Thus, oral exfoliative cytology coupled with RS may serve as a useful adjunct for oral cancer screening. In this study, exfoliated cells from healthy controls with and without tobacco habits, premalignant lesions (leukoplakia and tobacco-pouch-keratosis) and their contralateral mucosa were collected using a Cytobrush. Cells were harvested by vortexing and centrifugation at 6000 rpm. The cellular yield was ascertained using Neubauer's chamber. Cell pellets were placed on a CaF2 window and Raman spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe (40X objective) coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Approximately 7 spectra were recorded from each pellet, following which pellet was smeared onto a glass slide, fixed in 95% ethanol and subjected to Pap staining for cytological diagnosis (gold standard). Preliminary PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out cross validation indicate delineation of cells from healthy and all pathological conditions. A tendency of classification was also seen between cells from contralateral, healthy tobacco and site of premalignant lesions. These results will be validated by cytological findings, which will serve as the basis for building standard models of each condition.

  16. Urine Cytology: Collection, Film Preparation, and Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Vap, Linda M; Shropshire, Sarah B

    2017-01-01

    Cytologic examination of the urine sediment in animals suspected of having urinary tract disease or lower urinary tract masses is one of the best means of distinguishing inflammation, infection, and neoplasia and can help determine if a positive dipstick result for hemoglobin/blood is due to hemorrhage or blood contamination. The quality of the specimen collection and handling plays an important role in the quality of results, the validity of interpretations, and selection of appropriate course of action. The method of sample collection aids localization of pathology. Air dry but do not heat fix, freeze, or expose films to formalin fumes, temperature extremes, or condensation.

  17. [Clinical importance of thyroid gland cytology].

    PubMed

    Ting, S; Synoracki, S; Bockisch, A; Führer, D; Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The cytological evaluation of fine needle biopsies (FNB) of the thyroid gland crucially depends on a close cooperation between clinicians and cytopathologists. Scintigraphy, sonography as well as clinical data and patient history are necessary for a correct interpretation of the indications for FNB; moreover, these data are of outstanding importance for cytopathologists for the correct interpretation of the cytomorphological findings. This overview describes the present standards in the acquisition, technical workup and cytopathological interpretation of thyroid gland tissue obtained by FNB, particularly focusing on the rapidly growing relevance of additional molecular pathological investigations to increase the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid FNB.

  18. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493... Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Participation...

  19. Cytological analysis of ginseng carpel development.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jeniffer; Kim, Yu-Jin; Xiao, Dexin; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Hu, Tingting; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Hu, Jianping; Yang, Deok-Chun; Zhang, Dabing

    2017-02-02

    Panax ginseng Meyer, commonly known as ginseng, is considered one of the most important herbs with pharmaceutical values due to the presence of ginsenosides and is cultivated for its highly valued root for medicinal purposes. Recently, it has been recognized that ginseng fruit contains high contents of triterpene such as ginsenoside Re as pharmaceutical compounds. However, it is unclear how carpel, the female reproductive tissue of flowers, is formed during the three-year-old growth before fruit is formed in ginseng plants. Here, we report P. ginseng carpel development at the cytological level, starting from the initial stage of ovule development to seed development. The carpel of P. ginseng is composed of two free stigmas, two free styles, and one epigynous bilocular ovary containing one ovule in each locule. Based on our cytological study, we propose that the female reproductive development in P. ginseng can be classified into seven stages: early phase of ovule development, megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis, pre-fertilization, fertilization, post-fertilization, and seed development. We also describe the correlation of the female and male gametophyte development and compare morphological differences in carpel development between ginseng and other higher plants. One unique feature for ginseng seed development is that it takes 40 days for the embryo to develop to the early torpedo stage and that the embryo is small relative to the seed size, which could be a feature of taxonomic importance. This study will provide an integral tool for the study of the reproductive development and breeding of P. ginseng.

  20. Cytology of bone lesions by intraoperative sampling during fracture treatment.

    PubMed

    Kinias, Ioannis S; Rammou-Kinia, Rea

    2002-03-01

    Cytology was performed on 314 patients who were treated by surgery for hip joint fracture, to determine and evaluate the role, accuracy, and perspective of intraoperative bone sampling. Specimens were collected from bone lesions during surgery by imprints or driller washing in normal saline. The results were compared with those of subsequent biopsies or clinical follow-up. All 13 neoplastic cases (malignant or benign) were identified by cytology. An accuracy rate of 69.2% was achieved by this method when the type and origin of the neoplasms were to be conclusive. There were no false-positive diagnoses, and all benign conditions showed negative results on cytology (specificity and sensitivity of 100%). Cytology can play a valuable role in the diagnosis of bone lesions. The morphologic diagnostic criteria allow for a high level of diagnostic accuracy of cytologic assessments in most cases of bone lesions, no matter the sampling technique.

  1. External Beam Boost for Cancer of the Cervix Uteri When Intracavitary Therapy Cannot Be Performed

    SciTech Connect

    Barraclough, Lisa Helen Swindell, Ric; Livsey, Jacqueline E.; Hunter, Robin D.; Davidson, Susan E.

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To assess the outcome of patients treated with radical radiotherapy for cervical cancer who received an external beam boost, in place of intracavitary brachytherapy (ICT), after irradiation to the whole pelvis. Methods and Materials: Case notes were reviewed for all patients treated in this way in a single center between 1996 and 2004. Patient and tumor details, the reasons why ICT was not possible, and treatment outcome were documented. Results: Forty-four patients were identified. The mean age was 56.4 years (range, 26-88 years). Clinical International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics or radiologic stage for Stages I, II, III, and IV, respectively, was 16%, 48%, 27%, and 7%. A total radiation dose of 54-70 Gy was given (75% received {>=}60 Gy). Reasons for ICT not being performed were technical limitations in 73%, comorbidity or isolation limitations in 23%, and patient choice in 4%. The median follow-up was 2.3 years. Recurrent disease was seen in 48%, with a median time to recurrence of 2.3 years. Central recurrence was seen in 16 of the 21 patients with recurrent disease. The 5-year overall survival rate was 49.3%. The 3-year cancer-specific survival rate by stage was 100%, 70%, and 42% for Stages I, II, and III, respectively. Late Grades 1 and 2 bowel, bladder, and vaginal toxicity were seen in 41%. Late Grade 3 toxicity was seen in 2%. Conclusion: An external beam boost is a reasonable option after external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis when it is not possible to perform ICT.

  2. Oral hairy leukoplakia: An exfoliative cytology study

    PubMed Central

    Reginald, Ajay; Sivapathasundharam, B.

    2010-01-01

    Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is a white, hyperplastic, vertically corrugated lesion that occurs on the lateral border of the tongue, usually unilateral. Caused by the Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV), the lesion is said to be an early indicator of an immune deficiency status, thereby unmasking subclinical systemic conditions. OHL mimics many other white lesions of the oral cavity; therefore, it becomes imperative to identify the lesion. This study used exfoliative cytology, a noninvasive procedure, which helped in identifying the cellular changes brought about by the virus in the oral epithelium. The study revealed a subclinical phase of OHL, where the cellular changes were seen even before the appearance of the clinical lesion. PMID:22114370

  3. Testosterone Induces Increase in Aquaporin (AQP)-1, 5, and 7 Expressions in the Uteri of Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Salleh, Naguib; Mokhtar, Helmy Mohd; Kassim, Normadiah M; Giribabu, Nelli

    2015-12-01

    Testosterone has been reported to cause a decrease in uterine fluid volume in which this could involve the aquaporins (AQPs). This study aimed to investigate effect of testosterone on uterine AQP-1, 5, and 7 expressions in order to explain the reported reduction in uterine fluid volume under testosterone influence. Ovariectomized adult female rats received peanut oil, testosterone (1 mg/kg/day), estrogen (0.2 µg/kg/day), or combined estrogen plus testosterone for three consecutive days. Other groups received 3 days estrogen followed by 2 days either peanut oil or testosterone with or without flutamide or finasteride. A day after last injection, uteri were harvested, and the levels of AQP-1, 5, and 7 messenger RNA (mRNA) in uterine tissue homogenates were analyzed by real-time PCR (qPCR). Distributions of AQP-1, 5, and 7 proteins in uterus were observed by immunofluorescence. Levels of AQP-1 mRNA were elevated in rats receiving either estrogen or testosterone-only treatment; however, levels of AQP-5 and 7 mRNAs were elevated in rats receiving testosterone-only treatment. In rats pre-treated with estrogen, testosterone treatment resulted in higher AQP-1, 5, and 7 mRNA levels compared to vehicle treatment. Testosterone effects were antagonized by flutamide but not finasteride. Immunofluorescence study showed that AQP-1 was highly distributed in uterine lumenal epithelium following estrogen or testosterone-only treatment. However, AQP-5 and 7 distributions were high in uterine lumenal epithelium following testosterone-only treatment. Testosterone-induced up-regulation of AQP-1, 5, and 7 expressions in uterus could explain the observed reduction in uterine fluid volume as reported under this condition.

  4. Urine cytology in the detection of bladder tumor recurrence.

    PubMed

    Orandi, A; Orandi, M

    1976-11-01

    Of 118 patients with primary bladder tumors seen since 1966, 73 have been followed with urine cytology since 1969. Of the 406 tests there have been 85 positive, 296 negative and 25 ambiguous reports. The incidence of falsely positive results is estimated at 4% but the incidence of falsely negative results cannot be assessed in this study. Currently, 51 patients are living, 2 of whom had been seen in 1966. Of the 51 patients 43 are being followed with urine cytology. Bimonthly urine cytology has been found to be a relaible, convenient, safe, less hazardous and less costly method for the detection of bladder tumor recurrence.

  5. Cytology of pulmonary Fusobacterium nucleatum infection. A case report.

    PubMed

    Hsu, C Y; Luh, K T

    1995-01-01

    A patient with pulmonary Fusobacterium nucleatum infection presenting as a solitary nodule is reported. The infectious nature of the lung nodule was disclosed by ultrasound-guided percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) with Liu's stain. The cytologic characteristics of F nucleatum infection are described. The usefulness of real-time ultrasound in fine needle aspiration diagnosis of a peripheral lung lesion is demonstrated, and the role of Liu's stain in FNAC is emphasized.

  6. Internal quality assurance in cervical cytology one laboratory's experience.

    PubMed

    Cross, P A

    1996-02-01

    The results of an internal quality assurance exercise in one cervical cytology laboratory in England are presented, using different types of partial percentage re-screening of cervical smears. An overall false negative dyskaryotic rate of up to 4.3% was demonstrated, with the final cytology report diagnosis differing from the primary screening dignosis in 1.3% of cases. These finding are discussed, with the aim of helping to foster debate on the setting of national laboratory internal quality assurance standards.

  7. Pulmonary microvascular cytology in the diagnosis of lymphangitic carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Masson, R G; Krikorian, J; Lukl, P; Evans, G L; McGrath, J

    1989-07-13

    The diagnosis of lymphangitic spread of carcinoma in the lungs is sometimes difficult. We studied the cytologic characteristics of blood drawn through a wedged pulmonary-artery catheter from eight patients in whom lymphangitic carcinomatosis was confirmed by subsequent autopsy, lung biopsy, or clinical evaluation. The sites of the primary tumors were the prostate, breast, esophagus, and lung. Malignant cells were found in seven of the eight patients. Cytologic findings were normal in 16 of 17 patients with cancer but without pulmonary metastases and in 22 of 23 patients with nonmalignant pulmonary disorders. In a patient with cancer with tumor embolism to the lungs, the findings were positive, probably because of extensive intravascular tumor in large hepatic veins. One false positive finding occurred in a patient with extensive pulmonary infarction. Megakaryocytes, which are present in large numbers in the pulmonary capillary bed, are the hallmark of a satisfactory pulmonary vascular blood sample for pulmonary microvascular cytologic study. Familiarity with the cytologic characteristics of these cells in Papanicolaou preparations is essential to avoid mistakenly identifying them as malignant. Although transbronchial lung biopsy remains the diagnostic procedure of choice in this disorder, our findings suggest that the presence of malignant cells in pulmonary microvascular-cytology preparations in patients with cancer and unexplained dyspnea constitutes presumptive evidence of lymphangitic carcinomatosis. Pulmonary microvascular cytology may be particularly valuable when lung biopsy is refused or is thought to be too hazardous.

  8. Cytology of the oral cavity: a re-evaluation.

    PubMed

    Navone, R

    2009-02-01

    Oral exfoliative cytology, while an economical and practical tool for diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant lesions, is not extensively used. The results of conventional (n = 89) and liquid-based (n = 411) oral diagnostic cytology cases are reported and compared to histological diagnosis. Cells were collected using either a Cytobrush device for conventional smears or a dermatological curette (AcuDispo) for liquid-based (Thin Prep) cytology. The "curette technique" allowed for the collection of "accidental" tissue fragments, utilized as microbiopsies. The sensitivity was 86.5% in conventional and 94.7% in liquid-based cytology; specificity was 94.3% and 98.9%, respectively; inadequate samples were present in 12.4% and 8.8% of cases, respectively. Although conventional cytology may be useful in oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant lesions, liquid-based cytology gives better results, enhances both the sensitivity and specificity, and also provides material for further investigations, e.g. DNA ploidy studies, microhistology, etc.

  9. Role of micronucleus in oral exfoliative cytology

    PubMed Central

    Shashikala, R.; Indira, A. P.; Manjunath, G. S.; rao, K. Arathi; Akshatha, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years, the interest for oral cytology as a diagnostic and prognostic methodology, for monitoring patients in oral potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer has re-emerged substantially. In 1983, buccal mucosal micronuclei assay was first proposed to evaluate genetic instability. There are biomarkers that predict if a potentially malignant disorder is likely to develop into an aggressive tumor. These genotoxic and carcinogenic chemicals have been reported to be potent clastogenic and mutagenic agents which are thought to be responsible for the induction of chromatid/chromosomal aberrations resulting in the production of micronuclei. Various studies have concluded that the gradual increase in micronucleus (MN) counts from normal oral mucosa to potentially malignant disorders to oral carcinoma suggested a link of this biomarker with neoplastic progression. MN scoring can be used as a biomarker to identify different preneoplastic conditions much earlier than the manifestations of clinical features and might specifically be exploited in the screening of high-risk population for a specific cancer. Hence, it can be used as a screening prognostic and educational tool in community centers of oral cancer. PMID:26538888

  10. Conjunctival impression cytology: bright hope of children.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    A practical method of screening for pre-clinical xerophthalmia due to vitamin A deficiency, called conjunctival impression cytology (CIC), is described as it is being used in a training stage in the Philippines. The noninvasive technic consists of touching the conjunctiva with a filter paper disc, and fixing and staining the disc on a slide for histology. Normally goblet cells with mucin spots are seen among sheets of epithelial cells. In abnormal conjunctiva from vitamin A deficient individuals, the epithelial cells are enlarged, and goblet cells are lacking. These specimens may be obtained from areas of the conjunctiva that appear clinically normal. The equipment needed is millipore paper, a hand-held suction pump with 5 feet of tubing, tissue or gauze, screw-top vials, labels, fixative, Papanicolaou stain, and a microscope. Vitamin A supplements can be given to affected children, or to the whole population at risk. With CIC training materials donated by International Center for Epidemiologic and Preventive Ophthalmology (ICEPO) at the Wilmer Institute, and the School of Hygiene and Public Health of the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, the 1st training class was certified by the Nutrition Center of the Philippines. Twice yearly training of physicians and technologists has been recommended.

  11. The possible role of female sex hormones in milk from pregnant cows in the development of breast, ovarian and corpus uteri cancers.

    PubMed

    Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Sato, Akio

    2005-01-01

    The continued increase in incidence of some hormone-related cancers worldwide is of great concern. Although estrogen-like substances in the environment were blamed for this increase, the possible role of endogenous estrogens from food has not been widely discussed. We are particularly concerned about cows' milk, which contains a considerable quantity of estrogens. When we name cows' milk as one of the important routes of human exposure to estrogens, the general response of Western people is that "man has been drinking cows' milk for around 2000 years without apparent harm." However, the milk that we are now consuming is quite different from that consumed 100 years ago. Unlike their pasture-fed counterparts of 100 years ago, modern dairy cows are usually pregnant and continue to lactate during the latter half of pregnancy, when the concentration of estrogens in blood, and hence in milk, increases. The correlation of incidence and mortality rates with environmental variables in worldwide countries provides useful clues to the etiology of cancer. In this study, we correlated incidence rates for breast, ovarian, and corpus uteri cancers (1993-97 from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents) with food intake (1961-97 from FAOSTAT) in 40 countries. Meat was most closely correlated with the breast cancer incidence (r=0.827), followed by milk (0.817) and cheese (0.751). Stepwise multiple-regression analysis (SMRA) identified meat as the factor contributing most greatly to the incidence of breast cancer ([R]=0.862). Milk was most closely correlated with the incidence of ovarian cancer (r=0.779), followed by animal fats (0.717) and cheese (0.697). SMRA revealed that milk plus cheese make the greatest contribution to the incidence of ovarian cancer ([R]=0.767). Milk was most closely correlated with corpus uteri cancer (r=0.814), followed by cheese (0.787). SMRA revealed that milk plus cheese make the most significant contribution to the incidence of corpus uteri cancer ([R]=0

  12. Squash cytology of tanycytic ependymoma: A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Priyanka Maity; Chaudhuri, Shubhamitra; Chakrabarty, Debashis; Chatterjee, Sandip; Datta, Chhanda; Chaudhuri, Manoj Kumar; Chatterjee, Uttara

    2017-03-01

    Tanycytic ependymoma is a rare variant of ependymoma which has a predilection for the spinal cord. It is a WHO grade II tumour with favourable outcome. Although squash cytology of ependymoma is well described, there is sparse literature available on squash cytomorphology of tanycytic variant. Here we present two cases of squash cytology of tanycytic ependymoma. In the first case the diagnosis of tanycytic ependymoma was considered. However, in the second case a diagnosis of usual ependymoma was offered. Subsequently histopathology confirmed tanycytic nature in both the cases. In this article we discuss the squash cytological features of tanycytic ependymoma along with its differential diagnosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:270-273. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Incisional endometriosis: diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Veda, P; Srinivasaiah, M

    2010-07-01

    Incisional endometriosis (IE) is a rare entity reported in 0.03-1.08% of women following obstetric or gynecologic surgeries. Most cases reported in literature have appeared after cesarean sections and were often clinically mistaken for hernia, abscess, suture granuloma or lipoma. We hereby report a case of IE following a second trimester hysterotomy, which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Our patient was 26 years old, presenting with a mass over anterior abdominal wall, associated with incapacitating pain during each menstrual cycle. FNAC showed epithelial cells, stromal cells and hemosiderin laden macrophages. Based on the typical history, clinical and cytological features, the diagnosis of IE was established. Wide surgical excision was done and the resulting rectus sheath defect was repaired. Patient was followed for 6 months during which time she was symptom free. This article also reviews the spectrum of cytological features and the rare possibility of malignant transformation that can occur in IE.

  14. Transrectal fine needle aspiration cytology of granulomatous prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Mondal, A; Mukherjee, B; Ghosh, E

    1994-07-01

    Transrectal fine needle aspiration cytology by Franzen technique was carried out from January, 1985 till January, 1992 on 567 patients having prostatomegaly which were suspicious of malignancy by clinical per rectal examination. Granulomatous prostatitis was diagnosed in 56 cases. Analysis showed 34 cases were tuberculous prostatitis and 22 cases were nonspecific granulomatous prostatitis. Comparison of aspiration cytology with bacteriological study of the aspirated material and histopathology showed correct diagnosis of granulomatous prostatitis by fine needle aspiration. The findings indicate that transrectal fine needle aspiration cytology is a reliable procedure for diagnosis of granulomatous prostatitis which can clinically mimic prostatic malignancy when it presents as a diffuse or nodular enlargement with firm to hard consistency.

  15. Applications of exfoliative cytology in the diagnosis of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Diniz-Freitas, Márcio; García-García, Abel; Crespo-Abelleira, Antonio; Martins-Carneiro, José Luis; Gándara-Rey, José Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Exfoliative cytology is a simple non-aggressive technique that is well accepted by the patient, and that is therefore an attractive option for the early diagnosis of oral cancer, including epithelial atypias and especially squamous cell carcinoma. However, traditional exfoliative cytology methods show low sensitivity (i.e. a high proportion of false negatives) in the diagnosis of these pathologies. This low sensitivity is attributable to various factors, including inadequate sampling, procedural errors, and the need for subjective interpretation of the findings. More recently, the continuing development of automated cytomorphometric methods, DNA content determination, tumour marker detection, and diverse molecular-level analyses has contributed to renewed interest in exfoliative cytology procedures for the diagnosis of oral cancer. The present study briefly reviews developments in these areas.

  16. The practical use of cytology for diagnosis in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, E; Brunetti, G; Del Vecchio, M; Ruocco, V

    2011-02-01

    Exfoliative cytology for diagnostic purposes is rarely used in Dermatology despite the rapid and reliable results which this procedure can offer in many clinical conditions. This simple procedure may prove advantageous in a wide range of skin diseases, including genodermatoses (Hailey-Hailey disease), infections (mainly herpetic infections, molluscum contagiosum, leishmaniasis), immune disorders (early oral pemphigus) and tumours (basal and squamous cell carcinomas, Paget disease, erythroplasia of Queyrat, and others). The specific circumstances where cytological examination provides a very helpful and practical aid to confirmation or exclusion of a clinically suspected diagnosis are briefly reviewed. Cytological patterns, along with some technical hints on how to take and stain Tzanck smears correctly, are described in connection with the diseases considered.

  17. Morphologic features of endometriosis in various types of cytologic specimens.

    PubMed

    Barkan, Güliz A; Naylor, Bernard; Gattuso, Paolo; Küllü, Sevgi; Galan, Kristine; Wojcik, Eva M

    2013-11-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. This study evaluates the cytomorphologic features of endometriosis in various cytologic specimen types [fine-needle aspiration (FNA), effusion cytology (EF), touch imprint (ToP), and cervical smear (PAP)], and assesses the key elements helpful in recognizing this lesion. A total of 18 cases (8 FNA, 4 EF, 5 ToP, and 1 PAP) of cytologically diagnosed and histologically/clinically confirmed endometriosis diagnosed between 1988 and 2006 comprises the material for this study. The morphologic features evaluated of the three components included: cellularity, presence of sheets of glandular cells, three-dimensional (3D) glandular clusters, tubular structures, single cells, syncytial groups of stromal cells, stromal cells entrapped within basement membrane (BM)-like material, cytologic atypia, presence of mitotic figures, and hemosiderin-laden histiocytes. Endometrial glands, stroma, and hemosiderin-laden histiocytes were all identified in 14/18 (77.8%) cases. FNA specimens were more cellular than that of both EF and ToP specimens. Tubular structures, 3D glandular clusters, stromal cells entrapped in BM and syncytial stromal groups were more common in FNAs, and ToPs compared with the EFs. The ratio of the endometrial glandular and stromal cells was similar in all specimen types. Atypia and mitotic figures were rarely encountered. Diagnosis of endometriosis could be made independently on either smears/ThinPrep(™) slides or on cell blocks in all cases where these preparations were available. On follow up, none of the patients developed malignancy. Endometriosis can be reliably and safely diagnosed in various cytologic materials. Cytologic atypia is uncommon. Components of endometriosis could show minor morphologic alterations in different specimen types.

  18. Morphologic features of endometriosis in various types of cytologic specimens.

    PubMed

    Barkan, Güliz A; Naylor, Bernard; Gattuso, Paolo; Küllü, Sevgi; Galan, Kristine; Wojcik, Eva M

    2013-03-20

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. This study evaluates the cytomorphologic features of endometriosis in various cytologic specimen types [fine-needle aspiration (FNA), effusion cytology (EF), touch imprint (ToP), and cervical smear (PAP)], and assesses the key elements helpful in recognizing this lesion. A total of 18 cases (8 FNA, 4 EF, 5 ToP, and 1 PAP) of cytologically diagnosed and histologically/clinically confirmed endometriosis diagnosed between 1988 and 2006 comprises the material for this study. The morphologic features evaluated of the three components included: cellularity, presence of sheets of glandular cells, three-dimensional (3D) glandular clusters, tubular structures, single cells, syncytial groups of stromal cells, stromal cells entrapped within basement membrane (BM)-like material, cytologic atypia, presence of mitotic figures, and hemosiderin-laden histiocytes. Endometrial glands, stroma, and hemosiderin-laden histiocytes were all identified in 14/18 (77.8%) cases. FNA specimens were more cellular than that of both EF and ToP specimens. Tubular structures, 3D glandular clusters, stromal cells entrapped in BM and syncytial stromal groups were more common in FNAs, and ToPs compared with the EFs. The ratio of the endometrial glandular and stromal cells was similar in all specimen types. Atypia and mitotic figures were rarely encountered. Diagnosis of endometriosis could be made independently on either smears/ThinPrep(™) slides or on cell blocks in all cases where these preparations were available. On follow up, none of the patients developed malignancy. Endometriosis can be reliably and safely diagnosed in various cytologic materials. Cytologic atypia is uncommon. Components of endometriosis could show minor morphologic alterations in different specimen types. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Cytologic characteristics and histomorphologic correlations of 21 salivary duct carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Klijanienko, J; Vielh, P

    1998-11-01

    Fine-needle samplings (FNS) of 21 salivary duct carcinomas, histologically correlated, including 19 primaries, one local recurrence, and one lymph node metastasis from 19 patients, are reported. Cytologic diagnosis of high-grade adenocarcinoma was established in 15 (71%). Five (24%) cases were misclassified as high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas and one (5%) as squamous-cell carcinoma. The histologic evaluation in all cases showed cytomorphologic features resembling mammary duct carcinoma with marked cytonuclear atypia and occasional oncocytic appearance. Our cytohistologic correlations indicate that irregular clusters of high-grade adenocarcinoma cells with necrotic background and oncocytic features suggest a cytologic diagnosis of either primary salivary duct carcinoma or metastatic mammary carcinoma.

  20. Foray of Cytologically Diagnosed Intramuscular Sarcocystosis- A Rarity

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Anoosha; Puttaveerachary, Ashok Kagathur; Govindashetty, Abhishek Mandya; Sahni, Swati

    2015-01-01

    Sarcocystosis is an uncommonly encountered zoonotic coccidial protozoal infestation of human beings. The sarcocystis species is known to produce intestinal and muscular infestations in humans. We report a rare case of a 35-year-old female with an intramuscular swelling in the lumbar region diagnosed cytologically as “Intramuscular Sarcocystosis” and subsequently confirmed on histopathology. This case highlights the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the identification of Sarcocystis and its role in differentiating it from other intramuscular parasites which is of immense value in precise diagnosis and appropriate patient management. PMID:26155487

  1. Adenoid cystic carcinoma - Clinical presentation and cytological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Dutta, N N; Baruah, R; Das, L

    2002-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a tumor arising from the minor salivary glands, the palate being the commonest site. It accounts for about 1% of all head and neck malignancies. We report a case with the typical presentation of a palatal growth with extensive intra-cranial invasion. The diagnosis of this case and a brief review of literature is discussed. Final diagnosis of this case was made from cytological reports. The dry smears stained with MGG were found to be definitely superior to the alcohol fixed slides stained with papanicolaou. The aim here is to highlight the importance of cytology in the diagnosis of such tumors.

  2. Cytological aspects of antimicrobial antibiosis. I. Cytological changes associated with the exposure of Escherichia coli to colistin sulfate.

    PubMed

    CHAPMAN, G B

    1962-07-01

    Chapman, George B. (Cornell University Medical College, New York, N.Y.). Cytological aspects of antimicrobial antibiosis. I. Cytological changes associated with the exposure of Escherichia coli to colistin sulfate. J. Bacteriol. 84:169-179. 1962-Broth cultures of Escherichia coli were exposed to different concentrations of the antibiotic colistin sulfate for various lengths of time. Control (untreated) and treated cells were fixed, dehydrated, and embedded in methacrylate or Epon. Ultrathin sections were examined in an RCA EMU2-D electron microscope. Two conspicuous cytological changes were noted. First, the nuclear material disappeared from its normal sites and was no longer demonstrable. Second, the cytoplasm lost its granularity and became homogeneous. Cells which showed these changes were nonviable.

  3. Cytological diagnosis of adamantinoma of long bone in a 78-year-old man.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Mimi; Pramanik, Raghunath; Chakrabarty, Subrata; Bera, Pranati

    2011-01-01

    A clinicohistopathological study of a rare case of adamantinoma of long bone in a 78-year-old patient is presented. The cytological features when evaluated in conjunction with clinical and radiologic features are sufficiently diagnostic. The primary knowledge of its existence and knowledge of its cytological features are important for a correct preoperative cytological diagnosis.

  4. Cytological and molecular characterization of three gametoclones of citrus clementina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three gametoclonal plants of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., cv. Nules, designated ESP, FRA, and ITA (derived from three labs in Spain, France, and Italy, respectively), were selected for cytological and molecular characterization in order to elucidate genomic rearrangements provoked by haploidizat...

  5. Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland of adults.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Heffernan, José A; Bárcena, Carmen; Agra, Carolina; Asunción, Alfonso

    2015-08-01

    It is well known that the histology of normal pineal gland may resemble not only pineal tumors but also gliomas, owing to its cellularity which is much greater than that of normal white or gray matter. Our recent experience with a case in which part of a normal gland was submitted for intraoperative consultation, together with the scarcity of cytologic descriptions, led us to perform a cyto-histologic correlation study. In addition to the intraoperative case, we collected five pineal glands from consecutive adult autopsies. During the squash procedure, we often noted the presence of calcified grains. Smears were hypercellular, distributed in tissue fibrillary fragments and as numerous single cells, with crystalline structures. Pineal gland cells (pineocytes) were large, round, epithelioid with ill-defined cytoplasms and moderate nuclear pleomorphism. Spindle cells with greater fibrillary quality were less common. One of the most remarkable findings seen in all cases was the presence of cytoplasmic pigment. Histological evaluation and immunohistochemical staining confirmed that the tissue was normal pineal gland. The histology showed a characteristic lobular aspect and frequent corpora arenacea. The pigment seen cytologically was also encountered in histology and corresponded to lipofuscin. Cytologic features of the pineal gland are peculiar when compared to other normal structures of the central nervous system. These features correlate closely with what is seen on histology. In an adequate clinical context, and in combination with frozen sections, cytology allows a specific recognition of the pineal gland during intraoperative pathologic consultations.

  6. Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland on squash preparations.

    PubMed

    Murro, Diana; Alsadi, Alaa; Nag, Sukriti; Arvanitis, Leonidas; Gattuso, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    As primary pineal lesions are extremely rare, many surgical pathologists are unfamiliar with normal pineal cytologic features. We describe cytologic features of the normal pineal gland in patients of varying ages and identify common diagnostic pitfalls. We performed a retrospective review of pineal gland biopsies performed at our institution, where approximately 30,000 surgical specimens are accessioned yearly, for the last 23 years. Only two pineal gland biopsies were found. Although both cases were initially diagnosed as low-grade gliomas on frozen section, the final diagnosis was benign pineal tissue based on light microscopy and immunohistochemistry results. Additionally, we performed squash preparations of five normal pineal gland autopsy specimens with Papanicolaou and Diff-Quik® (Dade Behring, Newark, DE) stains. Infant preparations were highly cellular smears composed of numerous, uniform, single cells with indistinct cytoplasm, small round-to-oval nuclei, fine chromatin, and absent nucleoli and calcifications. The vague microfollicular pattern mimicked a pineocytoma and the fine fibrillary background mimicked a glial neoplasm. Young adult smears were similar; however, microcalcifications were present with fewer background single cells. Older patients had much less cellular smears composed of small clusters of cells with fusiform-to-spindle nuclei, a fine chromatin pattern, and indistinct cytoplasmic borders. There were fewer background single cells and more microcalcifications. The cytologic features of the native pineal gland vary with age. Normal pineal tissue can be confused with a pineocytoma or low-grade glioma. Familiarity with normal pineal gland cytological features will help to avoid a potential misdiagnosis.

  7. Cytological characterization of anther development in Panax ginseng Meyer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Jin; Jang, Moon-Gi; Zhu, Lu; Silva, Jeniffer; Zhu, Xiaolei; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Yang, Deok-Chun; Zhang, Dabing

    2016-07-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng), a valued medicinal herb, is a slow-growing plant that flowers after 3 years of growth with the formation of a solitary terminal umbel inflorescence. However, little is known about cytological events during ginseng reproduction, such as the development of the male organ, the stamen. To better understand the mechanism controlling ginseng male reproductive development, here, we investigated the inflorescence and flower structure of ginseng. Moreover, we performed cytological analysis of anther morphogenesis and showed the common and specialized cytological events including the formation of four concentric cell layers surrounding male reproductive cells followed by subsequent cell differentiation and degeneration of tapetal cells, as well as the formation of mature pollen grains via meiosis and mitosis during ginseng anther development. Particularly, our transverse section and microscopic observations showed that the ginseng tapetal layer exhibits obvious nonsynchronous cell division evidenced by the observation of one or two tapetal layers frequently observed in one anther lobe, suggesting the unique control of cell division. To facilitate the future study on ginseng male reproduction, we grouped the anther development into 10 developmental stages according to the characterized cytological events.

  8. Cytological features of myxomatous fibroadenoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Rin; Tanaka, Maki; Yokoyama, Toshiro; Nonaka, Yasuhide; Mizushima, Yasuko; Kawahara, Akihiko; Yoshida, Tomoko; Ito, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Miki; Kage, Masayoshi; Yano, Hirohisa

    2012-04-01

    Fibroadenoma (FA) is a benign tumor that must be differentiated from carcinomas. FAs often exhibit myxedematous changes (myxomatous FA, M-FA). We previously reported on the clinical significance of M-FA. M-FA and (mucinous) carcinoma share clinical findings, rapid growth and a relatively large size, a high-depth/width (D/W) ratio, a relatively round shape, and posterior echo enhancement with internal hyperechogenicity on ultrasonography (US). Next, a biopsy is required for differential diagnosis. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic significance of the cytological findings of M-FA with US findings. Among 13 FAs that were diagnosed by cytology, we compared (i) a group of six mucinous carcinomas with acellular mucin and a D/W ratio ≥ 0.7 (a suspicious factor for malignancy) with a group with a D/W ratio of <0.7, and (ii) the frequency of metachromasia on Giemsa stain between M-FAs and non-M-FAs among eight FA cases confirmed by histology. (i) FA lesions (7 of 13) showed metachromasia with Giemsa staining significantly more frequently than did mucinous carcinoma (0/6) (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.044). FA lesions with a D/W ratio ≥ 0.7 (6/7) showed metachromasia significantly more frequently than did FA with a D/W ratio <0.7 (1/6) (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.029). Among eight FA cases confirmed by histology, M-FA cases (6/6) demonstrated metachromasia significantly more frequently than non-M-FA cases (0/2) (P < 0.036). M-FA cytologically exhibits marked metachromasia on Giemsa staining. Combining cytological examination and understanding the clinical features of M-FA may allow us to choose cytological examination as a first-line diagnostic method for tumor-forming lesions.

  9. Agreement Between Cytology and Histopathology for Regional Lymph Node Metastasis in Dogs With Melanocytic Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Janet A; Matz, Brad M; Christopherson, Pete W; Koehler, Jey W; Cappelle, Kelsey K; Hlusko, Katelyn C; Smith, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Melanocytic neoplasms are common in dogs and frequently occur within the oral cavity or in haired skin. The behavior of melanocytic neoplasms is variable and depends on tumor location, size, and histopathologic features. This study compared cytopathology and histopathology of 32 lymph nodes from 27 dogs diagnosed with melanocytic neoplasms. Agreement between the original cytology report, cytology slide review, original histopathology report, and histopathology slide review was determined for each lymph node. A subset of lymph nodes was subjected to immunohistochemistry (Melan-A) and additional histochemical stains/techniques (Prussian blue, bleach) to assist in differentiation of melanocytes and melanophages. Agreement ranged from slight to fair for each of the variables evaluated with weighted kappa (κw) or kappa (κ) analysis (original cytology vs cytology review κw = 0.24; original cytology vs original histopathology κw = 0.007; original cytology vs histopathology review κw = 0.23; cytology review vs original histopathology κw = 0.008; cytology review vs histopathology review κw = 0.006; and original histopathology vs histopathology review κ = 0.18). The diagnoses (metastatic, equivocal, or negative for metastasis) of the original report and slide review for both cytology and histopathology were not significantly correlated with survival in this population of patients. Overall, agreement between cytology and histopathology was poor even with a single clinical or anatomic pathologist performing slide review. Consensus between routine cytology and histopathology for staging of lymph nodes in patients with melanocytic neoplasms is poor and does not correlate with survival.

  10. Role of Scrape Cytology as an Adjunct to Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Diagnosis of Thyroid Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Khuroo, Mehnaaz Sultan; Mushtaq, Shaista; Beigh, Ambreen; Nazir, Naila; Reshi, Ruby

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Scrape cytology is an important diagnostic tool. It has been used in many tissue types as an adjunct or replacement for frozen section/ intra operative consultation. Aim This study was done to evaluate the role of scrape cytology in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions, its role as an adjunct to Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) and application of this technique for intra-operative consultation. Materials and Methods A prospective study on 50 thyroid neoplasms received over a period of 18 months (Nov 2014- March 2016) was conducted. Scrapings obtained from the fresh cut surface of thyroid specimens before formalin fixation, were smeared uniformly on to glass slides, and immediately fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol for rapid Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E). Cytological findings were compared with pre-operative FNAC findings and histopathological diagnosis. Variables taken in to consideration while assessing the smears included cellularity, nuclear, cytological details and amount of colloid. Results There were total of 50 patients. Out of the 50 patients, 15 were diagnosed as benign on scrape; of which 100% of cases were true negative for malignancy and five malignant cases were diagnosed as benign-false negative rate of 16.1%; four (8%) were deferred (non-diagnostic) with a true positive rate of 83.3%. Histopathological correlation was available in all cases. The overall diagnostic accuracy of scrape cytology was 89.1% with sensitivity and specificity of 83.87% (C.I.; 66.27% to 94.55%) and 100% (C.I; 76.84% to 100.00%) respectively. Fine Needle Aspiration results were available in 41 cases of which 2 were non-diagnostic. Of the remaining 39 cases 19 were benign and 20 were malignant with false negative rate of 40% and true positive rate of 60%. The overall diagnostic accuracy of FNAC was 64.1% with sensitivity and specificity of 60% (C.I.; 40.6% to77.3 %) and 77.78% (C.I; 39.9% to 97.1%) respectively. Conclusion We conclude that scrape cytology can act as a

  11. [Food irradiation].

    PubMed

    Migdał, W

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permission for irradiation for: spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables.

  12. Tissue irradiator

    DOEpatents

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-12-16

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in- vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood- carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170.

  13. Effect of low-energy laser (He-Ne) irradiation on embryo implantation rate in the rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Anat; Kraicer, P. F.; Oron, Uri

    1997-12-01

    Attempts to date to increase the rate of embryo implantation, for example by assisting embryo hatching from the zona pellucida, have failed. Recently, several studies have suggested the biostimulating effect of low power laser irradiation. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the potential of low power laser irradiation of the uterus to enhance embryo implantation rate in the rat. Rat potential of low power laser irradiation of the uterus to enhance embryo implantation rate in the rat. Rat blastocysts were flushed from the uterus on day 5 of gestation. They were transferred to the uteri of pseudopregnant recipients on day 4 or 5 of pseudopregnancy. One cornu of the recipient uterus was irradiated; the other was used as control. On day 5 of pregnancy, irradiation did not change implantation rate after 10 or 30 sec of irradiation while 120 sec. of irradiation significantly decreased embryonic implantation. On the other hand, on day 4 of pregnancy, 120 sec. of radiation allowed embryonic implantation to a level similar to that seen after synchronized transfer. Conclusion: He-Ne laser irradiation of the exposed rat uterus can attenuate embryo implantation rate.

  14. Usefulness of p16ink4a, ProEX C, and Ki-67 for the diagnosis of glandular dysplasia and adenocarcinoma of the cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Negri, Giovanni; Bellisano, Giulia; Carico, Elisabetta; Faa, Gavino; Kasal, Armin; Antoniazzi, Sonia; Egarter-Vigl, Eduard; Piccin, Andrea; Dalla Palma, Paolo; Vittadello, Fabio

    2011-07-01

    Although the diagnostic criteria of in-situ and invasive adenocarcinomas of the cervix uteri are well established, the differentiation from benign mimics may be difficult and the morphologic features of the precursors of endocervical adenocarcinoma are still debated. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of p16ink4a (p16), ProEX C, and Ki-67 for the diagnosis of endocervical adenocarcinoma and its precursors. Immunohistochemistry with p16, ProEX C, and Ki-67 was performed in 82 glandular lesions including 15 invasive adenocarcinomas, 29 adenocarcinomas in situ (AIS), 22 non-neoplastic samples, and 16 cases of glandular dysplasia (GD), which showed significant nuclear abnormalities but did not meet the diagnostic criteria for AIS. The immunohistochemical expression pattern was scored according to the percentage of the stained cells (0, 1+, 2+, and 3+ when 0% to 5%, 6% to 25%, 26% to 50%, and more than 50% of the cells were stained, respectively) and was evaluated for each antibody. p16 was at least focally expressed (1+ or more) in 14 of 15 invasive adenocarcinomas, in all AIS and in 7 negative samples. ProEX C and Ki-67 both scored 1+ or more in all adenocarcinomas and AIS and in 8 and 6 negative samples, respectively. Of the GD 15, 14, and 15 expressed p16, ProEX C, and Ki-67, respectively. The score differences between neoplastic and non-neoplastic samples were highly significant for each marker (P<0.001); however, the score distribution by marker differed significantly only in GD (P=0.006) in which, compared with the other markers, p16 showed more often a 3+ pattern. Our study shows that p16, Ki-67, and ProEX C may be helpful for the diagnosis of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri and may also improve the diagnostic accuracy of endocervical GD. In particularly problematic cases, the combination of p16 and a proliferation marker can provide additional help for the interpretation of these lesions.

  15. Cell bioprocessing in space - Applications of analytical cytology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.; Hymer, W. C.; Goolsby, C. L.; Hatfield, J. M.; Morrison, D. R.

    1988-01-01

    Cell bioprocessing experiments in space are reviewed and the development of on-board cell analytical cytology techniques that can serve such experiments is discussed. Methods and results of experiments involving the cultivation and separation of eukaryotic cells in space are presented. It is suggested that an advanced cytometer should be developed for the quantitative analysis of large numbers of specimens of suspended eukaryotic cells and bioparticles in experiments on the Space Station.

  16. Irradiation subassembly

    DOEpatents

    Seim, O.S.; Filewicz, E.C.; Hutter, E.

    1973-10-23

    An irradiation subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which includes a bundle of slender elongated irradiation -capsules or fuel elements enclosed by a coolant tube and having yieldable retaining liner between the irradiation capsules and the coolant tube. For a hexagonal bundle surrounded by a hexagonal tube the yieldable retaining liner may consist either of six segments corresponding to the six sides of the tube or three angular segments each corresponding in two adjacent sides of the tube. The sides of adjacent segments abut and are so cut that metal-tometal contact is retained when the volume enclosed by the retaining liner is varied and Springs are provided for urging the segments toward the center of the tube to hold the capsules in a closely packed configuration. (Official Gazette)

  17. Cytologic diagnosis of spinal cord ependymoma in cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Kalogeraki, A; Tamiolakis, D; Sinatkas, V; Xekalou, A; Papadakis, M; Stathopoulos, E N

    2012-12-01

    Ependymoma cells are known to rarely exfoliate into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, the frequency of CSF involvement in patients with ependymoma is unclear, and to the author's knowledge the cytomorphologic features of tumour cells have not been well described to date. In this study, the CSF findings in a patient with ependymoma and the cytopathological features of this tumor are reported. The patient presented at the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, suffering from a chest to back pain. Computed tomography, scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed and a mass of 3x2 cm in the thoracic aspect of the spinal cord was found. A sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was sent for cytologic examination and a diagnosis of ependymoma was made. A biopsy was performed and histology confirmed the cytologic diagnosis of ependymoma grade II (WHO). Exfoliated cells from ependymomas of spinal cord are rarely recognizable in CSF samples. Except in patients with myxopapillary tumours and anaplastic tumours, cytomorphologic features of ependymoma have been described only in case reports of intraoperative imprinting or fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNABs) and not in CSF cytology.

  18. Graph-based segmentation of abnormal nuclei in cervical cytology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Kong, Hui; Liu, Shaoxiong; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping; Sonka, Milan

    2017-03-01

    A general method is reported for improving the segmentation of abnormal cell nuclei in cervical cytology images. In automation-assisted reading of cervical cytology, one of the essential steps is the segmentation of nuclei. Despite some progress, there is a need to improve the sensitivity, particularly the segmentation of abnormal nuclei. Our method starts with pre-segmenting the nucleus to define the coarse center and size of nucleus, which is used to construct a graph by image unfolding that maps ellipse-like border in the Cartesian coordinate system to lines in the polar coordinate system. The cost function jointly reflects properties of nucleus border and nucleus region. The prior constraints regarding the context of nucleus-cytoplasm position are utilized to modify the local cost functions. The globally optimal path in the constructed graph is then identified by dynamic programming with an iterative approach ensuring an optimal closed contour. Validation of our method was performed on abnormal nuclei from two cervical cell image datasets, Herlev and H&E stained manual liquid-based cytology (HEMLBC). Compared with five state-of-the-art approaches, our graph-search based method shows superior performance.

  19. Storage alters feline bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytological analysis.

    PubMed

    Nafe, Laura A; DeClue, Amy E; Reinero, Carol R

    2011-02-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) collection is a valuable respiratory diagnostic procedure in cats. This study evaluated effects of BALF storage on total nucleated cell counts (TNCCs) and differential cell counts (DCC), cell morphology, and cytological diagnosis. Forty-five research cats with neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and mixed inflammation, and healthy controls were enrolled. BALF samples were processed within 1h (baseline) or stored at 4°C (4C24) or room temperature (RT24) for 24h, or 4°C (4C48) or room temperature (RT48) for 48h before processing. Stored BALF at RT48 had decreased TNCC compared to baseline. The RT24 and RT48 samples had greater eosinophil % and the RT24, 4C48, and RT48 samples had decreased neutrophil % compared with baseline. Cellular morphology deteriorated in all stored samples. Storage resulted in a change in cytological diagnosis in up to 57% of stored samples. We conclude that cytological analysis of BALF in cats should be performed promptly for optimal results.

  20. Clinical and cytological correlations in pericardial effusions with cardiac tamponade.

    PubMed

    Petcu, D P; Petcu, C; Popescu, Carmen Florina; Bătăiosu, C; Alexandru, D

    2009-01-01

    We studied 27 patients diagnosed with pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade on which pericardiocentesis was performed. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the benefits and limits of the cytological examination of the pericardial liquid in the etiological diagnosis and the treatment of patients with cardiac tamponade. The pericardial liquid taken was examined macroscopically, biochemically (content of proteins, glucose, cholesterol, and LDH), cytologically (MGG stained smears from pericardial liquid) and bacteriologically. The obtained results were compared to the clinical data, the laboratory and paraclinical tests, to differentiate the cause and therapeutically procedure. The cardiac tamponade remitted after pericardiocentesis in all patients. The pericardial liquid was exudate (Ligth criteria) in 82% of all patients. The cytological examination of the pericardial liquid showed malignant smear in 40.74% of the patients, smear of the TBC specific inflammation type in 7.40% patients, smear of non-specific inflammation type in 25.94% of patients, reactive type smear in 25.9% of patients.

  1. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma: A diagnostic challenge on cytology.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kanika; Agarwal, Charu; Pujani, Mukta; Verma, Pragya; Chauhan, Varsha

    2017-03-06

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (Ca ex PA) is a malignant neoplasm arising from primary or recurrent benign pleomorphic adenoma. It is rare with an annual incidence rate of 0.17 tumors per million. Histopathology remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of Ca ex PA, with only a handful of cases reported on cytology. In our case a 66-year-old male presented with the right parotid mass for 5 years rapidly increasing for the last 3 months. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears showed malignant tumor cells in clusters along with benign myoepithelial cells in chondromyxoid background. Histopathologically, highly pleomorphic malignant epithelial cells in sheets along with foci of comedonecrosis and areas corresponding to benign pleomorphic adenoma were observed on careful scrutiny. Immunohistochemistry revealed positivity for cytokeratin (CK 7) and gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (GCDFP-15) while CK5/6 and high molecular weight CK (34 βE12) were negative in the malignant tumor cells. So, the final impression was Ca ex PA with salivary duct carcinoma as malignant component. We hereby report this case to highlight the significance of FNAC in the diagnosis of Ca ex PA which can be easily missed on cytopathology. However, it is important to corroborate the cytological findings with clinical suspicion of malignancy as well as radiology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Viguer, José M; Jiménez-Heffernan, José A; López-Ferrer, Pilar; Banaclocha, Marcos; Vicandi, Blanca

    2005-04-01

    Cytological features of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were reviewed in an attempt to select cytological criteria that permit a specific recognition of metastases. For this purpose, 54 fine-needle aspiration (FNA) procedures from 43 patients with NPC were analyzed. Thirty-two (59.3%) procedures were performed before the histological diagnosis. In 25 (46.3%) procedures, smears showed many neoplastic single cells, clusters, and abundant lymphoid cells (mixed pattern). A dissociated (single cell) pattern consisting of individual neoplastic and lymphoid cells was seen in 18 (33.3%) cases. Finally, 11 (20.4%) cases showed cohesive epithelial clusters (cohesive pattern) without relevant cellular dissociation or lymphoid cells. Squamous-cell differentiation was seen in three of these cases. Most single neoplastic cells presented as large, pleomorphic naked nuclei. Other interesting findings were granulomas (n = 3), prominent eosinophilic infiltrates (n = 4), and suppurative changes (n = 5). In most smears with mixed and dissociated patterns, a nasopharyngeal origin could be suggested. On the contrary, those smears with a cohesive pattern were indistinguishable from other head and neck carcinomas. The presence (on cervical lymph nodes) of a dissociated or mixed (single cells and groups) architectural pattern of large, anaplastic cells and naked nuclei accompanied by an abundant lymphoid component is highly suggestive of undifferentiated NPC. Cytology offers a rapid diagnosis, establishes the necessity of a complete cavum examination, and helps in avoiding unnecessary and harmful biopsies.

  3. Classification of breast cancer cytological specimen using convolutional neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żejmo, Michał; Kowal, Marek; Korbicz, Józef; Monczak, Roman

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a deep learning approach for automatic classification of breast tumors based on fine needle cytology. The main aim of the system is to distinguish benign from malignant cases based on microscopic images. Experiment was carried out on cytological samples derived from 50 patients (25 benign cases + 25 malignant cases) diagnosed in Regional Hospital in Zielona Góra. To classify microscopic images, we used convolutional neural networks (CNN) of two types: GoogLeNet and AlexNet. Due to the very large size of images of cytological specimen (on average 200000 × 100000 pixels), they were divided into smaller patches of size 256 × 256 pixels. Breast cancer classification usually is based on morphometric features of nuclei. Therefore, training and validation patches were selected using Support Vector Machine (SVM) so that suitable amount of cell material was depicted. Neural classifiers were tuned using GPU accelerated implementation of gradient descent algorithm. Training error was defined as a cross-entropy classification loss. Classification accuracy was defined as the percentage ratio of successfully classified validation patches to the total number of validation patches. The best accuracy rate of 83% was obtained by GoogLeNet model. We observed that more misclassified patches belong to malignant cases.

  4. Diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis on fine needle aspiration cytology: a case report and review of the cytology literature.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neeta; Sayed, Shahin; Vinayak, Sudhir

    2011-01-20

    A case of multifocal Langerhans cell histiocytosis in a two-year-old child is presented where fine needle aspiration was helpful in achieving a rapid and accurate diagnosis in an appropriate clinical and radiological setting. This can avoid unnecessary biopsy and guide the management especially where access to histopathology is limited. The highly characteristic common and rare cytological features are highlighted with focus on differential diagnoses and causes of pitfalls.

  5. Irradiated foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... it reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes, and to control insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

  6. CYTOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ANTIMICROBIAL ANTIBIOSIS. III. CYTOLOGICALLY DISTINGUISHABLE STAGES IN ANTIBIOTIC ACTION OF COLISTIN SULFATE ON ESCHERICHIA COLI.

    PubMed

    KAYE, J J; CHAPMAN, G B

    1963-09-01

    Kaye, Jeremy J. (Cornell University Medical College, New York, N.Y.) and George B. Chapman. Cytological aspects of antimicrobial antibiosis. III. Cytologically distinguishable stages in antibiotic action of colistin sulfate on Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 86:536-543. 1963.-Broth cultures of Escherichia coli were subjected to a constant concentration of colistin sulfate for varying periods of time. Controls and treated cells were fixed, dehydrated, and embedded in methacrylate, and ultrathin sections were examined in an electron microscope. Three stages in the antibiotic process were discerned. Stage 1 was characterized by a disruption of the axial orientation of the nuclear material and by an invasion of nuclear areas by tufts of material presumably of cytoplasmic origin; no loss of cellular contents could be detected cytologically. Stage 2 was characterized by the loss of nuclear material and by a loss of typical cytoplasmic granularity, an increase in cytoplasmic electron density, and an agglomeration of the cytoplasm into packed tufts of material; in contrast to the nuclear material, there was no loss of cytoplasmic material in this stage. Stage 3 was characterized by the loss of the altered cytoplasmic material but with the persistence of mesosomes, plasma membrane, and cell wall. Speculation that each and all of these changes might have resulted from an altered intracellular milieu secondary to a primary effect of the antibiotic on the plasma membrane is presented.

  7. Touch imprint cytology: a rapid diagnostic tool for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Geetha, L; Astekar, M; Ashok, K N; Sowmya, G V

    2015-07-01

    Techniques for intraoperative pathologic examination of oral squamous cell carcinoma are rare in the literature. We evaluated the advantages and limitations of touch imprint cytology for intraoperative diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. We used 30 incisional biopsies of clinically diagnosed oral squamous cell carcinoma and compared touch imprint cytology to histopathological sections. Touch imprint cytology showed 24 specimens positive for malignancy, two suspicious for malignancy and four inadequate specimens. The accuracy of the test was 93.2%. Touch imprint cytology is an accurate, simple, rapid and cost-effective method that aids diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma during operation, but it does not replace incisional biopsy.

  8. Cytologic diagnosis of papillary carcinoma of the breast in needle aspirates.

    PubMed

    Naran, S; Simpson, J; Gupta, R K

    1988-03-01

    Eleven cases of rare papillary carcinoma of the breast diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) are reported. Five of these were pure papillary carcinomas and six were mixed papillary and ductal, lobular, or mucinous carcinomas. In each case, cytological material was collected by washing the needle and syringe contents into 30% alcohol in saline, and the Gelman cytosieve method was used for the cytological preparations. In this article, the cytological features of these tumors are described, including the presence of single papillae and papillary clusters, tall columnar cells, diathesis of blood with hemosiderin-laden macrophages, naked nuclei, and high cell recovery.

  9. [Exfoliative vaginal cytology in the bitch--indications, procedure, interpretation].

    PubMed

    Wehrend, A; von Plato, K; Goericke-Pesch, S

    2013-01-01

    Exfoliative vaginal cytology as an essential part of the gynaecological examination is a simple, non-invasive method for the determination of the phases of the oestrous cycle (anoestrus, prooestrus/oestrus, metoestrus) and is additionally applied in cases of silent heat, or suspected ovarian cysts, ovarian remnant syndrome, postpartal disturbances in the endometrial involution or Sticker sarcoma. The exfoliated cells reflect the hormonal, in particular the oestrogenic state, of the bitch. Due to the oestrogenic influence, an increase in cell layers, keratinisation and exfoliation is observed in the follicular phase during prooestrus, such that the 3-4 layered epithelium in anoestrus becomes 20-layered during oestrus. The cells change characteristically in size and nuclear morphology. In anoestrus, predominantly parabasal cells with a large nucleus and homogenous cytoplasm are found. During early prooestrus, single parabasal cells are identified among erythrocytes and intermediate cells. As this phase progresses, the percentage of large intermediate cells and nucleated superficial cells increases. The oestrus is characterised by a high cell number, initially superficial cells with pyknotic nuclei, later anucleated squamous cells that are located in cell nests. The switch to metoestrus is associated with a large number of neutrophil granulocytes and a sudden change of cytology within 24-48 hours. Vaginal cytology can be performed in any practice due to its simplicity and the limited equipment necessary (speculum, cotton wool wad, slide, staining and microscope). Because the results are rapidly available, it is a useful addition to gynaecological examination to differentiate the stage of the cycle (anoestrus, prooestrus/oestrus, metoestrus) and to diagnose infectious, inflammatory and tumorous conditions in the bitch.

  10. Thyroid Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology Results.

    PubMed

    Manning, Amy M; Yang, Huaitao; Falciglia, Mercedes; Mark, Jonathan R; Steward, David L

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate changes in distribution of reported thyroid nodule fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytopathology results since implementation of the Bethesda classification and revised 2015 American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines for selecting nodules for biopsy. Study Design Retrospective review. Setting Tertiary academic medical center. Subjects and Methods Evaluation of ultrasound (US)-guided thyroid FNA by a single surgeon using 2015 ATA nodule selection criteria and Bethesda reporting on 211 thyroid nodules in a 1-year period (2015). Comparison is made to an earlier sample wherein any nodule >1 cm underwent US FNA with cytology reported prior to Bethesda consensus (2006). Results The current cohort involved mostly women (79%); nodules ranged from 1 to 7 cm (mean ± SEM, 2.4 ± 0.07 cm). Mean ± SEM age was 53.5 ± 1.1 years. Bethesda reporting yielded 6% nondiagnostic, 57% benign, 3% malignant, and 34% indeterminate (27% atypia of undetermined significance [AUS]/follicular lesion of undetermined significance [FLUS], 4% follicular neoplasm [FN]/Hürthle neoplasm [HN], and 2% suspicious for malignancy [SFM]). The malignancy rate in indeterminate nodules was 26% (18% AUS/FLUS, 33% FN/HN, and 80% SFM). Age, sex, or nodule size did not correlate with indeterminate cytology. The comparator sample of 447 nodules had significantly different distribution, with 7% nondiagnostic, 80% benign, 5% malignant, and 8% indeterminate ( P < .00001). Conclusion We observed a significantly increased proportion of indeterminate cytology and corresponding decrease in benign nodules compared with an earlier sample, predominately from an increase in AUS/FLUS. Multiple factors are likely involved, including selection of sonographically suspicious nodules for biopsy based upon 2015 ATA guidelines coupled with cytopathological interpretation by a new generation of cytopathologists trained in the era of Bethesda reporting; further study is required to make a definitive conclusion.

  11. Impression Cytology in Different Types of Contact Lens Users.

    PubMed

    Iskeleli, Guzin; Arici, Ceyhun; Deger Bilgec, Mustafa; Demirkesen, Cuyan; Serap Arslan, Hilal

    2015-01-01

    This study compared tear function tests and cytologic changes on the conjunctival surface in asymptomatic patients wearing contact lens of different materials. Included in this study were 40 eyes wearing daily wear 4 week replacement hydrogel (H) lenses, 32 eyes wearing silicone hydrogel (SiH) lenses, 18 eyes wearing rigid gas-permeable (RGP) lenses, and 21 healthy eyes (no lenses) as the control group. Epithelial morphology of the conjunctival surface was evaluated, based on Nelson classification with conjunctival impression cytology (CIC), after the tear break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer test were performed. The mean values of the Schirmer and TBUT tests were significantly higher in the control group than in the other lens groups (p < 0.001). Grade 0 was the most frequent CIC in the control group (66.7%) and least frequent in the SiH lens group (40.6%); grade I was least frequent in the control and RGP groups (33.3%) and most frequent in the SiH lens group (40.6%). Moreover, grade 2 was most frequent in the SiH lens group (18.8%). There was no statistically significant difference in goblet cell densities between the groups (p = 0.462). In addition to the different Schirmer and TBUT test results between contact lens wearers and healthy non-wearers, some cytologic changes may occur on the ocular surface with direct mechanical effects of contact lenses. This simple and noninvasive technique may be used to evaluate the ocular surface with regard to intolerance to contact lenses.

  12. [Cytological examination of the intrathoracic lymph nodes (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Simeĉek, C

    1978-01-01

    During the last few years, cytological examinations of the intrathoracic lymph nodes have become a usual method of bronchological examinations, being applied by way of routine. Taking the analysis of 3408 perbronchial and pertracheal lymph node punctions as a basis, the author discusses the results. Mostly the intrathoracic nodes of lung cancer patients were examined. A metastasization could be detected in 58 per cent. At sarcoidosis and tuberculosis the results correspond to those of mediastinoscopy. The occurrence of the cholesterol crystals is mentioned. Occasionally, megacaryocytes and immature cells of the hematopoiesis are found in the lymph nodes. Due to the favourable anatomic conditions, also normal lymph nodes are accessible to perbronchial punction.

  13. Comparison of a 3-D multi-group SN particle transport code with Monte Carlo for intracavitary brachytherapy of the cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Kent A; Wareing, Todd A; Failla, Gregory; Horton, John L; Eifel, Patricia J; Mourtada, Firas

    2009-12-03

    A patient dose distribution was calculated by a 3D multi-group S N particle transport code for intracavitary brachytherapy of the cervix uteri and compared to previously published Monte Carlo results. A Cs-137 LDR intracavitary brachytherapy CT data set was chosen from our clinical database. MCNPX version 2.5.c, was used to calculate the dose distribution. A 3D multi-group S N particle transport code, Attila version 6.1.1 was used to simulate the same patient. Each patient applicator was built in SolidWorks, a mechanical design package, and then assembled with a coordinate transformation and rotation for the patient. The SolidWorks exported applicator geometry was imported into Attila for calculation. Dose matrices were overlaid on the patient CT data set. Dose volume histograms and point doses were compared. The MCNPX calculation required 14.8 hours, whereas the Attila calculation required 22.2 minutes on a 1.8 GHz AMD Opteron CPU. Agreement between Attila and MCNPX dose calculations at the ICRU 38 points was within +/- 3%. Calculated doses to the 2 cc and 5 cc volumes of highest dose differed by not more than +/- 1.1% between the two codes. Dose and DVH overlays agreed well qualitatively. Attila can calculate dose accurately and efficiently for this Cs-137 CT-based patient geometry. Our data showed that a three-group cross-section set is adequate for Cs-137 computations. Future work is aimed at implementing an optimized version of Attila for radiotherapy calculations.

  14. Quercetin Induces Dose-Dependent Differential Morphological and Proliferative Changes in Rat Uteri in the Presence and in the Absence of Estrogen

    PubMed Central

    Shahzad, Huma; Giribabu, Nelli; Sekaran, Muniandy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Quercetin could have profound effects on uterine morphology and proliferation, which are known to be influenced by estrogen. This study investigated the effect of quercetin on these uterine parameters in the presence and in the absence of estrogen. Ovariectomized adult female rats received peanut oil, quercetin (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day), estrogen, or estrogen+quercetin (10, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day) treatment for 7 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment, uteri were harvested for histological and molecular biological analyses. Distribution of proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein in the uterus was observed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of expression of PCNA protein and mRNA in uterine tissue homogenates were determined by Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Our findings indicated that administration of 10 mg/kg/day of quercetin either alone or with estrogen resulted in decreased uterine expression of PCNA protein and mRNA with the percentage of PCNA-positive cells in uterine luminal and glandular epithelia markedly reduced compared with estrogen-only treatment. Changes in uterine morphology were the opposite of changes observed following estrogen treatment. Treatment with 100 mg/kg/day of quercetin either alone or with estrogen resulted in elevated PCNA protein and mRNA expression. In addition, the percentages of PCNA-positive cells in the epithelia, which line the lumen and glands, were increased with morphological features mimicking changes that occur following estrogen treatment. Following 50 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment, the changes observed were in between those changes that occur following 10 and 100 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment. In conclusion, changes in uterine morphology and proliferation following 10 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment could be attributed to quercetin's antiestrogenic properties, while changes that occur following 100 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment could be

  15. Quercetin Induces Dose-Dependent Differential Morphological and Proliferative Changes in Rat Uteri in the Presence and in the Absence of Estrogen.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Huma; Giribabu, Nelli; Sekaran, Muniandy; Salleh, Naguib

    2015-12-01

    Quercetin could have profound effects on uterine morphology and proliferation, which are known to be influenced by estrogen. This study investigated the effect of quercetin on these uterine parameters in the presence and in the absence of estrogen. Ovariectomized adult female rats received peanut oil, quercetin (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day), estrogen, or estrogen+quercetin (10, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day) treatment for 7 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment, uteri were harvested for histological and molecular biological analyses. Distribution of proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein in the uterus was observed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of expression of PCNA protein and mRNA in uterine tissue homogenates were determined by Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Our findings indicated that administration of 10 mg/kg/day of quercetin either alone or with estrogen resulted in decreased uterine expression of PCNA protein and mRNA with the percentage of PCNA-positive cells in uterine luminal and glandular epithelia markedly reduced compared with estrogen-only treatment. Changes in uterine morphology were the opposite of changes observed following estrogen treatment. Treatment with 100 mg/kg/day of quercetin either alone or with estrogen resulted in elevated PCNA protein and mRNA expression. In addition, the percentages of PCNA-positive cells in the epithelia, which line the lumen and glands, were increased with morphological features mimicking changes that occur following estrogen treatment. Following 50 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment, the changes observed were in between those changes that occur following 10 and 100 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment. In conclusion, changes in uterine morphology and proliferation following 10 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment could be attributed to quercetin's antiestrogenic properties, while changes that occur following 100 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment could be attributed to

  16. Comparison of conventional Papanicolaou cytology samples with liquid-based cervical cytology samples from women in Pernambuco, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Costa, M.O.L.P.; Heráclio, S.A.; Coelho, A.V.C.; Acioly, V.L.; Souza, P.R.E.; Correia, M.T.S.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we compared the performance of a ThinPrep cytological method with the conventional Papanicolaou test for diagnosis of cytopathological changes, with regard to unsatisfactory results achieved at the Central Public Health Laboratory of the State of Pernambuco. A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed with women aged 18 to 65 years, who spontaneously sought gynecological services in Public Health Units in the State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, between April and November 2011. All patients in the study were given a standardized questionnaire on sociodemographics, sexual characteristics, reproductive practices, and habits. A total of 525 patients were assessed by the two methods (11.05% were under the age of 25 years, 30.86% were single, 4.4% had had more than 5 sexual partners, 44% were not using contraception, 38.85% were users of alcohol, 24.38% were smokers, 3.24% had consumed drugs previously, 42.01% had gynecological complaints, and 12.19% had an early history of sexually transmitted diseases). The two methods showed poor correlation (k=0.19; 95%CI=0.11–0.26; P<0.001). The ThinPrep method reduced the rate of unsatisfactory results from 4.38% to 1.71% (χ2=5.28; P=0.02), and the number of cytopathological changes diagnosed increased from 2.47% to 3.04%. This study confirmed that adopting the ThinPrep method for diagnosis of cervical cytological samples was an improvement over the conventional method. Furthermore, this method may reduce possible losses from cytological resampling and reduce obstacles to patient follow-up, improving the quality of the public health system in the State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. PMID:26247400

  17. Diagnostic terminology for reporting thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology: European Federation of Cytology Societies thyroid working party symposium, Lisbon 2009.

    PubMed

    Kocjan, G; Cochand-Priollet, B; de Agustin, P P; Bourgain, C; Chandra, A; Daneshbod, Y; Deery, A; Duskova, J; Ersoz, C; Fadda, G; Fassina, A; Firat, P; Jimenez-Ayala, B; Karakitsos, P; Koperek, O; Matesa, N; Poller, D; Thienpont, L; Ryska, A; Schenck, U; Sauer, T; Schmitt, F; Tani, E; Toivonen, T; Tötsch, M; Troncone, G; Vass, L; Vielh, P

    2010-04-01

    A European Federation of Cytology Societies (EFCS) working party of 28 members from 14 European countries met at the European Congress of Cytology in Lisbon in September 2009, with two observers from the USA, to discuss the need for standardising thyroid FNA nomenclature in the light of the National Institute of Cancer (NCI) recommendations resulting from the State of the Science conference in Bethesda in 2007. The data were obtained through two questionnaires sent by email and a transcript of the live discussion at the congress, which is presented in full. The surveys and discussion showed that there were currently no national terminologies for reporting thyroid FNA in the different European countries except in Italy and the UK. Personal, 'local', surgical pathology and descriptive terminologies were in use. All but one of the working party members agreed that thyroid FNA reporting should be standardised. Whilst almost a third would adopt the NCI Bethesda terminology, which offers the advantages of a 'risk of cancer' correlation and is linked to clinical recommendations, more than half favoured a translation of local terminology as the first step towards a unified nomenclature, as has been done recently in the UK. There was some disagreement about the use of: a) the six-tiered as opposed to four or five-tiered systems, b) the use of an indeterminate category and c) the 'follicular neoplasm' category, which was felt by some participants not to be different from the 'suspicious of malignancy' category. The conclusions will be passed to the different national societies of cytology for discussion, who will be asked to map their local terminologies to the Bethesda classification, observe its acceptance by clinicians and audit its correlation with outcome.

  18. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For...

  19. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For...

  20. CYTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF FIBER TYPES IN SKELETAL MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Geraldine F.; Padykula, Helen A.

    1966-01-01

    A comparative investigation of the mammalian diaphragm has revealed a correlation between certain cytological aspects of red and white muscle fibers and functional activity. This skeletal muscle presents the advantage of a similar and constant function among the mammals, but its functional activity varies in a quantitative manner. Both the rate of breathing (and hence the rate of contraction of the diaphragm) and metabolic activity are known to be inversely related to body size; and this study has demonstrated a relationship between cytological characteristics of the diaphragm and body size of the animal. Small fibers rich in mitochondria (red fibers) are characteristic of small mammals, which have high metabolic activity and fast breathing rates; and large fibers with relatively low mitochondrial content predominate in large mammals, which have lower metabolic activity and slower breathing rates. In mammals with body size intermediate between these two groups (including the laboratory rat), the diaphragm consists of varying mixtures of fiber types. In general, the mitochondrial content of diaphragm fibers is inversely related to body size. It appears, then, that the red fiber reflects a high degree of metabolic activity or a relatively high rate of contraction within the range exhibited by this muscle. PMID:5950272

  1. Picture archiving and communication systems in digital cytology.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Sandra; Grigioni, Mauro; Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria; Balzano, Simone; Giansanti, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes a fundamental feature of digital cytology relevant to the implementation of the technology in the hospital net services: the electronic recording of the virtual slides (VS) in the hospital information system (HIS) through a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). Starting from the digital cytology (D-CYT) state of art and considering the most important products in the field, particular attention has been devoted in this review to the comparison with the digital radiology (D-RAD). Two main indications emerged from the study: 1. there is not a standard in the digital files relevant to the virtual slides in D-CYT, while in D-RAD the standard digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM), introduced by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA), has been adopted from several years; 2. the PACS in D-CYT are not standardized from manufacturers. The study makes a proposal of a useful software architecture to improve the PACS integration for D-CYT applications, with potentialities in the HIS.

  2. Toward a Cytological Characterization of the Rice Genome

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhukuan; Buell, C. Robin; Wing, Rod A.; Gu, Minghong; Jiang, Jiming

    2001-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) will be the first major crop, as well as the first monocot plant species, to be completely sequenced. Integration of DNA sequence-based maps with cytological maps will be essential to fully characterize the rice genome. We have isolated a set of 24 chromosomal arm-specific bacterial artificial chromosomes to facilitate rice chromosome identification. A standardized rice karyotype was constructed using meiotic pachytene chromosomes of O. sativa spp. japonica rice var. Nipponbare. This karyotype is anchored by centromere-specific and chromosomal arm-specific cytological landmarks and is fully integrated with the most saturated rice genetic linkage maps in which Nipponbare was used as one of the mapping parents. An ideogram depicting the distribution of heterochromatin in the rice genome was developed based on the patterns of 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining of the Nipponbare pachytene chromosomes. The majority of the heterochromatin is distributed in the pericentric regions with some rice chromosomes containing a significantly higher proportion of heterochromatin than other chromosomes. We showed that pachytene chromosome-based fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis is the most effective approach to integrate DNA sequences with euchromatic and heterochromatic features. PMID:11731505

  3. Sexual polyploidization in plants – cytological mechanisms and molecular regulation

    PubMed Central

    De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

    2013-01-01

    In the plant kingdom, events of whole genome duplication or polyploidization are generally believed to occur via alterations of the sexual reproduction process. Thereby, diploid pollen and eggs are formed that contain the somatic number of chromosomes rather than the gametophytic number. By participating in fertilization, these so-called 2n gametes generate polyploid offspring and therefore constitute the basis for the establishment of polyploidy in plants. In addition, diplogamete formation, through meiotic restitution, is an essential component of apomixis and also serves as an important mechanism for the restoration of F1 hybrid fertility. Characterization of the cytological mechanisms and molecular factors underlying 2n gamete formation is therefore not only relevant for basic plant biology and evolution, but may also provide valuable cues for agricultural and biotechnological applications (e.g. reverse breeding, clonal seeds). Recent data have provided novel insights into the process of 2n pollen and egg formation and have revealed multiple means to the same end. Here, we summarize the cytological mechanisms and molecular regulatory networks underlying 2n gamete formation, and outline important mitotic and meiotic processes involved in the ectopic induction of sexual polyploidization. PMID:23421646

  4. [Oral cytology: historical development, current status, and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Hullmann, M; Reichert, T E; Dahse, R; von Eggeling, F; Pistner, H; Kosmehl, H; Driemel, O

    2007-01-01

    Oral cytology has aroused new interest caused by introduction of the cytobrush as a sampling device and the use of additional analytical methods. By brushing it is possible to reach deeper layers of the oral mucosa where squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (SIN) begins. The biological potential of the oral epithelial cells obtained can be evaluated by the following additional methods: computer-assisted image analysis (OralCDx), DNA cytometry, immunohistochemistry, monolayer cytology, and molecular biological analysis. All of those methods can increase sensitivity (up to 100%) and specificity (up to 100%) of oral brush biopsy. Nevertheless, there are reports that oral epithelial carcinomas were not identified. No comparative study exists allowing conclusions to be drawn about the value of the single methods. Immunocytochemistry with commercial antibodies against laminin-5 is generally available and methodologically easy. Oral brush biopsy as a non invasive diagnostic method can be useful for the early detection of oral mucosal lesions. Positive findings or progression of the lesion despite negative findings are indications to refer the patient to a specialized clinic where a surgical biopsy should be performed, followed by histopathological analysis. Histopathology remains the gold standard for the definitive diagnosis of oral malignant lesions.

  5. Primary mammary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma: cytological and histological findings.

    PubMed

    Sentani, Kazuhiro; Tashiro, Takashi; Uraoka, Naohiro; Aosaki, Yoriyuki; Yano, Satomi; Takaeko, Fumio; Yasui, Wataru

    2012-07-01

    Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (MCA), commonly encountered in the ovary or pancreas, is rare in the breast and was only recently described as a distinct variant of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. Only 11 cases of primary mammary MCA have been reported. In this article, we report a case of primary mammary MCA with focus on cytological and histological findings. A 65-year-old female noticed right palpable breast mass. Sonography showed an irregularly shaped 2.8 × 2.4 cm lesion in the upper outer quadrant of the right breast. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was performed on the right breast nodule, and cytopathologic examination suggested an adenocarcinoma composed of tall columnar cells with mucin. A partial mastectomy of the right breast and the axillary lymph nodes dissection was performed. The gross examination revealed a well-demarcated and mucus-filled tumor. Histologically, it had complex papillae, some of which were supported by delicate fibrovascular stroma lined by simple to slightly stratified columnar neoplastic epithelial cells with intracellular mucin, coexisting with MCA in situ and ordinary intraductal carcinoma component (ICC). Immunohistochemically, ICC was HER2-negative and estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor-positive, while MCA was triple negative. MCA might be derived from a metaplasia of ordinary ICC, but its pathogenesis and biologic behavior remains unclear. Despite the invasive nature of mammary MCA, these carcinomas appear to be associated with a good prognosis. The patient has remained well and disease-free for 6 months after the operation.

  6. Five-Year Cervical (Pre)Cancer Risk of Women Screened by HPV and Cytology Testing.

    PubMed

    Uijterwaal, Margot H; Polman, Nicole J; Van Kemenade, Folkert J; Van Den Haselkamp, Sander; Witte, Birgit I; Rijkaart, Dorien; Berkhof, Johannes; Snijders, Peter J F; Meijer, Chris J L M

    2015-06-01

    Primary human papillomavirus (HPV)-based cervical screening will be introduced in the Netherlands in 2016. We assessed the 5-year cervical (pre)cancer risk of women with different combinations of HPV and cytology test results. Special attention was paid to risks for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 and 2 or more (CIN3+/2+) of HPV-positive women with a negative triage test, because this determines the safety of a 5-year screening interval for HPV-positive, triage test-negative women. In addition, age-related effects were studied. A total of 25,553 women were screened by HPV testing and cytology in a screening setting. Women were managed on the presence of HPV and/or abnormal cytology. Five-year cumulative incidences for CIN3+/2+ were calculated. Five-year CIN3+(2+) risk was 10.0% (17.7%) among HPV-positive women. When stratified by cytology, the CIN3+(CIN2+) risk was 7.9% (12.9%) for women with normal cytology and 22.2% (45.3%) for women with equivocal or mildly abnormal (i.e., BMD) cytology. For HPV-negative women, the 5-year CIN3+(2+) risk was 0.09% (0.21%). Additional triage of HPV-positive women with normal cytology by repeat cytology at 12 months showed a 5-year CIN3+(2+) risk of 4.1% (7.0%). HPV-non 16/18-positive women with normal cytology at baseline had comparable risks of 3.5% (7.9%). HPV-non 16/18-positive women with normal baseline cytology and normal repeat cytology had a 5-year CIN3+ risk of 0.42%. No age-related effects were detected. In conclusion, HPV-positive women with normal cytology and a negative triage test, either repeat cytology after 12 months or baseline HPV 16/18 genotyping, develop a non-negligible CIN3+ risk over 5 years. Therefore, extension of the screening interval over 5 years only seems possible for HPV screen-negative women.

  7. Phytosanitary Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, Guy J.; Blackburn, Carl M.

    2016-01-01

    Phytosanitary treatments disinfest traded commodities of potential quarantine pests. Phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments use ionizing radiation to accomplish this, and, since their international commercial debut in 2004, the use of this technology has increased by ~10% annually. Generic PI treatments (one dose is used for a group of pests and/or commodities, although not all have been tested for efficacy) are used in virtually all commercial PI treatments, and new generic PI doses are proposed, such as 300 Gy, for all insects except pupae and adult Lepidoptera (moths). Fresh fruits and vegetables tolerate PI better than any other broadly used treatment. Advances that would help facilitate the use of PI include streamlining the approval process, making the technology more accessible to potential users, lowering doses and broadening their coverage, and solving potential issues related to factors that might affect efficacy. PMID:28231103

  8. Laparoscopic Supracervical Hysterectomy and Laparoscopic Total Hysterectomy in Patients with Very Large Uteri: a Retrospective Single-Center Experience at a Major University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Schöller, Dorit; Taran, Florin-Andrei; Wallwiener, Markus; Schönfisch, Birgitt; Krämer, Bernhard; Abele, Harald; Neis, Felix; Wallwiener, Christian W.; Brucker, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Objective The main objectives of our study were to demonstrate that laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy (LSH) or total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) can be performed safely even in patients with a uterine weight ≥ 500 g, to analyze the rate of conversions to laparotomy due to uterine size and to estimate the incidence and type of intraoperative and long-term postoperative complications. Study Design Retrospective open, single-center, comparative interventional study of LSH and TLH. Results The present study comprised a total of 138 patients that underwent laparoscopic hysterectomy with a uterine weight ≥ 500 g; 109 patients (79.0 %) underwent LSH and 29 patients (21.0 %) underwent TLH. Median uterine weight across the entire cohort was 602 g, with the largest uterus weighing 1860 g. A total of 24 cases (17.4 %) among the 138 hysterectomies were converted to a laparotomy due to lack of adequate intraabdominal space and size of the uterus. Mean uterine weight of the patients in the LSH group that underwent conversion was 883 g (SD 380 g, n = 13) and 757 g (SD 371 g, n = 11) in the TLH group. The rate of conversion to laparotomy due to the uterine weight was significantly lower in the LSH group (11.9 %) compared to the TLH group (37.9 %) (p = 0.002). Intraoperative complications requiring laparotomy for other reasons but uterine size occurred in 6 patients of the study cohort (6/138; 4.3 %). Long-term postoperative complications occurred in 2 patients (2/138, 1.4 %), both patients from LSH group had to be re-operated on due to adhesions. Conclusions Our study adds further insight in the limited data set of laparoscopic hysterectomy for increased uterine weight and shows that LSH and TLH are safe and feasible even in patients with very large uteri (≥ 500 g).

  9. Susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated from uteri of postpartum dairy cows to antibiotic and environmental bacteriophages. Part I: Isolation and lytic activity estimation of bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Bicalho, R C; Santos, T M A; Gilbert, R O; Caixeta, L S; Teixeira, L M; Bicalho, M L S; Machado, V S

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate bacteriophages from environmental samples of 2 large commercial dairy farms using Escherichia coli isolated from the uteri of postpartum Holstein dairy cows as hosts. A total of 11 bacteriophage preparations were isolated from manure systems of commercial dairy farms and characterized for in vitro antimicrobial activity. In addition, a total of 57 E. coli uterine isolates from 5 dairy cows were phylogenetically grouped by triplex PCR. Each E. coli bacterial host from the uterus was inoculated with their respective bacteriophage preparation at several different multiplicities of infections (MOI) to determine minimum inhibitory MOI. The effect of a single dose (MOI=10(2)) of bacteriophage on the growth curve of all 57 E. coli isolates was assessed using a microplate technique. Furthermore, genetic diversity within and between the different bacteriophage preparations was assessed by bacteriophage purification followed by DNA extraction, restriction, and agarose gel electrophoresis. Phylogenetic grouping based on triplex PCR showed that all isolates of E. coli belonged to phylogroup B1. Bacterial growth was completely inhibited at considerably low MOI, and the effect of a single dose (MOI=10(2)) of bacteriophage preparations on the growth curve of all 57 E. coli isolates showed that all bacteriophage preparations significantly decreased the growth rate of the isolates. Bacteriophage preparation 1230-10 had the greatest antimicrobial activity and completely inhibited the growth of 71.7% (n=57) of the isolates. The combined action of bacteriophage preparations 1230-10, 6375-10, 2540-4, and 6547-2, each at MOI=10(2), had the broadest spectrum of action and completely inhibited the growth (final optical density at 600 nm

  10. Incidence and mortality rates in breast, corpus uteri, and ovarian cancers in Poland (1980–2013): an analysis of population-based data in relation to socioeconomic changes

    PubMed Central

    Banas, Tomasz; Juszczyk, Grzegorz; Pitynski, Kazimierz; Nieweglowska, Dorota; Ludwin, Artur; Czerw, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to analyze incidence and mortality trends in breast cancer (BC), corpus uteri cancer (CUC), and ovarian cancer (OC) in Poland in the context of sociodemographic changes. Materials and methods Incidence and mortality data (1980–2013) were retrieved from the Polish National Cancer Registry, while socioeconomic data (1960–2013) were obtained from the World Bank. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated by direct standardization, and join-point regression was performed to describe trends using the average annual percentage change (AAPC). Results A significant decrease in birth and fertility rates and a large increase in gross domestic product were observed together with a decrease in the total mortality rate among women, as well as an increase in life expectancy for women. A large, significant increase in BC incidence was observed (AAPC1980–1990 2.14, AAPC1990–1996 4.71, AAPC1996–2013 2.21), with a small but significant decrease in mortality after a slight increase (AAPC1980–1994 0.52, AAPC1994–2013 −0.66). During the period 1980–2013, a significant increase in CUC incidence (AAPC1980–1994 3.7, AAPC1994–2013 1.93) was observed, with an initial mortality-rate reduction followed by a significant increase (AAPC1980–2006 −1.12, AAPC2006–2013 3.74). After the initial increase of both OC incidence and mortality from 1994, the incidence rate decreased significantly (AAPC1980–1994 2.98, AAPC1994–2013 −0.49), as did the mortality rate (AAPC1980–1994 0.52, AAPC1994–2013 −0.66). Conclusion After 1994, a decrease in OC incidence was found, while the incidence of BC and CUC continued to increase. A reduction in mortality rate was observed for BC and OC predominantly at the end of the study period, while for CUC, after a long decreasing mortality trend, a significant increase was observed. PMID:27660470

  11. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of ameloblastoma and malignant ameloblastoma: a study of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Klapsinou, Eirini; Stavros, Archondakis; Smaragda, Angeli; Despoina, Proestou; Dimitra, Daskalopoulou

    2013-03-01

    Ameloblastoma is an odontogenic tumor with aggressive biological behavior, high recurrence rate, and a complex microscopic appearance with many different histologic patterns. Primary ameloblastoma is also described in extragnathic locations. Because of its wide morphologic spectrum, which is mirrored also in cytologic smears, a thorough study of distinctive features is required to reach a reliable diagnosis. Twelve cases of ameloblastoma were examined both cytologically and histologically. The patients were seven women and five men 24-85 years old, mean age being 64 years. Eleven cases were primary tumors of the mandible and maxilla, and one case was a lung tumor metastatic from the tibia. The epithelial element in the cytologic smears of the various cases was morphologically diverse. The basaloid pattern and minimal nuclear atypia were rather constant findings, and the most helpful features toward reaching a cytological diagnosis. However in most cases, careful consideration of the clinical, radiological, cytological, and occasionally immunocytochemical data was required to rule out other entities with similar cytological findings. In some cases, the final diagnosis was only possible by histologic examination. Due to their variable microscopic morphology, ameloblastomas are quite often misdiagnosed for other entities, both benign and malignant. Nevertheless, when one is aware of their distinctive features, an accurate diagnosis can be made by fine-needle aspiration cytology, in conjunction with clinical and radiological findings. Both the preoperative surgical planning and the postoperative follow-up of the patients benefit significantly from this method.

  12. Cytological Sampling Versus Forceps Biopsy During Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage and Analysis of Factors Predicting Success

    SciTech Connect

    Tapping, C. R.; Byass, O. R.; Cast, J. E. I.

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of cytological sampling and forceps biopsy in obstructing biliary lesions and to identify factors predictive of success. Methods: Consecutive patients (n = 119) with suspected malignant inoperable obstructive jaundice treated with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage during 7 years were included (60 male; mean age 72.5 years). All patients underwent forceps biopsy plus cytological sampling by washing the forceps device in cytological solution. Patient history, procedural and pathological records, and clinical follow-up were reviewed. Statistical analysis included chi-square test and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Histological diagnosis after forceps biopsy was more successful than cytology: Sensitivity was 78 versus 61%, and negative predictive value was 30 versus 19%. Cytology results were never positive when the forceps biopsy was negative. The cytological sample was negative and forceps sample positive in 2 cases of cholangiocarcinoma, 16 cases of pancreatic carcinoma, and 1 case of benign disease. Diagnostic accuracy was predicted by low bilirubin (p < 0.001), aspartate transaminase (p < 0.05), and white cell count (p {<=} 0.05). Conclusions: This technique is safe and effective and is recommended for histological diagnosis during PTBD in patients with inoperable malignant biliary strictures. Diagnostic yield is greater when bilirubin levels are low and there is no sepsis; histological diagnosis by way of forceps biopsy renders cytological sampling unnecessary.

  13. Cervical cytology screening: experience of a general hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Sargeant, E. J.; Qizilbash, A. H.; Johnson, F. L.

    1977-01-01

    At Henderson General Hospital, Hamilton, a program was introduced whereby cervical smears were taken routinely for cytologic study from all women admitted aged 17 years or older. The procedure was performed by a specially trained nurse. In a 5-year period 53% of eligible patients were screened. Of these, 32% had not had a cervical smear taken before. In 7681 smears nine instances of invasive disease were discovered: three of the cervix, three of the endometrium and three metastatic. There were 20 cases of carcinoma in situ and 2 of severe dysplasia. Evidence of infection was present in a high percentage of the smears. Hospital admission affords an excellent opportunity of applying this valuable screening procedure. PMID:912627

  14. The cytology of a thyroid granular cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Mei; Wei, Chang-Kuo; Tseng, Chih-En

    2009-01-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) of the thyroid is rare. Before this report, only four cases of thyroid GCT have been reported, none of which presented a cytopathological examination. In this paper, we report the fine needle aspiration cytology and pathological analysis of a thyroid GCT from a 12-year-old girl who presented with a painless neck mass. The tumor cells were single, in syncytial clusters, or pseudofollicles, contained small round, oval, or spindle nuclei, indistinct nucleoli, and a large amount of grayish, granular fragile cytoplasm. The background contained granular debris and naked nuclei. A differential diagnosis of thyroid GCT with more frequent thyroid lesions containing cytoplasmic granules, including Hurthle cells, macrophages, follicular cells, and cells of black thyroid syndrome, was also performed.

  15. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Diagnosis of Pure Neuritic Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Bipin; Pradhan, Anju

    2011-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infection affecting mainly the skin and peripheral nerve. Pure neuritic form of this disease manifests by involvement of the nerve in the absence of skin lesions. Therefore, it can sometimes create a diagnostic problem. It often requires a nerve biopsy for diagnosis, which is an invasive procedure and may lead to neural deficit. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of an affected nerve can be a valuable and less invasive procedure for the diagnosis of such cases. We report five suspected cases of pure neuritic Hansen's disease involving the common and superficial peroneal, ulnar, and median nerve, who underwent FNAC. Smears revealed nerve fibers infiltrated by chronic inflammatory cells in all cases, presence of epithelioid cells granulomas, and Langhans giant cells in three cases, and acid fast bacilli in two cases. In conclusion, FNAC is a safe, less invasive, and time saving procedure for the diagnosis of pure neuritic leprosy. PMID:21660285

  16. Clinical utility of head and neck aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Karayianis, S L; Francisco, G J; Schumann, G B

    1988-01-01

    Over the past 3.5 yr, we have examined 195 head and neck fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens from three diverse medical settings. Specimens were collected in saline solution or Saccomanno fixative and processed using cytocentrifugation or membrane filtration. This allowed us simultaneously to perform cytologic evaluations, special stains, and immunologic marker studies from a single specimen. Good correlation between clinical experience with FNA and obtaining satisfactory specimens was demonstrated. Our sensitivity (89%) and specificity (94%) reflect problems associated with specimen collection in a training environment where clinician experience with the procedure is low. A definitive diagnosis was possible in most cases, and the treatment plan was often based on the FNA results. In patients without a history of a primary malignancy, a FNA done early in the clinical course helped direct the initial workup of the patient, saving time and expense.

  17. Cytological characterization of Vicia oroboides Wulfen in Jacq.

    PubMed

    Ruffini Castiglione, Monica; Frediani, M; Ravalli, C; Venora, G; Cremonini, R

    2009-07-01

    Vicia oroboides, a rare taxon belonging to section Atossa of subgenus Vicia, was recovered and analysed by means of cytological and karyological methods with the aim of both characterising this species and integrating our knowledge on phylogeny of subgenus Vicia. Automated karyotype analysis and nuclear DNA content have been determined after Feulgen's reaction; chromosome banding was performed by fluorochrome staining to evidence heterochromatic blocks along the chromosome complement. The chromosome number is in line with the values of the species of section Atossa; the GC- and AT-rich sites were identified by CMA and DAPI staining. Karyomorphological parameters, based on symmetry indices, provide information about the phylogenetic position of this species inside the subgenus Vicia. DNA content is reported for the first time.

  18. [Biphenotypic acute leukaemia with Burkitt-like cytology].

    PubMed

    Coche, D; Bergues, B; Harrivel, V; Guillaume, N

    2009-01-01

    Biphenotypic acute leukaemia (BAL) represents about 5% of adult acute leukaemia. Based on a previously described scoring system, the European Group for Immunologic Classification of Leukaemia (EGIL) proposed a set of diagnostic criteria for BAL. This scoring system is based on the number and degree of the specificity of several markers for myeloid or T/B lymphoid blasts. Here, we report the case of a BAL with Burkitt-like cytology, corresponding to "the acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, Burkitt type" L3 for the FAB classification. By flow cytometry, the blasts showed a positivity for B lymphoid cytoplasmic (CD79a and mu) and membrane (CD19, CD22, CD24, IgM) markers AND a positivity for the myeloid (CD13, CD33, CD65, CD15) markers.

  19. DICOM-compatible format for analytical cytology data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.; Leif, Suzanne B.

    1998-04-01

    The addition of a list mode data type to the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine standard, DICOM will enhance the storage and transmission of digital microscopy data and extend DICOM to include flow cytometry data. This would permit the present International Society for analytical Cytology Flow Cytometry Standard to be retired. DICOM includes: image graphics objects, specifications for describing: studies, reports, the acquisition of the data, work list management, and the individuals involved (physician, patient, etc.) The glossary of terms (objects) suitable for use with DICOM has been extended to include the collaborative effort of Logical Observation Identifier Names and Codes (LOINC) and Systematized Nomenclature of Human and Veterinary Medicine (SNOMED) to create a consistent, unambiguous clinical reference terminology. It also appears that DICOM will be a significant part of the Common Object Request Broker Architecture, CORBA.

  20. Myelography and cytology in the treatment of medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, M.; Reigel, D.H.

    1981-06-01

    Eight of 22 children with newly diagnosed medulloblastoma had asymptomatic spinal cord involvement detected by myelography. Two additional patients had demonstrable spinal cord lesions at the time of relapse in the posterior fossa. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) cytology results were inaccurate in predicting cord involvement. Seven patients have relapsed 9 to 69 months from completion of radiotherapy. Three had initial cord involvement and also had subsequent cord involvement at the time of intracranial relapse or afterwards. Frontal lobe involvement as the initial site of relapse occurred in 3 patients. Computerized tomography has been valuable in the early detection of intracranial relapse. Three children are alive and well 10, 18 and 19 months, respectively, from time of relapse. All were retreated with radiotherapy in conjunction with misonidazole and subsequent chemotherapy.

  1. Endometriosis mimicking glandular atypia in a cervical cytology

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez–Urrego, Paula A; Dulcey–Hormiga, Isabel C; Barrera–Herrera, Luis E; Suarez–Zamora, David A; Palau–Lazaro, Mauricio A; Buritica–Cifuentes, Catalina

    2017-01-01

    Endometriosis involving the uterine cervix is a rare condition that can lead to diagnostic errors in the interpretation of Pap smear. We report the case of a 41-year-old patient in whom the initial Pap smear revealed three-dimensional clusters of glandular cells with elongated nuclei, occasional mitosis, and atypia, which was interpreted as atypical glandular cells, not otherwise specified (NOS). The patient was taken to colposcopy and endocervical biopsy. Colposcopy was normal and the biopsy presented glands with elongated nuclei and surrounded by endometrial stroma admixed with normal endocervical glands. Immunohistochemical studies were reactive for CD10 in the stromal cells and vimentin in endometrioid glands. The findings were consistent with cervical endometriosis. Endometriosis in the cervix is an uncommon pathology that mimics malignancy and may be interpreted as atypical or glandular neoplasia in the cytology. PMID:28182083

  2. The Cytological Grading of Malignant Neoplasms of The Breast and Its Correlation With The Histological Grading

    PubMed Central

    Vasudev, Vidya; R., Rangaswamy; V., Geethamani

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Breast carcinoma is one of the leading causes of malignancy in females. The diagnosis of breast carcinoma is often made by fine needle aspiration cytology. Nuclear grading is an important prognostic factor. It is important to grade breast carcinomas, which will provide valuable information to the treating oncologists to plan their management. The purpose of this study was to compare the cytological grading and typing with the histological grading and typing and the regional lymph node metastasis. Methodology: This retrospective and prospective study was done on 60 cases with malignant and suspicious diagnoses on FNAC, which had histopathological correlations, from January 2004 to December 2007. The cytological grading was done by Robinson's Method and the histopathological grading was done by the modified Scarff Bloom Richardson method. Cytological and histological typings were also done. The statistical analysis was done by using the SPSS software: The Chi square test was used and a contingency tale analysis (cross tabs procedure) was also done. Results: The cytohistological grading correlation was accurate in 7 cases (100%) of grade 1, 22 cases (71%) of grade 3 and 9 cases (42.9%) of grade 2 cancers. The accuracy was 62.7% (P < 0.001). A higher cytological grade was associated with a nodal metastasis. (cc : 0.399, P < .006) The cytological typing was accurate in 44 cases out of the 60 cases. Interpretation and Conclusion: The cytological grade correlated well with the histological grading accuracy (62.7%) and a higher grade was associated with a nodal metastasis (P < 0.006), Hence the cytological grading and typing should be routinely incorporated in the cytology reports and they can be of great value in guiding the choice of the treatment protocols. PMID:23905097

  3. [Recollections of the development of clinical cytology at Merkur University Hospital].

    PubMed

    Crepinko, Inga

    2011-09-01

    My recollections of the development of clinical cytology at Merkur University Hospital cover a 30-year period, from 1955 to 1985, and succession of generations. The beginning is always exciting, pervaded by youthful enthusiasm, while memories are quite nostalgic. That is how I also felt at the "Ruzdić's" medical biochemistry laboratory. The founders of clinical cytology at Merkur University Hospital were the clinicians Erik Hauptmann (hematologist), Zdenko Skrabalo (endocrinologist) and Zvonimir Singer (gynecologist, cytogeneticist), with great contribution by Ibrahim Ruzdić (biochemist). As the first head of cytology laboratory at University Department of Medicine, I realized what was crucial for such a successful development of clinical cytology at our Hospital; it was so because new technologies were continuously introduced in agreement with clinicians, along with the basic routine cytodiagnosis, while paying special attention to staff education (postgraduate study in clinical cytology since 1967; residency in cytology since 1974; education of cytotechnologists since 1968). A number of MS theses and doctoral dissertations have been defended at our cytology laboratories. The Section of Cytology (now Croatian Society of Clinical Cytologists, Croatian Medical Association) was founded in 1970, owing to the efforts invested by E. Hauptmann. Clinical cytologists from Merkur University Hospital contributed to the foundation of the Association of Clinical Cytologists of the then Yugoslavia and organized their first congress in 1979; in 1972, we were adopted members of the EFCS, while Z. Singer and I. Crepinko are IAC members. I wish that written memories help remember the foundation and development of clinical cytology at Merkur University Hospital because we should not forget that every future has its origin.

  4. A cytological-physical map of 22q11

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, E.A.; Rizzu, P.; Gaddini, L.

    1994-09-01

    Our laboratory is involved in the construction of a cytological-physical map of 22q11 and isolation of expressed sequences from the region involved in DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) and Velo-Cardio-Facial syndrome (VCFS). One of the goals of the mapping is an understanding of the molecular mechanisms which generate the 22q11 microdeletions observed with high frequency in DGS and VCFS. Our of over 60 deleted patients studied in our laboratory, all but one were deleted for two loci approximately 1-2 Mb apart. There is evidence from patients with balanced and unbalanced translocations that deletion of the whole region is not necessary for determination of the clinical phenotype. Therefore, it is possible that deletion breakpoints occur as a consequence of structural characteristics of the DNA that predispose to rearrangements. A striking characteristic of the 22q11 region is the abundance of low copy repeat sequences. It is reasonable to think that recombination between these repeats may lead to microdeletions. However, a direct demonstration of such mechanism is not available yet. The presence of repeats makes standard physical mapping techniques based on hybridization or STS mapping often difficult to interpret. For example, we have found clones positive for the same STS that are located in different positions within 22q11. For this reason we have used high resolution cytological mapping as a supporting technique for map validation. We present the current status map which includes known polymorphic and non-polymorphic loci, newly isolated clones and chromosomal deletion breakpoints. The map extends from the loci D22S9/D22S24 to TOP1P2. Extended chromatin hybridization experiments visually demonstrate the presence of at least two repeat islands flanking (or at) the region where chromosomal breakpoints of the commonly deleted region occur.

  5. Quantitative risk stratification of oral leukoplakia with exfoliative cytology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao; Li, Jianying; Liu, Xiaoyong; Liu, Xudong; Khawar, Waqaar; Zhang, Xinyan; Wang, Fan; Chen, Xiaoxin; Sun, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Exfoliative cytology has been widely used for early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Test outcome is reported as "negative", "atypical" (defined as abnormal epithelial changes of uncertain diagnostic significance), and "positive" (defined as definitive cellular evidence of epithelial dysplasia or carcinoma). The major challenge is how to properly manage the "atypical" patients in order to diagnose OSCC early and prevent OSCC. In this study, we collected exfoliative cytology data, histopathology data, and clinical data of normal subjects (n=102), oral leukoplakia (OLK) patients (n=82), and OSCC patients (n=93), and developed a data analysis procedure for quantitative risk stratification of OLK patients. This procedure involving a step called expert-guided data transformation and reconstruction (EdTAR) which allows automatic data processing and reconstruction and reveals informative signals for subsequent risk stratification. Modern machine learning techniques were utilized to build statistical prediction models on the reconstructed data. Among the several models tested using resampling methods for parameter pruning and performance evaluation, Support Vector Machine (SVM) was found to be optimal with a high sensitivity (median>0.98) and specificity (median>0.99). With the SVM model, we constructed an oral cancer risk index (OCRI) which may potentially guide clinical follow-up of OLK patients. One OLK patient with an initial OCRI of 0.88 developed OSCC after 40 months of follow-up. In conclusion, we have developed a statistical method for qualitative risk stratification of OLK patients. This method may potentially improve cost-effectiveness of clinical follow-up of OLK patients, and help design clinical chemoprevention trial for high-risk populations.

  6. Digital cytology: current state of the art and prospects for the future.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, David C

    2011-01-01

    The growth of digital methods in pathology is accelerating. Digital images can be used for a variety of applications in cytology, including rapid interpretations, primary diagnosis and second opinions, continuing education and proficiency testing. All of these functions can be performed using small static digital images, real-time dynamic digital microscopy, or whole-slide images. This review will discuss the general principles of digital pathology, its methods and applications to cytologic specimens. As cytologic specimens have unique features compared to histopathology specimens, the key differences will be discussed. Technical and administrative issues in digital pathology applications and the outlook for the future of the field will be presented.

  7. Diagnostic cytology in veterinary medicine: a comparative and evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Leslie C; Wellman, Maxey L

    2011-03-01

    Diagnostic cytology is a core veterinary pathology service involving specimens from domestic animals, laboratory animals, and exotic species. Evidence-based application of cytopathology involves management of preanalytical factors, and thorough evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of the technique in each species and for all specimen types. Unique to veterinary medicine is the reliance on cytology as the basis for crucial medical decisions such as humane euthanasia, especially when the patient is critically ill or when financial considerations limit diagnostic and therapeutic options. This article reviews the cytologic criteria for the diagnosis of selected neoplastic and infectious diseases.

  8. [Five-year application experience of cytological method in dacryological practice].

    PubMed

    At'kova, E L; Fedorov, A A; Reznikova, L V; Krakhovetskiĭ, N N; Iartsev, V D

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the results of a long-term study on application of cytological examination in dacryology. A total of 194 patients (288 eyes) with dacryostenosis, dacryocystitis, and obliteration of lacrimal canaliculi orifices were assessed. Pathogenically oriented conservative treatment, in accordance with the results of clinical, instrumental, and cytological examination, was given to all patients with dacryostenosis. Patients with dacryocystitis and lacrimal canaliculi orifice obliteration received surgical treatment: microendoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy, transcanalicularis laser dacryocystorhinostomy, and microendoscopic canaliculocystorhinostomy. Cytological examination, among other methods, was used to evaluate treatment results. The method has been demonstrated as objective and can be included into the assessment and follow-up algorithm for patients with lacrimal ducts pathology.

  9. Gamma-irradiated onions as a biological indicator of radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Vaijapurkar, S G; Agarwal, D; Chaudhuri, S K; Senwar, K R; Bhatnagar, P K

    2001-10-01

    Post-irradiation identification and dose estimation are required to assess the radiation-induced effects on living things in any nuclear emergency. In this study, radiation-induced morphological/cytological changes i.e., number of root formation and its length, shooting length, reduction in mitotic index, micronuclei formation and chromosomal aberrations in the root tip cells of gamma-irradiated onions at lower doses (50-2000 cGy) are reported. The capabilities of this biological species to store the radiation-induced information are also studied.

  10. Relationship between plant growth and cytological effect in root apical meristem after exposure of wheat dry seeds to carbon ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingfang; Wang, Zhuanzi; Zhou, Libin; Qu, Ying; Lu, Dong; Yu, Lixia; Du, Yan; Jin, Wenjie; Li, Wenjian

    2013-06-01

    In order to analyze the relationship between plant growth and cytological effects, wheat dry seeds were exposed to various doses of 12C6+ beams and the biological endpoints reflecting plant growth and root apical meristem (RAM) activities were investigated. The results showed that most of the seeds were able to germinate normally within all dose range, while the plant survival rate descended at higher doses. The seedling growth including root length and seedling height also decreased significantly at higher doses. Mitotic index (MI) in RAM had no changes at 10 and 20 Gy and decreased obviously at higher doses and the proportion of prophase cells had the same trend with MI. These data suggested that RAM cells experienced cell cycle arrest, which should be responsible for the inhibition of root growth after exposure to higher doses irradiation. Moreover, various types of chromosome aberrations (CAs) were observed in the mitotic cells. The frequencies of mitotic cells with lagging chromosomes and these with anaphase bridges peaked around 60 Gy, while the frequencies of these with fragments increased as the irradiation doses increased up to 200 Gy. The total frequencies of mitotic cells with CAs induced by irradiation increased significantly with the increasing doses. The serious damage of mitotic chromosomes maybe caused cell cycle arrest or cell death. These findings suggested that the influences of 12C6+ beams irradiation on plant growth were related to the alternation of mitotic activities and the chromosomal damages in RAM.

  11. Use of Irradiated Foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1985-01-01

    The safety of irradiated foods is reviewed. Guidelines and regulations for processing irradiated foods are considered. The radiolytic products formed in food when it is irradiated and its wholesomeness is discussed. It is concluded that food irradiation processing is not a panacea for all problems in food processing but when properly used will serve the space station well.

  12. Cytological aspects of antimicrobial antibiosis. II. Cytological changes associated with the exposure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus megaterium to colistin sulfate.

    PubMed

    CHAPMAN, G B

    1962-07-01

    Chapman, George B. (Cornell University Medical College, New York, N.Y.). Cytological aspects of antimicrobial antibiosis. II. Cytological changes associated with the exposure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus megaterium to colistin sulfate. J. Bacteriol. 84:180-185. 1962-Broth cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus megaterium were exposed to the antibiotic colistin sulfate. Control (unexposed) and exposed cells were fixed, dehydrated, and embedded in methacrylate. Ultrathin sections were examined in an RCA EMU2-D electron microscope. Two conspicuous cytological changes were noted in P. aeruginosa. The nuclear material was no longer demonstrable in its normal sites, leaving an empty space, and the cytoplasm lost its granularity, becoming homogeneous. In B. megaterium, the latter change was also noted. The nuclear material, however, although no longer demonstrable, did not leave an empty space. Rather, it seemed that cytoplasmic material had engulfed and masked nuclear areas. Cells which showed these changes were nonviable.

  13. Fine needle aspiration cytology in isolated thyroid swellings: a prospective two year evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sayer, H M; Krukowski, Z H; Williams, V M; Matheson, N A

    1985-01-01

    During 1 September 1981 to August 1982 aspiration cytology was carried out in all isolated thyroid swellings referred to the Aberdeen Thyroid Clinic: cytological findings were not disclosed, did not influence management, and were compared retrospectively with the histological diagnosis. In a total of 70 swellings sensitivity for the detection of neoplasia was 86% and overall accuracy 92%; the positive predictive value was 80% and negative predictive value 96%. During the second year (1 September 1982 to 31 August 1983), when cytological findings were used to influence management, the frequency of operation for isolated thyroid swellings decreased by 25% and the proportion of operations for neoplasia increased from 31% to 50%. In terms of bed occupancy the potentially avoidable surgical workload for benign disease was reduced by 34%. Aspiration cytology, carried out at the first clinic attendance, makes a sound basis for selective surgery and leads to economy in the management of isolated thyroid swellings. PMID:3922546

  14. Prognosis and treatment of patients with positive peritoneal cytology in advanced gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Frattini, Francesco; Rausei, Stefano; Chiappa, Corrado; Rovera, Francesca; Boni, Luigi; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Positive peritoneal cytology in gastric cancer is classified as M1 disease by the 7th Edition of American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system. With the introduction of laparoscopy and peritoneal washing cytology in the staging of gastric cancer a new category of patients has been identified. These are patients with no macroscopic peritoneal metastases but with peritoneal cytology positive (P0C1). Prognosis and treatment of such patients represent a controversial issue. We evaluate the state of the art of staging system in gastric cancer and discuss standardisation in staging and treatment procedures. There is still a lack of uniformity in the use of laparoscopy with peritoneal cytology in clinical decision making and in the surgical treatment for gastric cancer. Survival of this patient subset remains poor. Multimodal therapies and new therapeutic strategies are required to improve the survival of these patients. PMID:23710290

  15. Prognosis and treatment of patients with positive peritoneal cytology in advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Frattini, Francesco; Rausei, Stefano; Chiappa, Corrado; Rovera, Francesca; Boni, Luigi; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo

    2013-05-27

    Positive peritoneal cytology in gastric cancer is classified as M1 disease by the 7(th) Edition of American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system. With the introduction of laparoscopy and peritoneal washing cytology in the staging of gastric cancer a new category of patients has been identified. These are patients with no macroscopic peritoneal metastases but with peritoneal cytology positive (P0C1). Prognosis and treatment of such patients represent a controversial issue. We evaluate the state of the art of staging system in gastric cancer and discuss standardisation in staging and treatment procedures. There is still a lack of uniformity in the use of laparoscopy with peritoneal cytology in clinical decision making and in the surgical treatment for gastric cancer. Survival of this patient subset remains poor. Multimodal therapies and new therapeutic strategies are required to improve the survival of these patients.

  16. Diagnostic pitfalls in fine-needle aspiration cytology of temporomandibular chondroblastoma: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Rafael Adame; Almeida, Margarida; Mendonça, M Evelina; Frable, W J

    2006-06-01

    Chondroblastoma is a benign bone neoplasm, which usually presents in the epiphysis of long bones, but can occur in unusual locations. This report describes the clinical, radiologic, and cytologic features on FNA of two chondroblastomas of the temporomandibular region that were only recognized by histopathologic study. This emphasizes the diagnostic pitfalls of this entity and expands the cytologic differential diagnosis of tumors of the parotid region.

  17. Impact of technology on cytology outcome in cervical cancer screening of young and older women.

    PubMed

    Rask, J; Lynge, E; Franzmann, M; Hansen, B; Hjortebjerg, A; Rygaard, C; Schledermann, D; Wåhlin, A; Rebolj, M

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about age-dependent variation in outcomes of cervical cytology with modern technologies. This population-based study evaluated age-dependent changes after routine implementation of ThinPrep and SurePath technology in two independent laboratories, and controlled for time trends in a third laboratory using manually read conventional cytology continually. Data were collected from the Danish National Health Care Registers. For each laboratory, we compared proportions of abnormal cytology defined as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse (ASCUS+) by age and technology phase. The study included 489,960 cytological samples with no recent abnormality from women aged 23-59 years, routinely screened between 1998 and 2007. Implementation of SurePath liquid-based cytology (LBC) was followed by an increase in abnormal cytology in women aged 23-29 years from 4.6 to 6.1%, relative proportion (RP): 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.61], and a decrease in women aged 45-59 years from 2.9 to 2.0%, RP: 0.71 (95% CI: 0.60-0.83). Implementation of ThinPrep LBC was followed by a decrease in abnormal cytology both in women aged 23-29 years from 7.7 to 6.8%, RP: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.78-1.02) and in women aged 45-59 years from 3.4 to 1.0%, RP: 0.30 (95% CI: 0.24-0.37). With implementation of imaging-assisted reading, regardless of the brand of technology, the proportion of abnormality increased by around 30% in all age groups (range from 19 to 41%). In the laboratory with unchanged technology no trends in abnormality proportions were observed. The impact of LBC implementation on cytological abnormality proportions varied considerably across age groups.

  18. The Relation of Recent Tampon Use, Douching, Coitus, and Vaginal Medications for Reported Cervical Cytology Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    side-effects of the mass screening on cervical cancer . Social Science Medicine, 18(12), 1089- 1093. Sackren, H. S. (1939). Vaginal tampons for menstrual...SUBTITLE 5, FUNDING NUMBERS The Relation of Recent Tamplon Use, Douching, Coitus, and Vaginal Medications for Reported Cervical Cytology Results. 6. AUTHOR...11¾ .. ?j’ 󈧎 U..- THE RELATION OF RECENT TAMPON USE, DOUCHING, COITUS, AND VAGINAL MEDICATIONS TO REPORTED CERVICAL CYTOLOGY RESULTS By MARYANN

  19. Histopathology-like categories based on endometrial imprint cytology in dysfunctional uterine bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Baxi, Seema N.; Panchal, Nirav S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cytology of the endometrium is an underused technique in diagnostic pathology. It has been used in the past for endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma. Only few studies have used cytology in the diagnosis of dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB). Endometrial imprint cytology has been rarely used except for application of immunocytochemistry in diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma. Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate whether it is possible to assign histopathology-like diagnosis by imprint cytology and also to evaluate its usefulness in the assessment of patients of dysfunctional uterine bleeding of low clinical suspicion. Materials and Methods: Imprint smears were made from 93 curettage materials during a study of DUB. Blinded analysis of imprint smears was performed by using McKenzie's criteria and some criteria devised for the requirements of this study. Results of cytology were correlated with histopathology. Statistical analysis was carried out by GraphpadInStat Demo. Results: Majority of the patterns classifiable in histopathology could also be classified in this study on imprint cytology. The overall sensitivity and specificity of cytology in the detection of endometrial patterns in DUB patients were 91.23% and 83.87%, respectively, although the sensitivities and specificities differ according to the phase of endometrium. Conclusion: Histopathology-like categories can be assigned on imprint smears in the diagnosis of DUB. Endometrial imprint cytology can be helpful in centers where histopathology laboratories are not available and even in well-established institutes. It is possible to improve the sensitivity and specificity with better imprinting techniques. PMID:26229245

  20. Cerebrospinal Fluid Cytological Diagnosis in Multiple Myeloma With Leptomeningeal Involvement: A Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Ren, Haitao; Zou, Yueli; Zhao, Yanhuan; Li, Jian; Han, Xiao; He, Junying; Guan, Hongzhi

    2017-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) with central nervous system (CNS) infiltration is uncommon and the diagnosis is more complicated than that of MM. Here we report two cases of CNS MM that was diagnosed by cerebrospinal fluid cytology examination. Cerebrospinal fluid cytology examination can help to detect malignant cells and immunocytochemistry stain is of great value in identifying an unknown tumor. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:66-68. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Pre-operative axillary staging: should core biopsy be preferred to fine needle aspiration cytology?

    PubMed Central

    Vidya, Raghavan; Iqbal, Fahad Mujtaba; Bickley, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology and core needle biopsy (CNB) of axillary lymph nodes pre-operatively in newly diagnosed operable primary breast cancer. Methods An observational study for all patients who underwent pre-operative FNA cytology or CNB during September 2013–August 2014 was conducted at our institution (County Hospital, Stafford, UK). The accuracy of pre-operative axillary staging was compared to the post-operative histology. For this sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated. Results A total of 81 consecutive patients were evaluated by axillary ultrasound. Patients identified with potentially abnormal axillary lymph nodes underwent definitive surgery. Seven patients had positive cytology/histology who did not undergo definitive surgery and were excluded (N = 74) from the study. CNB had a sensitivity of 100% versus 72% (p = 0.006) for FNA cytology. Both had 100% specificity and PPV. The NPV of CNB was 100% versus 72% for FNA cytology. Among 35% of patients that underwent FNA cytology required repeat procedure versus 2.6% of patients who underwent CNB. 0/38 patients that had CNB required a second operation while 7/43 patients with negative FNA cytology had positive lymph nodes identified at sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) requiring surgical re-intervention with axillary node clearance. Conclusion CNB was superior to FNA cytology when interrogating the axilla. We recommend CNB to be adopted routinely in pre-operative axillary staging to reduce surgical re-intervention. PMID:28386294

  2. Synovial fluid cytology in experimental acute canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis).

    PubMed

    Theodorou, Konstantina; Leontides, Leonidas; Siarkou, Victoria I; Petanides, Theodoros; Tsafas, Konstantinos; Harrus, Shimon; Mylonakis, Mathios E

    2015-05-15

    Evidence-based information of a cause-and-effect relationship between Ehrlichia canis infection and polyarthritis in naturally- or experimentally-infected dogs is currently lacking. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate whether synovial fluid cytological evidence of arthritis could be documented in dogs with acute monocytic ehrlichiosis. Direct synovial fluid cytology smears from eight Beagle dogs experimentally infected with E. canis were examined prior to, and on 21, 35 and 63 days post-inoculation. The cytological variables assessed included cellularity, percentages of mononuclear cells and neutrophils, macrophage reactivity and evidence of E. canis morulae. The median cellularity and percentages of mononuclear cells and neutrophils prior to inoculation did not differ when compared to post-inoculation cytological evaluation. Increased cellularity, E. canis morulae or cytological evidence of arthritis or macrophage reactivity were not observed throughout the course of the study. In the present study, no cytological evidence of arthritis was found in dogs with experimental acute canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, suggesting that E. canis infection should be considered a rather uncommon cause of arthritis in dogs.

  3. The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology: The Quest to Develop a Standardized Terminology.

    PubMed

    Barkan, Güliz A; Wojcik, Eva M; Nayar, Ritu; Savic-Prince, Spasenija; Quek, Marcus L; Kurtycz, Daniel F I; Rosenthal, Dorothy L

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of urine cytology is to detect high-grade urothelial carcinoma (HGUC). With this principle in mind, The Paris System (TPS) Working Group, composed of cytopathologists, surgical pathologists, and urologists, has proposed and published a standardized reporting system that includes specific diagnostic categories and cytomorphologic criteria for the reliable diagnosis of HGUC. This paper outlines the essential elements of TPS and the process that led to the formation and rationale of the reporting system. The Paris System Working Group, organized at the 2013 International Congress of Cytology, conceived a standardized platform on which to base cytologic interpretation of urine samples. The widespread dissemination of this approach to cytologic examination and reporting of urologic samples and the scheme's universal acceptance by pathologists and urologists is critical for its success. For urologists, understanding the diagnostic criteria, their clinical implications, and the limitations of TPS is essential if they are to utilize urine cytology and noninvasive ancillary tests in a thoughtful and practical manner. This is the first international/inclusive attempt at standardizing urinary cytology. The success of TPS will depend on the pathology and urology communities working collectively to improve this seminal paradigm shift, and optimize the impact on patient care.

  4. Role of oral exfoliative cytology in predicting premalignant potential of oral submucous fibrosis: A short study.

    PubMed

    Jaitley, Shweta; Agarwal, Pankaj; Upadhyay, Ramballabh

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken with an aim of determining the cytological features observed in mucosal smears of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) patients and comparing them with that of features of normal mucosal cells. The observed features were than analyzed for their reliability in detecting malignant changes in this premalignant condition. Objective of the study was to conduct an oral exfoliative cytology (OEC) study on 30 clinically diagnosed cases of OSF and 30 cases of clinically normal mucosa with no other systemic disease. We observed that all the smears from clinically normal buccal mucosa showed Class I cytology. The exfoliated cells were of normal size and shape with normal staining intensity and normal nuclear characteristics. All the 30 cases of our study group showed features suggestive of benign atypical cytological changes (Class II cytology). In the present study, despite the small number of cases, cytological features consistently observed in all the cases, were indicative of a premalignant change and emphasized a regular follow-up of patients. Early detection of a premalignant oral lesion promises to improve the survival rate of patients suffering from these conditions.

  5. Brush cytology: an adjunct to diagnostic upper GI endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Patwari, A K; Anand, V K; Malhotra, V; Balani, B; Gangil, A; Jain, A; Kapoor, G

    2001-06-01

    Endoscopic brush cytology (EBC) was performed in antral and duodenal brushings of children subjected to upper GI endoscopy for the detection of H. pylori (Hp) and trophozoites of Giardia lamblia (Glt) in addition to routine endoscopic grasp biopsy (EGB). It was hospital based prospective study. EBC was performed in children subjected to upper GI endoscopy with a sheathed cytology brush. Mucosal brushings were collected from antrum, body of the stomach and second or third part of duodenum by gently rubbing the surface of the brush with the mucosal wall in all the directions, brush withdrawn and brushings performed on a glass slide. The smears were placed in 95% ethyl alcohol and later examined for Glt and Hp using Giemsa and Hematoxylin & Eosin stain. EGB was taken from antrum, body of the stomach and duodenum from sites other than those used for brushings. One hundred and seventy children between 1-13 years (median age = 5 years) were subjected to upper GI endoscopy for malabsorption (n = 94), recurrent abdominal pain (n = 49), failure to thrive (n = 16) and recurrent vomiting/regurgitation (n = 11) and EBC was performed in addition to routine EGB. Thirty five children (20.4%) were colonized by Hp, 14 (8.2%) were detected to have Glt and in 6 cases (3.5%) both Hp as well as Glt were detected. Out of 41 cases colonized by Hp, 24 cases (58.5%) were detected by EGB and 27 cases (65.8%) were detected by EBC. Out of 20 children in whom Glt were detected from their duodenum, the detection was by EBG in 12 cases (60%) and by EBC in as many as 19 cases (95%). Comparison of EGB and EBC suggested that detection rates with EBC were higher than EGB. Detection by EBC was significantly higher for Glt than Hp. There were no complications attributed to EBC and procedure time for endoscopy was not significantly prolonged. On the contrary, detection of Hp and particularly Glt in higher proportion of cases with the help of EBC was helpful in their appropriate management. Our results

  6. SOME CYTOLOGICAL AND PATHOGENIC PROPERTIES OF SPHEROPLASTS OF CANDIDA ALBICANS

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, George S.; Friedman, Lorraine; Kofroth, Judith F.

    1964-01-01

    Kobayashi, George S. (Tulane University, New Orleans, La.), Lorraine Friedman, and Judith F. Kofroth. Some cytological and pathogenic properties of spheroplasts of Candida albicans. J. Bacteriol. 88:795–801. 1964.—Spheroplasts of Candida albicans were prepared by use of an enzymatic mixture from the digestive tract of the snail Helix pomatia. Untreated cells exhibited well-defined cell walls, whereas such structures were absent from spheroplasts. The intravenous inoculation of either spheroplasts or intact cells into rabbits produced a fever which was apparent within 30 min, the “immediate” fever response characteristic of microbial endotoxin. Cell-wall fragments of enzyme-treated cells did not induce a convincing pyrogenic response. When the inoculum was viable, body temperatures did not return to normal but remained elevated until death of the animal 1 or more days later, exhibiting the “delayed” fever of infection. The gross pathological picture in animals succumbing to infection by viable spheroplasts was similar to that obtained with untreated yeast cells. Images PMID:14208520

  7. Cytological and molecular characterization of three gametoclones of Citrus clementina

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Three gametoclonal plants of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., cv. Nules, designated ESP, FRA, and ITA (derived from three labs in Spain, France, and Italy, respectively), were selected for cytological and molecular characterization in order to elucidate genomic rearrangements provoked by haploidization. The study included comparisons of their ploidy, homozygosity, genome integrity, and gene dosage, using chromosome counting, flow cytometry, SSR marker genotyping, and array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization (array-CGH). Results Chromosome counting and flow cytometry revealed that ESP and FRA were haploid, but ITA was tri-haploid. Homozygous patterns, represented by a single peak (allele), were observed among the three plants at almost all SSR loci distributed across the entire diploid donor genome. Those few loci with extra peaks visualized as output from automated sequencing runs, generally low or ambiguous, might result from amplicons of paralogous members at the locus, non-specific sites, or unexpected recombinant alleles. No new alleles were found, suggesting the genomes remained stable and intact during gametogenesis and regeneration. The integrity of the haploid genome also was supported by array-CGH studies, in which genomic profiles were comparable to the diploid control. Conclusions The presence of few gene hybridization abnormalities, corroborated by gene dosage measurements, were hypothetically due to the segregation of hemizygous alleles and minor genomic rearrangements occurring during the haploidization procedure. In conclusion, these plants that are valuable genetic and breeding materials contain completely homozygous and essentially intact genomes. PMID:24020638

  8. Cytological and molecular characterization of Vicia barbazitae Ten. & Guss.

    PubMed

    Ruffini Castiglione, M; Frediani, M; Gelati, M T; Venora, G; Giorgetti, L; Caputo, P; Cremonini, R

    2012-07-01

    Vicia barbazitae, a taxon belonging to section Vicia of subgenus Vicia, was recovered and analysed by cytological, karyological and molecular methods with the aim of both proposing a general characterisation of this species and studying the relationships among the species of section Vicia . Phylogenetic relationships among the species of the section Vicia and those of the sections Microcarinae, Wiggersia and Atossa were also analysed. Automated karyotype analysis has been determined after Feulgen's reaction; chromosome banding was performed by sequence-specific fluorochrome staining. Fluorescent chromosome banding showed CMA(+)/DAPI(-) NOR-associated heterochromatin in the satellite pair. Karyomorphological parameters, based on symmetry indices, the dendrogram of linkage distance constructed on 37 chromosome parameters, as well as the molecular data based on internal transcribed spacer sequences provided information about phylogenetic position of this species inside the section Vicia and among the species belonging to the sections Microcarinae, Wiggersia, Atossa and Vicia. From our karyological and molecular results, it emerges that V. barbazitae can be considered a natural member of section Vicia.

  9. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: the added value of cytology.

    PubMed

    Roelens, Marie; Dossier, Claire; Fenneteau, Odile; Couque, Nathalie; Da Costa, Lydie

    2016-06-01

    We report the case of a 2 year-old boy hospitalized into the emergency room for influenza pneumonia infection. The evolution was marked by a respiratory distress syndrome, a severe hemolytic anemia, associated with thrombocytopenia and kidney failure. First, a diagnosis of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) has been judiciously suggested due to the classical triad: kidney failure, hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. But, strikingly, blood smears do not exhibit schizocytes, but instead ghosts and hemighosts, some characteristic features of a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Our hypothesis has been confirmed by enzymatic dosage and molecular biology. The unusual initial aplastic feature of this anemia could be the result of a transient erythroblastopenia due to the viral agent, at the origin of the G6PD crisis on a background of a major erythrocyte anti-oxydant enzyme defect. This case of G6PD defect points out the continuously importance of the cytology, which was able to redirect the diagnosis by the hemighost and ghost detection.

  10. Relationship between prostatomegaly, prostatic mineralization, and cytologic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Christina A; Westropp, Jodi L; Pollard, Rachel E

    2009-01-01

    Canine prostatic disease is commonly evaluated with abdominal ultrasound and radiographs. Mineralization of the prostate is often reported, but the clinical relevance of this finding is currently not known. The-purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship between ultrasonographic and radiographic prostate mineralization and the final diagnosis. Medical records of 55 dogs with evidence of prostatomegaly or prostatic mineralization and a cytologic diagnosis were evaluated. Radiographs and ultrasound images were assessed for caudal retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, vertebral lesions, or other signs of metastasis, and mineralization was assessed semiquantitatively. Twenty-two of 55 (40%) dogs had prostatic neoplasia. Regarding neoplasia, mineralization in neutered dogs had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%, a negative predictive value (NPV) of 50%, and a sensitivity and specificity of 84% and 100%, respectively. Mineralization in intact dogs had a PPV of 22%, an NPV of 96%, and a sensitivity and specificity of 67% and 77%, respectively. All neutered dogs with prostatomegaly but not prostatic neoplasia had bacterial prostatitis and were castrated within the previous 3 months. Intact dogs with prostatomegaly and mineralization but not neoplasia had paraprostatic cysts (n = 3), benign prostatic hyperplasia (n = 2) or prostatitis (n = 2). Mineralization score was not indicative of neoplasia. In conclusion, neutered dogs with prostatic mineralization were very likely to have prostatic neoplasia. Intact dogs were unlikely to have prostatic neoplasia if no mineralization was found on radiographs or ultrasound.

  11. Diagnosis of anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement in cytological samples through a fluorescence in situ hybridization-based assay: Cytological smears versus cell blocks.

    PubMed

    Zito Marino, Federica; Rossi, Giulio; Brunelli, Matteo; Malzone, Maria Gabriella; Liguori, Giuseppina; Bogina, Giuseppe; Morabito, Alessandro; Rocco, Gaetano; Franco, Renato; Botti, Gerardo

    2017-02-14

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) status analysis of lung cytological specimens should be successfully encouraged in routine practice because biopsy specimens are not always available. To date, the US Food and Drug Administration has approved both fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) as diagnostic tests for identifying ALK-positive patients eligible for treatment with crizotinib. Although ALK IHC is an optimal diagnostic tool, FISH becomes mandatory in equivocal cases. ALK FISH of paraffin-embedded tissue material is still the gold standard, whereas the cytological specimen assay has not yet been completely standardized. Many controversial data have been reported on the adequacy of cytology cell blocks (CBs) versus conventional smears for FISH testing. This review discusses some critical issues related to ALK FISH of cytological samples, including the triaging of collected specimens to optimize the material, the use of CBs versus conventional smears, and alternative methods for an ALK rearrangement diagnosis. Conventional smears have the advantages of an immediate evaluation, no probe tissue-related artifactual loss, no fixation-related alterations, and usually sufficient material for an analytic preparation. On the other hand, CBs have several advantages, including the appropriate conservation of the tissue architecture, an absence of problems related to cell overlapping, and the ability to evaluate neoplastic cells in a dark field. Cancer Cytopathol 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  12. Accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions: routine diagnostic experience in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nguansangiam, Sudarat; Jesdapatarakul, Somnuek; Dhanarak, Nisarat; Sosrisakorn, Krittika

    2012-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is well accepted as a safe, reliable, minimal invasive and cost-effective method for diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. This study evaluated the accuracy and diagnostic performance of FNA cytology in Thailand. A consecutive series of 290 samples from 246 patients during January 2001-December 2009 were evaluated from the archive of the Anatomical Pathology Department of our institution and 133 specimens were verified by histopathologic diagnoses, obtained with material from surgical excision or biopsy. Cytologic diagnoses classified as unsatisfactory, benign, suspicious for malignancy and malignant were compared with the histopathological findings. Among the 133 satisfactory specimens, the anatomic sites were 70 (52.6%) parotid glands and 63 (47.4 %) submandibular glands. FNA cytological diagnoses showed benign lesions in 119 cases (89.5 %), suspicious for malignancy in 3 cases (2.2 %) and malignant in 11 cases (8.3%). From the subsequent histopathologic diagnoses, 3/133 cases of benign cytology turned out to be malignant lesions, the false negative rate being 2.2 % and 1/133 case of malignant cytology turned out to be a benign lesion, giving a false positive rate was 0.8%. The overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 97.0% (95% CI, 70.6%-99.4%), 81.3% (95% CI, 54.4%-96.0%), 99.1% (95% CI, 95.4%-100%), 92.9% (95% CI, 66.1%-99.8), 97.5% (95% CI, 92.8%-99.5%), respectively. This study indicated that FNA cytology of salivary gland is a reliable and highly accurate diagnostic method for diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. It not only provides preoperative diagnosis for therapeutic management but also can prevent unnecessary surgery.

  13. Cytology in the diagnosis of cervical cancer in symptomatic young women: a retrospective review

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Anita WW; Landy, Rebecca; Castanon, Alejandra; Hollingworth, Antony; Hamilton, Willie; Dudding, Nick; Sasieni, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer in young women presents a diagnostic challenge because gynaecological symptoms are common but underlying disease is rare. Aim To explore the potential for using cytology as a diagnostic aid for cervical cancer in young women. Design and setting Retrospective review of primary care records and cytology data from the national cervical screening database and national audit of cervical cancers. Method Four datasets of women aged 20–29 years in England were examined: primary care records and national screening data from an in-depth study of cervical cancers; cytology from the national audit of cervical cancers; whole-population cytology from the national screening database; and general-population primary care records from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. The authors explored the sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of symptomatic cytology (earliest <12 months before diagnosis) to cervical cancer. Results The estimated prevalence of cervical cancer among symptomatic women was between 0.4% and 0.9%. The sensitivity of moderate dyskaryosis (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [HSIL]) or worse in women aged 20–29 years was 90.9% to 96.2% across datasets, regardless of symptom status. The PPV was estimated to be between 10.0% and 30.0%. For women aged 20–24 years, the PPV of ‘?invasive squamous carcinoma’ was 25.4%, and 2.0% for severe or worse cytology. Conclusion Cytology has value beyond screening, and could be used as a diagnostic aid for earlier detection of cervical cancer in young women with gynaecological symptoms by ruling in urgent referral. PMID:27777232

  14. Type-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus by cervical cytology among women in Brasov, Romania.

    PubMed

    Moga, Marius Alexandru; Irimie, Marius; Oanta, Alexandru; Pascu, Alina; Burtea, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    The oncogenic role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in triggering cervical cancer, the second most common cancer in women worldwide, is well established. Romania ranks in first place in Europe in terms of the incidence of cervical cancer. Geographical widespread data on HPV type-distribution are essential for estimating the impact of HPV vaccines and cervical cancer screening programmes. In this study we aimed to identify the prevalence of HPV genotypes and to establish correlations with abnormal cervical cytology among the female population of Brasov County, Romania. A total of 1,000 women aged 17.3-57 years, attending routine cervical examination in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Brasov, Romania, and undergoing both cytological examination and HPV genotyping were screened. Infection with 35 different HPV genotypes was detected in 39.6% of cytological specimens. Overall HPV infections were highest in young women under 25 years (p<0.0001), in which cervical cytological abnormalities also reached the highest prevalence. Patients infected by HPV-16 or HPV-18 showed the highest prevalence of cervical cytological abnormalities. Some 48.2% of women with abnormal cytology were infected with high-risk HPV types whereas less than 3% of them were infected only with low-risk HPV types. Our study showed that the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection among Romanian women is higher compared to other studies in other geographic areas. Thus, we consider that in areas where there is an increased prevalence of high-risk HPV infections, HPV genotyping should be performed in all women aged between 18 and 45 years, and Pap test should be performed every 6 months in women with high-risk HPV infection, even those with previous normal cervical cytology.

  15. Susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated from uteri of postpartum dairy cows to antibiotic and environmental bacteriophages. Part II: In vitro antimicrobial activity evaluation of a bacteriophage cocktail and several antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Santos, T M A; Gilbert, R O; Caixeta, L S; Machado, V S; Teixeira, L M; Bicalho, R C

    2010-01-01

    The use of pathogenic-specific antimicrobials, as proposed by bacteriophage therapy, is expected to reduce the incidence of resistance development. Eighty Escherichia coli isolated from uteri of Holstein dairy cows were phenotypically characterized for antimicrobial resistance to ampicillin, ceftiofur, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, spectinomycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline by broth microdilution method. The lytic activity of a bacteriophage cocktail against all isolates was performed by a similar method. Additionally, the effect of different concentrations of antimicrobials and multiplicities of infections (MOI) of the bacteriophage cocktail on E. coli growth curve was measured. Isolates exhibited resistance to ampicillin (33.7%), ceftiofur (1.2%), chloramphenicol (100%), and florfenicol (100%). All strains were resistant to at least 2 of the antimicrobial agents tested; multidrug resistance (>or=3 of 7 antimicrobials tested) was observed in 35% of E. coli isolates. The major multidrug resistance profile was found for ampicillin-chloramphenicol-florfenicol, which was observed in more than 96.4% of the multidrug-resistant isolates. The bacteriophage cocktail preparation showed strong antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant E. coli. Multiplicity of infection as low as 10(-4) affected the growth of the E. coli isolates. The ratio of 10 bacteriophage particles per bacterial cell (MOI=10(1)) was efficient in inhibiting at least 50% of all isolates. Higher MOI should be tested in future in vitro studies to establish ratios that completely inhibit bacterial growth during longer periods. All isolates resistant to florfenicol were resistant to chloramphenicol and, because florfenicol was recently introduced into veterinary clinics, this finding suggests that the selection pressure of chloramphenicol, as well as other antimicrobials, may still play a relevant role in the emergence and dissemination of florfenicol resistance in E. coli. The bacteriophage

  16. Fine needle aspiration cytology of 650 thyroid nodules operated for multinodular goiter: a cyto-histological correlation based on the new Italian cytological classification (siapec 2014).

    PubMed

    Tartaglia, F; Giuliani, A; Tromba, L; Carbotta, S; Karpathiotakis, M; Tortorelli, G; Pelle, F; Merola, R; Donello, C; Carbotta, G; De Anna, L; Conzo, G; Sorrenti, S; Ulisse, S

    2016-01-01

    The new Italian cytological classification (SIAPEC 2014) of thyroid nodules, in line with those of Bethesda and BTA-RCPath, replaces the previous TIR3 class with two new classes (TIR3A and TIR3B), which correspond to different risks of malignancy and clinical actions required. The present study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the new SIAPEC classification as opposed to its previous version (SIAPEC 2007). Preoperative cytology was compared with the final histology obtained from 650 consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for multinodular goiter. Of this total, 434 patients (group A) had their cytological diagnosis based on the old SIAPEC 2007 classification and 216 patients (group B) had their cytological diagnosis based on the SIAPEC 2014 classification. In group A 111 patients (25.6%) had a TIR3 diagnosis, while in group B 52 patients (24.1%) received a TIR3 diagnosis, of whom 30 had TIR3A and 22 had TIR3B. In group A, 46 (41.4%) out of the 111 patients with TIR3 diagnosis had, based on histology, a thyroid carcinoma. In group B, only 2 (6.7%) out of 30 patients with TIR3A diagnosis had a thyroid carcinoma. This rate of malignancy was significantly lower (p less than 0.001) than that observed in patients with TIR3B diagnosis, in which 12 (54.5%) out of 22 patients had a carcinoma. The observations here reported show that, in respect to the previous version, the new Italian cytological classification provides greater diagnostic accuracy for detecting thyroid nodule malignancy.

  17. Commercial food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Black, E.F.; Libby, L.M.

    1983-06-01

    Food irradiation is discussed. Irradiation exposes food to gamma rays from a cobalt-60 or a cesium-137 source, or to high-energy electrons emitted by an electron accelerator. A major advantage is that food can be packaged either before or after treatment. FDA regulations with regard to irradiation are discussed. Comments on an 'Advance Notice' on irradiation, published by the FDA in 1981 are summarized.

  18. Reliability of a rapid hematology stain for sputum cytology*

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Jéssica; Pizzichini, Emilio; Pizzichini, Marcia Margaret Menezes; Steidle, Leila John Marques; Rocha, Cristiane Cinara; Ferreira, Samira Cardoso; Zimmermann, Célia Tânia

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the reliability of a rapid hematology stain for the cytological analysis of induced sputum samples. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study comparing the standard technique (May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain) with a rapid hematology stain (Diff-Quik). Of the 50 subjects included in the study, 21 had asthma, 19 had COPD, and 10 were healthy (controls). From the induced sputum samples collected, we prepared four slides: two were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa, and two were stained with Diff-Quik. The slides were read independently by two trained researchers blinded to the identification of the slides. The reliability for cell counting using the two techniques was evaluated by determining the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for intraobserver and interobserver agreement. Agreement in the identification of neutrophilic and eosinophilic sputum between the observers and between the stains was evaluated with kappa statistics. Results: In our comparison of the two staining techniques, the ICCs indicated almost perfect interobserver agreement for neutrophil, eosinophil, and macrophage counts (ICC: 0.98-1.00), as well as substantial agreement for lymphocyte counts (ICC: 0.76-0.83). Intraobserver agreement was almost perfect for neutrophil, eosinophil, and macrophage counts (ICC: 0.96-0.99), whereas it was moderate to substantial for lymphocyte counts (ICC = 0.65 and 0.75 for the two observers, respectively). Interobserver agreement for the identification of eosinophilic and neutrophilic sputum using the two techniques ranged from substantial to almost perfect (kappa range: 0.91-1.00). Conclusions: The use of Diff-Quik can be considered a reliable alternative for the processing of sputum samples. PMID:25029648

  19. Intranuclear Pseudo-inclusions and Grooves in Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Maral; Kumar, Perikala Vijayananda

    2016-02-01

    Cytologic findings of pulmonary carcinoid have been well described. We report new cytological findings in a case of carcinoid tumor. The patient is a 36-year-old man presenting with hemoptysis of about six months in duration. Chest CT scans showed a well-defined round polypoid lesion measuring 1 × 1 cm within the right upper lobe of the bronchus with hyperinflation of the right upper lobe. Trans-bronchial fine needle aspiration and biopsy were done. Cytologic smears showed isolated and loose clusters of uniform round to spindle shape cells with round centrally located nuclei, fine granular (salt and pepper) chromatin and pale cytoplasm. Intranuclear pseudo-inclusions and grooves were seen in some tumor cells. No mitotic figures or necrosis were evident. A cytological diagnosis of carcinoid tumor was made and histopathologic examination and subsequent immunohistochemical study confirmed the diagnosis. Carcinoid tumor may be reliably diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology smears. Intranuclear pseudo-inclusions and grooves may be evident in tumor cells.

  20. All lesions great and small, part 2. Diagnostic cytology in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Leslie C; Seelig, Davis M; Overmann, Jed

    2014-06-01

    This is the second in a two-part review of diagnostic cytopathology in veterinary medicine. As in human medicine, cytopathology is a minimally invasive, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic modality with broad utilization. In this second part, the diagnostic applications of cytology in respiratory, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, endocrine, ocular, and central nervous system tissues are discussed with a section describing fluid analysis in veterinary medicine. As noted in the previous manuscript, which characterized the cytology of the skin/subcutis, musculoskeletal, and lymphoid tissues, the interpretation of veterinary cytology samples must be undertaken with extensive knowledge of the breadth of animal species, including familiarity with the frequency and clinical progression of diseases, both of which can be influenced by species, breed, and husbandry conditions. Similar to part one, this review focuses on the most common domestic companion animal species (dog, cat, and horse) and highlights lesions that are either unique to veterinary species or have relevant correlates in people. The cytologic features and biological behavior of similar lesions are compared, and selected mechanisms of disease and ancillary diagnostics are reviewed when appropriate. Supporting figures illustrate a subset of lesions. While not an exhaustive archive of veterinary cytology, the goal is to give cytopathologists working in human medicine a general impression of correlates and unique entities in veterinary practice.

  1. Diagnosis of pancreaticobiliary malignancy by detection of minichromosome maintenance protein 5 in biliary brush cytology

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Margaret G; Huggett, Matthew T; Chapman, Michael H; Johnson, Gavin J; Webster, George J; Thorburn, Douglas; Mackay, James; Pereira, Stephen P

    2017-01-01

    Background: Biliary brush cytology is the standard method of evaluating biliary strictures, but is insensitive at detecting malignancy. In pancreaticobiliary cancer minichromosome maintenance replication proteins (MCM 2–7) are dysregulated in the biliary epithelium and MCM5 levels are elevated in bile samples. This study aimed to validate an immunocolorimetric ELISA assay for MCM5 as a pancreaticobiliary cancer biomarker in biliary brush samples. Methods: Biliary brush specimens were collected prospectively at ERCP from patients with a biliary stricture. Collected samples were frozen at −80 °C. The supernatant was washed and lysed cells incubated with HRP-labelled anti-MCM5 mouse monoclonal antibody. Test positivity was determined by optical density absorbance. Patients underwent biliary brush cytology or additional investigations as per clinical routine. Results: Ninety-seven patients were included in the study; 50 had malignant strictures. Median age was 65 years (range 21–94) and 51 were male. Compared with final diagnosis the MCM5 assay had a sensitivity for malignancy of 65.4% compared with 25.0% for cytology. In the 72 patients with paired MCM5 assay and biliary brush cytology, MCM5 demonstrated an improved sensitivity (55.6% vs 25.0% P=0.0002) for the detection of malignancy. Conclusions: Minichromosome maintenance replication protein5 is a more sensitive indicator of pancreaticobiliary malignancy than standard biliary brush cytology. PMID:28081547

  2. Thyroid Paraganglioma: "Naked" Nuclei as a Clue to Diagnosis on Imprint Cytology.

    PubMed

    Taweevisit, Mana; Bunyayothin, Wasakorn; Thorner, Paul Scott

    2015-09-01

    A cytologic diagnosis of paraganglioma of the thyroid is difficult to make because the thyroid gland is an unusual location for such a tumor and the cytologic findings overlap with other benign and malignant thyroid tumors. We report the case of a 28-year-old female presenting with a solitary mass of the right thyroid gland. A diagnosis of paraganglioma was made on the resected specimen. At the time of tumor resection, imprint cytology was performed. The imprint was hypercellular with cohesive sheets of round cells showing anisokaryosis and anisocytosis. Moreover, there was a second cell type consisting of oval nuclei with dispersed nuclear chromatin present within the sheets and separate as "naked" nuclei. By immunohistochemistry, the cohesive round cells were positive for chromogranin A, indicating chief cells. The naked nuclei were positive for S-100 protein, indicating sustentacular cells. To the best our knowledge, this is the first case report describing naked nuclei as a cytologic feature of paraganglioma. Identification of sustentacular cells provides a clue for the cytologic diagnosis of paraganglioma.

  3. The role of cytology in oral lesions: a review of recent improvements.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Historically, sensitivity and specificity of oral cytology is poor. Using conventional oral cytology for the diagnosis of cancer and its precursors has not had the success that cytologists had hoped for; however, with improved methodology, oral cytology has enjoyed a resurgence of interest. This renewed interest is partly due to the introduction of a specialized brush that collects a full-thickness epithelial sample and not just superficially sloughed cells, as well as analysis of that sample with computer assistance; in addition, a variety of adjunctive techniques have been introduced to potentially enhance the diagnosis of the cytologic specimens including DNA analysis, immunocytochemistry, molecular analysis, and liquid-based preparations. An increase in sensitivity (>96%) and specificity (>90%) of the oral brush biopsy with computer-assisted diagnosis has been reported for identification of malignant and premalignant lesions. Brush cytology is valuable to prevent misdiagnosing doubtful oral lesions, i.e., those lesions without a definitive etiology, diagnosing large lesions where excision of the entire tissue is not possible or practicable, evaluating patients with recurrent malignancies, and monitoring premalignant lesions.

  4. Papillary neoplasms of the breast: clues in fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Aracil, V; Mayayo, E; Azua, J; Arraiza, A

    2002-02-01

    Papillary neoplasms of the breast include a wide spectrum of mammary lesions. The differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions can be problematic not only cytologically, but also histopathologically. Aspiration smears can demonstrate that cytological differentiation is feasible. A retrospective study of 30 cases of papillary tumour of the breast, 15 papillary carcinomas and 15 papillomas, was performed to find the cytological differences between the pathologies. Cytological samples of papillary carcinomas were characterized by an abundance of cellular material, three-dimensional papillary clusters without fibrovascular connective tissue cores, small papillae arranged in cell balls, tall columnar cells and isolated naked nuclei. Numerous haemosiderin-laden macrophages were seen. There were no eosinophilic bipolar cytoplasmic granules, bipolar naked nuclei or apocrine metaplasia. In the papillomas there was less material; the papillae had cohesive stalks surrounded by columnar cells in a honeycomb pattern. We also found fewer small papillae and isolated columnar cells. In addition, the presence of apocrine metaplasia and bipolar naked nuclei was noted. We suggest that papillary carcinoma of the breast can be diagnosed by cytology and differentiated from papilloma.

  5. Detection of EGFR and KRAS Mutation by Pyrosequencing Analysis in Cytologic Samples of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Eun; Lee, So-Young; Park, Hyung-Kyu; Oh, Seo-Young; Kim, Hee-Joung; Lee, Kye-Young; Kim, Wan-Seop

    2016-08-01

    EGFR and KRAS mutations are two of the most common mutations that are present in lung cancer. Screening and detecting these mutations are of issue these days, and many different methods and tissue samples are currently used to effectively detect these two mutations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the testing for EGFR and KRAS mutations by pyrosequencing method, and compared the yield of cytology versus histology specimens in a consecutive series of patients with lung cancer. We retrospectively reviewed EGFR and KRAS mutation results of 399 (patients with EGFR mutation test) and 323 patients (patients with KRAS mutation test) diagnosed with lung cancer in Konkuk University Medical Center from 2008 to 2014. Among them, 60 patients had received both EGFR and KRAS mutation studies. We compared the detection rate of EGFR and KRAS tests in cytology, biopsy, and resection specimens. EGFR and KRAS mutations were detected in 29.8% and 8.7% of total patients, and the positive mutation results of EGFR and KRAS were mutually exclusive. The detection rate of EGFR mutation in cytology was higher than non-cytology (biopsy or resection) materials (cytology: 48.5%, non-cytology: 26.1%), and the detection rate of KRAS mutation in cytology specimens was comparable to non-cytology specimens (cytology: 8.3%, non-cytology: 8.7%). We suggest that cytology specimens are good alternatives that can readily substitute tissue samples for testing both EGFR and KRAS mutations. Moreover, pyrosequencing method is highly sensitive in detecting EGFR and KRAS mutations in lung cancer patients.

  6. Utility of peritoneal washing cytology in staging and prognosis of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms: a 10-year retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Whitney; Madan, Rashna; O'Neil, Maura; Tawfik, Ossama W; Fan, Fang

    2016-06-01

    The prognostic significance of peritoneal washing cytology in gynecologic neoplasms is controversial. The presence of neoplastic cells in peritoneal washings is currently part of the Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics and American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging systems in cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms without metastasis beyond the pelvis. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed all cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms in which cytologic studies were performed. The utility of cytology in tumor staging and the relationship between cytology results and patient outcome are studied. All cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms in our institution between July 2002 and July 2012 were reviewed. Primary tumor characteristics including type and pelvic extension were collected, categorized, and correlated with peritoneal washing cytology. Final tumor staging was reviewed and the impact of positive cytology was evaluated. A total of 120 cases of ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms without extrapelvic metastasis were identified within the study period. Peritoneal washing cytology was positive in 24% (29/120) of neoplasms and upstaged the tumor 83% (24/29) of the time when positive. Overall, 20% (24/120) of reviewed cases were upstaged based on positive cytology results. Peritoneal washing cytology remains a useful staging tool for ovarian and fallopian tube neoplasms limited to the pelvic cavity. Positive cytology results in upstaging in a significant proportion of the cases regardless of the tumor type. A larger study is needed to analyze follow-up data to determine if upstaging based on positive cytology adversely affects outcome.

  7. Welding irradiated stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.; Chandler, G.T.; Nelson, D.Z.; Franco-Ferreira, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    Conventional welding processes produced severe underbead cracking in irradiated stainless steel containing 1 to 33 appm helium from n,a reactions. A shallow penetration overlay technique was successfully demonstrated for welding irradiated stainless steel. The technique was applied to irradiated 304 stainless steel that contained 10 appm helium. Surface cracking, present in conventional welds made on the same steel at the same and lower helium concentrations, was eliminated. Underbead cracking was minimal compared to conventional welding methods. However, cracking in the irradiated material was greater than in tritium charged and aged material at the same helium concentrations. The overlay technique provides a potential method for repair or modification of irradiated reactor materials.

  8. The role of cytology in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal neoplasms: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Pablo Moura de Andrade; Oliveira, Marcelo Parente; da Silva, Hilton Justino; de Mello, Roberto José Vieira

    2012-01-01

    The authors systematically reviewed the literature of the last decade on the role of cytology in the evaluation of musculoskeletal neoplasms, and its diagnostic accuracy. A search was carried out on the databases PubMed, MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO, selecting articles in which cytology was used in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal neoplasms. Limits were used for English, Spanish and Portuguese, and only articles published since 2000 were selected. 757 articles were retrieved, 24 of which were selected based on criteria of inclusion and exclusion. It was concluded that although promising in the assessment of musculoskeletal neoplasms, cytology obtained by fine needle aspiration is less accurate and reliable than histological evaluation of such lesions. PMID:24453581

  9. Pure primary signet ring cell carcinoma breast: A rare cytological diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Jashan; Dubey, V. K.; Makkar, Manisha; Suri, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    Signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of the breast is a rare tumor and it is classified by World Health Organization in 2003 classification under ‘mucin producing carcinomas’. Pure form of SRCC breast is an extremely rare entity and very few cases have been reported in literature so far. We present a case of pure primary SRCC of the breast in a 70-year-old female, which was diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. Cytological features generally show cellular smears with tumor cells showing eccentrically placed large, irregular nuclei showing indentations at places with cytoplasmic vacuoles. This case is being presented in view of its characteristic cytological features and its rarity. PMID:24130416

  10. Application of cytology and molecular biology in diagnosing premalignant or malignant oral lesions.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Ravi; Gupta, Anurag; Singh, Mamta; Ibrahim, Rahela

    2006-03-23

    Early detection of a premalignant or cancerous oral lesion promises to improve the survival and the morbidity of patients suffering from these conditions. Cytological study of oral cells is a non-aggressive technique that is well accepted by the patient, and is therefore an attractive option for the early diagnosis of oral cancer, including epithelial atypia and squamous cell carcinoma. However its usage has been limited so far due to poor sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing oral malignancies. Lately it has re-emerged due to improved methods and it's application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. Newer diagnostic techniques such as "brush biopsy" and molecular studies have been developed. Recent advances in cytological techniques and novel aspects of applications of scraped or exfoliative cytology for detecting these lesions and predicting their progression or recurrence are reviewed here.

  11. Fine needle aspiration cytology of chondroblastoma: A report of two cases with brief review of pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Krishnappa, Amita; Shobha, SN; Shankar, S Vijay; Aradhya, Sushma

    2016-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rare, giant cell-rich, benign neoplasm of bone. Since the past few decades fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has gained momentum in preoperative diagnosis of bone lesions. At cytology, other giant cell-rich tumors and tumorlike lesions such as aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), giant cell tumor, and chondromyxoid fibroma fall under the differential diagnosis of chondroblastoma. Due to the difference in the treatment protocol and prognosis, preoperative diagnosis is mandatory. We describe the cytomorphology in two cases of chondroblastoma diagnosed at FNAC and confirmed by histopathology. At cytology, the presence of giant cells, chondroid matrix, mononuclear cells with nuclear indentation, and grooving along with glassy, vacuolated cytoplasm are characteristic of chondroblastoma. In addition to this, the presence of chicken wire calcification is a useful clue to the accurate diagnosis of chondroblastoma at FNAC. PMID:27011442

  12. Immunoglobulin concentrations in cervical mucus in patients with normal and abnormal cervical cytology.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, B M; Skinner, G R

    1977-02-01

    The cervical mucus of 31 patients with normal and 16 patients with abnormal cervical cytology was investigated at each stage of the menstrual cycle for immunoglobulin IgG, IgA and IgM. IgG and IgA were present in every mucus sample, while IgM was only occasionally found in trace amounts. IgG and IgA increased towards the last week of the menstrual cycle, the increase being in general more marked for IgA. Patients with abnormal cervical cytology showed increased IgG and, more strikingly, IgA concentrations in their cervical mucus, but there was no correlation between the IgG and IgA concentrations at any stage of the menstrual cycle. Whereas in patients with normal cervical cytology the IgG and IgA concentrations correlated throughout the menstrual cycle.

  13. External cobalt 60 irradiation alone for stage IIB carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Z.Z.; He, F.Z.

    1989-02-01

    From 1964 to 1980, 97 patients with Stage IIb carcinoma of cervix uteri were treated by external 60Co irradiation alone. Of these 97 patients, 94 (96.9%) had squamous cell carcinoma. The parametrial extension of the lesion almost reached the pelvic wall in 73.2% and vaginal extension reached to the upper half of vaginal in 24.7% of the patients. A tumor dose of 60 Gy was given to the whole pelvis by a four field technic (opposing parallel AP and lateral portals) in 6-8 weeks. A booster dose of 10 Gy was delivered to the cervix by a pair of reduced opposing parallel AP portals or a perineal portal in a week. The doses delivered were equivalent to the Time-Dose-Fractionation (TDF) value of 110-130 at the center of pelvis and 90-110 in the whole pelvis. The 5-year survival rate for all 97 patients was 56.7%. It was 59.8% when those who died of other diseases were excluded. The prognosis of patients without residual tumor on the cervix and/or vagina was better than that with residual tumor (p less than 0.01). Thirty-seven patients died of cancer (23 died of recurrence, 8 of distant metastases, 2 of both, and 4 were lost before the fifth year). Of these 37 patients, 97.3% died within 3 years after initial treatment. During the radiation treatment, reactions were moderate. Late complications included 19 (19.6%) with mild cystitis and 16 (16.5%) with mild proctitis, 2 (2.7%) developed recto-vaginal fistula. These results were slightly poorer than those using intracavitary and external irradiation or the combination of preoperative irradiation plus surgery. Yet, for patients with extensions nearing the pelvic wall or with contra-indications to surgery or intracavitary radiotherapy, external irradiation alone is still of value.

  14. Subacute granulomatous (De Quervain's) thyroiditis: Fine-needle aspiration cytology and ultrasonographic characteristics of 21 cases

    PubMed Central

    Vural, Çigdem; Paksoy, Nadir; Gök, Nazlı D; Yazal, Kadri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis (SGT) is an inflammatory disease that presents with different clinical and cytological characteristics. Although the diagnosis is generally made clinically, imaging methods and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) may provide assistance, particularly in atypical cases. The objective of this study is to reveal the ultrasonographic (USG) and cytological characteristics of SGT. Materials and Methods: The clinical, USG and cytological findings of 21 cases diagnosed with SGT were reviewed. Results: Ultrasonographic data was available in 20 cases. A hypoechoic thyroid nodule with irregular margins was detected in 12 of the 20 total cases. Of these, 9 cases complained about pain in the thyroid lodge and generally had unilateral lesions, heterogeneous and hypoechoic areas with indistinct margins, rather than nodular lesions, which were seen in 7 cases. Cytologically, the multinuclear giant cells (MNGCs) found in all cases were accompanied by a dirty background containing varying numbers of granulomatous structures, including isolated epithelioid histiocytes, proliferated/regenerated follicle epithelium cells and inflammatory cells and colloid. Conclusion: Though hypoechoic and heterogeneous areas with irregular margins are strongly associated with thyroiditis, SGT may also appear as painful or painless hypoechoic, solid nodules and generate challenges in differential diagnosis. Although the most remarkable characteristic observed in FNA cytology was the presence of multiple MNGCs with cytoplasm, a dirty background accompanied by mild-moderate cellularity, degenerated-proliferated follicular epithelium cells, rare epithelioid granulomas and mixed type inflammatory cells are characteristic for SGT. The assessment of these radiological and cytological findings in conjunction with clinical findings will assist in the achievement of an accurate diagnosis. PMID:26085833

  15. A cohort study of cervical screening using partial HPV typing and cytology triage.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Mark; Hyun, Noorie; Raine-Bennett, Tina R; Katki, Hormuzd; Fetterman, Barbara; Gage, Julia C; Cheung, Li C; Befano, Brian; Poitras, Nancy; Lorey, Thomas; Castle, Philip E; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2016-12-01

    HPV testing is more sensitive than cytology for cervical screening. However, to incorporate HPV tests into screening, risk-stratification ("triage") of HPV-positive women is needed to avoid excessive colposcopy and overtreatment. We prospectively evaluated combinations of partial HPV typing (Onclarity, BD) and cytology triage, and explored whether management could be simplified, based on grouping combinations yielding similar 3-year or 18-month CIN3+ risks. We typed ∼9,000 archived specimens, taken at enrollment (2007-2011) into the NCI-Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) HPV Persistence and Progression (PaP) cohort. Stratified sampling, with reweighting in the statistical analysis, permitted risk estimation of HPV/cytology combinations for the 700,000+-woman KPNC screening population. Based on 3-year CIN3+ risks, Onclarity results could be combined into five groups (HPV16, else HPV18/45, else HPV31/33/58/52, else HPV51/35/39/68/56/66/68, else HPV negative); cytology results fell into three risk groups ("high-grade," ASC-US/LSIL, NILM). For the resultant 15 HPV group-cytology combinations, 3-year CIN3+ risks ranged 1,000-fold from 60.6% to 0.06%. To guide management, we compared the risks to established "benchmark" risk/management thresholds in this same population (e.g., LSIL predicted 3-year CIN3+ risk of 5.8% in the screening population, providing the benchmark for colposcopic referral). By benchmarking to 3-year risk thresholds (supplemented by 18-month estimates), the widely varying risk strata could be condensed into four action bands (very high risk of CIN3+ mandating consideration of cone biopsy if colposcopy did not find precancer; moderate risk justifying colposcopy; low risk managed by intensified follow-up to permit HPV "clearance"; and very low risk permitting routine screening.) Overall, the results support primary HPV testing, with management of HPV-positive women using partial HPV typing and cytology.

  16. Imprint cytology--a cheap, rapid and effective method for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Misra, S. P.; Dwivedi, M.; Misra, V.; Gupta, S. C.

    1993-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of imprint cytology, histology and CLO-test (for biopsy urease) in detecting Helicobacter pylori infection, antral biopsies were taken from 239 patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Both imprint cytology and histology showed the presence of H. pylori in 215 (90%) patients. The sensitivity and specificity of imprint cytology vis-à-vis histology was noted to be 100%. The CLO-test was performed in 165 patients and was positive in 130 (79%) patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the CLO-test were 89% and 95%, respectively. The median time required for the CLO-test to become positive and for imprint was 60 minutes for each. The sensitivity of the CLO-test was reduced further in patients receiving colloidal bismuth subcitrate. Of the 27 patients receiving the drug the sensitivity of the CLO-test was only 9% after 4 weeks of therapy. However, the specificity was 100%. The sensitivity and specificity of imprint cytology were unaffected by the antimicrobial therapy and after 4 weeks of treatment were still 100%. It is concluded that the CLO-test has a lower sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing H. pylori infection compared to imprint cytology, which had a sensitivity and specificity equal to that of histology. Imprint cytology may be prepared as an adjunct to histology in patients in whom antral biopsies are taken as it offers a relatively quick diagnosis of H. pylori infection, is considerably cheaper than the CLO-test and does not require additional biopsy material. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8321793

  17. Cytological grading: An alternative to histological grading in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Namala, Srilekha; Guduru, Vijay Srinivas; Ananthaneni, Anuradha; Devi, Sabitha; Kuberappa, Puneeth Horrati; Udayashankar, Urmila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Micronuclei (MN) in oral exfoliative cells have been shown to indicate a disparaging change in genetic information of the cell. Recent studies showed correlation between the frequency of MN and severity of this damage. Grading of lesions can be used to determine the austerity of this damage. Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the MN frequency in oral exfoliated cells of normal and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) individuals and to cytologically grade the frequency of MN in cytological smears and to correlate it with histological grading. The objective is to ascertain whether MN frequency in oral exfoliated cells can be a parameter for grading of OSCC. Settings and Design: The study group comprises of 40 subjects (20 controls and 20 OSCC patients) in the age group of 45-85 years. Materials and Methods: The cytosmear was obtained from each group and stained with Papanicolaou (PAP) stain. Twenty cells from each slide were counted for MN and cytological grade of OSCC was assigned based on the average frequency of MN. Cytological grade was correlated with histological grading and the data were recorded. Student's t-test and Spearman's correlation were used for the analysis of the data. Results: Average frequency of MN was 2.5 times higher in OSCC patients when compared to that in controls and the difference was found to be highly significant. Sixty percent correlation was found between cytological grade and histological grade of OSCC and the difference between them was not significant. Conclusions: Cytological grading can be used in grading OSCC, and MN insinuates genotoxic damage occurring in the epithelial cells. PMID:27756984

  18. Manual liquid based cytology for Pap smear preparation and HPV detection by PCR in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Shehla; Pervez, Shgufta Nasir; Shah, Walayat

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted on female patients with different gynecological problems attending the gynecology out-patient departments of two tertiary care hospitals in Peshawar city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan between August 2012 and October 2013. The 200 patients had an age range of 21-65 years. Smears were taken with cervical brushes and preserved in preservative medium and processed for manual liquid based cytology (MLBC) for Pap staining. Out of 200 collected samples, 30 samples were found inadequate on cytology. Of the remaining 170 samples, 164 (96.47%) were normal, 5 (2.94%) were of atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS) and 1 (0.6%) was of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). On PCR all the samples were positive for beta globin gene fragment including those reported inadequate on cytology. Out of the 5 ASCUS samples, 2 samples were positive for HPV, one each for HPV 16 and HPV 18, and the rest of the 3 samples were negative for HPV DNA. The 1 sample of HSIL was positive for HPV 16 on PCR. Out of 164 normal samples on cytology, only 1 sample was HPV 16 positive. So overall, 4 (2%) out of 200 samples were positive for HPV DNA, where 3 were HPV 16 (1.5%), and 1 was HPV 18 (0.5%) positive, and thus the ratio of infection with of HPV 16 to HPV 18 was 3:1 in the general population. In conclusion, PCR based HPV detection is a more sensitive method for screening of HPV infection than cytology as sample inadequacy does not affect the results. However, it can be combined with cytology methods in a HPV positive female to achieve the maximum results.

  19. [Comparison of the Conventional Centrifuged and Filtrated Preparations in Urine Cytology].

    PubMed

    Sekita, Nobuyuki; Shimosakai, Hirofumi; Nishikawa, Rika; Sato, Hiroaki; Kouno, Hiroyoshi; Fujimura, Masaaki; Mikami, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    The urine cytology test is one of the most important tools for the diagnosis of malignant urinary tract tumors. This test is also of great value for predicting malignancy. However, the sensitivity of this test is not high enough to screen for malignant cells. In our laboratory, we were able to attain a high sensitivity of urine cytology tests after changing the preparation method of urine samples. The differences in the cytodiagnosis between the two methods are discussed here. From January 2012 to June 2013, 2,031 urine samples were prepared using the conventional centrifuge method (C method) ; and from September 2013 to March 2015, 2,453 urine samples were prepared using the filtration method (F method) for the cytology test. When the samples included in category 4 or 5, were defined as cytological positive, the sensitivities of this test with samples prepared using the F method were significantly high compared with samples prepared using the C method (72% vs 28%, p<0.001). The number of cells on the glass slides prepared by the F method was significantly higher than that of the samples prepared by the C method (p<0.001). After introduction of the F method, the number of f alse negative cases was decreased in the urine cytology test because a larger number of cells was seen and easily detected as atypical or malignant epithelial cells. Therefore, this method has a higher sensitivity than the conventional C method as the sensitivity of urine cytology tests relies partially on the number of cells visualized in the prepared samples.

  20. The cytologic diagnosis of gastric carcinoma related to the histologic type.

    PubMed

    Pilotti, S; Rilke, F; Clemente, C; Alasio, L; Grigioni, M

    1977-01-01

    In gastric smears obtained by direct vision fiberoptic brush technique from 78 patients with carcinoma of the stomach, an attempt was made to recognize cytologically the histologic type of the tumor with reference to Lauren's classification. The cytologic diagnosis of intestinal type carcinoma was made in 36/45 positive cases on the basis of an abundant cellularity and the presence of rather large pleomorphic cohesive cells often arranged in sheets with a moderately increased N/C ratio. One case of intramucous and two of "early" invasive carcinoma revealed malignant cells which did not differ from those of the advanced cases. In these cases as well as in some of the advanced ones, atypical epithelial cells were found in addition to the malignant ones; these cells could have derived from the histologic areas of atypical hyperplasia of the gastric mucosa surrounding the carcinoma. 14/15 cases of advanced diffuse carcinoma of the stomach could be cytologically identified on the basis of a scanty cellularity and the presence of rather small, monomorphic poorly differentiated cells with a high N/C ratio. The cytologic diagnosis of the mixed-type carcinoma was made in 2/5 positive cases on the basis of the presence of an admixture of both cell types described above. In two cases of the mixed-type carcinoma, only intestinal type cells were found. In the smears of nine cases of intestinal type carcinoma, one of which was intramucous, and of one case of mixed-type carcinoma, the tumor cells could not be specified. 13/78 cases (16.7%) showed negative cytology. The overall accuracy rate was 83.3 per cent. The statistical analysis of a number of cytologic parameters indicated that morphologic differences between Type I and Type D carcinomas of the stomach do exist and that they can be evaluated for differential diagnostic purposes.

  1. Fiberoptic ductoscopy combined with cytology testing in the patients of spontaneous nipple discharge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang-Yu; Lu, Jing-Song; Shen, Kun-Wei; Wu, Jiong; Chen, Can-Ming; Hu, Zhen; Shen, Zhen-Zhou; Zhang, Ting-Qiu; Shao, Zhi-Min

    2008-03-01

    Fiberoptic ductoscopy system (FDS) offers a safe alternative to ductography in diagnosing intraductal lesions and serves as a guide for subsequent surgery in women with nipple discharge. In this article, we reported the outcomes of FDS combined with cytology testing for diagnosis of spontaneous nipple discharge. From 1997 to 2005, 1,048 women (1,093 breasts total) in the outpatient department underwent successful diagnostic FDS. Discharge was unilateral (86.8%), single ductal (93.4%), and serous (57.9%) or bloody (36.0%). Among 437 (40.0%) of the FDS-positive breasts, we revealed 49 (11.2%) breast carcinomas, 228 (52.2%) central papillomas, and 5 (1.1%) cases of atypical ductal hyperplasia. Ten patients with positive cytology testing received microdochectomy in spite of having a negative FDS, which revealed two additional ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS), and four papillomas. About 489 breasts were negative for both FDS and cytology testing and were subjected to follow up. About 77 (15.7%) of the breasts underwent tissue diagnosis within a median follow-up time span of 19 months, and one DCIS was detected. The sensitivity of FDS for detection of malignant lesions was 94.2% and increased to 98.1% when combined with cytology testing. Nevertheless, it was less sensitive (p<0.01) if we used cytology testing only (58.3%), mammography (48.6%), high-frequency sonography (36.4%), or combination of mammography and sonography (56.8%) to detect these malignant lesions. These data confirmed the value of FDS combined with cytology testing as a diagnostic procedure in women with nipple discharge.

  2. Preoperative Ultrasound Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Ovarian Lesions- Is It a Rapid and Effective Diagnostic Modality?

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Saikat; Chaudhuri, Snehamay; Paul, Prabir Chandra; Khandakar, Binny; Mandal, Sonali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The deep seated ovarian lesions unapproachable by unguided aspiration cytology were easily done under ultrasound guidance. It gave a before hand cytological diagnosis of the lesion to the surgeon determining the modality of treatment for the patient. Aim To find the diagnostic accuracy of the method of ultrasound guided cytological assessment of ovarian lesion. Materials and Methods The study was conducted as a prospective observational study over a period of one year, in hospital setting, where ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration had been used to aspirate ovarian lesions, giving a rapid cytological diagnosis. In 43 sample cases, aspiration of fluid done from ovarian lesions were followed by cyto-centrifugation and staining by May-Grunwald-Giemsa (MGG) and Papanicolaou (Pap) stain providing a cytological opinion regarding benign/malignant nature of the lesion and further categorization. Later the cytological diagnosis was compared with final histopathological diagnosis, taking it as a gold standard. Results The overall sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound guided aspiration and cytological analysis were high, 96%, 76.92% and 89.47% respectively as calculated by comparing the cytological diagnosis with histological diagnosis, taking it as gold standard. Conclusion This method has evolved as a highly sensitive, rapid, simple and effective modality for screening and as well as accurate preoperative diagnosis of ovarian lesions. PMID:27134878

  3. Columnar cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: A diagnostic dilemma in fine-needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ritu; Paul, Paramita

    2016-10-01

    Columnar cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is an uncommon variant with an aggressive course as compared to classic papillary carcinoma. Cytologic diagnosis of these tumors is difficult due to absence of characteristic nuclear features of classic pattern of papillary carcinoma. We present a case of columnar cell variant in a young female misdiagnosed on aspiration cytology. A 21-year-old female presented with solitary nodule in the left aspect of thyroid. A diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma was rendered. The resected thyoroidectomy specimen revealed a columnar cell variant of PTC which was further supported by immunohistochemical staining. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:816-819. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Applications of the oral scraped (exfoliative) cytology in oral cancer and precancer.

    PubMed

    Acha, Amelia; Ruesga, María T; Rodríguez, María J; Martínez de Pancorbo, María A; Aguirre, José M

    2005-01-01

    Scraped (exfoliative) cytology is a simple and harmless procedure, which has been a controversial technique according to its real validity in oral pathology. Lately it has re-emerged due to its application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. New diagnostic techniques have been developed, such as "brush biopsy" and multiple molecular studies using the cells collected. In this review we are going to analyse the more novel aspects related with the applications of the scraped or exfoliative cytology in oral precancerous and cancerous pathology, specially focusing on molecular studies and their diagnostic and prognostic implications.

  5. Nosocomial pulmonary Rhizopus diagnosed by bronchoalveolar lavage with cytology in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Don

    2006-06-01

    Rhizopus species is an opportunistic fungus that is contracted by inhalation of aerosolized spores. Early diagnosis is often difficult but is a necessity to prevent rapid progression of the infection that leads to blood vessel invasion by hyphae, causing fatal hemoptysis. A previous case report described the utility of cytologic examination of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in achieving a prompt diagnosis of Rhizopus species in an adolescent patient with diabetic ketoacidosis. The author presents a case that further describes the benefit of performing BAL fluid cytology to help identify fungal morphology characteristics in order to reach an expeditious diagnosis of Rhizopus species in a leukemia patient.

  6. The virtual slide in the promotion of cytologic and hystologic quality in oncologic screenings.

    PubMed

    Bondi, Arrigo; Pierotti, Paola; Crucitti, Paola; Lega, Stefania

    2010-01-01

    A regional experience environment in virtual microscopy and digital pathology comprehending the digital cytology is presented. The project has been conducted in Emilia-Romagna and it has been planned for the promotion and the quality assessment in screening cytology and histology for the prevention of the tumors of uterine cervix, breast and colon-rectum cancers. During the project it has been envisaged the design of a dedicated picture archive and communication system (PACS) for cooperative diagnosis, didactics and training, teleconsulting, documentation of rare cases and pilot experiences; furthermore selected cases are catalogued in the PACS with the aim of the check of the diagnostic concordance in the oncologic screening.

  7. Solid pseudopapillary tumor of pancreas in a male child: a diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Nasit, Jitendra Gordhanbhai; Jetly, Dhaval; Shah, Manoj

    2013-07-01

    Solid pseudopapillary tumor (SPT) is an uncommon pancreatic neoplasm with low malignant potential. It occurs predominantly in young women. It is very rare in males and nonrelated pediatrics. In children, SPT commonly present as abdominal mass and pain. A 10-year-old male presented with progressively growing palpable tumor in upper abdomen. SPT of pancreas is diagnosed on preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology. This was subsequently confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Due to rarity, SPT is not the first option to rule out, especially in children. Preoperative cytological diagnosis of SPT helps in management of this surgically curable neoplasm with good prognosis.

  8. Cytologic evaluation of experimental type 2 herpes simplex infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Williams, D R; Whitney, J E; Harding, M; Bodfish, K; Skinner, G R

    1978-01-01

    The nature and frequency of cytopathologic changes in female mice genitally infected with type 2 herpes simplex virus have been investigated. The extent of virus infection in an individual mouse was assessed by a system of "plus scoring". Exfoliative cytology clearly provided a reliable evaluation of the extent of virus infection and a reliable prognostic index of mouse mortality. A composite index combining both cytologic and virologic information ('vircyt' value) was derived and shown to provide a convenient and precise prognostic index of mouse mortality.

  9. [Cytological study in case of gastric leiomyoblastoma. Review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Letessier, E; Courant, O; Cuillière, P; Hamy, A; Paineau, J; Visset, J

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe the fine-needle aspiration cytologic features of leiomyoblastoma. Aspirated tumor cells occur singly, not in clusters. The tumor cells are globular in shape or sometimes have a spindle appearance. The nuclei are round, central or eccentric, with small nucleoli. The cells have well-defined cytoplasmic borders. The cytoplasm is abundant and, to some extent, granular, with sometimes a microvacuolar peripheral pattern. To date five cases of leiomyoblastoma with a cytological study have been published, two of them located to the stomach. A review of the literature is presented.

  10. Cytology Preparations of Formalin Fixative Aid Detection of Giardia in Duodenal Biopsy Samples.

    PubMed

    Panarelli, Nicole C; Gobara, Nariman; Hoda, Rana S; Chaump, Michael; Jessurun, Jose; Yantiss, Rhonda K

    2017-04-01

    Giardiasis is the most common intestinal parasitic infection in the United States. The organism elicits no, or minimal, inflammatory changes in duodenal biopsy samples, so it can be easily overlooked. We performed this study to determine whether Giardia could be isolated from the formalin fixative of biopsy samples, and to evaluate the value of fluid analysis in the assessment for potential infection. We prospectively evaluated duodenal biopsy samples from 92 patients with a clinical suspicion of giardiasis or symptoms compatible with that diagnosis (ie, diarrhea, bloating, or abdominal pain) Biopsy samples were routinely processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Histologic diagnoses included giardiasis (5 cases, 4%), normal findings (64 cases, 70%), peptic injury/active duodenitis (12 cases, 13%), and intraepithelial lymphocytosis with villous blunting (10 cases, 12%). Fifteen cases (13%) showed detached degenerated epithelial cells or mucus droplets in the intervillous space that resembled Giardia. Cytology slides were prepared from formalin in the biopsy container using the standard Cytospin protocol and reviewed by a cytopathologist blinded to the biopsy findings. Cytologic evaluation revealed Giardia spp. in all 5 biopsy-proven cases, and identified an additional case that was not detected by biopsy analysis. Organisms were significantly more numerous (mean: 400 trophozoites; range, 120 to 810) and showed better morphologic features in cytology preparations compared with tissue sections (mean: 129 trophozoites; range, 37 to 253 organisms; P=0.05). Our findings suggest that cytology preparations from formalin fixative can resolve diagnostically challenging cases and even enhance Giardia detection in some cases.

  11. FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY OF ABDOMINAL ORGANS--TEN-YEAR SINGLE CENTER EXPERIENCE.

    PubMed

    Vasilj, Ankica; Katović, Sandra Kojić

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of focal changes in solid abdominal organs. A total of 1084 aspirates from intra-abdominal organs including liver, spleen, pancreas and kidneys obtained by ultrasound (US) guidance during a 10-year period were included in the study. The smears were classified as benign, malignant or suspected of malignancy, and unsatisfactory for interpretation. The liver accounted for more than half of the US-guided FNA procedures, followed by the pancreas with 38%. Out of 1084 aspirations, 192 (17.7%) were inadequate for cytologic analysis. Over half of aspirated lesions in the pancreas were primary cancers, while one-third of pancreatic lesions were benign. In the majority of kidney lesions (83%), cytology found benign changes, mostly cysts. Spleen FNA was least likely; in most cases (59%) it showed lymphoid tissue hyperplasia; in four cases cytologic diagnosis was lymphoma and three lesions were suspected lymphoma. During the study, no major complications were observed on any US-guided FNAC procedure. In conclusion, intra-abdominal FNA is a reliable, sensitive and specific method with a high diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of malignant lesions. It can be utilized as a preoperative procedure for the management of all intra-abdominal lesions.

  12. Glioblastoma multiforme with epithelial differentiation: a potential diagnostic pitfall in cerebrospinal fluid cytology.

    PubMed

    Gill, Simpal K; Padmanabhan, Vijayalakshmi; Hickey, William F; Marotti, Jonathan D

    2015-08-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology provides valuable diagnostic and prognostic information for diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) and remains the gold standard for the detection of neoplastic meningitis. Metastatic involvement of the CSF by non-CNS neoplasms far surpasses that of primary brain tumors, although conventional glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) can occasionally be identified in the CSF. GBM with epithelial differentiation is an uncommon variant that may contain features such as adenoid structures, signet ring cells, or squamous metaplasia. Herein, we present a case of GBM with epithelial differentiation to highlight a potential diagnostic pitfall in CSF cytology. A 55-year-old man presented with neurological symptoms and a 6.4 cm left temporal lobe cystic mass. Primary resection revealed GBM with focal epithelial differentiation confirmed by cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunohistochemical studies. Four months following primary resection, the patient developed severe headache for which a lumbar puncture with CSF cytologic evaluation was performed. The cytospin preparation showed numerous malignant epithelioid cells with high nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio and prominent cytoplasmic vacuoles resembling metastatic carcinoma. However, the lesional cells were cytomorphologically identical to the epithelial component present in the patient's recently diagnosed GBM. This case illustrates the potential for GBM with epithelial differentiation to closely mimic metastatic carcinoma from a non-CNS site in CSF cytology, which expands the differential diagnosis and emphasizes the necessity of clinical correlation.

  13. Non-computer-assisted liquid-based cytology for diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sayáns, M; Reboiras-López, M D; Gayoso-Diz, P; Seijas-Naya, F; Antúnez-López, J R; Gándara-Rey, J M; García-García, A

    2012-01-01

    The development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) occasionally follows the neoplastic progression of other premalignant lesions. Although biopsy is the definitive diagnostic method, liquid-based cytology is an adequate method for screening suspicious lesions. We compared liquid-based cytology to histology for diagnosis of OSCC in patients with oral lesions that raised clinical suspicion of malignancy. Our sample consisted of 48 patients. Cytological samples were obtained by scraping the lesion superficially using Cytobrush®. We conducted cytological and histopathological evaluation of all preparations. We estimated sensitivity and specificity levels as well as positive and negative predictive values. The degree of inter-observer agreement for both methods was assessed using the kappa index. Twenty-eight (58.3%) of the cases finally were diagnosed with OSCC and 20 (41.7%) were determined to be premalignant lesions. We observed eight false negatives and no false positives; OSCC prevalence was 56.5%. The values for diagnostic indices were: sensitivity, 69% (CI 95%, prevalence 51.87); specificity, 100%; positive predictive value, 100%; negative predictive value, 71% (CI 95% 54.82). A kappa index of 0.622 (CI 95% 0.93, 0.39) was observed.

  14. Testicular cytology indicates differences in Sertoli cell counts between "good freezer" and "poor freezer" bulls.

    PubMed

    Rajak, Shailendra Kumar; Thippeswamy, Vijetha Bajjalli; Kumaresan, Arumugam; Layek, Siddhartha Shankar; Mohanty, Tushar Kumar; Gaurav, Mukesh Kumar; Chakravarty, Atish Kumar; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; Manimaran, Ayyasamy; Prasad, Shiv

    2016-01-01

    In artificial insemination, poor quality of semen unsuitable for cryopreservation and susceptibility of spermatozoa to cryodamage in crossbred bulls have been a matter of concern. Present study was designed to identify the testicular cytology indices that might be used to predict the semen quality and cryotolerance of spermatozoa in bulls. Based on the ejaculate rejection rate and sperm cryotolerance, bulls (Holstein Friesian X Tharparkar crossbred) were classified into either good (producing good quality semen with spermatozoa having good cryotolerance; n = 4) or poor (producing poor quality semen with spermatozoa having poor cryotolerance; n = 4). Testicular cytology was studied in all the 8 bulls using fine needle aspiration technique. Testicular cytology of good bulls and poor bulls differed significantly. The proportion of Sertoli cells was significantly higher in good bulls (25.3 ± 1.6) compared to poor bulls (11.0 ± 0.8). The Sertoli cell index was 46.1 ± 5.0 in good bulls while it was only 13.8 ± 1.3 in poor bulls. The cut off values, as determined using Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis, indicate that the bulls having testicular cytogram comprising of < 15.5% Sertoli cells, < 24.3 Sertoli cell index and > 4.0 spermatogenic cells to Sertoli cell ratio might be a poor bull in terms of semen quality and cryotolerance of spermatozoa. The proportion of Sertoli cells in the testicular cytology had positive (P < 0.05) relationship with semen quality and cryotolerance of spermatozoa.

  15. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of cervix: Cytological Features on Conventional Cervical Smear.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Ruchi; Arora, Vinod K; Singh, Bharat

    2017-03-01

    Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is a rare neoplasm of the cervix. The importance of distinguishing this undifferentiated carcinoma with a predominant lymphocytic infiltrate lies in the fact that despite being poorly differentiated they have a better prognosis. The diagnosis however becomes more challenging when the pathologist is provided with a small cervical biopsy or a Papanicolaou smear. While the reports describing histology and their relation to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are many, there are only few case reports describing the cytology of these tumors. We describe the cytological features of LELC of cervix on conventional smear and correlate it with the histopathological findings of the same. A 67-year-old multiparous Hindu woman presented to the gynecology outpatient department with the history of postmenopausal bleeding for the past six months. The cytological examination of the cervical smear (Papanicolaou stain) was done followed by cervical and endometrial biopsy. Based on Papanicolaou smear and biopsy suggestive of a poorly differentiated carcinoma a radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed. Hysterectomy specimen showed the morphology of LELC and was then correlated with the cervical smears retrospectively. On review of cytological smears it was seen that the tumor cell clusters had an abundant lymphoid background, which was overlooked earlier. Immunohistochemistry for EBV was negative. We conclude that the presence of undifferentiated tumor cell clusters with ill-defined cell borders and large number of lymphoid cells in the background suggest the diagnosis of LELC on cervical cytology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:239-242. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Molecular classification of cancer with the 92-gene assay in cytology and limited tissue samples

    PubMed Central

    Brachtel, Elena F.; Operaña, Theresa N.; Sullivan, Peggy S.; Kerr, Sarah E.; Cherkis, Karen A.; Schroeder, Brock E.; Dry, Sarah M.; Schnabel, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Detailed molecular evaluation of cytology and limited tissue samples is increasingly becoming the standard for cancer care. Reproducible and accurate diagnostic approaches with reduced demands on cellularity are an ongoing unmet need. This study evaluated the performance of a 92-gene assay for molecular diagnosis of tumor type/subtype in cytology and limited tissue samples. Methods Clinical validation of accuracy for the 92-gene assay in limited tissue samples such as cytology cell blocks, core biopsies and small excisions was conducted in a blinded multi-institutional study (N = 109, 48% metastatic, 53% grade II and III). Analytical success rate and diagnostic utility were evaluated in a consecutive series of 644 cytology cases submitted for clinical testing. Results The 92-gene assay demonstrated 91% sensitivity (95% CI [0.84, 0.95]) for tumor classification, with high accuracy maintained irrespective of specimen type (100%, 92%, and 86% in FNA/cytology cell blocks, core biopsies, and small excisions, respectively; p = 0.26). The assay performed equally well for metastatic versus primary tumors (90% vs 93%, p = 0.73), and across histologic grades (100%, 90%, 89%, in grades I, II, and III, respectively; p = 0.75). In the clinical case series, a molecular diagnosis was reported in 87% of the 644 samples, identifying 23 different tumor types and allowing for additional mutational analysis in selected cases. Conclusions These findings demonstrate high accuracy and analytical success rate of the 92-gene assay, supporting its utility in the molecular diagnosis of cancer for specimens with limited tissue. PMID:27034010

  17. Comparison of three sampling instruments, Cytobrush, Curette and OralCDx, for liquid-based cytology of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Reboiras-López, M D; Pérez-Sayáns, M; Somoza-Martín, J M; Antúnez-López, J R; Gándara-Vila, P; Gayoso-Diz, P; Gándara-Rey, J M; García-García, A

    2012-01-01

    Exfoliative cytology of the oral cavity is a simple and noninvasive technique that permits the study of epithelial cells. Liquid-based cytology is an auxiliary diagnostic tool for improving the specificity and sensitivity of conventional cytology. The objective of our study was to compare the quality of normal oral mucosa cytology samples obtained using three different instruments, Cytobrush®, dermatological curette and Oral CDx® for liquid-based cytology. One hundred four cytological samples of oral cavity were analyzed. Samples were obtained from healthy volunteer subjects using all three instruments. The clinical and demographic variables were age, sex and smoking habits. We analyzed cellularity, quality of the preparation and types of cells in the samples. All preparations showed appropriate preparation quality. In all smears analyzed, cells were distributed uniformly and showed no mucus, bleeding, inflammatory exudate or artifacts. We found no correlation between the average number of cells and the type of instrument. The samples generally consisted of two types of cells: superficial and intermediate. No differences were found among the cytological preparations of these three instruments. We did not observe basal cells in any of the samples analyzed.

  18. Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel

    DOEpatents

    Bauer, Roger E.; Straalsund, Jerry L.; Chin, Bryan A.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

  19. Perspective on food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    Recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of irradiation treatment for fruit, vegetables and pork has stimulated considerable discussion in the popular press on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of food. This perspective is designed to summarize the current scientific information available on this issue.

  20. MASSIVE LEAKAGE IRRADIATOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Szilard, L.; Christy, R.F.; Friedman, F.L.

    1961-05-30

    An irradiator designed to utilize the neutrons that leak out of a reactor around its periphery is described. It avoids wasting neutron energy and reduces interference with the core flux to a minimum. This is done by surrounding all or most of the core with removable segments of the material to be irradiated within a matrix of reflecting material.

  1. Cytological features of "noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features" and their correlation with tumor histology.

    PubMed

    Maletta, Francesca; Massa, Federica; Torregrossa, Liborio; Duregon, Eleonora; Casadei, Gian Piero; Basolo, Fulvio; Tallini, Giovanni; Volante, Marco; Nikiforov, Yuri E; Papotti, Mauro

    2016-08-01

    Among thyroid papillary carcinomas (PTCs), the follicular variant is the most common and includes encapsulated forms (EFVPTCs). Noninvasive EFVPTCs have very low risk of recurrence or other adverse events and have been recently proposed to be designated as noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features or NIFTP, thus eliminating the term carcinoma. This proposal is expected to significantly impact the risk of malignancy associated with the currently used diagnostic categories of thyroid cytology. In this study, we analyzed the fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytology features of 96 histologically proven NIFTPs and determined how the main nuclear features of NIFTP correlate between cytological and histological samples. Blind review of FNAB cytology from NIFTP nodules yielded the diagnosis of "follicular neoplasm" (Bethesda category IV) in 56% of cases, "suspicious for malignancy" (category V) in 27%, "atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance" (category III) in 15%, and "malignant" (category VI) in 2%. We found good correlation (κ=0.62) of nuclear features between histological and cytological specimens. NIFTP nuclear features (size, irregularities of contours, and chromatin clearing) were significantly different from those of benign nodules but not from those of invasive EFVPTC. Our data indicate that most of the NIFTP nodules yield an indeterminate cytological diagnosis in FNAB cytology and nuclear features found in cytology samples are reproducibly identified in corresponding histology samples. Because of the overlapping nuclear features with invasive EFVPTC, NIFTP cannot be reliably diagnosed preoperatively but should be listed in differential diagnosis of all indeterminate categories of thyroid cytology.

  2. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  3. [Cytological method in the evaluation of the results of radio- and chemotherapy of patients with laryngeal cancer].

    PubMed

    Kliukina, L B; Kurdiukova, L V; Puchinina, E A

    1984-01-01

    Cytologic procedure was used for evaluating the effectiveness of conservative treatment of 223 cases of primary laryngeal neoplasms. It gave poorer results than histological or clinical ones: cases in which conservative treatment had failed as established by the three methods amounted to 66.1 +/- 6.0%, 85.5 +/- 4.4%, and 83.9 +/- 4.6%, respectively. In 14.5 +/- 4.4% of patients, cytologic findings were the only morphological evidence to make the case for radical treatment. Therefore, cytologic method should be used as adjuvant in evaluating the results of treatment of laryngeal cancer.

  4. Cytology and Human Papillomavirus Testing 6 to 12 Months after ASCUS or LSIL Cytology in Organized Screening To Predict High-Grade Cervical Neoplasia between Screening Rounds

    PubMed Central

    Sjøborg, Katrine D.; Nygård, Mari; Røysland, Kjetil; Campbell, Suzanne; Alfsen, G. Cecilie; Jonassen, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    We carried out a prospective study comparing the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA (PreTect HPV-Proofer; NorChip, Klokkarstua, Norway) and DNA (Amplicor HPV test; Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland) triage testing of women 6 to 12 months after atypical-squamous-cells-of-undetermined-significance (ASCUS) or low-grade-squamous-intraepithelial-lesion (LSIL) cytology in organized screening to predict high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) between screening rounds. Between January 2005 and April 2008, 692 study women with screening-detected ASCUS/LSIL cytology 6 to 12 months earlier returned for HPV mRNA and DNA testing and repeat cytology. The median follow-up time was 3 years, using existing health care facilities. Follow-up test results were available for 625 women. Of the 145 CIN2+ cases detected during the study period, 95 (65.5%) were HPV mRNA positive 6 to 12 months after screening-detected ASCUS/LSIL, 44 (30.4%) were HPV mRNA negative, and 6 (4.1%) were invalid. The corresponding HPV DNA results were 139 (95.9%), 5 (3.4%), and 1 (0.7%), respectively. The cumulative incidences of CIN2+ 3 years after a negative HPV mRNA and DNA test were 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2 to 13.3%) and 1.8% (95% CI, 0.0 to 3.6%), respectively. The cumulative incidences of CIN2+ 3 years after positive HPV mRNA and DNA tests were 52.8% (95% CI, 40.1 to 60.1%) and 41.3% (95% CI, 35.5 to 46.6%), respectively. In conclusion, both positive HPV mRNA and DNA test results have a high enough long-term prediction of CIN2+ risk to consider referral to colposcopy as good practice when performed in delayed triage of women with ASCUS/LSIL cytology. In addition, the low CIN2+ risk among women with a negative Amplicor HPV test in our study confirms its safe use in a clinical setting. PMID:22518869

  5. Alaskan Commodities Irradiation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.; Das, D.K.; Lewis, C.E.; Workman, W.G.; Tumeo, M.A.; Hok, C.I.; Birklid, C.A.; Bennett, F.L.

    1988-12-01

    The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology. 40 refs., 50 figs., 53 tabs.

  6. Use of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis: a comparison with the conventional scraping method.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Massood; Omidifar, Navid; Lohrasb, Mohamad Hosein

    2012-04-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Iran. Scraping smears are widely used and fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is now attracting more attention. Both methods were performed on the clinically suspected cases in our study. Smears were stained using Giemsa. We compared the sensitivity, specificity and some other aspects of these two methods. Of our 400 patients, 346 had specimens that were positive for leishman body, and of these 328 were detected using both methods. However, 42 cases were confirmed positive by FNA cytology and 18 as a result of scraping smears. There was a significant difference between the two methods in the detection of leishman body and microgranuloma, slide background and patient comfort. The sensitivity of FNA cytology was greater even though the specificity was the same. Our study confirmed the advantages of FNA cytology as a reliable method for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  7. Food irradiation in perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henon, Y. M.

    1995-02-01

    Food irradiation already has a long history of hopes and disappointments. Nowhere in the world it plays the role that it should have, including in the much needed prevention of foodborne diseases. Irradiated food sold well wherever consumers were given a chance to buy them. Differences between national regulations do not allow the international trade of irradiated foods. While in many countries food irradiation is still illegal, in most others it is regulated as a food additive and based on the knowledge of the sixties. Until 1980, wholesomeness was the big issue. Then the "prerequisite" became detection methods. Large amounts of money have been spent to design and validate tests which, in fact, aim at enforcing unjustified restrictions on the use of the process. In spite of all the difficulties, it is believed that the efforts of various UN organizations and a growing legitimate demand for food safety should in the end lead to recognition and acceptance.

  8. [The irradiation process].

    PubMed

    Barillot, I; Chauvet, B; Hannoun Lévi, J M; Lisbona, A; Leroy, T; Mahé, M A

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the regulatory framework of the radiotherapy practice in France, the external irradiation and brachytherapy process and the guidelines for patient follow-up.

  9. Exfoliative cytology of oral epithelial cells from patients with type 2 diabetes: cytomorphometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, César; Núñez-de-Mendoza, Camila

    2013-01-01

    This research objective is to identify cytomorphometrical changes using exfoliative cytology (EC) and later Papanicolaou (Pap) staining, for oral epithelial cells of patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2) (n = 30), while being compared to patients without the disease (n = 30). Additionally, we investigated an association between cellular changes and salivary flow levels; relationship that until now has not been reported. Results show that the cell diameter and the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio was significantly higher compared to those patients without the disease (p ≤ 0.001 Student and Welch test). Decreased salivary flow was significantly associated with increased cell diameter and nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio (p ≤ 0.001 ANOVA with Tukey test). Evidence and clinical observations show that DM2 and decreased salivary flow are related to detectable cytomorphometrical changes in exfoliated cells, which may extend the horizon of this cytological technique. PMID:24040475

  10. Silicone lymphadenopathy: presentation of a further case containing asteroid bodies on fine-needle cytology sample.

    PubMed

    Malzone, Maria Gabriella; Campanile, Anna Cipolletta; Gioioso, Antonella; Fucito, Alfredo; D'Aiuto, Giuseppe; Botti, Gerardo; Fulciniti, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Silicone lymphadenopathy is a recognized complication of breast augmentation. It is thought to occur when silicone droplets migrate from breast implants to lymph nodes. We report the cytologic findings in axillary and inguinal lymph node aspirate smears from a 35-year-old Italian woman, who came to our observation 10 years after bilateral cosmetic breast augmentation. A fine-needle cytology of the axillary lymph node showed extensive granulomatous inflammation, numerous histiocytes, and multinucleated giant cells containing star-shaped structures known as "asteroid bodies." The inguinal lymph node aspirate simply showed an aspecific reactive hyperplasia. No evidence of malignancy was present in any of the smears as well as in the excised axillary lymph node.

  11. Intraoperative squash cytology and histology of giant cell ependymoma: A diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Cakir, Ebru; Kucuk, Ulku; Ersen, Ayca; Pala, Emel E; Senoglu, Mehmet; Binatli, Ali O; Yildirim, Zubeyde

    2017-01-01

    Giant cell ependymomas (GCE) are extremely rare tumors, with 24 cases described in the literature. Squash cytology is a rapid, reliable, simple technique for intraoperative consultation in neurosurgical practice. We describe a rare case of GCE arising at level of L4-L5 in a 66-year-old woman and discuss the cytologic/histologic features. Intraoperative smears were highly cellular with a prominent fibrillary background and exhibited papillary structures and sheets composed of highly atypical and bizarre cells. Some of the cells showed nuclear pseudoinclusions and rarely formed pseudorosette-like arrays. Intraoperative diagnosis was high grade glial tumor. On paraffin sections, besides extensive polymorphism, there were no microvascular proliferation, necrosis, and mitosis and the final diagnosis was WHO grade II GCE. GCE may be a diagnostic challenge on intraoperative smears, frozen, and paraffin sections. It must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of giant cell exhibiting benign and malignant tumors of brain. PMID:28182061

  12. Fluorescence Spectrum and Decay Measurement for Hsil VS Normal Cytology Differentiation in Liquid Pap Smear Supernatant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitkuviene, A.; Gegzna, V.; Juodkazis, S.; Jursenas, S.; Miasojedovas, S.; Kurtinaitiene, R.; Rimiene, J.; Vaitkus, J.

    2009-06-01

    Cervical smear material contains endo and exocervical cells, mucus and inflammative, immune cells in cases of pathology. Just not destroyed keratinocytes lay on the glass for microscopy. Liquid cytology supernatant apart other diagnostics could be used for photodiagnostic. The spectroscopic parameters suitable for Normal and HSIL cytology groups supernatant differentiation are demonstrated. The dried liquid PAP supernatant fractions—sediment and liquid were investigated. Excitation and emission matrices (EEM), supernatant fluorescence decay measured under 280 nm diode short pulse excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy by excitation with 355 nm laser light were analyzed. The differences between Normal and HSIL groups were statistically proven in the certain spectral regions. Fluorescence decay peculiarities show spectral regions consisting of few fluorophores. Obtained results on fluorescence differences in Normal and HSIL groups' supernatant shows the potency of photodiagnosis application in cervical screening.

  13. The Influence of Cultural Adaptation and Sexual Risk Behaviors on Cervical Cytology in a Hispanic Population

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Kristy K.; Roncancio, Angelica M.; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if the level of cultural adaptation (acculturation) of Hispanic women is associated with increased sexual risk behaviors and cervical cytological abnormalities. METHODS Hispanic women 18 to 55 years of age (mean = 30.5 ± 8.32) underwent routine Papanicoulaou (Pap) testing and completed a comprehensive survey (N=3149). Acculturation (cultural adaptation) was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to test a mediation model. RESULTS Highly acculturated women engaged in a greater number of sexual risk behaviors and were more likely to have an abnormal Pap test when compared to less acculturated Hispanic women (p < .001). CONCLUSION Acculturation is related to sexual risk taking and abnormal cervical cytology. Determination of acculturation level as part of culturally competent healthcare will aid in tailoring patient communication and counseling on the prevention of cervical cancer among Hispanic women. PMID:20864073

  14. Cytological analysis of the epithelial cells in patients with oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Loss, Rafael; Sandrin, Rodrigo; França, Beatriz Helena Sottile; de Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis; Grégio, Ana Maria Trindade; Machado, Maria Ângela Naval; de Lima, Antonio Adilson Soares

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate oral epithelial cells of the oral mucosa infected by Candida albicans using exfoliative cytology. Oral smears were collected from clinically normal-appearing mucosa by liquid-based exfoliative cytology of 60 individuals (30 patients with oral candidiasis and 30 healthy controls matched for age and gender) and analysed for morphologic and cytomorphometric technique. Morphologically, candida-infected epithelial cells exhibited nuclear enlargement, perinuclear rings, discrete orangeophilia, and cytoplasmic vacuoles. The cytomorphometric analysis demonstrated that the cytoplasmic area (CA) of the epithelial cells was diminished in patients undergoing candidiasis as compared to the non-infected controls. In addition, there was an augmentation in nuclear area (NA) and NA/CA area ratio. This study revealed that oral mucosa of patients undergoing candidal infection exhibited significant changes in the size and shape of the oral epithelial cells.

  15. Cytological diagnosis of sialadenosis, sialadenitis, and parotid cysts by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Droese, M

    1981-01-01

    This analysis permits the following conclusions: The value of punctate cytology consists in the possibility to verify the clinical diagnosis of a cyst by aspiration of fluid, and to make a preoperative assessment of the necessity of an operation and its type and extent, if proof of a benign or malignant tumor was obtained by microscopic examination. The diagnostic value of punctate cytology can be increased if after aspiration of cyst fluid also solid tissue components from the region of the cyst are included. Patients whose biopsy aspirates did not give evidence for the presence of a tumor should be reexamined 2-4 weeks later. Operative treatment will not be necessary if the follow-up examination reveals that the parotid swelling has subsided. Without this control investigation, recommended by Zajicek [80], morphological aspects always indicate an operation if tumor-negative biopsies cannot be etiologically classified even though clinical data were included in the diagnostic procedure.

  16. [Cytological mechanisms involved in assimilation of n-alkanes by yeasts].

    PubMed

    Meĭsel', M N; Medvedeva, G A; Kozlova, T M

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes cytological mechanism of adaptation of yeasts to assimilation of aliphatic hydrocarbons added to a growth medium as a sole source of carbon. The process was studied by light optical and electron microscopy, employing fluorescent labelling and electron microscopy contrasting. Two types of yeasts were found, which differed by the response of the cell walls to hydrocarbons: those that formed "channels" and those that did not form them. Cytological response to hydrocarbon assimilation was detected also in the mitochondria and canals of the endoplasmic reticulum. Components of the Golgi apparatus may also participate in this process, in particular, in formation of peroxisomes (microbodies). Close contacts of the yeast cells with the hydrocarbon being assimilated is important; assimilation may start in a close vicinity of the cell walls. The rate of flavin production by Candida tropicalis 303 IBFM increases during growth on solid paraffins, beginning with C20-paraffin.

  17. Introducing Cytology-Based Theranostics in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Pilot Program.

    PubMed

    Patrikidou, Anna; Valeri, Rosalia Maria; Kitikidou, Kyriaki; Destouni, Charikleia; Vahtsevanos, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of brush cytology in the biomarker expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinomas within the concept of theranostics, and to correlate this biomarker profile with patient measurable outcomes. Markers representative of prognostic gene expression changes in oral squamous cell carcinoma was selected. These markers were also selected to involve pathways for which commercially available or investigational agents exist for clinical application. A set of 7 markers were analysed by immunocytochemistry on the archival primary tumour material of 99 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. We confirmed the feasibility of the technique for the expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinomas. Furthermore, our results affirm the prognostic significance of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family and the angiogenic pathway in oral squamous cell carcinoma, confirming their interest for targeted therapy. Brush cytology appears feasible and applicable for the expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinoma within the concept of theranostics, according to sample availability.

  18. Solitary bone plasmacytoma: An interesting case report with unusual clinico-cytological features.

    PubMed

    Saksena, Annapurna; Mahajan, Nidhi; Agarwal, Shipra; Jain, Shyama

    2014-07-01

    Solitary bone plasmacytoma (SBP) is a rare entity characterized by localized proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells primarily occurring in the axial skeleton without systemic involvement. Involvement of the distal extremity is unusual. In the absence of typical clinical presentation, diagnosis may not be suspected clinico-radiologically; hence, fine-needle aspiration cytology may help in early and definitive diagnosis, hastening meticulous diagnostic workup and appropriate management of these patients. Intracytoplasmic crystalline inclusions (CI) have been reported in multiple myeloma and lymphoproliferative disorders. The present case highlights unusual clinico-cytological features of SBP with primary involvement of humerus, progression to tibia, and presence of extracellular and intracytoplasmic CI in plasma cells, a morphologic finding not reported in SBP earlier.

  19. Myofibromatosis: Utility of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of an underreported entity

    PubMed Central

    Poflee, Sandhya V; Bode, Anjali N; Chavarkar, Sneha; Umap, Pradeep S

    2017-01-01

    Myofibromatosis (MFS) was recognized as a distinct form of childhood fibromatosis. Infantile myofibromatosis (IMF) is now identified as a solitary or multicentric tumor that predominantly occurs in neonates and infants. The adult counterpart of IMF, though of rare occurrence, is identified and is known as MFS. Morphological diagnosis of MFS is made by histopathological examination of the biopsy or surgically excised mass and confirmed on the basis of specific immunoprofile. We report a case of multicentric MFS occurring in an adolescent in whom diagnosis was suggested on the basis of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) that avoided surgical excision of multiple nodules. The diagnosis was later confirmed on histopathological study and contributory immunohistochemical markers. Details of the clinical features and cytological diagnosis of the case are provided to diminish the paucity of available literature on FNAC diagnosis of the rare disease. PMID:28182064

  20. [Proposals for standardization of clinical laboratory studies: technology "cytological study of lymph node specimens"].

    PubMed

    Shabalova, I P; Morozova, V T; Dzhangirova, T V

    2010-11-01

    This proposal contains unique requirements for a cytological study of lymph node specimens at the cytological and clinical diagnostic laboratories of health care facilities certified for this kind of work. The paper gives requirements for the performance of technologies, for specialists and auxiliary personnel, specialists' knowledge and skills, medical staff safeguarding. The conditions for rendering a service, necessary equipment, ware, and reagents are described in details. The specific features of a pre-analytical stage, methods for the fixation and staining of smears, the interpretation and recording of findings, and the control of the quality of a performed study, as well as the cost characteristics in conventional units of man-hours. The developed technology may be of great importance to the health care facilities certified for rendering this service.

  1. Incorporating human papillomavirus testing into cytological screening in the era of prophylactic vaccines.

    PubMed

    Almonte, Maribel; Sasieni, Peter; Cuzick, Jack

    2011-10-01

    Screening for, and treatment of, pre-cancerous cervical lesions has lead to dramatic reductions in cervical cancer in many countries. In all cases, cervical screening has been based on cytology, but that is beginning to change. Research studies, including randomised trials, clearly show that human papillomavirus (HPV) testing could be used to prevent a greater proportion of cervical cancer within a practical screening programme. Meanwhile, young adolescents are being vaccinated against HPV in developed countries, but cervical screening should continue for many years because it will take decades before most of those targeted by screening have been vaccinated. In the HPV vaccination era, the rate of cervical disease will decrease, and so will the positive predictive value of cytology. The screening characteristics of HPV testing make it the preferred choice for primary screening. However, questions regarding how to use HPV testing to screen vaccinated and unvaccinated women in the future remain unanswered.

  2. Exfoliative cytology of oral epithelial cells from patients with type 2 diabetes: cytomorphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Rivera, César; Núñez-de-Mendoza, Camila

    2013-01-01

    This research objective is to identify cytomorphometrical changes using exfoliative cytology (EC) and later Papanicolaou (Pap) staining, for oral epithelial cells of patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2) (n = 30), while being compared to patients without the disease (n = 30). Additionally, we investigated an association between cellular changes and salivary flow levels; relationship that until now has not been reported. Results show that the cell diameter and the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio was significantly higher compared to those patients without the disease (p ≤ 0.001 Student and Welch test). Decreased salivary flow was significantly associated with increased cell diameter and nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio (p ≤ 0.001 ANOVA with Tukey test). Evidence and clinical observations show that DM2 and decreased salivary flow are related to detectable cytomorphometrical changes in exfoliated cells, which may extend the horizon of this cytological technique.

  3. Quantitative cytology and thyroperoxidase immunochemistry: new tools in evaluating thyroid nodules by fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Pluot, M; Faroux, M J; Flament, J B; Patey, M; Theobald, S; Delisle, M J

    1996-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of cold thyroid nodules is proposed to be the most useful diagnostic test for deciding which patients need surgery. A retrospective study of standard cytology (SC) performed in 776 patients who had been operated on, showed a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 80%. Quantitative cytology (QC) was carried out with a cell image analyzer, which classified the cases as benign or not benign. In 87 cases, sensitivity and specificity of QC alone were 100 and 76%. When SC and QC were combined, there were no false negative reports. A new monoclonal antithyroperoxidase (TPO) antibody (MoAb47) was tested. The sensitivity and specificity of TPO alone were 97 and 81%. When SC and TPO were combined, specificity rose 90%. As adjuncts to SC, QC and TPO represent useful tools for selecting patients for surgery.

  4. Hydatid cyst of parotid: Report of unusual cytological findings extending the cytomorphological spectrum.

    PubMed

    Arora, Vinod Kumar; Chopra, Neha; Singh, Poorva; Venugopal, Vasantha Kumar; Narang, Salil

    2016-09-01

    Hydatid disease is a zoonotic infestation caused by larval cestode of genus Echinococcus. Cystic form of this infection mostly involves liver and lung. Hydatid disease of the parotid gland is very rare even in endemic areas and is often clinically mistaken for parotid tumors or cysts. The presence of protoscolices, laminated membranes, and isolated hooklets are characteristic cytological features observed on fine-needle aspirate from hydatid cysts. We report unusual cytological features from a hydatid cyst of parotid in a 13-year-old girl. She presented with a slowly enlarging hard mass in left parotid. Fine-needle aspiration yielded slightly turbid fluid. Smears from the sediment revealed naked parasitic micronuclei, fragments of germinative layer (endocyst), and abortive brood capsules (buds from endocyst) seen as spherical structures with multiple parasitic nuclei. Some of these spherical structures were degenerated with recognizable nuclei and others were completely necrotic. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:770-773. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Cytology of the cerebrospinal fluid in dogs with brain tumors and spinal cord compression. Part 4].

    PubMed

    Grevel, V; Machus, B; Steeb, C

    1992-08-01

    The results of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology of 9 dogs with brain tumors and 50 dogs with spinal cord compression are discussed. Of the 50 dogs with spinal cord compression, disc protrusion was diagnosed in 31, myelomalacia in 7, discospondylitis in 3 and spinal cord tumors in 9 dogs. In 4 of 9 dogs with brain tumors, tumor cells could be found by the sedimentation apparatus of Kölmel. Pleocytosis existed in 6 patients. In about 70% (29 of 41) of cases with disc protrusion, more than 200 cells could be evaluated in the CSF sediment, consisting mostly of transformed lymphocytes and activated monocytes. As the neurologic deficits increased, the amount of cells and especially cell complexes increased. This was especially evident in cases with myelomalacia of the spinal cord. Only in cases with discospondylitis or spinal cord neoplasia was the CSF cytology unchanged.

  6. Cytological changes in the oral mucosa after use of a mouth rinse with alcohol: A prospective double blind control study

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Sempere, Francisco; Marzal, Cristina; Pellín-Carcelén, Ana; Martí-Bonmatí, Ezequiel; Bagan, Leticia

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this preliminary study was to detect cytological changes in the oral mucosa after using a mouth wash with alcohol. Material and Methods: A prospective double-blind, controlled study was performed, for 6 months. Group 1 consisted of 30 subjects who used a mouth rinse with 26.9% of alcohol [Listerine®] and Group 2 consisted of 30 subjects who used a mouth rinse with the same ingredients but with no alcohol. We obtained three cytological samples from the oral mucosa. The presence of cytological atypia, binucleation and karyorrhesis, and type of cells were studied. We also used a fluorescent in situ hybridization technique (FISH) in 15 samples in each group, for the micronucleus. Results: We found no clinical mucosal alteration after using the mouth wash at the end of the study in either group. We observed no cytological differences between the groups at the end of the study (p>0.05). Regarding the study of the micronucleus by FISH, we observed no significant difference between the groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: Our results showed no cytological alteration in patients using a mouth rinse with alcohol, but these findings should be considered preliminary results, to be confirmed in a greater sample of patients. Key words:Mouth wash, oral mucosa, cytological change, alcohol. PMID:23085712

  7. The cytology and DNA detection by the PapilloCheck® test in the diagnosis of human papillomavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to make a comparison between the results obtained by cytologies and by the detection and genotyping of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in the screening of cervical cancer. In this study, there were 994 samples used from human females. These were obtained from liquid-based preparations. The samples were analyzed by cytological technique and by the detection of HPV DNA using the PapilloCheck® Test. The HPV was detected in 28% of the samples. Most of the cytology lesions appeared in HPV positive samples and, within these, the most serious injuries occurred mostly in samples with multiple HPV infections. The results indicate that, in general, there is a correlation between the detection of HPV DNA and cytology. However, there were some cases that emphasize the limitations of both diagnosis methods (27% cases with viral HPV DNA positive and normal cytologies and about 2% of cytological lesions detected in samples HPV negatives). It is possible to conclude that none of the two techniques is enough by itself and should be applied together in order to increase the accuracy of cervical cancer screening. PMID:24265920

  8. Liquid-based cytology and cell block immunocytochemistry in veterinary medicine: comparison with standard cytology for the evaluation of canine lymphoid samples.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, N C C A; Guerra, J M; Réssio, R A; Wasques, D G; Etlinger-Colonelli, D; Lorente, S; Nogueira, E; Dagli, M L Z

    2016-08-01

    Liquid-based Cytology (LBC) consists of immediate wet cell fixation with automated slide preparation. We applied LBC, cell block (CB) and immunocytochemistry to diagnose canine lymphoma and compare results with conventional cytology. Samples from enlarged lymph nodes of 18 dogs were collected and fixed in preservative solution for automated slide preparation (LBC), CB inclusion and immunophenotyping. Two CB techniques were tested: fixed sediment method (FSM) and agar method (AM). Anti-CD79a, anti-Pax5, anti-CD3 and anti-Ki67 were used in immunocytochemistry. LBC smears showed better nuclear and nucleolar definition, without cell superposition, but presented smaller cell size and worse cytoplasmic definition. FSM showed consistent cellular groups and were employed for immunocytochemistry, while AM CBs presented sparse groups of lymphocytes, with compromised analysis. Anti-Pax-5 allowed B-cell identification, both in reactive and neoplastic lymph nodes. Our preliminary report suggests that LBC and FSM together may be promising tools to improve lymphoma diagnosis through fine-needle aspiration.

  9. Standardized terminology and nomenclature for pancreatobiliary cytology: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Pitman, Martha B; Centeno, Barbara A; Ali, Syed Z; Genevay, Muriel; Stelow, Ed; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Castillo, Carlos Fernandez-Del; Schmidt, C Max; Brugge, William R; Layfield, Lester J

    2014-01-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, techniques of EUS-FNA, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing and post-biopsy treatment and management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussion of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18 month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology web site [www.papsociety.org]. This document selectively presents the results of these discussions and focuses on a proposed standardized terminology scheme for pancreatobiliary specimens that correlate cytological diagnosis with biological behavior and increasingly conservative patient management of surveillance only. The proposed terminology scheme recommends a six-tiered system: Non-diagnostic, negative, atypical, neoplastic [benign or other], suspicious and positive. Unique to this scheme is the "neoplastic" category separated into "benign" (serous cystadenoma) or "other" (premalignant mucinous cysts, neuroendocrine tumors and solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs)). The positive or malignant category is reserved for high-grade, aggressive malignancies including ductal adenocarcinoma, acinar cell carcinoma, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, pancreatoblastoma, lymphoma and metastases. Interpretation categories do not have to be used. Some pathology laboratory information systems require an interpretation category, which places the cytological diagnosis into a general category. This proposed scheme provides terminology that standardizes the category of the various diseases of the pancreas, some of which are difficult to diagnose specifically by cytology. In addition, this terminology scheme attempts to provide maximum

  10. A Genomic Alternative to Identify Medullary Thyroid Cancer Preoperatively in Thyroid Nodules with Indeterminate Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, Robert J.; Traweek, S. Thomas; Lanman, Richard B.; Kennedy, Giulia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of calcitonin screening for the rare medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is controversial due to questions of efficacy, accuracy, and cost-effectiveness. This study reports the results of a large prospective validation using a machine-trained algorithm (MTC Classifier) to preoperatively identify MTC in fine-needle aspiration biopsies in lieu of calcitonin measurements. Methods: Cytology analysis on a prospective consecutive series of 50,430 thyroid nodule biopsies yielded a total of 7815 indeterminate (Bethesda categories III/IV) cases, which were tested with the MTC classifier. A prospective, consecutively submitted series of 2673 Bethesda III–VI cases with cytology determined locally was also evaluated. RNA was isolated and tested for the MTC Classifier using microarrays. Results: Forty-three cases were positive by the MTC Classifier among 10,488 tested nodules (0.4%), consistent with the low prevalence of MTC. Of these, all but one was histologically or biochemically confirmed as MTC, yielding a positive predictive value (PPV) of 98%. Of the positive cases, only 19 (44%) had been specifically suspected of MTC by cytology, highlighting the limitations of light microscopy to detect this disease. Three surgically confirmed MTC cases that were detected by the MTC Classifier had low basal serum calcitonin values, indicating these would have been missed by traditional calcitonin screening methods. A pooled analysis of three independent validation sets demonstrates high test sensitivity (97.9%), specificity (99.8%), PPV (97.9%), and negative predictive value (99.8%). Conclusions: A clinical paradigm is proposed, whereby cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules being tested for common malignancies using gene expression can be simultaneously tested for MTC using the same genomic assay at no added cost. PMID:26992356

  11. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy: Cytology and histopathology of a rare lesion at an uncommon site.

    PubMed

    Batta, Nishant; Narang, Vikram; Kaur, Harpreet; Selhi, Pavneet Kaur; Sood, Neena

    2016-11-07

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy is a rare, pigmented neoplasm generally arising in infants during the first year of life. The cytological features are rarely described in the literature. This case due to its rarity and unusual site emphasising the cytopathological features and the necessity of histology for differentiating it from other round cell tumours has been presented. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Cytopathology laboratory accreditation, with special reference to the American Society of Cytology programs.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P K; Erozan, Y S

    1989-01-01

    The features of the Laboratory Accreditation Program of the American Society of Cytology that pertain to quality assurance in cytopathology are reviewed. The areas considered include: (1) specimen procurement and cytopreparation, (2) the role of the cytotechnologist in cytoscreening, evaluation and reporting, (3) the role of the cytopathologist and (4) quality control measures. Attention to the issues raised in these areas is essential to achieving the best possible cytopathology practice in the most efficient and economical manner.

  13. Recovery and evaluation by cytologic techniques of trace material retained on bullets.

    PubMed

    Nichols, C A; Sens, M A

    1990-03-01

    Fragments of tissue, intermediate targets, and debris related to firing are embedded in the fine striations and deforming edges of bullets. Because most of these fragments are too small to visualize and process as histologic sections, this material is usually washed away when the projectiles are cleaned following removal at autopsy. By preserving the rinsing material that results from routine cleaning of projectiles, it may be possible to evaluate adherent material from the bullet by cytologic techniques, including filter preparations, cell blocks, and smears of macroscopic tissue fragments. Bullet-wash cytology produced cellular elements, tissue fragments, and inert material from intermediate targets. Different tissue elements could be documented with a given projectile; this information could be utilized to document the path of a bullet through the body or intermediate target. This initial study suggests that low- and high-velocity projectiles produce different types of tissue debris, with much more fragmentation and scarcity of cellular components in the high-velocity rounds. Inert material, resulting from intermediate targets, such as clothing, as well as gunshot residue on the bullet or debris from the barrel could be distinguished on preparations. There was a difference in tissue representation of adherent material on the bullet; connective tissue, mesothelial coverings, and fragments from organs with higher elastic and cohesive properties were seen with much greater frequency on the filters than were loosely cohesive and friable organs such as liver and spleen. The cytologic preparations from projectile washings reflect both the path taken by the bullet and the ballistic damage to the organs. Thus, the cytologic evaluation of bullet washings may be useful in the incorporation of gunshot wound evaluation to support documentation of the trajectory of the projectile.

  14. Standardized terminology and nomenclature for pancreatobiliary cytology: the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology guidelines.

    PubMed

    Pitman, Martha B; Centeno, Barbara A; Ali, Syed Z; Genevay, Muriel; Stelow, Ed; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Fernandez-del Castillo, Carlos; Max Schmidt, C; Brugge, William; Layfield, Lester

    2014-04-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, techniques of EUS-FNA, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing, and postbiopsy treatment and management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18-month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology web site (www.papsociety.org). This document selectively presents the results of these discussions and focuses on a proposed standardized terminology scheme for pancreatobiliary specimens that correlate cytological diagnosis with biological behavior and increasingly conservative patient management of surveillance only. The proposed terminology scheme recommends a six-tiered system: Nondiagnostic, Negative, Atypical, Neoplastic (benign or other), Suspicious and Positive. Unique to this scheme is the "Neoplastic" category separated into "benign" (serous cystadenoma), or "Other" (premalignant mucinous cysts, neuroendocrine tumors, and solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms). The positive or malignant category is reserved for high-grade, aggressive malignancies including ductal adenocarcinoma, acinar cell carcinoma, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, pancreatoblastoma, lymphoma, and metastases. Interpretation categories do not have to be used. Some pathology laboratory information systems require an interpretation category, which places the cytological diagnosis into a general category. This proposed scheme provides terminology that standardizes the category of the various diseases of the pancreas, some of which are difficult to diagnose specifically by cytology. In addition, this terminology scheme attempts to provide maximum flexibility

  15. Urogenital cytology and surgical decision making. A differential diagnostic approach to hematuria, stranguria, and prostatomegaly.

    PubMed

    Allen, S W

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss some of the common diagnostic dilemmas in veterinary medicine that relate to the urogenital tract. The problems include hematuria, stranguria, and prostatomegaly. The diagnostic workup is discussed specifically as it relates to cytologic techniques. Case examples are given to illustrate how the suggested diagnostic plan can be followed. Some of the pitfalls that can be encountered in diagnosing and treating these problems are also addressed.

  16. Standardized terminology and nomenclature for pancreatobiliary cytology: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Pitman, Martha B.; Centeno, Barbara A.; Ali, Syed Z.; Genevay, Muriel; Stelow, Ed; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Castillo, Carlos Fernandez-del; Schmidt, C. Max; Brugge, William R.; Layfield, Lester J.

    2014-01-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, techniques of EUS-FNA, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing and post-biopsy treatment and management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussion of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18 month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology web site [www.papsociety.org]. This document selectively presents the results of these discussions and focuses on a proposed standardized terminology scheme for pancreatobiliary specimens that correlate cytological diagnosis with biological behavior and increasingly conservative patient management of surveillance only. The proposed terminology scheme recommends a six-tiered system: Non-diagnostic, negative, atypical, neoplastic [benign or other], suspicious and positive. Unique to this scheme is the “neoplastic” category separated into “benign” (serous cystadenoma) or “other” (premalignant mucinous cysts, neuroendocrine tumors and solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs)). The positive or malignant category is reserved for high-grade, aggressive malignancies including ductal adenocarcinoma, acinar cell carcinoma, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, pancreatoblastoma, lymphoma and metastases. Interpretation categories do not have to be used. Some pathology laboratory information systems require an interpretation category, which places the cytological diagnosis into a general category. This proposed scheme provides terminology that standardizes the category of the various diseases of the pancreas, some of which are difficult to diagnose specifically by cytology. In addition, this terminology scheme attempts to provide

  17. Blue bodies in cytology specimens in a case of pulmonary talcosis.

    PubMed

    Kung, I T; Johnson, F B; So, S Y; Lam, W K; Hsu, C

    1984-05-01

    Unusual extracellular birefringent laminated ovoid structures are seen in bronchial brushing, aspiration, and washing specimens in a 28-year-old woman who had histologic evidence of pulmonary talcosis. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis and microchemical studies have identified them to be calcium carbonate. These structures are known as pulmonary blue bodies and are seen mainly in histologic paraffin sections. Their occurrence in cytologic preparations and association with talcosis have not been reported.

  18. Cervical screening by visual inspection, HPV testing, liquid-based and conventional cytology in Amazonian Peru.

    PubMed

    Almonte, Maribel; Ferreccio, Catterina; Winkler, Jennifer L; Cuzick, Jack; Tsu, Vivien; Robles, Sylvia; Takahashi, Rina; Sasieni, Peter

    2007-08-15

    Cervical cancer is an important public health problem in many developing countries, where cytology screening has been ineffective. We compared four tests to identify the most appropriate for screening in countries with limited resources. Nineteen midwives screened 5,435 women with visual inspection (VIA) and collected cervical samples for HPV testing, liquid-based cytology (LBC) and conventional cytology (CC). If VIA was positive, a doctor performed magnified VIA. CC was read locally, LBC was read in Lima and HPV testing was done in London. Women with a positive screening test were offered colposcopy or cryotherapy (with biopsy). Inadequacy rates were 5% and 11% for LBC and CC respectively, and less than 0.1% for VIA and HPV. One thousand eight hundred eighty-one women (84% of 2,236) accepted colposcopy/cryotherapy: 79 had carcinoma in situ or cancer (CIS+), 27 had severe- and 42 moderate-dysplasia on histology. We estimated a further 6.5 cases of CIS+ in women without a biopsy. Sensitivity for CIS+ (specificity for less than moderate dysplasia) was 41.2% (76.7%) for VIA, 95.8% (89.3%) for HPV, 80.3% (83.7%) for LBC, and 42.5% (98.7%) for CC. Sensitivities for moderate dysplasia or worse were better for VIA (54.9%) and less favourable for HPV and cytology. In this setting, VIA and CC missed the majority of high-grade disease. Overall, HPV testing performed best. VIA gives immediate results, but will require investment in regular training and supervision. Further work is needed to determine whether screened-positive women should all be treated or triaged with a more specific test.

  19. Galectin-1 is a useful marker for detecting neoplastic squamous cells in oral cytology smears.

    PubMed

    Noda, Yuri; Kondo, Yuko; Sakai, Manabu; Sato, Sunao; Kishino, Mitsunobu

    2016-06-01

    Cytologic diagnoses in the oral region are very difficult due to the small amount of cells in smears, which are also exposed to many stimulating factors and often show atypical changes. Galectin-1 (Gal1) is a β-galactoside binding protein that modulates tumor progression. Gal1 is very weakly expressed in normal cells, but is often overexpressed in neoplastic lesions. The aim of the present study was to determine whether it is possible to differentiate reactive changes from neoplastic changes in oral cytology smears based on the expression of Gal1. A total of 155 tissue biopsy specimens and 61 liquid-based cytology specimens were immunostained by an anti-Gal1 antibody, and Gal1 expression levels were subsequently evaluated. These samples consisted of oral squamous cell carcinomas, epithelial dysplasia, and oral mucosal diseases. The positive and negative expressions of Gal1 were examined in 37 specimens collected by scalpel and cytobrush biopsy. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of Gal1 were also evaluated in smears. In tissue sections, the positive ratio of Gal1 in neoplastic lesions was high (72.3%). In cytology specimens, the positive ratio of Gal1 was higher in neoplastic lesions (79.0%) than in those negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (22.2%). A correlation was found between immunocytochemical Gal1 expression and immunohistochemical Gal1 expression (P < .001). The sensitivity (75.0%), specificity (75.0%), and positive predictive value (91.3%) of Gal1 were also high in smears. In conclusion, Gal1 may be a useful marker for determining whether morphologic changes in cells are reactive or neoplastic.

  20. Total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  1. All lesions great and small, part 1: diagnostic cytology in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Leslie C; Seelig, Davis M; Overmann, Jed

    2014-06-01

    Cytopathology is a minimally invasive, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic modality with broad utilization in veterinary medicine. Primary care clinicians often screen common cutaneous and subcutaneous aspirates, with other samples most frequently evaluated by board certified veterinary clinical pathologists in reference laboratories. Wright-Giemsa stains are frequently utilized with the application of ancillary diagnostics such as cytochemistry, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, and molecular diagnostic techniques complicated by the need to develop and validate species specific reagents and protocols. The interpretation of veterinary cytology samples must be undertaken with extensive knowledge of the breadth of animal species, which includes familiarity with the frequency and biological behavior of inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic lesions that are influenced by species, breed, and husbandry conditions. This review is the first of two parts that focus on the most common domestic companion animal species (dog, cat, and horse), taking an organ system approach to survey important lesions that may be unique to veterinary species or have interesting correlates in human medicine. The first of the two-part series covers skin and subcutaneous tissue, the musculoskeletal system, and lymphoid organs. The cytologic features and biological behavior of similar lesions are compared, and selected molecular mechanisms of disease and ancillary diagnostics are reviewed when characterized. Supporting figures illustrate a subset of lesions. While not a comprehensive catalog of veterinary cytology, the goal is to give cytopathologists working in human medicine a general impression of correlates in veterinary practice.

  2. Valuation of exfoliative cytology as prediction factor in oral mucosa lesions.

    PubMed

    Brunotto, Mabel; Zárate, Ana María; Cismondi, Adriana; Fernández, María del Carmen; Noher de Halac, Rita Inés

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was immunolabeling oncoproteins Ck14, p53, p21 and Bcl-2 in order to evaluate their expression in premalignant and malignant stomatological lesions in oral epithelial, and to compare this expression with exfoliative cytology alterations in the same patients. It was studied biopsies and cytologies of 13 subjects with oral lichen planus, with or without Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma clinically diagnosed and confirmed by anatomopathological studies. The oral lichen planus lesion presented binuclei orange cells; and in leukoplakia lesions only orange stained was observed; meanwhile koilocytes, inflammatory cells, enlarge nuclear volume and pathogenic microorganisms were observed in the HPV infections and squamous cells carcinoma (SCC). The Ck14, p53, p21 and Bcl-2 proteins were found modified in the leukoplakia, oral lichen planus and cancer. Cytological alterations and positive immunolabeling or over-expression of Ck14 cytokeratine in the upper epithelial stratus should be indicator of malignant transformations as doing subsequence exams.

  3. Cytology at the Time of HPV: Some Things to Think about when Discussing HPV.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Kristi; Vanden Broeck, Davy; Benoy, Ina; Truyens, Marie; Bogers, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    'In the current 28 Member States of the European Union (EU), approximately 34,000 new cases of cervical cancer and 13,000 deaths occur' [Ferlay et al.: Eur J Cancer 2014;49:1374-1403]. 'The current 10-fold gradient in the mortality rates of cervical cancer among the EU Member States largely reflects the persistent absence, or inadequate implementation of cervical cancer screening programmes more than 10 years after organized, population-based screening programmes following European quality assurance guidelines were unanimously recommended by the Health Ministers of the EU' [Council of the European Union: Off J Eur Union 2003;327:34-38]. This article will compare the strengths, weaknesses and risks of the following 4 cervical health screening strategies: HPV as a triage of cytology, cytology as a triage of HPV, cotesting (parallel) or cytology at the time of HPV (HPV-informed guided screening). 'The optimal screening strategy should identify those cervical cancer precursors likely to progress to invasive cancers (maximizing the benefits of screening) and avoid the detection and unnecessary treatment of transient HPV infection and its associated benign lesions that are not destined to become cancerous (minimizing the potential harms of screening)' [Saslow et al.: Am J Clin Pathol 2012;137:516-542].

  4. Adenomatoid mesothelioma with intranuclear inclusion bodies: a case report with cytological and histological findings.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Toshiaki; Kawashima, Katsuhiko; Serizawa, Hiromi; Miura, Hiroyuki; Kyeongil, Kim

    2014-05-01

    We report a very unusual cytologic feature, intranuclear inclusion bodies, in mesothelioma of a predominantly adenomatoid type. The patient, a 57-year-old woman, was presented with dyspnea and right pleural effusion. Pleural aspiration cytology revealed many cohesive ball-like clusters, with a tubular pattern, composed of small atypical cells displaying a high-nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio. They had a nuclear groove and irregular intranuclear inclusion bodies. Right lung partial resection with thoracoscopy revealed that a white tumor had proliferated along the pleural surface at S(8) . Histology revealed nodular tumor cells forming dilated structures mixed with small tubular or glandular structures similar to those seen in benign adenomatoid tumors. These tumor cells had invaded peripheral lung tissues. Such inclusion bodies have not been reported earlier in mesothelioma. On the basis of this observation, we propose that the adenomatoid type of malignant mesothelioma be added to the differential diagnosis of malignant effusions when tumor cells with nuclear grooves and intranuclear inclusions are found in pleural aspiration cytology.

  5. Label-free enumeration, collection and downstream cytological and cytogenetic analysis of circulating tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Manjima; Pao, Edward; Renier, Corinne; Go, Derek E.; Che, James; Montoya, Rosita; Conrad, Rachel; Matsumoto, Melissa; Heirich, Kyra; Triboulet, Melanie; Rao, Jianyu; Jeffrey, Stefanie S.; Garon, Edward B.; Goldman, Jonathan; Rao, Nagesh P.; Kulkarni, Rajan; Sollier-Christen, Elodie; Di Carlo, Dino

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have a great potential as indicators of metastatic disease that may help physicians improve cancer prognostication, treatment and patient outcomes. Heterogeneous marker expression as well as the complexity of current antibody-based isolation and analysis systems highlights the need for alternative methods. In this work, we use a microfluidic Vortex device that can selectively isolate potential tumor cells from blood independent of cell surface expression. This system was adapted to interface with three protein-marker-free analysis techniques: (i) an in-flow automated image processing system to enumerate cells released, (ii) cytological analysis using Papanicolaou (Pap) staining and (iii) fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) targeting the ALK rearrangement. In-flow counting enables a rapid assessment of the cancer-associated large circulating cells in a sample within minutes to determine whether standard downstream assays such as cytological and cytogenetic analyses that are more time consuming and costly are warranted. Using our platform integrated with these workflows, we analyzed 32 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 22 breast cancer patient samples, yielding 60 to 100% of the cancer patients with a cell count over the healthy threshold, depending on the detection method used: respectively 77.8% for automated, 60–100% for cytology, and 80% for immunostaining based enumeration. PMID:27739521

  6. Impact of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination on Cervical Cytology Screening, Colposcopy, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Ana Cecilia; Solomon, Diane; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; González, Paula; Wacholder, Sholom; Porras, Carolina; Jiménez, Silvia; Schiffman, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination on cervical screening, colposcopy, and treatment is incompletely understood. In 2004–2005, investigators in the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial randomized 7,466 women aged 18–25 years, 1:1, to receive HPV vaccination or hepatitis A vaccination. The worst-ever cytology diagnosis and the 4-year cumulative proportions of colposcopy referral and treatment by vaccination arm were compared for 2 cohorts. The total vaccinated cohort included 6,844 women who provided cervical samples. The naive cohort included 2,284 women with no evidence of previous HPV exposure. In the total vaccinated cohort, HPV-vaccinated women had a significant (P = 0.01) reduction in cytological abnormalities: 12.4% for high-grade lesions and 5.9% for minor lesions. Colposcopy referral was reduced by 7.9% (P = 0.03) and treatment by 11.3% (P = 0.24). Greater relative reductions in abnormal cytology (P < 0.001) were observed for HPV-vaccinated women in the naive cohort: 49.2% for high-grade lesions and 18.1% for minor lesions. Colposcopy referral and treatment were reduced by 21.3% (P = 0.01) and 45.6% (P = 0.08), respectively, in the naive cohort. The overall impact on health services will be modest in the first years after vaccine introduction among young adult women, even in regions with high coverage. PMID:23843026

  7. Algorithm for cytological diagnosis of nonneoplastic lesions of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Purnima; Arora, Vinod K; Singh, Navjeevan; Bhatia, Arati

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to formulate an algorithm for the cytologic diagnosis of nonneoplastic enlargements of the salivary gland.Smear cellularity and cytological features such as presence of epithelial cells and types of inflammation were assessed in a retrospective study of 201 aspirates. One hundred and forty-six were inflammatory, 19 were noninflammatory nonneoplastic, and 36 were cystic lesions. Of the cystic lesions, cytological evidence of retention cyst was seen in seven, while two aspirates with only hemosiderin-laden macrophages were hematomas. The remaining 27 defied subclassification. Noninflammatorynonneoplastic lesions included 5 fatty infiltrations, 2 sialadenosis, and 12 normal salivary glands. Forty-two lesions were acute inflammations, 89 were chronic, and 15 were granulomatous. Cytomorphologic patterns identified in samples with acute inflammation were 9 abscesses, 29 acute obstructive sialadenitis, and 4 acute infective sialadenitis. Three aspirates with chronic inflammation were lymphoepithelial lesions, 82 chronic sialadenitis, and 4 lymph node in salivary gland. Fifteen granulomatous lesions were 10 tuberculosis, 3 sarcoidosis, and 2 foreign body granulomas. Using the proposed algorithmic approach, nonneoplastic salivary gland enlargement could be placed into distinct, clinically relevant diagnostic categories.

  8. Improved impression cytology techniques for the immunopathological diagnosis of superficial viral infections

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, M; Bossart, W; Bernauer, W

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND—For epidemiological and therapeutic reasons early diagnosis of superficial viral infections is crucial. Conventional microbiological techniques are expensive, time consuming, and not sufficiently sensitive. In this study impression cytology techniques were evaluated to analyse their diagnostic potential in viral infections of the ocular surface.
METHOD—A Biopore membrane device instead of the original impression cytology technique was used to allow better quality and handling of the specimens. The impressions were processed, using monoclonal antibodies and immunoperoxidase or immunofluorescence techniques to assess the presence of herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, or adenovirus antigens. Ocular surface specimens from healthy individuals (n=10) and from patients with suspected viral surface disease (n=19) were studied. Infected and non-infected cell cultures served as controls.
RESULTS—This modified technique of impression cytology allowed the collection of large conjunctival and corneal epithelial cell layers with excellent morphology. Immunocytological staining of these samples provided diagnostic results for all three viruses in patients with viral surface disease.
CONCLUSIONS—The use of Biopore membrane devices for the collection of ocular surface epithelia offers new diagnostic possibilities for external eye diseases. Immunopathological methods that are applied directly on these membrane devices can provide virological results within 1-4 hours. This contributes considerably to the clinical management of patients with infectious diseases of the ocular surface.

 PMID:9505824

  9. Overweight and obese perimenopausal and postmenopausal women exhibit increased abnormal mammary epithelial cytology.

    PubMed

    Seewaldt, Victoria L; Goldenberg, Vanessa; Jones, Lee W; Peace, Charlotte; Broadwater, Gloria; Scott, Victoria; Bean, Gregory R; Wilke, Lee Gravit; Zalles, Carola M; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2007-03-01

    High body mass index (BMI >or= 25 kg/m2) is associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer incidence and mortality. However, few studies have explored associations between BMI and direct measures on target tissue. Epithelial cytology was assessed in 62 high-risk perimenopausal and postmenopausal women using random periareolar fine needle aspiration. Masood cytology index scores were significantly higher among women with BMIs >or=25 kg/m2 than in women with BMIs <25 kg/m2 (13.9 +/- 0.42 versus 12.7 +/- 0.29 kg/m2; P = 0.017). Overweight or obese women also had significantly higher random periareolar fine needle aspiration epithelial cell counts compared with those who were normal weight (1,230 +/- 272 versus 521 +/- 185; P = 0.028). These data suggest that overweight in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women is associated with direct cytologic abnormalities within the breast. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and to determine if this potential biomarker is responsive to changes in body weight resulting from diet and/or exercise interventions.

  10. Comparison of FFPE histological versus LBP cytological samples for HPV detection and typing in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geehyuk; Cho, Hyemi; Lee, Dongsup; Park, Sunyoung; Lee, Jiyoung; Wang, Hye-Young; Kim, Sunghyun; Park, Kwang Hwa; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2017-02-27

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is closely associated with cervical cancer. This study analyzed HPV genotype prevalence in 75 cases of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from patients diagnosed with cervical cancer. Genotype prevalence was assessed using Reverse Blot Assay (REBA) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which target the HPV L1 and HPV E6/E7 genes, respectively. HPV DNA chip tests were also performed using liquid based preparation (LBP) cytological samples from the same patients who provided the FFPE histological samples. We observed a slight difference in HPV genotype distribution as assessed by DNA chip versus REBA. One possible explanation for this difference is that normal regions could be mixed with lesion regions when cytological samples are extracted from each patient with cancer. For the detection of moderate dysplasia, the main target of diagnosis, this difference is anticipated to be greater. We also made several unexpected observations. For example, HPV multi-infection was not detected. Moreover, the rate of HPV positivity varied radically depending on the cancer origin, e.g. squamous cell carcinoma versus adenocarcinoma. Our results imply that it is important to determine whether cytological specimens are suitable for HPV genotyping analysis and cervical cancer diagnosis. Future research on the mechanisms underlying cervical cancer pathogenesis is also necessary.

  11. Role of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology as a Diagnostic Tool in Orbital and Adnexal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Lubna; Malukani, Kamal; Malaiya, Siddharth; Yeshwante, Prashant; Ishrat, Saba; Nandedkar, Shirish S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration (FNAC) as a diagnostic tool in cases of orbital and ocular adnexal masses. Cytological findings were correlated with histopathological diagnosis wherever possible. Methods: FNAC was performed in 29 patients of different age groups presenting with orbital and ocular adnexal masses. Patients were evaluated clinically and investigated by non-invasive techniques before fine needle aspiration of the masses. Smears were analyzed by a cytologist in all cases. Further, results of cytology were compared with the histopathological diagnosis. Results: The age of patients ranged from 1 to 68 years (mean: 29.79±19.29). There were 14 males and 15 females with a male to female ratio of 0.93:1. Out of 29 cases, 26 aspirates were cellular. Cellularity was insufficient in three (10.34%) aspirates. Out of 26 cellular aspirates, 11 were non-neoplastic while 15 were neoplastic on cytology. Subsequent histopathologic examination was done in 21/26 cases. Concordance rate of FNAC in orbital and ocular adnexal mass lesions with respect to the precise histologic diagnosis was 90%. Conclusion: When properly used in well-indicated patients (in cases where a diagnosis cannot be made by clinical and imaging findings alone), FNAC of orbital and periorbital lesions is an invaluable and suitable adjunct diagnostic technique that necessitates close cooperation between the ophthalmologist and cytologist. However, nondiagnostic aspirates may sometimes be obtained, and an inconclusive FNAC should not always be ignored. PMID:27621787

  12. Evaluation of impact of immunocytochemical techniques in cytological diagnosis of neoplastic effusions.

    PubMed Central

    Linari, A; Bussolati, G

    1989-01-01

    A prospective study (1984-87) on the immunocytochemical identification of cancer cells in effusions using HMFG2 monoclonal antibody, and in addition, monoclonal anti-CEA and B72.3 antibodies in cases of suspected mesothelioma, was undertaken. On the basis of cytology alone, of a total of 2362 pleural, peritoneal, and pericardial effusions, 525 cases were diagnosed as positive and 1485 as negative for neoplastic cells, while in 352 (15%) specimens from 307 patients the diagnosis was doubtful. Sections of the embedded sediment of doubtful cases were tested with HMFG2 antibody and proved positive in 215 cases, negative in 108, and inconclusive in 29. The results were checked by following the clinical outcome of the cases. The method was specific in identifying cancer cells in cases at best diagnosed as suspicious on the basis of cytology alone; this represents a clear diagnostic gain. Sensitivity of the test, however, was relatively low (41%). Combined cytological and immunocytochemical characteristics (CEA negative and only some of the neoplastic cells positive with HMFG2 and B72.3 monoclonal antibodies) permitted diagnosis on the effusions of most cases of mesothelioma. The impact of the diagnosis on the progress of the disease was not appreciable as no difference in outcome was noted, irrespective of whether cancer cells had been recognised. The occurrence of an effusion remains an ominous sign in most patients treated for cancer. Images PMID:2685053

  13. Small pancreatic cancer with pancreas divisum preoperatively diagnosed by pancreatic juice cytology.

    PubMed

    Obana, Takashi; Fujita, Naotaka; Noda, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Go; Ito, Kei; Horaguchi, Jun; Takasawa, Osamu; Tsuchiya, Takashi; Sawai, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    We present a case of small pancreatic head cancer with pancreas divisum preoperatively diagnosed by pancreatic juice cytology. A 60-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for evaluation of a dilated main pancreatic duct (MPD). A small and poorly reproducible low-echoic lesion in the pancreas was suspected by ultrasonography (US) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) failed to visualize the ventral pancreatic duct, and the upstream dorsal pancreatic duct was dilated. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was indicative of pancreas divisum, and complete obstruction of the MPD in the pancreatic head was seen. Cytology of pancreatic juice obtained from the dorsal pancreas after minor papilla sphincterotomy revealed the presence of adenocarcinoma cells. Pancreatoduodenectomy was performed under the diagnosis of pancreatic head cancer with pancreas divisum. Histological examination revealed moderately-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma 20 mm in diameter, located in the pancreatic head. Dilatation of the dorsal pancreatic duct is sometimes observed in cases with pancreas divisum without the presence of tumors. When pancreatic duct stenosis also exists in such cases, even if a tumor is not clearly visualized by diagnostic imaging, vigorous examinations such as pancreatic juice cytology are recommended to establish an accurate diagnosis.

  14. Inflammatory cervicovaginal cytology is associated with disease activity in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Febronio, M V; Pereira, R M R; Bonfa, E; Takiuti, A D; Pereyra, E A G; Silva, C A A

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate cervicovaginal cytology in adolescents with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) and to compare them to controls. Fifty-two female adolescents with JSLE (ACR criteria) were compared to 52 age-matched healthy controls. All Pap smears were evaluated by the same cytopathologist blinded to gynecology examination (Bethesda 2001). The mean age of JSLE patients and controls were similar (16.17 +/- 1.94 versus 16.13 +/- 2.16 years, P = 0.92). The cervicovaginal cytology was found to be similar in both groups, although sexual intercourses in the last month were less frequent in JSLE than controls (23% versus 59.6%, P = 0.0003). Only one patient (2%) with JSLE versus two controls (4%) had cervical dysplasia (LGSIL) and human papilomavirus (P = 1.0). Candida spp vaginitis was observed in seven JSLE (14%) versus none in controls (P = 0.012) and was associated with immunosuppressive drugs (P = 0.01) and high dose of prednisone (P = 0.002). Of interest, inflammatory cervicovaginal cytology was observed in 21 (60%) of patients with SLEDAI > or = 4 and only four (23%) of those with SLEDAI < 4 (P = 0.001). Likewise, a higher frequency of inflammatory changes was also observed in virgin JSLE (57% versus 8%, P = 0.005). Our findings supports the notion that female genital tract may be a potential target organ in SLE since cervical inflammation is associated to disease activity independently of sexual activity.

  15. Cervical cytology profile of infertility patients in Abakaliki, South-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mbazor, J O; Umeora, O U J; Egwuatu, V E

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is of public health importance in developing countries. High risk sexual behaviour is a risk factor. This cross-sectional study aimed at establishing the cervical cytology profile of infertile women in Abakaliki, Nigeria. It involved 200 infertility patients and 200 general gynaecological patients. They were interviewed with a structured questionnaire and screened for pre-malignant cervical changes. A total of 28 infertility patients (14.9%) and 34 general gynaecological patients (17.7%) had epithelial cell abnormalities. A total of 21 infertility patients had cytology positive for pre-malignant changes, comprising: seven with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) (3.7%); eight with a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) (4.3%); and six with a high-grade intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) (3.2%). There were 25 general gynaecological patients who had cytology positive for pre-malignant changes, comprising: eight ASCUS (4.2%); seven LSIL (3.5%); and ten HSIL (5.2%). The distribution did not attain statistical significance. Infertility did not increase the risk of development of cervical pre-malignant changes.

  16. mRNA expression of CDH3, IGF2BP3, and BIRC5 in biliary brush cytology specimens is a useful adjunctive tool of cytology for the diagnosis of malignant biliary stricture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Ho; Chang, Jae Hyuck; Lee, Hee Jin; Kim, Jean A; Lim, Yeon Soo; Kim, Chang Whan; Han, Sok Won

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although advances have been made in diagnostic tools, the distinction between malignant and benign biliary strictures still remains challenging. Intraductal brush cytology is a convenient and safe method that is used for the diagnosis of biliary stricture, but, low sensitivity limits its usefulness. This study aimed to demonstrate the usefulness of mRNA expression levels of target genes in brush cytology specimens combined with cytology for the diagnosis of malignant biliary stricture. Immunohistochemistry for cadherin 3 (CDH3), p53, insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3), homeobox B7 (HOXB7), and baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat containing 5 (BIRC5) was performed in 4 benign and 4 malignant bile duct tissues. Through endoscopic or interventional radiologic procedures, brush cytology specimens were prospectively obtained in 21 and 35 paitents with biliary strictures. In the brush cytology specimens, the mRNA expressions levels of 5 genes were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry for CDH3, p53, IGF2BP3, HOXB7, and BIRC5 all showed positive staining in malignant tissues in contrast to benign tissues, which were negative. In the brush cytology specimens, the mRNA expression levels of CDH3, IGF2BP3, HOXB7, and BIRC5 were significantly higher in cases of malignant biliary stricture compared with cases of benign stricture (P = 0.006, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.001). The receiver-operating characteristic curves of these 4 mRNAs demonstrated that mRNA expression levels are useful for the prediction of malignant biliary stricture (P = 0.006, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.002). The sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for malignant biliary stricture were 57.1% and 100% for cytology, 57.1% and 64.3% for CDH3, 76.2% and 100% for IGF2BP3, 71.4% and 57.1% for HOXB7, and 76.2% and 64.3% for BIRC5. When cytology was combined with the mRNA levels of CDH3, IGF2BP3, or BIRC5, the

  17. Blood irradiation: Rationale and technique

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Upon request by the local American Red Cross, the Savannah Regional Center for Cancer Care irradiates whole blood or blood components to prevent post-transfusion graft-versus-host reaction in patients who have severely depressed immune systems. The rationale for blood irradiation, the total absorbed dose, the type of patients who require irradiated blood, and the regulations that apply to irradiated blood are presented. A method of irradiating blood using a linear accelerator is described.

  18. Transplantation of human renal cell carcinoma into NMRI nu/nu mice. III. Effect of irradiation on tumor acceptance and tumor growth

    SciTech Connect

    Otto, U.; Huland, H.; Baisch, H.; Kloeppel, G.

    1985-07-01

    Irradiation of human renal cell carcinoma before radical tumor nephrectomy resulted in a significantly lower acceptance rate (1 of 7) in nude mice than for nonirradiated tumors (all of 13). The tumor tissue was transplanted into NMRI nu/nu mice immediately after nephrectomy. In this experimental system the authors demonstrated the reduced vitality of human tumor cells after irradiation. In a second series of experiments, 3 morphologically different human renal cell carcinomas were irradiated at various doses after establishment in nude mice. The irradiated tumor tissue was transplanted to the next passage. The morphology, proliferation rate and growth of these tumors were compared with those of nonirradiated controls. Radiation effect was dose dependent in the responding tumor types. The characteristics correlated with radiosensitivity were high proliferation rate (measured by flow cytometry), low cytologic grading and fast growth rate in the nude mice.

  19. Cytological Diagnosis of Bilateral Breast Implant-Associated Lymphoma of the ALK-Negative Anaplastic Large-Cell Type. Clinical Implications of Peri-Implant Breast Seroma Cytological Reporting.

    PubMed

    Granados, Rosario; Lumbreras, Eva M; Delgado, Manuel; Aramburu, José A; Tardío, Juan C

    2016-07-01

    The cytological examination of peri-prosthetic breast effusions allowed the diagnosis of bilateral breast-implant ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BI-ALCL) in the case reported. Ten years after reconstructive surgery with bilateral breast implants, a large unilateral seroma developed and was cytologically analyzed. The presence of CD30 and CD4-positive large-sized atypical lymphoid cells exhibiting horseshoe-shaped nuclei and a brisk mitotic activity rendered the diagnosis of BI-ALCL. Similar cells were seen in the peri-prosthetic fluid intraoperatively collected from the contralateral breast. Although initial histological analysis of the capsulectomy specimens showed unilateral tumor, the cytological findings prompted a more thorough tissue sampling, resulting in the diagnosis of bilateral disease. BI-ALCL usually follows an indolent clinical course; however, there are reported cases with an aggressive behavior. While the presence of bilateral disease is a putative risk factor for a bad prognosis, the small number of cases reported precludes a definitive assessment of this risk. Since most BI-ALCL present with late seromas, cytologic analysis of these effusions in women with breast implants should be mandatory. Cytology is a safe tool for diagnosis and follow-up of patients with breast implant-related late seromas, sometimes proven more sensitive than histological analysis. Complete bilateral capsulectomy and a detailed histological analysis should follow a cytological diagnosis of BI-ALCL in a breast effusion in order to avoid false negative diagnoses. Our case constitutes the first published report of a bilateral BI-ALCL diagnosed by cytology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:623-627. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Comparison between cytology and histopathology to evaluate subclinical endometritis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bogado Pascottini, Osvaldo; Hostens, Miel; Dini, Pouya; Vandepitte, Jan; Ducatelle, Richard; Opsomer, Geert

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare endometrial cytology with histopathology to diagnose subclinical endometritis (SCE) in dairy cows. Endometrial cytology samples were collected from Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 32) just before slaughtering. Half of them were obtained by in vivo cytobrush (IV-CB), whereas the other half by in vivo low-volume lavage (IV-LVL). After slaughtering, reproductive tracts were collected, and the endometrium was sampled at eight locations. At each location, both a ex vivo cytobrush sample (EV-CB) and a tissue sample for histopathologic examination were taken. In the histopathology slides, polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell counts were differentiated as PMN cells in direct contact with the epithelial cells of the endometrium (PMN-EP), and PMN cells present in the deeper stratum compactum (PMN-SC). Summation of both countings was referred to as PMN-total. Pearson's correlation and Cohen's kappa coefficient were used to assess the correlation and agreement between both sampling methods (in vivo cytology [IV-CB and IV-LVL] with EV-CB and PMN-total). A Poisson mixed effect model was used to analyze the PMN cells' distribution. The prevalence of SCE was 18.75% (n = 6/32) for in vivo cytology. The SCE prevalence based on EV-CB analyses and on the assessment of PMN-total was determined both at the sample (n = 256) as well as at the cow level (n = 32): EV-CB 25% (n = 64/256) and 35.5% (n = 12/32), and PMN-total 37.11% (n = 95/256) and 59.38% (n = 19/32). Correlation and agreement between IV-CB and EV-CB were r = 0.81 and k = 0.97, whereas between IV-CB and PMN-total r = 0.15 and k = 0.23, respectively. In vivo low-volume lavage correlation and agreement were r = 0.52 and k = 0.66 with EV-CB, and r = 0.45 and k = 0.44 with PMN-total. Moreover, correlation and agreement between EV-CB and PMN-total were r = 0.60 and k = 0.50, respectively. More PMN cells (P < 0.05) were detected in PMN-SC when compared to PMN

  1. ORNL irradiation creep facility

    SciTech Connect

    Reiley, T.C.; Auble, R.L.; Beckers, R.M.; Bloom, E.E.; Duncan, M.G.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, R.H.

    1980-09-01

    A machine was developed at ORNL to measure the rates of elongation observed under irradiation in stressed materials. The source of radiation is a beam of 60 MeV alpha particles from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). This choice allows experiments to be performed which simulate the effects of fast neutrons. A brief review of irradiation creep and experimental constraints associated with each measurement technique is given. Factors are presented which lead to the experimental choices made for the Irradiation Creep Facility (ICF). The ICF consists of a helium-filled chamber which houses a high-precision mechanical testing device. The specimen to be tested must be thermally stabilized with respect to the temperature fluctuations imposed by the particle beam which passes through the specimen. Electrical resistance of the specimen is the temperature control parameter chosen. Very high precision in length measurement and temperature control are required to detect the small elongation rates relevant to irradiation creep in the test periods available (approx. 1 day). The apparatus components and features required for the above are presented in some detail, along with the experimental procedures. The damage processes associated with light ions are discussed and displacement rates are calculated. Recent irradiation creep results are given, demonstrating the suitability of the apparatus for high resolution experiments. Also discussed is the suitability of the ICF for making high precision thermal creep measurements.

  2. FOOD IRRADIATION REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Leyse, C.F.; Putnam, G.E.

    1961-05-01

    An irradiation apparatus is described. It comprises a pressure vessel, a neutronic reactor active portion having a substantially greater height than diameter in the pressure vessel, an annular tank surrounding and spaced from the pressure vessel containing an aqueous indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution of approximately 600 grams per liter concentration, means for circulating separate coolants through the active portion and the space between the annular tank and the pressure vessel, radiator means adapted to receive the materials to be irradiated, and means for flowing the indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution through the radiator means.

  3. Fuel or irradiation subassembly

    DOEpatents

    Seim, O.S.; Hutter, E.

    1975-12-23

    A subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which incorporates a loose bundle of fuel or irradiation pins enclosed within an inner tube which in turn is enclosed within an outer coolant tube and includes a locking comb consisting of a head extending through one side of the inner sleeve and a plurality of teeth which extend through the other side of the inner sleeve while engaging annular undercut portions in the bottom portion of the fuel or irradiation pins to prevent movement of the pins.

  4. Z-axis video for cytology database is a useful tool for the case presentation prior to the cytology training workshop.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Katsushige; Shinohara, Toshiya; Mitsuhashi, Tomoko; Sugimura, Takuya; Taira, Kiyomi; Azuma, Manabu; Okuyama, Dai; Nakajima, Manami; Takeda, Hiroko; Suzuki, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    We have built a database on the Internet managing z-axis video for cytology (Zavic), and report on a new style of case discussion supported by the Zavic database. Z-axis video for cytology is a movie file derived from the video recording of a microscopic field with changes in the focus. We used it for the case presentation of EUS-FNA of pancreatic lesions on the Internet prior to a training workshop. The attendees were asked to observe the Zavic and to make diagnoses of 20 cases before the workshop. Fourteen attendees also observed lesions under a microscope on that day, and the results were compared with those of Zavic observation. The evaluation of the Zavic database (DB) was surveyed by a questionnaire. The average number of accurate diagnoses by 46 Zavic observers was 10.8. These accuracies for those who observed both the Zavic and glass slides were 11.57 and 11.43, respectively, for the videos and slides. Compared with Zavic observation alone, the diagnoses with glass slide observation were shifted to a correct diagnosis in two cases, but were shifted to an incorrect diagnosis in two cases. Approximately 60% of Zavic observers replied in the questionnaire that the movies on Zavic DB started to play within 3-4 seconds after clicking the play button. We successfully carried out the new style of case discussion supported by the Zavic DB. It was evaluated favorably by many attendees, who were psychologically still dependent on the glass slide observation.

  5. p16/Ki-67 Dual Stain Cytology for Detection of Cervical Precancer in HPV-Positive Women

    PubMed Central

    Fetterman, Barbara; Castle, Philip E.; Schiffman, Mark; Wood, Shannon N.; Stiemerling, Eric; Tokugawa, Diane; Bodelon, Clara; Poitras, Nancy; Lorey, Thomas; Kinney, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV)–based cervical cancer screening requires triage markers to decide who should be referred to colposcopy. p16/Ki-67 dual stain cytology has been proposed as a biomarker for cervical precancers. We evaluated the dual stain in a large population of HPV-positive women. Methods: One thousand five hundred and nine HPV-positive women screened with HPV/cytology cotesting at Kaiser Permanente California were enrolled into a prospective observational study in 2012. Dual stain cytology was performed on residual Surepath material, and slides were evaluated for dual stain–positive cells. Disease endpoints were ascertained from the clinical database at KPNC. We evaluated the clinical performance of the assay among all HPV-positive women and among HPV-positive, cytology-negative women. We used internal benchmarks for clinical management to evaluate the clinical relevance of the dual stain assay. We evaluated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the dual stain compared with Pap cytology. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The dual stain had lower positivity (45.9%) compared with cytology at an ASC-US threshold (53.4%). For detection of CIN2+, the dual stain had similar sensitivity (83.4% vs 76.6%, P = .1), and statistically higher specificity (58.9% vs 49.6%, P < .001), PPV (21.0% vs 16.6%, P < .001), and NPV (96.4% vs 94.2%, P = .01) compared with cytology. Similar patterns were observed for CIN3+. Women with a positive test had high enough risk for referral to colposcopy, while the risk for women with negative tests was below a one-year return threshold based on current US management guidelines. Conclusion: Dual stain cytology showed good risk stratification for all HPV-positive women and for HPV-positive women with normal cytology. Additional follow-up is needed to determine how long dual stain negative women remain at low risk of precancer. PMID:26376685

  6. Fine needle aspiration cytology as an aid to diagnosis, categorization and treatment when pure neuritic leprosy presents as nerve abscess

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, C M; Menon, Roshni

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pure neuritic leprosy (PNL) usually presents with neurological symptoms without skin involvement. Fine needle aspiration can play an important role in the management of PNL cases presenting as nerve abscesses. Aim: To assess the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in diagnosing and categorizing PNL cases presenting as nerve abscesses in the absence of neurological symptoms. Materials and Methods: Five patients with subcutaneous nerve related swellings without clinically evident neurological deficits were subjected to FNAC. As the cytological features were suggestive of nerve abscesses due to leprosy, Fite stain was performed in all cases. As none of the patients had any leprosy skin lesions, they were diagnosed as cases of PNL. Features like cellularity, caseous necrosis, presence or absence of lymphocytes, macrophages, epithelioid cells, granulomas, Langhans giant cells and nerve elements were analyzed with the bacteriological index, to categorize PNL according to the Ridley-Jopling classification. Results: Based on the cytological features and bacteriological indices, 3 cases were cytologically categorized into tuberculoid (TT)/borderline tuberculoid (BT) leprosy and the other two, as BT/borderline lepromatous (BL) and BL leprosy respectively in spite of having similar clinical presentation. Based on the cytological diagnoses, category-specific treatment could be instituted with clinical improvement. Conclusions: The simple and minimally invasive FNAC procedure allows diagnosis and a reasonably accurate categorization of PNL presenting as nerve abscess and therefore, highly useful in its clinical management. PMID:24648666

  7. Prognostic significance of positive peritoneal cytology in resectable pancreatic cancer: a systemic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Feng; Li, Jia; Li, Ang; Li, Fei

    2017-01-19

    Although peritoneal cytology has been used to determine pancreatic cancer staging for more than three decades, its prognostic significance in potentially resectable pancreatic cancer is inconclusive. We therefore conducted this meta-analysis to investigate the impact of peritoneal cytology status on the clinicopathological features and survival outcomes in potentially resectable pancreatic cancer. Ten studies were identified for this meta-analysis after searching the PubMed, Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) electronic databases. Our results showed that positive peritoneal cytology was associated with tumor size (OR 11.65, P = 0.001), tumor location (OR 0.37, P = 0.000), serosal invasion (OR 3.89, P = 0.000), portal vein invasion (OR 1.82, P = 0.016), lymph vessel invasion (OR 2.71, P = 0.026), T stage (OR 2.65, P = 0.037) and N stage (OR 2.34, P = 0.001) in resectable pancreatic cancer. Patients with positive peritoneal cytology demonstrated poor overall survival (OS; HR 3.18, P = 0.000) and disease-free survival (DFS; HR 2.88, P = 0.000) times. Based on our meta-analysis, we conclude that positive peritoneal cytology is an indicator of advanced stage pancreatic cancer with a poor prognosis; hence, radical resection should not be performed on these patients.

  8. Evaluation of conjunctival inflammatory status by confocal scanning laser microscopy and conjunctival brush cytology in patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC)

    PubMed Central

    Wakamatsu, Tais Hitomi; Okada, Naoko; Kojima, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Ibrahim, Osama M.A.; Adan, Enrique Sato; Fukagawa, Kazumi; Katakami, Chikako; Tsubota, Kazuo; Shimazaki, Jun; Fujishima, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate the status of the conjunctival inflammation in atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) using laser scanning confocal microscopy and compare the relevant findings with conjunctival brush cytology in a prospective controlled study. Methods Twenty eyes from 20 AKC patients as well as 16 eyes from 16 age and sex matched normal subjects were studied. The subjects underwent tear film break-up time (BUT), fluorescein and Rose Bengal staining of the ocular surface, conjunctival confocal microscopy, Schirmer test, and brush cytology. Brush cytology specimens and in vivo confocal microscopy scans underwent evaluation for inflammatory cell densities. Results Brush cytology specimens and in vivo confocal microscopy scans from AKC patients revealed significantly higher numbers of inflammatory cells (p<0.05). Conjunctival inflammatory cell density showed a negative correlation with tear stability and a positive correlation with vital staining scores and conjunctival injection grades. The extent of conjunctival inflammation assessed by in vivo confocal microscopy showed a strong positive linear correlation with the inflammation status evaluated by brush cytology. The corneal inflammatory cell density assessed by in vivo confocal microscopy showed a significant negative correlation with tear stability and a positive linear correlation with corneal fluorescein staining. Conclusions Confocal scanning laser microscopy is an efficient, noninvasive, and a promising tool for the quantitative assessment of conjunctival inflammation, a parameter of this new technology which correlated well with subjective and objective ocular surface clinical findings. PMID:19693288

  9. Prognostic value of human papillomavirus 16/18 genotyping in low-grade cervical lesions preceded by mildly abnormal cytology*

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jing; Cheng, Bei; Cheng, Yi-fan; Yao, Ye-li; Xie, Xing; Lu, Wei-guo; Cheng, Xiao-dong

    2017-01-01

    Histological low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (LSIL/CIN1) preceded by normal or mildly abnormal cytology is recommended for conservative follow-up, with no separated management. In this study, we assessed the triage value of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 genotyping in 273 patients with LSIL/CIN1. HPV16/18 genotyping was performed at baseline and follow-up was at 6-monthly intervals for up to 2 years. At each follow-up, women positive for cytology or high-risk HPV (hrHPV) were referred for colposcopy. Enrollment cytology, HPV16/18 genotyping, and questionnaire-obtained factors were linked to the 2-year cumulative progression rate. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed taking into account time-to-event with Cox proportional hazard regression. The results showed that 190 cases (69.6%) regressed, 37 (13.6%) persisted, and 46 (16.8%) progressed. HPV16/18 positivity (hazard ratio (HR), 2.708; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.432–5.121; P=0.002) is significantly associated with higher 2-year cumulative progression rate. Sub-analysis by enrollment cytology and age restricted the positive association among patients preceded by mildly abnormal cytology and aged 30 years or older. Immediate treatment is a rational recommendation for the high-risk subgroup, when good compliance is not assured. PMID:28271660

  10. Prevalence of type-specific HPV infection by age and grade of cervical cytology: data from the ARTISTIC trial.

    PubMed

    Sargent, A; Bailey, A; Almonte, M; Turner, A; Thomson, C; Peto, J; Desai, M; Mather, J; Moss, S; Roberts, C; Kitchener, H C

    2008-05-20

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer and premalignant dysplasia. Type-specific HPV prevalence data provide a basis for assessing the impact of HPV vaccination programmes on cervical cytology. We report high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) type-specific prevalence data in relation to cervical cytology for 24,510 women (age range: 20-64; mean age 40.2 years) recruited into the ARTISTIC trial, which is being conducted within the routine NHS Cervical Screening Programme in Greater Manchester. The most common HR-HPV types were HPV16, 18, 31, 51 and 52, which accounted for 60% of all HR-HPV types detected. There was a marked decline in the prevalence of HR-HPV infection with age, but the proportion due to each HPV type did not vary greatly with age. Multiple infections were common below the age of 30 years but less so between age 30 and 64 years. Catch-up vaccination of this sexually active cohort would be expected to reduce the number of women with moderate or worse cytology by 45%, but the number with borderline or mild cytology would fall by only 7%, giving an overall reduction of 12% in the number of women with abnormal cytology and 27% in the number with any HR-HPV infection. In the absence of broader cross-protection, the large majority of low-grade and many high-grade abnormalities may still occur in sexually active vaccinated women.

  11. The Combination of Cyst Fluid Carcinoembryonic Antigen, Cytology and Viscosity Increases the Diagnostic Accuracy of Mucinous Pancreatic Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Se Hun; Lee, Jong Kyun; Lee, Kyu Taek; Lee, Kwang Hyuck; Woo, Young Sik; Noh, Dong Hyo

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims The objective of this study was to investigate the value of cyst fluid carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in combination with cytology and viscosity for the differential diagnosis of pancreatic cysts. Methods We retrospectively reviewed our data for patients who underwent endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and cyst fluid analysis. We investigated the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the combination of cyst fluid CEA, cytology and viscosity testing. Results A total of 177 patients underwent EUS-FNA and cyst fluid analysis. Of these, 48 subjects were histologically and clinically confirmed to have pancreatic cysts and were therefore included in the analysis. Receiver operator curve analysis demonstrated that the optimal cutoff value of cyst fluid CEA for differentiating mucinous versus nonmucinous cystic lesions was 48.6 ng/mL. The accuracy of cyst fluid CEA (39/48, 81.3%) was greater than the accuracy of cytology (23/45, 51.1%) or the string sign (33/47, 70.2%). Cyst fluid CEA in combination with cytology and string sign assessment exhibited the highest accuracy (45/48, 93.8%). Conclusions Cyst fluid CEA was the most useful single test for identifying mucinous pancreatic cysts. The addition of cytology and string sign assessment to cyst fluid CEA increased the overall accuracy for the diagnosis of mucinous pancreatic cysts. PMID:27609484

  12. Irradiating insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a non-technical article focusing on phytosanitary uses of irradiation. In a series of interview questions, I present information on the scope of the invasive species problem and the contribution of international trade in agricultural products to the movement of invasive insects. This is foll...

  13. Update on meat irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.

    1997-12-01

    The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petition is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at {approximately}2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food irradiation clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of irradiated meat and poultry.

  14. Phytosanitary applications of irradiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytosanitary treatments are used to disinfest agricultural commodities of quarantine pests so the commodities can be shipped across quarantine barriers to trade. Ionizing irradiation is a promising treatment that is increasing in use. Almost 19,000 tons of sweet potatoes and several fruits, plus ...

  15. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zeala...

  16. NSUF Irradiated Materials Library

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, James Irvin

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Science User Facilities has been in the process of establishing an innovative Irradiated Materials Library concept for maximizing the value of previous and on-going materials and nuclear fuels irradiation test campaigns, including utilization of real-world components retrieved from current and decommissioned reactors. When the ATR national scientific user facility was established in 2007 one of the goals of the program was to establish a library of irradiated samples for users to access and conduct research through competitively reviewed proposal process. As part of the initial effort, staff at the user facility identified legacy materials from previous programs that are still being stored in laboratories and hot-cell facilities at the INL. In addition other materials of interest were identified that are being stored outside the INL that the current owners have volunteered to enter into the library. Finally, over the course of the last several years, the ATR NSUF has irradiated more than 3500 specimens as part of NSUF competitively awarded research projects. The Logistics of managing this large inventory of highly radioactive poses unique challenges. This document will describe materials in the library, outline the policy for accessing these materials and put forth a strategy for making new additions to the library as well as establishing guidelines for minimum pedigree needed to be included in the library to limit the amount of material stored indefinitely without identified value.

  17. Nuclear characteristics of the endometrial cytology: liquid-based versus conventional preparation.

    PubMed

    Norimatsu, Yoshiaki; Shigematsu, Yumie; Sakamoto, Shingo; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Yanoh, Kenji; Kawanishi, Namiki; Kobayashi, Tadao K

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the utility of liquid-based cytologic preparation (LP) compared with conventional preparation (CP) for the assessment of nuclear findings in endometrial glandular and stromal breakdown (EGBD) which may be misdiagnosed as carcinoma in EGBD cases. The material consists of cytologic smears including 20 cases of proliferative endometrium (PE), 20 cases of EGBD, and 20 cases of endometrioid adenocarcinoma grade1 (G1) for which histopathological diagnosis was obtained by endometrial curettage at the JA Suzuka General Hospital. Nuclear findings were examined in PE cells, EGBD-stromal cells, EGBD-metaplastic cells, and G1 cells, respectively. It was examined about the following items; (1) nuclear shape; (2) A long/minor axis ratio in cell nuclei; (3) an area of cell nuclei; (4) overlapping nuclei. Results are as follows: (1) nuclear shape; as for the reniform shape of EGBD-stromal cells and spindle shape of EGBD-metaplastic cells, the ratio of the LP method was a higher value than the CP method. (2) The long axis and area of cell nuclei; LP in all groups was a recognizable tendency for nuclear shrinkage. (3) The long/minor axis ratio in cell nuclei; only EGBD-metaplastic cells recognize a significant difference between CP and LP. (4) Overlapping nuclei; LP was a higher value in comparison with CP in the other groups except PE cells, and the degree of overlapping nuclei was enhanced about three times. Therefore, although a cell of LP has a shrinking tendency, (1) it is excellent that LP preserves a characteristic of nuclear shape than CP; (2) a cellular characteristic becomes clearer, because three-dimensional architecture of LP is preserved of than CP. As for the standard preparation method for endometrial cytology samples, we considered that a concrete introduction of the LP method poses no problems.

  18. Influence of vulvar hygiene on cytology of vaginal smears after sham artificial insemination in sows.

    PubMed Central

    Carabin, H; Desnoyers, M; Vaillancourt, D; Martineau, G P

    1995-01-01

    The description of vaginal cytology in the sow in relation to artificial insemination (AI) has never been reported. Poor vulvar hygiene is frequently imputed as a cause for the development of endometritis after AI and could thus enhance the inflammatory response of the genital tract. The goal of this study was to use cytology as an objective tool to evaluate the vulvar hygiene during sham AI. Sixty-eight sows were matched according to their parity and week of mating and divided into 2 groups: treatment sows (CVS) had their vulva cleaned with a 1:2000 Hibitane solution and control sows (SVS) had theirs soiled with feces. Both groups of sows were inseminated twice with saline following this vulvar treatment, once at detection of estrus and a 2nd time 24 hours later. Vestibular smears were taken before each AI, and vaginal smears were taken after each AI from the material present on the insemination spirette. Cytological smears were described by the predominant type of cells, namely epithelial, neutrophil, or no predominance. Results showed no significant differences between the 2 groups and no evolution in the predominance of neutrophils from the 1st to the 2nd AI (P > 0.05). The pooled results from the 2 groups showed an increase in cellularity from the 1st to the 2nd AI (P > 0.05). Neither the cellularity nor predominant cell type in vestibular or vaginal smears from estrus sows are predictors of vulvar hygiene during sham AI (P > 0.05). PMID:8521352

  19. Nasal cytology in southwest metropolitan Mexico City inhabitants: A pilot intervention study

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon-Garciduenas, L.; Roy-Ocotla, G. )

    1993-06-01

    Southwest metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC) inhabitants have been exposed several hours per day for the last 6 years to photochemical smog, ozone being the most important oxidant pollutant. Subjects exposed to the SWMMC atmosphere develop several histopathological changes in their nasal mucosa: dysplasia is the most significant, affecting 78.72% of adult individuals within 60 or more days of residence in SWMMC. This study was originally designed to explore whether chemical intervention could modify nasal dysplasia, as determined by nasal cytology, in a defined adult population. In a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind trial, 177 healthy male subjects were divided into 5 groups to whom 5000 IU of vitamin A, 100 IU of vitamin E, a combination of vitamins A and E (5000 IU + 100 IU), 16 mg of beta-carotene, or placebo were administered daily for 4 months. Sixteen clinical and cytological variables were monitored. No effect on dysplasia was seen at the end of the 4-month trial; however, an apparent reversibility as well as progression of the dysplastic nasal lesions and high correlation coefficients between dysplasia and nasal cytology of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs; 0.85), squamous metaplasia (SM; 0.50), and nasal mucosa atrophy (NMA; 0.41) were found. A mathematical theoretical nasal dysplasia (tD) predictor equation for SWMMC adult male inhabitants is proposed (tD = 0.85 delta PMNs + 0.50 delta SM + 0.41 delta NMA + 0.98), in which PMNs are the best single dysplasia predictor, and all variables are independent.

  20. Cytological Profile of Antibacterial FtsZ Inhibitors and Synthetic Peptide MciZ

    PubMed Central

    Araújo-Bazán, Lidia; Ruiz-Avila, Laura B.; Andreu, David; Huecas, Sonia; Andreu, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Cell division protein FtsZ is the organizer of the cytokinetic ring in almost all bacteria and a target for the discovery of new antibacterial agents that are needed to counter widespread antibiotic resistance. Bacterial cytological profiling, using quantitative microscopy, is a powerful approach for identifying the mechanism of action of antibacterial molecules affecting different cellular pathways. We have determined the cytological profile on Bacillus subtilis cells of a selection of small molecule inhibitors targeting FtsZ on different binding sites. FtsZ inhibitors lead to long undivided cells, impair the normal assembly of FtsZ into the midcell Z-rings, induce aberrant ring distributions, punctate FtsZ foci, membrane spots and also modify nucleoid length. Quantitative analysis of cell and nucleoid length combined, or the Z-ring distribution, allows categorizing FtsZ inhibitors and to distinguish them from antibiotics with other mechanisms of action, which should be useful for identifying new antibacterial FtsZ inhibitors. Biochemical assays of FtsZ polymerization and GTPase activity combined explain the cellular effects of the FtsZ polymer stabilizing agent PC190723 and its fragments. MciZ is a 40-aminoacid endogenous inhibitor of cell division normally expressed during sporulation in B. subtilis. Using FtsZ cytological profiling we have determined that exogenous synthetic MciZ is an effective inhibitor of B. subtilis cell division, Z-ring formation and localization. This finding supports our cell-based approach to screen for FtsZ inhibitors and opens new possibilities for peptide inhibitors of bacterial cell division. PMID:27752253

  1. A molecular perspective on a complex polymorphic inversion system with cytological evidence of multiply reused breakpoints.

    PubMed

    Orengo, D J; Puerma, E; Papaceit, M; Segarra, C; Aguadé, M

    2015-06-01

    Genome sequence comparison across the Drosophila genus revealed that some fixed inversion breakpoints had been multiply reused at this long timescale. Cytological studies of Drosophila inversion polymorphism had previously shown that, also at this shorter timescale, some breakpoints had been multiply reused. The paucity of molecularly characterized polymorphic inversion breakpoints has so far precluded contrasting whether cytologically shared breakpoints of these relatively young inversions are actually reused at the molecular level. The E chromosome of Drosophila subobscura stands out because it presents several inversion complexes. This is the case of the E1+2+9+3 arrangement that originated from the ancestral Est arrangement through the sequential accumulation of four inversions (E1, E2, E9 and E3) sharing some breakpoints. We recently identified the breakpoints of inversions E1 and E2, which allowed establishing reuse at the molecular level of the cytologically shared breakpoint of these inversions. Here, we identified and sequenced the breakpoints of inversions E9 and E3, because they share breakpoints at sections 58D and 64C with those of inversions E1 and E2. This has allowed establishing that E9 and E3 originated through the staggered-break mechanism. Most importantly, sequence comparison has revealed the multiple reuse at the molecular level of the proximal breakpoint (section 58D), which would have been used at least by inversions E2, E9 and E3. In contrast, the distal breakpoint (section 64C) might have been only reused once by inversions E1 and E2, because the distal E3 breakpoint is displaced >70 kb from the other breakpoint limits.

  2. A comparison of liquid-based cytology with conventional Papanicolaou smears in cervical dysplasia diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Haghighi, Fatemeh; Ghanbarzadeh, Nahid; Ataee, Marziee; Sharifzadeh, Gholamreza; Mojarrad, Javid Shahbazi; Najafi-Semnani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to the high number of women affected by cervical cancer and the importance of an early diagnosis, combined with the frequent incidence of false-negative Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening results for this disease, several studies have been conducted in recent years in order to find better tests. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) tests, including the liquid-based thin layer method, have demonstrated the highest potential for reducing false-negative cases and improved sample quality. This study aimed to compare the strength of the Pap smear test with fluid cytology and conventional tests in detecting cervical dysplasia. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 366 women who attended private laboratories for a Pap smear. The Pap smear sampling was conducted simultaneously using two methods: conventional Pap (CP) smear and LBC), from the cervix. Results: The mean age of the participants was 32 ± 8.8 years. Diagnostic results of endocervical cells, epithelial cells, vaginitis cells, and metaplastia were consistent with both conventional and liquid cytology smears, and the kappa coefficient was determined to be significant (P < 0.001). In total, 40.5% of diagnostic cases indicated bacterial inflammation 80.3% of the diagnoses in both methods were P1 and 3.9% of cases diagnosed were P2, the overall diagnostic consistency was 83.9% between the two sampling methods. The inflammation diagnosis was 40.5% and this was consistent in both methods of LBC and CP. There was one case of a false-negative diagnosis in the LBC method and 14 cases in the CP method. Conclusion: Results showed that the LBC may improve the sample's quality and reduce the number of unsatisfactory cases more than with the CP method. PMID:27995101

  3. Role of biochemistry and cytological analysis of cyst fluid for the differential diagnosis of pancreatic cysts

    PubMed Central

    Soyer, Ozlem Mutluay; Baran, Bulent; Ormeci, Asli Ciftcibasi; Sahin, Davut; Gokturk, Suut; Evirgen, Sami; Basar, Rafet; Firat, Pinar; Akyuz, Filiz; Demir, Kadir; Besisik, Fatih; Kaymakoglu, Sabahattin; Karaca, Cetin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Management of pancreatic cysts is based on neoplastic–nonneoplastic discrimination. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) enables to differentiate neoplastic–nonneoplastic lesions and also allows fine-needle aspiration (FNA). In this study, we aim to assess feasibility and clinical relevance of cytological and biochemical analysis in differential diagnosis of cystic pancreatic lesions in patients who had undergone endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) due to pancreatic cysts. Methods: Participants were 96 patients who had undergone EUS-FNA for differential diagnosis of pancreatic cysts. Pancreatic cysts were classified as benign-mucinous, nonmucinous, and malignant according to patient history, physical examination, EUS appearance, and cystic fluid assessment. Tumor markers (CEA, CA(cancer antigens) 72.4, CA 19-9) , amylase, lipase and cytological assesment were compared between 3 different groups. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed to identify appropriate cut-off values. Results: Fluid CEA and CA 72.4 levels for benign-mucinous and malignant cysts were significantly higher than for nonmucinous cysts (P ≤ 0.04). A cut-off CEA level of 207 ng/mL differentiated mucinous etiology with a sensitivity of 72.7%, specificity of 97.7%, and accuracy of 89.5%. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the CA 72.4 cut-off level of 3.32 ng/mL were 80%, 69.5%, and 73.6%, respectively. Conclusion: Cyst fluid CEA and CA 72.4 levels have a high accuracy in discriminating mucinous from nonmucinous cysts. When combined with cytology their accuracy rate increases. PMID:28072692

  4. Spectrum of pediatric tumors diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Shirian, Sadegh; Daneshbod, Yahya; Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Khademi, Bijan; Noorbakhsh, Farshid; Ghaemi, Amir; Mosayebi, Ziba

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Pediatric tumors differ markedly from adult tumors in their nature, distribution, and prognosis. In this 10-year retrospective study, we present our experience with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in pediatric patients 18 years of age and younger and correlate relationship between gender with organ, diagnosis, malignancy, and age. In our study, FNA material of pediatric tumors or masses with 18 years aged and younger were analyzed retrospectively. All FNAs in pediatric patients during this time period were identified and analyzed for age, gender, cytologic diagnosis, and site of aspiration. A total 1000 FNAs were performed from January 2007 to October 2015 in 499 children. Regardless the gender, the most frequently aspirated organ was lymph node, comprising 129 of the 499 cases followed by thyroid (112), neck cyst (79), and parotid (35) cases. The majority of the cases were diagnosed as benign lesions (436 of 499 cases). Other 63 cases comprising 40 female and 23 male cases had malignant lesions. There was significant age difference between people with or without malignancy. In malignant cases, there was a significant difference between the age on males and females. In regard to gender and diagnosis, cytologic diagnosis was stratified into 9 broad diagnostic categories: lymphadenitis, benign and malignant thyroid, cyst contents, benign breast, benign and malignant salivary, and negative for malignancy. In conclusion, our study supports the use of FNA cytology (FNAC) in lesions of various anatomic sites in the children less than 18 years old. As a simple, minimally invasive, and rapid procedure, cytopathologists can reliably utilize FNAC in children. The mean age of children receiving a malignant diagnosis was significantly higher than that of benign lesions. The mean age of malignancy in boys is significantly lower than that of girls with malignancy. PMID:28178123

  5. Bacterial Pericarditis Accompanied by Sudden Cardiac Tamponade After Transbronchial Needle Aspiration Cytology.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Otsuka, Kojiro; Imai, Yukihiro; Tomii, Keisuke

    2016-04-01

    A 48-year-old man was referred for an abnormal shadow in his chest x-ray. Transbronchial needle aspiration cytology was performed at the mediastinal necrotic lymph node #7, and he was diagnosed as having small cell carcinoma. Fifteen days after bronchoscopy, sudden cardiac tamponade occurred and pericardial drainage suggested a diagnosis of bacterial pericarditis. He was successfully treated by drainage and administration of antibiotics. Complication of bacterial pericarditis associated with bronchoscopy is rare. However, physicians should watch for the appearance of this condition for up to 3 weeks after bronchoscopy, especially in cases with necrotic lymph nodes.

  6. Segmentation of ultrasound images of thyroid nodule for assisting fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Li; Tian, Hua

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid nodule is very high and generally increases with the age. Thyroid nodule may presage the emergence of thyroid cancer. Most thyroid nodules are asymptomatic which makes thyroid cancer different from other cancers. The thyroid nodule can be completely cured if detected early. Therefore, it is necessary to correctly classify the thyroid nodule to be benign or malignant. Fine needle aspiration cytology is a recognized early diagnosis method of thyroid nodule. There are still some limitations in the fine needle aspiration cytology, such as the difficulty in location and the insufficient cytology specimen. The accuracy of ultrasound diagnosis of thyroid nodule improves constantly, and it has become the first choice for auxiliary examination of thyroid nodular disease. If we could combine medical imaging technology and fine needle aspiration cytology, the diagnostic rate of thyroid nodule would be improved significantly. The properties of ultrasound, such as echo, shadow, and reflection, will degrade the image quality, which makes it difficult to recognize the edges for physicians. Image segmentation technique based on graph theory has become a research hotspot at present. Normalized cut (Ncut) is a representative one, whose biggest advantage is not prone to small region segmentation but suitable for segmentation of feature parts of medical image. However, how to solve the normalized cut has become a problem, which needs large memory capacity and heavy calculation of weight matrix. It always generates over segmentation or less segmentation which leads to inaccurate in the segmentation. The speckle noise produced in the formation process of B ultrasound image of thyroid tumor makes the quality of the image deteriorate. In the light of this characteristic, we combine the anisotropic diffusion model with the normalized cut in this paper. After the enhancement of anisotropic diffusion model, it removes the noise in the B ultrasound image while

  7. Cytologic findings of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma arising in the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Urrego, Paula A; Dogan, Snjezana; Lin, Oscar

    2017-03-02

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary gland, first described by Skálová et al in 2010, is a tumor that morphologically and genetically resembles breast secretory carcinoma harboring ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. To date, only seven cases of primary thyroid MASC have been described. The overall findings are similar to those seen in the salivary gland counterpart including the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. This is the second report describing the cytologic features of MASC at this primary location, which also showed a classical type papillary carcinoma component. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A comparison of thiomersal and 50% alcohol as preservatives in urinary cytology.

    PubMed

    Beyer-Boon, M E; Arentz, P W; Kirk, R S

    1979-02-01

    The efficacy of 50% ethyl alcohol and of thiomersal as preservatives in urinary cytology were compared. In both methods over 80% of the cells were sufficiently well preserved after three days to allow cytomorphological evaluation, and over 50% on the seventh day. In the specimens without preservative, only 54% and 28% were intact after the same time intervals. In contrast with 50% ethyl alchohol, thiomersal is a more effective bactericide, it does not increase the volume of the sample, it is cheaper, and it does not affect the cytomorphology.

  9. Morphology, anatomy and cytology of critically endangered endemic Asperula daphneola from, West Anatolia, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gucel, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Asperula daphneola, which belongs to Rubiaceae family, is only distributed on Nif Mountain. The present study investigates the species anatomically, morphologically and cytologically, laying the basis for future biosystematic studies as well as introducing this endemic taxa. A. daphneola seeds were 1.3-1.8 X 2.3-2.9 mm; ovate; seed surface was prominent and channelled; dorsal type was convex, hispid hairs all over; hylar zone type recessed; yellowish green colour. Type of pollen were stephanocolpate and had 6 colpus with tectate structure. The chromosome number in A. daphneola was counted as 2n=20.

  10. Sialadenosis of the parotid gland: report of four cases diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Ascoli, V; Albedi, F M; De Blasiis, R; Nardi, F

    1993-01-01

    Four patients presented with a history of recurrent bilateral swellings of parotid glands. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens showed highly cellular smears containing clusters of enlarged acini and numerous naked nuclei. A diagnosis consistent with sialadenosis was made considering the distinct morphologic appearance: micrometric measurements in all cases, in addition to histology and electron microscopy in two cases confirmed this hypothesis. A review of clinical histories revealed hormonal, nutritional and neurogenic disorders, which are known to be associated with sialadenosis. In the work-up of salivary gland swellings, it is important to recognize cytologically this underestimated entity, which does not necessarily require surgical treatment.

  11. Human papillomavirus genotype distribution in Madrid and correlation with cytological data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Infection with certain human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes is the most important risk factor associated with cervical cancer. This study analysed the distribution of type-specific HPV infection among women with normal and abnormal cytology, to assess the potential benefit of prophylaxis with anti-HPV vaccines. Methods Cervical samples of 2,461 women (median age 34 years; range 15-75) from the centre of Spain were tested for HPV DNA. These included 1,656 samples with normal cytology (NC), 336 with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 387 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs), and 82 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs). HPV detection and genotyping were performed by PCR using 5'-biotinylated MY09/11 consensus primers, and reverse dot blot hybridisation. Results HPV infection was detected in 1,062 women (43.2%). Out of these, 334 (31%) samples had normal cytology and 728 (69%) showed some cytological abnormality: 284 (27%) ASCUS, 365 (34%) LSILs, and 79 (8%) HSILs. The most common genotype found was HPV 16 (28%) with the following distribution: 21% in NC samples, 31% in ASCUS, 26% in LSILs, and 51% in HSILs. HPV 53 was the second most frequent (16%): 16% in NC, 16% in ASCUS, 19% in LSILs, and 5% in HSILs. The third genotype was HPV 31 (12%): 10% in NC, 11% in ASCUS, 14% in LSILs, and 11% in HSILs. Co-infections were found in 366 samples (34%). In 25%, 36%, 45% and 20% of samples with NC, ASCUS, LSIL and HSIL, respectively, more than one genotype was found. Conclusions HPV 16 was the most frequent genotype in our area, followed by HPV 53 and 31, with a low prevalence of HPV 18 even in HSILs. The frequency of genotypes 16, 52 and 58 increased significantly from ASCUS to HSILs. Although a vaccine against HPV 16 and 18 could theoretically prevent approximately 50% of HSILs, genotypes not covered by the vaccine are frequent in our

  12. Leiomyosarcoma metastatic to the thyroid diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Nemenqani, Dalal; Yaqoob, Nausheen; Khoja, Hatem

    2010-04-01

    The thyroid gland is a known but an unusual site for metastatic tumours from various primary sites. Primary smooth muscle tumours of thyroid are rare. Leiomyosarcoma of the thyroid gland whether of primary or metastatic origin should be distinguished from anaplastic carcinoma. Few cases of leiomyosarcoma metastatic to thyroid, diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) have been documented. We are reporting this case to highlight the importance of FNAC as a tool for diagnosing sarcomas and to plan further management accordingly. Ancillary techniques can be applied on FNAC and give comparative results to tissue sections.

  13. [The innovative approach to improvement of accuracy of cytological analysis: application of intrascopic technology].

    PubMed

    Men'shikov, V V

    2014-10-01

    The article presents information concerning development of device Cell-CTtm by the American specialists to implement cytological analysis of 3D images of cells using technology of computer tomography by means of visible photons and not x-rays beams. Since density of single cell is insufficient for x-ray analysis. The isotropic resolution of Cell-Cttm permits receiving highly contrast and neatly separating signal from noise image of cell structures in 200 nm range. The device is able to apply mathematical apparatus of computer tomography under analysis and classification of cells.

  14. Percutaneous cytologic diagnosis of solid pseudopapillary tumors of pancreas in children.

    PubMed

    Tlili, Yemen; Thiesse, Philippe; Lemaistre, Anne I; Dubois, Remi; Faure-Conter, Cecile

    2013-03-01

    Solid pseudopapillary tumors of the pancreas, formerly known as Frantz tumors, are rare exocrine tumors that electively affect young women in their second and third decades of life, and are rarely observed in children. Histologic confirmation is nevertheless desirable before proceeding with treatment of pancreatic lesions, as appropriate treatment can range from conservative to ablative surgery. Here, we report 3 cases of solid pseudopapillary tumors of the pancreas and we postulate that percutaneous cytologic sample analysis (instead of biopsy) may be sufficient to reach an accurate diagnosis and eliminate differential diagnosis.

  15. [Comparison of vaginal cytologic effects and blood elimination curves of different oestrogen drugs (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hempel, E; Bruder, M; Eichhorn, K H; Claussen, C; Klinger, G

    1977-01-01

    With different oral oestrogens it was studied, if relations are existing between pharmacokinetic and vaginal effect. By means of Karyopycnotic Index and Dynamic Oestrogenicity Index the cytological effect was quantified from a single dose of oestradiol valerianate, mestranol, ethinyloestradiol and 3 depot oestrogens proved on postmenopause women and compared with adequate pharmacocinetical investigations. The courses of oestrogen levels did not correlate with indices. Both methods of investigation do not compensate, but complete one another. Depotoestrogens and short acting oestrogens are distinguishable with regard to proliferation maxium and steepness of index decline.

  16. Food irradiation: Activities and potentialities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doellstaedt, R.; Huebner, G.

    After the acceptance of food irradiation up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy recommended by the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food in October 1980, the G.D.R. started a programme for the development of techniques for food irradiation. A special onion irradiator was designed and built as a pilot plant for studying technological and economic parameters of the irradiation of onions. The new principle of bulk-cargo irradiation allows the integration of this technology into the usual harvest technology for onions on the way from field to storage. Scientific and applied research work has been carried out in the past 3 yr on the irradiation of spices, potatoes, eviscerated chicken, animal feeds, fodder yeast, drugs and vaccines. In connection with the irradiation of eviscerated chicken, fodder yeast and animal feeds the basis of an antisalmonella programme has been discussed. Germ-count-reduced spices were employed for the production of test charges of preserves and tinned products. The results have led to the decision to design and build a new multipurpose irradiator for food irradiation. In order to cover the legal aspects of food irradiation the Ministry of Health issued regulations concerning the recommendation of irradiated food in the G.D.R.

  17. Cytological Study of Breast Carcinoma Before and After Oncotherapy with Special Reference to Morphometry and Proliferative Activity.

    PubMed

    Koley, Sananda; Chakrabarti, Srabani; Pathak, Swapan; Manna, Asim Kumar; Basu, Siddhartha

    2015-12-01

    Our study was done to assess the cytological changes due to oncotherapy in breast carcinoma especially on morphometry and proliferative activity. Cytological aspirates were collected from a total of 32 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma both before and after oncotherapy. Morphometry was done on the stained cytological smears to assess the different morphological parameters of cell dimension by using the ocular morphometer and the software AutoCAD 2007. Staining was done with Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as proliferative markers. Different morphological parameters were compared before and after oncotherapy by unpaired Student's t test. Statistically significant differences were found in morphometric parameters, e.g., mean nuclear diameter, mean nuclear area, mean cell diameter, and mean cell area, and in the expression of proliferative markers (Ki-67 and PCNA). Statistical analysis was done by obtaining p values. There are statistically significant differences between morphological parameter of breast carcinoma cells before and after oncotherapy.

  18. Touch cytology. A quick, simple, sensitive screening test in the diagnosis of infections of the gastrointestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Debongnie, J C; Mairesse, J; Donnay, M; Dekoninck, X

    1994-11-01

    To assess the role of touch cytology (imprint from endoscopic biopsy specimens) in the diagnosis of mucosal infections of the gastrointestinal tract, we reviewed all records and specimens of patients seen during a 30-month period. Touch cytology was performed by rolling biopsy specimens on glass slides. After air fixation, a rapid staining method similar to May-Grünwald-Giemsa was used. The following infections and pathogens were diagnosed (in decreasing order of frequency): Helicobacter pylori gastritis (n = 53), Candida albicans esophagitis (n = 40), Giardia lamblia (n = 13), Gastrospirillum hominis (n = 11), and Blastocystis hominis (n = 8). The smear was positive in 45 patients with H pylori, in 35 patients with C albicans, in nine patients with G lamblia, in 11 patients with G hominis, and in eight patients with B hominis. Cytology was the only positive test in eight, nine, four, seven, and eight patients, respectively, and increased thus the diagnostic yield obtained by histologic examination.

  19. Endometrial cytology and computerized morphometric analysis of epithelial nuclei: a useful tool for reproductive diagnosis in the bitch.

    PubMed

    Groppetti, D; Pecile, A; Arrighi, S; Di Giancamillo, A; Cremonesi, F

    2010-04-15

    New diagnostic approaches are required to recognize early canine hypofertility or infertility. We suggest that the identification of different cytologic types, cellular aspects, and nuclear features of the endometrial epithelial cells may be suitable for this purpose. This study was performed on the bitch (Canis familiaris) during the physiologic reproductive cycle and in uterine diseases. We also applied computerized cytomorphometry to evaluate nuclear area, perimeter, diameter, density, aspect, and roundness of endometrial epithelial cells in healthy dogs (N=35) at different stages of the reproductive cycle (before puberty, during proestrus, estrus, diestrus, and anestrus) and in bitches affected by uterine disorders (N=10). The stage of the estrous cycle was determined by vaginal cytology and progesterone evaluation and also confirmed by clinical and histologic observations. Samples for endometrial cytology were collected in vivo by uterine flushing with transcervical uterine cannulation. After uterine sampling, each dog underwent OHE or uterine stump revision. Cytologic analyses were compared with histologic examinations to verify the uterine condition. The uterine cellular population was represented by endometrial epithelial cells, erythrocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, macrophages, plasma cells, and cervical or incidental vaginal cells. Bacteria and amorphous material were observed. The proportion of different cells and nuclear features in the cytologic samples varied throughout the stages of the reproductive cycle and between normal and pathologic uterine conditions. The computer-assisted nuclear morphometry, performed in cytologic specimens by means of the six nuclear parameters chosen to evaluate the endometrial epithelial cell population, proved to be useful for determining the stage of the reproductive cycle. Furthermore, this system was demonstrated to be a valid support to diagnose and distinguish uterine disorders.

  20. Significance of cytological smear evaluation in diagnosis of splenic mast cell tumor-associated systemic mastocytosis in a cat (Felis catus).

    PubMed

    Woldemeskel, Moges; Merrill, Anita; Brown, Cindy

    2017-03-01

    An 8-year-old cat was presented with vomiting and weight loss. Histopathology and cytology revealed systemic mastocytosis, a rare condition and a clinical challenge. This case emphasizes the significance of cytological evaluation of smears in diagnosis of mastocytosis and in confirmation in biopsy specimens.

  1. Cytology of cardiac myxomas: presence of Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) lectin by immunoperoxidase staining.

    PubMed

    Iwa, N; Yutani, C

    1993-12-01

    Cytological findings are presented of seven cases of cardiac myxomas. Avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) method was employed to demonstrate Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) lectin in imprint smears as well as in paraffin-embedded tissue sections in cardiac myxomas. The cytology was characterized by tumor cells with polyhedral or stellate and mucinous background with lymphocytes, neutrophils, and hemosiderin-laden macrophages. In smears as well as tissue sections, UEA-I lectin was detected throughout the cytoplasm of myxoma cells. This study established the applicability of the immunoperoxidase staining for cardiac myxoma as an aid in cytopathological diagnosis.

  2. Strongyloides stercolaris infection mimicking a malignant tumour in a non-immunocompromised patient. Diagnosis by bronchoalveolar cytology

    PubMed Central

    Mayayo, E; Gomez-Aracil, V; Azua-Blanco, J; Azua-Romeo, J; Capilla, J; Mayayo, R

    2005-01-01

    Autoinfective strongyloidiasis is often fatal in immunosuppressed patients or in immunocomprised hosts. An interesting case of Strongyloides stercolaris hyperinfection was seen in an immunocompetent patient. This report describes a case of fatal strogyloidiasis in a 79 year old man, who had suffered gastrointestinal discomfort for years, and who presented because of respiratory illness. A chest radiograph showed an irregular mass close to the mediastinum and interstitial infiltrates, but blood eosinophilia was not observed. Cytological examination of the samples obtained from bronchial aspiration and brushing identified several filariform larvae. Thus, cytology was essential for the correct diagnosis in this patient and is a very reliable method to diagnose lung parasitosis. PMID:15790710

  3. Strongyloides stercolaris infection mimicking a malignant tumour in a non-immunocompromised patient. Diagnosis by bronchoalveolar cytology.

    PubMed

    Mayayo, E; Gomez-Aracil, V; Azua-Blanco, J; Azua-Romeo, J; Capilla, J; Mayayo, R

    2005-04-01

    Autoinfective strongyloidiasis is often fatal in immunosuppressed patients or in immunocomprised hosts. An interesting case of Strongyloides stercolaris hyperinfection was seen in an immunocompetent patient. This report describes a case of fatal strogyloidiasis in a 79 year old man, who had suffered gastrointestinal discomfort for years, and who presented because of respiratory illness. A chest radiograph showed an irregular mass close to the mediastinum and interstitial infiltrates, but blood eosinophilia was not observed. Cytological examination of the samples obtained from bronchial aspiration and brushing identified several filariform larvae. Thus, cytology was essential for the correct diagnosis in this patient and is a very reliable method to diagnose lung parasitosis.

  4. [The value of the triad: clinical examination, mammography and needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of breast carcinoma. Our experience].

    PubMed

    Cipolla, C; Amato, C; Di Lisi, G; Graceffa, G; Cassano, T; Salanitro, L; Bajardi, G; De Simone, G F; Barberi, G; Tomasino, R M

    1990-11-01

    Based on the authors' personal experience of the use of the triad, clinical examination, mammography and needle-aspiration cytology, in the strategic diagnosis of breast cancer, the paper emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis as the sole means of obtaining an improved outcome. Using this integrated methodology the authors have obtained a specificity of 99%, sensitivity of 97.8%, and a diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value for positive tests of 98%. In conclusion, the authors affirm that the comparative interpretation of clinical examination, mammography and cytology appears to be an extremely efficacious and reliable method for the diagnosis of the nature of breast nodules.

  5. [Cytology of the cerebrospinal fluid of dogs and cats with symptoms of meningitis/meningoencephalitis. Part 3].

    PubMed

    Grevel, V; Machus, B

    1992-04-01

    A review of the literature of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology of different forms of meningitis/meningoencephalomyelitis in dogs and cats is given. Eight dogs and three cats with signs of meningitis/meningoencephalitis are presented. Four dogs and one cat improved to normal for 1-3 years. The results of CSF cytology of cases whose etiology could not be determined are compared with those of thirteen dogs with distemper. In 8 of 13 sediments eosinophilic inclusions in monocytes and macrophages were found.

  6. Exfoliative cytology of buccal squames: A quantitative cytomorphometric analysis of patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sankhla, Bharat; Sharma, Abhishek; Shetty, Raju Singam; Bolla, Sheetal Chowdary; Gantha, Naga Sribala; Reddy, Prasun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a third leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Diabetes is one of the most common endocrine metabolic disorders and its prevalence has been increasing worldwide. Oral exfoliative cytology may be a more appropriate adjunctive diagnostic tool in conditions like diabetes mellitus, where the invasive techniques lose viability. Aims: The purpose of this study is to analyze the cytomorphometric changes in the exfoliated cells of the oral mucosa, as an adjunct to the diagnosis of diabetes. Materials and Methods: Smears were taken from the buccal mucosa of 30 diabetes patients (study group) and 30 healthy individuals (control group). All the smears were stained with rapid Papanicolaou stain (PAP). In the PAP smears, the nuclear area (NA), cytoplasmic area (CA), and cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio (CNR) were evaluated for 50 cells in each smear, using the Image Analysis Software (Magnus Pro™) and research microscope (Lawrence and Mayo™). Results: The results showed that the mean NA was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the study group, whereas, the mean CA did not exhibit a statistically significant difference (P > 0.001). The mean CNR was significantly lower in the study group (P < 0.001). Interpretation and Conclusion: The results associated with the clinical observations suggest that diabetes can produce morphological and functional alterations in the oral epithelial cells, detectable by microscopic and cytomorphometric analysis using exfoliative cytology, which can be used in the diagnosis of the disease. PMID:25374837

  7. Evaluation of morphology, cytology and mycorrhizal relationships of desert truffles (Terfezia boudieri) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ammarellou, Ali; Saremi, Hosein; Gucin, Fahretin

    2007-05-01

    Wild edible fungi are collected for food and to earn money in more than 80 countries. In one of these countries, Iran, several species of edible truffle can be found growing in Bandar-e Abbas, Tabriz, Qazvin and Zanjan provinces. They are normally harvested during mid-winter and early spring, particularly from January to March. Experinced harvesters identify the location of the truffles from crevices that appear in the surface of the soil above the truffles. A yellowish species grows solitary in the soil, is about the size of a large potato and has affirm texture. This species forms 5-10 cm below the soil surface and is yellowish inside. The truffles that had been collected from these areas were investigated in laboratories. Cytological evaluations showed that each ascus contains 8 ascospores. According to morphologic and cytological characteristics, this species was identified Terfezia boudieri. This species is not ectomycorrhizal with trees. Because the vegetation in the area consists of moss, lichen and perennial sedges. The field and laboratory studies showed that Kobresia bellardii have ectomycorrhizal associations with Terfezia boudieri in studied areas.

  8. Diagnostic utility of the cell block method versus the conventional smear study in pleural fluid cytology

    PubMed Central

    Shivakumarswamy, Udasimath; Arakeri, Surekha U; Karigowdar, Mahesh H; Yelikar, BR

    2012-01-01

    Background: The cytological examinations of serous effusions have been well-accepted, and a positive diagnosis is often considered as a definitive diagnosis. It helps in staging, prognosis and management of the patients in malignancies and also gives information about various inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions. Diagnostic problems arise in everyday practice to differentiate reactive atypical mesothelial cells and malignant cells by the routine conventional smear (CS) method. Aims: To compare the morphological features of the CS method with those of the cell block (CB) method and also to assess the utility and sensitivity of the CB method in the cytodiagnosis of pleural effusions. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the cytology section of the Department of Pathology. Sixty pleural fluid samples were subjected to diagnostic evaluation for over a period of 20 months. Along with the conventional smears, cell blocks were prepared by using 10% alcohol–formalin as a fixative agent. Statistical analysis with the ‘z test’ was performed to identify the cellularity, using the CS and CB methods. Mc. Naemer's χ2test was used to identify the additional yield for malignancy by the CB method. Results: Cellularity and additional yield for malignancy was 15% more by the CB method. Conclusions: The CB method provides high cellularity, better architectural patterns, morphological features and an additional yield of malignant cells, and thereby, increases the sensitivity of the cytodiagnosis when compared with the CS method. PMID:22438610

  9. Incidence of positive peritoneal cytology in patients with endometrial carcinoma after hysteroscopy vs. dilatation and curettage

    PubMed Central

    Crnobrnja, Bojana; Zegura, Branka; Takac, Iztok; Pakiz, Maja

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of the study was to compare the frequency of positive peritoneal washings in endometrial cancer patients after either hysteroscopy (HSC) or dilatation and curettage (D&C). Patients and methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 227 patients who underwent either HSC (N = 144) or D&C (N = 83) and were diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma at the University Medical Centre Maribor between January 2008 and December 2014. The incidence of positive peritoneal cytology was evaluated in each group. Results There was no overall difference in the incidence of positive peritoneal washings after HSC or D&C (HSC = 13.2%; D&C = 12.0%; p = 0.803). However, a detailed analysis of stage I disease revealed significantly higher rates of positive peritoneal washings in the HSC group (HSC = 12.8%; D&C = 3.4%; p = 0.046). Among these patients, there was no difference between both groups considering histologic type (chi-square = 0.059; p = 0.807), tumour differentiation (chi-square = 3.709; p = 0.156), the time between diagnosis and operation (t = 0.930; p = 0.357), and myometrial invasion (chi-square = 5.073; p = 0.079). Conclusions Although the diagnostic procedure did not influence the overall incidence of positive peritoneal washings, HSC was associated with a significantly higher rate of positive peritoneal cytology in stage I endometrial carcinoma compared to D&C. PMID:28265237

  10. Cytological diagnosis of metastatic malignant melanoma by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Kathryn G; Ingram, Courtney; Bergeron, Joseph; Yang, Jack

    2016-07-01

    Despite increased surveillance and public awareness, the incidence of melanoma is increasing. Frequently, fine-needle aspiration is employed for the diagnosis of metastatic disease, and aspirated material is used for cytogenetic and molecular studies to guide treatment options. The pairing of a significant diagnosis with the numerous morphologic variants of melanoma can make the cytologic evaluation disquieting. We present selected examples of our experiences and a brief review of the literature to provide cytodiagnostic clues for this malignancy. The clinical history is foremost, although the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of metastatic melanoma can provide a diagnosis before identification of the primary lesion in up to 20% of cases. If a history of melanoma is assured, negative results in sampling of pulmonary and subcutaneous nodules should be suspected as false negatives. The smearing pattern usually features poorly cohesive cells. Frankly malignant, spindled, and epithelioid cell shapes are most common, and cytoplasmic vacuoles, if sought on Romanowsky-stained specimens, can usually be found. The telltale feature of melanin production, although diagnostic, is only present in 50% of cases. Finally, eccentric placement of nuclei, nucleoli, and nuclear pseudoinclusions are accessory features for the cytologic interpretation of melanoma. Numerous morphologic patterns of melanoma are potentially seen, but a stepwise approach to diagnosis usually produces a successful result.

  11. Comparison of RNA Extraction Methods for Molecular Analysis of Oral Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Sayáns, Mario; Padín-Iruegas, Maria-Elena; Reboiras-López, Maria Dolores; Suarez-Peńaranda, José Manuel; López-López, Rafael; Carta, Celina Faig Lima; Issa, Jaqueline Scholz; García-García, Abel; Almeida, Janete Dias

    2016-01-01

    Objective of work The aim of this study was to compare three methods of RNA extraction for molecular analysis of oral cytology to establish the best technique, considering its concentration and purity for molecular tests of oral lesions such as real-time reverse transcriptase reaction. Material and methods The sample included exfoliative cytology from the oral cavity mucosa of patients with no visible clinical changes, using Orcellex Rovers Brush®. The extraction of total RNA was performed using the following three techniques: 30 samples were extracted by Trizol® technique, 30 by the Direct-zolTM RNA Miniprep system and 30 by the RNeasy mini Kit. The absorbance was measured by spectrophotometer to estimate the purity. The estimated RNA concentration was obtained by multiplying the value of A260 (ng/mL) by 40. Statistical analysis of the obtained data was performed using GraphPad Prism 5.03 software with Student t, analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests, considering p ≤0.05. Results Trizol® group revealed higher average concentration, followed by Direct-zolTM and Rneasy group. It was observed that the RNA Direct-zolTM group had the highest purity, followed by RNeasy and Trizol® groups, allowing for the two ratios. Conclusion Considering all aspects, concentration, purity and time spent in the procedures, the Direct-zolTM group showed the best results. PMID:27789907

  12. Artificial neural network in breast lesions from fine-needle aspiration cytology smear.

    PubMed

    Subbaiah, R M; Dey, Pranab; Nijhawan, Raje

    2014-03-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are applied in engineering and certain medical fields. ANN has immense potential and is rarely been used in breast lesions. In this present study, we attempted to build up a complete robust back propagation ANN model based on cytomorphological data, morphometric data, nuclear densitometric data, and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) of ductal carcinoma and fibroadenomas of breast cases diagnosed on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). We selected 52 cases of fibroadenomas and 60 cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast diagnosed on FNAC by two cytologists. Essential cytological data was quantitated by two independent cytologists (SRM, PD). With the help of Image J software, nuclear morphomeric, densitometric, and GLCM features were measured in all the cases on hematoxylin and eosin-stained smears. With the available data, an ANN model was built up with the help of Neurointelligence software. The network was designed as 41-20-1 (41 input nodes, 20 hidden nodes, 1 output node). The network was trained by the online back propagation algorithm and 500 iterations were done. Learning was adjusted after every iteration. ANN model correctly identified all cases of fibroadenomas and infiltrating carcinomas in the test set. This is one of the first successful composite ANN models of breast carcinomas. This basic model can be used to diagnose the gray zone area of the breast lesions on FNAC. We assume that this model may have far-reaching implications in future.

  13. Impact of Cytological Sampling on EGFR Mutation Testing in Stage III-IV Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christian; Edwards, Gwenllian; Butler, Rachel; Parry, Diane; Lester, Jason Francis

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. There have been advances in the identification and understanding of molecular subsets of lung cancer, defined by specific oncogenic aberrations. A number of actionable genetic alterations have been identified, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. We aimed to establish the reasons why patients were not undergoing EGFR mutation testing at the time of histological diagnosis. Methods. The records of 70 patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the lung managed through a single multidisciplinary team at a single institution were reviewed. Data were collected on method of tumour sample collection, whether this was sent for EGFR testing, and the result. Results. Seventy patients were identified. In 21/25 (84%) cases, cytological sampling was sufficient for EGFR mutation analysis, compared with 40/45 (89%) cases with histological sampling. EGFR mutation testing was not carried out in 22/70 (31.4%) patients. There was insufficient tumour sample for EGFR testing in 9/22 (40.9%) patients. Other reasons for not testing included poor patient fitness and problems in the diagnostic pathway. Conclusions. In this series, cytological tumour sampling was not the predominant reason why cancers failed to have EGFR mutation status established. PMID:28367333

  14. Cervical cancer screening of HPV vaccinated populations: Cytology, molecular testing, both or none.

    PubMed

    El-Zein, Mariam; Richardson, Lyndsay; Franco, Eduardo L

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer control includes primary prevention through vaccination to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and secondary prevention through screening to detect and treat cervical precancerous lesions. This review summarizes the evidence for the population impact of vaccines against oncogenic HPV types in reducing the prevalence of cervical precancerous lesions. We examine the gradual shift in screening technology from cervical cytology alone to cytology and HPV cotesting, and finally to the recognition that HPV testing can serve alone as the new screening paradigm, particularly in the initial post-vaccination era. We should expect an impact on screening performance and practices, as cohorts of HPV-vaccinated girls and adolescents reach cervical cancer screening age. In preparation for changes in the screening paradigm for the vaccination era, we propose that policymaking on cervical cancer screening should mirror current practices with other cancers as benchmarks. Cervical precancerous lesions will become a very rare condition following the widespread implementation of HPV vaccines with broader coverage in the number of preventable oncogenic types. Irrespective of screening technology, the false positive results will far outnumber the true positive ones, a tipping point that will herald a new period when the harms from cervical cancer screening will outweigh its benefits. We present a conceptual framework to guide decision making when we reach this point within 25-30 years.

  15. Kinase genotype analysis of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor cytology samples using targeted next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Ferga C; Kipp, Benjamin R; Kerr, Sarah E; Voss, Jesse S; Graham, Rondell P; Campion, Michael B; Minot, Douglas M; Tu, Zheng J; Klee, Eric W; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N; Henry, Michael R; Levy, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) usually contain the mast/stem cell growth factor receptor Kit gene (KIT) or platelet-derived growth factor receptor A (PDGFRA) mutations that can be targeted by, or mediate resistance to, imatinib. Diagnostic material often is obtained by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration, which often is unsuitable for molecular analysis. We investigated whether targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) can be used in multiplex genotype analysis of cytology samples collected by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration. We used the Ion AmpliSeq V2 Cancer Hotspot NGS Panel (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA) to identify mutations in more than 2800 exons from 50 cancer-associated genes in GIST samples from 20 patients. We identified KIT mutations in 58% of samples (91% in exon 11 and 9% in exon 17) and PDGFRA mutations in 26% (60% in exon 18 and 40% in exon 12); 16% of samples had no mutations in KIT or PDGFRA. No pathogenic alterations were found in PIK3CA, BRAF, KRAS, NRAS, or FGFR3. We predicted that 32% of patients would have primary resistance to imatinib, based on mutations in exon 17 of KIT, exon 18 of PDGFRA (D842V), or no mutation in either gene. Targeted NGS of cytology samples from GISTs is feasible and provides clinically relevant data about kinase genotypes that can help guide individualized therapy.

  16. Micropapillary urothelial carcinoma: Cytologic features in a retrospective series of urine specimens

    PubMed Central

    Heymann, Jonas John; Saqi, Anjali; Turk, Andrew Thomas; Crapanzano, John

    2013-01-01

    Background: The micropapillary variant of urothelial carcinoma (uPC) is a rare variant of urothelial carcinoma that carries a poor prognosis. Definitive surgery may represent optimal management of low stage tumors. Urine cytology is indispensable in the screening and follow-up of urinary tract cancer. However, cytopathological criteria for diagnosis of uPC and its differentiation from conventional urothelial carcinoma (CUC) are not well-defined. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five cases of histologically confirmed micropapillary uPC from 21 patients were compared to 25 cases of histologically confirmed high-grade CUC. Results: In uPC cases, cell clusters were identified in 13 of 25 specimens from 10 patients. Six of the 13 specimens containing cell clusters corresponded to surgical pathology specimens in which micropapillary carcinoma accounted for at least 50% of total carcinoma. In contrast, only 1 of the 12 urine specimens devoid of cell clusters corresponded to surgical specimens in which micropapillary carcinoma accounted for at least 50% of total carcinoma. Cytomorphologic features of urinary specimens from patients with histologically confirmed micropapillary carcinoma were generally similar to those from patients with high-grade CUC, making it difficult to distinguish these entities in exfoliative urine specimens. Conclusions and Summary: Further investigation of the core cytopathological characteristics of uPC is warranted to refine its diagnostic criteria by exfoliative urine cytology. PMID:23599723

  17. [The cytology mechanism of anti-parainfluenza virus infection of total flavone of Scutellaria barbata].

    PubMed

    Guo, Shan-Shan; Shi, Yu-Jing; Gao, Ying-Jie; Su, Dan; Cui, Xiao-Lan

    2009-12-01

    In order to research into the cytology mechanism of anti-virus action of total flavone of Scutellaria barbata (TFSB), the effects of TFSB on host cells membrane potential, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and membrane fluidity after parainfluenza virus type1 (PIV-1) infection were studied. The changes of membrane potential which was fluorescent labeled with DiBAC4(3) and its changes were measured by flow cytometer. Phosphorus determination method and spectrophotometry were used to measure the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity of Hep-2 cells membrane after PIV-1 infection. Hep-2 cells membrane phospholipids were fluorescent labeled with NBD-C6-HPC and membrane fluidity was measured by confocal scanning laser microscope. The result demonstrated that post PIV-1 infection membrane potential decreased significantly and the membrane was in a state of hyperpolarization, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity increased significantly and membrane fluidity decreased significantly. There was no apparent interfere effect of TFSB on the changes of membrane potential and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity after PIV-1 infection, while membrane fluidity improved significantly. It was indicated that the cytology mechanism of PIV-1 infection might be related to membrane hyperpolarization, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity increase and membrane fluidity decrease. TFSB can improve membrane fluidity and prevent the infection by protecting the cell membrane. But it is possible that the anti-PIV-1 mechanisms of TFSB had nothing to do with membrane potential and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity.

  18. Cytological diagnosis of Rosai-Dorfman disease: A case report and revision of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Garza-Guajardo, Raquel; García-Labastida, Laura Elvira; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Iram Pablo; Gómez-Macías, Gabriela Sofía; Delgado-Enciso, Iván; Chaparro, María Marisela Sánchez; Barboza-Quintana, Oralia

    2017-01-01

    Rosai-Dorfman disease also known as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML) is characterized by distorted lymph node architecture with marked dilation of lymphatic sinuses occupied by numerous lymphocytes, as well as histiocytes with vesicular nucleus and abundant clear cytoplasm with phagocytized lymphocytes or plasma cells, also known as ‘emperipolesis’. This disease of unknown etiology progresses with a benign prognosis strictly and only when an early diagnosis and treatment is made. A late diagnosis and a generalized lymph node involvement contribute to a poor prognosis. In this study, we focussed on the cytological characteristics of the Rosai-Dorfman disease and differential diagnoses. We reported a case of a 61-year-old Mexican male with a 9-month history of painless bilateral cervical masses and low-grade fever with the final diagnosis of Rosai-Dorfman disease. The final diagnosis was made by fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of parotid gland and cervical lymph node. In conclusion, FNA biopsy can be enough to make the diagnosis in most cases due to the distinct cytological features of SHML, thereby avoiding more invasive approaches that potentially are unnecessary. PMID:28123703

  19. Cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid acquired by bronchoscopy in healthy ferrets: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bercier, Marjorie; Langlois, Isabelle; Dunn, Marilyn; Hélie, Pierre; Burns, Patrick; Gara-Boivin, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the normal cytological evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in healthy adult ferrets (N = 12). These ferrets underwent bronchoscopy and BAL using sterile saline [1.5 mL/kg body weight (BW)]. Percentage of fluid recovered, total leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count, and cell count of the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) were determined. The mean percentage of lavage volume recovered from the right lung and left lung were 67.8 ± 14.9% and 69.7 ± 20.0%, respectively. Gender (P = 0.12) and weight (P = 0.17) did not significantly affect the mean percentage of recovered volume. The mean percentage of recovered volume (P = 0.47) and the mean leukocyte count (P = 0.17) from the right and left lung were not significantly different. Macrophages were the main leukocyte component of the lavages, followed by neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. The mean proportion of ELF in BAL fluid was 9.3 ± 3.7% v/v. Bronchoscopy is clinically useful for collecting good quality BAL samples for cytological analysis in ferrets. The leucocyte differential was established, which may help veterinarians to make better clinical decisions when treating respiratory disease. Further studies are required with a larger group in order to establish the healthy reference intervals for BAL values in ferrets.

  20. BSCC, Bethesda or other? Terminology in cervical cytology European panel discussion.

    PubMed

    Kocjan, G; Priollet, B C; Desai, M; Koutselini, H; Mahovlic, V; Oliveira, M H; Pohar-Marinsek, Z; Sauer, T; Schenk, U; Shabalova, I; Herbert, A

    2005-06-01

    The European panel agreed that reproducibility and translatability of terminology in cervical cytology were essential, arguing well for harmonization of reporting systems. The majority at this meeting use a modification of the Bethesda system (BS). Local modifications involved reporting subcategories within high grade and low grade lesions, which would not alter the overall translatability of their systems both with each other and BS. The majority agree that low grade lesions with and without koilocytosis should be managed similarly as should high grade lesions (moderate dysplasia/CIN2 or worse). Those systems linking moderate dysplasia with mild rather than severe dysplasia would need to define moderate dysplasia as such, if their results were to be translatable, which would be preferable to their using a different definition of low grade and high grade lesions. Translation between systems might anyway be facilitated by reporting moderate dysplasia as a subcategory within high grade, which was favoured by most of those present. Therefore, there is no need for exact agreement of terminology if broad principles are agreed. This useful discussion adds weight to the British Society for Clinical Cytology recommendation that the new classification should be adopted by the UK National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme. If the new classification is adopted, the UK would join the European consensus opinion on terminology.

  1. Review of the touch preparation cytology of spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Kijong; Rehman, Abdul; Jang, Se Min; Paik, Seung Sam

    2016-01-01

    We experienced a case of spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation (SETTLE) with touch preparation cytology performed during the intraoperative frozen section diagnosis in a 22-year-old woman. The tumor was partially encapsulated by fibrous capsule. It was a highly cellular biphasic tumor characterized by fasciculated spindle cells with streaming pattern and tubulopapillary epithelial component. The tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin, vimentin, c-kit, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1). However, the tumor cells were negative for thyroglobulin, calcitonin, CD99, S-100 protein, CD34, smooth muscle actin, HBME-1, and galectin-3. The reviewed touch smears showed tight clusters with high cellularity. Most cellular clusters showed papillary configuration. However, some clusters showed spindle cells with streaming pattern. The spindle tumor cells showed elongated and cigar-shaped nuclei. Although the incidence is very rare, SETLLE should be included in the differential diagnosis when a spindle cell neoplasm is encountered in touch preparation cytology in young patients with a thyroid mass. PMID:27011438

  2. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Detection in Cytologic Specimens: Similarities and Differences of Available Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Tornillo, Luigi; Kind, André B.; Obermann, Ellen; Noppen, Christoph; Chaffard, Rosemarie; Wynne, Patricia; Grilli, Bruno; Foerster, Anja; Terracciano, Luigi M.; Hoeller, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence regarding the causative role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in a wide range of malignant and nonmalignant diseases highlights the importance of HPV testing. This study describes and discusses the efficacy and characteristics of 4 well-established and commercially available tests. Here, 181 cytologic specimens from cervical smears were analyzed using the HPV SIGN PQ (Diatech) and the Linear Array (Roche) method. Discrepant results were further studied with the Real Time High-Risk HPV (Abbott) method and the INNO-LiPA (Fujirebio) method. Of 181 cytologic specimens, 61 (34%) showed discrepant results. High-risk HPV was not detected in 9 cases by HPV SIGN PQ, in 16 cases by Linear Array, in 10 cases by Real Time High-Risk HPV, and in 6 cases by INNO-LiPA, respectively. Lack of DNA detection or problems in interpreting the result were seen in 9 cases with HPV SIGN PQ, 8 cases with Linear Array, 3 cases with Real Time High-Risk HPV, and 3 cases with INNO-LiPA, respectively. This study indicates that the choice of HPV detection method has a substantial influence on the HPV risk classification of tested PAP smears and clinical follow-up decisions. PMID:26580098

  3. Cytologic Interpretation of Melanotic Neuroectodermal Tumour of Infancy Involving Cranial Bones: Clue to Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Biswal, Priyadarshini; Behera, Susmita; Dhal, Ipsita; Surabhi

    2015-01-01

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy (MNTI) is a rare, benign but locally aggressive neoplasm of infants commonly affecting the maxilla. It can also involve other areas like skull, mandible, brain and epididymis. The tumour comprise of dual populations of cells like small, basophilic neuroblast like cells and large pigment laden epithelial cells arranged in tubular and pseudoglandular pattern. The proportion of two components varies and therefore the diagnosis can be difficult in absence of the large cells. We describe the cytologic, histologic and immunohistochemical findings in a case of MNTI involving left side orbit with frontal, temporal and parietal bones. The cytologic interpretation could be made due to the suggestive clinical and radiologic findings and detection of large epithelial pigmented cells on thorough searching. The neuroblast like cells was positive for Neuron specific enolase, large cells for HMB-45 and Pan CK. Both the cellular components were negative for desmin. This case report is presented due to its rarity and also to aid the surgical pathologists in diagnosis where the findings are not too straight forward. PMID:26500916

  4. Proflavine Hemisulfate as a Fluorescent Contrast Agent for Point-of-Care Cytology.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Sandra P; Powless, Amy J; Boice, Jackson W; Sharma, Shree G; Muldoon, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Proflavine hemisulfate, an acridine-derived fluorescent dye, can be used as a rapid stain for cytologic examination of biological specimens. Proflavine fluorescently stains cell nuclei and cytoplasmic structures, owing to its small amphipathic structure and ability to intercalate DNA. In this manuscript, we demonstrated the use of proflavine as a rapid cytologic dye on a number of specimens, including normal exfoliated oral squamous cells, cultured human oral squamous carcinoma cells, and leukocytes derived from whole blood specimens using a custom-built, portable, LED-illuminated fluorescence microscope. No incubation time was needed after suspending cells in 0.01% (w/v) proflavine diluted in saline. Images of proflavine stained oral cells had clearly visible nuclei as well as granular cytoplasm, while stained leukocytes exhibited bright nuclei, and highlighted the multilobar nature of nuclei in neutrophils. We also demonstrated the utility of quantitative analysis of digital images of proflavine stained cells, which can be used to detect significant morphological differences between different cell types. Proflavine stained oral cells have well-defined nuclei and cell membranes which allowed for quantitative analysis of nuclear to cytoplasmic ratios, as well as image texture analysis to extract quantitative image features.

  5. Proflavine Hemisulfate as a Fluorescent Contrast Agent for Point-of-Care Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Sandra P.; Powless, Amy J.; Boice, Jackson W.; Sharma, Shree G.; Muldoon, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Proflavine hemisulfate, an acridine-derived fluorescent dye, can be used as a rapid stain for cytologic examination of biological specimens. Proflavine fluorescently stains cell nuclei and cytoplasmic structures, owing to its small amphipathic structure and ability to intercalate DNA. In this manuscript, we demonstrated the use of proflavine as a rapid cytologic dye on a number of specimens, including normal exfoliated oral squamous cells, cultured human oral squamous carcinoma cells, and leukocytes derived from whole blood specimens using a custom-built, portable, LED-illuminated fluorescence microscope. No incubation time was needed after suspending cells in 0.01% (w/v) proflavine diluted in saline. Images of proflavine stained oral cells had clearly visible nuclei as well as granular cytoplasm, while stained leukocytes exhibited bright nuclei, and highlighted the multilobar nature of nuclei in neutrophils. We also demonstrated the utility of quantitative analysis of digital images of proflavine stained cells, which can be used to detect significant morphological differences between different cell types. Proflavine stained oral cells have well-defined nuclei and cell membranes which allowed for quantitative analysis of nuclear to cytoplasmic ratios, as well as image texture analysis to extract quantitative image features. PMID:25962131

  6. Association between micronucleus frequency and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade in Thinprep cytological test and its significance.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yong-Hua; Wang, Bo-Wei; Tuokan, Talaf; Li, Qiao-Zhi; Zhang, Ya-Jing

    2015-01-01

    A micronucleus is an additional small nucleus formed due to chromosomes or chromosomal fragments fail to be incorporated into the nucleus during cell division. In this study, we assessed the utility of micronucleus counting as a screening tool in cervical precancerous lesions in Thinprep cytological test smears under oil immersion. High risk HPV was also detected by hybrid capture-2 in Thinprep cytological test smears. Our results showed that micronucleus counting was significantly higher in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and invasive carcinoma cases compared to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and non-neoplastic cases. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that micronucleus counting possessed a high degree of sensitivity and specificity for identifying HSIL and invasive carcinoma. Cut-off of 7.5 for MN counting gave a sensitivity of 89.6% and a specificity of 66.7% (P = 0.024 and AUC = 0.892) for detecting HSIL and invasive carcinoma lesions. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that only HSIL and invasive cancer lesions not age, duration of marital life and number of pregnancy are significantly associated with MN counting. The positive rate of high risk HPV was distinctly higher in LSIL, HSIL and invasive cancer than that in non-neoplstic categories. In conclusions, MN evaluation may be viewed as an effective biomarker for cervical cancer screening. The combination of MN count with HPV DNA detection and TCT may serve as an effective means to screen precancerous cervical lesions in most developing nations.

  7. Cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid acquired by bronchoscopy in healthy ferrets: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bercier, Marjorie; Langlois, Isabelle; Dunn, Marilyn; Hélie, Pierre; Burns, Patrick; Gara-Boivin, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the normal cytological evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in healthy adult ferrets (N = 12). These ferrets underwent bronchoscopy and BAL using sterile saline [1.5 mL/kg body weight (BW)]. Percentage of fluid recovered, total leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count, and cell count of the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) were determined. The mean percentage of lavage volume recovered from the right lung and left lung were 67.8 ± 14.9% and 69.7 ± 20.0%, respectively. Gender (P = 0.12) and weight (P = 0.17) did not significantly affect the mean percentage of recovered volume. The mean percentage of recovered volume (P = 0.47) and the mean leukocyte count (P = 0.17) from the right and left lung were not significantly different. Macrophages were the main leukocyte component of the lavages, followed by neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. The mean proportion of ELF in BAL fluid was 9.3 ± 3.7% v/v. Bronchoscopy is clinically useful for collecting good quality BAL samples for cytological analysis in ferrets. The leucocyte differential was established, which may help veterinarians to make better clinical decisions when treating respiratory disease. Further studies are required with a larger group in order to establish the healthy reference intervals for BAL values in ferrets. PMID:26733735

  8. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis as an uncommon diagnostic pitfall in lung cytology.

    PubMed

    Midi, Ahmet; Yener, Neşe Arzu; Orki, Alpay; Cubuk, Rahmi; Ersev, Ayse

    2012-08-01

    House paints, the industrial products of toxic chemicals are known to be linked with severe respiratory disturbances especially in inadequately ventilated places. In this study, we aimed to report a biopsy-proven case of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) who presented with nonspecific respiratory symptoms 1 month after having her whole house interior painted. At CT scanning, we observed the ground glass opacities and the micronodular pattern typical for EAA and also a solid, consolidative lung area, highly suggestive of malignancy. The case initially was misinterpreted as a malignant tumor both radiologically and cytologically at CT-guided transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy. The final pathologic diagnosis was given as EAA on frozen section performed during thoracotomy operation. The patient received short-term steroid treatment and has been doing well for the last 7 months after her operation. As a conclusion, when assessing a cytologic material from a patient who has got a solid lung mass and also a history of chemical dye exposure, consolidative mass formation which is a rare form of EAA should always be kept in mind. Another final point is that the appropriate ventilation should be achieved if the exposure with the house paint chemicals is inevitable.

  9. Cytological, molecular mechanisms and temperature stress regulating production of diploid male gametes in Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuhong; Mo, Xijun; Gui, Min; Wu, Xuewei; Jiang, Yalian; Ma, Lulin; Shi, Ziming; Luo, Ying; Tang, Wenru

    2015-12-01

    In plant evolution, because of its key role in sexual polyploidization or whole genome duplication events, diploid gamete formation is considered as an important component in diversification and speciation. Environmental stress often triggers unreduced gamete production. However, the molecular, cellular mechanisms and adverse temperature regulating diplogamete production in carnation remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the cytological basis for 2n male gamete formation and describe the isolation and characterization of the first gene, DcPS1 (Dianthus Caryophyllus Parallel Spindle 1). In addition, we analyze influence of temperature stress on diploid gamete formation and transcript levels of DcPS1. Cytological evidence indicated that 2n male gamete formation is attributable to abnormal spindle orientation at male meiosis II. DcPS1 protein is conserved throughout the plant kingdom and carries domains suggestive of a regulatory function. DcPS1 expression analysis show DcPS1 gene probably have a role in 2n pollen formation. Unreduced pollen formation in various cultivation was sensitive to high or low temperature which was probably regulated by the level of DcPS1 transcripts. In a broader perspective, these findings can have potential applications in fundamental polyploidization research and plant breeding programs.

  10. HPV genotype prevalence in cervical specimens with abnormal cytology: a report from north-east Italy.

    PubMed

    Rassu, Mario; Bertoloni, Giulio; Mengoli, Carlo; Peron, Antonella; Benedetti, Paolo; Palu', Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the prevalence of HPV DNA in cervical samples collected from 1335 women with abnormal Pap test and analysed the degree of association of HPV genotype with cervical cytological abnormality and also with patient age. The study was principally aimed at providing some cross-sectional figures on the epidemiology of HPV in our area, where the ethnic background is expected to rapidly evolve due to extensive immigration from overseas. 471 (35.3%) of the 1335 patients screened were positive for HPV DNA. A clear association was observed between cytological findings and the proportion of patients with positive HPV PCR, namely 24.0% HPV positivity in the ASCUS group (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance), 48.7% in LSIL group (low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions), and 71.9% in HSIL group (high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions) (p-value < 0.001). High-risk (HR) HPV prevalence appeared to be different from other areas of the world; we have detected a high prevalence rate of HPV-16, 31, and 58 and a low prevalence rate of HPV-18 and 11. The prevalence of both HR and low risk (LR) genotype groups was clearly related to age (p-value < 0.001), since the prevalence of LR group had a nadir between 41 and 50 y of age and 2 peaks at 15-20 y and at over 60 y, while the curve of prevalence of HR genotypes displayed an almost inverse trend.

  11. The cytology, isozyme, HPLC fingerprint, and interspecific hybridization studies of genus epimedium (berberidaceae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Jiao; Sheng, Mao-Yin

    2013-01-01

    104 samples from 27 accessions belonging to 12 species of genus Epimedium were studied on the basis of cytology observation, POD (i.e., peroxide) isozyme, high performance liquid chromatography (i.e., HPLC) fingerprint, and interspecific hybridization. The cytology observation showed karyotypes of twelve species studied; all are 2A symmetry type of Stebbins standard and similar to each other, and except for karyotype of E. leptorrhizum which is 2n = 2x = 8m (2SAT) + 4sm, the rest are 2n = 2x = 6m (2SAT) + 6sm. Chromosomes C-banding of barrenwort species varies, with 15 to 22 bands, consisting of centromeric bands, intercalary bands, terminal bands, and middle satellite bands. Results of POD isozyme showed that the zymographs vary greatly and sixteen bands were detected in the eleven species, and each species has its own characteristic bands different from the others. Studies on the HPLC fingerprint showed that the HPLC fingerprint of different species has characteristic peaks, divided into two regions (retention time < 10 min and retention time > 10 min). Results of interspecific hybridization showed that crosses of any combination among seven species studied are successful and the rates of grain set vary greatly. Based on these results, the system and phylogeny of this genus were inferred.

  12. The Cytology, Isozyme, HPLC Fingerprint, and Interspecific Hybridization Studies of Genus Epimedium (Berberidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin-Jiao; Sheng, Mao-Yin

    2013-01-01

    104 samples from 27 accessions belonging to 12 species of genus Epimedium were studied on the basis of cytology observation, POD (i.e., peroxide) isozyme, high performance liquid chromatography (i.e., HPLC) fingerprint, and interspecific hybridization. The cytology observation showed karyotypes of twelve species studied; all are 2A symmetry type of Stebbins standard and similar to each other, and except for karyotype of E. leptorrhizum which is 2n = 2x = 8m (2SAT) + 4sm, the rest are 2n = 2x = 6m (2SAT) + 6sm. Chromosomes C-banding of barrenwort species varies, with 15 to 22 bands, consisting of centromeric bands, intercalary bands, terminal bands, and middle satellite bands. Results of POD isozyme showed that the zymographs vary greatly and sixteen bands were detected in the eleven species, and each species has its own characteristic bands different from the others. Studies on the HPLC fingerprint showed that the HPLC fingerprint of different species has characteristic peaks, divided into two regions (retention time < 10 min and retention time > 10 min). Results of interspecific hybridization showed that crosses of any combination among seven species studied are successful and the rates of grain set vary greatly. Based on these results, the system and phylogeny of this genus were inferred. PMID:24349794

  13. Evaluation of oral mucosa epithelium in type II diabetic patients by an exfoliative cytology method.

    PubMed

    Jajarm, Hassan Hosseinpour; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Moshaverinia, Maryam; Rangiani, Afsaneh

    2008-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disease that causes chronic hyperglycemia and disturbances in carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. Although diabetes can cause considerable cellular changes, this field has attracted little research. We therefore decided to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative changes in oral epithelial cells using an exfoliative cytology method. In 30 control individuals and 30 patients with type II diabetes, smears were obtained from two distinct oral sites: the buccal mucosa and tongue dorsum. The oral smears were stained using Papanicolaou solution. Quantitative and qualitative changes were evaluated in each slide. For this purpose, 50 clearly defined cells in each slide were microscopically evaluated, and photographs were subjected to computerized morphometric analysis. Cytoplasmic and nuclear areas in the diabetic group were significantly higher than in the control group. The cytoplasmic/nuclear ratio was lower in the control group. At both smear sites, the proportion of cells with nuclear changes was higher in the diabetic group. Diabetes mellitus can cause alterations in the oral epithelium that are detectable with this exfoliative cytology method. The method may be viable in evaluating this disease.

  14. Exfoliative cytology of the oral mucosa: comparison of two collection methods.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Juliana Brusadin; Lima, Celina Faig; Burim, Rafael Augusto; Brandao, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck; Cabral, Luiz Antonio Guimaraes; Almeida, Janete Dias

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the sampling efficacy of a cytobrush and metal spatula for exfoliative cytology of the oral mucosa. Thirty students with no detectable oral alterations upon clinical examination were submitted to exfoliative cytology of the lateral border of the tongue, using a metal spatula on the left side and a cytobrush on the right side. The smears were stained using the Papanicolaou technique and evaluated for cellularity, cell type, cell distribution, homogeneity, and cellular distortion, as well as the presence of mucus, inflammatory infiltrate, and hemorrhage. A statistical test (Z-test) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) showed a significant difference between the metal spatula and cytobrush in terms of cellularity (p = 0.02) and homogeneity (p = 0.01). No difference between the two methods was observed regarding cell type (p = 0.4, Z-test) or cell distribution for the 95% confidence interval (p = 0.2, Fisher's test). Cell distortion and the presence of mucus were observed in five cases that used the metal spatula and in two cases that used the cytobrush. No hemorrhage or inflammatory infiltrate was detected in any of the slides. Based on the results of this study, the cytobrush produced qualitatively better smears in terms of cellularity and homogeneity compared to the metal spatula.

  15. Information, discrimination and divergence in cytology. I. Theoretical aspects and definitions.

    PubMed

    Okagaki, T; Zelterman, D

    1990-10-01

    The results of medical tests update the probability of diagnosis (diagnosability) of a patient from the population prevalence of a disease. This paper demonstrates a method of combining several mutually dependent tests as the sum of log odds ratios, and of separating the log odd ratios of the test results and those of prevalences. Extending Kullback's discriminant function between two states to m states (m greater than or equal to 2), it is shown that the information of a test can be measured by discrimination and divergence, which are well-defined measures in information theory and test theory. The performance of diagnostic cytology can then be compared to the results of histopathologic diagnoses or to a peer-reviewed consensus without the use of arbitrarily given scores or without unfounded assumptions about underlying continuous variables. They can also provide a way to optimize the categorization (classification) of Papanicolaou smears and a means of quality control for morphologic tests. These methods can be used to evaluate the performances of cytology laboratories that use two classifications consisting of different numbers of categories (classes) and states.

  16. Clinical, cytologic, and histologic features of a mammary micropapillary carcinoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Breno S; Monteiro, Lidianne N; Colodel, Márcia M; Figueiroa, Fernanda C; Soares, Luisa M; Nonogaki, Suely; Rocha, Rafael M; Rocha, Noeme S

    2013-09-01

    Mammary invasive micropapillary carcinoma is a rare variant of mammary carcinoma that was recently recognized in dogs. The cytologic features and biologic behavior of such neoplasms in dogs have not yet been widely discussed in the veterinary literature. We report the clinical, cytologic, and histologic features of a canine micropapillary carcinoma in a 13-year-old female mongrel dog. The mammary region presented with extreme local pain, severe edema and erythema, and multifocal epidermal ulceration, which is typical for an inflammatory mammary carcinoma. Fine-needle aspirates were highly cellular and consisted of individual cells and papillary cell clusters with characteristics of malignant epithelial cells. Histologic examination revealed neoplastic cells arranged in small papillae without fibrovascular cores, sometimes inside clear lymphatic spaces, indicating lymphovascular invasion. Regional lymph node evaluation revealed metastatic cells. Due to deteriorating clinical condition the dog was euthanatized 5 months after mastectomy. At necropsy, metastatic neoplastic mammary cells were found in popliteal and mediastinal lymph nodes, the right femoral biceps muscle, liver, heart, lungs, and urinary bladder.

  17. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Papulonodular Lesions of Skin: A Study of 50 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevappa, Asha; Manjunath, Gubbanna Vimalambike

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Skin is one of the frequent site of disease in human body. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is a safe diagnostic method in these cases. FNAC has some limitation, particularly related to representativity of samples, exact typing of skin adnexal tumours and classifying the nature of metastatic cutaneous nodules. Thus, FNAC alone may not give a confirmative diagnosis regarding few skin lesions. Hence, histopathological study has been the standard technique for the diagnosis of skin lesions. Aim To study the FNAC findings in various papulonodular lesions and to correlate them with histopathological findings wherever possible. Materials and Methods In the present study, 50 cases of clinically diagnosed papulonodular lesions were evaluated by FNAC and correlated with histopathology wherever possible. Results There was 100% correlation in cases of epidermal cyst, leprosy, tuberculosis, actinomycosis, acute and chronic inflammatory lesions and 67% accuracy was seen in adnexal tumours. Aspiration cytology along with radiological studies proved very useful in classifying the nature of metastatic cutaneous nodules and suggesting the possible site of unknown primary. Sensitivity of FNAC for epidermal cyst and inflammatory lesions was 100%. In case of adnexal tumours, sensitivity and specificity was 67% and 50% respectively. Conclusion FNAC is a rapid, efficient, cost effective, relatively painless procedure and produces a speedy result with high diagnostic accuracy. It has high rates of sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing papulonodular lesions of skin and hence, is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and management of patients with papulonodular skin lesions. PMID:28208863

  18. ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF SOLIDS

    DOEpatents

    Damask, A.C.

    1959-11-01

    A method is presented for altering physical properties of certain solids, such as enhancing the usefulness of solids, in which atomic interchange occurs through a vacancy mechanism, electron irradiation, and temperature control. In a centain class of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, diffusion or displacement of atoms occurs through a vacancy mechanism, i.e., an atom can only move when there exists a vacant atomic or lattice site in an adjacent position. In the process of the invention highenergy electron irradiation produces additional vacancies in a solid over those normally occurring at a given temperature and allows diffusion of the component atoms of the solid to proceed at temperatures at which it would not occur under thermal means alone in any reasonable length of time. The invention offers a precise way to increase the number of vacancies and thereby, to a controlled degree, change the physical properties of some materials, such as resistivity or hardness.

  19. BIOLOGICAL IRRADIATION FACILITY

    DOEpatents

    McCorkle, W.H.; Cern, H.S.

    1962-04-24

    A facility for irradiating biological specimens with neutrons is described. It includes a reactor wherein the core is off center in a reflector. A high-exposure room is located outside the reactor on the side nearest the core while a low-exposure room is located on the opposite side. Means for converting thermal neutrons to fast neutrons are movably disposed between the reactor core and the high and low-exposure rooms. (AEC)

  20. Surface segregation during irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rehn, L.E.; Lam, N.Q.

    1985-10-01

    Gibbsian adsorption is known to alter the surface composition of many alloys. During irradiation, four additional processes that affect the near-surface alloy composition become operative: preferential sputtering, displacement mixing, radiation-enhanced diffusion and radiation-induced segregation. Because of the mutual competition of these five processes, near-surface compositional changes in an irradiation environment can be extremely complex. Although ion-beam induced surface compositional changes were noted as long as fifty years ago, it is only during the past several years that individual mechanisms have been clearly identified. In this paper, a simple physical description of each of the processes is given, and selected examples of recent important progress are discussed. With the notable exception of preferential sputtering, it is shown that a reasonable qualitative understanding of the relative contributions from the individual processes under various irradiation conditions has been attained. However, considerably more effort will be required before a quantitative, predictive capability can be achieved. 29 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Urine Cytology

    MedlinePlus

    ... your bladder. Examining the urine sample in the laboratory Your urine sample is sent to a laboratory for testing by a doctor who specializes in ... can expect to wait for your results. Each laboratory has its own way of describing the results ...

  2. [Anal cytology].

    PubMed

    Tóth, Béla; Sápi, Zoltán; Bánhegyi, Dénes; Marschalkó, Márta; Kárpáti, Sarolta

    2015-01-04

    Bevezetés: Az anális carcinoma incidenciája az utóbbi évtizedekben folyamatosan emelkedett, különösen a humán immundeficientia vírussal fertőzött homoszexuális populációban. Az anális laphámrák potenciális prekurzora az anális intraepithelialis neoplasia, amelynek elődleges szűrőtesztje a citológiai vizsgálat. Célkitűzés: A szerzők a Semmelweis Egyetem, Bőr-, Nemikórtani és Bőronkológiai Klinika Országos STD Centrumában humán immundeficientia vírus pozitív betegeknél végzett anális citológiai vizsgálatok eredményének értékelését tűzték ki célul. Módszer: 2011. november 1. és 2014. augusztus 31. között a klinikán 140 betegnél 155 anális citológiai vizsgálat történt. Eredmények: A betegek 44%-ánál találtak anális dysplasiát, és mindössze 1,6%-ban high grade laesiót. Nagyobb betegszámú vizsgálatokkal összehasonlítva ez az arány alacsonyabb. Következtetések: A vizsgálat felhívja a figyelmet a kockázati csoportban végzett rendszeres szűrővizsgálat fontosságára. Orv. Hetil., 2015, 156(1), 24–27.

  3. FDA perspective on food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pauli, G.H.

    1994-12-31

    The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) monitors the safety of food irradiation. A few limited uses are regulated, and occasionally CFSAN receives a petition for a new use. Despite extensive studies (more than 400) showing the safety of food irradiation, a cloud of suspicion continues to hang over this issue in the mind of the public. People perceive food irradiation and direct body irradiation as having similar implications. Food irradiation is banned in two states in the United States. Food is irradiated for the following purposes: delay of ripening, prevention of sprouting, eradication of pests and sterilization, and allowing commodities to be stored unrefrigerated for long periods of time. The dosage depends on the purpose of the irradiation. Radiolytic products are formed during irradiation and during storage afterward. Most of these products are also formed during conventional preservation. In 1980, CFSAN, then the Bureau of Foods, introduced the term unique radiolytic products for compounds not identified in foods after conventional processing. Although the existence of URPs was never proven chemically, the term has caused anxiety. Irradiation of foods in the commercially useful range does not generate radioactivity above natural background. Because radiolytic products formed from beef, chicken, and pork are primarily the same, irradiated foods of similar food groups may be evaluated generically.

  4. Replacement of 137Cs irradiators with x-ray irradiators.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Brian; Vetter, Richard J

    2009-02-01

    Self-shielded 137Cs irradiators have been used for many years to irradiate blood products to prevent graft vs. host disease and to irradiate cells and small animals in research. A report by the National Academy of Sciences recommends that careful consideration be given to replacement of 137Cs irradiators with x-ray irradiators. Several manufacturers and users of x-ray irradiators were contacted to determine costs of replacing and maintaining 137Cs irradiators with x-ray units and to assess users' experience with x-ray irradiators. Purchase costs of x-ray units are similar to 137Cs irradiators, but maintenance costs are significantly higher if annual service contracts are used. Performance of the two irradiator types appears to be equivalent, but in some cases x-ray irradiations may need to be performed in multiple configurations to achieve adequate uniformity in dose. No literature reports were found that evaluated the biological effectiveness of x rays vs. 137Cs gamma rays; therefore, a careful study should be conducted to determine the biological effectiveness of x rays vs. 137Cs gamma rays for biological responses relevant to transfusion medicine and immunological research. Throughput may be problematic for large transfusion medicine programs, and back-up plans may be necessary in case the x-ray unit needs to be taken out of service for extended maintenance. Disposition of a 137Cs irradiator will add to the cost of replacement with an x-ray unit, but disposal may be possible through the U.S. Department of Energy's Off-Site Source Recovery Program.

  5. Decisive role of immunocytochemistry in aspiration cytology of chordoma of the clivus: a case report with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gherardi, G; Marveggio, C; Cola, C; Redaelli, G

    1994-05-01

    Immunocytochemistry (ICC) proved to be an essential adjunct in the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytological diagnosis of chordoma of the clivus in a 62-year-old woman. The cytological picture in routinely stained smears was not entirely diagnostic for chordoma due to the paucity of typical 'physalipherous' cells. To exclude other primary or metastatic neoplasms of the skull base possibly sharing the same cytological picture, additional direct smears were immunostained with antibodies specific for cytokeratin (CK), vimentin (VIM), S100 protein (S100P), carcinoembrionic antigen (CEA), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), CD68 antigen (KP1) and with the 'panepithelial' antibodies B72.3 and Ber-EP4. Chordoma cells showed the following immunoprofile: CK+/VIM+/S100P+/CEA-/EMA+/GFAP-/B72.3-/Ber-EP4-/CD68+. The pattern of immunoreactivity for CK, S100P and CEA confirms previously reported data, while the B72.3-/Ber-EP4-/CD68+ staining profile represents a novel observation. The detection of a CK+/S100+/CEA-/B72.3-/Ber-EP4- immunocytological profile of chordoma cells in aspirates is a basic requirement to exclude pertinent diagnostic differentials, such as metastatic carcinoma, ependymoma and sarcoma, and permits a reliable pre-operative diagnosis of the tumour by aspiration cytology.

  6. Bilateral renal T-cell lymphoma with hepatic infiltration and secondary polycythemia in a dog: Utility of cytology slides.

    PubMed

    Froment, Rémi; Gara-Boivin, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    This is a case of bilateral renal T-cell lymphoma associated with secondary erythrocytosis in a dog. This case is distinctive in using clonality combined with immunocytochemistry to support the diagnosis, thus emphasizing the utility of cytology slides when histology is unavailable. This combination may be a unique canine lymphoma entity.

  7. Increased number of cancer cells in bronchial washing fluid detected by combining conventional cytology and high-resolution flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Cicconetti, F; Teodori, L; Persiani, M; Di Tondo, U; Alò, P; Marci, A; Brun, S; Göhde, W

    1997-01-01

    The present study was performed to improve early lung cancer diagnosis in bronchial washing fluid, thereby increasing the diagnostic sensitivity of bronchoscopy by means of high-resolution flow cytometry (FC). We combined dual-parameter DNA/protein FC and conventional cytology in bronchial washing fluid samples from 112 patients with neoplastic and non-neoplastic lung diseases and found 43% of histologically confirmed tumor cases to be cytologically positive; 63% of the tumor samples were aneuploid, 52% of the aneuploid cases were cytologically positive and 48% were negative. In the negative cases, FC was an independent diagnostic factor. In 32% of the cases, FC also failed to detect abnormalities. However, the combination of both techniques increased the sensitivity in detecting neoplastic cells to 73%. Furthermore, simultaneous DNA/protein analysis allowed the recognition of aneuploid cell lines not detectable by single DNA measurement. Identification of aneuploid subpopulations by dual-parameter analysis in cytologically negative one-parameter FC "diploid" samples assumes an important diagnostic value. Dual-parameter DNA/protein FC is a valuable technique that increases the diagnostic yield of bronchoscopy with no risk for the patient and a low additional cost.

  8. Parapharyngeal chordoma: a diagnostic challenge and potential mimic of pleomorphic adenoma on fine-needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Castro, Michael; Aslan, Deniz; Manivel, J Carlos; Pambuccian, Stefan E

    2013-01-01

    Chordomas are rare tumors that are usually located in the sacrococcygeal and sphenooccipital region. Their cytologic diagnosis is rather straightforward when sampled by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) from these characteristic locations, especially when physalipherous cells are present. However, chordomas may pose difficult diagnostic challenges when encountered in unusual locations, such as the parapharyngeal region. We report the cytologic findings of a recurrent chordoma sampled through transoral FNA from the parapharyngeal space of a 66-year-old woman. As the prior history of chordoma was not available during the rapid onsite evaluation, the presence of bland epithelioid nonvacuolated cells and spindle cells intimately admixed with a fibrillary, intensely metachromatic material led to an initial diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma. Review of the patient's prior pathology specimen and of the Papanicolaou-stained smears and cellblock sections showing rare multivacuolated (physalipherous) cells led to the correct diagnosis, which was supported by immunoperoxidase stains (cytokeratin AE1/AE3+, S100+, GFAP-). A review of the literature found no previous instances in which chordomas mimicked pleomorphic adenoma on FNA. However, since the two tumors show significant cytomorphologic overlap, including the presence of abundant fibrillary matrix with embedded neoplastic cells and single bland spindle and epithelioid tumor cells with occasional intranuclear pseudoinclusions, we compared their cytologic features. A review of the FNA cytologic features of this case of chordoma and of 17 consecutive cases of pleomorphic adenoma found that the presence of a more abundant, focally vacuolated cytoplasm favors chordoma over pleomorphic adenoma.

  9. Potential applications of oral brush cytology with liquid-based technology: results from a cohort of normal oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kujan, Omar; Desai, Mina; Sargent, Alexandra; Bailey, Andrew; Turner, Andrew; Sloan, Philip

    2006-09-01

    Fifty healthy volunteers were studied to assess the potential applications of oral brush sampling using liquid-based cytology. Three specimens from the buccal mucosa and lateral border of tongue were collected from each subject by using cervical brushes and brooms. The brush was immersed in a preservative fluid. The sample in the preservative fluid was processed according to the manufacturer's directions (SurePath, UK). Slides were stained by the Papanicolaou method and assessed for squamous cell adequacy by the same criteria used for cervical cytology screening. Immunocytochemical staining for FHIT (Fragile Histidine Triad) was applied in liquid-based preparations following the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. Human papillomavirus (HPV) detection was performed using the Hybrid Capture 2 assay (Digene) and the PCR-based Roche AMPLICOR HPV Test. LBC preparation slides showed good sample preservation, specimen adequacy and visualization of cell morphology. Interestingly, nine cases showed borderline cytological abnormalities from apparently normal oral mucosa. All cases showed good quality positive FHIT immunoreactivity staining. All studied cases were high-risk HPV negative using HC2 assay method. However, the AMPLICOR Roche Test detected four samples with positive results for high-risk HPVs. Liquid-based cytology has potential as a screening tool for oral cancer and precancer. The method may also have applications for research and practice in the field of oral cancer and precancer. However a special custom-designed oral cytobrush is required.

  10. The utility of toluidine blue staining and brush cytology as adjuncts in clinical examination of suspicious oral mucosal lesions.

    PubMed

    Güneri, P; Epstein, J B; Kaya, A; Veral, A; Kazandı, A; Boyacioglu, H

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the utility of toluidine blue and brush cytology in patients with clinically detected oral mucosal lesions. Clinical examination of 35 patients was completed before toluidine blue application, oral brush cytology and scalpel biopsy. Lesions were photographed before and after stain application; followed by brush cytology. All findings were compared with histopathologic results. Severe dysplasia and carcinoma-in-situ were determined as 'positive'; no dysplasia and mild to moderate dysplasia were defined as 'negative'. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of clinical examination and toluidine blue were the same: 0.923, 0.433, 0.414, and 0.929, respectively. Those of brush cytology were 0.923, 0.517, 0.462, and 0.938. The concordance of all methods was 30% for benign and 61% for malignant lesions. Adjuncts identified 92% of carcinoma-in-situ and squamous cell carcinoma as confirmed by histopathology, in contrast to clinical findings alone in which 62% of these lesions were identified (p=0.046). In conclusion, adjunct diagnostic methods decreased the level of uncertainty for the diagnosis of oral malignancies and lichenoid dysplasias when applied as adjuncts to clinical examination.

  11. [Non-invasive assessment used to evaluate the nasal and oral mucosal cytological status in sociohygienic monitoring].

    PubMed

    Beliaeva, N N; Ponomareva, O Iu; Aleksandrova, V P; Olesinov, A A; Budarina, O V; Gasimova, Z M

    2009-01-01

    By analyzing their own studies and the results of other studies by other investigators, the authors provide evidence that the noninvasive evaluation of the nasal and oral cytological status is one of techniques for assessing the health status and reflects the organism's state varying with environmental pollution, which enables it to be recommended for sociohygienic monitoring.

  12. Molecular analysis and conventional cytology: association between HPV and bacterial vaginosis in the cervical abnormalities of a Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Peres, A L; Camarotti, J R S L; Cartaxo, M; Alencar, N; Stocco, R C; Beçak, W; Pontes-Filho, N T; Araújo, R F F; Lima-Filho, J L; Martins, D B G

    2015-08-14

    We investigated the association between bacterial vaginosis (BV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Papanicolaou smears in a Brazilian population. Cross-sectional analysis was performed on 673 samples collected from women attending public health centers in Olinda (PE, Brazil) by conventional cytology methodology and molecular analysis, PCR tests (GP5+/6+ and MY09/11). Cytological abnormalities, BV, and HPV-DNA were detected in 23 (3.4%) samples, 189 samples (28.1%), and 210 samples (31.2%), respectively. GP5+/6+ primers resulted in higher detection performance than MY09/11 primers, with 81% concordance between both primers (P < 0.0001). The occurrence of HPV-DNA and BV had ORs of 8.59 (P < 0.0001) and 2.91 (P = 0.0089) for abnormal cytology, respectively, whereas the concomitant presence of both infections showed an OR equal to 3.82 (P = 0.0054). Therefore, we observed an association between abnormal cervical cytology and HPV infection, BV, or both HPV infection and BV. These results highlight the necessity of monitoring patients presenting not only HPV, but also BV, as risk factors for cervical lesion development.

  13. Rapid-air-dry papanicolaou stain in canine and feline tumor cytology: a quantitative comparison with the Giemsa stain.

    PubMed

    Sawa, Mariko; Yabuki, Akira; Miyoshi, Noriaki; Arai, Kou; Yamato, Osamu

    2012-09-01

    The Papanicolaou stain is a gold-standard staining method for tumor diagnosis in human cytology. However, it has not been used routinely in veterinary cytology, because of its complicated multistep procedure and requirement for wet fixation. Currently, a rapid Papanicolaou stain using air-dried smears is utilized in human cytology, but usefulness of this rapid-air-dry Papanicolaou (RAD-Pap) stain in the veterinary field has not been fully evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the RAD-Pap stain by using quantitative analysis. Air-dried impression smears were collected from tumor specimens and stained with RAD-Pap and Giemsa. Twelve parameters representing the criteria of malignancy were quantitated, and characteristics of the RAD-Pap were evaluated statistically. The RAD-Pap stain could be applied to all the smears, and images of nucleoli and chromatin patterns were clear and detailed. In quantitative analysis with the RAD-Pap stain, but not with the Giemsa stain, dispersion of nucleolus size and dispersion of nucleolus/nucleus ratio in malignant tumors were significantly higher than those in benign tumors. These findings demonstrated that the RAD-Pap stain was useful for obtaining detailed nuclear information, and the ability to differentiate benignity and malignancy by nucleolus findings was a principal advantage of this stain. This RAD-Pap stain could be routinely used as a supportive staining method in veterinary diagnostic cytology.

  14. Effects of hydroxy trace minerals on oxidative metabolism, cytological endometritis, and performance of transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Yasui, T; Ryan, C M; Gilbert, R O; Perryman, K R; Overton, T R

    2014-01-01

    Multiparous Holstein cows (n=60) were used to determine effects of supplementing hydroxy forms of Zn, Cu, and Mn compared with 2 other common supplementation strategies on oxidative metabolism, cytological endometritis, and performance of transition cows. After a 1-wk pretreatment period, cows were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 dietary treatments from 21 d before expected calving through 84 d postcalving. Dietary treatments administered by daily top-dressing included (1) inorganic sulfate forms of Zn, Cu, and Mn (ITM); (2) a blend (75:25) of sulfates and organic complexes of Zn, Cu, and Mn (ITM/OTM); and (3) hydroxy trace minerals (HTM) of Zn, Cu, and Mn. The resulting dietary concentrations of supplemental Zn, Cu, and Mn were similar among treatments and averaged 40, 10, and 27 mg/kg, respectively, before calving and 59, 15, and 40 mg/kg, respectively, after calving. Total concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Mn averaged 80, 16, and 62 mg/kg during the prepartum period and 102, 23, and 75 mg/kg, respectively, during the postpartum period. Overall, effects of treatment on milk yield and milk composition were not significant. Cows fed HTM during the prepartum period had higher body weight (BW) than those fed ITM during the prepartum period and had higher BW during the postpartum period than those fed the other treatments; however, BW change, body condition score, and body condition score change were not affected by treatment. Plasma total antioxidant capacity was lower in cows fed HTM than ITM but was not different from cows fed ITM/OTM. Cows fed HTM tended to have lower concentrations of plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances than those fed ITM during the whole study period, but plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were not different between HTM and ITM/OTM. Plasma haptoglobin was lower in cows fed HTM than ITM/OTM at 1 wk postpartum. Endometrial cytology 7d postcalving and cytological endometritis as assessed on 1d between 40 and 60 d postcalving was not

  15. Cytology use for cervical cancer screening in Portugal: results from the 2005/2006 National Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Mariana; Peleteiro, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    Background: Understanding the patterns of cervical cytology use in preventive care may provide useful information for an efficient transition from opportunistic screening to organized programmes. We aimed to identify the determinants of non-use and underuse of cervical cytology in Portuguese women. Methods: As part of the fourth National Health Survey (2005/2006), 2191 women aged between 25 and 64 years were evaluated. The previous use of cervical cytology was classified as never or ever, and, among the latter, those having performed the latest cytology testing >5 years before were considered to underuse cervical cytology. We assessed the determinants of non-use and underuse through age- and education-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results: Overall, 23.5% of women had never used cervical cytology and 10.7% reported underuse. This prevalence increased with age and decreased with education and income. Compared with the national mean, the lowest risk of non-use and underuse was observed in Norte (non-use: OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.23–0.42; underuse: OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.40–0.91) and the highest in Alentejo (non-use: OR = 2.33, 95% CI: 1.78–3.06; underuse: OR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.43–3.93). Women without a private health insurance (OR = 2.65, 95% CI: 1.29–5.47), who had no doctor appointments in the preceding 3 months (OR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.22–3.48) and those who had never performed a mammography (OR = 17.78, 95% CI: 9.09–34.78) were more likely to have never performed a cervical cytology. Conclusion: This study shows inequalities in the use of cervical cancer screening in Portugal and provides useful information for a better allocation of resources for cancer screening. PMID:23788013

  16. Craniospinal irradiation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Scarlatescu, Ioana Avram, Calin N.; Virag, Vasile

    2015-12-07

    In this paper we present one treatment plan for irradiation cases which involve a complex technique with multiple beams, using the 3D conformational technique. As the main purpose of radiotherapy is to administrate a precise dose into the tumor volume and protect as much as possible all the healthy tissues around it, for a case diagnosed with a primitive neuro ectoderm tumor, we have developed a new treatment plan, by controlling one of the two adjacent fields used at spinal field, in a way that avoids the fields superposition. Therefore, the risk of overdose is reduced by eliminating the field divergence.

  17. Liquid-Based Urine Cytology as a Tool for Detection of Human Papillomavirus, Mycoplasma spp., and Ureaplasma spp. in Men

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Shohei; Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Shimamura, Masayoshi; Nakashima, Takao; Sugimoto, Kazuhiro; Nakashima, Kazufumi; Furubayashi, Keiichi; Namiki, Mikio

    2012-01-01

    Liquid-based urine cytology (LB-URC) was evaluated for cytological diagnosis and detection of human papillomavirus (HPV), Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma. Midstream urine samples were collected from 141 male patients with urethritis and 154 controls without urethritis, and sediment cells were preserved in liquid-based cytology solution. Urethral swabs from urethritis patients were tested for the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Papanicolaou tests were performed for cytological evaluation. HPV, Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma genomes were determined by PCR-based methods, and localization of HPV DNA in urothelial cells was examined by in situ hybridization (ISH). The β-globin gene was positive in 97.9% of LB-URC samples from urethritis patients and in 97.4% of control samples, suggesting that high-quality cellular DNA was obtained from the LB-URC samples. HPV DNA was detected in 29 (21.0%) urethritis cases and in five (3.3%) controls (P < 0.05). HPV type 16 (HPV 16) was most commonly found in urethritis patients. Cytological evaluations could be performed for 92.1% of urethritis patients and 64.3% of controls. Morphological changes suggestive of HPV infection were seen in 20.7% of the HPV-positive samples, and ISH demonstrated the presence of HPV DNA in both squamous and urothelial cells in HPV-positive samples. Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum were detected in 14.5%, 10.9%, 6.5%, and 12.3% of urethritis patients, respectively. The prevalence rates of these microorganisms (except Ureaplasma parvum) were significantly higher in urethritis cases than controls (P < 0.05). LB-URC is applicable for detection of HPV, Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma. HPV infection occurs in urothelial cells, especially in gonococcal urethritis. PMID:22135257

  18. Liquid-based urine cytology as a tool for detection of human papillomavirus, Mycoplasma spp., and Ureaplasma spp. in men.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Shohei; Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Shimamura, Masayoshi; Nakashima, Takao; Sugimoto, Kazuhiro; Nakashima, Kazufumi; Furubayashi, Keiichi; Namiki, Mikio

    2012-02-01

    Liquid-based urine cytology (LB-URC) was evaluated for cytological diagnosis and detection of human papillomavirus (HPV), Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma. Midstream urine samples were collected from 141 male patients with urethritis and 154 controls without urethritis, and sediment cells were preserved in liquid-based cytology solution. Urethral swabs from urethritis patients were tested for the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Papanicolaou tests were performed for cytological evaluation. HPV, Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma genomes were determined by PCR-based methods, and localization of HPV DNA in urothelial cells was examined by in situ hybridization (ISH). The β-globin gene was positive in 97.9% of LB-URC samples from urethritis patients and in 97.4% of control samples, suggesting that high-quality cellular DNA was obtained from the LB-URC samples. HPV DNA was detected in 29 (21.0%) urethritis cases and in five (3.3%) controls (P < 0.05). HPV type 16 (HPV 16) was most commonly found in urethritis patients. Cytological evaluations could be performed for 92.1% of urethritis patients and 64.3% of controls. Morphological changes suggestive of HPV infection were seen in 20.7% of the HPV-positive samples, and ISH demonstrated the presence of HPV DNA in both squamous and urothelial cells in HPV-positive samples. Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum were detected in 14.5%, 10.9%, 6.5%, and 12.3% of urethritis patients, respectively. The prevalence rates of these microorganisms (except Ureaplasma parvum) were significantly higher in urethritis cases than controls (P < 0.05). LB-URC is applicable for detection of HPV, Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma. HPV infection occurs in urothelial cells, especially in gonococcal urethritis.

  19. The Role of Liquid Based Cytology and Ancillary Techniques in the Peritoneal Washing Analysis: Our Institutional Experience

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Esther; Bizzarro, Tommaso; Martini, Maurizio; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Schmitt, Fernando; Fagotti, Anna; Scambia, Giovanni; Zannoni, Gian Franco

    2017-01-01

    Background The cytological analysis of peritoneal effusions serves as a diagnostic and prognostic aid for either primary or metastatic diseases. Among the different cytological preparations, liquid based cytology (LBC) represents a feasible and reliable method ensuring also the application of ancillary techniques (i.e immunocytochemistry-ICC and molecular testing). Methods We recorded 10348 LBC peritoneal effusions between January 2000 and December 2014. They were classified as non-diagnostic (ND), negative for malignancy-NM, atypical-suspicious for malignancy-SM and positive for malignancy-PM. Results The cytological diagnosis included 218 ND, 9.035 NM, 213 SM and 882 PM. A total of 8048 (7228 NM, 115SM, 705 PM) cases with histological follow-up were included. Our NM included 21 malignant and 7207 benign histological diagnoses. Our 820 SMs+PMs were diagnosed as 107 unknown malignancies (30SM and 77PM), 691 metastatic lesions (81SM and 610PM), 9 lymphomas (2SM and 7PM), 9 mesotheliomas (1SM and 8SM), 4 sarcomas (1SM and 3PM). Primary gynecological cancers contributed with 64% of the cases. We documented 97.4% sensitivity, 99.9% specificity, 98% diagnostic accuracy, 99.7% negative predictive value (NPV) and 99.7% positive predictive value (PPV). Furthermore, the morphological diagnoses were supported by either 173 conclusive ICC results or 50 molecular analyses. Specifically the molecular testing was performed for the EGFR and KRAS mutational analysis based on the previous or contemporary diagnoses of Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and colon carcinomas. We identified 10 EGFR in NSCCL and 7 KRAS mutations on LBC stored material. Conclusions Peritoneal cytology is an adjunctive tool in the surgical management of tumors mostly gynecological cancers. LBC maximizes the application of ancillary techniques such as ICC and molecular analysis with feasible diagnostic and predictive yields also in controversial cases. PMID:28099523

  20. Irradiation of northwest agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, D. E.; Tingey, G. I.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect ocntrol procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, this program was conducted to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

  1. Food irradiation and the consumer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A Thomas, P.

    The poster presents a review of research work undertaken on the perception and understanding that consumers have of food irradiation. Food irradiation is not a revolutionary new food processing technique, in fact it is probably one of the most investigated methods presently available. Many countries such as Belgium, France, Denmark, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands and the United States of America permit food irradiation. In Britain it is presently banned although this is currently under review. Awareness of food irradiation by the general public in Britain, although not extensively researched would appear to be increasing, especially in the light of recent media coverage. New quantitative and qualitative work indicates that the general public are concerned about the safety and effectiveness of food irradiation. Research has shown that a large proportion of consumers in Britain, if given the opportunity to purchase irradiated food, would not do so. Further exploration into this response revealed the fact that consumers are confused over what food irradiation is. In addition, there is concern over the detection of irradiated food. The views presented in this paper, of the consumer reaction to irradiated food are of great importance to those involved in the food industry and industries allied to it, which are ultimately dependent on the consumer for their commercial survival.

  2. Cytological evidence for chromosome elimination in wheat x Imperata cylindrica hybrids.

    PubMed

    Komeda, Norio; Chaudhary, Harinder K; Suzuki, Go; Mukai, Yasuhiko

    2007-06-01

    Haploid induction of wheat by crossing with Imperata cylindrica pollen is an efficient method for doubled haploid breeding. We investigated the process of wheat haploid formation after crossing with I. cylindrica. Our cytological observations of zygotes showed the successful fertilization of parental gametes. Wheat haploids were formed by complete elimination of I. cylindrica chromosomes. Missegregation of I. cylindrica chromosomes was observed in the first cell division of zygote. At metaphase I. cylindrica chromosomes did not congress onto the equatorial plate. The sister chromosomes did not move toward the poles during anaphase, though their cohesion was released normally. I. cylindrica chromosomes were still in the cytoplasm at telophase and eliminated from daughter nuclei. After two-celled stage, we could find no I. cylindrica chromosome in the nuclei but micronuclei containing I. cylindrica chromatin in the cytoplasm. These observations indicate that I. cylindrica chromosomes are completely eliminated from nuclei in the first cell division probably due to lack of functional kinetochores.

  3. Integrated cervical smear screening using liquid based cytology and bioimpedance analysis

    PubMed Central

    Das, Lopamudra; Sarkar, Tandra; Maiti, Ashok K.; Naskar, Sukla; Das, Soumen; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To minimize the false negativity in cervical cancer screening with Papanicolaou (Pap) test, there is a need to explore novel cytological technique and identification of unique and important cellular features from the perspectives of morphological as well as biophysical properties. Materials and Methods: The present study explores the feasibility of low-cost cervical monolayer techniques in extracting cyto-pathological features to classify normal and abnormal conditions. The cervical cells were also analyzed in respect to their electrical bioimpedance. Result: The results show that newly developed monolayer technique for cervical smears is cost effective, capable of cyto-pathological evaluation. Electrical bioimpedance study evidenced distinction between abnormal and normal cell population at more than two order of magnitude difference. Conclusion: The integration of bioimpedance observation along with the proposed low-cost monolayer technology could increase the efficiency of the cervical screening to a greater extent thereby reducing the rates of faulty diagnosis. PMID:25745281

  4. CT-guided fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Rangaswamy, M; Kumar, Sandeep P; Asha, M; Manjunath, Gv

    2010-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor, accounting for <0.1% of the hypertensive population. Extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas (EAPs) are rarer still, accounting for 10% of all pheochromocytomas. Pheochromocytomas are functional catecholamine-secreting tumors of the paraganglionic chromaffin cells found in the adrenal medulla and the extra-adrenal paraganglia cells. EAPs are readily detected by computed tomography (CT) as soft tissue masses closely associated with the entire length of the abdominal aorta. Here, we present a rare case of EAP in a 45-year-old male hypertensive patient diagnosed by CT-guided fine needle aspiration cytology. The smears showed loosely cohesive tumor cells with prominent anisokaryosis and abundant eosinophilic, granular cytoplasm. The diagnosis was later confirmed by histopathology. The present case also highlights the fact that fine needle aspiration of pheochromocytoma is not necessarily contraindicated.

  5. Helicobacter pylori in gastroduodenal diseases: rapid identification by endoscopic brush cytology.

    PubMed

    De Francesco, F; Nicòtina, P A; Picciotto, M; Martines, F; Ferlazzo, G; d'Aquino, A

    1993-08-01

    Previous reports showed Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in type B gastritis-affected stomachs. This study was carried out to compare H. pylori staining effectiveness on biopsy to brush cytology. Tissue and brush parallel samples of gastric mucosa with abnormal or normal appearances were examined: 57.6% H. pylori-positive pieces from the antrum and 19.2% from the body were found, versus 65.3% and 25% H. pylori-positive brush smears, respectively. H. pylori resembling organisms were mainly related to chronic and acute antral inflammations and were often associated with higher amounts of round-shaped cocco-bacteria. In addition, H. pylori direct stain on brushing is proposed as the most rapid and reliable method for the routine diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection, in both ulcer or nonulcer gastritis.

  6. Cytology of pollutant metals in marine invertebrates: A review of microanalytical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nott, J.A. )

    1991-03-01

    x-ray microanalysis (XRMA) is customized for investigations of the metabolic and detoxification strategies of heavy metals taken by marine organisms from polluted environments. Sites of uptake, intracellular accumulation, transport and excretion are visualized, analysed and quantified. Cryopreparation techniques are required to prevent the translocation or loss from specimens of soluble metal species. In marine invertebrates, metals are detoxified by systems of chemical binding and intracellular compartmentalization. XRMA investigations have concentrated on marine molluscs and crustaceans and even within these restricted groups there are marked inter-species differences in the biochemical and cytological processes which reduce metal bioavailability. Some detoxification systems also protect the carnivores which ingest the metal-laden tissues of the prey. This results in the bioreduction of metals along a food chain. These processes are investigated by XRMA which can be tuned to observe the complex interactions which operate at all levels within and between the biota and polluted environments. 90 refs.

  7. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of isolated skull nodule: Unfolding the clinical spectrum.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prajwala; Bhardwaj, Minakshi

    2016-01-01

    Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) has been classified as either minimally invasive or widely invasive carcinoma and shows a propensity for blood-borne metastasis. Most common sites of metastasis are lung and bone followed by brain, liver, and skin. Minimally invasive FTC (MIFTC) is characterized by limited capsular and/or vascular invasion with good long-term outcomes, some cases of which show a poor prognosis because of severe distant metastasis. Skull metastasis in adults commonly arises from the lung, breast, and prostate and uncommonly from the thyroid. In our case, fine-needle aspiration cytology of isolated skull nodule was a reliable tool in the diagnosis of metastasis and suggesting the primary in thyroid thereby prompting early workup of a patient. The case is unique since it represents the rare disseminated metastasis from MIFTC with incomplete capsular penetration alone without angioinvasion that can behave as aggressively as a widely invasive FTC.

  8. Early Lung Cancer Detection in Uranium Miners with Abnormal Sputum Cytology

    SciTech Connect

    Saccomanno, G.

    2000-06-30

    ''Early Lung Cancer Detection in Uranium Miners with Abnormal Sputum Cytology'' was funded by the Department of Energy to monitor the health effects of radon exposure and/or cigarette smoke on uranium workers from the Colorado Plateau. The resulting Saccomanno Uranium Workers Archive and data base has been used as a source of information to prove eligibility for compensation under the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act and as the source of primary data tissue for a subcontract and other collaborations with outside investigators. The latter includes a study of radon exposure and lung cancer risk in a non-smoking cohort of uranium miners (subcontract); a study of genetic markers for lung cancer susceptibility; and a study of {sup 210}Pb accumulation in the skull as a biomarker of radon exposure.

  9. An improved cytological silver staining method for the demonstration of neuronal nuclear bodies.

    PubMed

    Lafarga, M; Gonzalez, C; Berciano, M T

    1986-12-01

    A simple cytological method for the selective impregnation of neuronal "nuclear bodies" is described. This procedure involves glutaraldehyde fixation, pretreatment with methanol-acetic acid, impregnation in a 1.5% colloidal solution of silver nitrate containing gelatin, and pyrogallic reduction of whole tissue blocks. After block staining the material was either dehydrated and embedded in araldite for light and electron microscopy studies, or processed for the elaboration of neuronal smear preparations, which were used for the quantitative analysis of nuclear bodies. By light microscopy, nuclear bodies appear as conspicuous, intensely impregnated inclusions, 0.3-0.9 micron in diameter. Both the nucleoli and cytoplasmic Nissl bodies can be counterstained with Toluidine blue. Overimpregnation produces an additional staining of the nucleolar fibrillar component.

  10. Paratesticular congenital malignant rhabdoid tumor diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology. a case report.

    PubMed

    Salamanca, Javier; Rodríguez-Peralto, José Luis; Azorín, Daniel; Ballestín, Claudio; De Agustín, Pedro

    2004-01-01

    We report the FNA features of a congenital malignant extrarenal rhabdoid tumor (MERT) located in the right paratesticular area of a newborn full-term boy (39 wk gestation), with disseminated metastases in the liver and right parietal region. The diagnosis was suggested two days after birth by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the parietal mass, which demonstrated an atypical large cell proliferation with vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and abundant cytoplasm exhibiting paranuclear dense inclusions. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic and immunohistochemical examination of the primary paratesticular tumor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the third MERT reported in the paratesticular region, one of the few congenital extrarenal non-central nervous system cases, and the third congenital case (renal or extrarenal) primarily diagnosed by FNAB. We emphasize the characteristic cytologic features of a congenital rhabdoid tumor, which must be known by pathologists because of the clinical and prognostic implications. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2004;30:46-50.

  11. [Cytologic features of bronchoalveolar lavage in evaluation of course of exogenous allergic alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Lepekha, L N; Aleksandrova, E A; Evgushchenko, G V; Makar'iants, N N; Lovacheva, O V

    2012-01-01

    Application of complex of modern cytologic methods of research bronchoalveolar lavage allowed to allocate most characteristics of development of lymphocytic and macrophagic reaction of bronchial tree in different course of exogenous allergic alveolitis. The most indicative in assessment of origin of exogenous allergic alveolitis development is the characteristics of macrophagic population. In acute course of exogenous allergic alveolitis the considerable number of young activated and non-activated macrophages, increased number of mature phagocytes is observed. Even more significant increase of phagocytic macrophages is observed at dissemination which is primarily is connected with participation of these cells in lymphocytic apoptosis which takes place in high percentage of lymphocytes (up to 49%). Increased number of mature phagocytes is observed at chronic course of exogenous allergic alveolitis that is an important diagnostic pattern of this option of development of exogenous allergic alveolitis in association with the lowest T-helpers/T-supressors index.

  12. Kimura's disease: A diagnostic challenge experienced with cytology of postauricular swelling with histopathological relevance

    PubMed Central

    Sherpa, Mingma; Lamichaney, Rachna; Roy, Asitava Deb

    2016-01-01

    Kimura's disease is a rare, chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown cause. It is endemic in Asia, affecting more number of males than females, with a ratio of 3:1. The typical clinical manifestations include a triad of painless unilateral cervical lymphadenopathy or subcutaneous masses predominantly in the head and neck region, blood and tissue eosinophilia, and an elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. Variable conditions both benign and malignant may mimic Kimura's disease both clinically and on fine needle aspirates. The confirmatory diagnosis is established only by histopathological examination. We report a case of Kimura's disease in a patient who underwent multiple investigations in view of her past history and family history of pulmonary Koch's. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was performed thrice with consistently similar result of reactive lymphadenitis with numerous histiocytes and eosinophilia. The final diagnosis of Kimura's disease could finally be established only on histopathological examination. PMID:28028342

  13. Atypical cells in a voided urine cytology specimen in a renal transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Lu, Miao; Ho, Julie; Azordegan, Nazila; Perry, Anamarija M; Gibson, Ian W; Baker, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Voided urine is routinely collected from renal transplant patients to screen for polyomavirus. In rare cases, atypical lymphoid cells can be detected in voided urine and raise the suspicion of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). However, further immunohistochemistry of the cell block and flow cytometry is frequently limited by the low cellularity and poor preservation of voided urine. Therefore, PTLD of the renal allograft is usually diagnosed from tissue biopsy or nephrectomy specimens. Herein, we report a rare case of atypical cells in a voided urine cytology specimen from a kidney transplant recipient. Needle core biopsy of the renal allograft showed monomorphic PTLD. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:69-72. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Do Cecidomyiidae galls of Aspidosperma spruceanum (Apocynaceae) fit the pre-established cytological and histochemical patterns?

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Denis Coelho; Magalhães, Thiago Alves; Carneiro, Renê Gonçalves Silva; Alvim, Marina Neiva; Isaias, Rosy Mary Santos

    2010-06-01

    Cecidomyiidae galls commonly present a zonation of tissues with lignified cell layers externally limiting a reserve tissue and internally limiting a specialized nutritive tissue next to the larval chamber. The cytological aspects of this specialized tissue indicate high metabolic activity as well as carbohydrate accumulation. In Aspidosperma spruceanum-Cecidomyiidae gall system, ultrastructural and histochemical investigations corroborated this pattern and also revealed the storage of proteins in the nutritive cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), callose, and pectin accumulation were related to the feeding activity of the galling herbivore. Phosphorylase, glucose-6-phosphatase, acid phosphatases, invertases, and sucrose synthase activities were detected for the first time, in the Neotropical region, and discussed in relation to gall maintenance and the feeding activity of the Cecidomyiidae.

  15. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of ovarian steroid cell tumor: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Nidhi; Vardhan, Harsh; Khokhar, Singh; Rai, Naresh; Saxena, Rajeev; Riyaz, Shahida

    2015-01-01

    Steroid cell tumors (SCTs) of the ovary are a rare subgroup of sex cord tumors that account for less than 0.1% of all ovarian tumors. These tumors can produce steroids, especially testosterone, which produces symptoms such as hirsutism, amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea, and male patterned voice. For evaluation of the androgen excess, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) are the first laboratory tests to be measured. Abdominal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful radiologic imaging techniques. Although SCTs are generally benign, the risk of malignant transformation is always present. Surgical excision of tumor is the most important and hallmark treatment. The present case signifies the early preoperative diagnosis of a virilizing SCT, based on cytological features and its careful correlation with clinicopathological and radiological findings. PMID:26811582

  16. Intraoperative consultation on pediatric central nervous system tumors by squash cytology.

    PubMed

    Lacruz, César R; Catalina-Fernández, Inmaculada; Bardales, Ricardo H; Pimentel, José; López-Presa, Dolores; Sáenz-Santamaría, Javier

    2015-06-01

    Squash cytology (SC) is a very useful procedure during neurosurgical intraoperative consultation (IOC), and it is especially recommended for the evaluation of soft tumors or tumors that are highly cellular (just the characteristics of pediatric central nervous system [CNS] tumors). The aim of this review is to familiarize pathologists with the range of cytomorphologic appearances that can occur during IOC for pediatric CNS tumors and with the diagnostic dilemmas and pitfalls encountered in this setting. This article is based on the medical literature and the authors' experience with a large series of cases accrued over a 12-year period at 3 institutions. SC is a specially recommended procedure in IOC for pediatric CNS tumors; it reveals the fine cellular details and background features in a manner not seen in corresponding frozen sections. Indeed, a differential diagnosis between histologically look-alike processes can be achieved with more confidence if SC is employed.

  17. Which urine marker test provides more diagnostic value in conjunction with standard cytology- ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ or Cytokeratin 20 expression

    PubMed Central

    Soyuer, Isin; Sofikerim, Mustafa; Tokat, Fatma; Soyuer, Serdar; Ozturk, Figen

    2009-01-01

    Background Because of the poor sensitivity of urinary cytological findings for the diagnosis of especially low grade urinary bladder carcinoma, new molecular diagnostic methods have been proposed. We decided to verify the ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ (UCyt+™) test and cytology combination and cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and cytology combination in urine as possible diagnostic and monitoring tool for bladder cancer. Methods Evaluation of CK20 expression and UCyt+™ was performed in urine of 90 patients of which 54 with bladder cancer with primary/recurrent diagnosis (low grade urothelial carcinoma (LGUC) = 23/8 patients, high grade urothelial carcinoma (HGUC) = 18/5 patients), and 36 patients as control; except of neoplastic bladder disease patients. For the evaluation of the three tests, CK20 and UCyt+™ tests were combined with urine cytology and compared with each other. Results The overall sensitivity detected for each tumor marker was as follows: for urine cytology was 75.9% and UCyt+™ was 83.3%, for CK20 70.4%, while the specificity was 66.7% for urine cytology and 86.1% for UCyt+™ and 83.3% for CK20. The sensitivity of cytology and UCyt+™ combination was higher (88.9%) than the sensitivity cytology and CK20 combination (77.8%). The simultaneous use of the three markers, sensitivity was reaching 92.5%. Conclusion The UCyt+™ test and CK20 expression are valid tools for the performance of adjunctive analyses with conventional cytologic examination. PMID:19558643

  18. Test Execution Variation in Peritoneal Lavage Cytology Could Be Related to Poor Diagnostic Accuracy and Stage Migration in Patients with Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ki, Young-Jun; Ji, Sun-Hee; Min, Jae Seok; Park, Sunhoo; Yu, Hang-Jong; Bang, Ho-Yoon; Lee, Jong-Inn

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Peritoneal lavage cytology is part of the routine staging workup for patients with advanced gastric cancer. However, no quality assurance study has been conducted to show variations or biases in peritoneal lavage cytology results. The aim of this study was to demonstrate a test execution variation in peritoneal lavage cytology between investigating surgeons. Materials and Methods A prospective cohort study was designed for determination of the positive rate of peritoneal lavage cytology using a liquid-based preparation method in patients with potentially curable advanced gastric cancer (cT2~4/N0~2/M0). One hundred thirty patients were enrolled and underwent laparotomy, peritoneal lavage cytology, and standard gastrectomy, which were performed by 3 investigating surgeons. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test and a logistic regression model. Results The overall positive peritoneal cytology rate was 10.0%. Subgroup positive rates were 5.3% in pT1 cancer, 2.0% in pT2/3 cancer, 11.1% in pT4a cancer, and 71.4% in pT4b cancer. In univariate analysis, positive peritoneal cytology showed significant correlation with pT stage, lymphatic invasion, vascular invasion, ascites, and the investigating surgeon. We found the positive rate to be 2.1% for surgeon A, 10.2% for surgeon B, and 20.6% for surgeon C (P=0.024). Multivariate analysis identified pT stage, ascites, and the investigating surgeon to be significant risk factors for positive peritoneal cytology. Conclusions The peritoneal lavage cytology results were significantly affected by the investigating surgeon, providing strong evidence of test execution variation that could be related to poor diagnostic accuracy and stage migration in patients with advanced gastric cancer. PMID:24511417

  19. Food irradiation and sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  20. Wholesomeness of irradiated food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlermann, Dieter A. E.

    2016-12-01

    Just with the emergence of the idea to treat food by ionizing radiation, the concerns were voiced whether it would be safe to consume such food. Now, we look back on more than hundred years of research into the 'wholesomeness', a terminology developed during those efforts. This review will cover the many questions which had been raised, explaining the most relevant ones in some detail; it will also give place to the concerns and elucidate their scientific relevance and background. There has never been any other method of food processing studied in such depth and in such detail as food irradiation. The conclusion based on science is: Consumption of any food treated at any high dose is safe, as long as the food remains palatable. This conclusion has been adopted by WHO, also by international and national bodies. Finally, this finding has also been adopted by Codex Alimentarius in 2003, the international standard for food. However, this conclusion has not been adopted and included at its full extent in most national regulations. As the literature about wholesomeness of irradiated food is abundant, this review will use only a few, most relevant references, which will guide the reader to further reading.

  1. Testicular cytological profiles of apparently healthy male dromedary camels during rutting and non-rutting periods.

    PubMed

    Melaku, Simenew Keskes; Regassa, Fekadu; Tessema, Tesfaye Sisay; Kassa, Tesfu; Vencato, Juri; Owiny, David Okello; Stelletta, Calogero

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate testicular cytological profiles of apparently healthy dromedary bulls during rutting and non-rutting periods. Pairs of testes from 26 (18 non-rutting and 8 rutting seasons) dromedary bulls 6-12 years old that were slaughtered at Akaki, Addis Ababa abattoir were sampled. A 21 gauge needle attached to 20mL syringe was used to collect Testicular Fine Needle Aspiration (TFNA) samples and five aspiration smears were prepared from each testis. A total of 312 slides (260 Testicular fine Needle Aspiration and 52 imprints) were examined. The mod ified May-Grunwald Giemsa (mMGG) technique and a light microscope were used to assess cellularity, morphology and quantification of the testicular. Sertoli and spermatogenic cells were identified and counted. The spermatic index (SI), Sertoli cell index (SEI) and the relationship between SI and SEI indexes (SSEI) were used to assess the ratio between mature spermatozoa and nursing cells. There were differences (P<0.05) between the rutting and non-rutting seasons among the spermatogenic and Sertoli cells. There were no differences between groups for primary spermatocyte numbers, early spermatid numbers and SSEI. There was no differences (P>0.05) between TFNA and imprint smear slides of the testicular cells except for Sertoli cell count and SEI. Filarial worm larvae were present on the TFNA smear slides of four animals. Imprint and TFNA smear slides had comparable cytological profiles in dromedary bulls and significant differences were observed between rutting and non-rutting periods.

  2. Immunological impression cytology of the conjunctival epithelium in patients with thyroid orbitopathy-related dry eye.

    PubMed

    Hsu, S L; Lee, P Y; Chang, C H; Chen, C H

    2016-08-30

    Thyroid orbitopathy (TO) is an autoimmune disease that is complicated by ocular surface disorders, leading to discomfort. Dry eye is very prevalent in patients with TO. Recent studies on the pathogenesis of dry eye have focused on the inflammatory process, and some supporting evidence has been discovered. Because TO is a disorder of autoimmune origin, we assumed that the association between TO and dry eye is related to inflammation. Inflammation of the ocular surface in TO-related dry eye has not been well studied. In this study, we assessed cellular inflammation of the ocular surface and the cytokine profiles in patients with TO-related dry eye. Conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) was assessed with an immunofluorescent assay. TO-related dry eye was diagnosed by using the Schirmer test, tear break-up time, thyroid function, and clinical signs. CIC was combined with immunological staining of interleukin-1a (IL-1a), IL-1b, and IL- 6. The immunological impression cytology (IC) grade was compared to the clinical activity score of TO. All TO patients with dry eye were positive for IL-1a, IL-1b, and IL-6. However, the normal controls were also positive for IL-1a. A trend was observed between the clinical inflammatory score and immunological IC grade. This study was the first to delineate the immunological IC of TO-related dry eye. Our study aimed to investigate the pathogenesis of dry eye in TO. Our findings suggest that the conjunctival cytokines IL-1a, IL-1b, and IL-6 may play a role. The results of this study will be useful for future studies of additional inflammatory cytokines, and the levels of these cytokines could be used as an outcome to assess the efficacy of treatment, such as anti-cytokine or immunosuppression therapy, in patients with TO-related dry eye or other ocular surface inflammatory disorders.

  3. Prediction of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in cytologically normal women by human papillomavirusesting

    PubMed Central

    Carozzi, F; Ronco, G; Confortini, M; Noferini, D; Maddau, C; Ciatto, S; Segnan, N

    2000-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has been suggested for primary screening of cervical cancer. Prediction of future high-grade cervical lesions is crucial for effectiveness and cost. We performed a case control study in a retrospective cohort of women with at least two cervical smears, all but the last one being negative, from the organized cervical screening programme in Florence, Italy. We searched for high-risk HPV in all previous, archival, smears from cases (new histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade II or worse) and in one previous smear from each control (last smear cytologically normal, matched by age and interval (latency) from last smear). We applied polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the b-globin gene was used as a DNA preservation marker. High-risk HPV was identified in 71/92 (77.17%) previous smears from 79 cases and 17/332 controls (5.12%). The odds ratio (OR) was 63.76 (95% CI 30.57–132.96). Among cases the proportion of HPV-positive smears declined slightly with increasing latency. Among cases, HPV was found in 81.24% (95% CI 69.93–88.96%) of smears with latency < 4 years and in 67.80% (95% CI 47.72–82.93%) of those taken at longer intervals, up to 6 years. These findings suggest that testing for high-risk HPV allows predicting 80% of CINII/III 3 years before the cytological diagnosis and two thirds 6 years before. They also suggest that testing women negative for high-risk HPV at longer interval and strictly following-up women who are HPV positive could be an effective strategy for cervical cancer screening. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11076654

  4. Use of the HPV MLPA assay in cervical cytology for the prediction of high grade lesions.

    PubMed

    Litjens, Rogier J N T M; Theelen, Wendy; van de Pas, Yvonne; Ossel, Jessica; Reijans, Martin; Simons, Guus; Speel, Ernst-Jan M; Slangen, Brigitte F M; Ramaekers, Frans C S; Kruitwagen, Roy F P M; Hopman, Anton H N

    2013-08-01

    Current screening methods for uterine cervical cancer such as Papanicolaou smears and/or high risk human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) detection have a high negative predictive value but a low positive predictive value for the presence of high grade cervical lesions. Therefore, new parameters are needed to reduce the rate of unnecessary referrals for colposcopy. The predictive value of the HPV multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay, which can assess simultaneously HPV16/18 viral load and viral integration, was evaluated. The assay was applied to 170 cervical cytological samples, and the results were correlated with the matching histological follow-up. The GP5+/6+ assay and qPCR were used as a control for HR-HPV typing. The MLPA assay classified a higher percentage of cases as high-risk (high-viral load and/or viral integration) with higher grades of dysplasia. There was a high correlation between the HPV MLPA assay and qPCR for viral load and HPV genotyping, and between the MLPA assay and the GP5+/6+ assay for HPV genotyping. The sensitivity and specificity of the HPV MLPA assay for the detection of high-grade lesions were 44% and 93%, respectively. This study demonstrates that the HPV MLPA assay can reliably detect HPV 16/18, viral load, and viral integration in cytological samples. Also, high-risk classification correlated well with the presence of high-grade dysplasia. However, for the implementation of the MLPA assay into clinical practice, additional HR-HPV types need to be included to increase the sensitivity of the assay, and thereby increase its negative predictive value.

  5. Intra-specific variation in genome size in maize: cytological and phenotypic correlates

    PubMed Central

    Realini, María Florencia; Poggio, Lidia; Cámara-Hernández, Julián; González, Graciela Esther

    2016-01-01

    Genome size variation accompanies the diversification and evolution of many plant species. Relationships between DNA amount and phenotypic and cytological characteristics form the basis of most hypotheses that ascribe a biological role to genome size. The goal of the present research was to investigate the intra-specific variation in the DNA content in maize populations from Northeastern Argentina and further explore the relationship between genome size and the phenotypic traits seed weight and length of the vegetative cycle. Moreover, cytological parameters such as the percentage of heterochromatin as well as the number, position and sequence composition of knobs were analysed and their relationships with 2C DNA values were explored. The populations analysed presented significant differences in 2C DNA amount, from 4.62 to 6.29 pg, representing 36.15 % of the inter-populational variation. Moreover, intra-populational genome size variation was found, varying from 1.08 to 1.63-fold. The variation in the percentage of knob heterochromatin as well as in the number, chromosome position and sequence composition of the knobs was detected among and within the populations. Although a positive relationship between genome size and the percentage of heterochromatin was observed, a significant correlation was not found. This confirms that other non-coding repetitive DNA sequences are contributing to the genome size variation. A positive relationship between DNA amount and the seed weight has been reported in a large number of species, this relationship was not found in the populations studied here. The length of the vegetative cycle showed a positive correlation with the percentage of heterochromatin. This result allowed attributing an adaptive effect to heterochromatin since the length of this cycle would be optimized via selection for an appropriate percentage of heterochromatin. PMID:26644343

  6. [Reproducibility of cytologic diagnosis: study of CRISAP Ile-de-France].

    PubMed

    Barrès, D; Bergeron, C

    2000-02-01

    The cervical Pap smear is the method of choice for early detection of precancerous cervical lesions. However, the sensitivity of the Pap smear is not perfect, nor is the specificity, in particular for minor atypia; quality control is the best method to improve the efficiency of the test. The "Centre de regroupement informatique et statistique des données en anatomie pathologique" (CRISAP) Ile-de-France has initiated an external quality control with a protocol aimed at assessing diagnosis reproducibility among observers. Thirteen pathologists agreed to participate on a voluntary basis fur this protocol, which consisted of the rereading of 650 slides chosen at random. Each participant reread 50 cases and sent 50 cases to be reread anonymously. The diagnosis was given according to the Bethesda classification. The reproducibility was assessed using the percentage of agreement and kappa statistics. The percentage of agreement for the whole group was 65% and the weighted kappa 0.66. When normal and unsatisfactory cases were combined as negative and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL) as positive, the percentage of agreement was 83% and Kappa 0.66. When normal, unsatisfactory and ASCUS were combined as negative and LGSIL and HGSIL as positive, the percentage agreement raised to 90% and kappa to 0.76. This attempt at assessing the reproducibility of cytologic diagnosis using an informal method had led to good participation among participants. A fairly good agreement for overall cytologic diagnosis was found, though some variability remained concerning the diagnosis of unsatisfactory and those labelled as ASCUS. These results should lead the participants to reflect upon and eventually reassess their criteria on these specific cases.

  7. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of parotid: Is preoperative cytological diagnosis possible?

    PubMed

    Oza, Nikita; Sanghvi, Kintan; Shet, Tanuja; Patil, Asawari; Menon, Santosh; Ramadwar, Mukta; Kane, Shubhada

    2016-06-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma is a recently recognized tumor of salivary gland with characteristic t(12;15)(q13;q25) that results in ETV6-NTRK3 fusion product. Distinguishing mammary analogue secretory carcinoma from other salivary gland tumors is important. Present study highlights cytologic findings in three cases of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of parotid which facilitate preoperative diagnosis with the aid of ancillary diagnostic techniques. Fine needle aspiration cytology of parotid was performed on three cases after clinical examination. Immunocytochemistry for mammoglobin and S100 were performed. Parotidectomy was done in all cases. The corresponding hematoxylin and eosin stained slides and blocks of all cases were studied. Molecular analysis was done in one of the cases. Cases 1 and 3 revealed uniform atypical epithelial cells arranged in branching papillary pattern with few cells in microcystic pattern. Case 2 showed atypical cells arranged mainly in loose clusters and few singly dissociated. Individual cells revealed round nuclei, vesicular chromatin, prominent nucleoli and abundant finely vacuolated cytoplasm with metachromasia prominent in May-Grunwald-Giemsa smear (case 3). Characteristic hob-nail cells covering papillae were observed in cases 1 and 3. Immunocytochemistry showed strong positivity for mammoglobin and S100 thereby confirming the diagnosis of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma preoperatively. The diagnosis was in concordance with surgical specimen. Also, characteristic ETV6-NTRK3 translocation was confirmed in case 1. Increased awareness and high index of suspicion is necessary for the upfront diagnosis, more so for the papillary variant of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma. Immunocytochemistry aids in confirming this preoperative diagnosis, based on which treatment can be planned. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:519-525. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Detection in Cytologic Specimens: Similarities and Differences of Available Methodology.

    PubMed

    Bihl, Michel P; Tornillo, Luigi; Kind, André B; Obermann, Ellen; Noppen, Christoph; Chaffard, Rosemarie; Wynne, Patricia; Grilli, Bruno; Foerster, Anja; Terracciano, Luigi M; Hoeller, Sylvia

    2015-11-17

    Accumulating evidence regarding the causative role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in a wide range of malignant and nonmalignant diseases highlights the importance of HPV testing. This study describes and discusses the efficacy and characteristics of 4 well-established and commercially available tests. Here, 181 cytologic specimens from cervical smears were analyzed using the HPV SIGN PQ (Diatech) and the Linear Array (Roche) method. Discrepant results were further studied with the Real Time High-Risk HPV (Abbott) method and the INNO-LiPA (Fujirebio) method. Of 181 cytologic specimens, 61 (34%) showed discrepant results. High-risk HPV was not detected in 9 cases by HPV SIGN PQ, in 16 cases by Linear Array, in 10 cases by Real Time High-Risk HPV, and in 6 cases by INNO-LiPA, respectively. Lack of DNA detection or problems in interpreting the result were seen in 9 cases with HPV SIGN PQ, 8 cases with Linear Array, 3 cases with Real Time High-Risk HPV, and 3 cases with INNO-LiPA, respectively. This study indicates that the choice of HPV detection method has a substantial influence on the HPV risk classification of tested PAP smears and clinical follow-up decisions.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.

  9. Fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis of salivary gland lesions: A study with histologic comparison

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Ritu; Gupta, Ruchika; Kudesia, Madhur; Singh, Sompal

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been employed in pre-operative diagnosis of salivary gland lesions for many years. Various studies in the existing literature have shown a wide range of sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of cytologic diagnosis. This study was aimed at evaluating salivary gland FNAC for sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy at a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: This study included 80 patients who underwent pre-operative FNAC followed by surgical procedure and histologic examination. The histologic diagnosis was considered as the gold standard. FNAC diagnosis was compared with the final histologic impression and concordance assessed. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC for malignant lesions were calculated. Results: Of the 80 cases, majority (67.5%) involved the parotid gland. Eight cases (10%) were non-neoplastic lesions, comprised of sialadenitis, retention cyst and sialadenosis. Of a total of 72 neoplasms, 58 were benign and 14 were malignant salivary gland tumors. A cyto-histologic concordance of benign diagnosis was achieved in 85.7% of cases and for malignant lesions in 92.8% of the malignant tumors. FNAC showed a sensitivity of 92.8%, specificity of 93.9%, a positive predictive value of 81.2% and negative predictive value of 98.4% for malignant salivary gland tumors. There was one false-negative diagnosis and four false-positive cases diagnosed on FNAC. Conclusion: FNAC continues to be a reliable diagnostic technique in hands of an experienced cytopathologist. The sensitivity of diagnosis of malignant lesions is high, though the rate of tumor type-specific characterization is lower, due to variable cytomorphology. In difficult cases, histologic examination may be employed for accurate diagnosis. PMID:23599724

  10. Detection of malignant mesothelioma using nuclear structure of mesothelial cells in effusion cytology specimens.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Akif Burak; Yergiyev, Oleksandr; Kolouri, Soheil; Silverman, Jan F; Rohde, Gustavo K

    2015-04-01

    Mesothelioma is a form of cancer generally caused from previous exposure to asbestos. Although it was considered a rare neoplasm in the past, its incidence is increasing worldwide due to extensive use of asbestos. In the current practice of medicine, the gold standard for diagnosing mesothelioma is through a pleural biopsy with subsequent histologic examination of the tissue. The diagnostic tissue should demonstrate the invasion by the tumor and is obtained through thoracoscopy or open thoracotomy, both being highly invasive surgical operations. On the other hand, thoracocentesis, which is removal of effusion fluid from the pleural space, is a far less invasive procedure that can provide material for cytological examination. In this study, we aim at detecting and classifying malignant mesothelioma based on the nuclear chromatin distribution from digital images of mesothelial cells in effusion cytology specimens. Accordingly, a computerized method is developed to determine whether a set of nuclei belonging to a patient is benign or malignant. The quantification of chromatin distribution is performed by using the optimal transport-based linear embedding for segmented nuclei in combination with the modified Fisher discriminant analysis. Classification is then performed through a k-nearest neighborhood approach and a basic voting strategy. Our experiments on 34 different human cases result in 100% accurate predictions computed with blind cross validation. Experimental comparisons also show that the new method can significantly outperform standard numerical feature-type methods in terms of agreement with the clinical diagnosis gold standard. According to our results, we conclude that nuclear structure of mesothelial cells alone may contain enough information to separate malignant mesothelioma from benign mesothelial proliferations.

  11. Correlation of fine needle aspiration cytology findings with thyroid function test in cases of lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Sood, Neelam; Nigam, Jitendra Singh

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis is the second most common thyroid lesion diagnosed on FNAC after goiter. FNAC is reliable tool in the diagnosis of thyroid lesion. Objective. To correlate FNAC cytologic findings with TFT in the lymphocytic thyroiditis. Methods. 175 patients with thyroid swellings were referred for FNAC as well as TFT during 2011-2013. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed using non-aspiration or aspiration techniques and TFT performed on Beckman culter access 2. Results. Lymphoid infiltrate was seen in 55 cases. The commonest age group of lymphocytic thyroiditis was 21-30 years with male : female ratio being 1 : 10. Anti-TPO and TSH were elevated in 96.16% (25/26) of cases with grade 3 lymphoid infiltrate, 94.12% (16/17) of cases with grade 2, and 91.67% (11/12) of cases with 1 grade. Increased anti-TPO with raised TSH without any lymphoid infiltrate was seen in 5 cases and 5 cases showed only raised TSH without raised anti-TPO and without any lymphoid infiltrate. We observed that grade 3 lymphocytic infiltration has correlation with anti-TPO and TSH together or TSH alone but not with anti-TPO alone. We also observed that anti-TPO and TSH together are significant even if no lymphocytic infiltration is present. Conclusion. Grade 3 lymphocytic infiltration has statistical correlation with anti-TPO and TSH together or TSH alone but not with anti-TPO alone. Anti TPO was adjunct to TSH in grade 3. The presence of Hurthle cell change, giant cells, and granulomas has no statistical correlation with lymphocytic thyroiditis.

  12. Cervical cancer screening in immigrant women in Italy: a survey on participation, cytology and histology results.

    PubMed

    Campari, Cinzia; Fedato, Chiara; Iossa, Anna; Petrelli, Alessio; Zorzi, Manuel; Anghinoni, Emanuela; Bietta, Carla; Brachini, Angela; Brezzi, Silvia; Cogo, Carla; Giordano, Livia; Giorgi, Daniela; Palazzi, Mauro; Petrella, Marco; Schivardi, Maria R; Visioli, Carmen B; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Cervical cancer screening programmes in Italy actively invite all 25-64-year-old resident women for the Pap test every 3 years irrespective of their citizenship. Immigrant women come from countries where screening is absent or poorly implemented and the prevalence of human papillomavirus is often high. These women therefore have significant risk factors for cervical cancer. The Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening promoted a survey of all the screening programmes on the participation and the positivity and detection rates in Italian and foreign women in 2009-2011. Aggregated data for participation, cytology results, compliance with colposcopy and histology results were collected, distinguishing between women born in Italy and abroad. All comparisons were age adjusted. Forty-eight programmes out of 120 participated in the immigrant survey, with 3 147 428 invited and 1 427 412 screened Italian women and 516 291 invited and 205 948 screened foreign women. Foreign women had a slightly lower participation rate compared with Italians (39.9 vs. 45.4%), whereas compliance with colposcopy was similar (90%). Foreigners showed a higher risk of pathological findings than Italians: cytology positivity [relative risk (RR)=1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-1.27] and detection rate for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) (RR=1.39, 95% CI 1.31-1.47), CIN3 (RR=2.07, 95% CI 1.96-2.18) and cancer (RR=2.68, 95% CI 2.24-3.22). The ratio between cancer and CIN was higher in immigrants (0.06 vs. 0.04, P<0.01). Foreign women had a higher risk of cervical precancer and cancer. Because of their high risk and because opportunistic screening does not cover this often disadvantaged group, achieving high participation in screening programmes for foreigners is critical to further reducing the cervical cancer burden in Italy.

  13. Liquid-based cytology for primary cervical cancer screening: a multi-centre study

    PubMed Central

    Monsonego, J; Autillo-Touati, A; Bergeron, C; Dachez, R; Liaras, J; Saurel, J; Zerat, L; Chatelain, P; Mottot, C

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this six-centre, split-sample study was to compare ThinPrep fluid-based cytology to the conventional Papanicolaou smear. Six cytopathology laboratories and 35 gynaecologists participated. 5428 patients met the inclusion criteria (age > 18 years old, intact cervix, informed consent). Each cervical sample was used first to prepare a conventional Pap smear, then the sampling device was rinsed into a PreservCyt vial, and a ThinPrep slide was made. Screening of slide pairs was blinded (n = 5428). All non-negative concordant cases (n = 101), all non-concordant cases (n = 206), and a 5% random sample of concordant negative cases (n = 272) underwent review by one independent pathologist then by the panel of 6 investigators. Initial (blinded) screening results for ThinPrep and conventional smears were correlated. Initial diagnoses were correlated with consensus cytological diagnoses. Differences in disease detection were evaluated using McNemar's test. On initial screening, 29% more ASCUS cases and 39% more low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and more severe lesions (LSIL+) were detected on the ThinPrep slides than on the conventional smears (P = 0.001), including 50% more LSIL and 18% more high-grade SIL (HSIL). The ASCUS:SIL ratio was lower for the ThinPrep method (115:132 = 0.87:1) than for the conventional smear method (89:94 = 0.95:1). The same trend was observed for the ASCUS/AGUS:LSIL ratio. Independent and consensus review confirmed 145 LSIL+ diagnoses; of these, 18% more had been detected initially on the ThinPrep slides than on the conventional smears (P = 0.041). The ThinPrep Pap Test is more accurate than the conventional Pap test and has the potential to optimize the effectiveness of primary cervical cancer screening. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11161401

  14. An impression cytology based study of ocular surface in an urban population.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Somnath; Dutta, Jayanta; Mitra, Jayati; Prakash, Ratnesh; Datta, Himadri

    2013-04-01

    To assess the health of ocular surface in a defined urban population, conjunctival goblet cell density and degree of surface squamous metaplasia were utilized as study tools. Two thousand names of those aged between 20 and 79 years from the 2006 electoral register in ward number 63 of Kolkata Corporation area were initially selected. Normal healthy human volunteers without any history of ocular surface disorder were recruited and divided into five age-groups. Impression cytology samples were obtained from interpalpebral part of bulbar conjunctiva from all the participants fixated and stained by a single observer. A stratified, clustered, disproportionate, random sampling method was used. The software used in the statistical analysis was EPI Info. The tests applied were t test and ANOVA. A variation in the number of goblet cells according to gender (women having less cells) and age (20-30 years group having the highest number of cells) was found. Those working outdoors were found to have fewer goblet cells compared to those who stay indoors. The majority of the people had grade 1 cytological appearance in both males and females. There was no statistically significant difference in Nelson's grading with age. People using coal and kerosene to cook were found to have a smaller goblet cell density than those who cooked on LPG or those who did not cook at all. Besides age and sex, environmental factors like the method of cooking and occupational variables (like outdoor activity, prolonged period of computer use, etc.) modify the health of the ocular surface. The results of this study will help put these findings into perspective as public health problems.

  15. Morphologic changes in the thyroid after irradiation for Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, R.F.; LiVolsi, V.A.

    1989-08-15

    Four cases of thyroidectomy for suspected thyroid carcinoma after previous irradiation for Hodgkin's or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are reviewed. The patients ranged in age from 18 to 33 years at the time of thyroid surgery with an average latency period of 12 years (range, 8-20 years) from radiation therapy to thyroidectomy. All patients had a clinically palpable thyroid nodule, and pathologically showed a pattern of multiple adenomatous nodules with cytologic atypia. The microscopic changes were sufficiently striking to cause the primary pathologist to request consultation to rule out thyroid carcinoma in each case. Fine-needle aspiration was performed in one case and suggested a thyroid neoplasm. The pathologic findings are reviewed and distinction of this lesion from thyroid carcinoma is discussed.

  16. Commercial implementation of food irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welt, M. A.

    In July 1981, the first specifically designed multi-purpose irradiation facility for food irradiation was put into service by the Radiation Technology, Inc. subsidiary Process Technology, Inc. in West Memphis, Arkansas. The operational experience gained, resulted in an enhanced design which was put into commercial service in Haw River, North Carolina, by another subsidiary, Process Technology (N.C.), Inc. in October 1983. These facilities have enabled the food industry to assess the commercial viability of food irradiation. Further impetus towards commercialization of food irradiation was gained in March 1981 with the filing in the Federal Register, by the FDA, of an Advanced Proposed Notice of Rulemaking for Food Irradiation. Two years later in July 1983, the FDA approved the first food additive regulation involving food irradiation in nineteen years, when they approved the Radiation Technology, Inc. petition calling for the sanitization of spices, onion powder and garlic powder at a maximum dosage of 10 kGy. Since obtaining the spice irradiation approval, the FDA has accepted four additional petitions for filing in the Federal Register. One of the petitions which extended spice irradiation to include insect disinfestation has issued into a regulation while the remaining petitions covering the sanitization of herbs, spice blends, vegetable seasonings and dry powdery enzymes as well as the petition to irradiate hog carcasses and pork products for trichinae control at 1 kGy, are expected to issue either before the end of 1984 or early in 1985. More recently, food irradiation advocates in the United States received another vote of confidence by the announcement that a joint venture food irradiation facility to be constructed in Hawaii by Radiation Technology, is backed by a contractual committment for the processing of 40 million pounds of produce per year. Another step was taken when the Port of Salem, New Jersey announced that the Radiation Technology Model RT-4104

  17. Pallet irradiators for food processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, R. G.; Chu, R. D. H.

    This paper looks at the various design concepts for the irradiation processing of food products, with particular emphasis on handling the products on pallets. Pallets appear to offer the most attractive method for handling foods from many considerations. Products are transported on pallets. Warehouse space is commonly designed for pallet storage and, if products are already palletized before and after irradiation, then labour could be saved by irradiating on pallets. This is also an advantage for equipment operation since a larger carrier volume means lower operation speeds. Different pallet irradiator design concepts are examined and their suitability for several applications are discussed. For example, low product holdup for fast turn around will be a consideration for those operating an irradiation "service" business; others may require a very large source where efficiency is the primary requirement and this will not be consistent with low holdup. The radiation performance characteristics and processing costs of these machines are discussed.

  18. Anal cytological abnormalities and epidemiological correlates among men who have sex with men at risk for HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence of anal cancer, a Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-related neoplasia, has been increasing in recent decades, mainly in men who have sex with men (MSM). Cytological changes of the anal epithelium induced by HPV can be detected through an anal pap smear. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and epidemiological correlates of anal cytological abnormalities among relatively young MSM at risk for HIV-1 infection, to help clarify whether or not this population deserves further investigation to assess the presence of anal cancer precursor lesions. Methods MSM were recruited among attendees of a large STI clinic for a HIV-1 screening program. Anal samples, collected with a Dracon swab in PreservCyt, were used both for liquid-based cytology and HPV testing by the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test. Data regarding socio-demographic characteristics and sexual behavior were collected in face-to-face interviews. Results A total of 346 MSM were recruited (median age 32 years). Overall, 72.5% of the individuals had an anal HPV infection, with 56.1% of them being infected by oncogenic HPV genotypes. Anal cytological abnormalities were found in 29.8% of the cases (16.7% ASC-US and 13.1% L-SIL). Presence of ASC-US+ was strongly associated with infection by any HPV type (OR=4.21, 95% CI: 1.97-9.23), and particularly by HPV 16 and/or 18 (OR=5.62, 95% CI: 2.33-13.81). A higher proportion of ASC-US+ was found in older MSM, in those with a higher number of lifetime partners and in those with a history of ano-genital warts. However, none of these variables or the others analyzed showed any significant association with abnormal cytological findings. Conclusions The presence of anal cytological abnormalities in about one third of the recruited MSM and their strong association with HPV infection, in particular that caused by HPV 16 and/or 18, might provide a further complement to the data that now support the introduction of HPV vaccination among MSM to protect them

  19. Cervical cytology as a diagnostic tool for female genital schistosomiasis: Correlation to cervical atypia and Schistosoma polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Pavitra; van Lieshout, Lisette; Taylor, Myra; Sebitloane, Motshedisi; Zulu, Siphosenkosi Gift; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Roald, Borghild; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke

    2016-01-01

    Background: Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is a tissue reaction to lodged ova of Schistosoma haematobium in the genital mucosa. Lesions can make the mucosa friable and prone to bleeding and discharge. Women with FGS may have an increased risk of HIV acquisition, and FGS may act as a cofactor in the development of cervical cancer. Objectives: To explore cytology as a method for diagnosing FGS and to discuss the diagnostic challenges in low-resource rural areas. The correlation between FGS and squamous cell atypia (SCA) is also explored and discussed. Cytology results are compared to Schistosoma polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in vaginal lavage and urine and in urine microscopy. Materials and Methods: In a clinical study, 394 women aged between 16 and 23 years from rural high schools in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, underwent structured interviews and the following laboratory tests: Cytology Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for S. haematobium ova and cervical SCA, real-time PCR for Schistosoma-specific DNA in vaginal lavage and urine samples, and urine microscopy for the presence of S. haematobium ova. Results: In Pap smears, S. haematobium ova were detected in 8/394 (2.0%). SCA was found in 107/394 (27.1%), seven of these had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). Schistosoma specific DNA was detected in 38/394 (9.6%) of vaginal lavages and in 91/394 (23.0%) of urines. Ova were found microscopically in 78/394 (19.7%) of urines. Conclusion: Schistosoma PCR on lavage was a better way to diagnose FGS compared to cytology. There was a significant association between S. haematobium ova in Pap smears and the other diagnostic methods. In low-resource Schistosoma-endemic areas, it is important that cytology screeners are aware of diagnostic challenges in the identification of schistosomiasis in addition to the cytological diagnosis of SCA. Importantly, in this study, three of eight urines were negative but showed Schistosoma ova in their Pap smear, and one of them

  20. Cytological features of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the parotid gland in a 15-year-old girl: a case report with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Takako; Fukumura, Yuki; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Yokoyama, Junkichi; Ohba, Shinichi; Arakawa, Atsushi; Yao, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently recognized tumor of salivary glands characterized by the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. This tumor is very rare in children and adolescents. We report a case of MASC in a 15-year-old girl, the fifth youngest case so far reported. The patient complained of a left infra-auricular mass that gradually enlarged for a year. Fine-needle aspiration cytology/imprint cytology showed individual tumor cells that had faintly eosinophilic granular cytoplasm with secretion granules sometimes seen adjacent to the tumor cells. These cytological features overlapped between those of zymogen granule-poor acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) and MASC. In addition to the case report, we present a review of the related literature with a focus on the cytological features of MASC. The differential diagnostic clues are also discussed.

  1. Multiplex digital colour-coded barcode technology on RNA extracted from routine cytological samples of patients with non-small cell lung cancer: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sgariglia, Roberta; Pisapia, Pasquale; Nacchio, Mariantonia; De Luca, Caterina; Pepe, Francesco; Russo, Maria; Bellevicine, Claudio; Troncone, Giancarlo; Malapelle, Umberto

    2017-04-06

    In the advanced stages of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), molecular testing is often performed on archival cytological smears. The nCounter system (NanoString Technologies) is a new promising multiplex digital colour-coded barcode technology. However, its feasibility to evaluate the RNA expression of clinical relevant biomarkers on routine cytological smears is still uncertain. To this end, RNA was extracted from 12 NSCLC routine stained cytological smears, and nCounter analysis performed by using a 48-gene panel. Overall, 11/12 (92%) of the smears were adequate for the secondary analysis, fulfilling the quality check parameter analysis of nSolver software. This pilot study shows that RNA nCounter analysis is feasible on routine cytological smears preparing the field for the implementation of this technology in the routine setting.

  2. The role and application of exfoliative cytology in the diagnosis of oral mucosa pathology - contemporary knowledge with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kazanowska, Krzysztofa; Hałoń, Agnieszka; Radwan-Oczko, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the current available literature, the authors have presented a short description of cytological examination and its application in the oral mucosa disease diagnostic process. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of this method are described. The available diagnostic tools used for oral smears were reviewed as well as more and more often available methods which aim at making the diagnosis process more accurate and more favorable for patients. Oral cytology analysis may, in the near future, be a very useful examination for patients in terms of diagnostics and monitoring, not only during the treatment but also afterwards. The authors would like to demonstrate what a beneficial tool this cytological examination could be as a fast and cheap cancer prophylactic test. This opinion is based on the fact that this cytological method has significantly improved the detection of uterine cervical cancer during a gynecological examination since the introduction of the Papanicolau technique in the 40s.

  3. Adenylate pool and energy charge in human lymphocytes and granulocytes irradiated at 632 nm (HeNe laser)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolognani, Lorenzo; Venturelli, T.; Volpi, N.; Zirilli, O.

    1995-05-01

    Aim of this report was to investigate the adenylate pool and the energy charge in human white blood cells exposed to increasing time (15, 30 and 60 min) of HeNe laser treatment. EDTA treated human blood diluted 1:1 with 0.88% KCl was added (1:5) with NaCl-dextran solution to allow sedimentation of red blood cells. 6 ml of the white cells floating in the supernatant were layered on 3 ml of Lymphoprep in plastic tubes and each tube was centrifuged (from 50 to 5000 X g for 5 min). Granulocytes were concentrated in the lower phase, whilst lymphocytes were in the intermediated phase. After further purification cytological homogeneity was tested by a cell counter. Granulocytes and lymphocytes were irradiated at +22°C with HeNe (Space, Valfivre equipment). On these population ATP was tested by luminometric procedure, the adenylate pool was separated by HPLC (Jasco) on neutralyzed perchloric extracts. ATP concentration increased in lymphocytes (+63.9%, p < 0.01) and in granulocytes (+25.0%, p < 0.05) after 60 min irradiation. The adenylate pool (tested by HPLC) does not change significatively in lymphocytes or granulocytes after 30 min irradiation, whilst in 60 min irradiated lymphocytes and granulocytes a significative increment was observed in nucleotide concentration. No changes were observed in energy charge according to Atkinson.

  4. Diagnostic and prognostic value of SHOX2 and SEPT9 DNA methylation and cytology in benign, paramalignant and malignant pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Dimo; Jung, Maria; Puetzer, Svenja; Leisse, Annette; Holmes, Emily Eva; Meller, Sebastian; Uhl, Barbara; Schatz, Philipp; Ivascu, Claudia; Kristiansen, Glen

    2013-01-01

    Pleural effusions (PE) are a common clinical problem. The discrimination between benign (BPE), malignant (MPE) and paramalignant (PPE) pleural effusions is highly important to ensure appropriate patient treatment. Today, cytology is the gold standard for diagnosing malignant pleural effusions. However, its sensitivity is limited due to the sometimes low abundance of tumor cells and the challenging assessment of cell morphology in cytological samples. This study aimed to develop and validate a diagnostic test, which allows for the highly specific detection of malignant cells in pleural effusions based on the DNA methylation biomarkers SHOX2 and SEPT9. A quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed which enabled the accurate and sensitive detection of SHOX2 and SEPT9 in PEs. Cytological and DNA methylation analyses were conducted in a case control study comprised of PEs from 114 patients (58 cases, 56 controls). Cytological analysis as well as SHOX2 and SEPT9 methylation resulted in 100% specificity. 21% of the cases were cytologically positive and 26% were SHOX2 or SEPT9 methylation positive. The combined analysis of cytology and DNA methylation resulted in an increase of 71% positively classified PEs from cancer patients as compared to cytological analysis alone. The absolute sensitivity of cytology and DNA methylation was not determinable due to the lack of an appropriate gold standard diagnostic for distinguishing between MPEs and PPEs. Therefore, it was unclear which PEs from cancer patients were malignant (containing tumor cells) and which PEs were paramalignant and resulted from benign conditions in cancer patients, respectively. Furthermore, DNA methylation analysis in PEs allowed the prognosis of the overall survival in cancer patients (Kaplan-Meier analysis, log rank test, p=0.02 (SHOX2), p=0.02 (SEPT9)). The developed test may be used as a diagnostic and prognostic adjunct to existing clinical and cytopathological investigations in patients with PEs of

  5. Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of SHOX2 and SEPT9 DNA Methylation and Cytology in Benign, Paramalignant and Malignant Pleural Effusions

    PubMed Central

    Puetzer, Svenja; Leisse, Annette; Holmes, Emily Eva; Meller, Sebastian; Uhl, Barbara; Schatz, Philipp; Ivascu, Claudia; Kristiansen, Glen

    2013-01-01

    Pleural effusions (PE) are a common clinical problem. The discrimination between benign (BPE), malignant (MPE) and paramalignant (PPE) pleural effusions is highly important to ensure appropriate patient treatment. Today, cytology is the gold standard for diagnosing malignant pleural effusions. However, its sensitivity is limited due to the sometimes low abundance of tumor cells and the challenging assessment of cell morphology in cytological samples. This study aimed to develop and validate a diagnostic test, which allows for the highly specific detection of malignant cells in pleural effusions based on the DNA methylation biomarkers SHOX2 and SEPT9. A quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed which enabled the accurate and sensitive detection of SHOX2 and SEPT9 in PEs. Cytological and DNA methylation analyses were conducted in a case control study comprised of PEs from 114 patients (58 cases, 56 controls). Cytological analysis as well as SHOX2 and SEPT9 methylation resulted in 100% specificity. 21% of the cases were cytologically positive and 26% were SHOX2 or SEPT9 methylation positive. The combined analysis of cytology and DNA methylation resulted in an increase of 71% positively classified PEs from cancer patients as compared to cytological analysis alone. The absolute sensitivity of cytology and DNA methylation was not determinable due to the lack of an appropriate gold standard diagnostic for distinguishing between MPEs and PPEs. Therefore, it was unclear which PEs from cancer patients were malignant (containing tumor cells) and which PEs were paramalignant and resulted from benign conditions in cancer patients, respectively. Furthermore, DNA methylation analysis in PEs allowed the prognosis of the overall survival in cancer patients (Kaplan-Meier analysis, log rank test, p = 0.02 (SHOX2), p = 0.02 (SEPT9)). The developed test may be used as a diagnostic and prognostic adjunct to existing clinical and cytopathological investigations in patients

  6. Fine-needle sampling of salivary gland lesions. VII. Cytology and histology correlation of five cases of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Klijanienko, J; Vielh, P

    1998-12-01

    Fine-needle sampling (FNS) of five cases of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, three primary tumors, and two local recurrences, was performed preoperatively in five patients. Cytologic diagnoses of malignancy were established in all tumors (three were reported as adenoid cystic carcinoma, two as adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified). Material for cytologic evaluation was satisfactory in all cases. Adenoid cystic carcinoma, polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, papillary cystadenocarcinoma and cellular type of pleomorphic adenoma are the main differential diagnoses.

  7. Cervical cancer screening in sub-Saharan Africa: a randomized trial of VIA versus cytology for triage of HPV-positive women.

    PubMed

    Bigoni, Jérôme; Gundar, Mélissa; Tebeu, Pierre-Marie; Bongoe, Adamo; Schäfer, Sonja; Fokom-Domgue, Joël; Catarino, Rosa; Tincho, Evelyne Foguem; Bougel, Stéphanie; Vassilakos, Pierre; Petignat, Patrick

    2015-07-01

    Developing countries are interested in using human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as a primary screening test for cervical cancer prevention programs. The low specificity of the HPV assay requires triage testing of HPV-positive women. The aim of the study is to compare visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and cytology as triage testing methods in HPV-positive women to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or Grade 2 or higher (CIN2+). The study was conducted in two Cameroonian towns (Yaoundé and Edea) and included 846 eligible women aged 25 to 65 years. All participants performed self-HPV testing. HPV-positive women (n = 259) were randomly assigned to be tested either by VIA (VIA group) or cytology (cytology group). HPV-positive women had both cervical biopsy and endocervical curettage to detect biopsy-confirmed CIN2+. All statistical tests were two-sided. The prevalence of HPV was 38.5%, and the mean age of HPV-positive women was 41.5 ± 10.1 years. One hundred ninety-eight women (97 in the VIA group and 99 in the cytology) were randomly assigned to one of the two testing arms. The sensitivity of VIA was 25.0% (95% CI, 7.1-59.1%), and the sensitivity of cytology was 90.0% (59.6-98.2%). The specificity was 74.2% (95% CI, 64.2-82.1%) for VIA and 85.2% (76.3-91.2%) for cytology. ROC area for cytology was 0.910 against the 0.496 area for VIA. In this trial, VIA was inferior to cytology as a triage test among HPV-positive women. Further investigations are needed to determine the optimal triage method for HPV-positive women.

  8. Cytologic diagnosis of low-grade papillary urothelial neoplasms (low malignant potential and low-grade carcinoma) in the context of the 1998 WHO/ISUP classification.

    PubMed

    Whisnant, Richard E; Bastacky, Sheldon I; Ohori, N Paul

    2003-04-01

    The 1998 World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology (WHO/ISUP) classification of urothelial neoplasms introduced a category called papillary neoplasm of low malignant potential (LMP) and separated it from low-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma (LGPUC), which was thought to yield abnormal cells in cytology specimens. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of urine cytology in diagnosing these lesions. Eighty-six paired transurethral surgical biopsy and corresponding urine cytology specimens representing the spectrum of urothelial papillary lesions were examined. Consensus diagnosis on each biopsy was made, and the distribution was as follows: 16 benign urothelium, 27 LMP, 28 LGPUC, and 15 high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma (HGPUC). This was followed by a blinded independent review of the urine cytology specimens by three observers. Each cytology case was marked as negative, atypical, suspicious, or positive for malignant cells by using previously published cytologic criteria. When the negative and atypical diagnoses were grouped together as "benign" and the suspicious and malignant diagnoses as "malignant," the detection rate of "malignancy" of the lesions was as follows: LMP, 37%; LGPUC, 25%; and HGPUC, 53%. The false positive rate was 6%, and the positive predictive value (PPV) was 94%. Detection rates of cells that were at least "atypical" were as follows: LMP, 74%; LGPUC, 79%; and HGPUC, 100%. While most of the LMP and LGPUC cases yielded cells that were at least "atypical," there was no significant difference in the distribution of cytologic diagnoses for LMP and LGPUC cases (P > 0.05). Urine cytology in the context of the 1998 WHO/ISUP classification appears to be useful as a screening tool but does not appear to discriminate LMP effectively from LGPUC.

  9. Phytosanitary irradiation - Development and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Guy J.; Loaharanu, Paisan

    2016-12-01

    Phytosanitary irradiation, the use of ionizing radiation to disinfest traded agricultural commodities of regulated pests, is a growing use of food irradiation that has great continued potential for increase in commercial application. In 2015 approximately 25,000 t of fresh fruits and vegetables were irradiated globally for phytosanitary purposes. Phytosanitary irradiation has resulted in a paradigm shift in phytosanitation in that the final burden of proof of efficacy of the treatment has shifted from no live pests upon inspection at a port of entry (as for all previous phytosanitary treatments) to total dependence on certification that the treatment for target pests is based on adequate science and is commercially conducted and protected from post-treatment infestation. In this regard phytosanitary irradiation is managed more like a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) approach more consistent with food safety than phytosanitation. Thus, phytosanitary irradiation offers a more complete and rigorous methodology for safeguarding than other phytosanitary measures. The role of different organizations in achieving commercial application of phytosanitary irradiation is discussed as well as future issues and applications, including new generic doses.

  10. Nuclear grooves in cytologic preparations. A study of the utility of this feature in the diagnosis of papillary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gould, E; Watzak, L; Chamizo, W; Albores-Saavedra, J

    1989-01-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of nuclear grooves and inclusions for papillary carcinoma was investigated in 32 touch preparations and 69 fine needle aspiration cytologic preparations of the thyroid. Ultrastructurally, these grooves and inclusions are cytoplasmic invaginations into the nucleus. Overall, 100% of the papillary carcinomas contained nuclear grooves while only 70% contained inclusions. Grooves, however, could be seen in 70% of nonpapillary neoplasms and in 56% of nonneoplastic conditions of the thyroid, albeit generally fewer in number and often not as distinct. Inclusions were present in 13% of nonpapillary neoplasms and were absent in nonneoplastic conditions. Some nuclei on cytologic preparations contain lines that are probably artifacts of chromatin alignment and do not represent true nuclear grooves. Since such lines may be indistinguishable from true grooves, grooves should be used cautiously and in conjunction with other criteria in the diagnosis of papillary carcinoma.

  11. Recurrent multifocal adult rhabdomyoma diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology: report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Walker, W P; Laszewski, M J

    1990-01-01

    The fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology of a recurrent multifocal extracardiac adult rhabdomyoma is described, and the literature is reviewed. The patient presented with dysphagia and bilateral palpable neck masses 21 yr after resection of a rhabdomyoma of the tongue. The clinical differential diagnoses included ptotic submandibular glands and lymphadenopathy. The aspiration smears and cytospin preparations contained large polygonal cells with abundant granular cytoplasm with indistinct borders and uniform, peripherally located nuclei. Cross-striations were identified within the cytoplasm of some cells on Papanicolaou and modified Wright-Giemsa stains. This case represents only the fourth description of the cytology of this entity and the first reported case of a recurrence diagnosed by FNA. The characteristic cytomorphologic features enabled a definitive diagnosis to be made 21 yr after the original resection, sparing a poor-risk patient a debilitating surgical procedure for a benign, slow-growing neoplasm.

  12. Endosonography and cytology in diagnosing and staging pancreatic body and tail carcinoma: Preliminary results of endosonographic guided puncture

    SciTech Connect

    Tio, T.L.; Sie, L.H.; Tytgat, G.N.J. Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam )

    1993-01-01

    Endosonography was performed in diagnosing and staging pancreatic body and tail carcinoma in two patients. In the first case endoscopy, abdominal ultrasound, and computed tomography were nondiagnostic in diagnosing the origin of submucosal gastric abnormalities. Endosonography diagnosed a pancreatic tail carcinoma with submucosal gastric involvement, and this was confirmed by endosonographic-guided cytology. Fundus varices due to segmented splenic vein involvement were found. Surgery was not recommended due to the advanced disease. In the second case pancreatic body carcinoma was diagnosed by ERCP and computed tomography. Transcutaneous ultrasonographic-guided cytological puncture confirmed the diagnosis. Endosonography revealed additional information of segmental portal hypertension with fundic varices due to splenic vein involvement. Autopsy confirmed the endosonographic diagnosis. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Penicillium marneffei infection in a HIV-Positive patient: A comparison of bronchial washing cytology and biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Hee, Chu Hyun; Pil, Chong Young; Cho, Kyung Ja

    2017-01-01

    Penicilliosis is a disseminated and progressive infection that is mainly found in immunocompromised individuals, especially those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Because of the high mortality of patients with disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection, rapid diagnosis and early treatment are required. Diagnosis is traditionally made by biopsy and/or culture of blood or any involved organ. Cytology offers several advantages over biopsy, including more rapid diagnosis and greater resolution of cytomorphologic details of organisms, allowing rapid initiation of treatment. Here, we describe a case of penicilliosis in an HIV-positive patient with emphasis on the morphological characteristics of the organism in cytologic specimens, as well as a comparison of bronchial washing and biopsy findings. PMID:28182077

  14. New facility for post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    1995-09-01

    Beryllium is expected as a neutron multiplier and plasma facing materials in the fusion reactor, and the neutron irradiation data on properties of beryllium up to 800{degrees}C need for the engineering design. The acquisition of data on the tritium behavior, swelling, thermal and mechanical properties are first priority in ITER design. Facility for the post irradiation examination of neutron irradiated beryllium was constructed in the hot laboratory of Japan Materials Testing Reactor to get the engineering design data mentioned above. This facility consist of the four glove boxes, dry air supplier, tritium monitoring and removal system, storage box of neutron irradiated samples. Beryllium handling are restricted by the amount of tritium;7.4 GBq/day and {sup 60}Co;7.4 MBq/day.

  15. Proton irradiation of simple gas mixtures: Influence of irradiation parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, Norbert J.; Schuster, R.; Hofmann, A.

    1990-01-01

    In order to get information about the influence of irradiation parameters on radiolysis processes of astrophysical interest, methane gas targets were irradiated with 6.5 MeV protons at a pressure of 1 bar and room temperature. Yields of higher hydrocarbons like ethane or propane were found by analysis of irradiated gas samples using gas chromatography. The handling of the proton beam was of great experimental importance for determining the irradiation parameters. In a series of experiments current density of the proton beam and total absorbed energy were shown to have a large influence on the yields of produced hydrocarbons. Mechanistic interpretations of the results are given and conclusions are drawn with regard to the chemistry and the simulation of various astrophysical systems.

  16. Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System Score Combined with the New Italian Classification for Thyroid Cytology Improves the Clinical Management of Indeterminate Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Daniela; Nardi, Francesco; Nesca, Angela; D'Armiento, Eleonora; Guglielmino, Valeria; De Vito, Corrado; Sorrenti, Salvatore; Pironi, Daniele; Tartaglia, Francesco; Arcieri, Stefano; Catania, Antonio; Monti, Massimo; Filippini, Angelo; Ascoli, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    The new Italian cytological classification (2014) of thyroid nodules replaced the TIR3 category of the old classification (2007) with two subclasses, TIR3A and TIR3B, with the aim of reducing the rate of surgery for benign diseases. Moreover, thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TI-RADS) score appears to ameliorate the stratification of the malignancy risk. We evaluated whether the new Italian classification has improved diagnostic accuracy and whether its association with TI-RADS score could improve malignancy prediction. We retrospectively analyzed 70 nodules from 70 patients classified as TIR3 according to the old Italian classification who underwent surgery for histological diagnosis. Of these, 51 were available for cytological revision according to the new Italian cytological classification. Risk of malignancy was determined for TIR3A and TIR3B, TI-RADS score, and their combination. A different rate of malignancy (p = 0.0286) between TIR3A (13.04%) and TIR3B (44.44%) was observed. Also TI-RADS score is significantly (p = 0.003) associated with malignancy. By combining cytology and TI-RADS score, patients could be divided into three groups with low (8.3%), intermediate (21.4%), and high (80%) risk of malignancy. In conclusion, the new Italian cytological classification has an improved diagnostic accuracy. Interestingly, the combination of cytology and TI-RADS score offers a better stratification of the malignancy risk. PMID:28348589

  17. Using the Cancer Risk Management Model to evaluate the health and economic impacts of cytology compared with human papillomavirus DNA testing for primary cervical cancer screening in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Popadiuk, C.; Gauvreau, C.L.; Bhavsar, M.; Nadeau, C.; Asakawa, K.; Flanagan, W.M.; Wolfson, M.C.; Coldman, A.J.; Memon, S.; Fitzgerald, N.; Lacombe, J.; Miller, A.B.

    2016-01-01

    Background In Canada, discussion about changing from cytology to human papillomavirus (hpv) dna testing for primary screening in cervical cancer is ongoing. However, the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care has not yet made a recommendation, concluding that the evidence is insufficient. Methods We used the cervical cancer and hpv transmission models of the Cancer Risk Management Model to study the health and economic outcomes of primary cytology compared with hpv dna testing in 14 screening scenarios with varying screening modalities and intervals. Projected cervical cancer cases, deaths, colposcopies, screens, costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness were evaluated. We performed sensitivity analyses for hpv dna test costs. Results Compared with triennial cytology from age 25, 5-yearly hpv dna screening alone from age 30 resulted in equivalent incident cases and deaths, but 55% (82,000) fewer colposcopies and 43% (1,195,000) fewer screens. At hpv dna screening intervals of 3 years, whether alone or in an age-based sequence with cytology, screening costs are greater, but at intervals of more than 5 years, they are lower. Scenarios on the cost-effectiveness frontier were hpv dna testing alone every 10, 7.5, 5, or 3 years, and triennial cytology starting at age 21 or 25 when combined with hpv dna testing every 3 years. Conclusions Changing from cytology to hpv dna testing as the primary screening test for cervical cancer would be an acceptable strategy in Canada with respect to incidence, mortality, screening and diagnostic test volumes. PMID:26985148

  18. [Variability of the cytological parameters of Pinus sylvestris L. seeds from the unique Hrenovskoy pine forest].

    PubMed

    Butorina, A K; Cherkashina, O N; Chernodubov, A I; Avdeeva, I A

    2005-06-01

    Hrenovskoy pine forest is a unique island stand at the boundary of the species range of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. This object is of exceptional economic value, because it serves as a forest-seed base for the Voronezh oblast and some other regions of Russia; therefore, the stand and seed qualities have to be monitored constantly. The results of the first cytogenetic study of the seed progeny of P. sylvestris from the Morozov Grove, a high-quality stand in a reserved site within the Hrenovskoy pine forest, are reported. The studies have been performed in order to obtain a more correct assessment of seed quality based not only on their germination and energy of germination (traditionally used by forest breeders), but also on their genomic stability. The latter may be estimated by the stability of chromosome number in the somatic cells of seedlings and the regularity of mitotic divisions, because they also characterize the state of the generative system of parental forms and may serve as an integrated estimate of the stand development homeostasis. Therefore, the chromosome number, mitotic and nucleolar activities, and the number and spectrum of pathological mitoses (PMs) have been determined. Seedlings have been obtained from 240 seeds (collected from 12 trees) that resulted from free pollination. The cytological analysis of the rootlets of these seedlings has not detected any deviations from the chromosome number typical of the species P. sylvestris L. (2n = 24). However, considerable variation has been found in each family with respect to the mitotic index (MI) (from 4.2 +/- 0.36 to 8.1 +/- 0.39%) and the number of PMs (from 0.5 to 2.1%); micronuclei have also been found in each family (from 0.01 to 0.05%). In general, the phenotypic characteristics and the variation pattern of cytological parameters of the progeny of the trees studied in the Hrenovskoy pine forest, together with the high germination rate of seeds (90-98%), indicate that the current state of

  19. Determination of sex by exfoliative cytology using acridine orange confocal microscopy: A short study

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, D Shyam Prasad; Sherlin, Herald J; Ramani, Pratibha; Prakash, P Ajay

    2012-01-01

    Context: Establishing individuality is an imperative aspect in any investigation procedure. Sometimes, in identifying an individual, it becomes necessary to determine the sex of that particular individual. Combining rapidity with reliability, an innovative idea has been put forward using a confocal microscope in exfoliative cytology. In the present study, we have determined the sex of the individual from buccal mucosal scrapings. The exfoliative cells were observed for Barr bodies under a confocal microscope, and the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells was determined. Aims: The main objective of this study is to assess confocal microscopy for the determination of sex by observing Barr bodies in the exfoliative cells of both men and women. Settings and Design: Samples of buccal mucosa smears were made followed by acridine orange staining. The stained slides were observed under a confocal microscope and the data obtained was subjected for statistical analysis, especially for mean and standard deviation. Materials and Methods: Samples of buccal mucosa smears from 20 men and 20 women were obtained by scraping with flat wooden sticks (exfoliative cytology). The smears were fixed in 100% alcohol for 15 min, followed by acridine orange (AO) staining as described by Von Bertalanffy et al. Smears stained with AO were examined under a confocal microscope and the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells was determined. Statistical Analysis Used: Data obtained was subjected for statistical analysis, especially for mean and standard deviation. Results: Two non-overlapping ranges for the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells have been obtained for men and women. It was observed that in the male samples, the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells ranged from 0-3%. In the female samples, the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells ranged from 18-72%, and all the females showed the presence of Barr bodies. Conclusion: The study showed that the presence of Barr body in buccal

  20. Performance of the linear array HPV genotyping test on paired cytological and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical samples.

    PubMed

    Donà, Maria Gabriella; Ronchetti, Livia; Giuliani, Massimo; Carosi, Mariantonia; Rollo, Francesca; Congiu, Mario; Mazza, Domenica; Pescarmona, Edoardo; Vocaturo, Amina; Benevolo, Maria

    2013-05-01

    Detection and genotyping of human papillomavirus (HPV) from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples may be difficult when using assays based on amplification of large fragments. The objective of the present study was to investigate the performance of the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Linear Array) on FFPE cervical cone biopsy specimens using paired cytologic samples obtained immediately before the conization as a criterion standard. Thirty-nine samples of grade 2 or higher cervical intraepithelial neoplasia were selected; all of the corresponding cytological samples were positive by the Linear Array and had a report of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse. A valid Linear Array test result was obtained for 38 FFPE specimens (97.4%, 95% CI 88.0 to 99.9). Specifically, 34 were HPV-positive (89.5%, 95% CI 76.5 to 96.9) and 4 were HPV-negative (10.5%, 95% CI 3.4 to 23.5). The overall agreement of the results obtained for the cytologic and histologic paired samples was good (Cohen's κ = 0.85, SE = 0.082, P = 0.000). Further analysis of samples with negative or invalid Linear Array test results, both modifying the nucleic acids extraction protocol and using the INNO-LiPA assay, suggested that failure of the Linear Array test in HPV detection from tissues was probably due to DNA fragmentation. Parallel analysis of paired FFPE and cytologic samples is extremely useful for evaluation of the efficiency of PCR-based assays in HPV detection and genotyping from tissue samples. In the present study, false-negative results were obtained in a limited percentage of cases, our data depicting the successful performance of the Linear Array test on FFPE samples.

  1. Risk Stratification using Human Papillomavirus Testing among Women with Equivocally Abnormal Cytology: Results from a State-wide Surveillance Program

    PubMed Central

    Gage, Julia C; Hunt, William C; Schiffman, Mark; Katki, Hormuzd A; Cheung, Li C; Cuzick, Jack; Myers, Orrin; Castle, Philip E; Wheeler, Cosette M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical guidelines for cervical cancer screening have incorporated comparative risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or cancer (CIN3+) for various screening outcomes to determine management. Few cohorts are large enough to distinguish CIN3+ risks among women with minor abnormalities vs. negative cytology because of low incidence. The New Mexico HPV Pap Registry offers a unique opportunity to evaluate cervical cancer screening in a diverse population across a broad-spectrum of health service delivery. Methods Kaplan-Meier and logistic-Weibull survival models were used to estimate cumulative risks of CIN3+ among women aged 21–64 who were screened in New Mexico between 2007–2011 with negative, equivocal or mildly abnormal cytology, i.e., atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US; with or without HPV triage), or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Results We identified 452,045 women meeting the selection criteria. The 3-year CIN3+ risks for women with negative, ASC-US and LSIL cytology were: 0.30%, 2.6%, and 5.2%, respectively. HPV triage of ASC-US stratified 3-year CIN3+ risks were 0.72% for HPV-negative and 7.7% for HPV-positive. Risks tended to decline after age 30 for all screening results. Conclusions In this state-wide population-based cohort, cytology and HPV triage of ASC-US stratified women’s CIN3+ risk into similar patterns observed previously, suggesting the validity of screening guidelines for diverse populations in the United States (U.S.). Absolute risk estimates should be compared across other large populations. Impact Strategies for HPV triage of ASC-US derived from clinical trials are upheld in large clinical practice settings and across diverse screening populations in the U.S.. PMID:26518316

  2. Prognostic significance of peritoneal cytology in patients with endometrial cancer and preliminary data concerning therapy with intraperitoneal radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Creasman, W.T.; Disaia, P.J.; Blessing, J.; Wilkinson, R.H. Jr.; Johnston, W.; Weed, J.C. Jr.

    1981-12-15

    One hundred sixty-seven patients with clinical State I carcinoma of the endometrium were treated primarily by operation consisting of total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, selective pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy, and cytologic testing of peritoneal washings. Twenty-six (15.5%) of the 167 patients had malignant cells identified on cytologic examinations of peritoneal washings. Recurrence developed in 10 of these 26 (34.0%) compared to 14/141 (9.9%) patients with negative cytologic testing. Of the 26 patients, 13 (50%) had disease outside of the uterus at operation and seven have died of disease (54%). Thirteen patients had malignant cells in the peritoneal washings but no disease outside of the uterus and six (46%) of these have died of disseminated intra-abdominal carcinomatosis. On the basis of the poor outcome of those patients who had malignant cells in the peritoneal washings in the 167 patients studied, a plan of treating such patients with intraperitoneal radioactive chromic phosphate suspension (P-32) was instituted. Twenty-three subsequent patients with clinical Stage I carcinoma of the endometrium were found to have malignant cells in the peritoneal fluid. All 23 received intra-abdominal P-32 suspension instillation after operation. There have been three recurrences with two patients dying of disease. All of the three recurrences appeared at sites distant from the abdominal cavity. Peritoneal cytologic examination appears to be an important factor in the prognosis of endometrial cancer and, when the washings are positive for malignant cells, intraperitoneal chronic phosphate therapy appears to be efficacious.

  3. Adult granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: fine-needle-aspiration cytology of 10 cases and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sarfraz; Gattuso, Paolo; Howard, Allison; Mosunjac, Marina B; Siddiqui, Momin T

    2008-05-01

    Adult granulosa cell tumor (GCT) of the ovary is mostly diagnosed in postmenopausal women. They typically secrete estrogen, which stimulates the endometrium to proliferate and cause abnormal bleeding. This study reviews the cytologic features of adult GCT of the ovary diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA). We reviewed slides from ten cases diagnosed by CT guided FNA from 1995 to 2007 at our institutions. Smears were stained with Diff-Quik and Papanicolaou stains. Patient's history and histologic diagnosis were also available and reviewed for all cases. The patients ranged in age from 39 to 83 yr. All 10 cases were hypercellular with both large and small overlapping cell clusters and individual cells. The cytologic features identified included: naked nuclei (10/10 cases), Call-Exner bodies (7/10 cases), blood vessels with prominent perivascular tumor cell growth (4/10 cases), spindle-shaped hyperchromatic stromal cells within cellular clusters (6/10 cases), mixed inflammation (3/10 cases), tumor cell necrosis (1/10 cases), and prominent metachromatic stroma seen in association with blood vessels (1/10 cases). Moderate to scant delicate cytoplasm was also seen (10/10 cases). Small, punctuate cytoplasmic vacuoles were also noted (7/10 cases) and were occasionally prominent (3/10 cases). In general nuclear to cytoplasmic ratios were high although lower than those typically seen in a lymphoma or small-cell carcinoma. Nuclei were generally centrally located although eccentrically located nuclei were consistently seen in a minority of cells. Nuclei were monotonous in size showing slightly convoluted (occasional rentiform and fetiform nuclei) to polygonal outlines. Prominent, central nucleoli were also seen (4/10 cases). Nuclear grooves were also seen (9/10 cases). No atypical mitotic activity was identified in any of the 10 cases (0/10 cases). In summary, the above cytologic features can also help in the cytologic diagnosis of adult GCTs.

  4. High incidence of Zika virus infection detected in plasma and cervical cytology specimens from pregnant women in Guayaquil, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Hector; Waggoner, Jesse; León, Karina; Pinsky, Benjamin; Vera, Ketty; Schettino, Marissa; Rivera, Lisette; Landivar, José; Granda, María; Lee, Angela; Mor, Gil

    2017-02-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy has been linked to severe birth defects, and the epidemiologic situation of the ZIKV epidemic in Ecuador is poorly understood. Guayaquil, Ecuador, has a tropical climate and experiences frequent outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya virus, and in December 2015, ZIKV was identified. Given the well-documented effects of ZIKV in pregnancy, including microcephaly, we tested for the presence of ZIKV in both plasma and cervical cytology of pregnant women. We report the identification of a population of pregnant women with a high incidence of ZIKV infection detected in the plasma and lower reproductive tract. A case-control study was performed to determine the incidence of ZIKV infection among low-income, pregnant women at risk for preterm delivery compared to matched controls. Plasma and cervical cytology specimens were tested for ZIKV by rRT-PCR. Fifty-nine pregnant women were enrolled. The incidence of ZIKV was 54% (32/59) overall: 18/31 (58.1%) in cases and 14/28 (50.0%) in controls. ZIKV detection in plasma and cervical cytology specimens demonstrated good agreement. Overall, outcomes for neonates born to ZIKV-positive and ZIKV-negative mothers were similar. However, two neonates were born with microcephaly to case mothers who were ZIKV positive. We report a high incidence of ZIKV infection (54%) in a distinctive population in Guayaquil, Ecuador. We identify ZIKV in cervical samples that correlates with ZIKV in the plasma. These data raise concerns regarding the breadth of the ZIKV epidemic in Ecuador and demonstrate the utility of cervical cytology specimens for ZIKV testing.

  5. A comparison between the Accu-Pap device and the extended-tip wooden Ayre spatula for cervical cytology sampling.

    PubMed

    Stock, R J; Thurmond, A I; Passmore, A

    1988-01-01

    The wooden Ayre spatula with an extended endocervical tip was compared with both designs of the plastic Accu-Pap sampler in two series of 100 consecutive patients to compare their adequacy in obtaining samples for cervical cytology. There was no significant advantage noted in the smears taken by either spatula. In terms of the sequence of smears, the second smear generally contained more endocervical cells and less often showed an absence of diagnostic cells.

  6. Molecular Diagnosis Using Residual Liquid-Based Cytology Materials for Patients with Nondiagnostic or Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Eszlinger, Markus; Paschke, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Background Molecular analysis for common somatic mutations in thyroid cancer can improve diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the nondiagnostic or indeterminate category of thyroid nodules. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of molecular diagnosis from residual liquid-based cytology (LBC) material after cytological diagnosis. Methods This prospective study enrolled 53 patients with thyroid nodules diagnosed as nondiagnostic, atypia of undetermined significance (AUS), or follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS) after FNAC. DNAs and RNAs were isolated from residual LBC materials. BRAFV600E and RAS point mutations, PAX8/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), RET/PTC1, and RET/PTC3 rearrangements were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and pyrosequencing. Results All DNAs from 53 residual LBC samples could be analysed and point mutations were detected in 10 samples (19%). In 17 AUS nodules, seven samples (41%) had point mutations including BRAF (n=4), NRAS (n=2), and KRAS (n=1). In 20 FLUS nodules, three samples (15%) had NRAS point mutations. RNA from only one FLUS nodule could be analysed for rearrangements and there was no abnormality. Conclusion Molecular analysis for BRAF and RAS mutations was feasible in residual LBC materials and might be useful for diagnosis of indeterminate thyroid nodules. PMID:27834083

  7. ASVCP quality assurance guidelines: control of preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical factors for urinalysis, cytology, and clinical chemistry in veterinary laboratories.

    PubMed

    Gunn-Christie, Rebekah G; Flatland, Bente; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Szladovits, Balazs; Harr, Kendal E; Ruotsalo, Kristiina; Knoll, Joyce S; Wamsley, Heather L; Freeman, Kathy P

    2012-03-01

    In December 2009, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards committee published the updated and peer-reviewed ASVCP Quality Assurance Guidelines on the Society's website. These guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports: (1) general analytical factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons; (2) hematology, hemostasis, and crossmatching; and (3) clinical chemistry, cytology, and urinalysis. This particular report is one of 3 reports and documents recommendations for control of preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical factors related to urinalysis, cytology, and clinical chemistry in veterinary laboratories and is adapted from sections 1.1 and 2.2 (clinical chemistry), 1.3 and 2.5 (urinalysis), 1.4 and 2.6 (cytology), and 3 (postanalytical factors important in veterinary clinical pathology) of these guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimal guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing and a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts.

  8. Characterization of inflammatory responses by cervical cytology, cytokine expression and ultrastructure changes in a goat subclinical endometritis model

    PubMed Central

    SHAO, Chunyan; WANG, Heng; WANG, Xiaodu; JIANG, Sheng; SUN, Jing; SONG, Houhui; LI, Jianji

    2016-01-01

    Endometritis is a common puerperal disease in livestock. Thus, a practical clinical test for the establishment of diagnosis is needed. We developed a goat model for subclinical endometritis diagnosis by examining cytological, ultrastructural features and molecular expression in cervical discharge collected by cervical cytobrush method. A suspension of E. coli was infused into the uterine horn of goats, and cervical discharge, peripheral blood and endomertrial biopsy samples were collected before inoculation and at 3, 6, 12, 24, 72, 120 and 168 hr post-inoculation (pi). In experimental goats, total leukocytes increased at 6–12 hr pi in hematological examinations, abundant neutrophils were observed in cervical discharge smears, and some micro-villi shortened or were lost from the epithelium at 3 hr pi, with some inflammatory cells infiltrated into the uterine glands and lamina propria. The mRNA expression levels of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), cytokines and β-defensin-2 increased significantly within 12 hr pi and returned to pre-inoculation levels at 7 day pi. The results showed that subclinical endometritis was simulated in this bacterial infusion goat model, and the evaluation of cervical cytology was in good agreement with molecular changes of cytokines in cervical discharge, hematology and histology. We thus conclude that the simple cervical cytobrush technique can effectively obtain cervical discharge samples for cytology examination in the early diagnosis of subclinical endometritis in goats. PMID:27746413

  9. Observations on the application of the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology standardised terminology and nomenclature for pancreaticobiliary cytology.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Madeleine; Newman, Marsali

    2016-06-01

    In 2014 the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology (PSC) published a system of standardised terminology and nomenclature for pancreaticobiliary cytology (STNPC). In the present study, 232 previously reported pancreaticobiliary cytology specimens were categorised according to this set of guidelines in order to identify potential challenges to implementation of the PSC system into routine practice. Overall, 207 (89%) of the cases were found to comply with the PSC scheme in their original form. Twenty-five cases (11%) demonstrated that the application of the PSC system would result in a change of category. In the majority of these cases, the change was related to the method of categorising low grade and premalignant neoplasms, using the categories of 'Neoplastic: other' (a new category unique to STNPC classification scheme) and 'Atypical', for specimens deemed to be diagnostic of or suspicious for these lesions, respectively. The study also highlighted the emphasis on the inclusion of imaging context and cyst fluid analysis in the interpretation of endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration specimens in the guidelines. The STNPC offers an approach to pancreaticobiliary cytology that reflects the considerable variation in the nature and treatment of the entities that may be encountered in these specimens. Challenges in utilisation of the scheme include awareness of the unique approach to the categorisation of premalignant and low grade neoplasms, and the amount and quality of available clinical and imaging information.

  10. (Irradiation creep of graphite)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.R.

    1990-12-21

    The traveler attended the Conference, International Symposium on Carbon, to present an invited paper, Irradiation Creep of Graphite,'' and chair one of the technical sessions. There were many papers of particular interest to ORNL and HTGR technology presented by the Japanese since they do not have a particular technology embargo and are quite open in describing their work and results. In particular, a paper describing the failure of Minor's law to predict the fatigue life of graphite was presented. Although the conference had an international flavor, it was dominated by the Japanese. This was primarily a result of geography; however, the work presented by the Japanese illustrated an internal program that is very comprehensive. This conference, a result of this program, was better than all other carbon conferences attended by the traveler. This conference emphasizes the need for US participation in international conferences in order to stay abreast of the rapidly expanding HTGR and graphite technology throughout the world. The United States is no longer a leader in some emerging technologies. The traveler was surprised by the Japanese position in their HTGR development. Their reactor is licensed and the major problem in their graphite program is how to eliminate it with the least perturbation now that most of the work has been done.

  11. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-07-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies.

  12. Irradiation of Northwest agricultural products

    SciTech Connect

    Eakin, D.E.; Tingey, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect control procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this program to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

  13. Irradiation pretreatment for coal desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Process using highly-penetrating nuclear radiation (Beta and Gamma radiation) from nuclear power plant radioactive waste to irradiate coal prior to conventional desulfurization procedures increases total extraction of sulfur.

  14. Slag recycling of irradiated vanadium

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, Patrick K.

    1995-04-05

    An experimental inductoslag apparatus to recycle irradiated vanadium was fabricated and tested. An experimental electroslag apparatus was also used to test possible slags. The testing was carried out with slag materials that were fabricated along with impurity bearing vanadium samples. Results obtained include computer simulated thermochemical calculations and experimentally determined removal efficiencies of the transmutation impurities. Analyses of the samples before and after testing were carried out to determine if the slag did indeed remove the transmutation impurities from the irradiated vanadium.

  15. Consumer attitudes toward irradiated food

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, S.

    1994-12-31

    Throughout history, new methods of food preservation have been met with skepticism and fear. Such processes as pasteurization and canning were denounced as being dangerous, detrimental to nutrients, or an excuse for dirty products. Now comes irradiation, and activists argue against this new process for the same reasons. Publicly, the perception is that consumers, distrustful of nuclear power, will never buy or accept irradiated food.

  16. Lymph node and lymphoid organs fine needle aspiration cytology: historical background.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, Immacolata; Vigliar, Elena; Vetrani, Antonio; Zeppa, Pio

    2012-01-01

    Lymph node has probably been the first target of Fine Needle Cytology (FNC) and among the latest to be accepted as an affordable diagnostic procedure. In 1912, dr. Hirschfeld performed FNC to diagnose cutaneous lymphomas and other tumours. Subsequently FNC was used to diagnose lymphoblastoma and splenic FNC to diagnose leishmaniasis on Romanowsky-stained smears. One of the first systematic study on lymph node FNC was then performed at John Hopkins Hospital, in Baltimore (USA) using FNC and Romanowsky stain on air-dried smears. In the twenties, two independent groups from Memorial Hospital (New York, USA), worked on FNC of a large scale of different human pathologies. One of this study reported 1,405 diagnoses of cancer and other diseases by means of FNC, mainly performed on lymph nodes (662 cases). In the sixties, at the Karolinska Hospital (Stockholm, Sweden) a group of cytopathologists started a Cytopathology Service available to the whole Institution, which exploited all fields of FNC. Since then, the procedure spread all over the word and nowadays it is routinely used for the diagnosis of different organs and pathologies including lymph node. Distinguished cytopathologists have worked on lymph nodal FNC producing significant advances and highlighting advantages and inevitable limitations of the technique. Despite some persistent criticism, FNC is a generally accepted procedure in the first diagnosis of lymph nodes enlargement. Moreover, numerous studies have demonstrated that vital cells obtained by FNC are excellent samples suitable for molecular evaluation, offering new challenging application to lymph node FNC.

  17. Cytological identification of an Aegilops variabilis chromosome carrying stripe rust resistance in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Laibin; Ning, Shunzong; Yu, Jianjun; Hao, Ming; Zhang, Lianquan; Yuan, Zhongwei; Zheng, Youliang; Liu, Dengcai

    2016-01-01

    Aegilops variabilis (UUSvSv), an important sources for wheat improvement, originated from chromosome doubling of a natural hybrid between Ae. umbellulata (UU) with Ae. longissima (SlSl). The Ae. variabilis karyotype was poorly characterized by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The FISH probe combination of pSc119.2, pTa71 and pTa-713 identified each of the 14 pairs of Ae. variabilis chromosomes. Our FISH ideogram was further used to detect an Ae. variabilis chromosome carrying stripe rust resistance in the background of wheat lines developed from crosses of the stripe rust susceptible bread wheat cultivar Yiyuan 2 with a resistant Ae. variabilis accession. Among the 15 resistant BC1F7 lines, three were 2Sv + 4Sv addition lines (2n = 46) and 12 were 2Sv(2B) or 2Sv(2D) substitution lines that were confirmed with SSR markers. SSR marker gwm148 can be used to trace 2Sv in common wheat background. Chromosome 2Sv probably carries gametocidal(Gc) gene(s) since cytological instability and chromosome structural variations, including non-homologous translocations, were observed in some lines with this chromosome. Due to the effects of photoperiod genes, substitution lines 2Sv(2D) and 2Sv(2B) exhibited late heading with 2Sv(2D) lines being later than 2Sv(2B) lines. 2Sv(2D) substitution lines were also taller and exhibited higher spikelet numbers and longer spikes. PMID:27795677

  18. Capitate glandular trichomes of Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae): ultrastructure and cytological development.

    PubMed

    Amrehn, Evelyn; Heller, Annerose; Spring, Otmar

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that capitate glandular trichomes (CGT) of the common sunflower, Helianthus annuus, produce sesquiterpene lactones (STL) and flavonoids, which are sequestered and accumulated between the apical cuticle and the wall of the tip cells. To explore the cellular structures required and putatively involved in the STL biosynthesis and secretion, the present study was focused on the development of CGT and the comparison of the ultrastructure of its different cell types. Gradual maturation of flowers in the capitulum of the sunflower provided the possibility to study the simultaneous differentiation from the primordial to the secretory stage of CGT located by light microscopy (bright field, differential interference contrast and fluorescence) as well as transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the CGT of sunflower anthers had a biseriate structure with up to 14 cell pairs. In mature trichomes, the apical cells called secretory cells were covered entirely by a large cuticle globe, which enclosed the resinous terpenoids and was specialised in thickness and structure. The secretory cells lacked chloroplasts and contained mainly smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER). Conspicuous cell wall protuberances and an accumulation of mitochondria nearby occurred in the horizontally oriented cell walls. The cytological differences between stalk cells and secretory cells indicate a different function. The dominance of sER suggests its involvement in STL biosynthesis and cell wall protuberances enlarge the surface of the plasmamembrane of secretory cells and may be involved in the secretion processes of STL into the subcuticular space.

  19. Chronic exposure of rats to occupational textile noise causes cytological changes in adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria Joao R; Monteiro, Mariana P; Ribeiro, Andreia M; Pignatelli, Duarte; Aguas, Artur P

    2009-01-01

    Chronic exposure to industrial noise and its effects on biological systems. Occupational exposure to noise may result in health disorders. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of chronic exposure to high-intensity noise of textile industry cotton rooms on the adrenal morphology. The environmental noise of a cotton-mill room from a large textile factory of Northern Portugal was recorded and reproduced by an adopted electroacoustic setup in a sound-insulated animal room where the rats were housed. The sounds were reproduced at the original levels of approximately 92 dB, which was achieved by equalization and distribution of sound output in the room. Wistar rats were submitted to noise exposure, in the same time schedule as employed in textile plants. After one, three, five, and seven months, the adrenals were collected and analyzed by light microscopy. Analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance and post hoc Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons of the means between the groups. Noise exposure induced time-dependent changes in adrenal cortex, with decrease of zona fasciculata (ZF) and increase of zona reticularis volumes, together with a significant depletion of lipid droplet density in ZF cells of exposed rats, in comparison to control rats. Chronic exposure of rats to textile industry noise triggers cytological changes in the adrenals that suggest the existence of a sustained stress response.

  20. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Type Distribution in Females with Abnormal Cervical Cytology. A Correlation with Histological Study

    PubMed Central

    Cobo, Fernando; Concha, Ángel; Ortiz, Marta

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine human papillomavirus (HPV) types distribution in cervical preneoplasic lesions in a Southern Spanish population and their relationship between HPV type and grade of histopathological abnormality. Finally, 232 cervical samples from 135 women with previous cytological abnormalities were included in this study. Colposcopy studies and biopsies were performed. Haematoxylin-eosin stained slides were observed and detection of HPV DNA in cervical swabs was carried out with use of a polymerase chain reaction and microarrays technology. The relationship between the presence of HPV infection and diagnostic variables was evaluated. HPV 16 was the most common type followed by HPV 58, 51, 33 and 31. However, the two HPV types targeted in the prophylactic vaccines such as HPV type 16 and 18 were detected in only 37 (21.2%) and 2 (1.1%) cases respectively. Thirty-three (18.9%) of samples were infected with multiple types, the majority of them with two types. In addition, during the follow-up of patients many changes in type distribution were observed. Several studies will be necessary in order to evaluate the HPV type distribution for therapeutically and prophylactic purposes such as vaccine treatment. Also, because of the differences obtained depending of use of various DNA technologies, the performance of some comparative studies of the different methods from detection of HPV would be advisable in a high population of patients and with the most homogeneous conditions possible. PMID:19750125