Science.gov

Sample records for irradiation abrogates graft-versus-host

  1. Graft irradiation abrogates graft-versus-host disease in combined pancreas-spleen transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Schulak, J.A.; Sharp, W.J.

    1986-04-01

    A model of combined pancreas-spleen transplantation (PST) was studied in LBN F1 recipients of Lewis grafts in order to evaluate the efficacy of pretransplant graft irradiation in preventing lethal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Recipients of unmodified PST uniformly developed severe GVHD and died (MST = 16.7 +/- 3.8 days). Whole body donor irradiation with either 500 or 250 rad prevented lethal GVHD. Similarly, ex vivo graft irradiation with either 1000 or 500 rad also resulted in normal weight gain, graft function, and host survival for the 6-week study period. Conversely, delay of graft irradiation until 3 days after transplantation failed to prevent this complication (MST = 15.8 +/- 3.7 days). Recipients of irradiated grafts displayed glucose tolerance tests that were identical to those in the control group indicating that the doses of radiation employed in these experiments were not deleterious to islet function. Irradiated spleen grafts appeared histologically normal at 6 weeks after transplantation. Cells derived from these grafts failed to stimulate lymph node enlargement in a popliteal lymph node assay for GVHD, suggesting that these spleens may have become repopulated with host cells. These experiments confirm that PST has the potential to cause lethal GVHD and suggest that pretransplant graft irradiation may be used to prevent its occurrence.

  2. In vitro allograft irradiation prevents graft-versus-host disease in small-bowel transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.K.; Schraut, W.H.

    1985-04-01

    In small-bowel transplantation, the transfer of large numbers of donor lymphocytes with the intestinal allograft may provoke a lethal graft-versus-host reaction. The effectiveness of allograft irradiation in vitro as a method of preventing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was studied in a rat model of small-bowel transplantation, with the Lewis----Lewis X Brown Norway F1 hybrid strain combination. Cold harvested small-bowel allografts were irradiated immediately prior to heterotopic or orthotopic transplantation. Animals that had received heterotopic allografts irradiated with 0, 250, or 500 rad all died of GVHD after 14.4 +/- 3.0, 15.0 +/- 1.3, and 14.2 +/- 1.9 days, respectively. None of the animals that had received allografts treated with 1000 rad developed clinical or pathologic evidence of GVHD, however, and all survived for more than 6 months (P less than 0.001). Allograft function was studied in animals that underwent orthotopic transplantation. Recipients of nonirradiated orthotopic allografts all died of GVHD after 14.0 +/- 0.7 days, whereas recipients of allografts irradiated with 1000 rad all survived for more than 5 months (P less than 0.001). After 120 days, weight gain (51.8 +/- 11.7%), serum albumin (3.9 +/- 0.7 g/dl), serum triglycerides (67.0 +/- 24.3 mg/dl), CBC, and differential in these animals were not statistically different from those in either age-matched isograft recipients or normal animals, and when the rats were sacrificed, irradiated allografts showed no changes suggestive of radiation injury. These results indicate that irradiation of small-bowel allografts in vitro prevents development of GVHD, and that this can be achieved at a dose which does not cause injury to or malfunction of the allograft.

  3. Abrogation of hybrid resistance to bone marrow engraftment by graft versus host induced immune deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Hakim, F.T.; Shearer, G.M.

    1986-03-01

    Lethally irradiated F/sub 1/ mice, heterozygous at the hematopoietic histocompatibility (Hh) locus at H-2D/sup b/, reject bone marrow grafts from homozygous H-2/sup b/ parents. This hybrid resistance (HR) is reduced by prior injection of H-2/sup b/ parental spleen cells. Since injection of parental spleen cells produces a profound suppression of F/sub 1/ immune functions, the authors investigated whether parental-induced abrogation of HR was due to graft-vs-host induced immune deficiency (GVHID). HR was assessed by quantifying engraftment in irradiated mice using /sup 125/I-IUdR spleen uptake; GVHID by measuring generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) from unirradiated mice. They observed correlation in time course, spleen dose dependence and T cell dependence between GVHID and loss of HR. The injection of B10 recombinant congenic spleens into (B10 x B10.A) F/sub 1/ mice, prior to grafting with B10 marrow, demonstrated that only those disparities in major histocompatibility antigens which generated GVHID would result in loss of HR. Spleens from (B10 x B10.A(2R))F/sub 1/ mice (Class I disparity only) did not induce GVHID or affect HR, while (B10 x B10.A(5R)F/sub 1/ spleens (Class I and II disparity) abrogated CTL generation and HR completely. GVHID produced by a Class II only disparity, as in (B10 x B10.A(5R))F/sub 1/ spleens injected into (B6/sup bm12 x B10.A(5R))F/sub 1/ mice, was also sufficient to markedly reduce HR to B10 bone marrow. Modulation of hematopoietic graft rejection by GVHID may affect marrow engraftment in man.

  4. Low-dose thoracoabdominal irradiation for the treatment of refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Robin, Marie; Guardiola, Philippe; Girinsky, Théodore; Hernandez, Gabriella; Espérou, Hélène; Ribaud, Patricia; Rocha, Vanderson; Garnier, Federico; Socié, Gérard; Gluckman, Eliane; Devergie, Agnès

    2005-09-15

    Half of the patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) do not achieve a complete remission with first-line therapy. No clear recommendations are available regarding second-line treatments. We retrospectively report our single-center experience of low-dose thoracoabdominal irradiation (1-Gy TAI) in 41 patients with refractory extensive chronic GvHD from 1983 to 2000. Median time from extensive chronic GvHD to TAI was one year (median GvHD episodes before TAI, n = 4). Eighty-two percent of the patients achieved a clinical response at a median of 34 days after TAI (range, 15-180). Best response rates were observed in fasciitis (79%), and oral GvHD lesions (73%). A complete clinical response was achieved in 11 patients by 2 years postTAI. Fifty-seven percent of the patients had at least a 50% reduction of their corticosteroid daily dose by 6 months postTAI. Probability of corticosteroid discontinuation was 38% by 2 years postTAI (95% CI, 23-56%). Two-year chronic GvHD relapse incidence was 34%. Ten-year survival from irradiation was 57% (95% CI, 42-78%); patients with fasciitis, lymphocytes >1.0 x 10/L, and platelets >200 x 10/L had a better outcome. TAI is a safe and efficient option in patients with refractory chronic GvHD, leading to a significant tapering of systemic corticosteroid dose in most cases.

  5. Separate effects of irradiation and of graft-versus-host reaction on rat mucosal mast cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, A G; Munro, G H; Huntley, J F; Miller, H R; Ferguson, A

    1989-01-01

    T cell mediated immune responses in the gut can produce enteropathy and malabsorption. We have investigated the relevance of mucosal mast cells (MMC) to the mechanisms of this enteropathy by using graft-versus-host reaction (GvHR) in the rat as a model of mucosal delayed type hypersensitivity. Measurements of mucosal architecture, intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) and MMC counts were performed in control and experimental rats, and release of rat mast cell protease II (RMCPII) into the bloodstream was used as an index of MMC activation. In unirradiated rats, jejunal MMC count was increased on day 14 of the GvHR (mean 272/mm2 v 182 in controls, p less than 0.01), as was serum RMCPII (p less than 0.01). Irradiated rats (4.5 Gy, reconstituted with isogeneic spleen cells) had low counts of IEL and crypt hyperplasia seven to 14 days after irradiation. Irradiated rats with GvHR (induced by ip injection of parental strain spleen cells) and studied on days 7, 10 and 14, had significant enteropathy with longer crypts and higher CCPR than matched irradiated animals (p less than 0.05 on day 14 when compared with irradiation alone). Intraepithelial lymphocytes counts, however, reflected only the effect of radiation. Irradiation, with or without GvHR, led to the virtual disappearance of jejunal MMC, undetectable jejunal RMCPII and very low levels of RMCPII in serum (all p less than 0.01 when compared with unirradiated controls). These experiments show that there is a modest expansion in jejunal MMC in unirradiated rats with semiallogeneic GvHR, whereas irradiation, alone or associated with GvHR, profoundly depletes MMC for at least two weeks. The enteropathy of GvHR can evolve in the virtual absence of MMC. PMID:2707634

  6. [Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease guideline on gamma irradiation of blood components].

    PubMed

    Landi, E P; de Oliveira, J S

    1999-01-01

    Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) is a rare and usually fatal syndrome. Clinical manifestations are fever, maculopapular skin rash, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hepatitis and pancytopenia owing to bone marrow hypoplasia. It can occur in recipients with severe immunosuppression and in immunocompetent recipients after transfusion of cellular components from HLA homozygous donor to recipients heterozygous for that HLA haplotype. The diagnosis is made by clinical manifestation and skin biopsy. Antithymocyte globulin and high dose systemic corticosteroids are both the most used therapy. The back of knowledge about this syndrome, the rapid evolution and the absence of treatment response are related to patients bad evolution. Gamma irradiation of blood products has been the mainstay of TA-GVHD prevention. Dose of 2500 cGy is required to completely inactivate T cells. Irradiation damage red cells membrane and the red celis units can not be storage for long time after irradiation. High potassium levels is the mainly change in red cells units. White cell-reduction filters do not prevent TA-GVHD and gamma irradiation does not prevent alloimmunization or blood reactions. Only cellular components like whole blood, red cells, platelets and granulocytes need be irradiated. Ali blood components should be irradiated to: first or second-degree relatives, patients need HLA-matched platelets, recipients of allogeneic or autologous bone marrow transplantation, patients with Hodgkin's disease, patients treated with purine analogue drugs, intrauterine transfusion, pre-term infants and when congenítal immunodeficiency states is suspected. It is recommended irrradiated blood to patients with neoplastic disease when they receive intensive chemotherapy.

  7. Cutaneous graft-versus-host disease after proton-based craniospinal irradiation for recurrent Philadelphia-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Hadley; Grosshans, David; Kadia, Tapan; Dabaja, Bouthaina Shbib

    2012-07-11

    Treatment of recurrent acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) often involves allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (alloSCT) and disease recurrence in the central nervous system may require craniospinal irradiation. Although graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a known risk after alloSCT, cutaneous manifestation within radiation fields is rarely seen. The authors report a case of a 25-year-old man with Philadelphia+ALL recurring in the central nervous system after a homologous SCT. Craniospinal radiation was delivered with proton therapy to a total dose of 24 cobalt-Gray-equivalents in 12 fractions. Eight weeks after the proton therapy, significant cutaneous GVHD had developed within the radiation fields. This was treated successfully with tacrolimus (4 mg/day), a short course of methylprednisolone, and topical treatment with 0.1% triamcinolone cream, 0.05% clobetasol ointment. Cutaneous GVHD after SCT can be seen within proton radiation fields probably due to an inherent higher skin dose.

  8. Engraftment of allogeneic bone marrow without graft-versus-host disease in mongrel dogs using total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, M.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.; Grumet, F.C.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1980-06-01

    We achieved long-term engraftment of unmatched bone marrow (BM) in dogs without graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) using a regimen of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) which could be applied clinically. Twelve normal adult mongrel dogs were given TLI in 18 fractions of 100 rad each (total dose, 1800 rad) over 4 weeks to mantle and abdominal fields in continuity. Nine of the 12 were transfused with one or two random donor whole blood transfusions during the irradiation regimen to determine the risk of sensitization after the onset of immunosuppression. A mean (+- SD) of 0.71 +- 0.54 x 10/sup 9/ BM cells/kg of recipient body weight from unrelated sex-mismatched donors was infused within 24 h of the 18th irradiation fraction. Engraftment was assessed by demonstration of donor-type sex chromosomes in spontaneous metaphase spreads of recipient marrow aspirates, and by the appearance of donor-type red blood cells antigens (DEA) in the recipients' blood. Three untransfused and nine transfused recipients were shown to be stable mixed BM chimeras during a followup period of 2 to 11 months after transplantation. Blood transfusion during TLI did not result in graft rejection. We observed no clinical signs of acute or chronic GVHD. TLI has minimal toxicity when compared with conditioning regimens currently used in BM transplantation for aplastic anemia. Potential advantages of the TLI regimen include the opportunity to use unmatched marrow donors and protection from GVHD.

  9. Graft-versus-host disease

    MedlinePlus

    GVHD; Bone marrow transplant - graft-versus-host disease; Stem cell transplant - graft-versus-host disease; Allogeneic transplant - ... GVHD may occur after a bone marrow, or stem cell, transplant in which someone receives bone marrow ...

  10. The graft-versus-host reaction and immune function. II. Recruitment of pre-T-cells in vivo by graft-versus-host-induced dysplastic thymuses following irradiation and bone marrow treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Seddik, M.; Seemayer, T.A.; Lapp, W.S.

    1984-03-01

    The graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction induces thymic dysplasia and an arrest in T cell differentiation. Studies were performed to test the effect of irradiation and reconstitution with bone marrow on GVH-induced thymic dysplasia and T cell differentiation. GVH reactions were induced in CBAxAF1 adult mice by the injection of A strain lymphoid cells. All GVH-reactive mice were immunosuppressed by day 7 after GVH induction and thymic dysplasia was evident by day 24. Forty days after the induction of the GVH reaction the mice were irradiated (850 rads) and repopulated with 10-15 X 10(6) syngeneic or parental bone marrow cells. Thirty days after irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution, GVH-reactive mice were used for histological and functional studies. These mice displayed near-normal thymus morphology with scattered epithelial cells in the medulla, and normal numbers of Thy-1-positive cells. Donor cells had totally repopulated thymuses of irradiated bone marrow reconstituted mice by day 19 after irradiation. T helper cell function did not recover in the reconstituted mice. These results suggest that (1) the process responsible for GVH-induced thymic dysplasia is radiosensitive, and (2) the thymus has the potential to regenerate a normal structure, but fails to regain normal function.

  11. Minor antigen graft-versus-host reactions revealed in irradiated spleen and popliteal lymph node assays

    SciTech Connect

    Claman, H.N.; Jaffee, B.D.

    1984-10-01

    The graft-versus-hot (GVH) reaction across minor (non-H-2) histocompatibility barriers was studied in mice, in vivo. To increase GVH potential and to mimic clinical bone marrow transplantation protocols, we modified the popliteal lymph node (PLN) and the splenomegaly assays by irradiating the recipients before they received allogeneic lymphoid cell suspensions. In several combinations across major (H-2), minor (non-H-2) and multiple minor (non-H-2 plus minor lymphocyte stimulation) barriers, increased recipient organ weight (a measure of GVH activity) was seen with irradiated F1 recipients of parental cells. The irradiated splenomegaly (x-splenomegaly) assay was more sensitive than the (x-PLN) assay, but both correlated with in vivo GVH experiments of the P----F1 variety. The x-splenomegaly test indicated histoincompatibility in a system (B10.D2----BALB/c) in which the primary in vitro mixed leukocyte reactions is nonreactive, but in which systemic GVH can be induced. The x-splenomegaly test should be useful in analyzing complex reactions involving minor histocompatibility antigens in vivo.

  12. Graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Vogelsang, G B; Wagner, J E

    1990-06-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is caused by immunologic recognition of the patient by the donor marrow graft after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Despite advances in understanding and new agents and methods to treat GVHD, the disease and complications related to it and its treatment are the principal causes of death after transplantation. This article reviews the pathogenesis, prediction, prophylaxis, and treatment of both acute and chronic GVHD.

  13. Fulminant transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease in a premature infant

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, R.S.; Dixon, S.L.

    1989-05-01

    A fatal case of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease developed in a premature infant after receiving several blood products, including nonirradiated white blood cells. Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease can be prevented. Irradiation of blood products is the least controversial and most effective method. Treatment was unsuccessful in most reported cases of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease. Therefore irradiation of blood products before transfusing to patients susceptible to transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease is strongly recommended.

  14. Treatment of whole blood with riboflavin plus ultraviolet light, an alternative to gamma irradiation in the prevention of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease?

    PubMed

    Fast, Loren D; Nevola, Martha; Tavares, Jennifer; Reddy, Heather L; Goodrich, Ray P; Marschner, Susanne

    2013-02-01

    Exposure of blood products to gamma irradiation is currently the standard of care in the prevention of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD). Regulatory, technical, and clinical challenges associated with the use of gamma irradiators are driving efforts to develop alternatives. Pathogen reduction methods were initially developed to reduce the risk of microbial transmission by blood components. Through modifications of nucleic acids, these technologies interfere with the replication of both pathogens and white blood cells (WBCs). To date, systems for pathogen and WBC inactivation of products containing red blood cells are less well established than those for platelets and plasma. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo function of WBCs present in whole blood after exposure to riboflavin plus ultraviolet light (Rb-UV) was examined and compared to responses of WBCs obtained from untreated or gamma-irradiated blood by measuring proliferation, cytokine production, activation, and antigen presentation and xenogeneic (X-)GVHD responses in an in vivo mouse model. In vitro studies demonstrated that treatment of whole blood with Rb-UV was as effective as gamma irradiation in preventing WBC proliferation, but was more effective in preventing antigen presentation, cytokine production, and T-cell activation. Consistent with in vitro findings, treatment with Rb-UV was as effective as gamma irradiation in preventing X-GVHD, a mouse model for TA-GVHD. The ability to effectively inactivate WBCs in fresh whole blood using Rb-UV, prior to separation into components, provides the transfusion medicine community with a potential alternative to gamma irradiation. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  15. Longitudinal trajectory of sexual functioning after hematopoietic cell transplantation: impact of chronic graft-versus-host disease and total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wong, F Lennie; Francisco, Liton; Togawa, Kayo; Kim, Heeyoung; Bosworth, Alysia; Atencio, Liezl; Hanby, Cara; Grant, Marcia; Kandeel, Fouad; Forman, Stephen J; Bhatia, Smita

    2013-12-05

    This prospective study described the trajectory of sexual well-being from before hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to 3 years after in 131 allogeneic and 146 autologous HCT recipients using Derogatis Interview for Sexual Function and Derogatis Global Sexual Satisfaction Index. Sixty-one percent of men and 37% of women were sexually active pre-HCT; the prevalence declined to 51% (P = .01) in men and increased to 48% (P = .02) in women at 3 years post-HCT. After HCT, sexual satisfaction declined in both sexes (P < .001). All sexual function domains were worse in women compared with men (P ≤ .001). Orgasm (P = .002) and drive/relationship (P < .001) declined in men, but sexual cognition/fantasy (P = .01) and sexual behavior/experience (P = .01) improved in women. Older age negatively impacted sexual function post-HCT in both sexes (P < .01). Chronic graft-versus-host disease was associated with lower sexual cognition/fantasy (P = .003) and orgasm (P = .006) in men and sexual arousal (P = .05) and sexual satisfaction (P = .005) in women. All male sexual function domains declined after total body irradiation (P < .05). This study identifies vulnerable subpopulations that could benefit from interventional strategies to improve sexual well-being.

  16. Longitudinal trajectory of sexual functioning after hematopoietic cell transplantation: impact of chronic graft-versus-host disease and total body irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, F. Lennie; Francisco, Liton; Togawa, Kayo; Kim, Heeyoung; Bosworth, Alysia; Atencio, Liezl; Hanby, Cara; Grant, Marcia; Kandeel, Fouad; Forman, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study described the trajectory of sexual well-being from before hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to 3 years after in 131 allogeneic and 146 autologous HCT recipients using Derogatis Interview for Sexual Function and Derogatis Global Sexual Satisfaction Index. Sixty-one percent of men and 37% of women were sexually active pre-HCT; the prevalence declined to 51% (P = .01) in men and increased to 48% (P = .02) in women at 3 years post-HCT. After HCT, sexual satisfaction declined in both sexes (P < .001). All sexual function domains were worse in women compared with men (P ≤ .001). Orgasm (P = .002) and drive/relationship (P < .001) declined in men, but sexual cognition/fantasy (P = .01) and sexual behavior/experience (P = .01) improved in women. Older age negatively impacted sexual function post-HCT in both sexes (P < .01). Chronic graft-versus-host disease was associated with lower sexual cognition/fantasy (P = .003) and orgasm (P = .006) in men and sexual arousal (P = .05) and sexual satisfaction (P = .005) in women. All male sexual function domains declined after total body irradiation (P < .05). This study identifies vulnerable subpopulations that could benefit from interventional strategies to improve sexual well-being. PMID:24159171

  17. Treatment of cutaneous and/or soft tissue manifestations of corticosteroids refractory chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) by a total nodal irradiation (TNI).

    PubMed

    Peyraga, Guillaume; Lizee, Thibaut; Gustin, Pierre; Clement-Colmou, Karen; Di Bartolo, Christelle; Supiot, Stephane; Mahe, Marc-Andre; François, Sylvie; Mege, Martine

    2017-02-09

    The management of corticosteroids refractory chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) remains controversial. Retrospective analysis of patients treated at the Integrated Center of Oncology by total nodal irradiation (TNI) was performed to evaluate its therapy potency. TNI delivers a dose of 1 Gy in a single session. The delimitation of the fields is clinical (upper limit: external auditory meatus; lower limit: mid-femur). No pre-therapeutic dosimetry scanner was necessary. Evaluation of the efficacy was by clinical measures at 6 months after the treatment. Twelve patients were treated by TNI between January 2010 and December 2013. TNI was used in second-line treatment or beyond. The median time between allograft and TNI was 31.2 months, and the median time between the first manifestations of cGVHD and TNI was about 24.2 months. Of the 12 patients, nine had a clinical response at 6 months (75%), including five complete clinical responses (41.6%). Five patients could benefit from a reduction of corticosteroid doses. Three patients had hematologic toxicity. TNI could be considered as an option for the treatment of a cutaneous and/or soft tissues corticosteroids refractory cGVHD. However, prospective randomized and double-blind trials remain essential to answer the questions about TNI safety and effectiveness.

  18. Subclinical pulmonary function defects following autologous and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: relationship to total body irradiation and graft-versus-host disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tait, R.C.; Burnett, A.K.; Robertson, A.G.; McNee, S.; Riyami, B.M.; Carter, R.; Stevenson, R.D. )

    1991-06-01

    Pulmonary function results pre- and post-transplant, to a maximum of 4 years, were analyzed in 98 patients with haematological disorders undergoing allogeneic (N = 53) or autologous bone marrow transplantation (N = 45) between 1982 and 1988. All received similar total body irradiation based regimens ranging from 9.5 Gy as a single fraction to 14.4 Gy fractionated. FEV1/FVC as a measure of airway obstruction showed little deterioration except in patients experiencing graft-versus-host disease in whom statistically significant obstructive ventilatory defects were evident by 6 months post-transplant (p less than 0.01). These defects appeared to be permanent. Restrictive ventilatory defects, as measured by reduction in TLC, and defects in diffusing capacity (DLCO and KCO) were also maximal at 6 months post-transplant (p less than 0.01). Both were related, at least in part, to the presence of GVHD (p less than 0.01) or use of single fraction TBI with absorbed lung dose of 8.0 Gy (p less than 0.05). Fractionated TBI resulted in less marked restricted ventilation and impaired gas exchange, which reverted to normal by 2 years, even when the lung dose was increased from 11.0 Gy to between 12.0 and 13.5 Gy. After exclusion of patients with GVHD (30% allografts) there was no significant difference in pulmonary function abnormalities between autograft and allograft recipients.

  19. Experimental studies of immunologically mediated enteropathy. Development of cell mediated immunity and intestinal pathology during a graft-versus-host reaction in irradiated mice.

    PubMed Central

    Mowat, A M; Felstein, M V; Borland, A; Parrott, D M

    1988-01-01

    The intestinal component of a graft-versus-host reaction (GvHR) provides a useful experimental model to elucidate the pathogenesis of clinical enteropathies which cause villus atrophy and crypt hyperplasia and which are associated with a local immune response. One to three days after induction of GvHR in heavily irradiated (CBAxBALB/c)F1 mice, a proliferative form of enteropathy developed. Compared with controls, these mice had increased counts of jejunal intraepithelial lymphocytes and had a four-fold increase in crypt cell production rate as well as an increase in crypt length. These changes were accompanied by a marked enhancement of splenic natural killer cell activity. After day three, the crypt cell production rate fell to zero and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) which could lyse targets of host origin appeared. In parallel, mice with GvHR developed significant villus shortening and their clinical condition deteriorated. Further experiments showed that increased counts of intraepithelial lymphocytes, villus atrophy and crypt hyperplasia also occurred in grafts of fetal CBA intestine implanted under the kidney capsule of (CBAxBALB/c)F1 mice with GvHR. As these grafts are syngeneic to the injected CBA spleen cells, they should not be attacked by anti-host cytotoxic T lymphocytes. We suggest that the proliferative and destructive components of enteropathy in GvHR are caused by lymphokines released by an anti-host delayed type hypersensitivity reaction. PMID:3294125

  20. Chemotherapy, Total Body Irradiation, and Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide in Reducing Rates of Graft Versus Host Disease in Patients With Hematologic Malignancies Undergoing Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-08

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Complete Remission; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive in Remission; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia in Remission; Graft Versus Host Disease; Hodgkin Lymphoma; Minimal Residual Disease; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Myeloproliferative Neoplasm; Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Plasma Cell Myeloma; Severe Aplastic Anemia; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  1. History of graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Vriesendorp, Huib M; Heidt, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Nuclear warfare at the end of World War II inspired Dick W. van Bekkum to study total-body irradiation (TBI) in animal models. After high-dose TBI, mice died from "primary disease" or bone marrow (BM) aplasia. Intravenous administration of allogeneic BM cells delayed mortality but did not prevent it. Initially the delayed deaths were said to be caused by "secondary disease," which was later renamed graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). GvHD is caused by donor T lymphocytes that destroy recipient cells in skin, intestinal mucosa, bile ducts, and lymph nodes. GvHD is opposed by host-versus-graft disease (HvGD), in which host T lymphocytes destroy the administered allogeneic BM cells, including the administered T lymphocytes of the BM donor. In 1960, van Bekkum became the director of the Radiobiological Institute of the Dutch Organization for Applied Scientific Research TNO, Rijswijk, The Netherlands, where he built a multidisciplinary team that defined the variables controlling the outcome of a BM transplant. The team published their early results in the Journal of Experimental Hematology [1981;9:904-916 and 1956;4:482-488]. Later, protocols were established for BM transplantation (BMT) in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency disease, leukemia, lymphoma, and other diseases of the hematopoietic system. This review honors the scientific contributions made by Dick van Bekkum and his team in defining the four dominant variables for improving the therapeutic ratio of allogeneic BMT and in fostering the international collaboration necessary to translate this knowledge into current clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Transfusion associated graft versus host disease following cardiovascular surgery].

    PubMed

    Aybey, Bekir; Coşkun, Diler; Aytaç, Jale

    2006-01-01

    In this report, a case of transfusion-associated graft versus host disease that developed following coronary arter bypass grafting and mitral annuloplasty operations, has been presented. The diagnosis of 62 year-old male patient was based on the presence of typical findings as fever, liver function disorders, skin rash and hypoplastic bone marrow findings that began ten days after the operation; with the exclusion of other pathologies (e.g. drug eruptions, viral infections, septicemia, scalded skin syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis) and histopathological findings of skin biopsy. There was a history of five units of blood transfusion of which one was from a close relative. The blood from the relative was thought to be responsible for the disease. With this case, we wanted to emphasize once more that transfusion of the blood of a relative must be avoided in patients who have undergone major operations such as cardiovascular surgery. The irradiation of these bloods before transfusion may be effective to prevent graft versus host disease.

  3. Allorecognition and graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Theobald, M

    1995-04-01

    The development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is mediated by alloreactive donor T lymphocytes infused with the bone marrow (BM) inoculum. Over the past few years, knowledge about the molecular basis of antigen (Ag) recognition, tolerance induction and activation of alloreactive T lymphocytes has increased remarkably. Recent observations also challenged the traditional view of the role and significance of various alloreactive T cell subsets and their particular effector cell functions involved in the generation of GVHD. New information which emerged from these studies has a major impact in understanding the immunobiology of GVHD. It also has important practical consequences, such as the successful prediction of GVHD before allogeneic BMT by the measurement of recipient-specific alloreactivity. The current concepts of the molecular basis of allorecognition, tolerance induction and T cell activation could be important in developing strategies to avoid GVHD while preserving a graft-versus-leukemia response.

  4. Human umbilical cord blood-derived stromal cells, a new resource in the suppression of acute graft-versus-host disease in haploidentical stem cell transplantation in sublethally irradiated mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Xing-Hua; Zhang, Xi; Gao, Lei; Kong, Pei-Yan; Peng, Xian-gui; Liang, Xue; Gao, Li; Gong, Yi; Wang, Qing-Yu

    2011-04-15

    Human umbilical cord blood-derived stromal cells (hUCBDSCs), a novel population isolated from CD34(+) cells by our laboratory, exerted an immunosuppressive effect on xenogenic T cells. This study aimed to investigate whether hUCBDSCs play a critical role in the suppression of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). The hUCBDSCs were co-cultured with splenocytes (SPCs) of donor C57BL/6 mice. The aGVHD in the recipient (B6×BALB/c) F1 mice was induced by the infusion of bone marrow cells and SPCs from donor mice following sublethal irradiation. The shift in vivo for hUCBDSCs was detected. The proliferation and cell cycle of SPCs were tested by cell counting kit-8 and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression of CD49b natural killer (NK) cells and CD3 T cells was detected by flow cytometry in co-culture and post-transplantation. IL-4, and IFN-γ were detected by ELISA in the serum of co-culture and post-transplantation. The survival time, body weight, clinical score, and histopathological score were recorded for mice post-transplantation. The hUCBDSCs promoted the proliferation of SPCs and significantly increased the ratio of the S and G(2)/M phase (p < 0.05). The hUCBDSCs significantly increased the expression of CD49b NK cells and IL-4 protein and decreased the expression of CD3 T cells and IFN-γ protein both in vitro and in vivo. The survival time of mice with co-transplantation of hUCBDSCs was significantly prolonged, and decreased clinical and histopathological scores were also observed. The hUCBDSCs were continually detected in the target organs of GVHD. These results suggest that hUCBDSCs possess the capability of suppressing aGVHD, possibly via their influence on CD3 T cells, NK cells, and cytokines.

  5. Photo-induced graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Juliette M; Marguery, Marie-Claude; Huynh, Anne; Borel, Cécile; Apoil, Pol André; Lamant, Laurence; Tournier, Emilie; Alberto, Chloé; Pauwels, Céline; Thomas, Marianne; Mazereeuw Hautier, Juliette; Paul, Carle; Bulai Livideanu, Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Overlap chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) associates both features of acute and chronic GVHD. Trigger factors for chronic GVHD are unclear. We describe two patients who received allogenic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, and who later developed overlap chronic GVHD after sun exposure. Available data from in vivo investigations suggest ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) has a beneficial effect on acute and chronic GVHD. The role of sun irradiation as a trigger for isomorphic cutaneous GVHD has been rarely reported in the literature. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time, using repetitive broadband phototesting, that UVB triggers chronic GVHD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Graft-versus-host disease: part I. Pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Hymes, Sharon R; Alousi, Amin M; Cowen, Edward W

    2012-04-01

    Approximately 25,000 allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants are performed worldwide each year for a variety of malignant and non-malignant conditions. Graft-versus-host disease represents one of the most frequent complications and is a major source of long-term morbidity and mortality. Whereas acute graft-versus-host disease is induced by recognition of host tissues as foreign by immunocompetent donor cells, the pathogenesis of chronic graft-versus-host disease is not as well understood, and continues to be a major treatment challenge. Part I of this two-part series reviews the epidemiologic factors, classification, pathogenesis, and clinical manifestations of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease. Part II discusses the topical, physical, and systemic treatment options available to patients with graft-versus-host disease. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ocular graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Hessen, Michelle; Akpek, Esen K

    2012-10-01

    This review was carried out to study the frequency, and severity of ocular surface involvement at the setting of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and subsequent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and evaluate the clinical outcomes of newer treatments. Ocular involvement has been reported in 60-90% of patients with chronic GVHD. Although dry eye is the most frequent finding occurring in the great majority of patients (up to 90%), posterior segment complications are also not infrequent, seen in 12.8% of patients after bone marrow transplantation. Anti-inflammatory treatments particularly T-cell suppressants seem to have a beneficial effect in managing GVHD. Corticoteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus, as well as antifibrotic agents such as tranilast are available options for topical application. Cyclosporine ophthalmic drop seems to be a well tolerated and effective treatment modality; favorable results have been demonstrated with increased dosage. GVHD is an increasingly frequent cause of ocular surface morbidity with the potential of visual loss from corneal involvement. Early diagnosis and aggressive local as well as systemic treatment can be vision saving.

  8. Graft-versus-host disease management.

    PubMed

    Mistrik, M; Bojtarova, E; Sopko, L; Masakova, L; Roziakova, L; Martinka, J; Batorova, A

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a major problem of allogeneic hematopoietic-stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and an obstacle for successful outcome. Clinically significant acute GVHD (grade II or higher) developed in 20 to 65 percent of the patients. Death due to this complication accounts for approximately 50 percent of the deaths that are not due to a relapse of the neoplasm. Up to 70 % of patients who survive beyond day 100 develop chronic GVHD and it is the leading cause of nonrelapse mortality more than 2 years after allogeneic HSCT. In addition, chronic GVHD is associated with decreased quality of life, impaired functional status, and ongoing need for immunosuppressive medications. The incidence of chronic GVHD is increasing because of expansion of the donor population beyond HLA-identical siblings, older recipient age, use of peripheral blood cells as the graft source, and infusion of donor lymphocytes for treatment of recurrent malignancy after HSCT. With the current rush in new findings related to GVHD, we see a significant advancement in its management. Given these various new options and challenges, it is important to identify the minimal requirements for diagnosis and treatment of GVHD, as access to the most sophisticated advances may vary depending on local circumstances (Tab. 4, Fig. 1, Ref. 51).

  9. Cytokines in Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Henden, Andrea S; Hill, Geoffrey R

    2015-05-15

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation whereby transplanted naive and marrow-derived T cells damage recipient tissue through similar mechanisms to those that allow destruction of malignant cells, the therapeutic intent of bone marrow transplantation. The manifestations and severity of GVHD are highly variable and are influenced by the proportions of naive cells maturing along regulatory T cell, Th1, Th2, or Th17 phenotypes. This maturation is largely influenced by local cytokines, which, in turn, activate transcription factors and drive development toward a dominant phenotype. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines exert direct effects on GVHD target tissues. Our knowledge of the role that cytokines play in orchestrating GVHD is expanding rapidly and parallels other infective and inflammatory conditions in which a predominant T cell signature is causative of pathology. Because a broad spectrum of cytokine therapies is now routinely used in clinical practice, they are increasingly relevant to transplant medicine. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. Oral graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Imanguli, MM; Alevizos, I; Brown, R; Pavletic, SZ; Atkinson, JC

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients receiving hematopoietic cell transplant. It is estimated that 40–70% of engrafted patients surviving the initial transplant eventually develop chronic GVHD (cGVHD), which can persist for months to years and require long-term management from multiple disciplines. This review describes the oral component of this transplant complication. DESIGN: The search related to GVHD patho-biology, salivary gland disease after hematopoietic cell transplant and treatments for oral GVHD encompassed literature from 1966 through 2008. Searches were limited to the MEDLINE/PubMed database and English language literature in peer-reviewed journals. RESULTS: Our understanding of the patho-biology of oral cGVHD is based on studies of other affected tissues. It is difficult to determine the prevalence and incidence of salivary gland disease after transplant because there is no universally accepted case definition. In general, clinical trials for treatment of oral cGVHD have been too small to make strong recommendations for use in clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: Larger well-designed clinical studies are needed to understand the patho-biology of oral cGVHD and determine best treatments for this disease. PMID:18593456

  11. Graft-versus-host disease: part II. Management of cutaneous graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Hymes, Sharon R; Alousi, Amin M; Cowen, Edward W

    2012-04-01

    Dermatologists are ideally suited to manage the various cutaneous sequelae of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) outlined in part I of this review. However, the complexity of the patient with GVHD, including comorbidities, potential drug interactions related to polypharmacy, and the lack of evidence-based treatment guidelines, are significant challenges to optimizing patient care. In this section, we will provide an outline for the role of the dermatologist in a multispecialty approach to caring for patients with GVHD. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Humanized Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease in NOD-SCID il2rγ-/- (NSG) Mice with G-CSF-Mobilized Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells following Cyclophosphamide and Total Body Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Hisaki; Luo, Zhi-Juan; Kim, Hye Jin; Newbigging, Susan; Gassas, Adam; Keating, Armand; Egeler, R. Maarten

    2015-01-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) is the major source of late phase morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Humanized acute GvHD (aGvHD) in vivo models using NOD-SCID il2rγ-/- (NSG) mice are well described and are important tools for investigating pathogenicity of human cells in vivo. However, there have been only few reported humanized cGvHD mouse models. We evaluated if prolonged inflammation driven by low dose G-CSF-mobilized human PBMCs (G-hPBMCs) would lead to cGvHD following cyclophosphamide (CTX) administration and total body irradiation (TBI) in NSG mice. Engraftment was assessed in peripheral blood (PB) and in specific target organs by either flow cytometry or immunohistochemistry (IHC). Tissue samples were harvested 56 days post transplantation and were evaluated by a pathologist. Some mice were kept for up to 84 days to evaluate the degree of fibrosis. Mice that received CTX at 20mg/kg did not show aGvHD with stable expansion of human CD45+ CD3+ T-cells in PB (mean; 5.8 to 23.2%). The pathology and fibrosis scores in the lung and the liver were significantly increased with aggregation of T-cells and hCD68+ macrophages. There was a correlation between liver pathology score and the percentage of hCD68+ cells, suggesting the role of macrophage in fibrogenesis in NSG mice. In order to study long-term survival, 6/9 mice who survived more than 56 days showed increased fibrosis in the lung and liver at the endpoint, which suggests the infiltrating hCD68+ macrophages may be pathogenic. It was shown that the combination of CTX and TBI with a low number of G-hPBMCs (1x106) leads to chronic lung and liver inflammation driven by a high infiltration of human macrophage and mature human T cells from the graft, resulting in fibrosis of lung and liver in NSG mice. In conclusion this model may serve as an important pre-clinical model to further current understanding of the roles of human macrophages in cGvHD. PMID

  13. Ibrutinib Effective against Graft-Versus-Host Disease

    Cancer.gov

    A Cancer Currents blog post on results from a small clinical trial showing that ibrutinib can effectively treat graft-versus-host-disease, a common and serious complication of allogeneic stem cell transplants.

  14. Cutaneous manifestations of chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Hymes, Sharon R; Turner, Maria L; Champlin, Richard E; Couriel, Daniel R

    2006-11-01

    Cutaneous chronic graft versus host disease has traditionally been classified into lichenoid and scleroderma-like forms. However, the initial presentation is sometimes subtle and a variety of less common cutaneous manifestation may be prevalent. This clinical review focuses on the lesional morphology of chronic graft versus host disease, and presents a classification system that may prove useful in early diagnosis. In addition, this approach may help to facilitate the correlation of different morphologic entities with outcome and response to therapy.

  15. Clinicopathologic Threshold of Acute Colorectal Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Adam J; Arai, Sally; Higgins, John P; Kambham, Neeraja

    2016-06-01

    -Colon biopsies are often used to determine the presence and severity of acute gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease following bone marrow transplant. -To establish a threshold consensus within our institution on the number of crypt apoptotic bodies (CAB) indicative of grade 1 acute colorectal graft-versus-host disease, we retrospectively reviewed colon biopsies from posttransplant patients and incorporated clinical and endoscopic findings to validate recently proposed minimum criteria for grade 1 graft-versus-host disease as 7 or more CAB per 10 contiguous crypts. -Eighty-one biopsies performed for suspected graft-versus-host disease from 74 individual patients were initially stratified based on their prior (prestudy) diagnoses: no significant abnormality, grade 1 graft-versus-host disease, and descriptive diagnoses mentioning increased apoptosis. A chart review was performed to assess the clinical and endoscopic impression at the time of biopsy and to determine the subsequent management and outcome. -Twenty-six biopsies with an average of 3 CAB were considered true-negative cases, and 32 biopsies with an average of 9.75 CAB were considered true-positive cases (t = 3.95999, P < .001). True-negative cases had an average density of 1.36 CAB per crypt, and true-positive cases had an average density of 2.97 CAB per crypt (t = 3.950178, P < .001). -A threshold of 7 or more CAB per 10 contiguous crypts promotes appropriate treatment of grade 1 acute graft-versus-host disease after other diagnostic entities are excluded. Although this threshold is 100% specific to grade 1 acute colorectal graft-versus-host disease after other histologic mimics are excluded, this threshold has a low sensitivity (59.4%) as patients with less than 7 CAB per 10 contiguous crypts constitute a heterogeneous group.

  16. Subacute radiation dermatitis: a histologic imitator of acute cutaneous graft-versus-host disease

    SciTech Connect

    LeBoit, P.E.

    1989-02-01

    The histopathologic changes of radiation dermatitis have been classified either as early effects (necrotic keratinocytes, fibrin thrombi, and hemorrhage) or as late effects (vacuolar changes at the dermal-epidermal junction, atypical radiation fibroblasts, and fibrosis). Two patients, one exposed to radiation therapeutically and one accidentally, are described. Skin biopsy specimens showed an interface dermatitis characterized by numerous dyskeratotic epidermal cells with lymphocytes in close apposition (satellite cell necrosis); that is, the epidermal changes were similar to those in acute graft-versus-host disease. Because recipients of bone marrow transplants frequently receive total body irradiation as part of their preparatory regimen, the ability of radiation to cause persistent epidermal changes similar to those in acute graft-versus-host disease could complicate the interpretation of posttransplant skin biopsy specimens.

  17. The role of adenotonsillectomy in graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Brian; Raynor, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to better characterize the impact of pre-transplant adenotonsillectomy in the development of graft-versus-host disease in pediatric patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation. This retrospective study involved 211 children undergoing stem cell transplantation at Duke University. Patients who had undergone transplant were characterized by age at transplant, age at adenotonsillectomy (if applicable), age at graft-versus-host disease (if applicable), average length of follow up and other factors. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the relative risks associated with each variable. A total of 136 patients developed graft-versus-host disease and 75 did not. Average length of follow up was 2 years for GVHD and 1.7 years for non-GVHD patients. The relative risk (RR) of graft-versus-host disease was significantly increased under univariate analysis if the donor and recipient were unrelated (RR=2.1, p<0.0001) and if the HLA match was not identical (RR=1.6, p<0.001). A history of adenotonsillectomy prior to transplant did not affect the risk of developing graft-versus-host disease (RR=1.1, p=0.70). Adenotonsillectomy prior to bone marrow transplant has no significant impact either protectively or adversely on the risk of developing graft-versus-host disease after transplantation in pediatric patients. Future studies are needed to further examine the impact of otolaryngologic surgery on pediatric patients in terms of immune system modification. Research should specifically focus on the immunological effects of surgery on patients who will be undergoing bone marrow transplant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cutaneous graft-versus-host disease after hematopoietic stem cell transplant - a review*

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Cesar Daniel Villarreal; Alanis, Julio Cesar Salas; Pérez, Jose Carlos Jaime; Candiani, Jorge Ocampo

    2016-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants (allo-HSCT) associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The earliest and most common manifestation is cutaneous graft-versus-host disease. This review focuses on the pathophysiology, clinical features, prevention and treatment of cutaneous graft-versus-host disease. We discuss various insights into the disease's mechanisms and the different treatments for acute and chronic skin graft-versus-host disease. PMID:27438202

  19. Contrast media triggering cutaneous graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Vavricka, S R; Halter, J; Furrer, K; Wolfensberger, U; Schanz, U

    2002-06-01

    Adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media are varied and known to develop in patients with asthma and a history of allergy. We describe three successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) patients, who all developed dermal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after receiving contrast media. Cutaneous GVHD triggered by contrast media has not been reported to date and has implications for the assessment, monitoring and treatment of patients during the post-transplant period.

  20. Graft-versus-host disease affecting oral cavity. A review.

    PubMed

    Margaix-Muñoz, Maria; Bagán, José V; Jiménez, Yolanda; Sarrión, María-Gracia; Poveda-Roda, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is one of the most frequent and serious complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and is regarded as the leading cause of late mortality unrelated to the underlying malignant disease. GVHD is an autoimmune and alloimmune disorder that usually affects multiple organs and tissues, and exhibits a variable clinical course. It can manifest in either acute or chronic form. The acute presentation of GVHD is potentially fatal and typically affects the skin, gastrointestinal tract and liver. The chronic form is characterized by the involvement of a number of organs, including the oral cavity. Indeed, the oral cavity may be the only affected location in chronic GVHD. The clinical manifestations of chronic oral GVHD comprise lichenoid lesions, hyperkeratotic plaques and limited oral aperture secondary to sclerosis. The oral condition is usually mild, though moderate to severe erosive and ulcerated lesions may also be seen. The diagnosis is established from the clinical characteristics, though confirmation through biopsy study is sometimes needed. Local corticosteroids are the treatment of choice, offering overall response rates of close to 50%. Extracorporeal photopheresis and systemic corticosteroids in turn constitute second line treatment. Oral chronic GVHD is not considered a determinant factor for patient survival, which is close to 52% five years after diagnosis of the condition. Key words:Chronic graft-versus-host disease, oral chronic graft-versus-host disease, pathogenics, management, survival.

  1. A Canine Model of Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Graves, Scott S; Rezvani, Andrew; Sale, George; Stone, Diane; Parker, Maura; Rosinski, Steven; Spector, Michele; Swearingen, Bruce; Kean, Leslie; Storb, Rainer

    2017-03-01

    In long-term survivors of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality and a major determinant of quality of life. Chronic GVHD responds poorly to current immunosuppressive drugs, and while T cell depletion may be preventive, this gain is offset by increased relapse rates. A significant impediment to progress in treating chronic GVHD has been the limitations of existing animal models. The goal of this study was to develop a reproducible comprehensive model of chronic GVHD in the dog. Ten recipient dogs received 920 cGy total body irradiation, infusion of marrow, and an infusion of buffy coat cells from a dog leukocyte antigen (DLA)-mismatched unrelated donor. Postgrafting immunosuppression consisted of methotrexate (days 1, 3, 6, 11) and cyclosporine. The duration of cyclosporine administration was limited to 80 days instead of the clinically used 180 days. This was done to contain costs, as chronic GVHD was expected to develop at earlier time points. All recipients were given ursodiol for liver protection. One dog had graft failure and 9 dogs showed stable engraftment. Eight of the 9 developed de novo chronic GVHD. Dogs progressed with clinical signs of chronic GVHD over a period of 43 to 164 (median, 88) days after discontinuation of cyclosporine. Target organs showed the spectrum of chronic GVHD manifestations that are typically seen clinically. These included lichenoid changes of the skin, fasciitis, ocular involvement (xerophthalmia), conjunctivitis, bronchiolitis obliterans, salivary gland involvement, gingivitis, esophageal involvement, and hepatic involvement. Peripheral blood lymphocyte surface antigen expression of CD28 and inducible costimulator was elevated in dogs with GHVD compared with those in normal dogs, but not significantly so. Serum levels of IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in GVHD-affected dogs at time of euthanasia were elevated, whereas

  2. Specific and nonspecific T-cell-mediated suppression of antihost immune reactivity in graft-versus-host reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bril, H.; Molendijk-Lok, B.D.; Benner, R.

    1983-09-01

    Intravenous immunization of mice with irradiated (2000 rads) allogeneic lymphoid cells induces the generation of suppressor T cells. Such suppressor T cells are capable of suppressing the antihost immune reactivity during acute and delayed graft-versus-host reactions. These suppressor T cells are strictly antigen-specific as far as their activation is concerned, but also suppress the reaction against unrelated antigens presented by the irradiated host.

  3. Immunomodulation with donor regulatory T cells armed with Fas-ligand alleviates graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Yolcu, Esma S; Kaminitz, Ayelet; Mizrahi, Keren; Ash, Shifra; Yaniv, Isaac; Stein, Jerry; Shirwan, Haval; Askenasy, Nadir

    2013-10-01

    Infusion of large numbers of donor regulatory T cells (Tregs) is an effective approach to suppress graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). We have reported previously that enhancing the killing activity of CD25(+) Tregs by decoration with short-lived Fas-ligand (FasL) protein (killer Tregs) is effective in abrogation of autoimmunity. In this study, we assessed the therapeutic efficacy of killer Tregs in murine models of lethal GvHD. In a model in which disease-associated mortality was not prevented by infusion of naive donor Tregs (3 days after transplant) at an effector:suppressor ratio of 10:1, killer Tregs rescued 70% of the mice and improved the clinical and histologic scores. We found that both effector lymphocytes and therapeutic Tregs migrate to and proliferate in the mesenteric lymph nodes of irradiated recipients; however, only killer Tregs increased fractional apoptosis of effector lymphocytes. Although the lymphoid organs were primarily reconstituted from the bone marrow with little contribution of the infused effector and suppressor subsets, immunomodulation with FasL caused a durable rise in fractions of CD4(+)FoxP3(+) Tregs. Our findings demonstrate that a short-lived apoptotic protein increases the suppressive activity of Tregs and ameliorates GvHD severity.

  4. Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease

    SciTech Connect

    Rappeport, J.M. )

    1990-09-01

    The clinical pathologic syndrome of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is usually a sequela of bone marrow transplantation. This disorder occurs as a result of recognition by engrafted donor-derived lymphocytes of foreign recipient transplantation antigens. GVHD may also result from engraftment of lymphocytes from other sources, including (1) transfusion of lymphocytes containing blood components, (2) transplacental maternal fetal transfusion, and (3) passive transfer of lymphocytes in solid organ transplantation. The recipients are usually severely immunodeficient and thus incapable of rejecting the transfused lymphocytes. This syndrome may, however, also develop in immunologically competent patients receiving blood products from individuals with histocompatibility antigens not recognized as foreign. 58 refs.

  5. Chronic graft versus host disease and nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barbouch, Samia; Gaied, Hanene; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Goucha, Rim; Lakhal, Amel; Torjemen, Lamia; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Abderrahim, Ezzedine; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Adel, Khedher

    2014-09-01

    Disturbed kidney function is a common complication after bone marrow transplantation. Recently, attention has been given to immune-mediated glomerular damage related to graft versus host disease (GVHD). We describe a 19-year-old woman who developed membranous glomerulonephritis after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Six months later, she developed soft palate, skin and liver lesions considered to be chronic GVHD. Fifteen months after undergoing BMT, this patient presented with nephrotic syndrome. A renal biopsy showed membranous glomerulonephritis associated with a focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. She was started on corticosteroid treatment with good outcome.

  6. Advances in graft-versus-host disease biology and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Blazar, Bruce R.; Murphy, William J.; Abedi, Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    Preface Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is used to treat a variety of disorders, but its efficacy is limited by the occurrence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The past decade has brought impressive advances in our understanding of the role of both donor and host adaptive and innate immune stimulatory and immune suppressive factors that influence GVHD pathogenesis. New insights in basic immunology, preclinical models and clinical studies have led to novel prevention or treatment approaches. This review highlights recent advances in GVHD pathophysiology and its treatment with a focus on immune system manipulations that are amenable to clinical application. PMID:22576252

  7. Steroid-responsive chronic hepatic graft-versus-host disease without extrahepatic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Gholson, C F; Yau, J C; LeMaistre, C F; Cleary, K R

    1989-10-01

    A 29-yr-old woman developed severe, progressive cholestasis 5 months after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Extrahepatic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was absent. Skin biopsy was equivocal 2 months after transplant, rash was absent during the period of cholestasis, and cholangiographic abnormalities were absent. Liver biopsy 7.5 months posttransplant revealed chronic hepatic GVHD. Cholestasis dramatically resolved with high dose corticosteroid therapy. Chronic hepatic GVHD occurs in the absence of overt extraintestinal GVHD and respond promptly to therapy. This underscores the importance of aggressive diagnostic evaluation of posttransplant cholestasis.

  8. Chronic graft-versus-host disease: clinical presentation of multiple lesions of lichenoid and atrophic pattern*

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Luiza; Vieira, Érica Cristina; Minicucci, Eliana Maria; Salvio, Ana Gabriela; de Souza, Mair Pedro; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2013-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease is observed mainly in recipients of hematopoietic cell transplantation and is expressed by cutaneous or systemic signals and symptoms. Graft-versus-host disease is clinically classified as acute or chronic. Chronic Graft-versus-host disease occurs in up to 70% of hematopoietic cell transplanted patients and its clinical manifestations have important impact on morbidity and quality of life. The authors report an expressive cutaneous, oral and adnexal involvement in a patient with chronic Graft-versus-host disease with multiple lesions of lichenoid and atrophic pattern. PMID:24173188

  9. The changing face of graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Julie V

    2006-12-01

    Despite advances in the procedure and posttransplantation immunosuppressive therapy, more than half of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients develop graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), which remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Modern HSCT protocols have resulted in substantial alterations in the timing and relative incidences of acute and chronic GVHD, making traditional classification schemes obsolete. This article reviews major changes in HSCT during the past decade, evolving concepts of acute and chronic GVHD (including new diagnostic criteria) and the expanding spectrum of cutaneous GVHD. It focuses on observations that have led to a better delineation of the full constellation of skin findings in chronic cutaneous GVHD, including lichen sclerosus, morpheaform lesions, and eosinophilic fasciitis. Recent insights into pathogenesis of GVHD, lessons from GVHD arising in settings outside HSCT, and therapeutic advances also are highlighted.

  10. HISTOPATHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS OF CHRONIC GRAFT VERSUS HOST DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, Howard M.; Cardona, Diana M.; Greenson, Joel K.; Hingorani, Sangeeta; Horn, Thomas; Huber, Elisabeth; Kreft, Andreas; Longerich, Thomas; Morton, Thomas; Myerson, David; Prieto, Victor G.; Rosenberg, Avi; Treister, Nathaniel; Washington, Kay; Ziemer, Mirjana; Pavletic, Steven Z.; Lee, Stephanie J.; Flowers, Mary E.D.; Schultz, Kirk R.; Jagasia, Madan; Martin, Paul J.; Vogelsang, Georgia B.; Kleiner, David E.

    2015-01-01

    The 2005 National Institute of Health (NIH) Consensus Conference outlined histopathological diagnostic criteria for the major organ systems affected by both acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The 2014 Consensus Conference led to this updated document with new information from histopathological studies of GVHD in the gut, liver, skin and oral mucosa and expanded discussion of GVHD in the lungs and kidneys. The recommendations for final histological diagnostic categories have been simplified from 4 categories to 3: no GVHD, possible, and likely GVHD based on better reproducibility achieved by combining the previous categories of consistent with and definite GVHD into the single category of likely GVHD. Issues remain in the histopathological characterization of GVHD, particularly with respect to the threshold of histological changes required for diagnostic certainty. Guidance is provided for the incorporation of biopsy information into prospective clinical studies of GVHD, particularly with respect to biomarker validation. PMID:25639770

  11. Thyroid gland function during the systemic graft versus host reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlova, T.D.; Fedorov, G.N.; Molotkov, O.V.

    1986-04-01

    The aims of the present investigation were as follows: to determine the level of thyroid hormones and thyrotrophin (TSH) at various times after induction of graft versus host reaction (GVHR); to study the degree of /sup 125/ I uptake by thyroid gland tissue at the same times of the GVHR, and to determine correlation between the hormone levels and weight of the gland in the animals and also the body weight of the recipients. Serum levels of tri-iodothyronine (T/sub 3/), thyroxine (T/sub 4/), and TSH were determined by radioimmunoassay. /sup 125/ /SUB I/ was injected intraperitoneally in a dose of 3-4 microCi/100 g body weight. During the development of a systemic GVHR marked inhibition of thyroid function was discovered.

  12. Gastrointestinal chronic graft-versus-host disease: management options.

    PubMed

    Awan, Farrukh; Hamadani, Mehdi

    2007-03-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a common and debilitating condition afflicting a number of allogeneic stem cell recipients more than 100 days after their transplant. Limited options are available for the acute management of patients with severe gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms including gastric bleeding. Along with increased immunosuppression and aggressive supportive care, we report here the use of aminocaproic acid in the management of patients with GI bleeding resulting from severe GVHD. The use of aminocaproic acid enabled us to reduce the frequency and number of blood product transfusions required to manage our patient. Anti-fibrinolytic agents may therefore serve as useful adjunctive but underutilized therapy in the management of patients with severe GI chronic GVHD.

  13. A Review of Ocular Graft-Versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Munir, Saleha Z; Aylward, James

    2017-05-01

    : Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major complication that occurs following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which is a potential curative therapy used in a variety of malignant or benign hematological diseases. Graft-versus-host disease primarily occurs in many organs, but most notably in the skin, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, liver, eyes, mucosa, and musculoskeletal system. Ocular manifestations of GVHD may precede other systemic GVHD findings, and it may be a poor prognosis for mortality. While all parts of the eye may be affected, ocular GVHD occurs primarily in the ocular surface. Dry eye disease or keratoconjunctivitis sicca is the most common presenting manifestation of chronic ocular GVHD. Dry eye disease in ocular GVHD is a multifactorial process, which involves destruction and fibrosis of lacrimal glands and conjunctiva, leading to tear film deficiency and instability. Depending on the severity of ocular involvement and response to treatment, ocular GVHD may cause decreased quality of life. Management of GVHD begins with prevention by understanding risk factors and by implementing prophylactic treatment after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. A multidisciplinary approach to the prevention and treatment of GVHD is important, and there are currently no preventive therapies available for ocular GVHD. Once diagnosed, ocular GVHD treatment strategies target ocular surface lubrication and support, tear film stabilization, inflammation reduction, and surgical intervention. The goal of this review is to define ocular GVHD and its categorical manifestations, as well as to describe the importance of comprehensive assessment, diagnosis, and ophthalmologic treatment and management of ocular GVHD with a multidisciplinary approach.

  14. Hepatobiliary graft-versus-host disease manifested by common and hepatic biliary duct obstruction.

    PubMed

    Zelig, O; Goldin, E; Okon, E; Or, R; Alian, H; Caspi, O; Ben-Yehuda, D

    1997-01-01

    A 26-year-old patient presented with ascending cholangitis 8 months after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for immunoblastic lymphoma. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed common and hepatic biliary duct obstruction that was attibuted to chronic graft-versus-host disease. This case indicates that hepatobiliary disease related to chronic graft-versus-host disease may involve major bile ducts causing obstruction.

  15. A randomized study of the prevention of acute graft-versus-host disease

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsay, N.K.C.; Kersey, J.H.; Robison, L.L.; McGlave, P.B.; Woods, W.G.; Krivit, W.; Kim, T.H.; Goldman, A.I.; Nesbit, M.E., Jr.

    1982-02-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease is a major problem in allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation. We performed a randomized study to compare the effectiveness of two regimens in the prevention of acute graft-versus-host disease. Thirty-five patients received methotrexate alone, and 32 received methotrexate, antithymocyte globulin, and prednisone. Of the patients who received methotrexate alone, 48 percent had acute graft-versus-host disease, as compared with 21 per cent of those who received methotrexate, antithymocyte globulin, and prednisone (P = 0.01). The age of the recipient was a significant factor in the development of acute graft-versus-host disease: Older patients had a higher incidence of the disease (P = 0.001). We conclude that the combination of methotrexate, antithymocyte globulin, and prednisone significantly decreased the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease and should be used to prevent this disorder in patients receiving allogeneic marrow transplants.

  16. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Nephropathy Associated with Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease without Extrarenal Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Ryo; Shimizu, Akira; Kitani, Takashi; Nakata, Mayumi; Ota, Noriyoshi; Kado, Hiroshi; Shiotsu, Yayoi; Ishida, Mami; Tamagaki, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    A 30-year-old woman with myelodysplastic syndrome underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) derived from her HLA-matched sister six years previously. She received preconditioning total body irradiation with renal shielding and was subsequently administered cyclosporin A (CyA) as prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Four months after HSCT, asymptomatic proteinuria and glomerular hematuria developed during CyA tapering without obvious extrarenal involvements of GVHD, and persisted for six years. A renal biopsy revealed endothelial injury in the glomeruli, and the deposition of C4d was detected diffusely on glomerular capillaries and focally on peritubular capillaries, suggesting that nephropathy involved antibody- or complement-associated immune reactions. PMID:27725545

  17. Identification of an immunodominant mouse minor histocompatibility antigen (MiHA). T cell response to a single dominant MiHA causes graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed Central

    Perreault, C; Jutras, J; Roy, D C; Filep, J G; Brochu, S

    1996-01-01

    T cell responses to non-MHC antigens are targeted to a restricted number of immunodominant minor histocompatibility antigens whose identity remains elusive. Here we report isolation and sequencing of a novel immunodominant minor histocompatibility antigen presented by H-2Db on the surface of C57BL/6 mouse cells. This nonapeptide (AAPDNRETF) shows strong biologic activity in cytotoxic T lymphocyte sensitization assays at concentrations as low as 10 pM. C3H.SW mice primed with AAPDNRETF in incomplete Freund's adjuvant generated a potent anti-C57BL/6 T cell-mediated cytotoxic activity, and T lymphocytes from AAPDNRETF-primed mice caused graft-versus-host disease when transplanted in irradiated C57BL/6 recipients. These results (a) provide molecular characterization of a mouse dominant minor histocompatibility antigen, (b) identify this peptide as a potential target of graft-versus-host disease and, (c) more importantly, demonstrate that a single dominant minor antigen can cause graft-versus-host disease. These findings open new avenues for the prevention of graft-versus-host disease and should further our understanding of the mechanisms of immunodominance in T cell responses to minor histocompatibility antigens. PMID:8698852

  18. Comparative analysis of risk factors for acute graft-versus-host disease and for chronic graft-versus-host disease according to National Institutes of Health consensus criteria

    PubMed Central

    Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Carpenter, Paul A.; Lee, Stephanie J.; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Petersdorf, Effie W.; Pereira, Shalini E.; Nash, Richard A.; Mielcarek, Marco; Fero, Matthew L.; Warren, Edus H.; Sanders, Jean E.; Storb, Rainer F.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Storer, Barry E.; Martin, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Risk factors for grades 2-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and for chronic GVHD as defined by National Institutes of Health consensus criteria were evaluated and compared in 2941 recipients of first allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation at our center. In multivariate analyses, the profiles of risk factors for acute and chronic GVHD were similar, with some notable differences. Recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatching and the use of unrelated donors had a greater effect on the risk of acute GVHD than on chronic GVHD, whereas the use of female donors for male recipients had a greater effect on the risk of chronic GVHD than on acute GVHD. Total body irradiation was strongly associated with acute GVHD, but had no statistically significant association with chronic GVHD, whereas grafting with mobilized blood cells was strongly associated with chronic GVHD but not with acute GVHD. Older patient age was associated with chronic GVHD, but had no effect on acute GVHD. For all risk factors associated with chronic GVHD, point estimates and confidence intervals were not significantly changed after adjustment for prior acute GVHD. These results suggest that the mechanisms involved in acute and chronic GVHD are not entirely congruent and that chronic GVHD is not simply the end stage of acute GVHD. PMID:21263156

  19. The graft-versus-host reaction and immune function. I. T helper cell immunodeficiency associated with graft-versus-host-induced thymic epithelial cell damage

    SciTech Connect

    Seddik, M.; Seemayer, T.A.; Lapp, W.S.

    1984-03-01

    The injection of parental A strain lymphoid cells into adrenalectomized CBAxA F1 (BAF1) mice induced a chronic graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction resulting in T cell and B cell immunosuppression as well as thymic epithelial cell injury, but not stress-related thymic involution. Thymocytes from BAF1 mice undergoing a GVH reaction were studied for their ability to reconstitute T helper cell (TH) function and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) mitogen responses in thymectomized, irradiated, BAF1 mice reconstituted with normal syngeneic bone marrow (ATxBM). Thymocytes from BAF1 mice early after the induction of a GVH reaction (days 10-12) were as effective as normal thymocytes in reconstituting TH and mitogen responses. Thymocytes from BAF1 mice 40 or more days after the induction of a GVH reaction did not reconstitute either the TH function or PHA and Con A responses in ATxBM mice. The inability to reconstitute ATxBM mice was not due to the presence of suppressor cells contained in the thymocyte inoculum. It is proposed that GVH-induced thymic epithelial cell injury blocks or arrests normal T cell differentiation, resulting in a population of thymocytes that lack the potential to become competent T helper cells or mitogen-responsive cells when transferred into ATxBM mice. This thymic functional defect results in a permanent TH immunodeficiency in mice experiencing a chronic GVH reaction.

  20. Comparative analysis of risk factors for acute graft-versus-host disease and for chronic graft-versus-host disease according to National Institutes of Health consensus criteria.

    PubMed

    Flowers, Mary E D; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Carpenter, Paul A; Lee, Stephanie J; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Petersdorf, Effie W; Pereira, Shalini E; Nash, Richard A; Mielcarek, Marco; Fero, Matthew L; Warren, Edus H; Sanders, Jean E; Storb, Rainer F; Appelbaum, Frederick R; Storer, Barry E; Martin, Paul J

    2011-03-17

    Risk factors for grades 2-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and for chronic GVHD as defined by National Institutes of Health consensus criteria were evaluated and compared in 2941 recipients of first allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation at our center. In multivariate analyses, the profiles of risk factors for acute and chronic GVHD were similar, with some notable differences. Recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatching and the use of unrelated donors had a greater effect on the risk of acute GVHD than on chronic GVHD, whereas the use of female donors for male recipients had a greater effect on the risk of chronic GVHD than on acute GVHD. Total body irradiation was strongly associated with acute GVHD, but had no statistically significant association with chronic GVHD, whereas grafting with mobilized blood cells was strongly associated with chronic GVHD but not with acute GVHD. Older patient age was associated with chronic GVHD, but had no effect on acute GVHD. For all risk factors associated with chronic GVHD, point estimates and confidence intervals were not significantly changed after adjustment for prior acute GVHD. These results suggest that the mechanisms involved in acute and chronic GVHD are not entirely congruent and that chronic GVHD is not simply the end stage of acute GVHD.

  1. Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase alleviates graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Barbara Maximino; Athayde, Rayssa Maciel; Gonçalves, William Antônio; Resende, Carolina Braga; Teles de Tolêdo Bernardes, Priscila; Perez, Denise Alves; Esper, Lísia; Reis, Alesandra Côrte; Rachid, Milene Alvarenga; Castor, Marina Gomes Miranda E; Cunha, Thiago Mattar; Machado, Fabiana Simão; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Pinho, Vanessa

    2017-09-25

    Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a proinflammatory mediator produced by the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), is associated with the development of many inflammatory diseases. In this study, we evaluated the participation of the 5-LO/LTB4 axis in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) pathogenesis by transplanting 5-LO-deficient leukocytes and investigated the effect of pharmacologic 5-LO inhibition by zileuton and LTB4 inhibition by CP-105,696. Mice that received allogeneic transplant showed an increase in nuclear 5-LO expression in splenocytes, indicating enzyme activation after GVHD. Mice receiving 5-LO-deficient cell transplant or zileuton treatment had prolonged survival, reduced GVHD clinical scores, reduced intestinal and liver injury, and decreased levels of serum and hepatic LTB4 These results were associated with inhibition of leukocyte recruitment and decreased production of cytokines and chemokines. Treatment with CP-105,696 achieved similar effects. The chimerism or the beneficial graft-versus-leukemia response remained unaffected. Our data provide evidence that the 5-LO/LTB4 axis orchestrates GVHD development and suggest it could be a target for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for GVHD treatment. © 2017 Rezende et al.

  2. Graft-versus-Host Disease Biomarkers: Omics and Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Paczesny, Sophie; Raiker, Nisha; Brooks, Sam; Mumaw, Christy

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is the most effective form of tumor immunotherapy available to date and the frequency of transplants continues to increase worldwide. However, while allo-HSCT usually induces a beneficial graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect, a major source of morbidity and mortality following allo-HSCT is graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Currently available diagnostic and staging tools frequently fail to identify those at higher risk for GVHD morbidity, treatment unresponsiveness, and death. Furthermore, there are shortcomings in the risk stratification of patients before GVHD clinical signs develop. In parallel, recent years have been characterized by an explosive evolution of omics technologies, largely due to technological advancements in chemistry, engineering, and bioinformatics. Building on these opportunities, plasma biomarkers have been identified and validated as promising diagnostic and prognostic tools for acute GVHD. This review summarizes current information on the types of GVHD biomarkers, the omics tools used to identify them, the biomarkers currently validated as acute GVHD markers, and future recommendations for incorporating biomarkers into new grading algorithms for risk-stratifying patients and creating more personalized treatment courses. Future directions will include randomized evaluations of these biomarkers in multicenter prospective studies while extending on the need for biomarkers of chronic GVHD. PMID:23959582

  3. Tocilizumab for steroid refractory acute graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Roddy, Julianna V. F.; Haverkos, Bradley M.; McBride, Ali; Leininger, Kathryn M.; Jaglowski, Samantha; Penza, Sam; Klisovic, Rebecca; Blum, William; Vasu, Sumithira; Hofmeister, Craig C.; Benson, Don M.; Andritsos, Leslie A.; Devine, Steven M.; Efebera, Yvonne A.

    2015-01-01

    Acute graft-versus-host-disease (aGVHD) is a frequent and often lethal complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant despite prophylaxis. Tocilizumab is a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody that has evidence of activity in patients with steroid refractory (SR) GVHD. We retrospectively report on nine patients with grade 3 or 4 SR aGVHD who received tocilizumab. Eight mg/kg of tocilizumab was administered intravenously every 3–4 weeks. aGVHD grading and responses were based on consensus criteria. Median age at transplant was 48 years. Five patients had alternate donor sources. Median time from aGVHD onset to tocilizumab administration was 44 days. Two patients had complete responses and two had partial responses. Median survival from start of tocilizumab was 26 days (range 13–1054). Our limited experience demonstrated an overall response rate of 44% (CR + PR); however, this response was not durable. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal time for tocilizumab initiation. PMID:26140610

  4. Tocilizumab for steroid refractory acute graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Roddy, Julianna V F; Haverkos, Bradley M; McBride, Ali; Leininger, Kathryn M; Jaglowski, Samantha; Penza, Sam; Klisovic, Rebecca; Blum, William; Vasu, Sumithira; Hofmeister, Craig C; Benson, Don M; Andritsos, Leslie A; Devine, Steven M; Efebera, Yvonne A

    2016-01-01

    Acute graft-versus-host-disease (aGVHD) is a frequent and often lethal complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant despite prophylaxis. Tocilizumab is a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody that has evidence of activity in patients with steroid refractory (SR) GVHD. We retrospectively report on nine patients with grade 3 or 4 SR aGVHD who received tocilizumab. Eight mg/kg of tocilizumab was administered intravenously every 3-4 weeks. aGVHD grading and responses were based on consensus criteria. Median age at transplant was 48 years. Five patients had alternate donor sources. Median time from aGVHD onset to tocilizumab administration was 44 days. Two patients had complete responses and two had partial responses. Median survival from start of tocilizumab was 26 days (range 13-1054). Our limited experience demonstrated an overall response rate of 44% (CR + PR); however, this response was not durable. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal time for tocilizumab initiation.

  5. [Chemokine Receptor-5 and Graft-versus-Host Disease].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing; Liu, Wei; Ren, Han-Yun

    2015-06-01

    Chemokine receptor-5 (CCR5) belongs to a G-protein coupled receptors superfamily. It is mainly expressed on a wide variety of immune cells. CCR5 can bind with its specific ligands, which plays very important roles in inflammatory cell growth, differentiation, activation, adhesion and migration. CCR5 was identified as a co-receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) to infect CD4+ T cells. In addition, CCR5 not only participates in the pathogenic mechanisms of many inflammation disease such as AIDS, auto-immune disease, and atherosclerosis, but also plays important roles in the development of acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Recent studies using murine models have demonstrated the critical role of CCR5 and its ligands which direct T-cell infiltration and recruitment into target tissues during acute GVHD. CCR5 has become the focus of intense interest and discussion, and this review will attempt to describe what is understood about the structure and function, internalization, signal transduction of CCR5, in order to investigate the relationship between CCR5 and acute GVHD.

  6. Ocular manifestations of graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, Amr; Tabbara, Khalid F.; Aljurf, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has evolved over the past two decades to become the standard of care for hematologic and lymphoid malignancies. Major ocular complications after allogeneic HSCT have been increasing in number and severity. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a major cause of ocular morbidity after allogeneic HSCT. The main objective of this review is to elucidate the ocular complications in patients developing GVHD following HSCT. Ocular complications secondary to GVHD are common and include dry eye syndrome, acquisition of ocular allergy from donors with allergic disorders. Eyelid changes may occur in GVHD leading to scleroderma-like changes. Patients may develop poliosis, madarosis, vitiligo, lagophthalmos, and entropion. The cornea may show filamentary keratitis, superficial punctate keratitis, corneal ulcers, and peripheral corneal melting which may lead to perforation in severe cases. Scleritis may also occur which can be anterior or posterior. Keratoconjunctivis sicca appears to be the most common presentation of GVHD. The lacrimal glands may be involved with mononuclear cell infiltration of both the major and accessory lacrimal glands and decrease in tear production. Severe dry eye syndrome in patients with GVHD may develop conjunctival scarring, keratinization, and cicatrization of the conjunctiva. Therapy of GVHD includes systemic immunosuppression and local therapy. Surgical treatment in refractory cases includes surgical intervention to improve the manifestation of GVHD of the eye. This may include tarsorrhapy, prose lenses, punctal occlusions and corneal transplantation. PMID:24227989

  7. Biomarkers in chronic graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Rozmus, Jacob; Schultz, Kirk R

    2011-01-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a leading cause of allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation-related mortality and morbidity. It is an immune-mediated disorder that can target almost any organ in the body, often with devastating consequences. The immune-suppressive medications currently used to treat it are equally toxic and are often not very effective. At this time, our understanding of its pathophysiology is limited. The discovery of potential biomarkers offers new possibilities in the clinical management of cGVHD. They could potentially be used for diagnosing cGVHD, for predicting or evaluating response to therapy and for unique insights into the pathophysiology underlying the clinical manifestations of cGVHD. Understanding the biological origins of these biomarkers can help us construct a more comprehensive and clinically relevant model for the pathogenesis of this disease. In this article, we review existing evidence for candidate biomarkers that have been identified in the framework of how they may contribute to the pathophysiology of cGVHD. Issues regarding the discovery and application of biomarkers are discussed. PMID:21668397

  8. Initiation of acute graft-versus-host disease by angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Riesner, Katarina; Shi, Yu; Jacobi, Angela; Kraeter, Martin; Kalupa, Martina; McGearey, Aleixandria; Mertlitz, Sarah; Cordes, Steffen; Schrezenmeier, Jens-Florian; Mengwasser, Jörg; Westphal, Sabine; Perez-Hernandez, Daniel; Schmitt, Clemens; Dittmar, Gunnar; Guck, Jochen; Penack, Olaf

    2017-01-17

    The inhibition of inflammation-associated angiogenesis ameliorates inflammatory diseases by reducing the recruitment of tissue infiltrating leukocytes. However, it is not known if angiogenesis has an active role during the initiation of inflammation or if it is merely a secondary effect occurring in response to stimuli by tissue infiltrating leukocytes. Here we show that angiogenesis precedes leukocyte infiltration in experimental models of inflammatory bowel disease and acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We found that angiogenesis occurred as early as day+2 after allogeneic transplantation mainly in GVHD typical target organs skin, liver and intestines whereas no angiogenic changes appeared due to conditioning or syngeneic transplantation. The initiation phase of angiogenesis was not associated to classical endothelial cell (EC) activation signs, such as Vegfa/VEGFR1+2 upregulation or increased adhesion molecule expression. During early GVHD at day+2, we found significant metabolic and cytoskeleton changes in target organ ECs in gene array- and proteomic analyses. These modifications have significant functional consequences as indicated by profoundly higher deformation in Real-time deformability cytometry. Our results demonstrate that metabolic changes trigger alterations in cell mechanics leading to enhanced migratory and proliferative potential of ECs during the initiation of inflammation. Our study adds evidence to the hypothesis that angiogenesis is involved in the initiation of tissue inflammation during GVHD.

  9. Lymphocyte dysfunction in chronic graft-versus-host disease

    SciTech Connect

    Saxon, A.; McIntyre, R.E.; Stevens, R.H.; Gale, R.P.

    1981-10-01

    Three recipients of HLA-identical bone marrow transplants developed chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) and hypergammaglobulinemia. All three had evidence of abnormal B-lymphocyte function, including a polyclonal increase in immunoglobulins (Ig), antinuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor, lymphocytotoxins, and increased immune complexes. T-lymphocyte function was also abnormal, including decreased mitogen reactivity and delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity. The cellular basis of these immune abnormalities was studied in an in vitro system in which we analyzed spontaneous pokeweed mitogen (PWM) driven Ig synthesis. Multiple defects in both T- and B-lymphocyte function were detected. In contrast to normal B cells, circulating B cells from all three patients with cGVHD spontaneously synthesized in vitro greater than 200 ng of IgG and in two of the three greater than 175 ng of IgM. This increase in spontaneous Ig synthesis was not due to a deficiency of regulatory cells, since T cells from the three patients suppressed spontaneous Ig synthesis in a normal fashion. In contrast to this increased spontaneous Ig synthesis, the response of the patients' B cells to PWM-driven Ig synthesis was normal. Using the PWM system we demonstrated several defects in these patients' T cells, including increased suppressor activity and decreased helper cell activity. These data indicate that some patients with cGVHD have multiple defects in both T- and B-cell function that may contribute to their profound immune deficiency.

  10. Treatment of chronic graft-versus-host disease with bortezomib

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Chien-Chun Steven; Chen, Mingyi; Mirsoian, Annie; Grossenbacher, Steven K.; Tellez, Joseph; Ames, Erik; Sun, Kai; Jagdeo, Jared; Blazar, Bruce R.; Abedi, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has emerged as a predominant complication following HSCT and has a distinct etiology. We and others have previously demonstrated that bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, can prevent but not treat acute GVHD in mice. To assess the effects of bortezomib on cGVHD, a mouse minor histocompatibility antigen-mismatched strain combination was used to mimic clinical cGVHD sclerodermatous pathogenesis and phenotype. Treatment of ongoing cGVHD with bortezomib ameliorated cutaneous lesions, which were also associated with a reduction in total numbers of germinal center B cells and lower B-cell activating factor gene expression levels in cutaneous tissues. Importantly, lymphoma-bearing mice receiving allogeneic HSCT with bortezomib preserved graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effects. Based on these animal studies, we initiated an intrapatient dose escalation clinical trial in patients with extensive steroid–intolerant, dependent, or resistant cGVHD. Marked clinical improvement was observed in patients, which was also associated with reductions of peripheral B cells and minimal toxicity. These results indicate that bortezomib can be of significant use in the treatment of cGVHD and may also allow for maintenance of GVT. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01672229. PMID:25009225

  11. Bilateral corneal ulceration in ocular graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, William; Shikari, Hasanain; Saboo, Ujwala S; Amparo, Francisco; Dana, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To report on corneal ulceration in ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Methods This was a retrospective, observational case series investigating corneal ulceration and perforation in a cohort of ocular GVHD patients seen between June 2007 and October 2012. Results Four of 243 ocular GVHD patients developed corneal ulcerations attributable to ocular GVHD, and all four cases involved bilateral corneal ulceration. The median length of time from the diagnosis of ocular GVHD to the diagnosis of the first corneal ulceration was 317 days (range 168–434). The median length of time between the diagnosis of corneal ulceration in each patient’s first and second eye was 248 days (range 9–645). Outcomes varied from complete resolution with medical treatment to corneal perforation necessitating penetrating keratoplasty. In cases of corneal perforation, the median length of time from the diagnosis of corneal ulceration to perforation was 10 days (range 0–20). Common clinical features included: centrally or paracentrally located ulcerations and perforations, concomitant dry eye, and the use of topical or systemic corticosteroids. Conclusion Frequent follow-up and bilateral monitoring are highly recommended in cases of ocular GVHD-associated stromal thinning, as bilateral involvement or rapid progression to corneal perforation can occur. PMID:24204119

  12. Bilateral corneal ulceration in ocular graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, William; Shikari, Hasanain; Saboo, Ujwala S; Amparo, Francisco; Dana, Reza

    2013-01-01

    To report on corneal ulceration in ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). This was a retrospective, observational case series investigating corneal ulceration and perforation in a cohort of ocular GVHD patients seen between June 2007 and October 2012. Four of 243 ocular GVHD patients developed corneal ulcerations attributable to ocular GVHD, and all four cases involved bilateral corneal ulceration. The median length of time from the diagnosis of ocular GVHD to the diagnosis of the first corneal ulceration was 317 days (range 168-434). The median length of time between the diagnosis of corneal ulceration in each patient's first and second eye was 248 days (range 9-645). Outcomes varied from complete resolution with medical treatment to corneal perforation necessitating penetrating keratoplasty. In cases of corneal perforation, the median length of time from the diagnosis of corneal ulceration to perforation was 10 days (range 0-20). Common clinical features included: centrally or paracentrally located ulcerations and perforations, concomitant dry eye, and the use of topical or systemic corticosteroids. Frequent follow-up and bilateral monitoring are highly recommended in cases of ocular GVHD-associated stromal thinning, as bilateral involvement or rapid progression to corneal perforation can occur.

  13. Chronic cutaneous graft-versus-host disease in man.

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, H. M.; Sale, G. E.; Lerner, K. G.; Barker, E. A.; Weiden, P. L.; Sullivan, K.; Gallucci, B.; Thomas, E. D.; Storb, R.

    1978-01-01

    This clinicopathologic study of patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic marrow transplantation emphasizes the most prominent feature of the syndrome, the cutaneous aspects, and describes the ophthalmic-oral sicca syndrome with sialoadenitis and the neurologic findings. Chronic cutaneous GVHD affected 19 of 92 recipients surviving 150 days or more. In 6 patients chronic GVHD presented as a continuation of acute GVHD; in 8 it occurred after the resolution of acute GVHD; and in 5 it arose without preceding acute GVHD, ie, de novo late onset. Two cutaneous types were distinguished. The generalized type affected 16 patients and ran a progressive course resulting in late complications of poikiloderma, diffuse dermal and subcutaneous fibrosis, and contractures. Microscopically, it resembled generalized morphea and lupus erythermatosus hypertrophicus et profundus. The local type affected 3 patients with a more variable picture of poikiloderma, dermal sclerosis, and contractures. Microscopically, it resembled lupus of erythematosus profundus and scleroderma. Guidelines for defining and subclassifying chronic cutaneous GVHD are proposed. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:26221

  14. Innate lymphoid cells in graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Konya, V; Mjösberg, J

    2015-11-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are lymphocytes lacking rearranged antigen receptors such as those expressed by T and B cells. ILC are important effector and regulatory cells of the innate immune system, controlling lymphoid organogenesis, tissue inflammation, and homeostasis. The family of ILC consists of cytotoxic NK cells and the more recently described noncytotoxic group 1, 2, and 3 ILC. The classification of noncytotoxic ILC-in many aspects-mirrors that of T helper cells, which is based on the expression of master transcription factors and signature cytokines specific for each subset. The IL-22 producing RORγt(+) ILC3 subset was recently found to be critical in the prevention of intestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) via strengthening the intestinal mucosal barrier. In this review, we summarize the current view of the immunological functions of human noncytotoxic ILC subsets and discuss the potentially beneficial features of IL-22 producing ILC3 in improving allo-HCT efficacy by attenuating susceptibility to GVHD. In addition, we explore the possibility of other ILC subsets playing a role in GVHD. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Transplantation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  15. How we treat chronic graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a common and potentially life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). The 2-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD requiring systemic treatment is ∼30% to 40% by National Institutes of Health criteria. The risk of chronic GVHD is higher and the duration of treatment is longer after HCT with mobilized blood cells than with marrow cells. Clinical manifestations can impair activities of daily living and often linger for years. Hematology and oncology specialists who refer patients to centers for HCT are often subsequently involved in the management of chronic GVHD when patients return to their care after HCT. Treatment of these patients can be optimized under shared care arrangements that enable referring physicians to manage long-term administration of immunosuppressive medications and supportive care with guidance from transplant center experts. Keys to successful collaborative management include early recognition in making the diagnosis of chronic GVHD, comprehensive evaluation at the onset and periodically during the course of the disease, prompt institution of systemic and topical treatment, appropriate monitoring of the response, calibration of treatment intensity over time in order to avoid overtreatment or undertreatment, and the use of supportive care to prevent complications and disability. PMID:25398933

  16. Chronic graft-versus-host disease complicated by nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsin-Hui; Yang, An-Hang; Yang, Ling-Yu; Hung, Giun-Yi; Chang, Jei-Wen; Wang, Chun-Kai; Lee, Tzong-Yann; Tang, Ren-Bin

    2011-09-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is one of the most frequent and serious complications of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is an uncommon and underrecognized manifestation of cGVHD. We report a patient who developed NS 18 months after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. The onset of NS was accompanied by active manifestations of cGVHD, and immunosuppressants had not been tapered recently. Renal biopsy revealed membranous nephropathy. The patient failed to improve with three combined immunosuppressants (prednisolone, cyclosporine, and mycophenolate mofetil), but achieved partial remission after intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion. Twenty-four months after the diagnosis of NS, the patient was still in hematological remission, with normal serum creatinine level, urinary protein loss of 0.7-1.9 g/day and mild oral mucositis. Our report suggests that NS can be a cGVHD-related immune disorder in HSCT patients. Monitoring of renal parameters, especially proteinuria, is important in cGVHD patients. Our case indicated that post-transplant NS, occurring without history of tapering or following immunosuppressant withdrawal, presents a more severe activity of cGVHD and a relatively severe clinical course. IVIG may modify and control the refractory GVHD-related NS, and can be one of the choices of treatment. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The Gut Microbiota and Immune System Relationship in Human Graft-versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Laterza, Lucrezia; Rizzatti, Gianenrico; Gaetani, Eleonora; Chiusolo, Patrizia; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota has gained increasing interest in the pathogenesis of immune-related diseases. In this context, graft-versus-host disease is a condition characterized by an immune response which frequently complicates and limits the outcomes of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations. Past studies, carried mostly in animals, already supported a relationship between gut microbiota and graft-versus-host disease. However, the possible mechanisms underlying this connection remain elusory. Moreover, strategies to prevent graft-versus-host disease are of great interest as well as the potential role of gut microbiota modulation. We reviewed the role of gut microbiota in the development of immune system and its involvement in the graft-versus-host disease, focusing on data available on humans. PMID:27158438

  18. Nuclear factor-κ B inducing kinase is required for graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Valdepeñas, Carmen; Casanova, Lucía; Colmenero, Isabel; Arriero, Mar; González, África; Lozano, Nieves; González-Vicent, Marta; Díaz, Miguel A.; Madero, Luís; Fresno, Manuel; Ramírez, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Background Donor T lymphocytes are directly responsible for graft-versus-host disease. Molecules important in T-cell function may, therefore, be appropriate targets for graft-versus-host disease therapy and/or prophylaxis. Here we analyzed whether nuclear factor-κ B inducing kinase might have a role in graft-versus-host disease. Design and Methods We studied the expression of nuclear factor-κ B inducing kinase in human samples from patients with graft-versus-host disease. We also explored the effect of nuclear factor-κ B inducing kinase in a murine model of graft-versus-host disease using donor cells from aly/aly mice (deficient in nuclear factor-κ B inducing kinase) and C57BL/6 mice (control). Results We detected expression of nuclear factor-κ B inducing kinase in T-lymphocytes in the pathological lesions of patients with acute graft-versus-host disease. Mice transplanted with aly/aly T lymphocytes did not develop graft-versus-host disease at all, while mice receiving C57BL/6 cells died of a lethal form of the disease. Deficiency of nuclear factor-κ B inducing kinase did not affect the engrafting ability of donor T cells, but severely impaired their expansion capacity early after transplantation, and aly/aly T cells showed a higher proportion of apoptosis than did C57BL/6 T cells. Effector T lymphocytes were the T-cell subset most affected by nuclear factor-κ B inducing kinase deficiency. We also detected lower amounts of inflammatory cytokines in the serum of mice receiving aly/aly T cells than in the serum of mice receiving C57BL/6 T cells. Conclusions Our results show that nuclear factor-κ B inducing kinase has a role in graft-versus-host disease by maintaining the viability of activated alloreactive T lymphocytes. PMID:20823135

  19. Insights into the mechanism of FTY720 and compatibility with regulatory T cells for the inhibition of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Patricia A; Ehrhardt, Michael J; Lees, Christopher J; Tolar, Jakub; Weigel, Brenda J; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Serody, Jonathan S; Brinkmann, Volker; Blazar, Bruce R

    2007-11-01

    The immunomodulator FTY720 (FTY) has been shown to be beneficial in experimental models of organ transplantation and autoimmunity. We show that FTY significantly inhibited but did not prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in lethally irradiated or nonirradiated allogeneic recipients. Although most studies implicate prevention of lymphocyte egress from lymphoid organs as the primary mechanism of action, our data indicate that FTY effects on the host are more likely to be responsible for GVHD inhibition. FTY reduced splenic CD11c+ cells by 50%, and similarly reduced CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responder frequencies in the spleen early after transplantation. Imaging of GFP+ effectors indicated that FTY modified donor effector T-cell migration to secondary lymphoid organs, but did not uniformly trap T cells in lymph nodes or prevent early effector migration to GVHD parenchymal target organs. Administration of FTY only prior to transplantation inhibited GVHD, indicating that the primary function of FTY may be targeted to host cells. FTY was additive with regulatory T cells for GVHD inhibition. FTY slightly impaired but did not abrogate a graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect against C1498, a myeloid leukemia. Our data further define the mechanisms of action and provide insight as to the potential clinical uses of FTY in allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients.

  20. Oral disease profiles in chronic graft versus host disease.

    PubMed

    Bassim, C W; Fassil, H; Mays, J W; Edwards, D; Baird, K; Steinberg, S M; Cowen, E W; Naik, H; Datiles, M; Stratton, P; Gress, R E; Pavletic, S Z

    2015-04-01

    At least half of patients with chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGVHD), the leading cause of morbidity and non-relapse mortality after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, have oral manifestations: mucosal lesions, salivary dysfunction, and limited mouth-opening. cGVHD may manifest in a single organ or affect multiple organ systems, including the mouth, eyes, and the skin. The interrelationship of the 3 oral manifestations of cGVHD with each other and with the specific manifestations of extraoral cGVHD has not been studied. In this analysis, we explored, in a large group of patients with cGVHD, the potential associations between: (1) oral mucosal disease and erythematous skin disease, (2) salivary gland dysfunction and lacrimal gland dysfunction, and (3) limited mouth-opening and sclerotic skin cGVHD. Study participants, enrolled in a cGVHD Natural History Protocol (NCT00331968, n = 212), underwent an oral examination evaluating: (1) mucosal cGVHD [NIH Oral Mucosal Score (OMS)], (2) salivary dysfunction (saliva flow and xerostomia), and (3) maximum mouth-opening measurement. Parameters for dysfunction (OMS > 2, saliva flow ≤ 1 mL/5 min, mouth-opening ≤ 35 mm) were analyzed for association with skin cGVHD involvement (erythema and sclerosis, skin symptoms), lacrimal dysfunction (Schirmer's tear test, xerophthalmia), Lee cGVHD Symptom Scores, and NIH organ scores. Oral mucosal disease (31% prevalence) was associated with skin erythema (P < 0.001); salivary dysfunction (11% prevalence) was associated with lacrimal dysfunction (P = 0.010) and xerostomia with xerophthalmia (r = 0.32, P = 0.001); and limited mouth-opening (17% prevalence) was associated with skin sclerosis (P = 0.008) and skin symptoms (P = 0.001). There was no association found among these 3 oral cGVHD manifestations. This analysis supports the understanding of oral cGVHD as 3 distinct diseases: mucosal lesions, salivary gland dysfunction, and mouth sclerosis. Clear classification of oral c

  1. Oral Disease Profiles in Chronic Graft versus Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fassil, H.; Mays, J.W.; Edwards, D.; Baird, K.; Steinberg, S.M.; Cowen, E.W.; Naik, H.; Datiles, M.; Stratton, P.; Gress, R.E.; Pavletic, S.Z.

    2015-01-01

    At least half of patients with chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGVHD), the leading cause of morbidity and non-relapse mortality after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, have oral manifestations: mucosal lesions, salivary dysfunction, and limited mouth-opening. cGVHD may manifest in a single organ or affect multiple organ systems, including the mouth, eyes, and the skin. The interrelationship of the 3 oral manifestations of cGVHD with each other and with the specific manifestations of extraoral cGVHD has not been studied. In this analysis, we explored, in a large group of patients with cGVHD, the potential associations between: (1) oral mucosal disease and erythematous skin disease, (2) salivary gland dysfunction and lacrimal gland dysfunction, and (3) limited mouth-opening and sclerotic skin cGVHD. Study participants, enrolled in a cGVHD Natural History Protocol (NCT00331968, n = 212), underwent an oral examination evaluating: (1) mucosal cGVHD [NIH Oral Mucosal Score (OMS)], (2) salivary dysfunction (saliva flow and xerostomia), and (3) maximum mouth-opening measurement. Parameters for dysfunction (OMS > 2, saliva flow ≤ 1 mL/5 min, mouth-opening ≤ 35 mm) were analyzed for association with skin cGVHD involvement (erythema and sclerosis, skin symptoms), lacrimal dysfunction (Schirmer’s tear test, xerophthalmia), Lee cGVHD Symptom Scores, and NIH organ scores. Oral mucosal disease (31% prevalence) was associated with skin erythema (P < 0.001); salivary dysfunction (11% prevalence) was associated with lacrimal dysfunction (P = 0.010) and xerostomia with xerophthalmia (r = 0.32, P = 0.001); and limited mouth-opening (17% prevalence) was associated with skin sclerosis (P = 0.008) and skin symptoms (P = 0.001). There was no association found among these 3 oral cGVHD manifestations. This analysis supports the understanding of oral cGVHD as 3 distinct diseases: mucosal lesions, salivary gland dysfunction, and mouth sclerosis. Clear classification of oral c

  2. Biomarker Panel for Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jeffrey; Storer, Barry E.; Kushekhar, Kushi; Abu Zaid, Mohammad; Zhang, Qing; Gafken, Philip R.; Ogata, Yuko; Martin, Paul J.; Flowers, Mary E.; Hansen, John A.; Arora, Mukta; Cutler, Corey; Jagasia, Madan; Pidala, Joseph; Hamilton, Betty K.; Chen, George L.; Pusic, Iskra; Lee, Stephanie J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify diagnostic and prognostic markers of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), the major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Patients and Methods Using a quantitative proteomics approach, we compared pooled plasma samples obtained at matched time points after HCT (median, 103 days) from 35 patients with cGVHD and 18 without cGVHD (data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002762). Of 105 proteins showing at least a 1.25-fold difference in expression, 22 were selected on the basis of involvement in relevant pathways and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay availability. Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) and suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2) also were measured on the basis of previously determined associations with GVHD. Concentrations of the four lead biomarkers were measured at or after diagnosis in plasma from two independent verification cohorts (n = 391) to determine their association with cGVHD. Their prognostic ability when measured at approximately day +100 after HCT was evaluated in plasma of a second verification cohort (n = 172). Results Of 24 proteins measured in the first verification cohort, nine proteins were associated with cGVHD, and only four (ST2, CXCL9, matrix metalloproteinase 3, and osteopontin) were necessary to compose a four-biomarker panel with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.89 and significant correlation with cGVHD diagnosis, cGVHD severity, and nonrelapse mortality. In a second verification cohort, this panel distinguished patients with cGVHD (AUC, 0.75), and finally, the panel measured at day +100 could predict cGVHD occurring within the next 3 months with an AUC of 0.67 and 0.79 without and with known clinical risk factors, respectively. Conclusion We conclude that the biomarker panel measured at diagnosis or day +100 after HCT may allow patient stratification according to risk of cGVHD. PMID:27217465

  3. Biomarker Panel for Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jeffrey; Storer, Barry E; Kushekhar, Kushi; Abu Zaid, Mohammad; Zhang, Qing; Gafken, Philip R; Ogata, Yuko; Martin, Paul J; Flowers, Mary E; Hansen, John A; Arora, Mukta; Cutler, Corey; Jagasia, Madan; Pidala, Joseph; Hamilton, Betty K; Chen, George L; Pusic, Iskra; Lee, Stephanie J; Paczesny, Sophie

    2016-08-01

    To identify diagnostic and prognostic markers of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), the major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Using a quantitative proteomics approach, we compared pooled plasma samples obtained at matched time points after HCT (median, 103 days) from 35 patients with cGVHD and 18 without cGVHD (data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002762). Of 105 proteins showing at least a 1.25-fold difference in expression, 22 were selected on the basis of involvement in relevant pathways and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay availability. Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) and suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2) also were measured on the basis of previously determined associations with GVHD. Concentrations of the four lead biomarkers were measured at or after diagnosis in plasma from two independent verification cohorts (n = 391) to determine their association with cGVHD. Their prognostic ability when measured at approximately day +100 after HCT was evaluated in plasma of a second verification cohort (n = 172). Of 24 proteins measured in the first verification cohort, nine proteins were associated with cGVHD, and only four (ST2, CXCL9, matrix metalloproteinase 3, and osteopontin) were necessary to compose a four-biomarker panel with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.89 and significant correlation with cGVHD diagnosis, cGVHD severity, and nonrelapse mortality. In a second verification cohort, this panel distinguished patients with cGVHD (AUC, 0.75), and finally, the panel measured at day +100 could predict cGVHD occurring within the next 3 months with an AUC of 0.67 and 0.79 without and with known clinical risk factors, respectively. We conclude that the biomarker panel measured at diagnosis or day +100 after HCT may allow patient stratification according to risk of cGVHD. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  4. Oral chronic graft-versus-host disease: analysis of dendritic cells subpopulations*

    PubMed Central

    Botari, Clara Marino Espricigo; Nunes, Adauto José Ferreira; de Souza, Mair Pedro; Orti-Raduan, Érica Sinara Lenharo; Salvio, Ana Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    The graft-versus-host disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Aiming at contributing to the understanding of the role of myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and natural killer cells in chronic graft-versus-host disease, we examined biopsies of jugal mucosa of 26 patients with acute myeloid leukemia who had undergone allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Half of these patients developed oral chronic graft-versus-host disease. Microscopic sections were immunohistochemically stained for anti-CD1a, anti-CD123 and anti-CD56. We calculated the number of immunostained cells in the corium per square millimeter and applied the Mann-Whitney test. Results showed a statistically significant increase of myeloid dendritic cells (CD1a+; p=0,02) and natural killer cells (CD56; p=0,04) in patients with oral chronic graft-versus-host disease. CD123 immunostaining showed no statistical difference between groups. It was concluded that myeloid dendritic cells and natural killer cells participate in the development of oral chronic graft-versus-host disease. PMID:25054751

  5. Incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of sclerosis in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Storer, Barry E; Petersdorf, Effie W; Nelson, J Lee; Lee, Stephanie J; Carpenter, Paul A; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Hansen, John A; Martin, Paul J; Flowers, Mary E D

    2013-06-20

    Sclerotic chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) can result in disability after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. We assessed the incidence and risk factors of sclerosis and its association with transplant outcomes among 977 consecutive patients treated with systemic immunosuppression for chronic GVHD. Sclerosis was defined when cutaneous sclerosis, fasciitis, or joint contracture was first documented in the medical record. Seventy (7%) patients presented with sclerosis at the time of initial systemic treatment for chronic GVHD, and the cumulative incidence of sclerosis increased to 20% at 3 years. Factors associated with an increased risk of sclerosis included the use of a mobilized blood cell graft and a conditioning regimen with > 450 cGy total body irradiation. Factors associated with a decreased risk of sclerosis included the use of an HLA-mismatched donor and a major ABO-mismatched donor. Development of sclerosis was associated with longer time to withdrawal of immunosuppressive treatment but not with risks of overall mortality, nonrelapse mortality, or recurrent malignancy. We found a substantial incidence of sclerosis in patients with chronic GVHD. Development of sclerosis can cause disability but does not affect mortality or recurrent malignancy in patients with chronic GVHD.

  6. Oral cancer after prolonged immunosuppression for multiorgan chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Renata Lins Fuentes; Lyko, Karine de Fátima; Funke, Vaneuza Araújo Moreira; Torres-Pereira, Cassius Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Long-term survivors of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are recognized as a risk group for malignization. Malignant oral neoplasms are increasingly being reported in the literature as a consequence of lesions of chronic graft-versus-host disease, and prolonged multidrug treatment to control its manifestations. This report describes a 43-year-old patient who, after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, developed an oral squamous cell carcinoma secondary to the use of azathioprine, cyclosporine, prednisone, and tacrolimus, associated with multiorgan chronic graft-versus-host disease involving the oral mucosa, skin, eyes, and liver. This report aims to discuss the possible role of immunosuppressant therapy for chronic graft-versus-host disease on the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma, and the relevance of a close oral follow-up of patients to detect dysplastic or malignant alterations at an early stage.

  7. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis in the setting of graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Kunishige, Joy H; Hymes, Sharon R; Madkan, Vandana; Wyatt, Angela J; Uptmore, David; Lazar, Alexander J F; Giralt, Sergio; Rady, Peter; Tyring, Stephen

    2007-11-01

    We report a case of epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV)-like lesions in a patient with graft-versus-host disease after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from his HLA-matched brother. The patient presented with a diffuse papular eruption that was clinically consistent with graft-versus-host disease; however, histopathology demonstrated viral cytopathic changes and polymerase chain reaction confirmed EV human papillomavirus types 8 and 20. Repeated biopsy specimen showed both human papillomavirus cytopathic effect and graft-versus-host disease, and further workup revealed ocular and hepatic involvement. This progressed to a lupuslike syndrome with lichenoid, violaceous, flat-topped papules in a malar distribution and positive antinuclear autoantibodies. Although EV-like lesions have been reported in patients who are immunocompromised, the incidence is low, and may be linked to EV-related haplotypes.

  8. Multiple and Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity After Graft-Versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Weng, Xiuhong; Xing, Yuzhen; Cheng, Bo

    2017-02-22

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common secondary solid tumors in patients who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, according to previous reports, multiple and recurrent OSCC is very rare. The presented case shows the susceptibility to the development of secondary malignancies, particularly oral cancer, of patients who present with chronic graft-versus-host disease after HSCT. OSCC after HSCT appears to be more invasive and has a tendency to recur, with a poor prognosis. Therefore, regular and thorough evaluations of the oral mucosa are recommended for all patients who undergo bone marrow transplantation and have chronic graft-versus-host disease.

  9. Annular plaques: An unusual manifestation of graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Laura J; Paravar, Taraneh; Duvic, Madeleine; Prieto, Victor; Hymes, Sharon R

    2012-06-15

    Chronic cutaneous graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) classically presents with lichenoid papules or sclerotic plaques. This case highlights an unusual clinical manifestation of chronic GVHD and demonstrates that the skin morphology of chronic GVHD and cutaneous lymphoma may be similar. We report for the first time a case of annular scleroderma-like graft-versus-host disease in a patient following allogeneic stem cell transplant for CD30+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Treatment of these skin lesions with ultraviolet A1 (UVA1) phototherapy resulted in significant improvement.

  10. Heat shock protein 70: correlation of expression with degree of graft-versus-host response and clinical graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, M; Marzolini, M; Wang, X N; Jackson, G; Sviland, L; Dickinson, A M

    2003-09-15

    The heat shock proteins are increasingly becoming associated with immunopathologic phenomena, being induced in response to inflammation. They are highly immunogenic and are postulated as playing a role in both innate and adaptive immunity. Their proposed role in peptide binding and antigen presentation could suggest a potential role in the alloreactive process that leads to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after bone marrow transplantation. In this study we examined the expression of the widely studied heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) in an in vitro-generated graft-versus-host reaction in human skin, using streptavidin biotin immunohistochemistry and laser scanning confocal microscopy. Hsp70 expression was correlated with high graft-versus-host responses (P<0.001) and was confirmed using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Increased expression of hsp70 was further defined due to increases in the inducible form of hsp70. Expression of inducible hsp70 was predictive of both clinical acute GVHD (P=0.001) and incidence of chronic GVHD (P<0.001). This investigation has demonstrated for the first time the expression of hsp70 in a human model of GVHD, suggesting involvement in the pathogenesis of the disease and providing the basis for further investigation. Increased expression of inducible hsp70 in the model could provide a biologic marker for the prediction of clinical acute and chronic GVHD.

  11. Delayed onset of gastrointestinal disease in the recipients of bone marrow transplants: a variant graft-versus-host reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Serota, F.T.; Rosenberg, H.K.; Rosen, J.; Koch, P.A.; August, C.S.

    1982-07-01

    The report describes a subacute syndrome consisting of anorexia, mouth ulcers, abdominal pain, and diarrhea which occurred in three allogenic transplant recipients which appears to be distinct from the usual patterns of acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The patient with myelomonocytic leukemia was treated with cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg) i.v. 4 and 3 days before and total body X irradiation to 800 rad 1 day before transplantation. The radiation was administered from a 6-Mev source at least 3.5 m from the patient via opposing lateral fields. The patients were maintained in the protected environment until their absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) became greater than 1000/mm/sup 3/. All blood products were irradiated (1500 rad) prior to transfusion. Methotrexate was administered weekly for 100 days to prevent GVHD. (JMT)

  12. Lethal graft-versus-host disease in nude mice. I. Establishment of model systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kuribayashi, K.; Masuda, T.; Hanaoka, M.

    1988-08-01

    We examined whether nude mice, which are deficient in T cell function, could be used as a model for induction of lethal graft-versus-host disease. Nude mice injected with MHC-disparate spleen cells exhibited only transient GVH reaction such as splenomegaly. Inoculation of B6 spleen cells into BALB/c nude mice produced high titers of alloantibodies to the donor cells. These alloantibodies eliminated host-MHC-reactive donor T cells from the host. After abolition by 400 rads irradiation of the capacity of nude mice to produce antibody, lethal GVHD could be induced by allogeneic spleen cell transfer and was mediated by donor T cells. This lethal GVHD was prevented by prior administration of antidonor alloantibody to the irradiated recipients at least 24 hr before donor-cell grafting. The role of alloantibody was substantiated in 2 other combinations in which little or no alloantibodies to donor spleen cells were produced. Engraftment of either MHC-identical but non-MHC disparate donor spleen cells into BALB/c nude mice or of parental spleen cells into F1 nude mice resulted in death mediated by T cells. In addition, irradiated BALB/c nude mice inoculated with non-MHC-incompatible B10.D2 spleen cells were much more sensitive to alloaggression by the donor cells than were nonirradiated hosts, indicating the presence of some radiation-sensitive component(s) acting in nude mice against GVHD induction by donor T cells. Thus the nude mouse is considered to be a useful recipient for clarifying the basic mechanisms involved in lethal GVHD.

  13. A comparison of four ultraviolet sources to alter graft-versus-host responses.

    PubMed

    Hudson, J G; Pamphilon, D H; Pullens, R R; Preece, A W; Welsh, A; Oakhill, A

    1994-09-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality associated with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Direct ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation of bone marrow and spleen cell allografts in mice using broadband lamps is known to abolish alloreactive responses which would normally cause GVHD. Using a histoincompatible murine model, we have extended these observations by comparing the physical spectrum of four UV sources (the Philips TUV8W, TL12 and TL01, and the Spectronics XX15B) with in vitro assessment of bone marrow progenitor cell damage and suppression of lymphocyte proliferation and in vivo comparison of the effect on GVHD of the TL12 and XX15B and on the rate of engraftment with the TL12. At doses of uv found to abolish lymphocyte proliferation (2.5, 7, 12 and 1000 J m(-2) with the TUV8W, XX15B, TL12 and TL01 lamps) colony-forming unit granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) proliferation was reduced to 81%, 71%, 79% and 62%, respectively. At an optimal dose found to suppress GVHD (100 J m(-2) integrated radiant energy from 200-320 nm for the TL12 and XX15B) CFU-GM proliferation showed a reduction of 98% with the XX15B and 86% with the TL12. At this radiant energy with the TL12, the rate of bone marrow engraftment was impaired with 72% marrow cellularity at 2 weeks, decreasing to 48% after 200 J m(-2). Our results with this model demonstrate that broadband UVB irradiation of bone marrow permits transplantation across a major histocompatibility barrier. Furthermore we have provided in vitro evidence that narrowband UVB or UVC might potentially be applied to this model.

  14. Late-onset acute graft-versus-host disease mimicking hand, foot, and mouth disease

    PubMed Central

    Mahabal, Gauri; George, Leni; Bindra, Mandeep; George, Biju

    2016-01-01

    Acute skin graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) classically presents as a pruritic erythematous maculopapular rash. We describe a patient who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and presented with a hand foot and mouth disease like clinical presentation. Histopathology was suggestive of acute GVHD. This case is being reported to make dermatologists aware of this unusual presentation of GVHD. PMID:27990387

  15. Apoptosis of ileal crypt epithelia after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation without graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Kreft, Andreas; Russo, Alexandra; Lux, Steffi; Waiz, Lioudmila; Seidmann, Larissa; Faber, Jörg; Kirkpatrick, Charles J

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Intestinal crypt cell apoptosis may occur after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation without clinically overt graft-versus-host disease. We describe this phenomenon in a case of a 12-year-old girl who had segments of the ileum resected because of a relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The diagnostic difficulties are discussed. PMID:25984309

  16. Cyclosporine and methotrexate-related pharmacogenomic predictors of acute graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Laverdière, Isabelle; Guillemette, Chantal; Tamouza, Ryad; Loiseau, Pascale; de Latour, Regis Peffault; Robin, Marie; Couture, Félix; Filion, Alain; Lalancette, Marc; Tourancheau, Alan; Charron, Dominique; Socié, Gérard; Lévesque, Éric

    2015-01-01

    Effective immunosuppression is mandatory to prevent graft-versus-host disease and to achieve a successful clinical outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Here we tested whether germline single nucleotide polymorphisms in 20 candidate genes related to methotrexate and cyclosporine metabolism and activity influence the incidence of graft-versus-host disease in patients who undergo stem cell transplantation for hematologic disorders. Recipient genetic status of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette sub-family C1 and adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette sub-family C2 transporters, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/ inosine monophosphate cyclohydrolase within the methotrexate pathway, and nuclear factor of activated T cells (cytoplasmic 1) loci exhibit a remarkable influence on severe acute graft-versus-host disease prevalence. Indeed, an increased risk of acute graft-versus-host disease was observed in association with single nucleotide polymorphisms located in 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/inosine monophosphate cyclohydrolase (hazard ratio=3.04; P=0.002), nuclear factor of activated T cells (cytoplasmic 1) (hazard ratio=2.69; P=0.004), adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette sub-family C2 (hazard ratio=3.53; P=0.0018) and adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette sub-family C1 (hazard ratio=3.67; P=0.0005). While donor single nucleotide polymorphisms of dihydrofolate reductase and solute carrier family 19 (member 1) genes are associated with a reduced risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (hazard ratio=0.32–0.41; P=0.0009–0.008), those of nuclear factor of activated T cells (cytoplasmic 2) are found to increase such risk (hazard ratio=3.85; P=0.0004). None of the tested single nucleotide polymorphisms was associated with the occurrence of chronic graft-versus-host disease. In conclusion, by targeting drug-related biologically relevant genes, this work emphasizes the potential

  17. Acute graft-versus-host disease of the kidney in allogeneic rat bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Higo, Seiichiro; Shimizu, Akira; Masuda, Yukinari; Nagasaka, Shinya; Kajimoto, Yusuke; Kanzaki, Go; Fukui, Megumi; Nagahama, Kiyotaka; Mii, Akiko; Kaneko, Tomohiro; Tsuruoka, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell or bone marrow transplantation (BMT) causes graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD). However, the involvement of the kidney in acute GVHD is not well-understood. Acute GVHD was induced in Lewis rats (RT1l) by transplantation of Dark Agouti (DA) rat (RT1(a)) bone marrow cells (6.0 × 10(7) cells) without immunosuppression after lethal irradiation (10 Gy). We examined the impact of acute GVHD on the kidney in allogeneic BMT rats and compared them with those in Lewis-to-Lewis syngeneic BMT control and non-BMT control rats. In syngeneic BMT and non-BMT control rats, acute GVHD did not develop by day 28. In allogeneic BMT rats, severe acute GVHD developed at 21-28 days after BMT in the skin, intestine, and liver with decreased body weight (>20%), skin rush, diarrhea, and liver dysfunction. In the kidney, infiltration of donor-type leukocytes was by day 28. Mild inflammation characterized by infiltration of CD3(+) T-cells, including CD8(+) T-cells and CD4(+) T-cells, and CD68(+) macrophages to the interstitium around the small arteries was noted. During moderate to severe inflammation, these infiltrating cells expanded into the peritubular interstitium with peritubular capillaritis, tubulitis, acute glomerulitis, and endarteritis. Renal dysfunction also developed, and the serum blood urea nitrogen (33.9 ± 4.7 mg/dL) and urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG: 31.5 ± 15.5 U/L) levels increased. No immunoglobulin and complement deposition was detected in the kidney. In conclusion, the kidney was a primary target organ of acute GVHD after BMT. Acute GVHD of the kidney was characterized by increased levels of urinary NAG and cell-mediated injury to the renal microvasculature and renal tubules.

  18. Graft-Versus-Host Disease and Graft-Versus-Tumor Effects After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Storb, Rainer; Gyurkocza, Boglarka; Storer, Barry E.; Sorror, Mohamed L.; Blume, Karl; Niederwieser, Dietger; Chauncey, Thomas R.; Pulsipher, Michael A.; Petersen, Finn B.; Sahebi, Firoozeh; Agura, Edward D.; Hari, Parameswaran; Bruno, Benedetto; McSweeney, Peter A.; Maris, Michael B.; Maziarz, Richard T.; Langston, Amelia A.; Bethge, Wolfgang; Vindeløv, Lars; Franke, Georg-Nikolaus; Laport, Ginna G.; Yeager, Andrew M.; Hübel, Kai; Deeg, H. Joachim; Georges, George E.; Flowers, Mary E.D.; Martin, Paul J.; Mielcarek, Marco; Woolfrey, Ann E.; Maloney, David G.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We designed a minimal-intensity conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies unable to tolerate high-intensity regimens because of age, serious comorbidities, or previous high-dose HCT. The regimen allows the purest assessment of graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effects apart from conditioning and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) not augmented by regimen-related toxicities. Patients and Methods Patients received low-dose total-body irradiation ± fludarabine before HCT from HLA-matched related (n = 611) or unrelated (n = 481) donors, followed by mycophenolate mofetil and a calcineurin inhibitor to aid engraftment and control GVHD. Median patient age was 56 years (range, 7 to 75 years). Forty-five percent of patients had comorbidity scores of ≥ 3. Median follow-up time was 5 years (range, 0.6 to 12.7 years). Results Depending on disease risk, comorbidities, and GVHD, lasting remissions were seen in 45% to 75% of patients, and 5-year survival ranged from 25% to 60%. At 5 years, the nonrelapse mortality (NRM) rate was 24%, and the relapse mortality rate was 34.5%. Most NRM was a result of GVHD. The most significant factors associated with GVHD-associated NRM were serious comorbidities and grafts from unrelated donors. Most relapses occurred early while the immune system was compromised. GVT effects were comparable after unrelated and related grafts. Chronic GVHD, but not acute GVHD, further increased GVT effects. The potential benefit associated with chronic GVHD was outweighed by increased NRM. Conclusion Allogeneic HCT relying on GVT effects is feasible and results in cures of an appreciable number of malignancies. Improved results could come from methods that control progression of malignancy early after HCT and effectively prevent GVHD. PMID:23478054

  19. Graft-versus-host disease and graft-versus-tumor effects after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Storb, Rainer; Gyurkocza, Boglarka; Storer, Barry E; Sorror, Mohamed L; Blume, Karl; Niederwieser, Dietger; Chauncey, Thomas R; Pulsipher, Michael A; Petersen, Finn B; Sahebi, Firoozeh; Agura, Edward D; Hari, Parameswaran; Bruno, Benedetto; McSweeney, Peter A; Maris, Michael B; Maziarz, Richard T; Langston, Amelia A; Bethge, Wolfgang; Vindeløv, Lars; Franke, Georg-Nikolaus; Laport, Ginna G; Yeager, Andrew M; Hübel, Kai; Deeg, H Joachim; Georges, George E; Flowers, Mary E D; Martin, Paul J; Mielcarek, Marco; Woolfrey, Ann E; Maloney, David G; Sandmaier, Brenda M

    2013-04-20

    We designed a minimal-intensity conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies unable to tolerate high-intensity regimens because of age, serious comorbidities, or previous high-dose HCT. The regimen allows the purest assessment of graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effects apart from conditioning and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) not augmented by regimen-related toxicities. Patients received low-dose total-body irradiation ± fludarabine before HCT from HLA-matched related (n = 611) or unrelated (n = 481) donors, followed by mycophenolate mofetil and a calcineurin inhibitor to aid engraftment and control GVHD. Median patient age was 56 years (range, 7 to 75 years). Forty-five percent of patients had comorbidity scores of ≥ 3. Median follow-up time was 5 years (range, 0.6 to 12.7 years). Depending on disease risk, comorbidities, and GVHD, lasting remissions were seen in 45% to 75% of patients, and 5-year survival ranged from 25% to 60%. At 5 years, the nonrelapse mortality (NRM) rate was 24%, and the relapse mortality rate was 34.5%. Most NRM was a result of GVHD. The most significant factors associated with GVHD-associated NRM were serious comorbidities and grafts from unrelated donors. Most relapses occurred early while the immune system was compromised. GVT effects were comparable after unrelated and related grafts. Chronic GVHD, but not acute GVHD, further increased GVT effects. The potential benefit associated with chronic GVHD was outweighed by increased NRM. Allogeneic HCT relying on GVT effects is feasible and results in cures of an appreciable number of malignancies. Improved results could come from methods that control progression of malignancy early after HCT and effectively prevent GVHD.

  20. Role of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling in the Pathogenesis of Graft-versus-Host Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Sanfang; Zhong, Danli; Xie, Weixin; Huang, Wenfa; Jiang, Yangyang; Li, Yuhua

    2016-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and infection are major complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in HSCT patients. Recent work has demonstrated that the two complications are interdependent. GVHD occurs when allo-reactive donor T lymphocytes are activated by major histocompatibility antigens or minor histocompatibility antigens on host antigen-presenting cells (APCs), with the eventual attack of recipient tissues or organs. Activation of APCs is important for the priming of GVHD and is mediated by innate immune signaling pathways. Current evidence indicates that intestinal microbes and innate pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) on host APCs, including both Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), are involved in the pathogenesis of GVHD. Patients undergoing chemotherapy and/or total body irradiation before allo-HSCT are susceptible to aggravated gastrointestinal epithelial cell damage and the subsequent translocation of bacterial components, followed by the release of endogenous dangerous molecules, termed pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which then activate the PRRs on host APCs to trigger local or systemic inflammatory responses that modulate T cell allo-reactivity against host tissues, which is equivalent to GVHD. In other words, infection can, to some extent, accelerate the progression of GVHD. Therefore, the intestinal flora’s PAMPs can interact with TLRs to activate and mature APCs, subsequently activate donor T cells with the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and eventually, induce GVHD. In the present article, we summarize the current perspectives on the understanding of different TLR signaling pathways and their involvement in the occurrence of GVHD. PMID:27529218

  1. Bortezomib-Based Graft-Versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis in HLA-Mismatched Unrelated Donor Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Koreth, John; Stevenson, Kristen E.; Kim, Haesook T.; McDonough, Sean M.; Bindra, Bhavjot; Armand, Philippe; Ho, Vincent T.; Cutler, Corey; Blazar, Bruce R.; Antin, Joseph H.; Soiffer, Robert J.; Ritz, Jerome; Alyea, Edwin P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose HLA-mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD) hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with increased graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and impaired survival. In reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC), neither ex vivo nor in vivo T-cell depletion (eg, antithymocyte globulin) convincingly improved outcomes. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib has immunomodulatory properties potentially beneficial for control of GVHD in T-cell-replete HLA-mismatched transplantation. Patients and Methods We conducted a prospective phase I/II trial of a GVHD prophylaxis regimen of short-course bortezomib, administered once per day on days +1, +4, and +7 after peripheral blood stem-cell infusion plus standard tacrolimus and methotrexate in patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing MMUD RIC HSCT. We report outcomes for 45 study patients: 40 (89%) 1-locus and five (11%) 2-loci mismatches (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, or -DQB1), with a median of 36.5 months (range, 17.4 to 59.6 months) follow-up. Results The 180-day cumulative incidence of grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD was 22% (95% CI, 11% to 35%). One-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 29% (95% CI, 16% to 43%). Two-year cumulative incidences of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and relapse were 11% (95% CI, 4% to 22%) and 38% (95% CI, 24% to 52%), respectively. Two-year progression-free survival and overall survival were 51% (95% CI, 36% to 64%) and 64% (95% CI, 49% to 76%), respectively. Bortezomib-treated HLA-mismatched patients experienced rates of NRM, acute and chronic GVHD, and survival similar to those of contemporaneous HLA-matched RIC HSCT at our institution. Immune recovery, including CD8+ T-cell and natural killer cell reconstitution, was enhanced with bortezomib. Conclusion A novel short-course, bortezomib-based GVHD regimen can abrogate the survival impairment of MMUD RIC HSCT, can enhance early immune reconstitution, and appears to be suitable for prospective randomized evaluation. PMID:22869883

  2. Increased serum IgE concentrations during infection and graft versus host disease after bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, S A; Rogers, T R; Perry, D; Hobbs, J R; Riches, P G

    1984-01-01

    Serum IgE concentrations estimated in 25 bone marrow transplant recipients during episodes of infection or graft versus host disease, or both, were raised not only in some patients with acute graft versus host disease but also in many patients with infection. Raised values were not seen in chronic graft versus host disease. The routine estimation of serum IgE in bone marrow transplant recipients had minimal value because of the lack of specificity of the IgE response. PMID:6368605

  3. THE INDUCTION OF GRAFT VERSUS HOST DISEASE IN MICE TREATED WITH CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Albert H.; Santos, George W.

    1968-01-01

    In these studies adult mice treated with cyclophosphamide and foreign immunologically competent cells developed a graft versus host disease which outwardly resembled that encountered in other experimental systems. Progressively larger doses of cyclophosphamide produced an increasingly severe disease whereas comparable doses of mechlorethamine were ineffective. Increasingly larger cell inocula from parental, allogeneic, and xenogeneic donors resulted in a correspondingly more severe disease. Nucleated cells obtained from the peripheral blood were found to be the most potent inducers of this syndrome, while cells from the spleen, bone marrow, and thymus displayed lesser degrees of reactivity in that order. No such graft versus host disease occurred in mice given saline, lysed, or heat-killed cells in place of viable foreign cells. Neither did the disorder develop when comparable inocula of isogeneic cells were used. PMID:4873022

  4. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy associated with chronic graft-versus-host disease: A case report

    PubMed Central

    YU, JINBEI; SUN, LICHAO; LIN, WEIHONG

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the clinical manifestations, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and treatments of a 22-year-old male patient diagnosed with reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) associated with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) 7 months after a haploid hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The patient was admitted to hospital after falling unconscious. Head MRI demonstrated abnormal signals in the bilateral, frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes, consistent with reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS). Based on a detailed diagnosis, the response to treatment and follow-up, it was concluded that RPLS was closely associated with chronic graft-versus-host disease in the patient. The present case report is described in order to increase the awareness of RPLS. PMID:27284340

  5. Limited Impact of Imatinib in a Murine Model of Sclerodermatous Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Somja, Joan; Binsfeld, Marilène; Delvenne, Philippe; Drion, Pierre; Hannon, Muriel; Beguin, Yves; Ehx, Grégory; Baron, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Background Sclerodermatous chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease (scl-cGVHD) is one of the most severe form of cGVHD. The Platelet-derived Grotwth Factor (PDGF) and the Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) play a significant role in the fibrosing process occurring in scl-cGVHD. This prompted us to assess the impact of the PDGF-r and c-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib on scl-cGVHD. Methods To assess the impact of imatinib on T cell subset proliferation in vivo, Balb/cJ recipient mice were lethally (7 Gy) irradiated and then injected with 10x106 bone marrow cells from B10.D2 mice on day 0. Fourteen days later, 70x106 carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-labeled splenocytes from B10.D2 mice were infused and imatinib or sterile water was administered for 5 days. To induce severe scl-cGVHD, Balb/cJ mice were injected i.v. with 10.106 bone marrow cells and 70.106 splenocytes from B10.D2 donor mice after 7 Gy irradiation. Mice were then given sterile water or imatinib from day +7 after transplantation to the end of the experiment (day +52). Results Imatinib decreased the proliferation of total T cells (P = 0.02), CD8+ T cells (P = 0.01), and of regulatory T cells (Tregs) (P = 0.02) in the spleen. In the severe scl-cGVHD model, imatinib-treated mice had significantly lower levels of PDGF-r phosphorylation than control mice on day 29 after transplantation (P = 0.008). However, scl-cGVHD scores were similar between vehicle- and imatinib-treated mice during the whole experiment, while there was a suggestion for less weight loss in imatinib-treated mice that reached statistical significance at day +52 following transplantation (P = 0.02). Conclusions Imatinib had a limited impact in murine scl-cGVHD despite significant inhibition of PDGF-r. PMID:27942010

  6. Hydrogen, a potential safeguard for graft-versus-host disease and graft ischemia-reperfusion injury?

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lijuan; Shen, Jianliang

    2016-09-01

    Post-transplant complications such as graft-versus-host disease and graft ischemia-reperfusion injury are crucial challenges in transplantation. Hydrogen can act as a potential antioxidant, playing a preventive role against post-transplant complications in animal models of multiple organ transplantation. Herein, the authors review the current literature regarding the effects of hydrogen on graft ischemia-reperfusion injury and graft-versus-host disease. Existing data on the effects of hydrogen on ischemia-reperfusion injury related to organ transplantation are specifically reviewed and coupled with further suggestions for future work. The reviewed studies showed that hydrogen (inhaled or dissolved in saline) improved the outcomes of organ transplantation by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation at both the transplanted organ and the systemic levels. In conclusion, a substantial body of experimental evidence suggests that hydrogen can significantly alleviate transplantation-related ischemia-reperfusion injury and have a therapeutic effect on graft-versus-host disease, mainly via inhibition of inflammatory cytokine secretion and reduction of oxidative stress through several underlying mechanisms. Further animal experiments and preliminary human clinical trials will lay the foundation for hydrogen use as a drug in the clinic.

  7. Hydrogen, a potential safeguard for graft-versus-host disease and graft ischemia-reperfusion injury?

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Lijuan; Shen, Jianliang

    2016-01-01

    Post-transplant complications such as graft-versus-host disease and graft ischemia-reperfusion injury are crucial challenges in transplantation. Hydrogen can act as a potential antioxidant, playing a preventive role against post-transplant complications in animal models of multiple organ transplantation. Herein, the authors review the current literature regarding the effects of hydrogen on graft ischemia-reperfusion injury and graft-versus-host disease. Existing data on the effects of hydrogen on ischemia-reperfusion injury related to organ transplantation are specifically reviewed and coupled with further suggestions for future work. The reviewed studies showed that hydrogen (inhaled or dissolved in saline) improved the outcomes of organ transplantation by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation at both the transplanted organ and the systemic levels. In conclusion, a substantial body of experimental evidence suggests that hydrogen can significantly alleviate transplantation-related ischemia-reperfusion injury and have a therapeutic effect on graft-versus-host disease, mainly via inhibition of inflammatory cytokine secretion and reduction of oxidative stress through several underlying mechanisms. Further animal experiments and preliminary human clinical trials will lay the foundation for hydrogen use as a drug in the clinic. PMID:27652837

  8. Beclomethasone in Treating Patients With Graft-Versus-Host Disease of the Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, or Colon

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2010-03-31

    Breast Cancer; Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Graft Versus Host Disease; Kidney Cancer; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  9. Post-transplant cyclophosphamide versus anti-thymocyte globulin as graft- versus-host disease prophylaxis in haploidentical transplant

    PubMed Central

    Ruggeri, Annalisa; Sun, Yuqian; Labopin, Myriam; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Lorentino, Francesca; Arcese, William; Santarone, Stella; Gülbas, Zafer; Blaise, Didier; Messina, Giuseppe; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshi; Malard, Florent; Bruno, Benedetto; Diez-Martin, Jose Luis; Koc, Yener; Ciceri, Fabio; Mohty, Mohamad; Nagler, Arnon

    2017-01-01

    Severe graft-versus-host disease is a major barrier for non-T-cell-depleted haploidentical stem cell transplantation. There is no consensus on the optimal graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. This study compared the two most commonly used graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis regimens (post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based vs. the anti-thymocyte globulin-based) in adults with acute myeloid leukemia reported to the European Society for Blood and Bone Marrow Transplantation. A total of 308 patients were analyzed; 193 received post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based regimen and 115 anti-thymocyte globulin-based regimen as anti-graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. The post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based regimen was more likely to be associated to bone marrow as graft source (60% vs. 40%; P=0.01). Patients in the post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based regimen group had significantly less grade 3–4 acute graft-versus-host disease than those in the anti-thymocyte globulin-based group (5% vs. 12%, respectively; P=0.01), comparable to chronic graft-versus-host disease. Multivariate analysis showed that non-relapse mortality was lower in the post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based regimen group [22% vs. 30%, Hazard ratio (HR) 1.77(95%CI: 1.09–2.86); P=0.02] with no difference in relapse incidence. Patients receiving post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based regimen had better graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival [HR 1.45 (95%CI: 1.04–2.02); P=0.03] and leukemia-free survival [HR 1.48 (95%CI: 1.03–2.12); P=0.03] than those in the anti-thymocyte globulin-based group. In the multivariate analysis, there was also a trend for a higher overall survival [HR 1.43 (95%CI: 0.98–2.09); P=0.06] for post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based regimen versus the anti-thymocyte globulin-based group. Notably, center experience was also associated with non-relapse mortality and graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival. Haplo-SCT using a post

  10. Lichenoid Variant of Chronic Cutaneous Graft Versus Host Reaction Post Blood Transfusion: A Rare Event Post Blood Transfusion.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnaiah, Pushpa Kodipalya; Lakshman, Archana; Aradhya, Sacchidanand Sarvajnamurthy; Veerabhadrappa, Nataraja Holavanahally

    2015-01-01

    Chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) is a less frequently seen disease that occurs post solid organ or bone marrow transplantation. Chronic GVHD occurring post blood transfusion is an even more uncommon disease. It can present either as a lichenoid disease or as a sclerodermatous disease involving multiple systems. In this article, we report a case of chronic graft versus host reaction occurring in skin secondary to blood transfusion.

  11. Lichenoid Variant of Chronic Cutaneous Graft Versus Host Reaction Post Blood Transfusion: A Rare Event Post Blood Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnaiah, Pushpa Kodipalya; Lakshman, Archana; Aradhya, Sacchidanand Sarvajnamurthy; Veerabhadrappa, Nataraja Holavanahally

    2015-01-01

    Chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) is a less frequently seen disease that occurs post solid organ or bone marrow transplantation. Chronic GVHD occurring post blood transfusion is an even more uncommon disease. It can present either as a lichenoid disease or as a sclerodermatous disease involving multiple systems. In this article, we report a case of chronic graft versus host reaction occurring in skin secondary to blood transfusion. PMID:26538747

  12. Interleukin-10 spot-forming cells as a novel biomarker of chronic graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, Masahiro; Azuma, Eiichi; Nakagawa-Nakazawa, Atsuko; Kumamoto, Tadashi; Iwamoto, Shotaro; Amano, Keishiro; Tamaki, Shigehisa; Usui, Eiji; Komada, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Although there are National Institutes of Health consensus criteria for the global assessment of chronic graft-versus-host disease, no validated biomarkers have been established for this disease. Furthermore, whereas the role of T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells in chronic graft-versus-host disease has been established, the contribution of monocytes has not been clearly addressed. Using an enzyme-linked immunospot assay, we measured the spot-forming cells for interferon-γ, interleukin-4, interleukin-10, and interleukin-17 in unstimulated peripheral blood of patients following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Other immunological examinations, including skin biopsy, were also done. Fifty-seven patients were enrolled. Interleukin-10 spot-forming cells were evaluable for therapeutic monitoring in 16 patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease. The number of interleukin-10 spot-forming cells in patients with active chronic graft-versus-host disease was significantly higher than the number in those with no or inactive chronic graft-versus-host disease. Interleukin-10 was predominantly produced by monocytes. CD29 expression on monocytes in patients with active chronic graft-versus-host disease was elevated. The level of plasma fibronectin, a ligand of CD29, correlated with the number of interleukin-10 spot-forming cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of the skin in active chronic graft-versus-host disease showed that infiltrating CD29+ monocytes might produce interleukin-10. A novel biomarker, interleukin-10 spot-forming cells, shows promise as both a diagnostic and prognostic indicator for chronic graft-versus-host disease, and may allow for early intervention prior to the onset of the disease. Measurement of interleukin-10 spot-forming cells would be helpful in clinical trials and in patients' management. PMID:22733028

  13. Possible Implication of Bacterial Infection in Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Fuji, Shigeo; Kapp, Markus; Einsele, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is still one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In the pathogenesis of acute GVHD, it has been established that donor-derived T-cells activated in the recipient play a major role in GVHD in initiation and maintenance within an inflammatory cascade. To reduce the risk of GVHD, intensification of GVHD prophylaxis like T-cell depletion is effective, but it inevitably increases the risk of infectious diseases and abrogates beneficial graft-versus-leukemia effects. Although various cytokines are considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of GVHD, GVHD initiation is such a complex process that cannot be prevented by means of single inflammatory cytokine inhibition. Thus, efficient methods to control the whole inflammatory milieu both on cellular and humoral view are needed. In this context, infectious diseases can theoretically contribute to an elevation of inflammatory cytokines after allogeneic HSCT and activation of various subtypes of immune effector cells, which might in summary lead to an aggravation of acute GVHD. The appropriate treatments or prophylaxis of bacterial infection during the early phase after allogeneic HSCT might be beneficial to reduce not only infectious-related but also GVHD-related mortality. Here, we aim to review the literature addressing the interactions of bacterial infections and GVHD after allogeneic HSCT. PMID:24795865

  14. Hsp90 inhibition ameliorates CD4+ T cell‐mediated acute Graft versus Host disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kerkau, Thomas; Werner, Sandra; Wolf, Nelli; Winter, Nadine; Hünig, Thomas; Einsele, Hermann; Topp, Max S.; Beyersdorf, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction For many patients with leukemia only allogeneic bone marrow transplantion provides a chance of cure. Co‐transplanted mature donor T cells mediate the desired Graft versus Tumor (GvT) effect required to destroy residual leukemic cells. The donor T cells very often, however, also attack healthy tissue of the patient inducing acute Graft versus Host Disease (aGvHD)—a potentially life‐threatening complication. Methods Therefore, we used the well established C57BL/6 into BALB/c mouse aGvHD model to evaluate whether pharmacological inhibition of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) would protect the mice from aGvHD. Results Treatment of the BALB/c recipient mice from day 0 to +2 after allogeneic CD4+ T cell transplantation with the Hsp90 inhibitor 17‐(dimethylaminoethylamino)‐17‐demethoxygeldanamycin (DMAG) partially protected the mice from aGvHD. DMAG treatment was, however, insufficient to prolong overall survival of leukemia‐bearing mice after transplantation of allogeneic CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Ex vivo analyses and in vitro experiments revealed that DMAG primarily inhibits conventional CD4+ T cells with a relative resistance of CD4+ regulatory and CD8+ T cells toward Hsp90 inhibition. Conclusions Our data, thus, suggest that Hsp90 inhibition might constitute a novel approach to reduce aGvHD in patients without abrogating the desired GvT effect. PMID:27980780

  15. Reduced intensity haplo plus single cord transplant compared to double cord transplant: improved engraftment and graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival.

    PubMed

    van Besien, Koen; Hari, Parameswaran; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Liu, Hong-Tao; Stock, Wendy; Godley, Lucy; Odenike, Olatoyosi; Larson, Richard; Bishop, Michael; Wickrema, Amittha; Gergis, Usama; Mayer, Sebastian; Shore, Tsiporah; Tsai, Stephanie; Rhodes, Joanna; Cushing, Melissa M; Korman, Sandra; Artz, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Umbilical cord blood stem cell transplants are commonly used in adults lacking HLA-identical donors. Delays in hematopoietic recovery contribute to mortality and morbidity. To hasten recovery, we used co-infusion of progenitor cells from a partially matched related donor and from an umbilical cord blood graft (haplo-cord transplant). Here we compared the outcomes of haplo-cord and double-cord transplants. A total of 97 adults underwent reduced intensity conditioning followed by haplo-cord transplant and 193 patients received reduced intensity conditioning followed by double umbilical cord blood transplantation. Patients in the haplo-cord group were more often from minority groups and had more advanced malignancy. Haplo-cord recipients received fludarabine-melphalan-anti-thymocyte globulin. Double umbilical cord blood recipients received fludarabine-cyclophosphamide and low-dose total body irradiation. In a multivariate analysis, haplo-cord had faster neutrophil (HR=1.42, P=0.007) and platelet (HR=2.54, P<0.0001) recovery, lower risk of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (HR=0.26, P<0.0001) and chronic graft-versus-host disease (HR=0.06, P<0.0001). Haplo-cord was associated with decreased risk of relapse (HR 0.48, P=0.001). Graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival was superior with haplo-cord (HR 0.63, P=0.002) but not overall survival (HR=0.97, P=0.85). Haplo-cord transplantation using fludarabine-melphalan-thymoglobulin conditioning hastens hematopoietic recovery with a lower risk of relapse relative to double umbilical cord blood transplantation using the commonly used fludarabine-cyclophosphamide-low-dose total body irradiation conditioning. Graft-versus-host disease-free and relapse-free survival is significantly improved. Haplo-cord is a readily available graft source that improves outcomes and access to transplant for those lacking HLA-matched donors. Trials registered at clinicaltrials.gov identifiers 00943800 and 01810588.

  16. Reduced intensity haplo plus single cord transplant compared to double cord transplant: improved engraftment and graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival

    PubMed Central

    van Besien, Koen; Hari, Parameswaran; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Liu, Hong-Tao; Stock, Wendy; Godley, Lucy; Odenike, Olatoyosi; Larson, Richard; Bishop, Michael; Wickrema, Amittha; Gergis, Usama; Mayer, Sebastian; Shore, Tsiporah; Tsai, Stephanie; Rhodes, Joanna; Cushing, Melissa M.; Korman, Sandra; Artz, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood stem cell transplants are commonly used in adults lacking HLA-identical donors. Delays in hematopoietic recovery contribute to mortality and morbidity. To hasten recovery, we used co-infusion of progenitor cells from a partially matched related donor and from an umbilical cord blood graft (haplo-cord transplant). Here we compared the outcomes of haplo-cord and double-cord transplants. A total of 97 adults underwent reduced intensity conditioning followed by haplo-cord transplant and 193 patients received reduced intensity conditioning followed by double umbilical cord blood transplantation. Patients in the haplo-cord group were more often from minority groups and had more advanced malignancy. Haplo-cord recipients received fludarabine-melphalan-anti-thymocyte globulin. Double umbilical cord blood recipients received fludarabine-cyclophosphamide and low-dose total body irradiation. In a multivariate analysis, haplo-cord had faster neutrophil (HR=1.42, P=0.007) and platelet (HR=2.54, P<0.0001) recovery, lower risk of grade II–IV acute graft-versus-host disease (HR=0.26, P<0.0001) and chronic graft-versus-host disease (HR=0.06, P<0.0001). Haplo-cord was associated with decreased risk of relapse (HR 0.48, P=0.001). Graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival was superior with haplo-cord (HR 0.63, P=0.002) but not overall survival (HR=0.97, P=0.85). Haplo-cord transplantation using fludarabine-melphalan-thymoglobulin conditioning hastens hematopoietic recovery with a lower risk of relapse relative to double umbilical cord blood transplantation using the commonly used fludarabine-cyclophosphamide-low-dose total body irradiation conditioning. Graft-versus-host disease-free and relapse-free survival is significantly improved. Haplo-cord is a readily available graft source that improves outcomes and access to transplant for those lacking HLA-matched donors. Trials registered at clinicaltrials.gov identifiers 00943800 and 01810588. PMID

  17. Graft-versus-host reaction and immune function. III. Functional pre-T cells in the bone marrow of graft-versus-host-reactive mice displaying T cell immunodeficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Seddik, M.; Seemayer, T.A.; Lapp, W.S.

    1986-02-01

    Studies were performed to determine whether pre-T cells develop normally in the bone marrow of mice displaying thymic dysplasia and T cell immunodeficiency as a consequence of a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction. GVH reactions were induced in CBAxAF1 mice by the injection of A strain lymphoid cells. To test for the presence of pre-T cells in GVH-reactive mice, bone marrow from GVH-reactive mice (GVHBM) was injected into irradiated syngeneic F1 mice and 30-40 days later thymic morphology and function were studied. Morphology studies showed nearly normal thymic architectural restoration; moreover, such glands contained normal numbers of Thy-1-positive cells. Functional pre-T cells were evaluated by transferring thymocytes from the irradiated GVHBM-reconstituted mice into T-cell-deprived mice. These thymocytes reconstituted allograft reactivity, T helper cell function and Con A and PHA mitogen responses of T-cell-deprived mice. These results suggest that the pre-T cell population in the bone marrow is not affected by the GVH reaction. Therefore, the T cell immunodeficiency associated with the GVH reaction is not due to a deficiency of pre-T cells in the bone marrow but is more likely associated with GVH-induced thymic dysplasia.

  18. Rapid Functional Decline of Activated and Memory Graft-versus-Host-Reactive T Cells Encountering Host Antigens in the Absence of Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao Wei; Andreola, Giovanna; Carlson, Alicia L; Shao, Steven; Lin, Charles P; Zhao, Guiling; Sykes, Megan

    2015-08-01

    Inflammation in the priming host environment has critical effects on the graft-versus-host (GVH) responses mediated by naive donor T cells. However, it is unclear how a quiescent or inflammatory environment impacts the activity of GVH-reactive primed T and memory cells. We show in this article that GVH-reactive primed donor T cells generated in irradiated recipients had diminished ability compared with naive T cells to increase donor chimerism when transferred to quiescent mixed allogeneic chimeras. GVH-reactive primed T cells showed marked loss of cytotoxic function and activation, and delayed but not decreased proliferation or accumulation in lymphoid tissues when transferred to quiescent mixed chimeras compared with freshly irradiated secondary recipients. Primed CD4 and CD8 T cells provided mutual help to sustain these functions in both subsets. CD8 help for CD4 cells was largely IFN-γ dependent. TLR stimulation after transfer of GVH-reactive primed T cells to mixed chimeras restored their cytotoxic effector function and permitted the generation of more effective T cell memory in association with reduced PD-1 expression on CD4 memory cells. Our data indicate that an inflammatory host environment is required for the maintenance of GVH-reactive primed T cell functions and the generation of memory T cells that can rapidly acquire effector functions. These findings have important implications for graft-versus-host disease and T cell-mediated immunotherapies.

  19. Immunosuppressive Effects of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells on Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Rats Following Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Nevruz, Oral; Avcu, Ferit; Ural, A. Uğur; Pekel, Aysel; Dirican, Bahar; Safalı, Mükerrem; Akdağ, Elvin; Beyzadeoğlu, Murat; İde, Tayfun; Sengül, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major obstacle to successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT). While multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) demonstrate alloresponse in vitro and in vivo, they also have clinical applications toward prevention or treatment of GVHD. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of MSCs to prevent or treat GVHD in a rat BMT model. Materials and Methods: The GVHD model was established by transplantation of Sprague Dawley rats’ bone marrow and spleen cells into lethally irradiated (950 cGy) SDxWistar rat recipients. A total of 49 rats were randomly assigned to 4 study and 3 control groups administered different GVHD prophylactic regimens including MSCs. After transplantation, clinical GVHD scores and survival status were monitored. Results: All irradiated and untreated control mice with GVHD died. MSCs inhibited lethal GVHD as efficiently as the standard GVHD prophylactic regimen. The gross and histopathological findings of GVHD and the ratio of CD4/CD8 expression decreased. The subgroup given MSCs displayed higher in vivo proportions of CD25+ T cells and plasma interleukin-2 levels as compared to conventional GVHD treatment after allo-BMT. Conclusion: Our results suggest that clinical use of MSCs in both prophylaxis against and treatment of established GVHD is effective. This study supports the use of MSCs in the prophylaxis and treatment of GVHD after allo-BMT; however, large scale studies are needed. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24385804

  20. Chronic graft-versus-host disease in the rat radiation chimera. III. Immunology and immunopathology in rapidly induced models

    SciTech Connect

    Beschorner, W.E.; Tutschka, P.J.; Santos, G.W.

    1983-03-01

    Although chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) frequently develops in the long-term rat radiation chimera, we present three additional models in which a histologically similar disease is rapidly induced. These include adoptive transfer of spleen and bone marrow from rats with spontaneous chronic GVHD into lethally irradiated rats of the primary host strain; sublethal irradiation of stable chimeras followed by a booster transplant; and transfer of spleen cells of chimeras recovering from acute GVHD into second-party (primary recipient strain) or third-party hosts. Some immunopathologic and immune abnormalities associated with spontaneous chronic GVHD were not observed in one or more of the induced models. Thus, IgM deposition in the skin, antinuclear antibodies, and vasculitis appear to be paraphenomena. On the other hand, lymphoid hypocellularity of the thymic medulla, immaturity of splenic follicles, and nonspecific suppressor cells were consistently present in the long term chimeras, and in all models. These abnormalities therefore may be pathogenetically important, or closely related to the development of chronic GVHD.

  1. How I treat acute graft-versus-host disease of the gastrointestinal tract and the liver

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) has evolved from a one-size-fits-all approach to a more nuanced strategy based on predicted outcomes. Lower and time-limited doses of immune suppression for patients predicted to have low-risk GVHD are safe and effective. In more severe GVHD, prolonged exposure to immunosuppressive therapies, failure to achieve tolerance, and inadequate clinical responses are the proximate causes of GVHD-related deaths. This article presents acute GVHD-related scenarios representing, respectively, certainty of diagnosis, multiple causes of symptoms, jaundice, an initial therapy algorithm, secondary therapy, and defining futility of treatment. PMID:26729898

  2. MicroRNAs: The Missing Link in the Biology of Graft-Versus-Host Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Atarod, Sadaf; Dickinson, Anne Mary

    2013-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is still the major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Despite extensive studies in understanding the pathophysiology of GVHD, its pathogenesis remains unclear. Recently, important functions of microRNAs have been demonstrated in various autoimmune diseases and cancers such as psoriasis and lymphoma. This review highlights the need to investigate the role of microRNAs in GVHD and hypothesizes that microRNAs may be one of the missing links in our understanding of GVHD, with the potential for novel therapeutics. PMID:24348483

  3. Acute cutaneous graft-versus-host disease resembling type II (atypical adult) pityriasis rubra pilaris.

    PubMed

    Surjana, Devita; Robertson, Ivan; Kennedy, Glen; James, Daniel; Weedon, David

    2015-02-01

    We present a case of cutaneous acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) with confluent erythematous perifollicular hyperkeratosis and ichthyosiform scale in the clinical pattern of type II (atypical adult) pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP), which developed 26 days after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant. Skin histology confirmed features of both aGVHD and PRP. The skin lesions were refractory to oral prednisolone and cyclosporine and only partially responsive to a combination of i.v. methylprednisolone, oral tacrolimus, oral mycophenolate mofetil, and infusions of anti-thymocyte globulin and the tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitor, etanercept. © 2013 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  4. Novel Application of Extracorporeal Photopheresis as Treatment of Graft-versus-Host Disease Following Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, Cathy; Hammer, Suntrea T. G.; Hwang, Christine S.; Vusirikala, Madhuri; Patel, Prapti A.; Matevosyan, Karén; Tujios, Shannan R.; Mufti, Arjmand R.; Collins, Robert H.

    2017-01-01

    A 48-year-old man with hepatitis C virus (HCV) cirrhosis complicated by hepatocellular carcinoma underwent liver transplantation. His course was complicated by fever, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and pancytopenia. He developed a diffuse erythematous rash, which progressed to erythroderma. Biopsies of the colon and skin were consistent with acute graft-versus-host disease. Donor-derived lymphocytes were present in the peripheral blood. The patient was treated with corticosteroids and cyclosporine; however, he had minimal response to intensive immunosuppressive therapy. Extracorporeal photopheresis was initiated as a salvage therapy. He had a dramatic response, and his rash, diarrhea, and pancytopenia resolved. He is maintained on minimal immunosuppression 24 months later. PMID:28377936

  5. A case report and literature review of chronic graft-versus-host disease manifesting as polymyositis.

    PubMed

    Michelis, Fotios V; Bril, Vera; Lipton, Jeffrey H

    2015-07-01

    Polymyositis (PM) is a rare but documented manifestation of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) post allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We present the case of a 70-year-old male patient who developed severe cGvHD-related PM 3 years after undergoing allogeneic HCT for acute myeloid leukemia. The patient responded to steroids and was maintained long-term with hydroxychloroquine as a steroid-sparing agent. We review the literature concerning the diagnosis and treatment of PM as cGvHD as well as the differentiation of this manifestation from other forms of PM.

  6. Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease: a serious residual risk of blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Martha J; Blackall, Douglas P

    2005-11-01

    Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) is well recognized as an uncommon, but frequently fatal, adverse effect of blood component therapy. In this disorder, viable donor lymphocytes transfused to a vulnerable patient orchestrate a devastating attack on the recipient's tissues. In contrast to the striking reduction in infectious risks of blood transfusion, a significant residual risk of TA-GVHD remains. This article reviews the pathogenesis and mechanism of TA-GVHD, which provide the foundation for a prevention strategy. A review of selected recent cases illustrates the challenges faced in the identification, prevention, and treatment of this frustrating disorder.

  7. Indium-111-labeled autologous leukocyte scanning in gastrointestinal graft versus host disease (GVHD)

    SciTech Connect

    Saverymuttu, S.H.; Peters, A.M.; O'Brien, C.; Chadwick, V.S.; Lavender, J.P.; Goldman, J.M.; Gordon-Smith, E.C.; Hodgson, H.J.

    1986-08-01

    The technique of scanning with indium-111 autologous leukocytes has been used to assess gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) following allogenic marrow transplantation. In patients with active disease, abdominal scans showed extensive abnormal localization in the bowel, while in those whose disease was quiescent after responding to treatment, scans showed localized ileocecal involvement. Rectal histology showed excellent agreement with scanning in the diagnosis of GVHD, but in three of six cases with active disease underestimated disease severity. Indium-111 leukocyte scanning is a useful noninvasive technique for the diagnosis and assessment of gut GVHD.

  8. Tc1 clonal T cell expansion during chronic graft-versus-host disease-associated hypereosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Clave, Emmanuel; Xhaard, Aliénor; Douay, Corrine; Adès, Lionel; Cayuela, Jean Michel; Peffault de Latour, Régis; Robin, Marie; Toubert, Antoine; Socié, Gérard

    2014-05-01

    Although hypereosinophilia (HE) associated with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) has long been recognized, biological data on this phenomenon are scarce. Here we compare patients with chronic GVHD with HE together with a clonal T cell expansion and control patients with acute or chronic GVHD but without HE. These clonal expansions share a CD8(+) TC1 phenotype rather than a CD4(+) Th2 profile. In contrast to the drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome, these allogeneic CD8(+) clones do not recognize the epitopes of herpesviruses. Furthermore, these TC1 clones do not produce IL-17 as described in the DRESS syndrome.

  9. How I treat acute graft-versus-host disease of the gastrointestinal tract and the liver.

    PubMed

    McDonald, George B

    2016-03-24

    Treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) has evolved from a one-size-fits-all approach to a more nuanced strategy based on predicted outcomes. Lower and time-limited doses of immune suppression for patients predicted to have low-risk GVHD are safe and effective. In more severe GVHD, prolonged exposure to immunosuppressive therapies, failure to achieve tolerance, and inadequate clinical responses are the proximate causes of GVHD-related deaths. This article presents acute GVHD-related scenarios representing, respectively, certainty of diagnosis, multiple causes of symptoms, jaundice, an initial therapy algorithm, secondary therapy, and defining futility of treatment. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  10. Romiplostin may revert the thrombocytopenia in graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Delgado, Guillermo J; Lutz-Presno, Julia; Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo J

    2011-03-01

    The thrombocytopenia ensuing during acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is multifactorial and may significantly compromise the prognosis of the patient; non-immune persistent thrombocytopenia has been considered as an adverse prognostic factor in GVHD. We describe here the case of a 10-year-old girl who developed steroid-refractory thrombocytopenia and who responded promptly to the subcutaneous delivery of romiplostin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of the usefulness of the peptibody in the setting of GVHD.

  11. Efficacy of acitretin for porokeratosis in a child with chronic cutaneous graft versus host disease.

    PubMed

    Borroni, Riccardo G; Poddighe, Dimitri; Zecca, Marco; Brazzelli, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Porokeratosis is a rare disorder of epidermal keratinization that is regarded as a precancerous. Recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have a greater risk of skin cancer; chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) is an additional risk factor. A 16-year-old boy who had received HSCT for acute myelogenous leukemia was referred to us for sclerodermoid chronic cutaneous GVHD. Two years later, he developed disseminated porokeratosis with a few atypical lesions. Despite cryotherapy, numerous lesions of porokeratosis recurred rapidly. Acitretin resulted in good clinical response and reduced the rate of onset of new lesions. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Importance of minor histocompatibility antigen expression by nonhematopoietic tissues in a CD4+ T cell-mediated graft-versus-host disease model.

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephen C; Murphy, George F; Friedman, Thea M; Korngold, Robert

    2003-12-01

    Minor histocompatibility antigens with expression restricted to the recipient hematopoietic compartment represent prospective immunological targets for graft-versus-leukemia therapy. It remains unclear, however, whether donor T cell recognition of these hematopoietically derived minor histocompatibility antigens will induce significant graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Using established bone marrow irradiation chimeras across the multiple minor histocompatibility antigen-disparate, C57BL/6-->BALB.B combination, we studied the occurrence of lethal GVHD mediated by CD4+ T cells in recipient mice expressing only hematopoietically derived alloantigens. Even substantial dosages of donor C57BL/6 CD4+ T cells were unable to elicit lethal GVHD when transplanted into [BALB.B-->C57BL/6] chimeras. Instead, chimeric mice displayed transient cachexia with reduced target-tissue injury over time, reflecting an early, limited, graft-versus-host response. On the other hand, the importance of minor histocompatibility antigens derived from nonhematopoietic tissues was demonstrated by the finding that [C57BL/6-->BALB.B] chimeric mice succumbed to C57BL/6 CD4+ T cell-mediated GVHD. These data suggest that severe acute CD4+ T cell-mediated GVHD across this minor histocompatibility antigen barrier depends on the expression of nonhematopoietically rather than hematopoietically derived alloantigens for maximal target-tissue infiltration and injury.

  13. Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Differentiate Into Corneal Tissue and Prevent Ocular Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Abarca, Luis Ignacio; Hernández-Galilea, Emiliano; Lorenzo, Rebeca; Herrero, Carmen; Velasco, Almudena; Carrancio, Soraya; Caballero-Velázquez, Teresa; Rodríguez-Barbosa, José Ignacio; Parrilla, Marta; Del Cañizo, Consuelo; San Miguel, Jesús; Aijón, José; Pérez-Simón, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trials have assessed the use of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) for the treatment of immune-related disorders such as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In the current study, we show that GFP(+)-transduced hBMSCs generated from bone marrow migrate and differentiate into corneal tissue after subconjunctival injection in mice. Interestingly, these hBMSCs display morphological features of epithelial, stromal, and endothelial cells and appear at different layers and with different morphologies depending on their position within the epithelium. Furthermore, these cells display ultrastructural properties, such as bundles of intermediate filaments, interdigitations, and desmosomes with GFP(-) cells, which confirms their differentiation into corneal tissues. GFP(+)-transduced hBMSCs were injected at different time points into the right eye of lethally irradiated mice undergoing bone marrow transplantation, which developed ocular GVHD (oGVHD). Remarkably, hBMSCs massively migrate to corneal tissues after subconjunctival injection. Both macroscopic and histopathological examination showed minimal or no evidence of GVHD in the right eye, while the left eye, where no hBMSCs were injected, displayed features of GVHD. Thus, in the current study, we confirm that hBMSCs may induce their therapeutic effect at least in part by differentiation and regeneration of damaged tissues in the host. Our results provide experimental evidence that hBMSCs represent a potential cellular therapy to attenuate oGVHD.

  14. Current data on IL-17 and Th17 cells and implications for graft versus host disease

    PubMed Central

    Normanton, Marília; Marti, Luciana Cavalheiro

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human interleukin 17 was first described in 1995 as a new cytokine produced primarily by activated T CD4+ cells that stimulate the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by human fibroblasts, besides increasing the expression of ICAM-1. Various authors have reported that IL-17A has a role in the protection of organisms against extracellular bacteria and fungi due to the capacity of IL-17A to recruit neutrophils to the areas of infection, evidencing a pathological role in various models of autoimmune diseases, such as experimental autoimmune encephalitis and arthritis. The participation of IL-17A has also been described in the acute rejection of organ transplants and graft versus host disease. However, the greatest revolution in research with IL-17 happened in 2000, when it was proposed that IL-17 cannot be classified as Th1 or Th2, but rather, simply as a new lineage of IL-17-producing T-cells. These findings modified the previously established Th1/Th2 paradigm, leading to the definition of the CD3+ CD4+ Th17 cellular subtype and establishment of a new model to explain the origin of various immune events, as well as its implication in the graft versus host disease that is discussed in depth in this article. PMID:23843069

  15. Danger Signals and Graft-versus-host Disease: Current Understanding and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Toubai, Tomomi; Mathewson, Nathan D.; Magenau, John; Reddy, Pavan

    2016-01-01

    Graft-versus-host response after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) represents one of the most intense inflammatory responses observed in humans. Host conditioning facilitates engraftment of donor cells, but the tissue injury caused from it primes the critical first steps in the development of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Tissue injuries release pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) through widespread stimulation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) by the release of danger stimuli, such as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). DAMPs and PAMPs function as potent stimulators for host and donor-derived antigen presenting cells (APCs) that in turn activate and amplify the responses of alloreactive donor T cells. Emerging data also point towards a role for suppression of DAMP induced inflammation by the APCs and donor T cells in mitigating GVHD severity. In this review, we summarize the current understanding on the role of danger stimuli, such as the DAMPs and PAMPs, in GVHD. PMID:27965667

  16. Graft-versus-host disease-associated angiomatosis: a clinicopathologically distinct entity.

    PubMed

    Kaffenberger, Benjamin H; Zuo, Rena C; Gru, Alejandro; Plotner, Alisha N; Sweeney, Sarah A; Devine, Steven M; Hymes, Sharon R; Cowen, Edward W

    2014-10-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) may present with various cutaneous manifestations. Isolated case reports describe eruptive angiomas in this setting. We sought to provide a clinical and pathologic description of vascular proliferations in patients with GVHD. Cases of documented GVHD associated with vascular proliferations were collected from the National Institutes of Health, Ohio State University, and MD Anderson Cancer Center. Eleven patients with a diagnosis of GVHD who developed vascular proliferations were identified. All patients manifested sclerotic type chronic GVHD of the skin. Vascular lesions were first documented a median of 44 months after transplantation and occurred primarily on the lower extremities or trunk. Histopathology revealed anastomosing networks of thin-walled vascular proliferations in a vague lobular growth pattern, with overlying epidermal acanthosis, peripheral collarette, ulceration, and disorganized fibroblast-rich and fibrotic stroma. Improvement was noted in 1 patient treated with propranolol and sirolimus and 1 patient with electrocautery. Given the retrospective nature of the study, the overall incidence of vascular lesions in patients with GVHD is unknown. Histopathology was present for review on only 3 of 11 patients. The phenomenon of vascular lesions appears to be relatively specific for sclerotic type chronic GVHD when compared with other fibrosing diseases. We propose the term "graft-versus-host disease-associated angiomatosis" to describe this entity. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Graft-versus-host disease-like erythroderma: a manifestation of thymoma-associated multiorgan autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Shay; Nehal, Kishwer; Querfeld, Christiane; Wong, Richard; Huang, James; Pulitzer, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Thymoma associated multiorgan autoimmunity is a rare paraneoplastic disorder, clinicopathologically similar to graft versus host disease, which is thought to be mediated by dysfunctional negative thymocyte selection and abnormally low levels of Tregs. We report a 50 year old Chinese women with a history of malignant thymoma and myasthenia gravis who developed graft versus host disease- like erythroderma after instituting chemotherapy and undergoing myasthenia crisis. Clinically her rash presented as erythematous scaly papules, which evolved to psoriasiform patches and plaques with foci of vitiligo. Histopathologically the biopsy showed a predominantly interface dermatitis with necrotic keratinocytes extending to the upper levels of the epidermis, and florid basket weave orthokeratosis. Clinical and laboratory work-up ruled out common inflammatory or infectious causes, eventually favoring the diagnosis of TAMA with GVHD-like erythroderma. Unfortunately, the patient underwent multi-organ compromise and death due to respiratory failure from myasthenia crisis. Patients with TAMA have a poor clinical outlook; rare successful treatments include high dose oral steroids and additional modalities including bone marrow transplant and chemotherapeutic or biologic agents. As the predominant findings are in the skin, dermatologists and dermatopathologists are in a unique position to enable the early diagnosis and treatment of this unusual disease. PMID:26509934

  18. Sirolimus, Tacrolimus, Thymoglobulin and Rituximab as Graft-versus-Host-Disease Prophylaxis in Patients Undergoing Haploidentical and HLA Partially Matched Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-09

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Graft Versus Host Disease; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

  19. The enteric toxicity of gluten enhances graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Taylor; David, Kevin; Cooper, Dennis; Strair, Roger

    2017-07-01

    Pro-inflammatory peptides present in wheat and related grains are associated with celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. We hypothesize that these peptides induce enteric responses that may exacerbate the gastrointestinal manifestations of graft-versus-host disease after an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Therefore, we propose that a gluten free diet should be tested as a prophylactic and/or therapeutic intervention against gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease for patients undergoing an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. In vivo kinetics and nonradioactive imaging of rapidly proliferating cells in graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, Nataliya P; Farthing, Donald E; Maglakelidze, Natella; Lizak, Martin; Merkle, Hellmut; Carpenter, Andrea C; Oliver, Brittany U; Kapoor, Veena; Castro, Ehydel; Swan, Gregory A; Dos Santos, Liliane M; Bouladoux, Nicolas J; Bare, Catherine V; Flomerfelt, Francis A; Eckhaus, Michael A; Telford, William G; Belkaid, Yasmine; Bosselut, Remy J; Gress, Ronald E

    2017-06-15

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers a cure for cancers that are refractory to chemotherapy and radiation. Most HSCT recipients develop chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), a systemic alloimmune attack on host organs. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs and symptoms, as biopsies are risky. T cells are central to the biology of cGVHD. We found that a low Treg/CD4+ T effector memory (Tem) ratio in circulation, lymphoid, and target organs identified early and established mouse cGVHD. Using deuterated water labeling to measure multicompartment in vivo kinetics of these subsets, we show robust Tem and Treg proliferation in lymphoid and target organs, while Tregs undergo apoptosis in target organs. Since deuterium enrichment into DNA serves as a proxy for cell proliferation, we developed a whole-body clinically relevant deuterium MRI approach to nonradioactively detect cGVHD and potentially allow imaging of other diseases characterized by rapidly proliferating cells.

  1. The Role of Regulatory T Cells in the Biology of Graft Versus Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Beres, Amy J.; Drobyski, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is the major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. GVHD is characterized by an imbalance between the effector and regulatory arms of the immune system which results in the over production of inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, there is a persistent reduction in the number of regulatory T (Treg) cells which limits the ability of the immune system to re-calibrate this proinflammatory environment. Treg cells are comprised of both natural and induced populations which have unique ontological and developmental characteristics that impact how they function within the context of immune regulation. In this review, we summarize pre-clinical data derived from experimental murine models that have examined the role of both natural and induced Treg cells in the biology of GVHD. We also review the clinical studies which have begun to employ Treg cells as a form of adoptive cellular therapy for the prevention of GVHD in human transplant recipients. PMID:23805140

  2. Genetics of Graft-versus-Host Disease: The Major Histocompatibility Complex

    PubMed Central

    Petersdorf, Effie W.

    2013-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a potentially life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Many genes are presumed to be involved in GVHD, but the best characterized genetic system is that of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) located on chromosome 6. Among the hundreds of genes located within the MHC region, the best known and characterized are the classical HLA genes, HLA-A, C, B, DRB1, DQB1, and DPB1. They play a fundamental role in T cell immune responses, and HLA-A, C, and B also function as ligands for the natural killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors involved in innate immunity. This review highlights the state-of-the art in the field of histocompatibility and immunogenetics of the MHC with respect to genetic risk factors for GVHD. PMID:23182478

  3. New Insight for the Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mohty, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is a curative therapy for different life-threatening malignant and nonmalignant hematologic disorders. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a major source of morbidity and mortality following allo-SCT, which limits the use of this treatment in a broader spectrum of patients. Early diagnostic of GVHD is essential to initiate treatment as soon as possible. Unfortunately, the diagnosis of GVHD may be difficult to establish, because of the nonspecific nature of the associated symptoms and of the numerous differential diagnosis. This is particularly true regarding gastrointestinal (GI) acute GVHD. In the recent years many progress has been made in medical imaging test and endoscopic techniques. The interest of these different techniques in the diagnosis of GI acute GVHD has been evaluated in several studies. With this background we review the contributions, limitations, and future prospect of these techniques in the diagnosis of GI acute GVHD. PMID:24733964

  4. [Research Progress on Notch Signal Pathway in Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease -Review].

    PubMed

    Guo, Dong-Mei; Li, Ban-Ban; Li, Chun-Pu; Teng, Qing-Liang

    2017-02-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved cell signaling system that plays an essential role in many biological processes. Notch signaling regulates multiple aspects of hematopoiesis, especially during T cell develop-ment. Recent data suggest that Notch also regulates mature T cell differentiation and function. The latest data show that Notch also plays an essential role in alloreactive T cells mediating acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), the most severe complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Notch inhibition in donor-derived T cells or blockade of individual Notch ligands and receptors after transplantation can reduce GVHD severity and mortality in mouse models of allo-HSCT, without causing global immunosuppression. These findings indicate Notch in T cells as an attractive therapeutic target to control aGVHD. In this article, the pathophysiology of aGVHD, the Notch signal pathway and aGVHD are reviewed.

  5. Bilateral herpes simplex keratitis in a patient with chronic graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Takahiko; Ishioka, Misaki; Ito, Norihiko; Kato, Yoko; Nakagawa, Hisashi; Hatano, Hiroshi; Mizuki, Nobuhisa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To describe a case of bilateral herpes simplex keratitis accompanying chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Design Observational case report. Case report An 11-year-old boy with myelocytic leukemia underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. He developed symptoms of the skin, eyes, and mouth, and lip biopsy indicated chronic GVHD. Persistent keratitis with corneal filaments and neovascularization was noted in both eyes. Sodium hyaluronate, autoserum, and 0.1% fluorometholone eyedrops were instilled for approximately 2 years to treat this keratitis, and there were no other ocular changes. Bilateral herpes simplex keratitis developed with geographic ulcers after topical betamethasone therapy, but responded to acyclovir ointment. Conclusions Herpes keratitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of bilateral keratitis in patients with reduced immunocompetence. During the course of chronic GVHD, corneal herpes may occur, so ocular treatment with topical corticosteroids should be managed by an ophthalmologist to monitor sight-threatening conditions such as corneal herpes. PMID:19668737

  6. Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of hepatic graft versus host disease (GVHD)

    PubMed Central

    Matsukuma, Karen E.; Wei, Dongguang; Sun, Kai; Ramsamooj, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is a common complication following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) that typically manifests as injury to the skin, gastrointestinal mucosa, and liver. In some cases, hepatic GVHD may be histologically indistinguishable from other disorders such as infection and drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Additionally, clinical signs and symptoms are frequently confounded by the superimposed effects of pretransplant chemoradiotherapy, immunotherapy (IT) (targeted to the underlying malignancy), GVHD prophylaxis, and infection. Thus, careful attention to and correlation with clinical findings, laboratory values, and histologic features is essential for diagnosis. This review, aimed at the practicing pathologist, will discuss current clinical and histologic criteria for GVHD, the approach to diagnosis of hepatic GVHD, and features helpful for distinguishing it from other entities in the differential diagnosis. PMID:27034810

  7. The role of danger signals and ectonucleotidases in acute graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Apostolova, Petya; Zeiser, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) represents the only curative treatment approach for many patients with benign or malignant diseases of the hematopoietic system. However, post-transplant morbidity and mortality are significantly increased by the development of acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). While alloreactive T cells act as the main cellular mediator of the GvH reaction, recent evidence suggests a critical role of the innate immune system in the early stages of GvHD initiation. Danger-associated molecular patterns released from the intracellular space as well as from the extracellular matrix activate antigen-presenting cells and set pro-inflammatory pathways in motion. This review gives an overview about danger signals representing therapeutic targets with a clinical perspective with a particular focus on extracellular nucleotides and ectonucleotidases.

  8. Photography in Telemedicine: Improving Diagnosis of Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Busby, Brianna; Campbell, Shannon; Cole, Rachel; DeVries, Charisse; Dobbins, Kamille; Trimble, Mary Beth; Wickline, Mihkaila

    2017-02-01

    The long-term follow-up (LTFU) team at the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance uses telemedicine to diagnose and treat post-transplantation complications in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) survivors. Photos are often requested via the telemedicine service to aid in diagnosis, but they are typically of poor quality, making them unusable. This project offered bachelor of science in nursing students, partnered with a comprehensive cancer center, the opportunity to participate in an evidence-based practice project to improve detection and management of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) in patients after HCT. Students partnered with RNs to develop instructional tools using multiple evidence sources. A brochure and video were developed. Providing these instructional tools to those in the LTFU program improved patient outcomes for managing cGVHD through telemedicine. This partnership provided an opportunity for mutual learning and improved clinical practice.

  9. Disordered salivary immunoglobulin secretion and sodium transport in human chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Izutsu, K T; Sullivan, K M; Schubert, M M; Truelove, E L; Shulman, H M; Sale, G E; Morton, T H; Rice, J C; Witherspoon, R P; Storb, R; Thomas, E D

    1983-05-01

    Whole saliva samples and lip biopsies were collected from 12 allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients who developed extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and from 10 healthy allogeneic and syngeneic recipients without GVHD. Six of ten biopsies from patients with chronic GVHD had lichenoid stomatitis or sialadenitis, or both, with sialodochitis. Seven of nine biopsies from patients free of chronic GVHD were entirely normal, and two had either mild glandular or mucosal changes. Salivary gland involvement in chronic GVHD was associated with decreased or absent levels of salivary IgA and inorganic phosphate, decreased salivary flow rates, and increased concentrations of salivary sodium, albumin, and IgG. The most striking abnormalities were found in patients with histologic evidence of sialadenitis. In contrast, marrow transplant recipients without chronic GVHD had normal salivary immunoglobulin and electrolyte levels. Secretory IgA deficiency may contribute to the frequent sinobronchial infections observed in patients with chronic GVHD.

  10. Graft-versus-host disease after liver and small bowel transplantation in a child

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Jorge; Todo, Satoru; Green, Michael; Yunis, Eduardo; Schoner, David; Kocoshis, Samuel; Furukawa, Hiro; Abu-Elmagd, Kareem; Tzakis, Andreas; Bueno, Javier; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    An 8-month-old child with an immunodeficiency disorder characterized by abnormal lymphocyte function and by low IgG and IgA levels had combined liver and small bowel transplantation under tacrolimus and steroid immunosuppression for the treatment of short gut syndrome and hepatic cirrhosis. The patient developed an early postoperative episode of Pnemocystis carinii pneumonia, and a subsequent surgical complication, prompting discontinuance of tacrolimus. A skin rash eventually shown to be graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) developed in the flank on the 12th post-transplant day and gradually became generalized. Peritonitis, sepsis, multisystem organ failure including the liver allograft led to death on the 23rd post-operative day. The mechanisms leading to post-transplant GVHD under the specific circumstances in this case are discussed. PMID:9361921

  11. Successful treatment for graft-versus-host disease after pancreas transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jei wen; Sageshima, Junichiro; Ciancio, Gaetano; Mattiazzi, Adela; Chen, Linda; Tsai, Hsin-Lin; Ruiz, Phillip; Burke, George W

    2014-02-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after pancreas transplantation is a rare but serious complication: All previously reported cases were fatal. We herein report three cases of GVHD after pancreas transplantation with favorable outcomes. Patients with a history of kidney (and pancreas) transplantation subsequently received a pancreas (and kidney) transplantation (i.e., pancreas retransplantation or pancreas after kidney transplantation) and developed acute GVHD. All of them responded to increased immunosuppression (e.g., steroid bolus, antithymocyte globulin) and retained normal graft function. Because the clinical manifestations are non-specific, vigilance is necessary to make an accurate diagnosis. We underscored the importance of a biopsy of involved organs and the clinicopathologic correlation in the early diagnosis of GVHD. Augmented immunosuppression to prevent progression from a self-limited disease to life-threatening pancytopenia or sepsis may be most critical to improve outcome.

  12. Gut microbiome derived metabolites modulate intestinal epithelial cell damage and mitigate Graft-versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Toubai, Tomomi; Oravecz-Wilson, Katherine; Wu, Shin-Rong; Sun, Yaping; Rossi, Corinne; Fujiwara, Hideaki; Byun, Jaeman; Shono, Yusuke; Lindemans, Caroline; Calafiore, Marco; Schmidt, Thomas C.; Honda, Kenya; Reddy, Pavan

    2016-01-01

    The impact of alterations in intestinal microbiota on microbial metabolites and on disease processes, such as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), is not known. Here we performed unbiased analysis to identify novel alterations in gastrointestinal microbiota-derived short chain fatty acids (SCFA) after allogeneic bone marrow transplant (allo-BMT). Alterations in the amounts of only one SCFA, butyrate, were observed only within the intestinal tissue. The reduced butyrate in CD326+ intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) after allo-BMT resulted in decreased histone acetylation, which was restored upon local administration of exogenous butyrate. Butyrate restoration improved IEC junctional integrity, decreased apoptosis, and mitigated GVHD. Furthermore, alteration of the indigenous microbiota with 17 rationally selected strains of high butyrate producing Clostridia also decreased GVHD. These data demonstrate a heretofore unrecognized role of microbial metabolites and suggest that local and specific alteration of microbial metabolites has direct salutary effects on GVHD target tissues and can mitigate its severity. PMID:26998764

  13. Path to Clinical Transplantation Tolerance and Prevention of Graft versus Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Strober, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Although organ and bone marrow transplantation are life saving procedures for patients with terminal diseases, the requirement for the lifelong use of immunosuppressive drugs to prevent organ graft rejection and the development of graft versus host disease (GVHD) remain important problems. Experimental approaches to solve these problems, first in preclinical models and then in clinical studies, developed at Stanford during the past 40 years are summarized in this article. The approaches use fractionated radiation of the lymphoid tissues, a procedure initially developed to treat Hodgkin’s disease, to alter the immune system such that tolerance to organ transplants can be achieved and GVHD can be prevented after the establishment of chimerism. In both instances, the desired goal was achieved when the balance of immune cells was changed to favor regulatory innate and adaptive immune cells that suppress the conventional immune cells that ordinarily promote inflammation and tissue injury. PMID:24671802

  14. Oral Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease: Current Pathogenesis, Therapy, and Research

    PubMed Central

    Mays, JW; Fassil, H; Edwards, DA; Pavletic, SZ; Bassim, CW

    2012-01-01

    Optimal management of complex autoimmune diseases requires a multidisciplinary medical team including dentists to care for lesions of the oral cavity. In this review, we discuss the presentation, prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of oral manifestations in chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease (cGVHD) which is a major late complication in patients treated by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We assess current general knowledge of systemic and oral cGVHD, and present general treatment recommendations based on literature review and our clinical experience. Additionally, we review areas where the understanding of oral cGVHD could be improved by further research, and address tools with which to accomplish the long-term goal of providing better health and quality-of-life to patients with cGVHD. PMID:23107104

  15. Young rete ridge keratinocytes are preferred targets in cutaneous graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Sale, G E; Shulman, H M; Gallucci, B B; Thomas, E D

    1985-02-01

    Recent data show that stem cells in primate epidermis are concentrated at the bases of rete ridges. Because the early lesions of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in the vertebrate skin are in basal epidermis and hair follicle cells, the authors hypothesized that stem cells or their early progeny might be targeted. In this study they used morphometric methods to examine the distribution of the lesions of GVHD in the skin and lip of human bone marrow allograft recipients. They found that rete ridges are the primary sites of attack in early GVHD of the skin. They also found that the concentration of stem cells in ridges for various anatomic sites (body or arm, palm or sole, and lip) is directly proportional to the frequency and concentration of the lesions of GVHD. Osmotic fragility and the expression of early differentiation antigens related to the major histocompatibility complex are discussed as potential explanations for this phenomenon.

  16. [Graft-versus-host disease, a rare complication of lung transplantation].

    PubMed

    Morisse-Pradier, H; Nove-Josserand, R; Philit, F; Senechal, A; Berger, F; Callet-Bauchu, E; Traverse-Glehen, A; Maury, J-M; Grima, R; Tronc, F; Mornex, J-F

    2016-02-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a classic and frequent multisystemic complication of bone marrow allografts. It has also been reported after the transplantation of solid organs such as the liver or gut. Recent cases of GVHD have been reported after lung and heart-lung transplant. Skin, liver, gastrointestinal tract and bone marrow are the organ preferentially affected by GVHD. Corticosteroid is the first line treatment of GVHD. The prognosis reported in solid organ transplants is poor with infectious complications favoured by immunosuppressive therapy. In this article, we report a case of a patient with cystic fibrosis who presented a probable GVHD 18 months after a lung transplant and a literature review of similar cases.

  17. Kinetic and organ-specific patterns of cytokine expression in acute graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Baker, K S; Allen, R D; Roths, J B; Sidman, C L

    1995-04-01

    Although many cytokines have been previously implicated in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), no study to date has comprehensively evaluated their expression over time or in different tissues affected by GVHD. Using a semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR technique and a murine model of acute GVHD, we have evaluated the expression levels of mRNA for a wide range of cytokines in spleen, gut and liver tissues at weekly intervals after bone marrow transfer. The earliest cytokine responses seen were increases in IL-2, IL-10, IFN-gamma, MIP-1 alpha and TNF-alpha in the spleen, suggesting a primarily Th1 pathway. Other cytokines (IL-1 alpha, IL-10 and MIP-1 alpha) were persistently elevated in GVHD mice, but were variable depending on the tissue. These data demonstrate that a wide range of cytokines are involved in the GVHD response and that their kinetic pattern of expression is different in various affected tissues.

  18. A case of chronic cutaneous graft versus host disease with the clinical features of exfoliative dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyo Sang; Park, Hyun Jeong; Lee, Jun Young; Cho, Baik Kee

    2009-08-01

    Graft versus host disease (GVHD) has traditionally been divided into acute GVHD and chronic GVHD based on the period it occurs after transplantation. Chronic cutaneous GVHD has traditionally been classified into the lichenoid and scleroderma-like forms. However, unusual clinical forms have been reported such as dermatomyositis, lupus erythematosus and exfoliative dermatitis. A 35-year-old woman presented with a 2 week history of a pruritic maculopapular rash on the whole body. The rash rapidly progressed to confluent erythematous scaly patches and plaques with micaceous scales and this finally led to a generalized exfoliative dermatitis in a 1 month period. Here we present an unusual case of chronic cutaneous GVHD with the clinical features of exfoliative dermatitis. The histopathologic examination demonstrated the lichenoid features of chronic cutaneous GVHD.

  19. Chemotherapy improves thymoma-associated graft-versus-host-disease-like erythroderma.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Tatsuya; Kotani, Yoshikazu; Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Tomita, Nanako; Nakata, Kyosuke; Sakashita, Akihiro; Funada, Yasuhiro; Nagai, Hiroshi; Itoh, Tomoo; Nishimura, Yoshihiro

    2011-05-10

    Graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) with erythroderma can rarely occur in the context of thymoma and is associated with a poor prognosis due to an increased risk of infection-related death. The present study describes a case of a 50-year-old man with malignant thymoma who developed sepsis in addition to skin manifestations similar to that seen in GVHD. This patient experienced marked improvement in skin lesions in response to steroids and combination chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel, with subsequent resolution of infection. The present study describes the clinical course of this patient, followed by a review of pertinent reports of thymoma associated with GVHD with particular focus on the efficacy of treatment strategies.

  20. Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease Mimicking Psoriasis in a Patient with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sihyeok; Kim, In Su

    2016-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a common complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) that can be classified as acute or chronic. Chronic GVHD, which usually occurs more than 3 months after BMT, includes typical lichenoid or sclerodermatous lesions. Psoriasiform eruption is a rare clinical manifestation of chronic GVHD, and there have been no reports of psoriasiform chronic GVHD associated with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. A 33-year-old woman who was diagnosed with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 10 years ago visited our outpatient clinic with psoriasiform eruption over her entire body. She underwent allogeneic BMT 7 months previously from her sibling. Skin biopsy was performed on the lesion, and the histological features suggested GVHD. The psoriasiform lesions improved with narrow-band ultraviolet B phototherapy, with secondary vitiligo remaining on the corresponding locations. PMID:26848224

  1. In vivo kinetics and nonradioactive imaging of rapidly proliferating cells in graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Buxbaum, Nataliya P.; Farthing, Donald E.; Maglakelidze, Natella; Lizak, Martin; Merkle, Hellmut; Carpenter, Andrea C.; Oliver, Brittany U.; Kapoor, Veena; Castro, Ehydel; Swan, Gregory A.; dos Santos, Liliane M.; Bouladoux, Nicolas J.; Bare, Catherine V.; Flomerfelt, Francis A.; Eckhaus, Michael A.; Telford, William G.; Belkaid, Yasmine; Bosselut, Remy J.; Gress, Ronald E.

    2017-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers a cure for cancers that are refractory to chemotherapy and radiation. Most HSCT recipients develop chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), a systemic alloimmune attack on host organs. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs and symptoms, as biopsies are risky. T cells are central to the biology of cGVHD. We found that a low Treg/CD4+ T effector memory (Tem) ratio in circulation, lymphoid, and target organs identified early and established mouse cGVHD. Using deuterated water labeling to measure multicompartment in vivo kinetics of these subsets, we show robust Tem and Treg proliferation in lymphoid and target organs, while Tregs undergo apoptosis in target organs. Since deuterium enrichment into DNA serves as a proxy for cell proliferation, we developed a whole-body clinically relevant deuterium MRI approach to nonradioactively detect cGVHD and potentially allow imaging of other diseases characterized by rapidly proliferating cells. PMID:28614804

  2. Management of oral Graft versus Host Disease with topical agents: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zahid; Poveda, Ana; Higham, Jonathan; Richards, Andrea; Monteiro, Luis; Jané-Salas, Enric; Lopez-Lopez, José; Warnakulasuriya, Saman

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral Graft-versus-Host Disease (oGvHD) is a common complication of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Choosing the right topical application to be used intra orally can be a challenge. Consequently, the aim of this work is to review the effectiveness and safety of topical agents currently used in the management of the inflammatory mucosal lesions encountered in oGVHD. Material and Methods We carried out electronic searches of publications up to May 2015 of the databases Pubmed, National Library of Medicine’s Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical trials to identify potentially relevant studies (keywords: “oral”, “graft”, “versus”, “host”, “disease” and “treatment”). The main inclusion criterion was the reported use of a topical agent which was not intentionally swallowed when used for the treatment of oGVHD. A 3-point grading system, described by the Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, was used to rate the methodological quality of the papers. Results From the 902 entries identified in the search, 7 studies qualifying for inclusion were analysed. Overall, there is limited evidence with regards to the effectiveness of topical steroids for oGVHD. However, the studies showed some effect of Budesonide alone and when combined with dexamethasone. Topical tacrolimus also appears to have some effect and clobetasol propionate mouthwash had a significantly better clinical response than dexamethasone mouthwash in treating oGVHD. Conclusions As the number of clinical trials conducted is limited, there is little evidence to support the use of topical therapies to treat the inflammatory mucosal lesions found in oGVHD. High quality randomised control trials are needed in order to measure the effectiveness of any topical application for the treatment of the inflammatory mucosal lesions found in oGVHD. Key words

  3. Immune Reconstitution and Graft-Versus-Host Reactions in Rat Models of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zinöcker, Severin; Dressel, Ralf; Wang, Xiao-Nong; Dickinson, Anne M.; Rolstad, Bent

    2012-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) extends the lives of thousands of patients who would otherwise succumb to hematopoietic malignancies such as leukemias and lymphomas, aplastic anemia, and disorders of the immune system. In alloHCT, different immune cell types mediate beneficial graft-versus-tumor (GvT) effects, regulate detrimental graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), and are required for protection against infections. Today, the “good” (GvT effector cells and memory cells conferring protection) cannot be easily separated from the “bad” (GvHD-causing cells), and alloHCT remains a hazardous medical modality. The transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells into an immunosuppressed patient creates a delicate environment for the reconstitution of donor blood and immune cells in co-existence with host cells. Immunological reconstitution determines to a large extent the immune status of the allo-transplanted host against infections and the recurrence of cancer, and is critical for long-term protection and survival after clinical alloHCT. Animal models continue to be extremely valuable experimental tools that widen our understanding of, for example, the dynamics of post-transplant hematopoiesis and the complexity of immune reconstitution with multiple ways of interaction between host and donor cells. In this review, we discuss the rat as an experimental model of HCT between allogeneic individuals. We summarize our findings on lymphocyte reconstitution in transplanted rats and illustrate the disease pathology of this particular model. We also introduce the rat skin explant assay, a feasible alternative to in vivo transplantation studies. The skin explant assay can be used to elucidate the biology of graft-versus-host reactions, which are known to have a major impact on immune reconstitution, and to perform genome-wide gene expression studies using controlled combinations of minor and major histocompatibility between the donor and the recipient

  4. Bandage soft contact lenses for ocular graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Sun, Yi-Chen; Flowers, Mary E. D.; Carpenter, Paul A.; Martin, Paul J.; Li, Peng; Wang, Ruikang; Chai, Xiaoyu; Storer, Barry E.; Shen, Tueng T.; Lee, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    To examine safety and efficacy of bandage soft contact lenses (BSCLs) for ocular chronic graft-versus host disease (GVHD), we conducted a phase II clinical trial. Extended-wear BSCLs were applied under daily topical antibiotics prophylaxis. Patients completed standardized symptom questionnaires at enrollment and at 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 3 months afterwards. Ophthalmologic assessment was performed at enrollment, at 2 weeks and afterwards as medically needed. Assessments at follow-up were compared with baseline by paired t-test. Nineteen patients with ocular GVHD who remained symptomatic despite conventional treatments were studied. The mean Lee eye subscale score was 75.4 at enrollment, and improved significantly to 63.2 at 2 weeks (p=0.01), to 61.8 at 4 weeks (p=0.005) and to 56.3 at 3 months (p=0.02). The ocular surface disease index score and 11-point eye symptom ratings also improved significantly. According to the Lee eye subscale, clinically meaningful improvement was observed in 9 patients (47%) at 2 weeks, in 11 (58%) at 4 weeks and in 9 (47%) at 3 months. Visual acuity improved significantly at 2 weeks compared with enrollment values. Based on slit lamp exam at 2 weeks, punctate epithelial erosions improved in 58% of the patients, showed stability in 16% and worsened in 5%. No corneal ulceration or ocular infection occurred. BSCLs are a widely available, safe and effective treatment option that improves manifestations of ocular graft-versus host disease in approximately 50% of patients. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01616056. PMID:26189353

  5. Association of severity of organ involvement with mortality and recurrent malignancy in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Martin, Paul J.; Storer, Barry E.; Palmer, Jeanne; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Pidala, Joseph; Flowers, Mary E. D.; Arora, Mukta; Jagasia, Madan; Arai, Sally; Chai, Xiaoyu; Pavletic, Steven Z.; Vogelsang, Georgia B.; Lee, Stephanie J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health global score for chronic graft-versus-host disease was devised by experts but was not based on empirical data. We hypothesized that analysis of prospectively collected data would enable derivation of a more accurate model for estimating mortality risk. We analyzed 574 adult patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease enrolled in a multicenter, observational study, using multivariate time-varying analysis accounting for serial changes in severity of involvement of eight individual organ sites over time. In the training set, severity of skin, mouth, gastrointestinal tract, liver and lung involvement were independently associated with the risk of non-relapse mortality. Weighted mortality points were assigned to individual organs based on the hazard ratios and were summed. The population was divided into three risk groups based on the total mortality points. The three new risk groups were validated in an independent validation set, but did not show better discriminative performance than the National Institutes of Health global score. As compared to a moderate or mild global score, a severe global score was associated with increased risks of non-relapse and overall mortality across time but not with a decreased risk of recurrent malignancy. The National Institutes of Health global score predicts patients’ mortality risk throughout the course of their chronic graft-versus-host disease. Further research is required in order to improve outcomes in patients with severe chronic graft-versus-host disease, since their risk of mortality remains elevated. PMID:24997150

  6. Acute graft-versus-host disease and bronchiolitis obliterans after autologous stem cell transplantation in a patient with multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Sara; Cabrero, Mónica; Caballero, Juan C; Dávila, Julio; de la Calle, Veronica Gonzalez; López-Godino, Oriana; López-Corral, Lucia; Pérez, Estefanía; Vázquez, Lourdes; Corral, Rocío; Caballero, Dolores; del Cañizo, Consuelo; Mateos, María Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Sixty-seven-year-old patient, diagnosed with multiple myeloma who had received autologous stem cell transplantation, following bortezomib, dexamethasone and thalidomide conventional regimen, achieving complete response, developed rash, diarrhea, and severe respiratory failure, 80 days after the transplantation procedure. He was diagnosed with graft-versus-host disease and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. PMID:26185631

  7. An unusual concurrence of graft versus host disease caused by engraftment of maternal lymphocytes with DiGeorge anomaly.

    PubMed

    Ocejo-Vinyals, J G; Lozano, M J; Sánchez-Velasco, P; Escribano de Diego, J; Paz-Miguel, J E; Leyva-Cobián, F

    2000-08-01

    We describe a girl with DiGeorge anomaly and normal cytogenetic and molecular studies, whose clinical course was complicated by graft versus host disease caused by intrauterine materno-fetal transfusion, and several immunohematological alterations including a monoclonal gammapathy of undetermined significance (first IgG, which subsequently changed to IgM). The main clinical features and pathological findings are discussed.

  8. Utilizing glycogen synthase kinase-3β as a marker for the diagnosis of graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Orbach, A; Bassan-Levin, T; Dan, P; Hihinashvilli, B; Marx, S

    2013-06-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a deadly complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Timely diagnosis is critical, because mortality rates for GVHD are high, increasing with disease severity. A diagnostic tool to predict GVHD before the onset of clinical symptoms could save many lives. On the cellular level, GVHD occurs when T cells from the transplant attack the tissues of the host, after perceiving them to be foreign. T-cell proliferation occurs even before clinical symptoms appear. Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β is a protein which regulates proliferation in many cell types including T-cells. GSK-3β has never been directly connected with GVHD and we applied GSK-3β as a novel marker for GVHD prediction, seeking herein to determine whether GSK-3β can be utilized as a marker for the early diagnosis of GVHD. For the mouse model of acute GVHD, irradiated mice underwent allogeneic splenocyte transplantation and GSK-3β expression levels and phosphorylation states were monitored in harvested spleens by western blot. FACS analysis was used to measure the number of T cells within the harvested spleens. Mice developed observable GVHD symptoms by day 5 post-transplantation, with severe symptoms on day 6 requiring mice to be killed for humane reasons. A significantly increased number of T cells in the allogeneic mice correlated with GVHD development. GSK-3β protein expression levels and phosphorylation levels were significantly lower in allogeneic (GVHD) mice compared with negative (untreated) and positive (syngeneic transplant; non-GVHD) controls over time. GSK-3β was directly connected with the onset and progression of GVHD. Therefore, it can be utilized as a marker for GVHD diagnosis in animals and potentially in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Intestinal helminths regulate lethal acute graft-versus-host disease and preserve the graft-versus-tumor effect in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Chen, Hung-Lin; Bannick, Nadine; Henry, Michael; Holm, Adrian N; Metwali, Ahmed; Urban, Joseph F; Rothman, Paul B; Weiner, George J; Blazar, Bruce R; Elliott, David E; Ince, M Nedim

    2015-02-01

    Donor T lymphocyte transfer with hematopoietic stem cells suppresses residual tumor growth (graft-versus-tumor [GVT]) in cancer patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT). However, donor T cell reactivity to host organs causes severe and potentially lethal inflammation called graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). High-dose steroids or other immunosuppressive drugs are used to treat GVHD that have limited ability to control the inflammation while incurring long-term toxicity. Novel strategies are needed to modulate GVHD, preserve GVT, and improve the outcome of BMT. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) control alloantigen-sensitized inflammation of GVHD, sustain GVT, and prevent mortality in BMT. Helminths colonizing the alimentary tract dramatically increase the Treg activity, thereby modulating intestinal or systemic inflammatory responses. These observations led us to hypothesize that helminths can regulate GVHD and maintain GVT in mice. Acute GVHD was induced in helminth (Heligmosomoides polygyrus)-infected or uninfected BALB/c recipients of C57BL/6 donor grafts. Helminth infection suppressed donor T cell inflammatory cytokine generation and reduced GVHD-related mortality, but maintained GVT. H. polygyrus colonization promoted the survival of TGF-β-generating recipient Tregs after a conditioning regimen with total body irradiation and led to a TGF-β-dependent in vivo expansion/maturation of donor Tregs after BMT. Helminths did not control GVHD when T cells unresponsive to TGF-β-mediated immune regulation were used as donor T lymphocytes. These results suggest that helminths suppress acute GVHD using Tregs and TGF-β-dependent pathways in mice. Helminthic regulation of GVHD and GVT through intestinal immune conditioning may improve the outcome of BMT. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. Association between chronic liver and colon inflammation during the development of murine syngeneic graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, J. Anthony; Perez, Jacqueline; Jennings, C. Darrell; Cohen, Donald A.; Sindhava, V. J.; Bondada, S.; Kaplan, Alan M.

    2010-01-01

    The murine model of cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced syngeneic graft-versus-host disease (SGVHD) is a bone marrow (BM) transplantation model that develops chronic colon inflammation identical to other murine models of CD4+ T cell-mediated colitis. Interestingly, SGVHD animals develop chronic liver lesions that are similar to the early peribiliary inflammatory stages of clinical chronic liver disease, which is frequently associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, studies were initiated to investigate the chronic liver inflammation that develops in the SGVHD model. To induce SGVHD, mice were lethally irradiated, reconstituted with syngeneic BM, and treated with CsA. All of the SGVHD animals that developed colitis also develop chronic liver inflammation. Liver samples from control and SGVHD animals were monitored for tissue pathology, RNA for inflammatory mediators, and phenotypic analysis and in vitro reactivity of the inflammatory infiltrate. Diseased animals developed lesions of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts. Elevated levels of mRNA for molecules associated with chronic liver inflammation, including mucosal cellular adhesion molecule −1, the chemokines CCL25, CCL28, CCR9, and TH1- and TH17-associated cytokines were observed in livers of SGVHD mice. CD4+ T cells were localized to the peribiliary region of the livers of diseased animals, and an enhanced proliferative response of liver-associated mononuclear cells against colonic bacterial antigens was observed. The murine model of SGVHD colitis may be a valuable tool to study the entero-hepatic linkage between chronic colon inflammation and inflammatory liver disease. PMID:20634434

  11. Posttransplantation cyclophosphamide for prevention of graft-versus-host disease after HLA-matched mobilized blood cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mielcarek, Marco; Furlong, Terry; O'Donnell, Paul V; Storer, Barry E; McCune, Jeannine S; Storb, Rainer; Carpenter, Paul A; Flowers, Mary E D; Appelbaum, Frederick R; Martin, Paul J

    2016-03-17

    The cumulative incidence of National Institutes of Health (NIH)-defined chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) requiring systemic treatment is ∼35% at 1 year after transplantation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized blood cells from HLA-matched related or unrelated donors. We hypothesized that high-dose cyclophosphamide given after G-CSF-mobilized blood cell transplantation would reduce the cumulative 1-year incidence of chronic GVHD to 15% or less. Forty-three patients with high-risk hematologic malignancies (median age, 43 years) were enrolled between December 2011 and September 2013. Twelve (28%) received grafts from related donors, and 31 (72%) received grafts from unrelated donors. Pretransplant conditioning consisted of fludarabine and targeted busulfan (n = 25) or total body irradiation (≥12 Gy; n = 18). Cyclophosphamide was given at 50 mg/kg per day on days 3 and 4 after transplantation, followed by cyclosporine starting on day 5. The cumulative 1-year incidence of NIH-defined chronic GVHD was 16% (95% confidence interval, 5-28%). The cumulative incidence estimates of grades 2-4 and 3-4 acute GVHD were 77% and 0%, respectively. At 2 years, the cumulative incidence estimates of nonrelapse mortality and recurrent malignancy were 14% and 17%, respectively, and overall survival was projected at 70%. Of the 42 patients followed for ≥1 year, 21 (50%) were relapse-free and alive without systemic immunosuppression at 1 year after transplantation. Thus, myeloablative pretransplant conditioning can be safely combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide after transplantation, and the risk of chronic GVHD associated with HLA-matched mobilized blood cell grafts can be substantially reduced. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01427881. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  12. Posttransplantation cyclophosphamide for prevention of graft-versus-host disease after HLA-matched mobilized blood cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Furlong, Terry; O’Donnell, Paul V.; Storer, Barry E.; McCune, Jeannine S.; Storb, Rainer; Carpenter, Paul A.; Flowers, Mary E. D.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Martin, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    The cumulative incidence of National Institutes of Health (NIH)-defined chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) requiring systemic treatment is ∼35% at 1 year after transplantation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)–mobilized blood cells from HLA-matched related or unrelated donors. We hypothesized that high-dose cyclophosphamide given after G-CSF–mobilized blood cell transplantation would reduce the cumulative 1-year incidence of chronic GVHD to 15% or less. Forty-three patients with high-risk hematologic malignancies (median age, 43 years) were enrolled between December 2011 and September 2013. Twelve (28%) received grafts from related donors, and 31 (72%) received grafts from unrelated donors. Pretransplant conditioning consisted of fludarabine and targeted busulfan (n = 25) or total body irradiation (≥12 Gy; n = 18). Cyclophosphamide was given at 50 mg/kg per day on days 3 and 4 after transplantation, followed by cyclosporine starting on day 5. The cumulative 1-year incidence of NIH-defined chronic GVHD was 16% (95% confidence interval, 5-28%). The cumulative incidence estimates of grades 2-4 and 3-4 acute GVHD were 77% and 0%, respectively. At 2 years, the cumulative incidence estimates of nonrelapse mortality and recurrent malignancy were 14% and 17%, respectively, and overall survival was projected at 70%. Of the 42 patients followed for ≥1 year, 21 (50%) were relapse-free and alive without systemic immunosuppression at 1 year after transplantation. Thus, myeloablative pretransplant conditioning can be safely combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide after transplantation, and the risk of chronic GVHD associated with HLA-matched mobilized blood cell grafts can be substantially reduced. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01427881. PMID:26764356

  13. Intestinal Helminths Regulate Lethal Acute Graft Versus Host Disease and Preserve Graft Versus Tumor Effect in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Chen, Hung-lin; Bannick, Nadine; Henry, Michael; Holm, Adrian N.; Metwali, Ahmed; Urban, Joseph F.; Rothman, Paul B.; Weiner, George J.; Blazar, Bruce R.; Elliott, David E.; Ince, M. Nedim

    2014-01-01

    Donor T lymphocyte transfer with hematopoietic stem cells suppresses residual tumor growth (graft-versus-tumor; GVT) in cancer patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT). However, donor T cell reactivity to host organs causes severe and potentially lethal inflammation, called graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). High dose steroids or other immune suppressives are used to treat GVHD that have limited ability to control the inflammation while incurring long-term toxicity. Novel strategies are needed to modulate GVHD, preserve GVT and improve the outcome of BMT. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) control alloantigen-sensitized inflammation of GVHD, sustain GVT and prevent mortality in bone marrow transplantation. Helminths colonizing the alimentary tract dramatically increase the Treg activity, thereby modulating intestinal or systemic inflammatory responses. These observations led us to hypothesize that helminths can regulate GVHD and maintain GVT in mice. Acute GVHD was induced in helminth (Heligmosomoides polygyrus)-infected or uninfected Balb/C recipients of C57BL/6 donor grafts. Helminth infection suppressed donor T cell inflammatory cytokine generation along with reduction in GVHD lethality and maintenance of GVT. H. polygyrus colonization promoted the survival of TGFβ generating recipient Tregs after a conditioning regimen with total body irradiation and led to a TGFβ-dependent in vivo expansion/maturation of donor Tregs after BMT. Helminths did not control GVHD, when T cells unresponsive to TGFβ-mediated immune regulation were used as donor T lymphocytes. These results suggest that helminths suppress acute GVHD, employing regulatory T cells and TGFβ-dependent pathways in mice. Helminthic regulation of GVHD and GVT through intestinal immune conditioning may improve the outcome of BMT. PMID:25527786

  14. Bone marrow transplantation in the rat. III. Structure of the liver inflammatory lesion in acute graft-versus-host disease

    SciTech Connect

    Leszczynski, D.; Renkonen, R.; Haeyry, P.

    1985-08-01

    The liver is a major parenchymal target organ of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) after bone marrow transplantation in the rat. The authors have analyzed the nature of cellular infiltrates in the liver using monoclonal antibodies against white cell subsets and investigated the anatomic distribution of the inflammatory cell subsets inside the liver parenchyma. Several types of white cells are present in a normal control liver: In the portal area the T-helper (Th) cells predominate, (surface) immunoglobulin-expressing B cells are present in ample numbers, and most of the phagocytes are Ia-positive. In the central vein area the T-suppressor/killer cells (Tsk) dominate, no B cells are present, and most of the phagocytes are Ia-negative. During aGVHD the number of T cells increases rapidly in the portal area; and after an initial strong increase, the Th/Tsk ratio decreases but remains still above 1. In the central vein area there is also an increase in the number of T cells, compared with that in the syngeneic recipient, but the Th/Tsk ratio rapidly decreases and remains uniformly below 1. During aGVHD the B cells entirely disappear from the portal area, whereas a small but distinct number of mature plasma cells with intracellular immunoglobulin appear in the central vein area. Following irradiation the Ia-positive phagocytic cells entirely disappear from the portal area and decrease distinctly in number in the central vein area. During aGVHD the number of Ia-positive phagocytes increases again in both locations. In the central vein area the positive phagocytes are seen over the background level, and, concomitantly, the Ia-negative phagocytes disappear.

  15. The global severity of chronic graft-versus-host disease, determined by National Institutes of Health consensus criteria, is associated with overall survival and non-relapse mortality

    PubMed Central

    Pidala, Joseph; Kim, Jongphil; Anasetti, Claudio; Nishihori, Taiga; Betts, Brian; Field, Teresa; Perkins, Janelle

    2011-01-01

    Background The 2005 National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference on chronic graft-versus-host disease proposed major changes in the classification and grading of severity of chronic graft-versus-host disease. Design and Methods We aimed to study the association of the proposed chronic graft-versus-host disease classification and global severity with transplantation outcomes among a consecutive series of patients who received pharmacokinetically-targeted doses of intravenous busulfan and fludarabine conditioning followed by transplantation of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells. Results From a total cohort (n = 242) of patients surviving more than 100 days after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, 181 (75% of those at risk) had some manifestations of graft-versus-host disease after day 100. Of these, at onset 13 (7%) had late acute graft-versus-host disease, 62 (34%) had classic chronic graft-versus-host disease, and 106 (59%) had the overlap subtype of chronic graft-versus-host disease. The global severity of the chronic graft-versus-host disease was mild in 25% of cases, moderate in 46%, and severe in 29%. Multivariable modeling demonstrated the independent association of global severity of chronic graft-versus-host disease with overall survival (moderate/severe versus mild; HR 2.9, 95% CI 1.8–4.7, P<0.0001) and non-relapse mortality (moderate versus mild; HR 3.86, 95% CI 1.17–12.73, P=0.03, and severe versus mild (HR 10.06, 95% CI 3.07–32.97, P<0.001). The type of onset of progressive chronic graft-versus-host disease and the platelet count at the time of diagnosis of the disease were significantly associated with overall survival. The occurrence and severity of chronic graft-versus-host disease was also significantly associated with primary disease relapse. Conclusions Patients with moderate to severe chronic graft-versus-host disease, as determined by National Institutes of Health Consensus criteria, have an inferior overall

  16. A combined biomarker and clinical panel for chronic graft versus host disease diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Sigdel, Tara K; Wang, Anyou; Hsieh, Sue; Inamoto, Yoshi; Martin, Paul J; Flowers, Mary ED; Hansen, John A; Lee, Stephanie J; Sarwal, Minnie M

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Whilst many chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) biomarkers have been previously reported, few have been verified in an independent cGVHD cohort. We aimed to verify the diagnostic accuracy of previously reported markers of cGVHD in a multi‐centre Chronic GVHD Consortium. A total of 42 RNA and 18 protein candidate biomarkers were assessed amongst 59 cGVHD cases and 33 matched non‐GVHD controls. Total RNA was isolated from PBMC, and RNA markers were quantified using PCR. Serum protein markers were quantified using ELISA. A combined 3 RNA biomarker (IRS2, PLEKHF1 and IL1R2) and 2 clinical variables (recipient CMV serostatus and conditioning regimen intensity) panel accurately (AUC 0.81) segregated cGVHD cases from controls. Other studied RNA and protein markers were not confirmed as accurate cGVHD diagnostic biomarkers. The studied markers failed to segregate higher risk cGVHD (per overall NIH 0‐3 score, and overlap versus classic cGVHD status). These data support the need for multiple independent verification studies for the ultimate clinical application of cGVHD diagnostic biomarkers. PMID:28138397

  17. Prediction of graft-versus-host disease in humans by donor gene-expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Baron, Chantal; Somogyi, Roland; Greller, Larry D; Rineau, Vincent; Wilkinson, Peter; Cho, Carolyn R; Cameron, Mark J; Kelvin, David J; Chagnon, Pierre; Roy, Denis-Claude; Busque, Lambert; Sékaly, Rafick-Pierre; Perreault, Claude

    2007-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) results from recognition of host antigens by donor T cells following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT). Notably, histoincompatibility between donor and recipient is necessary but not sufficient to elicit GVHD. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that some donors may be "stronger alloresponders" than others, and consequently more likely to elicit GVHD. To this end, we measured the gene-expression profiles of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from 50 AHCT donors with microarrays. We report that pre-AHCT gene-expression profiling segregates donors whose recipient suffered from GVHD or not. Using quantitative PCR, established statistical tests, and analysis of multiple independent training-test datasets, we found that for chronic GVHD the "dangerous donor" trait (occurrence of GVHD in the recipient) is under polygenic control and is shaped by the activity of genes that regulate transforming growth factor-beta signaling and cell proliferation. These findings strongly suggest that the donor gene-expression profile has a dominant influence on the occurrence of GVHD in the recipient. The ability to discriminate strong and weak alloresponders using gene-expression profiling could pave the way to personalized transplantation medicine.

  18. Natural Killer Cells in Graft-versus-Host-Disease after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Simonetta, Federico; Alvarez, Maite; Negrin, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a well-established therapeutic modality effective for a variety of hematological malignancies but, unfortunately, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality related to cancer relapse as well as to transplant-related complications including graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD). Natural killer (NK) cells are the first donor-derived lymphocyte subset to recover after HCT, and their crucial role in protection against cancer relapse and infections is well established. Conversely, the role played by NK cells in GvHD is still controversial. Early studies suggested a participation of NK cells in GvHD induction or exacerbation. Subsequently, experimental evidence obtained in mice as well observational studies performed in humans led to a model in which NK cells play a regulatory role in GvHD by repressing alloreactive T cell responses. This widely accepted model has been recently challenged by clinical evidence indicating that NK cells can in some cases promote GvHD. In this review, we summarize available knowledge about the role of NK cells in GVHD pathogenesis. We review studies uncovering cellular mechanisms through which NK cells interact with other immune cell subsets during GvHD leading to a model in which NK cells naturally suppress GvHD through their cytotoxic ability to inhibit T cell activation unless exogenous hyperactivation lead them to produce proinflammatory cytokines that can conversely sustain T cell-mediated GvHD induction. PMID:28487696

  19. Skin and kidney histological changes in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pintar, Tadeja; Alessiani, Mario; Pleskovič, Alojz; Pleskovič, Aleš; Zorc-Pleskovič, Ruda; Milutinović, Aleksandra

    2011-05-01

    Kidney transplantation (Ktx) is generally performed during end stage renal disease due to a loss of the kidneys' ability to filter wastes from the circulatory system. Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after Ktx is a life-threatening complication that progresses to organ failure, systemic complications, and death. The current study evaluated the significance of histologic findings of GVHD as obtained from skin biopsies following Ktx in swine. A swine model of Ktx with tacrolimus-based immunosuppression was used to assess possible correlations between acute-graft-cellular rejection and skin histological findings for prediction of GVHD. Animals were divided into a Ktx treatment group or a control group with no Ktx and skin and kidney biopsies were histologically assessed at postoperative days 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60. Skin samples were analyzed and classified from grade 1 to 4 of skin GVHD and the major histopathological changes of kidney acute cellular rejection were described using Banff's score system. We observed a significant linear correlation between the histological grading values of skin biopsy changes and the histological grading values of kidney biopsies (Kendall's tau_b=0.993) in the Ktx experimental group. No histological changes were observed in controls. Our findings demonstrate the diagnostic value of staging skin GVHD after Ktx and suggest it's future utility for monitoring long term Ktx-induced changes.

  20. Re-evaluation of skin-explant model in graft-versus-host disease prediction.

    PubMed

    Sahin, S; Akoğlu, T F; Gürbüz, O; Ergun, T; Küllü, S; Sav, A; Ahiskali, R; Tüzüner, N; Doğusoy, G

    1995-10-01

    An in vitro skin explant model has been proposed for prediction of graft versus host disease and reported to be highly sensitive and specific for this purpose. In this study we have re-evaluated this model in both HLA full-matched BMT recipient-donor sibling pairs and also in HLA one haplotype-matched parent-children pairs. All assessments were made blindly by 3 independent observers. The predictive value of the test for the occurrence of clinical GvHD in 14 BMT patients was found to be less sensitive than reported previously (correlation coefficients were +0.019, +0.067 and -0.061 between clinical GvHD and in vitro primed allogeneic, primed mixed and unprimed allogeneic settings, indicating "poor" correlation). False positive and false negative results were high and there were also significant discrepancies between three blind observations in the grading of skin changes. Weighted kappa analysis revealed that there were "fair" correlations between the 3 observers (K = 0.25). These results indicated that the skin explant model is an unpredictable test system and there are great problems in standardization of the method.

  1. A Novel Soluble Form of Tim-3 Associated with Severe Graft-versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, John A.; Hanash, Samir M.; Tabellini, Laura; Baik, Chris; Lawler, Richard L.; Grogan, Bryan M.; Storer, Barry; Chin, Alice; Johnson, Melissa; Wong, Chee-Hong; Zhang, Qing; Martin, Paul J.; McDonald, George B.

    2014-01-01

    The T cell Ig and mucin domain 3 (Tim-3) receptor has been implicated as a negative regulator of adaptive immune responses. We have utilized a proteomic strategy to identify novel proteins associated with graft versus host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Mass spectrometry analysis of plasma from subjects with mid-gut and upper-gut GVHD compared with those without GVHD identified increased levels of a protein identified with high confidence as Tim-3. A follow-up validation study using an immunoassay to measure Tim-3 levels in individual plasma samples from 127 patients demonstrated significantly higher plasma Tim-3 concentrations in patients with the more severe mid-gut GVHD, compared with those with upper-gut GVHD (P = .005), patients without GVHD (P = .002), and normal controls (P < .0001). Surface expression of Tim-3 was increased on CD8+ T cells from patients with grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD (P = .01). Mass spectrometry–based profiling of plasma from multiple subjects diagnosed with common diseases provided evidence for restricted release of soluble Tim-3 in the context of GVHD. These findings have mechanistic implications for the development of novel strategies for targeting the Tim-3 immune regulatory pathway as an approach to improving control of GVHD. PMID:23791624

  2. Emerging technologies for oral diagnostics: lessons from chronic graft-versus-host disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mays, Jacqueline W.; Ambatipudi, Kiran S.; Bassim, Carol W.; Melvin, James E.

    2013-05-01

    Saliva is a protein-rich oral fluid that contains information about systemic and oral-specific disease pathogenesis and diagnosis. Technologies are emerging to improve detection of protein components of human saliva for use not only in biomarker discovery, but also for the illumination of pathways involved in oral disease. These include the optimization of liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of saliva in health and disease. Downstream of saliva component identification and validation comes the complex task of connecting salivary proteomic data to biological function, disease state, and other clinical patient information in a meaningful way. Augmentation of database information with biological expertise is crucial for effective analysis of potential biomarkers and disease pathways in order to improve diagnosis and identify putative therapeutic targets. This presentation will use LC-MS/MS analysis of saliva from chronic Graft-versus-Host disease (cGVHD) patients to illustrate these principles, and includes a discussion of the complex clinical and diagnostic issues related to proteomics and biomarker research in cGVHD.

  3. Mouse models of graft-versus-host disease: advances and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Mark A.; DiPersio, John F.

    2011-01-01

    The limiting factor for successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), a post-transplant disorder that results from immune-mediated attack of recipient tissue by donor T cells contained in the transplant. Mouse models of GvHD have provided important insights into the pathophysiology of this disease, which have helped to improve the success rate of HSCT in humans. The kinetics with which GvHD develops distinguishes acute from chronic GvHD, and it is clear from studies of mouse models of GvHD (and studies of human HSCT) that the pathophysiology of these two forms is also distinct. Mouse models also further the basic understanding of the immunological responses involved in GvHD pathology, such as antigen recognition and presentation, the involvement of the thymus and immune reconstitution after transplantation. In this Perspective, we provide an overview of currently available mouse models of acute and chronic GvHD, highlighting their benefits and limitations, and discuss research and clinical opportunities for the future. PMID:21558065

  4. Proteomics analysis reveals a Th17-prone cell population in presymptomatic graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Liu, Liangyi; Gomez, Aurelie; Zhang, Jilu; Zhang, Qing; Choi, Sung W.; Greenson, Joel K.; Liu, Chen; Jiang, Di; Virts, Elizabeth; Kelich, Stephanie L.; Chu, Hong Wei; Flynn, Ryan; Blazar, Bruce R.; Hanenberg, Helmut; Hanash, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal graft-versus-host-disease (GI-GVHD) is a life-threatening complication occurring after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), and a blood biomarker that permits stratification of HCT patients according to their risk of developing GI-GVHD would greatly aid treatment planning. Through in-depth, large-scale proteomic profiling of presymptomatic samples, we identified a T cell population expressing both CD146, a cell adhesion molecule, and CCR5, a chemokine receptor that is upregulated as early as 14 days after transplantation in patients who develop GI-GVHD. The CD4+CD146+CCR5+ T cell population is Th17 prone and increased by ICOS stimulation. shRNA knockdown of CD146 in T cells reduced their transmigration through endothelial cells, and maraviroc, a CCR5 inhibitor, reduced chemotaxis of the CD4+CD146+CCR5+ T cell population toward CCL14. Mice that received CD146 shRNA–transduced human T cells did not lose weight, showed better survival, and had fewer CD4+CD146+CCR5+ T cells and less pathogenic Th17 infiltration in the intestine, even compared with mice receiving maraviroc with control shRNA–transduced human T cells. Furthermore, the frequency of CD4+CD146+CCR5+ Tregs was increased in GI-GVHD patients, and these cells showed increased plasticity toward Th17 upon ICOS stimulation. Our findings can be applied to early risk stratification, as well as specific preventative therapeutic strategies following HCT. PMID:27195312

  5. Alloantigen presentation and graft-versus-host disease: fuel for the fire.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Motoko; Hill, Geoffrey R

    2016-06-16

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is a unique procedure, primarily in patients with hematopoietic malignancies, involving chemoradiotherapy followed by the introduction of donor hematopoietic and immune cells into an inflamed and lymphopenic environment. Interruption of the process by which recipient alloantigen is presented to donor T cells to generate graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) represents an attractive therapeutic strategy to prevent morbidity and mortality after SCT and has been increasingly studied in the last 15 years. However, the immune activation resulting in GVHD has no physiological equivalent in nature; alloantigen is ubiquitous, persists indefinitely, and can be presented by multiple cell types at numerous sites, often on incompatible major histocompatibility complex, and occurs in the context of intense inflammation early after SCT. The recognition that alloantigen presentation is also critical to the development of immunological tolerance via both deletional and regulatory mechanisms further adds to this complexity. Finally, GVHD itself appears capable of inhibiting the presentation of microbiological antigens by donor dendritic cells late after SCT that is mandatory for the establishment of effective pathogen-specific immunity. Here, we review our current understanding of alloantigen, its presentation by various antigen-presenting cells, subsequent recognition by donor T cells, and the potential of therapeutic strategies interrupting this disease-initiating process to modify transplant outcome.

  6. IL-17 Genetic and Immunophenotypic Evaluation in Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Resende, Renata Gonçalves; Correia-Silva, Jeane de Fátima; Silva, Tarcília Aparecida; Salomão, Ulisses Eliezer; Marques-Silva, Luciano; Vieira, Érica Leandro Marciano; Dutra, Walderez Ornelas; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Although interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a recently discovered cytokine associated with several autoimmune diseases, its role in the pathogenesis of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) was not established yet. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of IL17A and IL17F genes polymorphisms and IL-17A and IL-17F levels with cGVHD. IL-17A expression was also investigated in CD4+ T cells of patients with systemic cGVHD. For Part I of the study, fifty-eight allo-HSCT recipients and donors were prospectively studied. Blood samples were obtained to determine IL17A and IL17F genes polymorphisms. Cytokines levels in blood and saliva were assessed by ELISA at days +35 and +100 after HSCT. In Part II, for the immunophenotypic evaluation, eight patients with systemic cGVHD were selected and the expression of IL-17A was evaluated. We found association between recipient AA genotype with systemic cGVHD. No association was observed between IL-17A levels and cGVHD. Lower IL-17A levels in the blood were associated with AA genotype. In flow cytometry analysis, decreased expression of IL-17A was observed in patients with cGVHD after stimulation. In conclusion, IL-17A may have an important role in the development of systemic cGVHD. PMID:25136146

  7. IL-17 genetic and immunophenotypic evaluation in chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Resende, Renata Gonçalves; Correia-Silva, Jeane de Fátima; Silva, Tarcília Aparecida; Salomão, Ulisses Eliezer; Marques-Silva, Luciano; Vieira, Érica Leandro Marciano; Dutra, Walderez Ornelas; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Although interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a recently discovered cytokine associated with several autoimmune diseases, its role in the pathogenesis of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) was not established yet. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of IL17A and IL17F genes polymorphisms and IL-17A and IL-17F levels with cGVHD. IL-17A expression was also investigated in CD4(+) T cells of patients with systemic cGVHD. For Part I of the study, fifty-eight allo-HSCT recipients and donors were prospectively studied. Blood samples were obtained to determine IL17A and IL17F genes polymorphisms. Cytokines levels in blood and saliva were assessed by ELISA at days +35 and +100 after HSCT. In Part II, for the immunophenotypic evaluation, eight patients with systemic cGVHD were selected and the expression of IL-17A was evaluated. We found association between recipient AA genotype with systemic cGVHD. No association was observed between IL-17A levels and cGVHD. Lower IL-17A levels in the blood were associated with AA genotype. In flow cytometry analysis, decreased expression of IL-17A was observed in patients with cGVHD after stimulation. In conclusion, IL-17A may have an important role in the development of systemic cGVHD.

  8. Interleukin-22 in Graft-Versus-Host Disease after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lamarthée, Baptiste; Malard, Florent; Saas, Philippe; Mohty, Mohamad; Gaugler, Béatrice

    2016-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a potential curative treatment for hematologic malignancies and non-malignant diseases. Because of the lower toxicity of reduced intensity conditioning, the number of transplants is in constant increase. However, allo-HSCT is still limited by complications, such as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), which is associated with important morbidity and mortality. Acute GVHD is an exacerbated inflammatory response that leads to the destruction of healthy host tissues by donor immune cells. Recently, the contribution of innate immunity in GVHD triggering has been investigated by several groups and resulted in the identification of new cellular and molecular effectors involved in GVHD pathogenesis. Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is produced by both immune and adaptive cells and has both protective and inflammatory properties. Its role in GVHD processes has been investigated, and the data suggest that its effect depends on the timing, the target tissue, and the origin of the producing cells (donor/host). In this review, we discuss the role of IL-22 in allo-HSCT and GVHD.

  9. Interleukin-22 in Graft-Versus-Host Disease after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lamarthée, Baptiste; Malard, Florent; Saas, Philippe; Mohty, Mohamad; Gaugler, Béatrice

    2016-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a potential curative treatment for hematologic malignancies and non-malignant diseases. Because of the lower toxicity of reduced intensity conditioning, the number of transplants is in constant increase. However, allo-HSCT is still limited by complications, such as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), which is associated with important morbidity and mortality. Acute GVHD is an exacerbated inflammatory response that leads to the destruction of healthy host tissues by donor immune cells. Recently, the contribution of innate immunity in GVHD triggering has been investigated by several groups and resulted in the identification of new cellular and molecular effectors involved in GVHD pathogenesis. Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is produced by both immune and adaptive cells and has both protective and inflammatory properties. Its role in GVHD processes has been investigated, and the data suggest that its effect depends on the timing, the target tissue, and the origin of the producing cells (donor/host). In this review, we discuss the role of IL-22 in allo-HSCT and GVHD. PMID:27148267

  10. Female genital chronic graft-versus-host disease: importance of early diagnosis to avoid severe complications.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Pierre; Leclerc, Mathieu; Rybojad, Michel; Petropoulou, Anna D; Robin, Marie; Ribaud, Patricia; de la Tour, Régis Peffault; Cavelier-Balloy, Bénédicte; Socié, Gérard; Vexiau-Robert, Dominique

    2012-06-27

    Genital chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a frequent but underdiagnosed complication of allogeneic stem-cell transplantation impairing quality of life. We identified 32 female patients with genital chronic GVHD (cGVHD) who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in our center between 2000 and 2010 and who were followed after transplantation in a specialized gynecological consultation. Pre- and posttransplantation clinical data and detailed acute and cGVHD data were collected. All patients received the same local treatment for genital lesions. At presentation, most patients complained about vaginal dryness and dyspareunia with impairment in sexual activity. Fifty percent of patients had grade I genital lesions and 50% had grade II or III lesions. Patients seen later in gynecological consultation had more severe lesions than patients seen early after transplantation. At the time of diagnosis, most patients had other cutaneous or mucous localizations of cGVHD. In most cases, lesions were stabilized or decreased with local steroids and estrogen treatment, and most patients could resume sexual activity. Treatment was more efficient in patients with mild lesions than in others. Genital cGVHD should be systematically searched for in women who have received allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in an early specialized consultation, especially in case of other cutaneous or mucous localizations of cGVHD. Local treatment associating steroids and estrogen seemed to prevent further evolution of grade I genital lesions and to avoid surgical treatment.

  11. Improved accuracy of acute graft-versus-host disease staging among multiple centers.

    PubMed

    Levine, John E; Hogan, William J; Harris, Andrew C; Litzow, Mark R; Efebera, Yvonne A; Devine, Steven M; Reshef, Ran; Ferrara, James L M

    2014-01-01

    The clinical staging of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) varies significantly among bone marrow transplant (BMT) centers, but adherence to long-standing practices poses formidable barriers to standardization among centers. We have analyzed the sources of variability and developed a web-based remote data entry system that can be used by multiple centers simultaneously and that standardizes data collection in key areas. This user-friendly, intuitive interface resembles an online shopping site and eliminates error-prone entry of free text with drop-down menus and pop-up detailed guidance available at the point of data entry. Standardized documentation of symptoms and therapeutic response reduces errors in grade assignment and allows creation of confidence levels regarding the diagnosis. Early review and adjudication of borderline cases improves consistency of grading and further enhances consistency among centers. If this system achieves widespread use it may enhance the quality of data in multicenter trials to prevent and treat acute GVHD.

  12. Intra-arterial Methylprednisolone Infusion in Treatment-Resistant Graft-Versus-Host Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Weintraub, Joshua L. Belanger, Adam R.; Sung, Chris C.; Stangl, P. Anondo; Nowakowski, F. Scott; Lookstein, Robert L.

    2010-06-15

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a potentially fatal complication following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Standard primary therapy for acute GVHD includes systemic steroids, often in combination with other agents. Unfortunately, primary treatment failure is common and carries a high mortality. There is no generally accepted secondary therapy for acute GVHD. Although few data on localized therapy for GVHD have been published, intra-arterial injection of high-dose corticosteroids may be a viable option. We treated 11 patients with steroid-resistant GVHD using a single administration of intra-arterial high-dose methylprednisolone. Three patients (27%) died periprocedurally. Four patients (36%) had a partial response to intra-arterial treatment and were discharged on total parenteral nutrition and oral medication. Four patients (36%) had a complete response and were discharged on oral diet and oral medication. No immediate treatment or procedure-related complications were noted. Twenty-seven percent of patients survived long-term. Our preliminary results suggest that regional intra-arterial treatment of steroid-resistant GVHD is a safe and potentially viable secondary therapy in primary treatment-resistant GVHD.

  13. Selective Treg reconstitution during lymphopenia normalizes DC costimulation and prevents graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Holly A.; Zhu, Erhua; Terry, Alexandra M.; Guy, Thomas V.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Tan, Sioh-Yang; Power, Carl A.; Bertolino, Patrick; Lahl, Katharina; Sparwasser, Tim; Shklovskaya, Elena; de St. Groth, Barbara Fazekas

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been shown to enhance immune reconstitution and prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; however, it is unclear how Tregs mediate these effects. Here, we developed a model to examine the mechanism of Treg-dependent regulation of immune reconstitution. Lymphopenic mice were selectively reconstituted with Tregs prior to transfer of conventional CD4+ T cells. Full Treg reconstitution prevented the rapid oligoclonal proliferation that gives rise to pathogenic CD4 effector T cells, while preserving the slow homeostatic form of lymphopenia-induced peripheral expansion that repopulates a diverse peripheral T cell pool. Treg-mediated CTLA-4–dependent downregulation of CD80/CD86 on DCs was critical for inhibition of rapid proliferation and was a function of the Treg/DC ratio achieved by reconstitution. In an allogeneic BM transplant model, selective Treg reconstitution before T cell transfer also normalized DC costimulation and provided complete protection against GVHD. In contrast, cotransfer of Tregs was not protective. Our results indicate that achieving optimal recovery from lymphopenia should aim to improve early Treg reconstitution in order to increase the relative number of Tregs to DCs and thereby inhibit spontaneous oligoclonal T cell proliferation. PMID:26301814

  14. Danger signals activating innate immunity in graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Zeiser, Robert; Penack, Olaf; Holler, Ernst; Idzko, Marco

    2011-09-01

    Extensive cell death with consecutive release of danger signals can cause immune-mediated tissue destruction. The abundance of cell death is likely to determine the relevance of the danger signals as physiological mechanisms that counteract immune activation may be overruled. Such constellation is conceivable in chemo-/radiotherapy-induced tissue damage, reperfusion injury, trauma, and severe infection. Studies on graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) development have to consider the effects of chemo-/radiotherapy-related tissue damage leading to the release of exogenous and endogenous danger signals. Our previous work has demonstrated a role for adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) as an endogenous danger signal in GvHD. Besides ATP, uric acid or soluble extracellular matrix components are functional danger signals that activate the NLRP3 inflammasome when released from dying cells or from extracellular matrix. In contrast to sterile inflammation, GvHD is more complex since bacterial components that leak through damaged intestinal barriers and the skin can activate pattern recognition receptors and directly contribute to GvHD pathogenesis. These exogenous danger signals transmit immune activation via toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors of the innate immune system. This review covers both the impact of endogenous and exogenous danger signals activating innate immunity in GvHD.

  15. A Rare Consequence of Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease - Peyronie's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Natasha A; Venkatesan, Krishnan; Anandi, Prathima; Ito, Sawa; Kumar, Dhruv; Lu, Kit; Battiwalla, Minoo; Barrett, A. John

    2015-01-01

    Chronic graft versus host disease (GvHD) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) may involve any organ system, but male genital involvement is rare. Peyronie’s Disease (PD) is an acquired, localized fibrotic disorder of the tunica albuginea, which leads to penile deformity, pain, and eventually to erectile dysfunction. We report the case of a 52 year old African American male with Acute Myeloid Leukemia who underwent human leucocyte antigen (HLA) matched sibling allogeneic peripheral blood SCT. His post transplant course was complicated by development of acute and multi-organ chronic GvHD requiring prolonged immunosuppression. He developed progressive dorsal curvature of the penis with erections within 1 year of ultra low dose interleukin -2 (IL2) treatment for his chronic GvHD but concealed symptoms for several months. Color Doppler Duplex ultrasound evaluation of the erect penis revealed a 75-degree curvature and appropriate hemodynamic response to prostaglandin injection. He underwent successful incision and grafting of the penile plaque. There is no significant residual curvature and is now able to engage in intercourse. A strong temporal association between GVHD (or its treatment) and Peyronie's is documented here. Awareness of the possible link between PD and chronic GVHD is required in this era of rapid growth in numbers of SCT. PMID:26770907

  16. Costimulatory molecule-targeted immunotherapy of cutaneous graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juyang; Kim, Hye J; Park, Keunhee; Kim, Jiyoung; Choi, Hye-Jeong; Yagita, Hideo; Nam, Seok H; Cho, Hong R; Kwon, Byungsuk

    2007-07-15

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is an increasingly frequent complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Current therapies for cGVHD reduce symptoms but are not cures. The B10.D2-->Balb/c (H-2(d)) minor histocompatibility antigen-mismatched model, which reflects clinical and pathological symptoms of human cGVHD, was used in this study. We demonstrated that a single injection of an agonistic monoclonal antibody (mAb) against CD137, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, reverses skin fibrosis, ulceration, and alopecia, a dominant feature of cGVHD (cutaneous GVHD), ultimately improving general health conditions. The reversal is associated with markedly reduced CD4(+) T-cell cytokines and increased apoptosis of donor CD4(+) T cells. The Fas pathway is required for ameliorating cutaneous GVHD by anti-CD137 mAb. Taken together, these data indicate that the anti-CD137 mAb has a therapeutic effect on cutaneous GVHD by removing donor CD4(+) T cells that cause cutaneous GVHD. Thus, our study demonstrates an agonistic mAb, specific for a costimulatory molecule, as a possible target for therapeutic intervention in cutaneous GVHD.

  17. Solid-Organ Graft-Versus-Host Disease After Liver Transplant: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Jonathan S; Schott, Christopher K

    2016-06-01

    Solid-organ transplant graft-versus-host disease (SOT-GVHD) is a rare complication of organ transplant that is associated with high mortality. The initial signs and symptoms are vague, so this disease is easily confused with other posttransplant complications. A case of SOT-GVHD occurred after orthotopic liver transplant for liver failure due to hepatitis C in a patient in a Veterans Affairs intensive care unit. The patient had dehydration, acute kidney injuries, rashes, diarrhea, and pancytopenia. Results of skin biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, and cytogenetic studies were consistent with SOT-GVHD. Despite supportive care including antibiotics, antiviral and antifungal therapy, high-dose steroids, antithymoglobulin and neupogen, the patient died of overwhelming sepsis. Owing to the rarity of SOT-GVHD, no evidence-based guidelines or recommendations for treatment exist. Treatment includes high-dose corticosteroids and antibiotic, antifungal, and antiviral prophylaxis. Treatment of liver transplant-related GVHD with anti-tumor necrosis factor a agents has been successful. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  18. Miniature Swine as a Clinically Relevant Model of Graft-Versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Duran-Struuck, Raimon; Huang, Christene A; Orf, Katherine; Bronson, Roderick T; Sachs, David H; Spitzer, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    Miniature swine provide a preclinical model of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for studies of graft-versus-host disease. HCT between MHC-matched or ‑mismatched pigs can be performed to mimic clinical scenarios with outcomes that closely resemble those observed in human HCT recipients. With myeloablative conditioning, HCT across MHC barriers is typically fatal, with pigs developing severe (grade III or IV) GVHD involving the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and skin. Unlike rodent models, miniature swine provide an opportunity to perform extended longitudinal studies on individual animals, because multiple tissue biopsies can be harvested without the need for euthanasia. In addition, we have developed a swine GVHD scoring system that parallels that used in the human clinical setting. Given the similarities of GVHD in pigs and humans, we hope that the use of this scoring system facilitates clinical and scientific discourse between the laboratory and the clinic. We anticipate that results of swine studies will support the development of new strategies to improve the identification and treatment of GVHD in clinical HCT scenarios. PMID:26473348

  19. Cathepsin E Deficiency Ameliorates Graft-versus-Host Disease and Modifies Dendritic Cell Motility

    PubMed Central

    Mengwasser, Jörg; Babes, Liane; Cordes, Steffen; Mertlitz, Sarah; Riesner, Katarina; Shi, Yu; McGearey, Aleixandria; Kalupa, Martina; Reinheckel, Thomas; Penack, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    Microbial products influence immunity after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). In this context, the role of cathepsin E (Ctse), an aspartate protease known to cleave bacterial peptides for antigen presentation in dendritic cells (DCs), has not been studied. During experimental acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), we found infiltration by Ctse-positive immune cells leading to higher Ctse RNA- and protein levels in target organs. In Ctse-deficient allo-SCT recipients, we found ameliorated GVHD, improved survival, and lower numbers of tissue-infiltrating DCs. Donor T cell proliferation was not different in Ctse-deficient vs. wild-type allo-SCT recipients in MHC-matched and MHC-mismatched models. Furthermore, Ctse-deficient DCs had an intact ability to induce allogeneic T cell proliferation, suggesting that its role in antigen presentation may not be the main mechanism how Ctse impacts GVHD. We found that Ctse deficiency significantly decreases DC motility in vivo, reduces adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM), and diminishes invasion through ECM. We conclude that Ctse has a previously unrecognized role in regulating DC motility that possibly contributes to reduced DC counts and ameliorated inflammation in GVHD target organs of Ctse-deficient allo-SCT recipients. However, our data do not provide definite proof that the observed effect of Ctse−/− deficiency is exclusively mediated by DCs. A contribution of Ctse−/−-mediated functions in other recipient cell types, e.g., macrophages, cannot be excluded. PMID:28298913

  20. In vivo depletion of lymphotoxin-alpha expressing lymphocytes inhibits xenogeneic graft-versus-host-disease.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Eugene Y; Kolumam, Ganesh; McCutcheon, Krista M; Young, Judy; Lin, Zhonghua; Balazs, Mercedesz; Grogan, Jane L

    2012-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major barrier to successful allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation and is largely mediated by activated donor lymphocytes. Lymphotoxin (LT)-α is expressed by subsets of activated T and B cells, and studies in preclinical models demonstrated that targeted depletion of these cells with a mouse anti-LT-α monoclonal antibody (mAb) was efficacious in inhibiting inflammation and autoimmune disease. Here we demonstrate that LT-α is also upregulated on activated human donor lymphocytes in a xenogeneic model of GVHD and targeted depletion of these donor cells ameliorated GVHD. A depleting humanized anti-LT-α mAb, designated MLTA3698A, was generated that specifically binds to LT-α in both the soluble and membrane-bound forms, and elicits antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity in vitro. Using a human peripheral blood mononuclear cell transplanted SCID (Hu-SCID) mouse model of GVHD, the anti-human LT-α mAb specifically depleted activated LT-expressing human donor T and B cells, resulting in prolonged survival of the mice. A mutation in the Fc region, rendering the mAb incapable of mediating ADCC, abolished all in vitro and in vivo effects. These data support a role for using a depleting anti-LT-α antibody in treating immune diseases such as GVHD and autoimmune diseases.

  1. Graft-versus-host disease-associated angiomatosis: a clinicopathologically distinct entity

    PubMed Central

    Kaffenberger, Benjamin H.; Zuo, Rena C.; Gru, Alejandro; Plotner, Alisha N.; Sweeney, Sarah A.; Devine, Steven M.; Hymes, Sharon R.; Cowen, Edward W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) may present with various cutaneous manifestations. Isolated case reports describe eruptive angiomas in this setting. Objective To provide a clinical and pathologic description of vascular proliferations in patients with GVHD. Methods Cases of documented GVHD associated with vascular proliferations were collected from the National Institutes of Health, Ohio State University, and MD Anderson Cancer Center. Results 11 patients with a diagnosis of GVHD who developed vascular proliferations were identified. All patients manifested sclerotic type chronic GVHD of the skin. Vascular lesions were first documented a median of 44 months after transplant and occurred primarily on the lower extremities or trunk. Histopathology revealed anastomosing networks of thin-walled vascular proliferations in a vague lobular growth pattern, with overlying epidermal acanthosis, peripheral collarette, ulceration, and disorganized fibroblast-rich and fibrotic stroma. Improvement was noted in one patient treated with propranolol and sirolimus and one patient with electrocautery. Limitations Given the retrospective nature of the study, the overall incidence of vascular lesions in patients with GVHD is unknown. Histopathology was present for review on only 3/11 patients. Conclusion: The phenomenon of vascular lesions appears to be relatively specific for sclerotic type chronic GVHD when compared to other fibrosing diseases. We propose the term GVHD-associated angiomatosis to describe this entity. PMID:24993601

  2. No influence of chromosome Y haplogroup variation in acute graft-versus-host disease in sardinia.

    PubMed

    Orofino, Maria Grazia; Contu, Daniela; Argiolu, Francesca; Sanna, Maria Adele; Gaziev, Javid; La Nasa, Giorgio; Vacca, Adriana; Cao, Antonio; Cucca, Francesco

    2006-12-15

    The donor-recipient sex-related mismatch has been reported as a risk factor for acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, the results obtained in previous studies appear to be contradictory. Here we evaluate the impact of donor-recipient sex-related mismatch in a series of 204 Sardinian individuals (92.1% of them affected by Beta- Thalassemia major) who underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from human leukocyte antigen (HLA) identical siblings. In all, 78 of these patients had acute GVHD (aGVHD). We found that also in this homogenous group of patients from a homogenous population, the donor-female/recipient-male pair provided an increased risk for aGVHD when compared with a reference donor-male/recipient-male pair (POR=2.3, P=0.042). This data could be consistent with a role of variation in the male-specific portion of the Y chromosome in aGVHD. To assess this, we compared the distribution of the main Y-chromosome haplogroups in 28 male patients, who had aGVHD and underwent BMT from HLA-identical sisters, and 366 ethnically-matched controls. No significant differences were observed. These findings do not support the presence of Y chromosome founder variants contributing significantly to aGVHD in the Sardinian population.

  3. Lethal graft-versus-host disease: modification with allogeneic cultured donor cells.

    PubMed

    Mauch, P; Lipton, J M; Hamilton, B; Obbagy, J; Kudisch, M; Nathan, D; Hellman, S

    1984-05-01

    The use of the bone marrow culture technique was studied as a means to prepare donor marrow for bone marrow transplantation to avoid lethal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Preliminary experiments demonstrated the rapid loss of theta-positive cells in such cultures, so that theta-positive cells were not detected after 6 days. Initial experiments in C3H/HeJ (H-2k, Hbbd) recipients prepared with 900 rad demonstrated improved survival when 3-day cultured C57BL/6 (H-2b, Hbbs) donor cells were used in place of hind limb marrow for transplantation. However, hemoglobin typing of recipient animals revealed only short-term donor engraftment, with competitive repopulation of recipient marrow occurring. Subsequent experiments were done in 1,200-rad prepared recipients, with long-term donor engraftment demonstrated. The majority of 1,200-rad prepared animals receiving cultured allogeneic cells died of GVHD, but animals receiving 28-day cultured cells had an improved 90-day survival and a delay in GVHD development over animals receiving hind limb marrow or marrow from shorter times in culture. In addition, animals receiving anti-theta-treated, 3-day nonadherent cells had an improved survival (44%) over animals receiving anti-theta-treated hind limb marrow (20%). These experiments demonstrate modest benefit for the use of cultured cells in bone marrow transplantation across major H-2 histocompatibility complex differences.

  4. Evaluation of mycophenolate mofetil for initial treatment of chronic graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Storer, Barry E.; Rowley, Scott D.; Flowers, Mary E. D.; Lee, Stephanie J.; Carpenter, Paul A.; Wingard, John R.; Shaughnessy, Paul J.; DeVetten, Marcel P.; Jagasia, Madan; Fay, Joseph W.; van Besien, Koen; Gupta, Vikas; Kitko, Carrie; Johnston, Laura J.; Maziarz, Richard T.; Arora, Mukta; Jacobson, Pamala A.; Weisdorf, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a double-blind, randomized multicenter trial to determine whether the addition of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) improves the efficacy of initial systemic treatment of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The primary endpoint was resolution of chronic GVHD and withdrawal of all systemic treatment within 2 years, without secondary treatment. Enrollment of 230 patients was planned, providing 90% power to observe a 20% difference in success rates between the 2 arms. The study was closed after 4 years because the interim estimated cumulative incidence of success for the primary endpoint was 23% among 74 patients in the MMF arm and 18% among 77 patients in the control arm, indicating a low probability of positive results for the primary endpoint after completing the study as originally planned. Analysis of secondary endpoints showed no evidence of benefit from adding MMF to the systemic regimen first used for treatment of chronic GVHD. The estimated hazard ratio of death was 1.99 (95% confidence interval, 0.9-4.3) among patients in the MMF arm compared with the control arm. MMF should not be added to the initial systemic treatment regimen for chronic GVHD. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00089141 on August 4, 2004. PMID:19270260

  5. The intestinal microbiota in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant and graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Staffas, Anna; Burgos da Silva, Marina; van den Brink, Marcel R M

    2017-02-23

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a critical treatment of patients with high-risk hematopoietic malignancies, hematological deficiencies, and other immune diseases. In allogeneic HCT (allo-HCT), donor-derived T cells recognize host tissues as foreign, causing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) which is a main contributor to morbidity and mortality. The intestine is one of the organs most severely affected by GVHD and research has recently highlighted the importance of bacteria, particularly the gut microbiota, in HCT outcome and in GVHD development. Loss of intestinal bacterial diversity is common during the course of HCT and is associated with GVHD development and treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Loss of intestinal diversity and outgrowth of opportunistic pathogens belonging to the phylum Proteobacteria and Enterococcus genus have also been linked to increased treatment-related mortality including GVHD, infections, and organ failure after allo-HCT. Experimental studies in allo-HCT animal models have shown some promising results for prebiotic and probiotic strategies as prophylaxis or treatment of GVHD. Continuous research will be important to define the relation of cause and effect for these associations between microbiota features and HCT outcomes. Importantly, studies focused on geographic and cultural differences in intestinal microbiota are necessary to define applicability of new strategies targeting the intestinal microbiota.

  6. Human papillomavirus reactivation following treatment of genital graft-versus-host-disease

    PubMed Central

    Sri, T.; Merideth, M.A.; Pulanic, T.K.; Childs, R.; Stratton, P.

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGVHD) is a common complication of stem cell transplantation. Human papillomavirus (HPV) disease can reactivate after transplantation, presumably because of immune factors affecting systemic immunity, such as waning antibody titers, impaired T- and B- lymphocyte responses, and the use of immunosuppressive therapies. However, a relationship between the use of local immunosuppressive agents and HPV reactivation and spread has not been previously described, to our knowledge. A 30-year-old woman, 2 years post transplant receiving systemic cyclosporine for cGVHD, was treated with vaginal dilators, topical corticosteroids, and estrogen for vaginal cGVHD. Colposcopy and biopsy for abnormal cytology revealed condylomatous cervicitis. Over the next 4 months. while continuing dilator therapy, linear verrucous lesions developed in the vagina and vulva, and were successfully treated with laser therapy. Use of local immunosuppression and dilators for genital GVHD can enhance spread of HPV infection. Integration of HPV screening and treatment into the care of women with genital cGVHD and development of strategies to manage both conditions simultaneously is warranted. PMID:23710698

  7. Therapeutics for Graft-versus-Host Disease: From Conventional Therapies to Novel Virotherapeutic Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Nancy Y.; Rahman, Masmudur M.; McFadden, Grant; Cogle, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has a curative potential for many hematologic malignancies and blood diseases. However, the success of allo-HSCT is limited by graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), an immunological syndrome that involves inflammation and tissue damage mediated by donor lymphocytes. Despite immune suppression, GVHD is highly incident even after allo-HSCT using human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donors. Therefore, alternative and more effective therapies are needed to prevent or control GVHD while preserving the beneficial graft-versus-cancer (GVC) effects against residual disease. Among novel therapeutics for GVHD, oncolytic viruses such as myxoma virus (MYXV) are receiving increased attention due to their dual role in controlling GVHD while preserving or augmenting GVC. This review focuses on the molecular basis of GVHD, as well as state-of-the-art advances in developing novel therapies to prevent or control GVHD while minimizing impact on GVC. Recent literature regarding conventional and the emerging therapies are summarized, with special emphasis on virotherapy to prevent GVHD. Recent advances using preclinical models with oncolytic viruses such as MYXV to ameliorate the deleterious consequences of GVHD, while maintaining or improving the anti-cancer benefits of GVC will be reviewed. PMID:27011200

  8. Improved accuracy of acute graft-versus-host disease staging among multiple centers

    PubMed Central

    Levine, John E.; Hogan, William J.; Harris, Andrew C.; Litzow, Mark R.; Efebera, Yvonne A.; Devine, Steven M.; Reshef, Ran; Ferrara, James L.M.

    2015-01-01

    The clinical staging of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) varies significantly among bone marrow transplant (BMT) centers, but adherence to long-standing practices poses formidable barriers to standardization among centers. We have analyzed the sources of variability and developed a web-based remote data entry system that can be used by multiple centers simultaneously and that standardizes data collection in key areas. This user-friendly, intuitive interface resembles an online shopping site and eliminates error-prone entry of free text with drop-down menus and pop-up detailed guidance available at the point of data entry. Standardized documentation of symptoms and therapeutic response reduces errors in grade assignment and allows creation of confidence levels regarding the diagnosis. Early review and adjudication of borderline cases improves consistency of grading and further enhances consistency among centers. If this system achieves widespread use it may enhance the quality of data in multicenter trials to prevent and treat acute GVHD. PMID:25455279

  9. Miniature Swine as a Clinically Relevant Model of Graft-Versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Duran-Struuck, Raimon; Huang, Christene A; Orf, Katherine; Bronson, Roderick T; Sachs, David H; Spitzer, Thomas R

    2015-10-01

    Miniature swine provide a preclinical model of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for studies of graft-versus-host disease. HCT between MHC-matched or -mismatched pigs can be performed to mimic clinical scenarios with outcomes that closely resemble those observed in human HCT recipients. With myeloablative conditioning, HCT across MHC barriers is typically fatal, with pigs developing severe (grade III or IV) GVHD involving the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and skin. Unlike rodent models, miniature swine provide an opportunity to perform extended longitudinal studies on individual animals, because multiple tissue biopsies can be harvested without the need for euthanasia. In addition, we have developed a swine GVHD scoring system that parallels that used in the human clinical setting. Given the similarities of GVHD in pigs and humans, we hope that the use of this scoring system facilitates clinical and scientific discourse between the laboratory and the clinic. We anticipate that results of swine studies will support the development of new strategies to improve the identification and treatment of GVHD in clinical HCT scenarios.

  10. Recurrent Corneal Perforation due to Chronic Graft versus Host Disease; a Clinicopathologic Report

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadpour, Mehrdad; Maleki, Siamak; Hashemi, Hassan; Beheshtnejad, Amir Houshang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a case of chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) leading to severe dry eye and recurrent corneal perforation in both eyes, its stepwise management and histopathological reports. Case Report: A 22-year-old woman with a history of thalassemia and subsequent high-dose chemotherapy followed by allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) was referred to Farabi Eye Hospital. Despite aggressive medical and surgical intervention, corneal vascularization in her right eye progressed and led to corneal perforation. Cyanoacrylate glue was applied to seal the perforation, however it recurred. Multilayer amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) was performed to seal the corneal perforation, which was effective for a short period. Subsequently, the corneal perforation recurred and penetrating keratoplasty was performed. After a few months deep vascularization and descemetocele occurred in the fellow left eye and the patient finally underwent therapeutic lamellar keratoplasty. Conclusion: Patients with GVHD are at risk of severe dry eye and subsequent corneal vascularization. Recurrent and recalcitrant corneal perforation resistant to cyanoacrylate glue and multilayer AMT may occur. Proper systemic and ocular management alongside close collaboration with the hematologist is strongly recommended to control the condition. PMID:27195094

  11. Transfusion-associated graft versus host disease (TAGVHD)--with reference to neonatal period.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, Sanjay G; Gokhale, Sankalp S

    2015-04-01

    Transfusion-associated graft versus host disease [TAGVHD] results from the engraftment of transfused immuno-competent cells in blood transfusion recipients, whose immune system is unable to reject them. All blood products containing viable, immuno-competent T cells have been implicated in TAGVHD. Presence of a "one-way HLA match between donor and recipient" is associated with a significantly increased risk of TAGVHD. Though sharing of haplotype is the most probable explanation, it is far from adequate. Since TAGVHD is not seen in patients with AIDS, and an acute GVHD-like syndrome has been noted in some identical twins and autologous (self) transplants, some other processes, possibly of an "autoimmune" nature are responsible for TAGVHD. Most of the cases have been reported from Japan. This clustering in space and time is rather intriguing. We offer here alternative hypothesis. Foetal and then neonatal lymphocytes exhibit tolerance towards donor cytotoxic T lymphocytes; and consequently very few cases of TAGVHD have been reported in neonates than expected. This tolerance is a part of altered immunology of pregnancy. We feel that it is possible to use maternal blood for transfusion to her newborn baby by following certain protocol and procedure and TAGVHD is no barrier.

  12. Therapeutics for Graft-versus-Host Disease: From Conventional Therapies to Novel Virotherapeutic Strategies.

    PubMed

    Villa, Nancy Y; Rahman, Masmudur M; McFadden, Grant; Cogle, Christopher R

    2016-03-22

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has a curative potential for many hematologic malignancies and blood diseases. However, the success of allo-HSCT is limited by graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), an immunological syndrome that involves inflammation and tissue damage mediated by donor lymphocytes. Despite immune suppression, GVHD is highly incident even after allo-HSCT using human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donors. Therefore, alternative and more effective therapies are needed to prevent or control GVHD while preserving the beneficial graft-versus-cancer (GVC) effects against residual disease. Among novel therapeutics for GVHD, oncolytic viruses such as myxoma virus (MYXV) are receiving increased attention due to their dual role in controlling GVHD while preserving or augmenting GVC. This review focuses on the molecular basis of GVHD, as well as state-of-the-art advances in developing novel therapies to prevent or control GVHD while minimizing impact on GVC. Recent literature regarding conventional and the emerging therapies are summarized, with special emphasis on virotherapy to prevent GVHD. Recent advances using preclinical models with oncolytic viruses such as MYXV to ameliorate the deleterious consequences of GVHD, while maintaining or improving the anti-cancer benefits of GVC will be reviewed.

  13. Expression and localization of aging markers in lacrimal gland of chronic graft-versus-host disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Masataka; Ogawa, Yoko; Shimmura, Shigeto; Ohta, Shigeki; Suzuki, Takanori; Kawamura, Naoshi; Kuwana, Masataka; Kawakami, Yutaka; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2013-08-01

    Aging is commonly defined as the accumulation of diverse deleterious changes in cells and tissues with advancing age. To investigate whether aging changes are involved in the lacrimal glands of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) model mice, we obtained the specimens from cGVHD model mice, untreated aged and young mice, and examined by histopathology, and immunoblotting. Oxidative stress markers, 8-OHdG, 4-HNE, and hexonoyl lesion (HEL), and other aging markers, p16 and p38, were used to assess the samples. The infiltrating mononuclear cells and endothelia of capillaries in the cGVHD and aged mice expressed the oxidative stress markers and other aging markers, but not in the young mice. Histological changes and the expression of aging markers in the samples from cGVHD mice exhibited similar features to those in aging mice. These results suggest that changes that typically appear with advanced age occur earlier in the lives of mice with lacrimal gland cGVHD.

  14. Idelalisib-induced colitis and skin eruption mimicking graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Muhammad Bader; Al-Taee, Ahmad; Meeks, Marshall; Fesler, Mark; Hurley, M Yadira; Cao, Dengfeng; Lai, Jin-Ping

    2017-04-01

    Idelalisib is a selective inhibitor of the delta isoform of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase which was approved by the United States Federal Drug Administration in 2014 for the treatment of relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia and indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Drug-induced injury of the gastrointestinal tract is a relatively frequent but usually under-recognized disease entity. We report the case of a 56-year-old male with a history of relapsed follicular lymphoma status post allogenic bone marrow transplant who developed severe diarrhea with a skin eruption mimicking graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) 6 months after starting idelalisib. He underwent a colonoscopy demonstrating a grossly normal-appearing colon and terminal ileum. Biopsies taken during the procedure revealed mild active ileitis, colitis, and proctitis with frequent epithelial apoptosis, and focal intra-epithelial lymphocytosis. Skin biopsies revealed sub-acute spongiotic dermatitis suggestive of either contact dermatitis or an eczematous drug reaction. Symptoms were attributed to idelalisib given their resolution with withdrawal of the drug in conjunction with the skin and colonic biopsies. High clinical suspicion and awareness of the histological features of idelalisib-associated colitis is important to distinguish it from potential mimickers such as GVHD and infectious colitis.

  15. Impact of graft-versus-host disease on outcomes after unrelated cord blood transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kanda, J; Morishima, Y; Terakura, S; Wake, A; Uchida, N; Takahashi, S; Ono, Y; Onishi, Y; Kanamori, H; Aotsuka, N; Ozawa, Y; Ogawa, H; Sakura, T; Ohashi, K; Ichinohe, T; Kato, K; Atsuta, Y; Teshima, T; Murata, M

    2017-03-01

    The effect of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) on transplant outcomes after unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT) has not been fully elucidated. We analyzed the impact of acute and chronic GVHD on outcomes in adult patients with acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who underwent their first UCBT (n=2558). The effect of GVHD on outcomes was analyzed after adjusting for other significant variables. The occurrence of GVHD was treated as a time-dependent covariate. The occurrence of grade 1-2 or 3-4 acute GVHD was significantly associated with a lower relapse rate. Grade 3-4 acute GVHD was associated with a higher risk of non-relapse and overall mortality than no acute GVHD, whereas grade 1-2 acute GVHD was associated with a lower risk of non-relapse and overall mortality than no acute GVHD. Limited or extensive chronic GVHD was significantly associated with a lower relapse rate. Limited chronic GVHD was associated with a lower overall and non-relapse mortality than no chronic GVHD. In conclusion, mild acute or chronic GVHD was associated not only with a low risk of relapse but also with a low risk of non-relapse mortality, and provides a survival benefit in UCBT.

  16. Graft-versus-Host Disease-Associated Vulvovaginal Symptoms after Bone Marrow Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chung, Christopher P; Sargent, Rachel E; Chung, Nadia T; Lacey, James V; Wakabayashi, Mark T

    2016-02-01

    We conducted a retrospective review to assess the prevalence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-associated gynecologic conditions among bone marrow transplantation (BMT) patients at City of Hope Medical Center. We calculated the associations among the estimated risks of various gynecologic complications, including vaginal stenosis, by performing chi-square tests and t-test statistics. Between 2010 and 2014, 180 patients were referred to the gynecologic clinic after their BMT. One hundred twenty-four patients (69%) had GVHD; among these patients, 51 (41%) experienced dyspareunia and 43 (35%) had vaginal stenosis. GVHD patients were significantly more likely to have vaginal stenosis (P < .0001), more likely to have used a vaginal dilator (P = .0008), and less likely to have urinary incontinence (UI) than those without GVHD (P < .001). There was no difference in developing pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in patients with or without GVHD (P = .4373). GVHD was a common complication after allogenic BMT. Patients with BMT were more likely to have vulvovaginal symptoms, such as dyspareunia and pelvic pain. Patients with GVHD are at high risk for vaginal stenosis requiring the use of a vaginal dilator. However, they are at low risk for developing UI and POP.

  17. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy in the Treatment of Acute and Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kebriaei, Partow; Robinson, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a cellular component of the supportive microenvironment (stroma) found in the bone marrow, umbilical cord, placenta, and adipose tissues. In addition to providing cellular and extracellular cues to support the proliferation and differentiation of cells that comprise functional tissues, MSC also contribute to tissue repair and have immunomodulatory properties. Their ability to modulate immunologic reactions while themselves not provoking immunologic responses from alloreactive T-lymphocytes and/or other effector cells, make MSC a potentially ideal therapeutic agent with which to treat graft versus host disease (GvHD) following hematopoietic transplantation. Despite in vitro experiments confirming that MSC suppress mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR) and in vivo evidence from mouse models that show evidence that MSC can ameliorate GvHD, clinical trials to date using MSC to treat GvHD have shown mixed results. Whether this is a consequence of suboptimal timing and dose of administered MSC remains to be clarified. It is clear that immunomodulatory potential of MSC as a cellular therapy for GvHD remains to be realized in the clinic. PMID:22655232

  18. A colitogenic memory CD4+ T cell population mediates gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Vivian; Agle, Kimberle; Chen, Xiao; Beres, Amy; Komorowski, Richard; Belle, Ludovic; Taylor, Carolyn; Zhu, Fenlu; Haribhai, Dipica; Williams, Calvin B.; Verbsky, James; Blumenschein, Wendy; Sadekova, Svetlana; Bowman, Eddie; Ballantyne, Christie; Weaver, Casey; Serody, David A.; Vincent, Benjamin; Serody, Jonathan; Cua, Daniel J.; Drobyski, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Damage to the gastrointestinal tract is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and is attributable to T cell–mediated inflammation. In this work, we identified a unique CD4+ T cell population that constitutively expresses the β2 integrin CD11c and displays a biased central memory phenotype and memory T cell transcriptional profile, innate-like properties, and increased expression of the gut-homing molecules α4β7 and CCR9. Using several complementary murine GVHD models, we determined that adoptive transfer and early accumulation of β2 integrin–expressing CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal tract initiated Th1-mediated proinflammatory cytokine production, augmented pathological damage in the colon, and increased mortality. The pathogenic effect of this CD4+ T cell population critically depended on coexpression of the IL-23 receptor, which was required for maximal inflammatory effects. Non–Foxp3-expressing CD4+ T cells produced IL-10, which regulated colonic inflammation and attenuated lethality in the absence of functional CD4+Foxp3+ T cells. Thus, the coordinate expression of CD11c and the IL-23 receptor defines an IL-10–regulated, colitogenic memory CD4+ T cell subset that is poised to initiate inflammation when there is loss of tolerance and breakdown of mucosal barriers. PMID:27500496

  19. Human papillomavirus reactivation following treatment of genital graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Sri, T; Merideth, M A; Pulanic, T Klepac; Childs, R; Stratton, P

    2013-08-01

    Vaginal chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a common complication of stem cell transplantation. Human papillomavirus (HPV) disease can reactivate after transplantation, presumably because of immune factors affecting systemic immunity, such as waning antibody titers, impaired T- and B-lymphocyte responses, and the use of immunosuppressive therapies. However, a relationship between the use of local immunosuppressive agents and HPV reactivation and spread has not been previously described, to our knowledge. A 30-year-old woman, 2 years post transplant receiving systemic cyclosporine for cGVHD, was treated with vaginal dilators, topical corticosteroids, and estrogen for vaginal cGVHD. Colposcopy and biopsy for abnormal cytology revealed condylomatous cervicitis. Over the next 4 months, while continuing dilator therapy, linear verrucous lesions developed in the vagina and vulva, and were successfully treated with laser therapy. Use of local immunosuppression and dilators for genital GVHD can enhance spread of HPV infection. Integration of HPV screening and treatment into the care of women with genital cGVHD and development of strategies to manage both conditions simultaneously are warranted.

  20. Pulp Obliteration in a Patient with Sclerodermatous Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Camilla Borges Ferreira; Treister, Nathaniel Simon; Miller, Brian; Armand, Philippe; Friedland, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Dental pulp calcification is a common finding associated with localized dental trauma, genetic disorders, and systemic inflammatory diseases. Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a frequent complication after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) characterized by immune-mediated injury to the skin, mouth, eyes, liver, and other tissues, resulting in significant disability and reduced quality of life. We report a patient with sclerodermatous cGVHD who presented with general pulp calcification in all teeth 5 years after allo-HCT. A review of full mouth dental radiographs obtained just before allo-HCT revealed normal-appearing pulp chambers. Based on prior reports of generalized pulp calcification associated with progressive systemic sclerosis, we hypothesized that the etiology was likely related to the presence of cGVHD with associated vascular and fibrotic tissue changes within the pulp vasculature. Clinicians should consider cGVHD in the differential diagnosis of generalized pulp calcification. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  1. [Histopathological findings and biomarker analysis in cutaneous graft-versus-host disease ].

    PubMed

    García Gutiérrez, J V; González García, C; Fleta, B; Sánchez-Ortega, I; Herrera, P; Chinea, A; López, J; Ramos, L; Ramos, R P; Duarte, R; Odriozola, J

    2010-12-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains the greatest source of morbidity-mortality in allogenic transplant patients. Although in most cases the more easily obtainable clinical and laboratory test parameters suffice to confirm the diagnosis and establish the stage of the disease biopsies of the affected organ are sometimes needed. At present there is great Interest in the study of factors allowing a prognosis of the course and type of response to treatment in patients with CVHD. In this sense, It would be necessary to objectively Identify and validate biomarkers capable of predicting biological or pathological processes in patients with cVHD. To this effect we have performed serial analyses of skin tissue using peripheral blood and tissue biomarkers in a prospective observational study conducted in three transplant centers. The still preliminary results Indicate that certain histopathological findings classically attributed to CVHD ore also seen in patients not clinically affected by the disease--this probably being related to other physiopathological phenomena occurring during transplantation. The study of these findings, combined with biomarker analysis, will allow improved understanding of the underlying etiopathogenesis, as well as the definition of new diagnostic, prognostic and response-evaluating criteria.

  2. Exercise benefits in chronic graft versus host disease: a murine model study.

    PubMed

    Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Soares-Miranda, Luisa; González-Murillo, Africa; Palacio, Jesús Martínez; Colmenero, Isabel; Casco, Fernando; Melén, Gustavo J; Delmiro, Aitor; Morán, María; Ramírez, Manuel; Lucia, Alejandro

    2013-09-01

    Chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) is a life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation that generates considerable morbidity and compromises the physical capacity of patients. We determined the effects of an exercise training program performed after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation on clinical and biological variables in a minor histocompatibility antigen-driven murine model of cGVHD treated with cyclosporine A. Recipient BALB/C female mice (age 8 wk) received bone marrow cells and splenocytes from donor B10.D2 male mice and were randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 11) or control group (n = 12). For approximately 11 wk after transplant, the exercise group completed a moderate-intensity treadmill program. Variables assessed were clinical severity scores, survival, physical fitness, cytokine profile, immune cell reconstitution, molecular markers of muscle exercise adaptations, and histological scores in affected tissues. Exercise training increased survival (P = 0.011), diminished total clinical severity scores (P = 0.002), improved physical fitness (P = 0.030), and reduced blood IL-4 and tumor necrosis factor α levels (P = 0.03), while increasing circulating B220 (P = 0.008) and CD4 lymphocytes (P = 0.043). A moderate-intensity exercise program that mimics widely accepted public health recommendations for physical activity in human adults was well tolerated and positive effects on survival as well as on clinical and biological indicators of cGVHD.

  3. Characterization of oral involvement in acute graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Ion, Daniela; Stevenson, Kristen; Woo, Sook-Bin; Ho, Vincent T; Soiffer, Robert; Antin, Joseph H; Treister, Nathaniel S

    2014-11-01

    Acute graft-versus-host-disease (aGVHD) is a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral features associated with aGVHD in patients who underwent HSCT between 1995 and 2010 and developed prominent oral aGVHD. Data was collected from patient medical records and analyzed descriptively. Twenty-one cases were identified, of which 5 (24%) demonstrated only oral features; the remaining 16 had variable involvement of skin (n = 14), liver (n = 7), and gut (n = 5). The median time to onset of any sign of aGVHD was 22 days (range, 8 to 154 days), and that for onset of oral aGVHD was 35 days (range, 11 to 159 days). Sites affected by nonspecific erythema and ulcerations included buccal mucosa (19 of 21; 90%) tongue (18 of 21; 86%; dorsum in 8), labial mucosa (16 of 21; 76%), palatal mucosa (15 of 21; 71%; hard palate in 7), and floor of mouth (7 of 21; 33%). Eight cases (38%) presented with lip ulceration and crusting. In addition to systemic therapies, topical solutions of dexamethasone, tacrolimus, and morphine were used for ancillary support. Oral features of aGVHD may be the initial manifestation and include nonspecific erythema and ulcerations of keratinized and nonkeratinized mucosa and lips. Intensive topical therapies may help reduce symptoms and promote healing.

  4. Graft-versus-host disease after orthotopic liver transplantation: multivariate analysis of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Elfeki, Mohamed A; Pungpapong, Surakit; Genco, Petrina V; Nakhleh, Raouf E; Nguyen, Justin H; Harnois, Denise M

    2015-12-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a rare, fatal complication following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). To date, several risk factors have been proposed, but reports on these factors have been inconclusive. This is a retrospective, case-control study of prospectively collected data from 2775 OLTs performed at our institution. Eight cases of GVHD after OLT were diagnosed on the basis of the patient's clinical characteristics, and the findings were confirmed with skin and colonic biopsies. Each case was matched to three controls based on the diagnosis of liver disease, recipient's age, and blood group. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors associated with the development of GVHD after OLT. The univariate and multivariate analyses identified two main risk factors associated with development of GVHD in OLT recipients, a difference between recipient and donor age of >20 yr, and any human leukocyte antigen class I matches. Taking these two risk factors into consideration while matching prospective donors and recipients may reduce further incidence of GVHD in OLT patients. However, further studies are recommended to validate these findings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Endpoints for Clinical Trials Testing Treatment of Acute Graft-versus-host Disease: A Consensus Document

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Paul J.; Bachier, Carlos R.; Klingemann, Hans-Georg; McCarthy, Philip L.; Szabolcs, Paul; Uberti, Joseph P.; Schuster, Michael W.; Weisdorf, Daniel; Chao, Nelson J.; Kebriaei, Partow; Shpall, Elisabeth J.; MacMillan, Margaret L.; Soiffer, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Currently, no agents are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for either prevention or treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Since the field lacks formal precedents establishing a comparative basis for assessing the efficacy and safety of new investigational agents, the design of trials to demonstrate overall clinical benefit with statistical certainty remains extremely difficult both for academic and industry sponsors. As a step toward addressing this problem, a panel of experts met on two occasions to reach consensus on recommendations for terminology defining a clinically meaningful primary endpoint in studies assessing treatment for acute GVHD. The panel recommended terminology for “very good partial response” that includes both diagnostic and functional criteria. Assessment of response at day 28 after starting treatment is appropriate for the primary end point, but later time points can be considered. Since treatment agents can be designed for use on a single occasion, on repeated occasions as needed, or continuously, durability of response should not be required as a component in the primary end point of the initial trials, although follow-up trials may be needed in order to define the optimal conditions of use and the associated risks and benefits, and sustained response may be essential for optimal clinical benefit. PMID:19539208

  6. The Role of Purine Metabolites as DAMPs in Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Apostolova, Petya; Zeiser, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) causes high mortality in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. An early event in the classical pathogenesis of acute GvHD is tissue damage caused by the conditioning treatment or infection that consecutively leads to translocation of bacterial products [pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)] into blood or lymphoid tissue, as well as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), mostly intracellular components that act as pro-inflammatory agents, once they are released into the extracellular space. A subtype of DAMPs is nucleotides, such as adenosine triphosphate released from dying cells that can activate the innate and adaptive immune system by binding to purinergic receptors. Binding to certain purinergic receptors leads to a pro-inflammatory microenvironment and promotes allogeneic T cell priming. After priming, T cells migrate to the acute GvHD target organs, mainly skin, liver, and the gastrointestinal tract and induce cell damage that further amplifies the release of intracellular components. This review summarizes the role of different purinergic receptors in particular P2X7 and P2Y2 as well as nucleotides in the pathogenesis of GvHD. PMID:27818661

  7. [A case of asymmetric demyelinating neuropathy in a patient with chronic graft-versus-host disease].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Seki, Naoko; Yamamoto, Tomotaka; Oshima, Kumi; Asai, Takashi; Motokura, Toru; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Goto, Jun; Tsuji, Shoji

    2005-10-01

    A 47-year-old man, who suffered from acute lymphocytic leukemia at 45 years old and was treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at 46 years old after the induction of complete remission by the standard chemotherapy, developed the symptoms of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) such as dry eyes, dry mouth, skin thickening, skin scaling, skin pigmentation and impaired liver function. He was admitted to our hospital because of the acute development of diplopia and weakness of his left upper extremity accompanying with the exacerbation of other symptoms of cGVHD. Neurological examinations revealed the right abducens nerve palsy and asymmetric muscular weakness of the extremities; the proximal part of the left upper extremity and the distal part of the right upper extremity were markedly involved. Neurophysiological studies including magnetic motor root stimulation revealed demyelinating neuropathy specifically involving the motor nerves. On the basis of these findings, a diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy associated with cGVHD was made. Nighteen reports are available on peripheral neuropathy in cGVHD patients, but to date little is known about the pathophysiology of this condition. Most of those patients have been diagnosed as having symmetric demyelinating polyneuropathy, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. In this study, contrary to previous reports, the asymmetric involvement of motor nerves is noteworthy. Accumulation and further analyses of the cases like the present case are necessary to elucidate the pathogenesis of peripheral neuropathy in cGVHD.

  8. The Green Tea Catechin Epigallocatechin Gallate Ameliorates Graft-versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Westphal, Sabine; McGeary, Aleixandria; Rudloff, Sandra; Wilke, Andrea; Penack, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a standard treatment for leukemia and other hematologic malignancies. The major complication of allo-HSCT is graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD), a progressive inflammatory illness characterized by donor immune cells attacking the organs of the recipient. Current GVHD prevention and treatment strategies use immune suppressive drugs and/or anti-T cell reagents these can lead to increased risk of infections and tumor relapse. Recent research demonstrated that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a component found in green tea leaves at a level of 25–35% at dry weight, may be useful in the inhibition of GVHD due to its immune modulatory, anti-oxidative and anti-angiogenic capacities. In murine allo-HSCT recipients treated with EGCG, we found significantly reduced GVHD scores, reduced target organ GVHD and improved survival. EGCG treated allo-HSCT recipients had significantly higher numbers of regulatory T cells in GVHD target organs and in the blood. Furthermore, EGCG treatment resulted in diminished oxidative stress indicated by significant changes of glutathione blood levels as well as glutathione peroxidase in the colon. In summary, our study provides novel evidence demonstrating that EGCG ameliorates lethal GVHD and reduces GVHD-related target organ damage. Possible mechanisms are increased regulatory T cell numbers and reduced oxidative stress. PMID:28103249

  9. Transfusion associated graft versus host disease following whole blood transfusion from an unrelated donor in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ketan K; Patel, Atul K; Ranjan, Rajiv R; Shah, Apurva P

    2010-09-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a well-known complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Transfusion associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) is much less common and nearly uniformly fatal complication of blood transfusion. The risk factors underlying the development of TA- GVHD are incompletely defined, but it is commonly seen in individuals with congenital or acquired immunodeficiency, transfusions from blood relatives, intrauterine transfusions and HLA-matched platelet transfusions. Diagnosis of TA-GVHD may be difficult at a time due to rarity in occurrence and overlapping clinical features with various infections and drug reactions. We describe a case of transfusion-associated GVHD that occurred after transfusion of whole blood from unrelated donor in an immunocompetent patient.

  10. Chronic Graft-versus-host Disease Presenting with Multiple Punctate Intracranial Lesions on Contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Makoto; Nakamagoe, Kiyotaka; Obara, Naoshi; Ogawa, Shinichi; Sakamoto, Noriaki; Sato, Taiki; Nohara, Seitaro; Chiba, Shigeru; Tamaoka, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Central nervous system graft-versus-host disease can present quite a diagnostic challenge. We herein present a case of histologically-confirmed chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) involving the central nervous system that occurred at 19 months after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed areas of confluent hyperintensity in the deep/subcortical white matter with multiple punctate and curvilinear gadolinium enhancements, suggesting the disruption of the blood-brain barrier. A brain biopsy revealed perivascular CD3-positive T cell infiltration around the small vessels. We propose that the detection of punctate-enhanced lesions by magnetic resonance imaging may be a useful finding that facilitates the early diagnosis of chronic GVHD involving the central nervous system. PMID:28154284

  11. An unusual concurrence of graft versus host disease caused by engraftment of maternal lymphocytes with DiGeorge anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Ocejo-Vinyals, J.; Lozano, M.; Sanchez-Velasco, P.; de Diego, J. E.; Paz-Miguel, J.; Leyva-Cobian, F.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a girl with DiGeorge anomaly and normal cytogenetic and molecular studies, whose clinical course was complicated by graft versus host disease caused by intrauterine materno-fetal transfusion, and several immunohaematological alterations including a monoclonal gammapathy of undetermined significance (first IgG, which subsequently changed to IgM). The main clinical features and pathological findings are discussed.

 PMID:10906029

  12. Alemtuzumab and Glucocorticoids in Treating Newly Diagnosed Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Patients Who Have Undergone a Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2010-05-12

    Breast Cancer; Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Graft Versus Host Disease; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Diseases; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  13. Sirolimus, Tacrolimus, and Antithymocyte Globulin in Preventing Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Patients Undergoing a Donor Stem Cell Transplant For Hematological Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-03

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Graft Versus Host Disease; Infection; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms; Precancerous Condition; Secondary Myelofibrosis; Small Intestine Cancer

  14. A PROGNOSTIC SCORE FOR ACUTE GRAFT-VERSUS-HOST DISEASE BASED ON BIOMARKERS: A MULTICENTER STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Levine, John E.; Braun, Thomas M.; Harris, Andrew C.; Holler, Ernst; Taylor, Austin; Miller, Holly; Magenau, John; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Ho, Vincent T.; Bolaños-Meade, Javier; Alousi, Amin M.; Ferrara, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the major cause of non-relapse mortality (NRM) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HCT). The severity of symptoms at the onset of GVHD does not accurately define risk, and thus most patients are treated alike with high dose systemic corticosteroids. We aimed to define clinically meaningful risk strata for patients with newly diagnosed acute GVHD using plasma biomarkers. Methods We prospectively collected plasma from 492 HCT patients with newly diagnosed acute GVHD and randomly divided them into training (n=328) and test (n=164) sets. We used the concentrations of three recently validated biomarkers (TNFR1, ST2, and REG3α) to create an algorithm that computed the probability of NRM six months after GVHD onset for individual patients in the training set alone. We rank ordered the probabilities and identified thresholds that created three distinct NRM scores. We evaluated the algorithm in the testset, and again in an independent validation set of 300 additional HCT patients enrolled on multicenter clinical trials of primary therapy for acute GVHD. Findings In all three datasets, the cumulative incidence of twelve month NRM significantly increased as the GVHD score increased (8% [95% confidence interval (CI); 3%, 16%], 27% [95% CI; 20%%, 34%], and 46% [95% CI; 33%, 58%], for scores 1, 2 and 3 respectively in the multicenter validation set, p<0 · 0001). Conversely, the response rates to primary GVHD treatment decreased as the GVHD score increased (86%, 67%, and 46%, for scores 1, 2 and 3 respectively in the multicenter validation set, p<0 · 0001). Interpretation Biomarker-based scores can be used to guide risk-adapted therapy at the onset of acute GVHD. PMID:26687425

  15. Plasma microRNA signature as a noninvasive biomarker for acute graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bin; Wang, Yu; Li, Wei; Baker, Megan; Guo, Jian; Corbet, Kelly; Tsalik, Ephraim L; Li, Qi-Jing; Palmer, Scott M; Woods, Christopher W; Li, Zhiguo; Chao, Nelson J; He, You-Wen

    2013-11-07

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Approximately 35% to 50% of HCT recipients develop aGVHD; however, there are no validated diagnostic and predictive blood biomarkers for aGVHD in clinical use. Here, we show that plasma samples from aGVHD patients have a distinct microRNA (miRNA) expression profile. We found that 6 miRNAs (miR-423, miR-199a-3p, miR-93*, miR-377, miR-155, and miR-30a) were significantly upregulated in the plasma of aGVHD patients (n = 116) when compared with non-GVHD patients (n = 52) in training and validation phases. We have developed a model including 4 miRNAs (miR-423, miR-199a-3p, miR-93*, and miR-377) that can predict the probability of aGVHD with an area under the curve of 0.80. Moreover, these elevated miRNAs were detected before the onset of aGVHD (median = 16 days before diagnosis). In addition, the levels of these miRNAs were positively associated with aGVHD severity, and high expression of the miRNA panel was associated with poor overall survival. Furthermore, the miRNA signature for aGVHD was not detected in the plasma of lung transplant or nontransplant sepsis patients. Our results have identified a specific plasma miRNA signature that may serve as an independent biomarker for the prediction, diagnosis, and prognosis of aGVHD.

  16. Pretransplant comorbidities predict severity of acute graft-versus-host disease and subsequent mortality

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Paul J.; Storb, Rainer F.; Bhatia, Smita; Maziarz, Richard T.; Pulsipher, Michael A.; Maris, Michael B.; Davis, Christopher; Deeg, H. Joachim; Lee, Stephanie J.; Maloney, David G.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Gooley, Theodore A.

    2014-01-01

    Whether the hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index (HCT-CI) can provide prognostic information about development of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and subsequent mortality is unknown. Five institutions contributed information on 2985 patients given human leukocyte antigen-matched grafts to address this question. Proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazards of acute GVHD and post-GVHD mortality after adjustment for known risk variables. Higher HCT-CI scores predicted increased risk of grades 3 to 4 acute GVHD (P < .0001 and c-statistic of 0.64), and tests of interaction suggested that this association was consistent among different conditioning intensities, donor types, and stem cell sources. Probabilities of grades 3 to 4 GVHD were 13%, 18%, and 24% for HCT-CI risk groups of 0, 1 to 4, and ≥5. The HCT-CI was statistically significantly associated with mortality rates following diagnosis of grade 2 (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.24; P < .0001) or grades 3 to 4 acute GVHD (HR = 1.19; P < .0001). Patients with HCT-CI scores of ≥3 who developed grades 3 to 4 acute GVHD had a 2.63-fold higher risk of mortality than those with scores of 0 to 2 and did not develop acute GVHD. Thus, pretransplant comorbidities are associated with the development and severity of acute GVHD and with post-GVHD mortality. The HCT-CI could be useful in designing trials for GVHD prevention and could inform expectations for GVHD treatment trials. PMID:24797298

  17. Prediction of graft-versus-host disease: a biomarker panel based on lymphocytes and cytokines.

    PubMed

    Budde, Holger; Papert, Susanne; Maas, Jens-Holger; Reichardt, Holger M; Wulf, Gerald; Hasenkamp, Justin; Riggert, Joachim; Legler, Tobias J

    2017-07-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) still belongs to the major challenges after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Immune-suppressive therapy against GvHD is a double-edged sword due to risk of infections and relapse. The ability to adapt prophylactic treatment according to the probability of severe GvHD would be an essential advantage for the patients. We analyzed different biomarkers for their potential to predict the development of GvHD in 28 patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT. Blood was taken once directly after hematopoietic engraftment. In this study, patients were monitored for 12 months after HSCT for the occurrence of acute GvHD or acute/chronic GvHD overlap syndrome. Soluble IL-2 receptor and CD4/CD8 T cell ratio were independently associated with the occurrence of GvHD in the observation period. However, the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve with 0.90 was observed when a 5-parameter biomarker score based on CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, CD19(-) CD21(+) precursor B cells, CD4/CD8 T cell ratio, and soluble IL-2 receptor was used to predict GvHD. In addition, CD8(+) T cell levels above 2.3% of all mononuclear cells after engraftment may predict relapse-free survival at least for 12 months. In summary, we found a new biomarker panel for prediction of GvHD which is featured by established laboratory assays and high statistical significance. In order to introduce the biomarker panel into routine clinical protocols, we suggest performing a larger multi-center study.

  18. Clinical grading in chronic graft-versus-host disease: is it time for change?

    PubMed

    Akpek, Görgün

    2002-06-01

    Many hematologic disorders, leukemias and lymphomas in particular, can be cured with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). However, chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) appears to remain as a major determinant of long term outcome and quality of life following allo-SCT. The gradual increase in the incidence of cGVHD over the past decade has recently gained another momentum along with the use of blood as a source of stem cells. Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) is also associated with a progressive form of cGVHD, mostly refractory to treatment. Prediction of the outcome of patients with newly diagnosed chronic GVHD may be important in identifying those who are likely to benefit from reduced treatment and patients who are unlikely to have a sustained response to standard treatment. In addition, a reliable predictive model could allow us to design better clinical trials and facilitate the communication among the centers. Although it is highly reproducible, the current system of grading in cGVHD is of limited utility since it does not stratify patients for outcome. It divides patients into those needing treatment (extensive cGVHD) and those who do not (limited cGVHD). Therefore, a new clinical grading system is needed to classify all patients based on their prognosis so like patients with similar features can be grouped for study and clinical management purposes. Using multivariate analysis, we recently identified three independent risk factors affecting the survival without recurrent malignancy. These factors are extensive skin involvement (>50% BSA), thrombocytopenia, and progressive-type onset of cGVHD. We are in the process of validating this prognostic model in three other cohorts from different institutions. We expect that the new grading system, based on this model, may allow us to identify the diversity of outcome within "extensive stage" cGVHD.

  19. Thiol/Redox Metabolomic Profiling Implicates GSH Dysregulation in Early Experimental Graft versus Host Disease (GVHD)

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Jung H.; Kanathezhath, Bindu; Shenvi, Swapna; Guo, Hua; Zhou, Alicia; Tiwana, Anureet; Kuypers, Frans; Ames, Bruce N.; Walters, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a common complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Upregulation of inflammatory cytokines precedes the clinical presentation of GVHD and predicts its severity. In this report, thiol/redox metabolomics was used to identify metabolic perturbations associated with early preclinical (Day+4) and clinical (Day+10) stages of GVHD by comparing effects in Syngeneic (Syn; major histocompatibility complex- identical) and allogeneic transplant recipients (Allo BMT) in experimental models. While most metabolic changes were similar in both groups, plasma glutathione (GSH) was significantly decreased, and GSH disulfide (GSSG) was increased after allogeneic compared to syngeneic recipient and non-transplant controls. The early oxidation of the plasma GSH/GSSG redox couple was also observed irrespective of radiation conditioning treatment and was accompanied by significant rise in hepatic protein oxidative damage and ROS generation. Despite a significant rise in oxidative stress, compensatory increase in hepatic GSH synthesis was absent following Allo BMT. Early shifts in hepatic oxidative stress and plasma GSH loss preceded a statistically significant rise in TNF-α. To identify metabolomic biomarkers of hepatic GVHD injury, plasma metabolite concentrations analyzed at Day+10 were correlated with hepatic organ injury. GSSG (oxidized GSH) and β-alanine, were positively correlated, and plasma GSH cysteinylglycine, and branched chain amino acids were inversely correlated with hepatic injury. Although changes in plasma concentrations of cysteine, cystathionine (GSH precursors) and cysteinylglycine (a GSH catabolite) were not significant by univariate analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that accumulation of these metabolites after Allo BMT contributed significantly to early GVHD in contrast to Syn BMT. In conclusion, thiol/redox metabolomic profiling implicates that early dysregulation of host hepatic GSH

  20. Biomarkers for acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease in regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Ukena, Sya N; Geffers, Robert; Buchholz, Stefanie; Stadler, Michael; Franzke, Anke

    2012-12-01

    Despite improvements in the prevention and treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) this allogeneic immune response is still one of major complications following allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Identification of patients at risk for the development of acute and chronic GvHD would facilitate early intervention and thus improve overall survival. Diagnostic biomarkers identified in plasma are largely associated with T cell immune responses. Whereas donor effector T cells promote allogeneic immune responses, regulatory T cells (Tregs) may prevent GvHD by suppression of these alloreactive donor T cells. Therefore, we analyzed molecules associated with Tregs with respect to their potential predictive and prognostic impact on the development of acute and chronic GvHD. For this purpose, the Treg transcriptomes of patients with and without acute/chronic GvHD resulting from dynamical whole genome profiles of CD4(+)CD25(hi)CD127(lo/-) Tregs have been studied for potential GvHD biomarkers. We could identify potential biomarkers for acute/chronic GvHD like the activation marker phosphatidyl-5-kinase-gamma PIP5Kγ, FAS, CD44, CD69, and cell cycle regulators like cyclin A2, B1 and E2. Most importantly, the IKAROS transcription factor Eos, relevant for suppressive Treg function, might be relevant for the prediction of GvHD development. In addition markers like ANK3 (ankyrin), S100A8 and VCAN are indicative for acute GvHD, while IFIT3, IFI44 and IFIT1 are potential biomarkers for chronic GvHD. The identified markers have to be validated prospectively and might help to monitor and guide preventive immune intervention studies, especially adoptive donor Treg cell transfer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Programmed death ligand-1 expression on donor T cells drives graft-versus-host disease lethality

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Roddy S.; Thangavelu, Govindarajan; Lovitch, Scott B.; Dandamudi, Durga Bhavani; Vincent, Benjamin G.; Tkachev, Victor; Pawlicki, Jan M.; Furlan, Scott N.; Kean, Leslie S.; Aoyama, Kazutoshi; Taylor, Patricia A.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Foncea, Rocio; Ranganathan, Parvathi; Devine, Steven M.; Burrill, Joel S.; Guo, Lili; Sacristan, Catarina; Snyder, Nathaniel W.; Blair, Ian A.; Milone, Michael C.; Dustin, Michael L.; Riley, James L.; Bernlohr, David A.; Murphy, William J.; Fife, Brian T.; Munn, David H.; Miller, Jeffrey S.; Serody, Jonathan S.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Turka, Laurence A.

    2016-01-01

    Programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) interaction with PD-1 induces T cell exhaustion and is a therapeutic target to enhance immune responses against cancer and chronic infections. In murine bone marrow transplant models, PD-L1 expression on host target tissues reduces the incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). PD-L1 is also expressed on T cells; however, it is unclear whether PD-L1 on this population influences immune function. Here, we examined the effects of PD-L1 modulation of T cell function in GVHD. In patients with severe GVHD, PD-L1 expression was increased on donor T cells. Compared with mice that received WT T cells, GVHD was reduced in animals that received T cells from Pdl1–/– donors. PD-L1–deficient T cells had reduced expression of gut homing receptors, diminished production of inflammatory cytokines, and enhanced rates of apoptosis. Moreover, multiple bioenergetic pathways, including aerobic glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, and fatty acid metabolism, were also reduced in T cells lacking PD-L1. Finally, the reduction of acute GVHD lethality in mice that received Pdl1–/– donor cells did not affect graft-versus-leukemia responses. These data demonstrate that PD-L1 selectively enhances T cell–mediated immune responses, suggesting a context-dependent function of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis, and suggest selective inhibition of PD-L1 on donor T cells as a potential strategy to prevent or ameliorate GVHD. PMID:27294527

  2. Ibrutinib for chronic graft-versus-host disease after failure of prior therapy.

    PubMed

    Miklos, David; Cutler, Corey S; Arora, Mukta; Waller, Edmund K; Jagasia, Madan; Pusic, Iskra; Flowers, Mary E; Logan, Aaron C; Nakamura, Ryotaro; Blazar, Bruce R; Li, Yunfeng; Chang, Stephen; Lal, Indu; Dubovsky, Jason; James, Danelle F; Styles, Lori; Jaglowski, Samantha

    2017-09-18

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a serious complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation with few effective options available after failure of corticosteroids. B and T cells play a role in the pathophysiology of cGVHD. Ibrutinib inhibits Bruton's tyrosine kinase in B cells and interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase in T cells. In preclinical models, ibrutinib reduced severity of cGVHD. This multicenter, open-label study evaluated the safety and efficacy of ibrutinib in patients with active cGVHD with inadequate response to corticosteroid-containing therapies. Forty-two patients who had failed 1 to 3 prior treatments received ibrutinib (420 mg) daily until cGVHD progression. The primary efficacy end point was cGVHD response based on 2005 NIH criteria. At a median follow-up of 13.9 months, best overall response was 67%; 71% of responders showed a sustained response for ≥ 20 weeks. Responses were observed across involved organs evaluated. Most patients with multiple cGVHD organ involvement had a multiorgan response. Median corticosteroid dose in responders decreased from 0.29 mg/kg/day at baseline to 0.12 mg/kg/day at week 49; 5 responders discontinued corticosteroids. The most common adverse events were fatigue, diarrhea, muscle spasms, nausea, and bruising. Plasma levels of soluble factors associated with inflammation, fibrosis, and cGVHD significantly decreased over time with ibrutinib. Ibrutinib resulted in clinically meaningful responses with acceptable safety in patients with ≥ 1 prior treatments for cGVHD. Based on these results, ibrutinib was approved in the US for treatment of adult patients with cGVHD after failure of one or more lines of systemic therapy. The study is registered to www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02195869. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Hematology.

  3. Programmed death ligand-1 expression on donor T cells drives graft-versus-host disease lethality.

    PubMed

    Saha, Asim; O'Connor, Roddy S; Thangavelu, Govindarajan; Lovitch, Scott B; Dandamudi, Durga Bhavani; Wilson, Caleph B; Vincent, Benjamin G; Tkachev, Victor; Pawlicki, Jan M; Furlan, Scott N; Kean, Leslie S; Aoyama, Kazutoshi; Taylor, Patricia A; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Foncea, Rocio; Ranganathan, Parvathi; Devine, Steven M; Burrill, Joel S; Guo, Lili; Sacristan, Catarina; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Blair, Ian A; Milone, Michael C; Dustin, Michael L; Riley, James L; Bernlohr, David A; Murphy, William J; Fife, Brian T; Munn, David H; Miller, Jeffrey S; Serody, Jonathan S; Freeman, Gordon J; Sharpe, Arlene H; Turka, Laurence A; Blazar, Bruce R

    2016-07-01

    Programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) interaction with PD-1 induces T cell exhaustion and is a therapeutic target to enhance immune responses against cancer and chronic infections. In murine bone marrow transplant models, PD-L1 expression on host target tissues reduces the incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). PD-L1 is also expressed on T cells; however, it is unclear whether PD-L1 on this population influences immune function. Here, we examined the effects of PD-L1 modulation of T cell function in GVHD. In patients with severe GVHD, PD-L1 expression was increased on donor T cells. Compared with mice that received WT T cells, GVHD was reduced in animals that received T cells from Pdl1-/- donors. PD-L1-deficient T cells had reduced expression of gut homing receptors, diminished production of inflammatory cytokines, and enhanced rates of apoptosis. Moreover, multiple bioenergetic pathways, including aerobic glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, and fatty acid metabolism, were also reduced in T cells lacking PD-L1. Finally, the reduction of acute GVHD lethality in mice that received Pdl1-/- donor cells did not affect graft-versus-leukemia responses. These data demonstrate that PD-L1 selectively enhances T cell-mediated immune responses, suggesting a context-dependent function of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis, and suggest selective inhibition of PD-L1 on donor T cells as a potential strategy to prevent or ameliorate GVHD.

  4. Dendritic cell chimerism in oral mucosa of transplanted patients affected by graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Claudio A; Rabanales, Ramón; Rojas-Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Larrondo, Milton; Escobar, Alejandro F; López, Mercedes N; Salazar-Onfray, Flavio; Alfaro, Jorge I; González, Fermín E

    2016-02-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is one of the main complications after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Clinical features of GVHD include either an acute (aGVHD) or a chronic (cGVHD) condition that affects locations such as the oral mucosa. While the involvement of the host's dendritic cells (DCs) has been demonstrated in aGVHD, the origin (donor/host) and mechanisms underlying oral cGVHD have not been completely elucidated. In this study, we intend to determine the origin of DCs present in mucosal tissue biopsies from the oral cavity of transplanted patients affected by cGVHD. We purified DCs, from oral biopsies of three patients with cGVHD, through immunobeads and subsequently performed DNA extraction. The origin of the obtained DCs was determined by PCR amplification of 13 informative short tandem repeat (STR) alleles. We also characterised the DCs phenotype and the inflammatory infiltrate from biopsies of two patients by immunohistochemistry. Clinical and histological features of the biopsies were concordant with oral cGVHD. We identified CD11c-, CD207- and CD1a-positive cells in the epithelium and beneath the basal layer. Purification of DCs from the mucosa of patients affected by post-transplantation cGVHD was >95%. PCR-STR data analysis of DCs DNA showed that 100% of analysed cells were of donor origin in all of the evaluated patients. Our results demonstrate that resident DCs isolated from the oral tissue of allotransplanted patients affected by cGVHD are originated from the donor. Further research will clarify the role of DCs in the development and/or severity of oral cGVHD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF SALIVA FROM PATIENTS WITH ORAL CHRONIC GRAFT-VERSUS-HOST DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Devic, Ivana; Shi, Min; Schubert, Mark M.; Lloid, Michele; Izutsu, Kenneth T.; Pan, Catherine; Missaghi, Melody; Morton, Thomas H.; Mancl, Lloyd A.; Zhang, Jing; Presland, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is an immune-mediated disorder and is the major long-term complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The oral mucosa including the salivary glands is affected in the majority of cGVHD patients; however, at present there is only a limited understanding of disease pathobiology. In this study, we performed a quantitative proteomic analysis of saliva pooled from oral cGVHD(+) and oral cGVHD(-) patients using iTRAQ (isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification) labeling, followed by tandem mass spectrometry. Among 249 salivary proteins identified by tandem mass spectrometry, 82 proteins exhibited altered expression in oral cGVHD patients compared to allo-HSCT patients without oral cGVHD. Many of the identified proteins function in innate or acquired immunity, or are associated with tissue maintenance functions such as proteolysis or the cytoskeleton. Using ELISA immunoassays, we further confirmed that two of these proteins, IL-1 receptor antagonist and Cystatin B, showed decreased expression in patients with active oral cGVHD (P < 0.003). Receiver Operator Characteristic analysis revealed that these two markers were able to distinguish oral cGVHD with a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 60%, and showed slightly better discrimination in newly diagnosed patients studied within 12 months of allo-HSCT transplantation (sensitivity, 92%; specificity 73%). In addition to identifying novel potential salivary cGVHD biomarkers, our study demonstrates that there is coordinated regulation of protein families involved in inflammation, anti-microbial defense and tissue protection in oral cGVHD that may also reflect changes in salivary gland function and damage to the oral mucosa. PMID:24704387

  6. Oral manifestations compatible with chronic graft-versus-host disease in patients with Fanconi anemia.

    PubMed

    Grein Cavalcanti, Laura; Fuentes Araújo, Renata L; Bonfim, Carmem; Torres-Pereira, Cassius C

    2015-02-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetic disease that is characterized by several congenital abnormalities and progressive bone marrow failure and is associated with an increased susceptibility to malignant disorders. Currently, the only potential cure for hematological disorders is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, 1 of the most common complications after HSCT is the development of oral chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), which is also a risk factor for the development of cancer, particularly oral squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of oral manifestations compatible with cGVHD in patients diagnosed with FA according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) consensus criteria. A total of 96 patients (51 females, 45 males; median age, 16 years) with FA, who were in medical follow-up after HSCT at the outpatient clinic of the bone marrow transplantation unit (Hospital de Clínicas from the Universidade Federal do Paraná) underwent an oral evaluation between January 2013 and December 2013. Post-HSCT periods varied from 1 to 261 months and were divided into 3 periods: immediate post-HSCT period; intermediate post-HSC period, and late post-HSCT period. Among the evaluated patients, 40 of 96 (42%) presented with oral manifestations of cGVHD, with 29 of 40 (73%) of these patients in the late post-HSCT period. NIH scale scores varied from 0 to 10, and lichenoid and hyperkeratotic lesions were the abnormalities most frequently observed (100%). Overall, a high prevalence of oral manifestations was observed for cGVHD patients with FA. These data highlight the importance of monitoring oral manifestations compatible with cGVHD to identify and treat individuals with a higher risk of developing oral cancer. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Steroid treatment of acute graft versus host disease grade I: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Bacigalupo, Andrea; Milone, Giuseppe; Crupi, Alessandra; Severino, Alessandro; Fagioli, Franca; Berger, Massimo; Santarone, Stella; Chiusolo, Patrizia; Sica, Simona; Mammoliti, Sonia; Sorasio, Roberto; Massi, Daniela; van Lint, Maria Teresa; Raiola, Anna Maria; Gualandi, Francesca; Selleri, Carmine; Sormani, Maria Pia; Signori, Alessio; Risitano, Antonio; Bonifazi, Francesca

    2017-09-29

    Patients with acute graft versus host disease (GvHD) grade I, were randomized, to an observation arm (n=85) or to a treatment arm (n=86), consisting of 6-methylprednisolone 1 mg/kg/day , after stratification for age and donor type. The primary end point was development of grade II-IV GvHD. The cumulative incidence of GvHD grade II-IV, was 50% in the observation and 33% in the treatment arm (p=0.005). However, grade III-IV GvHD was comparable (13% vs 10% respectively; p=0.6), and this was true for sibling and alternative donor transplants. Moderate/severe chronic GvHD was also comparable (17% vs 19%). In multivariate analysis, an early interval between transplant and randomization (< day +20) , was the only negative predictor of GvHD grade III-IV .Patients in the observation arm had less infectious bacterial episodes (12 vs 25, p=0.04), less severe infectious fungal episodes (0 vs 3; p=0.04), and less severe adverse events (3 vs 11 p=0.07). At 5 years, non relapse mortality was 20% (observation) vs 26% (treatment) (p=0.2), relapse related death 25% vs 21%, and actuarial survival was 51% vs 41% respectively (p=0.3). In multivariate analysis, advanced disease phase, older age and an early onset of GvHD, were significant negative predictors of survival, independent of the randomization arm. In conclusion, steroids treatment of acute GvHD grade I prevents progression to grade II but not to grade III-IV GvHD, and there is no effect on non relapse mortality and survival; patients treated with steroids, are at a higher risk of develping infections and have more adverse events. (This trial is registered as EUDTRACT 2008-000413-29). Copyright © 2017, Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  8. Elevated level of HSPA1L mRNA correlates with graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Atarod, Sadaf; Turner, Brie; Pearce, Kim Frances; Ahmed, Shaheda S; Norden, Jean; Bogunia-Kubik, Katarzyna; Wang, Xiao-nong; Collin, Matthew; Dickinson, Anne Mary

    2015-06-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) can be a fatal complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). GVHD can be classified as acute (aGVHD: up to 100 days) or chronic (cGVHD: after 100 days) based on the time-point of disease occurrence. At present there are a limited number of biomarkers available for use in the clinic. Thus, the aim of this research was to evaluate the biomarker potential of the extensively studied Heat Shock Protein 70 family members (HSPA1A/HSPA1B and HSPA1L) at the messenger RNA (mRNA) level in acute and cGVHD patient cohorts. In the skin biopsies, HSPA1L mRNA expression was lower in patients with severe aGVHD (grades II-III) when compared to those with none or low grade aGVHD (grades 0-I) and normal controls. In whole blood, HSPA1L mRNA expression level was significantly (p = 0.008) up-regulated at 28 days post-transplant in cGVHD patients with a significant area under the curve (AUC = 0.773). In addition, HSPA1B expression in whole blood was significantly higher at 3 months post-transplant in both the aGVHD grade II-III (p = 0.012) and cGVHD (p = 0.027) patients. Our initial results in this small cohort show that quantifying HSPA1L mRNA expression in the whole blood of allo-HSCT patients at day 28 post-allo-HSCT may be a useful predictive biomarker for cGVHD.

  9. Prevalence of ocular hypertension and glaucoma in patients with chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Saboo, Ujwala S; Amparo, Francisco; Shikari, Hasanain; Dana, Reza

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of ocular hypertension (OHT) and glaucoma in patients with chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We performed a retrospective chart review of 218 patients diagnosed with chronic ocular GVHD. Ocular hypertension was defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) ≥ 24 mmHg in either eye without any glaucomatous optic disc changes. Glaucoma suspect was defined as optic disc changes with a cup-to-disc ratio ≥ 0.7 in either eye or asymmetry of ≥ 0.3 between the two eyes. Glaucoma was defined by glaucomatous optic disc changes plus glaucomatous visual field defects in two consecutive reliable visual field tests. The number of cases of ocular hypertension, glaucoma, and glaucoma suspects was evaluated. Thirty-three patients (15 %) were diagnosed with OHT, eight patients (3.6 %) with suspicion of glaucoma, and one patient (0.4 %) with glaucoma. OHT occurred within 6 months of developing ocular GVHD in 60 % of the cases and within the first year in 76 %. High IOP normalized in 67 % of patients when the dosage of topical or systemic corticosteroids was lowered, and 27 % of patients required anti-glaucoma therapy. Ocular hypertension is a common complication in patients with ocular GVHD, with a prevalence of 15 %. The rise in intraocular pressure is often transient and resolves with management of corticosteroids in most cases. However, clinicians should be aware that nearly one-third of the patients with OHT might require anti-glaucoma treatment. The prevalences of glaucoma and suspicion of glaucoma were not higher than in the general population.

  10. Outcomes of Phacoemulsification in Patients with Chronic Ocular Graft-Versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Saboo, Ujwala S.; Amparo, Francisco; Shikari, Hasanain; Jurkunas, Ula V.; Dana, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the outcomes of phacoemulsification in patients with ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Methods The occurrence of cataract, cataract surgery and its outcomes were analyzed in the medical records of 229 patients (458 eyes) with ocular GVHD. Outcome measures included pre- and postoperative corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) and the rate of postoperative complications. Results From 458 eyes evaluated 58 were pseudophakic, from the 400 phakic eyes 238 (59%) presented with cataracts and 62 (26%) underwent cataract surgery. Analysis of postoperative complications and visual outcomes at one month was performed in 51 eyes in which detailed surgical and immediate postoperative records were available. Preoperatively, the mean CDVA was 0.67±0.57 LogMAR (Snellen 20/93) and improved postoperatively to 0.17±0.18 (Snellen 20/29) at one month (P<0.0001), and to 0.13±0.14 (Snellen 20/26) by the final follow-up visit (P<0.0001). Postoperative complications included: corneal epithelial defects (8%), filamentary keratitis (6%), worsening of corneal epitheliopathy (16%), posterior capsular opacification (18%), and cystoid macular edema (4%). A corrected distance visual acuity of 20/30 or better was achieved in 87% of the eyes; suboptimal CDVA improvement was accounted by severe ocular surface disease, pre-existing advanced glaucoma, and prior macular surgery. Conclusions Phacoemulsification in patients with chronic ocular GVHD is a safe and efficacious procedure resulting in significant visual improvement. Overall, postoperative adverse events responded well to timely management. PMID:25619668

  11. Vision-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Ocular Graft-versus-host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Saboo, Ujwala S; Amparo, Francisco; Abud, Tulio B; Schaumberg, Debra A; Dana, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the vision-related quality of life in a cohort of patients with ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Design Prospective study. Participants Eighty-four patients diagnosed with chronic ocular GVHD Methods We assessed the vision-related quality of life with the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25). The symptoms of ocular GVHD were assessed using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and Symptom Assessment in Dry Eye (SANDE) questionnaires. Main outcome measures We assessed vision-related quality of life with NEI-VFQ-25 and compared the scores obtained from patients with ocular GVHD to those from a healthy population. In the ocular GVHD population, we also evaluated the associations between the NEI-VFQ-25 and dry eye symptoms measured by OSDI and SANDE questionnaires, age, duration of disease, best-corrected visual acuity, corneal fluorescein staining, tear break-up time, and Schirmer test. Results The mean composite NEI-VFQ-25 score in patients with ocular GVHD was 76.5 ± 17. Compared to healthy subjects, ocular GVHD patients reported reduced scores on all NEI-VFQ-25 subscales (each P < 0.001) with exception of color vision (P = 0.11). The NEI-VFQ-25 composite scores significantly correlated with OSDI (R = −0.81, P < 0.001), SANDE (R = −0.56, P < 0.001), corneal fluorescein staining (R = −0.36, P = 0.001) and best-corrected visual acuity (R = −0.30, P = 0.004). Conclusion Patients with ocular GVHD experience measurable impairment of vision-related quality of life. This study highlights the impact of ocular GVHD on the vision-related quality of life, and hence the importance of comprehensive diagnosis and treatment of this condition. PMID:26001816

  12. Vision-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Ocular Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Saboo, Ujwala S; Amparo, Francisco; Abud, Tulio B; Schaumberg, Debra A; Dana, Reza

    2015-08-01

    To assess the vision-related quality of life (QOL) in a cohort of patients with ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Prospective study. Eighty-four patients diagnosed with chronic ocular GVHD. We assessed the vision-related QOL with the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25). The symptoms of ocular GVHD were assessed using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and Symptom Assessment in Dry Eye (SANDE) questionnaires. We assessed vision-related QOL with the NEI-VFQ-25 and compared the scores obtained from patients with ocular GVHD with those from a healthy population. In the ocular GVHD population, we also evaluated the associations between the NEI-VFQ-25 and the dry eye symptoms measured by the OSDI and SANDE questionnaires, age, duration of disease, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), tear break-up time, and Schirmer test. The mean composite NEI-VFQ-25 score in patients with ocular GVHD was 76.5±17. Compared with healthy subjects, patients with ocular GVHD reported reduced scores on all NEI-VFQ-25 subscales (each P < 0.001) with the exception of color vision (P = 0.11). The NEI-VFQ-25 composite scores significantly correlated with OSDI (R = -0.81, P < 0.001), SANDE (R = -0.56, P < 0.001), CFS (R = -0.36, P = 0.001), and BCVA (R = -0.30, P = 0.004). Patients with ocular GVHD experience measurable impairment of vision-related QOL. This study highlights the impact of ocular GVHD on the vision-related QOL, and thus the importance of comprehensive diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of Ocular Hypertension and Glaucoma in Patients with Chronic Ocular Graft-versus-host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Saboo, Ujwala S.; Amparo, Francisco; Shikari, Hasanain; Dana, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence of ocular hypertension (OHT) and glaucoma in patients with chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of 218 patients diagnosed with chronic ocular GVHD. Ocular hypertension was defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) ≥ 24 mm Hg in either eye without any glaucomatous optic disc changes. Glaucoma suspect was defined as optic disc changes with a cup-disc ratio ≥ 0.7 in either eye or asymmetry of ≥ 0.3 between the two eyes. Glaucoma was defined by glaucomatous optic disc changes plus glaucomatous visual field defects in two consecutive reliable visual field tests. Number of cases of ocular hypertension, glaucoma, and glaucoma suspects was evaluated. Results Thirty-three patients (15%) were diagnosed with OHT, eight patients (3.6%) with suspicion of glaucoma, and one patient (0.4%) with glaucoma. OHT occurred within six months of developing ocular GVHD in 60% of the cases and within the first year in 76%. High IOP normalized in 67% of patients when the dosage of topical or systemic corticosteroids was lowered, and 27% of patients required anti-glaucoma therapy. Conclusion Ocular hypertension is a common complication in patients with ocular GVHD, with a prevalence of 15%. The rise in intraocular pressure is often transient and resolves with management of corticosteroids in most cases. However, clinicians should be aware that nearly one-third of the patients with OHT might require anti-glaucoma treatment. The prevalences of glaucoma and suspicion of glaucoma were not higher than in the general population. PMID:26968719

  14. Onset of ocular graft-versus-host disease symptoms after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shikari, Hasanain; Amparo, Francisco; Saboo, Ujwala; Dana, Reza

    2015-03-01

    To study the factors affecting the time to onset of ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). A retrospective chart review of 200 patients with ocular GVHD was performed to evaluate the association between various donor-recipient characteristics and the time to onset of ocular GVHD after allo-HSCT. The median time to onset of chronic ocular GVHD after allo-HSCT was 293 days (range, 26-2308 days). Patients receiving fully human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched transplants had a delayed onset of ocular GVHD (median, 294 days) compared with mismatched transplants (219 days; P = 0.029). HLA-matched transplants from related donors had delayed onset of ocular GVHD (307 days) compared with HLA-matched (286 days; P = 0.168) and HLA-mismatched (231 days; P = 0.015) transplants from unrelated donors. Ocular GVHD followed systemic GVHD in 76% of patients but preceded systemic disease in 7%, occurred concurrently in 15%, and was not associated with systemic GVHD in 2% of patients. The time elapsed between the occurrence of systemic and ocular GVHD was significantly longer in matched-related transplants (250 days) than in matched-unrelated transplants (120 days; P = 0.004). The onset of ocular GVHD after allo-HSCT is variable and is influenced by donor-recipient matching characteristics. In the majority of patients with GVHD, ocular involvement follows the occurrence of systemic manifestations; however, importantly, it can also precede or develop independently of systemic disease in a minority of patients. Regular ophthalmic follow-up is recommended after allo-HSCT regardless of concurrent systemic GVHD status.

  15. Outcomes of phacoemulsification in patients with chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Saboo, Ujwala S; Amparo, Francisco; Shikari, Hasanain; Jurkunas, Ula V; Dana, Reza

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of phacoemulsification in patients with ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The occurrence of cataracts, cataract surgery, and its outcomes were analyzed in the medical records of 229 patients (458 eyes) with ocular GVHD. Outcome measures included pre- and postoperative corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) and the rate of postoperative complications. Of the 458 eyes evaluated, 58 were pseudophakic; from the 400 phakic eyes, 238 (59 %) presented with cataracts and 62 (26 %) underwent cataract surgery. Analysis of postoperative complications and visual outcomes at 1 month was performed in 51 eyes in which detailed surgical and immediate postoperative records were available. Preoperatively, the mean CDVA was 0.67 ± 0.57 LogMAR (Snellen 20/93), improving postoperatively to 0.17 ± 0.18 (Snellen 20/29) at 1 month (P < 0.0001), and to 0.13 ± 0.14 (Snellen 20/26) by the final follow-up visit (P < 0.0001). Postoperative complications included corneal epithelial defects (8 %), filamentary keratitis (6 %), worsening of corneal epitheliopathy (16 %), posterior capsular opacification (18 %), and cystoid macular edema (4 %). A corrected distance visual acuity of 20/30 or better was achieved in 87 % of the eyes; suboptimal CDVA improvement was attributable to severe ocular surface disease, pre-existing advanced glaucoma, and prior macular surgery. Phacoemulsification in patients with chronic ocular GVHD is a safe and efficacious procedure resulting in significant visual improvement. Overall, postoperative adverse events responded well to timely management.

  16. Biomarkers in Ocular Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease: Tear Cytokine- and Chemokine-Based Predictive Model.

    PubMed

    Cocho, Lidia; Fernández, Itziar; Calonge, Margarita; Martínez, Verónica; González-García, María J; Caballero, Dolores; López-Corral, Lucía; García-Vázquez, Carmen; Vázquez, Lourdes; Stern, Michael E; Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Amalia

    2016-02-01

    To develop a tear molecule level-based predictive model based on a panel of tear cytokines and their correlation with clinical features in ocular chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD). Twenty-two ocular cGVHD patients and 21 healthy subjects were evaluated in a controlled environmental research laboratory (CERLab). Clinical parameters were recorded, and tears were collected. Levels of 15 molecules (epidermal growth factor [EGF], IL receptor antagonist [IL-1Ra], IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8/CXCL8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-17A, interferon inducible protein [IP]-10/CXCL10, IFN-γ, VEGF, TNF-α, eotaxin 1, and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted [RANTES]) were measured by multiplex-bead assay and correlated with clinical parameters. Logistic regression was used to develop a predictive model. Leave-one-out cross-validation was applied. Classification capacity was evaluated in a cohort of individuals with dry eye (DE) of other etiologies different from GVHD. Epidermal growth factor and IP-10/CXCL10 levels were significantly decreased in ocular cGVHD, positively correlating with tear production and stability and negatively correlating with symptoms, hyperemia, and vital staining. Interleukin-1Ra, IL-8/CXCL8, and IL-10 were significantly increased in ocular cGVHD, and the first two correlated positively with symptoms, hyperemia, and ocular surface integrity while negatively correlating with tear production and stability. Predictive models were generated, and the best panel was based on IL-8/CXCL8 and IP-10/CXCL10 tear levels along with age and sex, with an area under the receiving operating curve of 0.9004, sensitivity of 86.36%, and specificity of 95.24%. A predictive model based on tear levels of IL-8/CXCL8 and IP-10/CXCL10 resulted in optimal sensitivity and specificity. These results add further knowledge to the search for potential biomarkers in this devastating ocular inflammatory disease.

  17. Alpha-1-antitrypsin monotherapy reduces graft-versus-host disease after experimental allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Tawara, Isao; Sun, Yaping; Lewis, Eli C.; Toubai, Tomomi; Evers, Rebecca; Nieves, Evelyn; Azam, Tania; Dinarello, Charles A.; Reddy, Pavan

    2012-01-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a major complication that prevents successful outcomes after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT), an effective therapy for hematological malignancies. Several studies demonstrate that donor T cells and host antigen-presenting cells along with several proinflammatory cytokines are required for the induction of GvHD and contribute to its severity. Increasing evidence demonstrates that human serum-derived αalpha-1- anti-trypsin (AAT) reduces production of proinflammatory cytokines, induces anti-inflammatory cytokines, and interferes with maturation of dendritic cells. Using well-characterized mouse models of BMT, we have studied the effects of AAT on GvHD severity. Administration of AAT early after BMT decreased mortality in three models of GvHD and reduced serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the allogeneic recipients compared with vehicle (albumin) treated animals. AAT treatment reduced the expansion of alloreactive T effector cells but enhanced the recovery of T regulatory T cells, (Tregs) thus altering the ratio of donor T effector to T regulatory cells in favor of reducing the pathological process. However, despite altering the ratio in vivo, AAT had no direct effects on either the donor T effector cells or T regulatory cells Tregs in vitro. In contrast, AAT suppressed LPS-induced in vitro secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β, enhanced the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, and impaired NF-κB translocation in the host dendritic cells. In light of its long history of safety in humans, these findings suggest that administration of AAT represents a novel unique and viable strategy to mitigate clinical GvHD. PMID:22203983

  18. Interleukin-6 modulates graft-versus-host responses after experimental allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Tawara, Isao; Koyama, Motoko; Liu, Chen; Toubai, Tomomi; Thomas, Dafydd; Evers, Rebecca; Chockley, Peter; Nieves, Evelyn; Sun, Yaping; Lowler, Kathleen P.; Malter, Chelsea; Nishimoto, Norihiro; Hill, Geoffrey R.; Reddy, Pavan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect is a potent form of immunotherapy against many hematological malignancies and some solid tumors. The beneficial GVT effect after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is tightly linked to its most significant complication, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) after allogeneic BMT is not well-understood. This study used a series of complementary knock-out and antibody blockade strategies to analyze the impact of IL-6 in multiple clinically relevant murine models of GVHD and GVT. Experimental Design We examined the effect of the source of IL-6 by analyzing the role IL-6 deficiency in donor T cells, donor bone marrow or in host tissues. We confirmed and extended the relevance of IL-6 deficiency on GVHD and GVT by treating BMT recipients with anti-mouse IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), MR16-1. Results Deficiency of IL-6 in donor T cells led to prolongation of survival. Total inhibition of IL-6 with MR16-1 caused an even greater reduction in GVHD-induced mortality. The reduction in GVHD was independent of the direct effects on T effector cell expansion or donor regulatory T cells. GVT responses were preserved after treatment with MR16-1. Conclusion MR16-1 treatment reduced GVHD and preserved sufficient GVT. Tocilizumab, a humanized anti-IL-6R mAb, is approved in several countries including the United States and European Union for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. Blockade of IL-6 with anti-IL-6R mAb therapy may be testable in clinical trials as an adjunct to prevent GVHD in BMT patients without a significant loss of GVT. PMID:21047980

  19. Joint and fascia manifestations in chronic graft-versus-host disease and their assessment

    PubMed Central

    Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Pidala, Joseph; Chai, Xiaoyu; Kurland, Brenda F.; Weisdorf, Daniel; Flowers, Mary E.D.; Palmer, Jeanne; Arai, Sally; Jacobsohn, David; Cutler, Corey; Jagasia, Madan; Goldberg, Jenna D.; Martin, Paul J.; Pavletic, Steven Z.; Vogelsang, Georgia B.; Lee, Stephanie J.; Carpenter, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Joint and fascia manifestations in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation need to be assessed reliably, simply and in a clinically meaningful way. Methods In a prospective, multicenter, longitudinal, observational cohort of patients with chronic GVHD (n=567), we evaluated 3 scales proposed for assessing joint status: National Institutes of Health (NIH) joint/fascia scale, Hopkins fascia scale and the Photographic Range of Motion (P-ROM) scale. Ten other scales were also tested for assessing symptoms, quality of life and physical functions. Results Joint and fascia manifestations were present at study enrollment in 164 (29%) patients. Limited range of motion was most frequent at wrists or fingers. Among the 3 joint scales, changes in the NIH scale correlated with both clinician and patient-perceived improvement of joint and fascia manifestations with higher sensitivity than the Hopkins fascia scale. Changes in all 3 scales correlated with clinician and patient-perceived worsening but the P-ROM scale was the most sensitive in this regard. Onset of joint and fascia manifestations was not associated with subsequent mortality. Conclusion Joint and fascia manifestations are common and should be assessed carefully in patients with chronic GVHD. Our results support the use of the NIH joint/fascia scale and P-ROM scale to assess joint and fascia manifestations. The NIH scale better captures improvement, while the P-ROM scale better captures worsening. The utility of these scales could also be tested in the rheumatic diseases. PMID:24757155

  20. Assessment of joint and fascia manifestations in chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Pidala, Joseph; Chai, Xiaoyu; Kurland, Brenda F; Weisdorf, Daniel; Flowers, Mary E D; Palmer, Jeanne; Arai, Sally; Jacobsohn, David; Cutler, Corey; Jagasia, Madan; Goldberg, Jenna D; Martin, Paul J; Pavletic, Steven Z; Vogelsang, Georgia B; Lee, Stephanie J; Carpenter, Paul A

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the usefulness of various scales for evaluating joint and fascia manifestations in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, and to compare the scales in terms of simplicity of use and ability to yield reliable and clinically meaningful results. In a prospective, multicenter, longitudinal, observational cohort of patients with chronic GVHD (n = 567), we evaluated 3 scales proposed for assessing joint status: the National Institutes of Health (NIH) joint/fascia scale, the Hopkins fascia scale, and the Photographic Range of Motion (P-ROM) scale. Ten other scales were also tested for assessment of symptoms, quality of life, and physical functions. Joint and fascia manifestations were present at study enrollment in 164 (29%) of the patients. Limited range of motion was most frequent at the wrists or fingers. Among the 3 joint assessment scales, changes in the NIH scale correlated with both clinician- and patient-perceived improvement of joint and fascia manifestations, with higher sensitivity than the Hopkins fascia scale. Changes in all 3 scales correlated with clinician- and patient-perceived worsening, but the P-ROM scale was the most sensitive in this regard. Onset of joint and fascia manifestations was not associated with subsequent mortality. Joint and fascia manifestations are common in patients with chronic GVHD and should be assessed carefully in these patients. Our results support the use of the NIH joint/fascia scale and P-ROM scale to assess joint and fascia manifestations. The NIH scale better captures improvement, while the P-ROM scale better captures worsening. The utility of these scales could also be tested in the rheumatic diseases. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  1. Histologic Grade 1 is Associated With Increased Nonrelapsed Mortality in Lower Gastrointestinal Graft Versus Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Im, Jin S; Abraham, Susan C; Saliba, Rima M; Rondon, Gabriela; Ross, William A; Rashid, Asif; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Popat, Uday; Qazilbash, Muzaffar H; Hosing, Chitra; Oran, Betul; Shah, Nina; Tewari, Priti; Nieto, Yago; Kebriaei, Partow; Champlin, Richard E; Alousi, Amin M

    2017-08-22

    Histologic confirmation is considered a standard practice to diagnose gastrointestinal graft versus host disease (GI GVHD) and is often used in making treatment decisions. A histologic grade is often determined in cases that are diagnosed with GI GVHD. Although extensive crypt loss (histologic grade 4) is associated with high nonrelapse mortality (NRM), the prognostic value for the more common grade 1 is poorly understood. As clinical decisions are made on the degree of histologic evidence, it is important to establish its prognostic significance. Therefore, we evaluated 309 patients who underwent endoscopic biopsy for suspected GI GVHD within 6 months posttransplant between 2009 and 2012. The presence of histologic grade 1 was associated with increased NRM (hazard ratio=2.7, P=0.02) when compared with one of negative biopsy in patients with lower but not isolated upper GI GVHD. Multivariate competing-risk regression analysis confirmed the independent impact of histologic grade 1 in patients with early clinical stages of lower GI GVHD (stage 0 to 2) (hazard ratio=2.7, P=0.044). When compared with advanced histologic grades, histologic grade 1 did not lessen the adverse outcome for patients with advanced lower GI GVHD (stage 3 to 4) (cumulative incidence NRM of 84%). In conclusion, the presence of histologic grade 1 is associated with increased NRM in patients presenting with lower GI GVHD (stages 0 to 2) and is sufficient evidence for decision to initiate therapy. At the same time, histologic grade 1 does not lessen the markedly adverse impact of advanced lower GI GVHD (stage 3 to 4) and is not synonymous with "mild" GVHD.

  2. Conjunctival subepithelial fibrosis and meibomian gland atrophy in ocular graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Kusne, Yael; Temkit, M'hamed; Khera, Nandita; Patel, Dharmendra R; Shen, Joanne F

    2017-08-05

    Dry eye symptoms greatly impact patients' quality of life in ocular graft-versus-host disease (oGVHD). Various ocular surface changes have been reported in oGVHD, including meibomian gland atrophy (MGA) and clinical conjunctival scarring or subepithelial fibrosis (CSEF). The relationships between CSEF, MGA, and other ocular surface changes in oGVHD were examined. Charts of 21 consecutive GVHD patients examined by a single ophthalmologist were retrospectively reviewed. International Chronic Ocular Graft-vs-Host-Disease Consensus Group (ICCG) scores were calculated for each patient using previously published methods. The severity of CSEF by slit lamp examination and MGA by infrared meibography were also assessed for each patient. Infrared meibography images were analyzed using ImageJ to determine percent of MGA. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated using SAS Studio 9.3 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). In the 42 eyes, no significant correlations were identified among the variables examined (CSEF score, ICCG score, MGA). Further examination revealed asymmetric ocular findings in 20 of 21 patients. Analysis of the more severe eye alone (n = 21) revealed a weakly positive correlation between ICCG score and CSEF (r = 0.54; p = 0.01). No other statistically significant correlations were found. Clinical CSEF may be an important sign of GVHD impact on the ocular surface and may be relevant in oGVHD severity assessment. Though meibomian glands and conjunctiva are in close proximity, MGA did not correlate with clinical CSEF findings. Some ocular GVHD patients may present with asymmetrical ocular findings, with one eye displaying more severe pathological changes and symptoms despite the systemic nature of GHVD. Further studies are needed to examine these findings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Acute renal graft-versus-host disease in a murine model of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Peter M; Bouazzaoui, Abdellatif; Schmid, Karin; Birner, Christoph; Schach, Christian; Maier, Lars S; Holler, Ernst; Endemann, Dierk H

    2017-03-23

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a very common complication after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and associated with poor prognosis. Generally kidneys are assumed to be no direct target of Graft-versus-Host Disease (GvHD), and renal impairment is often attributed to several other factors occurring in the early phase after BMT. Our study aimed to prove the existence of renal GvHD in a fully MHC-mismatched model of BALB/c mice conditioned and transplanted according to two different intensity protocols. Syngeneically transplanted and untreated animals served as controls. 4 weeks after transplantation, allogeneic animals developed acute GvHD that was more pronounced in the high-intensity protocol (HIP) group than in the low-intensity protocol (LIP) group. Urea and creatinine as classic serum markers of renal function could not verify renal impairment 4 weeks after BMT. Creatinine levels were even reduced as a result of catabolic metabolism and loss of muscle mass due to acute GvHD. Proteinuria, albuminuria, and urinary N-acetyl-beta-Dglucosaminidase (NAG) levels were measured as additional renal markers before and after transplantation. Albuminuria and NAG were only significantly increased after allogeneic transplantation, correlating with disease severity between HIP and LIP animals. Histological investigations of the kidneys showed renal infiltration of T-cells and macrophages with endarteriitis, interstitial nephritis, tubulitis, and glomerulitis. T-cells consisted of CD4+, CD8+, and FoxP3+ cells. Renal expression analysis of allogeneic animals showed increases in indoleamine-2,3 dioxygenase (IDO), different cytokines (TNFα, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL2, IL-6, and IL-10), and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1), resembling findings from other tissues in acute GvHD. In summary, our study supports the entity of renal GvHD with histological features suggestive of cell-mediated renal injury. Albuminuria and urinary NAG levels may serve as early markers of renal

  4. Quantitative Salivary Proteomic Differences in Oral Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bassim, Carol W; Ambatipudi, Kiran S.; Mays, Jacqueline W.; Edwards, Dean A.; Swatkoski, Stephan; Fassil, Helen; Baird, Kristin; Gucek, Marjan; Pavletic, Steven Z.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a severe immunological complication that occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Although oral cGVHD occurs in >25 % of cGVHD patients and leads to decreased quality of life, its etiology is poorly understood. The present retrospective cross-sectional analysis of oral cGVHD patients sought to (1) test the feasibility of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to identify protein biomarkers of oral cGVHD and (2) to gain a clearer understanding of salivary proteins impacted by oral cGVHD. Methods Using unstimulated whole saliva, we compared pooled saliva from five patients with a diagnosis of moderate or severe oral cGVHD, with a gender-and age- matched pool of five cGVHD patients with no oral mucosal findings. LC-MS/MS was used to identify salivary proteins, followed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Selected mass spectrometric findings, including lactotransferrin, lactoperoxidase, and albumin, were confirmed by targeted label-free quantification. Results LC-MS/MS led to confident identification of 180 proteins. Of these proteins, 102 changed in abundance at least 2 fold, including 12 proteins identified only in the No oral cGVHD group. Downregulation of ~0.4 fold was confirmed for both lactotransferrin and lactoperoxidase in Oral cGVHD saliva using targeted label-free quantification. IPA analysis implicated pathways involved in cellular metabolism and immunoregulation. Conclusions Reduction of salivary lactoperoxidase, lactotransferrin, and several cysteine proteinase inhibitor family proteins suggests impaired oral antimicrobial host immunity in cGVHD patients. This shotgun proteomic analysis of oral cGVHD saliva using targeted label-free quantification of select proteins supports the use of mass spectrometry for future validation in a large patient population as noninvasive tests for screening, early detection, and monitoring of cGVHD. PMID:22806177

  5. Graft-versus-host disease reduces regulatory T-cell migration into the tumour tissue

    PubMed Central

    Dürr, Christoph; Follo, Marie; Idzko, Marco; Reichardt, Wilfried; Zeiser, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic principle of allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is based on an active donor immune system that eliminates host-derived tumour cells. We hypothesized that in addition to the alloantigen-driven anti-tumour response, disruption of the immunological microenvironment within the tumour is responsible for its elimination after allo-HCT. We observed that induction of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) significantly reduced the abundance of luc+ FoxP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells in the tumour tissue, which is indicative of impaired or over-ridden tumour recruitment signals towards Treg cells. Analysis of the intestines and liver revealed chemokines and purine nucleotides as candidates for attracting Treg to these sites of inflammation. Despite its expression on tissue-residing Treg cells, the chemokine receptor CCR3 was not critical for Treg-cell function following allo-HCT. Extracellular ATP can attract immune cells via P2Y2. P2Y2 was found to be expressed on Treg cells, and we found a partial reduction of GvHD prevention when P2Y2−/− rather than P2Y2+/+ Treg cells were given. Exogenous local inflammation reduced Treg-cell accumulation in the tumour, suggesting a potential clinical approach to prevent Treg-cell-mediated tumour escape. In conclusion, we demonstrate that GvHD-related inflammation reduced Treg-cell numbers at the tumour sites, which may in turn help to explain the observation that patients with GvHD have a lower risk of tumour relapse. PMID:22681312

  6. Role of the mycobiome in human acute graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    van der Velden, Walter J F M; Netea, Mihai G; de Haan, Anton F J; Huls, Gerwin A; Donnelly, J Peter; Blijlevens, Nicole M A

    2013-02-01

    A role for gut bacteria in the pathogenesis of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) has been firmly established; however, the role of Candida spp, which form part of the mycobiome, remains unknown. In a homogenous group of patients who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), we found a significant impact of Candida colonization on the occurrence of acute GVHD. Patients colonized with Candida spp developed significantly more grade II-IV acute GVHD compared with noncolonized patients (50% vs 32%; P = .03), as well as more gastrointestinal (GI)-GVHD (33% vs 19%; P = .05). Colonization with Candida spp was more frequent in patients bearing the loss-of-function polymorphism Y238X, which results in dectin-1 dysfunction, compared with patients with the wild-type allele (73% vs 31%; P = .002). There was no direct effect of dectin-1 dysfunction on acute GVHD, although it did influence the occurrence of GVHD indirectly through Candida colonization. The exact mechanism of GVHD induction by Candida spp colonization of the mucosa is unknown, but the link might prove to be the induction of Th 17/IL-23 responses through activation of pattern recognition receptors by fungal motifs, including β-d-glucan and mannans. These data indicate a role for the mycobiome in the pathogenesis of GVHD and suggest that altering the mycobiome by antifungal drugs can help ameliorate GI-GVHD. In addition, given that the genetic constitution of patients affects susceptibility to both Candida colonization and GVHD, whether identifying gene polymorphisms will facilitate personalized treatment of SCT recipients remains to be determined.

  7. A20 deletion in T cells modulates acute graft-versus-host disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Julius C; Otten, Vera; Steiger, Katja; Schmickl, Martina; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Beyaert, Rudi; van Loo, Geert; Peschel, Christian; Poeck, Hendrik; Haas, Tobias; Spoerl, Silvia

    2017-08-22

    The NF-κB regulator A20 limits inflammation by providing negative feedback in myeloid cells and B cells. Functional lack of A20 has been linked to several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. To define how A20 affects the functionality of T effector cells in a highly inflammatory environment, we performed conventional allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) with A20-deficient CD4(+) and CD8(+) donor T cells in mice. Severity and mortality of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allo-HSCT was drastically reduced in recipients transplanted with conventional doses of A20-deficient T cells. Consistently, we found that the A20-deficient donor T cell compartment was strongly diminished at various timepoints after allo-HSCT. However, proportionally more A20-deficient donor T cells produced IFN-γ and systemic inflammation was elevated early after allo-HSCT. Consequently, increasing the dose of transplanted A20-deficient T cells reversed the original phenotype and resulted in enhanced GVHD mortality compared to recipients that received A20(+/+) T cells. Still, A20-deficient T cells, activated either through T cell receptor-dependent or -independent mechanisms, were less viable than control A20(+/+) T cells, highlighting that A20 balances both, T cell activation and survival. Thus, our findings suggest that targeting A20 in T cells may allow to modulate T cell mediated inflammatory diseases like GVHD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. TLR4 inactivation protects from graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yi; Liu, Qiuyan; Yang, Li; He, Donghua; Wang, Lijuan; Tian, Jun; Li, Yi; Zi, Fuming; Bao, Hanying; Yang, Yang; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Shi, Jimin; Xue, Xingkui; Cai, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the most common complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To clarify the role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), which is a major receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), in the development of acute GVHD, we used a TLR4-knockout (TLR4−/−) mouse GVHD model and analyzed the underlying immunological mechanisms. When TLR4−/− mice were used as bone marrow and splenocyte cell graft donors or recipients, GVHD symptom occurrence and mortality were delayed compared to wild-type (TLR4+/+) mice. In addition, histopathological analyses revealed that in TLR4−/−→BALB/c chimeras, liver and small intestine tissue damage was reduced with minimal lymphocytic infiltration. In contrast to TLR4+/+, TLR4−/− mice dendritic cells did not express CD80, CD86, CD40, MHC-II or IL-12 during LPS induction and remained in an immature state. Furthermore, the ability of TLR4−/− mice spleen dendritic cells to promote allogeneic T-cell proliferation and, in particular, T-helper cell 1 (Th1) development was obviously attenuated compared with TLR4+/+ mice dendritic cells, and the levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and IL-10, Th2-cell specific cytokines, were significantly higher in the serum of TLR4−/−→BALB/c than in TLR4+/+→BALB/c chimeric mice. Overall, our data revealed that TLR4 may play a role in the pathogenesis of GVHD and that targeted TLR4 gene therapy might provide a new treatment approach to reduce the risk of GVHD. PMID:23262974

  9. Sparing effect by montelukast treatment for chronic graft versus host disease: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Or, Reuven; Gesundheit, Benjamin; Resnick, Igor; Bitan, Menachem; Avraham, Amar; Avgil, Meytal; Sacks, Zadok; Shapira, Michael Y

    2007-03-15

    Chronic graft versus host disease (GvHD) is a major complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), which is usually progression from acute GvHD. Chronic GvHD is the main cause of severe morbidity and mortality in long-term survivors after SCT. The cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) and eosinophils play an important role in the pathogenesis of GvHD, which is the rationale for the combined use of montelukast (Mk) in the treatment of this illness. Mk was administrated to 19 eligible patients with refractory chronic GvHD, in addition to their standard immunosuppressive regimens. Mk was given orally (10 mg once daily) for a mean period of 10 months (range, 2-21 months). Organ-specific response was determined by the new scoring criteria established by the National Institutes of Health consensus project. Based on organ involvements endpoints, overall response to the combined therapy with Mk was observed in 15 of 19 (79%) patients. Significant improvement of skin liver and gastrointestinal was observed in 53%, 62%, and 46%, respectively. Generally, Mk was notably beneficial in milder stages of GvHD, which lead to earlier withdrawal of other immunosuppressive agents. Side effects of Mk administration were not documented, nor were cases of relapse of the basic disease. Our preliminary prospective investigation supports the potential efficacy of Mk as a safe and toxicity-sparing supplement to standard therapy for patients with chronic GvHD. Future clinical studies are necessary to establish the optimal dose of Mk and its role in the symptomatic and prophylactic treatment of acute and chronic GvHD.

  10. An early-biomarker algorithm predicts lethal graft-versus-host disease and survival

    PubMed Central

    Hartwell, Matthew J.; Özbek, Umut; Holler, Ernst; Major-Monfried, Hannah; Reddy, Pavan; Aziz, Mina; Hogan, William J.; Ayuk, Francis; Efebera, Yvonne A.; Hexner, Elizabeth O.; Bunworasate, Udomsak; Qayed, Muna; Ordemann, Rainer; Wölfl, Matthias; Mielke, Stephan; Chen, Yi-Bin; Devine, Steven; Jagasia, Madan; Kitko, Carrie L.; Litzow, Mark R.; Kröger, Nicolaus; Locatelli, Franco; Morales, George; Nakamura, Ryotaro; Reshef, Ran; Rösler, Wolf; Weber, Daniela; Yanik, Gregory A.; Levine, John E.; Ferrara, James L.M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND. No laboratory test can predict the risk of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) or severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after hematopoietic cellular transplantation (HCT) prior to the onset of GVHD symptoms. METHODS. Patient blood samples on day 7 after HCT were obtained from a multicenter set of 1,287 patients, and 620 samples were assigned to a training set. We measured the concentrations of 4 GVHD biomarkers (ST2, REG3α, TNFR1, and IL-2Rα) and used them to model 6-month NRM using rigorous cross-validation strategies to identify the best algorithm that defined 2 distinct risk groups. We then applied the final algorithm in an independent test set (n = 309) and validation set (n = 358). RESULTS. A 2-biomarker model using ST2 and REG3α concentrations identified patients with a cumulative incidence of 6-month NRM of 28% in the high-risk group and 7% in the low-risk group (P < 0.001). The algorithm performed equally well in the test set (33% vs. 7%, P < 0.001) and the multicenter validation set (26% vs. 10%, P < 0.001). Sixteen percent, 17%, and 20% of patients were at high risk in the training, test, and validation sets, respectively. GVHD-related mortality was greater in high-risk patients (18% vs. 4%, P < 0.001), as was severe gastrointestinal GVHD (17% vs. 8%, P < 0.001). The same algorithm can be successfully adapted to define 3 distinct risk groups at GVHD onset. CONCLUSION. A biomarker algorithm based on a blood sample taken 7 days after HCT can consistently identify a group of patients at high risk for lethal GVHD and NRM. FUNDING. The National Cancer Institute, American Cancer Society, and the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation. PMID:28194439

  11. An early-biomarker algorithm predicts lethal graft-versus-host disease and survival.

    PubMed

    Hartwell, Matthew J; Özbek, Umut; Holler, Ernst; Renteria, Anne S; Major-Monfried, Hannah; Reddy, Pavan; Aziz, Mina; Hogan, William J; Ayuk, Francis; Efebera, Yvonne A; Hexner, Elizabeth O; Bunworasate, Udomsak; Qayed, Muna; Ordemann, Rainer; Wölfl, Matthias; Mielke, Stephan; Pawarode, Attaphol; Chen, Yi-Bin; Devine, Steven; Harris, Andrew C; Jagasia, Madan; Kitko, Carrie L; Litzow, Mark R; Kröger, Nicolaus; Locatelli, Franco; Morales, George; Nakamura, Ryotaro; Reshef, Ran; Rösler, Wolf; Weber, Daniela; Wudhikarn, Kitsada; Yanik, Gregory A; Levine, John E; Ferrara, James L M

    2017-02-09

    BACKGROUND. No laboratory test can predict the risk of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) or severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after hematopoietic cellular transplantation (HCT) prior to the onset of GVHD symptoms. METHODS. Patient blood samples on day 7 after HCT were obtained from a multicenter set of 1,287 patients, and 620 samples were assigned to a training set. We measured the concentrations of 4 GVHD biomarkers (ST2, REG3α, TNFR1, and IL-2Rα) and used them to model 6-month NRM using rigorous cross-validation strategies to identify the best algorithm that defined 2 distinct risk groups. We then applied the final algorithm in an independent test set (n = 309) and validation set (n = 358). RESULTS. A 2-biomarker model using ST2 and REG3α concentrations identified patients with a cumulative incidence of 6-month NRM of 28% in the high-risk group and 7% in the low-risk group (P < 0.001). The algorithm performed equally well in the test set (33% vs. 7%, P < 0.001) and the multicenter validation set (26% vs. 10%, P < 0.001). Sixteen percent, 17%, and 20% of patients were at high risk in the training, test, and validation sets, respectively. GVHD-related mortality was greater in high-risk patients (18% vs. 4%, P < 0.001), as was severe gastrointestinal GVHD (17% vs. 8%, P < 0.001). The same algorithm can be successfully adapted to define 3 distinct risk groups at GVHD onset. CONCLUSION. A biomarker algorithm based on a blood sample taken 7 days after HCT can consistently identify a group of patients at high risk for lethal GVHD and NRM. FUNDING. The National Cancer Institute, American Cancer Society, and the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation.

  12. Pharmacokinetic comparison of cyclosporin A and tacrolimus in graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Moiseev, Ivan Sergeevich; Burmina, Ekaterina Andreevna; Muslimov, Albert Radikovich; Pirogova, Olga Vladislavovna; Bondarenko, Sergey Nikolaevich; Darskaya, Elena Igorevna; Tarakanova, Yuliya Alexandrovna; Senina, Nadegda Georgievna; Afanasyev, Boris Vladimirovich

    2017-06-01

    A number of studies were published with contradictory results comparing tacrolimus (Tac) and cyclosporine A (CsA) for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, but there are only few that accounted for pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. In this study, we created a model based on median concentrations, variability of concentrations, and failures to maintain target levels that distinguished patients with low, intermediate, and high risks of acute GVHD (hazard ratios (HR) 1.77, 95%CI 1.36-2.32, p < 0.0001). This model was used to compare 95 patients with CsA and 239 with Tac GVHD prophylaxis. In the multivariate analysis, incorporating PK risk, no differences were observed for grade II-IV acute GVHD (HR 0.73, 95%CI 0.48-1.10, p = 0.13), but grade III-IV acute GVHD was lower in the Tac group (HR 0.47, 95%CI 0.28-0.78, p = 0.004). The observed difference was due to patients with high PK risk (HR 0.377, 95%CI 0.19-0.75, p = 0.005), but not with low and intermediate PK risk (p > 0.05). Patients in the Tac group had better GVHD relapse-free survival (HR = 0.659, p = 0.01) and comparable overall survival (p > 0.05). In conclusion, PK risk should be accounted for in comparisons of GVHD prophylaxis regimens with calcineurin inhibitors, and Tac was superior to CsA in patients with high, but not intermediate and low PK risk.

  13. Alterations in cerebellar germinal cell division induced by graft-versus-host disease

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, W.S.; Crom, E.N.; Head, J.R.

    1981-11-20

    A systemic immunological syndrome, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), which does not cause inflammation or cell death in the cerebellum, is shown to retard granule cell production by decreasing the rate of DNA synthesis (S phase) and prolonging mitosis (M), at metaphase. The rate of cell production in diseased animals at postnatal day 14, quantitated by analysis of the rate of labeling of DNA with 3H-thymidine (3H-Tdr), revealed decreased ability to synthesize new DNA. The number of cells taking up 3H-Tdr label per mm2, as detected by autoradiography, was similar in 14-day-old GVHD and control tissue as was the area of the germinal matrix zone and the number of mitotically active germinal cells per mm2 in sagittal sections near the midline. However, because the total volume of the cerebellum was less, the total number of mitotically active cells in the whole cerebellum of 11-, 14-, and 17-day-old diseased animals was less than in littermate controls. Furthermore, DNA synthesis per mitotically active germinal cell was less in diseased animals at each age examined. The mitotic index was unaffected until late in the disease (day 17), suggesting that a prolongation of the cell cycle was responsible for this GVHD-induced decrease in DNA synthesis. Consistent with a prolongation of the cell cycle was the finding that the mitotic figures in 14-day-old GVHD cerebella were mostly metaphase figures, whereas those in control cerebella were, as predicted, mostly prophase. Prolongation of the cerebellar cell cycle in 11- and 14-day-old diseased animals may explain the dramatic decrease in the mitotic index, the thickness of the germinal matrix zone, and the number of germinal cells at postnatal day 17.

  14. Peritransplant Serum Albumin Decline Predicts Subsequent Severe Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease after Mucotoxic Myeloablative Conditioning.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Armin; DiPersio, John F; Westervelt, Peter; Abboud, Camille N; Schroeder, Mark A; Cashen, Amanda F; Pusic, Iskra; Romee, Rizwan

    2016-06-01

    Conditioning-related gut toxicity can result in a protein-losing enteropathy manifesting as a decline in serum albumin in the peritransplant period. Inspired by the pathogenesis of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), we hypothesized that the magnitude of decline in serum albumin from the day of conditioning initiation until its nadir in the first 2 weeks after hematopoietic cell transplantation HCT (DeltaAlb) predicts the risk for subsequent severe aGVHD. We reviewed the medical records of all 88 patients with acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who underwent highly mucotoxic myeloablative (busulfan/cyclophosphamide or cyclophosphamide/total body irradiation) allogeneic HCT from a matched related donor (MRD) or matched unrelated donor (MUD) at our institution between January 1, 2012 and January 1, 2015. Severe aGVHD was associated with MUD (47% versus 14% with MRD; P = .001) and DeltaAlb, which was significantly greater among patients who developed versus did not develop severe aGVHD (1.2 ± .5 versus .8 ± .4 g/dL, respectively; P < .001). In multivariate analysis DeltaAlb remained a significant predictor of severe aGVHD (odds ratio, 5.68; 95% CI, 1.65 to 19.64; P = .006; area under the ROC curve, .74; 95% CI, .63 to .86; P < .001). The best cutoff for DeltaAlb to predict severe aGVHD was .9, with a sensitivity, specificity, and overall classification accuracy of 77%, 66%, and 69%, respectively. The model was validated using the bootstrap technique, with no significant change in its performance. These results were not generalizable to a cohort of 30 patients who received less mucotoxic myeloablative or reduced-intensity conditioning. In conclusion, with mucotoxic myeloablative HCT, each .1-g/dL increase in DeltaAlb was associated with an approximately 23% increase in the odds of developing severe aGVHD. As an early biomarker of gut damage, DeltaAlb can be incorporated in composite risk models for aGVHD prediction, with hopes for

  15. Narrow-Band Ultraviolet B Phototherapy Ameliorates Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease of the Intestine by Expansion of Regulatory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Akari; Sato, Tsutomu; Iyama, Satoshi; Yoshida, Masahiro; Ibata, Soushi; Tatekoshi, Ayumi; Kamihara, Yusuke; Horiguchi, Hiroto; Murase, Kazuyuki; Kawano, Yutaka; Takada, Kohichi; Miyanishi, Koji; Kobune, Masayoshi; Ichimiya, Shingo; Kato, Junji

    2016-01-01

    Narrowband ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) has been widely used in dermatological phototherapy. As for the application of NB-UVB phototherapy to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), we previously reported that it was highly efficacious for cutaneous lesions of acute GVHD (aGVHD) and that expansion of regulatory T (Treg) cells induced by NB-UVB might be one of the mechanisms. In order to examine whether NB-UVB irradiation through expansion of Treg cells is effective for the treatment of not only cutaneous aGVHD but also aGVHD of inner organs such as the intestine or liver, we conducted experiments in which a murine lethal aGVHD model, characterized by severe involvement of the intestine, was irradiated with NB-UVB. We found that NB-UVB irradiation improved the clinical score and survival rate. The pathological score of aGVHD was improved in all affected organs: intestine, liver, and skin. In the serum of mice irradiated with NB-UVB, the levels of Treg cells-associated cytokines such as transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were elevated. The numbers of infiltrating Treg cells in inflamed tissue of the intestine and those in spleen were increased in mice treated with NB-UVB. This is the first report demonstrating that NB-UVB phototherapy has the ability to ameliorate intestinal aGVHD through the expansion of Treg cells.

  16. Graft-versus-host disease after liver transplantation: A comprehensive literature review

    PubMed Central

    Akbulut, Sami; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine the factors affecting mortality in patients who developed graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) after liver transplantation (LT). METHODS: We performed a review of studies of GvHD following LT published in the English literature and accessed the PubMed, Medline, EBSCO, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases. Using relevant search phrases, 88 articles were identified. Of these, 61 articles containing most of the study parameters were considered eligible for the study. Risk factors were first examined using a univariate Kaplan-Meier model, and variables with a significant association (P < 0.05) were then subjected to multivariate analyses using a Cox proportional-hazards model. RESULTS: The 61 articles reported 87 patients, 58 male and 29 female, mean age, 40.4 ± 15.5 years (range: 8 mo to 74 years), who met the inclusion criteria for the present study. Deaths occurred in 59 (67.8%) patients, whereas 28 (32.2%) survived after a mean follow-up period of 280.8 ± 316.2 d (range: 27-2285 d). Among the most frequent symptoms were rash (94.2%), fever (66.6%), diarrhea (54%), and pancytopenia (54%). The average time period between LT and first symptom onset was 60.6 ± 190.1 d (range: 2-1865 d). The Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that pancytopenia (42.8% vs 59.3%, P = 0.03), diarrhea (39.2% vs 61.0%, P = 0.04), age difference between the recipient and the donor (14.6 ± 3.1 years vs 22.6 ± 2.7 years, P < 0.0001), and time from first symptom occurrence to diagnosis or treatment (13.3 ± 2.6 mo vs 15.0 ± 2.3 mo, P < 0.0001) were significant factors affecting mortality, whereas age, sex, presence of rash and fever, use of immunosuppressive agents, acute rejection before GvHD, etiological causes, time of onset, and donor type were not associated with mortality risk. The Cox proportional-hazards model, determined that an age difference between the recipient and donor was an independent risk factor (P = 0.03; hazard ratio, 7.395, 95% confidence interval, 1

  17. Graft-versus-host disease after liver transplantation: a comprehensive literature review.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Sami; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2012-10-07

    To determine the factors affecting mortality in patients who developed graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) after liver transplantation (LT). We performed a review of studies of GvHD following LT published in the English literature and accessed the PubMed, Medline, EBSCO, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases. Using relevant search phrases, 88 articles were identified. Of these, 61 articles containing most of the study parameters were considered eligible for the study. Risk factors were first examined using a univariate Kaplan-Meier model, and variables with a significant association (P < 0.05) were then subjected to multivariate analyses using a Cox proportional-hazards model. The 61 articles reported 87 patients, 58 male and 29 female, mean age, 40.4 ± 15.5 years (range: 8 mo to 74 years), who met the inclusion criteria for the present study. Deaths occurred in 59 (67.8%) patients, whereas 28 (32.2%) survived after a mean follow-up period of 280.8 ± 316.2 d (range: 27-2285 d). Among the most frequent symptoms were rash (94.2%), fever (66.6%), diarrhea (54%), and pancytopenia (54%). The average time period between LT and first symptom onset was 60.6 ± 190.1 d (range: 2-1865 d). The Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that pancytopenia (42.8% vs. 59.3%, P = 0.03), diarrhea (39.2% vs. 61.0%, P = 0.04), age difference between the recipient and the donor (14.6 ± 3.1 years vs. 22.6 ± 2.7 years, P < 0.0001), and time from first symptom occurrence to diagnosis or treatment (13.3 ± 2.6 mo vs. 15.0 ± 2.3 mo, P < 0.0001) were significant factors affecting mortality, whereas age, sex, presence of rash and fever, use of immunosuppressive agents, acute rejection before GvHD, etiological causes, time of onset, and donor type were not associated with mortality risk. The Cox proportional-hazards model, determined that an age difference between the recipient and donor was an independent risk factor (P = 0.03; hazard ratio, 7.395, 95% confidence interval, 1.2-46.7). This study showed

  18. Cytokines are early diagnostic biomarkers of graft-versus-host disease in liver recipients.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xue-Qin; Chen, Xin-Hua; Sahebally, Zayd; Xu, Yu-Ning; Yin, Sheng-Yong; Wu, Li-Ming; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2017-02-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is associated with high mortality. Early diagnosis is essential to start treatment and to improve outcomes. Because of the inflammatory nature, we hypothesis that cytokine profile of patients with GVHD may serve as diagnostic markers. The present study was to evaluate the role of cytokine profile in the diagnosis of GVHD. An immunoassay was used to detect 29 cytokines simultaneously in the serum; the measuring sensitivity of all cytokines was pg/mL. Healthy subjects undergoing annual routine physical examinations served as negative controls; 23 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who had undergone liver transplantation (the LT group) comprised the test subjects. A total of 22 kidney recipients with biopsy-confirmed GVHD (the RT group) were included for comparison. HCC patients with radical surgery (the HCC group, n=22) served as positive control. The liver contents of the three cytokines, IL-2, IL-18, and IFN-gamma, were detected with immunohistochemistry. Serum granzyme B and perforin were measured by flow cytometry. Of the 29 cytokines, the levels of IL-2 and IL-18 were increased significantly in liver recipients with GVHD compared with healthy controls (P<0.05). The serum levels of these three cytokines in the healthy, HCC, LT, and RT groups were IL-2: 0.90+/-0.02, 4.14+/-0.61, 5.10+/-0.89, and 1.48+/-0.09 pg/mL; IL-18: 80.61+/-9.35, 109.51+/-10.93, 230.11+/-12.92, and 61.98+/-7.88 pg/mL; IFN-gamma: 24.06+/-3.88, 24.84+/-3.21, 40.37+/-5.88, and 15.33+/-4.72 pg/mL, respectively. Immunohistochemistry showed that these 3 cytokines expressions in the liver were parallel to the serum cytokine. After standard anti-GVHD treatment, the expressions of IL-2, IL-18, and IFN-gamma were decreased in the liver (P<0.05). Serum granzyme B and perforin were significantly increased in GVHD patients (P<0.05). IL-2, IL-18 and IFN-gamma were from liver and might serve as biomarkers for monitoring GVHD development and the effects of anti

  19. PROSE Treatment for Ocular Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease as a Clinical Network Expands.

    PubMed

    DeLoss, Karen S; Le, Hong-Gam; Gire, Anisa; Chiu, Gloria B; Jacobs, Deborah S; Carrasquillo, Karen G

    2016-07-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca occurs in 40% to 90% of patients with ocular chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). Ocular symptoms can have profound effects in both the visual function and quality of life of patients with GVHD. We report the impact of prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem (PROSE) treatment in patients with cGVHD as a clinical network expands. We queried the BostonSight PROSE manufacturing database from January 2002 to December 2011. Patients treated for ocular cGVHD were reported by age, gender, year, and network site where the treatment was undertaken. The baseline and six-month follow-up scores of visual function using a standardized validated instrument, the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25), were evaluated for a period in 2006 and again in 2010 after network expansion had occurred. A total of 407 patients with a male:female ratio of 226:181, mean age was 51 years with ocular cGVHD underwent PROSE treatment from January 2002 to December 2011. By 2011, 67% of all cases were treated at network clinics. Baseline characteristics of patients treated throughout the network in 2010 were similar to that of 2006 and 2010 cohorts from the main center. There was a significant improvement of 41 points (P<0.001) in composite NEI VFQ score among patients treated across the network in 2010, similar to the improvement of 30 points (P<0.001) seen among the patients treated at the main center in 2010. There was a trend toward lower baseline self-reported general health status (SRGHS) and VFQ scores among patients treated at network clinics, suggesting that expansion of the network allows treatment of sicker patients (lower general health status) or those more severely affected by ocular cGVHD. PROSE treatment of ocular cGVHD has increased in the last decade with the establishment of BostonSight network clinics across the United States. Patients treated at network clinics showed similar levels of baseline visual

  20. Confocal endomicroscopy in diagnosis of intestinal chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Kathrin; Günther, Ute; Erben, Ulrike; Kühl, Anja; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Pezzutto, Antonio; Siegmund, Britta; Bojarski, Christian

    2017-05-25

    Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a major complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. High-resolution in vivo histology of the intestine by confocal endomicroscopy (CEM) detects acute GvHD (aGvHD) with high sensitivity. This pilot study aims to evaluate the diagnostic value of CEM for intestinal chronic GvHD (cGvHD). The study included 20 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms and confirmed cGvHD in other organs as well as 20 patients with clinically suspected acute GvHD for control. Confocal endomicroscopy was performed as gastroscopy followed by sigmoidoscopy after intravenous injection of fluorescein (10%) and topical application of acriflavine (0.05%). Histopathology from H&E-stained biopsy samples throughout the intestinal tract complemented the survey. All histological features of intestinal cGvHD were predominantly mild to moderate. Stroma fibrosis detected by standard histology (16/20 patients) was not seen by CEM. Apoptosis assessed by histology in 12/20 patients was concordant with CEM (8/12 patients). Confocal endomicroscopy revealed esophageal manifestation of cGvHD in 3 patients. For each biopsy site, CEM correlated with intestinal histology (r = 0.64). Classical histology from intestinal biopsy samples taken under CEM monitoring confirmed the final diagnosis of cGvHD. The sensitivity of CEM with 40% in cGvHD was significantly lower compared to 70% in patients with aGvHD. Confocal endomicroscopy detected acute features of cGvHD and contributed to the diagnosis of esophageal cGvHD but failed to display stroma fibrosis in vivo. Although CEM represents a useful noninvasive tool in routine diagnostic of intestinal aGvHD, the method is not sufficient to fully establish the diagnosis of cGvHD within the intestinal tract. Confocal endomicroscopy allowed acquisition of targeted biopsies in patients suspected of having cGvHD. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Treatment of Pediatric Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease—Lessons from Primary Immunodeficiency?

    PubMed Central

    Flinn, Aisling M.; Gennery, Andrew R.

    2017-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is used to treat increasing numbers of malignant and non-malignant disorders. Despite significant advances in improved human leukocyte antigens-typing techniques, less toxic conditioning regimens and better supportive care, resulting in improved clinical outcomes, acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) continues to be a major obstacle and, although it principally involves the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and liver, the thymus is also a primary target. An important aim following HSCT is to achieve complete and durable immunoreconstitution with a diverse T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire to recognize a broad range of pathogens providing adequate long-term adaptive T-lymphocyte immunity, essential to reduce the risk of infection, disease relapse, and secondary malignancies. Reconstitution of adaptive T-lymphocyte immunity is a lengthy and complex process which requires a functioning and structurally intact thymus responsible for the production of new naïve T-lymphocytes with a broad TCR repertoire. Damage to the thymic microenvironment, secondary to aGvHD and the effect of corticosteroid treatment, disturbs normal signaling required for thymocyte development, resulting in impaired T-lymphopoiesis and reduced thymic export. Primary immunodeficiencies, in which failure of central or peripheral tolerance is a major feature, because of intrinsic defects in hematopoietic stem cells leading to abnormal T-lymphocyte development, or defects in thymic stroma, can give insights into critical processes important for recovery from aGvHD. Extracorporeal photopheresis is a potential alternative therapy for aGvHD, which acts in an immunomodulatory fashion, through the generation of regulatory T-lymphocytes (Tregs), alteration of cytokine patterns and modulation of dendritic cells. Promoting normal central and peripheral immune tolerance, with selective downregulation of immune stimulation, could reduce aGvHD, and enable a

  2. Antilymphocyte Globulin for Prevention of Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Kröger, Nicolaus; Solano, Carlos; Wolschke, Christine; Bandini, Giuseppe; Patriarca, Francesca; Pini, Massimo; Nagler, Arnon; Selleri, Carmine; Risitano, Antonio; Messina, Giuseppe; Bethge, Wolfgang; Pérez de Oteiza, Jaime; Duarte, Rafael; Carella, Angelo Michele; Cimminiello, Michele; Guidi, Stefano; Finke, Jürgen; Mordini, Nicola; Ferra, Christelle; Sierra, Jorge; Russo, Domenico; Petrini, Mario; Milone, Giuseppe; Benedetti, Fabio; Heinzelmann, Marion; Pastore, Domenico; Jurado, Manuel; Terruzzi, Elisabetta; Narni, Franco; Völp, Andreas; Ayuk, Francis; Ruutu, Tapani; Bonifazi, Francesca

    2016-01-07

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the leading cause of later illness and death after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. We hypothesized that the inclusion of antihuman T-lymphocyte immune globulin (ATG) in a myeloablative conditioning regimen for patients with acute leukemia would result in a significant reduction in chronic GVHD 2 years after allogeneic peripheral-blood stem-cell transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling. We conducted a prospective, multicenter, open-label, randomized phase 3 study of ATG as part of a conditioning regimen. A total of 168 patients were enrolled at 27 centers. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive ATG or not receive ATG, with stratification according to center and risk of disease. After a median follow-up of 24 months, the cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 32.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22.1 to 46.7) in the ATG group and 68.7% (95% CI, 58.4 to 80.7) in the non-ATG group (P<0.001). The rate of 2-year relapse-free survival was similar in the ATG group and the non-ATG group (59.4% [95% CI, 47.8 to 69.2] and 64.6% [95% CI, 50.9 to 75.3], respectively; P=0.21), as was the rate of overall survival (74.1% [95% CI, 62.7 to 82.5] and 77.9% [95% CI, 66.1 to 86.1], respectively; P=0.46). There were no significant between-group differences in the rates of relapse, infectious complications, acute GVHD, or adverse events. The rate of a composite end point of chronic GVHD-free and relapse-free survival at 2 years was significantly higher in the ATG group than in the non-ATG group (36.6% vs. 16.8%, P=0.005). The inclusion of ATG resulted in a significantly lower rate of chronic GVHD after allogeneic transplantation than the rate without ATG. The survival rate was similar in the two groups, but the rate of a composite end point of chronic GVHD-free survival and relapse-free survival was higher with ATG. (Funded by the Neovii Biotech and the European Society for Blood and Marrow

  3. Successful treatment of incipient graft rejection with donor leukocyte infusions, further proof of a graft versus host lymphohaemopoietic effect.

    PubMed

    Díez-Martín, J L; Gómez-Pineda, A; Serrano, D; Carrión, R; Balsalobre, P; Buño, I

    2004-05-01

    Graft rejection is a major cause of treatment failure after T-cell-depleted stem cell transplantation (TCD-SCT) and remains a therapeutic challenge. Donor leukocyte infusions (DLIs) have an efficient graft versus host effect, which has been successfully used to treat recipient relapses. We hypothesized that this effect could be exploited to counteract the host versus graft reactions responsible for graft rejection. We report two adult patients with haematological malignancies who underwent sex-mismatched TCD-SCT from HLA-identical sibling donors. Peripheral blood (PB) counts and bone marrow (BM) cellularity were studied on a serial basis. Sequential chimaerism and minimal residual disease analysis were performed by FISH on PB and BM samples as well as on leukocyte lineages (T and B lymphocytes and myeloid cells) purified from PB using immunomagnetic technology. Both patients were diagnosed with incipient graft rejection 2-3 months after engraftment, based on persistently decreasing PB counts and BM cellularity together with the observation of decreasing mixed chimaerism (increasing percentage of recipient cells), mostly in whole PB and T lymphocytes. Both patients were successfully treated with a single DLI (1 x 10(7) CD3+ cells/kg), thereafter achieving normal PB counts and BM cellularity as well as complete chimaerism. Interestingly, the only side effect observed was mild graft versus host disease that did not require treatment. In conclusion, provided that an early diagnosis is made, the graft versus host lymphohaemopoietic effect harboured by immunocompetent donor cells can be successfully used for the treatment of incipient graft rejection.

  4. Eosinophilic Pustular Folliculitis in Children after Stem Cell Transplantation: An Eruption Distinct from Graft-Versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Theiler, Martin; Oza, Vikash S; Mathes, Erin F; Dvorak, Christopher C; McCalmont, Timothy H; Yeh, Iwei; Sidbury, Robert; Cordoro, Kelly M

    2017-03-20

    Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (EPF) is a rare cutaneous disorder that typically occurs in three clinical contexts: men, individuals who are immunosuppressed or have human immunodeficiency virus, and infants. A fourth subtype occurring 2 to 3 months after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has recently been described in several adults. We report two cases of EPF arising in children after HSCT. It is important to recognize this form of EPF after HSCT and differentiate it from graft-versus-host disease since it responds readily to topical steroids and appears to have an excellent prognosis.

  5. Bilateral Inflammatory Optic Neuropathy Related to Graft versus Host Disease Following Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation for Hodgkin Disease.

    PubMed

    Moesen, I; Kidd, D P

    2014-01-01

    Graft versus host disease (GvHD) is a common and often troublesome complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Neurological complications usually involve the peripheral nervous system and muscle, but the central nervous system may be affected. When an optic neuropathy develops, it is often difficult to determine the cause quickly; infective complications and drug toxicity may have arisen, but an inflammatory disorder due to GvHD should also be considered, particularly since treatment with steroids and immune suppression may improve the outcome significantly. This brief case report shows how this may be the case and reviews our current understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of the disorder within the nervous system.

  6. Severe oral chronic graft-versus-host disease following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: highly effective treatment with topical tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Eckardt, André; Starke, Oliver; Stadler, Michael; Reuter, Christoph; Hertenstein, Bernd

    2004-09-01

    Oral involvement of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a most distressing and disabling complication of hematopoietic cell transplantation, for which systemic immunosuppression as well as topical corticosteroid treatment may offer only limited symptomatic relief. Here we report encouraging preliminary results with the application of tacrolimus (FK-506) as a 0.1% ointment in three patients with severe oral chronic GvHD, heavily pretreated without success, who experienced rapid, consistent, complete or at least marked, subjective and objective improvement with topical tacrolimus.

  7. In Vivo Imaging of Differences in Early Donor Cell Proliferation in Graft-Versus-Host Disease Hosts with Different Pre-Conditioning Doses

    PubMed Central

    Song, Myung Geun; Kang, Bora; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Chang, Jun; Lee, Seungbok; Min, Chang-Ki; Youn, Hyewon; Choi, Eun Young

    2012-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) results from immune-mediated attacks on recipient tissues by donor-originated cells through the recognition of incompatible antigens expressed on host cells. The pre-conditioning irradiation dose is a risk factor influencing GVHD severity. In this study, using newly generated luciferase transgenic mice on a B6 background (B6.LucTg) as bone marrow and splenocyte donors, we explored the effects of irradiation doses on donor cell dynamics in major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-matched allogeneic GVHD hosts via bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Results from BLI of GVHD hosts showed higher emission intensities of luminescence signals from hosts irradiated with 900 cGy as compared with those irradiated with 400 cGy. In particular, BLI signals from target organs, such as the spleen, liver, and lung, and several different lymph nodes fluctuated with similar time kinetics soon after transplantation, reflecting the synchronous proliferation of donor cells in the different organs in hosts irradiated with 900 cGy. The kinetic curves of the BLI signals were not synchronized between the target organs and the secondary organs in hosts irradiated with 400 cGy. These results demonstrate that pre-conditioning doses influence the kinetics and degree of proliferation in the target organs soon after transplantation. The results from this study are the first describing donor cell dynamics in MHC-matched allogeneic GVHD hosts and the influence of irradiation doses on proliferation dynamics, and will provide spatiotemporal information to help understand GVHD pathophysiology. PMID:22228184

  8. Large-scale preparation of human anti-third-party veto cytotoxic T lymphocytes depleted of graft-versus-host reactivity: a new source for graft facilitating cells in bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Aviner, Shraga; Yao, Xin; Krauthgamer, Rita; Gan, Yehudit; Goren-Arbel, Rinat; Klein, Tirza; Tabilio, Antonio; McMannis, John D; Champlin, Richard; Martelli, Massimo F; Bachar-Lustig, Esther; Reisner, Yair

    2005-06-01

    Induction of donor type chimerism in mildly prepared hosts without graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a most desirable goal in bone morrow transplantation. We have recently demonstrated in a mouse model that donor veto cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) can facilitate the induction of donor type chimerism in sublethally irradiated recipients without causing GvHD if they are effectively depleted of alloreactivity against host cells by means of stimulation against a third party. We extend this approach to human cells, by preparing CTLs in two major steps: primary culture in the absence of interleukin 2, leading to death by neglect of antihost clones, and addition of interleukin 2 and subsequent dilution of antihost clones as a consequence of the expansion of the anti-third-party clones. CTLs prepared in this way specifically suppress host cytotoxic T cells directed against antigens of the donor, but not against fourth-party antigens, as demonstrated in a standard (51)Cr release assay. We conclude that human anti-third-party CTLs afford a new source of veto cells that are depleted of potential graft-versus-host-reactive clones. The cells generated by this approach could potentially be used to facilitate engraftment of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells.

  9. Pentraxin 3 plasma levels at graft-versus-host disease onset predict disease severity and response to therapy in children given haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Dander, Erica; De Lorenzo, Paola; Bottazzi, Barbara; Quarello, Paola; Vinci, Paola; Balduzzi, Adriana; Masciocchi, Francesca; Bonanomi, Sonia; Cappuzzello, Claudia; Prunotto, Giulia; Pavan, Fabio; Pasqualini, Fabio; Sironi, Marina; Cuccovillo, Ivan; Leone, Roberto; Salvatori, Giovanni; Parma, Matteo; Terruzzi, Elisabetta; Pagni, Fabio; Locatelli, Franco; Mantovani, Alberto; Fagioli, Franca; Biondi, Andrea; Garlanda, Cecilia; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Rovelli, Attilio; D'Amico, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease (GvHD) remains a major complication of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, with a significant proportion of patients failing to respond to first-line systemic corticosteroids. Reliable biomarkers predicting disease severity and response to treatment are warranted to improve its management. Thus, we sought to determine whether pentraxin 3 (PTX3), an acute-phase protein produced locally at the site of inflammation, could represent a novel acute GvHD biomarker. Using a murine model of the disease, we found increased PTX3 plasma levels after irradiation and at GvHD onset. Similarly, plasma PTX3 was enhanced in 115 pediatric patients on day of transplantation, likely due to conditioning, and at GvHD onset in patients experiencing clinical symptoms of the disease. PTX3 was also found increased in skin and colon biopsies from patients with active disease. Furthermore, PTX3 plasma levels at GvHD onset were predictive of disease outcome since they resulted significantly higher in both severe and therapy-unresponsive patients. Multiple injections of rhPTX3 in the murine model of GvHD did not influence the disease course. Taken together, our results indicate that PTX3 constitutes a biomarker of GvHD severity and therapy response useful to tailor treatment intensity according to early risk-stratification of GvHD patients. PMID:27893415

  10. The role of pattern-recognition receptors in graft-versus-host disease and graft-versus-leukemia after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Heidegger, Simon; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Haas, Tobias; Poeck, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is the only treatment with curative potential for certain aggressive hematopoietic malignancies. Its success is limited by acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a life-threatening complication that occurs when allo-reactive donor T cells attack recipient organs. There is growing evidence that microbes and innate pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) such as toll-like receptors (TLR) and nod-like receptors (NLR) are critically involved in the pathogenesis of acute GVHD. Currently, a widely accepted model postulates that intensive chemotherapy and/or total-body irradiation during pre-transplant conditioning results in tissue damage and a loss of epithelial barrier function. Subsequent translocation of bacterial components as well as release of endogenous danger molecules stimulate PRRs of host antigen-presenting cells to trigger the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (cytokine storm) that modulate T cell allo-reactivity against host tissues, but eventually also the beneficial graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. Given the limitations of existing immunosuppressive therapies, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern GVHD versus GVL is urgently needed. This may ultimately allow to design modulators, which protect from GvHD but preserve donor T-cell attack on hematologic malignancies. Here, we will briefly summarize current knowledge about the role of innate immunity in the pathogenesis of GVHD and GVL following allo-HSCT.

  11. TCRVα usage by effector CD4+Vβ11+ T cells mediating graft-versus-host disease directed to minor histocompatibility antigens

    PubMed Central

    DiRienzo, Christine G.; Murphy, George F.; Friedman, Thea M.; Korngold, Robert

    2007-01-01

    T cell receptor (TCR) Vα (TRAV) and Vβ (TRBV) chains provide the T cell specificity for recognition of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-bound antigens. However, there is limited information on the diversity of TRAV usage within an antigen response. Previous investigation of CD4+ T cell-mediated graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in the minor histocompatibility antigen (miHA)-mismatched C57BL/6 (B6) -> BALB.B irradiated murine model determined that Vβ11+ T cells were involved in the severity of disease. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based complementarity determining region-3 (CDR3)-size spectratype analysis of B6 Vβ11+ T cells from the spleens of recipient BALB.B mice undergoing GVHD indicated biased usage within the Vα6, 9, 13, 14, 18, and 22 families. In order to probe deeper into this limited Vα response, the current study was undertaken to further define TRAV-Jα (TRAJ) nucleotide sequences found in host-presensitized B6 Vβ11+ T cells proliferating in response to in vitro stimulation with BALB.B splenocytes. Using the nonpalindromic adaptor-PCR method, we found dominant usage of the TRAV13-TRAJ16 transcript combination. Then, using laser capture microdissection (LMD), we found use of the identical TRAV-TRAJ nucleotide sequence in areas dominated by infiltrating Vβ11+ CD4+ T cells during development of GVHD in both the rete-like prominences of the dorsal lingual epithelium and the ileal crypts of the small intestine. PMID:17317580

  12. T-cell receptor V(alpha) usage by effector CD4+Vbeta11+ T cells mediating graft-versus-host disease directed to minor histocompatibility antigens.

    PubMed

    DiRienzo, Christine G; Murphy, George F; Friedman, Thea M; Korngold, Robert

    2007-03-01

    T-cell receptor (TCR) Valpha (TRAV) and Vbeta (TRBV) chains provide the T-cell specificity for recognition of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-bound antigens. However, there is limited information on the diversity of TRAV use within an antigen response. Previous investigation of CD4(+) T-cell-mediated graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in the minor histocompatibility antigen-mismatched C57BL/6 (B6)-->BALB.B irradiated murine model determined that Vbeta11(+) T cells were associated with disease severity. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3)-sized spectratype analysis of B6 Vbeta11(+) T cells from the spleens of recipient BALB.B mice undergoing GVHD indicated biased use within the V(alpha)6, 9, 13, 14, 18, and 22 families. To probe deeper into this limited V(alpha) response, the current study was undertaken to further define TRAV-Jalpha (TRAJ) nucleotide sequences found in host-presensitized B6 Vbeta11(+) T cells proliferating in response to in vitro stimulation with BALB.B splenocytes. Using the nonpalindromic adaptor PCR method, we found dominant use of the TRAV13-TRAJ16 transcript combination. Then, using laser capture microdissection, we found use of the identical TRAV-TRAJ nucleotide sequence in areas dominated by infiltrating Vbeta11(+) CD4(+) T cells during the development of GVHD in both the rete-like prominences of the dorsal lingual epithelium and the ileal crypts of the small intestine.

  13. Identification of stem cell transcriptional programs normally expressed in embryonic and neural stem cells in alloreactive CD8+ T cells mediating graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Koji; Cui, Shuaiying; Kuick, Rork; Mineishi, Shin; Hexner, Elizabeth; Ferrara, James LM; Emerson, Stephen G.; Zhang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    A hallmark of graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD), a life-threatening complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, is the cytopathic injury of host tissues mediated by persistent alloreactive effector T cells (TE). However, the mechanisms that regulate the persistence of alloreactive TE during GVHD remain largely unknown. Using mouse GVHD models, we demonstrate that alloreactive CD8+ TE rapidly diminished in vivo when adoptively transferred into irradiated secondary congenic recipient mice. In contrast, although alloreactive CD8+ TE underwent massive apoptosis upon chronic exposure to alloantigens, they proliferated in vivo in secondary allogeneic recipients, persisted and caused severe GVHD. Thus, the continuous proliferation of alloreactive CD8+ TE, which is mediated by alloantigenic stimuli rather than homeostatic factors, is critical to maintaining their persistence. Gene expression profile analysis revealed that while alloreactive CD8+ TE increased the expression of genes associated with cell death, they activated a group of stem cell genes normally expressed in embryonic and neural stem cells. Most of these stem cell genes are associated with cell cycle regulation, DNA replication, chromatin modification and transcription. One of these genes, Ezh2, which encodes a chromatin modifying enzyme, was abundantly expressed in CD8+ TE. Silencing Ezh2 significantly reduced the proliferation of alloantigen-activated CD8+ T cells. Thus, these findings identify that a group of stem cell genes could play important roles in sustaining terminally differentiated alloreactive CD8+ TE and may be therapeutic targets for controlling GVHD. PMID:20116439

  14. Bioimaging for the monitoring of the in vivo distribution of infused mesenchymal stem cells in a mouse model of the graft-versus-host reaction.

    PubMed

    Joo, Sun-Young; Cho, Kyung-Ah; Jung, Yun-Jae; Kim, Han-seong; Park, Seong-Yeol; Choi, Yong-Bock; Hong, Kyung-man; Woo, So-Youn; Seoh, Ju-Young; Ryu, Kyung-Ha

    2011-04-01

    Cell therapy using MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells) might be effective treatment for refractory GVHD (graft-versus-host disease). However, the fate and distribution of MSCs after transplantation remains unclear. In this study, an animal model was developed to monitor the dynamic distribution of MSCs in mice with GVHD. A GVHD mouse model was established by transplanting C57BL/6 donor bone marrow cells and C57BL/6 EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) splenocytes into lethally irradiated BALB/c nude recipient mice. Donor MSCs were obtained from MHC-identical C57BL/6 RFP (red fluorescent protein) mice and infused into the recipient mice on the same transplantation day. In vivo movement of the donor splenocytes (EGFP) and MSCs (RFP) were evaluated by measuring the biofluorescence (IVIS-Xenogen system). Donor splenocytes and MSCs reached the lungs first, and then the gastrointestinal tract, lymph nodes and skin, in that order; the transit time and localization site of these cells were very similar. In the recipient mouse with GVHD, the number of detectable cells declined with time, as assessed by biofluorescence imaging and confirmed by RT (real-time)-PCR. This bioimaging system might be useful for preclinical testing and the design of therapeutic strategies for monitoring the dynamic distribution of MSCs with GVHD.

  15. Pentraxin 3 plasma levels at graft-versus-host disease onset predict disease severity and response to therapy in children given haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dander, Erica; De Lorenzo, Paola; Bottazzi, Barbara; Quarello, Paola; Vinci, Paola; Balduzzi, Adriana; Masciocchi, Francesca; Bonanomi, Sonia; Cappuzzello, Claudia; Prunotto, Giulia; Pavan, Fabio; Pasqualini, Fabio; Sironi, Marina; Cuccovillo, Ivan; Leone, Roberto; Salvatori, Giovanni; Parma, Matteo; Terruzzi, Elisabetta; Pagni, Fabio; Locatelli, Franco; Mantovani, Alberto; Fagioli, Franca; Biondi, Andrea; Garlanda, Cecilia; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Rovelli, Attilio; D'Amico, Giovanna

    2016-12-13

    Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease (GvHD) remains a major complication of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, with a significant proportion of patients failing to respond to first-line systemic corticosteroids. Reliable biomarkers predicting disease severity and response to treatment are warranted to improve its management. Thus, we sought to determine whether pentraxin 3 (PTX3), an acute-phase protein produced locally at the site of inflammation, could represent a novel acute GvHD biomarker. Using a murine model of the disease, we found increased PTX3 plasma levels after irradiation and at GvHD onset. Similarly, plasma PTX3 was enhanced in 115 pediatric patients on day of transplantation, likely due to conditioning, and at GvHD onset in patients experiencing clinical symptoms of the disease. PTX3 was also found increased in skin and colon biopsies from patients with active disease. Furthermore, PTX3 plasma levels at GvHD onset were predictive of disease outcome since they resulted significantly higher in both severe and therapy-unresponsive patients. Multiple injections of rhPTX3 in the murine model of GvHD did not influence the disease course. Taken together, our results indicate that PTX3 constitutes a biomarker of GvHD severity and therapy response useful to tailor treatment intensity according to early risk-stratification of GvHD patients.

  16. EASIX in patients with acute graft-versus-host disease: a retrospective cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Luft, Thomas; Benner, Axel; Jodele, Sonata; Dandoy, Christopher E; Storb, Rainer; Gooley, Ted; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Becker, Natalia; Radujkovic, Aleksandar; Dreger, Peter; Penack, Olaf

    2017-09-01

    Endothelial dysfunction links thrombotic microangiopathy to steroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation. We aimed to assess if the simple formula-lactate dehydrogenase (U/L) × creatinine (mg/dL)/thrombocytes (10(9) cells per L)-termed the Endothelial Activation and Stress Index (EASIX), might be valuable for the prediction of death in patients with acute GVHD after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation. For this retrospective analysis, we analysed a training cohort (in Germany) and three validation cohorts (in Germany and the USA) of patients with acute GVHD who had received consecutive allogeneic stem-cell transplantation. The primary endpoint was prediction of overall survival when measured at acute GVHD onset (EASIX-GVHD). We validated the prognostic strength of EASIX-GVHD for overall survival and non-relapse mortality in the three independent cohorts by calculating the prediction error (integrated Brier score), and concordance index. In the total cohort of patients with acute GVHD (n=311), EASIX-GVHD predicted overall survival in univariable and multivariable models (univariate analysis, hazard ratio [HR] for a one-fold increase 1·16, 95% CI 1·12-1·20, p=0·0004). However, in the subpopulation of patients with myeloablative conditioning (n=72), EASIX-GVHD did not predict overall survival, which is probably attributable to thrombocytopenia at GVHD onset (73 × 10(9) cells per L [IQR 29·75-180·00] for myeloablative conditioning vs 160 × 10(9) cells per L [90·0-250·5] for reduced-intensity conditioning; p<0·0001). In patients who received reduced-intensity conditioning (n=239), EASIX-GVHD was a strong predictor of overall survival (HR for a two-fold change of 1·23, 95% CI 1·13-1·34; p<0·0001) and non-relapse mortality (cause-specific HR for a two-fold change of 1·24, 1·12-1·38; p<0·0001). Model validation for prediction of overall survival and non-relapse mortality by EASIX-GVHD was

  17. Expression of Serum microRNAs is Altered During Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Crossland, Rachel E.; Norden, Jean; Juric, Mateja Kralj; Green, Kile; Pearce, Kim F.; Lendrem, Clare; Greinix, Hildegard T.; Dickinson, Anne M.

    2017-01-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) is the most frequent and serious complication following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), with a high mortality rate. A clearer understanding of the molecular pathogenesis may allow for improved therapeutic options or guide personalized prophylactic protocols. Circulating microRNAs are expressed in body fluids and have recently been associated with the etiology of aGvHD, but global expression profiling in a HSCT setting is lacking. This study profiled expression of n = 799 mature microRNAs in patient serum, using the NanoString platform, to identify microRNAs that showed altered expression at aGvHD diagnosis. Selected microRNAs (n = 10) were replicated in independent cohorts of serum samples taken at aGvHD diagnosis (n = 42) and prior to disease onset (day 14 post-HSCT, n = 47) to assess their prognostic potential. Sera from patients without aGvHD were used as controls. Differential microRNAs were investigated in silico for predicted networks and mRNA targets. Expression analysis identified 61 microRNAs that were differentially expressed at aGvHD diagnosis. miR-146a (p = 0.03), miR-30b-5p (p = 0.007), miR-374-5p (p = 0.02), miR-181a (p = 0.03), miR-20a (p = 0.03), and miR-15a (p = 0.03) were significantly verified in an independent cohort (n = 42). miR-146a (p = 0.01), miR-20a (p = 0.03), miR-18 (p = 0.03), miR-19a (p = 0.03), miR-19b (p = 0.01), and miR-451 (p = 0.01) were differentially expressed 14 days post-HSCT in patients who later developed aGvHD (n = 47). High miR-19b expression was associated with improved overall survival (OS) (p = 0.008), whereas high miR-20a and miR-30b-5p were associated with lower rates of non-relapse mortality (p = 0.05 and p = 0.008) and improved OS (p = 0.016 and p = 0.021). Pathway analysis associated the candidate microRNAs with hematological and inflammatory disease. Circulating

  18. Homeostatic expansion and repertoire regeneration of donor T cells during graft versus host disease is constrained by the host environment

    PubMed Central

    Gorski, Jack; Chen, Xiao; Gendelman, Mariya; Yassai, Maryam; Krueger, Ashley; Tivol, Elizabeth; Logan, Brent; Komorowski, Richard; Vodanovic-Jankovic, Sanja

    2007-01-01

    Graft versus host disease (GVHD) typically results in impaired T-cell reconstitution characterized by lymphopenia and repertoire skewing. One of the major causes of inadequate T-cell reconstitution is that T-cell survival and expansion in the periphery are impaired. In this report, we have performed adoptive transfer studies to determine whether the quantitative reduction in T-cell numbers is due to an intrinsic T-cell defect or whether the environmental milieu deleteriously affects T-cell expansion. These studies demonstrate that T cells obtained from animals with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) are capable of significant expansion and renormalization of an inverted CD4/CD8 ratio when they are removed from this environment. Moreover, these cells can generate complex T-cell repertoires early after transplantation and are functionally competent to respond to third-party alloantigens. Our data indicate that T cells from mice undergoing GVHD can respond to homeostatic signals in the periphery and are not intrinsically compromised once they are removed from the GVHD environment. We thereby conclude that the host environment and not an intrinsic T-cell defect is primarily responsible for the lack of effective T-cell expansion and diversification of complex T-cell repertoires that occurs during GVHD. PMID:17347406

  19. The immunological phenotype of rituximab-sensitive chronic graft-versus-host disease: a phase II study.

    PubMed

    van Dorp, Suzanne; Resemann, Henrike; te Boome, Liane; Pietersma, Floor; van Baarle, Debbie; Gmelig-Meyling, Frits; de Weger, Roel; Petersen, Eefke; Minnema, Monique; Lokhorst, Henk; Ebeling, Saskia; Beijn, Scott J P; Knol, Edward F; van Dijk, Marijke; Meijer, Ellen; Kuball, Jürgen

    2011-09-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease is the major long-term complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation with a suboptimal response rate to current treatments. Therefore, clinical efficacy and changes in lymphocyte subsets before and after rituximab treatment were evaluated in a prospective phase II study in patients with steroid-refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease. Overall response rate was 61%. Only responding patients were found to have increased B-cell numbers prior to treatment. B cells had a naïve-antigen-presenting phenotype and were mainly CD5 negative or had a low CD5 expression. Normal B-cell homeostasis was reestablished in responding patients one year after ritxumab treatment and associated with a significant decline in skin-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells, suggesting that host B cells play a role in maintaining pathological CD8(+) T-cell responses. Imbalances in B-cell homeostasis could be used to identify patients a priori with a higher chance of response to rituximab treatment (Eudra-CT 2008-004125-42).

  20. The immunological phenotype of rituximab-sensitive chronic graft-versus-host disease: a phase II study

    PubMed Central

    van Dorp, Suzanne; Resemann, Henrike; te Boome, Liane; Pietersma, Floor; van Baarle, Debbie; Gmelig-Meyling, Frits; de Weger, Roel; Petersen, Eefke; Minnema, Monique; Lokhorst, Henk; Ebeling, Saskia; Beijn, Scott J.P.; Knol, Edward F.; van Dijk, Marijke; Meijer, Ellen; Kuball, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease is the major long-term complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation with a suboptimal response rate to current treatments. Therefore, clinical efficacy and changes in lymphocyte subsets before and after rituximab treatment were evaluated in a prospective phase II study in patients with steroid-refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease. Overall response rate was 61%. Only responding patients were found to have increased B-cell numbers prior to treatment. B cells had a naïve-antigen-presenting phenotype and were mainly CD5 negative or had a low CD5 expression. Normal B-cell homeostasis was reestablished in responding patients one year after ritxumab treatment and associated with a significant decline in skin-infiltrating CD8+ T cells, suggesting that host B cells play a role in maintaining pathological CD8+ T-cell responses. Imbalances in B-cell homeostasis could be used to identify patients a priori with a higher chance of response to rituximab treatment (Eudra-CT 2008-004125-42). PMID:21546493

  1. Noninvasive Imaging of Human Immune Responses in a Human Xenograft Model of Graft-Versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Van Elssen, Catharina H M J; Rashidian, Mohammad; Vrbanac, Vladimir; Wucherpfennig, Kai W; Habre, Zeina El; Sticht, Jana; Freund, Christian; Jacobsen, Johanne T; Cragnolini, Juanjo; Ingram, Jessica; Plaisier, Loes; Spierings, Eric; Tager, Andrew M; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2017-06-01

    The immune system plays a crucial role in many diseases. Activation or suppression of immunity is often related to clinical outcome. Methods to explore the dynamics of immune responses are important to elucidate their role in conditions characterized by inflammation, such as infectious disease, cancer, or autoimmunity. Immuno-PET is a noninvasive method by which disease and immune cell infiltration can be explored simultaneously. Using radiolabeled antibodies or fragments derived from them, it is possible to image disease-specific antigens and immune cell subsets. Methods: We developed a method to noninvasively image human immune responses in a relevant humanized mouse model. We generated a camelid-derived single-domain antibody specific for human class II major histocompatibility complex products and used it to noninvasively image human immune cell reconstitution in nonobese diabetic severe combined immune deficiency γ-/- mice reconstituted with human fetal thymus, liver, and liver-derived hematopoietic stem cells (BLT mice). Results: We showed imaging of infiltrating immunocytes in BLT mice that spontaneously developed a graft-versus-host-like condition, characterized by alopecia and blepharitis. In diseased animals, we showed an increased PET signal in the liver, attributable to infiltration of activated class II major histocompatibility complex(+) T cells. Conclusion: Noninvasive imaging of immune infiltration and activation could thus be of importance for diagnosis and evaluation of treatment of graft-versus-host disease and holds promise for other diseases characterized by inflammation. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  2. A fast and fatal course of bronchiectasis: an unusual rare expression of chronic graft versus host disease. A case report

    PubMed Central

    Violeta, Labžentytė; Silvija, Zemnickienė; Edvardas, Danila; Virginija, Šileikienė; Rolandas, Zablockis; Vygantas, Gruslys

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. We report a case of a patient with acute myeloid leukaemia whose treatment with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) was followed by chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) with lung involvement and bronchiectasis. This report illustrates an unusual course of a fast progression of the bronchiectasis due to BMT. Case description. A 33-year-old female was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukaemia. An allogeneic BMT was performed. One month after the transplantation, acute GVHD with skin involvement occurred. Treatment with prednisolone and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has been started. Nine months later, the patient was examined by a pulmonologist due to progressive dyspnoea. A pulmonary computed tomography (CT) scan showed normal parenchyma of the lungs and no changes to the bronchi. A CT scan performed 7 months later revealed bronchiectasis for the first time. No clinical response was associated with the treatment and the patient’s respiratory status progressively deteriorated. During the final hospitalization, a CT scan performed 1 year later revealed huge cystic bronchiectasis in both lungs. Despite the prophylaxis and treatment of GVHD and aggressive antimicrobial therapy, the patient died one year after the diagnosis of bronchiectasis. Conclusions. This case demonstrates that a fast and fatal course of bronchiectasis, that occurs after BMT, should always be considered as a possible manifestation of chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) following allogeneic BMT.

  3. Selective blockade of herpesvirus entry mediator-B and T lymphocyte attenuator pathway ameliorates acute graft-versus-host reaction.

    PubMed

    del Rio, Maria-Luisa; Jones, Nick D; Buhler, Leo; Norris, Paula; Shintani, Yasushi; Ware, Carl F; Rodriguez-Barbosa, Jose-Ignacio

    2012-05-15

    The cosignaling network mediated by the herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM; TNFRSF14) functions as a dual directional system that involves proinflammatory ligand, lymphotoxin that exhibits inducible expression and competes with HSV glycoprotein D for HVEM, a receptor expressed by T lymphocytes (LIGHT; TNFSF14), and the inhibitory Ig family member B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA). To dissect the differential contributions of HVEM/BTLA and HVEM/LIGHT interactions, topographically-specific, competitive, and nonblocking anti-HVEM Abs that inhibit BTLA binding, but not LIGHT, were developed. We demonstrate that a BTLA-specific competitor attenuated the course of acute graft-versus-host reaction in a murine F(1) transfer semiallogeneic model. Selective HVEM/BTLA blockade did not inhibit donor T cell infiltration into graft-versus-host reaction target organs, but decreased the functional activity of the alloreactive T cells. These results highlight the critical role of HVEM/BTLA pathway in the control of the allogeneic immune response and identify a new therapeutic target for transplantation and autoimmune diseases.

  4. Selective Blockade of Herpesvirus Entry Mediator–B and T Lymphocyte Attenuator Pathway Ameliorates Acute Graft-versus-Host Reaction

    PubMed Central

    del Rio, Maria-Luisa; Jones, Nick D.; Buhler, Leo; Norris, Paula; Shintani, Yasushi; Ware, Carl F.; Rodriguez-Barbosa, Jose-Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    The cosignaling network mediated by the herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM; TNFRSF14) functions as a dual directional system that involves proinflammatory ligand, lymphotoxin that exhibits inducible expression and competes with HSV glycoprotein D for HVEM, a receptor expressed by T lymphocytes (LIGHT; TNFSF14), and the inhibitory Ig family member B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA). To dissect the differential contributions of HVEM/BTLA and HVEM/LIGHT interactions, topographically-specific, competitive, and nonblocking anti-HVEM Abs that inhibit BTLA binding, but not LIGHT, were developed. We demonstrate that a BTLA-specific competitor attenuated the course of acute graft-versus-host reaction in a murine F1 transfer semiallogeneic model. Selective HVEM/BTLA blockade did not inhibit donor T cell infiltration into graft-versus-host reaction target organs, but decreased the functional activity of the alloreactive T cells. These results highlight the critical role of HVEM/BTLA pathway in the control of the allogeneic immune response and identify a new therapeutic target for transplantation and autoimmune diseases. PMID:22490863

  5. Rapid engraftment without significant graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic transplantation of CD34+ selected cells from peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Urbano-Ispizua, A; Rozman, C; Martínez, C; Marín, P; Briones, J; Rovira, M; Féliz, P; Viguria, M C; Merino, A; Sierra, J; Mazzara, R; Carreras, E; Montserrat, E

    1997-06-01

    We have prospectively evaluated the feasibility and results of the biotin-avidin immunoadsorption method (Ceprate SC system) for a phase I/II study of T-cell depletion of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) for allogeneic transplantation. Twenty consecutive patients, median age, 40 years (21 to 54) and diagnoses of chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (n = 5), acute myeloblastic leukemia (n = 7), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 2), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (n = 1), refractory anemia with excess of blasts in transformation (n = 3), histiocytosis X (n = 1), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n = 1), were conditioned with cyclophosphamide (120 mg/kg) and total body irradiation (13 Gy; 4 fractions). HLA identical sibling donors received G-CSF at 10 microg/kg/d subcutaneously (SC); on days 5 and 6 (19 cases) and days 5 to 8 (1 case) donors underwent 10 L leukapheresis. PBPC were purified by positive selection of CD34+ cells using immunoadsorption biotin-avidin method (Ceprate SC) and were infused in the patients as the sole source of progenitor cells. No growth factors were administered posttransplant. The median recovery of CD34+ cells after the procedure was of 65%. The median number of CD34+ cells infused in the patients was 2.9 (range, 1.5 to 8.6) x 10(6)/kg. The median number of CD3+ cells administered was 0.42 x 10(6)/kg (range, 0.1 to 2). All patients engrafted. Neutrophil counts >500 and >1,000/microL were achieved at a median of 14 days (range, 10 to 18) and 15 days (range, 11 to 27), respectively. Likewise, platelet counts >20,000 and >50,000/microL were observed at a median of 10 days (range, 6 to 23) and 17 days (range, 12 to 130), respectively. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of cyclosporine plus methylprednisolone. No patient developed either grade II to IV acute or extensive chronic GVHD. After a median follow-up of 7.5 months (range, 2 to 22) three patients

  6. Aberrant germinal center formation, follicular T-helper cells, and germinal center B-cells were involved in chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Shao, Liang; Lie, Albert K W; Zhang, You; Wong, Cheuk-Hong; Kwong, Yok-Lam

    2015-09-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is an important complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To define the roles of T-cells and B-cells in cGVHD, a murine minor histocompatibility complex-mismatched HSCT model was used. Depletion of donor splenocyte CD4(+) T-cells and B220(+) B-cells alleviated cGVHD. Allogeneic recipients had significantly increased splenic germinal centers (GCs), with significant increases in follicular T-helper (Tfh) cells and GC B-cells. There were increased expressions in Tfh cells of inducible T-cell co-stimulator (ICOS), interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-17, and in GC B-cells of B-cell activating factor receptor and ICOS ligand. Depletion of donor splenocyte CD4(+) T-cells abrogated aberrant GC formation and suppressed Tfh cells and GC B-cells. Interestingly, depletion of donor splenocyte B200(+) B-cells also suppressed Tfh cells in addition to GC B-cells. These results suggested that in cGVHD, both Tfh and GC B-cells were involved, and their developments were mutually dependent. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus was effective in suppressing cGVHD, Tfh cells, and GC B-cells, either as a prophylaxis or when cGVHD had established. These results implied that therapeutic targeting of both T-cells and B-cells in cGVHD might be effective. Signaling via mTOR may be another useful target in cGVHD.

  7. High-risk HLA alleles for severe acute graft-versus-host disease and mortality in unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Morishima, Satoko; Kashiwase, Koichi; Matsuo, Keitaro; Azuma, Fumihiro; Yabe, Toshio; Sato-Otsubo, Aiko; Ogawa, Seishi; Shiina, Takashi; Satake, Masahiro; Saji, Hiroh; Kato, Shunichi; Kodera, Yoshihisa; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Morishima, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    HLA molecules play an important role for immunoreactivity in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To elucidate the effect of specific HLA alleles on acute graft-versus-host disease, we conducted a retrospective analysis using 6967 Japanese patients transplanted with T-cell-replete marrow from an unrelated donor. Using unbiased searches of patient and donor HLA alleles, patient and/or donor HLA-B*51:01 (patient: HR, 1.37, P<0.001; donor: HR, 1.35, P<0.001) and patient HLA-C*14:02 (HR, 1.35, P<0.001) were significantly associated with an increased risk of severe acute graft-versus-host disease. The finding that donor HLA-C*14:02 was not associated with severe acute graft-versus-host disease prompted us to elucidate the relation of these high-risk HLA alleles with patient and donor HLA-C allele mismatches. In comparison to HLA-C allele match, patient mismatched HLA-C*14:02 showed the highest risk of severe acute graft-versus-host disease (HR, 3.61, P<0.001) and transplant-related mortality (HR, 2.53, P<0.001) among all patient mismatched HLA-C alleles. Although patient HLA-C*14:02 and donor HLA-C*15:02 mismatch was usually KIR2DL-ligand mismatch in the graft-versus-host direction, the risk of patient mismatched HLA-C*14:02 for severe acute graft-versus-host disease was obvious regardless of KIR2DL-ligand matching. The effect of patient and/or donor HLA-B*51:01 on acute graft-versus-host disease was attributed not only to strong linkage disequilibrium of HLA-C*14:02 and -B*51:01, but also to the effect of HLA-B*51:01 itself. With regard to clinical implications, patient mismatched HLA-C*14:02 proved to be a potent risk factor for severe acute graft-versus-host disease and mortality, and should be considered a non-permissive HLA-C mismatch in donor selection for unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:26768690

  8. Histopathologic diagnosis of chronic graft-versus-host disease: National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Project on Criteria for Clinical Trials in Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease: II. Pathology Working Group Report.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Howard M; Kleiner, David; Lee, Stephanie J; Morton, Thomas; Pavletic, Steven Z; Farmer, Evan; Moresi, J Margaret; Greenson, Joel; Janin, Anne; Martin, Paul J; McDonald, George; Flowers, Mary E D; Turner, Maria; Atkinson, Jane; Lefkowitch, Jay; Washington, M Kay; Prieto, Victor G; Kim, Stella K; Argenyi, Zsolt; Diwan, A Hafeez; Rashid, Asif; Hiatt, Kim; Couriel, Dan; Schultz, Kirk; Hymes, Sharon; Vogelsang, Georgia B

    2006-01-01

    This consensus document provides an update for pathologists and clinicians about the interpretation of biopsy results and use of this information in the management of hematopoietic cell transplantation patients. Optimal sampling and tissue preparation are discussed. Minimal criteria for the diagnosis of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) are proposed, together with specific requirements for the diagnosis of chronic GVHD. Four final diagnostic categories (no GVHD, possible GVHD, consistent with GVHD, and definite GVHD) reflect the integration of histopathology with clinical, laboratory, and radiographic information. Finally, the Working Group developed a set of worksheets to facilitate communication of clinical information to the interpreting pathologist and to aid in clinicopathologic correlation studies. Forms are available at . The recommendations of the Working Group represent a consensus opinion supplemented by evaluation of available peer-reviewed literature. Consensus recommendations and suggested data-capture forms should be validated in prospective clinicopathologic studies.

  9. Ongoing graft-versus-host disease is a risk factor for azoospermia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a survey of the Late Effects Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rovó, Alicia; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Chiodi, Sandra; Spinelli, Simonetta; Salooja, Nina; Sucak, Gülsan; Hunter, Ann; Kim, Tan Swee; Socié, Gérard; van Lint, Maria Teresa; Passweg, Jakob R; Arat, Mutlu; Badoglio, Manuela; Tichelli, André

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the degree of spermatogenesis defects in sperm analysis in long-term male survivors after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in order to identify the risk factors related to potential infertility after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and to provide data on longitudinal sperm recovery after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Here, the Late Effects Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation reports data of sperm analysis from 224 males who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Median time between transplantation and sperm analysis was 63 months (8-275 months). At last sperm analysis, presence of any degree of spermatozoa was reported in 70 (31%) and complete azoospermia in 154 (69%) patients. In multivariate analysis, being conditioned with total body irradiation (RR 7.1; 95% CI: 3.4-14.8) and age over 25 years at transplantation (RR 2.4; 95% CI: 1.09-5.2) were significantly associated with higher risk for azoospermia. In patients not conditioned with total body irradiation, ongoing chronic graft-versus-host disease is the main adverse factor for sperm recovery (RR of 3.11; 95% CI: 1.02-9.47; P=0.045). Already established risk factors, such as total body irradiation and age older than 25 years at hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, were seen to be the most relevant adverse risk factor for sperm production after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Furthermore, for the first time, ongoing graft-versus-host disease has been shown to be the most relevant adverse factor for sperm recovery, particularly in patients conditioned without total body irradiation. We also introduce a useful scoring system to predict the probability of male long-term survivors' azoospermia.

  10. Ongoing graft-versus-host disease is a risk factor for azoospermia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a survey of the Late Effects Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Rovó, Alicia; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Chiodi, Sandra; Spinelli, Simonetta; Salooja, Nina; Sucak, Gülsan; Hunter, Ann; Kim, Tan Swee; Socié, Gérard; van Lint, Maria Teresa; Passweg, Jakob R.; Arat, Mutlu; Badoglio, Manuela; Tichelli, André

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the degree of spermatogenesis defects in sperm analysis in long-term male survivors after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in order to identify the risk factors related to potential infertility after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and to provide data on longitudinal sperm recovery after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Here, the Late Effects Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation reports data of sperm analysis from 224 males who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Median time between transplantation and sperm analysis was 63 months (8–275 months). At last sperm analysis, presence of any degree of spermatozoa was reported in 70 (31%) and complete azoospermia in 154 (69%) patients. In multivariate analysis, being conditioned with total body irradiation (RR 7.1; 95% CI: 3.4–14.8) and age over 25 years at transplantation (RR 2.4; 95% CI: 1.09–5.2) were significantly associated with higher risk for azoospermia. In patients not conditioned with total body irradiation, ongoing chronic graft-versus-host disease is the main adverse factor for sperm recovery (RR of 3.11; 95% CI: 1.02–9.47; P=0.045). Already established risk factors, such as total body irradiation and age older than 25 years at hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, were seen to be the most relevant adverse risk factor for sperm production after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Furthermore, for the first time, ongoing graft-versus-host disease has been shown to be the most relevant adverse factor for sperm recovery, particularly in patients conditioned without total body irradiation. We also introduce a useful scoring system to predict the probability of male long-term survivors’ azoospermia. PMID:22929982

  11. Prediction of graft versus host disease by frequency analysis of cytotoxic T cells after unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, E; Hows, J; Man, S; Brookes, P; Mackinnon, S; Hughes, T; Avakian, O; Goldman, J M; Batchelor, J R

    1989-10-01

    HLA "matched" unrelated donor bone marrow transplants are associated with an increased incidence and severity of graft-versus-host disease in comparison with HLA-identical sibling transplants. This is presumably due to HLA and non-HLA histocompatibility differences between donor and recipient. Using a limiting dilution assay, we have previously demonstrated a relationship between cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursor frequency and HLA disparity. In this study we have compared CTL-p frequencies with clinical GVHD, and demonstrate for the first time a significant correlation (P less than 0.005) between high CTL precursor frequency prior to BMT and severity of acute GVHD after HLA A, B, DR "matched" unrelated donor transplants using T cell depleted marrow. This assay system may be of value in the final selection of HLA "matched" unrelated donors for BMT.

  12. Lichenoid exanthema mimicking graft-versus-host disease associated with obstructive lung disease in a non-transplanted patient.

    PubMed

    Eberle, Franziska Carola; Holland, Angelique; Hörster, Stefan; Vogelmeier, Claus; Hertl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Lichenoid graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is commonly observed in patients who have received donor lymphocyte infusions or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Here we report a striking case of lichenoid GVH-like exanthema in a young woman without any history of blood transfusions or BMT. A polymorphous, multiforme-like exanthema was observed after systemic antibiotic therapy of bronchitis and was initially diagnosed as drug eruption. Later on, disseminated lichenoid papules were noticed on the trunk and extremities with all histologic and clinical characteristics of lichenoid GVHD. Cutaneous GVH-like disease developed, as did obstructive lung disease. Pulmonary as well as skin disease were both refractory to various immunosuppressive therapies. The immune pathogenesis that caused the skin and lung disease in this patient remains unclear. Multiple pregnancies with two abortions with the potential induction of microchimerism may play a role in the disease pathogenesis.

  13. Amelioration of acute graft-versus-host disease by NKG2A engagement on donor T cells.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Hiroki; Yagita, Hideo; Nisizawa, Tetsuro; Izumi, Nakako; Miyaji, Chikako; Vance, Russell E; Raulet, David H; Okumura, Ko; Abo, Toru

    2005-08-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) remains a major complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, which is caused by donor T cells specific for host alloantigens. In a murine model, we found that donor T cells expressed a natural killer cell inhibitory receptor, CD94/NKG2A, during the course of aGVHD. Administration of an anti-NKG2A mAb markedly inhibited the expansion of donor T cells and ameliorated the aGVHD pathologies. These results suggested that the CD94/NKG2A inhibitory receptor expressed on host-reactive donor T cells can be a novel target for the amelioration of aGVHD.

  14. Liver transplantation for chronic graft-versus-host disease: case report with 10-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Giuseppe; Ferrant, Augustin; Schots, Rik; Goffette, Pierre; Mathijs, Jules; Lemaire, Julien; Danse, Etienne; Talpe, Stéphanie; Latinne, Dominique; Lerut, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a frequent complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Chronic GVHD (cGVHD) may lead to irreversible liver failure. We report a case of successful liver transplantation (LT) for end-stage liver failure because of cGVHD that had developed 22 months after BMT in a 24-year-old male. Re-transplantation was necessary 6 months later because of intrahepatic ischaemic type biliary tract lesions. He is now in excellent condition 10 years after the first transplant. This experience and the review of literature indicate that LT can cure GVHD-related chronic liver failure. Recurrent GVHD in the allograft has not yet been reported.

  15. Clinical Application of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Treatment and Prevention of Graft-versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi; Hogan, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a heterogeneous population of stromal cells with pluripotent mesenchymal differentiation potential. They have been found to have immunosuppressive properties and the ability to modulate angiogenesis and endogenous tissue repair by in vitro and animal studies. Clinical trials have examined the utility of these cells in autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. In particular, in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), multiple studies have been conducted to explore the use of MSC to treat acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and for cotransplantation with HSCT to promote HSC engraftment and prevent GVHD. We review here the results of these studies and discuss some challenges of this treatment modality in this disease setting. PMID:22190941

  16. Presentations and treatment of childhood scleroderma: localized scleroderma, eosinophilic fasciitis, systemic sclerosis, and graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Hedrich, Christian Michael; Fiebig, Barbara; Hahn, Gabriele; Suttorp, Meinolf; Gahr, Manfred

    2011-07-01

    Juvenile scleroderma is a rare connective tissue disease that involves the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Among all presentations of juvenile scleroderma, localized scleroderma (JLSc) is the most frequent, followed by systemic disease (JSSc) and eosinophilic fasciitis (EF). In posttransplantation chronic graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), scleroderma-like skin involvement can occur. Systemic forms of juvenile scleroderma and GvHD can affect the internal organs, such as the lungs, the gastrointestinal tract, the heart, and kidneys and cause disability and severe, sometimes lethal, complications. Here, the authors give an overview of different presentations of juvenile scleroderma. They report their experience with the different forms and presentations of scleroderma, diagnostic workups, treatment, and outcome of all forms of childhood scleroderma in the context of the existing literature.

  17. Bilateral Inflammatory Optic Neuropathy Related to Graft versus Host Disease Following Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation for Hodgkin Disease

    PubMed Central

    Moesen, I.; Kidd, D. P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Graft versus host disease (GvHD) is a common and often troublesome complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Neurological complications usually involve the peripheral nervous system and muscle, but the central nervous system may be affected. When an optic neuropathy develops, it is often difficult to determine the cause quickly; infective complications and drug toxicity may have arisen, but an inflammatory disorder due to GvHD should also be considered, particularly since treatment with steroids and immune suppression may improve the outcome significantly. This brief case report shows how this may be the case and reviews our current understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of the disorder within the nervous system. PMID:27928304

  18. The prevalence and prognostic value of concomitant eosinophilia in chronic graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Katrine Brandt; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Bjerrum, Ole Weis; Lindmark, Anders; Sengeløv, Henrik; Andersen, Christen Lykkegaard

    2014-03-01

    The prognostic significance of eosinophilia after myeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) remains to be established. Patients, whom developed chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) after ASCT, were included (n = 142). Eosinophil count was analyzed at cGVHD onset. We observed no significant association between EO and the grade of cGVHD, thrombocytopenia, nor extensive skin involvement. Importantly, we observed no significant association between cGVHD with concomitant eosinophilia and long-term clinical outcomes, and subgroup analyses revealed a considerable confounding effect of ongoing steroid treatment. In conclusion, we advocate that prognostic conclusions regarding cGVHD with concomitant eosinophilia after ASCT should be interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Skin explant model of human graft-versus-host disease: prediction of clinical outcome and correlation with biological risk factors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Nong; Collin, Matthew; Sviland, Lisbet; Marshall, Scott; Jackson, Graham; Schulz, Ute; Holler, Ernst; Karrer, Sigrid; Greinix, Hildegard; Elahi, Fariborz; Hromadnikova, Ilona; Dickinson, A M

    2006-02-01

    A human skin explant model has been used to predict the clinical outcome and to study the immunopathology of human graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Whether the model gives the same predictive effect for GVHD in different hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) settings has not been assessed. It is also unknown whether the skin explant result reflects the known biological risk factors for clinical GVHD. In this study, the skin explant model was used to detect graft-versus-host reactions (GVHR) in vitro for 225 eligible patient/donor pairs. The predicted skin GVHR grade was correlated with the outcome of clinical GVHD, as well as HLA matching status, sex mismatches, and patient age. In sibling HSCT under either myeloablative or reduced-intensity conditioning, a significant correlation was observed between the predicted skin GVHR and clinical GVHD (P < .001 and P = .033, respectively). In HSCT using unrelated donors, the involvement of T-cell depletion led to a sharp increase in false-positive GVHR results, and no correlation was observed between the predicted skin GVHR and clinical GVHD. The skin GVHR grade correlated significantly with the HLA matching status (HLA-matched sibling pairs, HLA-matched unrelated pairs, and HLA-unmatched unrelated pairs). Furthermore, HLA-matched sibling pairs with a female-to-male sex mismatch had a significantly higher overall skin GVHR grade and a higher ratio of high- versus low-grade skin GVHR than the sibling pairs with all other sex combinations. Patient age was not reflected in the skin explant result. In conclusion, the predictive value of the skin explant model for aGVHD varies depending on the clinical transplant protocols, such as the type of GVHD prophylaxis used. Nevertheless, the skin explant model remains a unique in vitro system that provides an in situ histopathologic readout for studying alloreactivity and human GVHD. The model has also the potential to aid the development of novel prophylaxis and treatment for

  20. Expression Profiling of Major Histocompatibility and Natural Killer Complex Genes Reveals Candidates for Controlling Risk of Graft versus Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Novota, Peter; Zinöcker, Severin; Norden, Jean; Wang, Xiao Nong; Sviland, Lisbet; Opitz, Lennart; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Dressel, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Background The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is the most important genomic region that contributes to the risk of graft versus host disease (GVHD) after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Matching of MHC class I and II genes is essential for the success of transplantation. However, the MHC contains additional genes that also contribute to the risk of developing acute GVHD. It is difficult to identify these genes by genetic association studies alone due to linkage disequilibrium in this region. Therefore, we aimed to identify MHC genes and other genes involved in the pathophysiology of GVHD by mRNA expression profiling. Methodology/Principal Findings To reduce the complexity of the task, we used genetically well-defined rat inbred strains and a rat skin explant assay, an in-vitro-model of the graft versus host reaction (GVHR), to analyze the expression of MHC, natural killer complex (NKC), and other genes in cutaneous GVHR. We observed a statistically significant and strong up or down regulation of 11 MHC, 6 NKC, and 168 genes encoded in other genomic regions, i.e. 4.9%, 14.0%, and 2.6% of the tested genes respectively. The regulation of 7 selected MHC and 3 NKC genes was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and in independent skin explant assays. In addition, similar regulations of most of the selected genes were observed in GVHD-affected skin lesions of transplanted rats and in human skin explant assays. Conclusions/Significance We identified rat and human MHC and NKC genes that are regulated during GVHR in skin explant assays and could therefore serve as biomarkers for GVHD. Several of the respective human genes, including HLA-DMB, C2, AIF1, SPR1, UBD, and OLR1, are polymorphic. These candidates may therefore contribute to the genetic risk of GVHD in patients. PMID:21305040

  1. Expression profiling of major histocompatibility and natural killer complex genes reveals candidates for controlling risk of graft versus host disease.

    PubMed

    Novota, Peter; Zinöcker, Severin; Norden, Jean; Wang, Xiao Nong; Sviland, Lisbet; Opitz, Lennart; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Rolstad, Bent; Dickinson, Anne M; Walter, Lutz; Dressel, Ralf

    2011-01-28

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is the most important genomic region that contributes to the risk of graft versus host disease (GVHD) after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Matching of MHC class I and II genes is essential for the success of transplantation. However, the MHC contains additional genes that also contribute to the risk of developing acute GVHD. It is difficult to identify these genes by genetic association studies alone due to linkage disequilibrium in this region. Therefore, we aimed to identify MHC genes and other genes involved in the pathophysiology of GVHD by mRNA expression profiling. To reduce the complexity of the task, we used genetically well-defined rat inbred strains and a rat skin explant assay, an in-vitro-model of the graft versus host reaction (GVHR), to analyze the expression of MHC, natural killer complex (NKC), and other genes in cutaneous GVHR. We observed a statistically significant and strong up or down regulation of 11 MHC, 6 NKC, and 168 genes encoded in other genomic regions, i.e. 4.9%, 14.0%, and 2.6% of the tested genes respectively. The regulation of 7 selected MHC and 3 NKC genes was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and in independent skin explant assays. In addition, similar regulations of most of the selected genes were observed in GVHD-affected skin lesions of transplanted rats and in human skin explant assays. We identified rat and human MHC and NKC genes that are regulated during GVHR in skin explant assays and could therefore serve as biomarkers for GVHD. Several of the respective human genes, including HLA-DMB, C2, AIF1, SPR1, UBD, and OLR1, are polymorphic. These candidates may therefore contribute to the genetic risk of GVHD in patients.

  2. Increased incidence of murine graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation by previous infusion of syngeneic bone marrow cells

    SciTech Connect

    Waer, M.; Ang, K.K.; van der Schueren, E.; Vandeputte, M.

    1984-10-01

    Different groups of BALB/c mice received supralethal total-body irradiation (TBI; 8.5 Gy, day 0). When 30 x 10(6) allogeneic (C57B1) bone marrow (BM) cells were infused with or without 10 x 10(6) syngeneic (BALB/c) bM cells on day 1, many animals (60%) died from graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Typing of peripheral blood leukocytes for donor antigens showed that, respectively, 22/22 and 17/21 of the mice in both groups became chimeric. When syngeneic bone marrow was given on day 1 and allogeneic bone marrow on day 2 after TBI, a similar number of animals (21/23) became chimeric, but GVHD occurred more frequently in this group (25/26 mice, P less than 0.01). When the syngeneic bone marrow cells were replaced by spleen cells, or when the transplantation of allogeneic bone marrow was delayed till days 3 or 6 after TBI, almost all mice rejected the allogeneic BM graft and became long-term survivors. BALB/c mice receiving 30 x 10(6) C57B1 BM cells after 17 daily fractions of 0.2 Gy of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), showed a high incidence of chimerism (15/17) and in none of the latter animals was GVHD observed. Despite the high incidence of GVHD in the mice receiving allogeneic BM after TBI and syngeneic BM transplantation, as compared with mice prepared with TLI which do not develop GVHD, suppressor cells were as easily induced after TBI and syngeneic BM transplantation as after TLI.

  3. The role of alloreactive cytotoxic and lymphokine-secreting T lymphocytes in the development of acute graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Theobald, M

    1994-09-01

    The development of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is mediated by alloreactive donor T cells infused with the bone marrow inoculum. This review discusses the role and significance of host-specific cytotoxic and lymphokine-secreting donor T cells for the prediction and generation of acute GVHD.

  4. High Dose Cyclophosphamide, Tacrolimus, and Mycophenolate Mofetil in Preventing Graft Versus Host Disease in Patients With Hematological Malignancies Undergoing Myeloablative or Reduced Intensity Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-14

    Acute Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Follicular Lymphoma; Graft Versus Host Disease; Hodgkin Lymphoma; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Myeloproliferative Neoplasm; Recurrent Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Myelodysplasia-Related Changes; Recurrent Plasma Cell Myeloma; Refractory Plasma Cell Myeloma; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndrome

  5. The impact of HLA-E polymorphisms in graft-versus-host disease following HLA-E matched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Ehteramolsadat; Schwarer, Anthony P; Ghasemzadeh, Mehran

    2012-03-01

    The non-classical MHC class-I mainly involves in the regulation of innate immune responses where HLA-E plays a significant role in the cell identification by natural killer cells. HLA-E is a main regulatory ligand for natural killer cells and given the importance of these effector cells in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, we investigated the effect of HLA-E polymorphisms on post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation outcomes. The study group included 56 donor-patient pairs with underlying malignant hematological disorders undergoing HLA-E matched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. They were genotyped for HLA-E locus using a sequence specific primer-polymerase chain reaction. The median follow-up was 20.6 months (range 0.2-114.8) and the parameters assessed were acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease and overall survival. We showed a lower frequency of acute graft-versus-host disease (grade II or more; p=0.02) and chronic graft-versus-host disease (extensive; p=0.04) in the patients with HLA-E*0103/0103 genotype compared to other genotypes of HLA-E. There was also an association between HLA-E*0103/0103 and improved overall survival (p=0.001). Conclusively, our results suggest a protective role for HLA-E*0103/0103 genotype against acute graft-versus-host disease (grade II or more) and chronic graft-versus-host disease (extensive) as well as an association between this genotype and a better overall survival after HLA-E matched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  6. Effectiveness of subcutaneous low-dose alemtuzumab and rituximab combination therapy for steroid-resistant chronic graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Cesar Homero; Cantú-Rodríguez, Olga Graciela; Borjas-Almaguer, Omar David; González-Llano, Oscar; Jaime-Pérez, José Carlos; Solano-Genesta, Manuel; Gómez-Guijosa, Miguel; Mancias-Guerra, Consuelo; Tarin, Luz; Gómez-Almaguer, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic graft-versus-host disease is a common late complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Corticosteroids are the standard initial treatment. Second-line treatment has not been well defined. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of low doses of alemtuzumab plus low doses of rituximab in the treatment of steroid-refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease. Design and Methods Ten men and 5 women were prospectively included in the study. All patients received one cycle of subcutaneous alemtuzumab 10 mg/day/3 days and intravenous rituximab 100 mg on Days +4, +11, +18 and +25. The therapeutic response was measured on Days +30, +90 and +365 of the protocol. Results Median age was 41 years. The main site involved was the oral mucosa (86.7%) followed by the eyes (66.7%), liver (60%), skin (53%), lungs (13.3%) and intestinal tract (6.7%). The overall response was 100% at Day +30 evaluation: 10 patients (67%) had partial remission, 5 (33%) had complete remission. At Day +90 evaluation, 7 (50%) patients had partial remission, 4 (28%) had complete remission; 3 (21%) had relapsed chronic graft-versus-host disease and one patient did not reach the evaluation time point. So far, 5 patients have reached the Day +365 follow-up evaluation; 2 (40%) had partial remission, 2 had complete remission and one experienced chronic graft-versus-host disease progression. Adverse effects were mainly infections in 67% of patients; these were all quickly solved, except for one patient who died from pneumonia. Conclusions This combination therapy appears to be an efficacious and safe treatment for steroid-refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease. Longer follow up to determine the durability of response and survival is required. PMID:22133770

  7. Role of Natural Killer Cells in Intravenous Immunoglobulin-Induced Graft-versus-Host Disease Inhibition in NOD/LtSz-scidIL2rg(-/-) (NSG) Mice.

    PubMed

    Gregoire-Gauthier, Joëlle; Fontaine, François; Benchimol, Lionel; Nicoletti, Simon; Selleri, Silvia; Dieng, Mame Massar; Haddad, Elie

    2015-05-01

    Although clinical studies have yet to demonstrate clearly the use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), their effective use in a xenogeneic mouse model has been demonstrated. We aimed to determine the mechanism of action by which IVIG contributes to GVHD prevention in a xenogeneic mouse model. NOD/LtSz-scidIL2rg(-/-) (NSG) mice were used for our xenogeneic mouse model of GVHD. Sublethally irradiated NSG mice were injected with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (huPBMCs) and treated weekly with PBS or 50 mg IVIG. Incidence of GVHD and survival were noted, along with analysis of cell subsets proliferation in the peripheral blood. Weekly IVIG treatment resulted in a robust and consistent proliferation of human natural killer cells that were activated, as demonstrated by their cytotoxicity against K562 target cells. IVIG treatment did not inhibit GVHD when huPBMCs were depleted in natural killer (NK) cells, strongly suggesting that this NK cell expansion was required for the IVIG-mediated prevention of GVHD in our mouse model. Moreover, inhibition of T cell activation by either cyclosporine A (CsA) or monoclonal antihuman CD3 antibodies abolished the IVIG-induced NK cell expansion. In conclusion, IVIG treatment induces NK cell proliferation, which is essential for IVIG-mediated protection of GVHD in our mouse model. Furthermore, activated T cells are mandatory for effective IVIG-induced NK cell proliferation. These results shed light on a new mechanism of action of IVIG and could explain why the efficacy of IVIG in preventing GVHD in a clinical setting, where patients receive CsA, has never been undoubtedly demonstrated.

  8. Curcumin Attenuates Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease Severity via In Vivo Regulations on Th1, Th17 and Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Hee; Yang, Eun-Ji; Min, Jun-Ki; Cho, Seok-Goo; Yang, Chul-Woo; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Ho-Youn; Cho, Mi-La

    2013-01-01

    Background In this study we examined the in vivo and in vitro effects and mechanisms of action of curcumin on the development of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) using a murine model. Methodology/Principal Findings Mixed lymphocyte reactions were used to determine the in vitro effects of curcumin. Treatment with curcumin attenuated alloreactive T cell proliferation and inhibited the production of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-17. In a murine acute GVHD model, transplantation of curcumin-treated allogeneic splenocytes into irradiated recipient mice significantly reduced the clinical severity scores of acute GVHD manifested in the liver, skin, colon and lung as compared with animals receiving vehicle-treated splenocytes. c-Fos and c-Jun expression levels in the skin and intestine, which are major target organs, were analyzed using immunohistochemical staining. Expression of both proteins was reduced in epithelial tissues of skin and intestine from curcumin-treated GVHD animals. The IFN-γ-expressing CD4+ splenocytes and IFN-γ-expressing lymph node cells were dramatically decreased in curcumin-treated mice. In contrast, CD4+Foxp3+ splenocytes were increased in the curcumin-treated acute GVHD animals. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that animals transplanted with curcumin-treated allogeneic splenocytes showed increased populations of CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) as well as CD8+ Treg cells, compared to animals administered vehicle-treated splenocytes. Curcumin-treated acute GVHD animals could have a change in B cell subpopulations. Conclusion/Significance In the present study, we investigated the efficacy and mechanism of action of curcumin treatment against acute GVHD. The acute GVHD mice administered with curcumin-treated splenocytes showed significantly reduced severity of acute GVHD. Curcumin exerted in vivo preventive effects on acute GVHD by reciprocal regulation of T helper 1 (Th1) and Treg (both CD4+ and CD8+ Treg) cell lineages as well as

  9. IL-2-targeted therapy ameliorates the severity of graft-versus-host disease: ex vivo selective depletion of host-reactive T cells and in vivo therapy.

    PubMed

    Yarkoni, Shai; Prigozhina, Tatyana B; Slavin, Shimon; Askenasy, Nadir

    2012-04-01

    T cell depletion prevents graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) but also removes T cell-mediated support of hematopoietic cell engraftment. A chimeric molecule composed of IL-2 and caspase-3 (IL2-cas) has been evaluated as a therapeutic modality for GVHD and selective ex vivo depletion of host-reactive T cells. IL2-cas does not affect hematopoietic cell engraftment and significantly reduces the clinical and histological severity of GVHD. Early administration of IL2-cas reduced the lethal outcome of haploidentical transplants, and survivor mice displayed markedly elevated levels of X-linked forkhead/winged helix (FoxP3(+); 50%) and CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T cells (35%) in the lymph nodes. The chimeric molecule induces in vitro apoptosis in both CD4(+)CD25(-) and CD4(+)CD25(+) subsets of lymphocytes from alloimmunized mice, and stimulates proliferation of cells with highest levels of CD25 expression. Adoptive transfer of IL2-cas-pretreated viable splenocytes into sublethally irradiated haploidentical recipients resulted in 60% survival after a lethal challenge with lipopolysaccharide, which is associated with elevated fractions of CD25(high)FoxP3(+) T cells in the lymph nodes of survivors. These data demonstrate that ex vivo purging of host-presensitized lymphocytes is effectively achieved with IL2-cas, and that IL-2-targeted apoptotic therapy reduces GVHD severity in vivo. Both approaches promote survival in lethal models of haploidentical GVHD. The mechanism of protection includes direct killing of GVHD effectors, prevention of transition to effector/memory T cells, and induction of regulatory T cell proliferation, which becomes the dominant subset under conditions of homeostatic expansion.

  10. Quality of life of patients with graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Proença, Sibéli de Fátima Ferraz Simão; Machado, Celina Mattos; Coelho, Raquel de Castro Figueiredo Pereira; Sarquis, Leila Maria Mansano; Guimarães, Paulo Ricardo Bittencourt; Kalinke, Luciana Puchalski

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the quality of life of adult patients with hematological cancer in the 100 days after transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells and verifying whether the variable graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is predictive of worse results. An observational correlational and quantitative study with 36 adult participants diagnosed with hematologic cancer who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from September 2013 to June 2015. The mean age was 37 years, 52.78% were female, and 61.11% were diagnosed with leukemia. Quality of life scores showed a significant impact between pre-transplantation and pre-hospital discharge, and also within the 100 days post-transplantation. The statistical analysis between the scores for the groups with and without GvHD showed a significant difference between the presence of the complication and worse results. Quality of life is altered as a result of hematopoietic stem cells transplantation, especially in patients who have graft-versus-host disease. Avaliar a qualidade de vida de pacientes adultos com câncer hematológico nos 100 dias do transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas e verificar se a variável doença do enxerto contra o hospedeiro é preditiva de piores resultados. Estudo observacional, correlacional e quantitativo, com 36 participantes adultos, diagnosticados com câncer hematológico que se submeteram ao transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas de setembro de 2013 a junho de 2015. A média de idade foi 37 anos, 52,78% eram do sexo feminino, e 61,11% com diagnóstico de leucemia. Os escores de qualidade de vida demonstraram impacto significativo entre o pré-transplante e a pré-alta hospitalar e entre os 100 dias pós-transplante. A análise estatística entre os escores dos grupos com e sem doença do enxerto contra o hospedeiro evidenciou significância entre a presença desta complicação e piores resultados. A qualidade de vida é alterada em decorrência do transplante de c

  11. Measuring therapeutic response in chronic graft-versus-host disease. National Institutes of Health consensus development project on criteria for clinical trials in chronic graft-versus-host disease: IV. The 2014 Response Criteria Working Group report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Stephanie J; Wolff, Daniel; Kitko, Carrie; Koreth, John; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Jagasia, Madan; Pidala, Joseph; Olivieri, Attilio; Martin, Paul J; Przepiorka, Donna; Pusic, Iskra; Dignan, Fiona; Mitchell, Sandra A; Lawitschka, Anita; Jacobsohn, David; Hall, Anne M; Flowers, Mary E D; Schultz, Kirk R; Vogelsang, Georgia; Pavletic, Steven

    2015-06-01

    In 2005, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease (GVHD) Consensus Response Criteria Working Group recommended several measures to document serial evaluations of chronic GVHD organ involvement. Provisional definitions of complete response, partial response, and progression were proposed for each organ and for overall outcome. Based on publications over the last 9 years, the 2014 Working Group has updated its recommendations for measures and interpretation of organ and overall responses. Major changes include elimination of several clinical parameters from the determination of response, updates to or addition of new organ scales to assess response, and the recognition that progression excludes minimal, clinically insignificant worsening that does not usually warrant a change in therapy. The response definitions have been revised to reflect these changes and are expected to enhance reliability and practical utility of these measures in clinical trials. Clarification is provided about response assessment after the addition of topical or organ-targeted treatment. Ancillary measures are strongly encouraged in clinical trials. Areas suggested for additional research include criteria to identify irreversible organ damage and validation of the modified response criteria, including in the pediatric population.

  12. Ancillary therapy and supportive care of chronic graft-versus-host disease: national institutes of health consensus development project on criteria for clinical trials in chronic Graft-versus-host disease: V. Ancillary Therapy and Supportive Care Working Group Report.

    PubMed

    Couriel, Daniel; Carpenter, Paul A; Cutler, Corey; Bolaños-Meade, Javier; Treister, Nathaniel S; Gea-Banacloche, Juan; Shaughnessy, Paul; Hymes, Sharon; Kim, Stella; Wayne, Alan S; Chien, Jason W; Neumann, Joyce; Mitchell, Sandra; Syrjala, Karen; Moravec, Carina K; Abramovitz, Linda; Liebermann, Jerry; Berger, Ann; Gerber, Lynn; Schubert, Mary; Filipovich, Alexandra H; Weisdorf, Daniel; Schubert, Mark M; Shulman, Howard; Schultz, Kirk; Mittelman, Barbara; Pavletic, Steven; Vogelsang, Georgia B; Martin, Paul J; Lee, Stephanie J; Flowers, Mary E D

    2006-04-01

    The Ancillary Therapy and Supportive Care Working Group had 3 goals: (1) to establish guidelines for ancillary therapy and supportive care in chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), including treatment for symptoms and recommendations for patient education, preventive measures, and appropriate follow-up; (2) to provide guidelines for the prevention and management of infections and other common complications of treatment for chronic GVHD; and (3) to highlight the areas with the greatest need for clinical research. The definition of "ancillary therapy and supportive care" embraces the most frequent immunosuppressive or anti-inflammatory interventions used with topical intent and any other interventions directed at organ-specific control of symptoms or complications resulting from GVHD and its therapy. Also included in the definition are educational, preventive, and psychosocial interventions with this same objective. Recommendations are organized according to the strength and quality of evidence supporting them and cover the most commonly involved organs, including the skin, mouth, female genital tract, eyes, gastrointestinal tract, and lungs. Recommendations are provided for prevention of infections, osteoporosis, and steroid myopathy and management of neurocognitive and psychosocial adverse effects related to chronic GVHD. Optimal care of patients with chronic GVHD often requires a multidisciplinary approach.

  13. Treatment of Refractory Dry Eye Associated with Graft Versus Host Disease with 0.03% Tacrolimus Eyedrops

    PubMed Central

    Udaondo, Patricia; García-Delpech, Salvador; Vazquez, Amparo; Diaz-Llopis, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose We investigate the efficacy of 0.03% topical tacrolimus eyedrops for the treatment of dry eye in graft versus host disease (GVHD) patients resistant/intolerant to 0.05% topical cyclosporine. Methods Forty-three patients were enrolled in this prospective study. After completing a 1-year run-in period of using artificial tears, 50% autologous serum eyedrops, and punctal plug occlusion, all the symptomatic patients (n=29) were treated with 0.05% topical cyclosporine (Restasis®; Allergan, Inc.). After 1 month, the patients who presented topical or systemic intolerance to cyclosporine were instructed to instill 0.03% topical tacrolimus once a day for 3 months (n=14). All the patients were allowed to continue with their basal dry eye treatment. Visual acuity, fluorescein staining, Schirmer test, fluorescein tear break-up time, and tear meniscus height measurement were evaluated fortnightly (minimum 3 months). Subjective assessments of symptoms were also reported at the beginning and at the end of the study. Results Dry eye symptoms and signs improved statistically (P<0.05) and significantly with tacrolimus and cyclosporine topical treatment. No significant differences were observed between both the groups. The mean follow-up time was 12.14±2.69 months (range 10–18 months). Conclusion The findings of this prospective pilot study suggest that cyclosporine-intolerant patients with dry eye associated with GVHD can be effectively treated with topical tacrolimus. PMID:23947579

  14. Postmortem examination of the kidney in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients: possible involvement of graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Kusumi, Eiji; Kami, Masahiro; Hara, Shigeo; Hoshino, Junichi; Yamaguchi, Yutaka; Murashige, Naoko; Kishi, Yukiko; Shibagaki, Yugo; Shibata, Taro; Matsumura, Tomoko; Yuji, Koichiro; Masuoka, Kazuhiro; Wake, Atsushi; Miyakoshi, Shigesaburo; Taniguchi, Shuichi

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the association between graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and renal injury after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), we compared autopsy findings of 26 consecutive allo-SCT recipients with two control groups: patients with hematologic malignancies who received cytotoxic chemotherapy alone (Control 1, n = 21) and those with non-hematologic diseases (Control 2, n = 12). We evaluated the following renal pathology; renal tubulitis, allograft glomerulitis, intimal arteritis, allograft nephropathy, and peritubular capillaritis. These changes were found in 11 allo-SCT recipients and 10 patients in Control 1, but none in Control 2. While overall frequency of renal impairments was similar between allo-SCT recipients and Control 1 (3/26 vs. 1/21), allo-SCT recipients were more likely to have renal tubulitis and peritubular capillaritis compared to Control 1 (5/26 vs. 1/21), but less likely to present with glomerulitis (1/26 vs. 6/21). Grade III-IV acute or extensive-type chronic GVHD were seen in all of the three patients with renal tubulitis and four of the five patients with peritubular capillaritis. Allo-SCT recipients with severe GVHD tended to have tubulitis and peritubular capillaritis. These findings have implications of some renal impairment attributable to GVHD.

  15. Chronic graft-versus-host disease following umbilical cord blood transplantation: retrospective survey involving 1072 patients in Japan.

    PubMed

    Narimatsu, Hiroto; Miyakoshi, Shigesaburo; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Kami, Masahiro; Matsumura, Tomoko; Yuji, Koichiro; Murashige, Naoko; Kusumi, Eiji; Kodama, Yuko; Komatsu, Tsunehiko; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Kouzai, Yasushi; Okada, Masaya; Osugi, Yuko; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Inoue, Masami; Takahashi, Satoshi; Kai, Shunro; Kato, Koji; Inoue-Nagamura, Tokiko; Taniguchi, Shuichi; Kato, Shunichi

    2008-09-15

    We have little information on chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after cord blood transplantation (CBT). We investigated its clinical features in 1072 Japanese patients with hematologic malignancies who received a transplant through the Japan Cord Blood Bank Network. The primary end point was to investigate the incidence of any chronic GVHD. Median age of the patients was 33 years (range, 0-79 years). The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD 2 years after transplantation was 28%. Chronic GVHD was fatal in 29 patients. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that development of chronic GVHD was favorably associated with both overall survival and event-free survival. Multivariate analysis identified risk factors of chronic GVHD: higher patient body weight, higher number of mismatched antigens for GVHD direction, myeloablative preparative regimen, use of mycophenolate mofetil in GVHD prophylaxis, and development of grades II to IV acute GVHD. Although chronic GVHD is a significant problem after CBT, it is associated with improved survival, perhaps due to graft-versus-malignancy effects.

  16. Combined nifuroxazide and SAT05f therapy reduces graft-versus-host disease after experimental allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jia, Huijie; Zhao, Tiesuo; Ji, Yinghua; Jia, Xiaolong; Ren, Wenjing; Li, Chen; Li, Minming; Xiao, Yali; Wang, Hui; Xu, Kailin

    2016-12-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) is the major barrier to the broader use of allogenetic hematopoietic stem cells. However, currently these are no highly specific and efficient drugs. Monotherapy is not sufficient and more efficient and safe therapeutic regimen are urgent need. Studies demonstrated TLR9 and Stat3 signal pathways are critical for antigen-presenting cell maturation and T-cell activation, which are important mediators in aGvHD. Specific block these two critical signal pathways using their inhibitors SAT05f and nifuroxazide may be the novel strategies for aGvHD therapy. The results showed combined therapy significantly decreased the severity of aGvHD and prolonged the survival rate. Furthermore, after treatment, the activation of CD4(+) effect T cells was reduced, whereas Treg cells was increased, and the cytokine release was inhibited. In conclusion, combined therapy of nifuroxazide with SAT05f may be potential for the prevention or treatment of aGvHD, providing theoretic and experimental basis.

  17. Combined nifuroxazide and SAT05f therapy reduces graft-versus-host disease after experimental allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Huijie; Zhao, Tiesuo; Ji, Yinghua; Jia, Xiaolong; Ren, Wenjing; Li, Chen; Li, Minming; Xiao, Yali; Wang, Hui; Xu, Kailin

    2016-01-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) is the major barrier to the broader use of allogenetic hematopoietic stem cells. However, currently these are no highly specific and efficient drugs. Monotherapy is not sufficient and more efficient and safe therapeutic regimen are urgent need. Studies demonstrated TLR9 and Stat3 signal pathways are critical for antigen-presenting cell maturation and T-cell activation, which are important mediators in aGvHD. Specific block these two critical signal pathways using their inhibitors SAT05f and nifuroxazide may be the novel strategies for aGvHD therapy. The results showed combined therapy significantly decreased the severity of aGvHD and prolonged the survival rate. Furthermore, after treatment, the activation of CD4+ effect T cells was reduced, whereas Treg cells was increased, and the cytokine release was inhibited. In conclusion, combined therapy of nifuroxazide with SAT05f may be potential for the prevention or treatment of aGvHD, providing theoretic and experimental basis. PMID:27906171

  18. Proteomic peptide profiling for preemptive diagnosis of acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Weissinger, E M; Metzger, J; Dobbelstein, C; Wolff, D; Schleuning, M; Kuzmina, Z; Greinix, H; Dickinson, A M; Mullen, W; Kreipe, H; Hamwi, I; Morgan, M; Krons, A; Tchebotarenko, I; Ihlenburg-Schwarz, D; Dammann, E; Collin, M; Ehrlich, S; Diedrich, H; Stadler, M; Eder, M; Holler, E; Mischak, H; Krauter, J; Ganser, A

    2014-04-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is one curative treatment for hematological malignancies, but is compromised by life-threatening complications, such as severe acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD). Prediction of severe aGvHD as early as possible is crucial to allow timely initiation of treatment. Here we report on a multicentre validation of an aGvHD-specific urinary proteomic classifier (aGvHD_MS17) in 423 patients. Samples (n=1106) were collected prospectively between day +7 and day +130 and analyzed using capillary electrophoresis coupled on-line to mass spectrometry. Integration of aGvHD_MS17 analysis with demographic and clinical variables using a logistic regression model led to correct classification of patients developing severe aGvHD 14 days before any clinical signs with 82.4% sensitivity and 77.3% specificity. Multivariate regression analysis showed that aGvHD_MS17 positivity was the only strong predictor for aGvHD grade III or IV (P<0.0001). The classifier consists of 17 peptides derived from albumin, β2-microglobulin, CD99, fibronectin and various collagen α-chains, indicating inflammation, activation of T cells and changes in the extracellular matrix as early signs of GvHD-induced organ damage. This study is currently the largest demonstration of accurate and investigator-independent prediction of patients at risk for severe aGvHD, thus allowing preemptive therapy based on proteomic profiling.

  19. Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide versus conventional graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis in mismatched unrelated donor haematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Rohtesh S.; Saliba, Rima M.; Chen, Julianne; Rondon, Gabriela; Hammerstrom, Aimee E.; Alousi, Amin; Qazilbash, Muzaffar; Bashir, Qaiser; Ahmed, Sairah; Popat, Uday; Hosing, Chitra; Khouri, Issa; Shpall, Elizabeth J.; Champlin, Richard E.; Ciurea, Stefan O.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) is an effective strategy to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after haploidentical haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We determined the efficacy of PTCy-based GVHD prophylaxis in human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD) HCT. We analysed 113 adult patients with high-risk haematological malignancies who underwent one-antigen MMUD transplantation between 2009 and 2013. Of these, 41 patients received PTCy, tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for GVHD prophylaxis; 72 patients received conventional prophylaxis with anti-thymocyte globulin, tacrolimus and methotrexate. Graft source was primarily bone marrow (83% PTCy vs. 63% conventional group). Incidence of grade II–IV (37% vs. 36%, P = 0.8) and grade III–IV (17% vs. 12%, P = 0.5) acute GVHD was similar at day 100. However, the incidence of grade II–IV acute GVHD by day 30 was significantly lower in the PTCy group (0% vs. 15%, P = 0.01). Median time to neutrophil (18 days vs. 12 days, P < 0.001) and platelet (25.5 days vs. 18 days, P = 0.05) engraftment was prolonged in PTCy group. Rates of graft failure, chronic GVHD, 2-year non-relapse mortality, relapse, progression-free survival or overall survival were similar. Our results demonstrate that PTCy, tacrolimus and MMF for GVHD prophylaxis is safe and produced similar results as conventional prophylaxis in patients with one antigen HLA-MMUD HCT. PMID:26947769

  20. Serine protease detection in mixed lymphocyte cultures: a histochemical method for possible prediction of graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Maiocchi, M A; Nano, R; Capelli, E; Bonfichi, M; Alessandrino, E P; Bernasconi, P

    1998-08-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) presents an important complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. A method to predict GVHD might be the analysis of cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors, but the technique requires the use of radioactive elements not suitable in all laboratories. Serine esterase (SE) activity was studied by a cytochemical method in donor-recipient mixed lymphocytes cultures (MLC). Twelve patients, affected by acute or chronic leukemia, and 20 donors were studied. MLC incubated with and without growth factors (IGF-1 or IL-2), were analyzed. The relationship between positivity of MLC and GVHD in transplanted patients was evaluated. The data obtained showed that the percentage of SE positive cells was higher in MLC compared to negative control MLC. The highest percentage of positive cells was found in the MLC obtained from unrelated subjects. These results show that serine protease expression in MLC may be a predictive marker of GVHD and could be used as an additional early test associated with cytotoxicity.

  1. Loss of T Follicular Helper Cells in the Peripheral Blood of Patients with Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Knorr, David A; Wang, Hongbo; Aurora, Mukta; MacMillan, Margaret L; Holtan, Shernan G; Bergerson, Rachel; Cao, Qing; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Cooley, Sarah; Brunstein, Claudio; Miller, Jeffery S; Wagner, John E; Blazar, Bruce R; Verneris, Michael R

    2016-05-01

    B cell antihost antibody production plays a central role in chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). T follicular helper (TFH) cells drive B cell responses and are implicated in this process. Given differences in cGVHD incidence between umbilical cord blood (UCB) and adult donor transplant recipients, we evaluated TFH cell reconstitution kinetics to define graft source differences and their potential pathogenic role in cGVHD. Although we observed significantly fewer TFH cells in the blood of UCB recipients (versus matched related donors [MRD]) early after transplantation, by 1 year the numbers of TFH cells were similar. Additionally, at both early (day 60) and late (1 year) time points, TFH cell phenotype was predominantly central memory cells in both cohorts. TFH cells were functional and able to produce multiple cytokines (INF-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-17, and IL-21) after stimulation. In contrast to mouse models, where an enhanced frequency of splenic TFH cells contributes to cGVHD, patients with cGVHD showed significantly depleted circulating TFH cells after both UCB and MRD transplantation. Low numbers of TFH cells early after UCB transplantation could directly contribute to less cGVHD in this cohort. Additionally, systemic therapy (including steroids and calcineurin inhibitors) may contribute to decreases in TFH cells in patients with cGVHD. These data provide further evidence supporting the importance of TFH cells in cGVHD pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Ixazomib suppresses human dendritic cell and modulates murine graft-versus-host disease in a schedule-dependent fashion.

    PubMed

    Al-Homsi, Ahmad Samer; Goodyke, Austin; Cole, Kelli; Muilenburg, Marlee; McLane, Michael; Abdel-Mageed, Sarah; Feng, Yuxin

    2017-04-01

    There is an abiding need for innovative approaches to the prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Interest in prevention of GvHD by dendritic cell (DC) suppression has re-emerged since the introduction of proteasome inhibitors into clinical practice. Ixazomib is an orally bioavailable proteasome inhibitor with a rapid proteasome dissociation rate. We studied the effects of ixazomib on human DC maturation, viability, and cytokine production in vitro. We also determined the effects of ixazomib in a murine GvHD model. Although ixazomib suppressed naïve human DC maturation, it had only a limited effect on cell viability. Ixazomib decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine production of resting DCs. This effect was diminished or reversed when DCs were pre-stimulated. In vivo, ixazomib administered post-transplantation on days +1 and +4 or days -1, +2, and +5 ameliorated GvHD in comparison to the GvHD group. Although a fraction of mice treated according to the prolonged schedule died abruptly after the day +5 treatment, both schedules resulted in improved overall survival. When we examined the effects of ixazomib on splenic cells and serum cytokines, we found that ixazomib exerted complex schedule-dependent immunomodulatory effects. Our study provides a rationale for the potential use of ixazomib in the prevention of GvHD.

  3. Platelet lysate mucohadesive formulation to treat oral mucositis in graft versus host disease patients: a new therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Del Fante, Claudia; Perotti, Cesare; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Rossi, Silvia; Sandri, Giuseppina; Ferrari, Franca; Scudeller, Luigia; Caramella, Carla Marcella

    2011-09-01

    Optimal treatment of oral mucositis (OM) due to graft versus host disease (GvHD) is currently not available. Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) have high capability for tissue healing and may play a role in repairing the mucosal barrier. The aim of the present work was to develop a mucoadhesive formulation to administer platelet lysate to oral cavity prolonging contact time of platelet lysate with oral mucosa. The mucoadhesive formulation was characterized for in vitro properties (PDGF-AB concentration, mucoadhesive properties, cytotoxicity, fibroblast proliferation, wound healing). Moreover, a preliminary clinical study on seven GvHD patients with OM refractory to other therapies was conducted, to evaluate feasibility, safety, and efficacy. GVPL (mucoadhesive gel vehicle mixed with platelet lysate)showed good mucoadhesive properties; additionally, it was characterized by good biocompatibility in vitro on fibroblasts and it was able to enhance fibroblast proliferation and wound healing, maintaining the efficacy for up to 14 days following storage at 2-8°C. In vivo, clinical response was good-to-complete in five, fair in one, none in the remaining one. The in vitro results indicate that GVPL has optimal mucoadhesive and healing enhancer properties, maintained over time (up to 14 days); preliminary clinical results suggest that oral application of platelet lysate-loaded mucoadhesive formulation is feasible, safe, well tolerated, and effective. A larger controlled randomized study is needed.

  4. Attenuation of Hepatic Graft-versus-host Disease in Allogeneic Recipients of MyD88-deficient Donor Bone Marrow.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ji-Young; Lee, Young-Kwan; Lee, Sung-Eun; Ju, Ji-Min; Park, Gyeongsin; Choi, Eun Young; Min, Chang-Ki

    2015-06-01

    Acute graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) is characterized by selective damage to the liver, the skin, and the gastrointestinal tract. Following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, donor bone marrow (BM) cells repopulate the immune system of the recipient. We previously demonstrated that the acute intestinal GVHD (iGVHD) mortality rate was higher in MyD88-deficient BM recipients than that in the control BM recipients. In the present study, the role of MyD88 (expressed by donor BM) in the pathophysiology of hepatic GVHD (hGVHD) was examined. Unlike iGVHD, transplantation with MyD88-deficient T-cell depleted (TCD) BM attenuated hGVHD severity and was associated with low infiltration of T cells into the liver of the recipients. Moreover, GVHD hosts, transplanted with MyD88-deficient TCD BM, exhibited markedly reduced expansion of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) in the liver. Adoptive injection of the MDSC from wild type mice, but not MyD88-deficient mice, enhanced hepatic T cell infiltration in the MyD88-deficient TCD BM recipients. Pre-treatment of BM donors with LPS increased MDSC levels in the liver of allogeneic wild type BM recipients. In conclusion, hGVHD and iGVHD may occur through various mechanisms based on the presence of MyD88 in the non-T cell compartment of the allograft.

  5. CCR7 expressing mesenchymal stem cells potently inhibit graft-versus-host disease by spoiling the fourth supplemental Billingham's tenet.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Jiang, Yan-Ming; Sun, Yan-Feng; Li, Ping; Dang, Rui-Jie; Ning, Hong-Mei; Li, Yu-Hang; Zhang, Ying-Jie; Jiang, Xiao-Xia; Guo, Xi-Min; Wen, Ning; Han, Yan; Mao, Ning; Chen, Hu; Zhang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The clinical acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD)-therapy of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is not as satisfactory as expected. Secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) are the major niches serve to initiate immune responses or induce tolerance. Our previous study showed that CCR7 guide murine MSC line C3H10T1/2 migrating to SLOs. In this study, CCR7 gene was engineered into murine MSCs by lentivirus transfection system (MSCs/CCR7). The immunomodulatory mechanism of MSCs/CCR7 was further investigated. Provoked by inflammatory cytokines, MSCs/CCR7 increased the secretion of nitric oxide and calmed down the T cell immune response in vitro. Immunofluorescent staining results showed that transfused MSCs/CCR7 can migrate to and relocate at the appropriate T cell-rich zones within SLOs in vivo. MSCs/CCR7 displayed enhanced effect in prolonging the survival and alleviating the clinical scores of the GvHD mice than normal MSCs. Owing to the critical relocation sites, MSCs/CCR7 co-infusion potently made the T cells in SLOs more naïve like, thus control T cells trafficking from SLOs to the target organs. Through spoiling the fourth supplemental Billingham's tenet, MSCs/CCR7 potently inhibited the development of GvHD. The study here provides a novel therapeutic strategy of MSCs/CCR7 infusion at a low dosage to give potent immunomodulatory effect for clinical immune disease therapy.

  6. Association of mixed hematopoietic chimerism with elevated circulating autoantibodies and chronic graft-versus-host disease occurrence.

    PubMed

    Perruche, Sylvain; Marandin, Aliette; Kleinclauss, François; Angonin, Régis; Fresnay, Stéphanie; Baron, Marie Hélène; Tiberghien, Pierre; Saas, Philippe

    2006-02-27

    Use of a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen before an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is frequently associated with an early state of mixed hematopoietic chimerism. Such a coexistence of both host and donor hematopoietic cells may influence posttransplant alloreactivity and may affect the occurrence and severity of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) as well as the intensity of the graft-versus-leukemia effect. Here we evaluated the relation between chimerism state after reduced-intensity conditioning transplantation (RICT), autoantibody production, and chronic GVHD (cGVHD)-related pathology. Chimerism state, circulating anticardiolipin, and antidouble stranded DNA autoantibody (Ab) titers as well as occurrence of cGVHD-like lesions were investigated in a murine RICT model. We observed a novel association between mixed chimerism state, high levels of pathogenic IgG autoantibodies, and subsequent development of cGVHD-like lesions. Furthermore, we found that the persistence of host B cells, but not dendritic cell origin or subset, was a factor associated with the appearance of cGVHD-like lesions. The implication of host B cells was confirmed by a host origin of autoantibodies. Recipient B cell persistence may contribute to the frequency and/or severity of cGVHD after RICT.

  7. Association of mixed hematopoietic chimerism with elevated circulating autoantibodies and chronic graft-versus-host disease occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Perruche, Sylvain; Marandin, Aliette; Kleinclauss, François M.; Angonin, Régis; Fresnay, Stéphanie; Baron, Marie Hélène; Tiberghien, Pierre; Saas, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Background Use of a reduced intensity conditioning regimen before an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is frequently associated with an early state of mixed hematopoietic chimerism. Such a co-existence of both host and donor hematopoietic cells may influence post-transplant alloreactivity and may affect the occurrence and severity of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) as well as the intensity of the graft-versus-leukemia effect. Here we evaluated the relation between chimerism state after reduced intensity conditioning transplantation (RICT), auto-antibody production and chronic GVHD (cGVHD)-related pathology. Methods Chimerism state, circulating anti-cardiolipin and anti-double stranded DNA auto-antibody (Ab) titers as well as occurrence of cGVHD-like lesions were investigated in a murine RICT model. Results We observed a novel association between mixed chimerism state, high levels of pathogenic IgG auto-Abs and subsequent development of cGVHD-like lesions. Furthermore, we found that the persistence of host B cells, but not dendritic cell origin or subset, was a factor associated with the appearance of cGVHD-like lesions. The implication of host B cells was confirmed by a host origin of auto-Abs. Conclusions Recipient B cell persistence may therefore contribute to the frequency and/or severity of cGVHD after RICT. PMID:16495806

  8. Could mucin 16 and colony-stimulating factor 2-receptor beta possible graft versus host disease biomarkers? Medical hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Souza, Milena Monteiro de; de Paula, Fabiana Martins; Hsieh, Ricardo; Macedo, Maria Cristina Martins Almeida; Corral, Marcelo Andreetta; Nunes, Thaís Borguezan; De Paula, Fernanda; Lourenço, Silvia Vanessa

    2017-03-01

    Graft versus host disease (GVHD) occurs after bone marrow transplantation and is one of the most important causes of death worldwide. Reviews demonstrated GVHD patients with involvement of various tissues and organs, such as salivary glands. The diagnosis of acute GVHD has been the biopsies and the histopathologic evaluation of tissue from an involved organ. These procedures are invasive. Saliva proteins as possible biomarker for GVHD could facilitate the management and diagnosis accuracy. For support the proposed hypotheses, in this pilot study we collected whole saliva samples from patients with undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and from healthy subjects. Samples were collected prospectively between pre-transplant, thirty days, one hundred and, two hundred days after transplant. The proteomic profile was analyzed using SDS-PAGE and LCMS-ESI-IT-TOF mass spectrometry. The relevant personal data, past medical history were also recorded. The most relevant proteins found exclusively in GVHD patients were: CSF2RB, Protocadherin (Pcdh) Fat 2 precursor, protein capicua homolog isoform CIC-S, MUC16 and RGPD8_HUMAN RANBP2. This study aims to conduct an initial evaluation of the possible presence of such biomarkers in saliva from GVHD patients, and suggested a potential application of proteomics analysis as a alternative method to diagnose GVHD.

  9. Immunohistologic and ultrastructural study of the sclerotic skin in chronic graft-versus-host disease in man.

    PubMed Central

    Janin-Mercier, A.; Devergie, A.; Van Cauwenberge, D.; Saurat, J. H.; Bourges, M.; Lapiere, C. M.; Gluckman, E.

    1984-01-01

    Thirteen skin biopsies were performed on 8 patients at different stages of skin sclerosis in chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). On the same skin biopsies an immunostaining with antibodies directed against Types I and III procollagen, Types I, III, IV, V collagen, and laminin, and an ultrastructural study were performed. Alterations were observed at the dermal-epidermal junction and in the superficial dermis with a large deposit on Type III procollagen in the incipient scleroses and of Type I procollagen in the oldest ones. In this sclerotic superficial dermis, collagen fibers of irregular diameter were associated with mast cells and active fibroblasts, macrophages, and lymphocytes in close contact. The skin sclerosis in chronic GVHD might be considered a form of cutaneous fibrosis with features of excessive tissue repair related to an immunologic reaction between lymphocytes of the graft and tissue host cells. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 8 PMID:6372497

  10. Serum Gp96 is a chaperone of complement-C3 during graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Seignez, Antoine; Joly, Anne-Laure; Chaumonnot, Killian; Hazoumé, Adonis; Sanka, Michel; Marcion, Guillaume; Boudesco, Christophe; Hammann, Arlette; Seigneuric, Renaud; Jégo, Gaetan; Ducoroy, Patrick; Delarue, Patrice; Senet, Patrick; Castilla-Llorente, Cristina; Solary, Eric; Durey, Marie-Agnès; Rubio, Marie-Thérèse; Hermine, Olivier; Kohli, Evelyne; Garrido, Carmen

    2017-03-23

    Better identification of severe acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) may improve the outcome of this life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. GvHD induces tissue damage and the release of damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules. Here, we analyzed GvHD patients (n = 39) to show that serum heat shock protein glycoprotein 96 (Gp96) could be such a DAMP molecule. We demonstrate that serum Gp96 increases in gastrointestinal GvHD patients and its level correlates with disease severity. An increase in Gp96 serum level was also observed in a mouse model of acute GvHD. This model was used to identify complement C3 as a main partner of Gp96 in the serum. Our biolayer interferometry, yeast two-hybrid and in silico modeling data allowed us to determine that Gp96 binds to a complement C3 fragment encompassing amino acids 749-954, a functional complement C3 hot spot important for binding of different regulators. Accordingly, in vitro experiments with purified proteins demonstrate that Gp96 downregulates several complement C3 functions. Finally, experimental induction of GvHD in complement C3-deficient mice confirms the link between Gp96 and complement C3 in the serum and with the severity of the disease.

  11. The Synthetic Triterpenoid, CDDO, Suppresses Alloreactive T Cell Responses and Reduces Murine Early Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kai; Li, Minghui; Konopleva, Marina; Konoplev, Sergej; Stephens, L. Clifton; Kornblau, Steven M.; Frolova, Olga; Wilkins, Danice E. C.; Ma, Weihong; Welniak, Lisbeth A.; Andreeff, Michael; Murphy, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) still remains one of the life-threatening complications following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Immunomodulation of alloreactive donor T cell responses, as well as cytokine secretion is a potential therapeutic approach for the prevention of aGVHD. The synthetic triterpenoid, CDDO (2-cyano-3, 12-dioxooleana-1, 9-dien-28-oic acid), exhibits potent antitumor activity and has also been shown to mediate anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. We therefore wanted to assess the effects of CDDO on early lethal aGVHD. In this study, we found that CDDO significantly inhibited in vitro mixed lymphocyte responses and preferentially promoted the apoptosis of proliferating but not resting alloreactive T cells. Using a full major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-disparate murine aGVHD model, we found that the administration of CDDO immediately after transplantation significantly decreased liver pathology as determined by histologic assessment and prolonged survival in mice. Importantly, administration of CDDO did not adversely impair donor myeloid reconstitution as determined by peripheral blood cell count and the extent of donor chimerism. These findings indicate that CDDO has a significant immunomodulatory effects in vitro and on early lethal aGVHD development, particularly affecting the liver, in a murine allo-HSCT model. PMID:17448911

  12. Autophagy-dependent regulatory T cells are critical for the control of graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Le Texier, Laëtitia; Lineburg, Katie E.; Leveque-El Mouttie, Lucie; Nicholls, Jemma; Melino, Michelle; Nalkurthi, Blessy C.; Alexander, Kylie A.; Teal, Bianca; Blake, Stephen J.; Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Fernando; Engwerda, Christian R.; Kuns, Rachel D.; Lane, Steven W.; Teh, Charis; Gray, Daniel; Clouston, Andrew D.; Nilsson, Susan K.; Blazar, Bruce R.; Hill, Geoffrey R.; MacDonald, Kelli P.A.

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a crucial role in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Quantitative and/or qualitative defects in Tregs result in diseases such as autoimmunity, allergy, malignancy, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a serious complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). We recently reported increased expression of autophagy-related genes (Atg) in association with enhanced survival of Tregs after SCT. Autophagy is a self-degradative process for cytosolic components that promotes cell homeostasis and survival. Here, we demonstrate that the disruption of autophagy within FoxP3+ Tregs (B6.Atg7fl/fl-FoxP3cre+) resulted in a profound loss of Tregs, particularly within the bone marrow (BM). This resulted in dysregulated effector T cell activation and expansion, and the development of enterocolitis and scleroderma in aged mice. We show that the BM compartment is highly enriched in TIGIT+ Tregs and that this subset is differentially depleted in the absence of autophagy. Moreover, following allogeneic SCT, recipients of grafts from B6.Atg7fl/fl-FoxP3cre+ donors exhibited reduced Treg reconstitution, exacerbated GVHD, and reduced survival compared with recipients of B6.WT-FoxP3cre+ grafts. Collectively, these data indicate that autophagy-dependent Tregs are critical for the maintenance of tolerance after SCT and that the promotion of autophagy represents an attractive immune-restorative therapeutic strategy after allogeneic SCT. PMID:27699243

  13. Serum Gp96 is a chaperone of complement-C3 during graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Seignez, Antoine; Joly, Anne-Laure; Chaumonnot, Killian; Hazoumé, Adonis; Sanka, Michel; Boudesco, Christophe; Hammann, Arlette; Seigneuric, Renaud; Jégo, Gaetan; Ducoroy, Patrick; Delarue, Patrice; Senet, Patrick; Castilla-Llorente, Cristina; Solary, Eric; Durey, Marie-Agnès; Rubio, Marie-Thérèse; Hermine, Olivier; Kohli, Evelyne

    2017-01-01

    Better identification of severe acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) may improve the outcome of this life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. GvHD induces tissue damage and the release of damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules. Here, we analyzed GvHD patients (n = 39) to show that serum heat shock protein glycoprotein 96 (Gp96) could be such a DAMP molecule. We demonstrate that serum Gp96 increases in gastrointestinal GvHD patients and its level correlates with disease severity. An increase in Gp96 serum level was also observed in a mouse model of acute GvHD. This model was used to identify complement C3 as a main partner of Gp96 in the serum. Our biolayer interferometry, yeast two-hybrid and in silico modeling data allowed us to determine that Gp96 binds to a complement C3 fragment encompassing amino acids 749–954, a functional complement C3 hot spot important for binding of different regulators. Accordingly, in vitro experiments with purified proteins demonstrate that Gp96 downregulates several complement C3 functions. Finally, experimental induction of GvHD in complement C3–deficient mice confirms the link between Gp96 and complement C3 in the serum and with the severity of the disease. PMID:28352659

  14. Alemtuzumab as treatment of steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease: results of a phase II study.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Carmen; Solano, Carlos; Ferrá, Christelle; Sampol, Antonia; Valcárcel, David; Pérez-Simón, José Antonio

    2009-05-01

    We conducted a phase II trial to investigate the safety and efficacy of alemtuzumab in treating steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) grade II or higher after stem cell transplantation. Ten adult patients (6 with aGVHD grade III and 4 with aGVHD grade IV) were included in the study. Nine patients had gastrointestinal tract involvement, 7 had skin involvement, and 5 had liver involvement. Five patients responded to treatment, 2 with complete response and 3 with partial response. Eight infectious events (4 of grade 3-4) and 7 cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivations were observed. Six patients had grade 3-4 cytopenia. All 10 patients died (7 resulting from aGVHD progression, 2 from severe infection, and 1 from to leukemia relapse), at a median of 40 days (range, 4 to 88 days) after alemtuzumab treatment. Overall, our findings suggest that steroid-refractory aGVHD may be improved by treatment with alemtuzumab, but that this treatment does not overcome the dismal prognosis of patients with severe aGVHD, demonstrating the need for alternative therapies to treat this complication.

  15. Effect of roflumilast, novel phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, on lung chronic graft-versus-host disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sei Won; Lim, Ji Young; Rhee, Chin Kook; Kim, Ji Hye; Park, Chan Kwon; Kim, Tae Jung; Cho, Chul Soo; Min, Chang Ki; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu

    2016-05-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (CGVHD) is a serious complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Roflumilast has anti-inflammatory effects and has been used in the treatment of inflammatory airway diseases. It is at present unclear whether roflumilast may have a therapeutic role in CGVHD. To test this, we used the B10.D2 → BALB/c model of CGVHD to address the therapeutic effect of roflumilast on the development of CGVHD. Lungs of animals treated with roflumilast exhibited less chronic inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrosis in the peribronchial and perivascular area versus allogeneic controls. To define the mechanism, we examined the expression of pro-inflammatory and profibrotic cytokines in the lung. Messenger RNA expression of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β in the lungs was significantly reduced in recipients treated with roflumilast. Similar changes were observed in profibrotic cytokines and chemokines. In addition, the percentage of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), which have the potential to attenuate GVHD, increased significantly within the CD4(+) T cells with roflumilast in the lungs. In conclusion, roflumilast treatment attenuated murine lung CGVHD by blocking T-cell activation mediated by Tregs and downregulating pro-inflammatory and profibrotic cytokines, resulting in the reduction of lung inflammation and fibrosis. Copyright © 2016 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Circulating B-cell activating factor level predicts clinical response of chronic graft-versus-host disease to extracorporeal photopheresis.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Robert; Taylor, Peter C

    2011-12-08

    Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is an important therapeutic option in steroid-refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). Few biomarkers predicting response exist. We measured serum B-cell activating factor (BAFF) in 46 cGVHD patients receiving ECP before and during treatment course. BAFF level at 1 month of ECP predicted 3- and 6-month skin disease response, with BAFF less than 4 ng/mL associated with significant skin improvement and complete resolution in 11 of 20 patients. High BAFF at 1-month ECP associated with a worsening median 6-month skin score and resolution in 1 of 10 patients. BAFF level at 3 months also predicted the likelihood of maintaining skin disease improvement at 6 months. BAFF level was not correlated directly with extracutaneous cGVHD response, although full cutaneous responders exhibited improved extracutaneous organ response rates compared with skin nonresponders (65% vs 35%). This study suggests that early BAFF measurement during ECP for cGVHD represents a potentially useful biomarker in prediction of treatment outcome.

  17. Safety and efficacy of autologous serum eye drop for treatment of dry eyes in graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Azari, Amir A; Karadag, Remzi; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Nehls, Sarah; Barney, Neal; Kim, Kyungmann; Longo, Walter; Hematti, Peiman; Juckett, Mark

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the treatment of autologous serum eye drops (ASED) on dry eyes in patients with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). A retrospective chart review of 35 patients with a history of ocular GVHD following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation that used ASED to alleviate dry eye symptoms was performed. Patients were categorized into three different groups. If patients had available ophthalmic data before and after starting treatment was group 1 (n = 14), had available ophthalmic data after starting treatment in group 2 (n = 10) and had available ophthalmic data before treatment or did not have any data after starting treatment in group 3 (n = 11). Data were collected on patient's age, gender, primary diagnosis, visual acuity and fluorescein corneal staining were collected on individual eyes in order to evaluate the efficacy of the ASED on alleviating dry eye-related signs and symptoms. No adverse ocular effect from the ASED was found in our series (except one fungal keratitis). All patients reported either improvement (55%) or stability (45%) in their ocular symptoms upon the use of ASED. In patients with available data before and after starting treatment, the corneal staining score improved by a median of 1 (p = 0.003) and the LogMAR visual acuity had a non-significant improvement. In our study, ASED used by patients with ocular GVHD were both safe and effective. ASED should be considered in patients with GVHD who suffer from dry eyes.

  18. A case of upper gingiva carcinoma with chronic graft-versus-host disease after allogenic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, F; Sakurai, J; Harada, H

    2015-09-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common solid tumours occurring after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), especially in patients with chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGVHD). We describe a case of OSCC that developed in a 51-year-old male 22 years after he had received allogeneic HSCT from his human leukocyte antigen-identical sister as a treatment for acute myelocytic leukaemia. The patient had presented with multiple white patchy lesions on the palatal gingiva and mucosa 16 years after HSCT; these lesions were consistent with the clinical features of cGVHD. Six years later, oral examination and biopsy revealed upper gingival squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in areas of cGVHD, and he underwent tumour excision. Follow-up examination at 2 years and 4 months after the operation revealed no evidence of recurrence of local SCC or metastasis of the cervical lymph node. The current case highlights the susceptibility of patients with cGVHD to the development of OSCC even two decades after HSCT. Therefore, we recommend careful long-term follow-up of the oral cavity for patients with cGVHD. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  19. Treatment with agonistic DR3 antibody results in expansion of donor Tregs and reduced graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Su; Nishikii, Hidekazu; Baker, Jeanette; Pierini, Antonio; Schneidawind, Dominik; Pan, Yuqiong; Beilhack, Andreas; Park, Chung-Gyu; Negrin, Robert S

    2015-07-23

    The paucity of regulatory T cells (Tregs) limits clinical translation to control aberrant immune reactions including graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Recent studies showed that the agonistic antibody to DR3 (αDR3) expanded CD4(+)FoxP3(+) Tregs in vivo. We investigated whether treating donor mice with a single dose of αDR3 could alleviate acute GVHD in a MHC-mismatched bone marrow transplantation model. αDR3 induced selective proliferation of functional Tregs. CD4(+) T cells isolated from αDR3-treated mice contained higher numbers of Tregs and were less proliferative to allogeneic stimuli. In vivo GVHD studies confirmed that Tregs from αDR3-treated donors expanded robustly and higher frequencies of Tregs within donor CD4(+) T cells were maintained, resulting in improved survival. Conventional T cells derived from αDR3-treated donors showed reduced activation and proliferation. Serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IFNγ, IL-1β, and TNFα) and infiltration of donor T cells into GVHD target tissues (gastrointestinal tract and liver) were decreased. T cells from αDR3-treated donors retained graft-vs-tumor (GVT) effects. In conclusion, a single dose of αDR3 alleviates acute GVHD while preserving GVT effects by selectively expanding and maintaining donor Tregs. This novel strategy will facilitate the clinical application of Treg-based therapies. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  20. Low-dose interleukin-2 therapy restores regulatory T cell homeostasis in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Ken-ichi; Koreth, John; Kim, Haesook T.; Bascug, O. Gregory; McDonough, Sean; Kawano, Yutaka; Murase, Kazuyuki; Cutler, Corey; Ho, Vincent T.; Alyea, Edwin P.; Armand, Philippe; Blazar, Bruce R.; Antin, Joseph H.; Soiffer, Robert J.; Ritz, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a central role in the maintenance of immune tolerance after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We recently reported that daily administration of low-dose IL-2 induces selective expansion of functional Treg and clinical improvement of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). To define the mechanisms of action of IL-2 therapy we examined the immunologic effects of this treatment on homeostasis of CD4 T cell subsets after transplant. We first demonstrate that chronic GVHD is characterized by constitutive phosphorylation of Stat5 in conventional CD4 T cells (Tcon) associated with elevated levels of IL-7 and IL-15 and relative functional deficiency of IL-2. IL-2 therapy resulted in the selective increase of Stat5 phosphorylation in Treg and decrease of pStat5 in Tcon. Over an eight-week period, IL-2 therapy induced a series of changes in Treg homeostasis, including increased proliferation, increased thymic export and enhanced resistance to apoptosis. Low-dose IL-2 had minimal effects on Tcon. These findings define the mechanisms whereby low-dose IL-2 therapy restores the homeostasis of CD4 T cell subsets and promotes the re-establishment of immune tolerance. PMID:23552371

  1. Allospecific CD4+ Effector Memory T Cells Do Not Induce Graft-versus-Host Disease in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ping; Wu, Jieying; Deoliveira, Divino; Chao, Nelson J.; Chen, Benny J.

    2012-01-01

    We studied whether allospecific CD4+ effector memory T cells (TEM) could induce graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) using a novel GVHD model solely induced by CD4+ T cell receptor transgenic TEa cells. Allospecific TEM generated in a lymphopenic host bore a typical memory phenotype. Moreover, these cells were able to elicit a faster and more effective proliferative response upon challenge with alloantigen in vitro and to mediate “second-set” skin graft rejection in vivo. However, these allospecific TEM were unable to induce GVHD. Allospecific TEM recipients became tolerant to alloantigen as a result of clonal deletion. Even though allospecific TEM were able to respond to alloantigen initially, the expansion of these cells and inflammatory cytokine production during GVHD were dramatically decreased. The inability of allospecific TEM to sustain the alloresponse may be a result of enhanced activation induced cell death. These observations provide insights into how allospecific CD4+ TEM respond to alloantigen during GVHD and underscore the fundamental differences of alloresponses mediated by allospecific TEM in graft rejection and GVHD settings. PMID:22809867

  2. Previously Activated Psoralen: A Possible Novel Format of Psoralen Used in the Treatment of Graft-versus-host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hu, X; Qian, L; Chen, X; Shen, J

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a lethal complication of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation which limits its application. Psoralen was utilized in the treatment of GVHD as a second-line method, which is also known as extracorporeal photochemotherapy (ECP). In the process of ECP, mononuclear cells must be isolated from the body in advance. Then a photosensitizer, 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP, 200 μg/L for the final concentration), would be added to the cell suspension before its exposure to ultraviolet A [UVA; 365 nm, 2J/cm2]. The disposed lymphocytes re-infused into the body account for 5% to 15% of the lymphocytes in the body. The process of ECP is complicated, expensive and very labour intensive, which limits its popularity. We hypothesized that psoralen should be activated by UVA, and should be kept in activation for a relatively long time before it gets in contact with mononuclear cells. This kind of psoralen is called previously activated psoralen (PAP), which may have the same effects on GVHD as ECP, but would be much easier and economical to work with. PMID:26360687

  3. Treatment change as a predictor of outcome among patients with classic chronic graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Flowers, Mary E.D.; Storer, Barry; Carpenter, Paul; Rezvani, Andrew; Vigorito, Afonso C.; Campregher, Paulo V.; Moravec, Carina; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Fero, Matthew; Georges, George; Warren, Edus; Lee, Stephanie; Sanders, Jean E.; Appelbaum, Fred; Martin, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed outcomes for 668 patients who had systemic treatment for chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) to assess the utility of early treatment change for exacerbation of chronic GVHD as a surrogate for survival endpoints in clinical trials. Fifty-six percent of patients had treatment change within 2 years after diagnosis of chronic GVHD. The median onset of treatment change was 4.4 months (range, 0.3 – 50 months). The cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality (NRM) at 2 years was 16%, and overall survival at 2 years was 74%. In time-dependent Cox models, treatment change was associated with an increase in risk of NRM (hazard ratio, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.7-3.7; p < .0001). The hazard ratio was attenuated by 6% per month of delay in treatment change. Our results confirm that exacerbation of chronic GVHD is associated with an increased risk of NRM and with decreased survival, but the strength of this association is not large enough to allow the use of early exacerbation as a surrogate for survival endpoints in clinical trials. Other measures of clinical benefit, such as response, will need to be developed as endpoints in phase II trials for patients with chronic GVHD. PMID:19041060

  4. Antithymocyte globulin for acute-graft-versus-host-disease prophylaxis in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Mhaskar, A R; Reljic, T; Mhaskar, R S; Kharfan-Dabaja, M A; Anasetti, C; Mohty, M; Djulbegovic, B

    2012-04-01

    Graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) is a major complication associated with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is recommended for GVHD prophylaxis following allo-HCT, however, evidence on efficacy of ATG is conflicting. Accordingly, we undertook a systematic review. All phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing ATG versus control for prevention of GVHD in patients undergoing allo-HCT were eligible. Medline and Cochrane databases were searched. Data on methodological quality, benefits and harms were extracted for each trial and pooled under a random effects model. Seven RCTs enrolling 733 patients met inclusion criteria. Pooled results showed no difference for overall survival with use of ATG (hazard ratio was 0.91; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 0.75-1.10; P = 0.32). There was a significant benefit for prevention of grade III/IV acute GVHD (risk ratio (RR) = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.27-0.94; P = 0.03). There was no benefit associated with ATG use for prevention of either grade II (RR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.48-1.30; P = 0.35) or grade I acute GVHD (RR = 1.42; 95% CI, 0.75-2.69; P = 0.28). Use of ATG was not associated with significant reduction in non-relapse mortality (RR = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.53-1.03; P = 0.08). Future trials with adequate sample size are required to provide more definitive answers.

  5. Lymphodepletion followed by donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) causes significantly more acute graft-versus-host disease than DLI alone

    PubMed Central

    Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Burns, Linda J.; Slungaard, Arne; Wagner, John E.; Verneris, Michael R.; Cooley, Sarah; Wangen, Rosanna; Fautsch, Susan K.; Nicklow, Roby; DeFor, Todd; Blazar, Bruce R.

    2007-01-01

    Donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs) can produce lasting remissions in patients with relapsed chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but are less effective in non-CML diseases. We hypothesized that lymphodepletion, achieved with cyclophosphamide (Cy) and fludarabine (Flu), would promote in vivo expansion of the infused lymphocytes enhancing their immunologic effects. Fifteen patients with relapsed non-CML disease who received Cy/Flu/DLI were compared with 63 controls who received DLI without chemotherapy. Only the patients receiving Cy/Flu/DLI became lymphopenic at the time of DLI. Compared with controls, patients who received Cy/Flu/DLI developed significantly more grades II to IV (60% vs 24%, P = .01) and grades III to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (47% vs 14%, P = .01) with greater GVHD lethality. In Cy/Flu/DLI patients, T-cell proliferation was elevated at 14 days after DLI. Although these data suggest that chemotherapy-induced lymphodepletion enhances activation of donor lymphocytes, the toxicity needs to be managed before testing whether better disease control can be achieved. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as no. NCT00303693 and www.cancer.gov/clinicaltrials as no. NCT00167180. PMID:17579184

  6. Lymphodepletion followed by donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) causes significantly more acute graft-versus-host disease than DLI alone.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jeffrey S; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Burns, Linda J; Slungaard, Arne; Wagner, John E; Verneris, Michael R; Cooley, Sarah; Wangen, Rosanna; Fautsch, Susan K; Nicklow, Roby; Defor, Todd; Blazar, Bruce R

    2007-10-01

    Donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs) can produce lasting remissions in patients with relapsed chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but are less effective in non-CML diseases. We hypothesized that lymphodepletion, achieved with cyclophosphamide (Cy) and fludarabine (Flu), would promote in vivo expansion of the infused lymphocytes enhancing their immunologic effects. Fifteen patients with relapsed non-CML disease who received Cy/Flu/DLI were compared with 63 controls who received DLI without chemotherapy. Only the patients receiving Cy/Flu/DLI became lymphopenic at the time of DLI. Compared with controls, patients who received Cy/Flu/DLI developed significantly more grades II to IV (60% vs 24%, P = .01) and grades III to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (47% vs 14%, P = .01) with greater GVHD lethality. In Cy/Flu/DLI patients, T-cell proliferation was elevated at 14 days after DLI. Although these data suggest that chemotherapy-induced lymphodepletion enhances activation of donor lymphocytes, the toxicity needs to be managed before testing whether better disease control can be achieved. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as no. NCT00303693 and www.cancer.gov/clinicaltrials as no. NCT00167180.

  7. Novel Treatment of Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Mice Using the ER Stress Reducer 4-Phenylbutyric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Shin; Ogawa, Yoko; Urano, Fumihiko; Kudo-Saito, Chie; Kawakami, Yutaka; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a notorious complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and causes disabling systemic inflammation and fibrosis. In this novel study, we focused on a relationship between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and cGVHD, and aimed to create effective treatment of cGVHD. A series of experiments were conducted using a mouse model of cGVHD. Our data suggested (1) that ER stress was elevated in organs affected by cGVHD and (2) that 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) could reduce cGVHD-induced ER stress and thereby alleviate systemic inflammation and fibrosis. Because fibroblasts are thought to be implicated in cGVHD-elicited fibrosis and because macrophages are reported to play a role in the development of cGVHD, we investigated cGVHD-triggered ER stress in fibroblasts and macrophages. Our investigation demonstrated (1) that indicators for ER stress and activation markers for fibroblasts were elevated in cGVHD-affected lacrimal gland fibroblasts and (2) that they could be reduced by PBA. Our work also indicated that splenic macrophages from PBA-dosed mice exhibited the lower levels of ER stress and M2 macrophage markers than those from cGVHD-affected mice. Collectively, this study suggests that the reduction of ER stress utilizing PBA can be a clinically translatable method to treat systemic cGVHD. PMID:28165054

  8. Inability of memory T cells to induce graft-versus-host disease is a result of an abortive alloresponse

    PubMed Central

    Deoliveira, Divino; Cui, Xiuyu; Le, Ngocdiep T.; Son, Jessica; Whitesides, John F.; Chao, Nelson J.

    2007-01-01

    Several groups, including our own, have independently demonstrated that effector memory T cells from non–alloantigen-primed donors do not cause graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In the current study, we further investigated whether this approach could be extended to all memory T cells, and we studied the underlying mechanisms. Neither total memory T cells nor purified central memory T cells were able to induce GVHD. Memory T cells were at least 3-log less potent than bulk T cells in mediating GVHD. As expected, memory T cells failed to elicit cytotoxicity and proliferated poorly against alloantigens in standard 5-day mixed-lymphocyte cultures. However, the proliferative responses of memory T cells were more comparable with those of bulk and naive T cells when the culture time was shortened. Moreover, the frequencies of IL-2–secreting cells measured by 42-hour enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay were similar among naive, memory, and bulk T cells. These data indicated that memory T cells are able to respond to alloantigens initially but fail to develop to full potential. The abortive immune response, which was mediated by non–alloantigen-specific memory T cells in response to alloantigens, may explain why memory T cells from unprimed and non–alloantigen-primed donors could not induce GVHD. PMID:17148592

  9. Previously Activated Psoralen: A Possible Novel Format of Psoralen Used in the Treatment of Graft-versus-host Disease.

    PubMed

    Hu, X; Qian, L; Chen, X; Shen, J

    2015-03-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a lethal complication of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation which limits its application. Psoralen was utilized in the treatment of GVHD as a second-line method, which is also known as extracorporeal photochemotherapy (ECP). In the process of ECP, mononuclear cells must be isolated from the body in advance then a photosensitizer, 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP, 200 μg/L for the final concentration), would be added to the cell suspension before its exposure to ultraviolet A [UVA; 365 nm, 2J/cm2]. The disposed lymphocytes re-infused into the body account for 5% to 15% of the lymphocytes in the body. The process of ECP is complicated, expensive and very labour intensive, which limits its popularity. We hypothesized that psoralen should be activated by ultraviolet A, and should be kept in activation for a relatively long time before it gets in contact with mononuclear cells. This kind of psoralen is called previously activated psoralen (PAP), which may have the same effects on GVHD as ECP, but would be much easier and economical to work with.

  10. Safety and Outcomes of Extracorporeal Photopheresis With the Therakos Cellex System for Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Uygun, Vedat; Daloglu, Hayriye; Karasu, Gulsun; Hazar, Volkan; Yeşilipek, Akif

    2015-04-01

    Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is a difficult procedure to perform in the pediatric population. This is a retrospective review of 12 pediatric patients who underwent photopheresis with the Therakos Cellex system for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Acute GVHD (aGVHD) occurred in 6 patients, and overlap syndrome and chronic GVHD (cGVHD) occurred in 4 and 2 patients, respectively. The ECP regimen was the same for all aGVHD and cGVHD patients: initially, every week (2 sessions/wk) for 2 months; next, every 2 weeks for 2 months; and finally, every month for at least 1 year. Improvement was observed in 7 of 10 aGVHD patients (70%) and in 4 of 6 cGVHD patients (66%). Eleven patients had skin involvement before ECP; 9 of them responded to treatment (81%). Gastrointestinal involvement occurred in 8 patients; 5 of them experienced improvement during ECP treatment (62%). All 4 patients with liver involvement failed to respond. No serious adverse reactions occurred. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that ECP with the Therakos Cellex system is a safe treatment option for GVHD in children, allowing the tapering of immunosuppressants by at least half.

  11. Fecal microbiota transplantation for patients with steroid-resistant acute graft-versus-host disease of the gut

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Yuki; Suda, Wataru; Najima, Yuho; Kuwata, Go; Sasajima, Satoshi; Mimura, Iyo; Morita, Hidetoshi; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Hattori, Masahira; Hino, Yutaro; Ikegawa, Shuntaro; Yamamoto, Keita; Toya, Takashi; Doki, Noriko; Koizumi, Koichi; Honda, Kenya; Ohashi, Kazuteru

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that the gut microbiota is closely associated with acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) in stem cell transplantation (SCT). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) could represent an alternative treatment option for aGVHD. However, FMT for SCT patients carries a potential risk of infection by infused microbiota because of the severely immunosuppressed status. We therefore conducted a pilot study to evaluate the safety of FMT in SCT. A total of 4 patients with steroid-resistant (n = 3) or steroid-dependent gut aGVHD (n = 1) received FMT. No severe adverse events attributed to FMT were observed. All patients responded to FMT, with 3 complete responses and 1 partial response. Temporal dynamics of microbiota seemed to be linked to the gut condition of patients and peripheral effector regulatory T cells also increased during response to FMT. FMT was safely performed in our patients and might offer a novel therapeutic option for aGVHD. This trial was registered at the University Hospital Medical Information Network (https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/icdr_e/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000017575) as #UMIN000015115. PMID:27461930

  12. Clinical laboratory markers of inflammation as determinants of chronic graft-versus-host disease activity and NIH global severity

    PubMed Central

    Grkovic, Lana; Baird, Kristin; Steinberg, Seth M.; Williams, Kirsten M.; Pulanic, Drazen; Cowen, Edward W.; Mitchell, Sandra A.; Hakim, Fran T.; Martires, Kathryn J.; Avila, Daniele N.; Taylor, Tiffani N.; Salit, Rachel B.; Rowley, Scott D.; Zhang, Dan; Fowler, Daniel H.; Bishop, Michael R.; Gress, Ronald E.; Pavletic, Steven Z.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) remains a major cause of non-relapse morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Currently there are no accepted measures of cGVHD activity to aid in clinical management and disease staging. We analyzed clinical markers of inflammation in the sera of patients with established cGVHD and correlated those with definitions of disease activity. 189 adults with cGVHD (33% moderate and 66% severe according to NIH global scoring) were consecutively enrolled onto a cross-sectional prospective cGVHD natural history study. At the time of evaluation, 80% were receiving systemic immunosuppression and failed a median of 4 prior systemic therapies (PST) for their cGVHD. Lower albumin (p<0.0001), higher CRP (C-reactive protein; p=0.043), higher platelets (p=0.030) and higher number of PST (p<0.0001) were associated with active disease defined as clinician's intention to intensify or alter systemic therapy due to the lack of response. Higher platelet count (p=0.021) and higher number of PST (p<0.0001) were associated with more severe diseased defined by NIH global score. This study identified common laboratory indicators of inflammation that can serve as markers of cGVHD activity and severity. PMID:22005783

  13. Bim is required for T-cell allogeneic responses and graft-versus-host disease in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yu; Yu, Jing; Iclozan, Cristina; Kaosaard, Kane; Anasetti, Claudio; Yu, Xue-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Bim, a BH3-only Bcl-2-family protein, is essential for T-cell negative selection in the thymus as well as for the death of activated T cells in the periphery. The role of Bim has been extensively studied in T-cell responses to self-antigens and viral infections. Recent findings on Bim in autoimmunity triggered our interest in investigating whether Bim may play a role in another disease with inflammatory symptoms as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Here we report that Bim is required for optimal T-cell responses to alloantigens in vivo and for the development of GVHD. Using murine models of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT), we found that donor T cells deficient for Bim are impaired in the induction of GVHD primarily due to a significant defect in T cell activation and expansion in vivo. Upon TCR engagement, Bim-/- T cells exhibited selective defects in CD69 expression and phosphorylation of PLCγ1. Our studies uncover a novel aspect of Bim function in T-cell activation with important implications in understanding the mechanisms of T-cell activation and tolerance under allogeneic transplantation. PMID:22432091

  14. Absence of P-selectin in Recipients of Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation Ameliorates Experimental Graft-versus-Host-Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Sydney X.; Holland, Amanda M.; Na, Il-Kang; Terwey, Theis H.; Alpdogan, Onder; Bautista, Jhoanne L.; Smith, Odette M.; Suh, David; King, Christopher; Kochman, Adam; Hubbard, Vanessa M.; Rao, Uttam K.; Yim, Nury; Liu, Chen; Laga, Alvaro C.; Murphy, George; Jenq, Robert; Zakrzewski, Johannes L.; Penack, Olaf; Dykstra, Lindsay; Bampoe, Kevin; Perez, Lia; Furie, Bruce; Furie, Barbara; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Alloreactive T cells are crucial for graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) pathophysiology, and modulating their trafficking patterns has been efficacious in ameliorating experimental disease. We report here that P-selectin, a glycoprotein found on resting and inflamed endothelium, is important for donor alloreactive T cells trafficking into GVHD target organs such as the intestines and skin. Compared with wildtype recipients of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT), P-selectin−/− recipients exhibit decreased GVHD mortality and decreased GVHD of the skin, liver and small bowels. This was associated with diminished infiltration of alloactivated T cells into the Peyer's Patches and small bowels, coupled with increased numbers of donor T cells in the spleen and secondary lymphoid organs (SLO). Surprisingly however, donor T cells deficient for PSGL1, the most well-described P-selectin ligand, mediated similar GVHD as WT T cells, and accumulated in SLO and target organs in similar numbers as WT T cells. This suggests that P-selectin may be required for trafficking into inflamed tissues but not SLO, and that donor T cells may utilize multiple P-selectin ligands apart from PSGL1 to interact with P-selectin and traffic into inflamed tissues during GVHD. We conclude that targeting P-selectin may be a viable target for GVHD prophylaxis or treatment. PMID:20622117

  15. Effect of peripheral lymphoid cells on the incidence of lethal graft versus host disease following allogeneic mouse bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Almaraz, R.; Ballinger, W.; Sachs, D.H.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1983-02-01

    Experiments were performed to study the role of circulating lymphoid cells in the incidence of lethal graft versus host disease (GVHD) in radiation-induced fully allogeneic mouse chimeras. The incidence of GVHD was reduced significantly in BALB/c leads to C57BL/6 radiation chimeras if bone marrow donors were exsanguinated immediately prior to marrow harvest. Chimeras resulting from the injection of bone marrow from bled donors exhibited only donor cells in spleen, bone marrow and peripheral blood and normal levels of Thy 1+ and Ia+ cells were found in each of these lymphoid compartments. The addition of as few as 3 X 10(4) peripheral mononuclear cells to the marrow from exsanguinated donors uniformly led to lethal GVHD. /sup 51/Cr-labeled cell traffic studies revealed that prior exsanguination of marrow donors led to about a 70% reduction in the number of circulating mononuclear cells contaminating the bone marrow at the time of marrow harvest. This decrease in contaminating peripheral cells was calculated to be in the appropriate range to account for the decreased GVHD seen when marrow from exsanguinated donors was used. It thus appears that peripheral cells contaminating marrow can be an important factor in causing lethal GVHD in allogeneic radiation chimeras.

  16. Minor ABO-mismatches are risk factors for acute graft-versus-host disease in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Ludajic, Katarina; Balavarca, Yesilda; Bickeböller, Heike; Rosenmayr, Agathe; Fischer, Gottfried F; Faé, Ingrid; Kalhs, Peter; Pohlreich, David; Kouba, Michal; Dobrovolna, Marie; Greinix, Hildegard T

    2009-11-01

    We investigated the impact of ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood group matching on the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) of 154 patients matched at 10/10 HLA loci with unrelated donors. ABO and Rh, as potential risk factors, were modeled with the clinical outcome--acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD, cGVHD), relapse, treatment-related mortality (TRM), and overall survival (OS)--by simple, multiple, and competing risk analyses. We found that minor ABO-mismatches represent a significant risk factor for aGVHD (II-IV) with an estimated risk increase of almost 3-fold (hazard ratio [HR]=2.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.43-5.95, P=.003), and even 4-fold for aGVHD (III-IV) (HR=4.24, 95% CI: 1.70-10.56, P=.002), but not for other transplant endpoints. No significant association of the Rh matching status with any of the HSCT endpoints was seen. These results suggest that ABO minor mismatches may play a role in aGvHD pathophysiology, possibly by providing the setting for T cell activation and antibody mediated damage. To decrease the risk of aGVHD, ABO matching should be considered in HSCT.

  17. Mycophenolate mofetil and cyclosporine for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis following reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mohty, M; de Lavallade, H; Faucher, C; Bilger, K; Vey, N; Stoppa, A-M; Gravis, G; Coso, D; Viens, P; Gastaut, J-A; Blaise, D

    2004-09-01

    The use of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens for allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) can result in a significant decrease in early procedure-related toxicity in patients not eligible for standard myeloablative regimens. However, acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) remains a matter of concern after RIC allo-SCT, and its incidence might be expected to be higher in elderly and high-risk patients. This report investigated mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and cyclosporin A (CsA) combination (n=14) in comparison to CsA alone (n=20) for GVHD prophylaxis in cancer patients aged over 50 years (27 haematological malignancies and seven solid tumours) receiving an HLA-identical sibling antithymocyte-globulin (ATG)-based RIC allo-SCT. Baseline demographic characteristics and risk factors for aGVHD were comparable between both groups. Although MMF administration was not associated with any significant toxicity, the cumulative incidence of any form of GVHD was comparable between both groups (cumulative incidence of grade II-IV aGVHD, 50% (95% CI, 28-72%) for CsA alone, as compared to 64% (95% CI, 39-89%) to CsA and MMF, P=NS), suggesting that adjunction of MMF to CsA is feasible, but does not translate towards a significant reduction of aGVHD, at least in the context ATG-based RIC allo-SCT.

  18. Bim is required for T-cell allogeneic responses and graft-versus-host disease in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yu; Yu, Jing; Iclozan, Cristina; Kaosaard, Kane; Anasetti, Claudio; Yu, Xue-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Bim, a BH3-only Bcl-2-family protein, is essential for T-cell negative selection in the thymus as well as for the death of activated T cells in the periphery. The role of Bim has been extensively studied in T-cell responses to self-antigens and viral infections. Recent findings on Bim in autoimmunity triggered our interest in investigating whether Bim may play a role in another disease with inflammatory symptoms as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Here we report that Bim is required for optimal T-cell responses to alloantigens in vivo and for the development of GVHD. Using murine models of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT), we found that donor T cells deficient for Bim are impaired in the induction of GVHD primarily due to a significant defect in T cell activation and expansion in vivo. Upon TCR engagement, Bim(-/-) T cells exhibited selective defects in CD69 expression and phosphorylation of PLCγ1. Our studies uncover a novel aspect of Bim function in T-cell activation with important implications in understanding the mechanisms of T-cell activation and tolerance under allogeneic transplantation.

  19. Tolerance induction between two different strains of parental mice prevents graft-versus-host disease in haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to F1 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Yixian; Zhang, Lanfang; Wan, Suigui; Sun, Xuejing; Wu, Yongxia; Yu, Xue-Zhong; Xia, Chang-Qing

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Injection of UVB-irradiated iDCs induces alloantigen tolerance. • This alloantigen tolerance may be associated regulatory T cell induction. • Tolerant mice serve as bone marrow donors reduces GVHD to their F1 recipients in allo-HSCT. • Tolerance is maintained in F1 recipients for long time post HSCT. - Abstract: Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Haplo-HSCT) has been employed worldwide in recent years and led to favorable outcome in a group of patients who do not have human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donors. However, the high incidence of severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major problem for Haplo-HSCT. In the current study, we performed a proof of concept mouse study to test whether induction of allogeneic tolerance between two different parental strains was able to attenuate GVHD in Haplo-HSCT to the F1 mice. We induced alloantigen tolerance in C3H mice (H-2k) using ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiated immature dendritic cells (iDCs) derived from the cultures of Balb/c bone marrow cells. Then, we performed Haplo-HSCT using tolerant C3H mice as donors to F1 mice (C3H × Balb/c). The results demonstrated that this approach markedly reduced GVHD-associated death and significantly prolonged the survival of recipient mice in contrast to the groups with donors (C3H mice) that received infusion of non-UVB-irradiated DCs. Further studies showed that there were enhanced Tregs in the tolerant mice and alloantigen-specific T cell response was skewed to more IL-10-producing T cells, suggesting that these regulatory T cells might have contributed to the attenuation of GVHD. This study suggests that it is a feasible approach to preventing GVHD in Haplo-HSCT in children by pre-induction of alloantigen tolerance between the two parents. This concept may also lead to more opportunities in cell-based immunotherapy for GVHD post Haplo-HSCT.

  20. Induction of late graft-versus-host disease in a patient post-allogeneic stem cell transplantation by progesterone in conjunction with donor lymphocyte infusion.

    PubMed

    Gesundheit, Benjamin; Shapira, Michael Y; Maly, Alexander; Samuel, Simcha; Budowski, Einat; Or, Reuven

    2008-03-01

    Patients after stem cell transplantation (SCT), often develop graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) which, although potentially dangerous, is associated with the beneficial graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. Where there is high risk of disease recurrence, donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) are given to provide long-term disease control. We present a patient treated with DLI 4 years post-SCT, who developed acute GVHD after administration of progesterone to induce menstruation. This rare allergic reaction warrants further investigation.

  1. Acute graft-versus-host disease, invasive aspergillosis and Clostridium difficile colitis after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation: A complex network of causalities and a challenge for prevention.

    PubMed

    Khanafer, Nagham; Neuraz, Antoine; Bénet, Thomas; Cour, Martin; Persat, Florence; Labussière, Hélène; Argaud, Laurent; Michallet, Mauricette; Vanhems, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a known risk factor for invasive aspergillosis (IA), but remains poorly studied in relation to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). We report a case of a 58-years-old patient who developed an IA within a protected room, CDI and GVHD after allogeneic allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). Factors associated with this complex condition in patients receiving allogeneic PBSCT need to be identified.

  2. Favorable impact of natural killer cell reconstitution on chronic graft-versus-host disease and cytomegalovirus reactivation after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kheav, Vissal David; Busson, Marc; Scieux, Catherine; Peffault de Latour, Régis; Maki, Guitta; Haas, Philippe; Mazeron, Marie-Christine; Carmagnat, Maryvonnick; Masson, Emeline; Xhaard, Aliénor; Robin, Marie; Ribaud, Patricia; Dulphy, Nicolas; Loiseau, Pascale; Charron, Dominique; Socié, Gérard; Toubert, Antoine; Moins-Teisserenc, Hélène

    2014-12-01

    Natural killer cells are the first lymphocyte subset to reconstitute, and play a major role in early immunity after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Cells expressing the activating receptor NKG2C seem crucial in the resolution of cytomegalovirus episodes, even in the absence of T cells. We prospectively investigated natural killer-cell reconstitution in a cohort of 439 adult recipients who underwent non-T-cell-depleted allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between 2005 and 2012. Freshly collected blood samples were analyzed 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after transplantation. Data were studied with respect to conditioning regimen, source of stem cells, underlying disease, occurrence of graft-versus-host disease, and profiles of cytomegalovirus reactivation. In multivariate analysis we found that the absolute numbers of CD56(bright) natural killer cells at month 3 were significantly higher after myeloablative conditioning than after reduced intensity conditioning. Acute graft-versus-host disease impaired reconstitution of total and CD56(dim) natural killer cells at month 3. In contrast, high natural killer cell count at month 3 was associated with a lower incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease, independently of a previous episode of acute graft-versus-host disease and stem cell source. NKG2C(+)CD56(dim) and total natural killer cell counts at month 3 were lower in patients with reactivation of cytomegalovirus between month 0 and month 3, but expanded greatly afterwards. These cells were also less numerous in patients who experienced later cytomegalovirus reactivation between month 3 and month 6. Our results advocate a direct role of NKG2C-expressing natural killer cells in the early control of cytomegalovirus reactivation after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  3. Real-Time PCR Analysis of Chimerism in T Cell Subsets as an Early Predictor of Graft-Versus-Host Disease Following Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Guz, Katarzyna; Nasiłowska, Barbara; Tomaszewska, Agnieszka; Orzińska, Agnieszka; Smolarczyk-Wodzyńska, Justyna; Krzemienowska, Magdalen; Hałaburda, Kazimierz; Przybylski, Maciej; Jędrzejczak, Wiesław Wiktor; Mariańska, Bożena; Brojer, Ewa

    2015-12-03

    Graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality after stem cell transplantation. The development of early prediction methods is therefore of importance. Our aim was to analyze the usefulness of early donor chimerism monitoring after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in T cells and in CD4+ and CD8+ (lineage chimerism) for GvHD prediction. Chimerism was analyzed in 76 consecutive adult patients using RQ-PCR TaqMan technology on DNA extracted from Pan T, CD4+, and CD8+ cell subsets on Day 5, 10, 15 and 30 after allo-HSCT. The threshold of chimerism predictive for GvHD was the same for all tested cell subsets. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients treated with myeloablative conditioning (MAC), the threshold predictive for acute graft versus host disease was 95% and 99% for Day 10 and Day 15, respectively. In patients treated with reduced intensity conditioning (RIC), the threshold predictive for chronic graft versus host disease was 98% on Day 10. The differences were statistically significant. Chimerism analysis in T cell subsets by RQ-PCR on Day 10 and Day 15 after transplantation is useful for prediction of aGvHD (AML patients after MAC) and cGvHD (patients after RIC). However, there was no difference in the results between chimerism in the T cell subsets. Our RQ-PCR protocol was highly sensitive and proved effective for analysis of lineage chimerism.

  4. Membranous nephropathy as a manifestation of graft-versus-host disease: association with HLA antigen typing, phospholipase A2 receptor, and C4d.

    PubMed

    Byrne-Dugan, Cathryn J; Collins, A Bernard; Lam, Albert Q; Batal, Ibrahim

    2014-12-01

    Glomerulopathy is an uncommon but increasingly recognized complication of hematopoietic cell transplantation. It typically manifests as membranous nephropathy, less commonly as minimal change disease, and rarely as proliferative glomerulonephritis. There is evidence to suggest that these glomerulopathies might represent manifestations of chronic graft-versus-host disease. In this report, we focus on membranous nephropathy as the most common form of glomerulopathy after hematopoietic cell transplantation. We present a case of membranous nephropathy that developed 483 days post-allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a patient with a history of acute graft-versus-host disease. We also share our experience with 4 other cases of membranous nephropathy occurring after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Clinicopathologic correlates, including the association with graft-versus-host-disease, HLA antigen typing, glomerular deposition of immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses, subepithelial colocalization of IgG deposits with phospholipase A2 receptor staining, C4d deposition along the peritubular capillaries, and treatment, are discussed with references to the literature.

  5. Phenotypic analysis of pulmonary perivascular mononuclear infiltrates that occur as a direct result of acute lethal graft-versus-host disease describes the onset of interstitial pneumonitis.

    PubMed Central

    Workman, D. L.; Clancy, J.

    1995-01-01

    We recently determined that the sequential development of interstitial pneumonitis and lymphocytic bronchiolitis/bronchitis occurs as a direct result of acute lethal graft-versus-host disease. Interstitial pneumonitis develops before lymphocytic bronchiolitis/bronchitis primarily from the dissemination of perivascular mononuclear infiltrates. We have used the adult, nonirradiated (DA x LEW) F1 hybrid rat in the absence of chemotherapy, immunosuppression, or overt infection to determine the phenotype of infiltrating perivascular mononuclear cells throughout acute lethal graft-versus-host disease. F1 animals were intravenously injected with 1 x 10(6) DA parental lymphoid cells/g body weight, which produced 100% morbidity and mortality by day 21. Graft-versus-host disease animals were killed on days 3, 7, 10, 14, and 15 to 21 after injection. Whole left lung lobes were frozen, serially sectioned (4 microns), and incubated with a panel of mouse anti-rat monoclonal antibodies. Labeled antibody density was determined by computerized image analysis. Perivascular infiltration was observed first for ED1+, OX8+, and W3/25+ cells, and then OX41+, W3/13+ and OX19/25+ populations. OX6 was expressed in control tissues and at all time points tested. OX12+, OX39+ and MOM/3F12/F2+ cells were not quantifiable. The present study has determined that the process of perivascular infiltration was produced through a biphasic influx of OX6+, T-cell, and macrophage populations. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:7485398

  6. Kinetics of lymphocyte reconstitution after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: markers of graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Zinöcker, Severin; Sviland, Lisbet; Dressel, Ralf; Rolstad, Bent

    2011-01-01

    GVHD causes extensive morbidity and mortality in patients who receive alloHCT. Predictive and reliable markers for GVHD are currently lacking but required to improve the safety and accessibility of alloHCT. We present an experimental rat model of myeloablative total body irradiation and fully mismatched major and minor histoincompatible, T cell-depleted BMT, followed by delayed infusion of donor lymphocytes. This treatment, in contrast to marrow transplantation alone, resulted in severe aGVHD and 100% lethality within 2–6 weeks. We investigated the reconstitution kinetics and phenotypes of donor leukocyte subpopulations as well as the histopathology of selected organs that may correlate with GVHD, with the goal to find potential disease-related markers. We observed histological changes mainly confined to the skin, with degenerative changes in the basal layer. LNs and spleen showed deranged architecture with markedly increased accumulation of lymphocytes, whereas the gut, liver, and lungs appeared normal. Of the lymphocyte markers tested, donor-derived CD62L+ T cells were markedly decreased in animals suffering from GVHD. Furthermore, we observed peripheral depletion of CD4+CD25hiFoxP3+ Treg, which was in contrast to controls. The relative frequency of these lymphocyte subpopulations in blood may therefore serve as accessible cellular markers of aGVHD. We propose that the animal model presented is instructive for the identification of clinically relevant markers of GVHD, which could improve disease diagnosis and management in alloHCT. PMID:21498586

  7. Meibography and meibomian gland measurements in ocular graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Engel, L A; Wittig, S; Bock, F; Sauerbier, L; Scheid, C; Holtick, U; Chemnitz, J-M; Hallek, M; Cursiefen, C; Steven, P

    2015-07-01

    Meibomian gland loss in ocular GvHD was described as a mechanism contributing to dry eye and severe damage to the ocular surface. Infrared images of upper eyelid meibomian glands from 86 ocular GvHD patients, from 10 patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (aSCT) without ocular GvHD, from 32 patients prior to aSCT and from 30 healthy controls were analyzed retrospectively and evaluated using two grading schemes. The upper meibomian gland area (uMGA) was calculated and set in relation to the total tarsal area of the lid. Results demonstrate that meibomian gland loss is significantly increased in patients with ocular GvHD as well as in patients prior to aSCT in comparison with controls (P between 0.05 and <0.001). Patients after aSCT without ocular GvHD had no significant difference in uMGA in comparison with controls. This study suggests that meibomian gland loss in GvHD patients is likely to be a multifactorial process that also occurs prior to aSCT, possibly due to underlying diseases and/or secondary to chemotherapy or irradiation. In addition, the question has to be addressed whether meibomian gland loss could serve as a predictor for the development of ocular GvHD. Overall, infrared meibography should be included in routine examination of patients undergoing aSCT and during follow-up.

  8. Importance of interleukin-7 in the development of experimental graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Chung, Brile; Dudl, Eric; Toyama, Akira; Barsky, Lora; Weinberg, Kenneth I

    2008-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-7 promotes both thymopoiesis and mature T lymphocyte survival and proliferation in experimental murine models of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation. Because HSC products for transplantation also may contain IL-7-responsive mature T lymphocytes, we examined whether IL-7 is necessary for the induction of GVHD after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Lethally irradiated C57BL6J (B6) and B6.IL-7(-/-) (both H2K(b)) recipient mice were co-transplanted with T cell-depleted (TCD) bone marrow cells and lymph nodes (LNs) from either congenic B6.SJL (CD45.1(+)) or allogeneic BALB/c (H2K(d)) donor mice. After transplantation, the recipient mice were subcutaneously injected with either human recombinant IL-7 or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for 60 days. No evidence of GVHD was detected in the congenic recipients or in the allogeneic B6/IL-7(-/-) recipients treated with PBS; in contrast, significantly increased rates of GVHD-related mortality and morbidity were found in the allogeneic B6.IL-7(-/-) recipients treated with IL-7. The proliferation and number of donor T cells were significantly lower at day 30 post-BMT in the PBS-treated B6.IL-7(-/-) recipients compared with the IL-7-treated B6.IL-7(-/-) mice. These experiments demonstrate that IL-7 is an important factor in the development of GVHD, presumably by supporting the survival, proliferation, and possibly activation of alloreactive donor-derived T cells in the recipients.

  9. Analysis of T-cell receptor variability in transplanted patients with acute graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, P Y; Caignard, A; Diu, A; Genevee, C; Pico, J L; Henry-Amar, M; Bosq, J; Angevin, E; Triebel, F; Hercend, T

    1992-11-01

    T lymphocytes play a pivotal role in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and largely contribute to the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. Most mature T lymphocytes specifically recognize antigens through the alpha/beta T-cell receptor (TCR). Each alpha/beta TCR chain includes a constant region and a variable region, the latter being encoded by V-J alpha or V-D-J beta rearranged gene segments. To better characterize T cells involved in GVHD, V alpha and V beta gene segment usage was analyzed, after cDNA amplification, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and skin samples from three patients with grade II cutaneous GVHD. At time of GVHD diagnosis (days 11, 22, and 25), when first signs of engraftment were detectable, virtually all V alpha and V beta subfamilies were represented in PBMC RNAs of the three recipients. These results suggest that diversified TCR gene segment expression is observed early after allogenic bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT). Lymphocytes infiltrating GVHD skin also expressed a large series of V alpha and V beta subfamily specificities. However, analysis of the V alpha and V beta amplified products showed substantial differences between PBMC and the skin lymphocyte RNAs. These observations indicate that a large variety of T lymphocytes are present at the disease site, while some of them may be specifically amplified or decreased in response to minor histocompatibility antigens (miHA). Further characterization of the latter T-cell subpopulations should lead to a better understanding of human in vivo responses directed at miHA.

  10. Conjunctival HLA-DR and CD8 expression detected by impression cytology in ocular graft versus host disease

    PubMed Central

    Issleib, Susanne; Böhringer, Daniel; Mittelviefhaus, Hans; Schwartzkopff, Johannes; Finke, Juergen; Reinhard, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the expression of human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR in epithelial cells and cluster of differentiation (CD8)-positive lymphocytes as possible markers of chronic ocular graft versus host disease (cGvHD) after hematological stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods Twenty-seven consecutive patients with dry-eye symptoms following HSCT (24 [89%] with peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and 3 [11%] with bone marrow transplants; 17 [63%] familiar allogenic grafts) and 19 age-matched controls were included. Conjunctival impression cytology specimens were stained for HLA-DR, cytokeratin 19, and CD8. Oxford grading scale, blinking frequency, Schirmer test, tear film break-up time (TBUT), and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) were also recorded. Wilcoxon nonparametric testing was used to compare controls and HSCT recipients and to assess HSCT recipient subgroups with and without clinical cGVHD. Results Eighteen patients showed clinical signs of ocular cGVHD. TBUT and Schirmer test scores were significantly lower in patients, while Oxford grades and OSDI were significantly higher than in controls. Epithelial HLA-DR expression was generally higher in HSCT recipients than in controls, but it did not correlate with ocular cGVHD status. CD8-positive lymphocytes were identified in five patients with ocular cGvHD and one control. Conclusions A strong HLA-DR expression as detected by impression cytology appears to indicate a general HSCT response and fails to predict ocular cGVHD. However, the detection of CD8-positive lymphocytes using impression cytology was frequently associated with ocular cGvHD. Our data warrant further evaluation of CD8 expression in impression cytology, along with comparison to conjunctival biopsies and brush cytology, as impression cytology may offer a less invasive strategy for assessing cGVHD status. PMID:23878500

  11. Allogeneic Serum Eye Drops for the Treatment of Dry Eye Patients with Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Na, Kyung-Sun

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To evaluate the therapeutic effect of allogeneic serum eye drops for the treatment of dry eye in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) following bone marrow transplantation. Methods Sixteen patients with cGVHD following allogeneic hematological stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) and diagnosed with dry eye syndrome refractory to conventional treatment were prospectively enrolled in this study. Allogeneic serum eye drops were obtained from healthy related donors after serologic testing. Symptom scores, tear breakup time (tBUT), the Schirmer test without anesthesia (Schirmer I test), tear osmolarity, corneal staining score, impression cytology grade, and goblet cell densities were evaluated before and 4 weeks after administration of allogeneic serum eye drops. Results Enrolled patients included 6 females and 10 males between 20 and 61 years of age (mean age, 37.2±11.6 years). After 4 weeks of treatment, the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) symptom scores decreased significantly (32.5–8.9). Tear osmolarity showed a significant decrease from 311.1 to 285.1 milliosmol. The corneal staining scores significantly decreased from 2.5 to 1.8. Impression cytology grade and goblet cell density improved from 3.4 to 2.4 and from 90.6 to 122.6 cell/mm2, respectively. tBUT also significantly improved from 2.9 to 4.4 s, and the Schirmer I test results showed improvement, but lacked statistical significance (1.7–2.4 mm). No significant side effects were detected as a result of the allogeneic serum treatment during the follow-up period. Conclusions Allogeneic serum can be used for the treatment of severe dry eye in patients with cGVHD when autologous serum is unavailable. Care should be taken to avoid the risk of blood-borne diseases. PMID:22731244

  12. Imatinib mesylate for the treatment of steroid-refractory sclerotic-type cutaneous chronic graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Kristin; Comis, Leora E.; Joe, Galen O.; Steinberg, Seth M.; Hakim, Fran T.; Rose, Jeremy J.; Mitchell, Sandra A.; Pavletic, Steven Z.; Figg, William D.; Yao, Lawrence; Flanders, Kathleen C.; Takebe, Naoko; Sarantopoulos, Stefanie; Booher, Susan; Cowen, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    Sclerotic skin manifestations of chronic graft-versus-host disease (ScGVHD) lead to significant morbidity, including functional disability from joint range of motion (ROM) restriction. No superior second-line therapy has been established for steroid-refractory disease. Imatinib mesylate is a multi-kinase inhibitor of several signaling pathways implicated in skin fibrosis with in vitro antifibrotic activity. We performed an open label pilot Phase 2 trial of imatinib in children and adults with corticosteroid refractory ScGVHD. Twenty patients were enrolled in a 6 month trial. Eight received a standard dose (adult: 400 mg daily; children: 260 mg/m2 daily). Due to poor tolerability, 12 additional patients underwent a dose escalation regimen (adult: 100 mg daily initial dose up to 200 mg daily maximum; children initial dose 65 mg/m2 daily up to 130 mg/m2 daily). Fourteen patients were evaluable for primary response, improvement in joint range of motion (ROM) deficit, at 6 months. Primary outcome criteria for partial response (PR) was met in 5/14 (36%), stable disease (SD) in 7/14 (50%), and progressive disease (PD) in 2/14 (14%) patients. Eleven (79%) patients, including 5 PR and 6 with SD, demonstrated a positive gain in ROM (range 3–94% improvement in deficit). Of 13 patients with measurable changes at 6 months, the average improvement in ROM deficit was 24.2% (IQR: 15.5% to 30.5%; p=0.011). This trial is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov as NCT007020689. PMID:25771402

  13. [Relationship between the IFN-gamma producing cells specific for recipient and acute graft versus host disease].

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiao-jian; Lin, Mao-fang; Cai, Zhen

    2006-02-01

    To study the relationship between the IFN-gamma producing cell specific for recipient (IFN-gamma-PCSR) in allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD). In 37 consecutive HLA-identical sibling allo-HSCT pairs, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) from donors before allo-HSCT and recipients after allo-HSCT were taken as responder cells (RC), and PBMNC from recipients before allo-HSCT as allogeneic stimulator cells (allo-SC) in mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). IFN-gamma-PCSR in PBMNC were assayed using enzyme linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT). Pretransplantation frequencies of IFN-gamma-PCSR in donor PBMNC were significantly higher in aGVHD group than in non-aGVHD group (P < 0.01) and IFN-gamma PCSRs (>or= 20/2 x 10(5)RC) were significantly associated with the occurrence of grade II-IV GVHD (P < 0.05). Compared with that before allo-HSCT, IFN-gamma PCSR in PBMNC of aGVHD patients was significantly increased (P < 0.05). When PBMNC from aGVHD patients reacted with donor PBMNC, the IFN-gamma PC was significantly lower than that with recipient PBMNC before allo-HSCT. Longitudinal analysis of IFN-gamma PCSR following allo-HSCT showed that compared with that in patients without aGVHD, the IFN-gamma PCSR were significantly higher in patients with that in aGVHD on day +14 (P < 0.01) and day +28 (P < 0.01), respectively. After immunosuppressive therapy for 7 days, IFN-gamma PC declined significantly (P < 0.05). The recipient-specific IFN-gamma PC is closely correlated with the allo-response during allo-HSCT and may be helpful for the prediction, diagnosis and monitoring of aGVHD.

  14. Primary human keratinocytes as targets in predicting acute graft-versus-host disease following HLA-identical bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, A M; Kessler, F L; Verdonck, L F; Stadhouders-Keet, S A; van Lier, R A; de Gast, G C; Otten, H G

    2000-12-01

    Graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) remains a major problem following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and manifests itself mainly by damage to epithelial cells of the skin, gut and bile ducts. Reliable tests to predict GVHD are lacking. We developed an assay in which donor T cells are stimulated by patient keratinocytes (KCs), compared that with stimulation by patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and studied the relationship to GVHD. In 27 patients undergoing HLA-identical BMT for haematological malignancies, donor T-cell reactivity was determined as the helper T-lymphocyte precursor (HTLp) frequency against host PBMCs (25 patient-donor pairs) and host KCs (20 patient-donor pairs). KCs were obtained by shave biopsies and cultured with interferon (IFN)-gamma to induce HLA class II expression. In assays using patient KCs and donor T cells, anti-CD28 antibody was added to compensate for the lack of co-stimulatory molecules on KCs. Results were related to the occurrence of GVHD. As BMTs were performed with partially T cell-depleted grafts, GVHD was limited to grade 0 (five patients), grade I (seven patients) and grade II (12 patients). No differences were found in donor T-cell reactivity to patient PBMCs, as expressed as HTLp frequency in patients with or without GVHD. However, significant differences (P < 0.01) were found in donor T-cell reactivity to patient KCs when comparing patients with and without GVHD. Donor HTLp frequencies against patient KCs give a better prediction of GVHD than those against patient haemopoietic cells following HLA-identical BMT, which may indicate that at least some minor non-HLA histocompatibility antigens present on KCs are different from those on haemopoietic cells.

  15. Reduced intensity conditioning for allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplant determines the kinetics of acute graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Turner, Brie E; Kambouris, Melinda E; Sinfield, Laura; Lange, Janusz; Burns, Ann M; Lourie, Rohan; Atkinson, Kerry; Hart, Derek N J; Munster, David J; Rice, Alison M

    2008-10-15

    Preparative myeloablative conditioning regimens for allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) may control malignancy and facilitate engraftment but also contribute to transplant related mortality, cytokine release, and acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens have decreased transplant related mortality but the incidence of acute GVHD, while delayed, remains unchanged. There are currently no in vivo allogeneic models of RIC HSCT, limiting studies into the mechanism behind RIC-associated GVHD. We developed two RIC HSCT models that result in delayed onset GVHD (major histocompatibility complex mismatched (UBI-GFP/BL6 [H-2]-->BALB/c [H-2]) and major histocompatibility complex matched, minor histocompatibility mismatched (UBI-GFP/BL6 [H-2]-->BALB.B [H-2])) enabling the effect of RIC on chimerism, dendritic cell (DC) chimerism, and GVHD to be investigated. In contrast with myeloablative conditioning, we observed that RIC-associated delayed-onset GVHD is characterized by low production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, maintenance of host DC, phenotypic DC activation, increased T-regulatory cell numbers, and a delayed emergence of activated donor DC. Furthermore, changes to the peritransplant milieu in the recipient after RIC lead to the altered activation of DC and the induction of T-regulatory responses. Reduced intensity conditioning recipients suffer less early damage to GVHD target organs. However, as donor cells engraft, activated donor DC and rising levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha are associated with a later onset of severe GVHD. Delineating the mechanisms underlying delayed onset GVHD in RIC HSCT recipients is vital to improve the prediction of disease onset and allow more targeted interventions for acute GVHD.

  16. Impact of Age on Quality of Life, Functional Status and Survival in Patients with Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    El-Jawahri, Areej; Pidala, Joseph; Inamoto, Yoshi; Chai, Xiaoyu; Khera, Nandita; Wood, William A.; Cutler, Corey; Arora, Mukta; Carpenter, Paul A.; Palmer, Jeanne; Flowers, Mary; Weisdorf, Daniel; Pavletic, Steven; Jaglowski, Samantha; Jagasia, Madan; Lee, Stephanie J.; Chen, Yi-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Although older patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) may experience higher morbidity, the impact of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) on quality of life (QOL) or survival outcomes for older compared to younger patients is currently unknown. We utilized data of patients with moderate or severe chronic GVHD (N=522, 1661 follow-up visits, a total of 2,183 visits) from the Chronic GVHD Consortium, a prospective observational multicenter cohort. We examined the relationship between age group (adolescent and young adult “AYA” 1840, “middle-aged” 41–59, and “older” ≥ 60 years) and QOL (FACT-BMT), physical functioning (Human Activity Profile (HAP)), functional status (2-minute walk test (2MWT)), non-relapse mortality and overall survival. Because of multiple testing, p-values <0.01 were considered significant. This study included 115 (22%) AYA, 279 (53%) middle-aged, and 128 (25%) older patients with moderate (58%) or severe (42%) chronic GVHD. Despite more physical limitations in older patients as measured by worse functional status [shorter 2MWT (p<0.001) and lower HAP scores (p < 0.001)] relative to AYA and middle-aged patients, older patients reported better QOL [FACT-BMT, p=0.004)] compared to middle-aged patients and similar to AYA patients (p=0.99). Non-relapse mortality and overall survival were similar between the age groups. Therefore, despite higher physical and functional limitations, older patients who are selected to undergo HSCT and survive long enough to develop moderate or severe chronic GVHD have preserved QOL and similar overall survival and non-relapse mortality when compared to younger patients. Therefore, we did not find evidence that older age is associated with worse outcomes in patients with moderate or severe chronic GVHD. PMID:24813171

  17. ST2 as a Marker for Risk of Therapy-Resistant Graft-versus-Host Disease and Death

    PubMed Central

    Vander Lugt, Mark T.; Braun, Thomas M.; Hanash, Samir; Ritz, Jerome; Ho, Vincent T.; Antin, Joseph H.; Zhang, Qing; Wong, Chee-Hong; Wang, Hong; Chin, Alice; Gomez, Aurélie; Harris, Andrew C.; Levine, John E.; Choi, Sung W.; Couriel, Daniel; Reddy, Pavan; Ferrara, James L. M.; Paczesny, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Background No plasma biomarkers are associated with the response of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) to therapy after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Methods We compared 12 biomarkers in plasma obtained a median of 16 days after therapy initiation from 10 patients with a complete response by day 28 after therapy initiation and in plasma obtained from 10 patients with progressive GVHD during therapy. The lead biomarker, suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2), was measured at the beginning of treatment for GVHD in plasma from 381 patients and during the first month after transplantation in three independent sets totaling 673 patients to determine the association of this biomarker with treatment-resistant GVHD and 6-month mortality after treatment or transplantation. Results Of the 12 markers, ST2 had the most significant association with resistance to GVHD therapy and subsequent death without relapse. As compared with patients with low ST2 values at therapy initiation, patients with high ST2 values were 2.3 times as likely to have treatment-resistant GVHD (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5 to 3.6) and 3.7 times as likely to die within 6 months after therapy (95% CI, 2.3 to 5.9). Patients with low ST2 values had lower mortality without relapse than patients with high ST2 values, regardless of the GVHD grade (11% vs. 31% among patients with grade I or II GVHD and 14% vs. 67% among patients with grade III or IV GVHD, P<0.001 for both comparisons). Plasma ST2 values at day 14 after transplantation were associated with 6-month mortality without relapse, regardless of the intensity of the conditioning regimen. Conclusions ST2 levels measured at the initiation of therapy for GVHD and during the first month after transplantation improved risk stratification for treatment-resistant GVHD and death without relapse after transplantation. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.) PMID:23924003

  18. Modified Extracorporeal Photopheresis with Cells from a Healthy Donor for Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Budde, Holger; Kolb, Susanne; Salinas Tejedor, Laura; Wulf, Gerald; Reichardt, Holger M.; Riggert, Joachim; Legler, Tobias J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a major challenge after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation but treatment options for patients are still limited. In many cases first-line treatment with glucocorticoids is not successful. Among second-line therapies the extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is frequently performed, due to induction of selective tolerance instead of general immunosuppression. However, for some patients with severe acute GvHD the leukapheresis step of the ECP procedure is physically exhausting and limits the number of ECP cycles. Methods We hypothesized that leukocytes from healthy cell donors could be used as a replacement for ECP leukocytes gained from the GvHD patient. For this purpose we used a well established mouse model of acute GvHD. The ECP therapy was based on cells with the genetic background of the initial donor of the stem cell transplantation. As a precondition we developed a protocol representing conventional ECP in mice equivalent to clinical used ECP setup. Results We could demonstrate that conventional, clinically derived ECP setup is able to alleviate acute GvHD. By using leukocytes obtained from healthy mice with the bone marrow donor’s genetic background we could not observe a statistically significant therapeutic effect. Conclusions Conventional human ECP setup is effective in the mouse model of severe acute GvHD. In addition we could not prove that ECP cells from healthy mice with bone marrow donor’s genetic background are as effective as ECP cells derived from GvHD mice. Based on our findings, new questions arise for further studies, in which the cellular characteristics for ECP mediated immune tolerance are a matter of investigation. PMID:25148404

  19. Donor CD19-CAR T Cells Exert Potent Graft-versus-Lymphoma Activity With Diminished Graft-versus-Host Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arnab; Smith, Melody; James, Scott E.; Davila, Marco L.; Velardi, Enrico; Argyropoulos, Kimon V.; Gunset, Gertrude; Perna, Fabiana; Kreines, Fabiana M.; Levy, Emily R.; Lieberman, Sophie; Jay, Hilary; Tuckett, Andrea Z.; Zakrzewski, Johannes L.; Tan, Lisa; Young, Lauren F.; Takvorian, Kate; Dudakov, Jarrod A.; Jenq, Robert R.; Hanash, Alan M.; Motta, Ana Carolina F.; Murphy, George F.; Liu, Chen; Schietinger, Andrea; Sadelain, Michel; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a potentially curative therapy for hematological malignancies. However, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and relapse after allo-HSCT remain major impediments. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) direct tumor cell recognition of adoptively transferred T cells.1–5 CD19 is an attractive CAR target, expressed in most B cell malignancies as well as normal B cells.6,7 Clinical trails using autologous CD19-targeted T cells have shown remarkable outcomes in various B cell malignancies8–15. The use of allogeneic CAR T cells poses a concern of increased GVHD, which however has not been reported in selected patients infused with donor-derived CD19-CAR T cells after allo-HSCT.16,17 To understand the mechanism whereby allogeneic CD19-CAR T cells may mediate anti-lymphoma activity without significant GVHD, we studied donor-derived CD19-CAR T cells in allo-HSCT and lymphoma models in mice. We demonstrate that alloreactive T cells expressing CD28-costimulated CD19-CARs experienced enhanced T cell stimulation, resulting in progressive loss of effector function and proliferative potential, clonal deletion, and significantly decreased GVHD. Concurrently, other CAR T cells present in bulk donor T cell populations retained their anti-lymphoma activity consistent with the requirement for engaging both the TCR and the CAR to accelerate T cell exhaustion. In contrast, first generation and 4-1BB-costimulated CARs increased GVHD. These findings could explain reduced risk of GVHD with cumulative TCR and CAR signaling. PMID:28067900

  20. Concise Review: Mechanisms Behind Apoptotic Cell-Based Therapies Against Transplant Rejection and Graft versus Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Adrian E; Larregina, Adriana T

    2016-05-01

    The main limitations to the success of transplantation are the antigraft response developed by the recipient immune system, and the adverse side effects of chronic immunosuppression. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) triggered by donor-derived T lymphocytes against the recipient tissues is another serious obstacle in the field of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Several laboratories have tested the possibility of promoting antigen (Ag)-specific tolerance for therapy of graft rejection, GVHD, and autoimmune disorders, by developing methodologies that mimic the mechanisms by which the immune system maintains peripheral tolerance in the steady state. It has been long recognized that the silent clearance of cells undergoing apoptosis exerts potent immune-regulatory effects and provides apoptotic cell-derived Ags to those Ag-presenting cells (APCs) that internalize them, in particular macrophages and dendritic cells. Therefore, in situ-targeting of recipient APCs by systemic administration of leukocytes in early apoptosis and bearing donor Ags represents a relatively simple approach to control the antidonor response against allografts. Here, we review the mechanisms by which apoptotic cells are silently cleared by phagocytes, and how such phenomenon leads to down-regulation of the innate and adaptive immunity. We discuss the evolution of apoptotic cell-based therapies from murine models of organ/tissue transplantation and GVHD, to clinical trials. We make emphasis on potential limitations and areas of concern of apoptotic cell-based therapies, and on how other immune-suppressive therapies used in the clinics or tested experimentally likely also function through the silent clearance of apoptotic cells by the immune system. Stem Cells 2016;34:1142-1150.

  1. Incidence, risk factors, and long-term outcomes of sclerotic graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Uhm, Jieun; Hamad, Nada; Shin, Elizabeth M; Michelis, Fotios V; Shanavas, Mohamed; Gupta, Vikas; Kuruvilla, John; Lipton, Jeffrey H; Messner, Hans A; Seftel, Matthew; Kim, Dennis Dong Hwan

    2014-11-01

    Sclerotic chronic graft-versus-host disease (sclGVHD) is associated with significant morbidity and a poor quality of life. We reviewed 502 patients diagnosed with chronic GVHD and analyzed the incidence and risk factors of sclGVHD and long-term outcomes and immunosuppressive therapy (IST) cessation in patients with sclGVHD. With a median onset at 18 months the cumulative incidence of sclGVHD was estimated at 22.6% at 5 years (95% confidence interval, 18.6% to 26.8%). Univariate and multivariate analysis identified 2 risk factors for sclGVHD: non-T cell depletion (hazard ratio [HR] 9.09, P < .001) and peripheral blood stem cell (HR 3.87, P < .001). Overall survival (OS) at 5 years was significantly better in the sclGVHD group (88.1%) compared with the non-sclGVHD group (62.7%; P < .001), as were nonrelapse mortality (7.3% versus 21.5% at 5 years) and relapse rates (9.1% versus 19.3% at 5 years). There was no difference in the rate of IST cessation at 5 years (44.8% versus 49.9%, P = .312), but there was a trend of longer IST duration in the sclGVHD group compared with the non-sclGVHD group (median 71.6 months versus 62.9 months). In conclusion, T cell depletion and graft source affect the risk of sclGVHD. SclGVHD did not adversely affect long-term outcomes or IST duration.

  2. Impact of donor hematopoietic cells mobilized with G-CSF and plerixafor on murine acute graft-versus-host-disease.

    PubMed

    Arbez, Jessy; Saas, Philippe; Lamarthée, Baptiste; Malard, Florent; Couturier, Mélanie; Mohty, Mohamad; Gaugler, Béatrice

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to characterize the immune effectors contained in the grafts from donor mice mobilized by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and plerixafor and to evaluate their impact on the development of acute graft-versus-host-disease (aGVHD). Mobilization was done with G-CSF alone or G-CSF plus plerixafor (G+P). In grafts collected after G+P mobilization, we observed a significantly higher proportion of c-kit(+)Sca-1(+) hematopoietic stem cells compared with G-CSF. A significant increase in the percentage of plasmacytoid dendritic cells was detected in the G+P graft compared with G-CSF graft. We also studied the ability of stem cell grafts mobilized with G+P to induce GVHD in a mouse model. We observed higher mortality (P < 0.001) associated with increased aGVHD clinical score (P < 0.0001) as well as higher pathology score in the intestine of mice receiving G+P as compared with G-CSF grafts (P < 0.001). Moreover, the exacerbated aGVHD severity was associated with upregulation of CCR6 expression on both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from the G+P grafts, as well as on T cells from mice transplanted with G+P grafts. In conclusion, we showed that grafts mobilized with G+P exhibited functional features different from those mobilized with G-CSF alone, which increase the severity of aGVHD in the recipients. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A donor-specific epigenetic classifier for acute graft-versus-host disease severity in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Paul, Dirk S; Jones, Allison; Sellar, Rob S; Mayor, Neema P; Feber, Andrew; Webster, Amy P; Afonso, Neuza; Sergeant, Ruhena; Szydlo, Richard M; Apperley, Jane F; Widschwendter, Martin; Mackinnon, Stephen; Marsh, Steven G E; Madrigal, J Alejandro; Rakyan, Vardhman K; Peggs, Karl S; Beck, Stephan

    2015-12-15

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative treatment for many hematological conditions. Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a prevalent immune-mediated complication following HSCT. Current diagnostic biomarkers that correlate with aGVHD severity, progression, and therapy response in graft recipients are insufficient. Here, we investigated whether epigenetic marks measured in peripheral blood of healthy graft donors stratify aGVHD severity in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling recipients prior to T cell-depleted HSCT. We measured DNA methylation levels genome-wide at single-nucleotide resolution in peripheral blood of 85 HSCT donors, matched to recipients with various transplant outcomes, with Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. Using genome-wide DNA methylation profiling, we showed that epigenetic signatures underlying aGVHD severity in recipients correspond to immune pathways relevant to aGVHD etiology. We discovered 31 DNA methylation marks in donors that associated with aGVHD severity status in recipients, and demonstrated strong predictive performance of these markers in internal cross-validation experiments (AUC = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96-0.99). We replicated the top-ranked CpG classifier using an alternative, clinical DNA methylation assay (P = 0.039). In an independent cohort of 32 HSCT donors, we demonstrated the utility of the epigenetic classifier in the context of a T cell-replete conditioning regimen (P = 0.050). Our findings suggest that epigenetic typing of HSCT donors in a clinical setting may be used in conjunction with HLA genotyping to inform both donor selection and transplantation strategy, with the ultimate aim of improving patient outcome.

  4. Chronic graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation: long-term results of a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Mohty, Mohamad; Kuentz, Mathieu; Michallet, Mauricette; Bourhis, Jean-Henri; Milpied, Noël; Sutton, Laurent; Jouet, Jean-Pierre; Attal, Michel; Bordigoni, Pierre; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Boiron, Jean-Michel; Blaise, Didier

    2002-11-01

    The use of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) is rapidly growing in the allogeneic transplantation setting as an alternative to bone marrow (BM). We previously reported a higher incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) associated with allogeneic PBSC transplantation in a randomized trial. In this follow-up report, we analyzed the evolution of cGVHD in the patients (n = 101) enrolled on this study. At a median follow-up of 45 months (range, 31-57 months), we found that the 3-year cumulative incidence of cGVHD was 65% (95% confidence interval [CI] 51%-78%) in the PBSC group and 36% (95% CI 23%-49%) in the BM group (P =.004). We also found that extensive cGVHD was more frequent in the PBSC group (44% [95% CI 30%-58%] vs 17% [95% CI 7%-27%]; P =.004). The prevalence of cGVHD was always higher in the PBSC arm. Ocular involvement was more frequent in PBSC recipients (P =.02). Cutaneous and liver involvement was similar among BM and PBSC recipients. Chronic GVHD required multiple courses of immunosuppressive therapy in addition to cyclosporine and corticosteroids during longer periods (P =.03). Altogether, this translated into longer periods of hospitalization after transplantation in the PBSC group (P =.04). Finally, we also confirm that cGVHD after PBSC transplantation is associated with an antileukemic effect that is at least as potent as after BM. However, to date, this has not translated into a survival difference, possibly due to the early-stage leukemic status of these patients or to the relatively small size of the study population.

  5. Ruxolitinib in corticosteroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: a multi-center survey

    PubMed Central

    Zeiser, Robert; Burchert, Andreas; Lengerke, Claudia; Verbeek, Mareike; Maas-Bauer, Kristina; Metzelder, Stephan K.; Spoerl, Silvia; Ditschkowski, Markus; Ecsedi, Matyas; Sockel, Katja; Ayuk, Francis; Ajib, Salem; de Fontbrune, Flore Sicre; Na, Il-Kang; Penter, Livius; Holtick, Udo; Wolf, Dominik; Schuler, Esther; Meyer, Everett; Apostolova, Petya; Bertz, Hartmut; Marks, Reinhard; Lübbert, Michael; Wäsch, Ralph; Scheid, Christof; Stölzel, Friedrich; Ordemann, Rainer; Bug, Gesine; Kobbe, Guido; Negrin, Robert; Brune, Mats; Spyridonidis, Alexandros; Schmitt-Gräff, Annette; van der Velden, Walter; Huls, Gerwin; Mielke, Stephan; Grigoleit, Götz Ulrich; Kuball, Jürgen; Flynn, Ryan; Ihorst, Gabriele; Du, Jing; Blazar, Bruce R; Arnold, Renate; Kröger, Nicolaus; Passweg, Jakob; Halter, Jörg; Socié, Gerard; Beelen, Dietrich; Peschel, Christian; Neubauer, Andreas; Finke, Jürgen; Duyster, Justus; von Bubnoff, Nikolas

    2016-01-01

    Despite major improvements in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation over the last decades, corticosteroid-refractory (SR) acute (a) and chronic (c) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) cause high mortality. Pre-clinical evidence indicates the potent anti-inflammatory properties of the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib. In this retrospective survey, 19 stem cell transplant centers in Europe and the United States reported outcome data from 95 patients who had received ruxolitinib as salvage-therapy for SR-GVHD. Patients were classified as having SR-aGVHD (n=54, all grade III or IV) or SR-cGVHD (n=41, all moderate or severe). The median number of previous GVHD-therapies was 3 for both SR-aGVHD (1–7) and SR-cGVHD (1–10). The ORR was 81.5% (44/54) in SR-aGVHD including 25 CRs (46.3%), while for SR-cGVHD the ORR was 85.4% (35/41). Of those patients responding to ruxolitinib, the rate of GVHD-relapse was 6.8% (3/44) and 5.7% (2/35) for SR-aGVHD and SR-cGVHD, respectively. The 6-month-survival was 79% (67.3%–90.7%,95% CI) and 97.4% (92.3%–100%,95% CI) for SR-aGVHD and SR-cGVHD, respectively. Cytopenia and CMV-reactivation were observed during ruxolitinib-treatment in both SR-aGVHD (30/54, 55.6% and 18/54, 33.3%) and SR-cGVHD (7/41, 17.1% and 6/41, 14.6%) patients. Ruxolitinib may constitute a promising new treatment option for SR-aGVHD and SR-cGVHD that should be validated in a prospective trial. PMID:26228813

  6. Muscle Cramps and Neuropathies in Patients with Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation and Graft-versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Peter D.; Wolff, Daniel; Grauer, Oliver; Angstwurm, Klemens; Jarius, Sven; Wandinger, Klaus P.; Holler, Ernst; Schulte-Mattler, Wilhelm; Kleiter, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    Objective Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is an immune-mediated multisystemic disorder and the leading cause of morbidity after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Peripheral nervous system manifestations of GVHD are rare but often disabling. Whereas immune-mediated neuropathies are an established feature of GVHD, muscle cramps are not well characterized. Methods In a single-centre retrospective cohort we studied 27 patients (age 23 to 69 years) with GVHD (acute n = 6, chronic n = 21) who complained of symptoms suggestive of peripheral nervous system complications. Clinical, laboratory and neurophysiological findings were evaluated by descriptive statistics and regression analysis to detect factors associated with muscle cramps. Patient’s sera were examined for anti-neuronal antibodies. Results Nine patients had polyneuropathy, 4 had muscle cramps, and 14 had both. Median onset of polyneuropathy and muscle cramps was 6 and 9 months after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, respectively. Neurophysiology revealed a predominantly axonal polyneuropathy in 20 of 26 patients. In 4 of 19 patients electromyography showed signs of myopathy or myositis. Muscle cramps were more frequent during chronic than acute GVHD and affected muscles other than calves in 15 of 18 patients. They typically occurred daily, lasted 1 to 10 minutes with medium to severe pain intensity, compromised daily activity or sleep in 12, and were refractory to therapy in 4 patients. Muscle cramps were less likely with tacrolimus treatment and signs of severe polyneuropathy, but more likely with myopathic changes in electromyography and with incipient demyelinating polyneuropathy, shown by increased high frequency attenuation of the tibial nerve. Serological studies revealed antinuclear or antimitochondrial antibodies in a subset of patients. Two of 16 patients had a serum reactivity against peripheral nervous tissue. Conclusion Muscle cramps are associated with

  7. Graft Versus Host Disease After Liver Transplantation in Adults: A Case series, Review of Literature, and an Approach to Management.

    PubMed

    Murali, Arvind R; Chandra, Subhash; Stewart, Zoe; Blazar, Bruce R; Farooq, Umar; Ince, M Nedim; Dunkelberg, Jeffrey

    2016-12-01

    Graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) after liver transplantation (LT) is a deadly complication with very limited data on risk factors, diagnosis and management. We report a case series and a comprehensive review of the literature. Data were systematically extracted from reports of GVHD after LT, and from the United Network for Organ Sharing database. Group comparisons were performed. One hundred fifty-six adult patients with GVHD after LT have been reported. Median time to GVHD onset was 28 days. Clinical features were skin rash (92%), pancytopenia (78%), and diarrhea (65%). Six-month mortality with GVHD after LT was 73%. Sepsis was the most common cause of death (60%). Enterobacter bacteremia, invasive aspergillosis, and disseminated Candida infections were frequently reported. Recipient age over 50 years is a risk factor for GVHD after LT. Hepatocellular carcinoma was overrepresented, whereas chronic hepatitis C was underrepresented, in reported United States GVHD cases relative to all United Network for Organ Sharing database LT cases. Mortality rate with treatment of GVHD after LT was 84% with high-dose steroids alone, 75% to 100% with regimens using dose increases of calcineurin inhibitors, and 55% with IL-2 antagonists. Mortality was 25% in small case series using the CD2-blocker alefacept or TNF-α antagonists. Age older than 50 years and hepatocellular carcinoma appear to be risk factors for GVHD. Hepatitis C may be protective. High-dose steroids and calcineurin inhibitors are ineffective in the treatment of GVHD after LT. CD2-blockers and TNF-α antagonists appear promising. We propose a diagnostic algorithm to assist clinicians in managing adults with GVHD after LT.

  8. A Novel Function for P2Y2 in Myeloid Recipient-Derived Cells during Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Klämbt, Verena; Wohlfeil, Sebastian A; Schwab, Lukas; Hülsdünker, Jan; Ayata, Korcan; Apostolova, Petya; Schmitt-Graeff, Annette; Dierbach, Heide; Prinz, Gabriele; Follo, Marie; Prinz, Marco; Idzko, Marco; Zeiser, Robert

    2015-12-15

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. During the initiation phase of acute GvHD, endogenous danger signals such as ATP are released and inform the innate immune system via activation of the purinergic receptor P2X7 that a noninfectious damage has occurred. A second ATP-activated purinergic receptor involved in inflammatory diseases is P2Y2. In this study, we used P2y2(-/-) mice to test the role of this receptor in GvHD. P2y2(-/-) recipients experienced reduced GvHD-related mortality, IL-6 levels, enterocyte apoptosis, and histopathology scores. Chimeric mice with P2y2 deficiency restricted to hematopoietic tissues survived longer after GvHD induction than did wild-type mice. P2y2 deficiency of the recipient was connected to lower levels of myeloperoxidase in the intestinal tract of mice developing GvHD and a reduced myeloid cell signature. Selective deficiency of P2Y2 in inflammatory monocytes decreased GvHD severity. Mechanistically, P2y2(-/-) inflammatory monocytes displayed defective ERK activation and reactive oxygen species production. Compatible with a role of P2Y2 in human GvHD, the frequency of P2Y2(+) cells in inflamed GvHD lesions correlated with histopathological GvHD severity. Our findings indicate a novel function for P2Y2 in ATP-activated recipient myeloid cells during GvHD, which could be exploited when targeting danger signals to prevent GvHD. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  9. Treatment of Severe Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease with Decidual Stromal Cells and Tracing with 111Indium Radiolabeling

    PubMed Central

    Kaipe, Helen; Nava, Silvia; Molldén, Pia; Gustafsson, Britt; Axelsson, Rimma; Ringdén, Olle

    2015-01-01

    Decidual stromal cells (DSCs) isolated from fetal membranes of term placentas are easily expanded and are highly immunosuppressive in vitro. These cells express high levels of integrins that are of importance in homing to inflamed tissues. In this study, we investigated DSCs as a cellular therapy for chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD), a severe complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Subsequent to transplantation, three patients developed severe extensive cGvHD and were treated with DSCs (1–2.8×106 cells/kg). One-third of the DSCs administered to two patients were labeled with 111Indium, and the in vivo distribution was tracked for 48 h. The 111In-labeled DSCs were initially located in the lungs, followed by dissemination to the liver and spleen. The DSCs induced a partial response in two of the patients. Blood samples from the patients were extensively evaluated by flow cytometry, luminex, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The nonresponder had the highest proportion of T-cells with Th17 and Th2 phenotypes and the highest median plasma concentrations of IL-17 and IL-4. The same patient also had high frequencies of HLA-DR+ T-cells and regulatory T-cells. To conclude, DSCs are safe to infuse with no adverse effects. We determined how stromal cells are distributed in vivo after infusion in a cGvHD setting. The methods established for analysis of blood samples will be useful in determining the effect of DSCs in a study comprising a larger patient material. This pilot study may provide a basis for further controlled investigations with DSCs in a clinical setting. PMID:25162829

  10. An activated Th17-prone T cell subset involved in chronic graft-versus-host disease sensitive to pharmacological inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Forcade, Edouard; Paz, Katelyn; Flynn, Ryan; Amet, Tohti; Li, Wei; Liu, Liangyi; Bakoyannis, Giorgos; Jiang, Di; Chu, Hong Wei; Yang, Jianfei; Wilkes, David S.; Du, Jing; Gartlan, Kate; Hill, Geoffrey R.; MacDonald, Kelli P.A.; Espada, Eduardo L.; Blanco, Patrick; Koreth, John; Cutler, Corey S.; Soiffer, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) remains a major complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation requiring novel therapies. CD146 and CCR5 are expressed by activated T cells and associated with increased T cell migration capacity and Th17 polarization. We performed a multiparametric flow cytometry analysis in a cohort of 40 HSCT patients together with a cGvHD murine model to understand the role of CD146-expressing subsets. We observed an increased frequency of CD146+ CD4 T cells in the 20 patients with active cGvHD with enhanced RORγt expression. This Th17-prone subset was enriched for cells coexpressing CD146 and CCR5 that harbor mixed Th1/Th17 features and were more frequent in cGvHD patients. Utilizing a murine cGvHD model with bronchiolitis obliterans (BO), we observed that donor T cells from CD146-deficient mice versus those from WT mice caused significantly reduced pulmonary cGvHD. Reduced cGvHD was not the result of failed germinal center B cell or T follicular helper cell generation. Instead, CD146-deficient T cells had significantly lower pulmonary macrophage infiltration and T cell CCR5, IL-17, and IFN-γ coexpression, suggesting defective pulmonary end-organ effector mechanisms. We, thus, evaluated the effect of TMP778, a small-molecule RORγt activity inhibitor. TMP778 markedly alleviated cGvHD in murine models similarly to agents targeting the Th17 pathway, such as STAT3 inhibitor or IL-17–blocking antibody. Our data suggest CD146-expressing T cells as a cGvHD biomarker and suggest that targeting the Th17 pathway may represent a promising therapy for cGvHD. PMID:28614794

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment and prevention of graft-versus-host disease: experiments and practice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nayoun; Im, Keon-Il; Lim, Jung-Yeon; Jeon, Eun-Joo; Nam, Young-Sun; Kim, Eun-Jung; Cho, Seok-Goo

    2013-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a therapeutic approach in a range of medical fields, including regenerative medicine, cancer, autoimmune diseases, and inflammatory diseases, because of their unique properties of tissue repair and major histocompatibility complex-unmatched immunosuppression. Because both in vitro and in vivo findings demonstrate that MSCs possess potent immunoregulatory functions, there has been increasing interest in the role of MSCs in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, especially in the prevention and treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). GVHD is a major cause of transplantation-related mortality, and conventional immunosuppressants frequently fail to treat patients suffering from GVHD. Following Ringden's pilot study that used third-party MSCs to treat a steroid-refractory GVHD patient, MSCs have created growing interest as a therapeutic agent for GVHD. There have been further studies which demonstrated the potentials of MSC treatment in steroid-refractory GVHD, de novo GVHD, and also GVHD prevention. However, MSCs still present limitations. The need for MSCs to be "licensed" in a pro-inflammatory environment, especially in the presence of interferon gamma, allows only a narrow window for their administration. Thus, their effects have been less clear as a preventive measure before the inflammatory environment of GVHD is established and also when administered during a chronic setting where MSCs may be alternatively licensed. In this review, we focus on the immunomodulatory properties of MSCs and their effects in relation to GVHD. Given the efficacy of MSCs in murine models of GVHD and their safety in clinical trials, it is crucial that larger clinical trials are conducted and further modifications are investigated.

  12. T-bet Promotes Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease by Regulating Recipient Hematopoietic Cells in Mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jianing; Wu, Yongxia; Nguyen, Hung; Heinrichs, Jessica; Schutt, Steven; Liu, Yuejun; Liu, Chen; Jin, Junfei; Anasetti, Claudio; Yu, Xue-Zhong

    2016-04-01

    Beyond its critical role in T cells, T-bet regulates the functions of APCs including dendritic cells and B cells, as well as NK cells. Given that recipient APCs are essential for priming allogeneic T cells and recipient NK or T cells are able to reject allogeneic donor cells, we evaluated the role of T-bet on the host in acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) using murine models of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. T-bet(-/-) recipients developed significantly milder GVHD than their wild type counterparts in MHC-mismatched or CD4-dependent minor histocompatibility Ag-mismatched models. Allogeneic donor T cells, in particular, CD4 subset, significantly reduced IFN-γ production, proliferation and migration, and caused less injury in liver and gut of T-bet(-/-) recipients. We further observed that T-bet on recipient hematopoietic cells was primarily responsible for the donor T cell response and pathogenicity in GVHD. T-bet(-/-) dendritic cells expressed higher levels of Trail, whereas they produced lower levels of IFN-γ and IL-12/23 p40, as well as chemokine CXCL9, resulting in significantly higher levels of apoptosis, less priming, and infiltration of donor T cells. Meanwhile, NK cells in T-bet(-/-) hosts partially contribute to the decreased donor T cell proliferation. Furthermore, although T-bet on hematopoietic cells was required for GVHD development, it was largely dispensable for the graft-versus-leukemia effect. Taken together with our previous findings, we propose that T-bet is a potential therapeutic target for the control of GVHD through regulating donor T cells and recipient hematopoietic cells. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. T-bet Promotes Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease by Regulating Recipient Hematopoietic Cells in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jianing; Wu, Yongxia; Nguyen, Hung; Heinrichs, Jessica; Schutt, Steven; Liu, Yuejun; Liu, Chen; Jin, Junfei; Anasetti, Claudio; Yu, Xue-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Beyond its critical role in T cells, T-bet regulates the functions of APCs including dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells, as well as NK cells. Given that recipient APCs are essential for priming allogeneic T cells and recipient NK or T cells are able to reject allogeneic donor cells, we evaluated the role of T-bet on the host in acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) using murine models of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT). T-bet−/− recipients developed significantly milder GVHD than their WT counterparts in MHC-mismatched or CD4-depedent minor histocompatibility antigen (miHA)-mismatched models. Allogeneic donor T cells, in particular CD4 subset, significantly reduced IFN-γ production, proliferation and migration, and caused less injure in liver and gut of T-bet−/− recipients. We further observed that T-bet on recipient hematopoietic cells was primarily responsible for the donor T-cell response and pathogenicity in GVHD. T-bet−/− DCs expressed higher levels of Trail, while produced lower levels of IFN-γ and IL-12/23 p40, as well as chemokine CXCL9, resulting in significantly higher levels of apoptosis, less priming and infiltration of donor T cells. Meanwhile, NK cells in T-bet−/− hosts partially contribute to the decreased donor T-cell proliferation. Furthermore, while T-bet on hematopoietic cells was required for GVHD development, it was largely dispensable for the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. Taken together with our previous findings, we propose that T-bet is a potential therapeutic target for the control of GVHD through regulating donor T cells as well as recipient hematopoietic cells. PMID:26903480

  14. Donor CD19 CAR T cells exert potent graft-versus-lymphoma activity with diminished graft-versus-host activity.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arnab; Smith, Melody; James, Scott E; Davila, Marco L; Velardi, Enrico; Argyropoulos, Kimon V; Gunset, Gertrude; Perna, Fabiana; Kreines, Fabiana M; Levy, Emily R; Lieberman, Sophie; Jay, Hillary V; Tuckett, Andrea Z; Zakrzewski, Johannes L; Tan, Lisa; Young, Lauren F; Takvorian, Kate; Dudakov, Jarrod A; Jenq, Robert R; Hanash, Alan M; Motta, Ana Carolina F; Murphy, George F; Liu, Chen; Schietinger, Andrea; Sadelain, Michel; van den Brink, Marcel R M

    2017-02-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a potentially curative therapy for hematological malignancies. However, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and relapse after allo-HSCT remain major impediments to the success of allo-HSCT. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) direct tumor cell recognition of adoptively transferred T cells. CD19 is an attractive CAR target, which is expressed in most B cell malignancies, as well as in healthy B cells. Clinical trials using autologous CD19-targeted T cells have shown remarkable promise in various B cell malignancies. However, the use of allogeneic CAR T cells poses a concern in that it may increase risk of the occurrence of GVHD, although this has not been reported in selected patients infused with donor-derived CD19 CAR T cells after allo-HSCT. To understand the mechanism whereby allogeneic CD19 CAR T cells may mediate anti-lymphoma activity without causing a significant increase in the incidence of GVHD, we studied donor-derived CD19 CAR T cells in allo-HSCT and lymphoma models in mice. We demonstrate that alloreactive T cells expressing CD28-costimulated CD19 CARs experience enhanced stimulation, resulting in the progressive loss of both their effector function and proliferative potential, clonal deletion, and significantly decreased occurrence of GVHD. Concurrently, the other CAR T cells that were present in bulk donor T cell populations retained their anti-lymphoma activity in accordance with the requirement that both the T cell receptor (TCR) and CAR be engaged to accelerate T cell exhaustion. In contrast, first-generation and 4-1BB-costimulated CAR T cells increased the occurrence of GVHD. These findings could explain the reduced risk of GVHD occurring with cumulative TCR and CAR signaling.

  15. Donor-Derived Regulatory T Cells Attenuate the Severity of Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease after Cord Blood Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xingli; Lin, Xiaojing; Luo, Wenfeng; Wei, Jin

    2016-07-01

    Allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (allo-PBSCT) is a curative therapy for some types of hematological disorders. However, allo-PBSCT is commonly complicated with acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), characterized by host tissues being attacked by the grafted donor lymphocytes due to disparities of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) between the donor and host. By contrast, cord blood transplantation (CBT) is typically associated with low-grade severity of aGVHD, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Donor-derived CD4(+) alloreactive T cells (ATs) are of a specific lymphocyte subset, which can be activated by the recipient's HLA, and play a crucial role in the onset of aGVHD. In the present study, we aimed to explore the difference in the property of CD4(+) ATs between cord blood (CB) and adult peripheral blood (APB). We thus found that CB and APB CD4(+) ATs contained not only effector T cells (Teffs) that execute aGVHD, but also a distinct subset of FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) that may alleviate aGVHD. Importantly, CB CD4(+) ATs contained higher percentage of FoxP3(+) Tregs, compared to APB CD4(+) ATs (P < 0.001), while lower percentage of Teffs (Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells) was detected in CB CD4(+) ATs (P < 0.05, P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Our findings suggest that FoxP3(+) Tregs in CB CD4(+) ATs may contribute to attenuating the severity of aGVHD observed after CBT.

  16. Complete Suppression of the Gut Microbiome Prevents Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease following Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Vossen, Jaak M.; Guiot, Harry F. L.; Lankester, Arjan C.; Vossen, Ann C. T. M.; Bredius, Robbert G. M.; Wolterbeek, Ron; Bakker, Hanny D. J.; Heidt, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis that elimination of facultative and strict anaerobic microorganisms from the gastro-intestinal tract by antimicrobial drugs in the period of time around allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) prevents acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), was examined in a cohort of 112 children grafted between 1989 and 2002 for hematological malignancies. All patients received T-cell replete marrow from human leukocyte antigens (HLA) matched sibling donors under identical transplantation conditions. To eliminate microorganisms from the gastro-intestinal tract, total gastro-intestinal decontamination (GID) was applied by high doses of non-absorbable antimicrobial drugs while the graft recipient was maintained in strict protective isolation. About half of the children (51%) proved to be successfully decontaminated, and about half (49%) unsuccessfully. One recipient got acute GVHD in the first group and 8 in the second group (p = 0.013). The degree of success of total GID was decisive for the occurrence of acute GVHD, irrespective of the presence of other risk factors such as higher age of recipient and/or donor, female donor for male recipient and carriership or reactivation of herpesviruses. Our results demonstrate that successful total GID of the graft recipient prevents moderate to severe acute GVHD. We suppose that substantial translocation of gastro-intestinal microorganisms or parts of these, functioning as microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMP's), triggering macrophages/dendritic cells via pattern recognizing receptors (PRR's) is prohibited. As a consequence the initiation and progression of an inflammatory process leading to acute GVHD is inhibited. PMID:25180821

  17. Therapeutic Effect of 0.03% Tacrolimus Ointment for Ocular Graft versus Host Disease and Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Eun Hye; Kim, Joung Mok; Laddha, Pradnya M; Chung, Eui-Sang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether topical tacrolimus might prove effective in the treatment of refractory anterior segment inflammatory diseases, and to evaluate its efficacy in eyes with ocular graft versus host disease (GVHD), and vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). Methods Twenty-eight eyes of 14 patients with anterior segment inflammation refractory to steroid treatment were treated with 0.03% tacrolimus ointment at the Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea from March 2008 through August 2009. Seven patients had ocular GVHD and seven had VKC. We evaluated the conjunctival and corneal inflammatory change at one, two, four, and eight weeks after treatment with a scoring system. Time to initial response of treatment and therapeutic effect between GVHD and VKC was also analyzed. After the eight-week treatment period, patients were divided into two groups (maintenance group and discontinuance group). Eight patients maintained the treatment for an additional four months, and six patients discontinued the treatments. Therapeutic effect was also compared between the groups at eight weeks and six months after treatment. Results The mean conjunctival and corneal inflammation score was reduced significantly at eight weeks after treatment (p < 0.0001). The therapeutic effect in conjunctival inflammation was first noted at week two after the initial treatment (p = 0.002); reduction in corneal inflammation was first noted at one week (p = 0.0009). When compared according to diagnosis, no therapeutic difference was detected between the groups (p > 0.05). Six months after treatment, we noted no therapeutic differences between the maintenance group and discontinuance group (p > 0.05). Conclusions 0.03% tacrolimus ointment was safe and effective for use in anterior segment inflammatory disease refractory to steroid. PMID:22870021

  18. Immunomodulation effects of mesenchymal stromal cells on acute graft-versus-host disease after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ke; Lou, Rui; Huang, Fen; Peng, Yanwen; Jiang, Zujun; Huang, Ke; Wu, Xiuli; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Zhiping; Zhou, Hongsheng; Liu, Can; Xiao, Yang; Sun, Jing; Li, Yangqiu; Xiang, Peng; Liu, Qifa

    2015-01-01

    Refractory acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a major cause of death after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This study evaluated the immunomodulation effects of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from bone marrow of a third-party donor for refractory aGVHD. Forty-seven patients with refractory aGVHD were enrolled: 28 patients receiving MSC and 19 patients without MSC treatment. MSCs were given at a median dose of 1 × 10(6) cells/kg weekly until patients got complete response or received 8 doses of MSCs. After 125 doses of MSCs were administered, with a median of 4 doses (range, 2 to 8) per patient, overall response rate was 75% in the MSC group compared with 42.1% in the non-MSC group (P = .023). The incidence of cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus infections, and tumor relapse was not different between the 2 groups during aGVHD treatment and follow-up. The incidence and severity of chronic GVHD in the MSC group were lower than those in the non-MSC group (P = .045 and P = .005). The ratio of CD3(+)CD4(+)/CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells, the frequencies of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), and the levels of signal joint T cell-receptor excision DNA circles (sjTRECs) after MSCs treatment were higher than those pretreatment. MSC-treated patients exhibited higher Tregs frequencies and sjTRECs levels than those in the non-MSC group at 8 and 12 weeks after treatment. MSCs derived from bone marrow of a third-party donor are effective to refractory aGVHD. It might reduce the incidence and severity of chronic GVHD in aGVHD patients by improving thymic function and induction of Tregs but not increase the risks of infections and tumor relapse.

  19. Association of Plasma CD163 Concentration with De Novo-Onset Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Martin, Paul J; Paczesny, Sophie; Tabellini, Laura; Momin, Amin A; Mumaw, Christen L; Flowers, Mary E D; Lee, Stephanie J; Carpenter, Paul A; Storer, Barry E; Hanash, Samir; Hansen, John A

    2017-08-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the leading cause of long-term morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. To identify prognostic plasma proteins associated with de novo- or quiescent-onset chronic GVHD (cGVHD), we performed a discovery and validation proteomic study. The total study cohort included 167 consecutive patients who had no clinical evidence of GVHD under minimum glucocorticoid administration and had available plasma samples obtained at 80 ± 14 days after transplantation. We first used high-throughput mass spectrometry to screen pooled plasma using 20 cases with subsequent cGVHD and 20 controls without it, and we identified 20 candidate proteins. We then measured 12 of the 20 candidate proteins by ELISA on the same individual samples and identified 4 proteins for further verification (LGALS3BP, CD5L, CD163, and TXN for de novo onset, and LGALS3BP and CD5L for quiescent onset). The verification cohort included 127 remaining patients. The cumulative incidence of de novo-onset cGVHD was higher in patients with higher plasma soluble CD163 concentrations at day 80 than those with lower concentrations (75% versus 40%, P = .018). The cumulative incidence of de novo- or quiescent-onset cGVHD did not differ statistically according to concentrations of the 3 other proteins at day 80. CD163 is a macrophage scavenger receptor and is elevated in oxidative conditions. These results suggest that monocyte or macrophage activation or increased oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of cGVHD. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Decreased incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease by continuous infusion of cyclosporine with a higher target blood level.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Kumi; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Nakasone, Hideki; Arai, Shunya; Nishimoto, Nahoko; Sato, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Takuro; Hosoya, Noriko; Izutsu, Koji; Asai, Takashi; Hangaishi, Akira; Motokura, Toru; Chiba, Shigeru; Kurokawa, Mineo

    2008-03-01

    Cyclosporine A (CsA) is the mainstay of pharmacologic prevention of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We previously reported that continuous infusion of CsA with a target blood level between 250 and 400 ng/ml significantly increased the incidence of acute GVHD compared to twice-daily infusion with a target trough level between 150 and 300 ng/ml. Thus, we raised the target level of CsA continuous infusion to 450-550 ng/ml. We treated 33 patients with the higher target level (CsA500) and compared the efficacy and toxicity with those in the 33 historical control patients (CsA300 group). Other transplantation procedures were not changed. The patients' characteristics were equivalent. The average CsA concentration was adjusted around 500 ng/ml and the actual daily dose was maintained at the initial dose (CsA 3mg/kg/day). Toxicities were equivalently observed among the two groups. The incidence of grades II-IV acute GVHD was significantly lower in the CsA500 group (27 vs. 52%, P = 0.033). The target level of CsA was identified as an independent significant risk factor for grades II-IV acute GVHD (P = 0.039), adjusted for the presence of HLA mismatch. The incidence of chronic GVHD was also decreased in the CsA500 group (47 vs. 73%, P = 0.016). We conclude that the toxicity of the continuous CsA infusion with a target level of 450-550 ng/ml is acceptable and the efficacy to prevent acute GVHD is significant. A larger comparative study is warranted to confirm these findings.

  1. Prediction of graft-versus-host disease by phenotypic analysis of early immune reconstitution after CD6-depleted allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Soiffer, R J; Gonin, R; Murray, C; Robertson, M J; Cochran, K; Chartier, S; Cameron, C; Daley, J; Levine, H; Nadler, L M

    1993-10-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Because GVHD is frequently refractory to treatment, the early identification of high-risk patients could have significant clinical value. To identify such patients, we examined early immunologic recovery in 136 patients with hematologic malignancies who received anti-T12 (CD6)-purged allogeneic bone marrow over a 9-year period. The majority of patients received marrow from HLA-matched sibling donors after ablation with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation. No patients received any immune suppressive medications for GVHD prophylaxis. The fraction and absolute numbers of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) expressing the CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD56 surface antigens were determined weekly by immunofluorescence analysis in patients beginning 8 to 14 days (week 2) after marrow infusion. Results in patients who did or did not subsequently develop GVHD post-BMT were compared. Within 2 weeks of marrow infusion, patients who developed grades 2-4 GVHD had significantly higher percentages and absolute numbers of CD8+ T cells and a lower fraction of CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells than individuals who remained free of GVHD. Thirty-five percent of patients whose PBL were greater than 25% CD8+ in the second posttransplant week developed GVHD, compared with only 3% of patients who had < or = 25% CD8+ cells (odds ratio 37.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.1 to 397). A subgroup of patients at very high risk for GVHD could be identified based on the combined frequency of CD8+ T cells and NK cells in blood. Seventy-five percent of patients with greater than 25% CD8+ cells and < or = 45% CD56+ cells during week 2 post-BMT developed GVHD, compared with only 11% of the remaining patients (odds ratio 24.9; 95% CI, 5.3 to 117.0). None of the 23 patients with both less than 25% CD8+ cells and greater than 45% CD56+ cells in the second posttransplant week

  2. Specific donor Vbeta-associated CD4 T-cell responses correlate with severe acute graft-versus-host disease directed to multiple minor histocompatibility antigens.

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephen C; Friedman, Thea M; Murphy, George F; Korngold, Robert

    2004-02-01

    CXB-2/By (CXB-2) recombinant inbred mice express a subset of the minor histocompatibility antigen (miHA) repertoire expressed by C.B10-H2(b)/LiMcdJ (BALB.B) mice. On lethal irradiation and the transplantation of H2(b)-matched C57BL/6 (B6) T cell-depleted bone marrow cells, along with naive unfractionated T cells, both strains succumb to acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Although alloreactive B6 CD4(+) T cells are a necessary source of T-cell help for the B6 CD8(+) component of the GVHD response in both recipient strains, they are capable of mediating severe GVHD by themselves only in BALB.B mice. Previous CD4(+) T-cell receptor repertoire analysis demonstrated overlapping oligoclonal Vbeta use between the CD4(+) B6 anti-BALB.B and B6 anti-CXB-2 responses, with indications of additional BALB.B unique T-cell responses (Vbeta2 and Vbeta11). We report here that the more severe B6 anti-BALB.B response is not due to a quantitative difference in the responding cells, because the frequency of alloreactive donor CD4(+) T cells over time was equivalent in the spleens of BALB.B versus CXB-2 recipients. The responses were also similar in the number of infiltrating B6 CD4(+) T cells in the lingual epithelium of the 2 recipients. In contrast, a significantly greater degree of infiltration and injury of BALB.B intestinal epithelium correlated with the increased level of clinical GVHD severity. Of most significance, despite the involvement of at least 11 Vbeta-associated CD4(+) T-cell families in the overall B6 anti-BALB.B response, the development of severe GVHD correlated with the presence of Vbeta2- and Vbeta11-positive donor T cells. Transplantation of donor CD4(+) T cells from Vbeta-associated families that were shared between the B6 anti-BALB.B and anti-CXB-2 responses resulted in minimal GVHD potential. These data suggest that severe GVHD across miHA barriers depends on the involvement of a restricted number of potent T-cell specificities and implies that there are

  3. Allogeneic Blood or Marrow Transplantation with Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide as Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis in Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Nilanjan; Ye, Xiaobu; Tsai, Hua-Ling; Bolaños-Meade, Javier; Fuchs, Ephraim J; Luznik, Leo; Swinnen, Lode J; Gladstone, Douglas E; Ambinder, Richard F; Varadhan, Ravi; Shanbhag, Satish; Brodsky, Robert A; Borrello, Ivan M; Jones, Richard J; Matsui, William; Huff, Carol Ann

    2017-07-12

    Allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (alloBMT) may lead to long-term disease control in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, historically, the use of alloBMT in MM has been limited by its high nonrelapse mortality (NRM) rates, primarily from graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We previously demonstrated that post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) decreases the toxicities of both acute and chronic GVHD after alloBMT. Here, we examine the impact of PTCy in patients with MM undergoing alloBMT at Johns Hopkins Hospital. From 2003 to 2011, 39 patients with MM underwent bone marrow or peripheral blood alloBMT from HLA-matched related/unrelated or haploidentical related donors after either myeloablative or nonmyeloablative conditioning. Post-transplantation GVHD prophylaxis consisted of cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg) on days +3 and +4 with or without mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus. Engraftment was detected in 95% of patients, with neutrophil and platelet recovery at a median of 15 and 16 days, respectively. The cumulative incidences of acute grades 2 to 4 and grades 3 and 4 GVHD were .41 and .08, respectively, and no cases of grade 4 acute GVHD were observed. The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was .13. One patient succumbed to NRM. All cases of chronic GVHD involved extensive disease and 60% of these patients received systemic therapy with complete resolution. After alloBMT, the overall response rate was 62% with complete, very good partial, and partial response rates of 26%, 21%, and 15%, respectively. The median progression-free survival was 12 months and was associated with the depth of response but not cytogenetic risk. The estimated cumulative incidence of relapse was .46 (95% confidence interval [CI], .3 to .62) at 1 year and .56 (95% CI, .41 to .72) at 2 years. At last follow-up, 23% of patients remain without evidence of disease at a median follow-up of 10.3 years after alloBMT. The median overall survival was 4.4 years and the

  4. Content Validity of the Lee Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease Symptom Scale as Assessed by Cognitive Interviews.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Emily C; Mitchell, Sandra A; Lee, Stephanie J

    2016-04-01

    The Lee Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease (cGVHD) Symptom Scale has been recommended for use by the 2005 and 2014 National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Conferences to capture cGVHD symptoms. Although the cGVHD Symptom Scale was previously validated, this study aims to reexamine the instrument's content validity by exploring the clarity, comprehensibility, relevance, and ease of use in a contemporary cGVHD sample, toward Food and Drug Administration (FDA) qualification of this patient-reported outcomes (PRO) instrument as a drug development tool. Attaining FDA qualification means that an instrument has been judged to be a reliable and valid measure of clinical benefit. Twenty adult patients with a median age of 58 year (range, 31 to 79 years) participated. The median duration of cGVHD was 33 months (range, 0 to 134.4 months), and current NIH severity score was mild in 1 patient, moderate in 10 patients, and severe in 9 patients, with a median of 5.5 treatments (range, 0 to 14) ever used for cGVHD. The median summary score was 23 (range, 8 to 51), and the median time to complete the scale was 2 minutes, 7 seconds (range, 1 minute, 8 seconds to 4 minutes). Symptoms of cGVHD were well captured on the Lee cGVHD Symptom Scale, although 4 additional symptoms/signs were mentioned by 15% of the participants. Participants mostly reported that item wording was clear and provided accurate definitions of specific terminologies; however, 7 participants (35%) reported finding 1 or more items in the skin domain unclear, reporting, for example, that rashes and itchy skin seemed synonymous. Two of 19 participants (10.5%) described how their answers would have changed had they been asked about their symptoms within the past month instead of within the past week, owing to recently resolved symptoms. All participants were able to accurately explain the concept of "bother" in their own words and distinguish it from symptom severity or other related symptom attributes

  5. A Pilot Study of Continuous Infusion of Mycophenolate Mofetil for Prophylaxis of Graft-versus-Host-Disease in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Windreich, Randy M; Goyal, Rakesh K; Joshi, Rujuta; Kenkre, Tanya S; Howrie, Denise; Venkataramanan, Raman

    2016-04-01

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), an ester prodrug of mycophenolic acid (MPA), is used increasingly for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. Empiric fixed-dose-escalation strategies in pediatric hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients have failed to achieve target MPA exposure. We evaluated the safety and feasibility of a pharmacokinetics-based dosing approach using a novel continuous infusion (CI) method of administration of MMF in pediatric HCT recipients. All patients received a myeloablative conditioning with cyclosporine A and MMF for GVHD prophylaxis. MMF was initiated on day 0 at a dose of 15 mg/kg every 8 hours. Based on steady-state pharmacokinetics, MMF was converted to CI to target a total MPA AUC(0-24) of 40 to 80 μg·hour/mL. The MMF dose was adjusted to maintain a total MPA steady-state concentration (Css) of 1.7 to 3.3 μg/mL. During the CI schedule, MPA AUC(0-24) was maintained at a mean of 40.1 μg·hour/mL (range, 20.6 to 63.8), and 17 of 19 patients (89%) achieved MPA Css within target of 1.7 to 3.3 μg/mL. Eighteen of 19 patients (95%) achieved neutrophil engraftment at a median of 13 days (range, 8 to 41) post-transplant and platelet engraftment at 39 days (range, 17 to 298) days post-transplant. Six of 18 assessable patients (33%) developed stages II to IV acute GVHD and 2 of 15 (13%) developed chronic GVHD. The MMF dose was reduced in 9 patients due to gastrointestinal symptoms (n = 6), low blood counts (n = 4), and viral infection (n = 3). Five patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia relapsed, of whom 4 have died. Fifteen of 19 patients are alive with a median follow-up of 2.4 years (range, .4 to 4.9), with 3-year event-free and overall survival rates of 68% and 79%, respectively. In this pilot study of pharmacokinetically directed MMF dosing, we observed no toxic deaths, excellent engraftment, and low rates of grades III to IV acute and chronic GVHD. We found significantly lower half-life and higher drug clearance in

  6. Chronic graft-versus-host disease of the kidney in patients with allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Fraile, Pilar; Pilar, Fraile; Vazquez, Lourdes; Lourdes, Vazquez; Caballero, Dolores; Dolores, Caballero; Garcia-Cosmes, Pedro; Pedro, Garcia-Cosmes; López, Lucia; Lucia, López; San Miguel, Jesus; Jesus, San Miguel; Tabernero, Jose Matias; Jose Matias, Tabernero

    2013-08-01

    Allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) is the treatment of choice for several hematological diseases. Although rare, patients could present nephrotic syndrome as a clinical feature of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). The objective of our study is to screen patients with allo-HSCT to determine who developed a glomerular pathology in the context of cGVHD. We studied patients who underwent allo-HSCT treatment in our center between October 1995 and October 2012 and who developed glomerular pathology. cGVHD was defined as a pathology when it appeared after 100 d post-allo-HSCT. Five hundred eighty-three allo-HSCT were performed. The prevalence of cGVHD of the kidney was 1.03%. All patients with cGVHD of the kidney were hosts who received peripheral blood from an identical HLA match donor. GVHD prophylaxis with calcineurin inhibitors plus methotrexate was administered in five cases, and prophylaxis with sirolimus was used in another case. cGVHD of the kidney was seen to appear after the removal of the prophylaxis for GVHD, within 33 ± 11.54 months intervals after allo-HSCT in five patients and in another patient, it appeared despite immunosuppressive therapy being administered. All patients had proteinuria, within 11.82 ± 9.03 g/d ranges. The kidney biopsies revealed membranous glomerulonephritis (four patients), focal segmental glomerulonephritis (one patient) and lupus nephropathy class III (one patient). It seems, immunosuppressive therapy achieved complete remission, within the first year of treatment in four patients. Although in three of them, the proteinuria recurred when we tried to remove the therapy; two patients have recently started treatment, being in partial remission now. cGVHD of the kidney is a rare complication after allo-HSCT, related with the removal of the immunosuppression. Monitoring proteinuria in these patients may be useful. In our patients, a complete remission was achieved; although the removal of the

  7. Development of a population-based cost-effectiveness model of chronic graft-versus-host disease in Spain.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Carlos; Pérez-Simón, José Anton; Rodríguez, José Manuel; Sierra, Jordi; Brosa, Max

    2012-08-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) is the leading cause of late nonrelapse mortality (transplant-related mortality) after hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Given that there are a wide range of treatment options for cGvHD, assessment of the associated costs and efficacy can help clinicians and health care providers allocate health care resources more efficiently. The purpose of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) compared with rituximab (Rmb) and with imatinib (Imt) in patients with cGvHD at 5 years from the perspective of the Spanish National Health System. The model assessed the incremental cost-effectiveness/utility ratio of ECP versus Rmb or Imt for 1000 hypothetical patients by using microsimulation cost-effectiveness techniques. Model probabilities were obtained from the literature. Treatment pathways and adverse events were evaluated taking clinical opinion and published reports into consideration. Local data on costs (2010 Euros) and health care resources utilization were validated by the clinical authors. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were used to assess the robustness of the model. The greater efficacy of ECP resulted in a gain of 0.011 to 0.024 quality-adjusted life-year in the first year and 0.062 to 0.094 at year 5 compared with Rmb or Imt. The results showed that the higher acquisition cost of ECP versus Imt was compensated for at 9 months by greater efficacy; this higher cost was partially compensated for (€517) by year 5 versus Rmb. After 9 months, ECP was dominant (cheaper and more effective) compared with Imt. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of ECP versus Rmb was €29,646 per life-year gained and €24,442 per quality-adjusted life-year gained at year 2.5. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis confirmed the results. The main study limitation was that to assess relative treatment effects, only small studies were available for indirect comparison. ECP as a third-line therapy for

  8. Immunosuppressive effects of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells on graft-versus-host disease in rats following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nevruz, Oral; Avcu, Ferit; Ural, A Uğur; Pekel, Aysel; Dirican, Bahar; Safalı, Mükerrem; Akdağ, Elvin; Beyzadeoğlu, Murat; Ide, Tayfun; Sengül, Ali

    2013-09-01

    Amaç: Graft versus host hastalığı (GVHH) , başarılı bir kemik iliği nakli için önemli bir engel oluşturmaktadır. Multipotent mezenşimal stromal hücrelerin (MSH) immünsupresif etkileri, in vivo ve in vitro olarak gösterilmiş olmakla birlikte, GVHH’ nı önleme yönünde klinik uygulamalarda bulunmaktadır . Gereç ve Yöntemler: Bu çalışmanın amacı ratlarda kemik iliği nakli sonrası oluşturulan GVHH’nı önleme ve tedavi etmede MSH nin etkinliğinin incelenmesidir. Bu amaçla 49 Sprague Dawley cinsi rat rastegele 4 çalışma, 3 kontrol grubuna ayrılmış ve gruplara MSH de içeren farklı GVHH önleyici tedaviler uygulanmıştır. Kemik iliği nakli sonrası GVHH skorlaması ve yaşama süreleri incelenmiştir. Bulgular: Tüm ışınlanmış ve önleyici tedavi verilmemiş ratlar ölmüştür. MSH nin önleyici uygulamaları, standart GVHD önleyici tedavileri kadar etkin bulunmuştur. MSH uygulamaları, GVHH nın gözlemsel ve histolojik bulgularını ve CD4+/CD8+ oranını azaltmaktadır.Ayrıca MSH uygulanan gruplarda CD25+ T hücrelerinin in vivo oranıda daha yüksek olup, Allojeneik kemik iliği nakli sonrası standart GVHH tedavisi uygulananlara göre plazma İnterlökin-2 seviyesinin daha yüksek olarak saptanmıştır. Sonuç: Bulgularımız MSH uygulamasının, GVHH nın hem önlenme hem de tedavi edilmesinde etkin olduğunu göstermiştir. Ancak bu bulguların geniş ölçekli çalışmalarla desteklenmesi gerekmektedir.

  9. A Clinical Trial Comparing the Safety and Efficacy of Topical Tacrolimus versus Methylprednisolone in Ocular Graft-Versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Abud, Tulio B; Amparo, Francisco; Saboo, Ujwala S; Di Zazzo, Antonio; Dohlman, Thomas H; Ciolino, Joseph B; Hamrah, Pedram; Dana, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the safety and efficacy of topical tacrolimus 0.05% vs. topical methylprednisolone 0.5% in patients with ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Design Phase I/II, prospective, randomized, double-masked clinical trial. Subjects Eighty eyes from 40 patients diagnosed with chronic ocular GVHD were enrolled. Methods Forty patients with ocular GVHD were randomized; 24 patients were treated with topical tacrolimus 0.05% and 16 patients with topical methylprednisolone 0.5% twice a day for 10 weeks, in addition to continuing their baseline treatment regimen. Main Outcome Measures Safety was evaluated based on occurrence of adverse events. Tolerability was assessed based on subjects’ reports of discomfort after drop instillation. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was monitored. The main efficacy endpoints were: corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), tear break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer test, and expression of the ocular surface inflammatory markers human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Symptoms were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). Results After 10 weeks of treatment, no major adverse events occurred in either treatment group, and there was no significant difference in the composite tolerability scores between the two groups (P=0.06). However, burning sensation was more pronounced with tacrolimus (P=0.002). Topical tacrolimus was more effective than methylprednisolone in reducing the CFS score at week 10 (55% vs. 23% reduction, respectively; P=0.01), and achieved significant improvement in TBUT when compared to baseline (P<0.001). OSDI score reduction achieved statistical significance with tacrolimus (27% reduction; P=0.02) but was marginal with methylprednisolone (32% reduction; P=0.06). ICAM-1 expression by ocular surface epithelium decreased significantly in both groups (tacrolimus P=0.003; methylprednisolone P=0.008), while HLA-DR expression significantly decreased only in the tacrolimus

  10. A Clinical Trial Comparing the Safety and Efficacy of Topical Tacrolimus versus Methylprednisolone in Ocular Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Abud, Tulio B; Amparo, Francisco; Saboo, Ujwala S; Di Zazzo, Antonio; Dohlman, Thomas H; Ciolino, Joseph B; Hamrah, Pedram; Dana, Reza

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of topical tacrolimus 0.05% versus topical methylprednisolone 0.5% in patients with ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Phase 1/2 prospective, randomized, double-masked clinical trial. Eighty eyes of 40 patients diagnosed with chronic ocular GVHD were enrolled. Forty patients with ocular GVHD were randomized; 24 patients were treated with topical tacrolimus 0.05% and 16 patients were treated with topical methylprednisolone 0.5% twice daily for 10 weeks, in addition to continuing their baseline treatment regimen. Safety was evaluated based on occurrence of adverse events. Tolerability was assessed based on subject reports of discomfort after drop instillation. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was monitored. The main efficacy end points were corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), tear film break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer test results, and expression of the ocular surface inflammatory markers human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Symptoms were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). After 10 weeks of treatment, no major adverse events occurred in either treatment group, and there was no significant difference in the composite tolerability scores between the 2 groups (P = 0.06). However, burning sensation was more pronounced with tacrolimus (P = 0.002). Topical tacrolimus was more effective than methylprednisolone in reducing the CFS score at week 10 (55% vs. 23% reduction, respectively; P = 0.01) and achieved significant improvement in TBUT when compared with baseline (P < 0.001). Reduction in OSDI score achieved statistical significance with tacrolimus (27% reduction; P = 0.02), but was marginal with methylprednisolone (32% reduction; P = 0.06). Expression of ICAM-1 by ocular surface epithelium decreased significantly in both groups (tacrolimus, P = 0.003; methylprednisolone, P = 0.008), whereas HLA-DR expression decreased significantly only in the tacrolimus group

  11. Tissue-Specific Expression Patterns of MicroRNA during Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Jalapothu, Dasaradha; Boieri, Margherita; Crossland, Rachel E.; Shah, Pranali; Butt, Isha A.; Norden, Jean; Dressel, Ralf; Dickinson, Anne M.; Inngjerdingen, Marit

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) have emerged as central regulators of diverse biological processes and contribute to driving pathology in several diseases. Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) represents a major complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, caused by alloreactive donor T cells attacking host tissues leading to inflammation and tissue destruction. Changes in miRNA expression patterns occur during aGvHD, and we hypothesized that we could identify miRNA signatures in target tissues of aGvHD that may potentially help understand the underlying molecular pathology of the disease. We utilized a rat model of aGvHD with transplantation of fully MHC-mismatched T cell depleted bone marrow, followed by infusion of donor T cells. The expression pattern of 423 rat miRNAs was investigated in skin, gut, and lung tissues and intestinal T cells with the NanoString hybridization platform, in combination with validation by quantitative PCR. MHC-matched transplanted rats were included as controls. In the skin, upregulation of miR-34b and downregulation of miR-326 was observed, while in the intestines, we detected downregulation of miR-743b and a trend toward downregulation of miR-345-5p. Thus, tissue-specific expression patterns of miRNAs were observed. Neither miR-326 nor miR-743b has previously been associated with aGvHD. Moreover, we identified upregulation of miR-146a and miR-155 in skin tissue of rats suffering from aGvHD. Analysis of intestinal T cells indicated 23 miRNAs differentially regulated between aGvHD and controls. Two of these miRNAs were differentially expressed either in skin (miR-326) or in intestinal (miR-345-5p) tissue. Comparison of intestinal and peripheral blood T cells indicated common dysregulated expression of miR-99a, miR-223, miR-326, and miR-345-5p. Analysis of predicted gene targets for these miRNAs indicated potential targeting of an inflammatory network both in skin and in the intestines that may further regulate

  12. Content Validity of the Lee Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease Symptom Scale as Assessed by Cognitive Interviews

    PubMed Central

    Merkel, Emily C.; Mitchell, Sandra A.; Lee, Stephanie J.

    2016-01-01

    The Lee Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease (cGVHD) Symptom Scale has been recommended for use by the 2005 and 2014 NIH Consensus Conferences to capture chronic GVHD symptoms. Although the cGVHD Symptom Scale was previously validated, this study aims to re-examine the instrument’s content validity by exploring the clarity, comprehensibility, relevance and ease of use in a contemporary chronic GVHD sample, toward FDA qualification of this patient-reported outcomes (PRO) instrument as a drug development tool. Attaining FDA qualification means that an instrument has been judged to be a reliable and valid measure of clinical benefit. Twenty adult patients with a median age of 58 (range 31–79) years participated. Median duration of chronic GVHD was 33 (range 0–134.4) months, and current NIH severity was mild (n=1), moderate (n=10) or severe (n=9) with a median of 5.5 (range 0–14) treatments ever used for chronic GVHD. The median summary score was 23 (range 8–51), and the median time to complete the scale was 2 minutes 7 seconds (range 01:08–04:00 minutes). Chronic GVHD symptoms were well captured on the Symptom Scale, although four additional symptoms/signs were mentioned by 15% of participants. Participants reported that item wording was clear, and they provided accurate definitions of specific terminologies. However, 7 (35%) participants indicated that they found one or more items in the skin domain unclear, reporting, for example, that rashes and itchy skin seemed synonymous. Two (10.5%) of 19 participants described how their answers would have changed if asked about their symptoms within the past month instead of within the past week owing to recently resolved symptoms. All participants were able to accurately explain the concept of “bother” in their own words and distinguish it from symptom severity or other related symptom attributes. In summary, participants found the tool to be a comprehensive and understandable way to report their chronic GVHD

  13. A Phase I Study of Alemtuzumab for Therapy of Steroid-Refractory Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nikiforow, Sarah; Kim, Haesook T.; Bindra, Bhavjot; McDonough, Sean; Glotzbecker, Brett; Armand, Philippe; Koreth, John; Ho, Vincent T.; Alyea, Edwin P.; Blazar, Bruce R.; Ritz, Jerome; Soiffer, Robert J.; Antin, Joseph H.; Cutler, Corey S.

    2013-01-01

    Steroid-refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) carries a poor prognosis with no agreed-upon algorithm for treatment. Since both B and T cells contribute to the pathophysiology of cGvHD, we conducted a Phase 1 study in subjects with steroid-refractory cGvHD using the anti-CD52 antibody alemtuzumab to transiently deplete most mononuclear subsets. Three regimens were investigated in a 3+3 dose-escalation design: 3 mg×6 (Dose level 1); 3 mg×1, then 10 mg×5 (Dose level 2); and 3 mg×1, 10 mg×1, then 30mg×4 (Dose level 3) administered over 4 weeks. The maximum tolerated dose of alemtuzumab was Dose level 2. Thirteen patients were evaluable for toxicities, which were primarily infectious and hematologic. Rates of infectious complications in the first 12 weeks were 0% at Dose level 1 (n=3), 50% at Dose Level 2 (1 death, n=6), and 75% at Dose Level 3 (2 deaths, n=4). Of 10 patients evaluable for response, seven (70%) responded at 12 weeks, with a 30% complete response rate. Four subjects reduced steroid dose or discontinued an immunosuppressant at 12 weeks. The median decrease in steroid dose at 1 year was 61.6%. Infectious complications occurred predominantly in the first 3 months after therapy, but full B and T cell recovery took well over 12 months. Immunophenotypic profiling revealed early recovery by NK cells and relative sparing of CD4+ and CD8+ central memory T cell subsets. Our study indicates that therapy with alemtuzumab for steroid-refractory chronic GvHD is tolerable with close attention to dosing and may be active in subjects who have failed multiple therapies. The pattern of lymphocyte recovery after alemtuzumab will inform the biology and future therapy of cGvHD. The use of alemtuzumab in the context of therapy for cGvHD deserves study in larger Phase 2 trials. PMID:23416855

  14. FDG PET/CT in Acute Tumefactive Multiple Sclerosis Occurring in a Case of Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Aisheng; Gao, Mingjun; Wang, Yang; Gao, Lei; Zuo, Changjing

    2016-09-01

    Tumefactive multiple sclerosis refers to the presentation of large demyelinating lesions (≥2 cm in diameter) mimicking brain tumors clinically and radiologically. We present the MRI and FDG PET/CT findings in a case with tumefactive multiple sclerosis, who had chronic graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Head MRI showed 7 cerebral lesions with incomplete ring enhancement. All but one lesion had size more than 2 cm. All these demyelinating lesions showed increased uptake at the rims of the lesions with central hypometabolism. Stereotactic brain biopsy of the right frontal lesion revealed extensive macrophage and lymphocyte infiltration.

  15. In vitro regulation of immunoglobulin synthesis after marrow transplantation. I. T-cell and B-cell deficiencies in patients with and without chronic graft-versus-host disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lum, L.G.; Seigneuret, M.C.; Storb, R.F.; Witherspoon, R.P.; Thomas, E.D.

    1981-09-01

    Twenty-four patients with aplastic anemia or acute leukemia were treated by marrow grafts from HLA-identical donors after conditioning with high doses of cyclophosphamide and/or today body irradiation. They were studied between 4 and 63 mo (median 14.2) after transplantation. Seventeen patients had chronic graft-versus-host disease (C-GVHD) and 7 were healthy. They were studied for defects in their T- and B-cell function using and indirect hemolytic plaque assay for Ig production after 6 days of culture in the presence of pokeweek mitogen. T or B cells from the patients with or without C-GVHD were cocultured with T or B cells from their HLA-identical marrow donors or unrelated normal controls. Intrinsic B-cell defects, lack of helper T-cell activity, and suppressor T-cell activity were more frequently found in patients with C-GVHD than in healthy patients. Fifteen of the 17 patients with C-GVHD showed on or more defects in their T-and B-cell function compared to only 3 of the 7 patients without C-GVHD. None of the healthy controls, including the marrow donors, showed defects in their T- and B-cell functions. These in vitro findings may be helpful in assessing the process of immune reconstitution and the immunologic aberration found after human marrow transplantation.

  16. The Activating NKG2C Receptor Is Significantly Reduced in NK Cells after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients with Severe Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Kordelas, Lambros; Steckel, Nina-Kristin; Horn, Peter A; Beelen, Dietrich W; Rebmann, Vera

    2016-10-27

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a central role in the innate immune system. In allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT), alloreactive NK cells derived by the graft are discussed to mediate the elimination of leukemic cells and dendritic cells in the patient and thereby to reduce the risk for leukemic relapses and graft-versus-host reactions. The alloreactivity of NK cells is determined by various receptors including the activating CD94/NKG2C and the inhibitory CD94/NKG2A receptors, which both recognize the non-classical human leukocyte antigen E (HLA-E). Here we analyze the contribution of these receptors to NK cell alloreactivity in 26 patients over the course of the first year after alloSCT due to acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome and T cell Non-Hodgkin-Lymphoma. Our results show that NK cells expressing the activating CD94/NKG2C receptor are significantly reduced in patients after alloSCT with severe acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Moreover, the ratio of CD94/NKG2C to CD94/NKG2A was reduced in patients with severe acute and chronic GvHD after receiving an HLA-mismatched graft. Collectively, these results provide evidence for the first time that CD94/NKG2C is involved in GvHD prevention.

  17. Identification and characterization of the specific murine NK cell subset supporting graft-versus-leukemia- and reducing graft-versus-host-effects

    PubMed Central

    Meinhardt, Kathrin; Kroeger, Irena; Bauer, Ruth; Ganss, Franziska; Ovsiy, Ilja; Rothamer, Johanna; Büttner, Maike; Atreya, Imke; Waldner, Maximilian; Bittrich, Max; Lehmann, Christian HK; Rieger, Michael A; Beilhack, Andreas; Zeiser, Robert; Edinger, Matthias; Dudziak, Diana; Mackensen, Andreas; Rehli, Michael; Ullrich, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies investigating the impact of natural killer (NK) cells in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation settings have yielded promising results. However, NK cells are a functionally and phenotypically heterogeneous population. Therefore, we addressed the functional relevance of specific NK cell subsets distinguished by expression of CD117, CD27 and CD11b surface markers in graft-versus-leukemia (GVL)-reaction and graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD). Our results clearly demonstrate that the subset of c-Kit−CD27−CD11b+ NK cells expressed multiple cytotoxic pathway genes and provided optimal graft-versus-leukemia-effects, while significantly reducing T cell proliferation induced by allogeneic dendritic cells. Furthermore, these NK cells migrated to inflamed intestinal tissues where graft-versus-host-colitis was efficiently mitigated. For the first time, we identified the c-Kit−CD27−CD11b+ NK cell population as the specific effector NK cell subset capable of significantly diminishing GVHD in fully mismatched bone marrow transplantation settings. In conclusion, the subset of c-Kit−CD27−CD11b+ NK cells not only supports GVL, but also plays a unique role in the protection against GVHD by migrating to the peripheral GVHD target organs where they exert efficient immunoregulatory activities. These new insights demonstrate the importance of selecting the optimal NK cell subset for cellular immunotherapy following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:25949862

  18. Identification and characterization of the specific murine NK cell subset supporting graft-versus-leukemia- and reducing graft-versus-host-effects.

    PubMed

    Meinhardt, Kathrin; Kroeger, Irena; Bauer, Ruth; Ganss, Franziska; Ovsiy, Ilja; Rothamer, Johanna; Büttner, Maike; Atreya, Imke; Waldner, Maximilian; Bittrich, Max; Lehmann, Christian Hk; Rieger, Michael A; Beilhack, Andreas; Zeiser, Robert; Edinger, Matthias; Dudziak, Diana; Mackensen, Andreas; Rehli, Michael; Ullrich, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies investigating the impact of natural killer (NK) cells in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation settings have yielded promising results. However, NK cells are a functionally and phenotypically heterogeneous population. Therefore, we addressed the functional relevance of specific NK cell subsets distinguished by expression of CD117, CD27 and CD11b surface markers in graft-versus-leukemia (GVL)-reaction and graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD). Our results clearly demonstrate that the subset of c-Kit(-)CD27(-)CD11b(+) NK cells expressed multiple cytotoxic pathway genes and provided optimal graft-versus-leukemia-effects, while significantly reducing T cell proliferation induced by allogeneic dendritic cells. Furthermore, these NK cells migrated to inflamed intestinal tissues where graft-versus-host-colitis was efficiently mitigated. For the first time, we identified the c-Kit(-)CD27(-)CD11b(+) NK cell population as the specific effector NK cell subset capable of significantly diminishing GVHD in fully mismatched bone marrow transplantation settings. In conclusion, the subset of c-Kit(-)CD27(-)CD11b(+) NK cells not only supports GVL, but also plays a unique role in the protection against GVHD by migrating to the peripheral GVHD target organs where they exert efficient immunoregulatory activities. These new insights demonstrate the importance of selecting the optimal NK cell subset for cellular immunotherapy following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  19. Rituximab in Preventing Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Patients Undergoing a Donor Stem Cell Transplant for Hematologic Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-28

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Graft Versus Host Disease; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III

  20. Mycophenolate mofetil versus methotrexate for prevention of graft-versus-host disease in people receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed; Mhaskar, Rahul; Reljic, Tea; Pidala, Joseph; Perkins, Janelle B; Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Kumar, Ambuj

    2014-07-25

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is associated with improved outcomes for people with various hematologic diseases; however, the morbidity and mortality resulting from acute and subsequently chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) pose a serious challenge to wider applicability of allo-HCT. Intravenous methotrexate in combination with a calcineurin inhibitor, cyclosporine or tacrolimus, is a widely used regimen for the prophylaxis of acute GVHD, but the administration of methotrexate is associated with a number of adverse events. Mycophenolate mofetil, in combination with a calcineurin inhibitor, has been used extensively in people undergoing allo-HCT. Conflicting results regarding various clinical outcomes following allo-HCT have been observed when comparing mycophenolate mofetil-based regimens against methotrexate-based regimens for acute GVHD prophylaxis. to assess the effect of mycophenolate mofetil versus methotrexate for prevention of acute GVHD in people undergoing allo-HCT. to evaluate the effect of mycophenolate mofetil versus methotrexate for overall survival, prevention of chronic GVHD, incidence of relapse, treatment-related harms, nonrelapse mortality, and quality of life. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and MEDLINE from inception to March 2014. We handsearched conference abstracts from the last two meetings (2011 and 2012) of relevant societies in the field. We searched ClinicalTrials.gov, Novartis clinical trials database (www.novctrd.com), Roche clinical trial protocol registry (www.roche-trials.com), Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR), and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials for ongoing trials. Two review authors independently reviewed all titles/abstracts and selected full-text articles for inclusion. We included all references that reported results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mycophenolate mofetil versus methotrexate for the prophylaxis of

  1. Combined procedure of vascularized bone marrow transplantation and mesenchymal stem cells graft - an effective solution for rapid hematopoietic reconstitution and prevention of graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Coliţă, Andrei; Coliţă, Anca; Zamfirescu, Dragos; Lupu, Anca Roxana

    2012-09-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a a standard therapeutic option for several diseases. The success of the procedure depends on quality and quantity of transplanted cells and on stromal capacity to create an optimal microenvironment, that supports survival and development of the hematopoietic elements. Conditions associated with stromal dysfunction lead to slower/insufficient engraftment and/or immune reconstitution. A possible solution to this problem is to realize a combined graft of hematopoietic stem cells along with the medular stroma in the form of vascularized bone marrow transplant (VBMT). Another major drawback of HSCT is the risk of graft versus host disease (GVHD). Recently, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have demonstrated the capacity to down-regulate alloreactive T-cell and to enhance the engraftment. Cotransplantation of MSC could be a therapeutic option for a better engraftment and GVHD prevention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute graft-versus-host disease in pancreas transplantation: a comparison of two case presentations and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Adam; Dexter, David; KuKuruga, Debra L; Philosophe, Benjamin; Hess, John; Klassen, David

    2006-07-15

    As a complication of solid organ transplantation, acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is most associated with small bowel and liver transplants. We present two cases of acute GVHD following pancreas transplantation. Case 1 was a 27-year-old female who underwent cadaveric pancreas transplant 9 months after a successful live donor kidney transplant. Case 2 was a 38-year-old male who received a simultaneous cadaveric pancreas and live donor kidney transplant. Both patients presented within 30 days of transplant with nonspecific symptoms. Rejection and infection were ruled out. Both subjects had progressive decline in mentation associated with pancytopenia and hyperbilirubinemia. Rash was not present until late in their hospital course. Skin biopsies demonstrated mixed chimerism with pancreas donor DNA diagnostic of GVHD. Acute GVHD is a rare, often fatal, complication of pancreas transplantation, and its presentation appears to differ from acute GVHD associated with stem cell transplantation.

  3. International, multi-center standardization of acute graft-versus-host disease clinical data collection: a report from the MAGIC consortium

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Andrew C.; Young, Rachel; Devine, Steven; Hogan, William J.; Ayuk, Francis; Bunworasate, Udomsak; Chanswangphuwana, Chantiya; Efebera, Yvonne A.; Holler, Ernst; Litzow, Mark; Ordemann, Rainer; Qayed, Muna; Renteria, Anne S.; Reshef, Ran; Wölfl, Matthias; Chen, Yi-Bin; Goldstein, Steven; Jagasia, Madan; Locatelli, Franco; Mielke, Stephan; Porter, David; Schechter, Tal; Shekhovtsova, Zhanna; Ferrara, James L.M.; Levine, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a leading cause of morbidity and non-relapse mortality following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. The clinical staging of GVHD varies greatly between transplant centers and is frequently not agreed upon by independent reviewers. The lack of standardized approaches to handle common sources of discrepancy in GVHD grading likely contributes to why promising GVHD treatments reported from single centers have failed to show benefit in randomized multi-center clinical trials. We developed guidelines through international expert consensus opinion to standardize the diagnosis and clinical staging of GVHD for use in a large international GVHD research consortium. During the first year of use, the guidance was following discussion of complex clinical phenotypes by experienced transplant physicians and data managers. These guidelines increase the uniformity of GVHD symptom capture which may improve the reproducibility of GVHD clinical trials after further prospective validation. PMID:26386318

  4. [Disruption of gut immune system caused by damage of intestinal stem cells and their niche in graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hayase, Eiko; Teshima, Takanori

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation(allo-SCT)is curative therapy for various hematological diseases. Graft-versus-host disease(GVHD)and infection remain the main problems in allo-SCT. Gastrointestinal tract is targeted by GVHD. In intestinal GVHD, intestinal stem cells and Paneth cells reside at the base of crypts are damaged by donor T cells. These damage leads to disruption of intestinal mucosal barrier and intestinal dysbiosis, resulting in more exaggerated GVHD. Recently, we and others have reported that R-Spondin1 and interleukin-22 as factors regenerated intestinal tissue homeostasis in murine model of bone marrow transplantation. It is important to understand biology of various cells targeted by intestinal GVHD and develop novel methods to protect them from GVHD damage.

  5. Venous thromboembolism is associated with graft-versus-host disease and increased non-relapse mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kekre, Natasha; Kim, Haesook T; Ho, Vincent T; Cutler, Corey; Armand, Philippe; Nikiforow, Sarah; Alyea, Edwin P; Soiffer, Robert J; Antin, Joseph H; Connors, Jean M; Koreth, John

    2017-03-24

    Although venous thromboembolism rates and risk factors are well described in patients with cancer, there are limited data on the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of thrombosis after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, a curative therapy for patients with hematologic malignancies. We aimed to determine the incidence and risks associated with venous thrombosis in allogeneic stem cell transplant. We studied 2276 recipients of first transplant between 2002-2013 at our institution with a median follow-up of 50 months (range 4-146). Using pharmacy records and subsequent chart review, 190 patients who received systemic anticoagulation for venous thrombosis were identified. The 1 and 2-year cumulative incidence of all venous thrombotic events were 5.5% (95% CI 4.6-6.5%) and 7.1% (95% CI 6.1-8.2%) respectively. There was no difference in age, gender, body mass index, diagnosis, disease risk index, conditioning intensity, donor type or graft source between transplant recipients with and without subsequent thrombosis. In multivariable models, both acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease were independently associated with thrombosis occurrence (HR=2.05, 95% CI 1.52-2.76; HR=1.71, 95% CI 1.19-2.46 respectively). Upper extremity thrombosis differed from all other thrombosis in timing, risk factors and clinical impact, and was not associated with non-relapse mortality (HR=1.15; 95% CI 0.69-1.90), unlike all other thrombosis which did increase non-relapse mortality (HR=1.71; 95% CI 1.17-2.49). In subgroup analysis evaluating conventional thrombosis predictors by comparing patients with and without thrombosis, history of prior venous thrombosis was the only significant predictor. Venous thromboembolism has a high incidence after allogeneic stem cell transplant and is associated with graft-versus-host disease and non-relapse mortality.

  6. IL-21 promotes lupus-like disease in chronic graft-versus-host disease through both CD4 T cell- and B cell-intrinsic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vinh; Luzina, Irina; Rus, Horea; Tegla, Cosmin; Chen, Ching; Rus, Violeta

    2012-07-15

    T cell-driven B cell hyperactivity plays an essential role in driving autoimmune disease development in systemic lupus erythematosus. IL-21 is a member of the type I cytokine family with pleiotropic activities. It regulates B cell differentiation and function, promotes T follicular helper (T(FH)) cell and Th17 cell differentiation, and downregulates the induction of T regulatory cells. Although IL-21 has been implicated in systemic lupus erythematosus, the relative importance of IL-21R signaling in CD4(+) T cells versus B cells is not clear. To address this question, we took advantage of two induced models of lupus-like chronic graft-versus-host disease by using wild-type or IL-21R(-/-) mice as donors in the parent-into-F1 model and as hosts in the Bm12→B6 model. We show that IL-21R expression on donor CD4(+) T cells is essential for sustaining T(FH) cell number and subsequent help for B cells, resulting in autoantibody production and more severe lupus-like renal disease, but it does not alter the balance of Th17 cells and regulatory T cells. In contrast, IL-21R signaling on B cells is critical for the induction and maintenance of germinal centers, plasma cell differentiation, autoantibody production, and the development of renal disease. These results demonstrate that IL-21 promotes autoimmunity in chronic graft-versus-host disease through both CD4(+) T cell- and B cell-intrinsic mechanisms and suggest that IL-21 blockade may attenuate B cell hyperactivity, as well as the aberrant T(FH) cell pathway that contributes to lupus pathogenesis.

  7. Safety and efficacy of an intra-oral electrostimulator for the relief of dry mouth in patients with chronic graft versus host disease: Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Zadik, Yehuda; Zeevi, Itai; Luboshitz-Shon, Noa; Dakwar, Nasri; Wolff, Andy; Shapira, Michael Y.; Or, Reuven

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) often suffer from dry mouth and oral mucosal lesions. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the safety of an intra-oral electrostimulator (GenNarino) in symptomatic cGVHD patients. The secondary objective was to study the impact on the salivary gland involvement of cGVHD patients. Study Design: This paper presents a case series. The study included patients treated for 4 weeks, randomly assigned to the active device and then crossed-over to a sham-device or vice versa. The patients and clinicians were blind to the treatment delivered. Data regarding oral mucosal and salivary gland involvement were collected. Results: Six patients were included in this series. Most of the intraoral areas with manifestations of cGVHD were not in contact with the GenNarino device. Two patients developed mild mucosal lesions in areas in contact with the GenNarino during the study. However, only one of them had a change in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) score for oral cGVHD. The unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate increased in 4 out of the 5 patients included in this analysis. Symptoms of dry mouth and general oral comfort improved. Conclusion: This study suggests that GenNarino is safe in cGVHD patients with respect to oral tissues. Furthermore the use of GenNarino resulted in subjective and objective improvements in dry mouth symptoms. A large scale study is needed to confirm the impact and safety of GenNarino on systemic cGVHD. Key words:Dry mouth, graft versus host disease, electrostimulation, oral mucosa, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:24121920

  8. Efficacy of rituximab in the setting of steroid-refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A; Mhaskar, Asmita R; Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Cutler, Corey; Mohty, Mohamad; Kumar, Ambuj

    2009-09-01

    Increased insight into the role of B lymphocytes in the pathophysiology of graft-versus-host disease has led to a number of studies assessing the efficacy of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) rituximab in treating steroid-refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). Findings vary greatly among these studies, however. We conducted a systematic review to summarize the totality of evidence on the efficacy of rituximab in steroid-refractory cGVHD. We performed a PubMed search and contacted experts in the field to identify relevant studies. Endpoints included overall response rate (including organ-specific) and ability of rituximab to allow dosage reduction of immunosuppressive therapies. Data were pooled under a random-effects model. Seven studies (3 prospective and 4 retrospective, with a total of 111 patients) met the inclusion criteria. The pooled proportion of overall response was 0.66 (95% confidence interval=0.57 to 0.74). There was no heterogeneity among the pooled studies. Response rates were 13% to 100% for cGVHD of the skin, 0 to 83% for cGVHD of the oral mucosa, 0 to 66% for cGVHD of the liver, and 0 to 38% for cGVHD of the lung. Common adverse events were related to infusion reactions or infectious complications. The relatively small number of patients and the varying criteria for reporting organ response and dosage reduction of steroids, among other limitations, hinders our ability to reach definitive conclusions on the overall efficacy of rituximab for cGVHD involving other organs.

  9. B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator targeting protects against the acute phase of graft versus host reaction by inhibiting donor anti-host cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    del Rio, Maria-Luisa; Kurtz, Josef; Perez-Martinez, Claudia; Ghosh, Arnab; Perez-Simon, José Antonio; Rodriguez-Barbosa, Jose-Ignacio

    2011-11-27

    B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) functions as a coinhibitory/costimulatory molecule that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and exhibits a pattern of expression restricted to the hematopoietic compartment. Engagement of BTLA by its ligand, herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM), delivers negative signals to T cells, whereas engagement of HVEM receptor on T cells by surface BTLA expressed on other immune cells costimulates T activation. Previous work has reported that parental donor BTLA knock-out or HVEM knock-out T cells adoptively transferred into nonirradiated F1 recipient mice survived poorly, and the rejection of host hematopoietic cells was attenuated compared with F1 recipients receiving wild-type T cells. Parent into nonirradiated immunocompetent F1 murine model of acute graft versus host reaction, which is induced with the adoptive transfer of splenocytes from donor B6 mice (H-2(b)) into F1 recipients (BALB/c×B6, H-2(d/b)), was used as an experimental approach to test the therapeutic effect of targeting BTLA during the course of an allogeneic immune response. We herein provide evidence that administration of an anti-BTLA monoclonal antibody leads to significant reduction of donor anti-host allogeneic immune response against bone marrow and thymus during the acute phase of graft versus host reaction in a parent into nonirradiated F1 murine model of alloreactivity. Anti-BTLA protection against donor anti-host hematopoietic cell rejection correlated with impaired anti-host cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity than reduction in T-cell number infiltrating host tissues. These findings place BTLA receptor as a potential immunoregulatory target for the modulation of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated alloresponses.

  10. Mesenchymal stem cells expanded in vitro with human serum for the treatment of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease: results of a phase I/II clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Simon, Jose A.; López-Villar, Olga; Andreu, Enrique J.; Rifón, José; Muntion, Sandra; Campelo, María Diez; Sánchez-Guijo, Fermín M.; Martinez, Carmen; Valcarcel, David; del Cañizo, Consuelo

    2011-01-01

    This trial evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of the infusion of mesenchymal stem cells expanded using human serum for the treatment of refractory acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease. Twenty-eight expansions were started. In 22, a minimum of more than 1x106 mesenchymal stem cells/kg were obtained after a median of 26 days; this threshold was not obtained in the remaining cases. Ten patients received cells for the treatment of refractory or relapsed acute graft-versus-host disease and 8 for chronic disease. One patient treated for acute graft-versus-host disease obtained a complete response, 6 had a partial response and 3 did not respond. One of the chronic patients achieved complete remision, 3 a partial response, and 4 did not respond. The current study supports the use of this approach in less heavily treated patients for both acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease. The trial has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: identifier NCT00447460. PMID:21393326

  11. Mesenchymal stromal cells from pooled mononuclear cells of multiple bone marrow donors as rescue therapy in pediatric severe steroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease: a multicenter survey

    PubMed Central

    Kuçi, Zyrafete; Bönig, Halvard; Kreyenberg, Hermann; Bunos, Milica; Jauch, Anna; Janssen, Johannes W.G.; Škifić, Marijana; Michel, Kristina; Eising, Ben; Lucchini, Giovanna; Bakhtiar, Shahrzad; Greil, Johann; Lang, Peter; Basu, Oliver; von Luettichau, Irene; Schulz, Ansgar; Sykora, Karl-Walter; Jarisch, Andrea; Soerensen, Jan; Salzmann-Manrique, Emilia; Seifried, Erhard; Klingebiel, Thomas; Bader, Peter; Kuçi, Selim

    2016-01-01

    To circumvent donor-to-donor heterogeneity which may lead to inconsistent results after treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease with mesenchymal stromal cells generated from single donors we developed a novel approach by generating these cells from pooled bone marrow mononuclear cells of 8 healthy “3rd-party” donors. Generated cells were frozen in 209 vials and designated as mesenchymal stromal cell bank. These vials served as a source for generation of clinical grade mesenchymal stromal cell end-products, which exhibited typical mesenchymal stromal cell phenotype, trilineage differentiation potential and at later passages expressed replicative senescence-related markers (p21 and p16). Genetic analysis demonstrated their genomic stability (normal karyotype and a diploid pattern). Importantly, clinical end-products exerted a significantly higher allosuppressive potential than the mean allosuppressive potential of mesenchymal stromal cells generated from the same donors individually. Administration of 81 mesenchymal stromal cell end-products to 26 patients with severe steroid-resistant acute graft-versus-host disease in 7 stem cell transplant centers who were refractory to many lines of treatment, induced a 77% overall response at the primary end point (day 28). Remarkably, although the cohort of patients was highly challenging (96% grade III/IV and only 4% grade II graft-versus-host disease), after treatment with mesenchymal stromal cell end-products the overall survival rate at two years follow up was 71±11% for the entire patient cohort, compared to 51.4±9.0% in graft-versus-host disease clinical studies, in which mesenchymal stromal cells were derived from single donors. Mesenchymal stromal cell end-products may, therefore, provide a novel therapeutic tool for the effective treatment of severe acute graft-versus-host disease. PMID:27175026

  12. ECP-treated lymphocytes of chronic graft-versus-host disease patients undergo apoptosis which involves both the Fas/FasL system and the Bcl-2 protein family.

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, M; Rubegni, P; Sbano, P; Cuccia, A; Castagnini, C; Pompella, G; Pasqui, A L; Capecchi, P L; Auteri, A; Laghi Pasini, F; Fimiani, M

    2003-09-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a severe and frequent complication of allogenic bone marrow transplantation which is often treated with extracorporeal photochemotherapy (ECP) with a positive clinical outcome in patients resistant to conventional protocols. The mechanism of action of ECP has not been fully elucidated, although several authors have reported that it is able to induce apoptosis. Using samples obtained from ten cGVHD patients, we sought to determine whether lymphocytes treated with ECP underwent apoptosis and, above all, the mechanisms involved. Lymphocytes at four stages were isolated: immediately before ECP, from the last buffy coat collected, after UV irradiation prior to reinfusion, and the day after ECP. When cultured for 48 h, lymphocytes treated with ECP underwent accelerated apoptosis (tested as annexin V binding cells and as intracellular histone-associated DNA fragments) in comparison with lymphocytes from the other samples. This enhanced programmed cell death could not be prevented by IL-2. Immediately after isolation, there was no difference in Bcl-2 or bax expression among the four different samples, or in Fas and FasL mRNA. However, when cultured, lymphocytes treated with ECP showed a rapid downregulation of Bcl-2, an upregulation of bax with an increased bax/Bcl-2 ratio, a decrease in bcl-2 mRNA and an increase in Fas. No changes were detectable in lymphocytes from the other samples. IL-2 and TNF-alpha production was not significantly different among lymphocytes from the four samples. In conclusion, in patients affected by cGVHD, ECP induced apoptosis of lymphocytes with the involvement of both the Fas/FasL system and the Bcl-2 protein family.

  13. B-Cell-Based and Soluble Biomarkers in Body Liquids for Predicting Acute/Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Juric, Mateja Kralj; Shevtsov, Maxim; Mozes, Petra; Ogonek, Justyna; Crossland, Rachel E; Dickinson, Anne M; Greinix, Hildegard T; Holler, Ernst; Weissinger, Eva M; Multhoff, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is the main curative therapy for hematological malignancy such as leukemias, lymphomas, or multiple myelomas and some other hematological disorders. In this therapy, cure of hematological diseases relies on graft-versus-malignancy effects by allogenic immune cells. However, severe posttransplant treatment-associated complications such as acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) and chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) limit this approach. Most research into GvHD has concentrated on the aGvHD, while the more complex and multifaceted chronic form has been largely poorly investigated. cGvHD is a multi-organ autoimmune disorder and is the major cause of non-relapse morbidity and mortality following allo-HSCT, occurring in about 50% of patients, or 13,000-15,000 patients per year worldwide. Therefore, there is a high medical need for an early prediction of these therapy-associated toxicities. Biomarkers have gained importance over the last decade in diagnosis, in prognosis, and in prediction of pending diseases or side effects. Biomarkers can be cells, factors isolated from target tissues, or soluble factors that can be detected in body fluids. In this review, we aim to summarize some of the recent developments of biomarkers in the field of allo-HSCT. We will focus on cell-based biomarkers (B-cell subsets) for cGvHD and soluble factors including microRNA (miRNA), which are excreted into serum/plasma and urine. We also discuss the potential role of cytosolic and extracellular 70 kDa heat shock proteins (HSP70) as potential biomarkers for aGvHD and their role in preclinical models. Proteomic biomarkers in the blood have been used as predictors of treatment responses in patients with aGvHD for many years. More recently, miRNAs have been found to serve as a biomarker to diagnose aGvHD in the plasma. Another development relates to urine-based biomarkers that are usually detected by capillary electrophoresis

  14. Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System scores, pre-transplant therapy and chronic graft-versus-host disease determine outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ditschkowski, Markus; Elmaagacli, Ahmet H.; Trenschel, Rudolf; Gromke, Tanja; Steckel, Nina K.; Koldehoff, Michael; Beelen, Dietrich W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Myelofibrosis is a myeloproliferative stem cell disorder curable exclusively by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and is associated with substantial mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to assess disease-specific and transplant-related risk factors that influence post-transplant outcome in patients with myelofibrosis. Design and Methods We retrospectively assessed 76 consecutive patients with primary (n=47) or secondary (n=29) myelofibrosis who underwent bone marrow (n=6) or peripheral blood stem cell (n=70) transplantation from sibling (n=30) or unrelated (n=46) donors between January 1994 and December 2010. The median follow-up of surviving patients was 55±7.5 months. Results Primary graft failure occurred in 5% and the non-relapse mortality rate at 1 year was 28%. The relapse-free survival rate was 50% with a relapse rate of 19% at 5 years. The use of pharmacological pre-treatment and the post-transplant occurrence of chronic graft-versus-host disease were significant independent unfavourable risk factors for post-transplant survival in multivariate analysis. Using the Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System for risk stratification, low-risk patients had significantly better overall survival (P=0.014, hazard ratio 1.4) and relapse-free survival (P=0.02, hazard ratio 1.3) compared to the other risk groups of patients. The additional inclusion of thrombocytopenia, abnormal karyotype and transfusion need (Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System Plus) resulted in a predicted 5-year overall survival of 100%, 51%, 54% and 30% for low, intermediate-1, intermediate-2 and high-risk groups, respectively. The relapse incidence was significantly higher in the absence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (P=0.006), and pharmacological pre-treatment (n=43) was associated with reduced relapse-free survival (P=0.001). Conclusions The data corroborate a strong correlation between alloreactivity and long-term post

  15. B-Cell-Based and Soluble Biomarkers in Body Liquids for Predicting Acute/Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Juric, Mateja Kralj; Shevtsov, Maxim; Mozes, Petra; Ogonek, Justyna; Crossland, Rachel E.; Dickinson, Anne M.; Greinix, Hildegard T.; Holler, Ernst; Weissinger, Eva M.; Multhoff, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is the main curative therapy for hematological malignancy such as leukemias, lymphomas, or multiple myelomas and some other hematological disorders. In this therapy, cure of hematological diseases relies on graft-versus-malignancy effects by allogenic immune cells. However, severe posttransplant treatment-associated complications such as acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) and chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) limit this approach. Most research into GvHD has concentrated on the aGvHD, while the more complex and multifaceted chronic form has been largely poorly investigated. cGvHD is a multi-organ autoimmune disorder and is the major cause of non-relapse morbidity and mortality following allo-HSCT, occurring in about 50% of patients, or 13,000–15,000 patients per year worldwide. Therefore, there is a high medical need for an early prediction of these therapy-associated toxicities. Biomarkers have gained importance over the last decade in diagnosis, in prognosis, and in prediction of pending diseases or side effects. Biomarkers can be cells, factors isolated from target tissues, or soluble factors that can be detected in body fluids. In this review, we aim to summarize some of the recent developments of biomarkers in the field of allo-HSCT. We will focus on cell-based biomarkers (B-cell subsets) for cGvHD and soluble factors including microRNA (miRNA), which are excreted into serum/plasma and urine. We also discuss the potential role of cytosolic and extracellular 70 kDa heat shock proteins (HSP70) as potential biomarkers for aGvHD and their role in preclinical models. Proteomic biomarkers in the blood have been used as predictors of treatment responses in patients with aGvHD for many years. More recently, miRNAs have been found to serve as a biomarker to diagnose aGvHD in the plasma. Another development relates to urine-based biomarkers that are usually detected by capillary

  16. Tolerability and outcome of once weekly liposomal amphotericin B for the prevention of invasive fungal infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients with graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Tran, H. Luu; Mahmoudjafari, Zahra; Rockey, Michelle; Henry, Dave; Grauer, Dennis; Aljitawi, Omar; Abhyankar, Sunil; Ganguly, Siddhartha; Lin, Tara; McGuirk, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Background Invasive fungal infections remain problematic in immunosuppressed allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients and the use of corti