Science.gov

Sample records for irrigation agricultural

  1. Irrigated Agriculture, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, center-pivot, swing-arm irrigated agriculture complexes such as the one imaged at Jabal Tuwayq (20.5N, 45.0 E) extract deep fossil water reserves to achieve food crop production self sufficiency in this desert environment. The significance of the Saudi expanded irrigated agriculture is that the depletion of this finite water resource is a short term solution to a long term need that will still exist when the water has been extracted.

  2. Center Pivot Irrigated Agriculture, Libya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A view of the Faregh Agricultural Station in the Great Calanscio Sand Sea, Libya (26.5N, 22.0E) about 300 miles southeast of Benghazi. A pattern of water wells have been drilled several miles apart to support a quarter mile center-pivot-swing-arm agricultural irrigation system. The crop grown is alfalfa which is eaten on location by flocks of sheep following the swing arm as it rotates. At maturity, the sheep are flown to market throughout Libya.

  3. Nitrate concentrations under irrigated agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaporozec, A.

    1983-01-01

    In recent years, considerable interest has been expressed in the nitrate content of water supplies. The most notable toxic effect of nitrate is infant methemoglobinemia. The risk of this disease increases significantly at nitrate-nitrogen levels exceeding 10 mg/l. For this reason, this concentration has been established as a limit for drinking water in many countries. In natural waters, nitrate is a minor ionic constituent and seldom accounts for more than a few percent of the total anions. However, nitrate in a significant concentration may occur in the vicinity of some point sources such as septic tanks, manure pits, and waste-disposal sites. Non-point sources contributing to groundwater pollution are numerous and a majority of them are related to agricultural activities. The largest single anthropogenic input of nitrate into the groundwater is fertilizer. Even though it has not been proven that nitrogen fertilizers are responsible for much of nitrate pollution, they are generally recognized as the main threat to groundwater quality, especially when inefficiently applied to irrigated fields on sandy soils. The biggest challenge facing today's agriculture is to maintain the balance between the enhancement of crop productivity and the risk of groundwater pollution. ?? 1982 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  4. Agricultural Irrigation Demand Response Estimation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    This program is used to model the energy demand of agricultural irrigation pumps, used to maintain soil moisture levels in irrigated fields. This modeling is accomplished using historical data from evapotranspirationmeasuring weather stations (from the California Irrigation Management Information System) as well as irrigation system characteristics for the field(s) to be modeled. The modelled energy demand is used to estimate the achievable demand response (DR) potential of the field(s), for use in assessing the value of the DR for the utility company. The program can accept input data with varying degrees of rigor, and estimate the uncertainty of the output accordingly.

  5. Energy efficiency of Pacific Northwest agriculture irrigation pumping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Harrer, B.J.

    1987-03-01

    This document addresses the energy use and efficiency characteristics of pumping plants used to irrigate agricultural cropland in the Pacific Northwest. The principal focus of this document is on field information obtained from tests of irrigation pumping plants.

  6. Watershed Modeling in areas with Intensive Agricultural Irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyss, J. R.; Watson, B. J.

    2011-12-01

    Irrigation in agricultural intensive watersheds affects soil moisture content, plays a major role in the overall water balance and also influences the hydrologic regime. Historically, irrigation in watershed modeling has been very difficult to simulate and was simulated in one of three general ways. 1) irrigation water was withdrawan from the model and never applied to the land, 2) ignored and assumed insignificant and 3) input as a constant by modifying atmospheric forcing files. For the Loading Simulation Program C++ (LSPC) model developed for the Flint River Watershed in southwest Georgia, we received a summary report of a study conducted to determine irrigation application depth, as well as spatial mapping of irrigated fields in the state of Georgia. The summary report provided minimum, mean, and maximum irrigation depth for both surface water and groundwater sources and the spatial mapping provided over 10,300 irrigated fields located within the boundaries of the Flint River Watershed. With this information we were able to calculate irrigation volume applied to the land by source water type. We discuss how these data were incorporated into the LSPC watershed modeling effort and demonstrate the utility and function of the model for irrigation application. We also investigate impacts to water balance and the hydrologic regime through a series of scenarios in the agriculturally dominated landscape of Ichawaynochaway Creek (HUC 03130009). The scenarios compare and contrast our approach with 1) ignoring irrigation both application and water withdrawal, and 2) only withdrawing the water and not applying it back to the land. We demonstrate the importance of properly simulating irrigation application in heavily influenced areas. The approach we have taken is applicable in other areas in the southeastern United States or any area that is highly influenced by irrigation practices.

  7. Root Zone Sensors for Irrigation Management in Intensive Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Pardossi, Alberto; Incrocci, Luca; Incrocci, Giorgio; Malorgio, Fernando; Battista, Piero; Bacci, Laura; Rapi, Bernardo; Marzialetti, Paolo; Hemming, Jochen; Balendonck, Jos

    2009-01-01

    Crop irrigation uses more than 70% of the world’s water, and thus, improving irrigation efficiency is decisive to sustain the food demand from a fast-growing world population. This objective may be accomplished by cultivating more water-efficient crop species and/or through the application of efficient irrigation systems, which includes the implementation of a suitable method for precise scheduling. At the farm level, irrigation is generally scheduled based on the grower’s experience or on the determination of soil water balance (weather-based method). An alternative approach entails the measurement of soil water status. Expensive and sophisticated root zone sensors (RZS), such as neutron probes, are available for the use of soil and plant scientists, while cheap and practical devices are needed for irrigation management in commercial crops. The paper illustrates the main features of RZS’ (for both soil moisture and salinity) marketed for the irrigation industry and discusses how such sensors may be integrated in a wireless network for computer-controlled irrigation and used for innovative irrigation strategies, such as deficit or dual-water irrigation. The paper also consider the main results of recent or current research works conducted by the authors in Tuscany (Italy) on the irrigation management of container-grown ornamental plants, which is an important agricultural sector in Italy. PMID:22574047

  8. Root zone sensors for irrigation management in intensive agriculture.

    PubMed

    Pardossi, Alberto; Incrocci, Luca; Incrocci, Giorgio; Malorgio, Fernando; Battista, Piero; Bacci, Laura; Rapi, Bernardo; Marzialetti, Paolo; Hemming, Jochen; Balendonck, Jos

    2009-01-01

    Crop irrigation uses more than 70% of the world's water, and thus, improving irrigation efficiency is decisive to sustain the food demand from a fast-growing world population. This objective may be accomplished by cultivating more water-efficient crop species and/or through the application of efficient irrigation systems, which includes the implementation of a suitable method for precise scheduling. At the farm level, irrigation is generally scheduled based on the grower's experience or on the determination of soil water balance (weather-based method). An alternative approach entails the measurement of soil water status. Expensive and sophisticated root zone sensors (RZS), such as neutron probes, are available for the use of soil and plant scientists, while cheap and practical devices are needed for irrigation management in commercial crops. The paper illustrates the main features of RZS' (for both soil moisture and salinity) marketed for the irrigation industry and discusses how such sensors may be integrated in a wireless network for computer-controlled irrigation and used for innovative irrigation strategies, such as deficit or dual-water irrigation. The paper also consider the main results of recent or current research works conducted by the authors in Tuscany (Italy) on the irrigation management of container-grown ornamental plants, which is an important agricultural sector in Italy.

  9. Mediterranean agriculture: More efficient irrigation needed to compensate increases in future irrigation water requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fader, Marianela; Shi, Sinan; von Bloh, Werner; Bondeau, Alberte; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. Our research shows that, at present, Mediterranean region could save 35% of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries like Syria, Egypt and Turkey have higher saving potentials than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume in average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops (1). Also under climate change, more efficient irrigation is of vital importance for counteracting increases in irrigation water requirements. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4% and 18% from climate change alone by the end of the century if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved. Population growth increases these numbers to 22% and 74%, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to compensate to some degree the increases due to climate change and population growth. Both subregions would need around 35% more water than today if they could afford some degree of modernization of irrigation and conveyance systems and benefit from the CO2-fertilization effect (1). However, in some scenarios (in this case as combinations of climate change, irrigation technology, influence of population growth and CO2-fertilization effect) water scarcity may constrain the supply of the irrigation water needed in future in Algeria, Libya, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Serbia, Morocco, Tunisia and Spain (1). In this study, vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL ("Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land") after a

  10. USDA-Agricultural Research Service Irrigation Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ARS irrigation research program at the Delta Center is part of the USDA-ARS Cropping Systems and Water Quality Research Unit located at Columbia, Missouri. It began in 2000 with cooperative research between ARS scientists at Columbia and Delta Center faculty. By 2003 the program had expanded eno...

  11. Precision agriculture approach for improving cotton irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is a vital part of the southeast Missouri economy and while we’re not currently facing problems with groundwater decline, it’s still important to apply the right amount of irrigation at the proper time. We currently have several projects at the Fisher Delta Research Center with that aim. For ...

  12. Agricultural Liming, Irrigation, and Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGill, B. M.; Hamilton, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Row crop farmers routinely add inorganic carbon to soils in the form of crushed lime (e.g., calcite or dolomite minerals) and/or inadvertently as bicarbonate alkalinity naturally dissolved in groundwater used for irrigation. In the soil these carbonates can act as either a source or sink of carbon dioxide, depending in large part on nitrogen fertilization and nitrification. The potentially variable fate of lime carbon is not accounted for in the IPCC greenhouse gas inventory model for lime emissions, which assumes that all lime carbon becomes carbon dioxide (irrigation additions are not accounted for). In a corn-soybean-wheat crop rotation at the Kellogg Biological Station Long Term Ecological Research site in southwest Michigan, we are collecting soil porewater from several depths in the vadose zone across a nitrogen fertilizer gradient with and without groundwater irrigation. The soil profile in this region is dominated by carbonate rich glacial outwash that lies 1.5 m below a carbonate-leached zone. We analyze the porewater stoichiometry of calcium, magnesium, and carbonate alkalinity in a conceptual model to reveal the source/sink fate of inorganic carbon. High nitrate porewater concentrations are associated with net carbon dioxide production in the carbonate-leached zone, according to our model. This suggests that the acidity associated with nitrification of the nitrogen fertilizer, which is evident from soil pH measurements, is driving the ultimate fate of lime carbon in the vadose zone. Irrigation is a significant source of both alkalinity and nitrate in drier years, compared to normal rates of liming and fertilization. We will also explore the observed dramatic changes in porewater chemistry and the relationship between irrigation and inorganic carbon fate above and within the native carbonate layer.

  13. Water and energy conservation modeling in Pacific Northwest irrigated agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, J.E. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture and electrical energy supply in the Pacific Northwest are intricately bound by mutual dependence on Columbia River Basin water. Diversion and instream demands on the water have intensified through recent development in the region. Water conservation opportunities exist in present irrigation that could supplement regional firm hydroelectricity. A two-level mathematical programming model is developed to evaluate irrigator production and regional price responses to water and electricity conservation policies. Stage one emphasizes decision criteria at producer level - irrigable land, water, electricity and labor demand, and water response yields on major crops. Irrigators choose cropping and irrigation mixes and rates at expected commodity prices under resource constraints consistent with regional policy. Stage two employs production and resource use solutions from stage one in a regional allocation and price equilibrium-seeking program. Alfalfa, apple, and potato prices are determined endogenously, and a decomposition-type linkage reiterates production area response to regional equilibrium prices. Baseline irrigated acreage, water electricity, production, and crop prices are estimated for 1982. Water pricing policies reflecting the opportunity value of Columbia River water for hydrogeneration indicate increasing net social benefits, net farm returns, and hydropower potential accruing from conservation in irrigation.

  14. Sustainability of irrigated agriculture in the San Joaquin Valley, California.

    PubMed

    Schoups, Gerrit; Hopmans, Jan W; Young, Chuck A; Vrugt, Jasper A; Wallender, Wesley W; Tanji, Ken K; Panday, Sorab

    2005-10-25

    The sustainability of irrigated agriculture in many arid and semiarid areas of the world is at risk because of a combination of several interrelated factors, including lack of fresh water, lack of drainage, the presence of high water tables, and salinization of soil and groundwater resources. Nowhere in the United States are these issues more apparent than in the San Joaquin Valley of California. A solid understanding of salinization processes at regional spatial and decadal time scales is required to evaluate the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. A hydro-salinity model was developed to integrate subsurface hydrology with reactive salt transport for a 1,400-km(2) study area in the San Joaquin Valley. The model was used to reconstruct historical changes in salt storage by irrigated agriculture over the past 60 years. We show that patterns in soil and groundwater salinity were caused by spatial variations in soil hydrology, the change from local groundwater to snowmelt water as the main irrigation water supply, and by occasional droughts. Gypsum dissolution was a critical component of the regional salt balance. Although results show that the total salt input and output were about equal for the past 20 years, the model also predicts salinization of the deeper aquifers, thereby questioning the sustainability of irrigated agriculture.

  15. Overview of advances in water management in agricultural production:Sensor based irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technological advances in irrigated agriculture are crucial to meeting the challenge of increasing demand for agricultural products given limited quality and quantity of water resources for irrigation, impacts of climate variability, and the need to reduce environmental impacts. Multidisciplinary ap...

  16. River eutrophication: irrigated vs. non-irrigated agriculture through different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, Laura; Moreno, José Luis; Picazo, Félix

    2012-05-15

    The main objective of this study was to determine how spatial scale may affect the results when relating land use to nutrient enrichment of rivers and, secondly, to investigate which agricultural practices are more responsible for river eutrophication in the study area. Agriculture was split into three subclasses (irrigated, non-irrigated and low-impact agriculture) which were correlated to stream nutrient concentration on four spatial scales: large scale (drainage area of total subcatchment and 100 m wide subcatchment corridors) and local scale (5 and 1 km radius buffers). Nitrate, ammonium and orthophosphate concentrations and land use composition (agriculture, urban and forest) were measured at 130 river reaches in south-central Spain during the 2001-2009 period. Results suggested that different spatial scales may lead to different conclusions. Spatial autocorrelation and the inadequate representation of some land uses produced unreal results on large scales. Conversely, local scales did not show data autocorrelation and agriculture subclasses were well represented. The local scale of 1 km buffer was the most appropriate to detect river eutrophication in central Spanish rivers, with irrigated cropland as the main cause of river pollution by nitrate. As regards river management, a threshold of 50% irrigated cropland within a 1 km radius buffer has been obtained using breakpoint regression analysis. This means that no more than 50% of irrigation croplands should be allowed near river banks in order to avoid river eutrophication. Finally, a methodological approach is proposed to choose the appropriate spatial scale when studying river eutrophication caused by diffuse pollution like agriculture.

  17. Climate Impacts on Irrigated Agriculture in California's Central Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, J.; Young, C. A.; Mehta, V. K.; Davitt, A. W. D.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Ruane, A. C.; Rosenzweig, C.

    2015-12-01

    Irrigated farms account for 80%-90% of consumptive water use in the United States and $118.5 billion of US agricultural production. Despite the vast water use and high yields of irrigated croplands, agriculture is typically the lowest value sector in a water resources system, and thus the first to face reductions when water becomes scarce. A major challenge for hydrologic and agricultural communities is assessing the effects of climate change on the sustainability of regional water resources and irrigated agriculture. To explore the interface of water and agriculture in California's Central Valley, the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) crop model was coupled to the Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP) water resources model, deployed over the service area of Yolo County Flood Control and Water Conservation District, and forced using both historical and future climate scenarios. This coupling brings water supply constraints to DSSAT and sophisticated agricultural water use, management, and diagnostics to WEAP. Thirty year historical (1980-2009) simulations of WEAP-DSSAT for corn, wheat, and rice were run using a spatially interpolated observational dataset, and contrasted with future simulations using climate scenarios developed by adjusting the spatially interpolated observational dataset with North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program differences between future (2050-2069) and historical (1980-1999) regional climate model simulations of precipitation and temperature. Generally, within the Central Valley temperatures warm by approximately 2°C, precipitation remains constant, and crop water use efficiency increases. On average corn yields decrease, wheat yields increase, and rice yields remain unchanged. Potential adaptations, as well as implications for groundwater pumping, irrigation extent and method, and land use change including fallowing and switching crops, are examined.

  18. Management Strategies for Transition to Sustainable Agricultural Irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlfeld, D.; Mulligan, K.; Brown, C. M.; Yang, Y. E.

    2011-12-01

    In many agricultural regions of the world, aquifer overdrafting for agricultural irrigation continues. Management strategies are investigated that transition from this unsustainable use of water to a future, diminished use of irrigation. Complications arising from climate change and volatile energy prices are considered. A command and control strategy is modeled using combined simulation and optimization techniques. This strategy is compared with market based mechanisms such as cap and trade and Pigouvian pricing that are modeled using agent based methods. The formulations are designed to model the effects of different management strategies including those that seek to avoid rapid changes in basin-wide water utilization (considered a surrogate for agricultural production) over this time period. Formulations also include limits on total reduction in aquifer storage and controls on streamflow in the basin. The management formulations used in this study are developed for planning horizons of 50 to 100 years and use the Republican River Basin in the High Plains Aquifer as a case study. Historical and climate-adjusted recharge patterns are considered. Spatial and temporal variation in total irrigated acreage and the aquifer storage change determined by the solutions of the management formulations are analyzed and presented.

  19. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Daniel; Aghajanzadeh, Arian; McKane, Aimee

    2015-08-01

    Pumping water for agricultural irrigation represents a significant share of California’s annual electricity use and peak demand. It also represents a large source of potential flexibility, as farms possess a form of storage in their wetted soil. By carefully modifying their irrigation schedules, growers can participate in demand response without adverse effects on their crops. This report describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by agricultural irrigators in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use in California. Typical on-­farm controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Case studies of demand response programs in California and across the country are reviewed, and their results along with overall California demand estimates are used to estimate statewide demand response potential. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.

  20. From rainfed agriculture to stress-avoidance irrigation: I. A generalized irrigation scheme with stochastic soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vico, Giulia; Porporato, Amilcare

    2011-02-01

    With vast regions already experiencing water shortages, it is becoming imperative to manage sustainably the available water resources. As agriculture is by far the most important user of freshwater and the role of irrigation is projected to increase in face of climate change and increased food requirements, it is particularly important to develop simple, widely applicable models of irrigation water needs for short- and long-term water resource management. Such models should synthetically provide the key irrigation quantities (volumes, frequencies, etc.) for different irrigation schemes as a function of the main soil, crop, and climatic features, including rainfall unpredictability. Here we consider often-employed irrigation methods (e.g., surface and sprinkler irrigation systems, as well as modern micro-irrigation techniques) and describe them under a unified conceptual and theoretical framework, which includes rainfed agriculture and stress-avoidance irrigation as extreme cases. We obtain mostly analytical solutions for the stochastic steady state of soil moisture probability density function with random rainfall timing and amount, and compute water requirements as a function of climate, crop, and soil parameters. These results provide the necessary starting point for a full assessment of irrigation strategies, with reference to sustainability, productivity, and profitability, developed in a companion paper [Vico G, Porporato A. From rainfed agriculture to stress-avoidance irrigation: II. Sustainability, crop yield, and net profit. Adv Water Resour 2011;34(2):272-81].

  1. Groundwater economics: An object-oriented foundation for integrated studies of irrigated agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An integrated foundation is presented to study the impacts of external forcings on irrigated agricultural systems. Individually, models are presented that simulate groundwater hydrogeology and econometric farm level crop choices and irrigated water use. The natural association between groundwater we...

  2. Balancing water scarcity and quality for sustainable irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assouline, Shmuel; Russo, David; Silber, Avner; Or, Dani

    2015-05-01

    The challenge of meeting the projected doubling of global demand for food by 2050 is monumental. It is further exacerbated by the limited prospects for land expansion and rapidly dwindling water resources. A promising strategy for increasing crop yields per unit land requires the expansion of irrigated agriculture and the harnessing of water sources previously considered "marginal" (saline, treated effluent, and desalinated water). Such an expansion, however, must carefully consider potential long-term risks on soil hydroecological functioning. The study provides critical analyses of use of marginal water and management approaches to map out potential risks. Long-term application of treated effluent (TE) for irrigation has shown adverse impacts on soil transport properties, and introduces certain health risks due to the persistent exposure of soil biota to anthropogenic compounds (e.g., promoting antibiotic resistance). The availability of desalinated water (DS) for irrigation expands management options and improves yields while reducing irrigation amounts and salt loading into the soil. Quantitative models are used to delineate trends associated with long-term use of TE and DS considering agricultural, hydrological, and environmental aspects. The primary challenges to the sustainability of agroecosystems lies with the hazards of saline and sodic conditions, and the unintended consequences on soil hydroecological functioning. Multidisciplinary approaches that combine new scientific knowhow with legislative, economic, and societal tools are required to ensure safe and sustainable use of water resources of different qualities. The new scientific knowhow should provide quantitative models for integrating key biophysical processes with ecological interactions at appropriate spatial and temporal scales.

  3. A process-based agricultural model for the irrigated agriculture sector in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammar, M. E.; Davies, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    Connections between land and water, irrigation, agricultural productivity and profitability, policy alternatives, and climate change and variability are complex, poorly understood, and unpredictable. Policy assessment for agriculture presents a large potential for development of broad-based simulation models that can aid assessment and quantification of policy alternatives over longer temporal scales. The Canadian irrigated agriculture sector is concentrated in Alberta, where it represents two thirds of the irrigated land-base in Canada and is the largest consumer of surface water. Despite interest in irrigation expansion, its potential in Alberta is uncertain given a constrained water supply, significant social and economic development and increasing demands for both land and water, and climate change. This paper therefore introduces a system dynamics model as a decision support tool to provide insights into irrigation expansion in Alberta, and into trade-offs and risks associated with that expansion. It is intended to be used by a wide variety of users including researchers, policy analysts and planners, and irrigation managers. A process-based cropping system approach is at the core of the model and uses a water-driven crop growth mechanism described by AquaCrop. The tool goes beyond a representation of crop phenology and cropping systems by permitting assessment and quantification of the broader, long-term consequences of agricultural policies for Alberta's irrigation sector. It also encourages collaboration and provides a degree of transparency that gives confidence in simulation results. The paper focuses on the agricultural component of the systems model, describing the process involved; soil water and nutrients balance, crop growth, and water, temperature, salinity, and nutrients stresses, and how other disciplines can be integrated to account for the effects of interactions and feedbacks in the whole system. In later stages, other components such as

  4. Subsurface agricultural irrigation drainage: the need for regulation.

    PubMed

    Lemly, A D

    1993-04-01

    Subsurface drainage resulting from irrigated agriculture is a toxic threat to fish and wildlife resources throughout the western United States. Studies by the U.S. Department of the Interior show that migratory waterfowl have been poisoned by drainwater contaminants on at least six national wildlife refuges. Allowing this poisoning to continue is a violation of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act under U.S. Federal law. Critical wetlands and waterfowl populations are threatened in both the Pacific and Central flyways. The public is also at risk and health warnings have been issued in some locations. Subsurface irrigation drainage is a complex effluent containing toxic concentrations of trace elements, salts, and nitrogenous compounds. Some of the contaminants are classified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as priority pollutants and they can be present in concentrations that exceed EPA's criteria for toxic waste. The on-farm drainage systems used to collect and transport this wastewater provide point-source identification as well as a mechanism for toxics control through the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit process. A four-step approach is presented for dealing with irrigation drainage in an environmentally sound manner. This regulatory strategy is very similar to those commonly used for industrial discharges and includes site evaluation, contaminant reduction through NPDES, and compliance monitoring. The EPA must recognize subsurface irrigation drainage as a specific class of pollution subject to regulation under the NPDES process. Active involvement by EPA is necessary to ensure that adequate controls on this wastewater are implemented.

  5. Comparative study of irrigation water use and groundwater recharge under various irrigation schemes in an agricultural region, central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Tsai, Cheng-Bin

    2016-04-01

    The risk of rice production has increased notably due to climate change in Taiwan. To respond to growing agricultural water shortage without affecting normal food production in the future, the application of water-saving irrigation will be a substantial resolution. However, the adoption of water-saving irrigation may result in the reducing of groundwater recharge because continuous flooding in the paddy fields could be regarded as an important source for groundwater recharge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the irrigation water-saving benefit and groundwater recharge deficit when adopting the System of Rice Intensification, known as SRI methodology, in the Choushui River alluvial fan (the largest groundwater pumping and the most important rice-cropping region in central Taiwan). The three-dimensional finite element groundwater model, FEMWATER, was applied to simulate the infiltration process and groundwater recharge under SRI methodology and traditional irrigation schemes including continuous irrigation, and rotational irrigation in two rice-crop periods with hydro-climatic data of 2013. The irrigation water use was then calculated by water balance. The results showed that groundwater recharge amount of SRI methodology was slightly lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, reduced 3.6% and 1.6% in the first crop period, and reduced 3.2% and 1.6% in the second crop period, compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. However, the SRI methodology achieved notably water-saving benefit compared to the disadvantage of reducing the groundwater recharge amount. The field irrigation requirement amount of SRI methodology was significantly lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, saving 37% and 20% of irrigation water in the first crop period, and saving 53% and 35% in the second crop period, compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. Therefore, the amount of groundwater pumping for

  6. Simulating Irrigation Requirements And Water Withdrawals: The Role Of Agricultural Irrigation In Basin Hydrology And Non-Sustainable Water Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisser, D.; Douglas, E. M.; Schumann, A. H.; Vörösmarty, C. J.

    2006-05-01

    The development of irrigation can cause drastic alterations of the water cycle both through changed evaporation patterns, water abstractions, and (in the case of paddy rice), increased percolation rates. The interactions of irrigation development and large-scale water cycles have traditionally not been accounted for in macroscale hydrological models. We use a modified version an existing water balance model (the WBM model) to explicitly consider the effects of irrigation on regional and continental water cycles. The irrigation module is based on the FAO-CROPWAT approach and uses a daily soil moisture balance to simulate crop consumptive water use. Time series of irrigated areas and the distribution of crops and cropping patterns are derived from a combination of remotely sensed data and national and sub-national statistics. An assessment is made of (1) how irrigation water is supplied and (2) how much of this water is abstracted in excess of the renewable water supply in the basin considering different time horizons. Using different scenarios of water availability and irrigation water demand, the response of irrigation water use to water supply and the potential threats to food security are investigated. Case studies in a few river basins that are heavily influenced by irrigated agriculture and that represent different regions of the world will be presented.

  7. Mapping irrigated lands at 250-m scale by merging MODIS data and National Agricultural Statistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Brown, Jesslyn F.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate geospatial information on the extent of irrigated land improves our understanding of agricultural water use, local land surface processes, conservation or depletion of water resources, and components of the hydrologic budget. We have developed a method in a geospatial modeling framework that assimilates irrigation statistics with remotely sensed parameters describing vegetation growth conditions in areas with agricultural land cover to spatially identify irrigated lands at 250-m cell size across the conterminous United States for 2002. The geospatial model result, known as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Irrigated Agriculture Dataset (MIrAD-US), identified irrigated lands with reasonable accuracy in California and semiarid Great Plains states with overall accuracies of 92% and 75% and kappa statistics of 0.75 and 0.51, respectively. A quantitative accuracy assessment of MIrAD-US for the eastern region has not yet been conducted, and qualitative assessment shows that model improvements are needed for the humid eastern regions where the distinction in annual peak NDVI between irrigated and non-irrigated crops is minimal and county sizes are relatively small. This modeling approach enables consistent mapping of irrigated lands based upon USDA irrigation statistics and should lead to better understanding of spatial trends in irrigated lands across the conterminous United States. An improved version of the model with revised datasets is planned and will employ 2007 USDA irrigation statistics.

  8. Irrigation agriculture affects organic matter decomposition in semi-arid terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Arroita, Maite; Causapé, Jesús; Comín, Francisco A; Díez, Joserra; Jimenez, Juan José; Lacarta, Juan; Lorente, Carmen; Merchán, Daniel; Muñiz, Selene; Navarro, Enrique; Val, Jonatan; Elosegi, Arturo

    2013-12-15

    Many dryland areas are being converted into intensively managed irrigation crops, what can disrupt the hydrological regime, degrade soil and water quality, enhance siltation, erosion and bank instability, and affect biological communities. Still, the impacts of irrigation schemes on the functioning of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are poorly understood. Here we assess the effects of irrigation agriculture on breakdown of coarse organic matter in soil and water. We measured breakdown rates of alder and holm oak leaves, and of poplar sticks in terrestrial and aquatic sites following a gradient of increasing irrigation agriculture in a semi-arid Mediterranean basin transformed into irrigation agriculture in 50% of its surface. Spatial patterns of stick breakdown paralleled those of leaf breakdown. In soil, stick breakdown rates were extremely low in non-irrigated sites (0.0001-0.0003 day(-1)), and increased with the intensity of agriculture (0.0018-0.0044 day(-1)). In water, stick breakdown rates ranged from 0.0005 to 0.001 day(-1), and increased with the area of the basin subject to irrigation agriculture. Results showed that irrigation agriculture affects functioning of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, accelerating decomposition of organic matter, especially in soil. These changes can have important consequences for global carbon budgets.

  9. More 'crop per drop': constraints and opportunities for precision irrigation in European agriculture.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, James M; Daccache, Andre; Vickers, Laura H; Hess, Tim M; Weatherhead, E Keith; Grove, Ivan G; Knox, Jerry W

    2013-03-30

    Dwindling water supplies, increasing drought frequency and uncertainties associated with a changing climate mean Europe's irrigated agriculture sector needs to improve water efficiency and produce more 'crop per drop'. This paper summarizes the drivers for change, and the constraints and opportunities for improving agricultural water management through uptake of precision irrigation technologies. A multi-disciplinary and integrated approach involving irrigation engineers, soil scientists, agronomists and plant physiologists will be needed if the potential for precision irrigation within the field crop sector is to be realized.

  10. From rainfed agriculture to stress-avoidance irrigation: II. Sustainability, crop yield, and profitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vico, Giulia; Porporato, Amilcare

    2011-02-01

    The optimality of irrigation strategies may be sought with respect to a number of criteria, including water requirements, crop yield, and profitability. To explore the suitability of different demand-based irrigation strategies, we link the probabilistic description of irrigation requirements under stochastic hydro-climatic conditions, provided in a companion paper [Vico G, Porporato A. From rainfed agriculture to stress-avoidance irrigation: I. A generalized irrigation scheme with stochastic soil moisture. Adv Water Resour 2011;34(2):263-71], to crop-yield and economic analyses. Water requirements, application efficiency, and investment costs of different irrigation methods, such as surface, sprinkler and drip irrigation systems, are described via a unified conceptual and theoretical approach, which includes rainfed agriculture and stress-avoidance irrigation as extreme cases. This allows us to analyze irrigation strategies with respect to sustainability, productivity, and economic return, using the same framework, and quantify them as a function of climate, crop, and soil parameters. We apply our results to corn ( Zea mays), a food staple and biofuel source, which is currently mainly irrigated through surface systems. As our analysis shows, micro-irrigation maximizes water productivity, but more traditional solutions may be more profitable at least in some contexts.

  11. Sustaining Irrigated Agriculture in Arid Areas: Lessons Learned in the San Joaquin Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conventional wisdom is that drainage is required to sustain irrigation in arid and semiarid areas. However, disposal of saline drainage water is a problem throughout the world that is challenging the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. The presence of elements besides salt in the drainage w...

  12. Opportunities for Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Gary; Wilcox, Edmund; Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank

    2013-01-02

    California agricultural irrigation consumes more than ten billion kilowatt hours of electricity annually and has significant potential for contributing to a reduction of stress on the grid through demand response, permanent load shifting, and energy efficiency measures. To understand this potential, a scoping study was initiated for the purpose of determining the associated opportunities, potential, and adoption challenges in California agricultural irrigation. The primary research for this study was conducted in two ways. First, data was gathered and parsed from published sources that shed light on where the best opportunities for load shifting and demand response lie within the agricultural irrigation sector. Secondly, a small limited survey was conducted as informal face-to-face interviews with several different California growers to get an idea of their ability and willingness to participate in permanent load shifting and/or demand response programs. Analysis of the data obtained from published sources and the survey reveal demand response and permanent load shifting opportunities by growing region, irrigation source, irrigation method, grower size, and utility coverage. The study examines some solutions for demand response and permanent load shifting in agricultural irrigation, which include adequate irrigation system capacity, automatic controls, variable frequency drives, and the contribution from energy efficiency measures. The study further examines the potential and challenges for grower acceptance of demand response and permanent load shifting in California agricultural irrigation. As part of the examination, the study considers to what extent permanent load shifting, which is already somewhat accepted within the agricultural sector, mitigates the need or benefit of demand response for agricultural irrigation. Recommendations for further study include studies on how to gain grower acceptance of demand response as well as other related studies such as

  13. Wireless Site-specific Irrigation - The Future of Intelligent Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wireless site-specific irrigation system was developed with a distributed wireless sensor network. The system allows growers to remotely access field conditions and an irrigation operation at the home or office via wireless radio communication, directing individual sprinklers on how much water to ...

  14. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukalla, A. D.; Krol, M. S.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-07-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for fresh water. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and thus the consumptive WF of crops (ET/Y). The management practices are: four irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip (SSD)); four irrigation strategies (full (FI), deficit (DI), supplementary (SI) and no irrigation); and three mulching practices (no mulching, organic (OML) and synthetic (SML) mulching). Various cases were considered: arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid environments; wet, normal and dry years; three soil types; and three crops. The AquaCrop model and the global WF accounting standard were used to relate the management practices to effects on ET, Y and WF. For each management practice, the associated green, blue and total consumptive WF were compared to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The average reduction in the consumptive WF is: 8-10 % if we change from the reference to drip or SSD; 13 % when changing to OML; 17-18 % when moving to drip or SSD in combination with OML; and 28 % for drip or SSD in combination with SML. All before-mentioned reductions increase by one or a few per cent when moving from full to deficit irrigation. Reduction in overall consumptive WF always goes together with an increasing ratio of green to blue WF. The WF of growing a crop for a particular environment is smallest under DI, followed by FI, SI and rain-fed. Growing crops with sprinkler irrigation has the largest consumptive WF, followed by furrow, drip and SSD. Furrow irrigation has a smaller consumptive WF compared with sprinkler, even though the classical measure of "irrigation efficiency" for furrow is lower.

  15. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukalla, A. D.; Krol, M. S.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for freshwater. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and thus the consumptive WF of crops (ET / Y). The management practices are four irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip (SSD)), four irrigation strategies (full (FI), deficit (DI), supplementary (SI) and no irrigation), and three mulching practices (no mulching, organic (OML) and synthetic (SML) mulching). Various cases were considered: arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid environments in Israel, Spain, Italy and the UK, respectively; wet, normal and dry years; three soil types (sand, sandy loam and silty clay loam); and three crops (maize, potato and tomato). The AquaCrop model and the global WF accounting standard were used to relate the management practices to effects on ET, Y and WF. For each management practice, the associated green, blue and total consumptive WF were compared to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The average reduction in the consumptive WF is 8-10 % if we change from the reference to drip or SSD, 13 % when changing to OML, 17-18 % when moving to drip or SSD in combination with OML, and 28 % for drip or SSD in combination with SML. All before-mentioned reductions increase by one or a few per cent when moving from full to deficit irrigation. Reduction in overall consumptive WF always goes together with an increasing ratio of green to blue WF. The WF of growing a crop for a particular environment is smallest under DI, followed by FI, SI and rain-fed. Growing crops with sprinkler irrigation has the largest consumptive WF, followed by furrow, drip and SSD. Furrow irrigation has a smaller consumptive WF compared with sprinkler, even though the classical measure of "irrigation efficiency" for furrow

  16. Skill Standards for Agriculture: John Deere Agricultural Equipment Technician, Agricultural & Diesel Equipment Mechanic, Irrigation Technologist, Turf Management Technician, Turf Equipment Service Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, Olympia.

    This document presents agriculture skill standards for programs to prepare Washington students for employment in the following occupations: John Deere agricultural equipment technician; agricultural and diesel equipment mechanic; irrigation technologist; turf management technician; and turf equipment service technician. The introduction explains…

  17. Ground-water quality beneath irrigated agriculture in the central High Plains aquifer, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruce, Breton W.; Becker, Mark F.; Pope, Larry M.; Gurdak, Jason J.

    2003-01-01

    In 1999 and 2000, 30 water-quality monitoring wells were installed in the central High Plains aquifer to evaluate the quality of recently recharged ground water in areas of irrigated agriculture and to identify the factors affecting ground-water quality. Wells were installed adjacent to irrigated agricultural fields with 10- or 20-foot screened intervals placed near the water table. Each well was sampled once for about 100 waterquality constituents associated with agricultural practices. Water samples from 70 percent of the wells (21 of 30 sites) contained nitrate concentrations larger than expected background concentrations (about 3 mg/L as N) and detectable pesticides. Atrazine or its metabolite, deethylatrazine, were detected with greater frequency than other pesticides and were present in all 21 samples where pesticides were detected. The 21 samples with detectable pesticides also contained tritium concentrations large enough to indicate that at least some part of the water sample had been recharged within about the last 50 years. These 21 ground-water samples are considered to show water-quality effects related to irrigated agriculture. The remaining 9 groundwater samples contained no pesticides, small tritium concentrations, and nitrate concentrations less than 3.45 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. These samples are considered unaffected by the irrigated agricultural land-use setting. Nitrogen isotope ratios indicate that commercial fertilizer was the dominant source of nitrate in 13 of the 21 samples affected by irrigated agriculture. Nitrogen isotope ratios for 4 of these 21 samples were indicative of an animal waste source. Dissolved-solids concentrations were larger in samples affected by irrigated agriculture, with large sulfate concentrations having strong correlation with large dissolved solids concentrations in these samples. A strong statistical correlation is shown between samples affected by irrigated agriculture and sites with large rates of

  18. Integrated assessment of conservation opportunities in the irrigated agriculture sector of the Pacific Northwest Region

    SciTech Connect

    Harrer, B.J.; Lezberg, A.J.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    This report documents research to identify the potential energy savings and cost per kWh saved for implementing currently available energy conservation measures in the irrigated agriculture sector of the Pacific Northwest. A computer model that simulates the energy consumption process of irrigation systems and estimates the levelized costs of undertaking conservation investments is the primary analytical tool used in this research. Using engineering and economic input parameters for the various conservation measures that could potentially be implemented in irrigated agriculture, the Irrigation Sector Energy Planning (ISEP) model generates estimates of energy savings and cost per kWh saved for the measures. All parameters input to the ISEP model are based upon empirical field data. Results provided by the ISEP model indicate tht by the year 2003 a total of approximately 158.6 average MW of energy could potentially be saved in the Pacific Northwest irrigation sector on all sprinkler-irrigated acres. Approximately 130.4 average MW can be saved on acres currently by sprinkler, while an additional 28.2 average MW could be saved on new acres that are forecast to come under irrigation in the next 20 years. The largest share of the total savings (47%) is estimated to come from the use of low-pressure irrigation. Over 60% of the total potential savings 158.6 average MW is estimated to be available for a cost per kWh saved of 20 mills or less and over 75% could be achieved for a cost of 30 mills or less. Savings from low-pressure irrigation and the redesign of fittings and mainlines will normally cost less than 20 mills per kWh saved. Almost all of the savings that are estimated to cost more than 30 mills per kWh saved to obtain are savings from improved irrigation scheduling on irrigated acres that use surface water and have low average pumping lifts.

  19. Exploring the potential contribution of irrigation to global agricultural primary productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdogan, Mutlu

    2011-09-01

    The potential contribution of irrigation to global agricultural net primary productivity (NPP) was explored using the Carnegie Stanford Ames Approach (CASA) model, modified for irrigation inputs. Excluding the effects from cultivar choice, fertilizer application, and water availability, removing climatic constraints to productivity through irrigation has the potential to increase carbon uptake by global cropland areas (which already have an average carbon uptake rate in excess of 175 gC/m2/yr) by an average of 25 gC/m2/yr with a maximum of 627 gC/m2/yr, especially in heavily irrigated semiarid areas such as northern India, the Indus River Valley, northeast China, the western United States, and the Nile River Valley. When accumulated across all irrigated areas and years, the total contribution of irrigation could exceed 0.40 Pg C per year, a value equivalent to the total NPP of U.S. croplands (0.41 PgC). The results also reveal that the relationship between cropland productivity affected by irrigation and climatic moisture availability is nonlinear: in locations that receive less than 1500 mm/yr rainfall, cropland productivity has a strong response to moisture; as humidity increases, additional moisture has very little impact on the productivity of crop areas. Moreover, the relationship between irrigation amount and productivity increase is also nonlinear: in humid locations, NPP response to irrigation is small but persistent; as aridity increases, irrigation has a substantial impact but its effect quickly saturates for irrigation input above 800 mm/yr, which may point to the efficiency of irrigation for different precipitation regions.

  20. Optimal management of water resources demand and supply in irrigated agriculture from plot to regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütze, Niels; Wagner, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Growing water scarcity in agriculture is an increasing problem in future in many regions of the world. For assessing irrigation as a measure to increase agricultural water security a generalized stochastic optimization framework for a spatial distributed estimation of future irrigation water demand is proposed, which ensures safe yields and a high water productivity at the same time. Different open loop and closed loop control strategies are evaluated within this stochastic optimization framework in order to generate reliable stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF). The resulting database of SCWPF can serve as a central decision support tool for both, (i) a cost benefit analysis of farm irrigation modernization on a local scale and (ii) a regional water demand management using a multi-scale approach for modeling and implementation. The new approach is applied using the example of a case study in Saxony, which is dealing with the sustainable management of future irrigation water demands and its implementation.

  1. Water and solute balances as a basis for sustainable irrigation agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso

    2015-04-01

    The growing development of irrigated agriculture is necessary for the sustainable production of the food required by the increasing World's population. Such development is limited by the increasing scarcity and low quality of the available water resources and by the competitive use of the water for other purposes. There are also increasing problems of contamination of surface and ground waters to be used for other purposes by the drainage effluents of irrigated lands. Irrigation and drainage may cause drastic changes in the regime and balance of water and solutes (salts, sodium, contaminants) in the soil profile, resulting in problems of water supply to crops and problems of salinization, sodification and contamination of soils and ground waters. This is affected by climate, crops, soils, ground water depth, irrigation and groundwater composition, and by irrigation and drainage management. In order to predict and prevent such problems for a sustainable irrigated agriculture and increased efficiency in water use, under each particular set of conditions, there have to be considered both the hydrological, physical and chemical processes determining such water and solute balances in the soil profile. In this contribution there are proposed the new versions of two modeling approaches (SOMORE and SALSODIMAR) to predict those balances and to guide irrigation water use and management, integrating the different factors involved in such processes. Examples of their application under Mediterranean and tropical climate conditions are also presented.

  2. The future of irrigated agriculture under environmental flow requirements restrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, Amandine; Palazzo, Amanda; Havlik, Petr; Kabat, Pavel; Obersteiner, Michael; Ludwig, Fulco

    2016-04-01

    Water is not an infinite resource and demand from irrigation, household and industry is constantly increasing. This study focused on including global water availability including environmental flow requirements with water withdrawal from irrigation and other sectors at a monthly time-step in the GLOBIOM model. This model allows re-adjustment of land-use allocation, crop management, consumption and international trade. The GLOBIOM model induces an endogenous change in water price depending on water supply and demand. In this study, the focus was on how the inclusion of water resources affects land-use and, in particular, how global change will influence repartition of irrigated and rainfed lands at global scale. We used the climate change scenario including a radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m2 (RCP8.5), the socio-economic scenario (SSP2: middle-of-road), and the environmental flow method based on monthly flow allocation (the Variable Monthly Flow method) with high and low restrictions. Irrigation withdrawals were adjusted to a monthly time-step to account for biophysical water limitations at finer time resolution. Our results show that irrigated land might decrease up to 40% on average depending on the choice of EFR restrictions. Several areas were identified as future hot-spots of water stress such as the Mediterranean and Middle-East regions. Other countries were identified to be in safe position in terms of water stress such as North-European countries. Re-allocation of rainfed and irrigated land might be useful information for land-use planners and water managers at an international level to decide on appropriate legislations on climate change mitigation/adaptation when exposure and sensitivity to climate change is high and/or on adaptation measures to face increasing water demand. For example, some countries are likely to adopt measures to increase their water use efficiencies (irrigation system, soil and water conservation practices) to face water shortages, while

  3. Sustainable conjunctive water management in irrigated agriculture: Model formulation and application to the Yaqui Valley, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoups, Gerrit; Addams, C. Lee; Minjares, José Luis; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2006-10-01

    This paper investigates strategies to alleviate the effects of droughts on the profitability and sustainability of irrigated agriculture. These strategies include conjunctive management of surface water and groundwater resources, and engineered improvements such as lining of irrigation canals and addition of regional pumping well capacity. A spatially distributed simulation-optimization model was developed for an irrigated system consisting of multiple surface water reservoirs and an alluvial aquifer. The simulation model consists of an agronomic component and simulators describing the hydrologic system. The physical models account for storage and flow through the reservoirs, routing through the irrigation canals, and regional groundwater flow. The agronomic model describes crop productivity as a function of irrigation quantity and salinity, and determines agricultural profit. A profit maximization problem was formulated and solved using large-scale constrained gradient-based optimization. The model was applied to a real-world conjunctive surface water/groundwater management problem in the Yaqui Valley, an irrigated agricultural region in Sonora, Mexico. The model reproduces recorded reductions in agricultural production during a historical drought. These reductions were caused by a decline in surface water availability and limited installed pumping capacity. Results indicate that the impact of the historical 8-year drought could have been significantly reduced without affecting profit in wet years by better managing surface water and groundwater resources. Namely, groundwater could have been more heavily relied upon and surface water allocation capped at a sustainable level as an operating rule. Lining the irrigation canals would have resulted in water savings of 30% of historical reservoir releases during wet years, which could have been used in subsequent drier years to increase agricultural production. The benefits of a greater reliance on groundwater pumping

  4. Contamination, source, and input route of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in historic wastewater-irrigated agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Li, Hong-Bo; Long, Jin-Lin; Cai, Chao; Dai, Jiu-Lan; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Ren-Qing

    2012-12-01

    Contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of historic wastewater-irrigated agricultural topsoil (0-5 cm) and the contribution of groundwater irrigation and atmospheric deposition to soil PAHs were studied in a typical agricultural region, i.e. Hunpu region, Liaoning, China. Concentrations of total PAHs ranged from 0.43 to 2.64 mg kg⁻¹ in topsoil, being lower than those found in other wastewater-irrigated areas. The levels of PAHs in soil declined as the distance from a water source increased. Concentrations of individual PAHs were generally higher in upland than in paddy topsoils. The calculated nemerow composite index showed that agricultural soil in the region was "polluted" by PAHs. A human health risk assessment based on the total toxic equivalent concentration showed that the presence of elevated concentrations of PAHs in the soil might pose a great threat to the health of local residents. Ratios of pairs of PAHs and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that pyrogenesis, such as coal combustion, was the main source of PAHs, while petroleum, to some extent, also had a strong influence on PAHs contamination in upland soil. The distribution patterns of individual PAHs and composition of PAHs differed between irrigation groundwater and topsoil, but were similar between atmospheric deposition and topsoil. There were significant linear correlations (r = 0.90; p < 0.01) between atmospheric deposition rates and average concentrations of the 16 individual PAHs in soils, while no significant relationships were observed between irrigation groundwater and topsoil in levels of PAHs. These suggested that PAHs in agricultural soils were mainly introduced from atmospheric deposition, rather than from groundwater irrigation after the phasing out of wastewater irrigation in the region since 2002. This study provides a reference to ensure agricultural product safety, pollution control, and proper soil management.

  5. Agricultural irrigated land-use inventory for Osceola County, Florida, October 2013-April 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, Richard L.; Dixon, Joann F.

    2014-01-01

    A detailed inventory of irrigated crop acreage is not available at the level of resolution needed to increase the accuracy of current water-use estimates or to project future water demands in many Florida counties. This report provides a detailed digital map and summary of irrigated areas within Osceola County for the agricultural growing period October 2013–April 2014. The irrigated areas were first delineated using land-use data and satellite imagery and then field verified between February and April 2014. Selected attribute data were collected for the irrigated areas, including crop type, primary water source, and type of irrigation system. Results indicate that an estimated 27,450 acres were irrigated during the study period. This includes 4,370 acres of vegetables, 10,970 acres of orchard crops, 1,620 acres of field crops, and 10,490 acres of ornamentals and grasses. Specifically, irrigated acreage included citrus (10,860 acres), sod (5,640 acres), pasture (4,580 acres), and potatoes (3,320 acres). Overall, groundwater was used to irrigate 18,350 acres (67 percent of the total acreage), and surface water was used to irrigate the remaining 9,100 acres (33 percent). Microirrigation systems accounted for 45 percent of the total acreage irrigated, flood systems 30 percent, and sprinkler systems the remaining 25 percent. An accurate, detailed, spatially referenced, and field-verified inventory of irrigated crop acreage can be used to assist resource managers making current and future county-level water-use estimates in Osceola County.

  6. The impact of climate extremes on US agricultural production and the buffering impacts of irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troy, Tara J.; Kipgen, Chinpihoi; Pal, Indrani

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, droughts and floods have occurred over many of the major growing regions of the world, resulting in decreased agricultural production and increased global food prices. Many climate projections call for more frequent extreme events, which could have significant impacts on agricultural yields and water resources in irrigated agricultural regions. In order to better understand the potential impact of climate extremes and the spatial heterogeneity of those impacts, we examine the associations between climate and irrigated and rain fed crop yields, focusing on four main staple crops: wheat, rice, soy, and maize. Because the United States has high spatial resolution data for both yields and weather variables, the analysis focuses on the impact of multiple extremes over these four crops in the US using statistical methods that do not require any assumptions of functional relationships between yields and weather variables. Irrigated and rain fed agricultural yields are analyzed separately to understand the role irrigation plays either as a buffering against climate variability and extremes such as drought, heat waves, and extended dry spells or a mechanism that leads to varied relationships between extremes of climate and yield fluctuations. These results demonstrate that irrigation has varying effects depending on the region, growing season timing, crop type, and type of climate extreme. This work has important implications for future planning of the coupled water-food system and its vulnerabilities to climate.

  7. Remotely sensed spatio-temporal trends of irrigation agriculture in northwestern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cela Diaz, F.; Siegfried, T. U.; Vasquez, V.; Pollard, B. S.; Temimi, M.; Narula, K. K.; Lall, U.

    2009-12-01

    Irrigated agricultural production plays a key role in covering the world’s food demand. Its importance will grow in the future given increasing population numbers and uncertain climate. Irrigation, however, has also a major impact on water resources, esp. in the drylands on the planet. For example, most of the large-scale problems of aquifer mining can be linked to groundwater-irrigated agriculture. South Asia is one of these regions of concern where roughly 40 percent of the total global groundwater irrigated area is located. In India, almost half of the total agricultural area is irrigated and it is estimated that groundwater irrigation in the country sustains 27 million ha. Esp. in the northwestern part of the country, water tables are falling at increasing rates that give rise to concern about the future viability of irrigation there. Since the majority of food grains in India are produced in that region, this development is a direct threat to the national food security with potentially global implications. We present a novel remote sensing approach to map the temporal development of irrigated agriculture at large spatial scales with high accuracy. We use time series data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NDVI and surface temperature as well as high-resolution precipitation data from the Indian Meteorological Department from 2000 - 2008 and ancillary data for our supervised classification approach. A cascade of classifiers was chosen to deal with the problem of obtaining labeled examples. A first stage classifier uses large regions of known irrigated and non-irrigated areas to learn a rough estimate of the multi-dimensional time series signature on variables of interest in non-irrigated areas. An estimate of the probability of non-irrigation is generated and passed to a second stage classifier along with the variables used to derive it. The second stage classifier is trained with a small dataset of very high quality estimates

  8. Empirically Estimating the Existing Irrigation Adaptation to Future Drought Impacts in Kansas Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Lin, X.; Yang, X.

    2014-12-01

    More serious drought has been projected due to the climate change in the Kansas State of the U.S., which might threaten the local agriculture and thus require effective adaptation responses to drought, e.g. better irrigation. But the irrigation adaptation on drought at the current technology-level is poorly quantified, therefore challenges to figure out how much additional efforts are required under more aridity of climate. Here, we collect the irrigation application data for maize, soybean, sorghum and wheat in Kansas, and establish a two-stage model to quantify the crop-specific irrigation application responses to changes in climatic drivers, and further estimate the existing effectiveness of the irrigation to adapt future drought based on the IPCC AR5 ensemble PDSI prediction under RCP4.5 scenario. We find that the three summer season crops (maize, soybean and sorghum) would experience 0 - 20% yield losses depending on county due to more serious drought since 2030s, even though increased irrigation application as the response of drought had saved 0 - 10% yields. At the state level, maize receives most benefits from irrigation, whereas the beneficial effects are least for sorghum among the three crops. To wheat, irrigation adaptation is very weak since irrigation water applied is much less than the above three crops. But wheat yields were projected to have a slight increase in central and eastern regions because climate would become more moisture over the growing season of winter wheat in future. Our results highlight that the existing beneficial effects from irrigation would be surpassed by the negative impact of drought in future, which would cause overall yield reduction in Kansas especially for those summer season crops.

  9. Environmental flow deficit at global scale - implication on irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, Amandine; Ludwig, Fulco; Biemans, Hester; Kabat, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Freshwater species belong to the most degraded ecosystem on earth. At the beginning of the 21st century, scientists have developed the concept of environmental flow requirements (Brisbane declaration 2003) with the aim of protecting freshwater species in the long term. However, the ecological state of rivers is different across the world depending on their fragmentation, on the presence of dams and reservoirs and on the degree of pollution. To implement new regulations on river flow, it is necessary to evaluate the degree of alteration of rivers which we called "environmental flow deficit". The European water framework directive is still working on evaluating the ecological states of river across Europe. In this study, we calculated monthly environmental flow deficit with the global vegetation dynamic and hydrological model LPJml. Environmental flow requirements were first calculated with the Variable Monthly Flow method (Pastor et al., 2014). Then, we checked in each river basin where and when the actual flow (flow minus abstraction for irrigation) does not satisfy environmental flow requirements. We finally show examples of different river basins such as the Nile and the Amazon to show how climate and irrigation can impact river flow and harm freshwater ecosystems.

  10. 140° view of two agricultural fields with traces of irrigation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    140° view of two agricultural fields with traces of irrigation ditches south of the lower holding pond. This negative forms a 360° composite panoramic when joined with AZ-2-75 and AZ-2-76. See AZ-2-86 for color version. - Tassi Ranch, Tassi Springs, Littlefield, Mohave County, AZ

  11. Recent trends/challenges in irrigated agriculture-Why is irrigation important in a discussion of agricultural migration?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    United States agriculture contributes 16% of the $9 trillion gross domestic product, 8% of U.S. exports, and 17% of employment while providing food to all citizens, despite the fact that only 2% of the U.S. workforces is on farms. Agricultural productivity has grown by 240% since 1948, while agricul...

  12. Biogeosystem technique as a base of Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batukaev, Abdulmalik

    2016-04-01

    The world water strategy is to be changed because the current imitational gravitational frontal isotropic-continual paradigm of irrigation is not sustainable. This paradigm causes excessive consumption of fresh water - global deficit - up to 4-15 times, adverse effects on soils and landscapes. Current methods of irrigation does not control the water spread throughout the soil continuum. The preferable downward fluxes of irrigation water are forming, up to 70% and more of water supply loses into vadose zone. The moisture of irrigated soil is high, soil loses structure in the process of granulometric fractions flotation decomposition, the stomatal apparatus of plant leaf is fully open, transpiration rate is maximal. We propose the Biogeosystem technique - the transcendental, uncommon and non-imitating methods for Sustainable Natural Resources Management. New paradigm of irrigation is based on the intra-soil pulse discrete method of water supply into the soil continuum by injection in small discrete portions. Individual volume of water is supplied as a vertical cylinder of soil preliminary watering. The cylinder position in soil is at depth form 10 to 30 cm. Diameter of cylinder is 1-2 cm. Within 5-10 min after injection the water spreads from the cylinder of preliminary watering into surrounding soil by capillary, film and vapor transfer. Small amount of water is transferred gravitationally to the depth of 35-40 cm. The soil watering cylinder position in soil profile is at depth of 5-50 cm, diameter of the cylinder is 2-4 cm. Lateral distance between next cylinders along the plant raw is 10-15 cm. The soil carcass which is surrounding the cylinder of non-watered soil remains relatively dry and mechanically stable. After water injection the structure of soil in cylinder restores quickly because of no compression from the stable adjoining volume of soil and soil structure memory. The mean soil thermodynamic water potential of watered zone is -0.2 MPa. At this potential

  13. Deficit irrigation and sustainable water-resource strategies in agriculture for China's food security.

    PubMed

    Du, Taisheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Davies, William J

    2015-04-01

    More than 70% of fresh water is used in agriculture in many parts of the world, but competition for domestic and industrial water use is intense. For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved at different points from the stomatal to the regional scale. A promising approach is the use of deficit irrigation, which can both save water and induce plant physiological regulations such as stomatal opening and reproductive and vegetative growth. At the scales of the irrigation district, the catchment, and the region, there can be many other components to a sustainable water-resources strategy. There is much interest in whether crop water use can be regulated as a function of understanding of physiological responses. If this is the case, then agricultural water resources can be reallocated to the benefit of the broader community. We summarize the extent of use and impact of deficit irrigation within China. A sustainable strategy for allocation of agricultural water resources for food security is proposed. Our intention is to build an integrative system to control crop water use during different cropping stages and actively regulate the plant's growth, productivity, and development based on physiological responses. This is done with a view to improving the allocation of limited agricultural water resources.

  14. Deficit irrigation and sustainable water-resource strategies in agriculture for China’s food security

    PubMed Central

    Du, Taisheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Davies, William J.

    2015-01-01

    More than 70% of fresh water is used in agriculture in many parts of the world, but competition for domestic and industrial water use is intense. For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved at different points from the stomatal to the regional scale. A promising approach is the use of deficit irrigation, which can both save water and induce plant physiological regulations such as stomatal opening and reproductive and vegetative growth. At the scales of the irrigation district, the catchment, and the region, there can be many other components to a sustainable water-resources strategy. There is much interest in whether crop water use can be regulated as a function of understanding of physiological responses. If this is the case, then agricultural water resources can be reallocated to the benefit of the broader community. We summarize the extent of use and impact of deficit irrigation within China. A sustainable strategy for allocation of agricultural water resources for food security is proposed. Our intention is to build an integrative system to control crop water use during different cropping stages and actively regulate the plant’s growth, productivity, and development based on physiological responses. This is done with a view to improving the allocation of limited agricultural water resources. PMID:25873664

  15. Using Tracer Tests to Estimate Vertical Recharge and Evaluate Influencing Factors for Irrigated Agricultural Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, D.; Jin, M.; Brusseau, M.; Ma, B.; Liu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate estimation of vertical groundwater recharge is critical for (semi) arid regions, especially in places such as the North China Plain where vertical recharge comprises the largest portion of recharge. Tracer tests were used to estimate vertical recharge beneath agricultural systems irrigated by groundwater, and to help delineate factors that influence recharge. Bromide solution was applied to trace infiltration in the vadose zone beneath irrigated agricultural fields (rotated winter wheat and summer maize, orchards, and cotton) and non-irrigated woodlands at both piedmont plain (Shijiazhaung) and alluvial and lacustrine plains (Hengshui) in the North China Plain. The tracer tests lasted for more than two years, and were conducted at a total of 37 sites. Tracer solution was injected into the subsurface at a depth of 1.2 m before the rainy season. Soil samples were then collected periodically to observe bromide transport and estimate recharge rates at the point-scale. For these experiments, the only irrigation the fields received was that applied by the landowners. In addition to these tests, a controlled irrigation experiment was conducted at a single wheat and maize site. The results showed that recharge rates were lower for the alluvial and lacustrine plains sites, which comprise finer-textured soils than those present in the piedmont plain. Specifically, the recharge rate ranged between 56-466 mm/a beneath wheat-maize, 110-564 mm/a beneath orchard, and 0-21 mm/a beneath woodlands with an average recharge coefficient of 0.17 for the piedmont plain sites, while the recharge rate ranged between 26-165 mm/a beneath wheat-maize, 6-40 mm/a beneath orchard, 87-319 mm/a beneath cotton, and 0-32 mm/a beneath woodlands with an average recharge coefficient of 0.10 for the alluvial and lacustrine plain sites. Irrigation provided the primary contribution to recharge, with precipitation providing a minor contribution. The results of both the uncontrolled and controlled

  16. Irrigated Agricultural Expansion Planning in Developing Countries : Income Redistribution Objective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allam, Mohamed N.; Marks, David H.

    1984-07-01

    The role of agricultural expansion investment in improving the income redistribution conditions in society has been of considerable concern to planners. In this paper an approach based on distributing the newly developed land to a poorer sector (landless farmers) in society to gain agricultural revenues and improve their income is investigated. A mathematical optimization model is built to determine the distribution of land and a pricing policy established for the new areas in such a way that (1) a specified (by the government) income increase to the farmers can be achieved, (2) a predetermined level of recovery of the expansion cost can be insured, (3) high agricultural efficiency in the new land can be maintained, and (4) redistribution benefits can be maximized. In a case study application of the model, no conflict is found between the economic efficiency and income redistribution cirtieria in agricultural expansion investment within the planning framework presented in the companion paper (Allam and Marks, this issue). For a specified cost recovery condition it is found that the least cost planning alternatives give the opportunity to the largest number of landless farmers to own the new land and receive a specified income increase from the agricultural revenues, but a conflict between government return from the investment and redistribution objectives is found. This conflict is addressed and the trade-off between the two objectives is illustrated.

  17. A site-specific agricultural water requirement and footprint estimator (SPARE:WATER 1.0) for irrigation agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Multsch, S.; Al-Rumaikhani, Y. A.; Frede, H.-G.; Breuer, L.

    2013-01-01

    The water footprint accounting method addresses the quantification of water consumption in agriculture, whereby three types of water to grow crops are considered, namely green water (consumed rainfall), blue water (irrigation from surface or groundwater) and grey water (water needed to dilute pollutants). Most of current water footprint assessments focus on global to continental scale. We therefore developed the spatial decision support system SPARE:WATER that allows to quantify green, blue and grey water footprints on regional scale. SPARE:WATER is programmed in VB.NET, with geographic information system functionality implemented by the MapWinGIS library. Water requirement and water footprints are assessed on a grid-basis and can then be aggregated for spatial entities such as political boundaries, catchments or irrigation districts. We assume in-efficient irrigation methods rather than optimal conditions to account for irrigation methods with efficiencies other than 100%. Furthermore, grey water can be defined as the water to leach out salt from the rooting zone in order to maintain soil quality, an important management task in irrigation agriculture. Apart from a thorough representation of the modelling concept we provide a proof of concept where we assess the agricultural water footprint of Saudi Arabia. The entire water footprint is 17.0 km3 yr-1 for 2008 with a blue water dominance of 86%. Using SPARE:WATER we are able to delineate regional hot spots as well as crop types with large water footprints, e.g. sesame or dates. Results differ from previous studies of national-scale resolution, underlining the need for regional water footprint assessments.

  18. Analysis of the impacts of well yield and groundwater depth on irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, T.; Brozović, N.; Butler, A. P.

    2015-04-01

    Previous research has found that irrigation water demand is relatively insensitive to water price, suggesting that increased pumping costs due to declining groundwater levels will have limited effects on agricultural water management practices. However, non-linear changes in well yields as aquifer saturated thickness is reduced may have large impacts on irrigated production that are currently neglected in projections of the long-term sustainability of groundwater-fed irrigation. We conduct empirical analysis of observation data and numerical simulations for case studies in Nebraska, USA, to compare the impacts of changes in well yield and groundwater depth on agricultural production. Our findings suggest that declining well pumping capacities reduce irrigated production areas and profits significantly, whereas increased pumping costs reduce profits but have minimal impacts on the intensity of groundwater-fed irrigation. We suggest, therefore, that management of the dynamic relationship between well yield and saturated thickness should be a core component of policies designed to enhance long-term food security and support adaptation to climate change.

  19. Estimated demand for agricultural water for irrigation use in New Jersey, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Titus, E.O.; Clawges, R.M.; Qualls, C.L.

    1990-01-01

    As part of an effort to determine if an adequate supply of agricultural water for irrigation use will be available to farmers, the U.S. Geological Survey prepared preliminary estimates of demand for agricultural water for irrigation use for the year 1990 on the basis of six possible scenarios. These scenarios incorporate normal and drought climatic conditions and three alternative estimates of the total acreage of farmland that may be irrigated in 1990. Preliminary estimates of water demand based on soil-moisture deficits were made using methods for calculating climatic water budgets. These estimates ranged from 3.0 billion gal/growing season (May through September), under normal climatic conditions and a 2% annual decline in irrigated acreage since 1984, to 28. 9 billion gal/growing season, under drought conditions and a 2% annual increase in irrigated acreage since 1984. Preliminary estimates of water demand made for the 1986 growing season reasonably approximate reported water use for that period. (USGS)

  20. Integrated management of water resources demand and supply in irrigated agriculture from plot to regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütze, Niels; Wagner, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Growing water scarcity in agriculture is an increasing problem in future in many regions of the world. Recent trends of weather extremes in Saxony, Germany also enhance drought risks for agricultural production. In addition, signals of longer and more intense drought conditions during the vegetation period can be found in future regional climate scenarios for Saxony. However, those climate predictions are associated with high uncertainty and therefore, e.g. stochastic methods are required to analyze the impact of changing climate patterns on future crop water requirements and water availability. For assessing irrigation as a measure to increase agricultural water security a generalized stochastic approach for a spatial distributed estimation of future irrigation water demand is proposed, which ensures safe yields and a high water productivity at the same time. The developed concept of stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF) can serve as a central decision support tool for both, (i) a cost benefit analysis of farm irrigation modernization on a local scale and (ii) a regional water demand management using a multi-scale approach for modeling and implementation. The new approach is applied using the example of a case study in Saxony, which is dealing with the sustainable management of future irrigation water demands and its implementation.

  1. Modeling irrigation-based climate change adaptation in agriculture: Model development and evaluation in Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Masashi; Iizumi, Toshichika; Sakurai, Gen; Hanasaki, Naota; Sakai, Toru; Okamoto, Katsuo; Yokozawa, Masayuki

    2015-09-01

    Replacing a rainfed cropping system with an irrigated one is widely assumed to be an effective measure for climate change adaptation. However, many agricultural impact studies have not necessarily accounted for the space-time variations in the water availability under changing climate and land use. Moreover, many hydrologic and agricultural assessments of climate change impacts are not fully integrated. To overcome this shortcoming, a tool that can simultaneously simulate the dynamic interactions between crop production and water resources in a watershed is essential. Here we propose the regional production and circulation coupled model (CROVER) by embedding the PRYSBI-2 (Process-based Regional Yield Simulator with Bayesian Inference version 2) large-area crop model into the global water resources model (called H08), and apply this model to the Songhua River watershed in Northeast China. The evaluation reveals that the model's performance in capturing the major characteristics of historical change in surface soil moisture, river discharge, actual crop evapotranspiration, and soybean yield relative to the reference data during the interval 1979-2010 is satisfactory accurate. The simulation experiments using the model demonstrated that subregional irrigation management, such as designating the area to which irrigation is primarily applied, has measurable influences on the regional crop production in a drought year. This finding suggests that reassessing climate change risk in agriculture using this type of modeling is crucial not to overestimate potential of irrigation-based adaptation.

  2. Characterization of flow and infiltration processes on agricultural plots irrigated by submersion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkassem Alosman, Mohamed; Ruy, Stéphane; Olioso, Albert; Bader, Jean Claude; Buis, Samuel; Lecharpentier, Patrice; Charron, Francois

    2015-04-01

    The surface irrigation (flood irrigation, trickle and furrow) is a traditional irrigation system widely used worldwide. This system is recognized as being highly water consumer: high volumes of water are injected to the plot, which generate significant loss of water (drainage and run-off). Although these unused water flows can generate positive externalities (feeding wetlands, groundwater recharge) a decrease of water volume used is sought in a context of limited water resource. In this system of irrigation, the amount of water that is actually brought to the plot surface ("irrigation dose") is insufficiently known because it depends on the interaction between the propagation of water at surface of the plot and its infiltration into the soil. These two processes are conditioned by multiple factors: input flow rate in the plot, irrigation duration, soil properties (hydraulic conductivity, water reserve and depth), geometry of the parcel, hydraulic factors (slope of flow, coefficient of friction hydraulic). A methodology is therefore needed for calculating the doses given on an agricultural plot in order to analyse current practices and to propose ways for optimization. The aim of this study is to develop a methodology to estimate (i) the amount of infiltrated water at the scale of a flood irrigated agricultural field, and (ii) soil properties (permeability, useful water reserve). This work is based on the use of a flood irrigation model (CALHY, model Bader et al., 2010, Hydrol. Sci. J., 55, 177-191) combined with a device for tracking the infiltration and the advancing of water in several fields of hay which are irrigated through submersion. Firstly, a sensitivity analysis was used to define an optimal experimental configuration with respect to the estimation of parameters of interest (hydraulic friction, soil water storage capacity, hydraulic conductivity, soil depth). This analysis was performed on each of the model parameters and for different output variables

  3. The Role of Windbreaks in Reducing Water Resources Use in Irrigated Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, T. A.; de Vries, T. T.

    2014-12-01

    Windbreaks are common features in flat agricultural landscapes around the world. The reduction in wind speed afforded by windbreaks is dictated by their porosity, location, height, and distance from the windbreak. The reduction in wind speeds not only reduces potential wind erosion; it also reduces crop evapotranspiration (ET) and provides shelter for livestock and crops. In the Canterbury plains of New Zealand there are over 300,000 km of windbreaks which were first implemented as a soil conservation strategy to reduce wind erosion of prime agricultural land. Agriculture in the region has since changed to irrigated pasture cultivation for dairy production and windbreaks are being cut down or reduced to heights of 2 m to allow for large scale centre-pivot irrigation schemes. Although soil erosion is no longer a major concern due to permanent pasture cover, irrigation water is sourced from limited supplies of ground and surface water and thus the effects of wind on irrigation losses due to spray drift and increased ET are of significant concern. The impact of reducing windbreaks needs to be understood in terms of water resources use. Experimental and theoretical work was conducted to quantify the reduction in wind speeds by windbreaks and in spray evaporation losses. A temporal and spatial model was also developed and validated to quantify the impact of single and multiple windbreaks on irrigation water losses. Initial modelling results show that for hot windy dry conditions in Canterbury, ET can increase by up to 1.4 mm/day when windbreaks are reduced to 2 m in height and on average wind days ET can increase by up to 0.5 mm/day. ET can be reduced by up to 30% in the windbreak leeward zone relative to ET in areas not protected by windbreaks. Wind speed, air temperature and relative humidity all had a considerable impact on spray evaporation losses, but the extent is determined by the droplet size. Estimated losses range from only 0.07% to 67% for 5 and 0.2 mm

  4. Water and energy footprint of irrigated agriculture in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daccache, A.; Ciurana, J. S.; Rodriguez Diaz, J. A.; Knox, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture constitutes the largest consumer of freshwater in the Mediterranean region and provides a major source of income and employment for rural livelihoods. However, increasing droughts and water scarcity have highlighted concerns regarding the environmental sustainability of agriculture in the region. An integrated assessment combining a gridded water balance model with a geodatabase and GIS has been developed and used to assess the water demand and energy footprint of irrigated production in the region. Modelled outputs were linked with crop yield and water resources data to estimate water (m3 kg-1) and energy (CO2 kg-1) productivity and identify vulnerable areas or ‘hotspots’. For a selected key crops in the region, irrigation accounts for 61 km3 yr-1 of water abstraction and 1.78 Gt CO2 emissions yr-1, with most emissions from sunflower (73 kg CO2/t) and cotton (60 kg CO2/t) production. Wheat is a major strategic crop in the region and was estimated to have a water productivity of 1000 t Mm-3 and emissions of 31 kg CO2/t. Irrigation modernization would save around 8 km3 of water but would correspondingly increase CO2 emissions by around +135%. Shifting from rain-fed to irrigated production would increase irrigation demand to 166 km3 yr-1 (+137%) whilst CO2 emissions would rise by +270%. The study has major policy implications for understanding the water-energy-food nexus in the region and the trade-offs between strategies to save water, reduce CO2 emissions and/or intensify food production.

  5. Crop Insurance Increases Water Withdrawals for Irrigation in Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, M.; Deryugina, T.; Lin, X.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural production remains particularly vulnerable to weather fluctuations and extreme events, such as droughts, floods, and heat waves. Crop insurance is a risk management tool that has been developed to mitigate some of this weather risk and protect farmer income in times of poor production. However, it is not clear what the implications of crop insurance are for crop irrigation. By providing a guaranteed level of income in case of crop failure, crop insurance can reduce the farmer's incentive to irrigate. Thus, crop insurance can decrease water use in times of drought and promote water sustainability. However, to minimize this "moral hazard", the insurer may require farmers to irrigate crops more than necessary. Further, by shifting crop production, crop insurance may increase demand for water. Thus, it is unclear whether crop insurance increases or decreases crop water use. Here, we determine the empirical relationship between crop insurance and irrigation withdrawals in the United States. To establish causality, we exploit variation in crop insurance policies over time, using an instrumental variables approach. We find that a 1% increase in insured crop acreage leads to a 0.223% increase in irrigation withdrawals, primarily from groundwater aquifers.

  6. Irrigation water quality and the benefits of implementing good agricultural practices during tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) production.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Acosta, M; Jiménez, M; Chaidez, C; León-Félix, J; Castro-Del Campo, N

    2014-07-01

    The implementation of good agricultural practices (GAP) from irrigation water to the tomato packaging process enhances the safety of fresh produce and its value throughout the food chain. The aim of the present study was to show that fresh produce farms that apply and enforce GAP could reduce the presence of Salmonella in finished produce. Samples were collected biweekly from six packing houses from the central region of Sinaloa, México, for the isolation of Salmonella spp by the ISO 6579:2002 method, and the isolated strains were serotyped and genotyped by the Kauffmman-White scheme and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), respectively. Salmonella strains were detected in 13 (36.1 %) irrigation water samples, while only two tomato samples were positive (5.5 %). Eight different serotypes were identified in irrigation water, and Salmonella Oranienburg (34 %) was the most prevalent; however, only Salmonella Agona and Salmonella Weltevreden were present on tomatoes. Salmonella Oranienburg was the most widely dispersed and variable serotype, with 10 different PFGE profiles. Salmonella Weltevreden was isolated from both types of samples, albeit with distinct genetic profiles, implying that the sources of contamination differ. These results confirm the utility of implementing good agricultural practices to reduce Salmonella contamination in irrigation water and the packaging process.

  7. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in Cross County, Arkansas, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Office in Cross County, Arkansas. The number of withdrawal registrations for Cross County was 2,506 (2,314 groundwater and 192 surface water). Water withdrawals reported during the registration process total 2.01 Mgal/d (1.85 Mgal/d groundwater and 0.16 Mgal/d surface water) for agriculture and 404.04 Mgal/d (377.08 Mgal/d groundwater and 26.96 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this water was applied to 218,152 acres of land to irrigate rice, sorghum, corn, soybeans, milo, cash grains, cotton, hay, and vegetables as well as for the agricultural use of animal aquaculture and ducks.

  8. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in Pulaski County, Arkansas, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.; Stafford, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Office in Pulaski County, Arkansas. The number of withdrawal registrations for Pulaski County was 291 (170 groundwater and 121 surface water). Water withdrawals reported during the registration process total 0.91 Mgal/d (0.71 Mgal/d groundwater and 0.20 Mgal/d surface water) for agriculture and 37.42 Mgal/d (28.53 Mgal/d groundwater and 8.89 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this water was applied to 28,088 acres of land to irrigate wheat, rice, sorghum, corn, soybeans, milo, cash grains, cotton, vegetables, and sod, as well as for the agricultural uses of animal aquaculture, timber, and ducks.

  9. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in Jefferson County, Arkansas, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.; Stafford, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Office in Jefferson County, Arkansas. The number of withdrawal registrations for Jefferson County was 1,636 (1,227 groundwater and 409 surface water). Water with- drawals reported during the registration process total 5.64 Mgal/day (3.89 Mgal/d groundwater and 1.75 Mgal/d surface water) for agriculture and 197.49 Mgal/d (161.39 Mgal/d groundwater and 36.10 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The regis- tration reports for 1991 indicate that this water was applied to 132,667 acres of land to irrigate rice, sorghum, corn, soybeans, milo, cash grains, cotton, vegetables, and unknown crops as well as for the agricultural uses of animal aquaculture, crawfish, minnows, timber, and ducks. (USGS) {descriptors: *Water use, *Arkansas, *Jefferson County, Selective withdrawal, Groundwater, Surface water

  10. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in Craighead County, Arkansas, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Office in Craighead County, Arkansas. The number of withdrawal registrations for Craighead County was 2,384 (2,187 groundwater and 197 surface water). Water withdrawals reported during the registration process total 1.45 Mgal/d (0.50 Mgal/d groundwater and 0.95 Mgal/d surface water) for agriculture and 287.20 Mgal/d (261.52 Mgal/d groundwater and 25.68 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this water was applied to 168,003 acres of land to irrigate rice, sorghum, corn, soybeans, milo, cotton, hay, vegetables, nuts, and sod as well as for the agricultural uses of animal aquaculture and sports clubs.

  11. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in Lonoke County, Arkansas, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.; Stafford, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Office in Lonoke County, Arkansas. The number of withdrawal registrations for Lonoke County was 3,313 (2,587 groundwater and 726 surface water). Water with drawals reported during the registration process total 61.30 Mgal/d (59.50 Mgal/d groundwater and 1.80 Mgal/d surface water) for agriculture and 300.45 Mgal/d (241.86 Mgal/d groundwater and 58.59 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registra- tion reports for 1991 indicate that this water was applied to 238,457 acres of land to irrigate rice, sorghum, corn, soybeans, milo, cash grains, cotton, and sod as well as for the agricultural uses of animal aquaculture, hatcheries, and ducks.

  12. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in Monroe County, Arkansas, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.; Stafford, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Office in Monroe County, Arkansas. The number of withdrawal registrations for Monroe County was 1,886 (1,677 groundwater and 209 surface water). Water withdrawals reported during the registration process total 8.87 Mgal/d (5.75 Mgal/d groundwater and 3.12 Mgal/d surface water) for agriculture and 210.61 Mgal/d (190.99 Mgal/d groundwater and 19.62 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this water was applied to 127,670 acres of land to irrigate rice, sorghum, soybeans, milo, cash grains, cotton, hay, and unknown crops, as well as for agricultural uses of animal aquaculture, minnows, and ducks. {descriptors: *Water use, *Arkansas, *Monroe County, Selective withdrawal, Groundwater, Surface water

  13. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in Crittendon County, Arkansas, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Office in Crittenden County, Arkansas. The number of withdrawal registrations for Crittenden County was 868 (824 groundwater and 44 surface water). Water withdrawals reported during the registration process total 0.67 Mgal/d (0.67 Mgal/d groundwater and none from surface water) for agriculture and 60.29 Mgal/d (59.15 Mgal/d groundwater and 1.14 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this water applied to 51,937 acres of land to irrigate wheat, rice, corn, soybeans, milo, cotton, and hay as well as for the agricultural uses of animal aquaculture.

  14. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in Drew County, Arkansas, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Office in Drew County, Arkansas. The number of withdrawal registrations for Drew County was 505 (342 groundwater and 163 surface water). Water withdrawals reported during the registration process total 0.32 Mgal/d (0.32 Mgal/d groundwater and none from surface water) for agriculture and 43.04 Mgal/d (37.43 Mgal/d groundwater and 5.61 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this water was applied to 23,775 acres of land to irrigate wheat, rice, corn, soybeans, milo, cash grains, cotton, and hay as well as for the agricultural use of animal aquaculture and catfish.

  15. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in Lee County, Arkansas, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.; Stafford, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Office in Lee County, Arkansas. The number of withdrawal registrations for Lee County was 1,582 (1,533 groundwater and 49 surface water). Water withdrawals reported during the registration process total 3.77 Mgal/d (3.39 Mgal/d groundwater and 0.38 Mgal/d surface water) for agriculture and 169.25 Mgal/d (166.79 Mgal/d groundwater and 2.46 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this water was applied to 97,029 acres of land to irrigate wheat, rice, corn, soybeans, milo, cotton, hay, vegetables, and nuts as well as for the agricultural uses of animal aquaculture and ducks.

  16. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in Woodruff County, Arkansas, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.; Stafford, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Office in Woodruff County, Arkansas. The number of withdrawal registrations for Woodruff County was 1,930 (1,755 groundwater and 175 surface water). Water withdrawals reported during the registration process total 0.91 Mgal/d (0.91 Mgal/d groundwater and none from surface water) for agriculture and 284.20 Mgal/d (258.13 Mgal/d groundwater and 26.07 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this water was applied to 138,452 acres of land to irrigate wheat, rice, corn, soybeans, milo, cotton, and vegetables, as well as for the agricultural uses of animal aquaculture and ducks.

  17. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in Lincoln County, Arkansas, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.; Stafford, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Office in Lincoln County, Arkansas. The number of withdrawal registrations for Lincoln County was 1,167 (868 groundwater and 299 surface water). Water with- drawals reported during the registration process total 3.88 Mgal/d (3.88 Mgal/d groundwater and none from surface water) for agriculture and 114.31 Mgal/d (98.59 Mgal/d groundwater and 15.72 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this water was applied to 81,477 acres of land to irrigate rice, corn, soybeans, milo, cotton and vegetables as well as for the agricultural use of animal aquaculture.

  18. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in Poinsett County, Arkansas, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.; Stafford, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Office of Poinsett County, Arkansas. The number of withdrawal registrations for Poinsett County was 1,826 (1,644 groundwater and 182 surface water). Water withdrawals reported during the registration process total 15.12 Mgal/d (11.76 Mgal/d groundwater and 3.26 Mgal/d surface water) for agriculture and 443.50 Mgal/d (394.22 Mgal/d groundwater and 49.28 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this water was applied to 244,505 acres of land to irrigate rice, corn, soybeans, milo, cotton, and hay as well as for the agricultural uses of animal aquaculture and ducks.

  19. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in Lawrence County, Arkansas, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.; Stafford, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Office in Lawrence County, Arkansas. The number of withdrawal registra- tions for Lawrence County was 1,674 (1,525 ground- water and 149 surface water). Water withdrawals reported during the registration process total 0.22 Mgal/d (0.22 Mgal/d groundwater and none from surface water) for agriculture and 261.13 Mgal/d (244.35 Mgal/d groundwater and 16.78 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this was applied to 97,320 acres of land to irrigate rice, corn, soybeans, milo, and hay as well as for the agricultural use of animal aquaculture.

  20. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in Miller County, Arkansas, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.; Stafford, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Office in Miller County, Arkansas. The number of withdrawal registrations for Miller County was 98 (62 groundwater and 36 surface water). Water withdrawals reported during the registration process total 0.06 Mgal/d (0.06 Mgal/d groundwater and none from surface water) for agriculture and 24.74 Mgal/d (5.44 Mgal/d groundwater and 19.30 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this water was applied to 9,872 acres of land to irrigate rice, corn, soybeans, cotton, and sod as well as for the agricultural use of animal aquaculture.

  1. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in Mississippi County, Arkansas, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.; Stafford, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Office in Mississippi County, Arkansas. The number of withdrawal registrations for Mississippi County was 981 (946 groundwater and 35 surface water). Water withdrawals reported during the registration process total 0.06 Mgal/d (0.01 Mgal/d groundwater and 0.05 Mgal/d surface water) for agriculture and 97.82 Mgal/d (94.16 Mgal/d groundwater and 3.66 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this water was applied to 109,345 acres of land to irrigate rice, corn, soybeans, milo, cotton, hay, vegetables, berries, and sod as well as for the agricultural use of animal aquaculture.

  2. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in Randolph County, Arkansas, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.; Stafford, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Office in Randolph County, Arkansas. The number of withdrawal registrations for Randolph County was 613 (494 groundwater and 119 surface water). Water withdrawals reported during the registration process total 0.08 Mgal/d (0.08 Mgal/d groundwater and none from surface water) for agriculture and 69.48 Mgal/d (53.60 Mgal/d groundwater and 15.88 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this water was applied to 30,530 acres of land to irrigate rice, corn, soybeans, milo, and hay as well as for the agricultural use of animal aquaculture.

  3. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in St. Francis County, Arkansas, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.; Stafford, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Office in St. Francis County, Arkansas. The number of withdrawal registrations for St. Francis County was 1,286 (1,194 groundwater and 92 surface water). Water withdrawals reported during the registration process total 0.14 Mgal/d (0.14 Mgal/d groundwater and none from surface water) for agriculture and 172.48 Mgal/d groundwater and 12.66 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this water was applied to 100,183 acres of land to irrigate rice, soybeans, milo, cotton, and vegetables as well as for the agricultural uses of animal aquaculture and ducks.

  4. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in west-central Arkansas counties, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.; Stafford, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Offices in the following west-central Arkansas counties: Conway, Crawford, Faulkner, Franklin, Johnson, Logan, Perry, Pope, Scott, Sebastian, and Yell. The number of withdrawal registrations for west-central Arkansas counties was 307 (90 groundwater and 217 surface water). Water withdrawals reported during the registration process total 1.00 Mgal/d (0.15 Mgal/d groundwater and 0.85 Mgal/d surface water) for agriculture and 32.07 Mgal/d (5.67 Mgal/d groundwater and 26.40 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this water was applied to 22,856 acres of land to irrigate rice, corn, sorghum, soybeans, wheat, cash grains, hay, milo, vegetables, sod, berries, grapes, and fruit trees as well as for the agricultural uses of catfish and ducks.

  5. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in Phillips County, Arkansas, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.; Stafford, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Office in Phillips County, Arkansas. The number of withdrawal registrations for Phillips County was 1,109 (1,103 groundwater and 6 surface water). Water withdrawals reported during the registration process total 0.15 Mgal/d (0.15 Mgal/d groundwater and none from surface water) for agriculture and 123.75 Mgal/d (122.66 Mgal/d groundwater and 1.09 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this water was applied to 96,502 acres of land to irrigate wheat, rice, corn, soybeans, milo, cotton, hay, vegetables, grapes, nuts, fruit trees, and sod, as well as for the agricultural use of animal aquaculture.

  6. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in White County, Arkansas, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.; Stafford, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Office in White County, Arkansas. The number of withdrawal registrations for White County was 1,365 (1,146 groundwater and 219 surface water). Water withdrawals reported during the registration process total 1.37 Mgal/d (0.95 Mgal/d groundwater and 0.42 Mgal/d surface water) for agriculture and 69.91 Mgal/d (43.78 Mgal/d groundwater and 26.13 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this water was supplied to 46,315 acres of land to irrigate rice, sorghum, corn, soybeans, milo, cash grains, hay, vegetables, berries, grapes, fruit trees, sod, and unknown crop as well as for the agricultural uses of animal aquaculture, minnows, ducks, and sport clubs.

  7. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in Greene County, Arkansas, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.; Stafford, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Office in Greene County, Arkansas. The number of withdrawal registrations for Greene County was 1,567 (1,510 groundwater and 57 surface water). Water withdrawals reported during the registration process total 26.69 Mgal/d (23.98 Mgal/d groundwater and 2.71 Mgal/d surface water) for agriculture and 92.46 Mgal/d (91.03 Mgal/d groundwater and 1.43 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this water was applied to 70,947 acres of land to irrigate rice, corn, soybeans, milo, cotton, fruit trees, and sod as well as for the agricultural use of animal aquaculture.

  8. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in southwestern Arkansas counties, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.; Stafford, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Offices in the following southwestern Arkansas counties: Bradley, Calhoun, Clark, Cleveland, Columbia, Dallas, Garland, Grant, Hempstead, Hot Spring, Howard, Little River, Montgomery, Nevada, Ouachita, Pike, Polk, Saline, Sevier, and Union. The number of withdrawal registrations for southwestern Arkansas counties was 132 (31 groundwater and 101 surface water). Water withdrawals reported during the registration process total 0.84 Mgal/d (none from groundwater and 0.84 Mgal/d surface water) for agriculture and 14.22 Mgal/d (1.64 Mgal/d groundwater and 12.58 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this water was applied to 8,455 acres of land to irrigate rice, corn, sorghum, soybeans, cotton, cash grains, vegetables, sod, berries, fruit trees, timber, shrubs, and nuts as well as for the agricultural use of animal aquaculture.

  9. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in Prairie County, Arkansas, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.; Stafford, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Office in Prairie County, Arkansas. The number of withdrawal registrations for Prairie County was 2,187 (1,786 groundwater and 401 surface water). Water with- drawals reported during the registration process total 26.93 Mgal/d (26.84 Mgal/d groundwater and 0.09 Mgal/d surface water) for agriculture and 191.08 Mgal/d (138.79 Mgal/d groundwater and 52.29 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this water was applied to 144,956 acres of land to irrigate rice, corn, soybeans, milo, cash grains, unknown crop, cotton hay, berries, and fruit trees as well as for the agricultural uses of animal aquaculture, minnows, timber, and ducks.

  10. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in Clay County, Arkansas, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Office in Clay County, Arkansas. The number of withdrawal registrations for Clay County was 2,025 (1,965 groundwater and 60 surface water). Water withdrawals reported during the registration process total 2.07 Mgal/d (2.01 Mgal/d groundwater and 0.06 Mgal/d surface water) for agriculture and 164.50 Mgal/d (159.64 Mgal/d groundwater and 4.56 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this water was applied to 94,399 acres of land to irrigate rice, corn, soybeans, milo, cotton, vegetables, and unknown crops as well as for the agricultural uses of animal aquaculture.

  11. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in Lafayette County, Arkansas, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.; Stafford, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Office in Lafayette County, Arkansas. The number of withdrawal registrations for Lafayette County was 104 (93 groundwater and 11 surface water). Water withdrawals reported during the registration process total 0.08 Mgal/d (none from groundwater and 0.08 Mgal/d surface water) for agriculture and 6.89 Mgal/d (6.82 Mgal/d groundwater and 0.07 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this water was applied to 5,202 acres of land to irrigate rice, corn, soybeans, milo, cash grains, and cotton as well as for the agricultural use of animal aquaculture.

  12. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in Desha County, Arkansas, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Office in Desha County, Arkansas. The number of withdrawal registrations for Desha County was 1,737 (1,204 groundwater and 533 surface water). Water withdrawals reported during the registration process total 19.34 Mgal/d (10.93 Mgal/d groundwater and 8.41 Mgal/d surface water) for agriculture and 228.35 Mgal/d (169.64 Mgal/d groundwater and 58.71 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this water was applied to 129,067 acres of land to irrigate rice, corn, soybeans, milo, cash grains, cotton, and hay as well as for the agricultural uses of animal aquaculture, timber, and ducks.

  13. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in Jackson County, Arkansas, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.; Stafford, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Office in Jackson County, Arkansas. The number of withdrawal registrations for Jackson County was 2,450 (2,279 groundwater and 171 surface water). Water withdrawals reported during the registration process total 5.24 Mgal/d (4.81 Mgal/d groundwater and 0.43 Mgal/d surface water) for agriculture and 274.90 Mgal/d (263.59 Mgal/d groundwater and 11.31 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this water was applied to 149,737 acres of land to irrigate rice, corn, soybeans, milo, cash grains, cotton, hay, and vegetables as well as for the agricultural use of animal aquaculture, goldfish, and ducks.

  14. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in northwestern Arkansas counties, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.; Stafford, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Offices in the following northwestern Arkansas counties: Baxter, Benton, Boone, Carroll, Cleburne, Fulton, Izard, Madison, Marion, Newton, Searcy, Sharp, Stone, Van Buren, and Washington. The number of withdrawal registrations for northwestern Arkansas counties was 106 (16 groundwater and 90 surface water). Water withdrawals reported during the registration process total 41.72 Mgal/d (0.74 Mgal/d groundwater and 40.98 Mgal/d surface water) for agriculture and 3.33 Mgal/d (0.27 Mgal/d groundwater and 3.06 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this water was applied to 3,588 acres of land to irrigate rice, soybeans, cash grains, hay, oats, vegetables, sod, berries, fruit trees, and timber as well as for the agricultural use of animal aquaculture.

  15. Hydrological problems of water resources in irrigated agriculture: A management perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajay

    2016-10-01

    The development of irrigated agriculture is necessary for fulfilling the rising food requirements of the burgeoning global population. However, the intensification of irrigated agriculture causes the twin menace of waterlogging and soil salinization in arid and semiarid regions where more than 75% of the world's population lives. These problems can be managed by either adopting preventive measures which decrease the inflow of water and salt or by employing remedial measures which increase the outflow. This paper presents an overview of various measures used for the management of waterlogging and salinity problems. The background, processes involved, and severity of waterlogging and salinity problems are provided. The role of drainage systems, conjunctive use of different water sources, use of computer-based mathematical models, and the use of remote sensing and GIS techniques in managing the problems are discussed. Conclusions are provided which could be useful for all the stakeholders.

  16. Practices to reduce nitrate leaching and increase nitrogen use efficiency in irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quemada, Miguel; Baranski, Marcin; Nobel de Lange, Majimcha; Vallejo, Antonio; Cooper, Julia

    2013-04-01

    Despite the large body of research in irrigated agriculture, it is still not clear which practices most effectively reduce nitrate leaching (NL) while maintaining crop yield. A meta-analysis (MA) of published experimental results from agricultural irrigated systems was conducted to identify those agricultural practices that have proven effective at reducing NL and to quantify the scale of reduction that can be achieved. Forty-four scientific articles were identified which investigated four main strategies (water and fertilizer management, use of cover crops and fertilizer technology) creating a database with 279 observations on NL and 166 on crop yield. Management practices that adjust water application to crop needs reduced NL by a mean of 80% without a reduction in crop yield. Improved fertilizer management reduced NL by 40%, and the best relationship between yield and NL was obtained when applying the recommended N fertilizer rate. Applications above the recommended rate increased leaching without enhancing yield. Replacing a fallow with a non-legume cover crop (CC) reduced NL by 50% while using a legume CC did not have any effect on NL. Legume CC increased yield and N use efficiency while yields following non-legume CC were not different from the fallow. Improved fertilizer technology also decreased NL but was the least effective of the selected strategies. The risk of nitrate leaching from irrigated systems is high, but optimum management practices may mitigate this risk and maintain crop yields while enhancing environmental sustainability.

  17. Application of soil quality indices to assess the status of agricultural soils irrigated with treated wastewaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morugán-Coronado, A.; Arcenegui, V.; García-Orenes, F.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Mataix-Beneyto, J.

    2012-12-01

    The supply of water is limited in some parts of the Mediterranean region, such as southeastern Spain. The use of treated wastewater for the irrigation of agricultural soils is an alternative to using better-quality water, especially in semi-arid regions. On the other hand, this practice can modify some soil properties, change their relationships, the equilibrium reached and influence soil quality. In this work two soil quality indices were used to evaluate the effects of irrigation with treated wastewater in soils. The indices were developed studying different soil properties in undisturbed soils in SE Spain, and the relationships between soil parameters were established using multiple linear regressions. This study was carried out in three areas of Alicante Province (SE Spain) irrigated with wastewater, including four study sites. The results showed slight changes in some soil properties as a consequence of irrigation with wastewater, the obtained levels not being dangerous for agricultural soils, and in some cases they could be considered as positive from an agronomical point of view. In one of the study sites, and as a consequence of the low quality wastewater used, a relevant increase in soil organic matter content was observed, as well as modifications in most of the soil properties. The application of soil quality indices indicated that all the soils of study sites are in a state of disequilibrium regarding the relationships between properties independent of the type of water used. However, there were no relevant differences in the soil quality indices between soils irrigated with wastewater with respect to their control sites for all except one of the sites, which corresponds to the site where low quality wastewater was used.

  18. Irrigated Agriculture in Morocco: An Agent-Based Model of Adaptation and Decision Making Amid Increasingly Frequent Drought Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the past 100 years, Morocco has undertaken a heavy investment in developing water infrastructure that has led to a dramatic expansion of irrigated agriculture. Irrigated agriculture is the primary user of water in many arid countries, often accounting for 80-90% of total water usage. Irrigation is adopted by farmers not only because it leads to increased production, but also because it improves resilience to an uncertain climate. However, the Mediterranean region as a whole has also seen an increase in the frequency and severity of drought events. These droughts have had a dramatic impact on farmer livelihoods and have led to a number of coping strategies, including the adoption or disadoption of irrigation. In this study, we use a record of the annual extent of irrigated agriculture in Morocco to model the effect of drought on the extent of irrigated agriculture. Using an agent-based socioeconomic model, we seek to answer the following questions: 1) Do farmers expand irrigated agriculture in response to droughts? 2) Do drought events entail the removal of perennial crops like orchards? 3) Can we detect the retreat of irrigated agriculture in the more fragile watersheds of Morocco? Understanding the determinants of irrigated crop expansion and contractions will help us understand how agro-ecological systems transition from 20th century paradigms of expansion of water supply to a 21st century paradigm of water use efficiency. The answers will become important as countries learn how to manage water in new climate regimes characterized by less reliable and available precipitation.

  19. Agricultural irrigated land-use inventory for the counties in the Suwannee River Water Management District in Florida, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, Richard L.; Dixon, Joann F.; Berry, Darbi R.

    2016-07-28

    The irrigated acreage that was field verified in 2015 for the 13 counties in the Suwannee River Water Management District (113,134 acres) is about 6 percent higher than the estimated acreage published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (107,217 acres) for 2012; however, this 2012 value represents acreage for the entire portion of all 13 counties, not just the Suwannee River Water Management District portion. Differences between the 2015 field-verified acreage totals and those published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for 2012 may occur because (1) irrigated acreage for some specific crops increased or decreased substantially during the 3-year interval due to commodity prices or economic changes, (2) calculated field-verified irrigated acreage may be an overestimate because irrigation was assumed if an irrigation system was present and therefore the acreage was counted as irrigated, when in fact that may not have been the case as some farmers may not have used their irrigation systems during this growing period even if they had a crop in the field, or (3) the amount of irrigated acreages published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for selected crops may be underestimated in some cases.

  20. Constraints and potentials of future irrigation water availability on agricultural production under climate change

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Joshua; Deryng, Delphine; Müller, Christoph; Frieler, Katja; Konzmann, Markus; Gerten, Dieter; Glotter, Michael; Flörke, Martina; Wada, Yoshihide; Best, Neil; Eisner, Stephanie; Fekete, Balázs M.; Folberth, Christian; Foster, Ian; Gosling, Simon N.; Haddeland, Ingjerd; Khabarov, Nikolay; Ludwig, Fulco; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Olin, Stefan; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruane, Alex C.; Satoh, Yusuke; Schmid, Erwin; Stacke, Tobias; Tang, Qiuhong; Wisser, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    We compare ensembles of water supply and demand projections from 10 global hydrological models and six global gridded crop models. These are produced as part of the Inter-Sectoral Impacts Model Intercomparison Project, with coordination from the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project, and driven by outputs of general circulation models run under representative concentration pathway 8.5 as part of the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Models project that direct climate impacts to maize, soybean, wheat, and rice involve losses of 400–1,400 Pcal (8–24% of present-day total) when CO2 fertilization effects are accounted for or 1,400–2,600 Pcal (24–43%) otherwise. Freshwater limitations in some irrigated regions (western United States; China; and West, South, and Central Asia) could necessitate the reversion of 20–60 Mha of cropland from irrigated to rainfed management by end-of-century, and a further loss of 600–2,900 Pcal of food production. In other regions (northern/eastern United States, parts of South America, much of Europe, and South East Asia) surplus water supply could in principle support a net increase in irrigation, although substantial investments in irrigation infrastructure would be required. PMID:24344283

  1. Risk assessment of consuming agricultural products irrigated with reclaimed wastewater: An exposure model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ginneken, Meike; Oron, Gideon

    2000-09-01

    This study assesses health risks to consumers due to the use of agricultural products irrigated with reclaimed wastewater. The analysis is based on a definition of an exposure model which takes into account several parameters: (1) the quality of the applied wastewater, (2) the irrigation method, (3) the elapsed times between irrigation, harvest, and product consumption, and (4) the consumers' habits. The exposure model is used for numerical simulation of human consumers' risks using the Monte Carlo simulation method. The results of the numerical simulation show large deviations, probably caused by uncertainty (impreciseness in quality of input data) and variability due to diversity among populations. There is a 10-orders of magnitude difference in the risk of infection between the different exposure scenarios with the same water quality. This variation indicates the need for setting risk-based criteria for wastewater reclamation rather than single water quality guidelines. Extra data are required to decrease uncertainty in the risk assessment. Future research needs to include definition of acceptable risk criteria, more accurate dose-response modeling, information regarding pathogen survival in treated wastewater, additional data related to the passage of pathogens into and in the plants during irrigation, and information regarding the behavior patterns of the community of human consumers.

  2. Health risk in agricultural villages practicing wastewater irrigation in central Mexico: perspectives for protection.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, E; Blumenthal, U; Ruiz-Palacios, G; Bennett, S; Quigley, M

    2000-01-01

    9,435 individuals participated in a cross-sectional survey in the irrigation districts of the Mezquital Valley (central Mexico). Exposure groups were: 848 households irrigating with untreated wastewater, 544 households irrigating with the effluent from a series of interconnected reservoirs, and 928 households farming with natural rainfall. The unit of analysis was the individual, and the health outcomes included diarrhoeal diseases and Ascaris lumbricoides infection. Water quality was assessed using faecal coliforms (FC) and nematode eggs, as suggested by (WHO, 1989) for the safe use of wastewater in agriculture. Children from households irrigating with untreated wastewater (10(8) FC/100 mL and 135 nematode eggs/L) had a 33% higher risk of diarrhoeal diseases and a fivefold increase in risk of A. lumbricoides infection (OR = 5.71) compared to children from the control group, farming with rainfall. The risk of A. lumbricoides infection in older individuals was even higher (OR = 13.18). The final analysis showed that drinking unboiled water and cultivating vegetables crops were both associated with a higher risk of diarrheal diseases (OR = 1.45 and 2.00); individuals infected with A. lumbricoides infection came mostly from landless households with poorer dwellings and low standards of sanitation (OR = 2.20, 2.23, 1.72 and 1.43, respectively). These results are discussed in the context of health protection measures and policy recommendations.

  3. Review: Computer-based models for managing the water-resource problems of irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajay

    2015-09-01

    Irrigation is essential for achieving food security to the burgeoning global population but unplanned and injudicious expansion of irrigated areas causes waterlogging and salinization problems. Under this backdrop, groundwater resources management is a critical issue for fulfilling the increasing water demand for agricultural, industrial, and domestic uses. Various simulation and optimization approaches were used to solve the groundwater management problems. This paper presents a review of the individual and combined applications of simulation and optimization modeling for the management of groundwater-resource problems associated with irrigated agriculture. The study revealed that the combined use of simulation-optimization modeling is very suitable for achieving an optimal solution for groundwater-resource problems, even with a large number of variables. Independent model tools were used to solve the problems of uncertainty analysis and parameter estimation in groundwater modelling studies. Artificial neural networks were used to minimize the problem of computational complexity. The incorporation of socioeconomic aspects into the groundwater management modeling would be an important development in future studies.

  4. Soil CO2 emissions in terms of irrigation management in an agricultural soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Acosta, José A.; María de la Rosa, José; Faz, Ángel; Domingo, Rafael; Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro; Ángeles Muñoz, María

    2014-05-01

    Irrigation water restrictions in the Mediterranean area are reaching worrying proportions and represent a serious threat to traditional crops and encourage the movement of people who choose to work in other activities. This situation has created a growing interest in water conservation, particularly among practitioners of irrigated agriculture, the main recipient of water resources (>80%). For these and other reasons, the scientific and technical irrigation scheduling of water use to maintain and even improve harvest yield and quality has been and will remain a major challenge for irrigated agriculture. Apart from environmental and economic benefits by water savings, deficit irrigation may contribute to reduce soil CO2 emissions and enhance C sequestration in soils. The reduction of soil moisture levels decreases microbial activity, with the resulting slowing down of organic matter mineralization. Besides, the application of water by irrigation may increment the precipitation rate of carbonates, favoring the storage of C, but depending on the source of calcium or bicarbonate, the net reaction can be either storage or release of C. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess if deficit irrigation, besides contributing to water savings, can reduce soil CO2 emissions and favor the accumulation of C in soils in stable forms. The experiment was carried out along 2012 in a commercial orchard from southeast Spain cultivated with nectarine trees (Prunus persica cv. 'Viowhite'). The irrigation system was drip localized. Three irrigation treatments were assayed: a control (CT), irrigated to satisfy the total hydric needs of the crop; a first deficit irrigation (DI1), irrigated as CT except for postharvest period (16 June - 28 October) were 50% of CT was applied; and a second deficit irrigation (DI2), irrigated as DI1, except for two periods in which irrigation was suppressed (16 June-6 July and 21 July-17 August). Each treatment was setup in triplicate, randomly

  5. Technical concepts related to conservation of irrigation and rainwater in agricultural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemmens, A. J.; Allen, R. G.; Burt, C. M.

    2008-07-01

    Forty percent of freshwater withdrawals in the United States are for irrigated agriculture, which contribute more than $50 billion to the economy. Increasing diversions of water for urban, environmental, and other uses will likely decrease water available to agriculture. Water conservation in agriculture is touted as a good method for minimizing the impact of reduced agricultural diversions on production. Because "wasted" water is often reused until it reaches the ocean, there are limitations to the true water savings that result from programs that aim to increase irrigation efficiency. True water savings can come from four areas: reduction of unnecessary evaporation and transpiration, more effective use of rainfall, reduction of deep percolation water that becomes severely degraded in quality, and reduction of runoff from fields that is not reusable downstream. Any other reduction in net water consumption must come from reductions in evapotranspiration from the crops grown, which requires either reduction in acreage or reduction in crop yield brought on by intentional plant water stress. Other benefits of field or district-level water conservation may include increased in-stream flows (due to lower diversions) and energy conservation due to less pumping or more hydroelectric production, but not result in true water savings, since unconsumed water returns as a usable water resource. Understanding the hydrologic settings is critical to determining true water savings from conservation practices. On-farm water conservation practices that provide true water savings at one location may be ineffective at another. In large irrigation projects, water delivery limitations often present obstacles to on-farm water conservation efforts.

  6. Demand driven decision support for efficient water resources allocation in irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetze, Niels; Grießbach, Ulrike Ulrike; Röhm, Patric; Stange, Peter; Wagner, Michael; Seidel, Sabine; Werisch, Stefan; Barfus, Klemens

    2014-05-01

    Due to climate change, extreme weather conditions, such as longer dry spells in the summer months, may have an increasing impact on the agriculture in Saxony (Eastern Germany). For this reason, and, additionally, declining amounts of rainfall during the growing season the use of irrigation will be more important in future in Eastern Germany. To cope with this higher demand of water, a new decision support framework is developed which focuses on an integrated management of both irrigation water supply and demand. For modeling the regional water demand, local (and site-specific) water demand functions are used which are derived from the optimized agronomic response at farms scale. To account for climate variability the agronomic response is represented by stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF) which provide the estimated yield subject to the minimum amount of irrigation water. These functions take into account the different soil types, crops and stochastically generated climate scenarios. By applying mathematical interpolation and optimization techniques, the SCWPF's are used to compute the water demand considering different constraints, for instance variable and fix costs or the producer price. This generic approach enables the computation for both multiple crops at farm scale as well as of the aggregated response to water pricing at a regional scale for full and deficit irrigation systems. Within the SAPHIR (SAxonian Platform for High Performance Irrigation) project a prototype of a decision support system is developed which helps to evaluate combined water supply and demand management policies for an effective and efficient utilization of water in order to meet future demands. The prototype is implemented as a web-based decision support system and it is based on a service-oriented geo-database architecture.

  7. Reliable conjunctive use rules for sustainable irrigated agriculture and reservoir spill control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoups, Gerrit; Addams, C. Lee; Minjares, Jose Luis; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2006-12-01

    We develop optimal conjunctive use water management strategies that balance two potentially conflicting objectives: sustaining irrigated agriculture during droughts and minimizing unnecessary spills and resulting water losses from the reservoir during wet periods. Conjunctive use is specified by a linear operating rule, which determines the maximum surface water release as a function of initial reservoir storage. Optimal strategies are identified using multiobjective interannual optimization for sustainability and spill control, combined with gradient-based annual profit maximization. Application to historical conditions in the irrigated system of the Yaqui Valley, Mexico, yields a Pareto curve of solutions illustrating the trade-off between sustaining agriculture and minimizing spills and water losses. Minimal water losses are obtained by maximizing surface water use and limiting groundwater pumping, such that reservoir levels are kept sufficiently low. Maximum agricultural sustainability, on the other hand, results from increased groundwater use and keeping surface water reservoir levels high during wet periods. Selected optimal operating rules from the multiobjective optimization are tested over a large number of equally probable streamflow time series, generated with a stochastic time series model. In this manner, statistical properties, such as the mean sustainability and sustainability percentiles, are determined for each optimal rule. These statistical properties can be used to select rules for water management that are reliable over a wide range of streamflow conditions.

  8. Emergy evaluation of the contribution of irrigation water, and its utilization, in three agricultural systems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dan; Luo, Zhaohui; Webber, Michael; Chen, Jing; Wang, Weiguang

    2014-09-01

    Emergy theory and method are used to evaluate the contribution of irrigation water, and the process of its utilization, in three agricultural systems. The agricultural systems evaluated in this study were rice, wheat, and oilseed rape productions in an irrigation pumping district of China. A corresponding framework for emergy evaluation and sensitivity analysis methods was proposed. Two new indices, the fraction of irrigation water ( FIW), and the irrigation intensity of agriculture ( IIA), were developed to depict the contribution of irrigation water. The calculated FIW indicated that irrigation water used for the rice production system (34.7%) contributed more than irrigation water used for wheat (5.3%) and oilseed rape (11.2%) production systems in a typical dry year. The wheat production with an IIA of 19.0 had the highest net benefit from irrigation compared to the rice (2.9) and oilseed rape (8.9) productions. The transformities of the systems' products represented different energy efficiencies for rice (2.50E + 05 sej·J-1), wheat (1.66E + 05 sej·J-1) and oilseed rape (2.14E + 05 sej·J-1) production systems. According to several emergy indices, of the three systems evaluated, the rice system had the greatest level of sustainability. However, all of them were less sustainable than the ecological agricultural systems. A sensitivity analysis showed that the emergy inputs of irrigation water and nitrogenous fertilizer were the highest sensitivity factors influencing the emergy ratios. Best Management Practices, and other agroecological strategies, could be implemented to make further improvements in the sustainability of the three systems.

  9. Mechanisms of basin-scale nitrogen load reductions under intensified irrigated agriculture.

    PubMed

    Törnqvist, Rebecka; Jarsjö, Jerker; Thorslund, Josefin; Rao, P Suresh C; Basu, Nandita B; Destouni, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture can modify the cycling and transport of nitrogen (N), due to associated water diversions, water losses, and changes in transport flow-paths. We investigate dominant processes behind observed long-term changes in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations and loads of the extensive (465,000 km2) semi-arid Amu Darya River basin (ADRB) in Central Asia. We specifically considered a 40-year period (1960-2000) of large irrigation expansion, reduced river water flows, increased fertilizer application and net increase of N input into the soil-water system. Results showed that observed decreases in riverine DIN concentration near the Aral Sea outlet of ADRB primarily were due to increased recirculation of irrigation water, which extends the flow-path lengths and enhances N attenuation. The observed DIN concentrations matched a developed analytical relation between concentration attenuation and recirculation ratio, showing that a fourfold increase in basin-scale recirculation can increase DIN attenuation from 85 to 99%. Such effects have previously only been observed at small scales, in laboratory experiments and at individual agricultural plots. These results imply that increased recirculation can have contributed to observed increases in N attenuation in agriculturally dominated drainage basins in different parts of the world. Additionally, it can be important for basin scale attenuation of other pollutants, including phosphorous, metals and organic matter. A six-fold lower DIN export from ADRB during the period 1981-2000, compared to the period 1960-1980, was due to the combined result of drastic river flow reduction of almost 70%, and decreased DIN concentrations at the basin outlet. Several arid and semi-arid regions around the world are projected to undergo similar reductions in discharge as the ADRB due to climate change and agricultural intensification, and may therefore undergo comparable shifts in DIN export as shown here for the ADRB

  10. Using Satellite-based Evapotranspiration Estimation to Characterize Agricultural Irrigation Water Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, B.; Myint, S. W.; Hendrickx, J. M. H.

    2014-12-01

    The satellite-based evapotranspiration (ET) model permits estimation of water consumption across space and time in a systematic way. Developing tools to monitor water availability and water use is critical to meet future water shortage challenges in the American West. This study applied METRIC (Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution and with Internalized Calibration) to 2001 Landsat imagery to estimate ET of various crop types in Phoenix. The total annual ET estimates are correlated well with the actual water use at the irrigation district level (r=0.99). We further incorporated a crop type map to estimate annual ET for the major crop types in the region, and to examine variability in crop water use among different irrigation districts. Our results show that alfalfa and double crops consume more water than other crop types with mean annual ET estimations of 1300 to 1580 mm/year, and that cotton uses more water (1162 mm/year) than corn (838 mm/year) and sorghum (829 mm/year) as expected. Crop water use varies from one irrigation district to another due to differences in soil quality, water quality, and farming practices. Results from our study suggest that the ET maps derived from METRIC can be used to quantify the spatial distribution of ET and to characterize agricultural water use by crop types at different spatial scales.

  11. Biodegradability of pharmaceutical compounds in agricultural soils irrigated with treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Grossberger, Amnon; Hadar, Yitzhak; Borch, Thomas; Chefetz, Benny

    2014-02-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds (PCs) are introduced into agricultural soils via irrigation with treated wastewater (TWW). Our data show that carbamazepine, lamotrigine, caffeine, metoprolol, sulfamethoxazole and sildenafil are persistent in soils when introduced via TWW. However, other PCs, namely diclofenac, ibuprofen, bezafibrate, gemfibrozil and naproxen were not detected in soils when introduced via TWW. This is likely due to rapid degradation as confirmed in our microcosm studies where they exhibited half-lives (t1/2) between 0.2-9.5 days when soils were spiked at 50 ng/g soil and between 3 and 68 days when soils were spiked at 5000 ng/g soil. The degradation rate and extent of PCs observed in microcosm studies were similar in soils that had been previously irrigated with TWW or fresh water. This suggests that pre-exposure of the soils to PCs via irrigation with TWW does not enhance their biodegradation. This suggests that PCs are probably degraded in soils via co-metabolism.

  12. Optimal integrated management of groundwater resources and irrigated agriculture in arid coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, J.; Schütze, N.; Heck, V.

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater systems in arid coastal regions are particularly at risk due to limited potential for groundwater replenishment and increasing water demand, caused by a continuously growing population. For ensuring a sustainable management of those regions, we developed a new simulation-based integrated water management system. The management system unites process modelling with artificial intelligence tools and evolutionary optimisation techniques for managing both water quality and water quantity of a strongly coupled groundwater-agriculture system. Due to the large number of decision variables, a decomposition approach is applied to separate the original large optimisation problem into smaller, independent optimisation problems which finally allow for faster and more reliable solutions. It consists of an analytical inner optimisation loop to achieve a most profitable agricultural production for a given amount of water and an outer simulation-based optimisation loop to find the optimal groundwater abstraction pattern. Thereby, the behaviour of farms is described by crop-water-production functions and the aquifer response, including the seawater interface, is simulated by an artificial neural network. The methodology is applied exemplarily for the south Batinah re-gion/Oman, which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture. Due to contradicting objectives like profit-oriented agriculture vs aquifer sustainability, a multi-objective optimisation is performed which can provide sustainable solutions for water and agricultural management over long-term periods at farm and regional scales in respect of water resources, environment, and socio-economic development.

  13. A new approach for assessing the future of aquifers supporting irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, James J.; Whittemore, Donald O.; Wilson, Blake B.; Bohling, Geoffrey C.

    2016-03-01

    Aquifers supporting irrigated agriculture are under stress worldwide as a result of large pumping-induced water deficits. To aid in the formulation of more sustainable management plans for such systems, we have developed a water balance approach for assessing the impact of proposed management actions and the prospects for aquifer sustainability. Application to the High Plains aquifer (HPA) in the state of Kansas in the United States reveals that practically achievable reductions in annual pumping (<22%) would have stabilized areally averaged water levels over much of the Kansas HPA from 1996 to 2013. This demonstrates that modest pumping reductions can have a significant impact and highlights the importance of reliable pumping data for determining the net inflow (capture) component of the water balance. The HPA is similar to many aquifers supporting critically needed agricultural production, so the presented approach should prove of value far beyond the area of this initial application.

  14. Contamination of Phthalate Esters (PAEs) in Typical Wastewater-Irrigated Agricultural Soils in Hebei, North China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Liang, Qiong; Gao, Rutai; Hou, Haobo; Tan, Wenbing; He, Xiaosong; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Minda; Ma, Lina; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    The Wangyang River (WYR) basin is a typical wastewater irrigation area in Hebei Province, North China. This study investigated the concentration and distribution of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs) in the agricultural soils in this area. Thirty-nine soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected along the WYR to assess the PAE residues in soils. Results showed that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants in the topsoil obtained from the irrigation area. The concentrations of Σ6PAEs range from 0.191 μg g-1 dw to 0.457 μg g-1 dw with an average value of 0.294 μg g-1 dw. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are the dominant PAE species in the agricultural soils. Among the DEHP concentrations, the highest DEHP concentration was found at the sites close to the villages; this result suggested that dense anthropogenic activities and random garbage disposal in the rural area are possible sources of PAEs. The PAE concentrations were weakly and positively correlated with soil organic carbon and soil enzyme activities; thus, these factors can affect the distribution of PAEs. This study further showed that only dimethyl phthalate (DMP) concentrations exceeded the recommended allowable concentrations; no remediation measures are necessary to control the PAEs in the WYR area. However, the PAEs in the topsoil may pose a potential risk to the ecosystem and human health in this area. Therefore, the exacerbating PAE pollution should be addressed.

  15. Conversion to drip irrigated agriculture may offset historic anthropogenic and wildfire contributions to sediment production.

    PubMed

    Gray, A B; Pasternack, G B; Watson, E B; Goñi, M A; Hatten, J A; Warrick, J A

    2016-06-15

    This study is an investigation into the roles of wildfire and changing agricultural practices in controlling the inter-decadal scale trends of suspended sediment production from semi-arid mountainous rivers. In the test case, a decreasing trend in suspended sediment concentrations was found in the lower Salinas River, California between 1967 and 2011. Event to decadal scale patterns in sediment production in the Salinas River have been found to be largely controlled by antecedent hydrologic conditions. Decreasing suspended sediment concentrations over the last 15years of the record departed from those expected from climatic/hydrologic forcing. Sediment production from the mountainous headwaters of the central California Coast Ranges is known to be dominated by the interaction of wildfire and large rainfall/runoff events, including the Arroyo Seco, an ~700km(2) subbasin of the Salinas River. However, the decreasing trend in Salinas River suspended sediment concentrations run contrary to increases in the watershed's effective burn area over time. The sediment source area of the Salinas River is an order of magnitude larger than that of the Arroyo Seco, and includes a more complicated mosaic of land cover and land use. The departure from hydrologic forcings on suspended sediment concentration patterns was found to coincide with a rapid conversion of irrigation practices from sprinkler and furrow to subsurface drip irrigation. Changes in agricultural operations appear to have decreased sediment supply to the Salinas River over the late 20th to early 21st centuries, obscuring the influence of wildfire on suspended sediment production.

  16. Evaporative loss from irrigated interrows in a highly advective semi-arid agricultural area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agam, Nurit; Evett, Steven R.; Tolk, Judy A.; Kustas, William P.; Colaizzi, Paul D.; Alfieri, Joseph G.; McKee, Lynn G.; Copeland, Karen S.; Howell, Terry A.; Chávez, Jose L.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural productivity has increased in the Texas High Plains at the cost of declining water tables, putting at risk the sustainability of the Ogallala Aquifer as a principal source of water for irrigated agriculture. This has led area producers to seek alternative practices that can increase water use efficiency (WUE) through more careful management of water. One potential way of improving WUE is by reducing soil evaporation (E), thus reducing overall evapotranspiration (ET). Before searching for ways to reduce E, it is first important to quantify E and understand the factors that determine its magnitude. The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify E throughout part of the growing season for irrigated cotton in a strongly advective semi-arid region; (2) to study the effects of LAI, days after irrigation, and measurement location within the row on the E/ET fraction; and (3) to study the ability of microlysimeter (ML) measures of E combined with sap flow gage measures of transpiration (T) to accurately estimate ET when compared with weighing lysimeter ET data and to assess the E/T ratio. The research was conducted in an irrigated cotton field at the Conservation & Production Research Laboratory of the USDA-ARS, Bushland, TX. ET was measured by a large weighing lysimeter, and E was measured by 10 microlysimeters that were deployed in two sets of 5 across the interrow. In addition, 10 heat balance sap flow gages were used to determine T. A moderately good agreement was found between the sum E + T and ET (SE = 1 mm or ˜10% of ET). It was found that E may account for >50% of ET during early stages of the growing season (LAI < 0.2), significantly decreasing with increase in LAI to values near 20% at peak LAI of three. Measurement location within the north-south interrows had a distinct effect on the diurnal pattern of E, with a shift in time of peak E from west to east, a pattern that was governed by the solar radiation reaching the soil surface. However, total

  17. Water Governance and Adaptation to Disturbances in Irrigated Semi-Arid Agricultural Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, T. P.; McCord, P. F.; McBride, L.; Gower, D.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    Climate and other physical drivers of environmental systems are modifying the global availability of water for irrigation. At the same time population growth is placing an increased demand on water resources as local municipalities promote agricultural production as a mechanism to support human welfare and development. Substantial has research focused on household-level agricultural decision-making and adaptation. But equally important are institutional dynamics, or the rules implemented to allocate water resources across different user groups. Previous work has identified design principles for common-pool resource systems that tend to lead to sustained governance regimes. Likewise, past research has addressed the issue of "institutional fit", or locally adapted governance arrangements characterized through governance structure. However, much of the complexity behind institutional dynamics and adaptive capacity lies in the translation of data to information to knowledge, and how this sequence contributes to effective cross-scale water management and decision-making - an arena that has arguably received less attention in the water management literature. We investigate the interplay between governance regimes, data/information and institutional dynamics in irrigation systems in semi-arid regions of Kenya. In particular, we articulate the role of knowledge and data in institutional dynamics at multiple levels of analysis. How do users at different decision-making levels incorporate social and hydrological information in water governance? What data is needed to develop the information and knowledge users need for effective management? While governance structure is certainly a critical component of water management systems - we emphasize the interplay between the data-information-knowledge sequence and institutional dynamics. We present findings from household and manager-level surveys examining irrigation practices and the institutions designed to equitably allocate

  18. Climate Change and Adaptation in Irrigated Agriculture-A Case Study of the Yakima River

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J; Vail, Lance W; Stockle, Claudio O; Kemanian, Armen

    2004-07-22

    Using a case study of the Yakima River Valley in Washington State, we show that relatively simple tools originally developed to forecast the impact of the El Nino phenomenon on water supplies to irrigated agriculture also can be used to estimate the significantly shifted probability distribution of water shortages in irrigated agriculture during climate change, and that these shifted probabilities can be used to estimate the impact on agriculture in a region. The more permanent nature of changes in the temperature and precipitation regime associated with climate change means that risk management options also take a more permanent form (such as changes in crops and cultivars, and adding storage). A number of storage options have been proposed to deal with El Nino-associated drought, and would be more valuable under climate change. The most ambitious of the proposed storage projects is Black Rock, which would add about 500,00 acre-feet of water to supplement the Yakima's current 1.1 million acre-feet, at a cost currently estimated at $1.9 billion. For perspective, economic losses in the Yakima Valley reportedly have been about $100 million in a drought year such as 2001. Under current circumstances, the expected annual fisheries and periodic drought relief benefits may be large enough to justify the expenditure, but since drought has been occasional, environmental consequences of new projects uncertain, and the price tag beyond the reach of all but the Federal government, no projects have been built. The benefits become more certain with warming. Analysis shows that adding 500,000 acre-feet to TWSA would offset El Nino and the effects of 2 C warming.

  19. Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources and Irrigated Agriculture in the Central Valley of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, J.; Young, C. A.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Ruane, A. C.; Rosenzweig, C.

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural productivity is strongly dependent on the availability of water, necessitating accurate projections of water resources, the allocation of water resources across competing sectors, and the effects of insufficient water resources on crops to assess the impacts of climate change on agricultural productivity. To explore the interface of water and agriculture in California's Central Valley, the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) crop model was coupled to the Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP) water resources model, deployed over the region, and run using both historical and future climate scenarios. This coupling brings water supply constraints to DSSAT and sophisticated agricultural water use, management, and diagnostics to WEAP. A 30-year simulation of WEAP-DSSAT forced using a spatially interpolated observational dataset was run from 1980-2009. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Surface Resistance and Evapotranspiration (MOD16) and Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) data were used to evaluate WEAP-DSSAT evapotranspiration calculations. Overall WEAP-DSSAT reasonably captures the seasonal cycle of observed evapotranspiration, but some catchments contain significant biases. Future climate scenarios were constructed by adjusting the spatially interpolated observational dataset with North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program differences between future (2050-2069) and historical (1980-1999) regional climate model simulations of precipitation and temperature. Generally, within the Central Valley temperatures warm by approximately 2°C, precipitation remains constant, and crop water use efficiency increases. The overall impacts of future climate on irrigated agricultural yields varies across the Central Valley and is highly dependent on crop, water resources demand assumptions, and agricultural management.

  20. Impacts on irrigated agriculture of changes in electricity costs resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.K.; Flaim, S.J.; Howitt, R.E.; Palmer, S.C.

    1995-03-01

    Irrigation is a major factor in the growth of US agricultural productivity, especially in western states, which account for more than 85% of the nation`s irrigated acreage. In some of these states, almost all cropland is irrigated, and nearly 50% of the irrigation is done with electrically powered pumps. Therefore, even small increases in the cost of electricity could have a disproportionate impact on irrigated agriculture. This technical memorandum examines the impacts that could result from proposed changes in the power marketing programs of the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The changes could increase the cost of power to all Western customers, including rural municipalities and irrigation districts that rely on inexpensive federal power to pump water. The impacts are assessed by translating changes in Western`s wholesale power rate into changes in the cost of pumping water as an input for agricultural production. Farmers can adapt to higher electricity prices in many ways, such as (1) using different pumping fuels, (2) adding workers and increasing management to irrigate more efficiently, and (3) growing more drought-tolerant crops. This study projects several responses, including using less groundwater and planting fewer waterintensive crops. The study finds that when dependence on Western`s power is high, the cost of power can have a major effect on energy use, agricultural practices, and the distribution of planted acreage. The biggest percentage changes in farm income would occur (1) in Nevada and Utah (however, all projected changes are less than 2% of the baseline) and (2) under the marketing alternatives that represent the lowest capacity and energy offer considered in Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement. The aggregate impact on farm incomes and the value of total farm production would be much smaller than that suggested by the changes in water use and planted acreage.

  1. Pesticides in soils and ground water in selected irrigated agricultural areas near Havre, Ronan, and Huntley, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Three areas in Montana representing a range of agricultural practices and applied pesticides, were studied to document whether agricultural pesticides are being transported into the soil and shallow groundwater in irrigated areas. Analytical scans for triazine herbicides, organic-acid herbicides, and carbamate insecticides were performed on soil and shallow groundwater samples. The results indicate pesticide residue in both types of samples. The concentrations of pesticides in the groundwater were less than Federal health-advisory limits. At the Havre Agricultural Experiment Station, eight wells were installed at two sites. All four soil samples and two of four water samples collected after application of pesticides contained detectable concentrations of atrazine or dicamba. In an area where seed potatoes are grown near Ronan, eight wells were installed at two sites. Pesticides were not detected after initial application of pesticides and irrigation water. The site was resampled after irrigation water was reapplied, and aldicarb metabolities were detected in four of five soil samples and one of five water samples. At the Huntley Agricultural Experiment Station, five wells were installed in a no-tillage corn field where atrazine was applied in 1987. Soil and water samples were collected in June and July 1988; pesticides were not detected in any samples. Results indicate residue of two pesticides in soil samples and three soluble pesticides in groundwater samples. Therefore, irrigated agricultural areas in Montana might be susceptible to transport of soluble pesticides through permeable soil to the shallow groundwater system. (USGS)

  2. Effects of agricultural irrigation on water resources in the St. Joseph River basin, Indiana, and implications for aquifer yield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, J.G.; Renn, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    During the past decade, the acreage of irrigated agricultural land in Indiana has tripled, causing public concern about competition for water and resulting in several State laws for regulating water withdrawals. The St. Joseph River basin represents less than one-tenth of the area of the State, but it contains one-third of the State 's irrigated land. Irrigated land in the basin is composed of permeable soils that are underlain by productive glacial aquifers. A computer model was used to analyze the effects of maximum irrigation withdrawals on aquifer drawdown and streamflow in a 16.5 sq mi area of intensive irrigation. Simulation of maximum pumping resulted in predicted aquifer drawdowns of one-fourth of the total available drawdown. Flow in a nearby stream was decreased by 40%. Areas of most intensive irrigation in the basin also are areas that have productive aquifers and well-sustained streamflows. Aquifer yield is based on the concept of capture - the volume of increased recharge to the aquifer or decreased discharge from the aquifer that results from pumping. The high rates of capture for aquifers in the basin supply ample water for present (1982) irrigation and for substantial future development. (USGS)

  3. An agricultural drought index to incorporate the irrigation process and reservoir operations: A case study in the Tarim River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zehua; Hao, Zhenchun; Shi, Xiaogang; Déry, Stephen J.; Li, Jieyou; Chen, Sichun; Li, Yongkun

    2016-08-01

    To help the decision making process and reduce climate change impacts, hydrologically-based drought indices have been used to determine drought severity in the Tarim River Basin (TRB) over the past decades. As the major components of the surface water balance, however, the irrigation process and reservoir operations have not been incorporated into drought indices in previous studies. Therefore, efforts are needed to develop a new agricultural drought index, which is based on the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model coupled with an irrigation scheme and a reservoir module. The new drought index was derived from the simulated soil moisture data from a retrospective VIC simulation from 1961 to 2007 over the irrigated area in the TRB. The physical processes in the coupled VIC model allow the new agricultural drought index to take into account a wide range of hydrologic processes including the irrigation process and reservoir operations. Notably, the irrigation process was found to dominate the surface water balance and drought evolution in the TRB. Furthermore, the drought conditions identified by the new agricultural drought index presented a good agreement with the historical drought events that occurred in 1993-94, 2004, and 2006-07, respectively. Moreover, the spatial distribution of coupled VIC model outputs using the new drought index provided detailed information about where and to what extent droughts occurred.

  4. Influence of atmospheric correction on image classification for irrigated agriculture in the Lower Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, X.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric correction is essential for accurate quantitative information retrieval from satellite imagery. In this paper, we applied the atmospheric correction algorithm, Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) radiative transfer code, to retrieve surface reflectance from Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery for the Palo Verde Irrigation District (PVID) within the lower Colorado River basin. The 6S code was implemented with the input data of visibility, aerosol optical depth, pressure, temperature, water vapour, and ozone from local measurements. The 6S corrected image of PVID was classified into the irrigated agriculture of alfalfa, cotton, melons, corn, grass, and vegetables. We performed multiple classification methods of maximum likelihood, fuzzy means, and object-oriented classification methods. Using field crop type data, we conducted accuracy assessment for the results from 6S corrected image and uncorrected image and found a consistent improvement of classification accuracy for 6S corrected image. The study proves that 6S code is a robust atmospheric correction method in providing a better simulation of surface reflectance and improving image classification accuracy.;

  5. Set up of an automatic water quality sampling system in irrigation agriculture.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Emanuel; Kraft, Philipp; Buchen, Caroline; Frede, Hans-Georg; Aquino, Eugenio; Breuer, Lutz

    2013-12-23

    We have developed a high-resolution automatic sampling system for continuous in situ measurements of stable water isotopic composition and nitrogen solutes along with hydrological information. The system facilitates concurrent monitoring of a large number of water and nutrient fluxes (ground, surface, irrigation and rain water) in irrigated agriculture. For this purpose we couple an automatic sampling system with a Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry System (WS-CRDS) for stable water isotope analysis (δ2H and δ18O), a reagentless hyperspectral UV photometer (ProPS) for monitoring nitrate content and various water level sensors for hydrometric information. The automatic sampling system consists of different sampling stations equipped with pumps, a switch cabinet for valve and pump control and a computer operating the system. The complete system is operated via internet-based control software, allowing supervision from nearly anywhere. The system is currently set up at the International Rice Research Institute (Los Baños, The Philippines) in a diversified rice growing system to continuously monitor water and nutrient fluxes. Here we present the system's technical set-up and provide initial proof-of-concept with results for the isotopic composition of different water sources and nitrate values from the 2012 dry season.

  6. Dynamics of soil organic carbon and microbial activity in treated wastewater irrigated agricultural soils along soil profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jüschke, Elisabeth; Marschner, Bernd; Chen, Yona; Tarchitzky, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Treated wastewater (TWW) is an important source for irrigation water in arid and semiarid regions and already serves as an important water source in Jordan, the Palestinian Territories and Israel. Reclaimed water still contains organic matter (OM) and various compounds that may effect microbial activity and soil quality (Feigin et al. 1991). Natural soil organic carbon (SOC) may be altered by interactions between these compounds and the soil microorganisms. This study evaluates the effects of TWW irrigation on the quality, dynamics and microbial transformations of natural SOC. Priming effects (PE) and SOC mineralization were determined to estimate the influence of TWW irrigation on SOC along soil profiles of agricultural soils in Israel and the Westbank. The used soil material derived from three different sampling sites allocated in Israel and The Palestinian Authority. Soil samples were taken always from TWW irrigated sites and control fields from 6 different depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-50, 50-70, 70-100 cm). Soil carbon content and microbiological parameters (microbial biomass, microbial activities and enzyme activities) were investigated. In several sites, subsoils (50-160 cm) from TWW irrigated plots were depleted in soil organic matter with the largest differences occurring in sites with the longest TWW irrigation history. Laboratory incubation experiments with additions of 14C-labelled compounds to the soils showed that microbial activity in freshwater irrigated soils was much more stimulated by sugars or amino acids than in TWW irrigated soils. The lack of such "priming effects" (Hamer & Marschner 2005) in the TWW irrigated soils indicates that here the microorganisms are already operating at their optimal metabolic activity due to the continuous substrate inputs with soluble organic compounds from the TWW. The fact that PE are triggered continuously due to TWW irrigation may result in a decrease of SOC over long term irrigation. Already now this could be

  7. Particulate Matter Contributions from Agricultural Tilling Operations in an Irrigated Desert Region

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangzhen; Sammis, Ted W.; Miller, David R.; Wang, Junming

    2015-01-01

    Sources of regional particulate matter (PM), particularly agricultural operations, must be understood in order to manage the air quality in irrigated dry climates. Direct monitoring measurements alone are useful, but not sufficient, to estimate regional PM source concentrations. This paper combines modeling with ground (point) and airplane (spatial) measurement methods to estimate regional PM10 (PM diameter≤10 μm) contributions from agricultural operations. Hourly data from three air quality monitoring stations positioned at a 2-m height located on the west and east mesas of New Mexico’s Mesilla Valley and in the valley at Anthony, NM were acquired from the New Mexico Air Quality Bureau. The study spanned the agricultural tilling season, March 1 to April 30, for the years 2008 to 2012. One- second spatial PM10 concentrations at 200 m above the valley floor were measured during a two-hour controlled field tilling operation on April 1, 2008. The HYSPLIT 4.0 (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory version 4) model was run at the corresponding times and heights, outputting PM10 concentrations from all potential agricultural tilling operations. The calculated percentage contribution (modeled PM10 concentration/measured PM10 concentration) indicated that the near-surface (2-m height) proportion from the agricultural operations for five seasonal averages ranged from 0.7% to 1.5% on the west and east mesas and 1.3% for the valley site at Anthony. There were 71 hourly high values of contribution ratios ranging from 30 to 100% at the three sites, depending on the wind speed and direction. PMID:26422232

  8. Identification and Prioritization of Management Practices to Reduce Methylmercury Exports from Wetlands and Irrigated Agricultural Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, Stephen A.; Heim, Wesley A.

    2015-03-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta's (Delta) beneficial uses for humans and wildlife are impaired by elevated methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in fish. MeHg is a neurotoxin that bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs. The total maximum daily load (TMDL) implementation plan aimed at reducing MeHg in Delta fish obligates dischargers to conduct MeHg control studies. Over 150 stakeholders collaborated to identify 24 management practices (MPs) addressing MeHg nonpoint sources (NPS) in three categories: biogeochemistry (6), hydrology (14), and soil/vegetation (4). Land uses were divided into six categories: permanently and seasonally flooded wetlands, flooded and irrigated agricultural lands, floodplains, and brackish-fresh tidal marshes. Stakeholders scored MPs based on seven criteria: scientific certainty, costs, MeHg reduction potential, spatial applicability, technical capacity to implement, negative impacts to beneficial uses, and conflicting requirements. Semi-quantitative scoring for MPs applicable to each land use (totaling >400 individual scores) led to consensus-based prioritization. This process relied on practical experience from diverse and accomplished NPS stakeholders and synthesis of 17 previous studies. Results provide a comprehensive, stakeholder-driven prioritization of MPs for wetland and irrigated agricultural land managers. Final prioritization highlights the most promising MPs for practical application and control study, and a secondary set of MPs warranting further evaluation. MPs that address hydrology and soil/vegetation were prioritized because experiences were positive and implementation appeared more feasible. MeHg control studies will need to address the TMDL conundrum that MPs effective at reducing MeHg exports could both exacerbate MeHg exposure and contend with other management objectives on site.

  9. Contamination of Phthalate Esters (PAEs) in Typical Wastewater-Irrigated Agricultural Soils in Hebei, North China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Liang, Qiong; Gao, Rutai; Hou, Haobo; Tan, Wenbing; He, Xiaosong; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Minda; Ma, Lina; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    The Wangyang River (WYR) basin is a typical wastewater irrigation area in Hebei Province, North China. This study investigated the concentration and distribution of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs) in the agricultural soils in this area. Thirty-nine soil samples (0–20 cm) were collected along the WYR to assess the PAE residues in soils. Results showed that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants in the topsoil obtained from the irrigation area. The concentrations of Σ6PAEs range from 0.191 μg g−1 dw to 0.457 μg g−1 dw with an average value of 0.294 μg g−1 dw. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are the dominant PAE species in the agricultural soils. Among the DEHP concentrations, the highest DEHP concentration was found at the sites close to the villages; this result suggested that dense anthropogenic activities and random garbage disposal in the rural area are possible sources of PAEs. The PAE concentrations were weakly and positively correlated with soil organic carbon and soil enzyme activities; thus, these factors can affect the distribution of PAEs. This study further showed that only dimethyl phthalate (DMP) concentrations exceeded the recommended allowable concentrations; no remediation measures are necessary to control the PAEs in the WYR area. However, the PAEs in the topsoil may pose a potential risk to the ecosystem and human health in this area. Therefore, the exacerbating PAE pollution should be addressed. PMID:26360905

  10. Identification and prioritization of management practices to reduce methylmercury exports from wetlands and irrigated agricultural lands.

    PubMed

    McCord, Stephen A; Heim, Wesley A

    2015-03-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta's (Delta) beneficial uses for humans and wildlife are impaired by elevated methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in fish. MeHg is a neurotoxin that bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs. The total maximum daily load (TMDL) implementation plan aimed at reducing MeHg in Delta fish obligates dischargers to conduct MeHg control studies. Over 150 stakeholders collaborated to identify 24 management practices (MPs) addressing MeHg nonpoint sources (NPS) in three categories: biogeochemistry (6), hydrology (14), and soil/vegetation (4). Land uses were divided into six categories: permanently and seasonally flooded wetlands, flooded and irrigated agricultural lands, floodplains, and brackish-fresh tidal marshes. Stakeholders scored MPs based on seven criteria: scientific certainty, costs, MeHg reduction potential, spatial applicability, technical capacity to implement, negative impacts to beneficial uses, and conflicting requirements. Semi-quantitative scoring for MPs applicable to each land use (totaling >400 individual scores) led to consensus-based prioritization. This process relied on practical experience from diverse and accomplished NPS stakeholders and synthesis of 17 previous studies. Results provide a comprehensive, stakeholder-driven prioritization of MPs for wetland and irrigated agricultural land managers. Final prioritization highlights the most promising MPs for practical application and control study, and a secondary set of MPs warranting further evaluation. MPs that address hydrology and soil/vegetation were prioritized because experiences were positive and implementation appeared more feasible. MeHg control studies will need to address the TMDL conundrum that MPs effective at reducing MeHg exports could both exacerbate MeHg exposure and contend with other management objectives on site.

  11. Set Up of an Automatic Water Quality Sampling System in Irrigation Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, Emanuel; Kraft, Philipp; Buchen, Caroline; Frede, Hans-Georg; Aquino, Eugenio; Breuer, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    Climate change has already a large impact on the availability of water resources. Many regions in South-East Asia are assumed to receive less water in the future, dramatically impacting the production of the most important staple food: rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rice is the primary food source for nearly half of the World's population, and is the only cereal that can grow under wetland conditions. Especially anaerobic (flooded) rice fields require high amounts of water but also have higher yields than aerobic produced rice. In the past different methods were developed to reduce the water use in rice paddies, like alternative wetting and drying or the use of mixed cropping systems with aerobic (non-flooded) rice and alternative crops such as maize. A more detailed understanding of water and nutrient cycling in rice-based cropping systems is needed to reduce water use, and requires the investigation of hydrological and biochemical processes as well as transport dynamics at the field scale. New developments in analytical devices permit monitoring parameters at high temporal resolutions and at acceptable costs without much necessary maintenance or analysis over longer periods. Here we present a new type of automatic sampling set-up that facilitates in situ analysis of hydrometric information, stable water isotopes and nitrate concentrations in spatially differentiated agricultural fields. The system facilitates concurrent monitoring of a large number of water and nutrient fluxes (ground, surface, irrigation and rain water) in irrigated agriculture. For this purpose we couple an automatic sampling system with a Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry System (WS-CRDS) for stable water isotope analysis (δ2H and δ18O), a reagentless hyperspectral UV photometer for monitoring nitrate content and various water level sensors for hydrometric information. The whole system is maintained with special developed software for remote control of the system via internet. We

  12. The role of irrigation runoff and winter rainfall on dissolved organic carbon loads in an agricultural watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oh, Neung-Hwan; Pellerin, Brian A.; Bachand, Philip A.M.; Hernes, Peter J.; Bachand, Sandra M.; Ohara, Noriaki; Kavvas, M. Levent; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Horwath, William R.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of land use/land cover and agriculture practices on stream dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dynamics in the Willow Slough watershed (WSW) from 2006 to 2008. The 415 km2watershed in the northern Central Valley, California is covered by 31% of native vegetation and the remaining 69% of agricultural fields (primarily alfalfa, tomatoes, and rice). Stream discharge and weekly DOC concentrations were measured at eight nested subwatersheds to estimate the DOC loads and yields (loads/area) using the USGS developed stream load estimation model, LOADEST. Stream DOC concentrations peaked at 18.9 mg L−1 during summer irrigation in the subwatershed with the highest percentage of agricultural land use, demonstrating the strong influence of agricultural activities on summer DOC dynamics. These high concentrations contributed to DOC yields increasing up to 1.29 g m−2 during the 6 month period of intensive agricultural activity. The high DOC yields from the most agricultural subwatershed during the summer irrigation period was similar throughout the study, suggesting that summer DOC loads from irrigation runoff would not change significantly in the absence of major changes in crops or irrigation practices. In contrast, annual DOC yields varied from 0.89 to 1.68 g m−2 yr−1 for the most agricultural watershed due to differences in winter precipitation. This suggests that variability in the annual DOC yields will be largely determined by the winter precipitation, which can vary significantly from year to year. Changes in precipitation patterns and intensities as well as agricultural practices have potential to considerably alter the DOC dynamics.

  13. Irrigation Water Supply and Management in the Central High Plains: Can Agriculture Compete for a Limited Resource?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The era of expanding irrigated agriculture in the central high plains has come to an end, and we are likely entering a period of contraction. Contraction has begun in Colorado where the state estimates that current consumptive use exceeds sustainable supplies by about 10%. Groundwater pumping has ...

  14. Estimation of surface energy fluxes using surface renewal and flux variance techniques over an advective irrigated agricultural site

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimation of surface energy fluxes over irrigated agriculture is needed to monitor crop water use. Estimates are commonly done using well-established techniques such as eddy covariance (EC) and weighing lysimetry, but implementing these to collect spatially distributed observations is complex and c...

  15. Developing an Integrated Understanding of the Relationship Between Urban Wastewater Flows and Downstream Reuse in Irrigated Agriculture: A Global Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thebo, A.; Nelson, K.; Drechsel, P.; Lambin, E.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, less than ten percent of collected wastewater receives any form of treatment. This untreated wastewater is discharged to surface waters where it is diluted and reused by farmers and municipalities downstream. Without proper safeguards, the use of these waters can present health risks. However, these same waters also provide a reliable and nutrient rich water source for farmers, often in regions where water is already physically or economically scarce. Case studies show the prevalence and diversity of motivations for indirect reuse, but are difficult to interpret in aggregate at the global scale. This study quantifies the global extent and characteristics of the reuse of wastewater in irrigated agriculture through three main components: Quantifying the global extent of urban and peri-urban irrigated and rainfed croplands; Evaluating the contribution of urban wastewater production to available blue water at the catchment scale; Developing an irrigation water quality indicator and classifying irrigated croplands downstream of cities on the basis of this indicator. Each of these components integrates several global scale spatial datasets including MIRCA2000 (irrigated croplands); GDBD (stream channels and catchments); and compilations of water use, sewerage and wastewater treatment data. All analyses were conducted using spatial analysis tools in ArcGIS and Python. This analysis found that 60 percent of all irrigated croplands (130 Mha) were within 20 km of cities. Urban irrigated croplands were found to be farmed with greater cropping intensity (1.48) as compared to non-urban irrigated croplands. Ten percent of the global catchment area is in catchments where domestic wastewater constitutes greater than five percent of available blue water. In contrast, 25 percent of irrigated croplands are located in catchments where domestic wastewater exceeds five percent of available blue water. Particularly in the water scarce regions of North Africa and East Asia, a

  16. Assessment of the natural flow regime in a Mediterranean river impacted from irrigated agriculture.

    PubMed

    Stefanidis, Konstantinos; Panagopoulos, Yiannis; Psomas, Alexandros; Mimikou, Maria

    2016-12-15

    Over the last few decades, the natural flow regime of most rivers has been significantly altered influencing the ecological integrity and functioning of river ecosystems. Especially in the Mediterranean region, irrigated agriculture is considered one of the most important drivers of hydro-morphological modifications in river systems. In this study we employ the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) methodology for the Pinios River and its tributaries, located in a Mediterranean catchment in central Greece, with the purpose to assess the natural flow regime under a simulated no-agriculture scenario and compare with the current situation. The work is based on the use of the SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) model for the simulation of long time series of daily stream flows, which were analyzed under the actual conditions (baseline), and the hypothetical scenario. The key characteristics of the flow regime projected under each model run were assessed through the implementation of the IHA methodology that utilizes a number of indicators to characterize the intra- and inter-annual variability in the hydrologic conditions. The results of this study revealed that without agricultural activities in the catchment, annual and monthly flows would increase, with significant alterations in the flow characteristics of the winter months, and much smaller in summer. However, the analysis showed that the frequency of droughts and low flow summer events would be smaller. The article provides a comprehensive and easy-to-implement methodology that can facilitate the impact assessment of agricultural human activities on river flow variability under the typical Mediterranean conditions, allowing experimentation on setting river flow thresholds required for a good ecological status within the context of the European Water Framework Directive.

  17. A coupled human-natural systems analysis of irrigated agriculture under changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, M.; Li, Y.; Castelletti, A.; Gandolfi, C.

    2016-09-01

    Exponentially growing water demands and increasingly uncertain hydrologic regimes due to changes in climate and land use are challenging the sustainability of agricultural water systems. Farmers must adapt their management strategies in order to secure food production and avoid crop failures. Investigating the potential for adaptation policies in agricultural systems requires accounting for their natural and human components, along with their reciprocal interactions. Yet this feedback is generally overlooked in the water resources systems literature. In this work, we contribute a novel modeling approach to study the coevolution of irrigated agriculture under changing climate, advancing the representation of the human component within agricultural systems by using normative meta-models to describe the behaviors of groups of farmers or institutional decisions. These behavioral models, validated against observational data, are then integrated into a coupled human-natural system simulation model to better represent both systems and their coevolution under future changing climate conditions, assuming the adoption of different policy adaptation options, such as cultivating less water demanding crops. The application to the pilot study of the Adda River basin in northern Italy shows that the dynamic coadaptation of water supply and demand allows farmers to avoid estimated potential losses of more than 10 M€/yr under projected climate changes, while unilateral adaptation of either the water supply or the demand are both demonstrated to be less effective. Results also show that the impact of the different policy options varies as function of drought intensity, with water demand adaptation outperforming water supply adaptation when drought conditions become more severe.

  18. Climate Change Impacts for the Conterminous USA: An Integrated Assessment Part 5. Irrigated Agriculture and National Grain Crop Production

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Allison M.; Rosenberg, Norman J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Brown, Robert A.

    2005-04-01

    Over the next century global warming will lead to changes in weather patterns, affecting many aspects of our environment. In the United States, the one sector of the economy most likely to be directly impacted by the changes in climate is agriculture. We have examined potential changes in dryland agriculture (Part 2) and in water resources necessary for crop production (Part 3). Here we assess to what extent, under a set of climate change scenarios, water supplies will be sufficient to meet the irrigation requirement of major grain crops in the U.S. In addition, we assess the overall impacts of changes in water supply on national grain production. We applied 12 climate change scenarios based on the predictions of General Circulation Models to a water resources model and a crop growth simulator for the conterminous United States. We calculate national production in current crop growing regions by applying irrigation where it is necessary and water is available. Irrigation declines under all climate change scenarios employed in this study. In certain regions and scenarios, precipitation declines so much that water supplies are too limited; in other regions it plentiful enough that little value is derived from irrigation. Total crop production is greater when irrigation is applied, but corn and soybean production declines under most scenarios. Winter wheat production responds significantly to elevated atmospheric CO2 and appears likely to increase under climate change.

  19. Sorption, desorption and displacement of ibuprofen, estrone, and 17β estradiol in wastewater irrigated and rainfed agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Durán-Álvarez, Juan C; Prado, Blanca; Ferroud, Anouck; Juayerk, Narcedalia; Jiménez-Cisneros, Blanca

    2014-03-01

    Sorption and leaching potential of ibuprofen, estrone and 17β estradiol were tested in two agricultural soils: one irrigated using municipal wastewater and the other used in rainfed agriculture. Batch sorption-desorption experiments and undisturbed soil column assays were carried out using both soils to which were added a mixture of the target compounds. The three compounds were sorbed to a different extent by both soils: estrone>17β estradiol>ibuprofen. Higher sorption was observed in the irrigated soil, which was attributed to the accumulation of organic matter caused by wastewater irrigation. Desorption of hormones was hysteretic in the irrigated soil, while ibuprofen showed low hysteresis in both soils. Retardation of the compounds' displacement was consistent with the sorption pattern observed in the batch tests. Retardation factor (RF) was similar for the three compounds in the two tested soils, indicating that the target compounds are much more mobile in the soil columns than would be predicted based on their equilibrium sorption parameters. The results obtained in the experiments clarify the role of wastewater irrigated soils as a filter and degradation media for the target micropollutants.

  20. U.S. Irrigation. Extent and Economic Importance. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 523.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, John C.; Horner, Gerald L.

    Data for the years 1974, 1978, 1982, and 1984 are used to identify the principal features of irrigated farming in the United States and to assess the importance of irrigation to the farm economy. Irrigation of U.S. acreage declined 5.6 million acres between 1978 and 1984 to 44.7 million acres. In 1982 irrigated acreage represented 6 percent of the…

  1. Irrigation-dependent wetlands versus instream flow enhancement: economics of water transfers from agriculture to wildlife uses.

    PubMed

    Peck, Dannele E; McLeod, Doanald M; Hewlett, John P; Lovvorn, James R

    2004-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture throughout western North America faces increasing pressure to transfer water to nonagricultural uses, including instream flows for fish and wildlife management. In an important case, increased instream flows are needed in Nebraska's Platte River for recovery of threatened and endangered fish and wildlife species. Irrigated agriculture in the Laramie Basin of southeast Wyoming is a potential water source for the effort to enhance instream flow. However, flood irrigation of hayfields in the Laramie Basin has created many wetlands, both ephemeral and permanent, over the last century. Attempting to increase Platte River instream flows by purchasing water rights or improving irrigation efficiency in the Laramie Basin would transform irrigated agriculture, causing a substantial fraction of the Laramie Basin's wetlands to be lost. A creative solution is needed to prevent the sacrifice of one ecosystem on behalf of another. A rotating short-term water-leasing program is proposed. The program allows Laramie Basin producers to contribute to instream flows while continuing to support local wetlands. Permanent wetland desiccation is prevented and regional environmental water needs are met without impairing local ecological resources. Budget analysis is used to provide an initial cost estimate for acquiring water from agriculture through the short-term leasing program. The proposed approach is more expensive than traditional programs but allows contribution to instream flows without major wetland loss. Short-term leasing is a more efficient approach if benefits from wetlands exceed the difference in cost between the short-term lease program and programs that do not conserve wetlands.

  2. Microbial Community of High Arsenic Groundwater in Agricultural Irrigation Area of Hetao Plain, Inner Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhong; Li, Ping; Jiang, Zhou; Sinkkonen, Aki; Wang, Shi; Tu, Jin; Wei, Dazhun; Dong, Hailiang; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Microbial communities can play important role in arsenic release in groundwater aquifers. To investigate the microbial communities in high arsenic groundwater aquifers in agricultural irrigation area, 17 groundwater samples with different arsenic concentrations were collected along the agricultural drainage channels of Hangjinhouqi County, Inner Mongolia and examined by illumina MiSeq sequencing approach targeting the V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes. Both principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering results indicated that these samples were divided into two groups (high and low arsenic groups) according to the variation of geochemical characteristics. Arsenic concentrations showed strongly positive correlations with [Formula: see text] and total organic carbon (TOC). Sequencing results revealed that a total of 329-2823 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed at the 97% OTU level. Microbial richness and diversity of high arsenic groundwater samples along the drainage channels were lower than those of low arsenic groundwater samples but higher than those of high arsenic groundwaters from strongly reducing areas. The microbial community structure in groundwater along the drainage channels was different from those in strongly reducing arsenic-rich aquifers of Hetao Plain and other high arsenic groundwater aquifers including Bangladesh, West Bengal, and Vietnam. Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas dominated with high percentages in both high and low arsenic groundwaters. Alishewanella, Psychrobacter, Methylotenera, and Crenothrix showed relatively high abundances in high arsenic groundwater, while Rheinheimera and the unidentified OP3 were predominant populations in low arsenic groundwater. Archaeal populations displayed a low occurrence and mainly dominated by methanogens such as Methanocorpusculum and Methanospirillum. Microbial community compositions were different between high and low arsenic groundwater samples based on the results of principal

  3. Microbial Community of High Arsenic Groundwater in Agricultural Irrigation Area of Hetao Plain, Inner Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanhong; Li, Ping; Jiang, Zhou; Sinkkonen, Aki; Wang, Shi; Tu, Jin; Wei, Dazhun; Dong, Hailiang; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Microbial communities can play important role in arsenic release in groundwater aquifers. To investigate the microbial communities in high arsenic groundwater aquifers in agricultural irrigation area, 17 groundwater samples with different arsenic concentrations were collected along the agricultural drainage channels of Hangjinhouqi County, Inner Mongolia and examined by illumina MiSeq sequencing approach targeting the V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes. Both principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering results indicated that these samples were divided into two groups (high and low arsenic groups) according to the variation of geochemical characteristics. Arsenic concentrations showed strongly positive correlations with NH4+ and total organic carbon (TOC). Sequencing results revealed that a total of 329–2823 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed at the 97% OTU level. Microbial richness and diversity of high arsenic groundwater samples along the drainage channels were lower than those of low arsenic groundwater samples but higher than those of high arsenic groundwaters from strongly reducing areas. The microbial community structure in groundwater along the drainage channels was different from those in strongly reducing arsenic-rich aquifers of Hetao Plain and other high arsenic groundwater aquifers including Bangladesh, West Bengal, and Vietnam. Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas dominated with high percentages in both high and low arsenic groundwaters. Alishewanella, Psychrobacter, Methylotenera, and Crenothrix showed relatively high abundances in high arsenic groundwater, while Rheinheimera and the unidentified OP3 were predominant populations in low arsenic groundwater. Archaeal populations displayed a low occurrence and mainly dominated by methanogens such as Methanocorpusculum and Methanospirillum. Microbial community compositions were different between high and low arsenic groundwater samples based on the results of principal coordinate

  4. Irrigated agriculture in Italy and water regulation under the European Union water framework directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzani, G. M.; di Pasquale, S.; Gallerani, V.; Viaggi, D.

    2004-07-01

    The legal framework in the EU is faced today with the new water framework directive (WFD) (60/2000) that sets up new criteria for water management, regulation, and pricing. The aim of this paper is to analyze the problem of water regulation in agriculture in connection to the WFD. This is done by setting up and testing a simulation model based on the integration of a mathematical programming model at farm level and an optimal regulation model at the level of irrigation boards. The model allows quantifying water demand and optimal regulation from the policy maker's point of view. When implementing both full cost recovery and the polluter pays principle, the results show likely major impacts of water pricing on farm income and employment. The optimal policy is a combination of pricing instruments related at the same time to crop mix, water consumption, and pollution. Transaction costs connected to policy implementation have to be weighted against the incentive benefits of volumetric pricing. Altogether, economic, social, and environmental issues have to be carefully considered in order to design suitable water policies.

  5. A reconnaissance study of the effect of irrigated agriculture on water quality in the Ogallala Formation, Central High Plains Aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Peter B.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program began a regional study of water quality in the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer underlies an area of about 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States. Because of its large size, the High Plains aquifer has been divided into three regions: the Southern High Plains, Central High Plains, and Northern High Plains (fig. 1A). Although an assessment of water quality in each of the three regions is planned, the initial focus will be the Central High Plains aquifer. Anyone who has flown over the Central High Plains in the summer and has seen the large green circles associated with center pivot sprinklers (fig. 2) knows that irrigated agriculture is a widespread land use. Pesticides and fertilizers applied on those irrigated fields will not degrade ground-water quality if they remain in or above the root zone (fig. 3). However, if those chemicals move downward through the unsaturated zone to the water table, they may degrade the quality of the ground water. Water is the principal agent for transporting chemicals from land surface to the water table, and in the semiarid Central High Plains, irrigation often represents the most abundant source of water during the growing season. One objective of NAWQA's High Plains Regional Ground-Water study is to evaluate the effect of irrigated agriculture on the quality of recently recharged water in the Ogallala Formation of the Central High Plains aquifer (figs. 1A and 1B). The Ogallala Formation is the principal geologic unit in the Central High Plains aquifer, and it consists of poorly sorted clay, silt, sand, and gravel that generally is unconsolidated (Gutentag and others, 1984). Approximately 23 percent of the cropland overlying the Ogallala Formation is irrigated (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1999). The NAWQA Program generally defines recently recharged ground water to be water recharged in the last 50 years. The water table in

  6. Implementation of efficient irrigation management for a sustainable agriculture. LIFE+ project IRRIMAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro; Garcia-Vila, Margarita; Gamero-Ojeda, Pedro; Ascensión Carmona, M.°; Hernandez, David; José Alarcón, Juan; Nicolás, Emilio; Nortes, Pedro; Aroca, Antonio; María de la Rosa, Jose; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Molina, Angel; Torres, Roque; Ruiz, Manuel; Calatrava, Javier

    2016-04-01

    In water scarcity areas, it must be highlighted that the maximum productions of the crops do not necessarily imply maximum profitability. Therefore, during the last years a special interest in the development of deficit irrigation strategies based on significant reductions of the seasonal ET without affecting production or quality has been observed. The strategies of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) are based on the reduction of water supply during non critical periods, the covering of water needs during critical periods and maximizing, at the same time, the production by unit of applied water. But its success greatly depends on the adequate application of the water deficit and requires a continuous and precise control of the plant and soil water status to adjust the water supplies at every crop phenological period. The main objective of this project is to implement, demonstrate and disseminate a sustainable irrigation strategy based on deficit irrigation to promote its large scale acceptance and use in woody crops in Mediterranean agroecosystems, characterized by water scarcity, without affecting the quality standards demanded by exportation markets. With the adoption of this irrigation management we mean to ensure efficient use of water resources, improving quantitative water management, preserving high level of water quality and avoiding misuse and deterioration of water resources. The adoption of efficient irrigation will also lead to increments in water productivity, increments in the potential carbon fixation of the agroecosystem, and decrease energy costs of pressurized irrigation, together with mitigation and adaptation to climate change. The project will achieve the general objective by implication of farmers, irrigation communities, agronomists, industry, consultants, associations and public administration, by increments in social awareness for sustainable irrigation benefits, optimization of irrigation scheduling, improvements in technology, and

  7. Effect of Agricultural Practices on Hydrology and Water Chemistry in a Small Irrigated Catchment, Yakima River Basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Johnson, Henry M.

    2009-01-01

    The role of irrigation and artificial drainage in the hydrologic cycle and the transport of solutes in a small agricultural catchment in central Washington's Yakima Valley were explored using hydrologic, chemical, isotopic, age-dating, and mineralogical data from several environmental compartments, including stream water, ground water, overland flow, and streambed pore water. A conceptual understanding of catchment hydrology and solute transport was developed and an inverse end-member mixing analysis was used to further explore the effects of agriculture in this small catchment. The median concentrations of major solutes and nitrates were similar for the single field site and for the catchment outflow site, indicating that the net effects of transport processes for these constituents were similar at both scales. However, concentrations of nutrients were different at the two sites, suggesting that field-scale variations in agricultural practices as well as nearstream and instream biochemical processes are important components of agricultural chemical transformation and transport in this catchment. This work indicates that irrigation coupled with artificial drainage networks may exacerbate the ecological effects of agricultural runoff by increasing direct connectivity between fields and streams and minimizing potentially mitigating effects (denitrification and dilution, for example) of longer subsurface pathways.

  8. Economic impacts on irrigated agriculture of water conservation programs in drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes vulnerability, impacts, and adaptability by irrigation to drought.It accounts for economic incentives affecting choices on irrigation technology, crop mix, and water sources.When surface water supplies fall, farmers increase pumping, even when pumping raises production costs.Conservation program subsidies raise the value of food production but can increase crop water depletions.

  9. HYDRUS-1D Modeling of an Irrigated Agricultural Plot with Application to Aquifer Recharge Estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variety of methods are available for estimating aquifer recharge in semi-arid regions, each with advantages and disadvantages. We are investigating a procedure for estimating recharge in an irrigated basin. The method involves computing irrigation return flows based on HYDRUS-1D modeling of root z...

  10. A modeling approach for agricultural water management in citrus orchards: cost-effective irrigation scheduling and agrochemical transport simulation.

    PubMed

    Kourgialas, Nektarios N; Karatzas, George P

    2015-07-01

    The water flow and the mass transport of agrochemicals in the unsaturated and saturated zone were simulated in the extended alluvial basin of Keritis river in Crete, Greece (a predominantly flat and most productive citrus growing area) using the hydrological model MIKE SHE. This model was set up based on information on land use, geology, soil structure, meteorological data, as well as groundwater level data from pumping wells. Additionally, field measurements of the soil moisture at six different locations from three soil depths (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 m) were used as targets to calibrate and validate the unsaturated flow model while for saturated condition, groundwater level data from three well locations were used. Following the modeling approach, the agrochemical mass transport simulation was performed as well, based on different application doses. After the successful calibration processes, the obtained 1D modeling results of soil moisture-pressure related to soil depth at different locations were used to design a proper and cost-effective irrigation programme (irrigation timing, frequency, application rates, etc.) for citrus orchards. The results of the present simulation showed a very good correlation with the field measurements. Based on these results, a proper irrigation plan can be designed at every site of the model domain reducing the water consumption up to 38% with respect to the common irrigation practices and ensuring the citrus water productivity. In addition, the effect of the proposed irrigation scheduling on citrus yield was investigated. Regarding the agrochemical concentration in the groundwater for all dose cases was below the maximum permissible limit. The only exception was for the highest dose in areas where the water table is high. Thus, this modeling approach could be used as a tool for appropriate water management in an agricultural area estimating at each time and location the availability of soil water, contributing to a cost

  11. A simulation-based suitability index of the quality and quantity of agricultural drainage water for reuse in irrigation.

    PubMed

    Allam, Ayman; Fleifle, Amr; Tawfik, Ahmed; Yoshimura, Chihiro; El-Saadi, Aiman

    2015-12-01

    The suitability of agricultural drainage water (ADW) for reuse in irrigation was indexed based on a simulation of quality and quantity. The ADW reuse index (DWRI) has two components; the first one indicates the suitability of water quality (QLT) for reuse in irrigation based on the mixing ratio of ADW to canal irrigation water without violating the standards of using mixed water in irrigation, while the second indicates the available water quantity (QNT) based on the ratio of the available ADW to the required reuse discharge to meet the irrigation requirements alongside the drain. The QLT and QNT values ranged from 0 to ≥3 and from 0 to ≥0.40, respectively. Correspondingly, five classes from excellent to poor and from high scarcity to no scarcity were proposed to classify the QLT and QNT values, respectively. This approach was then applied to the Gharbia drain in the Nile Delta, Egypt, combined with QUAL2Kw simulations in the summer and winter of 2012. The QLT values along the drain ranged from 1.11 to 2.91 and 0.68 to 1.73 for summer and winter, respectively. Correspondingly, the QLT classes ranged from good to very good and from fair to good, respectively. In regard to QNT, values ranged from 0.10 to 0.62 and from 0.10 to 0.88 for summer and winter, respectively. Correspondingly, the QNT classes ranged from medium scarcity to no scarcity for both seasons. The demonstration of DWRI in the Gharbia drain suggests that the proposed index presents a simple tool for spatially evaluating the suitability of ADW for reuse in irrigation.

  12. Impact of acid effluent from Kawah Ijen crater lake on irrigated agricultural soils: Soil chemical processes and plant uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rotterdam-Los, A. M. D.; Heikens, A.; Vriend, S. P.; van Bergen, M. J.; van Gaans, P. F. M.

    2008-12-01

    Volcanogenic contamination of irrigation water, caused by effluent from the hyperacid Ijen crater lake, has severely affected the properties of agricultural soils in East Java, Indonesia. From a comparison of acidified topsoil with subsoil and with top- and subsoil in a reference area, we identified processes responsible for changes in soil and soil solution chemistry induced by acid irrigation water, with emphasis on the nutrients Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn, and on Al, which may become phytotoxic under acid conditions in soils. Compositional data for bulk soil composition and selective extractions with 1 M KCl and 0.2 M acid ammonium oxalate are used in a mass balance approach to specify element fluxes, including uptake by rice plants. The results show that input via irrigation water has produced an increase in the total aluminum content in the affected topsoil, which is of the same order of magnitude as the increase in labile Al. High bioavailability of Al, as reflected by concentrations in KCl extracts, is consistent with elevated concentrations observed in rice plants. In contrast, and despite the high input via irrigation water, Ca and Mg concentrations have decreased in all measured soil fractions through dissolution of amorphous phases and minerals, and through competition of Al for adsorption sites on the exchange complex and plant roots. Strong leaching is also evident for Fe and especially Mn. In terms of the overall mass balance of the topsoil, plant uptake of Al, Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn is negligible. If the use of acid irrigation would be stopped and the soil pH were to increase to values above 4.5, the observed phytotoxicity of Al will be halted. However, crops may then become fully dependent on the input from irrigation water or fertilizer for essential elements, due to the previous removal from the topsoil through leaching.

  13. A study on agricultural drought vulnerability at disaggregated level in a highly irrigated and intensely cropped state of India.

    PubMed

    Murthy, C S; Yadav, Manoj; Mohammed Ahamed, J; Laxman, B; Prawasi, R; Sesha Sai, M V R; Hooda, R S

    2015-03-01

    Drought is an important global hazard, challenging the sustainable agriculture and food security of nations. Measuring agricultural drought vulnerability is a prerequisite for targeting interventions to improve and sustain the agricultural performance of both irrigated and rain-fed agriculture. In this study, crop-generic agricultural drought vulnerability status is empirically measured through a composite index approach. The study area is Haryana state, India, a prime agriculture state of the country, characterised with low rainfall, high irrigation support and stable cropping pattern. By analysing the multiyear rainfall and crop condition data of kharif crop season (June-October) derived from satellite data and soil water holding capacity and groundwater quality, nine contributing indicators were generated for 120 blocks (sub-district administrative units). Composite indices for exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity components were generated after assigning variance-based weightages to the respective input indicators. Agricultural Drought Vulnerability Index (ADVI) was developed through a linear combination of the three component indices. ADVI-based vulnerability categorisation revealed that 51 blocks are with vulnerable to very highly vulnerable status. These blocks are located in the southern and western parts of the state, where groundwater quality is saline and water holding capacity of soils is less. The ADVI map has effectively captured the spatial pattern of agricultural drought vulnerability in the state. Districts with large number of vulnerable blocks showed considerably larger variability of de-trended crop yields. Correlation analysis reveals that crop condition variability, groundwater quality and soil factors are closely associated with ADVI. The vulnerability index is useful to prioritise the blocks for implementation of long-term drought management plans. There is scope for improving the methodology by adding/fine-tuning the indicators and

  14. Predictors of blood lead levels in agricultural villages practicing wastewater irrigation in Central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, E; Villanueva, J; Sanin, L H

    2000-01-01

    To investigate whether the agricultural use of untreated wastewater (i.e. crop irrigation) was associated with elevated blood lead levels in a farming population in the Mezquital Valley and which risk factors, other than exposure to untreated wastewater, were associated with elevated blood lead levels, lead levels were measured in venous blood obtained from 735 individuals. Blood samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Food habits and dietary intake were gathered by interview, using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. The average blood lead level was 7.8 microg/dL (SD 4.66 microg/dL; range 1.2-36.7 microg/dL). 23% of the study population had blood lead levels exceeding 10 microg/dL. The use of lead-glazed ceramics (LGC) was significantly associated with elevated lead levels (p = < 0.001). Other significant variables included age, gender (males), and non-farming-related occupations (e.g., technicians, factory workers). p = 0.005, 0.08, and 0.001, respectively. When the analysis was stratified by the use of LGC for food preparation, an inverse relationship between higher daily calcium intake and blood lead level was detected (beta = - 0.040, p = < 0.05). Thus, blood lead levels were positively associated with the use of LGC. Calcium intake showed a protective effect, maybe by decreasing absorption of lead in the gastrointestinal tract. No association between occupational exposure to untreated wastewater or crop consumption and blood lead levels was detected. Further environmental and health surveillance is recommended.

  15. Detection of Anthropogenic pressures on western Mediterranean irrigation systems (La Albufera de Valencia agriculture system, eastern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Aguilar, J. A.; Andreu, V.; Picó, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Irrigation systems are considered as one of the major landscapes features in western Mediterranean environments. Both socio-economic and cultural elements are interrelated in their development and preservation. Generally, due to their location in flat lands and close to major urban-industrial zones, irrigation lands are suffering of intense pressures that can alter their agricultural values, environmental quality and, consequently, the sustainability of the systems. To understand the nature of anthropogenic pressures on large Mediterranean water agricultural systems a methodology based on environmental forensics criteria has been developed and applied to La Albufera Natural Park in Valencia (Eastern Spain), a protected area where traditional irrigation systems exists since Muslim times (from 8th to 15th centuries). The study analysed impacts on water and soils, for the first case the fate of emerging contaminants of urban origin (pharmaceuticals and illegal drugs) are analysed. Impact on soils is analysed using the dynamics urban expansion and the loss and fragmentation of soils. The study focused is organised around two major procedures: (1) analysis of 16 water samples to identify the presence of 14 illicit drugs and 17 pharmaceutical compounds by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry techniques; (2) spatial analysis with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) integrating different sources and data formats such as water analysis, social, location of sewage water treatment plan and the synchronic comparison of two soil sealing layers -for the years 1991 and 2010. Results show that there is a clear trend in the introduction of pharmaceutical in the irrigation water through previous use of urban consumption and, in many cases, for receiving the effluents of wastewaters treatment plants. Impacts on soils are also important incidence in the fragmentation and disappearance of agricultural land due to soil sealing, even within the protected area of the Natural Park

  16. Agricultural irrigation mediates climatic effects and density dependence in population dynamics of Chinese striped hamster in North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chuan; Xu, Lei; Xu, Tongqin; Cao, Xiaoping; Wang, Fusheng; Wang, Shuqing; Hao, Shoushen; Yang, Hefang; Zhang, Zhibin

    2013-03-01

    Several studies show that climatic (extrinsic) factors can interact with density-dependent (intrinsic) factors to alter long-term population dynamics, yet there is a surprising lack of investigations of how anthropogenic disturbance modifies such dynamics. Such interactions could be especially important in agricultural systems subject to climate change. We investigated the effects of density dependence, climate, recurrent disturbance from flood irrigation and their interactions on the population dynamics of an important rodent pest, the Chinese striped hamster (Cricetulus barabensis), over 27 years in the croplands of the North China Plain. Strong density-dependent feedbacks occurred at both annual and seasonal scales. While warmer weather increased population sizes in nonbreeding seasons, this effect was counteracted by the negative effect of flood irrigation in breeding seasons. Precipitation showed significant positive effects in nonbreeding seasons, but negative effects in breeding seasons. There were important interactions between intrinsic dynamics, extrinsic dynamics and disturbance. Low temperature significantly increased the strength of density dependence in nonbreeding seasons, whereas intensification of flood irrigation area significantly increased the strength of density dependence but reduced the effect of summer precipitation in breeding seasons. Overall climate change is expected to increase population levels, but anthropogenic disturbance from flood irrigation will help prevent long-term population increases. The interactions between anthropogenic disturbance and both intrinsic and extrinsic (weather-driven) population dynamics caution that we need to consider anthropogenic disturbance as an integral component of population responses to climate change.

  17. Analysis of the research and development effort in the private sector to reduce energy consumption in irrigated agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, E.A.; Cone, B.W.

    1980-09-01

    Manufacturers of irrigation equipment perform research and development in an effort to improve or maintain their position in a very competitive market. The market forces and conditions that create the intense competition and provide incentive for invention are described. Particular emphasis is placed on the market force of increased energy costs, but the analysis is developed from the perspective that energy is but one of many inputs to agricultural production. The analysis is based upon published literature, patent activity profiles, microeconomic theory, and conversations with many representatives of the irrigation industry. The published literature provides an understanding of the historical development of irrigation technology, a description of the industry's structure, and various data, which were important for the quantitative analyses. The patent activity profiles, obtained from the US Patent Office, provided details of patent activity within the irrigation industry over the past decade. Microeconomic theory was used to estimate industry-wide research and development expenditures on energy-conserving products. The results of these analyses were then compared with the insights gained from conversations with the industry representatives.

  18. A dynamic model of soil salinity and drainage generation in irrigated agriculture: A framework for policy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinar, Ariel; Aillery, Marcel P.; Moore, Michael R.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model of irrigated agriculture that accounts for drainage generation and salinity accumulation. Critical model relationships involving crop production, soil salinity, and irrigation drainage are based on newly estimated functions derived from lysimeter field tests. The model allocates land and water inputs over time based on an intertemporal profit maximization objective function and soil salinity accumulation process. The model is applied to conditions in the San Joaquin Valley of California, where environmental degradation from irrigation drainage has become a policy issue. Findings indicate that in the absence of regulation, drainage volumes increase over time before reaching a steady state as increased quantities of water are allocated to leaching soil salts. The model is used to evaluate alternative drainage abatement scenarios involving drainage quotas and taxes, water supply quotas and taxes, and irrigation technology subsidies. In our example, direct drainage policies are more cost-effective in reducing drainage than policies operating indirectly through surface water use, although differences in cost efficiency are relatively small. In some cases, efforts to control drainage may result in increased soil salinity accumulation, with implications for long-term cropland productivity. While policy adjustments may alter the direction and duration of convergence to a steady state, findings suggest that a dynamic model specification may not be necessary due to rapid convergence to a comon steady state under selected scenarios.

  19. The Influence of Groundwater Depletion from Irrigated Agriculture on the Tradeoffs between Ecosystem Services and Economic Returns.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Kent; West, Grant

    2016-01-01

    An irrigated agricultural landscape experiencing groundwater overdraft generates economic returns and a suite of ecosystem services (in particular, groundwater supply, greenhouse gases reduction, and surface water quality). Alternative land cover choices indicate tradeoffs among the value of ecosystem services created and the economic returns. These tradeoffs are explored using efficiency frontiers that determine the least value in ecosystem services that must be given up to generate additional economic returns. Agricultural producers may switch to irrigation with surface water using on-farm reservoirs and tail water recovery systems in response to groundwater overdraft, and this has consequences for the bundle of ecosystem service values and economic returns achievable from the landscape. Planning that accounts for both ecosystem service value and economic returns can achieve more value for society, as does the adoption of reservoirs though lowering the costs of irrigation, increasing groundwater levels, and reducing fuel combustion and associated GHG emissions from groundwater pumping. Sensitivity analyses of per unit value of ecosystem services, crop prices, and the groundwater and water purification model parameters indicate tradeoff among ecosystems service values, such as the use of a high-end social cost of carbon ultimately lowers groundwater supply and water purification value by more than 15%.

  20. The Influence of Groundwater Depletion from Irrigated Agriculture on the Tradeoffs between Ecosystem Services and Economic Returns

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, Kent; West, Grant

    2016-01-01

    An irrigated agricultural landscape experiencing groundwater overdraft generates economic returns and a suite of ecosystem services (in particular, groundwater supply, greenhouse gases reduction, and surface water quality). Alternative land cover choices indicate tradeoffs among the value of ecosystem services created and the economic returns. These tradeoffs are explored using efficiency frontiers that determine the least value in ecosystem services that must be given up to generate additional economic returns. Agricultural producers may switch to irrigation with surface water using on-farm reservoirs and tail water recovery systems in response to groundwater overdraft, and this has consequences for the bundle of ecosystem service values and economic returns achievable from the landscape. Planning that accounts for both ecosystem service value and economic returns can achieve more value for society, as does the adoption of reservoirs though lowering the costs of irrigation, increasing groundwater levels, and reducing fuel combustion and associated GHG emissions from groundwater pumping. Sensitivity analyses of per unit value of ecosystem services, crop prices, and the groundwater and water purification model parameters indicate tradeoff among ecosystems service values, such as the use of a high-end social cost of carbon ultimately lowers groundwater supply and water purification value by more than 15%. PMID:28033405

  1. Stable isotope and groundwater flow dynamics of agricultural irrigation recharge into groundwater resources of the Central Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M.L.; Criss, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    Intensive agricultural irrigation and overdraft of groundwater in the Central Valley of California profoundly affect the regional quality and availability of shallow groundwater resources. In the natural state, the {delta}{sup 18}O values of groundwater were relatively homogeneous (mostly -7.0 {+-} 0.5{per_thousand}), reflecting local meteoric recharge that slowly (1-3m/yr) flowed toward the valley axis. Today, on the west side of the valley, the isotope distribution is dominated by high {sup 18}O enclosures formed by recharge of evaporated irrigation waters, while the east side has bands of low {sup 18}O groundwater indicating induced recharge from rivers draining the Sierra Nevada mountains. Changes in {delta}{sup 18}O values caused by the agricultural recharge strongly correlate with elevated nitrate concentrations (5 to >100 mg/L) that form pervasive, non-point source pollutants. Small, west-side cities dependent solely on groundwater resources have experienced increases of >1.0 mg/L per year of nitrate for 10-30 years. The resultant high nitrates threaten the economical use of the groundwater for domestic purposes, and have forced some well shut-downs. Furthermore, since >80% of modern recharge is now derived from agricultural irrigation, and because modern recharge rates are {approximately}10 times those of the natural state, agricultural land retirement by urbanization will severely curtail the current safe-yields and promote overdraft pumping. Such overdrafting has occurred in the Sacramento metropolitan area for {approximately}40 years, creating cones of depression {approximately}25m deep. Today, groundwater withdrawal in Sacramento is approximately matched by infiltration of low {sup 18}O water (-11.0{per_thousand}) away from the Sacramento and American Rivers, which is estimated to occur at 100-300m/year from the sharp {sup 18}O gradients in our groundwater isotope map.

  2. Assessing the Groundwater Quality at a Saudi Arabian Agricultural Site and the Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens on Irrigated Food Produce

    PubMed Central

    Alsalah, Dhafer; Al-Jassim, Nada; Timraz, Kenda; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the groundwater quality in wells situated near agricultural fields in Saudi Arabia. Fruits (e.g., tomato and green pepper) irrigated with groundwater were also assessed for the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens to determine if food safety was compromised by the groundwater. The amount of total nitrogen in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the 15 mg/L permissible limit for agricultural irrigation. Fecal coliforms in densities > 12 MPN/100 mL were detected in three of the groundwater wells that were in close proximity to a chicken farm. These findings, coupled with qPCR-based fecal source tracking, show that groundwater in wells D and E, which were nearest to the chicken farm, had compromised quality. Anthropogenic contamination resulted in a shift in the predominant bacterial phyla within the groundwater microbial communities. For example, there was an elevated presence of Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria in wells D and E but a lower overall microbial richness in the groundwater perturbed by anthropogenic contamination. In the remaining wells, the genus Acinetobacter was detected at high relative abundance ranging from 1.5% to 48% of the total groundwater microbial community. However, culture-based analysis did not recover any antibiotic-resistant bacteria or opportunistic pathogens from these groundwater samples. In contrast, opportunistic pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from the fruits irrigated with the groundwater from wells B and F. Although the groundwater was compromised, quantitative microbial risk assessment suggests that the annual risk incurred from accidental consumption of E. faecalis on these fruits was within the acceptable limit of 10−4. However, the annual risk arising from P. aeruginosa was 9.55 × 10−4, slightly above the acceptable limit. Our findings highlight that the groundwater quality at this agricultural site in western Saudi Arabia is not pristine and that better

  3. Assessing the Groundwater Quality at a Saudi Arabian Agricultural Site and the Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens on Irrigated Food Produce.

    PubMed

    Alsalah, Dhafer; Al-Jassim, Nada; Timraz, Kenda; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2015-10-05

    This study examines the groundwater quality in wells situated near agricultural fields in Saudi Arabia. Fruits (e.g., tomato and green pepper) irrigated with groundwater were also assessed for the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens to determine if food safety was compromised by the groundwater. The amount of total nitrogen in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the 15 mg/L permissible limit for agricultural irrigation. Fecal coliforms in densities > 12 MPN/100 mL were detected in three of the groundwater wells that were in close proximity to a chicken farm. These findings, coupled with qPCR-based fecal source tracking, show that groundwater in wells D and E, which were nearest to the chicken farm, had compromised quality. Anthropogenic contamination resulted in a shift in the predominant bacterial phyla within the groundwater microbial communities. For example, there was an elevated presence of Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria in wells D and E but a lower overall microbial richness in the groundwater perturbed by anthropogenic contamination. In the remaining wells, the genus Acinetobacter was detected at high relative abundance ranging from 1.5% to 48% of the total groundwater microbial community. However, culture-based analysis did not recover any antibiotic-resistant bacteria or opportunistic pathogens from these groundwater samples. In contrast, opportunistic pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from the fruits irrigated with the groundwater from wells B and F. Although the groundwater was compromised, quantitative microbial risk assessment suggests that the annual risk incurred from accidental consumption of E. faecalis on these fruits was within the acceptable limit of 10(-4). However, the annual risk arising from P. aeruginosa was 9.55 × 10(-4), slightly above the acceptable limit. Our findings highlight that the groundwater quality at this agricultural site in western Saudi Arabia is not pristine and that better

  4. Faecal contamination indicators, Salmonella, Vibrio and Aeromonas in water used for the irrigation of agricultural products.

    PubMed Central

    Pianietti, A.; Sabatini, L.; Bruscolini, F.; Chiaverini, F.; Cecchetti, G.

    2004-01-01

    The faecal contamination indicators (total coliforms, faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci) and the genera Salmonella, Vibrio, Aeromonas were investigated in water samples used for irrigation. During 4 months, 52 samples were taken. The methods used were: multiple tube fermentation method for faecal contamination indicators and membrane filtration techniques for salmonella, aeromonas and vibrio. Two samples were positive for Salmonella spp., fourteen for Aeromonas spp. and no samples for Vibrio spp. No correlation was found between aeromonas and the indicators of faecal contamination. Regarding Aeromonas spp., 21.6% of the strains were adhesive and 12.6% cytotoxic: this confirms the possible role of aeromonas in human pathologies. These results are important to determine the quality of irrigation water in relation to human health. In fact, the spray or sprinkler irrigation produces bioaerosol, which can contaminate the crops that are likely to be eaten uncooked. In addition, the flood or furrow irrigation represents a risk to field workers. PMID:15061497

  5. Heavy metal input to agricultural soils from irrigation with treated wastewater: Insight from Pb isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Cary, Lise; Psarras, Georgios; Surdyk, Nicolas; Chartzoulakis, Kostas; Pettenati, Marie; Maton, Laure

    2010-05-01

    A major objective of the EU FP6 project SAFIR was to overcome certain drawbacks of wastewater reuse through the development of a new irrigation technology combining small-scale modular water treatment plants on farm level and improved irrigation hardware, in the aim to lower the risks related to low quality water and to increase water use efficiency. This innovative technology was tested in several hydro-climatic contexts (Crete, Italy, Serbia, China) on experimental irrigated tomato and potato fields. Here we present the heavy metal variations in soil after medium-term (3 irrigation seasons from 2006-2008) use of treated municipal wastewater with a special focus on lead and lead isotope signatures. The experimental site is located in Chania, Crete. A matrix of plots were irrigated, combining different water qualities (secondary, primary treated wastewater, tap water, partially spiked with heavy metals, going through newly developed tertiary treatment systems) with different irrigation strategies (surface and subsurface drip irrigation combined with full irrigation and partial root drying). In order to assess small scale heavy metal distribution around a drip emitter, Pb isotope tracing was used, combined with selective extraction. The sampling for Pb isotope fingerprinting was performed after the 3rd season of ww-irrigation on a lateral profile from a drip irrigator (half distance between drip lines, i.e. 50cm) and three depth intervals (0-10, 10-20, 20-40 cm). These samples were lixiviated through a 3 step selective extraction procedure giving rise to the bio-accessible, mobile and residual fraction: CaCl2/NaNO3 (bio-accessible fraction), DPTA (mobile fraction), total acid attack (residual fraction). Those samples were analysed for trace elements (including heavy metals) and major inorganic compounds by ICP-MS. The extracted fractions were then analysed by Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) for their lead isotope fingerprints (204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb

  6. Isotopic evidence for a link between agricultural irrigation and high arsenic concentrations in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Wang, Y.; Shock, E.

    2011-12-01

    from various depths (10m~200m) induces the age diversity of the shallow groundwaters. This interpretation is supported by the variations in the δ18O and δD data. Intensive agricultural activities in the Datong Basin, including extensive pumping of irrigation water from aquifers of various depths, may be changing the hydrology of the shallow groundwater system and directly affecting the arsenic distribution in the groundwater. [1] Shvartsev, S. L. and Wang, Y. X. (2006). "Geochemistry of sodic waters in the Datong intermountain basin, Shanxi Province, northwestern China." Geochemistry International 44(10): 1015-1026. [2] Xie, X. J., Ellis A., Wang, Y. X., et al. (2009). "Geochemistry of redox-sensitive elements and sulfur isotopes in the high arsenic groundwater system of Datong Basin, China." Science of the Total Environment 407(12): 3823-3835.

  7. Impact of Irrigated Agriculture on Soil C Storage and Atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, D. L.; Water Reuse; Remediation Unit

    2011-12-01

    In arid regions inorganic C (IC) can comprise more than 90% of the total C in the soil. The link of this C pool to atmospheric CO2 and climate change relates primarily to the precipitation/dissolution of the carbonate minerals in the near surface environment. The impact of changes in soil IC on atmospheric CO2 depends on local environmental and hydrological conditions. Under most environmental conditions, dissolution of these minerals leads to net removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. Practices favoring dissolution of carbonates include irrigation with surface waters, and irrigation with water in large excess of plant transpiration. Accumulation of IC in the soil is favored by lower irrigation water applications relative to transpiration (leaching < 30% of applied water), irrigation with ground waters at elevated CO2 concentrations, application of gypsum, and use of nitrate fertilizer. The net effect of irrigation on a global scale, neglecting the effect of fertilizer addition, is to increase soil IC by 30 Tg C/y as well as to release an almost equal amount of C to the atmosphere. Addition of acidifying fertilizers (NH4) reduce IC accumulation and increase CO2 emissions above 30 Tg C/y.There is conflicting evidence regarding actual changes in C storage as a result of irrigation. Liming practices in humid regions throughout the world are estimated to have no net effect on inorganic soil C but release up to 85 Tg C/y to the atmosphere.

  8. Multiscale object-based drought monitoring and comparison in rainfed and irrigated agriculture from Landsat 8 OLI imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozelkan, Emre; Chen, Gang; Ustundag, Burak Berk

    2016-02-01

    Drought is a rapidly rising environmental issue that can cause hardly repaired or unrepaired damages to the nature and socio-economy. This is especially true for a region that features arid/semi-arid climate, including the Turkey's most important agricultural district - Southeast Anatolia. In this area, we examined the uncertainties of applying Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) NDVI data to estimate meteorological drought - Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) - measured from 31 in-situ agro-meteorological monitoring stations during spring and summer of 2013 and 2014. Our analysis was designed to address two important, yet under-examined questions: (i) how does the co-existence of rainfed and irrigated agriculture affect remote sensing drought monitoring in an arid/semi-arid region? (ii) What is the role of spatial scale in drought monitoring using a GEOBIA (geographic object-based image analysis) framework? Results show that spatial scale exerted a higher impact on drought monitoring especially in the drier year 2013, during which small scales were found to outperform large scales in general. In addition, consideration of irrigated and rainfed areas separately ensured a better performance in drought analysis. Compared to the positive correlations between SPI and NDVI over the rainfed areas, negative correlations were determined over the irrigated agricultural areas. Finally, the time lag effect was evident in the study, i.e., strong correlations between spring SPI and summer NDVI in both 2013 and 2014. This reflects the fact that spring watering is crucial for the growth and yield of the major crops (i.e., winter wheat, barley and lentil) cultivated in the region.

  9. Surface irrigation reduces the emission of volatile 1,3-dichloropropene from agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, D J; Yates, S R

    2007-04-01

    Low-cost, practicable techniques are required to limit the release of volatile organic compound-containing fumigants such as 1,3-D to the atmosphere. In this study, we aimed to quantify 1,3-D diffusion and emission from laboratory soil columns maintained under realistic conditions and thereby assess the efficacy of soil irrigation as a technique for reducing emissions. In two soils (one relatively high, and one relatively low, in organic matter), irrigation led to a limiting of upward diffusion of the fumigant and to the maintenance of higher soil gas concentrations. Therefore, rather than being emitted from the column, the 1,3-D was maintained in the soil where it was ultimately degraded. As a consequence, emission of 1,3-D from the irrigated columns was around half of thatfrom the nonirrigated columns. It is concluded that surface irrigation represents an effective, low-cost, and readily practicable approach to lessening the environmental impact of 1,3-D fumigant use. In addition, the higher organic matter soil exhibited emissions of around one-fifth of the lower organic matter soil in both irrigated and nonirrigated treatments, due to markedly enhanced degradation of the fumigant. Organic matter amendment of soils may, therefore, also represent an extremely effective, relatively low-cost approach to reducing 1,3-D emissions.

  10. Conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water for irrigated agriculture: risk aversion ( South Platte, Colorado).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bredehoeft, J.D.; Young, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    In the South Platte system in Colorado, the actual installed well capacity is approximately sufficient to irrigate the entire area. This would appear to be an overinvestment in well capacity. However, results suggest that under current economic conditions the most reasonable groundwater pumping capacity is a total capacity capable of irrigating the available acreage with groundwater. This capacity maximizes the expected net benefits and also minimizes the variation in annual income: it reduces the variance to essentially zero. As pumping capacity is installed in a conjunctive use system, the value of flow forecasts is diminished. Poor forecasts are compensated for by pumping groundwater. -from Authors

  11. "More drop per crop" when moving from gravitational to drip irrigated agriculture? Experiences from a North Moroccan case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltz, N.; Gaspart, F.; Vanclooster, M.

    2015-12-01

    In order to save agricultural water, the famous FAO's "more crop per drop" has been taken literally in many arid or semi-arid places around the world and policies that aim improving "efficiencies" (irrigation efficiency…) have been implemented, often leading to the promotion of water saving technologies. In 1865, studying coal consumption, W.S. Jevons highlighted that improving coal use efficiency could, as a paradox, lead to higher global coal use. Many economists later extended this idea to resource saving technologies in general, showing that, due to the "rebound effect", the adoption of more efficient technologies, in terms of use of resources, could lead to a higher global consumption of this resource if this adoption didn't go with adjustment measures. Regarding these considerations, the emerging question is to which extent water saving technologies (i.e. that aim improving water related efficiencies) are appropriate to save water at large scale. Our study addresses this question through the analysis of the conversion from surface to drip irrigation in Triffa's irrigated perimeter (Morocco). We aim addressing this question using the detailed analysis of two data sets. First, available data were collected for every farm within the study area from the local administrations. Second, interviews were conducted with farmers to complete the dataset and to characterize their behavior. This allowed assessing water related efficiencies at farm scale. Subsequently, models were implemented to link efficiencies with general attributes and thereby identify the main drivers of water related efficiencies in the study area. Finally, these models were used to upscale farm-scale assessment to the perimeter scale. Our results show that, under current conditions, moving from surface to drip irrigation leads to higher global water withdrawal. However, the aforementioned "rebound effect" does not allow explaining the higher pressure because of contextual specificities. Deeper

  12. Synthetic- and bio-polymer use for runoff water quality management in irrigated agriculture.

    PubMed

    Sojka, R E; Entry, J A; Orts, W J; Morishita, D W; Ross, C W; Horne, D J

    2005-01-01

    Low concentrations of synthetic- or bio-polymers in irrigation water can nearly eliminate sediment, N, ortho- and total-P, DOM, pesticides, micro-organisms, and weed seed from runoff. These environmentally safe polymers are employed in various sensitive uses including food processing, animal feeds, and potable water purification. The most common synthetic polymer is anionic, high purity polyacrylamide (PAM), which typically provides 70-90% contaminant elimination. Excellent results are achieved adding only 10 ppm PAM to irrigation water, applying 1-2 kg ha(-1) per irrigation, costing 4 dollars - 12 dollars kg(-1). Biopolymers are less effective. Using twice or higher concentrations, existing biopolymers are approximately 60% effective as PAM, at 2-3 times the cost. A half million ha of US irrigated land use PAM for erosion control and runoff protection. The practice is spreading rapidly in the US and worldwide. Interest in development of biopolymer surrogates for PAM is high. If the supply of cheap natural gas (raw material for PAM synthesis) diminishes, industries may seek alternative polymers. Also "green" perceptions and preferences favor biopolymers for certain applications.

  13. The impact of agricultural management on selected soil properties in citrus orchards in Eastern Spain: A comparison between conventional and organic citrus orchards with drip and flood irrigation.

    PubMed

    Hondebrink, M A; Cammeraat, L H; Cerdà, A

    2017-03-01

    The agricultural management of citrus orchards is changing from flood irrigated managed orchards to drip irrigated organic managed orchards. Eastern Spain is the oldest and largest European producer of citrus, and is representative of the environmental changes triggered by innovations in orchard management. In order to determine the impact of land management on different soil quality parameters, twelve citrus orchards sites were selected with different land and irrigation management techniques. Soil samples were taken at two depths, 0-2cm and 5-10cm for studying soil quality parameters under the different treatments. Half of the studied orchards were organically managed and the other six were conventionally managed, and for each of these six study sites three fields were flood irrigated plots and the other three drip irrigated systems. The outcome of the studied parameters was that soil organic matter (SOM) and aggregate stability were higher for organic farms. Bulk density and pH were only significantly different for organic farms when drip irrigation was applied in comparison with flooded plots. C/N ratio did not vary significantly for the four treatments. Although there are some points of discussion, this research shows that a combination of different management decisions leads to improvement of a couple of soil quality parameters. Organic management practices were found to be beneficial for soil quality, compared to conventional management for soils with comparable textures and applied irrigation water.

  14. Use of vegetated agricultural drainage ditches to decrease toxicity of irrigation runoff from tomato and alfalfa fields in California, USA.

    PubMed

    Werner, Inge; Deanovic, Linda A; Miller, Jeff; Denton, Debra L; Crane, David; Mekebri, Abdou; Moore, Matthew T; Wrysinski, Jeanette

    2010-12-01

    The current study investigated the potential of vegetated drainage ditches for mitigating the impact of agricultural irrigation runoff on downstream aquatic ecosystems. Water column toxicity to larval fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas),and the amphipod Hyalella azteca was measured for 12 h or less at the ditch inflow and outflow, using custom-built in situ exposure systems. In addition, water and sediment samples were subject to standard toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia and H. azteca, respectively. No acute toxicity to larval fathead minnow was observed; however, runoff was highly toxic to invertebrates. Passage through a 389- to 402-m section of vegetated ditch had a mitigating effect and reduced toxicity to some degree. However, runoff from an alfalfa field treated with chlorpyrifos remained highly toxic to both invertebrate species, and runoff from a tomato field treated with permethrin remained highly toxic to H. azteca after passage through the ditch. Predicted toxic units calculated from insecticide concentrations in runoff and 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) values generally agreed with C. dubia toxicity measured in the laboratory but significantly underestimated in situ toxicity to H. azteca. Sediments collected near the ditch outflow were toxic to H. azteca. Results from the current study demonstrate that experimental vegetated ditches were unable to eliminate the risk of irrigation runoff to aquatic ecosystems. In addition, protective measures based on chemical concentrations or laboratory toxicity tests with C. dubia do not ensure adequate protection of aquatic ecosystems from pyrethroid-associated toxicity.

  15. Impacts of agricultural irrigation on nearby freshwater ecosystems: the seasonal influence of triazine herbicides in benthic algal communities.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Carmen; Causapé, Jesús; Glud, Ronnie N; Hancke, Kasper; Merchán, Daniel; Muñiz, Selene; Val, Jonatan; Navarro, Enrique

    2015-01-15

    A small hydrological basin (Lerma, NE Spain), transformed from its natural state (steppe) to rain-fed agriculture and recently to irrigation agriculture, has been monitored across four seasons of an agricultural year. The goal of this study was to assess how and whether agricultural activities impacted the nearby freshwater ecosystems via runoff. Specifically, we assessed the toxicity of three triazine herbicides, terbuthylazine, atrazine and simazine on the photosynthetic efficiency and structure of algal benthic biofilms (i.e., phototropic periphyton) in the small creek draining the basin. It was expected that the seasonal runoff of the herbicides in the creek affected the sensitivity of the periphyton in accord with the rationale of the Pollution Induced Community Tolerance (PICT): the exposure of the community to pollutants result in the replacement of sensitive species by more tolerant ones. In this way, PICT can serve to establish causal linkages between pollutants and the observed biological impacts. The periphyton presented significantly different sensitivities against terbuthylazine through the year in accord with the seasonal application of this herbicide in the crops nowadays. The sensitivity of already banned herbicides, atrazine and simazine does not display a clear seasonality. The different sensitivities to herbicides were in agreement with the expected exposures scenarios, according to the agricultural calendar, but not with the concentrations measured in water, which altogether indicates that the use of PICT approach may serve for long-term monitoring purposes. That will provide not only causal links between the occurrence of chemicals and their impacts on natural communities, but also information about the occurrence of chemicals that may escape from traditional sampling methods (water analysis). In addition, the EC50 and EC10 of periphyton for terbuthylazine or simazine are the first to be published and can be used for impact assessments.

  16. Estimating the Effects of Conversion of Agricultural Land to Urban Land on Deep Percolation of Irrigation Water in the Grand Valley, Western Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayo, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The conversion of agricultural land to urban residential land is associated with rapid population growth in the Grand Valley of western Colorado. Information regarding the effects of this land-use conversion on deep percolation, irrigation-water application, and associated salt loading to the Colorado River is needed to support water-resource planning and conservation efforts. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) assessed deep percolation and estimated salt loading derived from irrigated agricultural lands in the Grand Valley in a 1985 to 2002 monitoring and evaluation study (NRCS M&E). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado River Salinity Control Forum and the Mesa Conservation District, quantified the current (2005-2006) deep percolation and irrigation-water application characteristics of 1/4-acre residential lots and 5-acre estates, urban parks, and urban orchard grass fields in the Grand Valley, and compared the results to NRCS M&E results from alfalfa-crop sites. In addition, pond seepage from three irrigation-water holding ponds was estimated. Salt loading was estimated for the urban study results and the NRCS M&E results by using standard salt-loading factors. A daily soil-moisture balance calculation technique was used at all urban study irrigated sites. Deep percolation was defined as any water infiltrating below the top 12 inches of soil. Deep percolation occurred when the soil-moisture balance in the first 12 inches of soil exceeded the field capacity for the soil type at each site. Results were reported separately for urban study bluegrass-only sites and for all-vegetation type (bluegrass, native plants, and orchard grass) sites. Deep percolation and irrigation-water application also were estimated for a complete irrigation season at three subdivisions by using mean site data from each subdivision. It was estimated that for the three subdivisions, 37 percent of the developed acreage was irrigated (the balance

  17. Estimation of groundwater pumping as closure to the water balance of a semi-arid, irrigated agricultural basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruud, Nels; Harter, Thomas; Naugle, Alec

    2004-09-01

    Groundwater pumping is frequently the least measured water balance component in semi-arid basins with significant agricultural production. In this article, we develop a GIS-based water balance model for estimating basin-scale monthly and annual groundwater pumping and apply it to a 2300 km 2 semi-arid, irrigated agricultural area in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California. Both, annual groundwater storage changes and pumping are estimated as closure terms. The local hydrology is dominated by distributed surface water supplies, limited precipitation, and large crop water uses; whereas basin-scale runoff generation and groundwater-to-surface water discharges are negligible. Groundwater represents a terminal long-term storage reservoir with distributed inputs and outputs. To capture the spatio-temporal variability in water management and water use, the study area is delineated into 26 water service areas and 9611 individual fields or land units. The model computes conveyance seepage losses external to districts; seepage losses within districts; and net applied surface water of each district. For each land unit, the model calculates the applied water demand; its allotment of delivered surface water; the groundwater pumping required to meet the balance of its applied water demand; and aquifer recharge resulting from deep percolation of applied water and precipitation. These spatially distributed components are aggregated to the basin scale. Estimated annual groundwater storage changes compared well to those computed by the water-table fluctuation method over the 30-year study period, providing an independent verification of the consumptive use estimation. Pumping accounted for as much as 80% of the total applied water in 'Critical' water years and as little as 30% in 'Wet' years. Pumping estimates are most sensitive to estimation uncertainty of soil available water. They show little sensitivity to estimation errors in effective root depth, irrigation efficiencies

  18. Water Quality and Supply Issues of Irrigated Agricultural Regions - Lessons from the San Joaquin Valley of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suen, C. J.; Wang, D.

    2014-12-01

    The San Joaquin Valley of California covers 4 million hectares of farmland and produces $25 billion of agricultural products annually, but its average annual rainfall ranges from only 130 mm in the south to 330 mm in the north and nearly all occur in the winter. On the east side of the valley, irrigation water is mostly derived from the Sierra snow melt. On the west side, water is imported from the northern part of the state through the Sacramento Delta and a network of canals and aqueducts. Ground water is also used for both east and west sides of the valley to supplement surface water sources, especially during droughts. After years of intense irrigation, a number of water supply and water quality issues have emerged. They include groundwater overdraft, land subsidence, water contamination by agricultural drainage laden with selenium, salinity buildup in soil and water, nutrients contamination from fertilizers and livestock production, competition for water with megalopolis and environmental use and restoration. All these problems are intensified by the effect of climate change that has already taken place and other geological hazards, such as earthquakes that can bring the water supply system to a complete halt. In addition to scientific and technical considerations, solutions for these complex issues necessarily involve management planning, public policy and actions. Currently, they include furloughing marginally productive lands, groundwater recharge and banking, water reuse and recycle, salinity and nutrient management, integrated regional water management planning, and public education and outreach. New laws have been enacted to better monitor groundwater elevations, and new bond measures to improve storage, infrastructures, and reliability, have been placed on the public ballot. The presentation will discuss these complex water issues.

  19. The response of coastal stratocumulus clouds to agricultural irrigation in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Min-Hui; Wu, Chien-Ming; Ma, Hsi-Yen; Famiglietti, James S.

    2013-06-01

    Stratocumulus clouds (SC) often exist over the eastern subtropical oceans during the summer and have significant impacts on the surface radiation budget. Both atmospheric subsidence and lower troposphere stability (LTS) have been found to play important roles in maintaining SC. Using global climate model simulations, we find that irrigation in California's Central Valley results in a decrease of land surface temperature, leading to a smaller land-sea heat contrast, and a corresponding reduction in sea breeze, subsidence, and LTS over the near-coastal region. The decrease in LTS directly drives a reduction in modeled SC coverage, and it would arguably do so in reality because of the well-known link between LTS and SC coverage. Consequently, simulated absorbed surface solar radiation over this region increases by 8 W/m2 (3.7%) due to the reduction in SC cover, resulting in the warming at the Earth's surface. This study has important implications for how SC can change with regard to future climate. In contrast to the general effects of climate change on the formation of SC, our results suggest that irrigation practices in the Central Valley may drive a decrease in nearby SC coverage.

  20. Satellite irrigation management support with the terrestrial observation and prediction system: A framework for integration of satellite & surface observations to support improvements in agricultural water resource management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In California and other regions vulnerable to water shortages, satellite-derived estimates of key hydrologic parameters can support agricultural producers and water managers in maximizing the benefits of available water supplies. The Satellite Irrigation Management Support (SIMS) project combines N...

  1. Circles of live buffer strips in a center pivot to improve multiple ecosystem services and sustainability of irrigated agriculture in the southern great plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Declining Ogallala Aquifer has threatened sustainability of highly productive irrigated agriculture in the region. The region, known for the dust bowl of thirties, is scared of its return. Lower well outputs and increasing pumping costs have compelled farmers to adapt alternative conservation strate...

  2. Hydro-economic analysis of groundwater pumping for irrigated agriculture in California's Central Valley, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medellín-Azuara, Josué; MacEwan, Duncan; Howitt, Richard E.; Koruakos, George; Dogrul, Emin C.; Brush, Charles F.; Kadir, Tariq N.; Harter, Thomas; Melton, Forrest; Lund, Jay R.

    2015-09-01

    As in many places, groundwater in California (USA) is the major alternative water source for agriculture during drought, so groundwater's availability will drive some inevitable changes in the state's water management. Currently, agricultural, environmental, and urban uses compete for groundwater, resulting in substantial overdraft in dry years with lowering of water tables, which in turn increases pumping costs and reduces groundwater pumping capacity. In this study, SWAP (an economic model of agricultural production and water use in California) and C2VISim (the California Department of Water Resources groundwater model for California's Central Valley) are connected. This paper examines the economic costs of pumping replacement groundwater during drought and the potential loss of pumping capacity as groundwater levels drop. A scenario of three additional drought years continuing from 2014 show lower water tables in California's Central Valley and loss of pumping capacity. Places without access to groundwater and with uncertain surface-water deliveries during drought are the most economically vulnerable in terms of crop revenues, employment and household income. This is particularly true for Tulare Lake Basin, which relies heavily on water imported from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Remote-sensing estimates of idle agricultural land between 2012 and 2014 confirm this finding. Results also point to the potential of a portfolio approach for agriculture, in which crop mixing and conservation practices have substantial roles.

  3. Simulating the Effects of Irrigation over the U.S. in a Land Surface Model Based on Satellite Derived Agricultural Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozdogan, Mutlu; Rodell, Matthew; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Toll, David L.

    2009-01-01

    A novel method is introduced for integrating satellite derived irrigation data and high-resolution crop type information into a land surface model (LSM). The objective is to improve the simulation of land surface states and fluxes through better representation of agricultural land use. Ultimately, this scheme could enable numerical weather prediction (NWP) models to capture land-atmosphere feedbacks in managed lands more accurately and thus improve forecast skill. Here we show that application of the new irrigation scheme over the continental US significantly influences the surface water and energy balances by modulating the partitioning of water between the surface and the atmosphere. In our experiment, irrigation caused a 12% increase in evapotranspiration (QLE) and an equivalent reduction in the sensible heat flux (QH) averaged over all irrigated areas in the continental US during the 2003 growing season. Local effects were more extreme: irrigation shifted more than 100 W/m from QH to QLE in many locations in California, eastern Idaho, southern Washington, and southern Colorado during peak crop growth. In these cases, the changes in ground heat flux (QG), net radiation (RNET), evapotranspiration (ET), runoff (R), and soil moisture (SM) were more than 3 W/m(sup 2), 20 W/m(sup 2), 5 mm/day, 0.3 mm/day, and 100 mm, respectively. These results are highly relevant to continental- to global-scale water and energy cycle studies that, to date, have struggled to quantify the effects of agricultural management practices such as irrigation. Based on the results presented here, we expect that better representation of managed lands will lead to improved weather and climate forecasting skill when the new irrigation scheme is incorporated into NWP models such as NOAA's Global Forecast System (GFS).

  4. Agricultural aircraft and thermal imaging - from detecting sand boils at the levee to irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal imaging has many potential uses from aerial platforms. A thermal imaging camera was brought into service to detect potential leakage and sand boils at the Mississippi River levee during the flood period of April and May, 2011. This camera was mounted on an agricultural aircraft and operated ...

  5. A regional field-based assessment of organic C sequestration and GHG balances in irrigated agriculture in Mediterranean semi-arid land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virto, Inigo; Antón, Rodrigo; Arias, Nerea; Orcaray, Luis; Enrique, Alberto; Bescansa, Paloma

    2016-04-01

    In a context of global change and increasing food demand, agriculture faces the challenge of ensuring food security making a sustainable use of resources, especially arable land and water. This implies in many areas a transition towards agricultural systems with increased and stable productivity and a more efficient use of inputs. The introduction of irrigation is, within this framework, a widespread strategy. However, the C cycle and the net GHG emissions can be significantly affected by irrigation. The net effect of this change needs to be quantified at a regional scale. In the region of Navarra (NE Spain) more than 22,300 ha of rainfed agricultural land have been converted to irrigation in the last years, adding to the previous existing irrigated area of 70,000 ha. In this framework the project Life+ Regadiox (LIFE12 ENV/ES/000426, http://life-regadiox.es/) has the objective of evaluating the net GHG balances and atmospheric CO2 fixation rates of different management strategies in irrigated agriculture in the region. The project involved the identification of areas representative of the different pedocllimatic conditions in the region. This required soil and climate characterizations, and the design of a network of agricultural fields representative of the most common dryland and irrigation managements in these areas. This was done from available public datasets on climate and soil, and from soil pits especially sampled for this study. Two areas were then delimited, mostly based on their degree of aridity. Within each of those areas, fields were selected to allow for comparisons at three levels: (i) dryland vs irrigation, (ii) soil and crop management systems for non-permanent crops, and (iii) soil management strategies for permanent crops (namely olive orchards and vineyards). In a second step, the objective of this work was to quantify net SOC variations and GHG balances corresponding to the different managements identified in the previous step. These

  6. Assessment of long-term wastewater irrigation impacts on the soil geochemical properties and the bioaccumulation of heavy metals to the agricultural products.

    PubMed

    Christou, Anastasis; Eliadou, Elena; Michael, Costas; Hapeshi, Evroula; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo

    2014-08-01

    An extensive field survey was employed for assessing the impacts of long-term wastewater irrigation of forage crops and orange orchards in three suburban agricultural areas in Cyprus (areas I, II, and III), as compared to rainfed agriculture, on the soil geochemical properties and the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Zn, Ni, Mn, Cu, Co) to the agricultural products. Both ryegrass fields and orange orchards in areas I and II were continuously wastewater irrigated for 10 years, whereas clover fields in area III for 0.5, 4, and 8 years. The results revealed that wastewater reuse for irrigation caused a slight increase in soil salinity and Cl(-) content in areas I and II, and a remarkable increase, having strong correlation with the period in which wastewater irrigation was practiced, in area III. Soil salinization in area III was due to the high electrical conductivity (EC) of the wastewater applied for irrigation, attributed to the influx of seawater to the sewage collection network in area III. In addition, the wastewater irrigation practice resulted in a slight decrease of the soil pH values in area III, while a subtle impact was identified regarding the CaCO3, Fe, and heavy metal content in the three areas surveyed. The heavy metal content quantified in the forage plants' above-ground parts was below the critical levels of phytotoxicity and the maximum acceptable concentration in dairy feed, whereas heavy metals quantified in orange fruit pulp were below the maximum permissible levels (MPLs). Heavy metal phytoavailability was confined due to soil properties (high pH and clay content), as evidenced by the calculated low transfer factor (TF).

  7. Biogeosystem technique as a method to overcome the Biological and Environmental Hazards of modern Agricultural, Irrigational and Technological Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinitchenko, Valery; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Zinchenko, Vladimir; Zarmaev, Ali; Magomadov, Ali; Chernenko, Vladimir; Startsev, Viktor; Bakoev, Serojdin; Dikaev, Zaurbek

    2014-05-01

    Modern challenge for humanity is to replace the paradigm of nature use and overcome environmental hazards of agronomy, irrigation, industry, and other human activities in biosphere. It is utterly reasonable to stop dividing biosphere on shares - the human habitat and the environment. In the 21st century it is an outdated anthropocentrism. Contradicting himself to biosphere Humankind has the problems. The new paradigm of biosphere control by methods of Biogeosystem technique is on agenda of Humankind. Key directions of Biogeosystem technique. Tillage. Single rotary milling 20…30-50…60 sm soil layer optimizes the evolution and environment of soil, creates a favorable conditions for the rhizosphere, increases the biological productivity of biosphere by 30-50% compared to the standard agricultural practices for the period up to 40 years. Recycle material. Recycling of mineral and organic substances in soil layer of 20…30-50…60 sm in rotary milling soil processing provides wastes clean return to biosphere. Direct intrasoil substances synthesis. Environmentally friendly robot wasteless nanotechnology provides direct substances synthesis, including fertilizers, inside the soil. It eliminates the prerequisites of the wastes formation under standard industrial technologies. Selective substance's extraction from soil. Electrochemical robotic nanotechnology provides selective substances extraction from soil. The technology provides recovery, collection and subsequent safe industrial use of extracted substances out of landscape. Saving fresh water. An important task is to save fresh water in biosphere. Irrigation spends water 4-5 times more of biological requirements of plants, leads to degradation of soil and landscape. The intrasoil pulse continuous-discrete paradigm of irrigation is proposed. It provides the soil and landscape conservation, increases the biological productivity, save the fresh water up to 10-20 times. The subsurface soil rotary processing and

  8. Inputs of nutrients and fecal bacteria to freshwaters from irrigated agriculture: case studies in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Wilcock, Robert J; Nash, David; Schmidt, Jochen; Larned, Scott T; Rivers, Mark R; Feehan, Pat

    2011-07-01

    Increasing demand for global food production is leading to greater use of irrigation to supplement rainfall and enable more intensive use of land. Minimizing adverse impacts of this intensification on surface water and groundwater resources is of critical importance for the achievement of sustainable land use. In this paper we examine the linkages between irrigation runoff and resulting changes in quality of receiving surface waters and groundwaters in Australia and New Zealand. Case studies are used to illustrate impacts under different irrigation techniques (notably flood and sprinkler systems) and land uses, particularly where irrigation has led to intensification of land use. For flood irrigation, changes in surface water contaminant concentrations are directly influenced by the amount of runoff, and the intensity and kind of land use. Mitigation for flood irrigation is best achieved by optimizing irrigation efficiency. For sprinkler irrigation, leaching to groundwater is the main transport path for contaminants, notably nitrate. Mitigation measures for sprinkler irrigation should take into account irrigation efficiency and the proximity of intensive land uses to sensitive waters. Relating contaminant concentrations in receiving groundwaters to their dominant causes is often complicated by uncertainty about the subsurface flow paths and the possible pollutant sources, viz. drainage from irrigated land. This highlights the need for identification of the patterns and dynamics of surface and subsurface waters to identify such sources of contaminants and minimize their impacts on the receiving environments.

  9. Inputs of Nutrients and Fecal Bacteria to Freshwaters from Irrigated Agriculture: Case Studies in Australia and New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcock, Robert J.; Nash, David; Schmidt, Jochen; Larned, Scott T.; Rivers, Mark R.; Feehan, Pat

    2011-07-01

    Increasing demand for global food production is leading to greater use of irrigation to supplement rainfall and enable more intensive use of land. Minimizing adverse impacts of this intensification on surface water and groundwater resources is of critical importance for the achievement of sustainable land use. In this paper we examine the linkages between irrigation runoff and resulting changes in quality of receiving surface waters and groundwaters in Australia and New Zealand. Case studies are used to illustrate impacts under different irrigation techniques (notably flood and sprinkler systems) and land uses, particularly where irrigation has led to intensification of land use. For flood irrigation, changes in surface water contaminant concentrations are directly influenced by the amount of runoff, and the intensity and kind of land use. Mitigation for flood irrigation is best achieved by optimizing irrigation efficiency. For sprinkler irrigation, leaching to groundwater is the main transport path for contaminants, notably nitrate. Mitigation measures for sprinkler irrigation should take into account irrigation efficiency and the proximity of intensive land uses to sensitive waters. Relating contaminant concentrations in receiving groundwaters to their dominant causes is often complicated by uncertainty about the subsurface flow paths and the possible pollutant sources, viz. drainage from irrigated land. This highlights the need for identification of the patterns and dynamics of surface and subsurface waters to identify such sources of contaminants and minimize their impacts on the receiving environments.

  10. Issues of sustainable irrigated agriculture in the San Joaquin Valley of California in a changing regulatory environment concerning water quality and protection of wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Delamore, M.L.

    1994-06-01

    Since the discovery of selenium toxicosis in the Kesterson Reservoir in the San Joaquin Valley, California, public perception of irrigated agriculture as a benign competitor for California`s developed water supply has been changed irrevocably. Subsurface return flows from irrigated agriculture were implicated as the source of selenium which led to incidents of reproductive failure in waterfowl and threatened survival of other fish and wildlife species. Stringent water quality objectives were promulgated to protect rivers, tributaries, sloughs and other water bodies receiving agricultural discharges from selenium contamination. Achieving these objectives was left to the agricultural water districts, federal and state agencies responsible for drainage and water quality enforcement in the San Joaquin Basin. This paper describes some of the strategies to improve management of water resources and water quality in response to these new environmental objectives. Similar environmental objectives will likely be adopted by other developed and developing countries with large regions of arid zone agriculture and susceptible wildlife resources. A series of simulation models have been developed over the past four years to evaluate regional drainage management strategies such as: irrigation source control; drainage recycling; selective retirement of agricultural land; regional shallow ground water pumping; coordination of agricultural drainage, wetland and reservoir releases; and short-term ponding of drainage water. A new generation of Geographic Information Service-based software is under development to bridge the gap between planning and program implementation. Use of the decision support system will allow water districts and regulators to continuously monitor drainage discharges to the San Joaquin River in real-time and to assess impacts of management strategies that have been implemented to take advantage of the River`s assimilative capacity for trace elements and salts.

  11. Agricultural irrigated land-use inventory for Jackson, Calhoun, and Gadsden Counties in Florida, and Houston County in Alabama, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, Richard L.; Dixon, Joann F.

    2015-09-18

    The irrigated acreage estimated for Jackson County in 2014 (31,608) is about 47 percent higher than the 2012 estimated acreage published by the USDA (21,508 acres). The estimates of irrigated acreage field verified during 2014 for Calhoun and Gadsden Counties are also higher than those published by the USDA for 2012 (86 percent and 71 percent, respectively). In Calhoun County the USDA reported 1,647 irrigated acres while the current study estimated 3,060 acres, and in Gadsden County the USDA reported 2,650 acres while the current study estimated 4,547 acres. For Houston County the USDA-reported value of 9,138 acres in 2012 was 13 percent below the 10,333 acres field verified in the current study. Differences between the USDA 2012 values and 2014 field verified estimates in these two datasets may occur because (1) irrigated acreage for some specific crops increased or decreased substantially during the 2-year interval due to commodity prices or economic changes, (2) irrigated acreage calculated for the current study may be estimated high because irrigation was assumed if an irrigation system was present and therefore the acreage was counted as irrigated, when in fact that may not have been the case as some farmers may not have used their irrigation systems during this growing period even if they had a crop in the field, or (3) the amount of irrigated acreages published by the USDA for selected crops may be underestimated in some cases.

  12. Irrigation water quality assessments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing demands on fresh water supplies by municipal and industrial users means decreased fresh water availability for irrigated agriculture in semi arid and arid regions. There is potential for agricultural use of treated wastewaters and low quality waters for irrigation but this will require co...

  13. Characterization of Fe-Mn concretions from a Luvisol irrigated by mine water in a semi-arid agricultural area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettler, Vojtech; Mihaljevic, Martin; Kribek, Bohdan; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Sracek, Ondra; Vanek, Ales; Penizek, Vit; Mapani, Ben; Kamona, Fred

    2016-04-01

    We studied Fe-Mn concretions from Cutanic Luvisol in the northern part of Namibia, where agricultural fields are irrigated with the drainage water from the Kombat Cu-Pb-Zn mine (pH 7, metal concentrations in ug/L: Fe 7, Mn 10, Zn 7, Cu 18). Concretions (0.5-2 cm in size) were mostly found towards the basis of the soil profile (BC horizon, depth 100-120 cm). Comparisons with the bulk chemical composition of the soil matrix indicated that Fe-Mn concretions were enriched with metals, metalloids and other trace elements (enrichment factor EFs varied in the range 1.3-6.4). Concentrations of the elements of interest in the Fe-Mn concretions were the following (mg/kg): As 23.1, Ba 3840, Cd 6.83, Cu 450, Pb 597, Zn 137. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that concretions were composed of quartz, goethite, hematite, illite/mica, lithiophorite (LiAl2Mn3O6(OH)6) and birnessite. The SEM observation confirmed that internal structure with concentric rings reflecting seasonal changes in redox conditions occurred within the concretions. Spot analyses and X-ray elemental maps performed using EDS spectrometry showed that concentrations of metalloids were rather low and slightly elevated Ba concentrations were only observed within the Mn-oxide zones. Selective extractions were used to understand the binding of trace elements onto individual target phases. Whereas Mn-oxide phases sequestered the majority of Cd (up to 98%), Ba, Pb and REEs (up to 78%), other metals such as Cu and Zn exhibited much lower values (47-65%) and were also significantly bound to Fe-oxides. The pH-static leaching test conducted in the pH range of 2-12 indicated that the majority of trace elements were mostly leached under acidic conditions with the exception of As, which was highly solubilized at pH 12 (up to 17%). Whereas Ba, Cd, Cu and Zn were significantly released under acidic conditions (up to 12%), the leaching of Pb was almost negligible over the entire pH range. Our results show that Fe

  14. Groundwater quality in alluvial and prolluvial areas under the influence of irrigated agriculture activities.

    PubMed

    Kovacevik, Biljana; Boev, Blazo; Panova, Vesna Zajkova; Mitrev, Sasa

    2016-12-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the groundwater pollution from alluvial aquifers lying under surface agriculture activities in two geologically different areas: alluvial and prolluvial. The groundwater in investigated areas is neutral to alkaline (pH 7.05-8.45), and the major dissolved ions are bicarbonate and calcium. Groundwater samples from the alluvial area are characterized by nitrate concentration above the national maximum concentration limit (MCL) at 20.5% of samples [mean value (Me) 6.31 mg/L], arsenic concentrations greater than national MCL at 35.6% of investigated samples (Me 12.12 µg/L) and elevated concentrations of iron (Me 202.37 µg/L) and manganese (Me 355.22 µg/L) at 22.7% and 81% of investigated samples, respectively. Groundwater samples from the prolluvial area did not show significantly elevated concentrations of heavy metals, but the concentration of nitrate was considerably higher (Me 65.06 mg/L). Factor analysis positively correlates As with Mn and Fe, suggesting its natural origin. Nitrate was found in positive correlation with SO4(2-) and Ni but in negative with NH4(+), suggesting its anthropogenic origin and the relationship of these ions in the process of denitrification. The t-test analysis showed a significant difference between nitrate pollution of groundwater from alluvial and prolluvial areas. According to the chemical composition of groundwater, the process of denitrification is considered to be the main reason for the reduced presence of nitrate in the groundwater lying under alluvial deposits represented by chalk and sandstones. Denitrification in groundwater lying under prolluvial deposits represented by magmatic and metamorphic rock formations was not observed.

  15. Comparison of two simple tools (TSEB and FAO-56) to retrieve evapotranspiration of irrigated agriculture in semi-arid areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diarra, Alhousseine; Jarlan, Lionel; Er-Raki, Salah; Le Page, Michel; Khabba, Said; Boulet, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    In a context of climate change and an increasing water demand, the semi-arid climate region face heightened pressure on the availability of water resources. About 85% of available water is used for irrigation in these regions. There is thus a crucial need to develop tools for a better management of irrigation through accurate estimates of crop water requirement. The objective of this study was to adapt and evaluate two parsimonious modeling approaches feeded by remote sensing observations, which have potential for the operational monitoring of evapotranspiration (ET): the two-source surface energy balance (TSEB) model developed by Norman et al. (1995) and the FAO-56 dual crop coefficient method (Allen et al., 1998), through the SAMIR tool (Simonneaux et al., 2009). At the field scale, both models were evaluated on four sites located in the Haouz plain (Marrakech, Morocco) during two agricultural seasons: wheat and sugar beet in 2012 and two other wheat crops in 2013; all belonging to an irrigated perimeter of 2800 ha. A time series of 12 high spatial resolution images acquired by SPOT-5 and ASTER images was collected during the growing seasons of wheat and sugar beet. The simulation results showed that both models offer fair performances of ET compared to measured one by eddy covariance with an average root mean square error (RMSE) lower than 1 mm/day for the sugar beet where the simulation are lower by the FAO-56 approach due to water inputs are uncertain. By contrast, the TSEB model, which not needs the water supply as input, offers smoother performances in all cases. At the scale of the perimeter, both approaches show similar spatial patterns because of homogeneous water conditions at the date of remote sensing image acquisitions. The partition of evapotranspiration between soil evaporation and transpiration from vegetation is estimated indirectly by confrontation between simulated soil evaporation and surface (0-5 cm) soil moisture acquired spatially with Theta

  16. Climate Change Impact on the Hydrology and Water Quality of a Small Partially-Irrigated Agricultural Lowland Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, A.; Kroes, J.; van Vliet, M. T.; Blenkinsop, S.; Broers, H.

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the potential effects of climate change on the hydrology of the small partially-irrigated agricultural lowland catchment of the Keersop, in south of the Netherlands, as well as the transport of a pre-existing spatially extensive trace metal contamination. The area surrounding the Keersop has been contaminated with heavy metals by the atmospheric emissions of four zinc ore smelters. This heavy metal contamination, with Cd and Zn for example, has accumulated in the topsoil and leaches towards the surface water system, especially during periods with high groundwater levels and high discharge rates. Daily time-series of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration were derived from the results of eight regional climate model experiments under the SRES A2 emissions scenario. They each span 100 years and are representative for the periods 1961-1990 (“baseline climate”) and 2071-2100 (“future climate”). The time-series of future climate were characterized by lower precipitation (-1% to -12%) and higher air temperatures (between 2°C and 5°C), and as a result higher potential evapotranspiration, especially in summer. The time-series were used to drive the quasi-2D unsaturated-saturated zone model (SWAP) of the Keersop catchment (43 km2). The model consisted of an ensemble of 686 1D models, each of which represented a 250x250 m area within the catchment. Simulation results for the future climate scenarios show a shift in the water balance of the catchment. The decrease in annual rainfall is nearly compensated by an increase in irrigation in the catchment, if present day irrigation rules are followed. On the other hand, both evaporation and transpiration fluxes increase. This increase is compensated by a decrease in the drainage flux and groundwater recharge. As a result, groundwater levels decline and the annual discharge of the Keersop stream decreases under all future climate scenarios, by 26% to 46%. Because Cd and Zn

  17. Field and laboratory tests for assessing the feasibility on the use of municipal treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, Helena; Lovera, Raúl; Himi, Mahjoub; Sendrós, Alexandre; Marguí, Eva; Tapias, Josefina C.; Queralt, Ignasi; Casas, Albert

    2014-05-01

    he scarcity of water resources in many regions of the planet in the XXIst century is a challenge which concerns the current societies. Water use has been growing during the last decades. Therefore, different strategies of water management in many water-deficient regions are being carried out, especially in densely populated areas, in coastal zones or in regions under arid or semi-arid climate. During the last years, there has been a growing interest in the use of the subsurface for water storage though shallow percolating ponds. Moreover, on a best-practices basis, the use of reclaimed wastewater for different purposes is becoming more usual. The irrigation with municipal treated wastewater (MTWW) is an interesting strategy especially in the agricultural sector, which represents the main water user in contrast with other socioeconomic activities. The study area is located near Castellbisbal, on the lower stretches of the Llobregat River close to the Metropolitan area of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). The site consists on a percolating pond and agricultural fields around. In order to assess the feasibility of using reclaimed wastewater for different uses in this site, several experiments both on field and at the laboratory were carried out. First of all, a detailed non-destructive geophysical survey was conducted using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) technique. Geophysical data were constrained by geological and hydrogeological properties from boreholes and water wells. On the other hand, laboratory experiments were carried out through batch and column assays, focused on the detailed water-mineral particles interrelationships that can occur at the vadose zone. Soil samples from the crop fields around and water samples from the nearest well, as from the municipal wastewater treatment plant were used. Chemical and mineralogical composition of the soils were determined by using non-destructive spectroscopic techniques as x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and x-ray powder

  18. Retention of Escherichia coli, Giardia lamblia cysts and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in agricultural soils irrigated by untreated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Landa-Cansigno, O; Durán-Álvarez, J C; Jiménez-Cisneros, B

    2013-10-15

    In central Mexico, agricultural irrigation reusing Mexico City's municipal wastewater has been occurring for the last century, resulting in the recharge of the local aquifer. However, groundwater of this zone is of good quality, indicating that the microorganisms contained in wastewater are retained by soil after infiltration. This study aims to assess the capacity of three agricultural soils to retain three microorganisms frequently found in wastewater, namely Escherichia coli (E. coli), Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) cysts and Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) eggs, through batch sorption-desorption assays. The tested soils were: an organic-clayey soil (C-OM), a clayey soil (C-om) and a sandy soil (c-om). For the three soils, sorption equilibrium of E. coli was reached before 1 h, while for G. lamblia cysts and A. lumbricoides eggs, sorption equilibrium took 2.5 h. Sorption of E. coli was better described by the Freundlich model than by the Langmuir one. Higher retention of bacteria was observed in the C-om soil (KF = 4340) than in the C-OM and c-om ones (KF = 1821 and 0.01, respectively). Regarding G. lamblia cysts and A. lumbricoides eggs, data could not be fitted to the tested sorption models. For both organisms, retention was lower in the C-OM soil than in the C-om and c-om ones. In the desorption tests, a sudden liberation of E. coli from soils was observed, probably due to bacterial re-growth. Desorption of G. lamblia was higher in the sandy soil than in the clayey ones; desorption was not increased when a surfactant was applied to the soil, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions are not necessarily responsible for retention of the cysts onto the tested soils. For A. lumbricoides eggs, desorption using NaOCl solution suggested that retention was caused by interactions between the mineral fraction of the soil and the external walls of eggs. This study showed that the three target microorganisms are retained by the tested soils and that

  19. Incidence of metal and antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas spp. from the river water, agricultural soil irrigated with wastewater and groundwater.

    PubMed

    Malik, Abdul; Aleem, Asma

    2011-07-01

    A total of 144 isolates of Pseudomonas spp. (48 each from the Yamuna River water, wastewater irrigated soil and groundwater irrigated soil) were tested for their resistance against certain heavy metals and antibiotics. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Hg(2+ ), Cd(2+ ), Cu(2+ ), Zn(2+ ), Ni(2+ ), Pb(2+ ), Cr(3+ ) and Cr(6+ ) for each isolate were also determined. A maximum MIC of 200 μg/ml for mercury and 3,200 μg/ml for other metals were observed. The incidences of metal resistance and MICs of metals for Pseudomonas isolates from the Yamuna water and wastewater irrigated soil were significantly different to those of groundwater irrigated soil. A high level of resistance against tetracycline and polymyxin B (81.2%) was observed in river water isolates. However, 87.5% of Pseudomonas isolates from soil irrigated with wastewater showed resistance to sulphadiazine, whereas 79.1% were resistant to both ampicillin and erythromycin. Isolates from soil irrigated with groundwater exhibited less resistance towards heavy metals and antibiotics as compared to those of river water and wastewater irrigated soil. Majority of the Pseudomonas isolates from water and soil exhibited resistance to multiple metals and antibiotics. Resistance was transferable to recipient Escherichia coli AB2200 strains by conjugation. Plasmids were cured with the curing agent ethidium bromide and acridine orange at sub-MIC concentration.

  20. A review of green- and blue-water resources and their trade-offs for future agricultural production in the Amazon Basin: what could irrigated agriculture mean for Amazonia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathuillière, Michael J.; Coe, Michael T.; Johnson, Mark S.

    2016-06-01

    The Amazon Basin is a region of global importance for the carbon and hydrological cycles, a biodiversity hotspot, and a potential centre for future economic development. The region is also a major source of water vapour recycled into continental precipitation through evapotranspiration processes. This review applies an ecohydrological approach to Amazonia's water cycle by looking at contributions of water resources in the context of future agricultural production. At present, agriculture in the region is primarily rain-fed and relies almost exclusively on green-water resources (soil moisture regenerated by precipitation). Future agricultural development, however, will likely follow pathways that include irrigation from blue-water sources (surface water and groundwater) as insurance from variability in precipitation. In this review, we first provide an updated summary of the green-blue ecohydrological framework before describing past trends in Amazonia's water resources within the context of land use and land cover change. We then describe green- and blue-water trade-offs in light of future agricultural production and potential irrigation to assess costs and benefits to terrestrial ecosystems, particularly land and biodiversity protection, and regional precipitation recycling. Management of green water is needed, particularly at the agricultural frontier located in the headwaters of major tributaries to the Amazon River, and home to key downstream blue-water users and ecosystem services, including domestic and industrial users, as well as aquatic ecosystems.

  1. Participatory approach: from problem identification to setting strategies for increased productivity and sustainability in small scale irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habtu, Solomon; Ludi, Eva; Jamin, Jean Yves; Oates, Naomi; Fissahaye Yohannes, Degol

    2014-05-01

    Practicing various innovations pertinent to irrigated farming at local field scale is instrumental to increase productivity and yield for small holder farmers in Africa. However the translation of innovations from local scale to the scale of a jointly operated irrigation scheme is far from trivial. It requires insight on the drivers for adoption of local innovations within the wider farmer communities. Participatory methods are expected to improve not only the acceptance of locally developed innovations within the wider farmer communities, but to allow also an estimation to which extend changes will occur within the entire irrigation scheme. On such a base, more realistic scenarios of future water productivity within an irrigation scheme, which is operated by small holder farmers, can be estimated. Initial participatory problem and innovation appraisal was conducted in Gumselassa small scale irrigation scheme, Ethiopia, from Feb 27 to March 3, 2012 as part of the EAU4FOOD project funded by EC. The objective was to identify and appraise problems which hinder sustainable water management to enhance production and productivity and to identify future research strategies. Workshops were conducted both at local (Community of Practices) and regional (Learning Practice Alliance) level. At local levels, intensive collaboration with farmers using participatory methods produced problem trees and a "Photo Safari" documented a range of problems that negatively impact on productive irrigated farming. A range of participatory methods were also used to identify local innovations. At regional level a Learning Platform was established that includes a wide range of stakeholders (technical experts from various government ministries, policy makers, farmers, extension agents, researchers). This stakeholder group did a range of exercise as well to identify major problems related to irrigated smallholder farming and already identified innovations. Both groups identified similar problems

  2. Summary of the Georgia Agricultural Water Conservation and Metering Program and evaluation of methods used to collect and analyze irrigation data in the middle and lower Chattahoochee and Flint River basins, 2004-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torak, Lynn J.; Painter, Jaime A.

    2011-01-01

    Since receiving jurisdiction from the State Legislature in June 2003 to implement the Georgia Agricultural Water Conservation and Metering Program, the Georgia Soil and Water Conservation Commission (Commission) by year-end 2010 installed more than 10,000 annually read water meters and nearly 200 daily reporting, satellite-transmitted, telemetry sites on irrigation systems located primarily in southern Georgia. More than 3,000 annually reported meters and 50 telemetry sites were installed during 2010 alone. The Commission monitored rates and volumes of agricultural irrigation supplied by groundwater, surface-water, and well-to-pond sources to inform water managers on the patterns and amounts of such water use and to determine effective and efficient resource utilization. Summary analyses of 4 complete years of irrigation data collected from annually read water meters in the middle and lower Chattahoochee and Flint River basins during 2007-2010 indicated that groundwater-supplied fields received slightly more irrigation depth per acre than surface-water-supplied fields. Year 2007 yielded the largest disparity between irrigation depth supplied by groundwater and surface-water sources as farmers responded to severe-to-exceptional drought conditions with increased irrigation. Groundwater sources (wells and well-to-pond systems) outnumbered surface-water sources by a factor of five; each groundwater source applied a third more irrigation volume than surface water; and, total irrigation volume from groundwater exceeded that of surface water by a factor of 6.7. Metered irrigation volume indicated a pattern of low-to-high water use from northwest to southeast that could point to relations between agricultural water use, water-resource potential and availability, soil type, and crop patterns. Normalizing metered irrigation-volume data by factoring out irrigated acres allowed irrigation water use to be expressed as an irrigation depth and nearly eliminated the disparity

  3. Saline irrigation and Zn amendment effect on Cd phytoavailability to Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.) grown on a long-term amended agricultural soil: a human risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Valdez-González, J C; López-Chuken, U J; Guzmán-Mar, J L; Flores-Banda, F; Hernández-Ramírez, A; Hinojosa-Reyes, L

    2014-05-01

    Crops, particularly in the Northeast region of Mexico, have to cope with increasing soil salinization due to irrigation. Chloride (Cl(-)) concentration has been strongly related to enhance cadmium (Cd) uptake by plants due to increased solubility in the soil solution. The effect of irrigation with slightly saline water from a local well was evaluated in this work on the accumulation and translocation of Cd in Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in soil historically amended with stabilized sewage sludge under a regime of phosphorus and zinc fertilization. A factorial pot experiment was conducted with two phosphate fertilizer levels (PF, 0 and 80 kg ha(-1) dry soil, respectively), two Zn levels (0 and 7 kg ha(-1) dry soil), and two sources of water for irrigation deionized water (DW) and slightly saline well water (WW) from an agricultural site. Additionally, a human risk assessment for Cd ingestion from plants was assessed. Results showed that Cl(-) salinity in the WW effectively mobilized soil Cd and increased its phytoavailability. A higher level of Cd was found in roots (46.41 mg kg(-1)) compared to shoots (10.75 mg kg(-1)). Although the total content of Cd in the edible parts of the Swiss chard irrigated with WW exceeded permissible recommended consumption limit, bioavailable cadmium in the aboveground parts of the plant in relation to the total cadmium content was in the range from 8 to 32 %. Therefore, human health risks might be overestimated when the total concentration is taken into account.

  4. [Changes of China agricultural climate resources under the background of climate change. IV. Spatiotemporal change characteristics of agricultural climate resources in sub-humid warm-temperate irrigated wheat-maize agricultural area of Huang-Huai-Hai Plain].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-juan; Yang, Xiao-guang; Wang, Wen-feng

    2011-04-01

    Based on the 1961-2007 observation data from 66 meteorological stations in the sub-humid and warm-temperate irrigated wheat-maize agricultural area of Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal change characteristics of agro-climate resources for chimonophilous and thermophilic crops in the area in 1961-1980 and 1981-2007. The analyzed items included the length of temperature-defined growth season and the active accumulative temperature, sunshine hours, precipitation, reference evapotranspiration, and aridity index during the temperature-defined growth season. With climate warming, the length of temperature-defined growth season of chimonophilous and thermophilic crops in the area in 1981-2007 extended by 7. 4 d and 6. 9 d, and the > or = 0 degrees C and > or = 10 degrees C accumulative temperature increased at a rate of 4.0-137.0 and 1.0-142.0 degrees C d (10 a)(-1), respectively, compared with those in 1961-1980. The sunshine hours during the temperature-defined growth season of the crops decreased markedly; and the precipitation during the temperature-defined growing season decreased in most parts of the area, being obvious in Hebei and north Shandong Province, but increased in north Anhui and southeast Henan Province. In most parts of the area, the reference evapotranspiration of chimonophilous and thermophilic crops during their temperature-defined growth season decreased, and the aridity index increased.

  5. Detection of Class I and II integrons for the assessment of antibiotic and multidrug resistance among Escherichia coli isolates from agricultural irrigation waters in Bulacan, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Paraoan, Cielo Emar M; Rivera, Windell L; Vital, Pierangeli G

    2017-02-10

    Contaminated irrigation water may greatly affect not only the quality of produce but also the people exposed to it. In this study, agricultural irrigation waters in Bulacan, Philippines were assessed and found to be contaminated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) ranging from 0.58 to 4.51 log10 CFU/mL. A total of 79 isolates of E. coli were confirmed through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifying the uidA gene and were tested for phenotypic resistance using 10 antimicrobials through the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Forty-six isolates (58.22%) were noted to be multidrug resistant (MDR) with high resistance rate to cephalothin, tetracycline, streptomycin, ampicillin, trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, and chloramphenicol. Moreover, this study also examined the prevalence of Class I and II integrons accounting to 67.39% and 17.39%, respectively, of the MDR E. coli strains using multiplex PCR. The results imply that the agricultural water used in Bulacan is contaminated with the fecal material of man or other animals present in the area, and the presence of MDR bacteria, which pose a potential threat to individuals in these areas, is alarming. In addition, detection of integrons could be a good marker for the identification of MDR isolates. Lastly, this study could develop strategies for the proper management of farming sites leading to the detection of food-borne pathogens and prevention of infectious diseases.

  6. Final Report: Baseline Selenium Monitoring of Agricultural Drains Operated by the Imperial Irrigation District in the Salton Sea Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; May, Thomas W.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes comprehensive findings from a 4-year-long field investigation to document baseline environmental conditions in 29 agricultural drains and ponds operated by the Imperial Irrigation District along the southern border of the Salton Sea. Routine water-quality collections and fish community assessments were conducted on as many as 16 sampling dates at roughly quarterly intervals from July 2005 to April 2009. The water-quality measurements included total suspended solids and total (particulate plus dissolved) selenium. With one exception, fish were surveyed with baited minnow traps at quarterly intervals during the same time period. However, in July 2007, fish surveys were not conducted because we lacked permission from the California Department of Fish and Game for incidental take of desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), an endangered species. During April and October 2006-08, water samples also were collected from seven intensively monitored drains (which were selected from the 29 total drains) for measurement of particulate and dissolved selenium, including inorganic and organic fractions. In addition, sediment, aquatic food chain matrices [particulate organic detritus, filamentous algae, net plankton, and midge (chironomid) larvae], and two fish species (western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis; and sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna) were sampled from the seven drains for measurement of total selenium concentrations. The mosquitofish and mollies were intended to serve as surrogates for pupfish, which we were not permitted to sacrifice for selenium determinations. Water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, and turbidity) values were typical of surface waters in a hot, arid climate. A few drains exhibited brackish, near-anoxic conditions, especially during summer and fall when water temperatures occasionally exceeded 30 degrees Celsius. Total selenium concentrations in water were directly correlated with salinity and

  7. Water reuse for irrigated agriculture in Jordan: challenges of soil sustainability and the role of management strategies.

    PubMed

    Carr, G; Nortcliff, S; Potter, R B

    2010-11-28

    Reclaimed water provides an important contribution to the water balance in water-scarce Jordan, but the quality of this water presents both benefits and challenges. Careful management of reclaimed water is required to maximize the nutrient benefits while minimizing the salinity risks. This work uses a multi-disciplinary research approach to show that soil response to irrigation with reclaimed water is a function of the management strategies adopted on the farm by the water user. The adoption of management methods to maintain soil productivity can be seen to be a result of farmers' awareness to potentially plant-toxic ions in the irrigation water (70% of Jordan Valley farmers identified salinization as a hazard from irrigation with reclaimed water). However, the work also suggests that farmers' management capacity is affected by the institutional management of water. About a third (35%) of farmers in the Jordan Valley claimed that their ability to manage salinization was limited by water shortages. Organizational interviews revealed that institutional awareness of soil management challenges was quite high (34% of interviewees described salinization as a risk from water reuse), but strategies to address this challenge at the institutional level require greater development.

  8. Irrigation pricing policies and its impact on agricultural inputs demand in Tunisia: a DEA-based methodology.

    PubMed

    Frija, Aymen; Wossink, Ada; Buysse, Jeroen; Speelman, Stijn; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2011-09-01

    This paper estimates farmers' individual irrigation water demand functions employing the information hidden in individual farmers' technical efficiency. This information is extracted through the development of a new deductive methodology based on inverse Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models. The empirical results for Tunisia show that farmers who are more technically efficient have less elastic irrigation water demand functions; these farmers would adjust demand only to a limited extent and they can afford the water price. In contrast, water pricing significantly affects those that are less efficient. These farmers shift towards a different cropping pattern using significantly less water and more land when the price of water increases. Thus, higher water prices would threaten this category's livelihood if their efficiency is not improved. However, if the technical efficiency of these farmers were to improve, then it would be more difficult to reach water saving objectives since their demand will also become highly inelastic. The findings have important implications in view of the objectives of Tunisia water policy which include:full cost recovery, continuity of the irrigation activity, and water saving at the national level.

  9. Ground-water yield and potential for irrigated agriculture in the area of the Naval Magazine and Radio Transmitting Facility, Lualualei, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shade, P.J.; Takasaki, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    An estimated additional 2 million gallons per day (mgd) of fresh and slightly brackish water can be developed in Lualualei Valley , Hawaii, for the agricultural outleasing project. Several of these wells could be located in the volcanic aquifer which presently produces water of excellent quality. A secondary line of wells designed to develop water from the Coralline aquifer would capture the flow not captured by the wells in the volcanic aquifer. The chloride concentration of the water pumped from these wells is expected to range between 500 and 1,500 mg/L. The amount of acreage devoted to crops would depend primarily on the water quality and quantity requirements of the type of crops cultivated and on the type of irrigation system employed. The remaining acreage could be allocated for pasture to graze beef cattle. (Author 's abstract)

  10. Characterization and emulsifying property of a carbohydrate polymer produced by Bacillus pumilus UW-02 isolated from waste water irrigated agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Sougata Roy; Basak, Ratan Kumar; Sen, Ramkrishna; Adhikari, Basudam

    2011-05-01

    Bacillus pumilus UW-02, an isolate from agricultural soil irrigated with waste water was found to produce a carbohydrate polymer in the form of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) in glucose mineral salts medium (GMSM). The recovery rates of EPS by ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography were around 63% and 90%, respectively. As evident from HPLC and FT-IR analyses, the EPS was found to be a heteropolymer consisting glucose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, and N-acetyl glucosamine as monomer units. Different oligosaccharide combinations namely hexose(4), hexose(6) pentose(1) and hexose(10) pentose(1) are obtained after partial hydrolysis of EPS using MALDI-ToF-MS. Electron micrographs portrayed the intense affinity of the EPS molecules for each other, thereby justifying its viscosifying and thickening properties. The EPS with an average molecular weight of 218 kDa and thermal stability up to 180 °C showed pseudoplastic rheology and significant emulsifying activities.

  11. Irrigation, organic matter addition, and tarping as methods of reducing emissions of methyl iodide from agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, D J; Luo, L; Xuan, R; Yates, S R

    2011-02-15

    Methyl iodide (MeI) is increasingly being used as a highly effective alternative to the soil fumigant methyl bromide. Due to its volatile and toxic nature, MeI draws wide attention on its potential atmospheric emission following field fumigation treatment. Using soil columns that make it possible to determine emissions and gas phase distribution of soil fumigants, we studied MeI behavior in two soils differing in organic matter content. Additionally, the effectiveness of surface irrigation and tarping with virtually impermeable film (VIF) was assessed. In the lower organic matter, bare soil (control), emissions of MeI were rapid and high (83% of total). Although the peak emission flux was reduced by irrigation, the total loss was very similar to the control (82%). Tarping with VIF dramatically reduced emissions (0.04% total emissions). In the higher organic matter soil, degradation rate of MeI was increased around 4-fold, leading to a significant reduction in emissions (63% total emissions). The work suggests that surface tarping with VIF would be highly effective as an emissions reduction strategy and would also result in the maintenance of high soil gas concentrations (important for pest control). Ripping of the tarp after two weeks led to an immediate spike release of MeI, but, even so, the flux rate at this time was almost 20 times lower than the peak flux rate in the control. Even with tarp ripping, the total emission loss from the VIF treatment remained low (6%).

  12. Agriculture

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  13. Information technology and innovative drainage management practices for selenium load reduction from irrigated agriculture to provide stakeholder assurances and meet contaminant mass loading policy objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    2009-10-15

    Many perceive the implementation of environmental regulatory policy, especially concerning non-point source pollution from irrigated agriculture, as being less efficient in the United States than in many other countries. This is partly a result of the stakeholder involvement process but is also a reflection of the inability to make effective use of Environmental Decision Support Systems (EDSS) to facilitate technical information exchange with stakeholders and to provide a forum for innovative ideas for controlling non-point source pollutant loading. This paper describes one of the success stories where a standardized Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology was modified to better suit regulation of a trace element in agricultural subsurface drainage and information technology was developed to help guide stakeholders, provide assurances to the public and encourage innovation while improving compliance with State water quality objectives. The geographic focus of the paper is the western San Joaquin Valley where, in 1985, evapoconcentration of selenium in agricultural subsurface drainage water, diverted into large ponds within a federal wildlife refuge, caused teratogenecity in waterfowl embryos and in other sensitive wildlife species. The fallout from this environmental disaster was a concerted attempt by State and Federal water agencies to regulate non-point source loads of the trace element selenium. The complexity of selenium hydrogeochemistry, the difficulty and expense of selenium concentration monitoring and political discord between agricultural and environmental interests created challenges to the regulation process. Innovative policy and institutional constructs, supported by environmental monitoring and the web-based data management and dissemination systems, provided essential decision support, created opportunities for adaptive management and ultimately contributed to project success. The paper provides a retrospective on the contentious planning

  14. Relationship between eae and stx virulence genes and Escherichia coli in an agricultural watershed: implications for irrigation water standards and leafy green commodities.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Daniel R; Karns, Jeffrey S; Coppock, Cary; Patel, Jitu; Sharma, Manan; Pachepsky, Yakov A

    2011-01-01

    The California Leafy Greens Marketing Agreement (LGMA) was adopted in an effort to minimize the risk of contamination of leafy greens with enteric pathogens from a variety of sources, including ground and surface irrigation waters. The LGMA contains standards similar to those established for recreational waters, based on Escherichia coli concentrations. However, no correlation between E. coli and any specific waterborne pathogen(s) has been reported. We conducted this monitoring study in an agricultural watershed to (i) evaluate spatial and temporal fluctuations in E. coli populations and virulence genes associated with pathogenic E. coli and (ii) investigate whether a relationship could be established between E. coli and virulence genes. The virulence genes targeted for analysis were the eae and stx genes, encoding for intimin and Shiga-like toxins, respectively; they were detected with PCR methods. E. coli concentrations and eae and stx prevalence varied both spatially and temporally. In general, both were higher in agricultural than in forested areas and were higher in the summer and fall seasons than in winter. The eae and stx genes were prevalent throughout the watershed. However, in the absence of actual isolates, no conclusions could be drawn regarding the prevalence of specific pathogenic E. coli. No correlation was observed between E. coli concentrations and virulence genes; lower E. coli concentrations were not necessarily associated with decreased prevalence of eae and stx genes. These results suggest that the LGMA standards might not adequately address the issue of waterborne contamination, and that alternative criteria might be required.

  15. Irrigation: Erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation is essential for global food production. However, irrigation erosion can limit the ability of irrigation systems to reliably produce food and fiber in the future. The factors affecting soil erosion from irrigation are the same as rainfall—water detaches and transports sediment. However, t...

  16. Using GPR early-time amplitude analysis to monitor variations in soil water content at a clay-rich agricultural site in response to irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algeo, Jonathan; Van Dam, Remke; Slater, Lee

    2015-04-01

    Geophysical methods are increasingly used to analyze spatial variation in soil water content (SWC). Electrical resistivity (ER), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and time-domain reflectometry (TDR) have all been applied to this problem. However, TDR is limited in terms of its ability to provide good spatial coverage over large areas, ER can be very time consuming depending on the survey, and GPR direct wave and reflection methods are ineffective in clay-rich environments. We employed a relatively new GPR methodology, early-time amplitude analysis, during an infiltration experiment conducted in a clay-rich agricultural field. The research took place at the Samford Ecological Research Facility, Queensland, Australia, with the goal of monitoring changes in SWC in response to irrigation. We hypothesize that early-time analysis can be used to detect and monitor infiltration in clay-rich soils where direct wave and reflection GPR fails, thus opening new avenues of hydrogeophysical research in the increasingly important field of water resource management. Initial field work showed that traditional methods of using GPR reflection surveys and ground wave velocity analysis were ineffective due to the excessive signal attenuation caused by the clay-rich soil at the site. GPR and TDR datasets were collected over a 20 meter by 15 meter section of the field. GPR datasets were collected once daily, at 10 am, and TDR measurements were collected once daily at 11 am from Thursday, August 28th, 2014 until Monday, September 1st, 2014. A sprinkler irrigation was carried out on the evening of Thursday, August 28th. The results suggest that the early-time GPR method is capable of monitoring the resulting changes in SWC due to infiltration in clayey soils despite the failure of reflection and ground wave velocity analysis. The early time GPR results are consistent with moisture content estimates from TDR and gravimetric analysis of soil cores taken in the field.

  17. Eco-efficient agriculture for producing higher yields with lower greenhouse gas emissions: a case study of intensive irrigation wheat production in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Z. L.; Ye, Y. L.; Ma, W. Q.; Chen, X. P.; Zhang, F. S.

    2013-10-01

    Although the concept of producing higher yields with reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is a goal that attracts increasing public and scientific attention, the tradeoff between crop productivity and GHG emissions in intensive agricultural production is not well understood. In this study, we investigated 33 sites of on-farm experiments to evaluate the tradeoff between grain yield and GHG emissions using two systems (conventional practice, CP; high-yielding systems, HY) of intensive irrigation wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in China. Furthermore, we discussed the potential to produce higher yields with lower GHG emissions based on a survey of 2938 farmers. However, in both the HY and CP systems, wheat grain yield response to GHG emissions fit a linear-plateau model, whereas the curve for grain yield from the HY system was always higher than that from the CP system. Compared to the CP system, grain yield was 44% (2.6 Mg ha-1) higher in the HY system, while GHG emissions increased by only 2.5%, and GHG emission intensity was reduced by 29%. The current intensive irrigation wheat system with farmers' practice had a median yield and maximum GHG emission rate of 6.05 Mg ha-1 and 4783 kg CO2 eq ha-1, respectively; however, this system can be transformed to maintain yields while reducing GHG emissions by 40% (5.96 Mg ha-1, and 2890 kg CO2 eq ha-1). Further, the HY system was found to increase grain yield by 41% with a simultaneous reduction in GHG emissions by 38% (8.55 Mg ha-1, and 2961 kg CO2 eq ha-1, respectively). In the future, we suggest moving the tradeoff relationships and calculations from grain yield and GHG emissions, to new measures of productivity and environmental protection using innovative management technologies. This shift in focus is critical to achieve food and environmental security.

  18. Automation of irrigation systems to control irrigation applications and crop water use efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural irrigation management to slow water withdrawals from non-replenishing quality water resources is a global endeavor and vital to sustaining irrigated agriculture and dependent rural economies. Research in site-specific irrigation management has shown that water use efficiency, and crop p...

  19. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soil, Irrigation Water and Vegetables in Peri-Urban Agricultural Areas and Markets of Delhi.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Arti; Singh, ShivDhar; Kumar, Amit

    2015-11-01

    Dietary exposure to heavy metals, namely cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu), has been identified as a risk to human health through consumption of vegetable crops. The present study investigates heavy metal contamination in irrigation water, soil, and vegetables at four peri-urban and one wholesale site in Delhi, India, and estimates the health risk index. Most of the samples collected from peri-urban areas exceeded the safe limits of lead and cadmium, whereas only lead concentration was found to be higher in vegetable samples collected from the wholesale market. Average uptake of metals by vegetables from soil decreased in the order Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb. The order of metal uptake based on transfer factor was highest in okra, cauliflower, and spinach, from greatest to least. Among the vegetables from peri-urban sites, only okra crossed the safe limit for cadmium; whereas vegetables from the wholesale site exceeded the limit for lead (potato, coriander, chilies, pea, and carrot, in order from greatest to least) with respect to health risk index.

  20. Irrigated agriculture is an important risk factor for West Nile virus disease in the hyperendemic Larimer-Boulder-Weld area of north central Colorado.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Lars; Barker, Christopher M; Moore, Chester G; Pape, W John; Winters, Anna M; Cheronis, Nicholas

    2010-09-01

    This study focused on two West Nile virus (WNV) disease outbreak years, 2003 and 2007, and included a three-county area (Larimer, Boulder, and Weld) in North Central Colorado that is hyperendemic for WNV disease. We used epidemiological data for reported WNV disease cases at the census tract scale to: (1) elucidate whether WNV disease incidence differs between census tracts classified as having high versus lower human population density (based on a threshold value of 580 persons/km2) and (2) determine associations between WNV disease incidence and habitat types suitable as development sites for the larval stage of Culex mosquito vectors. WNV disease incidence was significantly elevated in census tracts with lower human population density, compared with those with high density of human population, in both 2003 (median per census tract of 223 and 143 cases per 100,000 population, respectively) and 2007 (median per census tract of 46 and 19 cases per 100,000 population). This is most likely related, in large part, to greater percentages of coverage in less densely populated census tracts by habitats suitable as development sites for Culex larvae (open water, developed open space, pasture/hay, cultivated crops, woody wetlands, and emergent herbaceous wetlands) and, especially, for the subset of these habitats made up by irrigated agricultural land (pasture/hay and cultivated crops) that presumably serve as major producers of the locally most important vector of WNV to humans: Culex tarsalis. A series of analyses produced significant positive associations between greater coverage of or shorter distance to irrigated agricultural land and elevated WNV disease incidence. As an exercise to produce data with potential to inform spatial implementation schemes for prevention and control measures within the study area, we mapped the spatial patterns, by census tract, of WNV disease incidence in 2003 and 2007 as well as the locations of census tracts that had either low (<25th

  1. Advances in Irrigation: Select Works from 2010 Decennial Irrigation Symposium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper is an introduction to the Advances in Irrigation Special Collection in this issue of Transactions ASABE and the next issue of Applied Engineering in Agriculture of 14 papers selected from 88 papers and presentations at the ASABE 5th Decennial National Irrigation Symposium, December 2010, ...

  2. Object-Based Retro-Classification Of A Agricultural Land Use: A Case Study Of Irrigated Croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovyk, Olena; Conrad, Christopher; Khamzina, Asia; Menz, Gunter

    2013-12-01

    Availability of the historical crop maps is necessary for the assessment of land management practices and their effectiveness, as well as monitoring of environmental impacts of land uses. Lack of accurate current and past land-use information forestalls assessment of the occurred changes and their consequences and, thus, complicates knowledge-driven agrarian policy development. At the same time, lack of the sampling dataset for the past years often restrict mapping of historical land use. We proposed a methodology for a retro-assessment of several crops, based on multitemporal Landsat 5 TM imagery and a limited sampling dataset. The overall accuracy of the retro-map was 81% while accuracies for specific crop classes varied from 60% to 93%. If further elaborated, the developed method could be a useful tool for the generation of historical data on agricultural land use.

  3. Utility of a Two-source Energy Balance Approach for Daily Mapping of Landsat-scale Fluxes Over Irrigated Agriculture in a Desert Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houborg, R.; McCabe, M. F.; Rosas Aguilar, J.; Anderson, M. C.; Hain, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is an area characterized by limited fresh water resources, an often inefficient use of these, and relatively poor in-situ monitoring as a result of sparse meteorological observations. Enhanced satellite-based monitoring systems are needed for aiding local water resource and agricultural management activities in these data poor arid environments. A multi-sensor and multi-scale land-surface flux monitoring capacity is being implemented over parts of MENA in order to provide meaningful decision support at relevant spatiotemporal scales. The integrated modeling system uses the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model and associated flux disaggregation scheme (DisALEXI), and the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) in conjunction with model reanalysis data and remotely sensed data from polar orbiting (Landsat and MODIS; MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and geostationary (MSG; Meteosat Second Generation) satellite platforms to facilitate daily estimates of land surface fluxes down to sub-field scale (i.e. 30 m). Within this modeling system, thermal infrared satellite data provide information about the sub-surface moisture status and plant stress, obviating the need for precipitation input and error-prone soil surface characterizations. In this study, the integrated ALEXI-DisALEXI-STARFM framework is applied over an irrigated agricultural region in Saudi Arabia, and the daily estimates of Landsat scale water, energy and carbon fluxes are evaluated against available flux tower observations and other independent in-situ and satellite-based records. The study addresses the challenges associated with time-continuous sub-field scale mapping of land-surface fluxes in a harsh desert environment, and looks into the optimization of model descriptions and parameterizations and meteorological forcing and vegetation inputs for application over these regions.

  4. On the use of L-band multipolarization airborne SAR for surveys of crops, vineyards, and orchards in a California irrigated agricultural region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    The airborne L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) collected multipolarization calibrated image data over an irrigated agricultural test site near Fresno, CA, on March 6, 1984. The conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) the effects of incidence angle on the measured backscattering coefficients could be removed by using a correction factor equal to the secant of the angle raised to the 1.4 power, (2) for this scene and time of year, the various polarization channels were highly correlated such that the use of more than one polarization added little to the ability of the radar to discriminate vegetation type or condition; the exception was barley which separated from vineyards only when a combination of like and cross polarization data were used (polarization was very useful for corn identification in fall crops), (3) an excellent separation between herbaceous vegetation (alfalfa, barley, and oats) or bare fields and trees in orchards existed in brightness was well correlated to alfalfa height or biomass, especially for the HH polarization combination, (5) vineyards exhibited a narrow range of brightnesses with no systematic effects of type or number of stakes nor of number of wires in the trellises nor of the size of the vines, (6) within the orchard classes, areal biomass characterized by basal area differences caused radar image brightness differences for small to medium trees but not for medium to large trees.

  5. Fecal Indicator and Pathogenic Bacteria and Their Antibiotic Resistance in Alluvial Groundwater of an Irrigated Agricultural Region with Dairies.

    PubMed

    Li, Xunde; Atwill, Edward R; Antaki, Elizabeth; Applegate, Olin; Bergamaschi, Brian; Bond, Ronald F; Chase, Jennifer; Ransom, Katherine M; Samuels, William; Watanabe, Naoko; Harter, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Surveys of microbiological groundwater quality were conducted in a region with intensive animal agriculture in California, USA. The survey included monitoring and domestic wells in eight concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and 200 small (domestic and community supply district) supply wells across the region. was not detected in groundwater, whereas O157:H7 and were each detected in 2 of 190 CAFO monitoring well samples. Nonpathogenic generic and spp. were detected in 24.2% (46/190) and 97.4% (185/190) groundwater samples from CAFO monitoring wells and in 4.2% (1/24) and 87.5% (21/24) of CAFO domestic wells, respectively. Concentrations of both generic and spp. were significantly associated with well depth, season, and the type of adjacent land use in the CAFO. No pathogenic bacteria were detected in groundwater from 200 small supply wells in the extended survey. However, 4.5 to 10.3% groundwater samples were positive for generic and . Concentrations of generic were not significantly associated with any factors, but concentrations of were significantly associated with proximity to CAFOs, seasons, and concentrations of potassium in water. Among a subset of and isolates from both surveys, the majority of (63.6%) and (86.1%) isolates exhibited resistance to multiple (≥3) antibiotics. Findings confirm significant microbial and antibiotic resistance loading to CAFO groundwater. Results also demonstrate significant attenuative capacity of the unconfined alluvial aquifer system with respect to microbial transport.

  6. Texas Irrigation Situation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The irrigation situation in Texas is an interaction between hydrology and water policies. In 2012, according to National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS) four High Plains counties, Gainesville, Yoakum, Terry and Cochran, accounted for approximately 60% of the 150,000 acres of peanut productio...

  7. Asian irrigation, African rain: Remote impacts of irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrese, Philipp; Hagemann, Stefan; Claussen, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Irrigation is not only vital for global food security but also constitutes an anthropogenic land use change, known to have strong effects on local hydrological and energy cycles. Using the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology's Earth System Model, we show that related impacts are not confined regionally but that possibly as much as 40% of the present-day precipitation in some of the arid regions in Eastern Africa are related to irrigation-based agriculture in Asia. Irrigation in South Asia also substantially influences the climate throughout Southeast Asia and China via the advection of water vapor and by altering the Asian monsoon. The simulated impact of irrigation on remote regions is sensitive to the magnitude of the irrigation-induced moisture flux. Therefore, it is likely that a future extension or decline of irrigated areas due to increasing food demand or declining fresh water resources will also affect precipitation and temperatures in remote regions.

  8. Irrigation Training Manual. Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems [and] Irrigation Reference Manual. A Technical Reference to Be Used with the Peace Corps Irrigation Training Manual T0076 in the Selection, Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, LeRoy; And Others

    This resource for trainers involved in irrigated agriculture training for Peace Corps volunteers consists of two parts: irrigation training manual and irrigation reference manual. The complete course should fully prepare volunteers serving as irrigation, specialists to plan, implement, evaluate and manage small-scale irrigation projects in arid,…

  9. Energy requirements in pressure irrigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, R.; Rodríguez-Sinobas, L.; Juana, L.; Laguna, F. V.; Castañón, G.; Gil, M.; Benítez, J.

    2012-04-01

    Modernization of irrigation schemes, generally understood as transformation of surface irrigation systems into pressure -sprinkler and trickle- irrigation systems, aims at, among others, improving irrigation efficiency and reduction of operation and maintenance efforts made by the irrigators. However, pressure irrigation systems, in contrast, carry a serious energy cost. Energy requirements depend on decisions taken on management strategies during the operation phase, which are conditioned by previous decisions taken on the design project of the different elements which compose the irrigation system. Most of the countries where irrigation activity is significant bear in mind that modernization irrigation must play a key role in the agricultural infrastructure policies. The objective of this study is to characterize and estimate the mean and variation of the energy consumed by common types of irrigation systems and their management possibilities. The work includes all processes involved from the diversion of water into irrigation specific infrastructure to water discharge by the emitters installed on the crop fields. Simulation taking into account all elements comprising the irrigation system has been used to estimate the energy requirements of typical irrigation systems of several crop production systems. It has been applied to extensive and intensive crop systems, such us extensive winter crops, summer crops and olive trees, fruit trees and vineyards and intensive horticulture in greenhouses. The simulation of various types of irrigation systems and management strategies, in the framework imposed by particular cropping systems, would help to develop criteria for improving the energy balance in relation to the irrigation water supply productivity.

  10. Effect of irrigation pumpage during drought on karst aquifer systems in highly agricultural watersheds: example of the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint river basin, southeastern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Subhasis; Srivastava, Puneet; Singh, Sarmistha

    2016-09-01

    In the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) river basin in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida (USA), population growth in the city of Atlanta and increased groundwater withdrawal for irrigation in southwest Georgia are greatly affecting the supply of freshwater to downstream regions. This study was conducted to understand and quantify the effect of irrigation pumpage on the karst Upper Floridan Aquifer and river-aquifer interactions in the lower ACF river basin in southwest Georgia. The groundwater MODular Finite-Element model (MODFE) was used for this study. The effect of two drought years, a moderate and a severe drought year, were simulated. Comparison of the results of the irrigated and non-irrigated scenarios showed that groundwater discharge to streams is a major outflow from the aquifer, and irrigation can cause as much as 10 % change in river-aquifer flux. The results also show that during months with high irrigation (e.g., June 2011), storage loss (34 %), the recharge and discharge from the upper semi-confining unit (30 %), and the river-aquifer flux (31 %) are the major water components contributing towards the impact of irrigation pumpage in the study area. A similar scenario plays out in many river basins throughout the world, especially in basins in which underlying karst aquifers are directly connected to a nearby stream. The study suggests that improved groundwater withdrawal strategies using climate forecasts needs to be developed in such a way that excessive withdrawals during droughts can be reduced to protect streams and river flows.

  11. Agricultural land-use classification using landsat imagery data, and estimates of irrigation water use in Gooding, Jerome, Lincoln, and Minidoka counties, 1992 water year, Upper Snake River basin, Idaho and western Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maupin, Molly A.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program in the upper Snake River Basin study unit, land- and water-use data were used to describe activities that have potential effects on water quality, including biological conditions, in the basin. Land-use maps and estimates of water use by irrigated agriculture were needed for Gooding, Jerome, Lincoln, and Minidoka Counties (south-central Idaho), four of the most intensively irrigated counties in the study unit. Land use in the four counties was mapped from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery data for the 1992 water year using the SPECTRUM computer program. Land-use data were field verified in 108 randomly selected sections (640 acres each); results compared favorably with land-use maps from other sources. Water used for irrigation during the 1992 water year was estimated using land-use and ancillary data. In 1992, a drought year, estimated irrigation withdrawals in the four counties were about 2.9 million acre-feet of water. Of the 2.9 million acre-feet, an estimated 2.12 million acre-feet of water was withdrawn from surface water, mainly the Snake River, and nearly 776,000 acre-feet was withdrawn from ground water. One-half of the 2.9 million acre-feet of water withdrawn for irrigation was considered to be lost during conveyance or was returned to the Snake River; the remainder was consumptively used by crops during the growing season.

  12. Year 3 Summary Report: Baseline Selenium Monitoring of Agricultural Drains Operated by the Imperial Irrigation District in the Salton Sea Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; May, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes findings from the third year of a 4-year-long field investigation to document selected baseline environmental conditions in 29 agricultural drains and ponds operated by the Imperial Irrigation District along the southern border of the Salton Sea. Routine water quality and fish species were measured at roughly quarterly intervals from April 2007 to January 2008. The water quality measurements included total suspended solids and total (particulate plus dissolved) selenium. In addition, during April and October 2007, water samples were collected from seven intensively monitored drains for measurement of particulate and dissolved selenium, including inorganic and organic fractions. In addition, sediment, aquatic food chain matrices (particulate organic detritus, filamentous algae, net plankton, and midge [chironomid] larvae), and two fish species (western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis; and sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna) were sampled from the seven drains for measurement of total selenium concentrations. The mosquitofish and mollies were intended to serve as surrogates for desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), an endangered species that we were not permitted to take for selenium determinations. Water quality values were typical of surface waters in a hot desert climate. A few drains exhibited brackish, near anoxic conditions especially during the summer and fall when water temperatures occasionally exceeded 30 degrees C. In general, total selenium concentrations in water varied directly with conductivity and inversely with pH. Although desert pupfish were found in several drains, sometimes in relatively high numbers, the fish faunas of most drains and ponds were dominated by nonnative species, especially red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis), mosquitofish, and mollies. Dissolved selenium in water samples from the seven intensively monitored drains ranged from 0.700 to 24.1 ug/L, with selenate as the major constituent in all samples. Selenium

  13. Occurrence, distribution, and transport of pesticides in agricultural irrigation-return flow from four drainage basins in the Columbia Basin Project, Washington, 2002-04, and comparison with historical data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Richard J.; Frans, Lonna M.; Huffman, Raegan L.

    2006-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected from sites in four irrigation return-flow drainage basins in the Columbia Basin Project from July 2002 through October 2004. Ten samples were collected throughout the irrigation season (generally April through October) and two samples were collected during the non-irrigation season. Samples were analyzed for temperature, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, major ions, trace elements, nutrients, and a suite of 107 pesticides and pesticide metabolites (pesticide transformation products) and to document the occurrence, distribution, and pesticides transport and pesticide metabolites. The four drainage basins vary in size from 19 to 710 square miles. Percentage of agricultural cropland ranges from about 35 percent in Crab Creek drainage basin to a maximum of 75 percent in Lind Coulee drainage basin. More than 95 percent of cropland in Red Rock Coulee, Crab Creek, and Sand Hollow drainage basins is irrigated, whereas only 30 percent of cropland in Lind Coulee is irrigated. Forty-two pesticides and five metabolites were detected in samples from the four irrigation return-flow drainage basins. The most compounds detected were in samples from Sand Hollow with 37, followed by Lind Coulee with 33, Red Rock Coulee with 30, and Crab Creek with 28. Herbicides were the most frequently detected pesticides, followed by insecticides, metabolites, and fungicides. Atrazine, bentazon, diuron, and 2,4-D were the most frequently detected herbicides and chlorpyrifos and azinphos-methyl were the most frequently detected insecticides. A statistical comparison of pesticide concentrations in surface-water samples collected in the mid-1990s at Crab Creek and Sand Hollow with those collected in this study showed a statistically significant increase in concentrations for diuron and a statistically significant decrease for ethoprophos and atrazine in Crab Creek. Statistically significant increases were in concentrations of bromacil, diuron, and

  14. Marginal cost curves for water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: a policy and decision making guide for efficient water use in crop production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukalla, Abebe; Krol, Maarten; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2016-04-01

    Reducing water footprints (WF) in irrigated crop production is an essential element in water management, particularly in water-scarce areas. To achieve this, policy and decision making need to be supported with information on marginal cost curves that rank measures to reduce the WF according to their cost-effectiveness and enable the estimation of the cost associated with a certain WF reduction target, e.g. towards a certain reasonable WF benchmark. This paper aims to develop marginal cost curves (MCC) for WF reduction. The AquaCrop model is used to explore the effect of different measures on evapotranspiration and crop yield and thus WF that is used as input in the MCC. Measures relate to three dimensions of management practices: irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip); irrigation strategies (full and deficit irrigation); and mulching practices (no mulching, organic and synthetic mulching). A WF benchmark per crop is calculated as resulting from the best-available production technology. The marginal cost curve is plotted using the ratios of the marginal cost to WF reduction of the measures as ordinate, ranking with marginal costs rise with the increase of the reduction effort. For each measure, the marginal cost to reduce WF is estimated by comparing the associated WF and net present value (NPV) to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The NPV for each measure is based on its capital costs, operation and maintenances costs (O&M) and revenues. A range of cases is considered, including: different crops, soil types and different environments. Key words: marginal cost curve, water footprint benchmark, soil water balance, crop growth, AquaCrop

  15. Mediterranean irrigation under climate change: more efficient irrigation needed to compensate increases in irrigation water requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fader, M.; Shi, S.; von Bloh, W.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.

    2015-08-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. This study systematically assesses how climate change and increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations may affect irrigation requirements in the Mediterranean region by 2080-2090. Future demographic change and technological improvements in irrigation systems are accounted for, as is the spread of climate forcing, warming levels and potential realization of the CO2-fertilization effect. Vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL after a large development that comprised the improved representation of Mediterranean crops. At present the Mediterranean region could save 35 % of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries like Syria, Egypt and Turkey have higher saving potentials than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume in average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops. Different crops show different magnitude of changes in net irrigation requirements due to climate change, being the increases most pronounced in agricultural trees. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4 and 18 % from climate change alone if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved (2 °C global warming combined with full CO2-fertilization effect, and 5 °C global warming combined with no CO2-fertilization effect, respectively). Population growth increases these numbers to 22 and 74 %, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to compensate to some degree the increases due to climate change and

  16. Water requirements and management of maize under drip and sprinkler irrigation. 1999 annual report for Agricultural Technology Utilization and Transfer (ATUT) project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the second year of this project, research continued at Ismailia, Egypt on irrigation management of maize, fava bean, wheat, and alfalfa. Research at Bushland, Texas, continued on alfalfa and grass reference evapotranspiration (ET), means of estimating those values from Bowen ratio meterological m...

  17. Water requirements and management of maize under drip and sprinkler irrigation. 2000 annual report for Agricultural Technology Utilization and Transfer (ATUT) project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research at Ismailia, Egypt, focused on irrigation management of maize, fava bean, wheat, and alfalfa. In 1998, the two weighing lysimeters at Ismailia were recalibrated successfully with precision of 0.01 mm; and a state-of-the-art time domain reflectometry (TDR) system for soil water balance measu...

  18. A Fuzzy Control Irrigation System For Cottonfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Yandong; Wang, Yiming; Li, Jinping

    A fuzzy control irrigation system for cotton field is presented in this paper. The system is composed of host computer, slave computer controller, communication module, soil water sensors, valve controllers, and system software. A fuzzy control model is constructed to control the irrigation time and irrigation quantity for cotton filed. According to the water-required rules of different cotton growing periods, different irrigation strategies can be carried out automatically. This system had been used for precision irrigation of the cotton field in Langfang experimental farm of Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences in 2006. The results show that the fuzzy control irrigation system can improve cotton yield and save much water quantity than the irrigation system based on simple on-off control algorithm.

  19. Practical implications of applied irrigation research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundwater is essential to irrigated agriculture in the semi-arid Texas High Plains. Concerns over groundwater depletion have led to increased emphasis on water conservation. Irrigation scheduling coupled with accurate crop water use (ET) estimation is one of the most effective means to both conser...

  20. Soil-moisture sensors and irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This agricultural irrigation seminar will cover the major classes of soil-moisture sensors; their advantages and disadvantages; installing and reading soil-moisture sensors; and using their data for irrigation management. The soil water sensor classes include the resistance sensors (gypsum blocks, g...

  1. Variable-rate irrigation management for peanut using Irrigator Pro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variable-rate irrigation has the potential to save water. These savings become more important as urban, industrial, and environmental sectors compete with agriculture for available water. To help save water, methodologies are needed to precision-apply water for maximum agronomic and economic efficac...

  2. Modeling irrigation behavior in groundwater systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Timothy; Brozović, Nicholas; Butler, Adrian P.

    2014-08-01

    Integrated hydro-economic models have been widely applied to water management problems in regions of intensive groundwater-fed irrigation. However, policy interpretations may be limited as most existing models do not explicitly consider two important aspects of observed irrigation decision making, namely the limits on instantaneous irrigation rates imposed by well yield and the intraseasonal structure of irrigation planning. We develop a new modeling approach for determining irrigation demand that is based on observed farmer behavior and captures the impacts on production and water use of both well yield and climate. Through a case study of irrigated corn production in the Texas High Plains region of the United States we predict optimal irrigation strategies under variable levels of groundwater supply, and assess the limits of existing models for predicting land and groundwater use decisions by farmers. Our results show that irrigation behavior exhibits complex nonlinear responses to changes in groundwater availability. Declining well yields induce large reductions in the optimal size of irrigated area and irrigation use as constraints on instantaneous application rates limit the ability to maintain sufficient soil moisture to avoid negative impacts on crop yield. We demonstrate that this important behavioral response to limited groundwater availability is not captured by existing modeling approaches, which therefore may be unreliable predictors of irrigation demand, agricultural profitability, and resilience to climate change and aquifer depletion.

  3. Subsurface drip irrigation in California - here to stay?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation is the principal user of water in California with nearly 70% of the developed water being used by agriculture. The principal irrigation methods in the past have been surface methods, e.g. flood, furrow, which are generally considered to be inefficient. Surface irrigation is used on annual...

  4. Technical descriptions of ten irrigation technologies for conserving energy

    SciTech Connect

    Harrer, B.J.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1983-05-01

    Technical description of ten technologies which were researched to save energy in irrigated agriculture are presented. These technologies are: well design and development ground water supply system optimization, column and pump redesign, variable-speed pumping, pipe network optimization, reduced-pressure center-pivot systems, low-energy precision application, automated gated-pipe system, computerized irrigation scheduling, and instrumented irrigation scheduling. (MHR)

  5. Can variable frequency drives reduce irrigation costs for rice producers?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variable Frequency Drives (VFD's) allow for variable speed operation of electrical motor drive irrigation pumps and are an emerging technology for agricultural irrigation, primarily for pressurized irrigation systems. They are considered an energy savings device, but less is known about their app...

  6. Afghanistan irrigation system assessment using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haack, Barry

    1997-01-01

    The Helmand-Arghandab Valley irrigation system in southern Afghanistan is one of the country's most important capital resources. Prior to the civil and military conflict that has engulfed Afghanistan for more than 15 years, agricultural lands irrigated by the system produced a large proportion of the country's food grains and cotton. This study successfully employed Landsat satellite imagery, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Global Positioning Systems (GPS), and field surveys to assess changes that have occurred in this system since 1973 as a consequence of the war. This information is a critical step in irrigation rehabilitation for restoration of Afghanistan's agricultural productivity.

  7. Irrigation Requirement Estimation Using Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Franks, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    We explore an inverse biophysical modeling process forced by satellite and climatological data to quantify irrigation requirements in semi-arid agricultural areas. We constrain the carbon and water cycles modeled under both equilibrium, balance between vegetation and climate, and non-equilibrium, water added through irrigation. We postulate that the degree to which irrigated dry lands vary from equilibrium climate conditions is related to the amount of irrigation. The amount of water required over and above precipitation is considered as an irrigation requirement. For July, results show that spray irrigation resulted in an additional amount of water of 1.3 mm per occurrence with a frequency of 24.6 hours. In contrast, the drip irrigation required only 0.6 mm every 45.6 hours or 46% of that simulated by the spray irrigation. The modeled estimates account for 87% of the total reported irrigation water use, when soil salinity is not important and 66% in saline lands.

  8. Role of irrigation and irrigation automation in improving crop water use efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In arid climates, irrigation is required for significant agricultural production. In subhumid and semiarid climates, supplemental irrigation is recognized as both economically necessary (prevention of crop losses in periodic droughts) and as a means to improve overall crop water use effi...

  9. ARS irrigation research priorities and projects-An update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service focuses on six areas of research that are crucial to safe and effective use of all water resources for agricultural production: 1) Irrigation Scheduling Technologies for Water Productivity; 2) Water Productivity (WP) at Multiple Scales; 3) Irrigation Applicatio...

  10. Efficient irrigation management with conventional and VRI sprinkler systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Alabama, there is a ploitical push towards irrigated agriculture, as reduction in water resources for agriculture in the West becomes more limited. Some farmers have invested in center pivot systems but have little experience with irrigation scheduling methods. ARS scientists at Bushland have e...

  11. Stratified random sampling plan for an irrigation customer telephone survey

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, J.W.; Davis, L.J.

    1986-05-01

    This report describes the procedures used to design and select a sample for a telephone survey of individuals who use electricity in irrigating agricultural cropland in the Pacific Northwest. The survey is intended to gather information on the irrigated agricultural sector that will be useful for conservation assessment, load forecasting, rate design, and other regional power planning activities.

  12. Status and migration of irrigation in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigated agriculture produces 49% of crop market value on 18% of cropped lands in the USA. Irrigation is essential to the most highly productive, intensely managed, and internationally competitive sectors of our agricultural economy, which play a key role in meeting growing global food, fiber, and ...

  13. Moving from local to State water governance to resolve a local conflict between irrigated agriculture and commercial forestry in South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillet, Virginie; McKay, Jennifer; Keremane, Ganesh

    2014-11-01

    In the Lower Limestone Coast, South Australia, a unique water allocation plan has been under consideration for several years. This plan is the first in Australia to consider forestry as a water affecting activity. Indeed, forestry plantations have a twofold impact on water-rainfall or aquifer recharge interception and direct extraction of groundwater in shallow water table areas-and alter the available water for irrigation as a result of the previous water budget. This paper examines how water is allocated across the competing requirements for water but also across the competing legal, economic and administrative scales embodied by the competing water users; and thus it also details the pre-judicial mechanism used to resolve the conflict over these competing scales. Qualitative and quantitative content analysis in Nvivo was applied to: (i) 180 local newspaper articles on the planning process, (ii) 65 submission forms filled in by the community during a public consultation on the draft water plan and (iii) 20 face-to-face interviews of keys stakeholders involved in the planning process. The social sustainability perspective taken in this study establishes the legal, economic and administrative competitive scales at stake in the conflict regarding water between forestry and irrigation. It also evidences the special feature of this paper, which is that to overcome these competitions and resolve the local conflict before judicial process, the water governance moved up in the administrative scale, from local/regional to State level. Initiated and initially prepared at regional level through the local Natural Resources Management Board, the water planning process was taken up to State level through the formation of an Interdepartmental Committee and the establishment of a Taskforce in charge of developing a policy. These were supported by an amendment of a State legislation on Natural Resources Management to manage the water impacts of forestry plantations.

  14. Mobilizing local innovation capacity through a simulation game in a participatory research project on agricultural innovation in El Brahmi irrigation scheme (Tunisia).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinska, Aleksandra; d'Aquino, Patrick; Imache, Amar; Dionnet, Mathieu; Rougier, Jean-Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the European Union and African Union cooperative research to increase Food production in irrigated farming systems in Africa (EAU4Food project) we conducted a participatory research on the possible innovative practices to increase production of dairy farms in the irrigation scheme El Brahmi in Tunisia in the face of changing economic, political and environmental conditions. Our aim was to find effective research method to stimulate farmers' participation in the innovation process. Although the capacities of farmers in producing knowledge and in innovating are recognized and the shift from the linear model of technology transfer towards more participatory approaches to innovation is postulated, in which the role of researchers changes from providing solutions towards supporting farmers in finding their own solutions, in practice, the position of farmers in shaping innovation practice and process remains weak. After a series of participatory workshops and in-depth interviews with the actors of the local innovation system we developed and tested a simple open simulation game Laitconomie for farmers. The game proved to be effective in increasing our understanding of the system as the farmers were adding new elements and rules while playing, and in mobilizing farmers' knowledge (including tacit knowledge) in the simulated innovation process. The result reported by the participants was learning how to improve farm management, soil fertility management and cow nutrition practices. Some of the participants used the game as a decision support tool. While our game and its scope were modest and mobilized only two types of players (farmers and extension agent), open simulation proved to be a useful tool to analyze a local innovation system. Designing similar type of tools that would mobilize more diverse players and hence have a larger scope can be imagined.

  15. Variable rate irrigation (VRI)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) technology is now offered by all major manufacturers of moving irrigation systems, mostly on center pivot irrigation systems. Variable irrigation depths may be controlled by sector only, in which case only the speed of the irrigation lateral is regulated. Or, variable ...

  16. Proceedings: Agricultural Technology Alliance

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report is a compilation of field trip overviews, presentations and committee reports from the EPRI-ATA meeting held in Boise, Idaho, May 28-30, 1997. The field trips consisted of an Agriculture and Aquaculture Tour, a tour of Idaho as America's Seed Supplier, and a Production of Milk, Cheese and Electricity tour. Presentations and committee reports include the following: (1) Idaho Seed Industry; (2) Controlled Environment Agriculture; (3) Irrigation in the North West: An Overview; (4) Drip Irrigation; (5) Sprinkler Irrigation; (6) Current Status of the ATA; (7) ATA Office Report; (8) Committee Reports; (9) Steering Committee Minutes.

  17. Removal of human pathogenic viruses in a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor treating municipal wastewater and health risks associated with utilization of the effluent for agricultural irrigation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Naohiro; Oshiki, Mamoru; Ito, Toshihiro; Segawa, Takahiro; Hatamoto, Masashi; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kubota, Kengo; Takahashi, Masanobu; Iguchi, Akinori; Tagawa, Tadashi; Okubo, Tsutomu; Uemura, Shigeki; Harada, Hideki; Motoyama, Toshiki; Araki, Nobuo; Sano, Daisuke

    2017-03-01

    A down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor has been developed as a cost-effective wastewater treatment system that is adaptable to local conditions in low-income countries. A pilot-scale DHS reactor previously demonstrated stable reduction efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium nitrogen over a year at ambient temperature, but the pathogen reduction efficiency of the DHS reactor has yet to be investigated. In the present study, the reduction efficiency of a pilot-scale DHS reactor fed with municipal wastewater was investigated for 10 types of human pathogenic viruses (norovirus GI, GII and GIV, aichivirus, astrovirus, enterovirus, hepatitis A and E viruses, rotavirus, and sapovirus). DHS influent and effluent were collected weekly or biweekly for 337 days, and concentrations of viral genomes were determined by microfluidic quantitative PCR. Aichivirus, norovirus GI and GII, enterovirus, and sapovirus were frequently detected in DHS influent, and the log10 reduction (LR) of these viruses ranged from 1.5 to 3.7. The LR values for aichivirus and norovirus GII were also calculated using a Bayesian estimation model, and the average LR (±standard deviation) values for aichivirus and norovirus GII were estimated to be 1.4 (±1.5) and 1.8 (±2.5), respectively. Quantitative microbial risk assessment was conducted to calculate a threshold reduction level for norovirus GII that would be required for the use of DHS effluent for agricultural irrigation, and it was found that LRs of 2.6 and 3.7 for norovirus GII in the DHS effluent were required in order to not exceed the tolerable burden of disease at 10(-4) and 10(-6) disability-adjusted life years loss per person per year, respectively, for 95% of the exposed population during wastewater reuse for irrigation.

  18. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shuang; Geng, Hui; Zhang, Fengjun; Liu, Zhaoying; Wang, Tianye; Song, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI), Cd, As, and Pb) analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I) and Nemerow pollution index (NI). The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream. PMID:26366176

  19. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shuang; Geng, Hui; Zhang, Fengjun; Liu, Zhaoying; Wang, Tianye; Song, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI), Cd, As, and Pb) analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I) and Nemerow pollution index (NI). The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream.

  20. Agriculture, irrigation, and drainage on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley, California: Unified perspective on hydrogeology, geochemistry and management

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.; Quinn, N.W.T.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a broad understanding of water-related issues of agriculture and drainage on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley. To this end, an attempt is made to review available literature on land and water resources of the San Joaquin Valley and to generate a process-oriented framework within which the various physical-, chemical-, biological- and economic components of the system and their interactions are placed in mutual perspective.

  1. Integrated Assessment of Hadley Centre (HadCM2) Climate-Change Impacts on Agricultural Productivity and Irrigation Water Supply in the Conterminous United States. Part II. Regional Agricultural Production in 2030 and 2095.

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Rosenberg, Norman J.; Brown, Robert A.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2003-06-30

    This study used scenarios of the HadCM2 GCM and the EPIC agroecosystem model to evaluate climate change impacts on crop yields and ecosystem processes. Baseline climate data were obtained from records for 1961-1990. The scenario runs for 2025-2034 and 2090-2099 were extracted from a HadCM2 run. EPIC was run on 204 representative farms under current climate and two 10-y periods centered on 2030 and 2095, each at CO2 concentrations of 365 and 560 ppm. Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and California are projected to experience significant temperature increases by 2030. Slight cooling is expected by 2030 in Alabama, Florida, Maine, Montana, Idaho, and Utah. Larger areas are projected to experience increased warming by 2095. Uniform precipitation increases are expected by 2030 in the NE. These increases are predicted to expand to the eastern half of the country by 2095. EPIC simulated yield increases for the Great Lakes, Corn Belt and Northeast regions. Simulated yields of irrigated corn yields were predicted to increase in almost all regions. Soybean yields could decrease in the Northern and Southern Plains, the Corn Belt, Delta, Appalachian, and Southeast regions and increase in the Lakes and Northeast regions. Simulated wheat yields exhibited upward yield trends under scenarios of climate change. National corn production in 2030 and 2095 could be affected by changes in three major producing regions. In 2030, corn production could increase in the Corn Belt and Lakes regions but decrease in the Northern Plains leading to an overall decrease in national production. National wheat production is expected to increase during both future periods. A proxy indicator was developed to provide a sense of where in the country, and when water would be available to satisfy change in irrigation demand for corn and alfalfa production as these are influenced by the HadCM2 scenarios and CO2-fertilization.

  2. Mediterranean irrigation under climate change: more efficient irrigation needed to compensate for increases in irrigation water requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fader, M.; Shi, S.; von Bloh, W.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.

    2016-03-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. This study systematically assesses how climate change and increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations may affect irrigation requirements in the Mediterranean region by 2080-2090. Future demographic change and technological improvements in irrigation systems are taken into account, as is the spread of climate forcing, warming levels and potential realization of the CO2-fertilization effect. Vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL (Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land) after an extensive development that comprised the improved representation of Mediterranean crops. At present the Mediterranean region could save 35 % of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries such as Syria, Egypt and Turkey have a higher savings potential than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume on average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops. Different crops show different magnitudes of changes in net irrigation requirements due to climate change, the increases being most pronounced in agricultural trees. The Mediterranean area as a whole may face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4 and 18 % from climate change alone if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved (4 and 18 % with 2 °C global warming combined with the full CO2-fertilization effect and 5 °C global warming combined with no CO2-fertilization effect, respectively). Population growth increases these numbers to 22 and 74 %, respectively, affecting mainly the southern and eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have a large water saving potential, especially in the eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to

  3. Two Challenges for U.S. Irrigation Due to Climate Change: Increasing Irrigated Area in Wet States and Increasing Irrigation Rates in Dry States

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Robert I.; Girvetz, Evan H.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural irrigation practices will likely be affected by climate change. In this paper, we use a statistical model relating observed water use by U.S. producers to the moisture deficit, and then use this statistical model to project climate changes impact on both the fraction of agricultural land irrigated and the irrigation rate (m3ha−1). Data on water withdrawals for US states (1985–2005) show that both quantities are highly positively correlated with moisture deficit (precipitation – PET). If current trends hold, climate change would increase agricultural demand for irrigation in 2090 by 4.5–21.9 million ha (B1 scenario demand: 4.5–8.7 million ha, A2 scenario demand: 9.1–21.9 million ha). Much of this new irrigated area would occur in states that currently have a wet climate and a small fraction of their agricultural land currently irrigated, posing a challenge to policymakers in states with less experience with strict regulation of agriculture water use. Moreover, most of this expansion will occur in states where current agricultural production has relatively low market value per hectare, which may make installation of irrigation uneconomical without significant changes in crops or practices by producers. Without significant increases in irrigation efficiency, climate change would also increase the average irrigation rate from 7,963 to 8,400–10,415 m3ha−1 (B1 rate: 8,400–9,145 m3ha−1, A2 rate: 9,380–10,415 m3ha−1). The irrigation rate will increase the most in states that already have dry climates and large irrigation rates, posing a challenge for water supply systems in these states. Accounting for both the increase in irrigated area and irrigation rate, total withdrawals might increase by 47.7–283.4 billion m3 (B1 withdrawal: 47.7–106.0 billion m3, A2 withdrawal: 117.4–283.4 billion m3). Increases in irrigation water-use efficiency, particularly by reducing the prevalence of surface irrigation, could eliminate the increase in

  4. Interdisciplinary Irrigated Precision Farming Research

    SciTech Connect

    Heermann, D F.; Hoeting, Jennifer A.; Thompson, Sandra ); Duke, H R.; Westfall, D G.; Buchleiter, G W.; Westra, P; Peairs, F B.; Fleming, K

    2001-12-01

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service and Colorado State University are conducting an inter-disciplinary study that focuses on developing a clearer scientific understanding of the causes of yield variability. Two years of data have been collected from two commercial center pivot irrigated fields (72 and 52 ha). Cooperating farmers manage all farming operations for crop production and provide maps of the maise grown on the fields.

  5. Irrigation water use in Kansas, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanning-Rush, Jennifer L.

    2016-03-22

    This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Kansas Department of Agriculture, Division of Water Resources, presents derivative statistics of 2013 irrigation water use in Kansas. The published regional and county-level statistics from the previous 4 years (2009–12) are shown with the 2013 statistics and are used to calculate a 5-year average. An overall Kansas average and regional averages also are calculated and presented. Total reported irrigation water use in 2013 was 3.3 million acre-feet of water applied to 3.0 million irrigated acres.

  6. Geospatial compilation and digital map of centerpivot irrigated areas in the mid-Atlantic region, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelstein, Jason S.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    The digitized acreage totals were compared with the irrigation estimates provided by the U.S. Department of Agriculture farm and ranch irrigation survey, which is the most comprehensive source of information on irrigation water use within the agricultural industry. This survey collects information on a wide range of topics, including the amount of water used, total acres irrigated, crop specific data, and even energy costs. The U.S. Department of Agriculture samples data for both entire States and individual counties.

  7. Water Depletion Threatens Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauman, K. A.; Richter, B. D.; Postel, S.; Floerke, M.; Malsy, M.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture is the human activity that has by far the largest impact on water, constituting 85% of global water consumption and 67% of global water withdrawals. Much of this water use occurs in places where water depletion, the ratio of water consumption to water availability, exceeds 75% for at least one month of the year. Although only 17% of global watershed area experiences depletion at this level or more, nearly 30% of total cropland and 60% of irrigated cropland are found in these depleted watersheds. Staple crops are particularly at risk, with 75% of global irrigated wheat production and 65% of irrigated maize production found in watersheds that are at least seasonally depleted. Of importance to textile production, 75% of cotton production occurs in the same watersheds. For crop production in depleted watersheds, we find that one half to two-thirds of production occurs in watersheds that have not just seasonal but annual water shortages, suggesting that re-distributing water supply over the course of the year cannot be an effective solution to shortage. We explore the degree to which irrigated production in depleted watersheds reflects limitations in supply, a byproduct of the need for irrigation in perennially or seasonally dry landscapes, and identify heavy irrigation consumption that leads to watershed depletion in more humid climates. For watersheds that are not depleted, we evaluate the potential impact of an increase in irrigated production. Finally, we evaluate the benefits of irrigated agriculture in depleted and non-depleted watersheds, quantifying the fraction of irrigated production going to food production, animal feed, and biofuels.

  8. Sediment and nutrient losses from an irrigated watershed.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjorneberg, D.; Ippolito, J.

    2011-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture is an essential part of stable food and fiber production. However, water returning from irrigated watersheds can contain excess sediment, nutrients and salts. Applying polyacrylamide to furrow irrigated fields reduces erosion 60 to 90%. Converting from furrow irrigation to sprinkler irrigation eliminates planned irrigation runoff necessary for uniform water application. Installing sediment ponds removes 50 to 80% of the suspended sediment from water before it flows back to major water bodies. In southern Idaho, irrigation watershed monitoring showed that implementing these conservation practices has reduced average suspended sediment loss from 460 kg/ha in 1970 to less than 100 kg/ha in 2005. These practices, however, have had less effect on soluble nutrients. Median nitrate concentrations have almost doubled from 1970 to 2005. Current research is focusing on identifying practices to reduce soluble nutrient losses.

  9. Water-Energy balance in pressure irrigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Raúl; Rodríguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Juana, Luis; Laguna, Francisco V.; Castañón, Guillermo; Gil, María; Benitez, Javier

    2013-04-01

    Modernization of irrigation schemes, generally understood as transformation of surface irrigation systems into pressure -sprinkler and trickle- irrigation systems, aims at, among others, improving irrigation efficiency and reduction of operation and maintenance efforts made by the irrigators. Automation techniques become easier after modernization, and operation management plays an important role in energy efficiency issues. Modern systems use to include elevated water reservoirs with enough capacity to irrigate during peak water demand period about 16 to 48 h. However, pressure irrigation systems, in contrast, carry a serious energy cost. Energy requirements depend on decisions taken on management strategies during the operation phase, which are conditioned by previous decisions taken on the design project of the different elements which compose the irrigation system. Most of the countries where irrigation activity is significant bear in mind that modernization irrigation must play a key role in the agricultural infrastructure policies. The objective of this study is to characterize and estimate the mean and variation of the energy consumed by common types of irrigation systems according to their management possibilities. Also is an objective to estimate the fraction of the water reservoirs available along the irrigation campaign for storing the energy from renewable sources during their availability periods. Simulation taking into account all elements comprising the irrigation system has been used to estimate the energy requirements of typical irrigation systems of several crop production systems. The simulation of various types of irrigation systems and management strategies, in the framework imposed by particular cropping systems, would help to develop criteria for improving the energy balance in relation to the irrigation water supply productivity and new opportunities in the renewable energy field.

  10. Mapping Irrigation Potential in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akomeah, E.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; Barry, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Upper East Region together with the other two regions in Northern Ghana (Upper West and Northern Region) is seen as the locus of perennial food deficit (GPRS, 2003). Despite, the provision of over 200 small scale dams and various mechanisms aimed at poverty alleviation, the region is still plagued with poverty and yearly food shortages. To achieve food security and alleviate poverty in the region however, modernization of agriculture through irrigation is deemed inevitable. While it is true that considerable potential still exists for future expansion of irrigation, it cannot be refuted that water is becoming scarcer in the regions where the need for irrigation is most important, hence mapping the irrigation potential of the region will be the first step toward ensuring sound planning and sustainability of the irrigation developments. In this study, an attempt has been made to map out the irrigation potential of the Upper East Region. The river basin approach was used in assessing the irrigation potential. The catchments drained by The White Volta river, Red volta river, River Sissili and River Kulpawn were considered in the assessment. The irrigation potential for the sub basins was computed by combining information on gross irrigation water requirements for the selected cash crops, area of soil suitable for irrigation and available water resources. The capacity of 80%, 70%, 60% and 50% time of exceedance flow of the available surface water resources in the respective sub basins was estimated. The area that can be irrigated with this flow was computed with selected cropping pattern. Combining the results of the potential irrigable areas and the land use map of the respective sub basins, an irrigation potential map has been generated showing potential sites in the upper east region that can be brought under irrigation. Keywords: Irrigation potential, irrigation water requirement, land evaluation, dependable flow

  11. Maize and sunflower root distribution in response to deficit irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to meet world demand for food under anticipated water shortages, we need to increase crop productivity per evapotranspiration (ET), not just the amount of irrigation applied in agricultural systems. Quantifying root distribution in response to deficit irrigation is crucial to mechanistical...

  12. Development of deficit irrigation strategies for peach production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The San Joaquin Valley in California is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. However, crop production relies on irrigation due to the hot and dry weather and lack of rainfall in the summer. In recent years, water supply for irrigation was decreased because of the competition...

  13. Thermal infrared sensors for postharvest deficit irrigation of peach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    California has been in a historic drought and the lack of water has been a major problem for agriculture especially for crops that depend on irrigation. A multi-year field study was carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of applying thermal infrared sensors for managing deficit irrigation in an ...

  14. The future of irrigation on the High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The future of irrigation on the U.S. High Plains was examined through the lens of past changes in water supply and innovations in irrigation technology, management and agronomy. The innovations have greatly increased the efficiency of water application and use, and the agricultural productivity of t...

  15. Irrigation strategies using subsurface drip irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is practiced on approximately 60,000 ha in the Texas High Plains region of the USA. Adoption of SDI continues to increase in the region. This has been attributed to record drought in Texas and the US Southwest in recent years, declining irrigation well yields, and ev...

  16. Nitrate contamination and its relationship with flood irrigation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Garizábal, I.; Causapé, J.; Abrahao, R.

    2012-06-01

    SummaryNitrate contamination is a significant unresolved environmental issue for agriculture in the 21st century, with longstanding challenges in its control and allocation to a specified territory. In order to address these challenges, real-world meticulous irrigation area studies are required. The objective of this investigation is to analyze the evolution of nitrate contamination in relation to agronomic and management changes within a traditionally irrigated land. Specifically, the impact of changes in irrigation allowance assignment, changes in irrigation method from rotation to on-demand flood irrigation, and creation of water consumption accounts were analyzed. To this end, nitrogen monitoring and annual balances were carried out in a small irrigated hydrological basin (95 ha) located in Northeastern Spain throughout the years of 2001 and 2005-2008. The evolution of the nitrate contamination index was also analyzed, which relates the mass of nitrates exported to the fertilization necessities of a specific irrigated area. The results demonstrated that although changes in crop pattern caused a 33% reduction in the nitrogen required through fertilization, the fertilization rates applied are still double the necessities. Changes in irrigation management decreased the mass of nitrates exported by half and the nitrate contamination index by 24%, but the nitrate levels present are still approximately double of those registered in modern irrigation areas. The changes implemented by the Irrigation District in the irrigation management were effective. However, this study confirms that a greater effort is still required to achieve adequate nitrogen fertilization matching the crop necessities.

  17. WATER REQUIREMENT OF IRRIGATED GARLIC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A replicated field trial was conducted on the West side of the San Joaquin Valley to determine the crop coefficient and water requirements of irrigated garlic. Irrigation systems used included flood irrigation, subsurface drip irrigation, and surface drip irrigation. Irrigation levels were set at 5...

  18. Water Requirements Of Irrigated Garlic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A replicated field trial was conducted on the West side of the San Joaquin Valley to determine the crop coefficient and water requirements of irrigated garlic. Irrigation systems used included flood irrigation, subsurface drip irrigation, and surface drip irrigation. Irrigation levels were set at 5...

  19. Surface drip irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For many years, surface drip irrigation has been used to irrigation high value vegetable crops. In recent years, surface drip of row crops has been increasing throughout the United States. Surface drip irrigation can precisely deliver water and nutrients to the crop root zone. This article provides ...

  20. Planning for deficit irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigators with limited water supplies that lead to deficit irrigation management need to make decisions about crop selection, water allocations to each crop, and irrigation schedules. Many of these decisions need to occur before the crop is planted and depend on yield-evapotranspiration (ET) and yi...

  1. Irrigation efficiency and quality of irrigation return flows in the Ebro River Basin: an overview.

    PubMed

    Causapé, J; Quílez, D; Aragüés, R

    2006-06-01

    The review analysis of twenty two irrigation efficiency (IE) studies carried out in the Ebro River Basin shows that IE is low (average IE)(avg)(= 53%) in surface-irrigated areas with high-permeable and shallow soils inadequate for this irrigation system, high (IE)(avg)(= 79%) in surface-irrigated areas with appropriate soils for this system, and very high (IE)(avg)(= 94%) in modern, automated and well managed sprinkler-irrigated areas. The unitary salt (total dissolved solids) and nitrate loads exported in the irrigation return flows (IRF) of seven districts vary, depending on soil salinity and on irrigation and N fertilization management, between 3-16 Mg salt/ha x year and 23-195 kg NO)(3) (-)-N/ha x year, respectively. The lower nitrate loads exported from high IE districts show that a proper irrigation design and management is a key factor to reduce off-site nitrogen pollution. Although high IE's also reduce off-site salt pollution, the presence of salts in the soil or subsoil may induce relatively high salt loads (>or=14 Mg/ha x year) even in high IE districts. Two important constrains identified in our revision were the short duration of most surveys and the lack of standards for conducting irrigation efficiency and mass balance studies at the irrigation district level. These limitations {emphasize the need for the establishment of a permanent and standardized network of drainage monitoring stations for the appropriate off-site pollution diagnosis and control of irrigated agriculture.

  2. Policy support, economic incentives and the adoption of irrigation technology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremades, R.; Wang, J.; Morris, J.

    2014-11-01

    The challenges China faces in terms of water availability in the agricultural sector are exacerbated by the sector's low irrigation efficiency. To increase irrigation efficiency, promoting irrigation technology has been emphasized by policy makers in China. The overall goal of this paper is to understand the effect of policy support and economic incentives on the adoption of irrigation technology in China. Based on a unique dataset collected at household and village levels from seven provinces in China, results indicated that household-based irrigation technology has become noticeable in almost every Chinese village. In contrast, only about half of Chinese villages have adopted community-based irrigation technology. Despite the relatively high adoption level of household-based irrigation technology at the village level, its actual adoption on crop-sown areas was not high, and it was even lower for community-based irrigation technology. The econometric analyses results revealed that policy supports via subsidies and extension services have played an important role in promoting the adoption of irrigation technology. Strikingly, the present irrigation pricing policy has played significant but contradictory roles in promoting the adoption of different types of irrigation technology. Irrigation pricing showed a positive impact on household-based irrigation technology, and a negative impact on community-based irrigation technology, possibly related to their substitution relationship, because having higher adoption of household-based irrigation technology reduce the incentives to invest in community-based irrigation technology. The paper finally concludes and discusses some policy implications.

  3. Predicting deep percolation with eddy covariance under mulch drip irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Guanghui; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Hongchang

    2016-04-01

    Water is essential for the agricultural development and ecological sustainability of the arid and semi-arid oasis with rare precipitation input and high evaporation demand. Deep percolation (DP) defined as excess irrigation water percolating below the plant root zone will reduce irrigation water use efficiency (WUE). But the DP was often ignored in mulch drip irrigation (MDI) which has reached the area of 1.6 million hectares in Xinjiang, the northwest of China. In this study DP experiments were conducted at an agricultural experiment station located within an irrigation district in the Tarim River Basin for four cotton growing periods. First it was detected the irrigation water infiltrated into the soil layers below 100cm and the groundwater level responded to the irrigation events well. Then DP below 100cm soil layers was calculated using the soil water balance method with the aid of eddy covariance (with the energy balance closure of 0.72). The negative DP (groundwater contribution to the crop-water use through capillary rising) at the seedling and harvesting stages can reach 77mm and has a good negative correlation with the groundwater level and positive correlation with potential evaporation. During the drip irrigation stage approximately 45% of the irrigation became DP and resulted in the low irrigation WUE of 0.6. The DP can be 164mm to 270mm per year which was positive linearly correlated to irrigation depth and negative linear correlated to irrigation interval. It is better to establish the irrigation schedule with small irrigation depth and given frequently to reduce deep percolation and meet crop needs.

  4. Irrigation customer survey procedures and results

    SciTech Connect

    Harrer, B.J.; Johnston, J.W.; Dase, J.E.; Hattrup, M.P.; Reed, G.

    1987-03-01

    This report describes the statistical procedures, administrative procedures, and results of a telephone survey designed to collect primary data from individuals in the Pacific Northwest region who use electricity in irrigating agricultural crops. The project was intended to collect data useful for a variety of purposes, including conservation planning, load forecasting, and rate design.

  5. Climate Change Impacts of Irrigation on the Central High Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotterman, K. A.; Kendall, A. D.; Basso, B.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    Since the 1940s, the High Plains Aquifer (HPA) has been pivotal for irrigation over the Central High Plains (CHP), a region spanning parts of five states in the central U.S.. Today after decades of over-pumping, many areas of the CHP are no longer able to irrigate due to localized depletion of the HPA. With a range of global climate models predicting an increase in temperature and decrease in growing-season precipitation for the CHP, demand for irrigation is likely to increase and exacerbate drawdown and depletion of the aquifer. Here we apply the Landscape Hydrology Model (LHM) coupled with the crop simulation model SALUS to simulate irrigation water use in response to historical climate and land use. This model is validated using historical groundwater levels. We then simulate future climate scenarios to predict how irrigation demand and water availability will alter the hydrology of the CHP. This study provides a predictive relationship of future irrigation demand linked to both climate change and agricultural management, and presents a modeling approach to answer two questions: How will future climate change affect irrigation demand? How will climate change and irrigation demand affect groundwater availability for the future? Different climate scenarios based on the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) are used to simulate the impact of different projected future climate conditions through the year 2100. By examining predicted groundwater levels along with saturated thickness we analyze where irrigation is likely to be viable in the future and compare this to current irrigation extent.

  6. Modeling of Sedimentation Process in the Irrigation Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulus; Situmorang, M.

    2017-03-01

    Irrigation has been a central feature of agriculture for over 5,000 years and is the method in which water is supplied to plants at regular intervals for agriculture. Channel irrigation allows irrigation over large areas, with large volumes of water. The content of the water in channel from the river generally contain a lot of material that can precipitate during the water flood the area of agriculture. This paper is to derive a mathematical model of sedimentation processes in the irrigation channel. The model is analysed using Finite Element Method with respect to the geometry of the channel in the district Galang, Sumatera Utara Province. From a computational point of view, results have shown the importance streamlines of the mixture velocity and the dispersed phase volume fraction.

  7. Potential conservation opportunities from the use of improved irrigation scheduling in the Pacific Northwest region

    SciTech Connect

    Harrer, B J; Lezberg, A J

    1985-03-01

    This report documents research to identify the potential energy savings and the costs per kWh saved from using systematic rather than traditional irrigation scheduling to reduce water usage in the irrigated agricultural sector of the Pacific Northwest. This research is part of an overall project aimed at developing a computer model and data base that will allow for estimation of the potential energy savings and cost effectiveness of a number of conservation technologies that are available for use in irrigated agriculture.

  8. Where Does the Irrigation Water Go? An Estimate of the Contribution of Irrigation to Precipitation Using MERRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Jiangfeng; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Wisser, Dominik; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Mocko, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Irrigation is an important human activity that may impact local and regional climate, but current climate model simulations and data assimilation systems generally do not explicitly include it. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) shows more irrigation signal in surface evapotranspiration (ET) than the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) because ERA-Interim adjusts soil moisture according to the observed surface temperature and humidity while MERRA has no explicit consideration of irrigation at the surface. But, when compared with the results from a hydrological model with detailed considerations of agriculture, the ET from both reanalyses show large deficiencies in capturing the impact of irrigation. Here, a back-trajectory method is used to estimate the contribution of irrigation to precipitation over local and surrounding regions, using MERRA with observation-based corrections and added irrigation-caused ET increase from the hydrological model. Results show substantial contributions of irrigation to precipitation over heavily irrigated regions in Asia, but the precipitation increase is much less than the ET increase over most areas, indicating that irrigation could lead to water deficits over these regions. For the same increase in ET, precipitation increases are larger over wetter areas where convection is more easily triggered, but the percentage increase in precipitation is similar for different areas. There are substantial regional differences in the patterns of irrigation impact, but, for all the studied regions, the highest percentage contribution to precipitation is over local land.

  9. Soil microbial community composition in a peach orchard under different irrigation methods and postharvest deficit irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The San Joaquin Valley (SJV) is California’s top agricultural region, cultivating more than 250 unique crops and much of the nation’s fruits, vegetable, and nuts. One of the main limiting factors for production in this region is the reduced availability of water. Deficit irrigation is a management p...

  10. Optimizing subsurface drip irrigation in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Texas High Plains (THP), irrigated agriculture accounts for half of the cultivated area and > 80% of crop production and gross incomes. This agriculture depends on water extracted from the Ogallala Aquifer, which is declining because withdrawals exceed natural recharge. This fact compromises ...

  11. An assessment of global net irrigation water requirements from various water supply sources to sustain irrigation: rivers and reservoirs (1960-2000 and 2050)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Cho, J.; Yamada, H. G.; Hanasaki, N.; Khajuria, A.; Kanae, S.

    2013-01-01

    Water supply sources for irrigation, such as rivers, reservoirs, and groundwater, are critically important for agricultural productivity. The current rapid increase in irrigation water use threatens sustainable food production. In this study, we estimated the time-varying dependency of the supply of irrigation water from rivers, large reservoirs with a greater than 1.0 km3 storage capacity, medium-size reservoirs with storage capacities ranging from 1.0 km3 to 3.0 Mm3, and non-local non-renewable blue water (NNBW), particularly taking into account variations in irrigation area during the period 1960-2000. We also estimated the future irrigation water requirements from water supply sources in addition to these four sources, using an irrigation area scenario. The net irrigation water requirements from various supply sources were assessed using the global H08 water resources model. The H08 model simulates water requirements on a daily basis at a resolution of 1.0° × 1.0°. We obtained net irrigation water from rivers and medium-size reservoirs, and determined that the NNBW increased continuously from 1960 to 1985, but the net irrigation water from large reservoirs increased only marginally. After 1985, the net irrigation water from rivers approached a critical limit with the continued expansion of the irrigation area. The irrigation water requirements from medium-size reservoirs and NNBW increased significantly following the expansion of the irrigation area and the increased storage capacity of medium-size reservoirs. Under the irrigation area scenario without climate change, global net irrigation water requirements from additional water supply sources will account for 26% of the total requirements in the year 2050. We found that expansion of irrigation areas due to population growth will generate an enormous demand for irrigation water from additional resources.

  12. Improving Surface Irrigation Performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface irrigation systems often have a reputation for poor performance. One key feature of efficient surface irrigation systems is precision (e.g. laser-guided) land grading. Poor land grading can make other improvements ineffective. An important issue, related to land shaping, is developing the pr...

  13. SDI versus MESA Irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is known that irrigation application method can impact crop water use and water use efficiency, but the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood, particularly in terms of the water and energy balances during the growing season from pre-irrigation through planting, early growth and yield de...

  14. 'Smart' Irrigation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Brodrick, James

    2012-08-31

    The article discusses the ASHRAE Standard 189, with mandatory and optional provisions related to water use efficiency, then focuses on the use of water efficient irrigation systems and the use of recycled water such as air conditioner condensate for landscaping irrigation. Benefits of such practices include both water and energy savings.

  15. Irrigation Systems. Student's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amarillo Coll., TX.

    This guide is intended for use by individuals preparing for a career in commercial and residential irrigation. The materials included are geared toward students who have had some experience in the irrigation business; they are intended to be presented in 10 six-hour sessions. The first two sections deal with using this guide and preparing for the…

  16. Irrigation Systems. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amarillo Coll., TX.

    This guide is intended for use by licensed irrigators who wish to teach others how to design and install residential and commercial irrigation systems. The materials included in the guide have been developed under the assumption that the instructors who use it have little or no formal training as teachers. The first section presents detailed…

  17. Irrigation Without Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Kevin P.

    1975-01-01

    A new means of irrigation, called the drip or trickle system, has been proven more efficient and less wasteful than the current system of flood irrigation. As a result of this drip system, fertilizer-use efficiency is improved and crop yield, though never decreased, is sometimes increased in some crops. (MA)

  18. Web based irrigation scheduler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing use of water in the Mid-South has led to depletion of water levels in aquifers, with few guidelines in place for farmers as to when and how much to irrigate. Irrigation can increase crop yields when water is applied correctly. Wise water management requires knowledge of how much water the...

  19. Root canal irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed. We performed a Medline search for English-language papers published untill July 2010. The keywords used were ‘root canal irrigants’ and ‘endodontic irrigants.’ The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance. PMID:21217955

  20. Wind pumps for irrigating greenhouse crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peillón, M.; Sánchez, R.; Tarquis, A. M.; García, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    Agriculture is a major consumer of energy in many countries of the world. Only a few of these countries are self-sufficient in conventional energy sources, which are also exhaustible. Fortunately, there are other sources of energy, such as wind, which has experienced recent developments in the area of wind power generation. From irrigation projects to power supply in remote farms, wind power generation can play a vital role. A simple methodology for technical evaluation of windmills for irrigation water pumping has been developed in this study to determine the feasibility per unit amount of water supplied and the levels of daily irrigation demand satisfied by windmill irrigation system at various levels of risk (probability of failure). For this purpose, a series of three hourly wind-speed data over a period of 38 years at Ciego de Ávila, Cuba, were analyzed to compute the diurnal wind pump discharge at varying levels of risk. The sizes of reservoirs required to modulate fluctuating discharge and to satisfy the levels of irrigation demand, on function of crop development dates, cultivated area and water elevation height, were computed by cumulative deficit water budgeting. An example is given illustrating the use of the methodology on tomato crop (Licopersicon esculentum Mill) under greenhouse.

  1. Automatic restart of complex irrigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, H.D.; Alcock, R.; DeBoer, D.W.; Olson, D.I. . Dept. of Agricultural Engineering)

    1992-05-01

    Automatic restart of irrigation systems under load management has the potential to maximize pumping time during off-peak hours. Existing automation technology ranges from time delay relays to more sophisticated control using computers together with weather data to optimize irrigation practices. Centrifugal pumps and water hammer concerns prevent automatic restart of common but often complex irrigation systems in South Dakota. The irrigator must manually prime the pump and control water hammer during pipeline pressurization. Methods to prime centrifugal pumps and control water hammer facilitate automatic restart after load management is released. Seven priming methods and three water hammer control methods were investigated. A sump pump and small vacuum pump were used to test two automatic prime and restart systems in the laboratory. A variable frequency phase converter was also used to automatically control water hammer during pipeline pressurization. Economical methods to safely prime and restart centrifugal pumps were discussed. The water hammer control methods safely pressurize the pipeline but require a higher initial investment. The automatic restart systems can be used to safely restart centrifugal pumps and control water hammer after load management is released. Based upon laboratory research and a technical review of available restart components, a computer software program was developed. The program assists customers in evaluating various restart options for automatic restarting of electric irrigation pumps. For further information on the software program, contact the South Dakota State University, Department of Agricultural Engineering.

  2. Using Cotton Model Simulations to Estimate Optimally Profitable Irrigation Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauget, S. A.; Leiker, G.; Sapkota, P.; Johnson, J.; Maas, S.

    2011-12-01

    In recent decades irrigation pumping from the Ogallala Aquifer has led to declines in saturated thickness that have not been compensated for by natural recharge, which has led to questions about the long-term viability of agriculture in the cotton producing areas of west Texas. Adopting irrigation management strategies that optimize profitability while reducing irrigation waste is one way of conserving the aquifer's water resource. Here, a database of modeled cotton yields generated under drip and center pivot irrigated and dryland production scenarios is used in a stochastic dominance analysis that identifies such strategies under varying commodity price and pumping cost conditions. This database and analysis approach will serve as the foundation for a web-based decision support tool that will help producers identify optimal irrigation treatments under specified cotton price, electricity cost, and depth to water table conditions.

  3. Policies, economic incentives and the adoption of modern irrigation technology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremades, R.; Wang, J.; Morris, J.

    2015-07-01

    The challenges China faces in terms of water availability in the agricultural sector are exacerbated by the sector's low irrigation efficiency. To increase irrigation efficiency, promoting modern irrigation technology has been emphasized by policy makers in the country. The overall goal of this paper is to understand the effect of governmental support and economic incentives on the adoption of modern irrigation technology in China, with a focus on household-based irrigation technology and community-based irrigation technology. Based on a unique data set collected at household and village levels from seven provinces, the results indicated that household-based irrigation technology has become noticeable in almost every Chinese village. In contrast, only about half of Chinese villages have adopted community-based irrigation technology. Despite the relatively high adoption level of household-based irrigation technology at the village level, its actual adoption in crop sown areas was not high, even lower for community-based irrigation technology. The econometric analysis results revealed that governmental support instruments like subsidies and extension services policies have played an important role in promoting the adoption of modern irrigation technology. Strikingly, the present irrigation pricing policy has played a significant but contradictory role in promoting the adoption of different types of modern irrigation technology. Irrigation pricing showed a positive impact on household-based irrigation technology, and a negative impact on community-based irrigation technology, possibly related to the substitution effect that is, the higher rate of adoption of household-based irrigation technology leads to lower incentives for investment in community-based irrigation technology. The paper finally concludes and discusses some policy implications.

  4. Toward an Integrated Root Ideotype for Irrigated Systems.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jennifer E; Gaudin, Amélie C M

    2017-03-02

    Breeding towards root-centric ideotypes can be a relatively quick trait-based strategy to improve crop resource use efficiency. Irrigated agriculture represents a crucial and expanding sector, but its unique parameters require traits distinct from previously proposed rainfed ideotypes. We propose a novel irrigated ideotype that integrates traits across multiple scales to enhance resource use efficiency in irrigated agroecosystems, where resources are concentrated in a relatively shallow 'critical zone'. Unique components of this ideotype include rapid transplant recovery and establishment, enhanced exploitation of localized resource hotspots, adaptive physiological regulation, maintenance of hydraulic conductivity, beneficial rhizosphere interactions, and salinity/waterlogging avoidance. If augmented by future research, this target could help to enhance agricultural sustainability in irrigated agroecosystems by guiding the creation of resource-efficient cultivars.

  5. An Assessment of Global Net Irrigation Water Requirements from Various Water Supply Sources to Sustain Irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Sayaka; Cho, Jail; Yamada, Hannah; Khajuria, Anupam; Hanasaki, Naota; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2014-05-01

    Water supply sources for irrigation, such as rivers, reservoirs, and groundwater, are critically important for agricultural productivity. The current rapid increase in irrigation water use threatens sustainable food production. In this study, we estimated the time-varying dependence of irrigation water requirements from water supply sources, with a particular focus on variations in irrigation area during the period 1960-2050 using the global water resources model, H08. The H08 model simulates water requirements on a daily basis at a resolution of 1.0° × 1.0° . The sources of irrigation water requirements in the past simulations were specified using four categories: rivers (RIV), large reservoirs (LR) with a storage capacity greater than 1.0 km3, medium-size reservoirs (MSR) with storage capacities ranging from 1.0 km3 to 3.0 M m3, and non-local non-renewable blue water (NNBW). We also estimated future irrigation water requirements from the above four water supply sources and an additional water supply source (ADD) in three future simulation designs; irrigation area change, climate change, and changes in both irrigation area and climate. ADD was defined as the difference between NNBW in the 1990s and NNBW in the 2040s, because it was difficult to distinguish the types of future water supply sources except for RIV. The simulated results showed that RIV, MSR, and NNBW increased significantly through the 1960s to the early 1990s globally, but LR increased at a relatively low rate. After the early 1990s, RIV approached a critical limit due to the continued expansion of the irrigation area. Furthermore, MSR and NNBW increased significantly following the expansion of the irrigation area and the increased storage capacity of the medium-size reservoirs. After the 2020s, MSR could be expected to approach the critical limit without the construction of medium-size reservoirs. ADD would account for 11-23% of the total requirements in the 2040s. We found that an expansion of

  6. A Reevaluation of Price Elasticities for Irrigation Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howitt, Richard E.; Watson, William D.; Adams, Richard M.

    1980-08-01

    The effectiveness of pricing systems in the allocation of irrigation water is linked with the price elasticity of demand of farmers for water. Using microeconomic theory, it is shown that omission of the elasticity of demand for the crop produced leads to an inelastic bias in the demand for irrigated water. Linear programing approaches omit the product elasticity of demand and are consequently biased, whereas quadratic programing approaches to estimating derived demands for irrigation water include product demand functions. The difference between the resulting estimates are empirically demonstrated for regional derived demand functions estimated from a model of California's agricultural industry.

  7. Development of a regionally consistent geospatial dataset of agricultural lands in the Upper Colorado River Basin, 2007-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buto, Susan G.; Gold, Brittany L.; Jones, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation in arid environments can alter the natural rate at which salts are dissolved and transported to streams. Irrigated agricultural lands are the major anthropogenic source of dissolved solids in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB). Understanding the location, spatial distribution, and irrigation status of agricultural lands and the method used to deliver water to agricultural lands are important to help improve the understanding of agriculturally derived dissolved-solids loading to surface water in the UCRB. Irrigation status is the presence or absence of irrigation on an agricultural field during the selected growing season or seasons. Irrigation method is the system used to irrigate a field. Irrigation method can broadly be grouped into sprinkler or flood methods, although other techniques such as drip irrigation are used in the UCRB. Flood irrigation generally causes greater dissolved-solids loading to streams than sprinkler irrigation. Agricultural lands in the UCRB mapped by state agencies at varying spatial and temporal resolutions were assembled and edited to represent conditions in the UCRB between 2007 and 2010. Edits were based on examination of 1-meter resolution aerial imagery collected between 2009 and 2011. Remote sensing classification techniques were used to classify irrigation status for the June to September growing seasons between 2007 and 2010. The final dataset contains polygons representing approximately 1,759,900 acres of agricultural lands in the UCRB. Approximately 66 percent of the mapped agricultural lands were likely irrigated during the study period.

  8. Salinity on irrigated lands

    SciTech Connect

    Westmore, R.A.; Manbeck, D.M.

    1984-02-01

    The technology for controlling salinity on irrigated lands is relatively simple, involving both minor and major changes in current land-management practices. Minor changes include more frequent irrigation, the use of salt-tolerant crops, preplanning irrigation, and seed placement. The major changes require a shift from gravity to sprinkler or drip systems, increased water supply and quality, soil modification, land grading, and improved drainage. Some of the major changes are difficult, and some impossible, to accomplish. Examples of reclamation include the Mardan Salinity Control and Reclamation Project (SCARP) in Pakistan. 5 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  9. Lessons from Women in the Agricultural Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea, Jennette; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discusses women who have made an impact in the agricultural sciences. Profiles Elizabeth Pickney, indigo; Jane Colden, botany; Harriet Strong, irrigation and flood control; Anna Comstock, nature studies; Alice Evans, bacteriology; Edith Patch, entomology; and Beatrix Potter, botany. (JOW)

  10. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  11. Advances in sprinkler irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sprinkler irrigation is being increasingly adopted in the US and worldwide because it offers increased crop water productivity over what is possible with gravity irrigation. Most sprinkler irrigation is by center pivot, which is presently used on about 50 and 80 percent of land irrigated in the US a...

  12. The Impact of Climate and Its Variability on Crop Yield and Irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Troy, T.

    2014-12-01

    As the global population grows and the climate changes, having a secure food supply is increasingly important especially under water stressed-conditions. Although irrigation is a positive climate adaptation mechanism for agriculture, it has a potentially negative effect on water resources. It is therefore important to understand how crop yields due to irrigation are affected by climate variability and how irrigation may buffer against climate, allowing for more resilient agricultural systems. Efforts to solve these barely exposed questions can benefit from comprehending the influence of climate variability on crop yield and irrigation water use in the past. To do this, we use historical climate data,irrigation water use data and rainfed and irrigated crop yields over the US to analyze the relationship among climate, irrigation and delta crop yields, gained by subtracting rainfed yield from irrigated yield since 1970. We find that the increase in delta crop yield due to irrigation is larger for certain climate conditions, such that there are optimal climate conditions where irrigation provides a benefit and other conditions where irrigation proves to have marginal benefits when temperature increased to certain degrees. We find that crop water requirements are linked to potential evapotranspiration, yet actual irrigation water use is largely decoupled from the climate conditions but related with other causes. This has important implications for agricultural and water resource system planning, as it implies there are optimal climate zones where irrigation is productive and that changes in water use, both temporally and spatially, could lead to increased water availability without negative impacts on crop yields. Furthermore, based on the exposed relationship between crop yield gained by irrigation and climate variability, those models predicting the global harvest will be redress to estimate crop production in the future more accurately.

  13. Remotely sensed high resolution irrigated area mapping in India for 2000 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Ambika, Anukesh Krishnankutty; Wardlow, Brian; Mishra, Vimal

    2016-01-01

    India is among the countries that uses a significant fraction of available water for irrigation. Irrigated area in India has increased substantially after the Green revolution and both surface and groundwater have been extensively used. Under warming climate projections, irrigation frequency may increase leading to increased irrigation water demands. Water resources planning and management in agriculture need spatially-explicit irrigated area information for different crops and different crop growing seasons. However, annual, high-resolution irrigated area maps for India for an extended historical record that can be used for water resources planning and management are unavailable. Using 250 m normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and 56 m land use/land cover data, high-resolution irrigated area maps are developed for all the agroecological zones in India for the period of 2000–2015. The irrigated area maps were evaluated using the agricultural statistics data from ground surveys and were compared with the previously developed irrigation maps. High resolution (250 m) irrigated area maps showed satisfactory accuracy (R2=0.95) and can be used to understand interannual variability in irrigated area at various spatial scales. PMID:27996974

  14. Remotely sensed high resolution irrigated area mapping in India for 2000 to 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambika, Anukesh Krishnankutty; Wardlow, Brian; Mishra, Vimal

    2016-12-01

    India is among the countries that uses a significant fraction of available water for irrigation. Irrigated area in India has increased substantially after the Green revolution and both surface and groundwater have been extensively used. Under warming climate projections, irrigation frequency may increase leading to increased irrigation water demands. Water resources planning and management in agriculture need spatially-explicit irrigated area information for different crops and different crop growing seasons. However, annual, high-resolution irrigated area maps for India for an extended historical record that can be used for water resources planning and management are unavailable. Using 250 m normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and 56 m land use/land cover data, high-resolution irrigated area maps are developed for all the agroecological zones in India for the period of 2000-2015. The irrigated area maps were evaluated using the agricultural statistics data from ground surveys and were compared with the previously developed irrigation maps. High resolution (250 m) irrigated area maps showed satisfactory accuracy (R2=0.95) and can be used to understand interannual variability in irrigated area at various spatial scales.

  15. Effects of climate and irrigation changes on the water balance of a Mediterranean catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Gunten, Diane; Wöhling, Thomas; Haslauer, Claus; Cirpka, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    Climate change will strongly impact the water cycle of Mediterranean catchments as a result of the changes in precipitation patterns and increased temperature. However, effects of climate change are difficult to predict with precision and are often influenced by land-use or water management choices. In agricultural catchments, irrigation is of particular interest because of its importance for cultivation in semi-arid climate and because of its strong impacts on hydrological processes. Interactions between irrigation and climate change impacts are likely to be important and should be considered when studying the future of a catchment. However, they are still difficult to quantify. A better understanding of the differences in climate-change sensitivity between irrigated and non-irrigated catchments would allow a finer description of local climate change effects. In this study, we compared the impacts of climate change in various irrigation scenarios, including a scenario without irrigation. Our case study was a relatively small catchment (about 7.5km2) in north-east Spain, called the Lerma catchment. This catchment was not irrigated prior to 2006, but 54% of its surface is now used for irrigated agriculture. This transition to irrigated agriculture was closely monitored and data on hydraulic heads, discharge and daily irrigation volume are available. Based on these measurements, a coupled surface-subsurface model of the catchment was developed using the pde-based model HydroGeoSphere. The model performs well for both irrigated and non-irrigated periods. Future climate was predicted using four regional climate models from the ENSEMBLE project (P.van der Linden and J.Mitchell, ENSEMBLES: Climate Change and its Impacts [...], Met Office Hadley Center, 2009) and two downscaling methods, including one based on a weather generator. Four irrigation scenarios, based on projected potential evapotranspiration changes, were compared. Our results show a shift in the climate

  16. Geothermal irrigation pump

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, H.B.

    1982-04-20

    A deep well pumping apparatus utilizing a geothermal source of energy is disposed within or above a stratum having a cool irrigating fluid, and an associated heat exchange unit is disposed within a stratum having the geothermal source. An organic working fluid is conveyed under pressure through the heat exchange unit and applied as a gas to a turbine assembly operatively coupled to the pump. The spent working fluid and cool irrigation fluid are then conveyed to the surface.

  17. Potential bias of model projected greenhouse warming in irrigated regions

    SciTech Connect

    Lobell, D; Bala, G; Bonfils, C; Duffy, P

    2006-04-27

    Atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) used to project climate responses to increased CO{sub 2} generally omit irrigation of agricultural land. Using the NCAR CAM3 GCM coupled to a slab-ocean model, we find that inclusion of an extreme irrigation scenario has a small effect on the simulated temperature and precipitation response to doubled CO{sub 2} in most regions, but reduced warming by as much as 1 C in some agricultural regions, such as Europe and India. This interaction between CO{sub 2} and irrigation occurs in cases where agriculture is a major fraction of the land surface and where, in the absence of irrigation, soil moisture declines are projected to provide a positive feedback to temperature change. The reduction of warming is less than 25% of the temperature increase modeled for doubled CO{sub 2} in most regions; thus greenhouse warming will still be dominant. However, the results indicate that land use interactions may be an important component of climate change uncertainty in some agricultural regions. While irrigated lands comprise only {approx}2% of the land surface, they contribute over 40% of global food production. Climate changes in these regions are therefore particularly important to society despite their relatively small contribution to average global climate.

  18. Advances in Irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, W. R.

    This is the first volume of Advances in Irrigation, a new serial publication by the publishers of Advances in Agronomy and Advances in Hydroscience and designed to follow the same format. The editor is a well-known researcher and writer on irrigation and related subjects and has assembled a collection of highly regarded and respected authors for the initial volume. The readership for this volume will probably be mainly specialists and students interested in irrigation and an occasional design engineer.The seven contributions in this volume fall roughly into two classes: research and practice. Three papers (“Conjunctive Use of Rainfall and Irrigation in Semi-arid Regions,” by Stewart and Musik, “Irrigation Scheduling Using Soil Moisture Measurements: Theory and Practice,” by G. S. and M. D. Campbell, and “Use of Solute Transport Models to Estimate Salt Balance Below Irrigated Cropland,” by Jury) cover topics that have been the subject of a number of reviews. The contributions here provide brief, well-written, and authoritative summaries of the chosen topics and serve as good introductions or reviews. They should lend themselves well to classroom use in various ways. They also should be helpful to the nonspecialist interested in getting a sense of the subject without going into great detail.

  19. Integration of satellite-based energy balance with simulation models applied to irrigation management at an irrigation scheme of southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Cristina; Lorite, Ignacio J.; Tasumi, Masahiro; Allen, Richard G.; Gavilán, Pedro; Fereres, Elías

    2007-10-01

    This paper combines a water balance model with satellite-based remote-sensing estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) to provide accurate irrigation scheduling guidelines for individual fields. The satellite-derived ET was used in the daily soil water balance model to improve accuracy of field-by-field ET demands and subsequent field-scale irrigation schedules. The combination of satellite-based ET with daily soil water balance incorporates the advantages of satellite remote-sensing and daily calculation time steps, namely, high spatial resolution and high temporal resolution. The procedure was applied to Genil - Cabra Irrigation Scheme in Spain, where irrigation water supply is often limited by regional drought. Compared with traditional applications of water balance models (i.e. without the satellite-based ET), the combined procedure provided significant improvements in irrigation schedules for both the average condition and when considering field-to-field variability. A 24% reduction in water use was estimated for cotton if the improved irrigation schedules were followed. Irrigation efficiency calculated using satellite-based ET and actual applied irrigation water helped to identify specific agricultural fields experiencing problems in water management, as well as to estimate general irrigation efficiencies of the scheme by irrigation and crop type. Estimation of field irrigation efficiency ranged from 0.72 for cotton to 0.90 for sugar beet.

  20. Stochastic physical ecohydrologic-based model for estimating irrigation requirement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, H.; Mousavi, S. J.

    2012-04-01

    Climate uncertainty affects both natural and managed hydrological systems. Therefore, methods which could take this kind of uncertainty into account are of primal importance for management of ecosystems, especially agricultural ecosystems. One of the famous problems in these ecosystems is crop water requirement estimation under climatic uncertainty. Both deterministic physically-based methods and stochastic time series modeling have been utilized in the literature. Like other fields of hydroclimatic sciences, there is a vast area in irrigation process modeling for developing approaches integrating physics of the process and statistics aspects. This study is about deriving closed-form expressions for probability density function (p.d.f.) of irrigation water requirement using a stochastic physically-based model, which considers important aspects of plant, soil, atmosphere and irrigation technique and policy in a coherent framework. An ecohydrologic stochastic model, building upon the stochastic differential equation of soil moisture dynamics at root zone, is employed as a basis for deriving the expressions considering temporal stochasticity of rainfall. Due to distinguished nature of stochastic processes of micro and traditional irrigation applications, two different methodologies have been used. Micro-irrigation application has been modeled through dichotomic process. Chapman-Kolomogrov equation of time integral of the dichotomic process for transient condition has been solved to derive analytical expressions for probability density function of seasonal irrigation requirement. For traditional irrigation, irrigation application during growing season has been modeled using a marked point process. Using the renewal theory, probability mass function of seasonal irrigation requirement, which is a discrete-value quantity, has been analytically derived. The methodology deals with estimation of statistical properties of the total water requirement in a growing season that

  1. Decision support system for economic value of irrigation water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Gafy, Inas; El-Ganzori, Akram

    2012-06-01

    The mismatch between the supply and demand, inequitable distribution and the over irrigation of water consuming crops are the main constraints that are faced in the implementation of the integrated water resources management in Egypt. With water scarcity, the problem under consideration is that the current cropping pattern is not economically efficient in the utilization of the available water resource. Moreover, in consequence of the importance of the agricultural sector to the national economies, it is necessary to be aware of the economic performance of water use in the crops production. The scope of this study is to develop economic value of irrigation water maps of Egypt. The objective of the study is carried out by acquiring a Decision Support System for economic value of irrigation water of Egypt. This Decision Support System is applied for developing economic value maps for the irrigation water that is used for cultivating 45 crops under cereal, fiber, legumes, and vegetables, herbalist, and forages categories at each governorate of Egypt in year 2008 and 2009. The crops that achieve the highest and lowest economic value of irrigation water at each governorate of Egypt were identified. The reasons of the variations in the economic value of irrigation water at the governorates of Egypt were determined. The developed Decision Support System could be used yearly as a tool for demonstrating a picture about the economic value of irrigation water for the decision makers in the areas of water resources and agriculture. The developed economic value of irrigation water maps can be used in proposing a cropping pattern that maximizes the economic value of irrigation water in each governorate of Egypt.

  2. Empirical evidence for a recent slowdown in irrigation-induced cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Bonfils, C; Lobell, D

    2007-01-19

    Understanding the influence of past land use changes on climate is needed to improve regional projections of future climate change and inform debates about the tradeoffs associated with land use decisions. The effects of rapid expansion of irrigated area in the 20th century has remained unclear relative to other land use changes, such as urbanization, that affected a similar total land area. Using spatial and temporal variations in temperature and irrigation extent observed in California, we show that irrigation expansion has had a large cooling effect on summertime average daily daytime temperatures (-0.15 to -0.25 C.decade{sup -1}), which corresponds to a cooling estimated at -2.0 - -3.3 C since the introduction of irrigation practice. Irrigation has negligible effects on nighttime temperatures, leading to a net cooling effect of irrigation on climate (-0.06 to -0.19 C.decade{sup -1}). Stabilization of irrigated area has occurred in California since 1980 and is expected in the near future for most irrigated regions. The suppression of past human-induced greenhouse warming by increased irrigation is therefore likely to slow in the future, and a potential decrease in irrigation may even contribute to a more rapid warming. Changes in irrigation alone are not expected to influence broadscale temperatures, but they may introduce large uncertainties in climate projections for irrigated agricultural regions, which provide roughly 40% of global food production.

  3. Remote sensing based water-use efficiency evaluation in sub-surface irrigated wine grape vines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zúñiga, Carlos Espinoza; Khot, Lav R.; Jacoby, Pete; Sankaran, Sindhuja

    2016-05-01

    Increased water demands have forced agriculture industry to investigate better irrigation management strategies in crop production. Efficient irrigation systems, improved irrigation scheduling, and selection of crop varieties with better water-use efficiencies can aid towards conserving water. In an ongoing experiment carried on in Red Mountain American Viticulture area near Benton City, Washington, subsurface drip irrigation treatments at 30, 60 and 90 cm depth, and 15, 30 and 60% irrigation were applied to satisfy evapotranspiration demand using pulse and continuous irrigation. These treatments were compared to continuous surface irrigation applied at 100% evapotranspiration demand. Thermal infrared and multispectral images were acquired using unmanned aerial vehicle during the growing season. Obtained results indicated no difference in yield among treatments (p<0.05), however there was statistical difference in leaf temperature comparing surface and subsurface irrigation (p<0.05). Normalized vegetation index obtained from the analysis of multispectral images showed statistical difference among treatments when surface and subsurface irrigation methods were compared. Similar differences in vegetation index values were observed, when irrigation rates were compared. Obtained results show the applicability of aerial thermal infrared and multispectral images to characterize plant responses to different irrigation treatments and use of such information in irrigation scheduling or high-throughput selection of water-use efficient crop varieties in plant breeding.

  4. Agricultural application of SWECS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, V.

    Principal applications of wind energy for agriculture are (1) farmstead power, mainly electrical, (2) building heating, (3) irrigation pumping, (4) product storage and processing, (5) hot water for residences and dairies, and (6) associated industries of agribusiness such as feedlots, fertilizer elevators, greenhouses, etc. Field experiments show that wind energy is a viable alternative, however, reliability and maintenance are still major problems. Test results of the various experiments are described.

  5. USSR Report, Agriculture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Per hectare of sown area Per ruble of expenditures Winter rye Central taiga -forest Forest steppe Steppe 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22...South Siberian Pro- vince Spring barley Central taiga Semidesert, with irrigation Corn for silage Natural-agricultural mountain regions...harvest increments reach 12.9 quintals per hectare (50.8 percent) on soddy-podzolic soil in the European Province and the Central taiga zone and 9.4 to

  6. Using a System Model for Irrigation Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Leonardo; de Miranda, Eu; Sánchez-Román, Rodrigo; Orellana-González, Alba

    2014-05-01

    When using Systems Thinking variables involved in any process have a dynamic behavior, according to nonstatic relationships with the environment. In this paper it is presented a system dynamics model developed to be used as an irrigation management tool. The model involves several parameters related to irrigation such as: soil characteristics, climate data and culture's physiological parameters. The water availability for plants in the soil is defined as a stock in the model, and this soil water content will define the right moment to irrigate and the water depth required to be applied. The crop water consumption will reduce soil water content; it is defined by the potential evapotranspiration (ET) that acts as an outflow from the stock (soil water content). ET can be estimated by three methods: a) FAO Penman-Monteith (ETPM), b) Hargreaves-Samani (ETHS) method, based on air temperature data and c) Class A pan (ETTCA) method. To validate the model were used data from the States of Ceará and Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the culture was bean. Keyword: System Dynamics, soil moisture content, agricultural water balance, irrigation scheduling.

  7. Irrigation impacts on California's climate with the variable-resolution CESM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xingying; Ullrich, Paul A.

    2016-09-01

    The variable-resolution capability within the Community Earth System Model (VR-CESM) is applied to understand the impact of irrigation on the regional climate of California. Irrigation is an important contributor to the regional climate of heavily irrigated regions, and within the U.S. there are few regions that are as heavily irrigated as California's Central Valley, responsible for 25% of domestic agricultural products. A flexible irrigation scheme with relatively realistic estimates of agricultural water use is employed. The impact of irrigation on mean climatology and heat extremes is investigated over the 26 year period 1980-2005 using a relatively fine grid resolution of 0.25° (˜28 km). Three simulations are performed, including an unirrigated control run and two irrigation-enabled runs, with results compared to gridded observations and weather station data sets. During the summer months (when irrigation peaks), irrigation leads to cooling of the daily maximum near-surface temperature field (Tmax) by approximately 1.1 K. Under irrigation, latent heat flux increased by ˜61% during the daytime as a result of increased surface evaporation; specific humidity increased by about 12%; heat stress was reduced by 22% and the average soil moisture exhibited a small (˜4.4%) but statistically significant increase. Compared with observations, irrigation improved the frequency distribution of Tmax, and both length and frequency of hot spells were better represented with irrigation enabled. Consequently, we argue that high-resolution simulations of regional climate in CESM, particularly over heavily irrigated regions, should likely enable the irrigation parameterization to better represent local temperature statistics.

  8. Estimation of Land Surface States and Fluxes using a Land Surface Model Considering Different Irrigation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, J. A.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Evans, J. P.; Beaudoing, H. K.

    2012-12-01

    Food security can be improved by increasing the extent of agricultural land or by increasing agricultural productivity, including through intensive management such as irrigation. The objectives of this study were to incorporate practical irrigation schemes into land surface models of the NASA Land Information System (LIS) and to apply the tool to estimate the impact of irrigation on land surface states and fluxes—including evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and runoff—in the Murray-Darling basin in Australia. Here we present results obtained using Noah Land Surface Model v3.2 within LIS without simulated irrigation (IR0) and with three irrigation simulation routines: flood irrigation (IR1), drip irrigation (IR2), and sprinkler irrigation (IR3). Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) vegetation index was used to define crop growing seasons. Simulations were performed for a full year (July 2002 to June 2003) and evaluated against hydrologic flux estimates obtained in previous studies. Irrigation amounts during the growing season (August 2002 to March 2003) were simulated as 104.6, 24.6, and 188.1 GL for IR1, IR2, and IR3, respectively. These preliminary results showed water use efficiency from a drip irrigation scheme would be highest and lowest from a sprinkler irrigation scheme, with a highly optimized version of flood irrigation falling in between. Irrigation water contributed to a combination of increased evapotranspiration, runoff, and soil moisture storage in the irrigation simulations relative to IR0. Implications for water management applications and for further model development will be discussed.

  9. Estimated Yield of Some Alternative Crops Under Varying Irrigation in Northeast Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much of the irrigated acres in northeastern Colorado are devoted to corn grain production. Diversifying irrigated agricultural production in this region could result in water savings if alternative crops were grown that have lower water requirements than corn. Making such crop choice decisions initi...

  10. Adapting irrigation management to water scarcity: constraints of plant growth, hydraulics and carbon assimilation.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water shortages are responsible for the greatest crop losses around the world and are expected to worsen. In arid areas where agriculture is dependent on irrigation, various forms of deficit irrigation management have been suggested to optimize crop yields for available soil water. The relationshi...

  11. Projected irrigation requirements for upland crops using soil moisture model under climate change in South Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An increase in abnormal climate change patterns and unsustainable irrigation in uplands cause drought and affect agricultural water security, crop productivity, and price fluctuations. In this study, we developed a soil moisture model to project irrigation requirements (IR) for upland crops under cl...

  12. Yield response to landscape position under variable N for irrigated corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variable nutrient and water supply can result in spatial and temporal variation in crop yield within a given agricultural field. For the western Corn Belt, irrigated corn accounts for 58% of total annual corn production with the majority grown in Nebraska. Although irrigation decreases temporal yi...

  13. Surface irrigation management for guayule rubber production in the US desert southwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural production of the desert shrub, guayule (Parthenium argentatum G.), requires judicious management of irrigation water for achieving economic yields and high water productivity. This study expands existing, but limited and dated knowledge on irrigation management of guayule. A 29-month g...

  14. Assessing spatial variation of corn response to irrigation using a bayesian semiparametric model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spatial irrigation of agricultural crops using site-specific variable-rate irrigation (VRI) systems is beginning to have wide-spread acceptance. However, optimizing the management of these VRI systems to conserve natural resources and increase profitability requires an understanding of the spatial ...

  15. Simulated Corn Yield Responses to Limited-Water Irrigation Under Varying Soil and Climate Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water holding capacity of soils is a key factor in successful dryland and irrigated agriculture as it influences the fraction of precipitation and irrigation that is stored in the soil profile that can be subsequently used for crop production. There is a well-known dependence of water holding capaci...

  16. Water quality criteria for use of saline/degraded water for irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current fresh water use in arid and semiarid lands is not sustainable, as use exceeds replenishment and demand for water continues to increase. Agriculture will either need to reduce acreage under irrigation, which is undesirable since it will reduce food supply, or irrigate with alternative water s...

  17. Non-sustainable groundwater sustaining irrigation - a global assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Y.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2012-04-01

    Irrigated crops play a vital role in securing global food production. It is estimated that 17% of agricultural lands are irrigated, yet they account for 40% of the global food production, sustaining the livelihood of billions of people (Abdullah, 2006). At the same time, water used by irrigated crops (i.e., crop water demand) and irrigation water demand are responsible for about 70% of the global water withdrawal and account for about 90% of the global water consumption, i.e. water withdrawal minus return flow respectively. Water demand for irrigated crops can be met by three different sources: 1) green water, being water from local precipitation that is temporarily stored in the soil, 2) blue water, being surface freshwater available in rivers, lakes, reservoirs and wetlands, and renewable groundwater, and 3) non-renewable or non-sustainable groundwater and non-local water resources. Here, we quantify globally the amount of non-renewable groundwater abstraction to sustain current irrigation practice. We use the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB to simulate gross crop water demand for irrigated crops and available blue and green water to meet this demand. We downscale country statistics of groundwater abstraction by considering the part of net total water demand that cannot be met by surface freshwater. We subsequently confront these with simulated groundwater recharge including return flow from irrigation to estimate non-renewable groundwater abstraction. Results show that non-renewable groundwater abstraction contributes approximately 20% to the global gross irrigation water demand for the year 2000. The contribution of non-renewable groundwater abstraction to irrigation is largest in India (68 km3 yr-1) followed by Pakistan (35 km3/yr), USA (30 km3/yr), Iran (20 km3/yr), China (20 km3/yr), Mexico (10 km3/yr) and Saudi Arabia (10 km3/yr). Results also show that globally this contribution more than tripled from 75 to 234 km3/yr over the period 1960-2000. These

  18. Amelioration of the irrigated lands of the Vakhsh valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikromov, Islomkul; Mirzoev, Mm

    2015-04-01

    In the agro-industrial country like Tajikistan, the efficient use of irrigation of arable land is important because it contributes to the solution of the State Program of the Food independence of the country, by increasing the yield of agricultural production per unit of irrigated area. The irrigated area in the Republic of Tajikistan as of 1.01.2014g. equal to about 750 thousand. ha, per capita, on average, less than 0.10 hectares. and its share in relation to agricultural land is only 10.5%. However, more than 90% of crop production are grown on these lands. Given the demographic growth of the population of the republic specific area of irrigated land from year to year is becoming less and less of that call into question the successful solution of the above program. Therefore, in our view, to ensure food independence of the country in addition to the development of land from the reserve, should focus on the amelioration of existing irrigated areas, improve the culture of land and water, on modernization of reclamation systems contribute to a high degree of adaptability based on a high degree of water metering, water distribution, water and resource conservation, the use of the latest technology and irrigation techniques. Condition of the soil is their estimated figures is mainly determined by its productivity. It is determined by the degree of salinity of soils, the depth of the groundwater level and salinity, erosion and on stony ground. Vakhsh valley in Tajikistan is one of the main oases, ensuring production of agricultural products but, in recent years due to a number of man-made reasons: Adherence crop irrigation, low technical condition of irrigation systems and as a consequence their efficiency and utilization of irrigation water and farming, inoperable drainage system, or lack of them all, the virtual absence of vodouchёta on the field, no use of it modern technology and irrigation techniques, etc., the level of both fresh and saline groundwater rose

  19. Irrigating drip by drip

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, M.

    1991-03-01

    This article describes the use of subterranean drip systems for the irrigation of crops in the San Joaquin Valley of California. This area is in its fourth year of drought. In the past, underground drains carried excess irrigation water away from plant roots to avoid drowning them in selenium, boron, nitrate fertilizer and other pollutants. Later these ponds where outflow emerged accumulated high levels of selenium which led to deaths and deformities of waterfowl. Subsurface drip irrigation is said to reduce overirrigation and thus prevents pollution of the underground water supply; it conserves water by reducing the amount of water lost by evaporation; and it reduces the incidence of mold damage to crops that are bothered by soggy soils.

  20. Ocean-atmosphere interactions modulate irrigation's climate impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krakauer, Nir Y.; Puma, Michael J.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Gentine, Pierre; Nazarenko, Larissa

    2016-11-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the local and regional climate effects of irrigated agriculture and other land cover and land use change (LCLUC) phenomena, but there are few studies on the role of ocean-atmosphere interaction in modulating irrigation climate impacts. Here, we compare simulations with and without interactive sea surface temperatures of the equilibrium effect on climate of contemporary (year 2000) irrigation geographic extent and intensity. We find that ocean-atmosphere interaction does impact the magnitude of global-mean and spatially varying climate impacts, greatly increasing their global reach. Local climate effects in the irrigated regions remain broadly similar, while non-local effects, particularly over the oceans, tend to be larger. The interaction amplifies irrigation-driven standing wave patterns in the tropics and midlatitudes in our simulations, approximately doubling the global-mean amplitude of surface temperature changes due to irrigation. The fractions of global area experiencing significant annual-mean surface air temperature and precipitation change also approximately double with ocean-atmosphere interaction. Subject to confirmation with other models, these findings imply that LCLUC is an important contributor to climate change even in remote areas such as the Southern Ocean, and that attribution studies should include interactive oceans and need to consider LCLUC, including irrigation, as a truly global forcing that affects climate and the water cycle over ocean as well as land areas.

  1. [Runoff Pollution Experiments of Paddy Fields Under Different Irrigation Patterns].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing-wen; Su, Bao-lin; Huang, Ning-bo; Guan, Yu-tang; Zhao, Kun

    2016-03-15

    To study runoff and non-point source pollution of paddy fields and to provide a scientific basis for agricultural water management of paddy fields, paddy plots in the Jintan City and the Liyang City were chosen for experiments on non-point source pollution, and flood irrigation and intermittent irrigation patterns were adopted in this research. The surface water level and rainfall were observed during the growing season of paddies, and the runoff amount from paddy plots and loads of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were calculated by different methods. The results showed that only five rain events of totally 27 rainfalls and one artificially drainage formed non-point source pollution from flood irrigated paddy plot, which resulted in a TN export coefficient of 49.4 kg · hm⁻² and a TP export coefficient of 1.0 kg · hm⁻². No any runoff event occurred from the paddy plot with intermittent irrigation even in the case of maximum rainfall of 95.1 mm. Runoff from paddy fields was affected by water demands of paddies and irrigation or drainage management, which was directly correlated to surface water level, rainfall amount and the lowest ridge height of outlets. Compared with the flood irrigation, intermittent irrigation could significantly reduce non-point source pollution caused by rainfall or artificial drainage.

  2. Effects of wastewater irrigation on soil properties and turfgrass growth.

    PubMed

    Castro, Elena; Mañas, Maria Pilar; De Las Heras, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Reuse of treated wastewater for turf irrigation is often viewed as one way to maximize existing urban water resources. The aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of treated wastewater for turfgrass and assess the effects of continuous use of treated water on the soil and crop. Two turfgrass plots irrigated with drinking water and treated wastewater were monitored over a two-year period. Physical and chemical parameters in the soil and foliar tissue were analyzed. Plants irrigated with treated wastewater had highest sodium content. There were no negative effects with respect to changes in soil pH but a significant increase in electrical conductivity and sodium content was observed in wastewater-irrigated soil. Treated wastewater could be used as a resource for agricultural irrigation since it contributes phosphorus and organic matter. However, it is necessary to consider that several crops could be negatively affected by wastewater irrigation because of the sodium content and this should be taken into account when water-sprinklers are in use, since this is the case in the present study. The benefits of irrigation with treated urban wastewater include contributing plant nutrients to turfgrass while conserving freshwater.

  3. Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions Modulate Irrigation's Climate Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krakauer, Nir Y.; Puma, Michael J.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Gentine, Pierre; Nazarenko, Larissa

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the local and regional climate effects of irrigated agriculture and other land cover and land use change (LCLUC) phenomena, but there are few studies on the role of ocean- atmosphere interaction in modulating irrigation climate impacts. Here, we compare simulations with and without interactive sea surface temperatures of the equilibrium effect on climate of contemporary (year 2000) irrigation geographic extent and intensity. We find that ocean-atmosphere interaction does impact the magnitude of global-mean and spatially varying climate impacts, greatly increasing their global reach. Local climate effects in the irrigated regions remain broadly similar, while non-local effects, particularly over the oceans, tend to be larger. The interaction amplifies irrigation-driven standing wave patterns in the tropics and mid-latitudes in our simulations, approximately doubling the global-mean amplitude of surface temperature changes due to irrigation. The fractions of global area experiencing significant annual-mean surface air temperature and precipitation change also approximately double with ocean-atmosphere interaction. Subject to confirmation with other models, these findings imply that LCLUC is an important contributor to climate change even in remote areas such as the Southern Ocean, and that attribution studies should include interactive oceans and need to consider LCLUC, including irrigation, as a truly global forcing that affects climate and the water cycle over ocean as well as land areas.

  4. Rethinking the sustainability of Israel's irrigation practices in the Drylands.

    PubMed

    Tal, Alon

    2016-03-01

    Broad utilization of drip irrigation technologies in Israel has contributed to the 1600 percent increase in the value of produce grown by local farmers over the past sixty-five years. The recycling of 86% of Israeli sewage now provides 50% of the country's irrigation water and is the second, idiosyncratic component in Israel's strategy to overcome water scarcity and maintain agriculture in a dryland region. The sustainability of these two practices is evaluated in light of decades of experience and ongoing research by the local scientific community. The review confirms the dramatic advantages of drip irrigation over time, relative to flood, furrow and sprinkler irrigation and its significance as a central component in agricultural production, especially under arid conditions. In contrast, empirical findings increasingly report damage to soil and to crops from salinization caused by irrigation with effluents. To be environmentally and agriculturally sustainable over time, wastewater reuse programs must ensure extremely high quality treated effluents and ultimately seek the desalinization of recycled sewage.

  5. Investigating irrigation scheduling for rice using variable rate irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because almost all US rice is produced with continuous flood irrigation, little information addresses irrigation scheduling for rice; however, successful production without a continuous flood will require timely irrigation. A field study conducted at the University of Missouri Fisher Delta Research ...

  6. Mapping Irrigated Areas Using Remote Sensing over the Past Decade in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervez, M.; Budde, M. E.; Rowland, J.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural production capacity and food security in Afghanistan largely depend on irrigated farming, mostly utilizing surface water fed by snowmelt. Over 80 percent of Afghanistan's food supply comes from irrigated crops. Knowing the spatial distribution and year-to-year variation in irrigated areas is imperative to monitoring food security for the country. We used 16-day composites of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to create a set of 12-year time series. Time series were used in a threshold dependent decision tree algorithm to map irrigated areas in Afghanistan from 2000 through 2011. In an effort to evaluate these maps of irrigated lands, we created higher resolution maps of irrigated areas from growing-season visible, near infrared, and thermal infrared bands of Landsat data over six predefined, highly irrigated sites across Afghanistan for 2000 and 2010. We were able to effectively separate irrigated areas from non-irrigated areas using Landsat imagery by selecting as irrigated those areas with Landsat-derived NDVI greater than 0.45 and surface temperature less than or equal to 310 Kelvin. The MODIS-derived maps agreed well with the Landsat irrigated area maps for all six sites for both years, providing confidence in the MODIS-derived maps for other years. The maps portrayed a highly dynamic irrigated agriculture practice in Afghanistan, where irrigated areas can vary by as much as 40% depending on the availability of water for irrigation. During the past decade, 2001, 2004 and 2008 had among the lowest levels of irrigated areas, attesting to the severe drought conditions in those years. Irrigation was at its peak in 2009 when snowpack and snowmelt were well above the 10-year average. However, it has declined in subsequent years, with below average snowmelt in much of the country. This model not only provides the capability to map irrigated areas for past years, but also to map

  7. COLT: seasonal prediction of crop irrigation needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villani, Giulia; Spisni, Andrea; Mariani, Maria Cristina; Pratizzoli, William; Pavan, Valentina; Tomei, Fausto; Botarelli, Lucio; Marletto, Vittorio

    2013-04-01

    from the ARPA-SIMC web site. Since 2010 forecasts of the crops water irrigation requirements have been computed and compared with the simulated data at the end of the summer with good results. The COLT scheme is able to predict the very large interannual variability of the seasonal crop water needs: in 2010 the summer was rather wet and COLT predicted about 500 Mm3, while in 2011 the median forecast was 850 Mm3, a value considered as normal. The summer of 2012 was exceptionally dry, thus the median COLT forecast was 1077 Mm3, while the value computed with observed summer data reached 1340 Mm3 (+24%). The COLT scheme was also tested in a study area located near Ravenna (570 ha), where actual crop irrigation volumes are measured. The median forecasted irrigation (0.50 Mm3) resulted 14% higher than the observed value for 2011 (0.44 Mm3), mainly due to errors in classification of non irrigated crops as irrigated, and possibly to the water table not being accounted for in the model. COLT looks like a promising approach for assessing, planning and managing water resources in agriculture, and for mitigating the impacts of intense climate anomalies in the agricultural sector.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF WATER CIRCULATION MODEL INCLUDING IRRIGATION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsuki, Shunji; Tanaka, Kenji; Kojiri, Toshiharu; Hamaguchi, Toshio

    It is well known that since agricultural water withdrawal has much affect on water circulation system, accurate analysis of river discharge or water balance are difficult with less regard for it. In this study, water circulation model composed of land surface model and distributed runoff model is proposed at 10km 10km resolution. In this model, irrigation water, which is estimated with land surface model, is introduced to river discharge analysis. The model is applied to the Chao Phraya River in Thailand, and reproduced seasonal water balance. Additionally, the discharge on dry season simulated with the model is improved as a result of including irrigation. Since the model, which is basically developed from global data sets, simulated seasonal change of river discharge, it can be suggested that our model has university to other river basins.

  9. Knowledge Assessment on Sustainable Water Resources Management for Irrigation - KASWARMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardowicks, K.; Billib, M.; Holzapfel, E.; Lorite, I.; Farkas, I.; Fernández Cirelli, A.; Del Callejo, I.; Paz, V.; Montaña, E.; Gheyi, H.

    2009-04-01

    The EU funded KASWARMI project was performed from March 2007 until August 2008 by focusing on society key issues to contribute to a better use and management of the water resources in arid and semi-arid ecosystems. In that way, the project has aimed to deliver fundamentals for future research activities to improve the sustainability of irrigated agriculture in Latin America. The world's food production depends on the availability of water, a precious but limited resource. Irrigated agriculture is responsible for approximately 70 percent of all the freshwater withdrawn in the world and more water will be used for irrigation in the future, as world food production continuously increases in order to meet rising demand. The challenge for irrigated agriculture today is to contribute to the world's food production and improvement of food security through a more efficient, cleaner and integrated use of water (FAO). The main objective of KASWARMI was to build up a comprehensive knowledge base, including the evaluation of current state of the art, assembling international experience in an interdisciplinary scientific network on sustainable water resources management for irrigation. In six selected irrigated areas in Latin America a basic analysis of the major socio-economical, environmental, institutional and agrotechnical aspects was carried out. The approach of KASWARMI was to learn from the past and ongoing research activities to identify gaps and the scope for the collaboration of potential stakeholders (farmers, researchers, other water users, policy makers). The direct communication between the researchers and the stakeholders in the field study areas was used to identify their main needs, finding strategies for future activities to solve open questions of sustainable water resources management for irrigation in Latin America. More information is available at site www.kaswarmi.eu.

  10. Energy for agriculture in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameel, M.

    1982-05-01

    The energy implications of different farm mechanization and macronutrient supply scenarios were examined. Results show that up to the year 2000, fertilizer production and irrigation-drainage account for 45 % and 40 %, respectively, of total energy input to agriculture. Tractors, threshers, and pesticides share the rest.

  11. Planning for an Irrigation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, J. Howard; Anderson, Carl L.

    The publication, with the aid of tables and colored illustrations and diagrams, presents information to help the farmer who is considering the installation of an irrigation system determine whether or not to irrigate, the type of system to use, and the irrigation cost and return on investment. Information is presented on the increase in yield to…

  12. The Arkansas Irrigation Scheduler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the U.S. Mid-South, annual rainfall is generally sufficient for limited crop production, but periods of drought during the growing season make irrigation essential for optimum yields. However, factors such as cloudy weather, rainfall, and temperature swings caused by the movement of weather front...

  13. Erosion: Irrigation-induced

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil can be eroded by sprinkler or surface irrigation. Once sprinkler droplet kinetic energy detaches soil, overland flow transports the sediment downslope and off-site. Protecting the soil surface, increasing sprinkler wetted diameters, and tilling to increase infiltration and thereby lessen overla...

  14. The Utility of Discriminant Analysis for Predicting Farmers' Intentions to Participate in Farmer-Managed Irrigation Systems in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarafshani, Kiumars; Hossien Alibaygi, Amir; Afshar, Nasrin

    Participatory irrigation management has been problematic in most parts of the world and Iran has been no exception. The purpose of this study was to assess farmers' intentions to participate in irrigation management based on selected variables using discriminant analysis. A survey questionnaire was used to collect information from a sample of Water Cooperatives in Javanrood Townships using stratified random sampling (n = 106). Results indicated that age, educational level, attitude towards PIM, irrigation performance, landholding size, agricultural and non-agricultural income affected farmers' intentions to participate in irrigation management.

  15. Using geochemical and statistical tools to identify irrigated areas that might contain high selenium concentrations in surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, David L.

    1996-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture has a long history in the Western United States, beginning with Native American Indians. After passage of the Reclamation Act of 1902, the United States Government began building and subsidizing irrigation projects to foster settlement and development of the arid and semi-arid areas of the Western United States (National Research Council, 1989). Precipitation in the mountainous areas of the West (fig. 1) is stored in reservoirs and used for irrigation of farmland. With the development of irrigated agriculture, unforeseen environmental problems have occurred.

  16. Acrylamide monomer leaching from polyacrylamide-treated irrigation furrows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-soluble polyacrylamide (WSPAM), used to reduce erosion in furrow irrigated fields and other agriculture applications, contain less than 0.05% Acrylamide monomer (AMD). The AMD, a potent neurotoxicant and suspected carcinogen, is readily dissolved and transported in flowing water. Deep percol...

  17. Protecting groundwater quality with high frequency subsurface drip irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrate pollution from agriculture is a significant problem in the groundwater of the San Joaquin Valley of California (SJV). Nitrate is very mobile in water and transport is directly related to both water and fertilizer management on a crop. Surface irrigation is the principal method used in the SJ...

  18. Maximizing grain sorghum water use efficiency under deficit irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development and evaluation of sustainable and efficient irrigation strategies is a priority for producers faced with water shortages resulting from aquifer depletion, reduced base flows, and reallocation of water to non-agricultural sectors. Under a limited water supply, yield maximization may not b...

  19. Interpretation of Thermal Infrared Imagery for Irrigation Water Resource Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nellis, M. Duane

    1985-01-01

    Water resources play a major role in the character of agricultural development in the arid western United States. This case study shows how thermal infrared imagery, which is sensitive to radiant or heat energy, can be used to interpret crop moisture content and associated stress in irrigated areas. (RM)

  20. Irrigation scheduling using remote sensing data assimilation approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Linked remote sensing and crop growth models have enhanced our ability to understand soil water balance in irrigated agriculture. However, limited efforts have been made to adopt data assimilation methodologies in these linked models that use stochastic parameter estimation with genetic algorithm (G...

  1. Stewardship of water and fertilizer in irrigated cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture is a vital part of the southeast Missouri economy and it is essential that we maintain our precious soil and water resources. While we have shallow, high quality groundwater for irrigation, it is important to realize that our aquifer, the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer, also p...

  2. Irrigating grazed pasture decreases soil carbon and nitrogen stocks.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Paul L; Kelliher, Francis M; Knight, Trevor L; O'Connell, Denis; Fraser, Scott; Schipper, Louis A

    2017-02-01

    The sustainability of using irrigation to produce food depends not only on the availability of sufficient water, but also on the soil's 'response' to irrigation. Stocks of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are key components of soil organic matter (SOM), which is important for sustainable agricultural production. While there is some information about the effects of irrigation on soil C stocks in cropping systems, there is a paucity of such studies in pastoral food production systems. For this study, we sampled soils from 34 paired, irrigated and unirrigated pasture sites across New Zealand (NZ) and analysed these for total C and N. On average, irrigated pastures had significantly (P < 0.05) less soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) than adjacent unirrigated pastures, with differences of 6.99 t C ha(-1) and 0.58 t N ha(-1) in the uppermost 0.3 m. Differences in C and N tended to occur throughout the soil profile, so the cumulative differences increased with depth, and the proportion of the soil C lost from deeper horizons was large. There were no relationships between differences in soil C and N stocks and the length of time under irrigation. This study suggests SOM will decrease when pastures under a temperate climate are irrigated. On this basis, increasing the area of temperate pasture land under irrigation would result in more CO2 in the atmosphere and may directly and indirectly increase N leaching to groundwater. Given the large and increasing area of land being irrigated both in NZ and on a global scale, there is an urgent need to determine whether the results found in this study are also applicable in other regions and under different land management systems (e.g. arable).

  3. Irrigation depth far exceeds water uptake depth in an oasis cropland in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bin; Wen, Xuefa; Sun, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural irrigation in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin consumes approximately 80% of the total river water. Whether the irrigation depth matches the water uptake depth of crops is one of the most important factors affecting the efficiency of irrigation water use. Our results indicated that the influence of plastic film on soil water δ18O was restricted to 0–30 cm soil depth. Based on a Bayesian model (MixSIR), we found that irrigated maize acquired water preferentially from 0–10 cm soil layer, with a median uptake proportion of 87 ± 15%. Additionally, maize utilised a mixture of irrigation and shallow soil water instead of absorbing the irrigation water directly. However, only 24.7 ± 5.5% of irrigation water remained in 0–10 cm soil layer, whereas 29.5 ± 2.8% and 38.4 ± 3.3% of the irrigation water infiltrated into 10–40 cm and 40–80 cm layers. During the 4 irrigation events, approximately 39% of the irrigation and rainwater infiltrated into soil layers below 80 cm. Reducing irrigation amount and developing water-saving irrigation methods will be important strategies for improving the efficiency of irrigation water use in this area. PMID:26463010

  4. Role of irrigation and wastewater reuse: comparison of subsurface irrigation and furrow irrigation.

    PubMed

    Choi, C; Song, I; Stine, S; Pimentel, J; Gerba, C

    2004-01-01

    Two different irrigation systems, subsurface drip irrigation and furrow irrigation, are tested to investigate the level of viral contamination and survival when tertiary effluent is used in arid and semi-arid regions. The effluent was injected with bacteriophages of PRD1 and MS2. A greater number of PRD1 and MS2 were recovered from the lettuce in the subsurface drip-irrigated plots as compared to those in the furrow-irrigated plots. Shallow drip tape installation and preferential water paths through cracks on the soil surface appeared to be the main causes of high viral contamination in subsurface drip irrigation plots, which led to the direct contact of the lettuce stems with the irrigation water which penetrated the soil surface. The water use efficiency of the subsurface drip irrigation system was higher than that of the furrow irrigation system. Thus, subsurface drip irrigation is an efficient irrigation method for vegetable crops in arid and semi-arid regions if viral contamination can be reduced. Deeper installation of drip tapes, frequent irrigations, and timely harvests based on cumulative heat units may further reduce health risks by ensuring viral die-off under various field conditions.

  5. Irrigation and Maize Cultivation Erode Plant Diversity Within Crops in Mediterranean Dry Cereal Agro-Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Fagúndez, Jaime; Olea, Pedro P; Tejedo, Pablo; Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Gómez, David

    2016-07-01

    The intensification of agriculture has increased production at the cost of environment and biodiversity worldwide. To increase crop yield in dry cereal systems, vast farmland areas of high conservation value are being converted into irrigation, especially in Mediterranean countries. We analyze the effect of irrigation-driven changes on the farm biota by comparing species diversity, community composition, and species traits of arable plants within crop fields from two contrasting farming systems (dry and irrigated) in Spain. We sampled plant species within 80 fields of dry wheat, irrigated wheat, and maize (only cultivated under irrigation). Wheat crops held higher landscape and per field species richness, and beta diversity than maize. Within the same type of crop, irrigated wheat hosted lower plant diversity than dry wheat at both field and landscape scales. Floristic composition differed between crop types, with higher frequencies of perennials, cosmopolitan, exotic, wind-pollinated and C4 species in maize. Our results suggest that irrigation projects, that transform large areas of dry cereal agro-ecosystems into irrigated crop systems dominated by maize, erode plant diversity. An adequate planning on the type and proportion of crops used in the irrigated agro-ecosystems is needed in order to balance agriculture production and biodiversity conservation.

  6. Irrigation and Maize Cultivation Erode Plant Diversity Within Crops in Mediterranean Dry Cereal Agro-Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagúndez, Jaime; Olea, Pedro P.; Tejedo, Pablo; Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Gómez, David

    2016-07-01

    The intensification of agriculture has increased production at the cost of environment and biodiversity worldwide. To increase crop yield in dry cereal systems, vast farmland areas of high conservation value are being converted into irrigation, especially in Mediterranean countries. We analyze the effect of irrigation-driven changes on the farm biota by comparing species diversity, community composition, and species traits of arable plants within crop fields from two contrasting farming systems (dry and irrigated) in Spain. We sampled plant species within 80 fields of dry wheat, irrigated wheat, and maize (only cultivated under irrigation). Wheat crops held higher landscape and per field species richness, and beta diversity than maize. Within the same type of crop, irrigated wheat hosted lower plant diversity than dry wheat at both field and landscape scales. Floristic composition differed between crop types, with higher frequencies of perennials, cosmopolitan, exotic, wind-pollinated and C4 species in maize. Our results suggest that irrigation projects, that transform large areas of dry cereal agro-ecosystems into irrigated crop systems dominated by maize, erode plant diversity. An adequate planning on the type and proportion of crops used in the irrigated agro-ecosystems is needed in order to balance agriculture production and biodiversity conservation.

  7. Water savings potentials of irrigation systems: dynamic global simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jägermeyr, J.; Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Schaphoff, S.; Kummu, M.; Lucht, W.

    2015-04-01

    Global agricultural production is heavily sustained by irrigation, but irrigation system efficiencies are often surprisingly low. However, our knowledge of irrigation efficiencies is mostly confined to rough indicative estimates for countries or regions that do not account for spatio-temporal heterogeneity due to climate and other biophysical dependencies. To allow for refined estimates of global agricultural water use, and of water saving and water productivity potentials constrained by biophysical processes and also non-trivial downstream effects, we incorporated a dynamic representation of the three major irrigation systems (surface, sprinkler, and drip) into a process-based bio- and agrosphere model, LPJmL. Based on this enhanced model we provide a gridded worldmap of dynamically retrieved irrigation efficiencies reflecting differences in system types, crop types, climatic and hydrologic conditions, and overall crop management. We find pronounced regional patterns in beneficial irrigation efficiency (a refined irrigation efficiency indicator accounting for crop-productive water consumption only), due to differences in these features, with lowest values (< 30%) in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa and highest values (> 60%) in Europe and North America. We arrive at an estimate of global irrigation water withdrawal of 2396 km3 (2004-2009 average); irrigation water consumption is calculated to be 1212 km3, of which 511 km3 are non-beneficially consumed, i.e. lost through evaporation, interception, and conveyance. Replacing surface systems by sprinkler or drip systems could, on average across the world's river basins, reduce the non-beneficial consumption at river basin level by 54 and 76%, respectively, while maintaining the current level of crop yields. Accordingly, crop water productivity would increase by 9 and 15%, respectively, and by much more in specific regions such as in the Indus basin. This study significantly advances the global quantification of

  8. Irrigation as an Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change: The Relative Influence of Groundwater and Canal Irrigation on Winter Crop Production and its Sensitivity to Weather Variability in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, M.; Fishman, R.; Mondal, P.; Galford, G. L.; Naeem, S.; Modi, V.; DeFries, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    India is a hotspot for food security issues over the upcoming decades, due to increasing population pressures, groundwater depletion, and climate change. Investing in additional irrigation infrastructure may bolster food security, however, the relative influence of different types of irrigation (e.g. groundwater versus canal) on agricultural production remains unclear. One reason that the relative impact of different irrigation strategies on agricultural production has not been analyzed across India is because national-scale data on crop production and the types of irrigation technologies used are typically available at too coarse of spatial and temporal resolutions to answer this question adequately. Thus, we develop a novel algorithm to map cropped area across India at a 1 x 1 km scale using MODIS satellite data, and link these high-resolution cropped area maps with village-level data (n = 600,000) on irrigation. This allowed us to assess the relative impact of groundwater (i.e. dug, shallow, and deep wells) and canal irrigation (i.e. surface lift and flow canals) on winter cropped area and its sensitivity to rainfall across India at the village-scale from 2000 to 2006. We find that deep well irrigation is both associated with the greatest amount of winter cropped area, and is also the least sensitive to monsoon and winter rainfall variability. However, the effectiveness of deep well irrigation varies across India, with the greatest benefits seen in the regions that are most at risk for losing groundwater as a possible source of irrigation over the upcoming decades (e.g. Northwest India). This work highlights the need to develop ways to use remaining groundwater more efficiently (e.g. drip irrigation, less water-intensive crops) given that canal irrigation is not an adequate substitute, particularly in the regions that are facing the greatest levels of groundwater depletion.

  9. How much water do we need for irrigation under Climate Change in the Mediterranean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fader, Marianela; Alberte, Bondeau; Wolfgang, Cramer; Simon, Decock; Sinan, Shi

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic climate change will very likely alter the hydrological system of already water-limited agricultural landscapes around the Mediterranean. This includes the need for, as well as the availability of irrigation water. On top of that Mediterranean agroecosystems are very likely to be under strong pressure in the near future through changes in consumer demands and diets, increasing urbanization, demographic change, and new markets for agricultural exportation. As a first step to assess the water demand of the agricultural sector, we use an ecohydrological model (the Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed land model, LPJmL) to estimate current and future irrigation water requirements of this region, considering various climate and socio-economic scenarios. LPJmL is a process-based, agricultural and water balance model, where plant growth is ecophysiologically coupled with hydrological variables. For these simulations, the model was adapted to the Mediterranean region in terms of agrosystems as well as crop parameters, and a sensitivity analysis for the irrigation system efficiency was performed. Patterns of current irrigation water requirements differ strongly spatially within the Mediterranean region depending mainly on potential evapotranspiration, the combination of crops cultivated and the extension of irrigated areas. The simulations for the future indicate that the Mediterranean may need considerable additional amounts of irrigation water. However, the regional patterns differ strongly depending on changes in length of growing periods, changes in transpirational rate (temperature and precipitation change, CO2-fertilization), and the consideration of potential improvements in irrigation system efficiency.

  10. Unexpected Increases in Fecundity of Ceriodaphnia dubia Exposed to Reused Rice Irrigation Water.

    PubMed

    Grippo, Richard S; McNeely, Van M; Farris, Jerry L

    2016-06-01

    Steady increases in agricultural irrigation raise concerns about environmental impacts. Rice producing regions face declining irrigation groundwater and have started reusing irrigation water as a substitute. The goal of this project was to determine if reused irrigation water is potentially toxic compared to conventional well irrigation water. Reused and well water samples, collected from three Arkansas rice farms at field inlets and outlets on three dates corresponding to fertilizer/chemical applications or crop management, were used in acute 48-h (Pimephales promelas) and chronic (Ceriodaphnia dubia) toxicity evaluations. Acute toxicity tests indicated no effects on P. promelas. Fecundity of C. dubia was significantly increased in the reused water inlet and in both the reused and well water rice field outlets compared to well water inlets and laboratory reference water. This study suggests that, compared to well water, reused rice irrigation water has reduced potential for significant negative environmental impact on biota in receiving waters.

  11. Impact of wastewater irrigation on the dynamics of metal concentrations in the vadose zone: monitoring: part I.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Santosh K; Singh, Anil Kumar; Datta, Siba Prasad

    2015-11-01

    Agricultural lands in the peri-urban area of New Delhi have been irrigated with treated wastewater from the Keshopur Effluent Irrigation Scheme (KEIS) since 1979. An attempt has been made to study the influence of wastewater irrigation on pH, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, and dynamics of heavy metal concentrations in vadose zone under KEIS. For this study, agricultural lands which have been receiving the sewage irrigation for 20, 10, and 5 years were selected. Adjacent tube well water-irrigated fields were selected and used as reference. Results indicate that there was a significant decrease in soil pH and electrical conductivity (EC) of sewage water-irrigated fields as compared to tube well water-irrigated fields. Organic carbon (OC) content in 20 years sewage-irrigated soil (0-15 cm) increased by 244% over tube well water-irrigated soil. The increases in organic carbon content for 10 and 5 years sewage-irrigated surface soil (0-15 cm) were 138 and 60% over tube well water-irrigated soils. The second-order polynomial model suggested that there is a possibility of accumulation of organic carbon in soil due to sewage irrigation at 1.55 t(-1) ha(-1) year. There was an increase in diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Zn content in 20, 10, and 5 years sewage-irrigated soils (0-15 cm) to the extent of 86, 38, and 36% over tube well water-irrigated soils, respectively, while only 20 years sewage-irrigated soils showed a significant increase in DTPA-extractable Cu (289%) in surface layer (0-15 cm) over tube well-irrigated soils. In case of Fe, 127, 88, and 76.6% increases in available Fe content (DTPA-Fe) were recorded under 20, 10, and 5 years sewage-irrigated soils, respectively, over controls. Like Cu, DTPA-extractable Ni also exhibited a significant increase (42.2%) in 20 years sewage-irrigated soil over tube well-irrigated ones. It appears that due to sewage irrigation particularly in surface soil, DTPA-Mn content either remained same or

  12. Simulated effects of pumping irrigation wells on ground-water levels in western Saginaw County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoard, Christopher J.; Westjohn, David B.

    2001-01-01

    Success of agriculture in many areas of Michigan relies on withdrawal of large quantities of ground water for irrigation. In some areas of the State, water-level declines associated with large ground-water withdrawals may adversely affect nearby residential wells. Residential wells in several areas of Saginaw County, in Michigan's east-central Lower Peninsula, recently went dry shortly after irrigation of crop lands commenced; many of these wells also went dry during last year's agricultural cycle (summer 2000). In September 2000, residential wells that had been dry returned to function after cessation of pumping from large-capacity irrigation wells. To evaluate possible effects of groundwater withdrawals from irrigation wells on residential wells, the U.S. Geological Survey used hydrogeologic data including aquifer tests, water-level records, geologic logs, and numerical models to determine whether water-level declines and the withdrawal of ground water for agricultural irrigation are related. Numerical simulations based on representative irrigation well pumping volumes and a 3-month irrigation period indicate water-level declines that range from 5.3 to 20 feet, 2.8 to 12 feet and 1.7 to 6.9 feet at distances of about 0.5, 1.5 and 3 miles from irrigation wells, respectively. Residential wells that are equipped with shallow jet pumps and that are within 0.5 miles of irrigation wells would likely experience reduced yield or loss of yield during peak periods of irrigation. The actual 1 extent that irrigation pumping cause reduced function of residential wells, however, cannot be fully predicted on the basis of the data analyzed because many _other factors may be adversely affecting the yield of residential wells.

  13. Monitoring and Evaluation of Cultivated Land Irrigation Guarantee Capability with Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C., Sr.; Huang, J.; Li, L.; Wang, H.; Zhu, D.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Cultivated Land Quality Grade monitoring and evaluation is an important way to improve the land production capability and ensure the country food safety. Irrigation guarantee capability is one of important aspects in the cultivated land quality monitoring and evaluation. In the current cultivated land quality monitoring processing based on field survey, the irrigation rate need much human resources investment in long investigation process. This study choses Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei as study region, taking the 1 km × 1 km grid size of cultivated land unit with a winter wheat-summer maize double cropping system as study object. A new irrigation capacity evaluation index based on the ratio of the annual irrigation requirement retrieved from MODIS data and the actual quantity of irrigation was proposed. With the years of monitoring results the irrigation guarantee capability of study area was evaluated comprehensively. The change trend of the irrigation guarantee capability index (IGCI) with the agricultural drought disaster area in rural statistical yearbook of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area was generally consistent. The average of IGCI value, the probability of irrigation-guaranteed year and the weighted average which controlled by the irrigation demand index were used and compared in this paper. The experiment results indicate that the classification result from the present method was close to that from irrigation probability in the gradation on agriculture land quality in 2012, with overlap of 73% similar units. The method of monitoring and evaluation of cultivated land IGCI proposed in this paper has a potential in cultivated land quality level monitoring and evaluation in China. Key words: remote sensing, evapotranspiration, MODIS cultivated land quality, irrigation guarantee capability Authors: Chao Zhang, Jianxi Huang, Li Li, Hongshuo Wang, Dehai Zhu China Agricultural University zhangchaobj@gmail.com

  14. Informing sustainable irrigation management strategies in response to implementation of Washington State's Yakima Basin Integrated Plan (YBIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, K.; Adam, J. C.; Yoder, J.; Brady, M.; Stockle, C. O.

    2014-12-01

    As an important agricultural snowmelt-dominant watershed in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States, the Yakima River basin (YRB) is projected to experience increasing water scarcity problems during the summer irrigation season. The system is already experiencing over-allocation with unmet irrigation entitlements occurring more frequently, resulting in negative consequences to YRB agriculture and therefore the economy of the region. Water storage management is one climate change adaptation strategy particularly applicable to snowmelt-dominant watersheds experiencing a shift of its water availability away from the summer irrigation season. These changes in conjunction with climate change will significantly change the availability of water for agriculture, thus impacting farmers' irrigation decisions. These decisions occur at multiple time scales, including capital investment to change irrigation technology (decadal), to distributing the seasonal allocation of water in a projected drought year (seasonal), to deficit irrigating crops (daily to weekly). The Yakima Basin Integrated Water Resource Management Plan (YBIP) aims to improve the availability of water for agriculture, fish, and communities through a number of projects, including additional or modification of physical infrastructure. Our objective is to reduce the vulnerability of irrigated agriculture in the YRB to climate change through exploring changes in irrigation management strategies in response to implementation of each phase of YBIP. We apply VIC-CropSyst (a newly coupled hydrological/cropping model) and Yakima RiverWare (a water management model) to explore the relationships between climate, hydrology, crop growth and phenology, irrigation management, and YBIP implementation. Results suggest the importance of irrigation management strategies in YRB and indicate that if irrigation strategies are modified in response to changes in physical infrastructure, significant enhancements to instream

  15. The use and re-use of unsustainable groundwater for irrigation: a global budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grogan, Danielle S.; Wisser, Dominik; Prusevich, Alex; Lammers, Richard B.; Frolking, Steve

    2017-03-01

    Depletion of groundwater aquifers across the globe has become a significant concern, as groundwater is an important and often unsustainable source of irrigation water. Simultaneously, the field of water resource management has seen a lively debate over the concepts and metrics used to assess the downstream re-use of agricultural runoff, with most studies focusing on surface water balances. Here, we bring these two lines of research together, recognizing that depletion of aquifers leads to large amounts of groundwater entering surface water storages and flows by way of agricultural runoff. While it is clear that groundwater users will be impacted by reductions in groundwater availability, there is a major gap in our understanding of potential impacts downstream of groundwater pumping locations. We find that the volume of unsustainable groundwater that is re-used for irrigation following runoff from agricultural systems is nearly as large as the volume initially extracted from reservoirs for irrigation. Basins in which the volume of irrigation water re-used is equal to or greater than the volume of water initially used (which is possible due to multiple re-use of the same water) contain 33 million hectares of irrigated land and are home to 1.3 billion people. Some studies have called for increasing irrigation efficiency as a solution to water shortages. We find that with 100% irrigation efficiency, global demand for unsustainable groundwater is reduced by 52%, but not eliminated. In many basins, increased irrigation efficiency leads to significantly decreased river low flows; increasing irrigation efficiency to 70% globally decreases total surface water supplies by ∽600 km3 yr‑1. These findings illustrate that estimates of aquifer depletion alone underestimate the importance of unsustainable groundwater to sustaining surface water systems and irrigated agriculture.

  16. Satellite Mapping of Agricultural Water Requirements in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, F. S.; Lund, C.; Johnson, L.; Guzman, A.; Hiatt, S.; Post, K.; Adhikari, D.; Rosevelt, C.; Keefauver, S.; Miller, G.; Michaelis, A.; Votava, P.; Temesgen, B.; Frame, K.; Nemani, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite mapping of evapotranspiration (ET) from irrigated agricultural lands can provide water managers and agricultural producers with information that can be used to optimize agricultural water use, especially in regions with limited water supplies. In particular, the timely delivery of information on agricultural crop water requirements has the potential to make irrigation scheduling more practical, convenient, and accurate. We present findings from the development and deployment of a prototype system for irrigation scheduling and management support in California. The Satellite Irrigation Management Support (SIMS) framework utilizes the NASA Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System to integrate satellite observations and meteorological observations from the California Irrigation Management Information System to map crop canopy development, basal crop coefficients (Kcb), and basal crop evapotranspiration (ETcb) values for multiple crop types in the Central Valley of California at the scale of individual fields. Information is distributed to agricultural producers and water managers via a web-based irrigation management decision support system and web services. We present the prototype system, including comparisons of estimates of ETcb from the prototype system against estimates of ET from other methods, including surface renewal stations and observations from wireless sensor networks deployed in operational agricultural fields across California. We also summarize results from ongoing studies to quantify the benefits of using satellite data to enhance ET-based irrigation management in terms of total applied water, crop yield, and nitrate leaching.

  17. Determining Environmental Impacts of Large Scale Irrigation in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, K.; Douglas, E. M.; Limbrunner, J. F.; Ozertan, G.

    2010-12-01

    In 1989, the Turkish government launched their most comprehensive regional development plan in history entitled the Southeastern Anatolia Project (SAP) which focuses on improving the quality of life and income level within the most underdeveloped region in Turkey. This project aims to integrate sustainable human development through agriculture, industry, transportation, education, health and rural and urban infrastructure building. In May 2008, a new action plan was announced for the region which includes the designation of almost 800,000 hectares of previously unirrigated land to be open for irrigation within the next five years. If not done in a sustainable manner, such a large-scale irrigation project could cause severe environmental impacts. The first objective of our research is to use computer simulations to reproduce the observed environmental impacts of irrigated agriculture in this arid region, primarily by simulating the effects of soil salinization. The second objective of our research is to estimate soil salinization that could result from expanded irrigation and suggest sustainable strategies for the newly irrigated land in Turkey in order to minimize these environmental impacts.

  18. Identifying regions vulnerable to habitat degradation under future irrigation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrado, Marta; Sabater, Sergi; Acuña, Vicenç

    2016-11-01

    The loss and degradation of natural habitats is a primary cause of biodiversity decline. The increasing impacts of climate and land use change affect water availability, ultimately decreasing agricultural production. Areas devoted to irrigation have been increased to compensate this reduction, causing habitat and biodiversity losses, especially in regions undergoing severe water stress. These effects might intensify under global change, probably contributing to a decrease in habitat quality. We selected four European river basins across a gradient of water scarcity and irrigation agriculture. The habitat quality in the basins was assessed as a function of habitat suitability and threats under current and future global change scenarios of irrigation. Results revealed that the most threatened regions under future scenarios of global change were among those suffering of water scarcity and with bigger areas devoted to irrigation. Loss of habitat quality reached 10% in terrestrial and 25% in aquatic ecosystems under climate change scenarios involving drier conditions. The aquatic habitats were the most degraded in all scenarios, since they were affected by threats from both the terrestrial and the aquatic parts of the basin. By identifying in advance the regions most vulnerable to habitat and biodiversity loss, our approach can assist decision makers in deciding the conservation actions to be prioritized for mitigation and adaptation to the effects of climate change, particularly front the development of irrigation plans.

  19. Estimation of evapotranspiration rate in irrigated lands using stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umirzakov, Gulomjon; Windhorst, David; Forkutsa, Irina; Brauer, Lutz; Frede, Hans-Georg

    2013-04-01

    Agriculture in the Aral Sea basin is the main consumer of water resources and due to the current agricultural management practices inefficient water usage causes huge losses of freshwater resources. There is huge potential to save water resources in order to reach a more efficient water use in irrigated areas. Therefore, research is required to reveal the mechanisms of hydrological fluxes in irrigated areas. This paper focuses on estimation of evapotranspiration which is one of the crucial components in the water balance of irrigated lands. Our main objective is to estimate the rate of evapotranspiration on irrigated lands and partitioning of evaporation into transpiration using stable isotopes measurements. Experiments has done in 2 different soil types (sandy and sandy loam) irrigated areas in Ferghana Valley (Uzbekistan). Soil samples were collected during the vegetation period. The soil water from these samples was extracted via a cryogenic extraction method and analyzed for the isotopic ratio of the water isotopes (2H and 18O) based on a laser spectroscopy method (DLT 100, Los Gatos USA). Evapotranspiration rates were estimated with Isotope Mass Balance method. The results of evapotranspiration obtained using isotope mass balance method is compared with the results of Catchment Modeling Framework -1D model results which has done in the same area and the same time.

  20. Mapping irrigated areas in Afghanistan over the past decade using MODIS NDVI

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Budde, Michael; Rowland, James

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural production capacity contributes to food security in Afghanistan and is largely dependent on irrigated farming, mostly utilizing surface water fed by snowmelt. Because of the high contribution of irrigated crops (> 80%) to total agricultural production, knowing the spatial distribution and year-to-year variability in irrigated areas is imperative to monitoring food security for the country. We used 16-day composites of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor to create 23-point time series for each year from 2000 through 2013. Seasonal peak values and time series were used in a threshold-dependent decision tree algorithm to map irrigated areas in Afghanistan for the last 14 years. In the absence of ground reference irrigated area information, we evaluated these maps with the irrigated areas classified from multiple snapshots of the landscape during the growing season from Landsat 5 optical and thermal sensor images. We were able to identify irrigated areas using Landsat imagery by selecting as irrigated those areas with Landsat-derived NDVI greater than 0.30–0.45, depending on the date of the Landsat image and surface temperature less than or equal to 310 Kelvin (36.9 ° C). Due to the availability of Landsat images, we were able to compare with the MODIS-derived maps for four years: 2000, 2009, 2010, and 2011. The irrigated areas derived from Landsat agreed well r2 = 0.91 with the irrigated areas derived from MODIS, providing confidence in the MODIS NDVI threshold approach. The maps portrayed a highly dynamic irrigated agriculture practice in Afghanistan, where the amount of irrigated area was largely determined by the availability of surface water, especially snowmelt, and varied by as much as 30% between water surplus and water deficit years. During the past 14 years, 2001, 2004, and 2008 showed the lowest levels of irrigated area (~ 1.5 million hectares), attesting to

  1. Rainfall consistently enhanced around the Gezira Scheme in East Africa due to irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alter, Ross E.; Im, Eun-Soon; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    2015-10-01

    Land-use and land-cover changes have significantly modified regional climate patterns around the world. In particular, the rapid development of large-scale cropland irrigation over the past century has been investigated in relation to possible modification of regional rainfall. In regional climate simulations of the West African Sahel, hypothetical large-scale irrigation schemes inhibit rainfall over irrigated areas but enhance rainfall remotely. However, the simulated influence of large-scale irrigation schemes on precipitation patterns cannot be substantiated without direct comparison to observations. Here we present two complementary analyses: numerical simulations using a regional climate model over an actual, large-scale irrigation scheme in the East African Sahel--the Gezira Scheme--and observational analyses over the same area. The simulations suggest that irrigation inhibits rainfall over the Gezira Scheme and enhances rainfall to the east. Observational analyses of rainfall, temperature and streamflow in the same region support the simulated results. The findings are consistent with a mechanistic framework in which irrigation decreases surface air temperature, causing atmospheric subsidence over the irrigated area and clockwise wind anomalies (in background southwesterly winds) that increase upward vertical motion to the east. We conclude that irrigation development can consistently modify rainfall patterns in and around irrigated areas, warranting further examination of potential agricultural, hydrologic and economic implications.

  2. Landscape irrigation management for maintaining an aquifer and economic returns.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Kent Forrest; Mancini, Mattia; West, Grant

    2015-09-01

    Expanding irrigated agriculture and dryer climatic conditions has led to large-scale withdrawals of groundwater and the decline in shallow aquifers. Policy makers must wrestle with the challenge of maintaining economic growth while conserving the groundwater resource. A spatially explicit landscape level model analyzes consequences of optimally chosen crop mix patterns on an aquifer and economic returns. The model of the groundwater use incorporates irrigation needs of the crops grown, initial aquifer thickness, hydro-conductivity of the aquifer, and distance to surrounding grid cells. The economic model incorporates the site specific yield, crop mix, and irrigation practice investments to predict economic returns. A tradeoff occurs between the volume of the aquifer and economic returns due to groundwater withdrawal for irrigation, but the farm's ability to grow profitable lower irrigation crops dampens the intensity of this tradeoff. Allowing for multiple unconventional irrigation practices that are yield increasing and water conserving significantly increases the economic returns of a given crop mix while maintaining the aquifer.

  3. Reservoir storage and irrigation in Arequipa, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertsen, Maurits; Swiech, Theoclea; Machicao Pererya, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    In countries such as Peru, irrigated agriculture is not only vital for the subsistence of many but can also be a factor of economic development and by extent social improvement. To answer the local demand and respond to the water scarcity in the sub-basin of Yarabamba, near city of Arequipa, the government decided the construction of a dam for irrigation. The irrigation systems are affected by the lack of water during the dry season for lack of storage and of water distribution between downstream and upstream sectors, among other issues. Water scarcity is the main issue in the basin, leading to poor yields and the inability of growing crops with a high commercial value. Rainfall is available only from November to April, the rest of the year being very dry. Furthermore, the lowest areas of Yarabamba, Sogay and Quequeña are disadvantaged compared to the highest area of Polobaya. By creating a large storage area to regulate the variations of water availability through the year, the dam would allow to at least palliate the lack of water in existing lands, and at best to extend agricultural lands. Farmers would then be able to shift toward higher value crops more easily than without this extra storage. The main focus of the research was the dam which was supposed to improve the water distribution and availability in the sub-basin. From the results of the study, it can be concluded that other factors, related to the irrigation system itself, are involved in the efficiency of the new structure. The farmers, the main stakeholders, believe that more could be done to improve the system and their standard of living. Most of all, the main issue that should be resolved is the fair distribution of water. However, this is not possible without a strong cooperation between sectors, and a potential change in diversion structures. The competition between the districts should be reduced, otherwise the benefits of the dam would not give the expected results. This example shows that

  4. Modeling the Effects of Irrigation on Land Surface Fluxes and States over the Conterminous United States: Sensitivity to Input Data and Model Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Leng, Guoyong; Huang, Maoyi; Tang, Qiuhong; Sacks, William J.; Lei, Huimin; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-09-16

    Previous studies on irrigation impacts on land surface fluxes/states were mainly conducted as sensitivity experiments, with limited analysis of uncertainties from the input data and model irrigation schemes used. In this study, we calibrated and evaluated the performance of irrigation water use simulated by the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) against observations from agriculture census. We investigated the impacts of irrigation on land surface fluxes and states over the conterminous United States (CONUS) and explored possible directions of improvement. Specifically, we found large uncertainty in the irrigation area data from two widely used sources and CLM4 tended to produce unrealistically large temporal variations of irrigation demand for applications at the water resources region scale over CONUS. At seasonal to interannual time scales, the effects of irrigation on surface energy partitioning appeared to be large and persistent, and more pronounced in dry than wet years. Even with model calibration to yield overall good agreement with the irrigation amounts from the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), differences between the two irrigation area datasets still dominate the differences in the interannual variability of land surface response to irrigation. Our results suggest that irrigation amount simulated by CLM4 can be improved by (1) calibrating model parameter values to account for regional differences in irrigation demand and (2) accurate representation of the spatial distribution and intensity of irrigated areas.

  5. Application of WinSRFR4 program to zigzag corrugated furrow irrigation in Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldán Cañas, José; Moreno Perez, Maria Fatima; Garcia Moreno, Francisco Javier; Chipana, Rene

    2013-04-01

    Program WinSRFR4, developed by the Agricultural Research Service-U.S. Department of Agriculture, is used to perform surface irrigation evaluations, to establish appropriate irrigation parameters to get better irrigation efficiencies, to execute irrigation simulations and so to set several alternatives to the design of an irrigation. This paper aims to adapt WinSRFR4 program to zigzag corrugated furrow irrigation performed in the Andean regions of Bolivia. These irrigations are quite peculiar as they are carried out in areas with steep slope and with very low flow rates to avoid the risk of erosion. Besides of this, the flow rates are quite variable during the irrigation application. The greater length of the furrows is drawn on contours performing small jumps between consecutive contours. Available data are taken for seven irrigations for different periods of lettuce crop growth. First, a model that fits irrigations executed has been searched. For this, we have conducted a series of tests with the program WinSRFR4, being necessary to carry some simplifications given the peculiarity of this type of irrigation. The procedure consisted in determining the advance curves during irrigation. Later, the parameters of the Kostiakov - Lewis equation have been calculated by the method of Walker and Elliot. Although the furrow longitudinal profile was available, a mean slope was used at the time of establishing the model. WinSRFR provides a model of analyzed irrigation with a coefficient of determination ranged from R2 = 0.3520 to R2 = 0.9095. Finally, the errors obtained in the mass balances are between 2% and 14%. The model showed that application efficiencies ranged between 9% and 35%, rather poor, while runoff coefficients varied between 47% and 91%. Not too much importance is given to the fact that runoff occurs because runoff water is used in plots located at a lower level Irrigation simulations have been carried out using WinSRFR by changing the operation variables

  6. Global climate change and US agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard M.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Peart, Robert M.; Ritchie, Joe T.; Mccarl, Bruce A.

    1990-01-01

    Agricultural productivity is expected to be sensitive to global climate change. Models from atmospheric science, plant science, and agricultural economics are linked to explore this sensitivity. Although the results depend on the severity of climate change and the compensating effects of carbon dioxide on crop yields, the simulation suggests that irrigated acreage will expand and regional patterns of U.S. agriculture will shift. The impact of the U.S. economy strongly depends on which climate model is used.

  7. New model for sustainable management of pressurized irrigation networks. Application to Bembézar MD irrigation district (Spain).

    PubMed

    Carrillo Cobo, M T; Camacho Poyato, E; Montesinos, P; Rodríguez Díaz, J A

    2014-03-01

    Pressurized irrigation networks require large amounts of energy for their operation which are linked to significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In recent years, several management strategies have been developed to reduce energy consumption in the agricultural sector. One strategy is the reduction of the water supplied for irrigation but implies a reduction in crop yields and farmer's profits. In this work, a new methodology is developed for sustainable management of irrigation networks considering environmental and economic criteria. The multiobjective non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA II) has been selected to obtain the optimum irrigation pattern that would reduce GHG emissions and increase profits. This methodology has been applied to Bembézar Margen Derecha (BMD) irrigation district (Spain). Irrigation patterns that reduce GHG emissions or increase actual profits are obtained. The best irritation pattern reduces the current GHG emissions in 8.56% with increases the actual profits in 14.56%. Thus, these results confirm that simultaneous improvements in environmental and economic factors are possible.

  8. Cases Studies of Irrigated Soil Degradation and Progradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Kust, German; Rozov, Sergey; Stoma, Galina

    2013-04-01

    Waterlogging and salination, along with interaction with other degradation processes, have not only caused the collapse of irrigation-based societies in the past, but are indeed threatening the viability of irrigation at present. The problem is global in scope. Decimation of natural ecosystems, deterioration of soil productivity depletion and pollution of water resources, and conflicts over dwindling supplies have become international problems closely linked with extension of irrigation development to large scale and associated impact to soil fertility and surrounding environment. Practical experience and scientific research done in the frame of FP6 DESIRE project provided an affirmative answer to the question - can irrigated agriculture be sustained for long time. In present contribution two case studies will be discussed and analysed in scope to compare different irrigation practises used for about 35 years and their impact to soil fertility. Investigated areas of both case studies are situated in the same Saratov Region of Russia at the left bank of middle part of Volga River with distance between about 100 km. First case study was developed during 2009-2010 by field trials at irrigated and surrounded areas of agricultural farms situated at Privolghskaya Irrigation System (Marksovsky District). Second case study was developed during summer of 2011 by field trial at experimental farm of research institute called VolgNIIGiM (Enghelsky District). During fields trail soil maps of both case studies were developed and compared with soil maps of the same areas done at 1970th before irrigation projects at both areas were started. Results of soil map comparison are showing that in the territory of first case study considerable soil degradation is taken place, but in the territory of the second case study a substantial soil progradation is taken place. Thus is supported by the time series of ground water monitoring at both irrigated areas. Obtained results will be

  9. Land use policy and agricultural water management of the previous half of century in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valipour, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines land use policy and agricultural water management in Africa from 1962 to 2011. For this purpose, data were gathered from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Bank Group. Using the FAO database, ten indices were selected: permanent crops to cultivated area (%), rural population to total population (%), total economically active population in agriculture to total economically active population (%), human development index, national rainfall index (mm/year), value added to gross domestic product by agriculture (%), irrigation water requirement (mm/year), percentage of total cultivated area drained (%), difference between national rainfall index and irrigation water requirement (mm/year), area equipped for irrigation to cultivated area or land use policy index (%). These indices were analyzed for all 53 countries in the study area and the land use policy index was estimated by two different formulas. The results show that value of relative error is <20 %. In addition, an average index was calculated using various methods to assess countries' conditions for agricultural water management. Ability of irrigation and drainage systems was studied using other eight indices with more limited information. These indices are surface irrigation (%), sprinkler irrigation (%), localized irrigation (%), spate irrigation (%), agricultural water withdrawal (10 km3/year), conservation agriculture area as percentage of cultivated area (%), percentage of area equipped for irrigation salinized (%), and area waterlogged by irrigation (%). Finally, tendency of farmers to use irrigation systems for cultivated crops has been presented. The results show that Africa needs governments' policy to encourage farmers to use irrigation systems and raise cropping intensity for irrigated area.

  10. Intelligent irrigation performance: evaluation and quantifying its ability for conserving water in arid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ghobari, Hussein M.; Mohammad, Fawzi S.

    2011-12-01

    Intelligent irrigation technologies have been developed in recent years to apply irrigation to turf and landscape plants. These technologies are an evapotranspiration (ET)-based irrigation controller, which calculates ET for local microclimate. Then, the controller creates a program for loading and communicating automatically with drip or sprinkler system controllers. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the new ET sensors in ability to irrigate agricultural crops and to conserve water use for crop in arid climatic conditions. This paper presents the case for water conservation using intelligent irrigation system (IIS) application technology. The IIS for automating irrigation scheduling was implemented and tested with sprinkle and drip irrigation systems to irrigate wheat and tomato crops. Another irrigation scheduling system was also installed and operated as another treatment, which is based on weather data that retrieved from an automatic weather station. This irrigation control system was running in parallel to the former system (IIS) to be control experiments for comparison purposes. However, this article discusses the implementation of IIS, its installation, testing and calibration of various components. The experiments conducted for one growing season 2009-2010 and the results were represented and discussed herein. Data from all plots were analyzed, which were including soil water status, water consumption, and crop yield. The initial results indicate that up to 25% water saving by intelligent irrigation compared to control method, while maintaining competing yield. Results show that the crop evapotranspiration values for control experiments were higher than that of ET-System in consistent trend during whole growth season. The analysis points out that the values of the two treatments were somewhat close to each other's only in the initial development stages. Generally, the ET-System, with some modification was precise in

  11. Soybean irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is an important crop and a major component of the agricultural economy in the Missouri Bootheel and throughout Missouri. USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) reported that in 2012, 960 thousand acres of soybeans were harvested in Southeast Missouri (Butler, Cape Girardeau, ...

  12. 29 CFR 780.408 - Facilities of system must be used exclusively for agricultural purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(12) The Irrigation Exemption § 780.408 Facilities of system must be used exclusively for agricultural purposes. Section 13(b)(12) requires for exemption of... exclusively “for agricultural purposes” within the meaning of the irrigation exemption in section...

  13. Sustainability of irrigated crops under future climate: the interplay of irrigation strategies and cultivar responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lorenzi, F.; Bonfante, A.; Alfieri, S.; Patanè, C.; Basile, A.; Di Tommasi, P.; Monaco, E.; Menenti, M.

    2012-04-01

    Climate evolution will cause significant changes in the quality and availability of water resources, affecting many sectors including food production, where available water resources for irrigation play a crucial role. Strategies focused on managing and conserving water are one way to deal with the impact; moreover concurring adaptation measurements will be needed to cope with the foreseen decline of water resource. This work deals with i) the impacts of climate change on water requirements of an horticultural crop, determined in an irrigated district in Southern Italy, ii) the possible irrigation scheduling options and their sustainability in the future, iii) the adaptation measurements that can be undertaken to protect production, relying on intra-specific biodiversity of agricultural crops. Two climate scenarios were considered: present climate (1961-90) and future climate (2021-2050), the former from climatic statistics, and the latter from statistical downscaling of general circulation models (AOGCM). Climatic data set consists of daily time series of maximum and minimum temperature, and rainfall on a grid with spatial resolution of 35 km. The analysis of climate scenarios showed that significant increases in summer maximum daily temperature could be expected in 2021-2050 period. Soil water regime was determined by means of a mechanistic model (SWAP) of water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Twenty? soil units were identified in the district (in Sele Plain, Campania Region) and simulations were performed accounting for hydro-pedological properties of different soil units. Parameters of a generic tomato crop, in a rotation typical of the area, were used in simulations. Soil water balance was simulated in the present and future climate, both with optimal water availability and under constrains that irrigation schemes will pose. Indicators of soil water availability were calculated, in terms of soil water or evapotranspiration deficit. For several tomato

  14. Influence of different operating conditions on irrigation uniformity with microperforated tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno Pizani, María Alejandra; Jesús Farías Ramírez, Asdrúbal

    2013-04-01

    Irrigated agriculture is a safe alternative to meet the growing demand for food. Numerous studies show that proper management of localized irrigation can increase crop yields and reduce soil salinization. Therefore, periodic field systems irrigation assessments are needed in order to optimize the use efficiency of irrigation water, as well as, to increase the agricultural area covered by the same amount of water and to reduce the environmental impact. It was assessed the behavior of micro perforated tapes under different operating conditions, crops and regions of Venezuela. Evaluations were made on irrigated areas using Santeno ® Type I tape with the following crops: Banana (Musa sp), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L) and forage sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum). In the other hand, Santeno ® Type II tape was used with papaya (Carica papaya L.) and melon (Cucumis melo L.) crops (the last crop using inverted irrigation tape). The procedures used for sampling and determining the uniformity indices of the system were performed using a series of adjustments to the methodology proposed by Keller and Karmeli (1975), Deniculi (1980) and De Santa and De Juan (1993), in order to increase the number of observations as a function of irrigation time. The calculated irrigation uniformity indices were as follow: Distribution Coefficient (UD), Uniformity Coefficient (CUC), Coefficient of Variation of Flows (CV) and Statistical Uniformity Coefficient (Us). The indices characterization was made according to Merrian and Keller (1978); Bralts (1986); Pizarro (1990) y ASAE (1996), respectively. The results showed that the irrigation uniformity for the evaluated systems varied from excellent to unacceptable, mainly due to the lack of maintenance and the absent of manometric connectors. Among the findings, it is possible to highlight the need for technical support to farmers, both in the installation, management and maintenance of irrigation systems. In this sense

  15. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus, L.) maintains high inulin, tuber yield, and antioxidant capacity under moderately-saline irrigation waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The scarcity of good quality water in semiarid regions of the world is the main limiting factor for increased irrigated agriculture in those regions. Saline water is generally widely available in arid regions at reduced costs, and can be a viable alternative for crop irrigation. However, the literat...

  16. Quantifying corn yield and water use efficiency in response to growth-stage based irrigation scheduling and seasonal water availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A calibrated agricultural system model can help optimize limited irrigation water for higher crop yield and water use efficiency (WUE) across a wide range of climate conditions. In this study, the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM2) was calibrated for corn growth under a range of irrigation treat...

  17. Modeling the effects of irrigation frequencies, initial water and nitrogen on corn yield responses for best management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Competing demands for fresh water resources necessitate adaptation of limited water irrigations in agriculture. In this context, the Crop Water Production Functions (CWPF) used in limited water irrigation management need to integrate the effects of climate, initial soil water content at planting, an...

  18. Irrigation Requirement Estimation using MODIS Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling; A Case Study for Oran, Algeria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounoua, L.; Imhoff, M.L.; Franks, S.

    2008-01-01

    Human demand for food influences the water cycle through diversion and extraction of fresh water needed to support agriculture. Future population growth and economic development alone will substantially increase water demand and much of it for agricultural uses. For many semi-arid lands, socio-economic shifts are likely to exacerbate changes in climate as a driver of future water supply and demand. For these areas in particular, where the balance between water supply and demand is fragile, variations in regional climate can have potentially predictable effect on agricultural production. Satellite data and biophysically-based models provide a powerful method to quantify the interactions between local climate, plant growth and water resource requirements. In irrigated agricultural lands, satellite observations indicate high vegetation density while the precipitation amount indicates otherwise. This inconsistency between the observed precipitation and the observed canopy leaf density triggers the possibility that the observed high leaf density is due to an alternate source of water, irrigation. We explore an inverse process approach using observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), climatological data, and the NASA's Simple Biosphere model, SiB2, to quantitatively assess water demand in a semi-arid agricultural land by constraining the carbon and water cycles modeled under both equilibrium (balance between vegetation and prevailing local climate) and nonequilibrium (water added through irrigation) conditions. We postulate that the degree to which irrigated lands vary from equilibrium conditions is related to the amount of irrigation water used. We added water using two distribution methods: The first method adds water on top of the canopy and is a proxy for the traditional spray irrigation. The second method allows water to be applied directly into the soil layer and serves as proxy for drip irrigation. Our approach indicates that over

  19. The Assessment of Irrigated Land Salinization in the Aral Sea Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlykhanov, Orazkhan K.; Toktaganova, Gulzhaz B.

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the main industries of Kazakhstan, especially in the Kyzylorda Region. Before the reforms, agriculture in this region was better developed than the manufacturing industry; this is no longer the case. The main crop grown on the irrigated land of the region is rice. Inefficient distribution of cultivated areas, their excessive…

  20. Circular buffer strips in center pivot irrigation for multiple benefits in the Southern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Ogallala Aquifer has converted the Southern Great Plains from a dust bowl to a highly productive agricultural region in the US. However, over exploitation of the aquifer is threatening sustainability of irrigated agriculture in the region. Partial pivots, where high water using conventional crop...

  1. Methods to estimate irrigated reference crop evapotranspiration - a review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Jat, M K; Shankar, V

    2012-01-01

    Efficient water management of crops requires accurate irrigation scheduling which, in turn, requires the accurate measurement of crop water requirement. Irrigation is applied to replenish depleted moisture for optimum plant growth. Reference evapotranspiration plays an important role for the determination of water requirements for crops and irrigation scheduling. Various models/approaches varying from empirical to physically base distributed are available for the estimation of reference evapotranspiration. Mathematical models are useful tools to estimate the evapotranspiration and water requirement of crops, which is essential information required to design or choose best water management practices. In this paper the most commonly used models/approaches, which are suitable for the estimation of daily water requirement for agricultural crops grown in different agro-climatic regions, are reviewed. Further, an effort has been made to compare the accuracy of various widely used methods under different climatic conditions.

  2. Regional climate effects of irrigation and urbanization in thewestern united states: a model intercomparison

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, M.A.; Kueppers, L.M.; Sloan, L.C.; Cavan, D.C.; Jin, J.; Kanamaru, H.; Miller, N.L.; Tyree, M.; Du, H.; Weare, B.

    2006-05-01

    In the western United States, more than 30,500 square miles has been converted to irrigated agriculture and urban areas. This study compares the climate responses of four regional climate models (RCMs) to these past land-use changes. The RCMs used two contrasting land cover distributions: potential natural vegetation, and modern land cover that includes agriculture and urban areas. Three of the RCMs represented irrigation by supplementing soil moisture, producing large decreases in August mean (-2.5 F to -5.6 F) and maximum (-5.2 F to -10.1 F) 2-meter temperatures where natural vegetation was converted to irrigated agriculture. Conversion to irrigated agriculture also resulted in large increases in relative humidity (9 percent 36 percent absolute change). Only one of the RCMs produced increases in summer minimum temperature. Converting natural vegetation to urban land cover produced modest but discernable climate effects in all models, with the magnitude of the effects dependent upon the preexisting vegetation type. Overall, the RCM results indicate that land use change impacts are most pronounced during the summer months, when surface heating is strongest and differences in surface moisture between irrigated land and natural vegetation are largest. The irrigation effect on summer maximum temperatures is comparable in magnitude (but opposite in sign) to predicted future temperature change due to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations.

  3. IRRIMET: a web 2.0 advisory service for irrigation water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Michele, Carlo; Anzano, Enrico; Colandrea, Marco; Marotta, Luigi; Mula, Ileana; Pelosi, Anna; D'Urso, Guido; Battista Chirico, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Irrigation agriculture is one the biggest consumer of water in Europe, especially in southern regions, where it accounts for up to 70% of the total water consumption. The EU Common Agricultural Policy, combined with the Water Framework Directive, imposes to farmers and irrigation managers a substantial increase of the efficiency in the use of water in agriculture for the next decade. Irrigating according to reliable crop water requirement estimates is one of the most convincing solution to decrease agricultural water use. Here we present an innovative irrigation advisory service, applied in Campania region (Southern Italy), where a satellite assisted irrigation advisory service has been operating since 2006. The advisory service is based on the optimal combination of VIS-NIR high resolution satellite images (Landsat, Deimos, Rapideye) to map crop vigour, and high resolution numerical weather prediction for assessing the meteorological variables driving the crop water needs in the short-medium range. The advisory service is broadcasted with a simple and intuitive web app interface which makes daily real time irrigation and evapotranspiration maps and customized weather forecasts (based on Cosmo Leps model) accessible from desktop computers, tablets and smartphones.

  4. Using the soil water balance to analyze the deep percolation losses and the irrigation adequacy of irrigated citrus crops (Haouz plain, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassah, Houda; Fakir, Younes; Er-raki, Salah; Khabba, Said; Merlin, Olivier; Mougenot, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    In the semi-arid Haouz plain, located in central Morocco, agriculture consumes about 85% of the available water resources. Therefore, the management of irrigation water is important to avoid the water loss by soil evaporation and by deep percolation (DP) below the plant root zone. Estimating the irrigation water demand has been investigated by many studies in the Haouz plain, but DP losses beneath the irrigated areas have not been quantified yet. In this context, the objectives of the persent work are threefold :1) to evaluate DP over irrigated citrus orchard under drip and flood irrigation systems using the soil water balance equation; 2) to compare the obtained results to direct measurements of DP by a "flux-meter"; and 3) to optimize the irrigation rates that avoid excessive DP losses and water stress. The results showed that the weekly DP losses vary in average from 15 mm/week to more than 40 mm/week depending to the amount of water supply. The irrigation systems have also an important impact on DP losses evaluated to 38 % in drip irrigation and 12% in flood irrigation. Additionally the density of canopy influences the DP percentage inducing a difference of 10% between the denser citrus site and the sparse one. The comparison of DP losses calculated by soil water balance with those measured by a flux-meter installed beneath the root zone show that the first method gives higher values than the second does. Finally we evaluated the adequacy of the water supply for the crop needs based on two performance indices: depleted fraction (DF) and relative evapotranspiration (RET), showing that the drip irrigation has respond to the culture demands with an excessive quantity of irrigation, unlike to the flood one.

  5. Modern Endodontic Principles Part 4: Irrigation.

    PubMed

    Darcey, James; Jawad, Sarra; Taylor, Carly; Roudsari, Reza Vahid; Hunter, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The complex anatomy of the tooth limits the ability to eradicate pathogens by mechanical means alone. Irrigation is the key to solving this problem. This paper highlights the importance of irrigation, the key irrigants available and methods of improving the performance of irrigants within the canal. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: To provide advice on which irrigants to use, how to use them effectively and safely and what to do if irrigants are extruded beyond the apex.

  6. Determination of irrigation pumpage in parts of Kearny and Finney Counties, southwestern Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindgren, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Irrigation pumpage was determined for parts of Kearny and Finney Counties in Southwestern Kansas using crop-acreage data and consumptive, irrigation-water requirements. Irrigated acreages for 1974-80 were compiled for wheat, grain sorghum, corn, and alfalfa using records from the U.S. Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service. Consumptive-irrigation requirements were computed using a soil-moisture model. The model tabulated monthly soil-moisture and crop-water demand for various crops and computed the volume of irrigation water needed to maintain the available moisture at 50% for loamy soils or at 60% for sandy soils. Irrigated acres in the study area increased from 265,000 acres during 1974 to 321,000 acres during 1980. Irrigation pumpage increased from 584,000 acre-feet during 1974 to 738,000 acre-feet during 1980. Decreased consumptive-irrigation requirements during 1979 resulted in a comparatively small irrigation-pumpage estimate of 458,000 acre-feet. (USGS)

  7. Global effect of irrigation and its impact on the onset of the Indian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimberteau, Matthieu; Laval, Katia; Perrier, Alain; Polcher, Jan

    2012-09-01

    In a context of increased demand for food and of climate change, the water consumptions associated with the agricultural practice of irrigation focuses attention. In order to analyze the global influence of irrigation on the water cycle, the land surface model ORCHIDEE is coupled to the GCM LMDZ to simulate the impact of irrigation on climate. A 30-year simulation which takes into account irrigation is compared with a simulation which does not. Differences are usually not significant on average over all land surfaces but hydrological variables are significantly affected by irrigation over some of the main irrigated river basins. Significant impacts over the Mississippi river basin are shown to be contrasted between eastern and western regions. An increase in summer precipitation is simulated over the arid western region in association with enhanced evapotranspiration whereas a decrease in precipitation occurs over the wet eastern part of the basin. Over the Indian peninsula where irrigation is high during winter and spring, a delay of 6 days is found for the mean monsoon onset date when irrigation is activated, leading to a significant decrease in precipitation during May to July. Moreover, the higher decrease occurs in June when the water requirements by crops are maximum, exacerbating water scarcity in this region. A significant cooling of the land surfaces occurs during the period of high irrigation leading to a decrease of the land-sea heat contrast in June, which delays the monsoon onset.

  8. Quantifying the Impacts of Irrigation Technology Adoption on Water Resources in the High Plains Aquifer, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Anthony; Cotterman, Kayla; Hyndman, David

    2016-04-01

    Producers in key agricultural regions worldwide are contending with increasing demand while simultaneously managing declining water resources. The High Plains Aquifer (HPA) is the largest aquifer system in the United States, and supplied most of the water to irrigate 6 million hectares in 2012. Water levels in the central and southern sections of the aquifer have steadily declined, as groundwater recharge in this semi-arid region is insufficient to meet water demands. Individual irrigators have responded to these declines by moving from less efficient irrigation technologies to those that apply water more precisely. Yet, these newer technologies have also allowed for water to be pumped from lower-yielding wells, thus extending the life of any given well and allowing drawdown to continue. Here we use a dataset of the annual irrigation technology choices from every irrigator in the state of Kansas, located in the Central High Plains. This irrigation data, along with remotely-sensed Leaf Area Index, crop choice, and irrigated area, drives a coupled surface/groundwater simulation created using the Landscape Hydrology Model (LHM) to examine the impacts of changing irrigation technology on the regional water cycle, and water levels in the HPA. The model is applied to simulate cases in which no irrigation technology change had occurred, and complete adoption of newer technologies to better understand impacts of management choices on regional water resources.

  9. Emergy Evaluation of a Production and Utilization Process of Irrigation Water in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dan; Luo, Zhao-Hui; Chen, Jing; Kong, Jun; She, Dong-Li

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability evaluation of the process of water abstraction, distribution, and use for irrigation can contribute to the policy of decision making in irrigation development. Emergy theory and method are used to evaluate a pumping irrigation district in China. A corresponding framework for its emergy evaluation is proposed. Its emergy evaluation shows that water is the major component of inputs into the irrigation water production and utilization systems (24.7% and 47.9% of the total inputs, resp.) and that the transformities of irrigation water and rice as the systems' products (1.72E + 05 sej/J and 1.42E + 05 sej/J, resp.; sej/J = solar emjoules per joule) represent their different emergy efficiencies. The irrigated agriculture production subsystem has a higher sustainability than the irrigation water production subsystem and the integrated production system, according to several emergy indices: renewability ratio (%R), emergy yield ratio (EYR), emergy investment ratio (EIR), environmental load ratio (ELR), and environmental sustainability index (ESI). The results show that the performance of this irrigation district could be further improved by increasing the utilization efficiencies of the main inputs in both the production and utilization process of irrigation water. PMID:24082852

  10. Irrigation with treated wastewater: effects on soil, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) crop and dynamics of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Mañas, Pilar; Castro, Elena; de Las Heras, Jorge

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of treated wastewater for horticultural crops, assess the effects of continuous use of treated water on soil and crops, and analyse the physical, chemical and biological effects of irrigation with recycled water. Two lettuce plots watered with drinking water and treated wastewater were monitored over a three year period. Nutrients, heavy metal and the dynamics of pathogen and indicator microorganism content in soil and foliar tissues were analysed. Wastewater irrigation had a high influence on soil parameters: organic matter, N, P, Ca, Al, Fe, Pb and Zn. Indicator and pathogenic microorganisms were detected in soil and plants grown in the wastewater-irrigated plot, and persisted in the soil for 27 days during the study under humid conditions. N, P, Pb and Al content were significantly higher in plant tissues of wastewater-irrigated plots than in the control after 3 years of irrigation. Harvest was significantly higher in the wastewater-irrigated plot. Wastewater can be a resource for agricultural irrigation. In any case, the possible heavy metal accumulation in soils and presence of pathogenic organisms require careful management of this alternative resource: use of a drip irrigation system, previous wastewater disinfection and a limited irrigation period are recommended.

  11. Evaluation of Monensin Transport to Shallow Groundwater after Irrigation with Dairy Lagoon Water.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Sarah C; Harter, Thomas; Parikh, Sanjai J

    2016-03-01

    Animal waste products from concentrated animal feeding operations are a significant source of antibiotics to the environment. Monensin, an ionophore antibiotic commonly used to increase feed efficiency in livestock, is known to have varied toxicological effects on nontarget species. The current study builds on prior studies evaluating the impact of dairy management on groundwater quality by examining the transport of monensin in an agricultural field with coarse-textured soils during irrigation with lagoon wastewater. The dairy is located in California's San Joaquin Valley, where groundwater can be encountered <5 m below the surface. Groundwater samples were collected from a network of monitoring wells installed throughout the dairy and adjacent to irrigated fields before and after an irrigation event, which allowed for measurement of monensin potentially reaching the shallow groundwater as a direct result of irrigation with lagoon water. Monensin was extracted from water samples via hydrophilic-lipophilic balance solid-phase extraction and quantified with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Irrigation water was found to contain up to 1.6 μg L monensin, but monensin was only detected in monitoring wells surrounding the waste storage lagoon. Water chemistry changes in the wells bordering the irrigated field suggest that up to 7% of irrigation water reached groundwater within days of irrigation. The study suggests that contamination of groundwater with monensin can occur primarily by compromised waste storage systems and that rapid transport of monensin to groundwater is not likely to occur from a single irrigation event.

  12. Emergy evaluation of a production and utilization process of irrigation water in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dan; Luo, Zhao-Hui; Chen, Jing; Kong, Jun; She, Dong-Li

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability evaluation of the process of water abstraction, distribution, and use for irrigation can contribute to the policy of decision making in irrigation development. Emergy theory and method are used to evaluate a pumping irrigation district in China. A corresponding framework for its emergy evaluation is proposed. Its emergy evaluation shows that water is the major component of inputs into the irrigation water production and utilization systems (24.7% and 47.9% of the total inputs, resp.) and that the transformities of irrigation water and rice as the systems' products (1.72E + 05 sej/J and 1.42E + 05 sej/J, resp.; sej/J = solar emjoules per joule) represent their different emergy efficiencies. The irrigated agriculture production subsystem has a higher sustainability than the irrigation water production subsystem and the integrated production system, according to several emergy indices: renewability ratio (%R), emergy yield ratio (EYR), emergy investment ratio (EIR), environmental load ratio (ELR), and environmental sustainability index (ESI). The results show that the performance of this irrigation district could be further improved by increasing the utilization efficiencies of the main inputs in both the production and utilization process of irrigation water.

  13. Desert landscape irrigation

    SciTech Connect

    Quinones, R.

    1995-06-01

    Industrialization can take place in an arid environment if a long term, overall water management program is developed. The general rule to follow is that recharge must equal or exceed use. The main problem encountered in landscape projects is that everyone wants a lush jungle setting, tall shade trees, ferns, with a variety of floral arrangements mixed in. What we want, what we can afford, and what we get are not always the same. Vegetation that requires large quantities of water are not native to any desert. Surprisingly; there are various types of fruit trees, and vegetables that will thrive in the desert. Peaches, plums, nut trees, do well with drip irrigation as well as tomatoes. Shaded berry plans will also do well, the strawberry being one. In summary; if we match our landscape to our area, we can then design our irrigation system to maintain our landscape and grow a variety of vegetation in any arid or semiarid environment. The application of science and economics to landscaping has now come of age.

  14. Willingness to pay for more efficient irrigation techniques in the Lake Karla basin, Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylopoulos, Nikitas; Fafoutis, Chrysostomos

    2014-05-01

    Thessaly, the second largest plain of Greece, is an intensively cultivated agricultural region. The intense and widespread agriculture of hydrophilic crops, such as cotton, has led to a remarkable water demand increase, which is usually covered by the overexploitation of groundwater resources. The Lake Karla basin is a prominent example of this unsustainable practice. Competition for the limited available freshwater resources in the Lake Karla basin is expected to increase in the near future as demand for irrigation water increases and drought years are expected to increase due to climate change. Together with the Unions of Agricultural Cooperatives, the Local Organizations of Land Reclamation is planning to introduce more efficient, water saving automated drip irrigation in the area among farmers who currently use non-automated drip irrigation, in order to ensure that these farmers can better cope with drought years and that water will be used more efficiently in crop production. Saving water use in irrigated agriculture is expected to be beneficial to both farmers and the restoration of Lake Karla and its wildlife like plants and birds. The aim of this study is to understand and record the farmers' opinions regarding the use of irrigation water and the restoration of Lake Karla, and to extract valuable conclusions and perform detailed analysis of the criteria for a new irrigation method. A general choice experiment with face-to-face interviews was conducted, using a random sample of 150 open field farmers from the study area. The farmers, who use the non-automated drip irrigation method and their farms are located within the watershed of Lake Karla, were interviewed regarding their willingness to switch to more efficient irrigation techniques, such as automated and controlled drip irrigation.The most important benefits of automated drip irrigation are an increase in crop yield, as plants are given water in a more precise way (based on their needs during the

  15. Assessing future drought impacts on yields based on historical irrigation reaction to drought for four major crops in Kansas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianyi; Lin, Xiaomao

    2016-04-15

    Evaluation of how historical irrigation reactions can adapt to future drought is indispensable to irrigation policy, however, such reactions are poorly quantified. In this paper, county-level irrigation data for maize, soybean, grain sorghum, and wheat crops in Kansas were compiled. Statistical models were developed to quantify changes of irrigation and yields in response to drought for each crop. These were then used to evaluate the ability of current irrigation to cope with future drought impacts on each crop based on an ensemble Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) prediction under the Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 scenario. Results indicate that irrigation in response to drought varies by crop; approximately 10 to 13% additional irrigation was applied when PDSI was reduced by one unit for maize, soybean, and grain sorghum. However, the irrigation reaction for wheat exhibits a large uncertainty, indicating a weaker irrigation reaction. Analysis of future climate conditions indicates that maize, soybean, and grain sorghum yields would decrease 2.2-12.4% at the state level despite additional irrigation application induced by drought (which was expected to increase 5.1-19.0%), suggesting that future drought will exceed the range that historical irrigation reactions can adapt to. In contrast, a lower reduction (-0.99 to -0.63%) was estimated for wheat yields because wetter climate was projected in the central section of the study area. Expanding wheat areas may be helpful in avoiding future drought risks for Kansas agriculture.

  16. Environmental impact of irrigation in la violada district (Spain): I. Salt export patterns.

    PubMed

    Isidoro, D; Quílez, D; Aragüés, R

    2006-01-01

    Salt loading in irrigation return flows contributes to the salinization of the receiving water bodies, particularly when originated in salt-affected areas as frequently found in the middle Ebro River basin (Spain). We determined the salt loading in La Violada Gully from the total dissolved solids (TDS) and flows (Q) during the 1995 to 1998 hydrological years. Since this gully collects flows from various sources, an end-member mixing analysis (EMMA) was performed to quantify the drainage flow from La Violada Irrigation District (VID). Three flow components were identified in La Violada Gully: drainage waters from VID (Qd); tail-waters from irrigation ditches, spill-over, and seepage from the Monegros Canal (Qo); and ground water inflows (Qg) originating in the dryland watershed. Gypsum in the soils of VID was the main source for salts in La Violada Gully (flow-weighted mean TDS=1720 mg L-1, dominated by sulfate and calcium). The contribution of Qg to the total gully flow during the 1996 irrigation season was low (6.5% of the total flow). The 1995 to 1998 annual salt load average in La Violada Gully was 78 628 Mg, 71% of which was exported during the irrigation season. The 1995 to 1998 irrigation season salt load average in Qd was 43 015 Mg (77% of the total load). Thus, irrigated agriculture in VID was the main source of salt loading in this gully, with a yield of 11.1 Mg of salts per hectare of irrigated land for the irrigation season. Efficient irrigation systems and irrigation management practices that reduce Qd are key factors for controlling off-site salt pollution of these gypsum-rich irrigated areas.

  17. Empirical evidence for a recent slowdown in irrigation-induced cooling

    PubMed Central

    Bonfils, Céline; Lobell, David

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the influence of past land use changes on climate is needed to improve regional projections of future climate change and inform debates about the tradeoffs associated with land use decisions. The effects of rapid expansion of irrigated area in the 20th century has remained unclear relative to other land use changes, such as urbanization, that affected a similar total land area. Using spatial and temporal variations in temperature and irrigation extent observed in California, we show that irrigation expansion has had a large cooling effect on summertime average daily daytime temperatures (−0.14°C to −0.25°C per decade), which corresponds to an estimated cooling of −1.8°C to −3.2°C since the introduction of irrigation practices. Irrigation has negligible effects on nighttime temperatures, leading to a net cooling effect of irrigation on climate (−0.06°C to −0.19°C per decade). Stabilization of irrigated area has occurred in California since 1980 and is expected in the near future for many irrigated regions. The suppression of past human-induced greenhouse warming by increased irrigation is therefore likely to slow in the future, and a potential decrease in irrigation may even contribute to a more rapid warming. Changes in irrigation alone are not expected to influence broad-scale temperatures, but they may introduce large uncertainties in climate projections for irrigated agricultural regions, which provide ≈40% of global food production. PMID:17698963

  18. Nitrate exported in drainage waters of two sprinkler-irrigated watersheds.

    PubMed

    Cavero, J; Beltrán, A; Aragüés, R

    2003-01-01

    Nitrate contamination of surface waters has been linked to irrigated agriculture across the world. We determined the NO3-N loads in the drainage waters of two sprinkler-irrigated watersheds located in the Ebro River basin (Spain) and their relationship to irrigation and N management. Crop water requirements, irrigation, N fertilization, and the volume and NO3-N concentration of drainage waters were measured or estimated during two-year (Watershed A; 494 irrigated ha) and one-year (Watershed B; 470 irrigated ha) study periods. Maize (Zea mays L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) were grown in 40 to 60% and 15 to 33% of the irrigated areas, respectively. The seasonal irrigation performance index (IPI) ranged from 92 to 100%, indicating high-quality management of irrigation. However, the IPI varied among fields and overirrigation occurred in 17 to 44% of the area. Soil and maize stalk nitrate contents measured at harvest indicated that N fertilizer rates could be decreased. Drainage flows were 68 mm yr(-1) in Watershed A and 194 mm yr(-1) in Watershed B. Drainage NO3-N concentrations were independent of drainage flows and similar in the irrigated and nonirrigated periods (average: 23-29 mg L(-1)). Drainage flows determined the exported mass of NO3-N, which varied from 18 (Watershed A) to 49 (Watershed B) kg ha(-1) yr(-1), representing 8 (Watershed A) and 22% (Watershed B) of the applied fertilizer plus manure N. High-quality irrigation management coupled to the split application of N through the sprinkler systems allowed a reasonable compromise between profitability and reduced N pollution in irrigation return flows.

  19. Productivity of irrigation technologies in the White Volta basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofosu, E. A.; van der Zaag, P.; van de Giesen, N. C.; Odai, S. N.

    Parts of the White Volta basin in northern Ghana and southern Burkina Faso have witnessed a spectacular rise of irrigated agriculture since about 2000, largely without government support, and seems to have been triggered by a strong and growing demand for vegetables, notably tomatoes in the urban centres of southern Ghana. It is interesting to note the variety of different irrigation technologies that individual and groups of smallholder farmers adopted, adapted and implemented. Some technologies are well-known, such as those associated with conventional sources of water like small and large reservoirs; others have been rarely described in literature, such as temporal shallow wells and alluvial dugouts. This paper describes and characterises these different irrigation technologies and conducts a comparative analysis of their productivities, in terms of crop yield, water use and financial returns. The study was conducted in three neighbouring and transboundary watersheds (Anayari, Atankwidi and Yarigatanga) located in the Upper East Region of Ghana and southern Burkina Faso. For the study, 90 tomato farmers with different irrigation technologies were surveyed during one crop season (2007/2008). The results show that adequate fertilizer application is the major contributor to irrigation productivity. Technologies characterised by relatively small farm sizes are better managed by the surveyed farmers because they are able to provide adequate water and crop nutrients thus resulting in higher productivity, and high profit margins. Apart from technologies that depend on reservoirs, all other technologies surveyed in the paper are farmer driven and required no government support. This ongoing type of endogenous irrigation development provides a strong backing that the way forward in sub-Saharan Africa is for governments to create policies that facilitate poor farmers becoming irrigation entrepreneurs. Such policies should aim to enhance the reliability of markets (both

  20. Reuse potential of laundry greywater for irrigation based on growth, water and nutrient use of tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, R. K.; Patel, J. H.; Baxi, V. R.

    2010-05-01

    SummaryGreywater is considered as a valuable resource with a high reuse potential for irrigation of household lawns and gardens. However, there are possibilities of surfactant and sodium accumulation in soil from reuse of greywater which may affect agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability adversely. We conducted a glasshouse experiment to examine variation in growth, water and nutrient use of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Grosse Lisse) using tap water (TW), laundry greywater (GW) and solutions of low and high concentration of a detergent surfactant (LC and HC, respectively) as irrigation treatments. Each treatment was replicated five times using a randomised block design. Measurements throughout the experiment showed greywater to be significantly more alkaline and saline than the other types of irrigation water. Although all plants received 16 irrigations over a period of 9 weeks until flowering, there were little or no significant effects of irrigation treatments on plant growth. Soil water retention following irrigation reduced significantly when plants were irrigated with GW or surfactant solutions on only three of 12 occasions. On one occasion, water use measured as evapotranspiration (ET) with GW irrigation was similar to TW, but it was significantly higher than the plants receiving HC irrigation. At harvest, various components of plant biomass and leaf area for GW irrigated plants were found to be similar or significantly higher than the TW irrigated plants with a common trend of GW ⩾ TW > LC ⩾ HC. Whole-plant concentration was measured for 12 essential plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo and B) and Na (often considered as a beneficial nutrient). Irrigation treatments affected the concentration of four nutrients (P, Fe, Zn and Na) and uptake of seven nutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe and B) significantly. Uptake of these seven nutrients by tomato was generally in the order GW ⩾ TW > HC ⩾ LC. GW

  1. Automatic restart of complex irrigation systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, H.D.; Alcock, R.; DeBoer, D.W.; Olson, D.I.

    1992-05-01

    Automatic restart of irrigation systems under load management has the potential to maximize pumping time during off-peak hours. Existing automation technology ranges from time delay relays to more sophisticated control using computers together with weather data to optimize irrigation practices. Centrifugal pumps and water hammer concerns prevent automatic restart of common but often complex irrigation systems in South Dakota. The irrigator must manually prime the pump and control water hammer during pipeline pressurization. Methods to prime centrifugal pumps and control water hammer facilitate automatic restart after load management is released. Seven priming methods and three water hammer control methods were investigated. A sump pump and small vacuum pump were used to test two automatic prime and restart systems in the laboratory. A variable frequency phase converter was also used to automatically control water hammer during pipeline pressurization. Economical methods to safely prime and restart centrifugal pumps were discussed. The water hammer control methods safely pressurize the pipeline but require a higher initial investment. The automatic restart systems can be used to safely restart centrifugal pumps and control water hammer after load management is released. Based upon laboratory research and a technical review of available restart components, a computer software program was developed. The program assists customers in evaluating various restart options for automatic restarting of electric irrigation pumps. For further information on the software program, contact the South Dakota State University, Department of Agricultural Engineering.

  2. Input and output constraints affecting irrigation development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, G.

    1981-05-01

    In many of the developing countries the expansion of irrigated agriculture is used as a major development tool for bringing about increases in agricultural output, rural economic growth and income distribution. Apart from constraints imposed by water availability, the major limitations considered to any acceleration of such programs are usually thought to be those of costs and financial resources. However, as is shown on the basis of empirical data drawn from Mexico, in reality the feasibility and effectiveness of such development programs is even more constrained by the lack of specialized physical and human factors on the input and market limitations on the output side. On the input side, the limited availability of complementary factors such as, for example, truly functioning credit systems for small-scale farmers or effective agricultural extension services impose long-term constraints on development. On the output side the limited availability, high risk, and relatively slow growth of markets for high-value crops sharply reduce the usually hoped-for and projected profitable crop mix that would warrant the frequently high costs of irrigation investments. Three conclusions are drawn: (1) Factors in limited supply have to be shadow-priced to reflect their high opportunity costs in alternative uses. (2) Re-allocation of financial resources from immediate construction of projects to longer-term increase in the supply of scarce, highly-trained manpower resources are necessary in order to optimize development over time. (3) Inclusion of high-value, high-income producing crops in the benefit-cost analysis of new projects is inappropriate if these crops could potentially be grown in already existing projects.

  3. Adaptive management of irrigation and crops' biodiversity: a case study on tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lorenzi, Francesca; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Basile, Angelo; Bonfante, Antonello; Monaco, Eugenia; Riccardi, Maria; Menenti, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    We have assessed the impacts of climate change and evaluated options to adapt irrigation management in the face of predicted changes of agricultural water demand. We have evaluated irrigation scheduling and its effectiveness (versus crop transpiration), and cultivars' adaptability. The spatial and temporal variations of effectiveness and adaptability were studied in an irrigated district of Southern Italy. Two climate scenarios were considered: reference (1961-90) and future (2021-2050) climate, the former from climatic statistics, and the latter from statistical downscaling of general circulation models (AOGCM). Climatic data consist of daily time series of maximum and minimum temperature, and daily rainfall on a grid with a spatial resolution of 35 km. The work was carried out in the Destra Sele irrigation scheme (18.000 ha. Twenty-five soil units were identified and their hydrological properties were determined (measured or estimated from texture through pedo-transfer functions). A tomato crop, in a rotation typical of the area, was considered. A mechanistic model of water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system (SWAP) was used to study crop water requirements and water consumption. The model was calibrated and validated in the same area for many different crops. Tomato crop input data and model parameters were estimated on the basis of scientific literature and assumed to be generically representative of the species. Simulations were performed for reference and future climate, and for different irrigation scheduling options. In all soil units, six levels of irrigation volumes were applied: full irrigation (100%), deficit irrigation (80%, 60%, 40%, 20%), no irrigation. From simulation runs, indicators of soil water availability were calculated, moreover the marginal increases of transpiration per unit of irrigation volume, i.e. the effectiveness of irrigation (ΔT/I), were computed, in both climate scenarios. Indicators and marginal increases were used to

  4. Evaluation of the Potential for Agricultural Development at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Robert G.; Hattendorf, Mary J.; Kincaid, Charles T.

    2000-02-25

    By 2050, when cleanup of the Hanford Site is expected to be completed, large worldwide demands to increase the global production of animal and fish protein, food, and fiber are anticipated, despite advancements in crop breeding, genetic engineering, and other technologies. The most likely large areas for expanded irrigation in the Pacific Northwest are the undeveloped East High areas of the Columbia Basin Project and non-restricted areas within the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The area known as the Hanford Site has all the components that favor successful irrigated farming. Constraints to agricultural development of the Hanford Site are political and social, not economic or technical. Obtaining adequate water rights for any irrigated development will be a major issue. Numerous anticipated future advances in irrigation and resource conservation techniques such as precision agriculture techniques, improved irrigation systems, and irrigation system controls will greatly minimize the negative environmental impacts of agricultural activities.

  5. Agricultural fields, Khartoum, Sudan, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This herringbone pattern of irrigated agricultural fields near Khartoum, Sudan (14.5N, 33.5E) is very distinctive in both size and shape. The region contains thousands of these rectangular fields bounded by canals which carry water from both the White and Blue Nile Rivers. A crop rotation system is used so that some fields are in cotton, millit, sorghum or fallow to conserve moisture and control weeds and insects. See also STS049-96-003.

  6. Assessment of irrigation performance: contribution to improve water management in a small catchment in the Brazilian savannas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Lineu; Marioti, Juliana; Steenhuis, Tammo; Wallender, Wesley

    2010-05-01

    Irrigated agriculture is the major consumer of surface water in Brazil using over 70% of the total supply. Due to the growing competition for water among different sectors of the economy, sustainable water use can only be achieved by decreasing the portion of water used by the irrigated agriculture. Thus, in order to maintain yield, farmers need to irrigate more efficiently. There is little known on irrigation efficiency in Brazil. Therefore a study was carried out in the Buriti Vermelho basin to assess the irrigation performance of existing system. The experimental basin has a drainage area of 940 hectares and is located in the eastern part of the Federal District, in the Brazilian savanna region. Agriculture is the main activity. There is a dominance of red latosols. Several types of land use and crop cover are encountered in the basin. Conflicts among farmers for water are increasing. As water, in quality and quantity, is crucial to maintain the livelihood of the population in the basin, concern about risk of water lack due to climatic and land use change is in place. Once irrigation is the main water user in the basin, to increase water availability and reduce conflicts a water resource management plan has to be established. For this purpose, irrigation system performance has to be understood. The objective of this work was to assess the performance and the management of irrigation (small and big) that has been carried out by farmers in the Buriti Vermelho experimental watershed. A survey undertaken in 2007 was used to identify the irrigation systems in the basin. It was verified that irrigation is practiced by both small (area up to 6 hectare) and big farmers. Small farmers usually crop limes and vegetables and use micro-irrigation, drip, sprinkler, guns or furrow to irrigate them. Big farmers plant annual crops and use center pivot as irrigation system. In this first assessment 13 irrigation systems were evaluated: five conventional sprinklers, four drip

  7. Alternating irrigation water quality as a method to control solute concentrations and mass fluxes below irrigated fields: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, David

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present numerical study was to extend the data-driven protocol for the control of soil salinity, to control chloride and nitrate concentrations and mass fluxes below agricultural fields irrigated with treated waste water (TWW). The protocol is based on alternating irrigation water quality between TWW and desalinized water (DSW), guided by solute concentrations at soil depth, zs. Two different schemes, the first requires measurements of soil solution concentrations of chloride and nitrate at zs, while, the second scheme requires only measurements of soil solution EC at zs, were investigated. For this purpose, 3-D numerical simulations of flow and transport were performed for variably saturated, spatially heterogeneous, flow domains located at two different field sites. The sites differ in crop type, irrigation method, and in their lithology; these differences, in turn, considerably affect the performance of the proposed schemes, expressed in terms of their ability to reduce solute concentrations that drained below the root zone. Results of the analyses suggest that the proposed data-driven schemes allow the use of low-quality water for irrigation, while minimizing the consumption of high-quality water to a level, which, for given climate, soil, crop, irrigation method, and water quality, may be determined by the allowable nitrate and chloride concentrations in the groundwater. The results of the present study indicate that with respect to the diminution of groundwater contamination by chloride and nitrate, the more data demanding, first scheme is superior the second scheme.

  8. Water use efficiency of different sugarcane genotypes irrigated by a subsurface drip irrigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. L. B. O.; Pires, R. C. M.; Ribeiro, R. V.; Machado, E. C.; Rolim, G. S.; Magalhães Filho, J. R.; Marchiori, P. E. R.

    2012-04-01

    The biofuel production is a growing concern on modern society due to the agricultural sustainability, in which both food and energy supplying should be take into account. The agroclimatic zoning indicates that sugarcane expansion in Brazil can only take place in marginal lands, where water deficit occurs and irrigation is necessary. The aim of this work was to evaluate water consumption and the water use efficiency of two sugarcane genotypes irrigated by a subsurface drip irrigation system. The field experiment was carried out in Campinas SP Brazil, with IACSP95-5000 and SP79-1011 varieties. Those varieties have different canopy characteristics and development, with IACSP95-5000 being more responsive to soil water availability and presenting higher light interception when compared to SP79-1011. Crop evapotranspiration (ETc) was calculated through field water balance from August 2010 to March 2011. Soil water content was evaluated by using a capacitance probe, sampling different depths in soil profile until 1-m. IACSP95-5000 had higher water consumption than SP79-1011. The mean ETc value of IACSP95-5000 was 5.0 mm day-1, whereas SP79-1011 showed 3.7 mm day-1. ETc values were positively correlated to biomass production, with IACSP95-5000 exhibiting higher growth and water use efficiency than SP79-1011.

  9. Mapping irrigated areas of Ghana using fusion of 30 m and 250 m resolution remote-sensing data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gumma, M.K.; Thenkabail, P.S.; Hideto, F.; Nelson, A.; Dheeravath, V.; Busia, D.; Rala, A.

    2011-01-01

    Maps of irrigated areas are essential for Ghana's agricultural development. The goal of this research was to map irrigated agricultural areas and explain methods and protocols using remote sensing. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data and time-series Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data were used to map irrigated agricultural areas as well as other land use/land cover (LULC) classes, for Ghana. Temporal variations in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) pattern obtained in the LULC class were used to identify irrigated and non-irrigated areas. First, the temporal variations in NDVI pattern were found to be more consistent in long-duration irrigated crops than with short-duration rainfed crops due to more assured water supply for irrigated areas. Second, surface water availability for irrigated areas is dependent on shallow dug-wells (on river banks) and dug-outs (in river bottoms) that affect the timing of crop sowing and growth stages, which was in turn reflected in the seasonal NDVI pattern. A decision tree approach using Landsat 30 m one time data fusion with MODIS 250 m time-series data was adopted to classify, group, and label classes. Finally, classes were tested and verified using ground truth data and national statistics. Fuzzy classification accuracy assessment for the irrigated classes varied between 67 and 93%. An irrigated area derived from remote sensing (32,421 ha) was 20-57% higher than irrigated areas reported by Ghana's Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA). This was because of the uncertainties involved in factors such as: (a) absence of shallow irrigated area statistics in GIDA statistics, (b) non-clarity in the irrigated areas in its use, under-development, and potential for development in GIDA statistics, (c) errors of omissions and commissions in the remote sensing approach, and (d) comparison involving widely varying data types, methods, and approaches used in determining irrigated area statistics

  10. Assessment of water use in the Spanish irrigation district "Río Adaja"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naroua, Illiassou; Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Sánchez Calvo, Raúl

    2013-04-01

    Intensive agricultural practices combined with the increasing pressure of urbanization and the changing lifestyles, have strengthened the problems of competing users over limited water resources in a fragile and already stressed environment. Sustainable irrigated agriculture is prescribed as a policy approach that maximizes economic benefits while maintaining environmental quality. Within this framework a proper management of irrigation systems saving water is required. On the other hand, crops with high tolerance to water stress and deficit irrigation are recommended. However, crop yield, among other factors, is very sensitive to water Thus, studies addressing the relations among crop water requirements, irrigation depth and crop yield are necessary. This type of study has been carried out in the Spanish irrigation District "Río Adaja" in the year 2010-2011 with the crops: wheat, barley, sugarbeet, corn, onion, potato, sunflower, clover and carrot. A soil hydrology balance model was applied taking into account climatic data for the nearby weather station and soil characteristics. Effective precipitation was calculated by the index curve number. Crop water requirements were calculated by the FAO Penman-Monteith with the application of the dual crop coefficient. Likewise, productivity was measured by the following indexes: annual relative irrigation supply (ARIS), relative water supply (RWS), relative rainfall supply (RS) and water productivity (WP). Results show that water applied with the irrigation of clover, sugarbeet, corn and onion was less than their water requirements There was a 35 % difference between the amount of water simulated with the model and the gross amount applied during the irrigation period by the irrigation district. WP values differed among crops depending, mainly, on the crop`s market price and the amount of irrigation water. The highest values corresponded to potato and onion crops.

  11. Global rain-fed, irrigated, and paddy croplands: A new high resolution map derived from remote sensing, crop inventories and climate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, J. Meghan; Friedl, Mark A.; Frolking, Steve; Wisser, Dominik; Douglas, Ellen M.

    2015-06-01

    Irrigation accounts for 70% of global water use by humans and 33-40% of global food production comes from irrigated croplands. Accurate and timely information related to global irrigation is therefore needed to manage increasingly scarce water resources and to improve food security in the face of yield gaps, climate change and extreme events such as droughts, floods, and heat waves. Unfortunately, this information is not available for many regions of the world. This study aims to improve characterization of global rain-fed, irrigated and paddy croplands by integrating information from national and sub-national surveys, remote sensing, and gridded climate data sets. To achieve this goal, we used supervised classification of remote sensing, climate, and agricultural inventory data to generate a global map of irrigated, rain-fed, and paddy croplands. We estimate that 314 million hectares (Mha) worldwide were irrigated circa 2005. This includes 66 Mha of irrigated paddy cropland and 249 Mha of irrigated non-paddy cropland. Additionally, we estimate that 1047 Mha of cropland are managed under rain-fed conditions, including 63 Mha of rain-fed paddy cropland and 985 Mha of rain-fed non-paddy cropland. More generally, our results show that global mapping of irrigated, rain-fed, and paddy croplands is possible by combining information from multiple data sources. However, regions with rapidly changing irrigation or complex mixtures of irrigated and non-irrigated crops present significant challenges and require more and better data to support high quality mapping of irrigation.

  12. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime...

  13. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime...

  14. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime...

  15. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime...

  16. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime...

  17. Satellite Irrigation Monitoring and Management Support in California with the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, F. S.; Johnson, L.; Lund, C.; Michaelis, A.; Pierce, L.; Guzman, A.; Hiatt, S.; Purdy, A. J.; Lee, C.; Rosevelt, C.; Fletcher, N.; Votava, P.; Milesi, C.; Hashimoto, H.; Wang, W.; Sheffner, E. J.; Nemani, R.

    2011-12-01

    Satellite data can be used to map crop evapotranspiration over large areas and make irrigation scheduling more practical, convenient, and accurate, but requires the development of new tools and computing frameworks to support operational use in irrigation scheduling and water management. We present findings from the development and deployment of a prototype system for irrigation scheduling and management support. The system utilizes the NASA Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) to integrate satellite observations and meteorological observations to map basal crop coefficient (Kcb) and evapotranspiration (ETcb) values for multiple crop types in the Central Valley of California at spatial resolutions that are useful for irrigation management at the field level (30m). Integration of data from the NOAA NWS Forecasted Reference Evapotranspiration (FRET) system also allows forecasting of irrigation demand with lead times of up to one week, supporting both irrigation scheduling and water delivery planning. Information is distributed to agricultural producers and water managers via a web-based irrigation management decision support system, web services, and hand held devices. We also present comparisons of estimates of ETcb from the prototype system against estimates from other methods, including surface renewal stations, energy balance models, and water balance models driven with data from wireless sensor networks deployed in operational agricultural fields across California.

  18. Quantifying the link between crop production and mined groundwater irrigation in China.

    PubMed

    Grogan, Danielle S; Zhang, Fan; Prusevich, Alexander; Lammers, Richard B; Wisser, Dominik; Glidden, Stanley; Li, Changsheng; Frolking, Steve

    2015-04-01

    In response to increasing demand for food, Chinese agriculture has both expanded and intensified over the past several decades. Irrigation has played a key role in increasing crop production, and groundwater is now an important source of irrigation water. Groundwater abstraction in excess of recharge (which we use here to estimate groundwater mining) has resulted in declining groundwater levels and could eventually restrict groundwater availability. In this study we used a hydrological model, WBMplus, in conjunction with a process based crop growth model, DNDC, to evaluate Chinese agriculture's recent dependence upon mined groundwater, and to quantify mined groundwater-dependent crop production across a domain that includes variation in climate, crop choice, and management practices. This methodology allowed for the direct attribution of crop production to irrigation water from rivers and reservoirs, shallow (renewable) groundwater, and mined groundwater. Simulating 20 years of weather variability and circa year 2000 crop areas, we found that mined groundwater fulfilled 20%-49% of gross irrigation water demand, assuming all demand was met. Mined groundwater accounted for 15%-27% of national total crop production. There was high spatial variability across China in irrigation water demand and crop production derived from mined groundwater. We find that climate variability and mined groundwater demand do not operate independently; rather, years in which irrigation water demand is high due to the relatively hot and dry climate also experience limited surface water supplies and therefore have less surface water with which to meet that high irrigation water demand.

  19. Soil properties evolution after irrigation with reclaimed water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, M.; González-Naranjo, V.; de Miguel, A.; Martínez-Hernández, V.; Lillo, J.

    2012-04-01

    Many arid and semi-arid countries are forced to look for new and alternative water sources. The availability of suitable quality water for agriculture in these regions often is threatened. In this context of water scarcity, the reuse of treated wastewater for crop irrigation could represent a feasible solution. Through rigorous planning and management, irrigation with reclaimed water presents some advantages such as saving freshwater, reducing wastewater discharges into freshwater bodies and decreasing the amount of added fertilizers due to the extra supply of nutrients by reclaimed water. The current study, which involves wastewater reuse in agriculture, has been carried out in the Experimental Plant of Carrión de los Céspedes (Sevile, Spain). Here, two survey parcels equally designed have been cultivated with Jatropha curcas L, a bioenergetic plant and a non-interfering food security crop. The only difference between the two parcels lies on the irrigation water quality: one is irrigated with groundwater and another one with reclaimed water. The main aim of this study focuses on analysing the outstanding differences in soil properties derived from irrigation with two water qualities, due to their implications for plant growth. To control and monitor the soil variables, soil samples were collected before and after irrigation in the two parcels. pH, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+), kjeldahl nitrogen, organic matter content and nutrients (boron, phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium) were measured. Data were statistically analyzed using the R package. To evaluate the variance ANOVA test was used and to obtain the relations between water quality and soil parameters, Pearson correlation coefficient was computed. According to other authors, a decrease in the organic matter content and an increase of parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity and some exchangeable cations were expected. To date and after

  20. Remote-Sensing-Based Evaluation of Relative Consumptive Use Between Flood- and Drip-Irrigated Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Baquero, G. F.; Jordan, D. L.; Whittaker, A. T.; Allen, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    Governments and water authorities are compelled to evaluate the impacts of agricultural irrigation on economic development and sustainability as water supply shortages continue to increase in many communities. One of the strategies commonly used to reduce such impacts is the conversion of traditional irrigation methods towards more water-efficient practices. As part of a larger effort by the New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission to understand the environmental and economic impact of converting from flood irrigation to drip irrigation, this study evaluates the water-saving effectiveness of drip irrigation in Deming, New Mexico, using a remote-sensing-based technique combined with ground data collection. The remote-sensing-based technique used relative temperature differences as a proxy for water use to show relative differences in crop consumptive use between flood- and drip-irrigated fields. Temperature analysis showed that, on average, drip-irrigated fields were cooler than flood-irrigated fields, indicating higher water use. The higher consumption of water by drip-irrigated fields was supported by a determination of evapotranspiration (ET) from all fields using the METRIC Landsat-based surface energy balance model. METRIC analysis yielded higher instantaneous ET for drip-irrigated fields when compared to flood-irrigated fields and confirmed that drip-irrigated fields consumed more water than flood-irrigated fields planted with the same crop. More water use generally results in more biomass and hence higher crop yield, and this too was confirmed by greater relative Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for the drip irrigated fields. Results from this study confirm previous estimates regarding the impacts of increased efficiency of drip irrigation on higher water consumption in the area (Ward and Pulido-Velazquez, 2008). The higher water consumption occurs with drip because, with the limited water supplies and regulated maximum limits on pumping amounts, the

  1. Water Stress & Biomass Monitoring and SWAP Modeling of Irrigated Crops in Saratov Region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga

    2016-04-01

    Development of modern irrigation technologies are balanced between the need to maximize production and the need to minimize water use which provides harmonious interaction of irrigated systems with closely-spaced environment. Thus requires an understanding of complex interrelationships between landscape and underground of irrigated and adjacent areas in present and future conditions aiming to minimize development of negative scenarios. In this way in each irrigated areas a combination of specific factors and drivers must be recognized and evaluated. Much can be obtained by improving the efficiency use of water applied for irrigation. Modern RS monitoring technologies offers the opportunity to develop and implement an effective irrigation control program permitting today to increase efficiency of irrigation water use. These technologies provide parameters with both high temporal and adequate spatial needed to monitor agrohydrological parameters of irrigated agricultural crops. Combination of these parameters with meteorological and biophysical parameters can be used to estimate crop water stress defined as ratio between actual (ETa) and potential (ETc) evapotranspiration. Aggregation of actual values of crop water stress with biomass (yield) data predicted by agrohydrological model based on weather forecasting and scenarios of irrigation water application may be used for indication of both rational timing and amount of irrigation water allocation. This type of analysis facilitating an efficient water management can be easily extended to irrigated areas by developing maps of water efficiency application serving as an irrigation advice system for farmers at his fields and as a decision support tool for the authorities on the large perimeter irrigation management. This contribution aims to communicate an illustrative explanation about the practical application of a data combination of agrohydrological modeling and ground & space based monitoring. For this aim some

  2. Drip irrigation research update at NPRL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drip irrigation research has been conducted since 1998 at NPRL. Systems include deep subsurface drip irrigation (SSDI), surface drip irrigation (SDI), and shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI). Results have shown that SDI and S3DI are more economical to install than SSDI. SDI systems have more r...

  3. Soil management and conservation: Irrigation: Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation applies water to soil to improve crop production. The three main methods of irrigation are surface, sprinkler and micro. Surface irrigation is used on 85% of the irrigated land in the world. It generally requires lower capital investment because the soil conveys water within the field, ra...

  4. Wireless sensor networks for irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustaining an adequate food supply for the world's population will require advancements in irrigation technology and improved irrigation management. Site-specific irrigation and automatic irrigation scheduling are examples of strategies to deal with declining arable land and limited fresh water reso...

  5. Remote sensing techniques for monitoring and managing irrigated lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, J. A.

    Agriculture in semi-arid tracts of the world depends on water to sustain its irrigation systems. Such agricultural systems either derive from government investments in the control of surface flow or they have been developed through the exploitation of groundwater sometimes by a large community of unsupervised individuals seeking to maximise their own advantage without concern for the resource upon which they depend in the medium and long term. In both cases government agencies need data on the area irrigated and the volume of water used. In countries with highly developed scientific and agricultural institutions the contribution of remote sensing, though significant, may only provide between five and ten per cent of the data required to guide regional and national managers. In countries without such institutions the proportion contributed by remote sensing can be very much higher, as shown in a recent study in North Africa. The paper will emphasise the importance of carefully structured sampling procedures, both to improve the areal estimates from satellite imagery and the estimates of water use based upon them. The role of satellite imagery in providing information on the status of water resources, on trends in water use and in the implementation of policies to extend or diminish irrigated land are discussed.

  6. A modeling study of irrigation effects on global surface water and groundwater resources under a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Guoyong; Huang, Maoyi; Tang, Qiuhong; Leung, L. Ruby

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the effects of irrigation on global water resources by performing and analyzing Community Land Model 4.0 (CLM4) simulations driven by downscaled/bias-corrected historical simulations and future projections from five General Circulation Models (GCMs). For each climate scenario, three sets of numerical experiments were performed: (1) a CTRL experiment in which all crops are assumed to be rainfed; (2) an IRRIG experiment in which the irrigation module is activated using surface water (SW) to feed irrigation; and (3) a PUMP experiment in which a groundwater pumping scheme coupled with the irrigation module is activated for conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater (GW) for irrigation. The parameters associated with irrigation and groundwater pumping are calibrated based on a global inventory of census-based water use compiled by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Our results suggest that irrigation could lead to two major effects: SW (GW) depletion in regions with irrigation primarily fed by SW (GW), respectively. Furthermore, irrigation depending primarily on SW tends to have larger impacts on low-flow than high-flow conditions, suggesting increased vulnerability to drought. By the end of the 21st century, combined effect of increased irrigation water demand and amplified temporal-spatial variability of water supply may lead to severe local water scarcity for irrigation. Regionally, irrigation has the potential to aggravate/alleviate climate-induced changes of SW/GW although such effects are negligible when averaged globally. Our study highlights the need to account for irrigation effects and sources in assessing regional climate change impacts.

  7. Irrigation trends in Kansas, 1991-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenny, Joan F.; Juracek, Kyle E.

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet examines trends in total reported irrigation water use and acres irrigated as well as irrigation water use by crop type and system type in Kansas for the years 1991 through 2011. During the 21-year period, total reported irrigation water diversions varied substantially from year to year as affected primarily by climatic fluctuations. Total reported acres irrigated remained comparatively constant during this time, although acreages of irrigated corn increased and center pivots with drop nozzles became the dominant system type used for irrigation.

  8. Transferability Of DEMETER. A Case Study Of The Irrigation Scheme Of Veiga De Chaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, A.; Sousa, V.

    2006-08-01

    DEMETER is a research and demonstration project, designed to assess and demonstrate how the integration of Earth Observation techniques in routine Irrigation Advisory Services can improve efficiency in the use of irrigation water. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to analyze the interest in the feasibility of transferring the DEMETER technology to the irrigation scheme of Chaves: (2) to identify the factors that, in general, favour the usefulness of this technology. The irrigation infrastructure and methods, the size and number of irrigation parcels and the main crops grown at the irrigation scheme of Chaves have been recorded. Also a socio-economic description has been done. Field visits, interviews with the staff of water association, and an inquiry to a sample of 107 farmers were made. The main results are: each farmer pays an area based annual fee, independent of the amount of water used for irrigation; most of the irrigated parcels are of very small size, 0.3 ha in average, mostly irrigated by surface methods; the most representative crops grown are potato, forage maize, and several different horticultural crops; an important part of the production is for self-consumption. The farmers are aging and the new generations prefer other jobs than agriculture. A considerable number of farmers have another job in the nearby cities. The small size of the irrigated parcels limits the use of earth observation technologies to expensive high space resolution images. For the time being, farmers do not feel the need for an irrigation advisory service, manly because there is plenty of water which is not bought proportionally to its use. However, circumstances are changing rapidly and, relatively new for the region, environmental concerns related with irrigation, manly nitrate leaching by excess watering of crops prompts the need for an irrigation advisory service in order to maintain crop production with a more rational use of water. The DEMETER technology could be a

  9. Irrigation management of crops rotations in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolim, J.; Teixeira, J.; Catalão, J.

    2012-04-01

    Due to climate change we cannot continue to perform irrigation systems design and irrigation management based only on historical records of weather stations, assuming that the statistical parameters of the meteorological data remains unchanged in time, being necessary to take into account the climatic data relative to climate change scenarios. For the Mediterranean basin the various climate models indicate an increase in temperature and a reduction in precipitation and a more frequent occurrence of extreme events which will increase the risk of crop failure. Thus, it is important to adopt strategies to ensure the sustainability of irrigated agriculture in a changing climate. A very interesting technique to achieve this is the adoption of crops rotations, since they increase the heterogeneity of farming systems distributing the risk between crops and minimizing costs. This study aims to evaluate the impact of climate change in the irrigation requirements of crop rotations for the Alentejo region in the South of Portugal, and the ability of crops rotation to reduce these impacts and stabilize crops production. The IrrigRotation software was used to estimate the water requirements of two crop rotations used in the Alentejo region, Sunflower-Wheat-Barley and Sugar beet-Maize-Tomato-Wheat. IrrigRotation is a soil water balance simulation model, continuous in time, based on the dual crop coefficients methodology, which allows to compute the irrigation requirements of crop rotations. The climate data used were the observed data of the Évora and Beja weather stations (1961-90), the A2 and B2 scenarios of the HadRM3P model and the A2 scenarios of the HIRHAMh and HIRHAMhh models (2071-2100). The consideration of a set of climate change scenarios produces as a result a range of values for the irrigation requirements which can be used to define safety margins in irrigation design. The results show that for the Beja clay soils, with high values of soil water storage capacity

  10. Sediment and phosphorus transport in irrigation furrows.

    PubMed

    Bjorneberg, D L; Westermann, D T; Aase, J K; Clemmens, A J; Strelkoff, T S

    2006-01-01

    Sediment and phosphorus (P) in agricultural runoff can impair water quality in streams, lakes, and rivers. We studied the factors affecting P transfer and transport in irrigated furrows in six freshly tilled fallow fields, 110 to 180 m long with 0.007 to 0.012 m m-1 slopes without the interference of raindrops or sheet flow that occur during natural or simulated rain. The soil on all fields was Portneuf silt loam (coarse-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Durinodic Xeric Haplocalcids). Flow rate, sediment concentration, and P concentrations were monitored at four, equally spaced locations in each furrow. Flow rate decreased with distance down the furrow as water infiltrated. Sediment concentration varied with distance and time with no set pattern. Total P concentrations related directly to sediment concentrations (r2=0.75) because typically >90% of the transported P was particulate P, emphasizing the need to control erosion to reduce P loss. Dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) concentrations decreased with time at a specific furrow site but increased with distance down the furrow as contact time with soil and suspended sediment increased. The DRP concentration correlated better with sediment concentration than extractable furrow soil P concentration. However, suspended sediment concentration tended to not affect DRP concentration later in the irrigation (>2 h). These results indicate that the effects of soil P can be overshadowed by differences in flow hydraulics, suspended sediment loads, and non-equilibrium conditions.

  11. Development of High Resolution Data for Irrigated Area and Cropping Patterns in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K a, A.; Mishra, V.

    2015-12-01

    Information of crop phenology and its individual effect on irrigation is essential to improve the simulation of land surface states and fluxes. We use moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) - Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) at 250 m resolution for monitoring temporal changes in irrigation and cropping patterns in India. We used the obtained dataset of cropping pattern for quantifying the effect of irrigation on land surface states and fluxes by using an uncoupled land surface model. The cropping patterns are derived by using the planting, heading, harvesting, and growing dates for each agro-ecological zone separately. Moreover, we developed a high resolution irrigated area maps for the period of 1999-2014 for India. The high resolution irrigated area was compared with relatively coarse resolution (~ 10km) irrigated area from the Food and Agricultural Organization. To identify the seasonal effects we analyzed the spatial and temporal change of irrigation and cropping pattern for different temporal seasons. The new irrigation area information along with cropping pattern was used to study the water budget in India using the Noah Land surface Model (Noah LSM) for the period of 1999-2014.

  12. FGD gypsum's place in American agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, C.

    2007-07-01

    Surface cracks and soil clumps form when saline-sodic, high-clay soil dries out. Treatment with FGD gypsum and irrigation water flowing into these cracks leaches salts until the aggregates swell and the cracks close up. The article describes research projects to develop agricultural uses of FGD gypsum from coal-fired power plants that have been conducted by university researchers and USDA-Agricultural Research Service scientists.

  13. Estimation of actual irrigation amount and its impact on groundwater depletion: A case study in the Hebei Plain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaolong; Shi, Liangsheng; Zeng, Jicai; Yang, Jinzhong; Zha, Yuanyuan; Yao, Yunjun; Cao, Guoliang

    2016-12-01

    Irrigation water is an important but missing hydrological cycle component in the region with intensive agricultural irrigation, due to the lack of monitoring facilities. The Hebei Plain, suffering the most severe groundwater depletion in China for agriculture production, provides an ideal background to study historical agricultural water consumption and its dependence on groundwater exploitation. This paper investigated the method of retrieving the spatial-temporal irrigation amount from multiple data sets of different sources and different scales. Comprehensive data including 21 years of satellite-based data, ground-based data, and four years of tracer experiment data are synthesized to implement the soil water balance. We proposed a modified soil water balance framework by relying on as much as possible of easily available data. Our results showed that the multi-mean annual irrigation amount in the Hebei Plain is 317 mm, and mean irrigation-to-evapotranspiration ratio reaches 50.8% in recent two decades. Moreover, the precipitation distribution, plant structure, and agricultural intensity result in significantly spatiotemporal variation in irrigation and irrigation-to-evapotranspiration ratio, while however has not been addressed by previous studies. Deep percolation, ignored by many soil water balance models, was shown to be unneglectable. The estimated actual irrigation amount, together with groundwater level data, are valuable to obtain a further understanding on groundwater depletion. The diverse groundwater depletion situation in the Hebei Plain indicated the importance of recognizing the groundwater utilization patterns at a smaller scale in the regional-scale groundwater resources management. This work showed the feasibility of estimating the irrigation amount using simultaneously different types of data and revealed the spatiotemporal characteristics of agriculture water consumption and associated groundwater depletion in the Hebei Plain.

  14. Agriculture: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassebaum, Peter

    Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course this learning module introduces the student to some of the major trends associated with agriculture and its impact upon cultural evolution and complexity. The first section of the module describes major innovations such as animal power, irrigation and the…

  15. Sr isotope study in the drainage water in semi-arid irrigation district, Adana, Turley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kume, T.; Akca, E.; Nakano, T.; Nagano, T.; Kapur, S.; Watanabe, T.

    2009-12-01

    The management of drainage water from irrigated lands is an important issue not only for agricultural planning but also for environmental conservation. In arid and semi-arid regions, drainage water is reused as irrigation water due to lack of enough fresh irrigation water and irrigation schemes. The drainage water reuse should be undertaken only if long-term deleterious effects on soil properties can be avoided. In addition to salt concentration, the origin of salts of drainage water should be examined to avoid agricultural and environmental pollution. The Lower Seyhan Irrigation Project (LSIP), Adana, Turkey, faces to the Mediterranean. In the LSIP, intensive irrigated agriculture has conducted since 1960s. Recently, total amount of applied irrigation water has been increased along with expansion of agricultural area and fertilizer input is also increasing. Some part of the southern lowest fields is under sea level. Soil salinization and shallow groundwater have been observed in the lowest part due to irrigation water seepage from upper stream and insufficient drainage. Moreover, agricultural drainage water has been used for irrigation water there, so that the salt is a mixture of several components. Therefore, geo-chemical measurements are indispensable to clarify the source of salt. In this study, we focused on the isotopic and chemical compositions of agricultural drain water of three main drainage canals in the LSIP. Seasonal changes in drainage features were examined using 87Sr/86Sr ratio (Sr isotope ratio) and major cation data. The abundances of possible end components were determined using mixing model. The result of measurements showed that there was a good relationship between 87Sr/86Sr values and reciprocal values of Sr concentration, while drain water quality clearly differed between summer and winter. This means Sr of drain water consists of several origins. The relationship and other data showed that Sr of drain water was a mixture of three

  16. Testing an Irrigation Decision Support Tool for California Specialty Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, L.; Cahn, M.; Benzen, S.; Zaragoza, I.; Murphy, L.; Melton, F. S.; Martin, F.; Quackenbush, A.; Lockhart, T.

    2015-12-01

    Estimation of crop evapotranspiration supports efficiency of irrigation water management, which in turn can mitigate nitrate leaching, groundwater depletion, and provide energy savings. Past research in California and elsewhere has revealed strong relationships between photosynthetically active vegetation fraction (Fc) and crop evapotranspiration (ETc). Additional research has shown the potential of monitoring Fc by satellite remote sensing. The U.C. Cooperative Extension developed and operates CropManage (CM) as on-line database irrigation (and nitrogen) scheduling tool. CM accounts for the rapid growth and typically brief cycle of cool-season vegetables, where Fc and fraction of reference ET can change daily during canopy development. The model automates crop water requirement calculations based on reference ET data collected by California Dept. Water Resources. Empirically-derived equations are used to estimate daily Fc time-series for a given crop type primarily as a function of planting date and expected harvest date. An application programming interface (API) is under development to provide a check on modeled Fc of current crops and facilitate CM expansion to new crops. The API will enable CM to extract field scale Fc observations from NASA's Satellite Irrigation Management Support (SIMS). SIMS is mainly Landsat based and currently monitors Fc over about 8 million irrigation acres statewide, with potential for adding data from ESA/Sentinel for improved temporal resolution. In the current study, a replicated irrigation trial was performed on romaine lettuce at the USDA Agricultural Research Station in Salinas, CA. CropManage recommendations were used to guide water treatments by drip irrigation at 50%, 75%, 100% ETc replacement levels, with an added treatment at 150% ET representing grower standard practice. Experimental results indicate that yields from the 100% and 150% treatments were not significantly different and were in-line with industry average, while

  17. Changes in soil aggregate stability under different irrigation doses of waste water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morugán, Alicia; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Victoria; Bárcenas, Gema

    2010-05-01

    Freshwater availability and soil degradation are two of the most important environmental problems in the Mediterranean area acerbated by incorrect agricultural use of irrigation in which organic matter is not correctly managed, the use of low quality water for irrigation, and the inefficiency of dose irrigation. For these reasons strategies for saving water and for the restoration of the mean properties of soil are necessary. The use of treated waste water for the irrigation of agricultural land could be a good solution to these problems, as it reduces the utilization of fresh water and could potentially improve key soil properties. In this work we have been studying, for more than three years, the effects on soil properties of different doses of irrigation with waste water. Here we show the results on aggregate stability. The study is located in an agricultural area at Biar (Alicante, SE of Spain), with a crop of grape (Vitis labrusca). Three types of waters are being used in the irrigation of the soil: fresh water (control) (TC), and treated waste water from secondary (T2) and tertiary treatment (T3). Three different doses of irrigation have been applied to fit the efficiency of the irrigation to the crop and soil type: D10 (10 L m-2 every week during 17 months), D50 (50 L m-2 every fifteen days during 14 moths) and D30 (30 L m-2 every week during 6 months up to present day). The results showed a clear decrease of aggregate stability during the period we used the second dose (D50) independent of the type of water used. That dose of irrigation and frequency produced strong wetting and drying cycles (WD) in the soil, and this is suspected to be the main factor responsible for the results. When we changed the dose of irrigation to D30, reducing the quantity per event and increasing the frequency, the soil aggregate stability started to improve. This dose avoids strong drying periods between irrigation events and the aggregate stability is confirmed to be slowly

  18. Integration of soil moisture and geophysical datasets for improved water resource management in irrigated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkenbiner, Catherine; Franz, Trenton E.; Avery, William Alexander; Heeren, Derek M.

    2016-04-01

    Global trends in consumptive water use indicate a growing and unsustainable reliance on water resources. Approximately 40% of total food production originates from irrigated agriculture. With increasing crop yield demands, water use efficiency must increase to maintain a stable food and water trade. This work aims to increase our understanding of soil hydrologic fluxes at intermediate spatial scales. Fixed and roving cosmic-ray neutron probes were combined in order to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture at three study sites across an East-West precipitation gradient in the state of Nebraska, USA. A coarse scale map was generated for the entire domain (122 km2) at each study site. We used a simplistic data merging technique to produce a statistical daily soil moisture product at a range of key spatial scales in support of current irrigation technologies: the individual sprinkler (˜102m2) for variable rate irrigation, the individual wedge (˜103m2) for variable speed irrigation, and the quarter section (0.82 km2) for uniform rate irrigation. Additionally, we were able to generate a daily soil moisture product over the entire study area at various key modeling and remote sensing scales 12, 32, and 122 km2. Our soil moisture products and derived soil properties were then compared against spatial datasets (i.e. field capacity and wilting point) from the US Department of Agriculture Web Soil Survey. The results show that our "observed" field capacity was higher compared to the Web Soil Survey products. We hypothesize that our results, when provided to irrigators, will decrease water losses due to runoff and deep percolation as sprinkler managers can better estimate irrigation application depth and times in relation to soil moisture depletion below field capacity and above maximum allowable depletion. The incorporation of this non-contact and pragmatic geophysical method into current irrigation practices across the state and globe has the

  19. Adaptability of Irrigation to a Changing Monsoon in India: How far can we go?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaveri, E.; Grogan, D. S.; Fisher-Vanden, K.; Frolking, S. E.; Wrenn, D. H.; Nicholas, R.

    2014-12-01

    Agriculture and the monsoon are inextricably linked in India. A large part of the steady rise in agricultural production since the onset of the Green Revolution in the 1960's has been attributed to irrigation. Irrigation is used to supplement and buffer crops against precipitation shocks, but water availability for such use is itself sensitive to the erratic, seasonal and spatially heterogeneous nature of the monsoon. We provide new evidence on the relationship between monsoon changes, irrigation variability and water availability by linking a process based hydrology model with an econometric model for one of the world's most water stressed countries. India uses more groundwater for irrigation than any other country, and there is substantial evidence that this has led to depletion of groundwater aquifers. First, we build an econometric model of historical irrigation decisions using detailed agriculture and weather data spanning 35 years. Multivariate regression models reveal that for crops grown in the wet season, irrigation is sensitive to distribution and total monsoon rainfall but not to ground or surface water availability. For crops grown in the dry season, total monsoon rainfall matters most, and its effect is sensitive to groundwater availability. The historical estimates from the econometric model are used to calculate future irrigated areas under three different climate model predictions of monsoon climate for the years 2010 - 2050. These projections are then used as input to a physical hydrology model, which quantifies supply of irrigation water from sustainable sources such as rechargeable shallow groundwater, rivers and reservoirs, to unsustainable sources such as non- rechargeable groundwater. We find that the significant variation in monsoon projections lead to very different results. Crops grown in the dry season show particularly divergent trends between model projections, leading to very different groundwater resource requirements.

  20. Modeling the Effects of Groundwater-fed Irrigation on Terrestrial Hydrology over the Conterminous United States

    SciTech Connect

    Leng, Guoyong; Huang, Maoyi; Tang, Qiuhong; Gao, Huilin; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-06-01

    Human alteration of the land surface hydrologic cycle is substantial. Recent studies suggest that local water management practices including groundwater pumping and irrigation could significantly alter the quantity and distribution of water in the terrestrial system, with potential impacts on weather and climate through land-atmosphere feedbacks. In this study, we incorporated a groundwater withdrawal scheme into the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4). To simulate the impact of irrigation realistically, we calibrated the CLM4 simulated irrigation amount against observations from agriculture census at the county scale over the conterminous United States (CONUS). The water used for irrigation was then removed from the surface runoff and groundwater aquifer according to a ratio determined from the county-level agricultural census data. Based on the simulations, the impact of groundwater withdrawals for irrigation on land surface and subsurface fluxes were investigated. Our results suggest that the impacts of irrigation on latent heat flux and potential recharge when water is withdrawn from surface water alone or from both surface and groundwater are comparable and local to the irrigation areas. However, when water is withdrawn from groundwater for irrigation, greater effects on the subsurface water balance were found, leading to significant depletion of groundwater storage in regions with low recharge rate and high groundwater exploitation rate. Our results underscore the importance of local hydrologic feedbacks in governing hydrologic response to anthropogenic change in CLM4 and the need to more realistically simulate the two-way interactions among surface water, groundwater, and atmosphere to better understand the impacts of groundwater pumping on irrigation efficiency and climate.

  1. Investigating the impact of limited irrigation practices on soil moisture variability and vineyard performance, Boise, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffin, J.; Wilkins, D. E.; Guenther, J.

    2012-12-01

    In semiarid regions, the changing climate may affect the timing and form of precipitation. This could result in increased water stress for agricultural production as available surface water for irrigation diminishes. To prepare for these changing conditions the possibility of limited-irrigation agriculture as an alternative to heavily-irrigated production is being investigated. This study specifically investigates the ability to grow productive wine grapes with different levels of limited irrigation in the Boise Front foothills at the West Foothills TIC Vineyard, located in a climate zone receiving less than 300 mm of annual precipitation over two growing seasons (2011-2012). The vineyard is divided into three test plots on a northwest facing-slope. Soil texture analyses show that soils are homogenous across all three plots. Traditional vineyard performance factors, such as planting densities, soil type, rootstock, and climate, are standardized and serve as constants in this study. Thus, the limiting factor for vine performance is the difference in irrigation on each plot. Water delivery through drip emitters varies in each of the three vineyard test plots from 2 gallons per week to 0.75 gallons per week. Soil moisture is monitored at depths of 0.25 meters and 0.50 meters in two pits in each of the test plots, collecting data in 2011 and 2012, and in a third pit added to each plot in 2012 at upper elevations. The paired upper elevation sensors record the natural soil moisture and the irrigated soil moisture in each irrigation scheme. Soil moisture for each plot, compared to the annual mortality and growth rates of the vines, will suggest a minimum irrigation level needed for limited irrigation farming and highlight other factors that may affect vine performance in this location.

  2. Effects of treated wastewater irrigation on contents and dynamics of soil organic carbon and microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jüschke, E.; Marschner, B.; Chen, Y.; Tarchitzky, J.

    2009-04-01

    In many arid and semi-arid regions, the demand for freshwater as drinking water and other domestic uses is constantly growing due to demographic growth and increasing standard of living. Therefore, less freshwater is available for agricultural irrigation and new water sources are needed. Treated wastewater (TWW) already serves as an important water source in Jordan, the Palestinian Territories and Israel. Related to its high loads with nutrients, salts and organic materials within its use as irrigation water major effects on the soil physical and chemical properties can occur, in the worst case leading to soil degradation. In an ongoing study we are investigated in the effects of TWW irrigation on agricultural soils in the region. Here we present results from analyses of total soil carbon contents and qualities in soils irrigated with freshwater and TWW. Furthermore microbiological parameters were investigated as microbial biomass, microbial activities and enzyme activities. In several sites, subsoils (50-160 cm) from TWW irrigated plots were depleted in soil organic matter with the largest differences occurring in sites with the longest TWW irrigation history. Laboratory incubation experiments with additions of 14C-labelled compounds to the soils showed that microbial activity in freshwater irrigated soils was much more stimulated by sugars or amino acids than in TWW irrigated soils. The lack of such "priming effects" (Hamer & Marschner 2005) in the TWW irrigated soils indicates that here the microorganisms are already operating at their optimal metabolic activity due to the continuous substrate inputs with soluble organic compounds from the TWW. Apparently, this higher microbial activity is causing an increased depletion of soil organic matter, which may have negative long-term effects on soil quality.

  3. Effect of irrigation on soil health: a case study of the Ikere irrigation project in Oyo State, southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adejumobi, M A; Awe, G O; Abegunrin, T P; Oyetunji, O M; Kareem, T S

    2016-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture is one of the significant contributors to the food security of the millennium development goals (MDGs); however, the modification of soil matrix by irrigation could alter the overall soil health due to changes in soil properties and processes. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of irrigation on soil quality status of the Ikere center pivot irrigation project site in Oyo State, southwest Nigeria. Disturbed soil samples were collected from 0 to 30, 30 to 60, and 60 to 90-cm layers from four different sites in three replicates, within the project location for the determination of soil bio-chemical properties. The average values of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) < 13, electrical conductivity (EC) <4 μS/cm, and pH < 8.5 showed that the soil condition is normal in relation to salinity and sodicity hazards. The effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC), soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), and calcium ion (Ca(2+)) concentrations were low while the available phosphorus (P) was moderate. The principal component analysis showed EC, ECEC, SAR, SOM, and TN as the minimum data set (MDS) for monitoring and assessing the soil quality status of this irrigation field. In terms of bio-chemical properties, the soil quality index (SQI) of the field was average (about 0.543) while the sampling locations were ranked as site 2 > site 4 > site 3 > site 1 in terms of SQI. The results of this study are designated as baseline for future evaluation of soil quality status of this irrigation field and further studies should incorporate soil physical and more biological properties when considering overall soil quality status.

  4. Emerging technologies for sustainable irrigation – a tribute to the career of Terry Howell, Sr. Selected papers from the 2015 ASABE and IA irrigation symposium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article is an introduction to the “Emerging Technologies in Sustainable Irrigation – A Tribute to the Career of Terry Howell, Sr.” Special Collection in this issue of Transactions ASABE and the next issue of Applied Engineering in Agriculture, consisting of 15 articles selected from 62 papers a...

  5. Aggregate stability in citrus plantations. The impact of drip irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, A.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Arcenegui, V.

    2012-04-01

    Soil aggregate stability is a key property for soil and water conservation, and a synthetic parameter to quantify the soil degradation. Aggregation is relevant in soils where vegetation cover is scarce (Cerdà, 1996). Most of the research carried out to determine the soil aggregate stability was done in forest soils (Mataix-Solera et al., 2011) and little is done on farms (Cerdà, 2000). The research have show the effect of vegetation cover on soil aggregate stability (Cerdà, 1998) but little is known when vegetation is scarce, rare or not found such it can be seeing in agriculture soils. Then, aggregation is the main factor to control the soil losses and to improve the water availability. Moreover, agriculture management can improve the soil aggregate characteristics and the first step in this direction should be to quantify the aggregate stability. There is no information about the aggregate stability of soils under citrus production, although the research did show that the soil losses in the farms with citrus plantations is very high (Cerdà et al., 2009), and that aggregation should play a key role as the soils are bare due to the widespread use of herbicides. From 2009 to 2011, samples were collected in summer and winter in a chemically managed farm in Montesa, Eastern Iberian Peninsula. Ten irrigated patches and ten non-irrigated patches were selected to compare the effect of the drip irrigation on the soil aggregate stability. The Ten Drop Impacts (TDI) and the Counting the number of drops (CND) tests were applied at 200 aggregates (10 samples x 10 aggregates x 2 sites) in winter and summer in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The results show that the irrigated patches had TDI values that ranged from 43 to 56 % and that the non-irrigated reached values of 41 to 54 %. The CND samples ranged from 29 to 38 drops in the non-irrigated patches to 32 to 42 drop-impacts in the irrigated soil patches. No trends were found from winter to summer during the three years time period

  6. A case study of field-scale maize irrigation patterns in western Nebraska: implications for water managers and recommendations for hyper-resolution land surface modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Justin; Franz, Trenton E.; Wang, Tiejun; Gates, John; Grassini, Patricio; Yang, Haishun; Eisenhauer, Dean

    2017-02-01

    In many agricultural regions, the human use of water for irrigation is often ignored or poorly represented in land surface models (LSMs) and operational forecasts. Because irrigation increases soil moisture, feedback on the surface energy balance, rainfall recycling, and atmospheric dynamics is not represented and may lead to reduced model skill. In this work, we describe four plausible and relatively simple irrigation routines that can be coupled to the next generation of hyper-resolution LSMs operating at scales of 1 km or less. The irrigation output from the four routines (crop model, precipitation delayed, evapotranspiration replacement, and vadose zone model) is compared against a historical field-scale irrigation database (2008-2014) from a 35 km2 study area under maize production and center pivot irrigation in western Nebraska (USA). We find that the most yield-conservative irrigation routine (crop model) produces seasonal totals of irrigation that compare well against the observed irrigation amounts across a range of wet and dry years but with a low bias of 80 mm yr-1. The most aggressive irrigation saving routine (vadose zone model) indicates a potential irrigation savings of 120 mm yr-1 and yield losses of less than 3 % against the crop model benchmark and historical averages. The results of the various irrigation routines and associated yield penalties will be valuable for future consideration by local water managers to be informed about the potential value of irrigation saving technologies and irrigation practices. Moreover, the routines offer the hyper-resolution LSM community a range of irrigation routines to better constrain irrigation decision-making at critical temporal (daily) and spatial scales (< 1 km).

  7. Agriculture: Newsroom

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Agriculture Newsroom. News releases, reports, and other documents from around EPA that are of interest or direct importance to the environmental management or compliance efforts of the agricultural community.

  8. Grassland agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

  9. Water conservation in irrigation can increase water use

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Frank A.; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Climate change, water supply limits, and continued population growth have intensified the search for measures to conserve water in irrigated agriculture, the world's largest water user. Policy measures that encourage adoption of water-conserving irrigation technologies are widely believed to make more water available for cities and the environment. However, little integrated analysis has been conducted to test this hypothesis. This article presents results of an integrated basin-scale analysis linking biophysical, hydrologic, agronomic, economic, policy, and institutional dimensions of the Upper Rio Grande Basin of North America. It analyzes a series of water conservation policies for their effect on water used in irrigation and on water conserved. In contrast to widely-held beliefs, our results show that water conservation subsidies are unlikely to reduce water use under conditions that occur in many river basins. Adoption of more efficient irrigation technologies reduces valuable return flows and limits aquifer recharge. Policies aimed at reducing water applications can actually increase water depletions. Achieving real water savings requires designing institutional, technical, and accounting measures that accurately track and economically reward reduced water depletions. Conservation programs that target reduced water diversions or applications provide no guarantee of saving water. PMID:19015510

  10. Climate change and the water cycle in newly irrigated areas.

    PubMed

    Abrahão, Raphael; García-Garizábal, Iker; Merchán, Daniel; Causapé, Jesús

    2015-02-01

    Climate change is affecting agriculture doubly: evapotranspiration is increasing due to increments in temperature while the availability of water resources is decreasing. Furthermore, irrigated areas are expanding worldwide. In this study, the dynamics of climate change impacts on the water cycle of a newly irrigated watershed are studied through the calculation of soil water balances. The study area was a 752-ha watershed located on the left side of the Ebro river valley, in Northeast Spain. The soil water balance procedures were carried out throughout 1827 consecutive days (5 years) of hydrological and agronomical monitoring in the study area. Daily data from two agroclimatic stations were used as well. Evaluation of the impact of climate change on the water cycle considered the creation of two future climate scenarios for comparison: 2070 decade with climate change and 2070 decade without climate change. The main indicators studied were precipitation, irrigation, reference evapotranspiration, actual evapotranspiration, drainage from the watershed, and irrigation losses. The aridity index was also applied. The results represent a baseline scenario in which adaptation measures may be included and tested to reduce the impacts of climate change in the studied area and other similar areas.

  11. Water conservation in irrigation can increase water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Frank A.; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2008-11-01

    Climate change, water supply limits, and continued population growth have intensified the search for measures to conserve water in irrigated agriculture, the world's largest water user. Policy measures that encourage adoption of water-conserving irrigation technologies are widely believed to make more water available for cities and the environment. However, little integrated analysis has been conducted to test this hypothesis. This article presents results of an integrated basin-scale analysis linking biophysical, hydrologic, agronomic, economic, policy, and institutional dimensions of the Upper Rio Grande Basin of North America. It analyzes a series of water conservation policies for their effect on water used in irrigation and on water conserved. In contrast to widely-held beliefs, our results show that water conservation subsidies are unlikely to reduce water use under conditions that occur in many river basins. Adoption of more efficient irrigation technologies reduces valuable return flows and limits aquifer recharge. Policies aimed at reducing water applications can actually increase water depletions. Achieving real water savings requires designing institutional, technical, and accounting measures that accurately track and economically reward reduced water depletions. Conservation programs that target reduced water diversions or applications provide no guarantee of saving water.

  12. Irrigation infrastructure and water appropriation rules for food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohar, Abdelaziz A.; Amer, Saud A.; Ward, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    In the developing world's irrigated areas, water management and planning is often motivated by the need for lasting food security. Two important policy measures to address this need are improving the flexibility of water appropriation rules and developing irrigation storage infrastructure. Little research to date has investigated the performance of these two policy measures in a single analysis while maintaining a basin wide water balance. This paper examines impacts of storage capacity and water appropriation rules on total economic welfare in irrigated agriculture, while maintaining a water balance. The application is to a river basin in northern Afghanistan. A constrained optimization framework is developed to examine economic consequences on food security and farm income resulting from each policy measure. Results show that signif