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Sample records for irrigation enhances food

  1. Solar-powered drip irrigation enhances food security in the Sudano–Sahel

    PubMed Central

    Burney, Jennifer; Woltering, Lennart; Burke, Marshall; Naylor, Rosamond; Pasternak, Dov

    2010-01-01

    Meeting the food needs of Africa’s growing population over the next half-century will require technologies that significantly improve rural livelihoods at minimal environmental cost. These technologies will likely be distinct from those of the Green Revolution, which had relatively little impact in sub-Saharan Africa; consequently, few such interventions have been rigorously evaluated. This paper analyzes solar-powered drip irrigation as a strategy for enhancing food security in the rural Sudano–Sahel region of West Africa. Using a matched-pair comparison of villages in northern Benin (two treatment villages, two comparison villages), and household survey and field-level data through the first year of harvest in those villages, we find that solar-powered drip irrigation significantly augments both household income and nutritional intake, particularly during the dry season, and is cost effective compared to alternative technologies. PMID:20080616

  2. Irrigation infrastructure and water appropriation rules for food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohar, Abdelaziz A.; Amer, Saud A.; Ward, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    In the developing world's irrigated areas, water management and planning is often motivated by the need for lasting food security. Two important policy measures to address this need are improving the flexibility of water appropriation rules and developing irrigation storage infrastructure. Little research to date has investigated the performance of these two policy measures in a single analysis while maintaining a basin wide water balance. This paper examines impacts of storage capacity and water appropriation rules on total economic welfare in irrigated agriculture, while maintaining a water balance. The application is to a river basin in northern Afghanistan. A constrained optimization framework is developed to examine economic consequences on food security and farm income resulting from each policy measure. Results show that significant improvements in both policy aims can be achieved through expanding existing storage capacity to capture up to 150 percent of long-term average annual water supplies when added capacity is combined with either a proportional sharing of water shortages or unrestricted water trading. An important contribution of the paper is to show how the benefits of storage and a changed water appropriation system operate under a variable climate. Results show that the hardship of droughts can be substantially lessened, with the largest rewards taking place in the most difficult periods. Findings provide a comprehensive framework for addressing future water scarcity, rural livelihoods, and food security in the developing world's irrigated regions.

  3. Arsenic contamination in food-chain: transfer of arsenic into food materials through groundwater irrigation.

    PubMed

    Huq, S M Imamul; Joardar, J C; Parvin, S; Correll, Ray; Naidu, Ravi

    2006-09-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater in Bangladesh has become an additional concern vis-à-vis its use for irrigation purposes. Even if arsenic-safe drinking-water is assured, the question of irrigating soils with arsenic-laden groundwater will continue for years to come. Immediate attention should be given to assess the possibility of accumulating arsenic in soils through irrigation-water and its subsequent entry into the food-chain through various food crops and fodders. With this possibility in mind, arsenic content of 2,500 water, soil and vegetable samples from arsenic-affected and arsenic-unaffected areas were analyzed during 1999-2004. Other sources of foods and fodders were also analyzed. Irrigating a rice field with groundwater containing 0.55 mg/L of arsenic with a water requirement of 1,000 mm results in an estimated addition of 5.5 kg of arsenic per ha per annum. Concentration of arsenic as high as 80 mg per kg of soil was found in an area receiving arsenic-contaminated irrigation. A comparison of results from affected and unaffected areas revealed that some commonly-grown vegetables, which would usually be suitable as good sources of nourishment, accumulate substantially-elevated amounts of arsenic. For example, more than 150 mg/kg of arsenic has been found to be accumulated in arum (kochu) vegetable. Implications of arsenic ingested in vegetables and other food materials are discussed in the paper. PMID:17366772

  4. Arsenic Contamination in Food-chain: Transfer of Arsenic into Food Materials through Groundwater Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Joardar, J.C.; Parvin, S.; Correll, Ray; Naidu, Ravi

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater in Bangladesh has become an additional concern vis-à-vis its use for irrigation purposes. Even if arsenic-safe drinking-water is assured, the question of irrigating soils with arsenic-laden groundwater will continue for years to come. Immediate attention should be given to assess the possibility of accumulating arsenic in soils through irrigation-water and its subsequent entry into the food-chain through various food crops and fodders. With this possibility in mind, arsenic content of 2,500 water, soil and vegetable samples from arsenic-affected and arsenic-unaffected areas were analyzed during 1999–2004. Other sources of foods and fodders were also analyzed. Irrigating a rice field with groundwater containing 0.55 mg/L of arsenic with a water requirement of 1,000 mm results in an estimated addition of 5.5 kg of arsenic per ha per annum. Concentration of arsenic as high as 80 mg per kg of soil was found in an area receiving arsenic-contaminated irrigation. A comparison of results from affected and unaffected areas revealed that some commonly-grown vegetables, which would usually be suitable as good sources of nourishment, accumulate substantially-elevated amounts of arsenic. For example, more than 150 mg/kg of arsenic has been found to be accumulated in arum (kochu) vegetable. Implications of arsenic ingested in vegetables and other food materials are discussed in the paper. PMID:17366772

  5. Arsenic contamination in food-chain: transfer of arsenic into food materials through groundwater irrigation.

    PubMed

    Huq, S M Imamul; Joardar, J C; Parvin, S; Correll, Ray; Naidu, Ravi

    2006-09-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater in Bangladesh has become an additional concern vis-à-vis its use for irrigation purposes. Even if arsenic-safe drinking-water is assured, the question of irrigating soils with arsenic-laden groundwater will continue for years to come. Immediate attention should be given to assess the possibility of accumulating arsenic in soils through irrigation-water and its subsequent entry into the food-chain through various food crops and fodders. With this possibility in mind, arsenic content of 2,500 water, soil and vegetable samples from arsenic-affected and arsenic-unaffected areas were analyzed during 1999-2004. Other sources of foods and fodders were also analyzed. Irrigating a rice field with groundwater containing 0.55 mg/L of arsenic with a water requirement of 1,000 mm results in an estimated addition of 5.5 kg of arsenic per ha per annum. Concentration of arsenic as high as 80 mg per kg of soil was found in an area receiving arsenic-contaminated irrigation. A comparison of results from affected and unaffected areas revealed that some commonly-grown vegetables, which would usually be suitable as good sources of nourishment, accumulate substantially-elevated amounts of arsenic. For example, more than 150 mg/kg of arsenic has been found to be accumulated in arum (kochu) vegetable. Implications of arsenic ingested in vegetables and other food materials are discussed in the paper.

  6. Human health risk from heavy metal via food crops consumption with wastewater irrigation practices in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Usman; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Muhammad, Said

    2013-11-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the potential human health risks associated with consumption of food crops contaminated with toxic heavy metals. Cadmium (Cd) concentration in surface soils; Cd, lead (Pb) and chromium (Cr) in the irrigation water and food crops were above permissible limits. The accumulation factor (AF) was >1 for manganese (Mn) and Pb in different food crops. The Health Risk Index (HRI) was >1 for Pb in all food crops irrigated with wastewater and tube well water. HRI >1 was also recorded for Cd in all selected vegetables; and for Mn in Spinacia oleracea irrigated with wastewater. All wastewater irrigated samples (soil and food crops) exhibited high relative contamination level as compared to samples irrigated with tube well water. Our results emphasized the need for pretreatment of wastewater and routine monitoring in order to avoid contamination of food crops from the wastewater irrigation system.

  7. Food security, irrigation, climate change, and water scarcity in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, T. W.; Taheripour, F.; Gopalakrishnan, B. N.; Sahin, S.; Escurra, J.

    2015-12-01

    This paper uses an advanced CGE model (Taheripour et al., 2013) coupled with hydrological projections of future water scarcity and biophysical data on likely crop yields under climate change to examine how water scarcity, climate change, and trade jointly alter land use changes across the Indian subcontinent. Climate shocks to rainfed and irrigated yields in 2030 are based on the p-DSSAT crop model, RCP 2.6, as reported under the AgMIP project (Rosenzweig et al., 2013), accessed through GEOSHARE (Villoria et al, 2014). Results show that, when water scarcity is ignored, irrigated areas grow in the wake of climate change as the returns to irrigation rise faster than for rainfed uses of land within a given agro-ecological zone. When non-agricultural competition for future water use, as well as anticipated supply side limitations are brought into play (Rosegrant et al., 2013), the opportunity cost of water rises across all river basins, with the increase ranging from 12% (Luni) to 44% (Brahmaputra). As a consequence, irrigated crop production is curtailed in most regions (Figure 1), with the largest reductions coming in the most water intensive crops, namely rice and wheat. By reducing irrigated area, which tends to have much higher yields, the combined effects of water scarcity and climate impacts require an increase in total cropped area, which rises by about 240,000 ha. The majority of this area expansion occurs in the Ganges, Indus, and Brahmari river basins. Overall crop output falls by about 2 billion, relative to the 2030 baseline, with imports rising by about 570 million. The combined effects of climate change and water scarcity for irrigation also have macro-economic consequences, resulting in a 0.28% reduction in GDP and an increase in the consumer price index by about 0.4% in 2030, compared the baseline. The national welfare impact on India amounts to roughly 3 billion (at 2007 prices) in 2030. Assuming a 3% social discount rate, the net present value of the

  8. Irrigation: Erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation is essential for global food production. However, irrigation erosion can limit the ability of irrigation systems to reliably produce food and fiber in the future. The factors affecting soil erosion from irrigation are the same as rainfall—water detaches and transports sediment. However, t...

  9. A comparative study of human health risks via consumption of food crops grown on wastewater irrigated soil (Peshawar) and relatively clean water irrigated soil (lower Dir).

    PubMed

    Jan, F Akbar; Ishaq, M; Khan, S; Ihsanullah, I; Ahmad, I; Shakirullah, M

    2010-07-15

    Food crops irrigated with wastewater are mostly contaminated with heavy metals and considered as a main pathway for human exposure. In this study, soil and food crops samples were collected from wastewater irrigated soils, background and relatively less polluted areas. Results of the sequential extraction and total metals concentrations in soils indicated that wastewater irrigation has significantly increased (p > or = 0.001) the bioavailable and total metal contents in wastewater irrigated soil as compared to background and control soils. Heavy metal concentrations in the food crops grown on wastewater irrigated soil were higher than those grown on background and control soils but were found within WHO/FAO permissible limits except for Zn. Health risk index values were less than 1 for both control and wastewater irrigated soils (except Mn). However, the food crops such as Brassica rapa, Spinacia oleracae L., Lycopersicum esculantum, Mentha viridis, Coriandum sativum and Lactuca sativa grown on wastewater irrigated soil can pose health risks because of the high concentration of Mn.

  10. Rainfall consistently enhanced around the Gezira Scheme in East Africa due to irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alter, Ross E.; Im, Eun-Soon; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    2015-10-01

    Land-use and land-cover changes have significantly modified regional climate patterns around the world. In particular, the rapid development of large-scale cropland irrigation over the past century has been investigated in relation to possible modification of regional rainfall. In regional climate simulations of the West African Sahel, hypothetical large-scale irrigation schemes inhibit rainfall over irrigated areas but enhance rainfall remotely. However, the simulated influence of large-scale irrigation schemes on precipitation patterns cannot be substantiated without direct comparison to observations. Here we present two complementary analyses: numerical simulations using a regional climate model over an actual, large-scale irrigation scheme in the East African Sahel--the Gezira Scheme--and observational analyses over the same area. The simulations suggest that irrigation inhibits rainfall over the Gezira Scheme and enhances rainfall to the east. Observational analyses of rainfall, temperature and streamflow in the same region support the simulated results. The findings are consistent with a mechanistic framework in which irrigation decreases surface air temperature, causing atmospheric subsidence over the irrigated area and clockwise wind anomalies (in background southwesterly winds) that increase upward vertical motion to the east. We conclude that irrigation development can consistently modify rainfall patterns in and around irrigated areas, warranting further examination of potential agricultural, hydrologic and economic implications.

  11. Purple Phototrophic Bacterium Enhances Stevioside Yield by Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni via Foliar Spray and Rhizosphere Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Yiming; Lin, Xiangui

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of foliar spray and rhizosphere irrigation with purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) on growth and stevioside (ST) yield of Stevia. rebaudiana. The S. rebaudiana plants were treated by foliar spray, rhizosphere irrigation, and spray plus irrigation with PPB for 10 days, respectively. All treatments enhanced growth of S. rebaudiana, and the foliar method was more efficient than irrigation. Spraying combined with irrigation increased the ST yield plant -1 by 69.2% as compared to the control. The soil dehydrogenase activity, S. rebaudiana shoot biomass, chlorophyll content in new leaves, and soluble sugar in old leaves were affected significantly by S+I treatment, too. The PPB probably works in the rhizosphere by activating the metabolic activity of soil bacteria, and on leaves by excreting phytohormones or enhancing the activity of phyllosphere microorganisms. PMID:23825677

  12. New irrigation systems design for improving irrigation efficiencies and enhancing energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, W.M.; Bordovsky, J.P.

    1981-03-31

    A new concept in irrigation system design, which has the potential of significant savings in both water and energy requirements, has been developed and evaluated. The system is characterized by and has been labeled a low energy precision application (LEPA) system, which rather than spraying water into the air at moderate to high pressures, distributes it directly to the furrow at very low pressure through drop tubes and orifice controlled emitters. This occurs as the system continuously moves through the field in a rectilinear fashion. The system is used in conjunction with micro-basin land preparation designed to optimize the utilization of rainfall. The combined system minimizes the effect of soil and climatic variables which adversely influence furrow and sprinkler irrigation efficiencies. Significant savings of both water and energy resources are indicated from results of the testing to date. Operating pressure of the LEPA system is projected to range from 4.5 to 22 psi depending on length of system and flow rate. Distribution uniformities of 95 to 96% are also projected. Application efficiencies above 98% should be consistently possible. A 10% increase in rainfall retention is reported herein. However, the basin tillage aspect of the method offers potential savings much higher than this. Energy savings of 0.024 quad per year were estimated with conversion of present irrigation methods to LEPA irrigation.

  13. Use of domestic greywater for small-scale irrigation of food crops: Effects on plants and soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodda, N.; Salukazana, L.; Jackson, S. A. F.; Smith, M. T.

    Disposal of greywater presents a problem in areas served with on-site sanitation or in areas with poor service provision. Such areas often also face challenges with respect to food security. Use of greywater for irrigation of food crops represents a possible beneficial use of greywater which can contribute to household food supply and to informal income generation. In this study, an above-ground crop (Swiss chard, Betavulgaris var. cicla) and a below-ground crop (carrot, Daucus carota) were irrigated in pots with mixed greywater sourced from households in an informal settlement. A simple form of sub-surface irrigation was used. Plant growth, crop yield, and levels of macro- and micronutrients in crops and soil were monitored through six growth cycles. Equivalent treatments, irrigated with either tap water or a hydroponic nutrient solution, were conducted for comparison. The same soil was used throughout to allow accumulation of greywater-derived substances in soil to be detected. The results indicated that: (i) irrigation with greywater increased plant growth and yield relative to crops irrigated with tap water only, although crops irrigated with hydroponic nutrient solution yielded the highest growth and yield; (ii) irrigation with greywater improved plant nutrient content relative to crops irrigated with tap water; (iii) soil irrigated with greywater showed increased electrical conductivity and increased concentrations of metals over time, coupled with an increase in sodium and metal concentrations in crops. Thus, provided precautions are taken with regard to salt and metal accumulation, greywater offers a potential source of water for household crop irrigation which additionally shows some fertiliser properties.

  14. Deficit irrigation and sustainable water-resource strategies in agriculture for China's food security.

    PubMed

    Du, Taisheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Davies, William J

    2015-04-01

    More than 70% of fresh water is used in agriculture in many parts of the world, but competition for domestic and industrial water use is intense. For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved at different points from the stomatal to the regional scale. A promising approach is the use of deficit irrigation, which can both save water and induce plant physiological regulations such as stomatal opening and reproductive and vegetative growth. At the scales of the irrigation district, the catchment, and the region, there can be many other components to a sustainable water-resources strategy. There is much interest in whether crop water use can be regulated as a function of understanding of physiological responses. If this is the case, then agricultural water resources can be reallocated to the benefit of the broader community. We summarize the extent of use and impact of deficit irrigation within China. A sustainable strategy for allocation of agricultural water resources for food security is proposed. Our intention is to build an integrative system to control crop water use during different cropping stages and actively regulate the plant's growth, productivity, and development based on physiological responses. This is done with a view to improving the allocation of limited agricultural water resources.

  15. Deficit irrigation and sustainable water-resource strategies in agriculture for China’s food security

    PubMed Central

    Du, Taisheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Davies, William J.

    2015-01-01

    More than 70% of fresh water is used in agriculture in many parts of the world, but competition for domestic and industrial water use is intense. For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved at different points from the stomatal to the regional scale. A promising approach is the use of deficit irrigation, which can both save water and induce plant physiological regulations such as stomatal opening and reproductive and vegetative growth. At the scales of the irrigation district, the catchment, and the region, there can be many other components to a sustainable water-resources strategy. There is much interest in whether crop water use can be regulated as a function of understanding of physiological responses. If this is the case, then agricultural water resources can be reallocated to the benefit of the broader community. We summarize the extent of use and impact of deficit irrigation within China. A sustainable strategy for allocation of agricultural water resources for food security is proposed. Our intention is to build an integrative system to control crop water use during different cropping stages and actively regulate the plant’s growth, productivity, and development based on physiological responses. This is done with a view to improving the allocation of limited agricultural water resources. PMID:25873664

  16. Enhancing Adoption of Irrigation Scheduling to Sustain the Viability of Fruit and Nut Crops in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, A.; Snyder, R.; Hillyer, C.; English, M.; Sanden, B.; Munk, D.

    2012-04-01

    Enhancing Adoption of Irrigation Scheduling to Sustain the Viability of Fruit and Nut Crops in California Allan Fulton, Richard Snyder, Charles Hillyer, Marshall English, Blake Sanden, and Dan Munk Adoption of scientific methods to decide when to irrigate and how much water to apply to a crop has increased over the last three decades in California. In 1988, less than 4.3 percent of US farmers employed some type of science-based technique to assist in making irrigation scheduling decisions (USDA, 1995). An ongoing survey in California, representing an industry irrigating nearly 0.4 million planted almond hectares, indicates adoption rates ranging from 38 to 55 percent of either crop evapotranspiration (ETc), soil moisture monitoring, plant water status, or some combination of these irrigation scheduling techniques to assist with making irrigation management decisions (California Almond Board, 2011). High capital investment to establish fruit and nut crops, sensitivity to over and under-irrigation on crop performance and longevity, and increasing costs and competition for water have all contributed to increased adoption of scientific irrigation scheduling methods. These trends in adoption are encouraging and more opportunities exist to develop improved irrigation scheduling tools, especially computer decision-making models. In 2009 and 2010, an "On-line Irrigation Scheduling Advisory Service" (OISO, 2012), also referred to as Online Irrigation Management (IMO), was used and evaluated in commercial walnut, almond, and French prune orchards in the northern Sacramento Valley of California. This specific model has many features described as the "Next Generation of Irrigation Schedulers" (Hillyer, 2010). While conventional irrigation management involves simply irrigating as needed to avoid crop stress, this IMO is designed to control crop stress, which requires: (i) precise control of crop water availability (rather than controlling applied water); (ii) quantifying crop

  17. Increased textural complexity in food enhances satiation.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Danaé S; Tang, Jingyuan; Ferguson, Lynnette R; James, Bryony J

    2016-10-01

    For the first time this study has shown a direct effect of food textural complexity on satiation. Independent of oral processing time, increasing the textural complexity of a food significantly decreased food intake. Foods with complex textures stimulate many sensory perceptions during oral processing, with a succession of textures perceived between first bite and swallow. Previously the impact of texture on satiation (commonly tested by increasing viscosities of semi-solids) has been explained by texture's influence on oral processing time; a long oral processing time enhances satiation. The results of the current study show that subjects in a randomised cross-over trial who consumed a "starter" (preload) model food with high textural complexity went on to eat significantly less of a two course ad libitum meal. Subjects who consumed a "starter" model food with low textural complexity, but with the same flavour, energy density and oral processing time, ate significantly more of the same ad libitum meal. The results show that increasing the number of textures perceived during chewing of a solid food triggers the satiation response earlier than when chewing a less texturally complex food. Increasing textural complexity of manufactured foods, to allow for greater sensory stimulation per bite, could potentially be used as a tool to enhance the satiation response and decrease food intake. PMID:27235823

  18. Food security in complex emergencies: enhancing food system resilience.

    PubMed

    Pingali, Prabhu; Alinovi, Luca; Sutton, Jacky

    2005-06-01

    This paper explores linkages between food security and crisis in different contexts, outlining the policy and institutional conditions needed to manage food security during a crisis and to rebuild the resilience of food systems in periods of relative peace. The paper reviews experiences over the past decade of countries in protracted crisis and draws lessons for national and international policy. It assesses the different alternatives on offer in fragile countries to address, for example, the disruption of institutional mechanisms and the decreasing level of support offered by international donors with respect to longer-term expectations. It proposes a Twin Track Approach to enhance food security resilience through specific policies for protracted crises that link immediate hunger relief interventions with a long-term strategy for sustainable growth. Finally, the article analyses policy options and the implications for both short- and longer-term responses vis-a-vis the three dimensions of food security: availability; access; and stability.

  19. Cultivation of rice for animal feed with circulated irrigation of treated municipal wastewater for enhanced nitrogen removal: comparison of cultivation systems feeding irrigation water upward and downward.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, A; Ito, H; Sasaki, A; Kajihara, A; Watanabe, T

    2015-01-01

    To achieve enhanced nitrogen removal, we modified a cultivation system with circulated irrigation of treated municipal wastewater by using rice for animal feed instead of human consumption. The performance of this modified system was evaluated through a bench-scale experiment by comparing the direction of circulated irrigation (i.e. passing through paddy soil upward and downward). The modified system achieved more than three times higher nitrogen removal (3.2 g) than the system in which rice for human consumption was cultivated. The removal efficiency was higher than 99.5%, regardless of the direction of circulated irrigation. Nitrogen in the treated municipal wastewater was adsorbed by the rice plant in this cultivation system as effectively as chemical fertilizer used in normal paddy fields. Circulated irrigation increased the nitrogen released to the atmosphere, probably due to enhanced denitrification. Neither the circulation of irrigation water nor its direction affected the growth of the rice plant and the yield and quality of harvested rice. The yield of rice harvested in this system did not reach the target value in normal paddy fields. To increase this yield, a larger amount of treated wastewater should be applied to the system, considering the significant amount of nitrogen released to the atmosphere.

  20. Cultivation of rice for animal feed with circulated irrigation of treated municipal wastewater for enhanced nitrogen removal: comparison of cultivation systems feeding irrigation water upward and downward.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, A; Ito, H; Sasaki, A; Kajihara, A; Watanabe, T

    2015-01-01

    To achieve enhanced nitrogen removal, we modified a cultivation system with circulated irrigation of treated municipal wastewater by using rice for animal feed instead of human consumption. The performance of this modified system was evaluated through a bench-scale experiment by comparing the direction of circulated irrigation (i.e. passing through paddy soil upward and downward). The modified system achieved more than three times higher nitrogen removal (3.2 g) than the system in which rice for human consumption was cultivated. The removal efficiency was higher than 99.5%, regardless of the direction of circulated irrigation. Nitrogen in the treated municipal wastewater was adsorbed by the rice plant in this cultivation system as effectively as chemical fertilizer used in normal paddy fields. Circulated irrigation increased the nitrogen released to the atmosphere, probably due to enhanced denitrification. Neither the circulation of irrigation water nor its direction affected the growth of the rice plant and the yield and quality of harvested rice. The yield of rice harvested in this system did not reach the target value in normal paddy fields. To increase this yield, a larger amount of treated wastewater should be applied to the system, considering the significant amount of nitrogen released to the atmosphere. PMID:26247756

  1. [Yeast irrigation enhances the nutritional content in hydroponic green maize fodder].

    PubMed

    Bedolla-Torres, Martha H; Palacios Espinosa, Alejandro; Palacios, Oskar A; Choix, Francisco J; Ascencio Valle, Felipe de Jesús; López Aguilar, David R; Espinoza Villavicencio, José Luis; de Luna de la Peña, Rafael; Guillen Trujillo, Ariel; Avila Serrano, Narciso Y; Ortega Pérez, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irrigation with yeasts (Debaryomyces hansenii var. Fabry, Yarowia lipolytica YIBCS002, Yarowia lipolytica var. BCS and Candida pseudointermedia) on the final nutritional content of hydroponic green maize fodder (Zea Zea mays L.), applied at different fodder growth stages (1. seed-seedling stage, 2. seedling-plant 20cm, 3. during all the culture). Irrespective of the fodder growth stages at which they were applied, all yeasts tested enhanced the content of raw protein, lipids, ash, moisture and energy. The percentage of electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, sulphates, Ca and Mg) showed different responses depending on the kind of yeast applied; D. hansenii exhibited the highest increment in all electrolytes, except for phosphorous. We conclude that the addition of yeasts belonging to the genera Debaryomyces, Candida and Yarowia to the irrigation solution of hydroponic systems enhances the nutrient content of green fodder. This kind of irrigation can be applied to generate high commercial value cultures in limited spaces. PMID:26364185

  2. [Yeast irrigation enhances the nutritional content in hydroponic green maize fodder].

    PubMed

    Bedolla-Torres, Martha H; Palacios Espinosa, Alejandro; Palacios, Oskar A; Choix, Francisco J; Ascencio Valle, Felipe de Jesús; López Aguilar, David R; Espinoza Villavicencio, José Luis; de Luna de la Peña, Rafael; Guillen Trujillo, Ariel; Avila Serrano, Narciso Y; Ortega Pérez, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irrigation with yeasts (Debaryomyces hansenii var. Fabry, Yarowia lipolytica YIBCS002, Yarowia lipolytica var. BCS and Candida pseudointermedia) on the final nutritional content of hydroponic green maize fodder (Zea Zea mays L.), applied at different fodder growth stages (1. seed-seedling stage, 2. seedling-plant 20cm, 3. during all the culture). Irrespective of the fodder growth stages at which they were applied, all yeasts tested enhanced the content of raw protein, lipids, ash, moisture and energy. The percentage of electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, sulphates, Ca and Mg) showed different responses depending on the kind of yeast applied; D. hansenii exhibited the highest increment in all electrolytes, except for phosphorous. We conclude that the addition of yeasts belonging to the genera Debaryomyces, Candida and Yarowia to the irrigation solution of hydroponic systems enhances the nutrient content of green fodder. This kind of irrigation can be applied to generate high commercial value cultures in limited spaces.

  3. Can deficit irrigation techniques be used to enhance phosphorus and water use efficiency and benefit crop yields?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Hannah R.; Dodd, Ian C.; Blackwell, Martin S. A.; Surridge, Ben W. J.

    2015-04-01

    Soil drying and rewetting (DRW) affects the forms and availability of phosphorus (P). Water soluble P has been reported to increase 1.8- to 19-fold after air-drying with the majority of the increase (56-100%) attributable to organic P. Similarly, in two contrasting soil types DRW increased concentrations of total P and reactive P in leachate, likely due to enhanced P mineralisation and physiochemical processes causing detachment of soil colloids, with faster rewetting rates related to higher concentrations of P. The intensity of drying as well as the rate of rewetting influences organic and inorganic P cycling. How these dynamics are driven by soil water status, and impact crop P acquisition and growth, remains unclear. Improving P and water use efficiencies and crop yields is globally important as both P and water resources become increasingly scarce, whilst demand for food increases. Irrigation supply below the water requirement for full crop evapotranspiration is employed by agricultural practitioners where water supply is limited. Regulated deficit irrigation describes the scheduling of water supply to correspond to the times of highest crop demand. Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) is applied in lowland irrigated rice production to avoid flooding at certain times of crop development, and has benefited P nutrition and yields. This research aims to optimise the benefits of P availability and uptake achieved by DRW by guiding deficit irrigation management strategies. Further determination of underlying processes driving P cycling at fluctuating soil moisture status is required. Presented here is a summary of the literature on DRW effects on soil P availability and plant P uptake and partitioning, in a range of soil types and cropping systems, with emphasis on alternate wetting and drying irrigation (AWD) compared to continuous flooding in lowland irrigated rice production. Soil water contents and matric potentials, and effects on P dynamics, are highly variable

  4. Safe and High Quality Food Production using Low Quality Waters and Improved Irrigation Systems and Management (SAFIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cary, L.; Kloppmann, W.; Battilani, A.; Bertaki, M.; Blagojevic, S.; Chartzoulakis, K.; Dalsgaard, A.; Forslund, A.; Jovanovic, Z.; Kasapakis, I.

    2009-04-01

    The safe use of treated domestic wastewater for irrigation needs to address the risks for humans (workers, exposed via contact with irrigation water, soil, crops and food, consumers, exposed via ingestion of fresh and processed food), for animals (via ingestion of crops an soil), for the crops and agricultural productivity (via salinity and trace element uptake), for soil (via accumulation or release of pollutants) as well as for surface, groundwaters and the associated ecosystems (via runoff and infiltration, Kass et al., 2005, Bouwer, 2000). A work package in the EU FP5 project SAFIR is dedicated to study the impact of wastewater irrigation on the soil-water-plant-product system. Its monitoring program comprises pathogens and inorganic pollutants, including both geogenic and potentially anthropogenic trace elements in the aim to better understand soil-irrigation water interactions. The SAFIR field study sites are found in China, Italy, Crete, and Serbia. A performance evaluation of SAFIR-specific treatment technology through the monitoring of waste water and irrigation water quality was made through waste water chemical and microbiological qualities, which were investigated upstream and downstream of the SAFIR specific treatment three times per season. Irrigation water transits through the uppermost soil decimetres to the crop roots. The latter will become, in the course of the irrigation season, the major sink of percolating water, together with evaporation. The water saving irrigation techniques used in SAFIR are surface and subsurface drip irrigation. The investigation of the solid soil phase concentrates on the root zone as main transit and storage compartment for pollutants and, eventually, pathogens. The initial soil quality was assessed through a sampling campaign before the onset of the first year irrigation; the soil quality has been monitored throughout three years under cultivation of tomatoes or potatoes. The plot layout for each of the study sites

  5. Nutritionally Enhanced Food Crops; Progress and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Hefferon, Kathleen L.

    2015-01-01

    Great progress has been made over the past decade with respect to the application of biotechnology to generate nutritionally improved food crops. Biofortified staple crops such as rice, maize and wheat harboring essential micronutrients to benefit the world’s poor are under development as well as new varieties of crops which have the ability to combat chronic disease. This review discusses the improvement of the nutritional status of crops to make a positive impact on global human health. Several examples of nutritionally enhanced crops which have been developed using biotechnological approaches will be discussed. These range from biofortified crops to crops with novel abilities to fight disease. The review concludes with a discussion of hurdles faced with respect to public perception, as well as directions of future research and development for nutritionally enhanced food crops. PMID:25679450

  6. Nutritionally enhanced food crops; progress and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hefferon, Kathleen L

    2015-01-01

    Great progress has been made over the past decade with respect to the application of biotechnology to generate nutritionally improved food crops. Biofortified staple crops such as rice, maize and wheat harboring essential micronutrients to benefit the world's poor are under development as well as new varieties of crops which have the ability to combat chronic disease. This review discusses the improvement of the nutritional status of crops to make a positive impact on global human health. Several examples of nutritionally enhanced crops which have been developed using biotechnological approaches will be discussed. These range from biofortified crops to crops with novel abilities to fight disease. The review concludes with a discussion of hurdles faced with respect to public perception, as well as directions of future research and development for nutritionally enhanced food crops.

  7. Ensuring Food Security Through Enhancing Microbiological Food Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Kumar, Amit; Yang, Yishan; Zheng, Qianwang; Kim, Min-Jeong; Ghate, Vinayak; Yuan, Wenqian; Pang, Xinyi

    2015-10-01

    Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts with a profound impact on the quality of human life. Food security describes the overall availability of food at different levels from global to individual household. While, food safety focuses on handling, preparation and storage of foods in order to prevent foodborne illnesses. This review focuses on innovative thermal and non-thermal technologies in the area of food processing as the means to ensure food security through improving food safety with emphasis on the reduction and control of microbiological risks. The antimicrobial efficiency and mechanism of new technologies to extend the shelf life of food product were also discussed.

  8. Site-specific variable rate irrigation as a means to enhance water use efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of irrigated cropland in the US is watered with sprinkler irrigation systems. These systems are inherently more efficient in distributing water than furrow or flood irrigation. Appropriate system design of sprinkler irrigation equipment, application methods, and farming practices (e.g. ...

  9. Site-specific variable rate irrigation a means to enhance water use efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of irrigated cropland in the US is watered with sprinkler irrigation systems. These systems are inherently more efficient in distributing water than furrow or flood irrigation. Appropriate system design of sprinkler irrigation equipment, application methods, and farming practices (e.g. ...

  10. Assessing the Groundwater Quality at a Saudi Arabian Agricultural Site and the Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens on Irrigated Food Produce

    PubMed Central

    Alsalah, Dhafer; Al-Jassim, Nada; Timraz, Kenda; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the groundwater quality in wells situated near agricultural fields in Saudi Arabia. Fruits (e.g., tomato and green pepper) irrigated with groundwater were also assessed for the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens to determine if food safety was compromised by the groundwater. The amount of total nitrogen in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the 15 mg/L permissible limit for agricultural irrigation. Fecal coliforms in densities > 12 MPN/100 mL were detected in three of the groundwater wells that were in close proximity to a chicken farm. These findings, coupled with qPCR-based fecal source tracking, show that groundwater in wells D and E, which were nearest to the chicken farm, had compromised quality. Anthropogenic contamination resulted in a shift in the predominant bacterial phyla within the groundwater microbial communities. For example, there was an elevated presence of Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria in wells D and E but a lower overall microbial richness in the groundwater perturbed by anthropogenic contamination. In the remaining wells, the genus Acinetobacter was detected at high relative abundance ranging from 1.5% to 48% of the total groundwater microbial community. However, culture-based analysis did not recover any antibiotic-resistant bacteria or opportunistic pathogens from these groundwater samples. In contrast, opportunistic pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from the fruits irrigated with the groundwater from wells B and F. Although the groundwater was compromised, quantitative microbial risk assessment suggests that the annual risk incurred from accidental consumption of E. faecalis on these fruits was within the acceptable limit of 10−4. However, the annual risk arising from P. aeruginosa was 9.55 × 10−4, slightly above the acceptable limit. Our findings highlight that the groundwater quality at this agricultural site in western Saudi Arabia is not pristine and that better

  11. Assessing the Groundwater Quality at a Saudi Arabian Agricultural Site and the Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens on Irrigated Food Produce.

    PubMed

    Alsalah, Dhafer; Al-Jassim, Nada; Timraz, Kenda; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2015-10-05

    This study examines the groundwater quality in wells situated near agricultural fields in Saudi Arabia. Fruits (e.g., tomato and green pepper) irrigated with groundwater were also assessed for the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens to determine if food safety was compromised by the groundwater. The amount of total nitrogen in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the 15 mg/L permissible limit for agricultural irrigation. Fecal coliforms in densities > 12 MPN/100 mL were detected in three of the groundwater wells that were in close proximity to a chicken farm. These findings, coupled with qPCR-based fecal source tracking, show that groundwater in wells D and E, which were nearest to the chicken farm, had compromised quality. Anthropogenic contamination resulted in a shift in the predominant bacterial phyla within the groundwater microbial communities. For example, there was an elevated presence of Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria in wells D and E but a lower overall microbial richness in the groundwater perturbed by anthropogenic contamination. In the remaining wells, the genus Acinetobacter was detected at high relative abundance ranging from 1.5% to 48% of the total groundwater microbial community. However, culture-based analysis did not recover any antibiotic-resistant bacteria or opportunistic pathogens from these groundwater samples. In contrast, opportunistic pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from the fruits irrigated with the groundwater from wells B and F. Although the groundwater was compromised, quantitative microbial risk assessment suggests that the annual risk incurred from accidental consumption of E. faecalis on these fruits was within the acceptable limit of 10(-4). However, the annual risk arising from P. aeruginosa was 9.55 × 10(-4), slightly above the acceptable limit. Our findings highlight that the groundwater quality at this agricultural site in western Saudi Arabia is not pristine and that better

  12. Soy Foods for Enhancing Women's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fly, Alyce D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the forms of soy available as food ingredients and foods, the components in soy that may be important to women's health, the FDA health claim permitted for soy foods and ingredients, and research studies examining the role of soy in reducing cholesterol, cancer risk, osteoporosis, and symptoms of menopause. (Contains references.) (SM)

  13. Assessment of region, farming system, irrigation source and sampling time as food safety risk factors for tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Pagadala, Sivaranjani; Marine, Sasha C; Micallef, Shirley A; Wang, Fei; Pahl, Donna M; Melendez, Meredith V; Kline, Wesley L; Oni, Ruth A; Walsh, Christopher S; Everts, Kathryne L; Buchanan, Robert L

    2015-03-01

    In the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, small- and medium-sized farmers use varied farm management methods and water sources to produce tomatoes. It is unclear whether these practices affect the food safety risk for tomatoes. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence, and assess risk factors for Salmonella enterica, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and bacterial indicators in pre-harvest tomatoes and their production areas. A total of 24 organic and conventional, small- to medium-sized farms were sampled for six weeks in Maryland (MD), Delaware (DE) and New Jersey (NJ) between July and September 2012, and analyzed for indicator bacteria, Salmonella and STEC. A total of 422 samples--tomato fruit, irrigation water, compost, field soil and pond sediment samples--were collected, 259 of which were tomato samples. A low level of Salmonella-specific invA and Shiga toxin genes (stx1 or stx2) were detected, but no Salmonella or STEC isolates were recovered. Of the 422 samples analyzed, 9.5% were positive for generic E. coli, found in 5.4% (n=259) of tomato fruits, 22.5% (n=102) of irrigation water, 8.9% (n=45) of soil, 3/9 of pond sediment and 0/7 of compost samples. For tomato fruit, farming system (organic versus conventional) was not a significant factor for levels of indicator bacteria. However, the total number of organic tomato samples positive for generic E. coli (1.6%; 2/129) was significantly lower than for conventional tomatoes (6.9% (9/130); (χ(2) (1)=4.60, p=0.032)). Region was a significant factor for levels of Total Coliforms (TC) (p=0.046), although differences were marginal, with western MD having the highest TC counts (2.6 log CFU/g) and NJ having the lowest (2.0 log CFU/g). Tomatoes touching the ground or plastic mulch harbored significantly higher levels of TC compared to vine tomatoes, signaling a potential risk factor. Source of irrigation water was a significant factor for all indicator bacteria (p<0.0001), and

  14. Sprinkler irrigation of rice fields reduces grain arsenic but enhances cadmium.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo; Meharg, Andrew A; Smolders, Erik; Manzano, Rebeca; Becerra, Daniel; Sánchez-Llerena, Javier; Albarrán, Ángel; López-Piñero, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that rice cultivated under flooded conditions has higher concentrations of arsenic (As) but lower cadmium (Cd) compared to rice grown in unsaturated soils. To validate such effects over long terms under Mediterranean conditions a field experiment, conducted over 7 successive years was established in SW Spain. The impact of water management on rice production and grain arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) was measured, and As speciation was determined to inform toxicity evaluation. Sprinkler irrigation was compared to traditional flooding. Both irrigation techniques resulted in similar grain yields (~3000 kg grain ha(-1)). Successive sprinkler irrigation over 7 years decreased grain total As to one-sixth its initial concentration in the flooded system (0.55 to 0.09 mg As kg(-1)), while one cycle of sprinkler irrigation also reduced grain total As by one-third (0.20 mg kg(-1)). Grain inorganic As concentration increased up to 2 folds under flooded conditions compared to sprinkler irrigated fields while organic As was also lower in sprinkler system treatments, but to a lesser extent. This suggests that methylation is favored under water logging. However, sprinkler irrigation increased Cd transfer to grain by a factor of 10, reaching 0.05 mg Cd kg(-1) in 7 years. Sprinkler systems in paddy fields seem particularly suited for Mediterranean climates and are able to mitigate against excessive As accumulation, but our evidence shows that an increased Cd load in rice grain may result. PMID:24742557

  15. Self-Enhancement: Food for Thought.

    PubMed

    Sedikides, Constantine; Gregg, Aiden P

    2008-03-01

    Self-enhancement denotes a class of psychological phenomena that involve taking a tendentiously positive view of oneself. We distinguish between four levels of self-enhancement-an observed effect, an ongoing process, a personality trait, and an underlying motive-and then use these distinctions to organize the wealth of relevant research. Furthermore, to render these distinctions intuitive, we draw an extended analogy between self-enhancement and the phenomenon of eating. Among the topics we address are (a) manifestations of self-enhancement, both obvious and subtle, and rival interpretations; (b) experimentally documented dynamics of affirming and threatening the ego; and (c) primacy of self-enhancement, considered alongside other intrapsychic phenomena, and across different cultures. Self-enhancement, like eating, is a fundamental part of human nature.

  16. Television and eating: repetition enhances food intake

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Utsa; Stevenson, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Some studies find that eating with TV increases food intake while others do not. Some of this variability may reflect the engagingness of what is being watched (i.e., content). To test this we varied engagingness by manipulating content familiarity. Female participants undertook two sessions. In the “Different” session they watched two different episodes of the comedy Friends, with snack food presented during the second episode. In the “Same” session they viewed another episode of Friends twice in succession, with snack food presented during the second repeat showing. The three episodes of Friends used here were fully counterbalanced, so overall the only difference between the “Same” and “Different” sessions was whether the content of the second show was familiar or novel. As expected, 14% less was eaten in the “Different” session, suggesting that novel and presumably more engaging content can reduce intake relative to watching familiar and presumably less engaging content. These findings are consistent with the idea that the engagingness of TV can differentially affect food intake, although boredom or irritability resulting from repeat viewing might also explain this effect. PMID:26579040

  17. Insect biomass to enhance food production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have established that insects are as good source of protein as conventional animal food (between 15 and 67% dry weight content). Insects are a good source of essential amino acids and essential fatty acids. Insect fat has a higher content of polyunsaturated (essential) fatty acids and a lowe...

  18. Chelant-enhanced heavy metals uptake by Eucalyptus trees under controlled deficit irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fine, Pinchas; Rathod, Paresh; Beriozkin, Anna; Ein-Gal, Oz; Hass, Amir

    2014-05-01

    Enhancement of phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils employs organic ligands, aimed to solubilize, phytoextract and translocate metals into the canopy. The use of more persistent chelants (e.g. EDTA) is phasing out due to concerns over their role in the environment. We tested the hypothesis that controlled deficit irrigation (CDI) of the fast growing, salinity resistant Eucalyptus camaldulensis coupled with timely EDTA application enhances sediment phytoremediation while minimizing leaching of metal complexes below the root-zone. This was tested in 220-L lysimeters packed with sand mixed with metals polluted biosolids. One year old trees were brought under CDI with tap or RO water for two growing seasons. EDTA, EDDS and citric acid fertigation at 2 mM started in each May for 2.5-3.5 months, and prescribed soil leaching and sampling of tree leaves started thereafter. While all 3 chelants solubilized biosolids metal in batch extraction (EDDS often being the more efficient), EDTA was the only to increased metal concentrations both in the soil solution and in the Eucalyptus leaves. The average concentrations in the soil solution and in the leaves, in the EDTA vs. control (chelant-free) treatments, all respectively, were: Cd - 200 mg L-1 vs. 1.0, and 67 vs. 21 mg kg-1; Cu: 90 vs. 1.5 mg L-1, and 17 vs. 3.0 mg kg-1; Cr: 4.0 vs. 1.4 mg L-1, and 3.0 vs. 1.0 mg kg-1; Ni: 60 mg L-1 vs. 14, and 20 vs. 6.0 mg kg-1; Pb: >44 vs. 0.1 mg L-1, and 9.0 vs. 1.0 mg kg-1; and Zn: 650 vs. 4.0 mg L-1 and 200 vs. 70 mg kg-1. While EDDS was undetectable in all the leachates, EDTA concentrated to up to 100 mM. At 10 mM soil solution concentration, EDDS half-life in acclimated lysimeter media was 5-11 days and that of EDTA was ≥27-d. The study suggests that sustainable phytostabilization and phytoextraction of heavy metals are achievable under CDI with EDTA augmentation at low dose. This was yet futile with the biodegradable EDDS and citric acid. CDI with RO water further widened

  19. Assessment of region, farming system, irrigation source and sampling time as food safety risk factors for tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Pagadala, Sivaranjani; Marine, Sasha C; Micallef, Shirley A; Wang, Fei; Pahl, Donna M; Melendez, Meredith V; Kline, Wesley L; Oni, Ruth A; Walsh, Christopher S; Everts, Kathryne L; Buchanan, Robert L

    2015-03-01

    In the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, small- and medium-sized farmers use varied farm management methods and water sources to produce tomatoes. It is unclear whether these practices affect the food safety risk for tomatoes. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence, and assess risk factors for Salmonella enterica, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and bacterial indicators in pre-harvest tomatoes and their production areas. A total of 24 organic and conventional, small- to medium-sized farms were sampled for six weeks in Maryland (MD), Delaware (DE) and New Jersey (NJ) between July and September 2012, and analyzed for indicator bacteria, Salmonella and STEC. A total of 422 samples--tomato fruit, irrigation water, compost, field soil and pond sediment samples--were collected, 259 of which were tomato samples. A low level of Salmonella-specific invA and Shiga toxin genes (stx1 or stx2) were detected, but no Salmonella or STEC isolates were recovered. Of the 422 samples analyzed, 9.5% were positive for generic E. coli, found in 5.4% (n=259) of tomato fruits, 22.5% (n=102) of irrigation water, 8.9% (n=45) of soil, 3/9 of pond sediment and 0/7 of compost samples. For tomato fruit, farming system (organic versus conventional) was not a significant factor for levels of indicator bacteria. However, the total number of organic tomato samples positive for generic E. coli (1.6%; 2/129) was significantly lower than for conventional tomatoes (6.9% (9/130); (χ(2) (1)=4.60, p=0.032)). Region was a significant factor for levels of Total Coliforms (TC) (p=0.046), although differences were marginal, with western MD having the highest TC counts (2.6 log CFU/g) and NJ having the lowest (2.0 log CFU/g). Tomatoes touching the ground or plastic mulch harbored significantly higher levels of TC compared to vine tomatoes, signaling a potential risk factor. Source of irrigation water was a significant factor for all indicator bacteria (p<0.0001), and

  20. Water management practices, irrigated cropland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation is practiced on about 17 percent of the world’s arable land and accounts for 33 percent of the world’s food production. U.S. Department of Agriculture conservation programs are commonly used to improve water management on irrigated land and reduce impacts of irrigation on the environment ...

  1. Mechanisms of probiosis and prebiosis: considerations for enhanced functional foods.

    PubMed

    Saulnier, Delphine M A; Spinler, Jennifer K; Gibson, Glenn R; Versalovic, James

    2009-04-01

    The technologies of metagenomics and metabolomics are broadening our knowledge of the roles the human gut microbiota play in health and disease. For many years now, probiotics and prebiotics have been included in foods for their health benefits; however, we have only recently begun to understand their modes of action. This review highlights recent advances in deciphering the mechanisms of probiosis and prebiosis, and describes how this knowledge could be transferred to select for enhancing functional foods targeting different populations. A special focus will be given to the addition of prebiotics and probiotics in functional foods for infants and seniors.

  2. Considerations for Nanosciences in Food Science and Nutrition: "Enhanced Food Properties".

    PubMed

    Tekiner, Ismail H; Mutlu, Hayrettin; Algıngil, Selcuk; Dincerler, Elif

    2015-01-01

    The agro-food industries are one of the biggest manufacturing sectors worldwide with a turnover of US$4 trillion per year. Within the last decades, nanoscience has opened-up fantastic ways to challenge new sub-universes for exploring the interactions between physical, chemical and biological systems as well as agro-food and nutrition sectors. Among these potentials, there is the enhancement of food properties and constituents such as nanoparticulate delivery systems, food safety and food biosecurity. In the recent years, many patents were launched for edible coating agents, essential oils and emulsifiers, including agrochemical active ingredients, nanomaterials for agriculture, horticulture, aquaculture, and smart packaging materials. The aim of this review was to search for the recent applications of nanoscience in the agro-food science and nutrition area, including the launched patents in this field. PMID:25981496

  3. Considerations for Nanosciences in Food Science and Nutrition: "Enhanced Food Properties".

    PubMed

    Tekiner, Ismail H; Mutlu, Hayrettin; Algıngil, Selcuk; Dincerler, Elif

    2015-01-01

    The agro-food industries are one of the biggest manufacturing sectors worldwide with a turnover of US$4 trillion per year. Within the last decades, nanoscience has opened-up fantastic ways to challenge new sub-universes for exploring the interactions between physical, chemical and biological systems as well as agro-food and nutrition sectors. Among these potentials, there is the enhancement of food properties and constituents such as nanoparticulate delivery systems, food safety and food biosecurity. In the recent years, many patents were launched for edible coating agents, essential oils and emulsifiers, including agrochemical active ingredients, nanomaterials for agriculture, horticulture, aquaculture, and smart packaging materials. The aim of this review was to search for the recent applications of nanoscience in the agro-food science and nutrition area, including the launched patents in this field.

  4. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Flôres, Danilo E. F. L.; Bettilyon, Crystal N.; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling. PMID:27458354

  5. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Flôres, Danilo E F L; Bettilyon, Crystal N; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling. PMID:27458354

  6. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Flôres, Danilo E F L; Bettilyon, Crystal N; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling.

  7. Balancing ecosystem services with energy and food security - Assessing trade-offs from reservoir operation and irrigation investments in Kenya's Tana Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurford, A. P.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-08-01

    Competition for water between key economic sectors and the environment means agreeing allocations is challenging. Managing releases from the three major dams in Kenya's Tana River basin with its 4.4 million inhabitants, 567 MW of installed hydropower capacity, 33 000 ha of irrigation and ecologically important wetlands and forests is a pertinent example. This research seeks firstly to identify and help decision-makers visualise reservoir management strategies which result in the best possible (Pareto-optimal) allocation of benefits between sectors. Secondly, it seeks to show how trade-offs between achievable benefits shift with the implementation of proposed new rice, cotton and biofuel irrigation projects. To approximate the Pareto-optimal trade-offs we link a water resources management simulation model to a multi-criteria search algorithm. The decisions or "levers" of the management problem are volume-dependent release rules for the three major dams and extent of investment in new irrigation schemes. These decisions are optimised for eight objectives covering the provision of water supply and irrigation, energy generation and maintenance of ecosystem services. Trade-off plots allow decision-makers to assess multi-reservoir rule-sets and irrigation investment options by visualising their impacts on different beneficiaries. Results quantify how economic gains from proposed irrigation schemes trade-off against the disturbance of ecosystems and local livelihoods that depend on them. Full implementation of the proposed schemes is shown to come at a high environmental and social cost. The clarity and comprehensiveness of "best-case" trade-off analysis is a useful vantage point from which to tackle the interdependence and complexity of "water-energy-food nexus" resource security issues.

  8. Community Gardening in Rural Regions: Enhancing Food Security and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Ashley F.

    Community gardening projects can enhance community food security and improve the nutrition of project participants. However, limited information exists on the most effective models and methods for establishing community gardens in rural areas. A survey of 12 rural community gardening projects found a variety of program models: community gardens…

  9. Reducing Food Loss and Waste to Enhance Food Security and Environmental Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Shafiee-Jood, Majid; Cai, Ximing

    2016-08-16

    While food shortage remains a big concern in many regions around the world, almost one-third of the total food production is discarded as food loss and waste (FLW). This is associated with about one-quarter of land, water, and fertilizer used for crop production, even though resources and environmental constraints are expected to limit food production around the world. FLW reduction represents a potential opportunity to enhance both food security and environmental sustainability and therefore has received considerable attention recently. By reviewing the recent progress and new developments in the literature, this paper highlights the importance of FLW prevention as a complementary solution to address the Grand Challenge of global food security and environmental sustainability. However, raising awareness only is not enough to realize the expected FLW reduction. We identify the knowledge gaps and opportunities for research by synthesizing the strategies of FLW reduction and the barriers, including (1) filling the data gaps, (2) quantifying the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of FLW reduction strategies, (3) understanding the scale effects, and (4) exploring the impacts of global transitions. It is urgent to take more aggressive yet scientifically based actions to reduce FLW, which require everyone's involvement along the food supply chain, including policy makers, food producers and suppliers, and food consumers. PMID:27428555

  10. Reducing Food Loss and Waste to Enhance Food Security and Environmental Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Shafiee-Jood, Majid; Cai, Ximing

    2016-08-16

    While food shortage remains a big concern in many regions around the world, almost one-third of the total food production is discarded as food loss and waste (FLW). This is associated with about one-quarter of land, water, and fertilizer used for crop production, even though resources and environmental constraints are expected to limit food production around the world. FLW reduction represents a potential opportunity to enhance both food security and environmental sustainability and therefore has received considerable attention recently. By reviewing the recent progress and new developments in the literature, this paper highlights the importance of FLW prevention as a complementary solution to address the Grand Challenge of global food security and environmental sustainability. However, raising awareness only is not enough to realize the expected FLW reduction. We identify the knowledge gaps and opportunities for research by synthesizing the strategies of FLW reduction and the barriers, including (1) filling the data gaps, (2) quantifying the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of FLW reduction strategies, (3) understanding the scale effects, and (4) exploring the impacts of global transitions. It is urgent to take more aggressive yet scientifically based actions to reduce FLW, which require everyone's involvement along the food supply chain, including policy makers, food producers and suppliers, and food consumers.

  11. Health risks of thallium in contaminated arable soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater from a sulfuric acid plant in western Guangdong province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunlin; Chen, Yongheng; Liu, Juan; Wang, Jin; Li, Xiangping; Zhang, Yongbo; Liu, Yimin

    2013-04-01

    Thallium (Tl) contamination in soils poses a significant threat to human health due to the high toxicity of Tl and its ready assimilation by crops. Consumption of food crops contaminated with Tl is a major food chain route for human exposure. The health risks of Tl in contaminated food crops irrigated with wastewater from a sulfuric acid factory were investigated in this paper. Results indicate that long-term Tl-containing wastewater irrigation resulted in Tl contamination of arable soils and crops. The pollution load index values indicated that the arable soils were moderately enriched with Tl. Tl was highly accumulated in the crops. The content of Tl in the edible plant portions of crops ranged from 1.2 mg/kg to 104.8 mg/kg, exceeding the recommended permissible limits for food crops. The daily intake of metals (DIM) values of Tl for both adults and children via the consumption of the food crops except soya beans were higher than the reference oral dose (RfD) limit recommend by the United States environmental protection agency (US-EPA). Health risk index (HRI) values were generally higher than 1, indicating that health risks associated with Tl exposure are significant and assumed to be dangerous to the health of local villagers. Therefore, much attention should be paid to avoid consumption of these Tl-contaminated crops that can cause great potential risks. PMID:23321363

  12. Health risks of thallium in contaminated arable soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater from a sulfuric acid plant in western Guangdong province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunlin; Chen, Yongheng; Liu, Juan; Wang, Jin; Li, Xiangping; Zhang, Yongbo; Liu, Yimin

    2013-04-01

    Thallium (Tl) contamination in soils poses a significant threat to human health due to the high toxicity of Tl and its ready assimilation by crops. Consumption of food crops contaminated with Tl is a major food chain route for human exposure. The health risks of Tl in contaminated food crops irrigated with wastewater from a sulfuric acid factory were investigated in this paper. Results indicate that long-term Tl-containing wastewater irrigation resulted in Tl contamination of arable soils and crops. The pollution load index values indicated that the arable soils were moderately enriched with Tl. Tl was highly accumulated in the crops. The content of Tl in the edible plant portions of crops ranged from 1.2 mg/kg to 104.8 mg/kg, exceeding the recommended permissible limits for food crops. The daily intake of metals (DIM) values of Tl for both adults and children via the consumption of the food crops except soya beans were higher than the reference oral dose (RfD) limit recommend by the United States environmental protection agency (US-EPA). Health risk index (HRI) values were generally higher than 1, indicating that health risks associated with Tl exposure are significant and assumed to be dangerous to the health of local villagers. Therefore, much attention should be paid to avoid consumption of these Tl-contaminated crops that can cause great potential risks.

  13. Wireless sensor networks for irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustaining an adequate food supply for the world's population will require advancements in irrigation technology and improved irrigation management. Site-specific irrigation and automatic irrigation scheduling are examples of strategies to deal with declining arable land and limited fresh water reso...

  14. Balancing ecosystem services with energy and food security - assessing trade-offs for reservoir operation and irrigation investment in Kenya's Tana basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurford, A. P.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Competition for water between key economic sectors and the environment means agreeing on allocation is challenging. Managing releases from the three major dams in Kenya's Tana River basin with its 4.4 million inhabitants, 567 MW of installed hydropower capacity, 33 000 ha of irrigation and ecologically important wetlands and forests is a pertinent example. This research seeks to identify and help decision-makers visualise reservoir management strategies which result in the best possible (Pareto-optimal) allocation of benefits between sectors. Secondly we seek to show how trade-offs between achievable benefits shift with the implementation of new proposed rice, cotton and biofuel irrigation projects. To identify the Pareto-optimal trade-offs we link a water resources management model to a multi-criteria search algorithm. The decisions or "levers" of the management problem are volume dependent release rules for the three major dams and extent of investment in new irrigation schemes. These decisions are optimised for objectives covering provision of water supply and irrigation, energy generation and maintenance of ecosystem services which underpin tourism and local livelihoods. Visual analytic plots allow decision makers to assess multi-reservoir rule-sets by understanding their impacts on different beneficiaries. Results quantify how economic gains from proposed irrigation schemes trade-off against disturbance of the flow regime which supports ecosystem services. Full implementation of the proposed schemes is shown to be Pareto-optimal, but at high environmental and social cost. The clarity and comprehensiveness of "best-case" trade-off analysis is a useful vantage point from which to tackle the interdependence and complexity of water-energy-food "nexus" challenges.

  15. Smallholder Irrigation and Crop Diversification under Climate Change in sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence and Potential for Simultaneous Food Security, Adaptation, and Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, R.; Burney, J. A.; Postel, S.

    2011-12-01

    The poorest populations in sub-Saharan Africa live in rural areas and depend on smallholder agricultural production for their livelihoods. Over 90% of all farmed area in Sub-Saharan Africa is rainfed, with crop production centering on 3-5 months of rainfall. Rapid population growth is reducing land per capita ratios, and low yields for staple crops make food security an increasingly challenging goal. Malnutrition, most noticeable among children, peaks during the dry season. Recent data on aggregate economic growth and investment in Africa hide these patterns of seasonal hunger and income disparity. Perhaps most perversely, smallholder farmers in the dry tropical regions of sub-Saharan Africa are (and will continue to be) some of the earliest and hardest hit by climate change. Our research focuses on the role distributed, small-scale irrigation can play in food security and climate change adaptation in sub-Saharan Africa. As Asia's agricultural success has demonstrated, irrigation, when combined with the availability of inputs (fertilizer) and improved crop varieties, can enable year-round production, growth in rural incomes, and a dramatic reduction in hunger. The situation in Africa is markedly different: agroecological conditions are far more heterogeneous than in Asia and evaporation rates are relatively high; most smallholders lack access to fertilizers; and market integration is constrained by infrastructure, information, and private sector incentives. Yet from a resource perspective, national- and regional-level estimates suggest that Internal Renewable Water Resources (IRWR) are nowhere near fully exploited in Sub-Saharan Africa -- even in the Sudano-Sahel, which is considered to be one of the driest regions of the continent. Irrigation can thus be implemented on a much larger scale sustainably. We will present (a) results from controlled, experimental field studies of solar-powered drip irrigation systems in the rural Sudano-Sahel region of West Africa. We

  16. Irrigated Agriculture, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, center-pivot, swing-arm irrigated agriculture complexes such as the one imaged at Jabal Tuwayq (20.5N, 45.0 E) extract deep fossil water reserves to achieve food crop production self sufficiency in this desert environment. The significance of the Saudi expanded irrigated agriculture is that the depletion of this finite water resource is a short term solution to a long term need that will still exist when the water has been extracted.

  17. Asian irrigation, African rain: Remote impacts of irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrese, Philipp; Hagemann, Stefan; Claussen, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Irrigation is not only vital for global food security but also constitutes an anthropogenic land use change, known to have strong effects on local hydrological and energy cycles. Using the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology's Earth System Model, we show that related impacts are not confined regionally but that possibly as much as 40% of the present-day precipitation in some of the arid regions in Eastern Africa are related to irrigation-based agriculture in Asia. Irrigation in South Asia also substantially influences the climate throughout Southeast Asia and China via the advection of water vapor and by altering the Asian monsoon. The simulated impact of irrigation on remote regions is sensitive to the magnitude of the irrigation-induced moisture flux. Therefore, it is likely that a future extension or decline of irrigated areas due to increasing food demand or declining fresh water resources will also affect precipitation and temperatures in remote regions.

  18. Food-associated stimuli enhance barrier properties of gastrointestinal mucus.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Hasan M; Speciner, Lauren; Ozdemir, Cafer; Cohen, David E; Carrier, Rebecca L

    2015-06-01

    Orally delivered drugs and nutrients must diffuse through mucus to enter the circulatory system, but the barrier properties of mucus and their modulation by physiological factors are generally poorly characterized. The main objective of this study was to examine the impact of physicochemical changes occurring upon food ingestion on gastrointestinal (GI) mucus barrier properties. Lipids representative of postprandial intestinal contents enhanced mucus barriers, as indicated by a 10-142-fold reduction in the transport rate of 200 nm microspheres through mucus, depending on surface chemistry. Physiologically relevant increases in [Ca(2+)] resulted in a 2-4-fold reduction of transport rates, likely due to enhanced cross-linking of the mucus gel network. Reduction of pH from 6.5 to 3.5 also affected mucus viscoelasticity, reducing particle transport rates approximately 5-10-fold. Macroscopic visual observation and micro-scale lectin staining revealed mucus gel structural changes, including clumping into regions into which particles did not penetrate. Histological examination indicated food ingestion can prevent microsphere contact with and endocytosis by intestinal epithelium. Taken together, these results demonstrate that GI mucus barriers are significantly altered by stimuli associated with eating and potentially dosing of lipid-based delivery systems; these stimuli represent broadly relevant variables to consider upon designing oral therapies. PMID:25907034

  19. 21 CFR 876.5895 - Ostomy irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ostomy irrigator. 876.5895 Section 876.5895 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5895 Ostomy irrigator....

  20. 21 CFR 876.5895 - Ostomy irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ostomy irrigator. 876.5895 Section 876.5895 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5895 Ostomy irrigator....

  1. 21 CFR 876.5895 - Ostomy irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ostomy irrigator. 876.5895 Section 876.5895 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5895 Ostomy irrigator....

  2. 21 CFR 876.5895 - Ostomy irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ostomy irrigator. 876.5895 Section 876.5895 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5895 Ostomy irrigator....

  3. 21 CFR 876.5895 - Ostomy irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ostomy irrigator. 876.5895 Section 876.5895 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5895 Ostomy irrigator....

  4. Successful Development of Satiety Enhancing Food Products: Towards a Multidisciplinary Agenda of Research Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Van Kleef, E.; Van Trijp, J.C.M.; Van Den Borne, J.J.G.C.; Zondervan, C.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in societies worldwide, enhancing the satiating capacity of foods may help people control their energy intake and weight. This requires an integrated approach between various food-related disciplines. By structuring this approach around the new product development process, this paper aims to present the contours of such an integrative approach by going through the current state of the art around satiety enhancing foods. It portrays actual food choice as the end result of a complex interaction between internal satiety signals, other food benefits, and environmental cues. Three interrelated routes to satiating enhancement are to change the food composition to develop stronger physiological satiation and satiety signals, anticipate and build on smart external stimuli at the moment of purchase and consumption, and improve palatability and acceptance of satiety enhanced foods. Key research challenges in achieving these routes in the field of nutrition, food technology, consumer, marketing, and communication are outlined. PMID:22530713

  5. Successful development of satiety enhancing food products: towards a multidisciplinary agenda of research challenges.

    PubMed

    Van Kleef, E; Van Trijp, J C M; Van Den Borne, J J G C; Zondervan, C

    2012-01-01

    In the context of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in societies worldwide, enhancing the satiating capacity of foods may help people control their energy intake and weight. This requires an integrated approach between various food-related disciplines. By structuring this approach around the new product development process, this paper aims to present the contours of such an integrative approach by going through the current state of the art around satiety enhancing foods. It portrays actual food choice as the end result of a complex interaction between internal satiety signals, other food benefits, and environmental cues. Three interrelated routes to satiating enhancement are to change the food composition to develop stronger physiological satiation and satiety signals, anticipate and build on smart external stimuli at the moment of purchase and consumption, and improve palatability and acceptance of satiety enhanced foods. Key research challenges in achieving these routes in the field of nutrition, food technology, consumer, marketing, and communication are outlined.

  6. Successful development of satiety enhancing food products: towards a multidisciplinary agenda of research challenges.

    PubMed

    Van Kleef, E; Van Trijp, J C M; Van Den Borne, J J G C; Zondervan, C

    2012-01-01

    In the context of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in societies worldwide, enhancing the satiating capacity of foods may help people control their energy intake and weight. This requires an integrated approach between various food-related disciplines. By structuring this approach around the new product development process, this paper aims to present the contours of such an integrative approach by going through the current state of the art around satiety enhancing foods. It portrays actual food choice as the end result of a complex interaction between internal satiety signals, other food benefits, and environmental cues. Three interrelated routes to satiating enhancement are to change the food composition to develop stronger physiological satiation and satiety signals, anticipate and build on smart external stimuli at the moment of purchase and consumption, and improve palatability and acceptance of satiety enhanced foods. Key research challenges in achieving these routes in the field of nutrition, food technology, consumer, marketing, and communication are outlined. PMID:22530713

  7. Adapting to climate change for food security through supplementary irrigation and changing sowing dates in the Rift Valley dry lands of Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muluneh Bitew, Alemayehu; Stroosnijder, Leo; keesstra, Saskia

    2015-04-01

    Studies on climate impacts and related adaptation strategies are increasingly becoming important to counteract the negative effects of climate change. In Ethiopia, climate change is likely to affect crop yields negatively. However, quantitative evidence is lacking about the ability of farm level adaptation options to offset negative impacts on food security. The MarkSimGCM weather generator was used to generate projected daily rainfall and temperature data originally taken from ECHAM5 general circulation model and ensemble mean of six models under A2 (high) and B1 (low) emission scenarios. We validated the FAO AquaCrop model and subsequently used it to predict maize yields and explore three adaptations options. Increasing plant density has the least effect on maize yield so that the density that is currently used by 'good' farmers (30,000) is recommended. The optimum level of supplemental irrigation (SI), in combination with this plant density, is application of SI when the percentage of soil water depletion reached 75% of the maximum available water in the root zone. In the future, dry spells during the Belg season increase and this has a negative effect on maize production. The predicted lower maize production due to the changing rainfall is only partly compensated by the expected increase in CO2 concentration. The shifting of sowing period of maize from the current Belg season (mostly April or May) to the first month of Kiremt season (June) can offset the predicted yield reduction caused by climate change. SI has a marginal effect in good rainfall years but using 94-111 mm of SI can avoid total crop failure in drought years. Hence, SI is an interesting option to improve food security in the Rift Valley dry lands of Ethiopia. Key words: Adaptation; Climate change; Central Rift Valley; Dry spell; Supplemental irrigation.

  8. Effect of flavor enhancement of foods for the elderly on nutritional status: food intake, biochemical indices, and anthropometric measures.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, S S; Warwick, Z S

    1993-02-01

    The irreversible declines in taste and smell acuity that occur in many elderly persons can contribute to inadequate food intake and nutrition that are prevalent among the aged. Although chemosensory deficits cannot be reversed, previous studies have shown that the addition of intense flavors to foods can compensate for perceptual losses and improve food palatability and acceptance. In this study, the effect of sustained (3 week) flavor enhancement of typical institutional foods on the diet, health, and well being of 39 elderly (average age 84.6 SE 0.81 years) retirement-home residents was evaluated. For 3 weeks subjects ate an institutional diet (unenhanced). During another 3-week period, the same subjects ate identical foods to which intense flavors were added (enhanced). The 39 subjects were tested in two groups. For group 1 the unenhanced food period preceded the enhanced food period. For group 2, the order was reversed. Food intake was measured every weekday throughout the study, and the nutritional composition of the diet was analyzed. Biochemical measures of health status were obtained at the beginning of the study (baseline) and following both the unenhanced and enhanced periods. These measures included somatomedin-C/insulin-like growth factor I, transferrin, total T- and B-lymphocytes, and routine blood chemistries. Weight, height, midarm circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness were also measured. Handgrip strength and pinch strength were measured in group 1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Food safety security: a new concept for enhancing food safety measures.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Venkatesh; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2012-06-01

    The food safety security (FSS) concept is perceived as an early warning system for minimizing food safety (FS) breaches, and it functions in conjunction with existing FS measures. Essentially, the function of FS and FSS measures can be visualized in two parts: (i) the FS preventive measures as actions taken at the stem level, and (ii) the FSS interventions as actions taken at the root level, to enhance the impact of the implemented safety steps. In practice, along with FS, FSS also draws its support from (i) legislative directives and regulatory measures for enforcing verifiable, timely, and effective compliance; (ii) measurement systems in place for sustained quality assurance; and (iii) shared responsibility to ensure cohesion among all the stakeholders namely, policy makers, regulators, food producers, processors and distributors, and consumers. However, the functional framework of FSS differs from that of FS by way of: (i) retooling the vulnerable segments of the preventive features of existing FS measures; (ii) fine-tuning response systems to efficiently preempt the FS breaches; (iii) building a long-term nutrient and toxicant surveillance network based on validated measurement systems functioning in real time; (iv) focusing on crisp, clear, and correct communication that resonates among all the stakeholders; and (v) developing inter-disciplinary human resources to meet ever-increasing FS challenges. Important determinants of FSS include: (i) strengthening international dialogue for refining regulatory reforms and addressing emerging risks; (ii) developing innovative and strategic action points for intervention {in addition to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) procedures]; and (iii) introducing additional science-based tools such as metrology-based measurement systems.

  10. Applications of advanced intervention technologies to enhance microbial food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food safety issues may arise due to chemical and/or microbial contaminations. Foodborne pathogens typically are the major reasons in food related outbreaks that result in human sickness/death, product disposal/waste and other economic losses. The food industry is continuously seeking better interv...

  11. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-110) - Pahsimeroi Holistic Restoration – Gydesen/Hayes Riparian Enhancement and Irrigation Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Shannon C.

    2003-07-30

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to fund a riparian enhancement and irrigation improvement project with the Custer Soil and Water Conservation District in Custer County, Idaho. The proposed project is located on private land and will include the installation of approximately 4,300 feet of 18-inch pipe that will replace two open ditches on the property. This project will eliminate about two miles of open ditch and eliminate the associated water conveyance losses in these ditches, which will allow for more water instream in the Pahsimeroi River.

  12. Does Irrigation Buffer Agriculture from Climatic Variability? - Evidence from India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, R.

    2010-12-01

    One of the key potential benefits of water storage and irrigation is the buffering of agricultural production from natural fluctuations in rainfall, be they intra-seasonal, inter-annual or decadal, by storing excess rainfall for times when it is deficient. Economically, the ability to protect food production and income from climatic and weather variability has always been important, especially in developing countries. This ability can be a key asset in adaptation to the uncertainties and enhanced variability in precipitation that is predicted to accompany climate change. It is therefore important to investigate empirically how well irrigation of different kinds has performed in this regard. We use agricultural production statistics in India, a country whose fortune has always been at the mercy of the stochastic monsoon rains, to investigate this question statistically, and study the performance of both surface and groundwater irrigation in different hydro-geologies.

  13. Control of Growth Efficiency in Young Plantation Loblolly Pine and Sweetgum through Irrigation and Fertigation Enhancement of Leaf Carbon Gain

    SciTech Connect

    L. Samuelson

    1999-07-07

    The overall objective of this study was to determine if growth efficiency of young plantation loblolly pine and sweetgum can be maintained by intensive forest management and whether increased carbon gain is the mechanism controlling growth efficiency response to resource augmentation. Key leaf physiological processes were examined over two growing seasons in response to irrigation, fertigation (irrigation with a fertilizer solution), and fertigation plus pest control (pine only). Although irrigation improved leaf net photosynthesis in pine and decreased stomatal sensitivity to vapor pressure deficit in sweetgum, no consistent physiological responses to fertigation were detected in either species. After 4 years of treatment, a 3-fold increase in woody net primary productivity was observed in both species in response to fertigation. Trees supplemented with fertigation and fertigation plus pest control exhibited the largest increases in growth and biomass. Furthermore, growth efficiency was maintained by fertigation and fertigation plus pest control, despite large increases in crown development and self-shading. Greater growth in response to intensive culture was facilitated by significant gains in leaf mass and whole tree carbon gain rather than detectable increases in leaf level processes. Growth efficiency was not maintained by significant increases in leaf level carbon gain but was possibly influenced by changes in carbon allocation to root versus shoot processes.

  14. Does eating local food reduce the environmental impact of food production and enhance consumer health?

    PubMed

    Edwards-Jones, Gareth

    2010-11-01

    The concept of local food has gained traction in the media, engaged consumers and offered farmers a new marketing tool. Positive claims about the benefits of local food are probably not harmful when made by small-scale producers at the local level; however, greater concern would arise should such claims be echoed in policy circles. This review examines the evidence base supporting claims about the environmental and health benefits of local food. The results do not offer any support for claims that local food is universally superior to non-local food in terms of its impact on the climate or the health of consumers. Indeed several examples are presented that demonstrate that local food can on occasions be inferior to non-local food. The analysis also considers the impact on greenhouse gas emissions of moving the UK towards self-sufficiency. Quantitative evidence is absent on the changes in overall emissions that would occur if the UK switched to self-sufficiency. A qualitative assessment suggests the emissions per item of food would probably be greater under a scenario of self-sufficiency than under the current food system. The review does not identify any generalisable or systematic benefits to the environment or human health that arise from the consumption of local food in preference to non-local food.

  15. Appraising options to reduce shallow groundwater tables and enhance flow conditions over regional scales in an irrigated alluvial aquifer system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morway, Eric D.; Gates, Timothy K.; Niswonger, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Some of the world’s key agricultural production systems face big challenges to both water quantity and quality due to shallow groundwater that results from long-term intensive irrigation, namely waterlogging and salinity, water losses, and environmental problems. This paper focuses on water quantity issues, presenting finite-difference groundwater models developed to describe shallow water table levels, non-beneficial groundwater consumptive use, and return flows to streams across two regions within an irrigated alluvial river valley in southeastern Colorado, USA. The models are calibrated and applied to simulate current baseline conditions in the alluvial aquifer system and to examine actions for potentially improving these conditions. The models provide a detailed description of regional-scale subsurface unsaturated and saturated flow processes, thereby enabling detailed spatiotemporal description of groundwater levels, recharge to infiltration ratios, partitioning of ET originating from the unsaturated and saturated zones, and groundwater flows, among other variables. Hybrid automated and manual calibration of the models is achieved using extensive observations of groundwater hydraulic head, groundwater return flow to streams, aquifer stratigraphy, canal seepage, total evapotranspiration, the portion of evapotranspiration supplied by upflux from the shallow water table, and irrigation flows. Baseline results from the two regional-scale models are compared to model predictions under variations of four alternative management schemes: (1) reduced seepage from earthen canals, (2) reduced irrigation applications, (3) rotational lease fallowing (irrigation water leased to municipalities, resulting in temporary dry-up of fields), and (4) combinations of these. The potential for increasing the average water table depth by up to 1.1 and 0.7 m in the two respective modeled regions, thereby reducing the threat of waterlogging and lowering non-beneficial consumptive use

  16. Appraising options to reduce shallow groundwater tables and enhance flow conditions over regional scales in an irrigated alluvial aquifer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morway, Eric D.; Gates, Timothy K.; Niswonger, Richard G.

    2013-07-01

    Some of the world’s key agricultural production systems face big challenges to both water quantity and quality due to shallow groundwater that results from long-term intensive irrigation, namely waterlogging and salinity, water losses, and environmental problems. This paper focuses on water quantity issues, presenting finite-difference groundwater models developed to describe shallow water table levels, non-beneficial groundwater consumptive use, and return flows to streams across two regions within an irrigated alluvial river valley in southeastern Colorado, USA. The models are calibrated and applied to simulate current baseline conditions in the alluvial aquifer system and to examine actions for potentially improving these conditions. The models provide a detailed description of regional-scale subsurface unsaturated and saturated flow processes, thereby enabling detailed spatiotemporal description of groundwater levels, recharge to infiltration ratios, partitioning of ET originating from the unsaturated and saturated zones, and groundwater flows, among other variables. Hybrid automated and manual calibration of the models is achieved using extensive observations of groundwater hydraulic head, groundwater return flow to streams, aquifer stratigraphy, canal seepage, total evapotranspiration, the portion of evapotranspiration supplied by upflux from the shallow water table, and irrigation flows. Baseline results from the two regional-scale models are compared to model predictions under variations of four alternative management schemes: (1) reduced seepage from earthen canals, (2) reduced irrigation applications, (3) rotational lease fallowing (irrigation water leased to municipalities, resulting in temporary dry-up of fields), and (4) combinations of these. The potential for increasing the average water table depth by up to 1.1 and 0.7 m in the two respective modeled regions, thereby reducing the threat of waterlogging and lowering non-beneficial consumptive use

  17. Enhancing food-safety education through shared teaching resources.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    The American public is concerned about food safety, and there is a growing realization that we are ill equipped to handle major food-borne illness outbreaks and bioterrorism. Since veterinary medicine plays an important role in assuring the safety of our nation's food supply, we would like to present to veterinary and public health educators a newly emerging resource for food-safety educational materials. This article describes an integrative collaborative approach for the creation and dissemination of engaging food-safety teaching resources for veterinary faculty. This USDA-funded project, Design to Dissemination: Developing Materials and Repository for Integrative Veterinary Food Safety Education, involves expert teachers in diverse fields and from many veterinary schools. The purpose of the project is to create materials that teach students food safety from farm to fork, and it offers teachers clinically relevant teaching resources that are difficult to create or locate. The educational materials are being created as smaller "building blocks" of content, commonly referred to as "learning objects" (LOs), focused on individual learning objectives. These learning objects are placed in the Veterinary Food Safety Education Learning Object Repository, where they are catalogued, stored, and kept accessible and where faculty can search, evaluate, and download teaching materials to use in their courses. In this way the learning objects can be more easily shared and reused or repurposed for other courses and applications. With this article we hope to excite faculty in veterinary schools and public-health programs and encourage them to use the repository and participate in piloting the educational materials.

  18. Water savings potentials of irrigation systems: dynamic global simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jägermeyr, J.; Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Schaphoff, S.; Kummu, M.; Lucht, W.

    2015-04-01

    Global agricultural production is heavily sustained by irrigation, but irrigation system efficiencies are often surprisingly low. However, our knowledge of irrigation efficiencies is mostly confined to rough indicative estimates for countries or regions that do not account for spatio-temporal heterogeneity due to climate and other biophysical dependencies. To allow for refined estimates of global agricultural water use, and of water saving and water productivity potentials constrained by biophysical processes and also non-trivial downstream effects, we incorporated a dynamic representation of the three major irrigation systems (surface, sprinkler, and drip) into a process-based bio- and agrosphere model, LPJmL. Based on this enhanced model we provide a gridded worldmap of dynamically retrieved irrigation efficiencies reflecting differences in system types, crop types, climatic and hydrologic conditions, and overall crop management. We find pronounced regional patterns in beneficial irrigation efficiency (a refined irrigation efficiency indicator accounting for crop-productive water consumption only), due to differences in these features, with lowest values (< 30%) in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa and highest values (> 60%) in Europe and North America. We arrive at an estimate of global irrigation water withdrawal of 2396 km3 (2004-2009 average); irrigation water consumption is calculated to be 1212 km3, of which 511 km3 are non-beneficially consumed, i.e. lost through evaporation, interception, and conveyance. Replacing surface systems by sprinkler or drip systems could, on average across the world's river basins, reduce the non-beneficial consumption at river basin level by 54 and 76%, respectively, while maintaining the current level of crop yields. Accordingly, crop water productivity would increase by 9 and 15%, respectively, and by much more in specific regions such as in the Indus basin. This study significantly advances the global quantification of

  19. Alternate partial root-zone irrigation reduces bundle-sheath cell leakage to CO2 and enhances photosynthetic capacity in maize leaves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenchang; Kang, Shaozhong; Jensen, Christian R; Liu, Fulai

    2012-02-01

    The physiological basis for the advantage of alternate partial root-zone irrigation (PRI) over common deficit irrigation (DI) in improving crop water use efficiency (WUE) remains largely elusive. Here leaf gas exchange characteristics and photosynthetic CO(2)-response and light-response curves for maize (Zea mays L.) leaves exposed to PRI and DI were analysed under three N-fertilization rates, namely 75, 150, and 300 mg N kg(-1) soil. Measurements of net photosynthetic rate (A(n)) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) showed that, across the three N-fertilization rates, the intrinsic WUE was significantly higher in PRI than in DI leaves. Analysis of the CO(2)-response curve revealed that both carboxylation efficiency (CE) and the CO(2)-saturated photosynthetic rate (A(sat)) were significantly higher in PRI than in DI leaves across the three N-fertilization rates; whereas the N-fertilization rates did not influence the shape of the curves. The enhanced CE and A(sat) in the PRI leaves was accompanied by significant decreases in carbon isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C) and bundle-sheath cell leakiness to CO(2) (Φ). Analysis of the light-response curve indicated that, across the three N-fertilization rates, the quantum yield (α) and light-saturated gross photosynthetic rate (A(max)) were identical for the two irrigation treatments; whilst the convexity (κ) of the curve was significantly greater in PRI than in DI leaves, which coincided with the greater CE and A(sat) derived from the CO(2)-response curve at a photosynthetic photon flux density of 1500 μmol m(-2) s(-1). Collectively, the results suggest that, in comparison with the DI treatment, PRI improves photosynthetic capacity parameters CE, A(sat), and κ of maize leaves and that contributes to the greater intrinsic WUE in those plants.

  20. Irrigation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Under contract with Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a Lubrication Handbook intended as a reference source for designers and manufacturers of aerospace hardware and crews responsible for maintenance of such equipment. Engineers of Lindsay Manufacturing Company learned of this handbook through NASA Tech Briefs and used it for supplemental information in redesigning gear boxes for their center pivot agricultural irrigation system.

  1. 21 CFR 874.5550 - Powered nasal irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Powered nasal irrigator. 874.5550 Section 874.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5550 Powered nasal irrigator....

  2. 21 CFR 874.5550 - Powered nasal irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Powered nasal irrigator. 874.5550 Section 874.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5550 Powered nasal irrigator....

  3. 21 CFR 874.5550 - Powered nasal irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Powered nasal irrigator. 874.5550 Section 874.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5550 Powered nasal irrigator....

  4. 21 CFR 876.5220 - Colonic irrigation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Colonic irrigation system. 876.5220 Section 876.5220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5220 Colonic irrigation...

  5. 21 CFR 876.5220 - Colonic irrigation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Colonic irrigation system. 876.5220 Section 876.5220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5220 Colonic irrigation...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5220 - Colonic irrigation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Colonic irrigation system. 876.5220 Section 876.5220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5220 Colonic irrigation...

  7. 21 CFR 876.5220 - Colonic irrigation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Colonic irrigation system. 876.5220 Section 876.5220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5220 Colonic irrigation...

  8. 21 CFR 876.5220 - Colonic irrigation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colonic irrigation system. 876.5220 Section 876.5220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5220 Colonic irrigation...

  9. 21 CFR 872.6510 - Oral irrigation unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oral irrigation unit. 872.6510 Section 872.6510...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6510 Oral irrigation unit. (a) Identification. An oral irrigation unit is an AC-powered device intended to provide a pressurized stream of water...

  10. 21 CFR 886.4360 - Ocular surgery irrigation device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ocular surgery irrigation device. 886.4360 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4360 Ocular surgery irrigation device. (a) Identification. An ocular surgery irrigation device is a device intended to be suspended over...

  11. 21 CFR 886.4360 - Ocular surgery irrigation device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ocular surgery irrigation device. 886.4360 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4360 Ocular surgery irrigation device. (a) Identification. An ocular surgery irrigation device is a device intended to be suspended over...

  12. 21 CFR 886.4360 - Ocular surgery irrigation device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ocular surgery irrigation device. 886.4360 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4360 Ocular surgery irrigation device. (a) Identification. An ocular surgery irrigation device is a device intended to be suspended over...

  13. 21 CFR 886.4360 - Ocular surgery irrigation device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ocular surgery irrigation device. 886.4360 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4360 Ocular surgery irrigation device. (a) Identification. An ocular surgery irrigation device is a device intended to be suspended over...

  14. 21 CFR 886.4360 - Ocular surgery irrigation device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ocular surgery irrigation device. 886.4360 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4360 Ocular surgery irrigation device. (a) Identification. An ocular surgery irrigation device is a device intended to be suspended over...

  15. 21 CFR 874.5550 - Powered nasal irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5550 Powered nasal irrigator. (a) Identification. A powered nasal irrigator is an AC-powered device intended to wash the nasal cavity by means of a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Powered nasal irrigator. 874.5550 Section...

  16. 21 CFR 874.5550 - Powered nasal irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5550 Powered nasal irrigator. (a) Identification. A powered nasal irrigator is an AC-powered device intended to wash the nasal cavity by means of a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered nasal irrigator. 874.5550 Section...

  17. 21 CFR 872.6510 - Oral irrigation unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6510 Oral irrigation unit. (a) Identification. An oral irrigation unit is an AC-powered device intended to provide a pressurized stream of water to... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oral irrigation unit. 872.6510 Section...

  18. 21 CFR 872.6510 - Oral irrigation unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6510 Oral irrigation unit. (a) Identification. An oral irrigation unit is an AC-powered device intended to provide a pressurized stream of water to... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral irrigation unit. 872.6510 Section...

  19. 21 CFR 872.6510 - Oral irrigation unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6510 Oral irrigation unit. (a) Identification. An oral irrigation unit is an AC-powered device intended to provide a pressurized stream of water to... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oral irrigation unit. 872.6510 Section...

  20. 21 CFR 872.6510 - Oral irrigation unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6510 Oral irrigation unit. (a) Identification. An oral irrigation unit is an AC-powered device intended to provide a pressurized stream of water to... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oral irrigation unit. 872.6510 Section...

  1. Decentralising Zimbabwe’s water management: The case of Guyu-Chelesa irrigation scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambudzai, Rashirayi; Everisto, Mapedza; Gideon, Zhou

    Smallholder irrigation schemes are largely supply driven such that they exclude the beneficiaries on the management decisions and the choice of the irrigation schemes that would best suit their local needs. It is against this background that the decentralisation framework and the Dublin Principles on Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) emphasise the need for a participatory approach to water management. The Zimbabwean government has gone a step further in decentralising the management of irrigation schemes, that is promoting farmer managed irrigation schemes so as to ensure effective management of scarce community based land and water resources. The study set to investigate the way in which the Guyu-Chelesa irrigation scheme is managed with specific emphasis on the role of the Irrigation Management Committee (IMC), the level of accountability and the powers devolved to the IMC. Merrey’s 2008 critique of IWRM also informs this study which views irrigation as going beyond infrastructure by looking at how institutions and decision making processes play out at various levels including at the irrigation scheme level. The study was positioned on the hypothesis that ‘decentralised or autonomous irrigation management enhances the sustainability and effectiveness of irrigation schemes’. To validate or falsify the stated hypothesis, data was gathered using desk research in the form of reviewing articles, documents from within the scheme and field research in the form of questionnaire surveys, key informant interviews and field observation. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used to analyse data quantitatively, whilst content analysis was utilised to analyse qualitative data whereby data was analysed thematically. Comparative analysis was carried out as Guyu-Chelesa irrigation scheme was compared with other smallholder irrigation scheme’s experiences within Zimbabwe and the Sub Saharan African region at large. The findings were that whilst the

  2. Enhancing Food and Nutrition Curricula in Higher Education by Assigning Collaborative Food System Assessment Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, June

    2013-01-01

    Student engagement in higher education is important. Some professional healthcare programs, however, can become quite focused and competitive, limiting the potential for positive student engagement and for students to see how their field of study fits within larger systems. Food system assessments are an ideal way to see the interconnectedness of…

  3. Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Shawn M.; Harrison, Mark A.; Law, S. Edward

    2011-06-01

    Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic

  4. Evolutionary engineering to enhance starter culture performance in food fermentations.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Herwig; Pronk, Jack T; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Teusink, Bas

    2015-04-01

    Microbial starter cultures are essential for consistent product quality and functional properties such as flavor, texture, pH or the alcohol content of various fermented foods. Strain improvement programs to achieve desired properties in starter cultures are diverse, but developments in next-generation sequencing lead to an increased interest in evolutionary engineering of desired phenotypes. We here discuss recent developments of strain selection protocols and how computational approaches can assist such experimental design. Furthermore the analysis of evolved phenotypes and possibilities with complex consortia are highlighted. Studies carried out with mainly yeast and lactic acid bacteria demonstrate the power of evolutionary engineering to deliver strains with novel phenotypes as well as insight into underlying mechanisms.

  5. Introducing Urban Food Forestry: A Multifunctional Strategy for Enhancing Urban Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Clark, K.

    2012-12-01

    We propose combining elements of urban agriculture and urban forestry into what we call "urban food forestry" (UFF), the practice of growing perennial woody food-producing species ("food trees") in cities. We used four approaches at different scales to gauge the potential of UFF to enhance urban sustainability, in the context of trends including increasing urbanization, resource demands, and climate change. First, we analyzed 37 current international initiatives based around urban food trees, finding that core activities included planting, mapping, and harvesting food trees, but that only about a quarter of initiatives engaged in more than one of these activities necessary to fully utilize the food potential of urban trees. Second, we analyzed 30 urban forestry master plans, finding that only 13% included human food security among their objectives. Third, we used Burlington, Vermont as a case study to quantify the potential caloric output of publicly accessible open space if planted with Malus domestica (the common apple) under 9 different scenarios. We found that the entire caloric deficit of the very low food security population could be met on as few as 29 hectares (representing 16% of total open space), and that 98% of the daily recommended minimum intake of fruit for the entire city's population could be met under the most ambitious planting scenario. Finally, we developed a decision-making tool for selecting potential food trees appropriate for temperate urban environments, the Climate-Food-Species Matrix. We identified a total of 70 species, 30 of which we deemed "highly suitable" for urban food forestry based on their cold hardiness, drought tolerance, and edibility. We conclude that urban food forestry provides multiple pathways for building urban sustainability through local food production, and that our framework can be used to increase the coordination between and effectiveness of a growing number of related initiatives.

  6. Mediterranean irrigation under climate change: more efficient irrigation needed to compensate increases in irrigation water requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fader, M.; Shi, S.; von Bloh, W.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.

    2015-08-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. This study systematically assesses how climate change and increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations may affect irrigation requirements in the Mediterranean region by 2080-2090. Future demographic change and technological improvements in irrigation systems are accounted for, as is the spread of climate forcing, warming levels and potential realization of the CO2-fertilization effect. Vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL after a large development that comprised the improved representation of Mediterranean crops. At present the Mediterranean region could save 35 % of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries like Syria, Egypt and Turkey have higher saving potentials than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume in average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops. Different crops show different magnitude of changes in net irrigation requirements due to climate change, being the increases most pronounced in agricultural trees. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4 and 18 % from climate change alone if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved (2 °C global warming combined with full CO2-fertilization effect, and 5 °C global warming combined with no CO2-fertilization effect, respectively). Population growth increases these numbers to 22 and 74 %, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to compensate to some degree the increases due to climate change and

  7. Long-term impact of sewage irrigation on soil properties and assessing risk in relation to transfer of metals to human food chain.

    PubMed

    Meena, Ramu; Datta, S P; Golui, Debasis; Dwivedi, B S; Meena, M C

    2016-07-01

    A case study was undertaken to assess the risk of sewage-irrigated soils in relation to the transfer of trace elements to rice and wheat grain. For this purpose, peri-urban agricultural lands under the Keshopur Effluent Irrigation Scheme (KEIS) of Delhi were selected. These agricultural lands have been receiving irrigation through sewage effluents since 1979. Sewage effluent, groundwater, soil, and plant (rice and wheat grain) samples were collected with GPS coordinates from this peri-urban area. Under wheat crop, sewage irrigation for four decades resulted into a significant buildup of zinc (141 %), copper (219 %), iron (514 %), nickel (75.0 %), and lead (28.1 %) in sewage-irrigated soils over adjacent tube well water-irrigated ones. Under rice crop, there was also a significant buildup of phosphorus (339 %), sulfur (130 %), zinc (287 %), copper (352 %), iron (457 %), nickel (258 %), lead (136 %), and cadmium (147 %) in sewage-irrigated soils as compared to that of tube well water-irrigated soils. The values of hazard quotient (HQ) for intake of trace toxic elements by humans through consumption of rice and wheat grain grown on these sewage-irrigated soils were well within the safe permissible limit. The variation in Zn, Ni, and Cd content in wheat grain could be explained by solubility-free ion activity model (FIAM) to the extent of 50.1, 56.8, and 37.2 %, respectively. Corresponding values for rice grain were 49.9, 41.2, and 42.7 %, respectively. As high as 36.4 % variation in As content in rice grain could be explained by solubility-FIAM model. Toxic limit of extractable Cd and As in soil for rice in relation to soil properties and human health hazard associated with consumption of rice grain by humans was established. A similar exercise was also done in respect of Cd for wheat. The conceptual framework of fixing the toxic limit of extractable metals and metalloid in soils with respect to soil properties and human health hazard under the

  8. Evaluation of an educational intervention using the enhanced food safety cost-of-illness model.

    PubMed

    Scharff, Robert L; McDowell, Joyce; Medeiros, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, a number of federally sponsored state-based food safety education programs have conducted economic evaluations aimed at demonstrating the efficacy of their approaches. These evaluations have typically been based on the "Virginia method," a comprehensive, but overly simplistic means of estimating benefit-cost ratios for food safety and nutrition education programs. In this article, we use the enhanced food safety cost-of-illness model, coupled with a more complete food safety education intervention model to evaluate the efficacy of the Ohio Family Nutrition Program. We find that, under most reasonable assumptions, the derived benefit-cost ratios imply that this program is socially beneficial. The model presented here is of particular use because it can be replicated to evaluate other broad-based food safety programs.

  9. Audio-Enhanced Tablet Computers to Assess Children's Food Frequency From Migrant Farmworker Mothers.

    PubMed

    Kilanowski, Jill F; Trapl, Erika S; Kofron, Ryan M

    2013-06-01

    This study sought to improve data collection in children's food frequency surveys for non-English speaking immigrant/migrant farmworker mothers using audio-enhanced tablet computers (ATCs). We hypothesized that by using technological adaptations, we would be able to improve data capture and therefore reduce lost surveys. This Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), a paper-based dietary assessment tool, was adapted for ATCs and assessed consumption of 66 food items asking 3 questions for each food item: frequency, quantity of consumption, and serving size. The tablet-based survey was audio enhanced with each question "read" to participants, accompanied by food item images, together with an embedded short instructional video. Results indicated that respondents were able to complete the 198 questions from the 66 food item FFQ on ATCs in approximately 23 minutes. Compared with paper-based FFQs, ATC-based FFQs had less missing data. Despite overall reductions in missing data by use of ATCs, respondents still appeared to have difficulty with question 2 of the FFQ. Ability to score the FFQ was dependent on what sections missing data were located. Unlike the paper-based FFQs, no ATC-based FFQs were unscored due to amount or location of missing data. An ATC-based FFQ was feasible and increased ability to score this survey on children's food patterns from migrant farmworker mothers. This adapted technology may serve as an exemplar for other non-English speaking immigrant populations. PMID:25343004

  10. Enhanced Early Neuronal Processing of Food Pictures in Anorexia Nervosa: A Magnetoencephalography Study

    PubMed Central

    Scaife, Jessica C.; Park, Rebecca J.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) have shown increased activation in reward and cognitive control regions in response to food, and a behavioral attentional bias (AB) towards food stimuli is reported. This study aimed to further investigate the neural processing of food using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Participants were 13 females with restricting-type AN, 14 females recovered from restricting-type AN, and 15 female healthy controls. MEG data was acquired whilst participants viewed high- and low-calorie food pictures. Attention was assessed with a reaction time task and eye tracking. Time-series analysis suggested increased neural activity in response to both calorie conditions in the AN groups, consistent with an early AB. Increased activity was observed at 150 ms in the current AN group. Neuronal activity at this latency was at normal level in the recovered group; however, this group exhibited enhanced activity at 320 ms after stimulus. Consistent with previous studies, analysis in source space and behavioral data suggested enhanced attention and cognitive control processes in response to food stimuli in AN. This may enable avoidance of salient food stimuli and maintenance of dietary restraint in AN. A later latency of increased activity in the recovered group may reflect a reversal of this avoidance, with source space and behavioral data indicating increased visual and cognitive processing of food stimuli. PMID:27525258

  11. Enhanced Early Neuronal Processing of Food Pictures in Anorexia Nervosa: A Magnetoencephalography Study.

    PubMed

    Godier, Lauren R; Scaife, Jessica C; Braeutigam, Sven; Park, Rebecca J

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) have shown increased activation in reward and cognitive control regions in response to food, and a behavioral attentional bias (AB) towards food stimuli is reported. This study aimed to further investigate the neural processing of food using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Participants were 13 females with restricting-type AN, 14 females recovered from restricting-type AN, and 15 female healthy controls. MEG data was acquired whilst participants viewed high- and low-calorie food pictures. Attention was assessed with a reaction time task and eye tracking. Time-series analysis suggested increased neural activity in response to both calorie conditions in the AN groups, consistent with an early AB. Increased activity was observed at 150 ms in the current AN group. Neuronal activity at this latency was at normal level in the recovered group; however, this group exhibited enhanced activity at 320 ms after stimulus. Consistent with previous studies, analysis in source space and behavioral data suggested enhanced attention and cognitive control processes in response to food stimuli in AN. This may enable avoidance of salient food stimuli and maintenance of dietary restraint in AN. A later latency of increased activity in the recovered group may reflect a reversal of this avoidance, with source space and behavioral data indicating increased visual and cognitive processing of food stimuli.

  12. Enhanced Early Neuronal Processing of Food Pictures in Anorexia Nervosa: A Magnetoencephalography Study.

    PubMed

    Godier, Lauren R; Scaife, Jessica C; Braeutigam, Sven; Park, Rebecca J

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) have shown increased activation in reward and cognitive control regions in response to food, and a behavioral attentional bias (AB) towards food stimuli is reported. This study aimed to further investigate the neural processing of food using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Participants were 13 females with restricting-type AN, 14 females recovered from restricting-type AN, and 15 female healthy controls. MEG data was acquired whilst participants viewed high- and low-calorie food pictures. Attention was assessed with a reaction time task and eye tracking. Time-series analysis suggested increased neural activity in response to both calorie conditions in the AN groups, consistent with an early AB. Increased activity was observed at 150 ms in the current AN group. Neuronal activity at this latency was at normal level in the recovered group; however, this group exhibited enhanced activity at 320 ms after stimulus. Consistent with previous studies, analysis in source space and behavioral data suggested enhanced attention and cognitive control processes in response to food stimuli in AN. This may enable avoidance of salient food stimuli and maintenance of dietary restraint in AN. A later latency of increased activity in the recovered group may reflect a reversal of this avoidance, with source space and behavioral data indicating increased visual and cognitive processing of food stimuli. PMID:27525258

  13. Ecohydrology of agroecosystems: quantitative approaches towards sustainable irrigation.

    PubMed

    Vico, Giulia; Porporato, Amilcare

    2015-02-01

    Irrigation represents one of the main strategies to enhance and stabilize agricultural productivity, by mitigating the effects of rainfall vagaries. In the face of the projected growth in population and in biofuel demands, as well as shifts in climate and dietary habits, a more sustainable management of water resources in agroecosystems is needed. The field of ecohydrology, traditionally focusing on natural ecosystems, has the potential to offer the necessary quantitative tools to assess and compare agricultural enterprises across climates, soil types, crops, and irrigation strategies, accounting for the unpredictability of the hydro-climatic forcing. Here, agricultural sustainability and productivity are assessed with reference to water productivity (defined as the ratio between yield and total supplied water), yields, water requirements, and their variability-a crucial element for food security and resource allocation planning. These synthetic indicators are quantified by means of a probabilistic description of the soil water balance and crop development. The model results allow the interpretation of patterns of water productivity observed in Zea mays (maize) and Triticum aestivum (wheat), grown under a variety of soils, climates, and irrigation strategies. Employing the same modeling framework, the impact of rainfall pattern and irrigation strategy on yield and water requirements is further explored. The obtained standard deviations of yield and water requirements suggest the existence of a nonlinear tradeoff between yield stabilization and variability of water requirements, which in turn is strongly impacted by irrigation strategy. Moreover, intermediate rainfall amounts are associated to the highest variability in yields and irrigation requirements, although allowing the maximum water productivity. The existence of these tradeoffs between productivity, reliability, and sustainability poses a problem for water management, in particular in mesic climates.

  14. Focusing on food during lunch enhances lunch memory and decreases later snack intake.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Suzanne; Donohoe, Jessica E

    2011-08-01

    We investigated whether eating lunch mindfully, in contrast to eating with distractions or no particular focus, reduces later snack intake and if this is related to a measure of meal memory. The design was between-subjects with three conditions. Twenty-nine female undergraduate students either ate a fixed lunch while (1) focusing on the sensory characteristics of the food as they ate (food focus group), (2) reading a newspaper article about food (food thoughts control group) or (3) in the absence of any secondary task (neutral control group). Cookie intake later that afternoon was measured as well as rated vividness of memory of the lunch. Participants ate significantly fewer cookies in the food focus group than in both the food thoughts control group or the neutral control group. Rated appetite before the snack session was lower in the food focus group than in the other two groups and rated vividness of lunch memory was higher. Rated vividness of lunch memory was negatively correlated with snack intake. These results suggest that enhancing meal memory by paying attention to food while eating can reduce later intake and are consistent with the suggestion that memory plays an important role in appetite control. PMID:21569808

  15. Ghrelin enhances cue-induced bar pressing for high fat food.

    PubMed

    St-Onge, Veronique; Watts, Alexander; Abizaid, Alfonso

    2016-02-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone produced by the stomach that acts on growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHSRs) both peripherally and centrally. The presence of GHSRs in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) suggests that ghrelin signaling at this level may increase the incentive value of palatable foods as well as other natural and artificial rewards. The present investigation sought to determine if ghrelin plays a role in relapse to such foods following a period of abstinence. To achieve this, thirty-six male Long Evans rats were trained to press a lever to obtain a high fat chocolate food reward on a fixed ratio schedule of 1. Following an extinction period during which lever presses were not reinforced, rats were implanted with a cannula connected to a minipump that continuously delivered ghrelin, a GHSR antagonist ([d-Lys-3]-GHRP-6), or saline in the VTA for 14days. One week later, food reward-associated cues, food reward priming, and an overnight fast were used to induce reinstatement of the lever pressing response. Our results indicate that intra-VTA ghrelin enhances cue-induced reinstatement of responses for palatable food pellets. To the extent that the reinstatement paradigm is considered a valid model of relapse in humans, this suggests that ghrelin signaling facilitates relapse to preferred foods in response to food cues through GHSR signaling in the VTA. PMID:26592452

  16. Ghrelin enhances cue-induced bar pressing for high fat food.

    PubMed

    St-Onge, Veronique; Watts, Alexander; Abizaid, Alfonso

    2016-02-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone produced by the stomach that acts on growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHSRs) both peripherally and centrally. The presence of GHSRs in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) suggests that ghrelin signaling at this level may increase the incentive value of palatable foods as well as other natural and artificial rewards. The present investigation sought to determine if ghrelin plays a role in relapse to such foods following a period of abstinence. To achieve this, thirty-six male Long Evans rats were trained to press a lever to obtain a high fat chocolate food reward on a fixed ratio schedule of 1. Following an extinction period during which lever presses were not reinforced, rats were implanted with a cannula connected to a minipump that continuously delivered ghrelin, a GHSR antagonist ([d-Lys-3]-GHRP-6), or saline in the VTA for 14days. One week later, food reward-associated cues, food reward priming, and an overnight fast were used to induce reinstatement of the lever pressing response. Our results indicate that intra-VTA ghrelin enhances cue-induced reinstatement of responses for palatable food pellets. To the extent that the reinstatement paradigm is considered a valid model of relapse in humans, this suggests that ghrelin signaling facilitates relapse to preferred foods in response to food cues through GHSR signaling in the VTA.

  17. Mapping Irrigation Potential in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akomeah, E.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; Barry, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Upper East Region together with the other two regions in Northern Ghana (Upper West and Northern Region) is seen as the locus of perennial food deficit (GPRS, 2003). Despite, the provision of over 200 small scale dams and various mechanisms aimed at poverty alleviation, the region is still plagued with poverty and yearly food shortages. To achieve food security and alleviate poverty in the region however, modernization of agriculture through irrigation is deemed inevitable. While it is true that considerable potential still exists for future expansion of irrigation, it cannot be refuted that water is becoming scarcer in the regions where the need for irrigation is most important, hence mapping the irrigation potential of the region will be the first step toward ensuring sound planning and sustainability of the irrigation developments. In this study, an attempt has been made to map out the irrigation potential of the Upper East Region. The river basin approach was used in assessing the irrigation potential. The catchments drained by The White Volta river, Red volta river, River Sissili and River Kulpawn were considered in the assessment. The irrigation potential for the sub basins was computed by combining information on gross irrigation water requirements for the selected cash crops, area of soil suitable for irrigation and available water resources. The capacity of 80%, 70%, 60% and 50% time of exceedance flow of the available surface water resources in the respective sub basins was estimated. The area that can be irrigated with this flow was computed with selected cropping pattern. Combining the results of the potential irrigable areas and the land use map of the respective sub basins, an irrigation potential map has been generated showing potential sites in the upper east region that can be brought under irrigation. Keywords: Irrigation potential, irrigation water requirement, land evaluation, dependable flow

  18. Enhanced anaerobic digestion of food waste by thermal and ozonation pretreatment methods.

    PubMed

    Ariunbaatar, Javkhlan; Panico, Antonio; Frunzo, Luigi; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco

    2014-12-15

    Treatment of food waste by anaerobic digestion can lead to an energy production coupled to a reduction of the volume and greenhouse gas emissions from this waste type. According to EU Regulation EC1774/2002, food waste should be pasteurized/sterilized before or after anaerobic digestion. With respect to this regulation and also considering the slow kinetics of the anaerobic digestion process, thermal and chemical pretreatments of food waste prior to mesophilic anaerobic digestion were studied. A series of batch experiments to determine the biomethane potential of untreated as well as pretreated food waste was carried out. All tested conditions of both thermal and ozonation pretreatments resulted in an enhanced biomethane production. The kinetics of the anaerobic digestion process were, however, accelerated by thermal pretreatment at lower temperatures (<120 °C) only. The best result of 647.5 ± 10.6 mlCH4/gVS, which is approximately 52% higher as compared to the specific biomethane production of untreated food waste, was obtained with thermal pretreatment at 80 °C for 1.5 h. On the basis of net energy calculations, the enhanced biomethane production could cover the energy requirement of the thermal pretreatment. In contrast, the enhanced biomethane production with ozonation pretreatment is insufficient to supply the required energy for the ozonator.

  19. Enhancement of mass transfer by ultrasound: Application to adsorbent regeneration and food drying/dehydration.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ye

    2016-07-01

    The physical mechanisms of heat and mass transfer enhancement by ultrasound have been identified by people. Basically, the effect of 'cavitation' induced by ultrasound is the main reason for the enhancement of heat and mass transfer in a liquid environment, and the acoustic streaming and vibration are the main reasons for that in a gaseous environment. The adsorbent regeneration and food drying/dehydration are typical heat and mass transfer process, and the intensification of the two processes by ultrasound is of complete feasibility. This paper makes an overview on recent studies regarding applications of power ultrasound to adsorbent regeneration and food drying/dehydration. The concerned adsorbents include desiccant materials (typically like silica gel) for air dehumidification and other ones (typically active carbon and polymeric resin) for water treatment. The applications of ultrasound in the regeneration of these adsorbents have been proved to be energy saving. The concerned foods are mostly fruits and vegetables. Although the ultrasonic treatment may cause food degradation or nutrient loss, it can greatly reduce the food processing time and decrease drying temperature. From the literature, it can be seen that the ultrasonic conditions (i.e., acoustic frequency and power levels) are always focused on during the study of ultrasonic applications. The increasing number of relevant studies argues that ultrasound is a very promising technology applied to the adsorbent regeneration and food drying/dehydration.

  20. Enhancement of mass transfer by ultrasound: Application to adsorbent regeneration and food drying/dehydration.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ye

    2016-07-01

    The physical mechanisms of heat and mass transfer enhancement by ultrasound have been identified by people. Basically, the effect of 'cavitation' induced by ultrasound is the main reason for the enhancement of heat and mass transfer in a liquid environment, and the acoustic streaming and vibration are the main reasons for that in a gaseous environment. The adsorbent regeneration and food drying/dehydration are typical heat and mass transfer process, and the intensification of the two processes by ultrasound is of complete feasibility. This paper makes an overview on recent studies regarding applications of power ultrasound to adsorbent regeneration and food drying/dehydration. The concerned adsorbents include desiccant materials (typically like silica gel) for air dehumidification and other ones (typically active carbon and polymeric resin) for water treatment. The applications of ultrasound in the regeneration of these adsorbents have been proved to be energy saving. The concerned foods are mostly fruits and vegetables. Although the ultrasonic treatment may cause food degradation or nutrient loss, it can greatly reduce the food processing time and decrease drying temperature. From the literature, it can be seen that the ultrasonic conditions (i.e., acoustic frequency and power levels) are always focused on during the study of ultrasonic applications. The increasing number of relevant studies argues that ultrasound is a very promising technology applied to the adsorbent regeneration and food drying/dehydration. PMID:26964979

  1. Inspection of pesticide residues on food by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shende, Chetan; Gift, Alan; Inscore, Frank; Maksymiuk, Paul; Farquharson, Stuart

    2004-03-01

    Modern agriculture depends on pesticides to curb infestations, increase crop yield and to produce the quantity and quality of food demanded by today's society. However, potential pesticide residue contamination of food is of critical concern to the food industry and the regulators responsible for health and safety. For example, many pesticides kill insects by attacking the central nervous system, and the use of these pesticides above the EPA set tolerance levels (from 0.1 to 50 ppm) could pose a threat to humans, in particular infants. Unfortunately, rapid, chemical analysis of pesticide residues is unavailable, and only a very small fraction of foods are inspected. The greatest concern is food imported from nations that simply ignore US regulations. In an effort to address this need, we have been developing a simple device to collect residues from food surfaces, perform a rapid chemical separation, and detect and identify pesticides by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Capillaries are coated with a metal-doped sol-gel that both separates chemicals and generates SER spectra when irradiated. SERS of pesticides at ppm concentrations, and a preliminary product to aid inspectors is presented.

  2. Irrigation as an historical climate forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Shukla, Sonali P.; Puma, Michael J.; Nazarenko, Larissa S.

    2015-03-01

    Irrigation is the single largest anthropogenic water use, a modification of the land surface that significantly affects surface energy budgets, the water cycle, and climate. Irrigation, however, is typically not included in standard historical general circulation model (GCM) simulations along with other anthropogenic and natural forcings. To investigate the importance of irrigation as an anthropogenic climate forcing, we conduct two 5-member ensemble GCM experiments. Both are setup identical to the historical forced (anthropogenic plus natural) scenario used in version 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, but in one experiment we also add water to the land surface using a dataset of historically estimated irrigation rates. Irrigation has a negligible effect on the global average radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere, but causes significant cooling of global average surface air temperatures over land and dampens regional warming trends. This cooling is regionally focused and is especially strong in Western North America, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Asia. Irrigation enhances cloud cover and precipitation in these same regions, except for summer in parts of Monsoon Asia, where irrigation causes a reduction in monsoon season precipitation. Irrigation cools the surface, reducing upward fluxes of longwave radiation (increasing net longwave), and increases cloud cover, enhancing shortwave reflection (reducing net shortwave). The relative magnitude of these two processes causes regional increases (northern India) or decreases (Central Asia, China) in energy availability at the surface and top of the atmosphere. Despite these changes in net radiation, however, climate responses are due primarily to larger magnitude shifts in the Bowen ratio from sensible to latent heating. Irrigation impacts on temperature, precipitation, and other climate variables are regionally significant, even while other anthropogenic forcings (anthropogenic aerosols

  3. Irrigation as an Historical Climate Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Shukla, Sonali P.; Puma, Michael J.; Nazarenko, Larissa S.

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation is the single largest anthropogenic water use, a modification of the land surface that significantly affects surface energy budgets, the water cycle, and climate. Irrigation, however, is typically not included in standard historical general circulation model (GCM) simulations along with other anthropogenic and natural forcings. To investigate the importance of irrigation as an anthropogenic climate forcing, we conduct two 5-member ensemble GCM experiments. Both are setup identical to the historical forced (anthropogenic plus natural) scenario used in version 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, but in one experiment we also add water to the land surface using a dataset of historically estimated irrigation rates. Irrigation has a negligible effect on the global average radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere, but causes significant cooling of global average surface air temperatures over land and dampens regional warming trends. This cooling is regionally focused and is especially strong in Western North America, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Asia. Irrigation enhances cloud cover and precipitation in these same regions, except for summer in parts of Monsoon Asia, where irrigation causes a reduction in monsoon season precipitation. Irrigation cools the surface, reducing upward fluxes of longwave radiation (increasing net longwave), and increases cloud cover, enhancing shortwave reflection (reducing net shortwave). The relative magnitude of these two processes causes regional increases (northern India) or decreases (Central Asia, China) in energy availability at the surface and top of the atmosphere. Despite these changes in net radiation, however, climate responses are due primarily to larger magnitude shifts in the Bowen ratio from sensible to latent heating. Irrigation impacts on temperature, precipitation, and other climate variables are regionally significant, even while other anthropogenic forcings (anthropogenic aerosols

  4. Irrigation As an Historical Climate Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, B.; Puma, M. J.; McDermid, S. P.; Nazarenko, L.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigation is the single largest anthropogenic water use, a modification of the land surface that significantly affects surface energy budgets, the water cycle, and climate. Irrigation, however, is typically not included in standard historical general circulation model (GCM) simulations along with other anthropogenic and natural forcings. To investigate the importance of irrigation as an anthropogenic climate forcing, we conduct two 5-member ensemble GCM experiments. Both are setup identical to the historical forced (anthropogenic plus natural) scenario used in version 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, but in one experiment we also add water to the land surface using a dataset of historically estimated irrigation rates. Irrigation has a negligible effect on the global average radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere, but causes significant cooling of global average surface air temperatures over land and dampens regional warming trends. This cooling is regionally focused and is especially strong in Western North America, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Asia. Irrigation enhances cloud cover and precipitation in these same regions, except for summer in parts of Monsoon Asia, where irrigation causes a reduction in monsoon season precipitation. Irrigation cools the surface, reducing upward fluxes of longwave radiation (increasing net longwave), and increases cloud cover, enhancing shortwave reflection (reducing net shortwave). The relative magnitude of these two processes causes regional increases (northern India) or decreases (Central Asia, China) in energy availability at the surface and top of the atmosphere. Despite these changes in net radiation, however, climate responses are due primarily to larger magnitude shifts in the Bowen ratio from sensible to latent heating. Irrigation impacts on temperature, precipitation, and other climate variables are regionally significant, even while other anthropogenic forcings (anthropogenic aerosols

  5. Stimuli associated with the cancellation of food and its cues enhance eating but display negative incentive value

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Initially neutral conditioned stimuli paired with food often acquire motivating properties, including serving as secondary reinforcers, enhancing instrumental responding in Pavlovian-instrumental transfer procedures and potentiating food consumption under conditions of food satiation. Interestingly, cues associated with the cancellation of food and food cues may also potentiate food consumption (e.g., Galarce and Holland, 2009), despite their apparent negative correlations with food delivery. In three experiments with rats, we investigated conditions under which potentiation of feeding by such “interruption stimuIi” (ISs) develops, and some aspects of the content of that learning. Although in all three experiments ISs enhanced food consumption beyond control levels, they were found to act as conditioned inhibitors for anticipatory food cup entry (Experiment 1), to serve as conditioned punishers of instrumental responding (Experiment 2), and to suppress instrumental lever press responding in a Pavlovian instrumental transfer procedure (Experiment 3). Furthermore, when given concurrent choice between different foods, an IS enhanced consumption of the food whose interruption it had previously signaled, but when given a choice between performing two instrumental responses, the IS shifted rats' choice away from the response that had previously yielded the food whose interruption had been signaled by IS (Experiment 3). Thus, the effects of an IS on appetitive responses were opposite to its effects on consummatory responding. Implications for our understanding of learned incentive motivation and the control of overeating are discussed. PMID:25209534

  6. Stimuli associated with the cancellation of food and its cues enhance eating but display negative incentive value.

    PubMed

    Holland, Peter C

    2014-12-01

    Initially neutral conditioned stimuli paired with food often acquire motivating properties, including serving as secondary reinforcers, enhancing instrumental responding in Pavlovian-instrumental transfer procedures, and potentiating food consumption under conditions of food satiation. Interestingly, cues associated with the cancellation of food and food cues may also potentiate food consumption (e.g., Galarce and Holland, 2009), despite their apparent negative correlations with food delivery. In three experiments with rats, we investigated conditions under which potentiation of feeding by such "interruption stimuIi" (ISs) develops, and some aspects of the content of that learning. Although in all three experiments ISs enhanced food consumption beyond control levels, they were found to act as conditioned inhibitors for anticipatory food cup entry (Experiment 1), to serve as conditioned punishers of instrumental responding (Experiment 2), and to suppress instrumental lever press responding in a Pavlovian instrumental transfer procedure (Experiment 3). Furthermore, when given concurrent choice between different foods, an IS enhanced consumption of the food whose interruption it had previously signaled, but when given a choice between performing two instrumental responses, the IS shifted rats' choice away from the response that had previously yielded the food whose interruption had been signaled by IS (Experiment 3). Thus, the effects of an IS on appetitive responses were opposite to its effects on consummatory responding. Implications for our understanding of learned incentive motivation and the control of overeating are discussed.

  7. Afghanistan irrigation system assessment using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haack, Barry

    1997-01-01

    The Helmand-Arghandab Valley irrigation system in southern Afghanistan is one of the country's most important capital resources. Prior to the civil and military conflict that has engulfed Afghanistan for more than 15 years, agricultural lands irrigated by the system produced a large proportion of the country's food grains and cotton. This study successfully employed Landsat satellite imagery, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Global Positioning Systems (GPS), and field surveys to assess changes that have occurred in this system since 1973 as a consequence of the war. This information is a critical step in irrigation rehabilitation for restoration of Afghanistan's agricultural productivity.

  8. Dopaminergic enhancement of local food-seeking is under global homeostatic control.

    PubMed

    Beeler, Jeff A; Frazier, Cristianne R M; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2012-01-01

    Recent work has implicated dopaminergic mechanisms in overeating and obesity with some researchers suggesting parallels between the dopamine dysregulation associated with addiction and an analogous dysregulation in obesity. The precise role of dopamine in mediating reward and reinforcement, however, remains controversial. In contrast to drugs of abuse, pursuit of a natural reward, such as food, is regulated by homeostatic processes that putatively maintain a stable energy balance keeping unrestrained consumption and reward pursuit in check. Understanding how the reward system is constrained by or escapes homeostatic regulation is a critical question. The widespread use of food restriction to motivate animal subjects in behavior paradigms precludes investigation of this relationship as the homeostatic system is locked into deficit mode. In the present study, we examined the role of dopamine in modulating adaptive feeding behavior in semi-naturalistic homecage paradigms where mice earn all of their food from lever pressing. We compared consumption and meal patterning between hyperdopaminergic dopamine transporter knock-down and wild-type mice in two paradigms that introduce escalating costs for procuring food. We found that hyperdopaminergic mice exhibited similar demand elasticity, weight loss and energy balance in response to cost. However, the dopamine transporter knock-down mice showed clear differences in meal patterning. Consistent with expectations of enhanced motivation, elevated dopamine increased the meal size and reduced intrameal cost sensitivity. Nonetheless, this did not alter the overall energy balance. We conclude that elevated dopamine enhances the incentive or willingness to work locally within meals without shifting the energy balance, enhancing global food-seeking or generating an energy surplus.

  9. Molecular design of seed storage proteins for enhanced food physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Tandang-Silvas, Mary Rose G; Tecson-Mendoza, Evelyn Mae; Mikami, Bunzo; Utsumi, Shigeru; Maruyama, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Seed storage proteins such as soybean globulins have been nutritionally and functionally valuable in the food industry. Protein structure-function studies are valuable in modifying proteins for enhanced functionality. Recombinant technology and protein engineering are two of the tools in biotechnology that have been used in producing soybean proteins with better gelling property, solubility, and emulsifying ability. This article reviews the molecular basis for the logical and precise protein designs that are important in obtaining the desired improved physicochemical properties.

  10. Activation of Pyramidal Neurons in Mouse Medial Prefrontal Cortex Enhances Food-Seeking Behavior While Reducing Impulsivity in the Absence of an Effect on Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Warthen, Daniel M.; Lambeth, Philip S.; Ottolini, Matteo; Shi, Yingtang; Barker, Bryan Scot; Gaykema, Ronald P.; Newmyer, Brandon A.; Joy-Gaba, Jonathan; Ohmura, Yu; Perez-Reyes, Edward; Güler, Ali D.; Patel, Manoj K.; Scott, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is involved in a wide range of executive cognitive functions, including reward evaluation, decision-making, memory extinction, mood, and task switching. Manipulation of the mPFC has been shown to alter food intake and food reward valuation, but whether exclusive stimulation of mPFC pyramidal neurons (PN), which form the principle output of the mPFC, is sufficient to mediate food rewarded instrumental behavior is unknown. We sought to determine the behavioral consequences of manipulating mPFC output by exciting PN in mouse mPFC during performance of a panel of behavioral assays, focusing on food reward. We found that increasing mPFC pyramidal cell output using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) enhanced performance in instrumental food reward assays that assess food seeking behavior, while sparing effects on affect and food intake. Specifically, activation of mPFC PN enhanced operant responding for food reward, reinstatement of palatable food seeking, and suppression of impulsive responding for food reward. Conversely, activation of mPFC PN had no effect on unconditioned food intake, social interaction, or behavior in an open field. Furthermore, we found that behavioral outcome is influenced by the degree of mPFC activation, with a low drive sufficient to enhance operant responding and a higher drive required to alter impulsivity. Additionally, we provide data demonstrating that DREADD stimulation involves a nitric oxide (NO) synthase dependent pathway, similar to endogenous muscarinic M3 receptor stimulation, a finding that provides novel mechanistic insight into an increasingly widespread method of remote neuronal control. PMID:27065827

  11. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-01

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  12. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-25

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  13. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-25

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety. PMID:25300041

  14. Irrigation water sources and irrigation application methods used by U.S. plant nursery producers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Krishna P.; Pandit, Mahesh; Hinson, Roger

    2016-02-01

    We examine irrigation water sources and irrigation methods used by U.S. nursery plant producers using nested multinomial fractional regression models. We use data collected from the National Nursery Survey (2009) to identify effects of different firm and sales characteristics on the fraction of water sources and irrigation methods used. We find that regions, sales of plants types, farm income, and farm age have significant roles in what water source is used. Given the fraction of alternative water sources used, results indicated that use of computer, annual sales, region, and the number of IPM practices adopted play an important role in the choice of irrigation method. Based on the findings from this study, government can provide subsidies to nursery producers in water deficit regions to adopt drip irrigation method or use recycled water or combination of both. Additionally, encouraging farmers to adopt IPM may enhance the use of drip irrigation and recycled water in nursery plant production.

  15. Water savings potentials of irrigation systems: global simulation of processes and linkages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jägermeyr, J.; Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Schaphoff, S.; Kummu, M.; Lucht, W.

    2015-07-01

    Global agricultural production is heavily sustained by irrigation, but irrigation system efficiencies are often surprisingly low. However, our knowledge of irrigation efficiencies is mostly confined to rough indicative estimates for countries or regions that do not account for spatiotemporal heterogeneity due to climate and other biophysical dependencies. To allow for refined estimates of global agricultural water use, and of water saving and water productivity potentials constrained by biophysical processes and also non-trivial downstream effects, we incorporated a process-based representation of the three major irrigation systems (surface, sprinkler, and drip) into a bio- and agrosphere model, LPJmL. Based on this enhanced model we provide a gridded world map of irrigation efficiencies that are calculated in direct linkage to differences in system types, crop types, climatic and hydrologic conditions, and overall crop management. We find pronounced regional patterns in beneficial irrigation efficiency (a refined irrigation efficiency indicator accounting for crop-productive water consumption only), due to differences in these features, with the lowest values (< 30 %) in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa and the highest values (> 60 %) in Europe and North America. We arrive at an estimate of global irrigation water withdrawal of 2469 km3 (2004-2009 average); irrigation water consumption is calculated to be 1257 km3, of which 608 km3 are non-beneficially consumed, i.e., lost through evaporation, interception, and conveyance. Replacing surface systems by sprinkler or drip systems could, on average across the world's river basins, reduce the non-beneficial consumption at river basin level by 54 and 76 %, respectively, while maintaining the current level of crop yields. Accordingly, crop water productivity would increase by 9 and 15 %, respectively, and by much more in specific regions such as in the Indus basin. This study significantly advances the global

  16. Sediment and nutrient losses from an irrigated watershed.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjorneberg, D.; Ippolito, J.

    2011-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture is an essential part of stable food and fiber production. However, water returning from irrigated watersheds can contain excess sediment, nutrients and salts. Applying polyacrylamide to furrow irrigated fields reduces erosion 60 to 90%. Converting from furrow irrigation to sprinkler irrigation eliminates planned irrigation runoff necessary for uniform water application. Installing sediment ponds removes 50 to 80% of the suspended sediment from water before it flows back to major water bodies. In southern Idaho, irrigation watershed monitoring showed that implementing these conservation practices has reduced average suspended sediment loss from 460 kg/ha in 1970 to less than 100 kg/ha in 2005. These practices, however, have had less effect on soluble nutrients. Median nitrate concentrations have almost doubled from 1970 to 2005. Current research is focusing on identifying practices to reduce soluble nutrient losses.

  17. Historical influence of irrigation on climate extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiery, Wim; Davin, Edouard L.; Lawrence, Dave; Hauser, Mathias; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-04-01

    Land irrigation is an essential practice sustaining global food production and many regional economies. During the last decades, irrigation amounts have been growing rapidly. Emerging scientific evidence indicates that land irrigation substantially affects mean climate conditions in different regions of the world. However, a thorough understanding of the impact of irrigation on extreme climatic conditions, such as heat waves, droughts or intense precipitation, is currently still lacking. In this context, we aim to assess the historical influence of irrigation on the occurrence of climate extremes. To this end, two simulations are conducted over the period 1910-2010 with a state-of-the-art global climate model (the Community Earth System Model, CESM): a control simulation including all major anthropogenic and natural external forcings except for irrigation and a second experiment with transient irrigation enabled. The two simulations are evaluated for their ability to represent (i) hot, dry and wet extremes using the HadEX2 and ERA-Interim datasets as a reference, and (ii) latent heat fluxes using LandFlux-EVAL. Assuming a linear combination of climatic responses to different forcings, the difference between both experiments approximates the influence of irrigation. We will analyse the impact of irrigation on a number of climate indices reflecting the intensity and duration of heat waves. Thereby, particular attention is given to the role of soil moisture changes in modulating climate extremes. Furthermore, the contribution of individual biogeophysical processes to the total impact of irrigation on hot extremes is quantified by application of a surface energy balance decomposition technique to the 90th and 99th percentile surface temperature changes.

  18. Irrigation strategies using subsurface drip irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is practiced on approximately 60,000 ha in the Texas High Plains region of the USA. Adoption of SDI continues to increase in the region. This has been attributed to record drought in Texas and the US Southwest in recent years, declining irrigation well yields, and ev...

  19. Analysis of the impacts of well yield and groundwater depth on irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, T.; Brozović, N.; Butler, A. P.

    2015-04-01

    Previous research has found that irrigation water demand is relatively insensitive to water price, suggesting that increased pumping costs due to declining groundwater levels will have limited effects on agricultural water management practices. However, non-linear changes in well yields as aquifer saturated thickness is reduced may have large impacts on irrigated production that are currently neglected in projections of the long-term sustainability of groundwater-fed irrigation. We conduct empirical analysis of observation data and numerical simulations for case studies in Nebraska, USA, to compare the impacts of changes in well yield and groundwater depth on agricultural production. Our findings suggest that declining well pumping capacities reduce irrigated production areas and profits significantly, whereas increased pumping costs reduce profits but have minimal impacts on the intensity of groundwater-fed irrigation. We suggest, therefore, that management of the dynamic relationship between well yield and saturated thickness should be a core component of policies designed to enhance long-term food security and support adaptation to climate change.

  20. Irrigation Monitoring Project Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrie, Gregory; Berglund, Judith; Ryan, Robert; Harrington, Gary; Stewart, Randy; Spiering, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate remote sensing requirements for irrigation scheduling to define future systems. Temperature-based crop stress indicators have been developed that could be used for irrigation management. This viewgraph presentation describes an experiment to use airborne and satellite thermal imagery to evaulate the water requirements of irrigated crops.

  1. Surface drip irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For many years, surface drip irrigation has been used to irrigation high value vegetable crops. In recent years, surface drip of row crops has been increasing throughout the United States. Surface drip irrigation can precisely deliver water and nutrients to the crop root zone. This article provides ...

  2. Limiting resources in sessile systems: food enhances diversity and growth of suspension feeders despite available space.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Robin J; Marshall, Dustin J

    2015-03-01

    Much of our understanding of competition comes trom onservations in sessue systems, such as rainforests and marine invertebrate communities. In terrestrial systems, sessile species often compete for multiple limiting resources (i.e., space, light, and nutrients), but in marine systems, space is viewed as the primary or sole limiting resource. Competition theory, on the other hand, suggests that competition for a single limiting resource is unlikely to maintain high species diversity, but manipulative tests of competition for other resources in marine benthic systems are exceedingly rare. Here, we manipulate the availability of food for a classic system, marine sessile invertebrate communities, and investigate the effects on species diversity, abundance, and composition during early succession as well as on the growth of bryozoan populations in the field. We found the number of species to be greater, available space to be lower, and the community composition to be different in assemblages subjected to increased food availability compared to controls. Similarly, laboratory-settled bryozoans deployed into the field grew more in the presence of enhanced food. Our results suggest that food can act as a limiting resource, affecting both diversity and abundance, even when bare space is still available in hard-substratum communities. Consequently, broadening the view of resource limitation beyond solely space may increase our understanding and predictability of marine sessile systems.

  3. Limiting resources in sessile systems: food enhances diversity and growth of suspension feeders despite available space.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Robin J; Marshall, Dustin J

    2015-03-01

    Much of our understanding of competition comes trom onservations in sessue systems, such as rainforests and marine invertebrate communities. In terrestrial systems, sessile species often compete for multiple limiting resources (i.e., space, light, and nutrients), but in marine systems, space is viewed as the primary or sole limiting resource. Competition theory, on the other hand, suggests that competition for a single limiting resource is unlikely to maintain high species diversity, but manipulative tests of competition for other resources in marine benthic systems are exceedingly rare. Here, we manipulate the availability of food for a classic system, marine sessile invertebrate communities, and investigate the effects on species diversity, abundance, and composition during early succession as well as on the growth of bryozoan populations in the field. We found the number of species to be greater, available space to be lower, and the community composition to be different in assemblages subjected to increased food availability compared to controls. Similarly, laboratory-settled bryozoans deployed into the field grew more in the presence of enhanced food. Our results suggest that food can act as a limiting resource, affecting both diversity and abundance, even when bare space is still available in hard-substratum communities. Consequently, broadening the view of resource limitation beyond solely space may increase our understanding and predictability of marine sessile systems. PMID:26236877

  4. Detection of chemical residues in food oil via surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kexi; Huang, Qing

    2016-05-01

    Highly ordered hexagonally patterned Ag-nanorod (Ag-NR) arrays for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of unhealthy chemical residues in food oil was reported, which was obtained by sputtering Ag on the alumina nanotip arrays stuck out of conical-pore anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. SERS measurements demonstrate that the as-fabricated large-scale Ag-nanostructures can serve as highly sensitive and reproducible SERS substrates for detection of trace amount of chemicals in oil with the lower detection limits of 2×10-6 M for thiram and 10-7 M for rhodamine B, showing the potential of application of SERS in rapid trace detection of pesticide residues and illegal additives in food oils.

  5. Residual pesticide detection on food with particle-enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, Bikas; Huang, LiChuan; Masui, Kyoko; Saito, Yuika; Verma, Prabhat

    2014-08-01

    Modern farming relies highly on pesticides to protect agricultural food items from insects for high yield and better quality. Increasing use of pesticide has raised concern about its harmful effects on human health and hence it has become very important to detect even small amount of pesticide residues. Raman spectroscopy is a suitable nondestructive method for pesticide detection, however, it is not very effective for low concentration of pesticide molecules. Here, we report an approach based on plasmonic enhancement, namely, particle enhanced Raman spectroscopy (PERS), which is rapid, nondestructive and sensitive. In this technique, Raman signals are enhanced via the resonance excitation of localized plasmons in metallic nanoparticles. Gold nanostructures are promising materials that have ability to tune surface plasmon resonance frequency in visible to near-IR, which depends on shape and size of nanostructures. We synthesized gold nanorods (GNRs) with desired shape and size by seed mediated growth method, and successfully detected very tiny amount of pesticide present on food items. We also conformed that the detection of pesticide was not possible by usual Raman spectroscopy.

  6. Gold nanoparticle-based enhanced chemiluminescence immunosensor for detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB) in food

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Minghui; Kostov, Yordan; Bruck, Hugh A.; Rasooly, Avraham

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are major cause of foodborne diseases, so sensitive detection (<1 ng/ml) methods are needed for SE detection in food. The surface area, geometric and physical properties of gold nanoparticles make them well-suited for enhancing interactions with biological molecules in assays. To take advantage of the properties of gold nanoparticles for immunodetection, we have developed a gold nanoparticle-based enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor for detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB) in food. Anti-SEB primary antibodies were immobilized onto a gold nanoparticle surface through physical adsorption and then the antibody–gold nanoparticle mixture was immobilized onto a polycarbonate surface. SEB was detected by a “sandwich-type” ELISA assay on the polycarbonate surface with a secondary antibody and ECL detection. The signal from ECL was read using a point-of-care detector based on a cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor or a plate reader. The system was used to test for SEB in buffer and various foods (mushrooms, tomatoes, and baby food meat). The limit of detection was found to be ~0.01 ng/mL, which is ~10 times more sensitive than traditional ELISA. The gold nanoparticles were relatively easy to use for antibody immobilization because of their physical adsorption mechanism; no other reagents were required for immobilization. The use of our simple and inexpensive detector combined with the gold nanoparticle-based ECL method described here is adaptable to simplify and increase sensitivity of any immunological assay and for point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:19540011

  7. Status and migration of irrigation in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigated agriculture produces 49% of crop market value on 18% of cropped lands in the USA. Irrigation is essential to the most highly productive, intensely managed, and internationally competitive sectors of our agricultural economy, which play a key role in meeting growing global food, fiber, and ...

  8. Maize and sunflower root distribution in response to deficit irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to meet world demand for food under anticipated water shortages, we need to increase crop productivity per evapotranspiration (ET), not just the amount of irrigation applied in agricultural systems. Quantifying root distribution in response to deficit irrigation is crucial to mechanistical...

  9. Bacterial adherence to urothelium following bladder irrigation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Iversen, P; Madsen, P O

    1982-01-01

    We investigated the effects of bladder irrigation with various irrigation fluids at various temperatures and irrigation pressures on the adherence of 3H-labeled Escherichia coli O6 to bladder urothelium in a rat model. Sixty-four control and 108 experimental animals were studied. The latter were divided into five groups according to type of irrigation fluid (glycine 1.5%, sorbitol 2.7%, mannitol 0.54%, and H2O), fluid temperature, and intravesical pressure during irrigation. Only rats undergoing high pressure (60 cm H2O) bladder irrigation demonstrated significant increases in bacterial adherence compared to controls. No differences were found with the different irrigation fluids. This study suggests that high intravesical pressure during transurethral surgery might enhance bacterial adherence to urothelium and thereby increase the risk of manifest infection in the postoperative course. PMID:6807847

  10. Mediterranean agriculture: More efficient irrigation needed to compensate increases in future irrigation water requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fader, Marianela; Shi, Sinan; von Bloh, Werner; Bondeau, Alberte; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. Our research shows that, at present, Mediterranean region could save 35% of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries like Syria, Egypt and Turkey have higher saving potentials than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume in average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops (1). Also under climate change, more efficient irrigation is of vital importance for counteracting increases in irrigation water requirements. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4% and 18% from climate change alone by the end of the century if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved. Population growth increases these numbers to 22% and 74%, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to compensate to some degree the increases due to climate change and population growth. Both subregions would need around 35% more water than today if they could afford some degree of modernization of irrigation and conveyance systems and benefit from the CO2-fertilization effect (1). However, in some scenarios (in this case as combinations of climate change, irrigation technology, influence of population growth and CO2-fertilization effect) water scarcity may constrain the supply of the irrigation water needed in future in Algeria, Libya, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Serbia, Morocco, Tunisia and Spain (1). In this study, vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL ("Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land") after a

  11. Sensitive detection of Ochratoxin A in food and drinks using metal-enhanced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Todescato, Francesco; Antognoli, Agnese; Meneghello, Anna; Cretaio, Erica; Signorini, Raffaella; Bozio, Renato

    2014-07-15

    Easy, sensitive, rapid and low cost ochratoxin biosensors are strongly demanded in food analysis since Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widely diffused food contaminant, highly detrimental for human health. In this work, a novel plasmonic based optical biosensor prototype for ochratoxin A is described. It exploits the metal-enhanced fluorescence phenomenon due to the silver film over nanosphere plasmonic substrate. Since ochratoxin A could be present in different food commodities, sensor performances have been tested on three different matrices (dried milk, juices, and wheat mix). Firstly, a common OTA extraction solvent and a labeling and detection protocol were defined for the analyzed matrices. Then, the efficiency of the Ag-FON surfaces in signal amplification for the detection of low ochratoxin A concentrations was defined. Using samples spiked with OTA-AF 647 or with unlabeled OTA we were able to detect the mycotoxin at concentrations lower than E.U. specifications of 0.5 μg/kg in wheat, milk and apple juice. The test performances are comparable to those of ELISA kits but the platform presented here, once optimized, present some perspective advantages, such as: low cost and time consuming, versatility of the protocol for the investigation of different matrices, employment also in non-qualified laboratories, small dimensions that allow its integration in a compact device for OTA on-site detection. PMID:24583316

  12. Sensitive detection of Ochratoxin A in food and drinks using metal-enhanced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Todescato, Francesco; Antognoli, Agnese; Meneghello, Anna; Cretaio, Erica; Signorini, Raffaella; Bozio, Renato

    2014-07-15

    Easy, sensitive, rapid and low cost ochratoxin biosensors are strongly demanded in food analysis since Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widely diffused food contaminant, highly detrimental for human health. In this work, a novel plasmonic based optical biosensor prototype for ochratoxin A is described. It exploits the metal-enhanced fluorescence phenomenon due to the silver film over nanosphere plasmonic substrate. Since ochratoxin A could be present in different food commodities, sensor performances have been tested on three different matrices (dried milk, juices, and wheat mix). Firstly, a common OTA extraction solvent and a labeling and detection protocol were defined for the analyzed matrices. Then, the efficiency of the Ag-FON surfaces in signal amplification for the detection of low ochratoxin A concentrations was defined. Using samples spiked with OTA-AF 647 or with unlabeled OTA we were able to detect the mycotoxin at concentrations lower than E.U. specifications of 0.5 μg/kg in wheat, milk and apple juice. The test performances are comparable to those of ELISA kits but the platform presented here, once optimized, present some perspective advantages, such as: low cost and time consuming, versatility of the protocol for the investigation of different matrices, employment also in non-qualified laboratories, small dimensions that allow its integration in a compact device for OTA on-site detection.

  13. Genetic engineering of crops: a ray of hope for enhanced food security.

    PubMed

    Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Gill, Ritu; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2014-01-01

    Crop improvement has been a basic and essential chase since organized cultivation of crops began thousands of years ago. Abiotic stresses as a whole are regarded as the crucial factors restricting the plant species to reach their full genetic potential to deliver desired productivity. The changing global climatic conditions are making them worse and pointing toward food insecurity. Agriculture biotechnology or genetic engineering has allowed us to look into and understand the complex nature of abiotic stresses and measures to improve the crop productivity under adverse conditions. Various candidate genes have been identified and transformed in model plants as well as agriculturally important crop plants to develop abiotic stress-tolerant plants for crop improvement. The views presented here are an attempt toward realizing the potential of genetic engineering for improving crops to better tolerate abiotic stresses in the era of climate change, which is now essential for global food security. There is great urgency in speeding up crop improvement programs that can use modern biotechnological tools in addition to current breeding practices for providing enhanced food security.

  14. Mediterranean irrigation under climate change: more efficient irrigation needed to compensate for increases in irrigation water requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fader, M.; Shi, S.; von Bloh, W.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.

    2016-03-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. This study systematically assesses how climate change and increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations may affect irrigation requirements in the Mediterranean region by 2080-2090. Future demographic change and technological improvements in irrigation systems are taken into account, as is the spread of climate forcing, warming levels and potential realization of the CO2-fertilization effect. Vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL (Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land) after an extensive development that comprised the improved representation of Mediterranean crops. At present the Mediterranean region could save 35 % of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries such as Syria, Egypt and Turkey have a higher savings potential than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume on average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops. Different crops show different magnitudes of changes in net irrigation requirements due to climate change, the increases being most pronounced in agricultural trees. The Mediterranean area as a whole may face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4 and 18 % from climate change alone if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved (4 and 18 % with 2 °C global warming combined with the full CO2-fertilization effect and 5 °C global warming combined with no CO2-fertilization effect, respectively). Population growth increases these numbers to 22 and 74 %, respectively, affecting mainly the southern and eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have a large water saving potential, especially in the eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to

  15. Biofortification of mungbean (Vigna radiata) as a whole food to enhance human health.

    PubMed

    Nair, Ramakrishnan M; Yang, Ray-Yu; Easdown, Warwick J; Thavarajah, Dil; Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Hughes, Jacqueline d'A; Keatinge, J D H Dyno

    2013-06-01

    Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata) is one of the most important pulse crops grown in South, East and Southeast Asia. It provides significant amounts of protein (240 g kg(-1)) and carbohydrate (630 g kg(-1)) and a range of micronutrients in diets. Mungbean protein and carbohydrate are easily digestible and create less flatulence than proteins derived from other legumes. In addition, mungbean is lower in phytic acid (72% of total phosphorus content) than pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.), soybean (Glycine max L.) and cereals; phytic acid is commonly found in cereal and legume crops and has a negative impact on iron and zinc bioavailability in plant-based diets. Owing to its palatable taste and nutritional quality, mungbean has been used as an iron-rich whole food source for baby food. The wide genetic variability of mineral concentrations (e.g. 0.03-0.06 g Fe kg(-1), 0.02-0.04 g Zn kg(-1)) in mungbean indicates possibilities to improve its micronutrient content through biofortification. Therefore biofortification of existing mungbean varieties has great potential for enhancing the nutritional quality of diets in South and Southeast Asia, where protein and micronutrient malnutrition are among the highest in the world. This review paper discusses the importance of mungbean in agricultural production and traditional diets and the potential of enhancing the nutritional quality of mungbean through breeding and other means, including agronomic practices. PMID:23426879

  16. Sucrose mixed with spinosad enhances kill and reduces oviposition of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) under low-food conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whether sugar mixed with insecticides enhances kill of western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), may depend on insecticide rate and food availability. Here, the hypothesis that sucrose mixed with the insecticide spinosad (in the Entrust® SC formulation) enhance...

  17. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce harvested from fields irrigated by different irrigation systems and stored under different conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks associated with the consumption of leafy greens have increased food safety concerns in the food industry. Irrigation water could be a major potential source of microbial contamination to vegetables. The potential for irrigation water to contaminate vegetables with ...

  18. Root Zone Sensors for Irrigation Management in Intensive Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Pardossi, Alberto; Incrocci, Luca; Incrocci, Giorgio; Malorgio, Fernando; Battista, Piero; Bacci, Laura; Rapi, Bernardo; Marzialetti, Paolo; Hemming, Jochen; Balendonck, Jos

    2009-01-01

    Crop irrigation uses more than 70% of the world’s water, and thus, improving irrigation efficiency is decisive to sustain the food demand from a fast-growing world population. This objective may be accomplished by cultivating more water-efficient crop species and/or through the application of efficient irrigation systems, which includes the implementation of a suitable method for precise scheduling. At the farm level, irrigation is generally scheduled based on the grower’s experience or on the determination of soil water balance (weather-based method). An alternative approach entails the measurement of soil water status. Expensive and sophisticated root zone sensors (RZS), such as neutron probes, are available for the use of soil and plant scientists, while cheap and practical devices are needed for irrigation management in commercial crops. The paper illustrates the main features of RZS’ (for both soil moisture and salinity) marketed for the irrigation industry and discusses how such sensors may be integrated in a wireless network for computer-controlled irrigation and used for innovative irrigation strategies, such as deficit or dual-water irrigation. The paper also consider the main results of recent or current research works conducted by the authors in Tuscany (Italy) on the irrigation management of container-grown ornamental plants, which is an important agricultural sector in Italy. PMID:22574047

  19. Comparison of Irrigation Water Use Estimates Calculated from Remotely Sensed Irrigated Acres and State Reported Irrigated Acres in the Lake Altus Drainage Basin, Oklahoma and Texas, 2000 Growing Season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masoner, J.R.; Mladinich, C.S.; Konduris, A.M.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2003-01-01

    Increased demand for water in the Lake Altus drainage basin requires more accurate estimates of water use for irrigation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, is investigating new techniques to improve water-use estimates for irrigation purposes in the Lake Altus drainage basin. Empirical estimates of reference evapotranspiration, crop evapotranspiration, and crop irrigation water requirements for nine major crops were calculated from September 1999 to October 2000 using a solar radiation-based evapotranspiration model. Estimates of irrigation water use were calculated using remotely sensed irrigated crop acres derived from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery and were compared with irrigation water-use estimates calculated from irrigated crop acres reported by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and the Texas Water Development Board for the 2000 growing season. The techniques presented will help manage water resources in the Lake Altus drainage basin and may be transferable to other areas with similar water management needs. Irrigation water use calculated from the remotely sensed irrigated acres was estimated at 154,920 acre-feet; whereas, irrigation water use calculated from state reported irrigated crop acres was 196,026 acre-feet, a 23 percent difference. The greatest difference in irrigation water use was in Carson County, Texas. Irrigation water use for Carson County, Texas, calculated from the remotely sensed irrigated acres was 58,555 acrefeet; whereas, irrigation water use calculated from state reported irrigated acres was 138,180 acre-feet, an 81 percent difference. The second greatest difference in irrigation water use occurred in Beckham County, Oklahoma. Differences between the two irrigation water use estimates are due to the differences of irrigated crop acres derived from the mapping process and those reported by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and Texas Water Development Board.

  20. How does irrigation modulate regional climate under wet and dry conditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, L.; Moore, N. J.; Zhong, S. S.; Kendall, A. D.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    Nationwide, the impacts of irrigation on summer (June-July-August) weather over the United States are examined for a pair of unusually wet (2010) and dry (2012) years using an integrated regional climate-irrigation modeling system based on the WRF-Noah-Mosaic framework. A novel irrigation scheme was developed for WRF to mimic center pivot irrigation practices for farmlands across the U.S., over areas defined using MODIS-based irrigation extent data. Results show that this new irrigation approach can dynamically generate irrigation water amounts that are in good agreement with the observed irrigation water use estimates across the High Plains, a region where the prescribed parameters in the irrigation scheme best match actual irrigation practice. Synoptic conditions are significantly altered by the simulated irrigation under both wet and dry conditions, but in different patterns. For the dry summer, irrigation helps strengthen the dominant continental high pressure system in the central U.S. and favors the downwind transport of moisture generated over irrigated lands, contributing to increased downwind rainfall. For the wet summer, the cyclonic vortex system is deepened by irrigation in the central U.S. along the Great Plains low-level jet corridor, enhancing rainfall locally over the heavily irrigated lands. In both cases, introducing irrigation into the model reduced overall mean biases and root-mean-square errors in the simulated daily precipitation over the entire United States. This highlights the importance of integrating anthropogenic influences on the land surface in regional climate modeling.

  1. From rainfed agriculture to stress-avoidance irrigation: I. A generalized irrigation scheme with stochastic soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vico, Giulia; Porporato, Amilcare

    2011-02-01

    With vast regions already experiencing water shortages, it is becoming imperative to manage sustainably the available water resources. As agriculture is by far the most important user of freshwater and the role of irrigation is projected to increase in face of climate change and increased food requirements, it is particularly important to develop simple, widely applicable models of irrigation water needs for short- and long-term water resource management. Such models should synthetically provide the key irrigation quantities (volumes, frequencies, etc.) for different irrigation schemes as a function of the main soil, crop, and climatic features, including rainfall unpredictability. Here we consider often-employed irrigation methods (e.g., surface and sprinkler irrigation systems, as well as modern micro-irrigation techniques) and describe them under a unified conceptual and theoretical framework, which includes rainfed agriculture and stress-avoidance irrigation as extreme cases. We obtain mostly analytical solutions for the stochastic steady state of soil moisture probability density function with random rainfall timing and amount, and compute water requirements as a function of climate, crop, and soil parameters. These results provide the necessary starting point for a full assessment of irrigation strategies, with reference to sustainability, productivity, and profitability, developed in a companion paper [Vico G, Porporato A. From rainfed agriculture to stress-avoidance irrigation: II. Sustainability, crop yield, and net profit. Adv Water Resour 2011;34(2):272-81].

  2. Comparative study of heavy metals in "soil-wheat" systems between sewage-irrigated areas and clean-water-irrigated areas in suburban Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ye; Han, Sha-Sha; Chen, Zhi-Fan; Liu, Jing; Hu, Honq-Xia

    2015-01-01

    After years of irrigating farmland with wastewater, concern is increasing about health risks from heavy metals contaminating wheat grown in sewage-irrigated soils in suburban areas of Beijing, China. The study discussed in this article aimed to compare the characteristics of heavy metal distribution in a sewage-irrigated "soil-wheat" system with those from a clean-water-irrigated area by collecting and analyzing samples from both areas. The results indicated that the average concentrations of copper, chromium, lead, and zinc in sewage-irrigated soil were higher than the values in the clean-water-irrigated region. Irrigation with wastewater could lead to increased bioconcentration factors. Therefore, issues of food contamination caused by sewage irrigation deserve more attention.

  3. The occurrence of heavy metals in irrigated and non-irrigated arable soils, NW Albania.

    PubMed

    Kasa, Elian; Felix-Henningsen, Peter; Duering, Rolf-Alexander; Gjoka, Fran

    2014-06-01

    The study analysed the content of heavy metals in surface soil and sediment samples from the Bregu i Matit Plain in NW Albania in relation to irrigation in order to evaluate the soil pollution and the potential risk to human health. Evaluation of soil pollution was performed using the enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index. Contents of cadmium, chromium and nickel of irrigated soils were significantly higher than those of non-irrigated soil, while contents of lead (in three of the irrigated locations), zinc and arsenic (in one of the irrigated locations) were significantly lower. Correlation analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the primary source of the first three metals was irrigation, and the last three metals were originated from other anthropic sources, like the use of chemicals, etc. Enrichment factor (E f) calculation showed that irrigated soils were most enriched in cadmium, chromium, copper and nickel. Index of geo-accumulation (I geo) revealed that arable soils of Bregu i Matit are unpolluted to moderately polluted with cadmium, chromium, copper and zinc and moderately to strongly polluted with nickel and arsenic. The presence of heavy metals in the studied soils indicates a potential risk of transfer of these elements in the food chain. Therefore, further studies on the speciation of heavy metals in the studied soils in order to evaluate their mobility are needed. PMID:24519635

  4. The occurrence of heavy metals in irrigated and non-irrigated arable soils, NW Albania.

    PubMed

    Kasa, Elian; Felix-Henningsen, Peter; Duering, Rolf-Alexander; Gjoka, Fran

    2014-06-01

    The study analysed the content of heavy metals in surface soil and sediment samples from the Bregu i Matit Plain in NW Albania in relation to irrigation in order to evaluate the soil pollution and the potential risk to human health. Evaluation of soil pollution was performed using the enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index. Contents of cadmium, chromium and nickel of irrigated soils were significantly higher than those of non-irrigated soil, while contents of lead (in three of the irrigated locations), zinc and arsenic (in one of the irrigated locations) were significantly lower. Correlation analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the primary source of the first three metals was irrigation, and the last three metals were originated from other anthropic sources, like the use of chemicals, etc. Enrichment factor (E f) calculation showed that irrigated soils were most enriched in cadmium, chromium, copper and nickel. Index of geo-accumulation (I geo) revealed that arable soils of Bregu i Matit are unpolluted to moderately polluted with cadmium, chromium, copper and zinc and moderately to strongly polluted with nickel and arsenic. The presence of heavy metals in the studied soils indicates a potential risk of transfer of these elements in the food chain. Therefore, further studies on the speciation of heavy metals in the studied soils in order to evaluate their mobility are needed.

  5. Participatory approach: from problem identification to setting strategies for increased productivity and sustainability in small scale irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habtu, Solomon; Ludi, Eva; Jamin, Jean Yves; Oates, Naomi; Fissahaye Yohannes, Degol

    2014-05-01

    Practicing various innovations pertinent to irrigated farming at local field scale is instrumental to increase productivity and yield for small holder farmers in Africa. However the translation of innovations from local scale to the scale of a jointly operated irrigation scheme is far from trivial. It requires insight on the drivers for adoption of local innovations within the wider farmer communities. Participatory methods are expected to improve not only the acceptance of locally developed innovations within the wider farmer communities, but to allow also an estimation to which extend changes will occur within the entire irrigation scheme. On such a base, more realistic scenarios of future water productivity within an irrigation scheme, which is operated by small holder farmers, can be estimated. Initial participatory problem and innovation appraisal was conducted in Gumselassa small scale irrigation scheme, Ethiopia, from Feb 27 to March 3, 2012 as part of the EAU4FOOD project funded by EC. The objective was to identify and appraise problems which hinder sustainable water management to enhance production and productivity and to identify future research strategies. Workshops were conducted both at local (Community of Practices) and regional (Learning Practice Alliance) level. At local levels, intensive collaboration with farmers using participatory methods produced problem trees and a "Photo Safari" documented a range of problems that negatively impact on productive irrigated farming. A range of participatory methods were also used to identify local innovations. At regional level a Learning Platform was established that includes a wide range of stakeholders (technical experts from various government ministries, policy makers, farmers, extension agents, researchers). This stakeholder group did a range of exercise as well to identify major problems related to irrigated smallholder farming and already identified innovations. Both groups identified similar problems

  6. Electrochemical detection of amaranth in food based on the enhancement effect of carbon nanotube film.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Hu, Xiaozhong; Cheng, Qin; Zhao, Xiaoya; Fu, Xiaofang; Wu, Kangbing

    2010-12-01

    Amaranth is widely added to food and can cause many adverse health effects when it is excessively consumed. Therefore, the monitoring of amaranth is quite important. Herein, an electrochemical sensor for the sensitive and rapid detection of amaranth was reported using multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT) as the sensing film. Due to the large surface area and high accumulation efficiency, the MWNT sensor showed a strong enhancement effect on the oxidation of amaranth, and greatly increased the current signal. The detection conditions such as pH value, amount of MWNT, accumulation potential and time were optimized. The linear range is from 40 nM to 0.8 μM, and the limit of detection is 35 nM. Finally, the new sensor was successfully employed to detect amaranth in soft drinks, and the results were tested by high-performance liquid chromatography.

  7. Satiety-enhancing products for appetite control: science and regulation of functional foods for weight management.

    PubMed

    Halford, Jason C G; Harrold, Joanne A

    2012-05-01

    The current review considers satiety-based approaches to weight management in the context of health claims. Health benefits, defined as beneficial physiological effects, are what the European Food Safety Authority bases their recommendations on for claim approval. The literature demonstrates that foods that target within-meal satiation and post-meal satiety provide a plausible approach to weight management. However, few ingredient types tested produce the sustainable and enduring effects on appetite accompanied by the necessary reductions in energy intake required to claim satiety/reduction in hunger as a health benefit. Proteins, fibre types, novel oils and carbohydrates resistant to digestion all have the potential to produce beneficial short-term changes in appetite (proof-of-concept). The challenge remains to demonstrate their enduring effects on appetite and energy intake, as well as the health and consumer benefits such effects provide in terms of optimising successful weight management. Currently, the benefits of satiety-enhancing ingredients to both consumers and their health are under researched. It is possible that such ingredients help consumers gain control over their eating behaviour and may also help reduce the negative psychological impact of dieting and the physiological consequences of energy restriction that ultimately undermine weight management. In conclusion, industry needs to demonstrate that a satiety-based approach to weight management, based on single-manipulated food items, is sufficient to help consumers resist the situational and personal factors that drive overconsumption. Nonetheless, we possess the methodological tools, which when employed in appropriate designs, are sufficient to support health claims. PMID:22401600

  8. Enhanced ghrelin secretion in the cephalic phase of food ingestion in women with bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Monteleone, Palmiero; Serritella, Cristina; Scognamiglio, Pasquale; Maj, Mario

    2010-02-01

    In humans, the cephalic phase response to food ingestion consists mostly of vagal efferent activation, which promotes the secretion of entero-pancreatic hormones, including ghrelin. Since symptomatic patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) are characterized by increased vagal tone, we hypothesized an enhanced ghrelin secretion in the cephalic phase of vagal stimulation. Therefore, we investigated ghrelin response to modified sham feeding (MSF) in both BN and healthy women. Six drug-free BN women and 7 age-matched healthy females underwent MSF with initially seeing and smelling a meal, and then chewing the food without swallowing it. Blood samples were drawn immediately before and after MSF for hormone assay. Circulating ghrelin increased after MSF in both groups with BN individuals exhibiting a greater ghrelin increase, which positively correlated with the patients' weekly frequency of binge-purging. These results show for the first time an increased ghrelin secretion in the cephalic phase of vagal stimulation in symptomatic BN patients, likely resulting in a potentiation of the peripheral hunger signal, which might contribute to their aberrant binge-purging behavior.

  9. SDI versus MESA Irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is known that irrigation application method can impact crop water use and water use efficiency, but the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood, particularly in terms of the water and energy balances during the growing season from pre-irrigation through planting, early growth and yield de...

  10. Irrigation Systems. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amarillo Coll., TX.

    This guide is intended for use by licensed irrigators who wish to teach others how to design and install residential and commercial irrigation systems. The materials included in the guide have been developed under the assumption that the instructors who use it have little or no formal training as teachers. The first section presents detailed…

  11. Irrigation Systems. Student's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amarillo Coll., TX.

    This guide is intended for use by individuals preparing for a career in commercial and residential irrigation. The materials included are geared toward students who have had some experience in the irrigation business; they are intended to be presented in 10 six-hour sessions. The first two sections deal with using this guide and preparing for the…

  12. 'Smart' Irrigation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Brodrick, James

    2012-08-31

    The article discusses the ASHRAE Standard 189, with mandatory and optional provisions related to water use efficiency, then focuses on the use of water efficient irrigation systems and the use of recycled water such as air conditioner condensate for landscaping irrigation. Benefits of such practices include both water and energy savings.

  13. Irrigation Without Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Kevin P.

    1975-01-01

    A new means of irrigation, called the drip or trickle system, has been proven more efficient and less wasteful than the current system of flood irrigation. As a result of this drip system, fertilizer-use efficiency is improved and crop yield, though never decreased, is sometimes increased in some crops. (MA)

  14. Gross primary production of a semiarid grassland is enhanced by six years of exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2, warming, and irrigation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, E.; Ogle, K.; Peltier, D.; Williams, D. G.; Pendall, E.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this study was to quantify interannual variation of gross primary production (GPP) and evaluate potential drivers of GPP with global change using the Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment (PHACE) experiment in semiarid grassland in southeastern Wyoming. PHACE consists of the treatments: control, warming only, elevated CO2 (eCO2) only, eCO2 and warming, and irrigation only. We expected that GPP would be most strongly influenced by interannual variability in precipitation under all PHACE treatments, soil water availability under eCO2, and nitrogen availability. GPP data were obtained from paired measurements of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and ecosystem respiration (Reco; GPP = Reco - NEE) made on 2-4 week intervals over six growing seasons (2007-2012). Soil temperature (T), soil water content (SWC), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were continuously recorded at the plot (T, SWC) and site (VPD, PAR) scales. Annual, plot-level aboveground plant nitrogen content (N) was measured during peak biomass. We fit a non-linear light-response model to the GPP data within a Bayesian framework, and modeled the maximum GPP rate (Gmax) and canopy light-use efficiency (Q) as functions of N and current and antecedent SWC, T, and VPD. The model fit the GPP data well (R2 = 0.64), and regardless of the PHACE treatment the most important drivers of GPP were N (for Gmax), VPD (Gmax and Q), antecedent T (Gmax), and antecedent VPD (Q). Model simulations predicted that annual GPP increased on average by about 16% with eCO2, 14% with warming, 12% with eCO2 and warming, and 23% with irrigation. For four of the six years, annual GPP was significantly affected by either eCO2 alone or when combined with warming. The increase in annual GPP under irrigation was similar to the increase under eCO2 during a dry year (2012), but irrigation stimulated GPP to a greater degree than eCO2 during wet years (2008, 2009). Hence, increases in GPP under eCO2

  15. Root canal irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed. We performed a Medline search for English-language papers published untill July 2010. The keywords used were ‘root canal irrigants’ and ‘endodontic irrigants.’ The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance. PMID:21217955

  16. Irrigation water quality and the benefits of implementing good agricultural practices during tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) production.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Acosta, M; Jiménez, M; Chaidez, C; León-Félix, J; Castro-Del Campo, N

    2014-07-01

    The implementation of good agricultural practices (GAP) from irrigation water to the tomato packaging process enhances the safety of fresh produce and its value throughout the food chain. The aim of the present study was to show that fresh produce farms that apply and enforce GAP could reduce the presence of Salmonella in finished produce. Samples were collected biweekly from six packing houses from the central region of Sinaloa, México, for the isolation of Salmonella spp by the ISO 6579:2002 method, and the isolated strains were serotyped and genotyped by the Kauffmman-White scheme and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), respectively. Salmonella strains were detected in 13 (36.1 %) irrigation water samples, while only two tomato samples were positive (5.5 %). Eight different serotypes were identified in irrigation water, and Salmonella Oranienburg (34 %) was the most prevalent; however, only Salmonella Agona and Salmonella Weltevreden were present on tomatoes. Salmonella Oranienburg was the most widely dispersed and variable serotype, with 10 different PFGE profiles. Salmonella Weltevreden was isolated from both types of samples, albeit with distinct genetic profiles, implying that the sources of contamination differ. These results confirm the utility of implementing good agricultural practices to reduce Salmonella contamination in irrigation water and the packaging process. PMID:24682661

  17. Spatial distribution and temporal variability of arsenic in irrigated rice fields in Bangladesh. 1. Irrigation water.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Linda C; Hug, Stephan J; Dittmar, Jessica; Voegelin, Andreas; Saha, Ganesh C; Ali, M Ashraf; Badruzzaman, A Borhan M; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2007-09-01

    Around 38% of the area of Bangladesh is irrigated with groundwater to grow dry season crops, most importantly boro rice. Due to high As concentrations in many groundwaters, over 1000 tons of As are thus transferred to arable soils each year, creating a potential risk for future food production. We studied the reactions and changing speciation of As, Fe, P, and other elements in initially anoxic water during and after irrigation and the resulting spatial distribution of As input to paddy soils near Sreenagar (Munshiganj), 30 km south of Dhaka, in January and April 2005 and February 2006. The irrigation water had a constant concentration of 397 +/- 7 microg L(-1) As (approximately 84% As(III)), 11 +/- 0.1 mg L(-1) Fe, and 2 +/- 0.1 mg L(-1) P. During the fast flow along the longest irrigation channel (152 m) As, Fe, and P speciation changed, but total concentrations did not decrease significantly, indicating that As input to fields was independent of the length of the irrigation channels. In contrast, during slow water flow across the fields, As, Fe, and P concentrations decreased strongly with increasing distance from the water inlet, due to formation and settling of As- and P-bearing Fe aggregates and by adsorption to soil minerals. Total As concentrations in field water were approximately 3 times higher close to the inlet than in the opposite field corner shortly after irrigation, and decreased to below 35 microg L(-1) over the next 72 h. The laterally heterogeneous transfer of As, Fe, and P from irrigation waterto soil has important consequences for their distribution in irrigated fields and needs to be considered in sampling and in assessing the dynamics and mass balances of As fluxes among irrigation water, soil, and floodwater. PMID:17937267

  18. Spatial distribution and temporal variability of arsenic in irrigated rice fields in Bangladesh. 1. Irrigation water.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Linda C; Hug, Stephan J; Dittmar, Jessica; Voegelin, Andreas; Saha, Ganesh C; Ali, M Ashraf; Badruzzaman, A Borhan M; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2007-09-01

    Around 38% of the area of Bangladesh is irrigated with groundwater to grow dry season crops, most importantly boro rice. Due to high As concentrations in many groundwaters, over 1000 tons of As are thus transferred to arable soils each year, creating a potential risk for future food production. We studied the reactions and changing speciation of As, Fe, P, and other elements in initially anoxic water during and after irrigation and the resulting spatial distribution of As input to paddy soils near Sreenagar (Munshiganj), 30 km south of Dhaka, in January and April 2005 and February 2006. The irrigation water had a constant concentration of 397 +/- 7 microg L(-1) As (approximately 84% As(III)), 11 +/- 0.1 mg L(-1) Fe, and 2 +/- 0.1 mg L(-1) P. During the fast flow along the longest irrigation channel (152 m) As, Fe, and P speciation changed, but total concentrations did not decrease significantly, indicating that As input to fields was independent of the length of the irrigation channels. In contrast, during slow water flow across the fields, As, Fe, and P concentrations decreased strongly with increasing distance from the water inlet, due to formation and settling of As- and P-bearing Fe aggregates and by adsorption to soil minerals. Total As concentrations in field water were approximately 3 times higher close to the inlet than in the opposite field corner shortly after irrigation, and decreased to below 35 microg L(-1) over the next 72 h. The laterally heterogeneous transfer of As, Fe, and P from irrigation waterto soil has important consequences for their distribution in irrigated fields and needs to be considered in sampling and in assessing the dynamics and mass balances of As fluxes among irrigation water, soil, and floodwater.

  19. Enhanced bioelectricity harvesting in microbial fuel cells treating food waste leachate produced from biohydrogen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeongdong; Ahn, Youngho

    2015-05-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) treating the food waste leachate produced from biohydrogen fermentation were examined to enhance power generation and energy recovery. In batch mode, the maximum voltage production was 0.56 V and the power density reached 1540 mW/m(2). The maximum Coulombic efficiency (CEmax) and energy efficiency (EE) in the batch mode were calculated to be 88.8% and 18.8%, respectively. When the organic loading rate in sequencing batch mode varied from 0.75 to 6.2 g COD/L-d (under CEmax), the maximum power density reached 769.2 mW/m(2) in OLR of 3.1 g COD/L-d, whereas higher energy recovery (CE=52.6%, 0.346 Wh/g CODrem) was achieved at 1.51 g COD/L-d. The results demonstrate that readily biodegradable substrates in biohydrogen fermentation can be effectively used for the enhanced bioelectricity harvesting of MFCs and a MFC coupled with biohydrogen fermentation is of great benefit on higher electricity generation and energy efficiency.

  20. Enhanced mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste by thermal pretreatment: Substrate versus digestate heating.

    PubMed

    Ariunbaatar, Javkhlan; Panico, Antonio; Yeh, Daniel H; Pirozzi, Francesco; Lens, Piet N L; Esposito, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Food waste (FW) represents a source of high potential renewable energy if properly treated with anaerobic digestion (AD). Pretreating the substrates could yield a higher biomethane production in a shorter time. In this study, the effects of thermal (heating the FW in a separate chamber) and thermophilic (heating the full reactor content containing both FW and inoculum) pretreatments at 50, 60, 70 and 80°C prior to mesophilic AD were studied through a series of batch experiments. Pretreatments at a lower temperature (50°C) and a shorter time (<12h) had a positive effect on the AD process. The highest enhancement of the biomethane production with an increase by 44-46% was achieved with a thermophilic pretreatment at 50°C for 6-12h or a thermal pretreatment at 80°C for 1.5h. Thermophilic pretreatments at higher temperatures (>55°C) and longer operating times (>12h) yielded higher soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs), but had a negative effect on the methanogenic activity. The thermal pretreatments at the same conditions resulted in a lower solubilization of COD. Based on net energy calculations, the enhanced biomethane production is sufficient to heat up the FW for the thermal, but not for the thermophilic pretreatment.

  1. Enhanced bioelectricity harvesting in microbial fuel cells treating food waste leachate produced from biohydrogen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeongdong; Ahn, Youngho

    2015-05-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) treating the food waste leachate produced from biohydrogen fermentation were examined to enhance power generation and energy recovery. In batch mode, the maximum voltage production was 0.56 V and the power density reached 1540 mW/m(2). The maximum Coulombic efficiency (CEmax) and energy efficiency (EE) in the batch mode were calculated to be 88.8% and 18.8%, respectively. When the organic loading rate in sequencing batch mode varied from 0.75 to 6.2 g COD/L-d (under CEmax), the maximum power density reached 769.2 mW/m(2) in OLR of 3.1 g COD/L-d, whereas higher energy recovery (CE=52.6%, 0.346 Wh/g CODrem) was achieved at 1.51 g COD/L-d. The results demonstrate that readily biodegradable substrates in biohydrogen fermentation can be effectively used for the enhanced bioelectricity harvesting of MFCs and a MFC coupled with biohydrogen fermentation is of great benefit on higher electricity generation and energy efficiency. PMID:25723127

  2. Enhanced mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste by thermal pretreatment: Substrate versus digestate heating.

    PubMed

    Ariunbaatar, Javkhlan; Panico, Antonio; Yeh, Daniel H; Pirozzi, Francesco; Lens, Piet N L; Esposito, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Food waste (FW) represents a source of high potential renewable energy if properly treated with anaerobic digestion (AD). Pretreating the substrates could yield a higher biomethane production in a shorter time. In this study, the effects of thermal (heating the FW in a separate chamber) and thermophilic (heating the full reactor content containing both FW and inoculum) pretreatments at 50, 60, 70 and 80°C prior to mesophilic AD were studied through a series of batch experiments. Pretreatments at a lower temperature (50°C) and a shorter time (<12h) had a positive effect on the AD process. The highest enhancement of the biomethane production with an increase by 44-46% was achieved with a thermophilic pretreatment at 50°C for 6-12h or a thermal pretreatment at 80°C for 1.5h. Thermophilic pretreatments at higher temperatures (>55°C) and longer operating times (>12h) yielded higher soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs), but had a negative effect on the methanogenic activity. The thermal pretreatments at the same conditions resulted in a lower solubilization of COD. Based on net energy calculations, the enhanced biomethane production is sufficient to heat up the FW for the thermal, but not for the thermophilic pretreatment. PMID:26272711

  3. Comparative study of irrigation water use and groundwater recharge under various irrigation schemes in an agricultural region, central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Tsai, Cheng-Bin

    2016-04-01

    The risk of rice production has increased notably due to climate change in Taiwan. To respond to growing agricultural water shortage without affecting normal food production in the future, the application of water-saving irrigation will be a substantial resolution. However, the adoption of water-saving irrigation may result in the reducing of groundwater recharge because continuous flooding in the paddy fields could be regarded as an important source for groundwater recharge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the irrigation water-saving benefit and groundwater recharge deficit when adopting the System of Rice Intensification, known as SRI methodology, in the Choushui River alluvial fan (the largest groundwater pumping and the most important rice-cropping region in central Taiwan). The three-dimensional finite element groundwater model, FEMWATER, was applied to simulate the infiltration process and groundwater recharge under SRI methodology and traditional irrigation schemes including continuous irrigation, and rotational irrigation in two rice-crop periods with hydro-climatic data of 2013. The irrigation water use was then calculated by water balance. The results showed that groundwater recharge amount of SRI methodology was slightly lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, reduced 3.6% and 1.6% in the first crop period, and reduced 3.2% and 1.6% in the second crop period, compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. However, the SRI methodology achieved notably water-saving benefit compared to the disadvantage of reducing the groundwater recharge amount. The field irrigation requirement amount of SRI methodology was significantly lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, saving 37% and 20% of irrigation water in the first crop period, and saving 53% and 35% in the second crop period, compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. Therefore, the amount of groundwater pumping for

  4. Dietary supplementation with non-prey food enhances fitness of a predatory arthropod

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Uncertainties exist about the value of non-prey food for natural enemies that are commonly food limited, and the dietary conditions where non-prey foods are beneficial for carnivorous species. We examined the nutritional role of a non-prey food using a ground dwelling, tangle web-building spider tha...

  5. Irrigation in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Haapasalo, M; Shen, Y; Wang, Z; Gao, Y

    2014-03-01

    Irrigation is a key part of successful root canal treatment. It has several important functions, which may vary according to the irrigant used: it reduces friction between the instrument and dentine, improves the cutting effectiveness of the files, dissolves tissue, cools the file and tooth, and furthermore, it has a washing effect and an antimicrobial/antibiofilm effect. Irrigation is also the only way to impact those areas of the root canal wall not touched by mechanical instrumentation. Sodium hypochlorite is the main irrigating solution used to dissolve organic matter and kill microbes effectively. High concentration sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) has a better effect than 1 and 2% solutions. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is needed as a final rinse to remove the smear layer. Sterile water or saline may be used between these two main irrigants, however, they must not be the only solutions used. The apical root canal imposes a special challenge to irrigation as the balance between safety and effectiveness is particularly important in this area. Different means of delivery are used for root canal irrigation, from traditional syringe-needle delivery to various machine-driven systems, including automatic pumps and sonic or ultrasonic energy.

  6. Enhanced Radio Frequency Biosensor for Food Quality Detection Using Functionalized Carbon Nanofillers.

    PubMed

    Tanguy, Nicolas R; Fiddes, Lindsey K; Yan, Ning

    2015-06-10

    This paper outlines an improved design of inexpensive, wireless and battery free biosensors for in situ monitoring of food quality. This type of device has an additional advantage of being operated remotely. To make the device, a portion of an antenna of a passive 13.56 MHz radio frequency identification (RFID) tag was altered with a sensing element composed of conductive nanofillers/particles, a binding agent, and a polymer matrix. These novel RFID tags were exposed to biogenic amine putrescine, commonly used as a marker for food spoilage, and their response was monitored over time using a general-purpose network analyzer. The effect of conductive filler properties, including conductivity and morphology, and filler functionalization was investigated by preparing sensing composites containing carbon particles (CPs), multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and binding agent grafted-multiwall carbon nanotubes (g-MWCNTs), respectively. During exposure to putrescine, the amount of reflected waves, frequency at resonance, and quality factor of the novel RFID tags decreased in response. The use of MWCNTs reduced tag cutoff time (i.e., faster response time) as compared with the use of CPs, which highlighted the effectiveness of the conductive nanofiller morphology, while the addition of g-MWCNTs further accelerated the sensor response time as a result of localized binding on the conductive nanofiller surface. Microstructural investigation of the film morphology indicated a better dispersion of g-MWCNTs in the sensing composite as compared to MWCNTs and CPs, as well as a smoother texture of the surface of the resulting coating. These results demonstrated that grafting of the binding agent onto the conductive particles in the sensing composite is an effective way to further enhance the detection sensitivity of the RFID tag based sensor. PMID:25993041

  7. Enhanced Radio Frequency Biosensor for Food Quality Detection Using Functionalized Carbon Nanofillers.

    PubMed

    Tanguy, Nicolas R; Fiddes, Lindsey K; Yan, Ning

    2015-06-10

    This paper outlines an improved design of inexpensive, wireless and battery free biosensors for in situ monitoring of food quality. This type of device has an additional advantage of being operated remotely. To make the device, a portion of an antenna of a passive 13.56 MHz radio frequency identification (RFID) tag was altered with a sensing element composed of conductive nanofillers/particles, a binding agent, and a polymer matrix. These novel RFID tags were exposed to biogenic amine putrescine, commonly used as a marker for food spoilage, and their response was monitored over time using a general-purpose network analyzer. The effect of conductive filler properties, including conductivity and morphology, and filler functionalization was investigated by preparing sensing composites containing carbon particles (CPs), multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and binding agent grafted-multiwall carbon nanotubes (g-MWCNTs), respectively. During exposure to putrescine, the amount of reflected waves, frequency at resonance, and quality factor of the novel RFID tags decreased in response. The use of MWCNTs reduced tag cutoff time (i.e., faster response time) as compared with the use of CPs, which highlighted the effectiveness of the conductive nanofiller morphology, while the addition of g-MWCNTs further accelerated the sensor response time as a result of localized binding on the conductive nanofiller surface. Microstructural investigation of the film morphology indicated a better dispersion of g-MWCNTs in the sensing composite as compared to MWCNTs and CPs, as well as a smoother texture of the surface of the resulting coating. These results demonstrated that grafting of the binding agent onto the conductive particles in the sensing composite is an effective way to further enhance the detection sensitivity of the RFID tag based sensor.

  8. Salinity on irrigated lands

    SciTech Connect

    Westmore, R.A.; Manbeck, D.M.

    1984-02-01

    The technology for controlling salinity on irrigated lands is relatively simple, involving both minor and major changes in current land-management practices. Minor changes include more frequent irrigation, the use of salt-tolerant crops, preplanning irrigation, and seed placement. The major changes require a shift from gravity to sprinkler or drip systems, increased water supply and quality, soil modification, land grading, and improved drainage. Some of the major changes are difficult, and some impossible, to accomplish. Examples of reclamation include the Mardan Salinity Control and Reclamation Project (SCARP) in Pakistan. 5 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  9. Advances in sprinkler irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sprinkler irrigation is being increasingly adopted in the US and worldwide because it offers increased crop water productivity over what is possible with gravity irrigation. Most sprinkler irrigation is by center pivot, which is presently used on about 50 and 80 percent of land irrigated in the US a...

  10. Using composite sinusoidal patterns in structured-illumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) for enhanced detection of defects in food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study presented a first exploration of using composite sinusoidal patterns that integrated two and three spatial frequencies of interest, in structured-illumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) for enhanced detection of defects in food (e.g., bruises in apples). Three methods based on Fourier tra...

  11. Electrophysiological evidence for enhanced representation of food stimuli in working memory.

    PubMed

    Rutters, Femke; Kumar, Sanjay; Higgs, Suzanne; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2015-02-01

    Studies from our laboratory have shown that, relative to neutral objects, food-related objects kept in working memory (WM) are particularly effective in guiding attention to food stimuli (Higgs et al. in Appetite, 2012). Here, we used electrophysiological measurements to investigate the neural representation of food versus non-food items in WM. Subjects were presented with a cue (food or non-food item) to either attend to or hold in WM. Subsequently, they had to search for a target, while the target and distractor were each flanked by a picture of a food or non-food item. Behavioural data showed that a food cue held in WM modulated the deployment of visual attention to a search target more than a non-food cue, even though the cue was irrelevant for target selection. Electrophysiological measures of attention, memory and retention of memory (the P3, LPP and SPCN components) were larger when food was kept in WM, compared to non-food items. No such effect was observed in a priming task, when the initial cue was merely identified. Overall, our electrophysiological data are consistent with the suggestion that food stimuli are particularly strongly represented in the WM system. PMID:25354971

  12. 78 FR 51136 - Request for Information: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... on the array of raw ingredients, such as unbaked pizza or raw fish. Should such stores be eligible... counted in one staple food category. For example, foods such as cold pizza, macaroni and cheese,...

  13. Irrigation on Topographic Maps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raitz, Karl B.

    1979-01-01

    Describes how study of irrigation practices on topographic maps can help students in introductory high school and college geography courses understand man and land relationships to geography. (Author/DB)

  14. Rapid detection of acetamiprid in foods using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS).

    PubMed

    Wijaya, Wisiani; Pang, Shintaro; Labuza, Theodore P; He, Lili

    2014-04-01

    Acetamiprid is a neonicotinoid pesticide that is commonly used in modern farming. Acetamiprid residue in food commodities can be a potential harm to human and has been implicated in the honey bee hive die off crisis. In this study, we developed rapid, simple, and sensitive methods to detect acetamiprid in apple juice and on apple surfaces using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). No pretreatment of apple juice sample was performed. A simple surface swab method was used to recover acetamiprid from the apple surface. Samples were incubated with silver dendrites for several minutes and SERS spectra were taken directly from the silver surface. Detection of a set of 5 apple juice samples can be done within 10 min. The swab-SERS method took 15 min for a set of 5 samples. Resulting spectral data were analyzed using principal component analysis. The highest acetamiprid peak at 634 cm(-1) was used to detect and quantify the amount of acetamiprid spiked in 1:1 water-methanol solvent, apple juice, and on apple surface. The SERS method was able to successfully detect acetamiprid at 0.5 μg/mL (0.5 ppm) in solvent, 3 μg/mL (3 ppm) in apple juice, and 0.125 μg/cm(2) on apple surfaces. The SERS methods provide simple, rapid, and sensitive ways to detect acetamiprid in beverages and on the surfaces of thick skinned fruits and vegetables. PMID:24620941

  15. Application of rumen microbes to enhance food waste hydrolysis in acidogenic leach-bed reactors.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bing Hua; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2014-09-01

    Effect of rumen microorganisms on hydrolysis of food waste in leach bed reactor (LBR) was investigated. LBRs were inoculated (20%, w/w) with cow manure and anaerobically digested sludge at different ratios, 0:1 (LBR-A), 1:3 (LBR-B), 1:1 (LBR-C), 3:1 (LBR-D) and 1:0 (LBR-E). High volatile solids (VS) conversion efficiency of 68% was achieved in LBR-E. Compared with LBR-A, chemical oxygen demand, total soluble products and total Kjeldahl nitrogen leaching of LBR-E were increased by 16%, 14.3% and 27%, respectively. Recovery of the highest amounts of ethanol and butyrate in LBR-E indicated that the metabolic pathway mediated by rumen microorganisms was favorable for subsequent methanogenesis. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the enhanced hydrolysis in LBR-E was mainly due to strong degraders, e.g. Enterobacter, Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum and Caloramator sourced from cow manure. Results demonstrate that rumen microorganisms rapidly degrade the VS and produce useful VFAs with high methane yields in subsequent methanogenesis.

  16. Enhancing the hydrolysis and methane production potential of mixed food waste by an effective enzymatic pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Kiran, Esra Uçkun; Trzcinski, Antoine P; Liu, Yu

    2015-05-01

    In this study, a fungal mash rich in hydrolytic enzymes was produced by solid state fermentation (SSF) of waste cake in a simple and efficient manner and was further applied for high-efficiency hydrolysis of mixed food wastes (FW). The enzymatic pretreatment of FW with this fungal mash resulted in 89.1 g/L glucose, 2.4 g/L free amino nitrogen, 165 g/L soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and 64% reduction in volatile solids within 24h. The biomethane yield and production rate from FW pretreated with the fungal mash were found to be respectively about 2.3 and 3.5-times higher than without pretreatment. After anaerobic digestion of pretreated FW, a volatile solids removal of 80.4±3.5% was achieved. The pretreatment of mixed FW with the fungal mash produced in this study is a promising option for enhancing anaerobic digestion of FW in terms of energy recovery and volume reduction.

  17. Energy savings through improved irrigation practices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gilley, J.R.; Supalla, R.J.

    1981-07-31

    In view of importance of energy to irrigated agriculture, the objectives of this project were: (1) determine the potential energy savings from alternative irrigation management practices; and (2) evaluate the economic benefits which would occur to irrigators from adopting these energy saving practices. These objectives were pursued for a selected array of irrigation situations typical of DOE Region VII. The analysis consists essentially of three parts, including the potential for improved energy efficiency with surface irrigation systems (gated pipe), the potential for enhanced energy efficiency with sprinkler systems, and a comparison of alternative irrigation systems. For gated-pipe surface systems, the energy conservation alternatives considered were: (1) increasing pump performance; (2) improving irrigation efficiency; and (3) water management. The alternatives considered for center-pivot sprinkler systems included conversion to low pressure, as well as pump performance, irrigation efficiency and water management. The analysis of alternative systems involved computing the energy and dollar savings associated with shifting from gated-pipe to one of four types of sprinkler systems: high-pressure center-pivot, low-pressure center-pivot, corner center-pivot, and continuous move lateral. The above alternatives were analyzed for an array of given conditions. These included combinations of three lifts (8, 35 and 75 meters) and two net irrigation requirements (33 to 66 cm for surface system and 25 and 50 cm for sprinkler systems). These conditions encompass nearly the full range of circumstances found in DOE Region VII.

  18. Baicalein induces CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cells and enhances intestinal barrier function in a mouse model of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Bae, Min-Jung; Shin, Hee Soon; See, Hye-Jeong; Jung, Sun Young; Kwon, Da-Ae; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of food allergy, which is triggered by allergen permeation of the gastrointestinal tract followed by a T-helper (Th) 2-mediated immune response, has been increasing annually worldwide. We examined the effects of baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone), a flavonoid from Scutellaria baicalensis used in oriental herbal medicine, on regulatory T (Treg) cell induction and intestinal barrier function through the regulation of tight junctions in a mouse model of food allergy. An allergic response was induced by oral challenge with ovalbumin, and the incidence of allergic symptoms and T cell-related activity in the mesenteric lymph nodes were analyzed with and without the presence of baicalein. Our results demonstrated that the administration of baicalein ameliorated the symptoms of food allergy and attenuated serum IgE and effector T cells. However, Treg-related factors were up-regulated by baicalein. Furthermore, baicalein was shown to enhance intestinal barrier function through the regulation of tight junctions. We also found that baicalein treatment induced the differentiation of Treg cells via aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs). Thus, the action of baicalein as an agonist of AhR can induce Treg differentiation and enhance barrier function, suggesting that baicalein might serve as an effective immune regulator derived from foods for the treatment of food allergy.

  19. Baicalein induces CD4+Foxp3+ T cells and enhances intestinal barrier function in a mouse model of food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Min-Jung; Shin, Hee Soon; See, Hye-Jeong; Jung, Sun Young; Kwon, Da-Ae; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of food allergy, which is triggered by allergen permeation of the gastrointestinal tract followed by a T-helper (Th) 2-mediated immune response, has been increasing annually worldwide. We examined the effects of baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone), a flavonoid from Scutellaria baicalensis used in oriental herbal medicine, on regulatory T (Treg) cell induction and intestinal barrier function through the regulation of tight junctions in a mouse model of food allergy. An allergic response was induced by oral challenge with ovalbumin, and the incidence of allergic symptoms and T cell-related activity in the mesenteric lymph nodes were analyzed with and without the presence of baicalein. Our results demonstrated that the administration of baicalein ameliorated the symptoms of food allergy and attenuated serum IgE and effector T cells. However, Treg-related factors were up-regulated by baicalein. Furthermore, baicalein was shown to enhance intestinal barrier function through the regulation of tight junctions. We also found that baicalein treatment induced the differentiation of Treg cells via aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs). Thus, the action of baicalein as an agonist of AhR can induce Treg differentiation and enhance barrier function, suggesting that baicalein might serve as an effective immune regulator derived from foods for the treatment of food allergy. PMID:27561877

  20. Baicalein induces CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cells and enhances intestinal barrier function in a mouse model of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Bae, Min-Jung; Shin, Hee Soon; See, Hye-Jeong; Jung, Sun Young; Kwon, Da-Ae; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of food allergy, which is triggered by allergen permeation of the gastrointestinal tract followed by a T-helper (Th) 2-mediated immune response, has been increasing annually worldwide. We examined the effects of baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone), a flavonoid from Scutellaria baicalensis used in oriental herbal medicine, on regulatory T (Treg) cell induction and intestinal barrier function through the regulation of tight junctions in a mouse model of food allergy. An allergic response was induced by oral challenge with ovalbumin, and the incidence of allergic symptoms and T cell-related activity in the mesenteric lymph nodes were analyzed with and without the presence of baicalein. Our results demonstrated that the administration of baicalein ameliorated the symptoms of food allergy and attenuated serum IgE and effector T cells. However, Treg-related factors were up-regulated by baicalein. Furthermore, baicalein was shown to enhance intestinal barrier function through the regulation of tight junctions. We also found that baicalein treatment induced the differentiation of Treg cells via aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs). Thus, the action of baicalein as an agonist of AhR can induce Treg differentiation and enhance barrier function, suggesting that baicalein might serve as an effective immune regulator derived from foods for the treatment of food allergy. PMID:27561877

  1. Inter-annual changes in detritus-based food chains can enhance plant growth response to elevated atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    Hines, Jes; Eisenhauer, Nico; Drake, Bert G

    2015-12-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 generally enhances plant growth, but the magnitude of the effects depend, in part, on nutrient availability and plant photosynthetic pathway. Due to their pivotal role in nutrient cycling, changes in abundance of detritivores could influence the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on essential ecosystem processes, such as decomposition and primary production. We conducted a field survey and a microcosm experiment to test the influence of changes in detritus-based food chains on litter mass loss and plant growth response to elevated atmospheric CO2 using two wetland plants: a C3 sedge (Scirpus olneyi) and a C4 grass (Spartina patens). Our field study revealed that organism's sensitivity to climate increased with trophic level resulting in strong inter-annual variation in detritus-based food chain length. Our microcosm experiment demonstrated that increased detritivore abundance could not only enhance decomposition rates, but also enhance plant growth of S. olneyi in elevated atmospheric CO2 conditions. In contrast, we found no evidence that changes in the detritus-based food chains influenced the growth of S. patens. Considered together, these results emphasize the importance of approaches that unite traditionally subdivided food web compartments and plant physiological processes to understand inter-annual variation in plant production response to elevated atmospheric CO2. PMID:25953075

  2. Inter-annual changes in detritus-based food chains can enhance plant growth response to elevated atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    Hines, Jes; Eisenhauer, Nico; Drake, Bert G

    2015-12-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 generally enhances plant growth, but the magnitude of the effects depend, in part, on nutrient availability and plant photosynthetic pathway. Due to their pivotal role in nutrient cycling, changes in abundance of detritivores could influence the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on essential ecosystem processes, such as decomposition and primary production. We conducted a field survey and a microcosm experiment to test the influence of changes in detritus-based food chains on litter mass loss and plant growth response to elevated atmospheric CO2 using two wetland plants: a C3 sedge (Scirpus olneyi) and a C4 grass (Spartina patens). Our field study revealed that organism's sensitivity to climate increased with trophic level resulting in strong inter-annual variation in detritus-based food chain length. Our microcosm experiment demonstrated that increased detritivore abundance could not only enhance decomposition rates, but also enhance plant growth of S. olneyi in elevated atmospheric CO2 conditions. In contrast, we found no evidence that changes in the detritus-based food chains influenced the growth of S. patens. Considered together, these results emphasize the importance of approaches that unite traditionally subdivided food web compartments and plant physiological processes to understand inter-annual variation in plant production response to elevated atmospheric CO2.

  3. Upgrading food wastes by means of bromelain and papain to enhance growth and immunity of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Choi, W M; Lam, C L; Mo, W Y; Wong, M H

    2016-04-01

    The fast growing of global aquaculture industry accompanied with increasing pressure on the supply and price of traditional feed materials (e.g., fish meal and soy bean meal). This circumstance has urged the need to search alternative sources of feed stuff. Food waste was used as feed stuff in rearing fish which possess substantial protein and lipid. Grass carp are major species reared in Hong Kong with lower nutritional requirements; it is also an ideal species for investigating the feasibility of using food waste as fish feeds for local aquaculture industry. The growth and immunity, reflected by total protein, total immunologlobulin (IgI), and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity of grass carp blood, were depressed when feeding with food waste feeds without enzymes. However, the supplementation of bromelain and papain in fish feed enhanced the efficient use of food waste by grass carp, which in turn improved the fish immunity. The present results indicated that the addition of those enzymes could enhance the feed utilization by fish and hematological parameters of grass carp, and the improvement on growth and immunity superior to the control (commercial feed) was observed with the addition of bromelain and papain supplement. Addition of 1 and 2 % mixture of bromelain and papain could significantly enhance the lipid utilization in grass carp.

  4. Upgrading food wastes by means of bromelain and papain to enhance growth and immunity of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Choi, W M; Lam, C L; Mo, W Y; Wong, M H

    2016-04-01

    The fast growing of global aquaculture industry accompanied with increasing pressure on the supply and price of traditional feed materials (e.g., fish meal and soy bean meal). This circumstance has urged the need to search alternative sources of feed stuff. Food waste was used as feed stuff in rearing fish which possess substantial protein and lipid. Grass carp are major species reared in Hong Kong with lower nutritional requirements; it is also an ideal species for investigating the feasibility of using food waste as fish feeds for local aquaculture industry. The growth and immunity, reflected by total protein, total immunologlobulin (IgI), and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity of grass carp blood, were depressed when feeding with food waste feeds without enzymes. However, the supplementation of bromelain and papain in fish feed enhanced the efficient use of food waste by grass carp, which in turn improved the fish immunity. The present results indicated that the addition of those enzymes could enhance the feed utilization by fish and hematological parameters of grass carp, and the improvement on growth and immunity superior to the control (commercial feed) was observed with the addition of bromelain and papain supplement. Addition of 1 and 2 % mixture of bromelain and papain could significantly enhance the lipid utilization in grass carp. PMID:26092357

  5. [Optimal allocation of irrigation water resources based on systematical strategy].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shuai; Zhang, Shu-qing

    2015-01-01

    With the development of the society and economy, as well as the rapid increase of population, more and more water is needed by human, which intensified the shortage of water resources. The scarcity of water resources and growing competition of water in different water use sectors reduce water availability for irrigation, so it is significant to plan and manage irrigation water resources scientifically and reasonably for improving water use efficiency (WUE) and ensuring food security. Many investigations indicate that WUE can be increased by optimization of water use. However, present studies focused primarily on a particular aspect or scale, which lack systematic analysis on the problem of irrigation water allocation. By summarizing previous related studies, especially those based on intelligent algorithms, this article proposed a multi-level, multi-scale framework for allocating irrigation water, and illustrated the basic theory of each component of the framework. Systematical strategy of optimal irrigation water allocation can not only control the total volume of irrigation water on the time scale, but also reduce water loss on the spatial scale. It could provide scientific basis and technical support for improving the irrigation water management level and ensuring the food security. PMID:25985685

  6. A modeling study of irrigation effects on global surface- and groundwater resources under a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, G.; Huang, M.; Tang, Q.; Leung, L. R.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the effects of irrigation on global surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) resources by performing simulations of the Community Land Model 4.0 (CLM4) at 0.5-degree resolution driven by downscaled/bias-corrected historical climate simulations and future projections from five General Circulation Models (GCMs) from 1950-2099. For each climate scenario, three sets of numerical experiments were configured: (1) a control experiment (CTRL) in which all crops are assumed to be rainfed; (2) an irrigation experiment (IRRIG) in which the irrigation module is activated; and (3) a groundwater pumping experiment (PUMP) in which a groundwater pumping scheme coupled with the irrigation module is activated. The parameters associated with irrigation and groundwater pumping were calibrated based on a global inventory of census-based SW and GW use compiled by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Our results suggest that irrigation could lead to two major opposing effects on SW/GW: SW depletion/GW accumulation in regions with irrigation primarily fed by SW, and SW accumulation/GW depletion in regions with irrigation fed primarily by GW. Furthermore, irrigation depending primarily on SW tends to have larger impacts on low-flow than high-flow conditions of SW, suggesting that intensive irrigation water use has the potential to further exacerbate low-flow conditions, increasing vulnerability to drought. By the end of the 21st century (2070-2099), climate change significantly increases (relative to 1971-2000) irrigation water demand in the regions equipped for irrigation across the world. The increase in demand combined with the increased temporal-spatial variability of water supply will cause more severe issues of local water scarcity for irrigation. Regionally, irrigation has the potential to aggravate climate-induced changes of SW/GW although the effects are negligible when averaged globally. Our results emphasize the importance of accounting for

  7. Non-sustainable groundwater sustaining irrigation - a global assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Y.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2012-04-01

    Irrigated crops play a vital role in securing global food production. It is estimated that 17% of agricultural lands are irrigated, yet they account for 40% of the global food production, sustaining the livelihood of billions of people (Abdullah, 2006). At the same time, water used by irrigated crops (i.e., crop water demand) and irrigation water demand are responsible for about 70% of the global water withdrawal and account for about 90% of the global water consumption, i.e. water withdrawal minus return flow respectively. Water demand for irrigated crops can be met by three different sources: 1) green water, being water from local precipitation that is temporarily stored in the soil, 2) blue water, being surface freshwater available in rivers, lakes, reservoirs and wetlands, and renewable groundwater, and 3) non-renewable or non-sustainable groundwater and non-local water resources. Here, we quantify globally the amount of non-renewable groundwater abstraction to sustain current irrigation practice. We use the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB to simulate gross crop water demand for irrigated crops and available blue and green water to meet this demand. We downscale country statistics of groundwater abstraction by considering the part of net total water demand that cannot be met by surface freshwater. We subsequently confront these with simulated groundwater recharge including return flow from irrigation to estimate non-renewable groundwater abstraction. Results show that non-renewable groundwater abstraction contributes approximately 20% to the global gross irrigation water demand for the year 2000. The contribution of non-renewable groundwater abstraction to irrigation is largest in India (68 km3 yr-1) followed by Pakistan (35 km3/yr), USA (30 km3/yr), Iran (20 km3/yr), China (20 km3/yr), Mexico (10 km3/yr) and Saudi Arabia (10 km3/yr). Results also show that globally this contribution more than tripled from 75 to 234 km3/yr over the period 1960-2000. These

  8. Occurrence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistances in soils from wastewater irrigation areas in Beijing and Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chaoqi; Li, Jing; Chen, Peipei; Ding, Rui; Zhang, Pengfei; Li, Xiqing

    2014-10-01

    Non-irrigated and wastewater-irrigated soils were collected from five wastewater irrigation areas in Beijing and Tianjin, China. The concentrations of sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline in the soils were determined. Abundances of antibiotic resistant bacteria and corresponding resistance genes were also measured to examine the impact of wastewater irrigation. No significant difference in antibiotic resistance bacteria was observed between irrigated and non-irrigated soils. However, the concentrations of antibiotics and abundances of resistance genes were significantly greater in irrigated soils, indicating that agricultural activities enhanced the occurrence of antibiotics and resistance genes in the soils. In addition, no significant difference was observed between previously and currently wastewater-irrigated soils. Therefore, cessation of wastewater irrigation did not significantly reduce the levels of antibiotic concentrations and resistance gene abundances. Other factors, e.g., manure application, may explain the lack of significant difference in the occurrence of antibiotics and resistance genes between previously and currently wastewater-irrigated soils.

  9. Detection of melamine in gluten, chicken feed, and processed foods using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Lin, M; He, L; Awika, J; Yang, L; Ledoux, D R; Li, H; Mustapha, A

    2008-10-01

    Melamine, a nitrogen-rich chemical, was implicated in pet and human food recalls in 2007, which caused enormous economic losses to the food industry. In this study, melamine concentration in wheat gluten, chicken feed, and processed foods (that is, cake and noodle) was measured by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in combination with SERS-active substrates. SERS was able to rapidly detect 0.1% melamine in wheat gluten, 0.05% in chicken feed, 0.05% in cakes, and 0.07% in noodle, respectively. A partial least squares (PLS) model was established for the quantification of melamine in foods by SERS: R= 0.90, RMSEP = 0.33. In addition, SERS results were verified by HPLC analysis based on a simplified FDA method. Compared with HPLC, the SERS method is much faster and simpler, requires minimum sample preparation, but still yields satisfactory qualitative and quantitative results. These results demonstrate that it is an applicable approach to use SERS to screen foods, eliminate presumptive negative samples of melamine contamination from the sample population, and then verify presumptive positive samples using HPLC protocols. Combining these 2 methods could provide a more rapid and cost-effective way for monitoring melamine contamination in increasingly large numbers of imported foods and feed products. PMID:19019134

  10. Modeling an irrigation ditch opens up the world. Hydrology and hydraulics of an ancient irrigation system in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertsen, Maurits W.; van der Spek, Joanne

    Ancient Peruvian irrigation systems have been studied extensively, but much remains unknown about technical and hydrological aspects of these irrigation systems. The Pampa de Chaparrí irrigation system in Peru is used as an example to show how modeling approaches for hydrological and hydraulic features of irrigation can yield results to improve our understanding of irrigation in the area. Analysis focuses on water availability compared demand, the way available water may have been applied to crops and whether the water needed could be delivered through the canal system. Results suggest that on the Pampa some 2500 hectares may have been cultivated within certain security limits for acceptable yields. The rhythm with which the irrigation requirement was applied to crops most likely influenced yields and thus food security. Furthermore, the influence of groundwater on crop growth may have been considerable. The hydraulic behavior of the irrigation system suggests that it should not be taken for granted that theoretically required water flows could actually be diverted and/or distributed to water users. The many questions coming out of the results define important items for a joint research agenda of archeologists and irrigation scientists.

  11. Enhanced auditory arousal increases intake of less palatable and healthier foods.

    PubMed

    Privitera, Gregory J; Diaz, Melissa; Haas, Meagan C

    2014-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test a prediction of the arousal hypothesis that increased arousal will increase intake of less palatable and healthy foods. In both experiments, arousal was manipulated by adjusting the volume of a movie (soft, loud volume) while participants consumed foods. In Experiment 1, participants ate fresh (palatable) or stale (less palatable) popcorn during a 9-minute movie played at a soft or loud volume. Experiment 2 used the same procedures with healthier foods (carrot sticks and apple slices). Partial support for the arousal hypothesis in Experiment 1 showed that participants consumed more stale but not fresh popcorn in the loud (high arousal) versus soft (low arousal) volume group. These findings suggest that low but not high palatable foods are susceptible to manipulations of arousal. Consistent with this interpretation, Experiment 2 showed that high but not low environmental arousal increased intake of the fruits and vegetables, which are typically rated as lower in palatability compared to high fat foods. These results show that high arousal in an eating-typical environment increases intake of less palatable foods, and healthy foods (i.e., fruits and vegetables). Increasing the availability of healthier foods in a loud food environment can have a positive impact on increasing intake of fruits and vegetables in that environment. PMID:24762340

  12. Irrigation in a changing world: a global systems analysis perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doell, P.

    2003-04-01

    The global issues of water security and food security are closely linked. Sustainable plant production requires a sustained provisioning of water, either in the form of "green" or of "blue" water (as introduced by Malin Falkenmark in 1993). Green water is defined as the fraction of water that is evapotranspirated, i.e. the water supply for all non-irrigated vegetation. Blue water refers to the water flows in groundwater and surface water. It represents the water that can be withdrawn, e.g. for irrigation. In areas without enough green water in the soil to achieve satisfactory crop growth, crops can be irrigated with blue water. The distinction between green and blue water helps to understand the linkages between rainfall, soil, land productivity and water availability for irrigation and other human uses. Today, about 67% of the current global water withdrawals and about 87% of the consumptive water use (withdrawal minus return flow) is for irrigation purposes. Irrigated land comprises less than one-fifth of all cropped area but produces about two-fifth of the world's cereals. Due to the high and reliable productivity of irrigated land, an extension of irrigation appears to be an appropriate strategy to feed the world's growing population However, will there be enough water available for the necessary extension? To assess this question, both water availability and demand must be analyzed. At the global scale, such an assessment is supported by the global model of water resources and use model WaterGAP 2, which, with a spatial resolution of 0.5 degrees, computes both water resources and water use by irrigation, livestock, households, manufacturing and thermal power plants. WaterGAP is applied to derive scenarios that show the impact of climate change as well as demographic, economic and technological changes. The Global Irrigation Model of WaterGAP computes, for example, the impact of climate change on irrigation requirements on net irrigation requirements. This is

  13. Effects of Irrigation on Global Climate During the 20th Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puma, M. J.; Cook, B. I.

    2010-01-01

    Various studies have documented the effects of modern ]day irrigation on regional and global climate, but none, to date, have considered the time ]varying impact of steadily increasing irrigation rates on climate during the 20th century. We investigate the impacts of observed irrigation changes over this century with two ensemble simulations using an atmosphere general circulation model. Both ensembles are forced with transient climate forcings and observed sea surface temperatures from 1902 to 2000; one ensemble includes irrigation specified by a time ]varying data set of irrigation water withdrawals. Early in the century, irrigation is primarily localized over southern and eastern Asia, leading to significant cooling in boreal summer (June.August) over these regions. This cooling spreads and intensifies by century fs end, following the rapid expansion of irrigation over North America, Europe, and Asia. Irrigation also leads to boreal winter (December.February) warming over parts of North America and Asia in the latter part of the century, due to enhanced downward longwave fluxes from increased near ]surface humidity. Precipitation increases occur primarily downwind of the major irrigation areas, although precipitation in parts of India decreases due to a weaker summer monsoon. Irrigation begins to significantly reduce temperatures and temperature trends during boreal summer over the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes and tropics beginning around 1950; significant increases in precipitation occur in these same latitude bands. These trends reveal the varying importance of irrigation ]climate interactions and suggest that future climate studies should account for irrigation, especially in regions with unsustainable irrigation resources.

  14. Empirical evidence for a recent slowdown in irrigation-induced cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Bonfils, C; Lobell, D

    2007-01-19

    Understanding the influence of past land use changes on climate is needed to improve regional projections of future climate change and inform debates about the tradeoffs associated with land use decisions. The effects of rapid expansion of irrigated area in the 20th century has remained unclear relative to other land use changes, such as urbanization, that affected a similar total land area. Using spatial and temporal variations in temperature and irrigation extent observed in California, we show that irrigation expansion has had a large cooling effect on summertime average daily daytime temperatures (-0.15 to -0.25 C.decade{sup -1}), which corresponds to a cooling estimated at -2.0 - -3.3 C since the introduction of irrigation practice. Irrigation has negligible effects on nighttime temperatures, leading to a net cooling effect of irrigation on climate (-0.06 to -0.19 C.decade{sup -1}). Stabilization of irrigated area has occurred in California since 1980 and is expected in the near future for most irrigated regions. The suppression of past human-induced greenhouse warming by increased irrigation is therefore likely to slow in the future, and a potential decrease in irrigation may even contribute to a more rapid warming. Changes in irrigation alone are not expected to influence broadscale temperatures, but they may introduce large uncertainties in climate projections for irrigated agricultural regions, which provide roughly 40% of global food production.

  15. Empirical evidence for a recent slowdown in irrigation-induced cooling.

    PubMed

    Bonfils, Céline; Lobell, David

    2007-08-21

    Understanding the influence of past land use changes on climate is needed to improve regional projections of future climate change and inform debates about the tradeoffs associated with land use decisions. The effects of rapid expansion of irrigated area in the 20th century has remained unclear relative to other land use changes, such as urbanization, that affected a similar total land area. Using spatial and temporal variations in temperature and irrigation extent observed in California, we show that irrigation expansion has had a large cooling effect on summertime average daily daytime temperatures (-0.14 degrees C to -0.25 degrees C per decade), which corresponds to an estimated cooling of -1.8 degrees C to -3.2 degrees C since the introduction of irrigation practices. Irrigation has negligible effects on nighttime temperatures, leading to a net cooling effect of irrigation on climate (-0.06 degrees C to -0.19 degrees C per decade). Stabilization of irrigated area has occurred in California since 1980 and is expected in the near future for many irrigated regions. The suppression of past human-induced greenhouse warming by increased irrigation is therefore likely to slow in the future, and a potential decrease in irrigation may even contribute to a more rapid warming. Changes in irrigation alone are not expected to influence broad-scale temperatures, but they may introduce large uncertainties in climate projections for irrigated agricultural regions, which provide approximately 40% of global food production.

  16. An integrated approach to assess the dynamics of a peri-urban watershed influenced by wastewater irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahesh, Jampani; Amerasinghe, Priyanie; Pavelic, Paul

    2015-04-01

    In many urban and peri-urban areas of India, wastewater is under-recognized as a major water resource. Wastewater irrigated agriculture provides direct benefits for the livelihoods and food security of many smallholder farmers. A rapidly urbanizing peri-urban micro-watershed (270 ha) in Hyderabad was assessed over a 10-year period from 2000 to 2010 for changes in land use and associated farming practices, farmer perceptions, socio-economic evaluation, land-use suitability for agriculture and challenges in potential irrigated area development towards wastewater use. This integrated approach showed that the change in the total irrigated area was marginal over the decade, whereas the built-up area within the watershed boundaries doubled and there was a distinct shift in cropping patterns from paddy rice to paragrass and leafy vegetables. Local irrigation supplies were sourced mainly from canal supplies, which accounted for three-quarters of the water used and was largely derived from wastewater. The remainder was groundwater from shallow hard-rock aquifers. Farmer perception was that the high nutrient content of the wastewater was of value, although they were also interested to pay modest amounts for additional pre-treatment. The shift in land use towards paragrass and leafy vegetables was attributed to increased profitability due to the high urban demand. The unutilised scrubland within the watershed has the potential for irrigation development, but the major constraints appear to be unavailability of labour and high land values rather than water availability. The study provides evidence to support the view that the opportunistic use of wastewater and irrigation practices, in general, will continue even under highly evolving peri-urban conditions, to meet the livelihood needs of the poor driven by market demands, as urban sprawl expands into cultivable rural hinterlands. Policy support is needed for enhanced recognition of wastewater for agriculture, with flow

  17. Enhancing Student Learning in Food Engineering Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Shin Y.; Connelly, Robin K.; Hartel, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    The current generation of students coming into food science and engineering programs is very visually oriented from their early experiences. To increase their interest in learning, new and visually appealing teaching materials need to be developed. Two diverse groups of students may be identified based on their math skills. Food science students…

  18. 78 FR 64468 - Request for Information: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... published on August 20, 2013 (78 FR 51136) has been extended from October 21, 2013 to November 6, 2013. To... pizza or raw fish. Should such stores be eligible for participation in SNAP? 11. Should all retailers... ingredients shall only be counted in one staple food category. For example, foods such as cold pizza,...

  19. Irrigation in northeastern Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lang, J.W.; Boswell, E.H.

    1957-01-01

    The phenomenal increase in the use of water for agriculture, industry, and public water supply in the past few years has been an important factor in bringing about the current accelerated inventory and appraisal of the water resources of Mississippi. As a result of severe droughts during the past several years, and of the favorable results of experiments, the water resources of northeastern Mississippi today are rapidly being developed for irrigation. Records have shown that even during years of normal rainfall the distribution of the rain usually is such that supplementary irrigation can be profitably practiced on almost any crop. Although in northeaster Mississippi the annual precipitation generally is enough to support crops and pasture, short periods of drought are common. Supplemental irrigation protects against the periods of drought during the growing season and increases the yield and quality of crops.

  20. Irrigation efficiency and production energy efficiency of traditional and modern farms in the Al-Hassa Oasis, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Taher, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Al-Hassa Oasis is located in eastern Saudi Arabia. The dry tropical climate requires irrigation throughout the year for agricultural crop production, which currently faces the following problems: declining groundwater tables, scarcity of surface water, high soil salinity in substantial parts of the districts serviced by the irrigation authority, low efficiency of irrigation water use in fields, rising costs for production inputs, and declining crop yields. The objectives of this research are to assess field irrigation efficiency under traditional, intermediate, and modern irrigation methods, to calculate energy efficiency under transitional, intermediate, and modern soil management practices, and to determine the relationship between irrigation efficiency and production energy efficiency within the current agricultural scenario of the Oasis. Analyses regarding the relationship between (1) food energy output and irrigation energy input, non-irrigation energy input and irrigation efficiency, (2) irrigation efficiency and total cultural energy input, (3) irrigation efficiency and irrigation energy input, (4) food energy output and cultural energy input, and (5) production energy efficiency and irrigation efficiency under tomatoes, cucumber, potatoes, other vegetables, alfalfa, wheat, dates, and rice indicate that the effect varies from one crop to another.

  1. Investigating irrigation scheduling for rice using variable rate irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because almost all US rice is produced with continuous flood irrigation, little information addresses irrigation scheduling for rice; however, successful production of rice without a continuous flood will require scheduling, or timely irrigation. A field study conducted at the University of Missouri...

  2. Changes in whole grain polyphenols and antioxidant activity of six sorghum genotypes under different irrigation treatments.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gangcheng; Johnson, Stuart K; Bornman, Janet F; Bennett, Sarita J; Fang, Zhongxiang

    2017-01-01

    Sorghum grain containing elevated polyphenolic antioxidant content may provide foods with benefits to human health. A study was undertaken to determine the potential role of irrigation on the content of polyphenols and antioxidant levels in sorghum grain. Bound, free and total polyphenols were investigated in six diverse sorghum genotypes grown under either full irrigation or a deficit irrigation regime. Results showed genotype, irrigation and their interaction had a significant effect on polyphenols and antioxidant activity (P⩽0.05). The deficit irrigation treatment significantly increased polyphenol content and antioxidant activity compared to the full irrigation treatment. Of the six genotypes Shawaya black short 1 and IS1311C (brown) showed the highest polyphenols levels and antioxidant activity. Therefore, both irrigation treatments and genotype need to be considered by sorghum breeders and farmers during sorghum production to produce grain with the required levels of polyphenolics and antioxidant activity for targeted end-use. PMID:27507466

  3. [Application of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to the determination of trace chemical hazards in food products].

    PubMed

    Fan, Yu-Xia; Lai, Ke-Qiang; Huang, Yi-Qun

    2014-07-01

    In the present review, we summarized the research progress in applying SERS for the determination of illegal food additives, residual pesticides, banned or restricted antibiotics and other drugs. The nanosubstrates used in these studies included, but were not limited to, gold and silver nanosphere colloids, solid surface gold coated nanosubstrates, bimetallic nanosubstrates and spherical magnetic-core gold-shell nanoparticles, and etc. Standard solutions of a targeted chemical were normally tested first before analysis of relevant food in which the targeted chemical was commonly detected, and the tested food products included dairy products, condiments (such as chili powder and spices), fish, fruits and vegetables. The intensity of surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal is affected by various factors, which makes it difficult to obtain reproducible spectra. In addition, interferences of non-targeted food components on the target molecules during SERS analyses further makes it difficult to apply SERS as a routine analytic technique, despite its high specificity and sensitivity. Nevertheless, SERS is a new tool with great potential for analysis of trace amounts of chemical hazards in various food products and other complex systems. PMID:25269296

  4. Enhanced striatal dopamine release during food stimulation in binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gene-Jack; Geliebter, Allan; Volkow, Nora D; Telang, Frank W; Logan, Jean; Jayne, Millard C; Galanti, Kochavi; Selig, Peter A; Han, Hao; Zhu, Wei; Wong, Christopher T; Fowler, Joanna S

    2011-08-01

    Subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) regularly consume large amounts of food in short time periods. The neurobiology of BED is poorly understood. Brain dopamine, which regulates motivation for food intake, is likely to be involved. We assessed the involvement of brain dopamine in the motivation for food consumption in binge eaters. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [(11)C]raclopride were done in 10 obese BED and 8 obese subjects without BED. Changes in extracellular dopamine in the striatum in response to food stimulation in food-deprived subjects were evaluated after placebo and after oral methylphenidate (MPH), a drug that blocks the dopamine reuptake transporter and thus amplifies dopamine signals. Neither the neutral stimuli (with or without MPH) nor the food stimuli when given with placebo increased extracellular dopamine. The food stimuli when given with MPH significantly increased dopamine in the caudate and putamen in the binge eaters but not in the nonbinge eaters. Dopamine increases in the caudate were significantly correlated with the binge eating scores but not with BMI. These results identify dopamine neurotransmission in the caudate as being of relevance to the neurobiology of BED. The lack of correlation between BMI and dopamine changes suggests that dopamine release per se does not predict BMI within a group of obese individuals but that it predicts binge eating.

  5. Enhanced Striatal Dopamine Release During Food Stimulation in Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gene-Jack; Geliebter, Allan; Volkow, Nora D.; Telang, Frank W.; Logan, Jean; Jayne, Millard C.; Galanti, Kochavi; Selig, Peter A.; Han, Hao; Zhu, Wei; Wong, Christopher T.; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2011-01-01

    Subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) regularly consume large amounts of food in short time periods. The neurobiology of BED is poorly understood. Brain dopamine, which regulates motivation for food intake, is likely to be involved. We assessed the involvement of brain dopamine in the motivation for food consumption in binge eaters. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [11C]raclopride were done in 10 obese BED and 8 obese subjects without BED. Changes in extracellular dopamine in the striatum in response to food stimulation in food-deprived subjects were evaluated after placebo and after oral methylphenidate (MPH), a drug that blocks the dopamine reuptake transporter and thus amplifies dopamine signals. Neither the neutral stimuli (with or without MPH) nor the food stimuli when given with placebo increased extracellular dopamine. The food stimuli when given with MPH significantly increased dopamine in the caudate and putamen in the binge eaters but not in the nonbinge eaters. Dopamine increases in the caudate were significantly correlated with the binge eating scores but not with BMI. These results identify dopamine neurotransmission in the caudate as being of relevance to the neurobiology of BED. The lack of correlation between BMI and dopamine changes suggests that dopamine release per se does not predict BMI within a group of obese individuals but that it predicts binge eating. PMID:21350434

  6. Enhanced striatal dopamine release during food stimulation in binge eating disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, g.j.; Wang, G.-J.; Geliebter, A.; Volkow, N.D.; Telang, F.W.; Logan, Jaynbe, M.C.; Galanti, K.; Selig, P.A.; Han, H.; Zhu, W.; Wong, C.T.; Fowler, J.S.

    2011-01-13

    Subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) regularly consume large amounts of food in short time periods. The neurobiology of BED is poorly understood. Brain dopamine, which regulates motivation for food intake, is likely to be involved. We assessed the involvement of brain dopamine in the motivation for food consumption in binge eaters. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [{sup 11}C]raclopride were done in 10 obese BED and 8 obese subjects without BED. Changes in extracellular dopamine in the striatum in response to food stimulation in food-deprived subjects were evaluated after placebo and after oral methylphenidate (MPH), a drug that blocks the dopamine reuptake transporter and thus amplifies dopamine signals. Neither the neutral stimuli (with or without MPH) nor the food stimuli when given with placebo increased extracellular dopamine. The food stimuli when given with MPH significantly increased dopamine in the caudate and putamen in the binge eaters but not in the nonbinge eaters. Dopamine increases in the caudate were significantly correlated with the binge eating scores but not with BMI. These results identify dopamine neurotransmission in the caudate as being of relevance to the neurobiology of BED. The lack of correlation between BMI and dopamine changes suggests that dopamine release per se does not predict BMI within a group of obese individuals but that it predicts binge eating.

  7. Evaluation of zigzag furrow irrigation in Andean communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldán Cañas, José; Chipana, Gladys; Chipana, René; Fátima Moreno Pérez, María

    2014-05-01

    It is estimated that the area under irrigation in Bolivia represents 9.7% of the cultivated area, ie 253,100 ha. Traditional surface irrigation is the main system used in Bolivia. Currently, 40,000 ha are irrigated in the La Paz Department. The largest irrigated surface and the areas that produce most food in the Department are located in the eastern and western mountain ranges. However, the region's abrupt terrain makes it impossible to use conventional surface irrigation methods. . As a result, farmers in the inter-Andean valleys have used other surface irrigation methods intensively for hundreds of years like zigzag furrow. In this study, we conducted field trials in the rural community of Cebollullo of the municipality of Palca of La Paz Department. Cebollullo is located at an altitude of 2,780 m above sea level. Its geographic coordinates are 16°41'90.1"S to 16°43'12"S latitude and 67°52'13"W to 67°59'15"W longitude. The irrigated area is characterized by its steep slopes and zigzag corrugated furrow irrigation method is used. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of zigzag furrow irrigation in this community. The study plot has an area of 728 m2 and the average slope is 16.46%. For irrigation evaluation, the data of a middle furrow were taken to avoid boundary effects. Irrigation events recorded during the crop development were 21, with irrigation frequency of 2 to 3 days, of which 10 events were evaluated weekly. Due to the low flow rates used for irrigation, the inflow and outflow measurement of the furrows was made volumetrically. These flow measurements were made at five-minute intervals during irrigation. The zigzag corrugated irrigation method uses low flow discharges in order to decrease the rate of irrigation allowing infiltration of required volume by the crops and reducing soil erosion. Application efficiencies in the study plot ranged between 7.55% and 30.31%, with losses by surface runoff from 45.90% to 85.83% and

  8. Planning for an Irrigation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, J. Howard; Anderson, Carl L.

    The publication, with the aid of tables and colored illustrations and diagrams, presents information to help the farmer who is considering the installation of an irrigation system determine whether or not to irrigate, the type of system to use, and the irrigation cost and return on investment. Information is presented on the increase in yield to…

  9. Erosion: Irrigation-induced

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil can be eroded by sprinkler or surface irrigation. Once sprinkler droplet kinetic energy detaches soil, overland flow transports the sediment downslope and off-site. Protecting the soil surface, increasing sprinkler wetted diameters, and tilling to increase infiltration and thereby lessen overla...

  10. Texas Irrigation Situation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The irrigation situation in Texas is an interaction between hydrology and water policies. In 2012, according to National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS) four High Plains counties, Gainesville, Yoakum, Terry and Cochran, accounted for approximately 60% of the 150,000 acres of peanut productio...

  11. Prediction of positive food effect: Bioavailability enhancement of BCS class II drugs.

    PubMed

    Raman, Siddarth; Polli, James E

    2016-06-15

    High-throughput screening methods have increased the number of poorly water-soluble, highly permeable drug candidates. Many of these candidates have increased bioavailability when administered with food (i.e., exhibit a positive food effect). Food is known to impact drug bioavailability through a variety of mechanisms, including drug solubilization and prolonged gastric residence time. In vitro dissolution media that aim to mimic in vivo gastrointestinal (GI) conditions have been developed to lessen the need for fed human bioequivalence studies. The objective of this work was to develop an in vitro lipolysis model to predict positive food effect of three BCS Class II drugs (i.e., danazol, amiodarone and ivermectin) in previously developed lipolysis media. This in vitro lipolysis model was comparatively benchmarked against FeSSIF and FaSSIF media that were modified for an in vitro lipolysis approach, as FeSSIF and FaSSIF are widely used in in vitro dissolution studies. The in vitro lipolysis model accurately predicted the in vivo positive food effect for three model BCS class II drugs. The in vitro lipolysis model has potential use as a screening test of drug candidates in early development to assess positive food effect.

  12. Carbon capture and biogas enhancement by carbon dioxide enrichment of anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge or food waste.

    PubMed

    Bajón Fernández, Y; Soares, A; Villa, R; Vale, P; Cartmell, E

    2014-05-01

    The increasing concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere and the stringent greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction targets, require the development of CO2 sequestration technologies applicable for the waste and wastewater sector. This study addressed the reduction of CO2 emissions and enhancement of biogas production associated with CO2 enrichment of anaerobic digesters (ADs). The benefits of CO2 enrichment were examined by injecting CO2 at 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 M fractions into batch ADs treating food waste or sewage sludge. Daily specific methane (CH4) production increased 11-16% for food waste and 96-138% for sewage sludge over the first 24h. Potential CO2 reductions of 8-34% for sewage sludge and 3-11% for food waste were estimated. The capacity of ADs to utilise additional CO2 was demonstrated, which could provide a potential solution for onsite sequestration of CO2 streams while enhancing renewable energy production.

  13. Interspecies interactions result in enhanced biofilm formation by co-cultures of bacteria isolated from a food processing environment.

    PubMed

    Røder, Henriette L; Raghupathi, Prem K; Herschend, Jakob; Brejnrod, Asker; Knøchel, Susanne; Sørensen, Søren J; Burmølle, Mette

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial attachment and biofilm formation can lead to poor hygienic conditions in food processing environments. Furthermore, interactions between different bacteria may induce or promote biofilm formation. In this study, we isolated and identified a total of 687 bacterial strains from seven different locations in a meat processing environment and evaluated their biofilm formation capability. A diverse group of bacteria was isolated and most were classified as poor biofilm producers in a Calgary biofilm device assay. Isolates from two sampling sites, the wall and the meat chopper, were further examined for multispecies biofilm formation. Eight strains from each sampling site were chosen and all possible combinations of four member co-cultures were tested for enhanced biofilm formation at 15 °C and 24 °C. In approximately 20% of the multispecies consortia grown at 15 °C, the biofilm formation was enhanced when comparing to monospecies biofilms. Two specific isolates (one from each location) were found to be present in synergistic combinations with higher frequencies than the remaining isolates tested. This data provides insights into the ability of co-localized isolates to influence co-culture biofilm production with high relevance for food safety and food production facilities.

  14. From rainfed agriculture to stress-avoidance irrigation: II. Sustainability, crop yield, and profitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vico, Giulia; Porporato, Amilcare

    2011-02-01

    The optimality of irrigation strategies may be sought with respect to a number of criteria, including water requirements, crop yield, and profitability. To explore the suitability of different demand-based irrigation strategies, we link the probabilistic description of irrigation requirements under stochastic hydro-climatic conditions, provided in a companion paper [Vico G, Porporato A. From rainfed agriculture to stress-avoidance irrigation: I. A generalized irrigation scheme with stochastic soil moisture. Adv Water Resour 2011;34(2):263-71], to crop-yield and economic analyses. Water requirements, application efficiency, and investment costs of different irrigation methods, such as surface, sprinkler and drip irrigation systems, are described via a unified conceptual and theoretical approach, which includes rainfed agriculture and stress-avoidance irrigation as extreme cases. This allows us to analyze irrigation strategies with respect to sustainability, productivity, and economic return, using the same framework, and quantify them as a function of climate, crop, and soil parameters. We apply our results to corn ( Zea mays), a food staple and biofuel source, which is currently mainly irrigated through surface systems. As our analysis shows, micro-irrigation maximizes water productivity, but more traditional solutions may be more profitable at least in some contexts.

  15. Variety enhances food intake in humans: role of sensory-specific satiety.

    PubMed

    Brondel, L; Romer, M; Van Wymelbeke, V; Pineau, N; Jiang, T; Hanus, C; Rigaud, D

    2009-04-20

    Twenty-one subjects were studied to evaluate the effect of renewal of sensory stimulations of previously eaten foods on sensory-specific satiety and intake. The subjects ate French fries then brownie cakes ad libitum in three situations: "monotonous" - fries then brownies were consumed alone; "simultaneous" - condiments (ketchup and mayonnaise for the fries, vanilla cream and whipped cream for the brownies) were added during intakes; "successive" - after intake of fries alone, ketchup then mayonnaise were available with fries and, after intake of brownies alone, vanilla cream then whipped cream were offered with brownies. The quantities eaten in the "simultaneous" and "successive" situations were higher (p<0.001) than those in the "monotonous" one (1485+/-582 and 1682+/-777 kcal vs 1195+/-552 kcal, respectively). In the "successive" situation, hedonic ratings for fries diminished during intake but increased after the introduction of ketchup, leading to additional intake of fries. Similarly, hedonic ratings for brownies diminished during intake and increased after the introduction of vanilla cream leading to additional brownie intake (mayonnaise and whipped cream had no significant effect). Food variety, obtained by adding condiments can increase food intake in the short term. The mechanism by which food consumption is increased after the addition of condiments is introduced is at least partly related to the attenuation of sensory-satiety for a given food.

  16. Variety enhances food intake in humans: role of sensory-specific satiety.

    PubMed

    Brondel, L; Romer, M; Van Wymelbeke, V; Pineau, N; Jiang, T; Hanus, C; Rigaud, D

    2009-04-20

    Twenty-one subjects were studied to evaluate the effect of renewal of sensory stimulations of previously eaten foods on sensory-specific satiety and intake. The subjects ate French fries then brownie cakes ad libitum in three situations: "monotonous" - fries then brownies were consumed alone; "simultaneous" - condiments (ketchup and mayonnaise for the fries, vanilla cream and whipped cream for the brownies) were added during intakes; "successive" - after intake of fries alone, ketchup then mayonnaise were available with fries and, after intake of brownies alone, vanilla cream then whipped cream were offered with brownies. The quantities eaten in the "simultaneous" and "successive" situations were higher (p<0.001) than those in the "monotonous" one (1485+/-582 and 1682+/-777 kcal vs 1195+/-552 kcal, respectively). In the "successive" situation, hedonic ratings for fries diminished during intake but increased after the introduction of ketchup, leading to additional intake of fries. Similarly, hedonic ratings for brownies diminished during intake and increased after the introduction of vanilla cream leading to additional brownie intake (mayonnaise and whipped cream had no significant effect). Food variety, obtained by adding condiments can increase food intake in the short term. The mechanism by which food consumption is increased after the addition of condiments is introduced is at least partly related to the attenuation of sensory-satiety for a given food. PMID:19419673

  17. Irrigation Induced Surface Cooling in the Context of Modern and Increased Greenhouse Gas Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Puma, Michael J.; Krakauer, Nir Y.

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that expected warming trends from increased greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing have been locally masked by irrigation induced cooling, and it is uncertain how the magnitude of this irrigation masking effect will change in the future. Using an irrigation dataset integrated into a global general circulation model, we investigate the equilibrium magnitude of irrigation induced cooling under modern (Year 2000) and increased (A1B Scenario, Year 2050) GHG forcing, using modern irrigation rates in both scenarios. For the modern scenario, the cooling is largest over North America, India, the Middle East, and East Asia. Under increased GHG forcing, this cooling effect largely disappears over North America, remains relatively unchanged over India, and intensifies over parts of China and the Middle East. For North America, irrigation significantly increases precipitation under modern GHG forcing; this precipitation enhancement largely disappears under A1B forcing, reducing total latent heat fluxes and the overall irrigation cooling effect. Over India, irrigation rates are high enough to keep pace with increased evaporative demand from the increased GHG forcing and the magnitude of the cooling is maintained. Over China, GHG forcing reduces precipitation and shifts the region to a drier evaporative regime, leading to a relatively increased impact of additional water from irrigation on the surface energy balance. Irrigation enhances precipitation in the Middle East under increased GHG forcing, increasing total latent heat fluxes and enhancing the irrigation cooling effect. Ultimately, the extent to which irrigation will continue to compensate for the warming from increased GHG forcing will primarily depend on changes in the background evaporative regime, secondary irrigation effects (e.g. clouds, precipitation), and the ability of societies to maintain (or increase) current irrigation rates.

  18. Economic impacts on irrigated agriculture of water conservation programs in drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes vulnerability, impacts, and adaptability by irrigation to drought.It accounts for economic incentives affecting choices on irrigation technology, crop mix, and water sources.When surface water supplies fall, farmers increase pumping, even when pumping raises production costs.Conservation program subsidies raise the value of food production but can increase crop water depletions.

  19. Impact of potential large-scale and medium-scale irrigation on the West African Monsoon and its dependence on location of irrigated area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltahir, E. A. B.; IM, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the impact of potential large-scale (about 400,000 km2) and medium-scale (about 60,000 km2) irrigation on the climate of West Africa using the MIT Regional Climate Model. A new irrigation module is implemented to assess the impact of location and scheduling of irrigation on rainfall distribution over West Africa. A control simulation (without irrigation) and various sensitivity experiments (with irrigation) are performed and compared to discern the effects of irrigation location, size and scheduling. In general, the irrigation-induced surface cooling due to anomalously wet soil tends to suppress moist convection and rainfall, which in turn induces local subsidence and low level anti-cyclonic circulation. These local effects are dominated by a consistent reduction of local rainfall over the irrigated land, irrespective of its location. However, the remote response of rainfall distribution to irrigation exhibits a significant sensitivity to the latitudinal position of irrigation. The low-level northeasterly flow associated with anti-cyclonic circulation centered over the irrigation area can enhance the extent of low level convergence through interaction with the prevailing monsoon flow, leading to significant increase in rainfall. Despite much reduced forcing of irrigation water, the medium-scale irrigation seems to draw the same response as large-scale irrigation, which supports the robustness of the response to irrigation in our modeling system. Both large-scale and medium-scale irrigation experiments show that an optimal irrigation location and scheduling exists that would lead to a more efficient use of irrigation water. The approach of using a regional climate model to investigate the impact of location and size of irrigation schemes may be the first step in incorporating land-atmosphere interactions in the design of location and size of irrigation projects. However, this theoretical approach is still in early stages of development and

  20. Ethanol and food deprivation induced enhancement of hepatotoxicity in rats given carbon tetrachloride at low concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Ikatsu, H; Okino, T; Nakajima, T

    1991-01-01

    Effects of chronic ethanol consumption and one day food deprivation on the hepatotoxicity of low dose carbon tetrachloride (CCl4; 0 to 100 ppm inhalation for eight hours) in rats were investigated by using biochemical and histopathological methods. Liver malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were significantly increased by exposure to 5 ppm to 50 ppm CCl4 in ethanol treated rats or by exposure to 25 ppm to 50 ppm CCl4 in food deprived rats but not in rats without ethanol or food deprivation. The MDA concentrations reached a maximum at 10 ppm and 50 ppm CCl4 in ethanol treated and food deprived rats, respectively, and decreased to the non-exposed concentration at 100 ppm CCl4. At greater than or equal to 50 ppm CCl4 plasma MDA contents increased significantly only in ethanol treated rats. None of the exposure concentrations influenced plasma glutamic-oxaloacetic transamidase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activities in rats that were only exposed to CCl4 whereas exposure to 10 ppm or higher concentrations combined with ethanol increased both activities. To a lesser extent food deprivation combined with exposure to greater than or equal to 25 ppm CCl4 had the same effect. No histopathological changes were found in the liver of rats exposed to less than or equal to 10 ppm CCl4, and only a few ballooned hepatocytes were seen in centrilobular areas when exposure was 25 ppm or higher. The presence of ballooned and hepatocytes became a regular feature of mid-zonal areas in ethanol treated rats and in the centrilobular areas of food deprived rats after exposure to food deprived rats when exposure CC1(4) was >/=25 ppm and >/=50 ppm respectively. These results indicate that consumption of ethanol and food deprivation potentiate CCl(4) induced hepatic damage even at low concentrations of CCl(4) by promoting lipid peroxidation. Thus heavy

  1. Bacillus licheniformis Isolated from Traditional Korean Food Resources Enhances the Longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans through Serotonin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi Ri; Oh, Sangnam; Son, Seok Jun; Park, Dong-June; Oh, Sejong; Kim, Sae Hun; Jeong, Do-Youn; Oh, Nam Su; Lee, Youngbok; Song, Minho; Kim, Younghoon

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated potentially probiotic Bacillus licheniformis strains isolated from traditional Korean food sources for ability to enhance longevity using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a simple in vivo animal model. We first investigated whether B. licheniformis strains were capable of modulating the lifespan of C. elegans. Among the tested strains, preconditioning with four B. licheniformis strains significantly enhanced the longevity of C. elegans. Unexpectedly, plate counting and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results indicated that B. licheniformis strains were not more highly attached to the C. elegans intestine compared with Escherichia coli OP50 or Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG controls. In addition, qRT-PCR and an aging assay with mutant worms showed that the conditioning of B. licheniformis strain 141 directly influenced genes associated with serotonin signaling in nematodes, including tph-1 (tryptophan hydroxylase), bas-1 (serotonin- and dopamine-synthetic aromatic amino acid decarboxylase), mod-1 (serotonin-gated chloride channel), ser-1, and ser-7 (serotonin receptors) during C. elegans aging. Our findings suggest that B. licheniformis strain 141, which is isolated from traditional Korean foods, is a probiotic generally recognized as safe (GRAS) strain that enhances the lifespan of C. elegans via host serotonin signaling.

  2. Bacillus licheniformis Isolated from Traditional Korean Food Resources Enhances the Longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans through Serotonin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi Ri; Oh, Sangnam; Son, Seok Jun; Park, Dong-June; Oh, Sejong; Kim, Sae Hun; Jeong, Do-Youn; Oh, Nam Su; Lee, Youngbok; Song, Minho; Kim, Younghoon

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated potentially probiotic Bacillus licheniformis strains isolated from traditional Korean food sources for ability to enhance longevity using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a simple in vivo animal model. We first investigated whether B. licheniformis strains were capable of modulating the lifespan of C. elegans. Among the tested strains, preconditioning with four B. licheniformis strains significantly enhanced the longevity of C. elegans. Unexpectedly, plate counting and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results indicated that B. licheniformis strains were not more highly attached to the C. elegans intestine compared with Escherichia coli OP50 or Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG controls. In addition, qRT-PCR and an aging assay with mutant worms showed that the conditioning of B. licheniformis strain 141 directly influenced genes associated with serotonin signaling in nematodes, including tph-1 (tryptophan hydroxylase), bas-1 (serotonin- and dopamine-synthetic aromatic amino acid decarboxylase), mod-1 (serotonin-gated chloride channel), ser-1, and ser-7 (serotonin receptors) during C. elegans aging. Our findings suggest that B. licheniformis strain 141, which is isolated from traditional Korean foods, is a probiotic generally recognized as safe (GRAS) strain that enhances the lifespan of C. elegans via host serotonin signaling. PMID:26541069

  3. IgE-mediated systemic anaphylaxis and impaired tolerance to food antigens in mice with enhanced IL-4 receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Clinton B.; Hobson, Suejy A.; Garcia-Lloret, Maria; Lawson, Greg; Poddighe, Dimitri; Freyschmidt, Eva-Jasmin; Xing, Wei; Gurish, Michael F.; Chatila, Talal A.; Oettgen, Hans C.

    2010-01-01

    Background In atopic individuals, food ingestion drives the production of IgE antibodies that can trigger hypersensitivity reactions. The IL-4 pathway plays critical roles in this response and genetic polymorphisms in its components have been linked to allergy. Objective To test whether an activating mutation in the IL-4 receptor (IL-4R) α chain enhances allergic responses to a food antigen. Methods F709 mice, in which the IL-4Rα immuno-tyrosine inhibitory motif (ITIM) motif is inactivated, were gavage fed with ovalbumin (OVA). Reactions to OVA challenge and immune responses including antibody production and Th2 responses were assessed. Results F709 mice, but not wild-type (WT) controls, sensitized by gavage with OVA and either cholera toxin (CT) or Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), displayed mast cell activation and systemic anaphylaxis upon enteral challenge. Anaphylaxis was elicited even in F709 mice enterally sensitized with OVA alone. Bone marrow chimera experiments established that the increased sensitivity conferred by the F709 genotype was mediated mostly by hematopoietic cells but that nonhematopoietic cells also contributed. F709 mice exhibited increased intestinal permeability to macromolecules. The F709 genotype conferred increased OVA-specific IgE but not IgG1 responses, local and systemic Th2 responses and intestinal mast cell hyperplasia as compared with WT mice. Anaphylaxis was abrogated in F709 mice lacking IgE or the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI). Conclusion Augmented IL-4Rα signaling confers increased intestinal permeability and dramatically enhanced sensitivity to food allergens. Unlike anaphylaxis to injected antigens, which in rodents can be mediated by either IgE or IgG antibodies, the food-induced response in F709 mice is solely IgE-dependent. PMID:21167580

  4. Enhancing Food Safety: Reaching a Large and Diverse Population through Online Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt, Chris; Thomson, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) is a program designed to educate U.S. beef producers on best management practices to ensure production of a safe, wholesome beef product and humane animal care. The program must be sufficiently nimble to rapidly incorporate the demands of an ever-changing food system. Animal Care Training, an online system…

  5. The use of silver nanorod array based surface enhanced Raman scattering sensor for food safety applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For the advancement of preventive strategies, it is critical to develop rapid and sensitive detection methods with nanotechnology for food safety applications. This article reports the recent development on the use of aligned silver nanorod (AgNR) arrays prepared by oblique angle deposition, as surf...

  6. Using the Melamine Contamination of Foods to Enhance the Chemistry Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrough, Doris Renate; Jensen, Anna Chick

    2010-01-01

    An introduction to the chemistry of the triazine compound, melamine, is presented as well as a brief discussion of the health impacts on humans and pets when melamine contaminates milk products and pet food. Melamine has repeatedly been in the news, and its topical nature provides an excellent springboard for applications of a variety of chemical…

  7. Role of Service Learning Activities: Assessing and Enhancing Food Security in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duerr, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Many low-income families are at risk for food insecurity. In addition, with the aging of America, multigenerational families are becoming more prevalent, resulting in excessive strain and burden on the resources of low-income families. Family and consumer sciences educators need to teach their students about factors that contribute to food…

  8. Does further clean-up reduce the matrix enhancement effect in gas chromatographic analysis of pesticide residues in food?

    PubMed

    Schenck, F J; Lehotay, S J

    2000-01-28

    Sample extracts of apples, peas, green beans, oranges, raspberries, clementines, carrots, and wheat obtained using the Food and Drug Administration (acetone extraction) and Canadian Pest Management Regulatory Agency (acetonitrile extraction) multiresidue methods for pesticides were subjected to clean-up using different solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges in an attempt to reduce or eliminate the matrix enhancement effect. The matrix enhancement effect is related to the blocking of active sites on the injector liner by matrix components, thereby increasing signal in the presence of matrix versus standards in solvent in which the pesticides themselves interact with the active sites. Graphitized carbon black (GCB) was often used in combination with various anion-exchange SPE cartridges. The extracts were then spiked with organophosphorus insecticides. These process standards were then compared to standards in acetone of the same concentration using gas chromatography with flame photometric detection or ion trap mass spectrometric detection. Sample matrix enhancement varied from little to no effect for some pesticides (e.g. chlorpyrifos, malathion) to >200% in the case of certain susceptible pesticides. The GCB removed color components but showed little effect in reducing matrix enhancement by itself. The anion-exchange cartridges in combination with GCB or not, substantially reduced the matrix enhancement effect but did not eliminate it. PMID:10677079

  9. Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and chemically enhanced primary-treated sludge under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Obulisamy, Parthiba Karthikeyan; Chakraborty, Debkumar; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2016-12-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste with primary sewage sludge is beneficial for urban centers, while the optimized conditions reported in the literature are not locally suitable for Hong Kong. Therefore, the present study was aimed to develop an optimized mixing ratio of food waste to chemically enhanced primary-treated sewer sludge (CEPT) for co-digestion using batch tests under mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. The mixing ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1 and 3:1 (v v(-1)) of food waste to CEPT sludge was tested under the following conditions: temperature - 35°C and 55°C; pH - not regulated; agitation - 150 rpm and time - 20 days. The thermophilic incubations led a good hydrolysis rate and 2-12-fold higher enzyme activities than in mesophilic incubations for different mixing ratios. While the acidogenesis were found retarded that leading to 'sour and stuck' digestion for all mixing ratio of food waste to CEPT sludge from thermophilic incubations. The measured zeta potential was most favourable (-5 to -16.8 mV) for methane production under thermophilic incubations; however the CH4 recovery was less than that in mesophilic incubations. The results suggested that the quick hydrolysis and subsequent acid accumulation under thermophilic incubation lead to inhibited methanogenesis at the early stage than in mesophilic systems. It is concluded that buffer addition is therefore required for any mixing ratio of food waste to CEPT sludge for improved CH4 recovery for both mesophilic and thermophilic operations.

  10. Technology stretches irrigation water

    SciTech Connect

    Phene, C.J.

    1985-02-01

    A new solar-powered irrigation system is described which is controlled by computers. Sensors monitor soil moisture and transpiration; an automatic weather station records solar radiation, wind, air temperature and humidity. Infrared thermometers measure and record foliage temperatures. Lasers guide the wheeled towers through the crop rows metering out needed water as determined by the system. Photovoltaic cells provide the power for the towers.

  11. Soybean productivity under various rainfed conditions and irrigation levels determined by WinAPEX model in Blackland Prairie of East Central Mississippi State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As shortage of irrigation water resources and food demand continuously increase, it is of great significance to produce the most crop yield with the least irrigation water. Assessment of crop productivity and development of crop water production functions (CWPFs) could help guide irrigation scheduli...

  12. Amelioration of the irrigated lands of the Vakhsh valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikromov, Islomkul; Mirzoev, Mm

    2015-04-01

    In the agro-industrial country like Tajikistan, the efficient use of irrigation of arable land is important because it contributes to the solution of the State Program of the Food independence of the country, by increasing the yield of agricultural production per unit of irrigated area. The irrigated area in the Republic of Tajikistan as of 1.01.2014g. equal to about 750 thousand. ha, per capita, on average, less than 0.10 hectares. and its share in relation to agricultural land is only 10.5%. However, more than 90% of crop production are grown on these lands. Given the demographic growth of the population of the republic specific area of irrigated land from year to year is becoming less and less of that call into question the successful solution of the above program. Therefore, in our view, to ensure food independence of the country in addition to the development of land from the reserve, should focus on the amelioration of existing irrigated areas, improve the culture of land and water, on modernization of reclamation systems contribute to a high degree of adaptability based on a high degree of water metering, water distribution, water and resource conservation, the use of the latest technology and irrigation techniques. Condition of the soil is their estimated figures is mainly determined by its productivity. It is determined by the degree of salinity of soils, the depth of the groundwater level and salinity, erosion and on stony ground. Vakhsh valley in Tajikistan is one of the main oases, ensuring production of agricultural products but, in recent years due to a number of man-made reasons: Adherence crop irrigation, low technical condition of irrigation systems and as a consequence their efficiency and utilization of irrigation water and farming, inoperable drainage system, or lack of them all, the virtual absence of vodouchёta on the field, no use of it modern technology and irrigation techniques, etc., the level of both fresh and saline groundwater rose

  13. Evaluation of techniques for mapping land and crops irrigated by center pivots from computer-enhanced Landsat imagery in part of the James River basin near Huron, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolm, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate remote sensing techniques for mapping irrigated crop types and acreages in part of the James River basin of South Dakota, using Landsat imagery. The results demonstrated that a subtraction (band 7 minus band 4) method was best for identifying the location of cropland irrigated by groundwater. Two separate principal-spectral-components analyses (analysis of the second principal-spectral component and the simultaneous analysis of the first three principal-spectral components) were best for identifying the crop type and estimating crop acreages. However, only 50 percent of the irrigated lands could be identified and only 79 percent of these could be classified accurately by crop type. Therefore, a 39 percent overall accuracy was achieved in irrigated crop-type identification. (USGS)

  14. The Impact of Climate and Its Variability on Crop Yield and Irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Troy, T.

    2014-12-01

    As the global population grows and the climate changes, having a secure food supply is increasingly important especially under water stressed-conditions. Although irrigation is a positive climate adaptation mechanism for agriculture, it has a potentially negative effect on water resources. It is therefore important to understand how crop yields due to irrigation are affected by climate variability and how irrigation may buffer against climate, allowing for more resilient agricultural systems. Efforts to solve these barely exposed questions can benefit from comprehending the influence of climate variability on crop yield and irrigation water use in the past. To do this, we use historical climate data,irrigation water use data and rainfed and irrigated crop yields over the US to analyze the relationship among climate, irrigation and delta crop yields, gained by subtracting rainfed yield from irrigated yield since 1970. We find that the increase in delta crop yield due to irrigation is larger for certain climate conditions, such that there are optimal climate conditions where irrigation provides a benefit and other conditions where irrigation proves to have marginal benefits when temperature increased to certain degrees. We find that crop water requirements are linked to potential evapotranspiration, yet actual irrigation water use is largely decoupled from the climate conditions but related with other causes. This has important implications for agricultural and water resource system planning, as it implies there are optimal climate zones where irrigation is productive and that changes in water use, both temporally and spatially, could lead to increased water availability without negative impacts on crop yields. Furthermore, based on the exposed relationship between crop yield gained by irrigation and climate variability, those models predicting the global harvest will be redress to estimate crop production in the future more accurately.

  15. Estimation of Land Surface States and Fluxes using a Land Surface Model Considering Different Irrigation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, J. A.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Evans, J. P.; Beaudoing, H. K.

    2012-12-01

    Food security can be improved by increasing the extent of agricultural land or by increasing agricultural productivity, including through intensive management such as irrigation. The objectives of this study were to incorporate practical irrigation schemes into land surface models of the NASA Land Information System (LIS) and to apply the tool to estimate the impact of irrigation on land surface states and fluxes—including evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and runoff—in the Murray-Darling basin in Australia. Here we present results obtained using Noah Land Surface Model v3.2 within LIS without simulated irrigation (IR0) and with three irrigation simulation routines: flood irrigation (IR1), drip irrigation (IR2), and sprinkler irrigation (IR3). Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) vegetation index was used to define crop growing seasons. Simulations were performed for a full year (July 2002 to June 2003) and evaluated against hydrologic flux estimates obtained in previous studies. Irrigation amounts during the growing season (August 2002 to March 2003) were simulated as 104.6, 24.6, and 188.1 GL for IR1, IR2, and IR3, respectively. These preliminary results showed water use efficiency from a drip irrigation scheme would be highest and lowest from a sprinkler irrigation scheme, with a highly optimized version of flood irrigation falling in between. Irrigation water contributed to a combination of increased evapotranspiration, runoff, and soil moisture storage in the irrigation simulations relative to IR0. Implications for water management applications and for further model development will be discussed.

  16. Effect on Ca(OH)2 pretreatment to enhance biogas production of organic food waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junoh, H.; Yip, CH; Kumaran, P.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2 pretreatment in optimizing COD solubilisation and methane production through anaerobic digestion process. Two different parameters, chemical concentration (40-190 mEq/L) and pretreatment time (1-6 hours) were used to pretreat food waste. A central composite design and response surface methodology (RSM) was applied in obtaining the optimized condition for COD solubilisation. Result showed COD solubilisation was optimized at 166.98 mEq/L (equivalent to 6.1 g Ca(OH)2/L) for 1 hour. These conditions were applied through biomethane potential test with methane production of 864.19 mL/g VSdestructed and an increase of 20.0% as compared to untreated food waste.

  17. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of high-pressure extruded food waste by inoculum optimization.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xin; Xu, Shuang; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Huan; Zhao, Ke; He, Liang

    2016-01-15

    The inoculation for extruded food waste anaerobic digestion (AD) was optimized to improve methane (CH4) yield. The inoculum of acclimated anaerobic sludge resulted in high biodegradability, producing CH4 yields from 580 mLCH4 g(-1)·VSadded to 605 mLCH4 g(-1)·VSadded, with corresponding BDCH4 ranging from 90% to 94%. We also investigated inoculum to substrate ratios (ISRs). With regards to digested slurry as inoculum, we found that a decrease in ISR improved CH4 yield, while a lower ISR prolonged the lag time of the initial AD stage due to lipid inhibition caused by excessive food waste. These results demonstrate that minimal inocula are required to start the AD system for high-pressure extruded food waste because it is easily biodegraded. High ammonia concentration had a negative effect on CH4 production (i.e., when free ammonia nitrogen [FAN] increased from 20 to 30 mg L(-1) to 120-140 mg L(-1), the CH4 yield decreased by 25%), suggesting that FAN was a significant inhibitor in CH4 yield reduction. In terms of CH4 yield and lag time of the AD process, the optimal inoculation of digested slurry for the extruded food waste had an ISR of 0.33 with CH4 yield of 505 mLCH4 g(-1)VSadded, which was 20% higher than what was found for higher ISR controls of 2, 1 and 0.5.

  18. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of high-pressure extruded food waste by inoculum optimization.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xin; Xu, Shuang; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Huan; Zhao, Ke; He, Liang

    2016-01-15

    The inoculation for extruded food waste anaerobic digestion (AD) was optimized to improve methane (CH4) yield. The inoculum of acclimated anaerobic sludge resulted in high biodegradability, producing CH4 yields from 580 mLCH4 g(-1)·VSadded to 605 mLCH4 g(-1)·VSadded, with corresponding BDCH4 ranging from 90% to 94%. We also investigated inoculum to substrate ratios (ISRs). With regards to digested slurry as inoculum, we found that a decrease in ISR improved CH4 yield, while a lower ISR prolonged the lag time of the initial AD stage due to lipid inhibition caused by excessive food waste. These results demonstrate that minimal inocula are required to start the AD system for high-pressure extruded food waste because it is easily biodegraded. High ammonia concentration had a negative effect on CH4 production (i.e., when free ammonia nitrogen [FAN] increased from 20 to 30 mg L(-1) to 120-140 mg L(-1), the CH4 yield decreased by 25%), suggesting that FAN was a significant inhibitor in CH4 yield reduction. In terms of CH4 yield and lag time of the AD process, the optimal inoculation of digested slurry for the extruded food waste had an ISR of 0.33 with CH4 yield of 505 mLCH4 g(-1)VSadded, which was 20% higher than what was found for higher ISR controls of 2, 1 and 0.5. PMID:26468605

  19. Impact of foods nutritionally enhanced through biotechnology in alleviating malnutrition in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Gilani, G Sarwar; Nasim, Anwar

    2007-01-01

    According to United Nations (UN) projections, the world's population will grow from 6.1 billion in 2000 to 8 billion in 2025 and 9.4 billion in 2050. Most (93%) of the increase will take place in developing countries. The rapid population growth in developing countries creates major challenges for governments regarding food and nutrition security. According to current World Health Organization estimates, more than 3 billion people worldwide, especially in developing countries, are malnourished in essential nutrients. Malnutrition imposes severe costs on a country's population due to impaired physical and cognitive abilities and reduced ability to work. Little progress has been made in improving malnutrition over the past few decades. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN would like to see more nutrient-rich foods introduced into these countries, because supplements are expensive and difficult to distribute widely. Biofortification of staple crops through modern biotechnology can potentially help in alleviating malnutrition in developing countries. Several genetically modified crops, including rice, potatoes, oilseeds, and cassava, with elevated levels of essential nutrients (such as vitamin A, iron, zinc, protein and essential amino acids, and essential fatty acids); reduced levels of antinutritional factors (such as cyanogens, phytates, and glycoalkaloid); and increased levels of factors that influence bioavailability and utilization of essential nutrients (such as cysteine residues) are advancing through field trial stage and regulatory processes towards commercialization. The ready availability and consumption of the biofortified crops would have a significant impact in reducing malnutrition and the risk of chronic disease in developing countries.

  20. Hunger-Dependent Enhancement of Food Cue Responses in Mouse Postrhinal Cortex and Lateral Amygdala.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Christian R; Ramesh, Rohan N; Sugden, Arthur U; Levandowski, Kirsten M; Minnig, Margaret A; Fenselau, Henning; Lowell, Bradford B; Andermann, Mark L

    2016-09-01

    The needs of the body can direct behavioral and neural processing toward motivationally relevant sensory cues. For example, human imaging studies have consistently found specific cortical areas with biased responses to food-associated visual cues in hungry subjects, but not in sated subjects. To obtain a cellular-level understanding of these hunger-dependent cortical response biases, we performed chronic two-photon calcium imaging in postrhinal association cortex (POR) and primary visual cortex (V1) of behaving mice. As in humans, neurons in mouse POR, but not V1, exhibited biases toward food-associated cues that were abolished by satiety. This emergent bias was mirrored by the innervation pattern of amygdalo-cortical feedback axons. Strikingly, these axons exhibited even stronger food cue biases and sensitivity to hunger state and trial history. These findings highlight a direct pathway by which the lateral amygdala may contribute to state-dependent cortical processing of motivationally relevant sensory cues. PMID:27523426

  1. Irrigation as an Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change: The Relative Influence of Groundwater and Canal Irrigation on Winter Crop Production and its Sensitivity to Weather Variability in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, M.; Fishman, R.; Mondal, P.; Galford, G. L.; Naeem, S.; Modi, V.; DeFries, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    India is a hotspot for food security issues over the upcoming decades, due to increasing population pressures, groundwater depletion, and climate change. Investing in additional irrigation infrastructure may bolster food security, however, the relative influence of different types of irrigation (e.g. groundwater versus canal) on agricultural production remains unclear. One reason that the relative impact of different irrigation strategies on agricultural production has not been analyzed across India is because national-scale data on crop production and the types of irrigation technologies used are typically available at too coarse of spatial and temporal resolutions to answer this question adequately. Thus, we develop a novel algorithm to map cropped area across India at a 1 x 1 km scale using MODIS satellite data, and link these high-resolution cropped area maps with village-level data (n = 600,000) on irrigation. This allowed us to assess the relative impact of groundwater (i.e. dug, shallow, and deep wells) and canal irrigation (i.e. surface lift and flow canals) on winter cropped area and its sensitivity to rainfall across India at the village-scale from 2000 to 2006. We find that deep well irrigation is both associated with the greatest amount of winter cropped area, and is also the least sensitive to monsoon and winter rainfall variability. However, the effectiveness of deep well irrigation varies across India, with the greatest benefits seen in the regions that are most at risk for losing groundwater as a possible source of irrigation over the upcoming decades (e.g. Northwest India). This work highlights the need to develop ways to use remaining groundwater more efficiently (e.g. drip irrigation, less water-intensive crops) given that canal irrigation is not an adequate substitute, particularly in the regions that are facing the greatest levels of groundwater depletion.

  2. Low hygroscopic spray-dried powders with trans-glycosylated food additives enhance the solubility and oral bioavailability of ipriflavone.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Miki; Kadota, Kazunori; Kato, Kouki; Seto, Yoshiki; Onoue, Satomi; Sato, Hideyuki; Ueda, Hiroshi; Tozuka, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    The improvement in the solubility and dissolution rate may promote a superior absorption property towards the human body. The spray-dried powders (SDPs) of ipriflavone, which was used as a model hydrophobic flavone, with trans-glycosylated rutin (Rutin-G) showed the highest solubilizing effect of ipriflavone among three types of trans-glycosylated food additives. The SDPs of ipriflavone with Rutin-G have both a significant higher dissolution rate and solubility enhancement of ipriflavone. This spray-dried formulation of ipriflavone with Rutin-G exhibited a low hygroscopicity as a critical factor in product preservation. In addition, an improvement in the oral absorption of ipriflavone was achieved by means of preparing composite particles of ipriflavone/Rutin-G via spray drying, indicating a 4.3-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve compared with that of untreated ipriflavone. These phenomena could be applicable to food ingredients involving hydrophobic flavones for producing healthy food with a high quality.

  3. Minimizing Concentration of Sodium Hypochlorite in Root Canal Irrigation by Combination of Ultrasonic Irrigation with Photodynamic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhuang; Xiao, Suli; Ma, Dianfu; Huang, Xiaojing; Cai, Zhiyu

    2015-01-01

    Concentration of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is positively correlated with its effectiveness in root canal disinfection but negatively correlated with its biocompatibility. The objective of this in vitro study was to compare the bactericidal effects among ultrasonic irrigation with different concentration of NaOCl alone or together with photodynamic treatment (PDT) against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) in infected root canals. One hundred and twenty bovine root canals contaminated with E. faecalis were randomly distributed into 12 groups treated with different disinfection methods: PDT, ultrasonic irrigation with NaOCl at different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 2.5% and 5.25%), and ultrasonic irrigation with NaOCl at different concentrations plus PDT. Data of microorganism load were collected before and after disinfection and analyzed by one-way ANOVA and LSD tests. Significantly enhanced antibacterial effects were noticed in groups treated by PDT plus 2.0% or 2.5% NaOCl irrigation (P < 0.05). No statistical differences existed in bactericidal efficacy among groups of PDT plus ultrasonic irrigation with 2.0%, 2.5% or 5.25% NaOCl, and ultrasonic irrigation with 5.25% NaOCl alone (P > 0.05). Our study confirmed the feasibility to reduce the concentration of NaOCl to a safer level while maintaining its antibacterial efficiency through synergistic effect of PDT with NaOCl ultrasonic irrigation.

  4. Geospatial measurements of soil electrical conductivity to assess soil salinity and diffuse salt loading from irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoades, James D.; Corwin, Dennis L.; Lesch, Scott M.

    Irrigated agriculture is necessary to meet the food demands of the world, but excessive irrigation has wasted water and drainage from it has degraded the productivity and altered the ecology of vast areas of land. Irrigated agriculture also has polluted associated surface water and groundwater resources. The extent of soil degradation from salinization and waterlogging and, especially, the extent of water salinization resulting from excessive irrigation have not been well quantified. Additionally, the diffuse sources of deep percolation and salt loading from irrigation have not been well established. This paper describes basic principles of soil electrical conductivity, recent technology developed to assess the magnitude and distribution of soil salinity in fields, and ways to infer the areal sources and amounts of diffuse salt loading from irrigation.

  5. Effects of Choice Architecture and Chef-Enhanced Meals on the Selection and Consumption of Healthier School Foods

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Juliana F.W.; Richardson, Scott A.; Cluggish, Sarah A.; Parker, Ellen; Catalano, Paul J.; Rimm, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Little is known about the long-term effect of a chef-enhanced menu on healthier food selection and consumption in school lunchrooms. In addition, it remains unclear if extended exposure to other strategies to promote healthier foods (eg, choice architecture) also improves food selection or consumption. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the short- and long-term effects of chef-enhanced meals and extended exposure to choice architecture on healthier school food selection and consumption. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A school-based randomized clinical trial was conducted during the 2011–2012 school year among 14 elementary and middle schools in 2 urban, low-income school districts (intent-to-treat analysis). Included in the study were 2638 students in grades 3 through 8 attending participating schools (38.4%of eligible participants). INTERVENTIONS Schools were first randomized to receive a professional chef to improve school meal palatability (chef schools) or to a delayed intervention (control group). To assess the effect of choice architecture (smart café), all schools after 3 months were then randomized to the smart café intervention or to the control group. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES School food selection was recorded, and consumption was measured using plate waste methods. RESULTS After 3 months, vegetable selection increased in chef vs control schools (odds ratio [OR], 1.75; 95% CI, 1.36–2.24), but there was no effect on the selection of other components or on meal consumption. After long-term or extended exposure to the chef or smart café intervention, fruit selection increased in the chef (OR, 3.08; 95% CI, 2.23–4.25), smart café (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13–1.87), and chef plus smart café (OR, 3.10; 95% CI, 2.26–4.25) schools compared with the control schools, and consumption increased in the chef schools (OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.03–0.30 cups/d). Vegetable selection increased in the chef (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.83–3.54), smart café (OR, 1.91; 95

  6. Combination of wet irrigation and nitrification inhibitor reduced nitrous oxide and methane emissions from a rice cropping system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Yu, Haiyang; Zhang, Guangbin; Xu, Hua; Ma, Jing

    2016-09-01

    To conserve water resources and guarantee food security, a new technology termed as "wet irrigation" is developed and practiced in rice fields; thus, its impact on radiative forcing derived from nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions merits serious attention. Dicyandiamide (DCD), a kind of nitrification inhibitor, is proposed as a viable means to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emission while enhancing crop productivity. However, little is known about the response of GHG emission and grain yield to DCD application in a rice system under wet irrigation. In these regard, effects of water regime and DCD application on CH4 and N2O emissions, grain yield, global warming potential (GWP), and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) from rice fields were studied. For this study, a field experiment, designed: Treatment II (intermittent irrigation), Treatment WI (wet irrigation), Treatment IID (II plus DCD), and Treatment WID (WI plus DCD), was conducted in Jurong, Jiangsu Province, China, from 2011 to 2012. Relative to Treatment II, Treatment WI decreased CH4 emission significantly by 49-71 % while increasing N2O emission by 33-72 %. By integrating CH4 and N2O emissions and grain yield, Treatment WI was 20-28 and 11-15 % lower than Treatment II in GWP and GHGI, respectively. The use of DCD under wet irrigation reduced N2O emission significantly by 25-38 % (p < 0.05) and CH4 emission by 7-8 %, relative to Treatment WI, resulting in a decline of 18-30 % in GWP. Due to the increase in N use efficiency, maximal grain yield (6-7 %) and minimal GHGI (22-34 %) was observed in Treatment WID. These findings indicate that combined application of N fertilizer and DCD is a win-win strategy in water-saving high-yield rice production with less GHG emission. PMID:27230147

  7. A survey of the traditional food consumption that may contribute to enhanced soil ingestion in a Canadian First Nation community.

    PubMed

    Doyle, J R; Blais, J M; White, P A

    2012-05-01

    Soil ingestion rates in the order of 400 mg d(-1) have been proposed and considered plausible for use in human health risk assessments (HHRA) of Aboriginal populations and justified by qualitative assessments of the traditional subsistence activities that could enhance soil ingestion. The purpose of this study was to assess and document the subsistence activities and food consumption practiced by a First Nation Community living in a wilderness community in Canada to allow for a comparison with the previous qualitative assessments of Aboriginal populations and a quantitative mass balance tracer element study of the community conducted concurrently. An ethno-cultural survey was conducted of the Xeni Gwet'in First Nations community living in the Nemiah Valley, approximately 230 km west of Williams Lake, British Columbia. The community diet was observed to consist mainly of fish and big game, and was supplemented by berries and roots. Outdoor cultural gatherings, hunting and food gathering trips and sporting events, with their attendant potential for enhanced soil exposure, were observed to be an important facet of community life. The survey concluded that a significant portion of the Xeni Gwet'in practise a lifestyle similar to the subsistence lifestyles of other indigenous communities, where soil exposure scenarios in the order of hundreds of mg d(-1) have been proposed.

  8. Seasonal foraging responses of beavers to sodium-enhanced foods: An experimental assessment with field feeding trials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strules, Jennifer; Destefano, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Salt drive is a seasonal phenomenon common to several classes of wild herbivores. Coincident with shifts of nutrient quality when plants resume growth in the spring, sodium is secondarily lost as surplus potassium is excreted. The beaver (Castor canadensis) is an herbivore whose dietary niche closely follows that of other herbivores that are subject to salt drive, but no published studies to date have assessed the likelihood of its occurrence. To quantify if beavers experience seasonal salt drive, we designed a field experiment to measure the foraging responses of beavers to sodium-enhanced foods. We used sodium-treated (salted) and control (no salt) food items (aspen [Populus tremuloides] and pine [Pinus spp.] sticks) during monthly feeding trials at beaver-occupied wetlands. If conventional ontogeny of salt drive was operant, we expected to observe greater utility of sodium-treated food items by beavers in May and June. Further, if water lilies (Nymphaea spp. and Nuphar spp.) supply beavers with sodium to meet dietary requirements as is widely speculated, we expected foraging responses to sodium-treated food items at wetlands where water lilies were absent to be greater than at wetlands where water lily was present. Aspen was selected by beavers in significantly greater amounts than pine. There was no difference between the mean percent consumed of salted and control aspen sticks by beavers at lily and non-lily wetlands, and no differences in temporal consumption associated with salted or control pine sticks at either wetland type. Salted pine was consumed in greater amounts than unsalted pine. We propose that the gastrointestinal or renal physiology of beavers may preclude solute loss, thereby preventing salt drive.

  9. Mapping irrigated areas in Afghanistan over the past decade using MODIS NDVI

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Budde, Michael; Rowland, James

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural production capacity contributes to food security in Afghanistan and is largely dependent on irrigated farming, mostly utilizing surface water fed by snowmelt. Because of the high contribution of irrigated crops (> 80%) to total agricultural production, knowing the spatial distribution and year-to-year variability in irrigated areas is imperative to monitoring food security for the country. We used 16-day composites of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor to create 23-point time series for each year from 2000 through 2013. Seasonal peak values and time series were used in a threshold-dependent decision tree algorithm to map irrigated areas in Afghanistan for the last 14 years. In the absence of ground reference irrigated area information, we evaluated these maps with the irrigated areas classified from multiple snapshots of the landscape during the growing season from Landsat 5 optical and thermal sensor images. We were able to identify irrigated areas using Landsat imagery by selecting as irrigated those areas with Landsat-derived NDVI greater than 0.30–0.45, depending on the date of the Landsat image and surface temperature less than or equal to 310 Kelvin (36.9 ° C). Due to the availability of Landsat images, we were able to compare with the MODIS-derived maps for four years: 2000, 2009, 2010, and 2011. The irrigated areas derived from Landsat agreed well r2 = 0.91 with the irrigated areas derived from MODIS, providing confidence in the MODIS NDVI threshold approach. The maps portrayed a highly dynamic irrigated agriculture practice in Afghanistan, where the amount of irrigated area was largely determined by the availability of surface water, especially snowmelt, and varied by as much as 30% between water surplus and water deficit years. During the past 14 years, 2001, 2004, and 2008 showed the lowest levels of irrigated area (~ 1.5 million hectares), attesting to

  10. Enhancing the Detection of Giardia duodenalis Cysts in Foods by Inertial Microfluidic Separation

    PubMed Central

    Ganz, Kyle R.; Clime, Liviu; Farber, Jeffrey M.; Corneau, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of current Giardia cyst detection methods for foods are largely determined by the effectiveness of the elution, separation, and concentration methods used. The aim of these methods is to produce a final suspension with an adequate concentration of Giardia cysts for detection and a low concentration of interfering food debris. In the present study, a microfluidic device, which makes use of inertial separation, was designed and fabricated for the separation of Giardia cysts. A cyclical pumping platform and protocol was developed to concentrate 10-ml suspensions down to less than 1 ml. Tests involving Giardia duodenalis cysts and 1.90-μm microbeads in pure suspensions demonstrated the specificity of the microfluidic chip for cysts over smaller nonspecific particles. As the suspension cycled through the chip, a large number of beads were removed (70%) and the majority of the cysts were concentrated (82%). Subsequently, the microfluidic inertial separation chip was integrated into a method for the detection of G. duodenalis cysts from lettuce samples. The method greatly reduced the concentration of background debris in the final suspensions (10-fold reduction) in comparison to that obtained by a conventional method. The method also recovered an average of 68.4% of cysts from 25-g lettuce samples and had a limit of detection (LOD) of 38 cysts. While the recovery of cysts by inertial separation was slightly lower, and the LOD slightly higher, than with the conventional method, the sample analysis time was greatly reduced, as there were far fewer background food particles interfering with the detection of cysts by immunofluorescence microscopy. PMID:25841016

  11. Enhancing the Detection of Giardia duodenalis Cysts in Foods by Inertial Microfluidic Separation.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Kyle R; Clime, Liviu; Farber, Jeffrey M; Corneau, Nathalie; Veres, Teodor; Dixon, Brent R

    2015-06-15

    The sensitivity and specificity of current Giardia cyst detection methods for foods are largely determined by the effectiveness of the elution, separation, and concentration methods used. The aim of these methods is to produce a final suspension with an adequate concentration of Giardia cysts for detection and a low concentration of interfering food debris. In the present study, a microfluidic device, which makes use of inertial separation, was designed and fabricated for the separation of Giardia cysts. A cyclical pumping platform and protocol was developed to concentrate 10-ml suspensions down to less than 1 ml. Tests involving Giardia duodenalis cysts and 1.90-μm microbeads in pure suspensions demonstrated the specificity of the microfluidic chip for cysts over smaller nonspecific particles. As the suspension cycled through the chip, a large number of beads were removed (70%) and the majority of the cysts were concentrated (82%). Subsequently, the microfluidic inertial separation chip was integrated into a method for the detection of G. duodenalis cysts from lettuce samples. The method greatly reduced the concentration of background debris in the final suspensions (10-fold reduction) in comparison to that obtained by a conventional method. The method also recovered an average of 68.4% of cysts from 25-g lettuce samples and had a limit of detection (LOD) of 38 cysts. While the recovery of cysts by inertial separation was slightly lower, and the LOD slightly higher, than with the conventional method, the sample analysis time was greatly reduced, as there were far fewer background food particles interfering with the detection of cysts by immunofluorescence microscopy. PMID:25841016

  12. Application of High-Pressure Treatment to Enhancement of Functional Components in Agricultural Products and Development of Sterilized Foods.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Eri; Kawamura, Mariko; Ogino, Miyuki; Hoshino, Eri; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Hoshino, Jun; Yamazaki, Akira; Nishiumi, Tadayuki

    2015-01-01

    addition, energy consumption in the high-pressure treatment is less than that in the heat treatment. For the reasons mentioned above, the high-pressure treatment has thus been regarded as suitable for future food processing, and much attention has been paid to the researches of high-pressure treatment again. Then, we reviewed the previous researches in which little interest had been taken because of imperfectness of non-heat sterilization. Surprisingly, we discovered some novel findings about the effect of high-pressure treatment, that is, pressure history on the subsequent event. Then, we decided to present two theses on the themes, "Application of High-pressure Treatment to Enhancement of Functional Components in Agricultural Products" and "Application of High-pressure Treatment to Development of Sterilized Foods".

  13. Enhancement of biogas production from food waste and sewage sludge - Environmental and economic life cycle performance.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Ola; Bisaillon, Mattias; Haraldsson, Mårten; Sundberg, Johan

    2016-06-15

    Management of municipal solid waste is an efficient method to increase resource efficiency, as well as to replace fossil fuels with renewable energy sources due to that (1) waste to a large extent is renewable as it consists of food waste, paper, wood etc. and (2) when energy and materials are recovered from waste treatment, fossil fuels can be substituted. In this paper results from a comprehensive system study of future biological treatment of readily degradable waste in two Swedish regions are presented. Different collection and separation systems for food waste in households have been applied as well as technical improvements of the biogas process as to reduce environmental impact. The results show that central sorting of a mixed fraction into recyclables, combustibles, biowaste and inert is a competitive option compared to source separation. Use of pellets is beneficial compared to direct spreading as fertiliser. Fuel pellets seem to be the most favourable option, which to a large extent depends on the circumstances in the energy system. Separation and utilisation of nitrogen in the wet part of the digestion residue is made possible with a number of technologies which decreases environmental impact drastically, however to a substantial cost in some cases. PMID:27038432

  14. Enhancement of ethylenethiourea recoveries in food analyses by addition of cysteine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Sack, C A

    1995-01-01

    The effectiveness of cysteine hydrochloride (Cys-HCl) as a preservative of ethylenethiourea (ETU) in product matrixes and during analysis was studied. ETU recoveries were adversely affected by certain product matrixes when fortified directly into the product. Recoveries in 8 selected food items were 0-92% when analyzed 30 min after fortification and 0-51% when analyzed after 24 h. When Cys-HCl was added to product prior to fortification, recoveries increased to 71-95% even after frozen storage for 2-4 weeks. Cys-HCl was added during analysis of 53 untreated items. Recoveries improved an average of 15% with Cys-HCl. Without Cys-HCl, recoveries were erratic (20-98%), but with Cys-HCl, recoveries were 68-113%. Other antioxidants (sodium sulfite, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, and vitamins A and C) also were evaluated as ETU preservatives. When lettuce was treated first with sodium sulfite and then fortified with ETU, recoveries averaged 86%; without sodium sulfite, they averaged 1%. The other antioxidants were less effective for preserving ETU in lettuce, giving only 8-46% recoveries. The effect of oxidizers (potassium bromate, sodium hypochlorite, and hydrogen peroxide) on ETU recovery was also determined. Recovery of ETU from a baby food product (pears and pineapple) was 82%; with oxidizers, recoveries were 0-8%.

  15. Enhancement of biogas production from food waste and sewage sludge - Environmental and economic life cycle performance.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Ola; Bisaillon, Mattias; Haraldsson, Mårten; Sundberg, Johan

    2016-06-15

    Management of municipal solid waste is an efficient method to increase resource efficiency, as well as to replace fossil fuels with renewable energy sources due to that (1) waste to a large extent is renewable as it consists of food waste, paper, wood etc. and (2) when energy and materials are recovered from waste treatment, fossil fuels can be substituted. In this paper results from a comprehensive system study of future biological treatment of readily degradable waste in two Swedish regions are presented. Different collection and separation systems for food waste in households have been applied as well as technical improvements of the biogas process as to reduce environmental impact. The results show that central sorting of a mixed fraction into recyclables, combustibles, biowaste and inert is a competitive option compared to source separation. Use of pellets is beneficial compared to direct spreading as fertiliser. Fuel pellets seem to be the most favourable option, which to a large extent depends on the circumstances in the energy system. Separation and utilisation of nitrogen in the wet part of the digestion residue is made possible with a number of technologies which decreases environmental impact drastically, however to a substantial cost in some cases.

  16. Enhanced defensiveness and increased food motivation each contribute to aggression and success in food competition by rats with medial hypothalamic lesions.

    PubMed

    Albert, D J; Petrovic, D M; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L

    1991-01-01

    Castrated male rats (N = 27) with medial hypothalamic lesions or sham lesions were placed on a 23-h food-deprivation schedule and adapted to a highly palatable liquid food. They were also given two tests of defensiveness toward an experimenter. All animals were then housed in medial hypothalamic lesion/sham lesion pairs and subjected to a series of 6 competition tests (1 per day). Following the competition tests, all animals were given individual food consumption tests and a third test of defensiveness toward an experimenter. Correlational analysis showed that postcompetition defensiveness scores but not precompetition defensiveness scores or individual food consumption were related to aggression during the food competition. Analysis by criterion groups indicated that animals high in precompetition defensiveness and with food consumption in the normal range were not more successful in the competition but were slightly more aggressive than their sham-lesioned competitors. Animals with high postcompetition defensiveness scores and with individual food consumption in the normal range were more successful than their sham-lesioned competitors and the most aggressive of the lesioned animals during the food competition. Animals that were high in food consumption and only moderately defensive were also more successful but only slightly more aggressive in the food competition than their sham-lesioned competitors. These results suggest that a high and stable level of defensiveness, and excessive food intake, each contribute to the success and aggressiveness of rats with medial hypothalamic lesions in a food competition situation.

  17. Global rain-fed, irrigated, and paddy croplands: A new high resolution map derived from remote sensing, crop inventories and climate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, J. Meghan; Friedl, Mark A.; Frolking, Steve; Wisser, Dominik; Douglas, Ellen M.

    2015-06-01

    Irrigation accounts for 70% of global water use by humans and 33-40% of global food production comes from irrigated croplands. Accurate and timely information related to global irrigation is therefore needed to manage increasingly scarce water resources and to improve food security in the face of yield gaps, climate change and extreme events such as droughts, floods, and heat waves. Unfortunately, this information is not available for many regions of the world. This study aims to improve characterization of global rain-fed, irrigated and paddy croplands by integrating information from national and sub-national surveys, remote sensing, and gridded climate data sets. To achieve this goal, we used supervised classification of remote sensing, climate, and agricultural inventory data to generate a global map of irrigated, rain-fed, and paddy croplands. We estimate that 314 million hectares (Mha) worldwide were irrigated circa 2005. This includes 66 Mha of irrigated paddy cropland and 249 Mha of irrigated non-paddy cropland. Additionally, we estimate that 1047 Mha of cropland are managed under rain-fed conditions, including 63 Mha of rain-fed paddy cropland and 985 Mha of rain-fed non-paddy cropland. More generally, our results show that global mapping of irrigated, rain-fed, and paddy croplands is possible by combining information from multiple data sources. However, regions with rapidly changing irrigation or complex mixtures of irrigated and non-irrigated crops present significant challenges and require more and better data to support high quality mapping of irrigation.

  18. Modern Endodontic Principles Part 4: Irrigation.

    PubMed

    Darcey, James; Jawad, Sarra; Taylor, Carly; Roudsari, Reza Vahid; Hunter, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The complex anatomy of the tooth limits the ability to eradicate pathogens by mechanical means alone. Irrigation is the key to solving this problem. This paper highlights the importance of irrigation, the key irrigants available and methods of improving the performance of irrigants within the canal. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: To provide advice on which irrigants to use, how to use them effectively and safely and what to do if irrigants are extruded beyond the apex. PMID:27024899

  19. Enhanced production of short-chain fatty acid from food waste stimulated by alkyl polyglycosides and its mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianwei; Yang, Qi; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Dongbo; Luo, Kun; Zhong, Yu; Xu, Qiuxiang; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-12-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the valuable products derived from the anaerobic fermentation of organic solid waste. However, SCFAs yield was limited by the worse solubilization and hydrolysis of particulate organic matter, and rapid consumption of organic acid by methanogens. In this study, an efficient and green strategy, i.e. adding biosurfactant alkyl polyglycosides (APG) into anaerobic fermentation system, was applied to enhance SCFAs production from food waste. Experimental results showed that APG not only greatly improved SCFAs production but also shortened the fermentation time for the maximum SCFAs accumulation. The SCFAs yield at optimal APG dosage 0.2g/g TS (total solid) reached 37.2g/L, which was 3.1-fold of that in blank. Meanwhile, the time to accumulate the maximum SCFAs in the presence of APG was shortened from day 14 to day 6. The activities of key enzymes such as hydrolytic and acid-forming enzymes were greatly promoted due to the presence of APG. These results demonstrated that the enhanced mechanism of SCFAs production should be attributed to the acceleration of solubilization and hydrolysis, enhancement of acidification and inhibition of methanogenesis by APG. PMID:26342451

  20. Enhanced production of short-chain fatty acid from food waste stimulated by alkyl polyglycosides and its mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianwei; Yang, Qi; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Dongbo; Luo, Kun; Zhong, Yu; Xu, Qiuxiang; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-12-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the valuable products derived from the anaerobic fermentation of organic solid waste. However, SCFAs yield was limited by the worse solubilization and hydrolysis of particulate organic matter, and rapid consumption of organic acid by methanogens. In this study, an efficient and green strategy, i.e. adding biosurfactant alkyl polyglycosides (APG) into anaerobic fermentation system, was applied to enhance SCFAs production from food waste. Experimental results showed that APG not only greatly improved SCFAs production but also shortened the fermentation time for the maximum SCFAs accumulation. The SCFAs yield at optimal APG dosage 0.2g/g TS (total solid) reached 37.2g/L, which was 3.1-fold of that in blank. Meanwhile, the time to accumulate the maximum SCFAs in the presence of APG was shortened from day 14 to day 6. The activities of key enzymes such as hydrolytic and acid-forming enzymes were greatly promoted due to the presence of APG. These results demonstrated that the enhanced mechanism of SCFAs production should be attributed to the acceleration of solubilization and hydrolysis, enhancement of acidification and inhibition of methanogenesis by APG.

  1. Combined heterogeneous distribution of salt and aroma in food enhances salt perception.

    PubMed

    Emorine, Marion; Septier, Chantal; Andriot, Isabelle; Martin, Christophe; Salles, Christian; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry

    2015-05-01

    Aroma-taste interactions and heterogeneous spatial distribution of tastants were used as strategies for taste enhancement. This study investigated the combination of these two strategies through the effect of heterogeneous salt and aroma distribution on saltiness enhancement and consumer liking for hot snacks. Four-layered cream-based products were designed with the same total amount of sodium and ham aroma but varied in their spatial distribution. Unflavoured products containing the same amount of salt and 35% more salt were used as references. A consumer panel (n = 82) rated the intensity of salty, sweet, sour, bitter and umami tastes as well as ham and cheese aroma intensity for each product. The consumers also rated their liking for the products in a dedicated sensory session. The results showed that adding salt-associated aroma (ham) led to enhancement of salty taste perception regardless of the spatial distribution of salt and aroma. Moreover, products with a higher heterogeneity of salt distribution were perceived as saltier (p < 0.01), whereas heterogeneity of ham aroma distribution had only a marginal effect on both aroma and salty taste perception. Furthermore, heterogeneous products were well liked by consumers compared to the homogeneous products. PMID:25856503

  2. Combined heterogeneous distribution of salt and aroma in food enhances salt perception.

    PubMed

    Emorine, Marion; Septier, Chantal; Andriot, Isabelle; Martin, Christophe; Salles, Christian; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry

    2015-05-01

    Aroma-taste interactions and heterogeneous spatial distribution of tastants were used as strategies for taste enhancement. This study investigated the combination of these two strategies through the effect of heterogeneous salt and aroma distribution on saltiness enhancement and consumer liking for hot snacks. Four-layered cream-based products were designed with the same total amount of sodium and ham aroma but varied in their spatial distribution. Unflavoured products containing the same amount of salt and 35% more salt were used as references. A consumer panel (n = 82) rated the intensity of salty, sweet, sour, bitter and umami tastes as well as ham and cheese aroma intensity for each product. The consumers also rated their liking for the products in a dedicated sensory session. The results showed that adding salt-associated aroma (ham) led to enhancement of salty taste perception regardless of the spatial distribution of salt and aroma. Moreover, products with a higher heterogeneity of salt distribution were perceived as saltier (p < 0.01), whereas heterogeneity of ham aroma distribution had only a marginal effect on both aroma and salty taste perception. Furthermore, heterogeneous products were well liked by consumers compared to the homogeneous products.

  3. The caloric irrigation test.

    PubMed

    Shepard, N T; Jacobson, G P

    2016-01-01

    The test of caloric thermal irrigations is one of the first tests for sensitivity of the peripheral vestibular systems dating to the late 1800s. This chapter reviews the various protocols that have been developed over the years using thermal irrigations to the external auditory canals. The discussion covers the interpretations of the protocols and makes recommendations for those protocols that have the best performance and at the same time are practical to perform. The primary utility of the caloric test has remained the same since its origination - the comparison of the relative sensitivity of the right versus left peripheral vestibular function. This is now known to be applicable to the horizontal canals without any significant influence of the vertical canals. The hypothesized physiology behind the thermal caloric proposed in the early 1900s has now, with the help of experiments in microgravity, been partially verified. Until recently this was the only test that could investigate one peripheral end organ at a time. It is still the one test that emphasizes the low-frequency function of the horizontal canals individually. PMID:27638067

  4. Desert landscape irrigation

    SciTech Connect

    Quinones, R.

    1995-06-01

    Industrialization can take place in an arid environment if a long term, overall water management program is developed. The general rule to follow is that recharge must equal or exceed use. The main problem encountered in landscape projects is that everyone wants a lush jungle setting, tall shade trees, ferns, with a variety of floral arrangements mixed in. What we want, what we can afford, and what we get are not always the same. Vegetation that requires large quantities of water are not native to any desert. Surprisingly; there are various types of fruit trees, and vegetables that will thrive in the desert. Peaches, plums, nut trees, do well with drip irrigation as well as tomatoes. Shaded berry plans will also do well, the strawberry being one. In summary; if we match our landscape to our area, we can then design our irrigation system to maintain our landscape and grow a variety of vegetation in any arid or semiarid environment. The application of science and economics to landscaping has now come of age.

  5. Sustainability of irrigated crops under future climate: the interplay of irrigation strategies and cultivar responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lorenzi, F.; Bonfante, A.; Alfieri, S.; Patanè, C.; Basile, A.; Di Tommasi, P.; Monaco, E.; Menenti, M.

    2012-04-01

    Climate evolution will cause significant changes in the quality and availability of water resources, affecting many sectors including food production, where available water resources for irrigation play a crucial role. Strategies focused on managing and conserving water are one way to deal with the impact; moreover concurring adaptation measurements will be needed to cope with the foreseen decline of water resource. This work deals with i) the impacts of climate change on water requirements of an horticultural crop, determined in an irrigated district in Southern Italy, ii) the possible irrigation scheduling options and their sustainability in the future, iii) the adaptation measurements that can be undertaken to protect production, relying on intra-specific biodiversity of agricultural crops. Two climate scenarios were considered: present climate (1961-90) and future climate (2021-2050), the former from climatic statistics, and the latter from statistical downscaling of general circulation models (AOGCM). Climatic data set consists of daily time series of maximum and minimum temperature, and rainfall on a grid with spatial resolution of 35 km. The analysis of climate scenarios showed that significant increases in summer maximum daily temperature could be expected in 2021-2050 period. Soil water regime was determined by means of a mechanistic model (SWAP) of water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Twenty? soil units were identified in the district (in Sele Plain, Campania Region) and simulations were performed accounting for hydro-pedological properties of different soil units. Parameters of a generic tomato crop, in a rotation typical of the area, were used in simulations. Soil water balance was simulated in the present and future climate, both with optimal water availability and under constrains that irrigation schemes will pose. Indicators of soil water availability were calculated, in terms of soil water or evapotranspiration deficit. For several tomato

  6. A food-grade industrial arming yeast expressing β-1,3-1,4-glucanase with enhanced thermal stability*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qin; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Liu-liu; Chen, Qi-he; Chen, Ji-cheng; Zhang, Hong-bo; Ruan, Hui; He, Guo-qing

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to construct a novel food-grade industrial arming yeast displaying β-1,3-1,4-glucanase and to evaluate the thermal stability of the glucanase for practical application. For this purpose, a bi-directional vector containing galactokinase (GAL1) and phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) promoters in different orientations was constructed. The β-1,3-1,4-glucanase gene from Bacillus subtilis was fused to α-agglutinin and expressed under the control of the GAL1 promoter. α-galactosidase induced by the constitutive PGK1 promoter was used as a food-grade selection marker. The feasibility of the α-galactosidase marker was confirmed by the growth of transformants harboring the constructed vector on a medium containing melibiose as a sole carbon source, and by the clear halo around the transformants in Congo-red plates owing to the expression of β-1,3-1,4-glucanase. The analysis of β-1,3-1,4-glucanase activity in cell pellets and in the supernatant of the recombinant yeast strain revealed that β-1,3-1,4-glucanase was successfully displayed on the cell surface of the yeast. The displayed β-1,3-1,4-glucanase activity in the recombinant yeast cells increased immediately after the addition of galactose and reached 45.1 U/ml after 32-h induction. The thermal stability of β-1,3-1,4-glucanase displayed in the recombinant yeast cells was enhanced compared with the free enzyme. These results suggest that the constructed food-grade yeast has the potential to improve the brewing properties of beer. PMID:20043351

  7. Encapsulated Lactococcus lactis with enhanced gastrointestinal survival for the development of folate enriched functional foods.

    PubMed

    Divya, Jayakumar Beena; Nampoothiri, Kesavan Madhavan

    2015-01-01

    Two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from cow's milk were identified as Lactococcus lactis strains and designated as L. lactis CM22 and L. lactis CM28. They were immobilised by co-encapsulation using alginate and mannitol and by hybrid entrapment with skim milk, glycerol, CaCO3 and alginate. The encapsulated cells survived better in simulated gastrointestinal conditions compared to the free cells. The percentage survival of probiotics encapsulated by hybrid entrapment method was 62.74% for L. lactis CM22 and 68% for L. lactis CM28. Studies to check their efficacy in fermentative fortification of skim milk and ice cream revealed an enhancement in folate level.

  8. Youth Dietary Intake and Weight Status: Healthful Neighborhood Food Environments Enhance the Protective Role of Supportive Family Home Environments

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Forsyth, Ann; Bauer, Katherine W.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate individual and joint associations of the home environment and the neighborhood built environment with adolescent dietary patterns and body mass index (BMI) z-score. Racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse adolescents (n = 2682; 53.2% girls; mean age14. 4 years) participating in the EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) study completed height and weight measurements and surveys in Minnesota middle and high schools. Neighborhood variables were measured using Geographic Information Systems data. Multiple regressions of BMI z-score, fruit and vegetable intake, and fast food consumption were fit including home and neighborhood environmental variables as predictors and also including their interactions to test for effect modification. Supportive family environments (i.e., higher family functioning, frequent family meals, parent modeling of healthful eating) were associated with higher adolescent fruit and vegetable intake, lower fast food consumption, and lower BMI z-score. Associations between the built environment and adolescent outcomes were fewer. Interaction results, although not all consistent, indicated that the relationship between a supportive family environment and adolescent fruit and vegetable intake and BMI was enhanced when the neighborhood was supportive of healthful behavior. Public health interventions that simultaneously improve both the home environment and the neighborhood environment of adolescents may have a greater impact on adolescent obesity prevention than interventions that address one of these environments alone. PMID:24378461

  9. Effect of fermentation liquid from food waste as a carbon source for enhancing denitrification in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongmei; Wang, Xiaochang C; Cheng, Zhe; Li, Yuyou; Tang, Jialing

    2016-02-01

    Food wastes were used for anaerobic fermentation to prepare carbon sources for enhancing nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment. Under anaerobic conditions without pH adjustment, the fermentation liquid from food wastes (FLFW) with a high organic acid content was produced at room temperature (25 °C) and initial solid concentration of 13%. Using FLFW as the sole carbon source of artificial wastewater for biological treatment by sequence batch operation, maximized denitrification (with a denitrification rate of V(DN) = 12.89 mg/gVSS h and a denitrification potential of P(DN) = 0.174 gN/gCOD) could be achieved at a COD/TN ratio of 6. The readily biodegradable fraction in the FLFW was evaluated as 58.35%. By comparing FLFW with glucose and sodium acetate, two commonly used chemical carbon sources, FLFW showed a denitrification result similar to sodium acetate but much better than glucose in terms of total nitrogen removal, V(DN), P(DN), organic matter consumption rate (V(COD)) and heterotrophy anoxic yield coefficient (Y(H)). PMID:26408975

  10. Effect of fermentation liquid from food waste as a carbon source for enhancing denitrification in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongmei; Wang, Xiaochang C; Cheng, Zhe; Li, Yuyou; Tang, Jialing

    2016-02-01

    Food wastes were used for anaerobic fermentation to prepare carbon sources for enhancing nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment. Under anaerobic conditions without pH adjustment, the fermentation liquid from food wastes (FLFW) with a high organic acid content was produced at room temperature (25 °C) and initial solid concentration of 13%. Using FLFW as the sole carbon source of artificial wastewater for biological treatment by sequence batch operation, maximized denitrification (with a denitrification rate of V(DN) = 12.89 mg/gVSS h and a denitrification potential of P(DN) = 0.174 gN/gCOD) could be achieved at a COD/TN ratio of 6. The readily biodegradable fraction in the FLFW was evaluated as 58.35%. By comparing FLFW with glucose and sodium acetate, two commonly used chemical carbon sources, FLFW showed a denitrification result similar to sodium acetate but much better than glucose in terms of total nitrogen removal, V(DN), P(DN), organic matter consumption rate (V(COD)) and heterotrophy anoxic yield coefficient (Y(H)).

  11. Cu-Chitosan Nanoparticle Mediated Sustainable Approach To Enhance Seedling Growth in Maize by Mobilizing Reserved Food.

    PubMed

    Saharan, Vinod; Kumaraswamy, R V; Choudhary, Ram Chandra; Kumari, Sarita; Pal, Ajay; Raliya, Ramesh; Biswas, Pratim

    2016-08-10

    Food crop seedlings often have susceptibility to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the impact of Cu-chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) on physiological and biochemical changes during maize seedling growth. Higher values of percent germination, shoot and root length, root number, seedling length, fresh and dry weight, and seed vigor index were obtained at 0.04-0.12% concentrations of Cu-chitosan NPs as compared to water, CuSO4, and bulk chitosan treatments. Cu-chitosan NPs at the same concentrations induced the activities of α-amylase and protease enzymes and also increased the total protein content in germinating seeds. The increased activities of α-amylase and protease enzymes corroborated with decreased content of starch and protein, respectively, in the germinating seeds. Cu-chitosan NPs at 0.16% and CuSO4 at 0.01% concentrations showed inhibitory effect on seedling growth. The observed results on seedling growth could be explained by the toxicity of excess Cu and growth promotory effect of Cu-chitosan NPs. Physiological and biochemical studies suggest that Cu-chitosan NPs enhance the seedling growth of maize by mobilizing the reserved food, primarily starch, through the higher activity of α-amylase. PMID:27460439

  12. Enhanced Glutamatergic Synaptic Plasticity in the Hippocampal CA1 Field of Food-Restricted Rats: Involvement of CB1 Receptors.

    PubMed

    Talani, Giuseppe; Licheri, Valentina; Biggio, Francesca; Locci, Valentina; Mostallino, Maria Cristina; Secci, Pietro Paolo; Melis, Valentina; Dazzi, Laura; Carta, Gianfranca; Banni, Sebastiano; Biggio, Giovanni; Sanna, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    The endogenous endocannabinoid system has a crucial role in regulating appetite and feeding behavior in mammals, as well as working memory and reward mechanisms. In order to elucidate the possible role of cannabinoid type-1 receptors (CB1Rs) in the regulation of hippocampal plasticity in animals exposed to food restriction (FR), we limited the availability of food to a 2-h daily period for 3 weeks in Sprague-Dawley rats. FR rats showed a higher long-term potentiation at hippocampal CA1 excitatory synapses with a parallel increase in glutamate release when compared with animals fed ad libitum. FR rats showed a significant increase in the long-term spatial memory determined by Barnes maze. FR was also associated with a decreased inhibitory effect of the CB1R agonist win55,212-2 on glutamatergic field excitatory postsynaptic potentials, together with a decrease in hippocampal CB1R protein expression. In addition, hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein levels and mushroom dendritic spine density were significantly enhanced in FR rats. Altogether, our data suggest that alterations of hippocampal CB1R expression and function in FR rats are associated with dendritic spine remodeling and functional potentiation of CA1 excitatory synapses, and these findings are consistent with increasing evidence supporting the idea that FR may improve cognitive functions.

  13. Youth dietary intake and weight status: healthful neighborhood food environments enhance the protective role of supportive family home environments.

    PubMed

    Berge, Jerica M; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Forsyth, Ann; Bauer, Katherine W; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate individual and joint associations of the home environment and the neighborhood built environment with adolescent dietary patterns and body mass index (BMI) z-score. Racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse adolescents (n=2682; 53.2% girls; mean age14.4 years) participating in the EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) study completed height and weight measurements and surveys in Minnesota middle and high schools. Neighborhood variables were measured using Geographic Information Systems data. Multiple regressions of BMI z-score, fruit and vegetable intake, and fast food consumption were fit including home and neighborhood environmental variables as predictors and also including their interactions to test for effect modification. Supportive family environments (i.e., higher family functioning, frequent family meals, and parent modeling of healthful eating) were associated with higher adolescent fruit and vegetable intake, lower fast food consumption, and lower BMI z-score. Associations between the built environment and adolescent outcomes were fewer. Interaction results, although not all consistent, indicated that the relationship between a supportive family environment and adolescent fruit and vegetable intake and BMI was enhanced when the neighborhood was supportive of healthful behavior. Public health interventions that simultaneously improve both the home environment and the neighborhood environment of adolescents may have a greater impact on adolescent obesity prevention than interventions that address one of these environments alone. PMID:24378461

  14. Marine macrophytes directly enhance abundances of sandy beach fauna through provision of food and habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, Rebecca; Hyndes, Glenn A.; Lavery, Paul S.; Vanderklift, Mathew A.

    2007-08-01

    Beach-cast wrack is a prominent feature of beaches of south-western Australia. We examined the fauna of these beaches to explore the generalisation [Polis, G.A., Hurd, S.D., 1995. Extraordinarily high spider densities on islands: flow of energy from the marine to terrestrial food webs and the absence of predation. Ecology 92, 4382-4386] that beach-cast wrack from highly productive marine ecosystems subsidises low productivity of terrestrial ecosystems, to establish whether this generalisation is relevant to oligotrophic marine systems. We sampled three beaches with high and three beaches with low volumes of beach-cast wrack to determine if: (1) the presence of wrack influences the abundance of macroinvertebrates; (2) wrack acts as a food source for beach macroinvertebrates; and (3) the influence of wrack varies between zones above the high water mark. We measured wrack volume and composition, sediment characteristics, the abundance of different epibenthic and infaunal macroinvertebrates taxa, and δ13C and δ15N of macrophytes and macroinvertebrates. The mean volume of wrack on high-wrack beaches was 0.27-1.07 m 3 wrack m -2 compared to 0.00-0.09 m 3 wrack m -2 on low-wrack beaches. There were no significant differences in sediment grain size, moisture content or loss on ignition between the two types of beaches or zones. Epibenthic fauna and infauna were consistently abundant on high-wrack beaches (20-291 and 0.5-3.5 individuals 0.64 m -2, respectively), but either absent or extremely rare in low-wrack beaches (0-3 and 0-0.1 individuals 0.64 m -2, respectively). Within high-wrack beaches, there were no significant differences in the abundance of epifauna or infauna among beaches or between zones. The δ13C values of macroinvertebrates at all sites were most similar to red and brown algae, with the exception of beetles from two beaches, which were closest to seagrasses. Mixing model (Isosource) results for mesograzing amphipods and dipteran flies suggested carbon

  15. Defining Efficient Deficit Irrigation for Winegrape Cultivars Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon under Semiarid Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient deficit irrigation balances enhanced berry attributes with acceptable reduction in yield. The present study relates pre and post-veraison midday leaf water potential with the growth and composition of east and west-facing berries. Two deficit irrigation treatments were applied over four g...

  16. Enhancements Needed in GE Crop and Food Regulation in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Benbrook, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Genetically engineered (GE) crops, multi-ingredient foods derived from one or more GE ingredients, and GE agricultural inputs are regulated in the United States under a "Coordinated Framework" that was literally cobbled together in the early 1990s. Via this Framework, responsibility is spread across three federal agencies for the assessment and management of potential risks arising from the planting of GE crops, the raising of GE animals, or uses of GE inputs. The Framework was incomplete and conceptually flawed from the beginning. Despite multiple, piecemeal efforts to update aspects of GE risk assessment and regulatory policy, the Coordinated Framework survives to this day largely unchanged. Its shortcomings are recognized in both the scientific and legal communities, but meaningful reforms thus far remain out of reach, blocked by the intense controversy now surrounding all things biotech. Five generic reforms and another five specific initiatives are described to create a more robust, science-driven GE regulatory infrastructure in the U.S. PMID:27066473

  17. Enhancements Needed in GE Crop and Food Regulation in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Benbrook, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Genetically engineered (GE) crops, multi-ingredient foods derived from one or more GE ingredients, and GE agricultural inputs are regulated in the United States under a “Coordinated Framework” that was literally cobbled together in the early 1990s. Via this Framework, responsibility is spread across three federal agencies for the assessment and management of potential risks arising from the planting of GE crops, the raising of GE animals, or uses of GE inputs. The Framework was incomplete and conceptually flawed from the beginning. Despite multiple, piecemeal efforts to update aspects of GE risk assessment and regulatory policy, the Coordinated Framework survives to this day largely unchanged. Its shortcomings are recognized in both the scientific and legal communities, but meaningful reforms thus far remain out of reach, blocked by the intense controversy now surrounding all things biotech. Five generic reforms and another five specific initiatives are described to create a more robust, science-driven GE regulatory infrastructure in the U.S. PMID:27066473

  18. Numerical investigation of root canal irrigation adopting innovative needles with dimple and protrusion.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Zhang, Di; Xie, Yonghui; Lan, Jibing

    2013-01-01

    As important passive flow control methods, dimples and protrusions have been successfully implemented via geometric modifications to manipulate flow fields to get a desired flow parameters enhancement. In this research, two novel needles were proposed based on a prototype by means of the dimple and protrusion, and flow patterns within a root canal during final irrigation with these needles were numerically investigated. The calculation cases consistent with the clinically realistic irrigant flow rates, which are 0.02, 0.16 and 0.26 mL s(-1) are marked as case A, B and C, respectively. The characteristic parameters to estimate irrigation efficiency, such as shearing effect, mean apical pressure, irrigation replacement and fluid agitation, were compared and the optimal geometry in every calculation case was obtained. As shown from the results, flow rates and needle geometries were the causes of irrigation parameters variations. The sum of shear stress, irrigation replacement and fluid agitation were equal in the low flow rate case A, however, the needle with a protrusion on its tip had advantages in the three irrigation characteristic parameters above in calculation case B, and the needle with a dimple on its tip had advantages in calculation case C. Furthermore, the needles proposed did not give rise to the risk of irrigant extrusion. These needles can be better choices at larger flow rates. Therefore, needle geometry optimizations utilizing passive flow control methods are worthy to be investigated in the root canal irrigation enhancement. PMID:23957591

  19. Nitrate concentrations under irrigated agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaporozec, A.

    1983-01-01

    In recent years, considerable interest has been expressed in the nitrate content of water supplies. The most notable toxic effect of nitrate is infant methemoglobinemia. The risk of this disease increases significantly at nitrate-nitrogen levels exceeding 10 mg/l. For this reason, this concentration has been established as a limit for drinking water in many countries. In natural waters, nitrate is a minor ionic constituent and seldom accounts for more than a few percent of the total anions. However, nitrate in a significant concentration may occur in the vicinity of some point sources such as septic tanks, manure pits, and waste-disposal sites. Non-point sources contributing to groundwater pollution are numerous and a majority of them are related to agricultural activities. The largest single anthropogenic input of nitrate into the groundwater is fertilizer. Even though it has not been proven that nitrogen fertilizers are responsible for much of nitrate pollution, they are generally recognized as the main threat to groundwater quality, especially when inefficiently applied to irrigated fields on sandy soils. The biggest challenge facing today's agriculture is to maintain the balance between the enhancement of crop productivity and the risk of groundwater pollution. ?? 1982 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  20. Socioeconomic impacts of small-scale irrigation schemes on women in Swaziland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Graciana; Simelane, Nomcebo O.; Matondo, Jonathan I.

    The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of small-scale irrigation schemes on food security and incomes for both women and men. A comparative study approach was used. Heads of households were interviewed using a questionnaire to determine crop production and income generated from two irrigation schemes. The production of crops and income earned were compared between households headed by men and those headed by women, before and after the development of irrigation scheme, and between a scheme which also made water available for crop production at homestead, and a scheme where water was only available for community level production. The results showed that irrigation schemes affected production of men and women differently. The production of maize, the main staple food crop, declined after the establishment of irrigation scheme due to household moving towards sugarcane production. Irrigation schemes affected negatively household incomes, especially those headed by women due to the cessation of cotton production. The establishment or irrigation schemes increased food insecurity.

  1. Quantitative carbon detector for enhanced detection of molecules in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, flavors, and fuels.

    PubMed

    Beach, Connor A; Krumm, Christoph; Spanjers, Charles S; Maduskar, Saurabh; Jones, Andrew J; Dauenhauer, Paul J

    2016-03-01

    Analysis of trace compounds, such as pesticides and other contaminants, within consumer products, fuels, and the environment requires quantification of increasingly complex mixtures of difficult-to-quantify compounds. Many compounds of interest are non-volatile and exhibit poor response in current gas chromatography and flame ionization systems. Here we show the reaction of trimethylsilylated chemical analytes to methane using a quantitative carbon detector (QCD; the Polyarc™ reactor) within a gas chromatograph (GC), thereby enabling enhanced detection (up to 10×) of highly functionalized compounds including carbohydrates, acids, drugs, flavorants, and pesticides. Analysis of a complex mixture of compounds shows that the GC-QCD method exhibits faster and more accurate analysis of complex mixtures commonly encountered in everyday products and the environment. PMID:26842653

  2. Encapsulated Lactococcus lactis with enhanced gastrointestinal survival for the development of folate enriched functional foods.

    PubMed

    Divya, Jayakumar Beena; Nampoothiri, Kesavan Madhavan

    2015-01-01

    Two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from cow's milk were identified as Lactococcus lactis strains and designated as L. lactis CM22 and L. lactis CM28. They were immobilised by co-encapsulation using alginate and mannitol and by hybrid entrapment with skim milk, glycerol, CaCO3 and alginate. The encapsulated cells survived better in simulated gastrointestinal conditions compared to the free cells. The percentage survival of probiotics encapsulated by hybrid entrapment method was 62.74% for L. lactis CM22 and 68% for L. lactis CM28. Studies to check their efficacy in fermentative fortification of skim milk and ice cream revealed an enhancement in folate level. PMID:25686721

  3. Enhancement of folate content and its stability using food grade elicitors in coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Puthusseri, Bijesh; Divya, Peethambaran; Lokesh, Veeresh; Neelwarne, Bhagyalakshmi

    2012-06-01

    Folate (vitamin B₉) content was evaluated in 10 varieties of coriander with the aim of enhancing its concentration and stability, because of three reasons: 1) coriander is among a few widely used greens in the world and suits many cuisines, 2) folate deficiency is prevalent in developing countries causing anaemia, infant mortality and neural tube closure defects, and 3) natural folate is preferred due to doubts about health risks associated with the synthetic form. In C. sativum, the highest folate content of 1,577 μg/100 g DW was found in var. GS4 Multicut foliage of mature plants (marketable stage) with an insignificantly higher content (1,599.74 μg/100 g DW) at flowering, which is a stage not preferred in markets. In callus cultures treated with plant growth regulators (GRs) (6-benzylaminopurine, kinetin and abscisic acid) substantial increase in folate occurred after 6 h, whereas elicitors (methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid) caused rapid 2-fold increase of folate, particularly in response to salicylic acid. Based on these observations, foliar applications were done for in vivo plants, where salicylic acid (250 μM, 24 h) also enhanced folate level by 2-folds (3,112.33 μg/100 g DW), although the content varied with diurnal rhythms. Stability of folates in treated coriander foliage was 10 % higher than in untreated foliage when stored at 25 °C and 4 °C. This study has established for the first time that coriander foliage is rich in folates, which can be doubled by elicitation and impart 10 % more stability than control during processing and storage.

  4. Enhanced electrokinetic (E/K) remediation on copper contaminated soil by CFW (carbonized foods waste).

    PubMed

    Han, Jung-Geun; Hong, Ki-Kwon; Kim, Young-Woong; Lee, Jong-Young

    2010-05-15

    The E/K remediation method is presented to purify low permeable contaminated soils due to Cu(2+), and carbonized foods waste (CFW) was used as a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) material. For adsorption and precipitation of the Cu(2+) in the PRB during its motion, PRB was installed in a zone of rapidly changing pH values. The adsorption efficiency of CFW used as PRB material was found to be 4-8 times more efficient than that of Zeolite. Throughout the experiment, a voltage slope of 1V/cm was implemented and acetic acid was injected on the anode to increase the remediation efficiency. The electrode exchange was executed to more completely remove precipitated heavy metals in the vicinity of the cathode. The majority of Cu(2+) was adsorbed or sedimented by CFW prior to the exchange of the electrode, and the remaining quantity of precipitated Cu(2+) on the cathode had decreased with an increase in the operating time. Experiments of seven cases with different E/K operating times were performed, and the average removal ratios were 53.4-84.6%. The removal efficiencies for the majority of cases increased proportionally with an increase in the operating time. After the experiments were completed, the adsorbed Cu(2+) on CFW was 75-150 mg. This means that the role of CFW as the material in PRB for remediating heavy metals was confirmed. The cost of energies needed to remove Cu(2+), CFW, and acetic acid are estimated at US$ 13.3-40/m(3). PMID:20080337

  5. Energy-efficient co-biodrying of dewatered sludge and food waste: Synergistic enhancement and variables investigation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiao; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2016-10-01

    In this study, dewatered sludge (DS) and food waste (FW) were co-biodried by balancing substrate's property and microbial aspect. A series of experiments were conducted to explore the effects of mixing ratio, particle size of bulking agent, air-flow rate and initial moisture content (MC). A synergistic enhancement of co-biodrying of FW and DS was observed in terms of a stable temperature profile and long high-temperature duration. The biodrying index (water removal/VS consumption) indicated that the co-biodrying had a high efficiency for water removal with less organics consumption, especially for DS/FW=2/2. The small size (<3mm) of bulking agent and initial MC of 62.68% was preferable for the biodrying process by providing adequate free air space and extra carbon source. A moderate air-flow rate of 0.04m(3)h(-1)kg(-1) showed the best water carrying capacity. This finding suggests that the co-biodrying strategy could be a promising approach to treating different organic wastes with synergistic enhancement. PMID:27324927

  6. Energy-efficient co-biodrying of dewatered sludge and food waste: Synergistic enhancement and variables investigation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiao; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2016-10-01

    In this study, dewatered sludge (DS) and food waste (FW) were co-biodried by balancing substrate's property and microbial aspect. A series of experiments were conducted to explore the effects of mixing ratio, particle size of bulking agent, air-flow rate and initial moisture content (MC). A synergistic enhancement of co-biodrying of FW and DS was observed in terms of a stable temperature profile and long high-temperature duration. The biodrying index (water removal/VS consumption) indicated that the co-biodrying had a high efficiency for water removal with less organics consumption, especially for DS/FW=2/2. The small size (<3mm) of bulking agent and initial MC of 62.68% was preferable for the biodrying process by providing adequate free air space and extra carbon source. A moderate air-flow rate of 0.04m(3)h(-1)kg(-1) showed the best water carrying capacity. This finding suggests that the co-biodrying strategy could be a promising approach to treating different organic wastes with synergistic enhancement.

  7. Pulmonary vein isolation using new technologies to improve ablation lesion formation: Initial results comparing enhanced catheter tip irrigation (Surround Flow®) with contact force measurement (Smarttouch®)

    PubMed Central

    Fichtner, Stephanie; Reents, Tilko; Ammar, Sonia; Semmler, Verena; Kathan, Susanne; Dillier, Roger; Buiatti, Alexandra; Hessling, Gabriele; Deisenhofer, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary vein reconnection after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is a significant problem in the treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). We report about patients who underwent contact force (CF) guided PVI using CF catheter and compared them to patients with PVI using an ablation catheter with enhanced tip irrigation. Methods A total of 59 patients were included in the analysis. In 30 patients circumferential PVI was performed using the Thermocool Smarttouch® ablation catheter (ST) whereas in 29 patients circumferential PVI using the Thermocool Surround Flow SF® ablation catheter (SF) was performed. Patients were compared in regard to procedure time, fluoroscopy time/dose as well as RF-application duration and completeness of PVI. Adverse events (pericardial effusion, PV stenosis, stroke, death) were evaluated. The presence of sinus rhythm off antiarrhythmic medication was assessed during 6 months follow-up using multiple 7 day Holter-ECGs. Results In both groups, all PVs were isolated without serious adverse events. Procedure time was 2.15 ± 0.5 h (ST) vs. 2.37 ± 1.13 h (SF) (p = 0.19). Duration of RF-applications was 46.6 ± 18 min (ST) and 49.8 ± 19 min (SF) (p = 0.52). Fluoroscopy time was 25.2 ± 13 min (ST) vs. 29 ± 18 min (SF), fluoroscopy dose 2675.6 ± 1658 versus 3038.3 ± 1997 cGym2 (p = 0.36 and 0.46 respectively). Sinus rhythm off antiarrhythmic medication validated with 7 day Holter ECGs was present in both groups in 72% of patients after 6 months of follow up. Conclusion PVI using the new contact force catheter is safe and effective in patients with paroxysmal AF. PMID:26937108

  8. The impacts of climate change on global irrigation water requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Cai, X.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change tends to affect the irrigation water requirement of current irrigated agricultural land, and also changes the water availability for current rain-fed land by the end of this century. We use the most up-to-date climatic and crop datasets (e.g., global irrigated/rain-fed crop areas and grid level crop growing calendar (Portmann, Siebert and Döll, 2010, Global Biogeochemical Cycles 24)) to evaluate the requirements of currently irrigated land and the water deficit for rain-fed land for all major crops under current and projected climate. Six general circulation models (GCMs) under two emission scenarios, A1B & B1, are assembled using two methods, the Simple Average Method (SAM) and Root Mean Square Error Ensemble Method (RMSEMM), to deal with the GCM regional variability. It is found that the global irrigation requirement and the water deficit are both going to increase significantly under all scenarios, particularly under the A1B emission scenario. For example, the projected irrigation requirement is expected to increase by about 2500 million m3 for wheat, 3200 million m3 for maize and another 3300 million m3 for rice. At the same time, the water deficit for current rain-fed cropland will be widened by around 3000, 4000, 2100 million m3 for wheat, maize and rice respectively. Regional analysis is conducted for Africa, China, Europe, India, South America and the United States. It is found that the U.S. may expect the greatest rise in irrigation requirements for wheat and maize, while the South America may suffer the greatest increase for rice. In addition, Africa and the U.S. may face a larger water deficit for both wheat and maize on rain-fed land, and South America just for rice. In summary, climate change is likely to bring severe challenges for irrigation systems and make global water shortage even worse by the end of this century. These pressures will call for extensive adaptation measures. The change in crop water requirements and availability

  9. Empirical evidence for a recent slowdown in irrigation-induced cooling

    PubMed Central

    Bonfils, Céline; Lobell, David

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the influence of past land use changes on climate is needed to improve regional projections of future climate change and inform debates about the tradeoffs associated with land use decisions. The effects of rapid expansion of irrigated area in the 20th century has remained unclear relative to other land use changes, such as urbanization, that affected a similar total land area. Using spatial and temporal variations in temperature and irrigation extent observed in California, we show that irrigation expansion has had a large cooling effect on summertime average daily daytime temperatures (−0.14°C to −0.25°C per decade), which corresponds to an estimated cooling of −1.8°C to −3.2°C since the introduction of irrigation practices. Irrigation has negligible effects on nighttime temperatures, leading to a net cooling effect of irrigation on climate (−0.06°C to −0.19°C per decade). Stabilization of irrigated area has occurred in California since 1980 and is expected in the near future for many irrigated regions. The suppression of past human-induced greenhouse warming by increased irrigation is therefore likely to slow in the future, and a potential decrease in irrigation may even contribute to a more rapid warming. Changes in irrigation alone are not expected to influence broad-scale temperatures, but they may introduce large uncertainties in climate projections for irrigated agricultural regions, which provide ≈40% of global food production. PMID:17698963

  10. Inputs of nutrients and fecal bacteria to freshwaters from irrigated agriculture: case studies in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Wilcock, Robert J; Nash, David; Schmidt, Jochen; Larned, Scott T; Rivers, Mark R; Feehan, Pat

    2011-07-01

    Increasing demand for global food production is leading to greater use of irrigation to supplement rainfall and enable more intensive use of land. Minimizing adverse impacts of this intensification on surface water and groundwater resources is of critical importance for the achievement of sustainable land use. In this paper we examine the linkages between irrigation runoff and resulting changes in quality of receiving surface waters and groundwaters in Australia and New Zealand. Case studies are used to illustrate impacts under different irrigation techniques (notably flood and sprinkler systems) and land uses, particularly where irrigation has led to intensification of land use. For flood irrigation, changes in surface water contaminant concentrations are directly influenced by the amount of runoff, and the intensity and kind of land use. Mitigation for flood irrigation is best achieved by optimizing irrigation efficiency. For sprinkler irrigation, leaching to groundwater is the main transport path for contaminants, notably nitrate. Mitigation measures for sprinkler irrigation should take into account irrigation efficiency and the proximity of intensive land uses to sensitive waters. Relating contaminant concentrations in receiving groundwaters to their dominant causes is often complicated by uncertainty about the subsurface flow paths and the possible pollutant sources, viz. drainage from irrigated land. This highlights the need for identification of the patterns and dynamics of surface and subsurface waters to identify such sources of contaminants and minimize their impacts on the receiving environments.

  11. Inputs of Nutrients and Fecal Bacteria to Freshwaters from Irrigated Agriculture: Case Studies in Australia and New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcock, Robert J.; Nash, David; Schmidt, Jochen; Larned, Scott T.; Rivers, Mark R.; Feehan, Pat

    2011-07-01

    Increasing demand for global food production is leading to greater use of irrigation to supplement rainfall and enable more intensive use of land. Minimizing adverse impacts of this intensification on surface water and groundwater resources is of critical importance for the achievement of sustainable land use. In this paper we examine the linkages between irrigation runoff and resulting changes in quality of receiving surface waters and groundwaters in Australia and New Zealand. Case studies are used to illustrate impacts under different irrigation techniques (notably flood and sprinkler systems) and land uses, particularly where irrigation has led to intensification of land use. For flood irrigation, changes in surface water contaminant concentrations are directly influenced by the amount of runoff, and the intensity and kind of land use. Mitigation for flood irrigation is best achieved by optimizing irrigation efficiency. For sprinkler irrigation, leaching to groundwater is the main transport path for contaminants, notably nitrate. Mitigation measures for sprinkler irrigation should take into account irrigation efficiency and the proximity of intensive land uses to sensitive waters. Relating contaminant concentrations in receiving groundwaters to their dominant causes is often complicated by uncertainty about the subsurface flow paths and the possible pollutant sources, viz. drainage from irrigated land. This highlights the need for identification of the patterns and dynamics of surface and subsurface waters to identify such sources of contaminants and minimize their impacts on the receiving environments.

  12. Inputs of nutrients and fecal bacteria to freshwaters from irrigated agriculture: case studies in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Wilcock, Robert J; Nash, David; Schmidt, Jochen; Larned, Scott T; Rivers, Mark R; Feehan, Pat

    2011-07-01

    Increasing demand for global food production is leading to greater use of irrigation to supplement rainfall and enable more intensive use of land. Minimizing adverse impacts of this intensification on surface water and groundwater resources is of critical importance for the achievement of sustainable land use. In this paper we examine the linkages between irrigation runoff and resulting changes in quality of receiving surface waters and groundwaters in Australia and New Zealand. Case studies are used to illustrate impacts under different irrigation techniques (notably flood and sprinkler systems) and land uses, particularly where irrigation has led to intensification of land use. For flood irrigation, changes in surface water contaminant concentrations are directly influenced by the amount of runoff, and the intensity and kind of land use. Mitigation for flood irrigation is best achieved by optimizing irrigation efficiency. For sprinkler irrigation, leaching to groundwater is the main transport path for contaminants, notably nitrate. Mitigation measures for sprinkler irrigation should take into account irrigation efficiency and the proximity of intensive land uses to sensitive waters. Relating contaminant concentrations in receiving groundwaters to their dominant causes is often complicated by uncertainty about the subsurface flow paths and the possible pollutant sources, viz. drainage from irrigated land. This highlights the need for identification of the patterns and dynamics of surface and subsurface waters to identify such sources of contaminants and minimize their impacts on the receiving environments. PMID:21365272

  13. Potential bias of model projected greenhouse warming in irrigated regions

    SciTech Connect

    Lobell, D; Bala, G; Bonfils, C; Duffy, P

    2006-04-27

    Atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) used to project climate responses to increased CO{sub 2} generally omit irrigation of agricultural land. Using the NCAR CAM3 GCM coupled to a slab-ocean model, we find that inclusion of an extreme irrigation scenario has a small effect on the simulated temperature and precipitation response to doubled CO{sub 2} in most regions, but reduced warming by as much as 1 C in some agricultural regions, such as Europe and India. This interaction between CO{sub 2} and irrigation occurs in cases where agriculture is a major fraction of the land surface and where, in the absence of irrigation, soil moisture declines are projected to provide a positive feedback to temperature change. The reduction of warming is less than 25% of the temperature increase modeled for doubled CO{sub 2} in most regions; thus greenhouse warming will still be dominant. However, the results indicate that land use interactions may be an important component of climate change uncertainty in some agricultural regions. While irrigated lands comprise only {approx}2% of the land surface, they contribute over 40% of global food production. Climate changes in these regions are therefore particularly important to society despite their relatively small contribution to average global climate.

  14. Soil management and conservation: Irrigation: Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation applies water to soil to improve crop production. The three main methods of irrigation are surface, sprinkler and micro. Surface irrigation is used on 85% of the irrigated land in the world. It generally requires lower capital investment because the soil conveys water within the field, ra...

  15. Drip irrigation research update at NPRL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drip irrigation research has been conducted since 1998 at NPRL. Systems include deep subsurface drip irrigation (SSDI), surface drip irrigation (SDI), and shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI). Results have shown that SDI and S3DI are more economical to install than SSDI. SDI systems have more r...

  16. Irrigation trends in Kansas, 1991-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenny, Joan F.; Juracek, Kyle E.

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet examines trends in total reported irrigation water use and acres irrigated as well as irrigation water use by crop type and system type in Kansas for the years 1991 through 2011. During the 21-year period, total reported irrigation water diversions varied substantially from year to year as affected primarily by climatic fluctuations. Total reported acres irrigated remained comparatively constant during this time, although acreages of irrigated corn increased and center pivots with drop nozzles became the dominant system type used for irrigation.

  17. Effect of irrigation system uniformity and method on potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato growth, yield, and quality under improved irrigation methods and water uniformity is important to enhance water management in arid regions. A field experiment was conducted in 2014 spring and fall growing seasons using potato (Solanum tuberosum) grown in northern Egypt at Shibin El Kom, Menof...

  18. New method of postprostatectomy bladder irrigation.

    PubMed

    MacDermott, J P; Ewing, R; Gray, B K

    1989-01-01

    Bacterial filters have been used to sterilise the hospital water supply in order to provide irrigant for postprostatectomy irrigation. This method was compared retrospectively to bladder irrigation derived from a still on the ward. Postoperative bacteriuria was similar in both groups of 75 patients, occurring in 23.7% of patients irrigated from the still and in 20% of patients irrigated via the filters. The bacterial filter proved reliable and as safe as using water from the still. PMID:2714320

  19. Preceramic irrigation canals in the Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Dillehay, Tom D; Eling, Herbert H; Rossen, Jack

    2005-11-22

    One of the most important developments in the existence of human society was the successful shift from a subsistence economy based on foraging to one primarily based on food production derived from cultivated plants and domesticated animals. The shift to plant food production occurred in only a few independent centers around the world and involved a commitment to increased sedentism and social interaction and to permanent agricultural fields and canals. One center was Peru, where early civilization and food production were beginning to develop by at least 4,500 years ago. New archeological evidence points to 5,400- and possible 6,700-year-old small-scale gravity canals in a circumscribed valley of the western Andean foothills in northern Peru that are associated with farming on low terrace benches at the foot of alluvial fans in areas where the canals are drawn from hydraulically manageable small lateral streams. This evidence reveals early environmental manipulation and incipient food production in an artificially created wet agroecosystem rather than simply the intensive harvesting or gardening of plants in moist natural areas. This finding is different from previously conceived notions, which expected early canals in lower-elevated, broad coastal valleys. The evidence also points to communal organization of labor to construct and maintain the canals and to the scheduling of daily activities beyond individual households. The development of early organized irrigation farming was combined with a hunting and gathering economy to support an increase in the local population size. PMID:16284247

  20. Preceramic irrigation canals in the Peruvian Andes

    PubMed Central

    Dillehay, Tom D.; Eling, Herbert H.; Rossen, Jack

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important developments in the existence of human society was the successful shift from a subsistence economy based on foraging to one primarily based on food production derived from cultivated plants and domesticated animals. The shift to plant food production occurred in only a few independent centers around the world and involved a commitment to increased sedentism and social interaction and to permanent agricultural fields and canals. One center was Peru, where early civilization and food production were beginning to develop by at least 4,500 years ago. New archeological evidence points to 5,400- and possible 6,700-year-old small-scale gravity canals in a circumscribed valley of the western Andean foothills in northern Peru that are associated with farming on low terrace benches at the foot of alluvial fans in areas where the canals are drawn from hydraulically manageable small lateral streams. This evidence reveals early environmental manipulation and incipient food production in an artificially created wet agroecosystem rather than simply the intensive harvesting or gardening of plants in moist natural areas. This finding is different from previously conceived notions, which expected early canals in lower-elevated, broad coastal valleys. The evidence also points to communal organization of labor to construct and maintain the canals and to the scheduling of daily activities beyond individual households. The development of early organized irrigation farming was combined with a hunting and gathering economy to support an increase in the local population size. PMID:16284247

  1. Preceramic irrigation canals in the Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Dillehay, Tom D; Eling, Herbert H; Rossen, Jack

    2005-11-22

    One of the most important developments in the existence of human society was the successful shift from a subsistence economy based on foraging to one primarily based on food production derived from cultivated plants and domesticated animals. The shift to plant food production occurred in only a few independent centers around the world and involved a commitment to increased sedentism and social interaction and to permanent agricultural fields and canals. One center was Peru, where early civilization and food production were beginning to develop by at least 4,500 years ago. New archeological evidence points to 5,400- and possible 6,700-year-old small-scale gravity canals in a circumscribed valley of the western Andean foothills in northern Peru that are associated with farming on low terrace benches at the foot of alluvial fans in areas where the canals are drawn from hydraulically manageable small lateral streams. This evidence reveals early environmental manipulation and incipient food production in an artificially created wet agroecosystem rather than simply the intensive harvesting or gardening of plants in moist natural areas. This finding is different from previously conceived notions, which expected early canals in lower-elevated, broad coastal valleys. The evidence also points to communal organization of labor to construct and maintain the canals and to the scheduling of daily activities beyond individual households. The development of early organized irrigation farming was combined with a hunting and gathering economy to support an increase in the local population size.

  2. Energy requirements in pressure irrigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, R.; Rodríguez-Sinobas, L.; Juana, L.; Laguna, F. V.; Castañón, G.; Gil, M.; Benítez, J.

    2012-04-01

    Modernization of irrigation schemes, generally understood as transformation of surface irrigation systems into pressure -sprinkler and trickle- irrigation systems, aims at, among others, improving irrigation efficiency and reduction of operation and maintenance efforts made by the irrigators. However, pressure irrigation systems, in contrast, carry a serious energy cost. Energy requirements depend on decisions taken on management strategies during the operation phase, which are conditioned by previous decisions taken on the design project of the different elements which compose the irrigation system. Most of the countries where irrigation activity is significant bear in mind that modernization irrigation must play a key role in the agricultural infrastructure policies. The objective of this study is to characterize and estimate the mean and variation of the energy consumed by common types of irrigation systems and their management possibilities. The work includes all processes involved from the diversion of water into irrigation specific infrastructure to water discharge by the emitters installed on the crop fields. Simulation taking into account all elements comprising the irrigation system has been used to estimate the energy requirements of typical irrigation systems of several crop production systems. It has been applied to extensive and intensive crop systems, such us extensive winter crops, summer crops and olive trees, fruit trees and vineyards and intensive horticulture in greenhouses. The simulation of various types of irrigation systems and management strategies, in the framework imposed by particular cropping systems, would help to develop criteria for improving the energy balance in relation to the irrigation water supply productivity.

  3. Rainwater harvesting for small-scale irrigation of maize in the Central Rift Valley, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Hartog, Maaike; Muluneh, Alemayehu; Stroosnijder, Leo

    2013-04-01

    In the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia, small scale farmers mostly rely on rainfall for crop production. The erratic nature of rainfall causes frequent crop failures and makes the region structurally dependent on food aid. Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) is a technique to collect and store runoff that could provide water for livestock, domestic use or small scale irrigation. Usually, such irrigation is promoted for high value crops, but in the light of regional food security it may become interesting to invest in irrigation of maize. In this research, two cemented RWH cisterns were investigated to determine their economic and social potential for supplemental irrigation of maize using drip irrigation. For this, data from test fields with irrigated maize and monitoring of water levels of the cisterns were used, as well as a survey under 30 farmers living close to the experimental site. The results show that catchment size and management should be in balance with the designed RWH system, to prevent too little runoff or flooding. An analysis with Cropwat 8.0 was used to investigate the possibility of irrigating maize with the observed amounts of water in the RWH cisterns. This would suffice for 0.3-0.8 ha of maize. For a RWH cistern with a drip irrigation system to be economically viable, the production on this acreage should become 3-4 ton/ha; 2.5 times higher than the current yield. But the biggest challenge would be to change the perception of respondents, who don't find it logical to spend precious water on a common crop like maize. Therefore, if the Ethiopian government considers the irrigation of maize to be important for regional food security, it is recommended to either subsidize the construction of RWH cisterns or provide credit on favourable terms.

  4. Soil water nitrate and ammonium dynamics under a sewage effluent irrigated eucalypt plantation.

    PubMed

    Livesley, S J; Adams, M A; Grierson, P F

    2007-01-01

    Managed forests and plantations are appropriate ecosystems for land-based treatment of effluent, but concerns remain regarding nutrient contamination of ground- and surface waters. Monthly NO3-N and NH4-N concentrations in soil water, accumulated soil N, and gross ammonification and nitrification rates were measured in the second year of a second rotation of an effluent irrigated Eucalyptus globulus plantation in southern Western Australia to investigate the separate and interactive effects of drip and sprinkler irrigation, effluent and water irrigation, irrigation rate, and harvest residues retention. Nitrate concentrations of soil water were greater under effluent irrigation than water irrigation but remained <15 mg L(-1) when irrigated at the normal rate (1.5-2.0 mm d(-1)), and there was little evidence of downward movement. In contrast, NH4-N concentrations of soil water at 30 and 100 cm were generally greater under effluent irrigation than water irrigation when irrigated at the normal rate because of direct effluent NH4-N input and indirect ammonification of soil organic N. Drip irrigation of effluent approximately doubled peak NO3-N and NH4-N concentrations in soil water. Harvest residue retention reduced concentrations of soil water NO3-N at 30 cm during active sprinkler irrigation, but after 1 yr of irrigation there was no significant difference in the amount of N stored in the soil system, although harvest residue retention did enhance the "nitrate flush" in the following spring. Gross mineralization rates without irrigation increased with harvest residue retention and further increased with water irrigation. Irrigation with effluent further increased gross nitrification to 3.1 mg N kg(-1) d(-1) when harvest residues were retained but had no effect on gross ammonification, which suggested the importance of heterotrophic nitrification. The downward movement of N under effluent irrigation was dominated by NH4-N rather than NO3-N. Improving the capacity of

  5. Food allergens.

    PubMed

    Burks, W; Helm, R; Stanley, S; Bannon, G A

    2001-06-01

    A number of advances in the scientific knowledge concerning adverse food reactions have been made in the past few years. Understanding about the nature of the food allergen itself, the molecular characterization of the epitopes on these allergens, the pathophysiology of the clinical reaction, and the diagnostic methods have all been significantly enhanced.

  6. Cooling tower irrigator layout with allowances for non-uniformity of the airflow velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushnov, A. S.; Ryabushenko, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    This article covers the results of analysis of aerodynamic processes in the cooling tower irrigator and provides the approaches to optimal layout of preformed packing blocks (of the irrigator) developed based on these results. The analysis of the airflow velocity field in the cooling towers shows that the irrigation space can be broken down into the following zones: the peripheral zone of the cooling tower near the airblast windows, the zone near the cooling tower center, and the intermediate zone. Furthermore, the highest level of nonuniformity of the airflow velocity field in cooling towers is in the zone adjoining the tower's airblast windows. The proposed concept of the cooling tower irrigator's layout is made with allowances for the airflow velocity field characteristics in the cross-section of the irrigation space of the cooling tower. Based on this concept, we suggest that higher irrigator blocks should be placed in the zone of increased airflow consumption, which provides the possibility to enhance the hydraulic resistance and, respectively, decrease the gas flow velocity as well as to boost the efficiency of chilling the circulating water in the cooling tower. For this purpose, additional irrigator blocks can be of the same design as the main irrigator. As an option, it is possible to use blocks of the geometry and design other than the main irrigator block in the cooling tower.

  7. Optimizing Land and Water Use at the Local Level to Enhance Global Food Security through Virtual Resources Trade in the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, X.; Zhang, X.; Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Global food security is constrained by local and regional land and water availability, as well as other agricultural input limitations and inappropriate national and global regulations. In a theoretical context, this study assumes that optimal water and land uses in local food production to maximize food security and social welfare at the global level can be driven by global trade. It follows the context of "virtual resources trade", i.e., utilizing international trade of agricultural commodities to reduce dependency on local resources, and achieves land and water savings in the world. An optimization model based on the partial equilibrium of agriculture is developed for the analysis, including local commodity production and land and water resources constraints, demand by country, and global food market. Through the model, the marginal values (MVs) of social welfare for water and land at the level of so-called food production units (i.e., sub-basins with similar agricultural production conditions) are derived and mapped in the world. In this personation, we will introduce the model structure, explain the meaning of MVs at the local level and their distribution around the world, and discuss the policy implications for global communities to enhance global food security. In particular, we will examine the economic values of water and land under different world targets of food security (e.g., number of malnourished population or children in a future year). In addition, we will also discuss the opportunities on data to improve such global modeling exercises.

  8. A modeling study of irrigation effects on global surface water and groundwater resources under a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Guoyong; Huang, Maoyi; Tang, Qiuhong; Leung, L. Ruby

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the effects of irrigation on global water resources by performing and analyzing Community Land Model 4.0 (CLM4) simulations driven by downscaled/bias-corrected historical simulations and future projections from five General Circulation Models (GCMs). For each climate scenario, three sets of numerical experiments were performed: (1) a CTRL experiment in which all crops are assumed to be rainfed; (2) an IRRIG experiment in which the irrigation module is activated using surface water (SW) to feed irrigation; and (3) a PUMP experiment in which a groundwater pumping scheme coupled with the irrigation module is activated for conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater (GW) for irrigation. The parameters associated with irrigation and groundwater pumping are calibrated based on a global inventory of census-based water use compiled by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Our results suggest that irrigation could lead to two major effects: SW (GW) depletion in regions with irrigation primarily fed by SW (GW), respectively. Furthermore, irrigation depending primarily on SW tends to have larger impacts on low-flow than high-flow conditions, suggesting increased vulnerability to drought. By the end of the 21st century, combined effect of increased irrigation water demand and amplified temporal-spatial variability of water supply may lead to severe local water scarcity for irrigation. Regionally, irrigation has the potential to aggravate/alleviate climate-induced changes of SW/GW although such effects are negligible when averaged globally. Our study highlights the need to account for irrigation effects and sources in assessing regional climate change impacts.

  9. Productivity of irrigation technologies in the White Volta basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofosu, E. A.; van der Zaag, P.; van de Giesen, N. C.; Odai, S. N.

    Parts of the White Volta basin in northern Ghana and southern Burkina Faso have witnessed a spectacular rise of irrigated agriculture since about 2000, largely without government support, and seems to have been triggered by a strong and growing demand for vegetables, notably tomatoes in the urban centres of southern Ghana. It is interesting to note the variety of different irrigation technologies that individual and groups of smallholder farmers adopted, adapted and implemented. Some technologies are well-known, such as those associated with conventional sources of water like small and large reservoirs; others have been rarely described in literature, such as temporal shallow wells and alluvial dugouts. This paper describes and characterises these different irrigation technologies and conducts a comparative analysis of their productivities, in terms of crop yield, water use and financial returns. The study was conducted in three neighbouring and transboundary watersheds (Anayari, Atankwidi and Yarigatanga) located in the Upper East Region of Ghana and southern Burkina Faso. For the study, 90 tomato farmers with different irrigation technologies were surveyed during one crop season (2007/2008). The results show that adequate fertilizer application is the major contributor to irrigation productivity. Technologies characterised by relatively small farm sizes are better managed by the surveyed farmers because they are able to provide adequate water and crop nutrients thus resulting in higher productivity, and high profit margins. Apart from technologies that depend on reservoirs, all other technologies surveyed in the paper are farmer driven and required no government support. This ongoing type of endogenous irrigation development provides a strong backing that the way forward in sub-Saharan Africa is for governments to create policies that facilitate poor farmers becoming irrigation entrepreneurs. Such policies should aim to enhance the reliability of markets (both

  10. Influence of different operating conditions on irrigation uniformity with microperforated tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno Pizani, María Alejandra; Jesús Farías Ramírez, Asdrúbal

    2013-04-01

    Irrigated agriculture is a safe alternative to meet the growing demand for food. Numerous studies show that proper management of localized irrigation can increase crop yields and reduce soil salinization. Therefore, periodic field systems irrigation assessments are needed in order to optimize the use efficiency of irrigation water, as well as, to increase the agricultural area covered by the same amount of water and to reduce the environmental impact. It was assessed the behavior of micro perforated tapes under different operating conditions, crops and regions of Venezuela. Evaluations were made on irrigated areas using Santeno ® Type I tape with the following crops: Banana (Musa sp), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L) and forage sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum). In the other hand, Santeno ® Type II tape was used with papaya (Carica papaya L.) and melon (Cucumis melo L.) crops (the last crop using inverted irrigation tape). The procedures used for sampling and determining the uniformity indices of the system were performed using a series of adjustments to the methodology proposed by Keller and Karmeli (1975), Deniculi (1980) and De Santa and De Juan (1993), in order to increase the number of observations as a function of irrigation time. The calculated irrigation uniformity indices were as follow: Distribution Coefficient (UD), Uniformity Coefficient (CUC), Coefficient of Variation of Flows (CV) and Statistical Uniformity Coefficient (Us). The indices characterization was made according to Merrian and Keller (1978); Bralts (1986); Pizarro (1990) y ASAE (1996), respectively. The results showed that the irrigation uniformity for the evaluated systems varied from excellent to unacceptable, mainly due to the lack of maintenance and the absent of manometric connectors. Among the findings, it is possible to highlight the need for technical support to farmers, both in the installation, management and maintenance of irrigation systems. In this sense

  11. Identifying the effect of irrigation on evapotranspiration variability over the High Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, R.; Cai, X.

    2015-12-01

    Irrigation is widely adopted as a measure to maintain crop yield when precipitation is limited and stabilize crop yield to buffer climatic fluctuation. Irrigation has considerably interfered with hydrological processes in many areas with extensive and intensive irrigation requirement; with the increasing demand for food and weather variability related to climate change, irrigation application is expected to increase, which would aggravate the interferences to hydrologic processes. Current studies focus on the impact of irrigation on the mean value of ET at either local or regional scale, however, how irrigation changes the variability of ET has not been well understood. This study analyzes the impact of extensive irrigation on ET variability in the High Plains. We apply an ET variance decomposition framework (Zeng and Cai 2015) to quantify the effects of both climate and irrigation on ET variance in in the High Plains watersheds. Based on climatic and groundwater storage data, we assess the monthly ET variance and its components for both pre-development (1930s-1960s) and development periods (1970-2010s). It is found that irrigation not only causes the well-known groundwater drawdown and stream depletion problems in the area associated with, but also changes ET variance, which further affects land surface processes. With complementary water supply from irrigation, ET approaches to potential ET, and ET variance is more attributed to climatic variables such as temperature, while causing significant seasonal fluctuations to groundwater storage. For sustainable water resources management in the High Plains, we argue that both the mean value and the variance of ET should be considered together for the regulation of irrigation in this region.

  12. Monitoring and Evaluation of Cultivated Land Irrigation Guarantee Capability with Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C., Sr.; Huang, J.; Li, L.; Wang, H.; Zhu, D.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Cultivated Land Quality Grade monitoring and evaluation is an important way to improve the land production capability and ensure the country food safety. Irrigation guarantee capability is one of important aspects in the cultivated land quality monitoring and evaluation. In the current cultivated land quality monitoring processing based on field survey, the irrigation rate need much human resources investment in long investigation process. This study choses Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei as study region, taking the 1 km × 1 km grid size of cultivated land unit with a winter wheat-summer maize double cropping system as study object. A new irrigation capacity evaluation index based on the ratio of the annual irrigation requirement retrieved from MODIS data and the actual quantity of irrigation was proposed. With the years of monitoring results the irrigation guarantee capability of study area was evaluated comprehensively. The change trend of the irrigation guarantee capability index (IGCI) with the agricultural drought disaster area in rural statistical yearbook of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area was generally consistent. The average of IGCI value, the probability of irrigation-guaranteed year and the weighted average which controlled by the irrigation demand index were used and compared in this paper. The experiment results indicate that the classification result from the present method was close to that from irrigation probability in the gradation on agriculture land quality in 2012, with overlap of 73% similar units. The method of monitoring and evaluation of cultivated land IGCI proposed in this paper has a potential in cultivated land quality level monitoring and evaluation in China. Key words: remote sensing, evapotranspiration, MODIS cultivated land quality, irrigation guarantee capability Authors: Chao Zhang, Jianxi Huang, Li Li, Hongshuo Wang, Dehai Zhu China Agricultural University zhangchaobj@gmail.com

  13. Induced catabolic bio-electrohydrolysis of complex food waste by regulating external resistance for enhancing acidogenic biohydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, K; Venkata Mohan, S

    2014-08-01

    A novel bio-electrohydrolysis system (BEH) based on self-inducing electrogenic activity was designed as pretreatment device to enhance biohydrogen (H2) production efficiency from food waste. Two-stage hybrid operation with hydrolysis in the initial stage and acidogenic fermentation of the resulting hydrolysate (after hydrolysis) for H2 production in the second stage was evaluated. Application of variable external resistances viz., 10Ω, 100Ω, 1000Ω and closed circuit (CC) influenced the hydrolysis of substrate in BEH system and hydrogen production in acidogenic reactor compared to control. Pretreated substrate at 100Ω documented higher H2 production (1.05l) than 10Ω (0.93l), CC (0.91l), 1000Ω (0.88l) and control operation (0.68l). Comparatively, 10Ω documented higher substrate degradation (53.4%) followed by CC (52.42%), 100Ω (49.51%), 1000Ω (47.57%) and control (43.68%). Voltammetric profiles were in agreement with the observed bio-electrohydrolysis and H2 production efficiency. PMID:24703959

  14. Enhancement of acidogenic fermentation for volatile fatty acid production from food waste: Effect of redox potential and inoculum.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Yu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Yeer; Shen, Dongsheng; Wang, Meizhen; Long, Yuyang; Chen, Ting

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of redox potential (ORP) and inoculum on volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production from food waste by acidogenic fermentation. Four experimental conditions with two ORP levels were tested: limited aeration conditions with ORP level of -100 to -200mV inoculating anaerobic sludge (LA+AnS) or aerobic sludge (LA+AeS), and anaerobic conditions with ORP level of -200 to -300mV inoculating anaerobic sludge with 2-bromoethanosulfophate (AN+BES) and without BES (AN). The maximal VFA yield (0.79g COD/g VS) was attained in LA+AnS reactor due to enhanced hydrolysis of substrates, especially proteins (degradation efficiency 78.3%). A higher frequency of phylum Firmicutes under limited aeration conditions (42.2-48.2%) was observed than that under anaerobic conditions (21.1%). The microbial community was more diverse in LA+AnS reactors than LA+AeS. We conclude that appropriate ORP level (from -100 to -200mV) and inoculum play essential roles in VFA production.

  15. Exploring enhanced menu labels' influence on fast food selections and exercise-related attitudes, perceptions, and intentions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Morgan S; Thompson, Joel Kevin

    2016-10-01

    Labeling restaurant menus with calorie counts is a popular public health intervention, but research shows these labels have small, inconsistent effects on behavior. Supplementing calorie counts with physical activity equivalents may produce stronger results, but few studies of these enhanced labels have been conducted, and the labels' potential to influence exercise-related outcomes remains unexplored. This online study evaluated the impact of no information, calories-only, and calories plus equivalent miles of walking labels on fast food item selection and exercise-related attitudes, perceptions, and intentions. Participants (N = 643) were randomly assigned to a labeling condition and completed a menu ordering task followed by measures of exercise-related outcomes. The labels had little effect on ordering behavior, with no significant differences in total calories ordered and counterintuitive increases in calories ordered in the two informational conditions in some item categories. The labels also had little impact on the exercise-related outcomes, though participants in the two informational conditions perceived exercise as less enjoyable than did participants in the no information condition, and trends following the same pattern were found for other exercise-related outcomes. The present findings concur with literature demonstrating small, inconsistent effects of current menu labeling strategies and suggest that alternatives such as traffic light systems should be explored. PMID:27289007

  16. Induced catabolic bio-electrohydrolysis of complex food waste by regulating external resistance for enhancing acidogenic biohydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, K; Venkata Mohan, S

    2014-08-01

    A novel bio-electrohydrolysis system (BEH) based on self-inducing electrogenic activity was designed as pretreatment device to enhance biohydrogen (H2) production efficiency from food waste. Two-stage hybrid operation with hydrolysis in the initial stage and acidogenic fermentation of the resulting hydrolysate (after hydrolysis) for H2 production in the second stage was evaluated. Application of variable external resistances viz., 10Ω, 100Ω, 1000Ω and closed circuit (CC) influenced the hydrolysis of substrate in BEH system and hydrogen production in acidogenic reactor compared to control. Pretreated substrate at 100Ω documented higher H2 production (1.05l) than 10Ω (0.93l), CC (0.91l), 1000Ω (0.88l) and control operation (0.68l). Comparatively, 10Ω documented higher substrate degradation (53.4%) followed by CC (52.42%), 100Ω (49.51%), 1000Ω (47.57%) and control (43.68%). Voltammetric profiles were in agreement with the observed bio-electrohydrolysis and H2 production efficiency.

  17. Enhancement of acidogenic fermentation for volatile fatty acid production from food waste: Effect of redox potential and inoculum.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Yu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Yeer; Shen, Dongsheng; Wang, Meizhen; Long, Yuyang; Chen, Ting

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of redox potential (ORP) and inoculum on volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production from food waste by acidogenic fermentation. Four experimental conditions with two ORP levels were tested: limited aeration conditions with ORP level of -100 to -200mV inoculating anaerobic sludge (LA+AnS) or aerobic sludge (LA+AeS), and anaerobic conditions with ORP level of -200 to -300mV inoculating anaerobic sludge with 2-bromoethanosulfophate (AN+BES) and without BES (AN). The maximal VFA yield (0.79g COD/g VS) was attained in LA+AnS reactor due to enhanced hydrolysis of substrates, especially proteins (degradation efficiency 78.3%). A higher frequency of phylum Firmicutes under limited aeration conditions (42.2-48.2%) was observed than that under anaerobic conditions (21.1%). The microbial community was more diverse in LA+AnS reactors than LA+AeS. We conclude that appropriate ORP level (from -100 to -200mV) and inoculum play essential roles in VFA production. PMID:27343452

  18. A comparison of trace element concentrations in biota from four irrigation projects in Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, P. Jr.; Jennings, M.; Dickerson, K.

    1994-12-31

    Irrigation drainwater can or has the potential to cause the mobilization of trace elements into the food chain and adversely affect fish and aquatic birds. Because of the semi-arid climate, irrigation is a necessary component of agriculture in Wyoming. Biota from four irrigation projects in Wyoming were collected and analyzed for trace element concentrations between 1988 and 1990. The irrigation projects included: the Kendrick Reclamation Project, Natrona County; the Riverton Reclamation Project, Fremont County; the Shoshone Irrigation Project, Park and Bighorn counties; and the Wind River Irrigation Project, Fremont County. Selenium concentrations were elevated in aquatic vegetation, aquatic invertebrates, bird eggs, bird livers and fish from the Kendrick Reclamation Project. Reproductive impairment and embryo teratogenesis was documented at the Kendrick Reclamation Project. Trace element concentrations in most biological samples from the three other irrigation projects were less than levels suspected of causing adverse effects. However, at the Riverton Reclamation Project, selenium concentrations in some samples of aquatic vegetation, aquatic invertebrates, fish and fish eggs exceeded concentrations associated with adverse effects. Differences in selenium concentrations in the four irrigation projects can be explained by the extent of seleniferous formations and soils, and the presence of closed basin wetlands.

  19. Effect of irrigation on the Budyko curve: a process-based stochastic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vico, Giulia; Destouni, Georgia

    2015-04-01

    Currently, 40% of food production is provided by irrigated agriculture. Irrigation ensures higher and less variable yields, but such water input alters the balance of transpiration and other losses from the soil. Thus, accounting for the impact of irrigation is crucial for the understanding of the local water balance. A probabilistic model of the soil water balance is employed to explore the effects of different irrigation strategies within the Budyko framework. Shifts in the Budyko curve are explained in a mechanistic way. At the field level and assuming unlimited irrigation water, irrigation shifts the Budyko curve upward towards the upper limit imposed by energy availability, even in dry climates. At the watershed scale and assuming that irrigation water is obtained from sources within the same watershed, the application of irrigation over a fraction of the watershed area allows a more efficient use of water resources made available through precipitation. In this case, however, mean transpiration remains upper-bounded by rainfall over the whole watershed.

  20. Development of High Resolution Data for Irrigated Area and Cropping Patterns in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K a, A.; Mishra, V.

    2015-12-01

    Information of crop phenology and its individual effect on irrigation is essential to improve the simulation of land surface states and fluxes. We use moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) - Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) at 250 m resolution for monitoring temporal changes in irrigation and cropping patterns in India. We used the obtained dataset of cropping pattern for quantifying the effect of irrigation on land surface states and fluxes by using an uncoupled land surface model. The cropping patterns are derived by using the planting, heading, harvesting, and growing dates for each agro-ecological zone separately. Moreover, we developed a high resolution irrigated area maps for the period of 1999-2014 for India. The high resolution irrigated area was compared with relatively coarse resolution (~ 10km) irrigated area from the Food and Agricultural Organization. To identify the seasonal effects we analyzed the spatial and temporal change of irrigation and cropping pattern for different temporal seasons. The new irrigation area information along with cropping pattern was used to study the water budget in India using the Noah Land surface Model (Noah LSM) for the period of 1999-2014.

  1. The role of irrigation techniques in arsenic bioaccumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Spanu, Antonino; Daga, Leonardo; Orlandoni, Anna Maria; Sanna, Gavino

    2012-08-01

    The bioaccumulation of arsenic compounds in rice is of great concern worldwide because rice is the staple food for billions of people and arsenic is one of the most toxic and carcinogenic elements at even trace amounts. The uptake of arsenic compounds in rice comes mainly from its interaction with system soil/water in the reducing conditions typical of paddy fields and is influenced by the irrigation used. We demonstrate that the use of sprinkler irrigation produces rice kernels with a concentration of total arsenic about fifty times lower when compared to rice grown under continuous flooding irrigation. The average total amount of arsenic, measured by a fully validated ICP-MS method, in 37 rice grain genotypes grown with sprinkler irrigation was 2.8 ± 2.5 μg kg(-1), whereas the average amount measured in the same genotypes grown under identical conditions, but using continuous flooding irrigation was 163 ± 23 μg kg(-1). In addition, we find that the average concentration of total arsenic in rice grains cultivated under sprinkler irrigation is close to the total arsenic concentration found in irrigation waters. Our results suggest that, in our experimental conditions, the natural bioaccumulation of this element in rice grains may be completely circumvented by adopting an appropriate irrigation technique. PMID:22765219

  2. Aspirin enhances the induction of type I allergic symptoms when combined with food and exercise in patients with food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Harada, S; Horikawa, T; Ashida, M; Kamo, T; Nishioka, E; Ichihashi, M

    2001-08-01

    We examined the effect of aspirin as a substitute for exercise in inducing urticaria/anaphylaxis in three patients with food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA). Two of the patients had specific IgE antibodies to wheat and the other had antibodies to shrimp. Administration of aspirin before ingestion of food allergens induced urticaria in one patient and urticaria and hypotension in another, while aspirin alone or food alone elicited no response. The third patient developed urticaria only when he took all three items, i.e. aspirin, food and additional exercise, whereas provocation with any one or or two of these did not induce any symptoms. These findings suggest that aspirin upregulates type I allergic responses to food in patients with FDEIA, and further shows that aspirin synergizes with exercise to provoke symptoms of FDEIA. This is the first report of a synergistic effect of aspirin in inducing urticaria/anaphylaxis, which was confirmed using challenge tests in patients with FDEIA.

  3. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in food analytics: Detection of vitamins B2 and B12 in cereals.

    PubMed

    Radu, Andreea Ioana; Kuellmer, Maria; Giese, Bernd; Huebner, Uwe; Weber, Karina; Cialla-May, Dana; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-11-01

    Food analysis has been gaining interest throughout recent decades for different reasons: the detection of hazardous substances in food and routine investigations of food composition and vitamin/nutrient contents. Regardless of the targeted component, food analysis raises a few challenges regarding the complexity of the matrix and detecting trace amounts of substances. We report herein the results obtained regarding the simultaneous detection of two B vitamins (riboflavin, vitamin B2 and cyanocobalamin, vitamin B12) by means of SERS. SERS provides molecular fingerprint identification and high analytical sensitivity together with a low processing time and cost. All these make SERS a promising tool for the development of food analytical methods. PMID:27591616

  4. Dairy foods in a moderate energy restricted diet do not enhance central fat, weight & intra-abdominal adipose tissue loss or reduce adipocyte size & inflammatory markers in overweight & obese adults; Controlled feeding study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Research on the role of dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective: A 15 week controlled feeding study to answer the question: do dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a mode...

  5. Effects of additional fermented food wastes on nitrogen removal enhancement and sludge characteristics in a sequential batch reactor for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongmei; Wang, Xiaochang C; Cheng, Zhe; Li, Yuyou; Tang, Jialing

    2016-07-01

    In order to enhance nitrogen removal from domestic wastewater with a carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio as low as 2.2:1, external carbon source was prepared by short-term fermentation of food wastes and its effect was evaluated by experiments using sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). The addition of fermented food wastes, with carbohydrate (42.8 %) and organic acids (24.6 %) as the main organic carbon components, could enhance the total nitrogen (TN) removal by about 25 % in contrast to the 20 % brought about by the addition of sodium acetate when the C/N ratio was equally adjusted to 6.6:1. The fermented food waste addition resulted in more efficient denitrification in the first anoxic stage of the SBR operation cycle than sodium acetate. In order to characterize the metabolic potential of microorganisms by utilizing different carbon sources, Biolog-ECO tests were conducted with activated sludge samples from the SBRs. As a result, in comparison with sodium acetate, the sludge sample by fermented food waste addition showed a greater average well color development (AWCD590), better utilization level of common carbon sources, and higher microbial diversity indexes. As a multi-organic mixture, fermented food wastes seem to be superior over mono-organic chemicals as an external carbon source.

  6. Adaptive management of irrigation and crops' biodiversity: a case study on tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lorenzi, Francesca; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Basile, Angelo; Bonfante, Antonello; Monaco, Eugenia; Riccardi, Maria; Menenti, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    evaluate the tomato crop adaptability to future climate. To this purpose, for several tomato cultivars, threshold values of their yield responses to soil water availability were determined (data from scientific literature). Cultivars' threshold values were evaluated, in all soil units, against the indicators' values, for irrigation levels with different ΔT/I. Less water intensive cultivars and irrigation volumes that optimize transpiration (and yield) could thus be identified in both climate scenarios, and irrigation management scenarios were determined taking into account soils' hydrological properties, crop biodiversity, and efficient use of water resource. The work was carried out within the Italian national project AGROSCENARI funded by the Ministry for Agricultural, Food and Forest Policies (MIPAAF, D.M. 8608/7303/2008) Keywords: climate change, adaptation, simulation models, deficit irrigation, water resource efficiency, SWAP

  7. Ophthalmic irrigants: a current review and update.

    PubMed

    McDermott, M L; Edelhauser, H F; Hack, H M; Langston, R H

    1988-10-01

    The search for an ideal intraocular irrigating solution is of paramount importance to te ophthalmic surgeon. An intraocular irrigating solution, as well as surgical technique, can have deleterious effects on ocular tissues. Since an intraocular irrigating solution comes in contact with the cornea, lens, trabecular meshwork, uvea, vitreous, and retina, and ideal irrigant would be ome that ensures biological function for all of these tissues. In a practical sense, the best irrigant is one that causes the least possible damage to the structural integrity and function of the intraocular environment. This paper summarizes the development, uses, and efficacy of intraocular irrigating solutions as currently used during intraocular surgery.

  8. Relation between irrigation engineering and bilharziasis*

    PubMed Central

    Lanoix, Joseph N.

    1958-01-01

    The author discusses the relation between irrigation systems and the transmission of bilharziasis, with special reference to the important part the irrigation engineer can play in checking the spread of the disease. He points out that, in the past, there has been little co-operation between health departments and public works agencies in respect of the setting-up of irrigation systems, and stresses the advantages to be gained from an active collaboration between malacologists, epidemiologists and irrigation engineers at the planning stage of irrigation schemes. The author also puts forward some suggestions for research on irrigation-system design and outlines the role of WHO in bilharziasis control. PMID:13573123

  9. Irrigation pumping using geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The potential of using geothermal energy in an isobutane binary system to drive directly a cluster of irrigation pumps was evaluated. This three well geothermal system, based at 150{sup 0}C (302{sup 0}F) resource at 2000 m (6560 ft), would cost an estimated $7,800,000 in capital investment to provide 6000 gpm of irrigation water from 12 water wells. It would serve approximately 4.5 square miles of irrigated agricultural land, with the delivered water costing $106.76 per acre-foot. This compares with an estimated cost of $60.78 per acre-foot for a conventional irrigation system driven by natural gas at the current price (1980 dollars) of $2.72/mm Btu. It is obvious that if natural gas prices continue to rise, or if geothermal resources can be found at depths less than 2000 meters, then the geothermal irrigation pumping system would be attractive economically. The importance of water to the economy and growth of Arizona was summarized. Total water consumption in Arizona is about 7,600,000 acre-feet annually of which about 87% is used for agriculture. Total supply from the Colorado River and water runoff is only 2,600,000 acre-feet per year, resulting in a net potable groundwater depletion of about 4,000,000 acre-feet per year assuming a recharge rate of about 1,000,000 acre-feet per year.

  10. Irrigation pumping using geothermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D. H.; Goldstone, L. A.

    1982-08-01

    The potential of using geothermal energy in an isobutane binary system to drive directly a cluster of irrigation pumps was evaluated. This three well geothermal system, based at 1500 C (3020 F) resource at 2000 m (6560 ft), would cost an estimated $7,800,000 in capital investment to provide 6000 gpm of irrigation water from 12 water wells. It would serve approximately 4.5 square miles of irrigated agricultural land, with the delivered water costing $106.76 per acre-foot. This compares with an estimated cost of $60.78 per acre-foot for a conventional irrigation system driven by natural gas at the current price (1980 dollars) of $2.72/mm Btu. It is obvious that if natural gas prices continue to rise, or if geothermal resources can be found at depths less than 2000 meters, then the geothermal irrigation pumping system would be attractive economically. The importance of water to the economy and growth of Arizona was summarized. Total water consumption in Arizona is about 7,600,000 acre-feet annually of which about 87% is used for agriculture.

  11. Irrigation management with remote sensing. [Navajo Indian Irrigation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlan, C.; Heilman, J. L.; Moore, D.; Myers, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Two visible/near IR hand held radiometers and a hand held thermoradiometer were used along with soil moisture and lysimetric measurements in a study of soil moisture distribution in afalfa fields on the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project near farmington, New Mexico. Radiances from irrigated plots were measured and converted to reflectances. Surface soil water contents (o cm to 4 cm) were determined gravimetrically on samples collected at the same time as the spectral measurements. The relationship between the spectral measurements and the crop coefficient were evaluated to demonstrate potential for using spectral measurement to estimate crop coefficient.

  12. Radiological Evaluation of Penetration of the Irrigant according to Three Endodontic Irrigation Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Benkiran, Imane; El Ouazzani, Amal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. This experimental study is to compare radiographs based on the penetration depth of the irrigant following three final irrigation techniques. Material and Method. A sample of sixty teeth with single roots were prepared with stainless steel K files followed by mechanized Ni-Ti files iRace® under irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. Radiopaque solution was utilized to measure the penetration depth of the irrigant. Three irrigation techniques were performed during this study: (i) passive irrigation, (ii) manually activated irrigation, and (iii) passive irrigation with an endodontic needle CANAL CLEAN®. Radiographs were performed to measure the length of irrigant penetration in each technique. Results. In comparison, passive irrigation with a conventional syringe showed infiltration of the irrigant by an average of 0.682 ± 0.105, whereas the manually activated irrigation technique indicated an average of 0.876 ± 0.066 infiltration. Irrigation with an endodontic syringe showed an average infiltration of 0.910 ± 0.043. The results revealed highly significant difference between the three irrigation techniques (α = 5%). Conclusion. Adding manual activation to the irrigant improved the result by 20%. This study indicates that passive irrigation with an endodontic needle has proved to be the most effective irrigation technique of the canal system. PMID:27433162

  13. Deteriorating food security in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milesi, C.; Samanta, A.; Hashimoto, H.; Kumar, K.; Ganguly, S.; Thenkabail, P. S.; Srivastava, A. N.; Nemani, R. R.; Myneni, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    statistics. We show that while there are no significant changes in long-term precipitation, there are geographically matching patterns of enhanced crop production and irrigation expansion with groundwater, initially, but both of which have levelled off in the past decade. In addition to increasing pressure on water resources, a decline in expansion of cropland area, a warming climate and increasing air pollution compound to challenging long term food security in India.

  14. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for mapping of whole brain activity patterns associated with the intake of snack food in ad libitum fed rats.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Non-homeostatic hyperphagia, which is a major contributor to obesity-related hyperalimentation, is associated with the diet's molecular composition influencing, for example, the energy content. Thus, specific food items such as snack food may induce food intake independent from the state of satiety. To elucidate mechanisms how snack food may induce non-homeostatic food intake, it was tested if manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) was suitable for mapping the whole brain activity related to standard and snack food intake under normal behavioral situation. Application of the MnCl2 solution by osmotic pumps ensured that food intake was not significantly affected by the treatment. After z-score normalization and a non-affine three-dimensional registration to a rat brain atlas, significantly different grey values of 80 predefined brain structures were recorded in ad libitum fed rats after the intake of potato chips compared to standard chow at the group level. Ten of these areas had previously been connected to food intake, in particular to hyperphagia (e.g., dorsomedial hypothalamus or the anterior paraventricular thalamic nucleus) or to the satiety system (e.g., arcuate hypothalamic nucleus or solitary tract); 27 areas were related to reward/addiction including the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens, the ventral pallidum and the ventral striatum (caudate and putamen). Eleven areas associated to sleep displayed significantly reduced Mn2+ -accumulation and six areas related to locomotor activity showed significantly increased Mn2+ -accumulation after the intake of potato chips. The latter changes were associated with an observed significantly higher locomotor activity. Osmotic pump-assisted MEMRI proved to be a promising technique for functional mapping of whole brain activity patterns associated to nutritional intake under normal behavior. PMID:23408973

  15. Acute food deprivation enhances fear extinction but inhibits long-term depression in the lateral amygdala via ghrelin signaling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiung-Chun; Chou, Dylan; Yeh, Che-Ming; Hsu, Kuei-Sen

    2016-02-01

    Fear memory-encoding thalamic input synapses to the lateral amygdala (T-LA) exhibit dynamic efficacy changes that are tightly correlated with fear memory strength. Previous studies have shown that auditory fear conditioning involves strengthening of synaptic strength, and conversely, fear extinction training leads to T-LA synaptic weakening and occlusion of long-term depression (LTD) induction. These findings suggest that the mechanisms governing LTD at T-LA synapses may determine the behavioral outcomes of extinction training. Here, we explored this hypothesis by implementing food deprivation (FD) stress in mice to determine its effects on fear extinction and LTD induction at T-LA synapses. We found that FD increased plasma acylated ghrelin levels and enhanced fear extinction and its retention. Augmentation of fear extinction by FD was blocked by pretreatment with growth hormone secretagogue receptor type-1a antagonist D-Lys(3)-GHRP-6, suggesting an involvement of ghrelin signaling. Confirming previous findings, two distinct forms of LTD coexist at thalamic inputs to LA pyramidal neurons that can be induced by low-frequency stimulation (LFS) or paired-pulse LFS (PP-LFS) paired with postsynaptic depolarization, respectively. Unexpectedly, we found that FD impaired the induction of PP-LFS- and group I metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG)-induced LTD, but not LFS-induced LTD. Ghrelin mimicked the effects of FD to impair the induction of PP-LFS- and DHPG-induced LTD at T-LA synapses, which were blocked by co-application of D-Lys(3)-GHRP-6. The sensitivity of synaptic transmission to 1-naphthyl acetyl spermine was not altered by either FD or ghrelin treatment. These results highlight distinct features of fear extinction and LTD at T-LA synapses.

  16. Rural development, agriculture, and food security.

    PubMed

    Ayres, W S; Mccalla, A F

    1996-12-01

    Within 30 years the world will be supplying food for an additional 2.5 billion people, most of whom will live in developing countries. Developing countries in meeting future challenges will need to implement sound and stable macroeconomic and sector policies. The World Bank is providing analysis, policy dialogue, and financial support in specific countries for opening up agricultural markets globally. Developing countries need to enhance food supplies by encouraging rapid technological change, increasing the efficiency of irrigation, and improving natural resource management. Agricultural and income growth in developing countries is dependent upon transfer of the breakthroughs in agricultural technology to the millions of small farms in the developing world. People currently use about 70% of available fresh water for irrigation, and competition for water resources with urban and industrial users has increased. Agriculture and other sectors must increase the efficiency of water use. Natural resource planning and comprehensive water and natural resource management that rely on a community-based approach have proven successful. Developing countries need to improve access to food by strengthening markets and agribusinesses, providing education and health services to both boys and girls, investing in infrastructure, and fostering broad participation. The major challenge ahead is to ensure food security for the hundreds of millions of families living in poverty. This large and complex task involves increasing agricultural output worldwide, reducing poverty, and improving health and nutrition. Progress has been made in the past 25 years in improving living conditions, but not everyone has benefitted. Almost 75% of the poor live in rural areas without access to land, and 25% are urban poor without jobs. Most of the poor live in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The World Bank mandate is to reduce poverty and hunger through revitalized rural development.

  17. Irrigation and groundwater in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertsen, Maurits; Iftikhar Kazmi, Syed

    2010-05-01

    Introduction of large gravity irrigation system in the Indus Basin in late nineteenth century without a drainage system resulted in water table rise consequently giving rise to water logging and salinity problems over large areas. In order to cope with the salinity and water logging problem government initiated salinity control and reclamation project (SCARP) in 1960. Initially 10,000 tube wells were installed in different areas, which not only resulted in the lowering of water table, but also supplemented irrigation. Resulting benefits from the full irrigation motivated framers to install private tube wells. Present estimate of private tube wells in Punjab alone is around 0.6 million and 48 billion cubic meter of groundwater is used for irrigation, contributing is 1.3 billion to the economy. The Punjab meets 40% of its irrigation needs from groundwater abstraction. Today, farmers apply both surface water flows and groundwater from tubewells, creating a pattern of private and public water control. As the importance of groundwater in sustaining human life and ecology is evident so are the threats to its sustainability due to overexploitation, but sufficient information for its sustainable management especially in developing countries is still required. Sustainable use of groundwater needs proper quantification of the resource and information on processes involved in its recharge and discharge. Groundwater recharge is broadly defined as water that reaches the aquifer from any direction (Lerner 1997). Sustainability and proper management of groundwater resource requires reliable quantification of the resource. In order to protect the resource from contamination and over exploitation, identification of recharge sources and their contribution to resource is a basic requirement. Physiochemical properties of some pesticides and their behavior in soil and water can make them potential tracers of subsurface moisture movement. Pesticides are intensively used in the area to

  18. Soil properties evolution after irrigation with reclaimed water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, M.; González-Naranjo, V.; de Miguel, A.; Martínez-Hernández, V.; Lillo, J.

    2012-04-01

    Many arid and semi-arid countries are forced to look for new and alternative water sources. The availability of suitable quality water for agriculture in these regions often is threatened. In this context of water scarcity, the reuse of treated wastewater for crop irrigation could represent a feasible solution. Through rigorous planning and management, irrigation with reclaimed water presents some advantages such as saving freshwater, reducing wastewater discharges into freshwater bodies and decreasing the amount of added fertilizers due to the extra supply of nutrients by reclaimed water. The current study, which involves wastewater reuse in agriculture, has been carried out in the Experimental Plant of Carrión de los Céspedes (Sevile, Spain). Here, two survey parcels equally designed have been cultivated with Jatropha curcas L, a bioenergetic plant and a non-interfering food security crop. The only difference between the two parcels lies on the irrigation water quality: one is irrigated with groundwater and another one with reclaimed water. The main aim of this study focuses on analysing the outstanding differences in soil properties derived from irrigation with two water qualities, due to their implications for plant growth. To control and monitor the soil variables, soil samples were collected before and after irrigation in the two parcels. pH, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+), kjeldahl nitrogen, organic matter content and nutrients (boron, phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium) were measured. Data were statistically analyzed using the R package. To evaluate the variance ANOVA test was used and to obtain the relations between water quality and soil parameters, Pearson correlation coefficient was computed. According to other authors, a decrease in the organic matter content and an increase of parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity and some exchangeable cations were expected. To date and after

  19. Developing Automatic Controllers for sprinkler irrigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Playán, E.; Salvador, R.; Cavero, J.; López, C.; Lecina, S.; Zapata, N.

    2012-04-01

    The application of new technologies to the control and automation of irrigation processes is quickly gaining attention. The automation of irrigation execution (through irrigation controllers) is now widespread. However, the automatic generation and execution of irrigation schedules is receiving growing attention due to the possibilities offered by the telemetry/remote control systems currently being installed in collective pressurized networks. These developments can greatly benefit from the combination of irrigation system and crop models, and from the interaction with agrometeorological databases, hydraulic models of pressurized collective distribution networks, weather forecasts and management databases for water users associations. Prospects for the development of such systems in collective sprinkler irrigation systems are analyzed in this presentation. Additionally, experimental results are presented on the application of these concepts to a hydrant irrigating a solid-set irrigated maize field.

  20. Municipal, industrial, and irrigation water use in Washington, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dion, N.P.; Lum, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of water use in 1975 in the 39 counties and 62 Water Resources Inventory Areas of Washington, indicated that 2.49 trillion gallons of water was used for municipal, industrial, and irrigation purposes. That amount represents a 10-percent increase over a similar water-use assessment in 1965, but a slight decrease from that of 1970. Total municipal water use, which includes municipally supplied industrial water, was 283 billion gallons. Industry used 442 billion gallons, of which 121 billion gallons was from municipal systems and 321 billion gallons was for self-suppled systems. Of the 604 billion gallons of water used for municipal and industrial supplies 145 billion gallons was ground water, 444 billion gallons was fresh surface water, and 14.8 billion gallons was saline surface water. A compilation of statewide industrial use as categorized by SIC (Lumber and Wood Products), SIC 28 (Chemicals and Allied Products), and SIC 20 (Food and Kindred Products)--accounted for about 65 percent of the total water used in industrial processes , In 1975, 5.79 million acre-feet of irrigation water (1,890 billion gallons) as applied to 1.52 million acres. This water was 95 percent surface water and 5 percent ground water. About 97 percent of the irrigation water was supplied in eastern Washington, to about 94 percent of the irrigated acreage in the State. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Cotton irrigation timing with variable seasonal irrigation capacities in the Texas south plains.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within the Ogallala Aquifer Region of Texas, the irrigation capacity (IC) for a given field often changes within a growing season due to seasonal depletion of the aquifer, in season changes in crop irrigation needs in dry years, or consequences of irrigation volume limits imposed by irrigation distr...

  2. 75 FR 43958 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of...: May 24, 2010. d. Applicant: Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District. e. Name of.... g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act, 16 USC 791a-825r. h. Applicant Contact: Turlock...

  3. Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelson, Lisa

    2006-11-08

    Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

  4. Total Contents and Sequential Extraction of Heavy Metals in Soils Irrigated with Wastewater, Akaki, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitamo, Daniel; Itana, Fisseha; Olsson, Mats

    2007-02-01

    . Generally, a considerable proportion of the total levels of many of the heavy metals resided in non residual fractions. The enhanced lability is generally expected to follow the order: Cd > Co > Pb > Cu > Ni > Se > V and Pb > Cd > Co > Cu > Ni > Zn in Vertisol and Fluvisol, respectively. For the similar wastewater application, the soil variables influence the status and the distribution of the associated heavy metals among the different soil fractions in the study soils. Among heavy metals that presented relatively elevated levels and with potential mobility, Co, Cu, Ni (either soil), V (Vertisol), Pb, and Zn (Fluvisol) could pose health threat through their introduction into the food chain in the wastewater irrigated soils.

  5. Investigation into the potential ability of Pickering emulsions (food-grade particles) to enhance the oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Kargar, Maryam; Fayazmanesh, Khorshid; Alavi, Mina; Spyropoulos, Fotios; Norton, Ian T

    2012-01-15

    In this study the potential ability of food-grade particles (at the droplet interface) to enhance the oxidative stability was investigated. Sunflower oil-in-water emulsions (20%), stabilised solely by food-grade particles (Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and modified starch (MS)), were produced under different processing conditions and their physicochemical properties were studied over time. Data on droplet size, surface charge, creaming index and oxidative stability were obtained. Increasing the food-grade particle concentration from 0.1% to 2.5% was found to decrease droplet size, enhance the physical stability of emulsions and reduce the lipid oxidation rate due to the formation of a thicker interfacial layer around the oil droplets. It was further shown that, MCC particles were able to reduce the lipid oxidation rate more effectively than MS particles. This was attributed to their ability to scavenge free radicals, through their negative charge, and form thicker interfacial layers around oil droplets due to the particles size differences. The present study demonstrates that the manipulation of emulsions' interfacial microstructure, based on the formation of a thick interface around the oil droplets by food-grade particles (Pickering emulsions), is an effective approach to slow down lipid oxidation.

  6. Irrigation agriculture affects organic matter decomposition in semi-arid terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Arroita, Maite; Causapé, Jesús; Comín, Francisco A; Díez, Joserra; Jimenez, Juan José; Lacarta, Juan; Lorente, Carmen; Merchán, Daniel; Muñiz, Selene; Navarro, Enrique; Val, Jonatan; Elosegi, Arturo

    2013-12-15

    Many dryland areas are being converted into intensively managed irrigation crops, what can disrupt the hydrological regime, degrade soil and water quality, enhance siltation, erosion and bank instability, and affect biological communities. Still, the impacts of irrigation schemes on the functioning of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are poorly understood. Here we assess the effects of irrigation agriculture on breakdown of coarse organic matter in soil and water. We measured breakdown rates of alder and holm oak leaves, and of poplar sticks in terrestrial and aquatic sites following a gradient of increasing irrigation agriculture in a semi-arid Mediterranean basin transformed into irrigation agriculture in 50% of its surface. Spatial patterns of stick breakdown paralleled those of leaf breakdown. In soil, stick breakdown rates were extremely low in non-irrigated sites (0.0001-0.0003 day(-1)), and increased with the intensity of agriculture (0.0018-0.0044 day(-1)). In water, stick breakdown rates ranged from 0.0005 to 0.001 day(-1), and increased with the area of the basin subject to irrigation agriculture. Results showed that irrigation agriculture affects functioning of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, accelerating decomposition of organic matter, especially in soil. These changes can have important consequences for global carbon budgets.

  7. Irrigation agriculture affects organic matter decomposition in semi-arid terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Arroita, Maite; Causapé, Jesús; Comín, Francisco A; Díez, Joserra; Jimenez, Juan José; Lacarta, Juan; Lorente, Carmen; Merchán, Daniel; Muñiz, Selene; Navarro, Enrique; Val, Jonatan; Elosegi, Arturo

    2013-12-15

    Many dryland areas are being converted into intensively managed irrigation crops, what can disrupt the hydrological regime, degrade soil and water quality, enhance siltation, erosion and bank instability, and affect biological communities. Still, the impacts of irrigation schemes on the functioning of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are poorly understood. Here we assess the effects of irrigation agriculture on breakdown of coarse organic matter in soil and water. We measured breakdown rates of alder and holm oak leaves, and of poplar sticks in terrestrial and aquatic sites following a gradient of increasing irrigation agriculture in a semi-arid Mediterranean basin transformed into irrigation agriculture in 50% of its surface. Spatial patterns of stick breakdown paralleled those of leaf breakdown. In soil, stick breakdown rates were extremely low in non-irrigated sites (0.0001-0.0003 day(-1)), and increased with the intensity of agriculture (0.0018-0.0044 day(-1)). In water, stick breakdown rates ranged from 0.0005 to 0.001 day(-1), and increased with the area of the basin subject to irrigation agriculture. Results showed that irrigation agriculture affects functioning of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, accelerating decomposition of organic matter, especially in soil. These changes can have important consequences for global carbon budgets. PMID:23891536

  8. Effects of different on-farm management on yield and water use efficiency of Potato crop cultivated in semiarid environments under subsurface drip irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazouani, Hiba; Provenzano, Giuseppe; Rallo, Giovanni; Mguidiche, Amel; Douh, Boutheina; Boujelben, Abdelhamid

    2016-04-01

    In Tunisia the amount of water for irrigated agriculture is higher than about 80% of the total resource.The increasing population and the rising food demand, associated to the negative effects of climate change,make it crucial to adopt strategies aiming to improve water use efficiency (WUE). Moreover, the absence of an effective public policy for water management amplifies the imbalance between water supply and its demand. Despite improved irrigation technologies can enhance the efficiency of water distribution systems, to achieve environmental goals it is also necessaryto identify on-farm management strategies accounting for actual crop water requirement. The main objective of the paper was to assess the effects of different on-farm managementstrategies (irrigation scheduling and planting date) on yield and water use efficiency of Potato crop (Solanumtuberosum L.) irrigated with a subsurface drip system, under the semi-arid climate of central Tunisia. Experiments were carried out during three growing seasons (2012, 2014 and 2015) at the High Agronomic Institute of ChottMariem in Sousse, by considering different planting dates and irrigation depths, the latter scheduled according to the climate observed during the season. All the considered treatments received the same pesticide and fertilizer management. Experiments evidenced that the climatic variability characterizing the examined seasons (photoperiod, solar radiation and average temperature) affects considerably the crop phenological stages, and the late sowing shortens the crop cycle.It has also been demonstrated that Leaf Area Index (LAI) and crop yield resulted relatively higher for those treatments receiving larger amounts of seasonal water. Crop yield varied between 16.3 t/ha and 39.1 t/ha, with a trend linearly related to the ratio between the seasonal amount of water supplied (Irrigation, I and Precipitation, P) and the maximum crop evapotranspiration (ETm). The maximum crop yield was in particular

  9. Foraging behavior of the mangrove sesarmid crab Neosarmatium trispinosum enhances food intake and nutrient retention in a low-quality food environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Yota; Lee, S. Y.

    2016-06-01

    The large sesarmid crab Neosarmatium trispinosum has been reported to actively collect freshly fallen mangrove leaves and store them in its burrow where they are assumed to age prior to consumption. This leaf-catching behavior was hypothesized to improve the palatability and nutritional quality of leaves through leaching of feeding deterrent and microbial enrichment during storage. Earlier studies also hypothesized that N. trispinosum feeds on sediment or animal material to meet their N needs. A series of experiments was carried out to investigate the foraging behavior of N. trispinosum against these hypotheses. Study of foraging behavior using remotely operated cameras indicated that this crab spends the far majority of time (97.5 ± 2.5%, SD) underground and only a small percentage of time outside its burrow foraging (2.2 ± 2.3%). Collection of fresh mangrove litter was swift but no record of predation was evident over 31 h of video records. A field leaf tethering experiment showed that this crab started to consume the leaves immediately after collection rather than storing whole leaves, refuting the leaf-aging hypothesis. N. trispinosum also showed a preference for senescent yellow leaves over decaying brown leaves. This behavior may only aim to stock leaves (i.e. to ensure food availability) rather than conditioning them through decay (i.e. to improve food quality). Analysis of gut contents showed that vascular plant material was the dominant food item (83.3 ± 4.6%), followed by sediment (9.2 ± 4.6%) but no animal materials were recorded. N. trispinosum therefore relies minimally on animal food but are capable of removing 50% of the daily leaf litter production. Elemental C, N analysis shows that sediment inside the burrow is a sufficient potential food source (C/N = 13 to 15). While having a lower C/N ratio than fresh green or yellow leaves, the N content of sediment (∼0.1%) was significantly lower than those of mangrove leaves (0.3-0.9%), and may thus

  10. Modeling the Impact of Irrigation on Precipitation over the Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, K. J.; Snyder, P. K.

    2010-12-01

    Irrigation has been shown to have an impact on the surface radiation and water budgets over a portion of the North American Great Plains. The addition of near-surface moisture in the soil from irrigation contributes to increasing the surface water vapor and latent heat fluxes while decreasing the sensible heat flux. The result is a reduction in the surface and boundary layer air temperature, an increase in humidity, and spatially variable precipitation changes. In this study, the NOAH land component of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been modified to simulate the effects of irrigation at sub-grid scales using a satellite-derived fractional irrigation dataset. Grid cells in the model were divided into irrigated and non-irrigated segments based on the irrigation fraction. For irrigated segments, all soil layers were held at saturation from the surface down to a depth of 200 cm. WRF simulations of nine different May-September periods (3 pluvial, 3 normal, and 3 drought) over the Great Plains were used to assess the impact of irrigation on the precipitation field. Data from the simulations with and without irrigation were used to determine the precipitation recycling ratio in the Great Plains domain. In addition, a back trajectory analysis was conducted to trace precipitation back to its evaporative source and to identify locations that experienced precipitation changes explicitly due to evapotranspiration over heavily irrigated regions (e.g., Nebraska). Overall, analysis of the recycling ratio and back trajectories suggest that irrigation has a spatially variable, but significant, impact on the precipitation field over the North American Great Plains resulting from changes in boundary layer dynamic and thermodynamic processes. Since approximately 42% of water usage in the United States is attributed to irrigation, irrigation-induced changes in the precipitation field over the Great Plains have considerable impacts on local and regional water

  11. Newer Root Canal Irrigants in Horizon: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jaju, Sushma; Jaju, Prashant P.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium hypochloride is the most commonly used endodontic irrigant, despite limitations. None of the presently available root canal irrigants satisfy the requirements of ideal root canal irrigant. Newer root canal irrigants are studied for potential replacement of sodium hypochloride. This article reviews the potential irrigants with their advantages and limitations with their future in endodontic irrigation. PMID:22190936

  12. Crop water productivity and irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern irrigation systems offer large increases in crop water productivity compared with rainfed or gravity irrigation, but require different management approaches to achieve this. Flood, sprinkler, low-energy precision application, LEPA, and subsurface drip irrigation methods vary widely in water a...

  13. Soil water monitoring equipment for irrigation scheduling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equipment for monitoring soil water content and sometimes bulk electrical conductivity can be used for scheduling irrigations if the accuracy of the equipment is sufficient to avoid damanging plants and wasting water and fertilizer. Irrigation scheduling is the process of deciding when to irrigate a...

  14. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy hyphenated with surface microextraction for in-situ detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on food contact materials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Zhang, Xiaoli; Shi, Yu-E; Liu, Zhen; Zhan, Jinhua

    2016-09-01

    Highly bioaccumulated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have cause health concerns because of their carcinogenic properties. PAHs could migrate to food from contaminated food contact materials. In this study, a hyphenated technique combining surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with surface microextraction was developed for in-situ on site screening of PAHs on food contact materials. Methanol and 1-propanethiol-modified silver nanoparticles (PTH-Ag NPs) were used to perform the in-situ microextraction and detection of PAHs, respectively. The SERS spectra can be obtained by a portable Raman spectrometer. The vibration of the C-C bond of PTH at 1030cm(-1) was chosen as an internal standard peak. The PTH-Ag NPs showed high uniformity with an RSD of 2.96%. A plot of the normalized SERS intensity against fluoranthene concentration showed a linear relationship (R(2)=0.98). The detection limit could reach 0.27ngcm(-2). The in-situ microextraction-SERS hyphenated technique for the detection of three PAHs at five food contact materials was demonstrated. The method can be also applied to detect PAH mixtures. This in-situ microextraction-SERS hyphenated method demonstrated its ability to rapidly screen PAHs on contaminated food contact materials free from complex sample pretreatment. PMID:27343612

  15. Stirling engines and irrigation pumping

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    A brief outline is given of the performance that might be achievable from various kinds of Stirling engine driven irrigation pumps. Some emphasis is placed on the very simple liquid piston engines, suitable for low technology manufacture, that have been the recent subject of research. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. [Effects of ridge and furrow rain harvesting with supplemental irrigation on winter wheat photosynthetic characteristics, yield and water use efficiency in Guanzhong irrigation district].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Han, Qing-fang; Cheng, Xue-feng; Yang, Shan-shan; Jia, Zhi-kuan; Ding, Rui-xia; Ren, Xiao-long; Nie, Jun-feng

    2015-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the regulation of crop photosynthesis and output and water saving effect under ridge and furrow rain harvesting with supplemental irrigation in Guanzhong irrigation district. The experiment was set with 5 treatments with irrigation at returning green stage, and the widths of both ridge and furrow being 60 cm. T1, T2 and T3 were in the ridge and furrow rain harvesting planting pattern, with the irrigation volumes being 0, 375 and 750 m3 · hm(-2) respectively, T4 was flat planting with irrigation (border irrigation) of 750 m3 · hm(-2) and CK was flat planting without irrigation. Effects on winter wheat photosynthetic organs, photosynthetic rate, yield and water use efficiency, etc. were tested. The results showed that compared with T4, T1, T2 and T3 treatments increased the grain yield by 2.8%, 9.6% and 18.9%, improved the harvest index by 2.0% to 8.5%, advanced the flag leaf chlorophyll content by 41.9% to 64.4% significantly, and improved the 0-40 cm layer soil moisture content by 0.1%-4.6% during the whole growth period. Photosynthetic rates at the flowering and filling stages also increased by 22.3% to 54.2% and -4.3% to 67.2%, respectively. Total water use efficiencies (WUEy) were 17.9%, 10.4% and 15.4% higher than that of T4, and 69.3%, 58.6% and 65.7% higher than that of CK (P < 0.05), respectively, and enhanced precipitation utilization efficiency ( PUE ) by 94.3%-124.5% than CK. Leaf areas of T2 and T3 treatments at each growth stage were significantly higher than that of T4 and CK, irrigation water use efficiencies (IUE) were 119.1% and 18.8% higher than that of T4, respectively. Therefore, it was concluded that ridge and furrow rain harvesting cultivation could maintain higher grain yield than border irrigation without irrigation or with irrigation reduction by 50%. The utilization efficiency of irrigation water under the condition of irrigation reduction by 50% was improved significantly, and the ridge and

  17. Can E. coli or thermotolerant coliform concentrations predict pathogen presence or prevalence in irrigation waters?

    PubMed

    Pachepsky, Yakov; Shelton, Daniel; Dorner, Sarah; Whelan, Gene

    2016-05-01

    An increase in food-borne illnesses in the United States has been associated with fresh produce consumption. Irrigation water presents recognized risks for microbial contamination of produce. Water quality criteria rely on indicator bacteria. The objective of this review was to collate and summarize experimental data on the relationships between pathogens and thermotolerant coliform (THT) and/or generic E. coli, specifically focusing on surface fresh waters used in or potentially suitable for irrigation agriculture. We analyzed peer-reviewed publications in which concentrations of E. coli or THT coliforms in surface fresh waters were measured along with concentrations of one or more of waterborne and food-borne pathogenic organisms. The proposed relationships were significant in 35% of all instances and not significant in 65% of instances. Coliform indicators alone cannot provide conclusive, non-site-specific and non-pathogen-specific information about the presence and/or concentrations of most important pathogens in surface waters suitable for irrigation. Standards of microbial water quality for irrigation can rely not only on concentrations of indicators and/or pathogens, but must include references to crop management. Critical information on microbial composition of actual irrigation waters to support criteria of microbiological quality of irrigation waters appears to be lacking and needs to be collected.

  18. Quantifying the link between crop production and mined groundwater irrigation in China.

    PubMed

    Grogan, Danielle S; Zhang, Fan; Prusevich, Alexander; Lammers, Richard B; Wisser, Dominik; Glidden, Stanley; Li, Changsheng; Frolking, Steve

    2015-04-01

    In response to increasing demand for food, Chinese agriculture has both expanded and intensified over the past several decades. Irrigation has played a key role in increasing crop production, and groundwater is now an important source of irrigation water. Groundwater abstraction in excess of recharge (which we use here to estimate groundwater mining) has resulted in declining groundwater levels and could eventually restrict groundwater availability. In this study we used a hydrological model, WBMplus, in conjunction with a process based crop growth model, DNDC, to evaluate Chinese agriculture's recent dependence upon mined groundwater, and to quantify mined groundwater-dependent crop production across a domain that includes variation in climate, crop choice, and management practices. This methodology allowed for the direct attribution of crop production to irrigation water from rivers and reservoirs, shallow (renewable) groundwater, and mined groundwater. Simulating 20 years of weather variability and circa year 2000 crop areas, we found that mined groundwater fulfilled 20%-49% of gross irrigation water demand, assuming all demand was met. Mined groundwater accounted for 15%-27% of national total crop production. There was high spatial variability across China in irrigation water demand and crop production derived from mined groundwater. We find that climate variability and mined groundwater demand do not operate independently; rather, years in which irrigation water demand is high due to the relatively hot and dry climate also experience limited surface water supplies and therefore have less surface water with which to meet that high irrigation water demand. PMID:25544335

  19. An eco-hydrological approach to sustainable irrigation of managed ecosystems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porporato, A.; Vico, G.

    2009-12-01

    Population growth and quest for food security and biofuels are contributing to the increasing global water demand by agriculture, which represents by far the most important freshwater user. Meeting these increasing needs of crops will require optimizing irrigation techniques and schedules to achieve an adequate productivity, while ensuring sufficient water resources for ecosystems. Nevertheless, optimizing irrigation is a highly non-trivial task, given the unpredictability of rainfall and the numerous soil-plant-atmosphere interactions, especially in the face of possible climate change. Here we model, in a common framework, the stochastic soil moisture dynamics for rainfed agriculture, deficit and stress-avoidance irrigation, including both intra- and inter-annual stochastic hydrologic variability. We present the analytical solutions for the steady state soil moisture probability density function with random timing and amount of rainfall, as well as the frequency of irrigation treatments and the required water volumes. These results allow us to explore the whole continuum of possibilities among rainfed agriculture, traditional irrigation and micro-irrigation, and to assess the profitability and feasibility of the irrigation schemes with different plant and soil characteristics. The risks associated to rainfall interannual variability are also evaluated for both profitability and productivity.

  20. Uptake and Accumulation of Pharmaceuticals in Lettuce Under Surface and Overhead Irrigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalsod, G.; Chuang, Y. H.; Jeon, S.; Gui, W.; Li, H.; Guber, A.; Zhang, W.

    2015-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products are being widely detected in wastewater and surface waters. As fresh water becomes scarcer, interests in using reclaimed water for crop irrigation is intensified. Since reclaimed waters often carry trace levels of pharmaceuticals, accumulation of pharmaceuticals in food crops could increase the risk of human exposure. This study aims to investigate uptake and accumulations of pharmaceuticals in greenhouse-grown lettuce under contrasting irrigation practices (i.e., overhead and surface irrigations). Lettuce was irrigated with water spiked with 11 commonly used pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, carbadox, trimethoprim, lincomycin hydrochloride, oxytetracycline hydrochloride, monensin sodium, and tylosin). Weekly sampling of lettuce roots, shoots, and soils were continued for 5 weeks, and the samples were freeze dried, extracted for pharmaceuticals and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Preliminary results indicate that higher concentrations of pharmaceuticals were found in overhead irrigated lettuce compared to surface irrigated lettuce. For carbamezapine, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, and monensin sodium, their concentrations generally increased in lettuce shoots in the overhead treatment over time. However, acetaminophen was found at higher concentrations in both shoots and roots, indicating that acetaminophen can be easily transported in the plant system. This study provides insight on developing better strategies for using reclaimed water for crop irrigations, while minimizing the potential risks of pharmaceutical contamination of vegetables.

  1. Changes of soil organic matter and microbial activity in irrigated and non irrigated olive groves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavvadias, Victor; Papadopoulou, Maria; Theocharopoulos, Sideris; Vavoulidou, Evagelia; Doula, Maria; Reppas, Spiros

    2014-05-01

    rhizosphere and the favorable soil moisture conditions under tree canopy on soil microbial activities. TOC, BR and MB-C values were considerably lower in soil depth of 10-40cm compared with 0-10 cm in both irrigated and rainfed soil parcels. Moreover BR and MB-C was higher in irrigated soil parcels compared with rainfed ones suggesting that the periodic irrigation significantly enhances the soil microbial activity. There were no considerable differences in TOC. For this the TOC and potential activity of microbial community can contribute in the soil nutrient and irrigation management guidelines in order to exploit the utilization of productive soils in the region under studied.

  2. Reimagining cost recovery in Pakistan's irrigation system through willingness-to-pay estimates for irrigation water from a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Andrew Reid; Shah, M Azeem Ali; Ward, Patrick S

    2014-01-01

    It is widely argued that farmers are unwilling to pay adequate fees for surface water irrigation to recover the costs associated with maintenance and improvement of delivery systems. In this paper, we use a discrete choice experiment to study farmer preferences for irrigation characteristics along two branch canals in Punjab Province in eastern Pakistan. We find that farmers are generally willing to pay well in excess of current surface water irrigation costs for increased surface water reliability and that the amount that farmers are willing to pay is an increasing function of their existing surface water supply as well as location along the main canal branch. This explicit translation of implicit willingness-to-pay (WTP) for water (via expenditure on groundwater pumping) to WTP for reliable surface water demonstrates the potential for greatly enhanced cost recovery in the Indus Basin Irrigation System via appropriate setting of water user fees, driven by the higher WTP of those currently receiving reliable supplies. PMID:25552779

  3. Remotely sensed spatio-temporal trends of irrigation agriculture in northwestern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cela Diaz, F.; Siegfried, T. U.; Vasquez, V.; Pollard, B. S.; Temimi, M.; Narula, K. K.; Lall, U.

    2009-12-01

    Irrigated agricultural production plays a key role in covering the world’s food demand. Its importance will grow in the future given increasing population numbers and uncertain climate. Irrigation, however, has also a major impact on water resources, esp. in the drylands on the planet. For example, most of the large-scale problems of aquifer mining can be linked to groundwater-irrigated agriculture. South Asia is one of these regions of concern where roughly 40 percent of the total global groundwater irrigated area is located. In India, almost half of the total agricultural area is irrigated and it is estimated that groundwater irrigation in the country sustains 27 million ha. Esp. in the northwestern part of the country, water tables are falling at increasing rates that give rise to concern about the future viability of irrigation there. Since the majority of food grains in India are produced in that region, this development is a direct threat to the national food security with potentially global implications. We present a novel remote sensing approach to map the temporal development of irrigated agriculture at large spatial scales with high accuracy. We use time series data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NDVI and surface temperature as well as high-resolution precipitation data from the Indian Meteorological Department from 2000 - 2008 and ancillary data for our supervised classification approach. A cascade of classifiers was chosen to deal with the problem of obtaining labeled examples. A first stage classifier uses large regions of known irrigated and non-irrigated areas to learn a rough estimate of the multi-dimensional time series signature on variables of interest in non-irrigated areas. An estimate of the probability of non-irrigation is generated and passed to a second stage classifier along with the variables used to derive it. The second stage classifier is trained with a small dataset of very high quality estimates

  4. Integrated crop water management might sustainably halve the global food gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jägermeyr, J.; Gerten, D.; Schaphoff, S.; Heinke, J.; Lucht, W.; Rockström, J.

    2016-02-01

    As planetary boundaries are rapidly being approached, humanity has little room for additional expansion and conventional intensification of agriculture, while a growing world population further spreads the food gap. Ample evidence exists that improved on-farm water management can close water-related yield gaps to a considerable degree, but its global significance remains unclear. In this modeling study we investigate systematically to what extent integrated crop water management might contribute to closing the global food gap, constrained by the assumption that pressure on water resources and land does not increase. Using a process-based bio-/agrosphere model, we simulate the yield-increasing potential of elevated irrigation water productivity (including irrigation expansion with thus saved water) and optimized use of in situ precipitation water (alleviated soil evaporation, enhanced infiltration, water harvesting for supplemental irrigation) under current and projected future climate (from 20 climate models, with and without beneficial CO2 effects). Results show that irrigation efficiency improvements can save substantial amounts of water in many river basins (globally 48% of non-productive water consumption in an ‘ambitious’ scenario), and if rerouted to irrigate neighboring rainfed systems, can boost kcal production significantly (26% global increase). Low-tech solutions for small-scale farmers on water-limited croplands show the potential to increase rainfed yields to a similar extent. In combination, the ambitious yet achievable integrated water management strategies explored in this study could increase global production by 41% and close the water-related yield gap by 62%. Unabated climate change will have adverse effects on crop yields in many regions, but improvements in water management as analyzed here can buffer such effects to a significant degree.

  5. Interactive effects of elevated CO2 concentration and irrigation on photosynthetic parameters and yield of maize in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanchao; Zhang, Jiahua; Yao, Fengmei; Hao, Cui

    2014-01-01

    Maize is one of the major cultivated crops of China, having a central role in ensuring the food security of the country. There has been a significant increase in studies of maize under interactive effects of elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and other factors, yet the interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and increasing precipitation on maize has remained unclear. In this study, a manipulative experiment in Jinzhou, Liaoning province, Northeast China was performed so as to obtain reliable results concerning the later effects. The Open Top Chambers (OTCs) experiment was designed to control contrasting [CO2] i.e., 390, 450 and 550 µmol·mol(-1), and the experiment with 15% increasing precipitation levels was also set based on the average monthly precipitation of 5-9 month from 1981 to 2010 and controlled by irrigation. Thus, six treatments, i.e. C550W+15%, C550W0, C450W+15%, C450W0, C390W+15% and C390W0 were included in this study. The results showed that the irrigation under elevated [CO2] levels increased the leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) of maize. Similarly, the stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr) decreased with elevated [CO2], but irrigation have a positive effect on increased of them at each [CO2] level, resulting in the water use efficiency (WUE) higher in natural precipitation treatment than irrigation treatment at elevated [CO2] levels. Irradiance-response parameters, e.g., maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pnmax) and light saturation points (LSP) were increased under elevated [CO2] and irrigation, and dark respiration (Rd) was increased as well. The growth characteristics, e.g., plant height, leaf area and aboveground biomass were enhanced, resulting in an improved of yield and ear characteristics except axle diameter. The study concluded by reporting that, future elevated [CO2] may favor to maize when coupled with increasing amount of precipitation in Northeast China. PMID:24848097

  6. Interactive Effects of Elevated CO2 Concentration and Irrigation on Photosynthetic Parameters and Yield of Maize in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fanchao; Zhang, Jiahua; Yao, Fengmei; Hao, Cui

    2014-01-01

    Maize is one of the major cultivated crops of China, having a central role in ensuring the food security of the country. There has been a significant increase in studies of maize under interactive effects of elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and other factors, yet the interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and increasing precipitation on maize has remained unclear. In this study, a manipulative experiment in Jinzhou, Liaoning province, Northeast China was performed so as to obtain reliable results concerning the later effects. The Open Top Chambers (OTCs) experiment was designed to control contrasting [CO2] i.e., 390, 450 and 550 µmol·mol−1, and the experiment with 15% increasing precipitation levels was also set based on the average monthly precipitation of 5–9 month from 1981 to 2010 and controlled by irrigation. Thus, six treatments, i.e. C550W+15%, C550W0, C450W+15%, C450W0, C390W+15% and C390W0 were included in this study. The results showed that the irrigation under elevated [CO2] levels increased the leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) of maize. Similarly, the stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr) decreased with elevated [CO2], but irrigation have a positive effect on increased of them at each [CO2] level, resulting in the water use efficiency (WUE) higher in natural precipitation treatment than irrigation treatment at elevated [CO2] levels. Irradiance-response parameters, e.g., maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pnmax) and light saturation points (LSP) were increased under elevated [CO2] and irrigation, and dark respiration (Rd) was increased as well. The growth characteristics, e.g., plant height, leaf area and aboveground biomass were enhanced, resulting in an improved of yield and ear characteristics except axle diameter. The study concluded by reporting that, future elevated [CO2] may favor to maize when coupled with increasing amount of precipitation in Northeast China. PMID:24848097

  7. Interactive effects of elevated CO2 concentration and irrigation on photosynthetic parameters and yield of maize in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanchao; Zhang, Jiahua; Yao, Fengmei; Hao, Cui

    2014-01-01

    Maize is one of the major cultivated crops of China, having a central role in ensuring the food security of the country. There has been a significant increase in studies of maize under interactive effects of elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and other factors, yet the interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and increasing precipitation on maize has remained unclear. In this study, a manipulative experiment in Jinzhou, Liaoning province, Northeast China was performed so as to obtain reliable results concerning the later effects. The Open Top Chambers (OTCs) experiment was designed to control contrasting [CO2] i.e., 390, 450 and 550 µmol·mol(-1), and the experiment with 15% increasing precipitation levels was also set based on the average monthly precipitation of 5-9 month from 1981 to 2010 and controlled by irrigation. Thus, six treatments, i.e. C550W+15%, C550W0, C450W+15%, C450W0, C390W+15% and C390W0 were included in this study. The results showed that the irrigation under elevated [CO2] levels increased the leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) of maize. Similarly, the stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr) decreased with elevated [CO2], but irrigation have a positive effect on increased of them at each [CO2] level, resulting in the water use efficiency (WUE) higher in natural precipitation treatment than irrigation treatment at elevated [CO2] levels. Irradiance-response parameters, e.g., maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pnmax) and light saturation points (LSP) were increased under elevated [CO2] and irrigation, and dark respiration (Rd) was increased as well. The growth characteristics, e.g., plant height, leaf area and aboveground biomass were enhanced, resulting in an improved of yield and ear characteristics except axle diameter. The study concluded by reporting that, future elevated [CO2] may favor to maize when coupled with increasing amount of precipitation in Northeast China.

  8. Agriculture and natural resources in a changing world - the role of irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, T.; Havlík, P.; Schneider, U. A.; Kindermann, G.; Obersteiner, M.

    2009-04-01

    Fertile land and fresh water constitute two of the most fundamental resources for food production. These resources are affected by environmental, political, economic, and technical developments. Regional impacts may transmit to the world through increased trade. With a global forest and agricultural sector model, we quantify the impacts of increased demand for food due to population growth and economic development on potential land and water use. In particular, we investigate producer adaptation regarding crop and irrigation choice, agricultural market adjustments, and changes in the values of land and water. Against the background of resource sustainability and food security topics, this study integrates the spatial and operational heterogeneity of irrigation management into a global land use model. It represents a first large scale assessment of agricultural water use under explicit consideration of alternative irrigation options in their particular biophysical, economic, and technical context, accounting for international trade, motivation-based farming, and quantified aggregated impacts on land scarcity, water scarcity, and food supply. The inclusion of technical and economic aspects of irrigation choice into an integrated land use modeling framework provides new insights into the interdisciplinary trade-offs between determinants of global land use change. Agricultural responses to population and economic growth include considerable increases in irrigated area and agricultural water use, but reductions in the average water intensity. Different irrigation systems are preferred under different exogenous biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Negligence of these adaptations would bias the burden of development on land and water scarcity. Without technical progress in agriculture, predicted population and income levels for 2030 would require substantial price adjustments for land, water, and food to equilibrate supply and demand.

  9. Integration of soil moisture and geophysical datasets for improved water resource management in irrigated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkenbiner, Catherine; Franz, Trenton E.; Avery, William Alexander; Heeren, Derek M.

    2016-04-01

    Global trends in consumptive water use indicate a growing and unsustainable reliance on water resources. Approximately 40% of total food production originates from irrigated agriculture. With increasing crop yield demands, water use efficiency must increase to maintain a stable food and water trade. This work aims to increase our understanding of soil hydrologic fluxes at intermediate spatial scales. Fixed and roving cosmic-ray neutron probes were combined in order to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture at three study sites across an East-West precipitation gradient in the state of Nebraska, USA. A coarse scale map was generated for the entire domain (122 km2) at each study site. We used a simplistic data merging technique to produce a statistical daily soil moisture product at a range of key spatial scales in support of current irrigation technologies: the individual sprinkler (˜102m2) for variable rate irrigation, the individual wedge (˜103m2) for variable speed irrigation, and the quarter section (0.82 km2) for uniform rate irrigation. Additionally, we were able to generate a daily soil moisture product over the entire study area at various key modeling and remote sensing scales 12, 32, and 122 km2. Our soil moisture products and derived soil properties were then compared against spatial datasets (i.e. field capacity and wilting point) from the US Department of Agriculture Web Soil Survey. The results show that our "observed" field capacity was higher compared to the Web Soil Survey products. We hypothesize that our results, when provided to irrigators, will decrease water losses due to runoff and deep percolation as sprinkler managers can better estimate irrigation application depth and times in relation to soil moisture depletion below field capacity and above maximum allowable depletion. The incorporation of this non-contact and pragmatic geophysical method into current irrigation practices across the state and globe has the

  10. Secondary desertification due to salinization of intensively irrigated lands: The Israeli experience.

    PubMed

    Banin, A; Fish, A

    1995-01-01

    Secondary salinization of intensively irrigated lands is an increasingly alarming redesertification process experienced in many irrigated regions of the developed countries. The major cause is a profound interference in the geochemical/salt balances of irrigated regions. A case-in-point is the recent salinization of the Yizre'el Valley, a 20,000 ha intensively irrigated region in Israel. The extremely intensive and advanced agroecosystem developed in the region since the 1940s included pumping and importing irrigation water by the National Water Carrier, large-scale reclamation and reuse of municipal sewage water, winter flood impoundment in reservoirs for summer irrigation, and cloud seeding to enhance rainfall. Modern irrigation methods were applied, including sprinkler, trickle, moving-line, and center-pivot systems. Water use efficiency at any level was very high. Nevertheless, large-scale salinization of regional water resources and many fields had developed in the mid-1980s. Reconstructing and evaluating the water and salt balances of the Yizre'el Valley (using Cl as the representative salt constituent) shows that as water use in the valley increased to about 60 million m(3) per year, the importing of soluble salts by water totaled 15,000 tons of Cl per year. Recirculated salt - salt picked up by impounded surface water and applied to fields - increased significantly and in the late 1980s amounted to more than 9,000 tons Cl per year. The source of recirculated salts was the accumulated salts in soils and in the shallow aquifer in the valley, which were leached by floodwater or drained or infiltrated into reservoirs, grossly and adversely affecting water quality. Analysis of the Yizre'el Valley's case points to the utmost importance of maintaining the geochemical balances in addition to increasing irrigation efficiency. An irrigated region may achieve geochemical balance by the following means: limiting the extent of irrigated areas, developing a well

  11. Secondary desertification due to salinization of intensively irrigated lands: The Israeli experience.

    PubMed

    Banin, A; Fish, A

    1995-01-01

    Secondary salinization of intensively irrigated lands is an increasingly alarming redesertification process experienced in many irrigated regions of the developed countries. The major cause is a profound interference in the geochemical/salt balances of irrigated regions. A case-in-point is the recent salinization of the Yizre'el Valley, a 20,000 ha intensively irrigated region in Israel. The extremely intensive and advanced agroecosystem developed in the region since the 1940s included pumping and importing irrigation water by the National Water Carrier, large-scale reclamation and reuse of municipal sewage water, winter flood impoundment in reservoirs for summer irrigation, and cloud seeding to enhance rainfall. Modern irrigation methods were applied, including sprinkler, trickle, moving-line, and center-pivot systems. Water use efficiency at any level was very high. Nevertheless, large-scale salinization of regional water resources and many fields had developed in the mid-1980s. Reconstructing and evaluating the water and salt balances of the Yizre'el Valley (using Cl as the representative salt constituent) shows that as water use in the valley increased to about 60 million m(3) per year, the importing of soluble salts by water totaled 15,000 tons of Cl per year. Recirculated salt - salt picked up by impounded surface water and applied to fields - increased significantly and in the late 1980s amounted to more than 9,000 tons Cl per year. The source of recirculated salts was the accumulated salts in soils and in the shallow aquifer in the valley, which were leached by floodwater or drained or infiltrated into reservoirs, grossly and adversely affecting water quality. Analysis of the Yizre'el Valley's case points to the utmost importance of maintaining the geochemical balances in addition to increasing irrigation efficiency. An irrigated region may achieve geochemical balance by the following means: limiting the extent of irrigated areas, developing a well

  12. The future of irrigated agriculture under environmental flow requirements restrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, Amandine; Palazzo, Amanda; Havlik, Petr; Kabat, Pavel; Obersteiner, Michael; Ludwig, Fulco

    2016-04-01

    Water is not an infinite resource and demand from irrigation, household and industry is constantly increasing. This study focused on including global water availability including environmental flow requirements with water withdrawal from irrigation and other sectors at a monthly time-step in the GLOBIOM model. This model allows re-adjustment of land-use allocation, crop management, consumption and international trade. The GLOBIOM model induces an endogenous change in water price depending on water supply and demand. In this study, the focus was on how the inclusion of water resources affects land-use and, in particular, how global change will influence repartition of irrigated and rainfed lands at global scale. We used the climate change scenario including a radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m2 (RCP8.5), the socio-economic scenario (SSP2: middle-of-road), and the environmental flow method based on monthly flow allocation (the Variable Monthly Flow method) with high and low restrictions. Irrigation withdrawals were adjusted to a monthly time-step to account for biophysical water limitations at finer time resolution. Our results show that irrigated land might decrease up to 40% on average depending on the choice of EFR restrictions. Several areas were identified as future hot-spots of water stress such as the Mediterranean and Middle-East regions. Other countries were identified to be in safe position in terms of water stress such as North-European countries. Re-allocation of rainfed and irrigated land might be useful information for land-use planners and water managers at an international level to decide on appropriate legislations on climate change mitigation/adaptation when exposure and sensitivity to climate change is high and/or on adaptation measures to face increasing water demand. For example, some countries are likely to adopt measures to increase their water use efficiencies (irrigation system, soil and water conservation practices) to face water shortages, while

  13. Center Pivot Irrigated Agriculture, Libya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A view of the Faregh Agricultural Station in the Great Calanscio Sand Sea, Libya (26.5N, 22.0E) about 300 miles southeast of Benghazi. A pattern of water wells have been drilled several miles apart to support a quarter mile center-pivot-swing-arm agricultural irrigation system. The crop grown is alfalfa which is eaten on location by flocks of sheep following the swing arm as it rotates. At maturity, the sheep are flown to market throughout Libya.

  14. Interdisciplinary Irrigated Precision Farming Research

    SciTech Connect

    Heermann, D F.; Hoeting, Jennifer A.; Thompson, Sandra ); Duke, H R.; Westfall, D G.; Buchleiter, G W.; Westra, P; Peairs, F B.; Fleming, K

    2001-12-01

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service and Colorado State University are conducting an inter-disciplinary study that focuses on developing a clearer scientific understanding of the causes of yield variability. Two years of data have been collected from two commercial center pivot irrigated fields (72 and 52 ha). Cooperating farmers manage all farming operations for crop production and provide maps of the maise grown on the fields.

  15. Irrigation Requirement Estimation using MODIS Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling; A Case Study for Oran, Algeria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounoua, L.; Imhoff, M.L.; Franks, S.

    2008-01-01

    Human demand for food influences the water cycle through diversion and extraction of fresh water needed to support agriculture. Future population growth and economic development alone will substantially increase water demand and much of it for agricultural uses. For many semi-arid lands, socio-economic shifts are likely to exacerbate changes in climate as a driver of future water supply and demand. For these areas in particular, where the balance between water supply and demand is fragile, variations in regional climate can have potentially predictable effect on agricultural production. Satellite data and biophysically-based models provide a powerful method to quantify the interactions between local climate, plant growth and water resource requirements. In irrigated agricultural lands, satellite observations indicate high vegetation density while the precipitation amount indicates otherwise. This inconsistency between the observed precipitation and the observed canopy leaf density triggers the possibility that the observed high leaf density is due to an alternate source of water, irrigation. We explore an inverse process approach using observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), climatological data, and the NASA's Simple Biosphere model, SiB2, to quantitatively assess water demand in a semi-arid agricultural land by constraining the carbon and water cycles modeled under both equilibrium (balance between vegetation and prevailing local climate) and nonequilibrium (water added through irrigation) conditions. We postulate that the degree to which irrigated lands vary from equilibrium conditions is related to the amount of irrigation water used. We added water using two distribution methods: The first method adds water on top of the canopy and is a proxy for the traditional spray irrigation. The second method allows water to be applied directly into the soil layer and serves as proxy for drip irrigation. Our approach indicates that over

  16. Effect of irrigation return flow on groundwater recharge in an overexploited aquifer in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touhidul Mustafa, Syed Md.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Huysmans, Marijke

    2016-04-01

    Irrigated agriculture has an important role in the food production to ensure food security of Bangladesh that is home to over 150 million people. However, overexploitation of groundwater for irrigation, particularly during the dry season, causes groundwater-level decline in areas where abstraction is high and surface geology inhibits direct recharge to underlying shallow aquifer. This is causing a number of potential adverse socio-economic, hydrogeological, and environmental problems in Bangladesh. Alluvial aquifers are primarily recharged during monsoon season from rainfall and surface sources. However, return flow from groundwater-fed irrigation can recharge during the dry months. Quantification of the effect of return flow from irrigation in the groundwater system is currently unclear but thought to be important to ensure sustainable management of the overexploited aquifer. The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of irrigation return flow on groundwater recharge in the north-western part of Bangladesh, also known as Barind Tract. A semi-physically based distributed water balance model (WetSpass-M) is used to simulate spatially distributed monthly groundwater recharge. Results show that, groundwater abstraction for irrigation in the study area has increased steadily over the last 29 years. During the monsoon season, local precipitation is the controlling factor of groundwater recharge; however, there is no trend in groundwater recharge during that period. During the dry season, however, irrigation return-flow plays a major role in recharging the aquifer in the irrigated area compared to local precipitation. Therefore, during the dry season, mean seasonal groundwater recharge has increased and almost doubled over the last 29 years as a result of increased abstraction for irrigation. The increase in groundwater recharge during dry season has however no significant effect in the improvement of groundwater levels. The relation between groundwater

  17. Mapping irrigated areas of Ghana using fusion of 30 m and 250 m resolution remote-sensing data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gumma, M.K.; Thenkabail, P.S.; Hideto, F.; Nelson, A.; Dheeravath, V.; Busia, D.; Rala, A.

    2011-01-01

    Maps of irrigated areas are essential for Ghana's agricultural development. The goal of this research was to map irrigated agricultural areas and explain methods and protocols using remote sensing. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data and time-series Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data were used to map irrigated agricultural areas as well as other land use/land cover (LULC) classes, for Ghana. Temporal variations in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) pattern obtained in the LULC class were used to identify irrigated and non-irrigated areas. First, the temporal variations in NDVI pattern were found to be more consistent in long-duration irrigated crops than with short-duration rainfed crops due to more assured water supply for irrigated areas. Second, surface water availability for irrigated areas is dependent on shallow dug-wells (on river banks) and dug-outs (in river bottoms) that affect the timing of crop sowing and growth stages, which was in turn reflected in the seasonal NDVI pattern. A decision tree approach using Landsat 30 m one time data fusion with MODIS 250 m time-series data was adopted to classify, group, and label classes. Finally, classes were tested and verified using ground truth data and national statistics. Fuzzy classification accuracy assessment for the irrigated classes varied between 67 and 93%. An irrigated area derived from remote sensing (32,421 ha) was 20-57% higher than irrigated areas reported by Ghana's Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA). This was because of the uncertainties involved in factors such as: (a) absence of shallow irrigated area statistics in GIDA statistics, (b) non-clarity in the irrigated areas in its use, under-development, and potential for development in GIDA statistics, (c) errors of omissions and commissions in the remote sensing approach, and (d) comparison involving widely varying data types, methods, and approaches used in determining irrigated area statistics

  18. Modelling the influence of irrigation on the shrinking Aral Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aus der Beek, Tim; Voss, Frank; Floerke, Martina

    2010-05-01

    The Aral Sea is fed by two tributaries, the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya, and often is considered as one of the most complex hydrological basins of the world. The shrinkage of the Aral Sea during the last 50 years, which has been caused by excessive irrigation projects, has led to numerous ecological, human and economical problems. This study focuses on historic modelling (1960-2002) of the Amu Darya (535,000 km²) and the Syr Darya (219,000 km²) to assess the influence of land-use change, i.e. conversion of non-cultivated land to irrigated crops, on the hydrological cycle and on the shrinkage of the Aral Sea. Therefore, we have compiled crop- and irrigation-specific land use maps in five year intervals from extensive literature and data base reviews. These maps are first applied within the WaterGAP irrigation model, which has been further developed to account for the seven major crops of Central Asia, to compute crop-specific net irrigation requirements. In combination with a newly set up data base on time series of irrigation project efficiencies for Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan we have also been able to depict crop-specific gross irrigation requirements. These results have then been applied within the WaterGAP hydrology model, where they alter the water balance of each affected grid cell, and thus, runoff generation. All irrigation and hydrology calculations have been conducted in daily time steps and five arc minutes spatial resolution (~ 8 x 10 km grid cells) for the entire Aral Sea basin. Climate forcing data for the 42 year period has been taken from the CRU TS2.1 data set. First results of this model experiment show that not only massive water abstractions have caused the changes in the hydrological regime of both rivers, but also poor land and water management has taken its toll. Between 1960 and 1990 a state driven land use conversion from locally adapted food crops, such as cereals, to water intensive cash crops

  19. In vitro cleaning ability of root canal irrigants with and without endosonics.

    PubMed

    Cheung, G S; Stock, C J

    1993-11-01

    A variety of methods have been used to evaluate the cleanliness of root canals after endodontic preparation and irrigation. Few irrigation agents other than sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) have been tested in conjunction with endosonics. The purpose of this study was to examine the cleaning ability of water, NaOCl, Hibiscrub and a biological washing liquid when used as intracanal irrigants, with and without endosonics. Two methods of evaluation were employed to assess the root canal cleanliness after endodontic preparation. A total of 56 teeth, divided into eight groups, were prepared manually using the step-down technique. Each irrigating agent was used in two experimental groups, with and without endosonics. Two additional teeth which received neither instrumentation nor irrigation served as the controls. The teeth were split longitudinally and the state of cleanliness of the root canal was assessed by scoring the amount of stained organic debris and smear layer. It was demonstrated that the results of debris and smear layer scoring were significantly influenced by the type of irrigant and whether endosonics had been used. All agents exhibited similar cleaning ability when introduced manually. With endosonics, NaOCl yielded significantly less stainable debris (P < 0.05) than the other groups which showed no significant difference. The ability to remove the smear layer was enhanced, but at some distance short of the working length, by endosonics for all irrigants tested. None of the solutions tested was able to produce a canal wall that was free of smear layer. PMID:8144242

  20. Investigation into rainwater use by cotton under multiple irrigation management conditions in the Texas High Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebel, T.; Lascano, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    Irrigation management practices in the Texas High Plains (THP) might be improved if we could ascertain the proportion of rainfall utilized by the crop in any given rainfall event. For instance, the primary source of irrigation water in the THP is pumped from the Ogallala Aquifer (OA), and can be enriched in 18O compared to rainfall-captured water. Given this expected difference, it should be possible to determine if the crop is utilizing the water from a rainfall event. To this end, cotton was grown using three irrigation management practices: subsurface drip, center pivot, and no irrigation (dry land). The water used for irrigation was pumped from the Ogallala aquifer, and rainfall was gathered in a rain gauge with mineral oil to prevent evaporation. Additionally, plant and soil samples were collected following each precipitation event every two hours and every eight hours respectively. Water was then extracted from the soil and plant samples using cryogenic vacuum distillation, and analyzed for 18O/16O ratios using the DLT-100 Liquid-Water Isotope Analyzer from Los Gatos Research Inc. The difference in isotope concentrations in the extracts from soils was used to determine infiltration depth into the soil profile at each location. The isotopic composition of the plant water was used to determine if the was used to compare rainwater use across the different irrigation management practices. Results might suggest changes to the way in which we apply irrigation water that would improve root growth and distribution to enhance the capture of rainfall.

  1. Exploring the energy-water-food-climate nexus for the Indian Economy in 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheripour, F.; Hertel, T. W.; Gopalakrishnan, B. N.

    2014-12-01

    The economy of India is expected to face serious environmental challenges over the coming decades. Population growth, coupled with economic growth of nearly 7%/year to 2030 will translate into strong growth in energy demands - particularly electricity. The electricity sector's claim on total available water could grow from 4% to more than 10% in India in 2030, if the use of wet cooling technologies persists (IGES 2013). Water-saving, dry cooling technologies are available for coal-fired power plants, but this requires significant investment and must be done at the time of construction. Growing water demands from electricity generation, when coupled with industrial, residential and commercial demands, are projected to result in water shortages for irrigation in some key river basins such as Indus, Ganges, Subernarekha, Krishna, and Chotanagpui (Rosegrant et al., 2013). The resulting pressure on agricultural production is likely to be exacerbated by climate change, which itself may increase demands for irrigation as an adaptation strategy to higher temperatures and more variable rainfall (AgMIP, 2013). In this paper we examine the impact of water scarcity on economic growth, food, and energy security in India using an enhanced version of the GTAP-AEZ-WATER model. We find that investments in water-saving technology in the electricity sector are less costly than developing new water supply. However, even when these technologies are implemented, we project shortfalls in water available for irrigated agriculture. These shortfalls result in the contraction of irrigated area and diminished food production relative to the unconstrained baseline. However, trade could help India to mitigate a portion of this pressure by importing more food products from water abundant regions. In addition, allowing for the trading of water within river basins helps to alleviate some of the consequences of water scarcity.

  2. Delivery Strategies to Enhance the Sustainability of Training: Lessons from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Rosa, Cecilia; Nadeau, Andrew; Hernandez, Emilio; Kafeero, Fred; Zahiga, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) utilizes training as a major component of the support it provides to its member countries in Africa. In the past, stand-alone training events targeting individual actors were the norm. However, an external evaluation indicated that this type of training scores low in terms of…

  3. Enhanced hydrolysis and methane yield by applying microaeration pretreatment to the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Jun Wei; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Microaeration pretreatment was effective for brown water and food waste mixture. ► The added oxygen was consumed fully by facultative microorganisms. ► Enhanced solubilization, acidification and breakdown of SCFAs to acetate. ► Microaeration pretreatment improved methane yield by 10–21%. ► Nature of inoculum influenced the effects of microaeration. - Abstract: Microaeration has been used conventionally for the desulphurization of biogas, and recently it was shown to be an alternative pretreatment to enhance hydrolysis of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Previous studies on microaeration pretreatment were limited to the study of substrates with complex organic matter, while little has been reported on its effect on substrates with higher biodegradability such as brown water and food waste. Due to the lack of consistent microaeration intensities, previous studies were not comparable and thus inconclusive in proving the effectiveness of microaeration to the overall AD process. In this study, the role of microaeration pretreatment in the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste was evaluated in batch-tests. After a 4-day pretreatment with 37.5 mL-O{sub 2}/L{sub R}-d added to the liquid phase of the reactor, the methane production of substrates were monitored in anaerobic conditions over the next 40 days. The added oxygen was consumed fully by facultative microorganisms and a reducing environment for organic matter degradation was maintained. Other than higher COD solubilization, microaeration pretreatment led to greater VFA accumulation and the conversion of other short chain fatty acids to acetate. This could be due to enhanced activities of hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria and the degradation of slowly biodegradable compounds under microaerobic conditions. This study also found that the nature of inoculum influenced the effects of microaeration as a 21% and 10% increase in methane yield was observed when pretreatment was

  4. Irrigation as a determinant of the land use impacts of biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Hertel, T. W.; Taheripour, F.

    2011-12-01

    presence of potential irrigation constraints significantly alters the geographic pattern of land use change in the wake of the US ethanol expansion. Since rainfed agriculture is more likely than irrigated agriculture to compete with forest, the irrigation-enhanced model shows greater conversion of forest to cropland (up from 23% to 27% of total cropland conversion globally). As a consequence, the GHG emissions from this indirect land use change are significantly higher than the previous estimates - this stems both from greater cropland expansion overall, as well as from the tendency to convert more forest per hectare of cropland.

  5. Agriculture and resource availability in a changing world: The role of irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Timm; HavlíK, Petr; Schneider, Uwe A.; Schmid, Erwin; Kindermann, Georg; Obersteiner, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Fertile land and freshwater constitute two of the most fundamental resources for food production. These resources are affected by environmental, political, economic, and technical developments. Regional impacts may transmit to the world through increased trade. With a global forest and agricultural sector model, we quantify the impacts of increased demand for food due to population growth and economic development on potential land and water use until 2030. In particular, we investigate producer adaptation regarding crop and irrigation choice, agricultural market adjustments, and changes in the values of land and water. In the context of resource sustainability and food security, this study accounts for the spatial and operational heterogeneity of irrigation management to globally assess agricultural land and water use. Agricultural responses to population and economic growth include considerable increases in irrigated area and water use but reductions in the average water intensity. Different irrigation systems are preferred under different exogenous biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Negligence of these adaptations would bias the burden of development on land and water scarcity. Without technical progress, substantial price adjustments for land, water, and food would be required to equilibrate supply and demand.

  6. Rice Water use efficiency and yield under continuous and intermittent irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, rice (Oryza sativa L.) is predominantly grown using continuous fl ood irrigation, which requires large quantities of fresh water. Due to increasing scarcity and demand for water, modern agricultural systems need to produce more food with less water. Th e ...

  7. Reduction of predictive uncertainty in estimating irrigation water requirement through multi-model ensembles and ensemble averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Multsch, S.; Exbrayat, J.-F.; Kirby, M.; Viney, N. R.; Frede, H.-G.; Breuer, L.

    2015-04-01

    Irrigation agriculture plays an increasingly important role in food supply. Many evapotranspiration models are used today to estimate the water demand for irrigation. They consider different stages of crop growth by empirical crop coefficients to adapt evapotranspiration throughout the vegetation period. We investigate the importance of the model structural versus model parametric uncertainty for irrigation simulations by considering six evapotranspiration models and five crop coefficient sets to estimate irrigation water requirements for growing wheat in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. The study is carried out using the spatial decision support system SPARE:WATER. We find that structural model uncertainty among reference ET is far more important than model parametric uncertainty introduced by crop coefficients. These crop coefficients are used to estimate irrigation water requirement following the single crop coefficient approach. Using the reliability ensemble averaging (REA) technique, we are able to reduce the overall predictive model uncertainty by more than 10%. The exceedance probability curve of irrigation water requirements shows that a certain threshold, e.g. an irrigation water limit due to water right of 400 mm, would be less frequently exceeded in case of the REA ensemble average (45%) in comparison to the equally weighted ensemble average (66%). We conclude that multi-model ensemble predictions and sophisticated model averaging techniques are helpful in predicting irrigation demand and provide relevant information for decision making.

  8. Reduction of predictive uncertainty in estimating irrigation water requirement through multi-model ensembles and ensemble averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Multsch, S.; Exbrayat, J.-F.; Kirby, M.; Viney, N. R.; Frede, H.-G.; Breuer, L.

    2014-11-01

    Irrigation agriculture plays an increasingly important role in food supply. Many evapotranspiration models are used today to estimate the water demand for irrigation. They consider different stages of crop growth by empirical crop coefficients to adapt evapotranspiration throughout the vegetation period. We investigate the importance of the model structural vs. model parametric uncertainty for irrigation simulations by considering six evapotranspiration models and five crop coefficient sets to estimate irrigation water requirements for growing wheat in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. The study is carried out using the spatial decision support system SPARE:WATER. We find that structural model uncertainty is far more important than model parametric uncertainty to estimate irrigation water requirement. Using the Reliability Ensemble Averaging (REA) technique, we are able to reduce the overall predictive model uncertainty by more than 10%. The exceedance probability curve of irrigation water requirements shows that a certain threshold, e.g. an irrigation water limit due to water right of 400 mm, would be less frequently exceeded in case of the REA ensemble average (45%) in comparison to the equally weighted ensemble average (66%). We conclude that multi-model ensemble predictions and sophisticated model averaging techniques are helpful in predicting irrigation demand and provide relevant information for decision making.

  9. Irrigation management strategies to improve Water Use Efficiency of potatoes crop in Central Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazouani, Hiba; Provenzano, Giuseppe; Rallo, Giovanni; Mguidiche, Amel; Douh, Boutheina; Boujelben, Abdelhamid

    2015-04-01

    In Tunisia, the expansion of irrigated area and the semiarid climate make it compulsory to adopt strategies of water management to increase water use efficiency. Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), providing the application of high frequency small irrigation volumes below the soil surface have been increasingly used to enhance irrigation efficiency. At the same time, deficit irrigation (DI) has shown successful results with a large number of crop in various countries. However, for some crops like potatoes, DI is difficult to manage due to the rapid effect of water stress on tuber yield. Irrigation frequency is a key factor to schedule subsurface drip irrigation because, even maintaining the total seasonal volume, soil wetting patterns can result different during the growth period, with consequence on crop yield. Despite the need to enhance water use efficiency, only a few studies related to deficit irrigation of horticultural crops have been made in Tunisia. Objective of the paper was to assess the effects of different on-farm irrigation strategies on water use efficiency of potatoes crop irrigated with subsurface drip irrigation in a semiarid area of central Tunisia. After validation, Hydrus-2D model was used to simulate soil water status in the root zone, to evaluate actual crop evapotranspiration and then to estimate indirectly water use efficiency (IWUE), defined as the ratio between crop yield and total amount of water supplied with irrigation. Field experiments, were carried out in Central Tunisia (10° 33' 47.0" E, 35° 58' 8.1° N, 19 m a.s.l) on a potatoes crop planted in a sandy loam soil, during the growing season 2014, from January 15 (plantation of tubers) to May 6 (harvesting). Soil water status was monitored in two plots (T1 and T2) maintained under the same management, but different irrigation volumes, provided by a SDI system. In particular, irrigation was scheduled according to the average water content measured in the root zone, with a total of 8

  10. Deficit irrigation for reducing agricultural water use.

    PubMed

    Fereres, Elias; Soriano, María Auxiliadora

    2007-01-01

    At present and more so in the future, irrigated agriculture will take place under water scarcity. Insufficient water supply for irrigation will be the norm rather than the exception, and irrigation management will shift from emphasizing production per unit area towards maximizing the production per unit of water consumed, the water productivity. To cope with scarce supplies, deficit irrigation, defined as the application of water below full crop-water requirements (evapotranspiration), is an important tool to achieve the goal of reducing irrigation water use. While deficit irrigation is widely practised over millions of hectares for a number of reasons - from inadequate network design to excessive irrigation expansion relative to catchment supplies - it has not received sufficient attention in research. Its use in reducing water consumption for biomass production, and for irrigation of annual and perennial crops is reviewed here. There is potential for improving water productivity in many field crops and there is sufficient information for defining the best deficit irrigation strategy for many situations. One conclusion is that the level of irrigation supply under deficit irrigation should be relatively high in most cases, one that permits achieving 60-100% of full evapotranspiration. Several cases on the successful use of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) in fruit trees and vines are reviewed, showing that RDI not only increases water productivity, but also farmers' profits. Research linking the physiological basis of these responses to the design of RDI strategies is likely to have a significant impact in increasing its adoption in water-limited areas. PMID:17088360

  11. Closing the irrigation deficit in Cambodia: Implications for transboundary impacts on groundwater and Mekong River flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erban, Laura E.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2016-04-01

    Rice production in Cambodia, essential to food security and exports, is largely limited to the wet season. The vast majority (96%) of land planted with rice during the wet season remains fallow during the dry season. This is in large part due to lack of irrigation capacity, increases in which would entail significant consequences for Cambodia and Vietnam, located downstream on the Mekong River. Here we quantify the extent of the dry season "deficit" area in the Cambodian Mekong River catchment, using a recent agricultural survey and our analysis of MODIS satellite data. Irrigation of this land for rice production would require a volume of water up to 31% of dry season Mekong River flow to Vietnam. However, the two countries share an aquifer system in the Mekong Delta, where irrigation demand is increasingly met by groundwater. We estimate expansion rates of groundwater-irrigated land to be >10% per year in the Cambodian Delta using LANDSAT satellite data and simulate the effects of future expansion on groundwater levels over a 25-year period. If groundwater irrigation continues to expand at current rates, the water table will drop below the lift limit of suction pump wells, used for domestic supply by >1.5 million people, throughout much of the area within 15 years. Extensive groundwater irrigation jeopardizes access for shallow domestic water supply wells, raises the costs of pumping for all groundwater users, and may exacerbate arsenic contamination and land subsidence that are already widespread hazards in the region.

  12. Contamination of soils with microbial pathogens originating from effluent water used for agricultural irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, N.

    2009-04-01

    The use of wastewater for agricultural irrigation is steadily increasing world-wide and due to shortages of fresh water is common today in most arid regions of the world. The use of treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation may result in soil exposure to pathogens, creating potential public health problems. A variety of human pathogens are present in raw sewage water. Although their concentrations decrease during the wastewater reclamation process, the secondary treated effluents most commonly used for irrigation today still contain bacterial human pathogens. A range of bacterial pathogens, introduced through contaminated irrigation water or manure, are capable of surviving for long periods in soil and water where they have the potential to contaminate crops in the field. Therefore, there is a risk of direct contamination of crops by human pathogens from the treated effluents used for irrigation, as well as a risk of indirect contamination of the crops from contaminated soil at the agricultural site. Contradictory to previous notion, recent studies have demonstrated that human pathogens can enter plants through their roots and translocate and survive in edible, aerial plant tissues. The practical implications of these new findings for food safety are still not clear, but no doubt reflect the pathogenic microorganisms' ability to survive and multiply in the irrigated soil, water, and the harvested edible crop.

  13. Agricultural Irrigation Demand Response Estimation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    This program is used to model the energy demand of agricultural irrigation pumps, used to maintain soil moisture levels in irrigated fields. This modeling is accomplished using historical data from evapotranspirationmeasuring weather stations (from the California Irrigation Management Information System) as well as irrigation system characteristics for the field(s) to be modeled. The modelled energy demand is used to estimate the achievable demand response (DR) potential of the field(s), for use in assessing the value of the DR for the utility company. The program can accept input data with varying degrees of rigor, and estimate the uncertainty of the output accordingly.

  14. Reuse of constructed wetland effluents for irrigation of energy crops.

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, S; Barbera, A C; Cirelli, G L; Milani, M; Toscano, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate biomass production of promising 'no-food' energy crops, Vetiveria zizanoides (L.) Nash, Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deu. and Arundo donax (L.), irrigated with low quality water at different evapotranspiration restitutions. Two horizontal subsurface flow (H-SSF) constructed wetland (CW) beds, with different operation life (12 and 6 years), were used to treat secondary municipal wastewaters for crop irrigation. Water chemical, physical and microbiological parameters as well as plant bio-agronomic characters were evaluated. The results confirm the high reliability of CWs for tertiary wastewater treatment given that the H-SSF1 treatment capacity remained largely unchanged after 12 years of operation. Average total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand and total nitrogen removal for CWs were about 68, 58 and 71%, respectively. The Escherichia coli removal was satisfactory, about 3.3 log unit for both CW beds on average, but caution should be taken as this parameter did not achieve the restrictive Italian law limits for wastewater reuse. The average above-ground dry matter productions were 7 t ha⁻¹ for Vetiveria zizanoides, 24 t ha⁻¹ for Miscanthus × giganteus and 50 t ha⁻¹ for Arundo donax. These results highlight attractive biomass yield by using treated wastewater for irrigation with a complete restitution of evapotranspiration losses. PMID:25401309

  15. Reuse of constructed wetland effluents for irrigation of energy crops.

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, S; Barbera, A C; Cirelli, G L; Milani, M; Toscano, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate biomass production of promising 'no-food' energy crops, Vetiveria zizanoides (L.) Nash, Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deu. and Arundo donax (L.), irrigated with low quality water at different evapotranspiration restitutions. Two horizontal subsurface flow (H-SSF) constructed wetland (CW) beds, with different operation life (12 and 6 years), were used to treat secondary municipal wastewaters for crop irrigation. Water chemical, physical and microbiological parameters as well as plant bio-agronomic characters were evaluated. The results confirm the high reliability of CWs for tertiary wastewater treatment given that the H-SSF1 treatment capacity remained largely unchanged after 12 years of operation. Average total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand and total nitrogen removal for CWs were about 68, 58 and 71%, respectively. The Escherichia coli removal was satisfactory, about 3.3 log unit for both CW beds on average, but caution should be taken as this parameter did not achieve the restrictive Italian law limits for wastewater reuse. The average above-ground dry matter productions were 7 t ha⁻¹ for Vetiveria zizanoides, 24 t ha⁻¹ for Miscanthus × giganteus and 50 t ha⁻¹ for Arundo donax. These results highlight attractive biomass yield by using treated wastewater for irrigation with a complete restitution of evapotranspiration losses.

  16. Innovations in food chemistry and processing to enhance the nutrient profile of the white potato in all forms.

    PubMed

    Decker, Eric A; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2013-05-01

    Potatoes can be an important part of a balanced diet because they are an excellent source of many nutrients, including nutrients that are commonly underconsumed (dietary fiber and potassium). Despite the existence of many positive nutrients in potatoes, the popular press has recently aligned potatoes, and particularly fried potatoes, with an unhealthy diet. This article examines the nutritional content of potatoes and how these nutrients are affected by cooking and other food-processing operations. In addition, it examines how the nutritional content of potatoes is altered by cooking methods and how fried potatoes can have wide variations in fat content depending on the cooking method. Finally, the potential of new food-processing technologies to improve the nutritional content of cooked potatoes is evaluated.

  17. The impact of climate extremes on US agricultural production and the buffering impacts of irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troy, Tara J.; Kipgen, Chinpihoi; Pal, Indrani

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, droughts and floods have occurred over many of the major growing regions of the world, resulting in decreased agricultural production and increased global food prices. Many climate projections call for more frequent extreme events, which could have significant impacts on agricultural yields and water resources in irrigated agricultural regions. In order to better understand the potential impact of climate extremes and the spatial heterogeneity of those impacts, we examine the associations between climate and irrigated and rain fed crop yields, focusing on four main staple crops: wheat, rice, soy, and maize. Because the United States has high spatial resolution data for both yields and weather variables, the analysis focuses on the impact of multiple extremes over these four crops in the US using statistical methods that do not require any assumptions of functional relationships between yields and weather variables. Irrigated and rain fed agricultural yields are analyzed separately to understand the role irrigation plays either as a buffering against climate variability and extremes such as drought, heat waves, and extended dry spells or a mechanism that leads to varied relationships between extremes of climate and yield fluctuations. These results demonstrate that irrigation has varying effects depending on the region, growing season timing, crop type, and type of climate extreme. This work has important implications for future planning of the coupled water-food system and its vulnerabilities to climate.

  18. Managing diminished irrigation capacity with preseason irrigation and plant density for corn production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many of the irrigation systems today in the U.S. Central Great Plains no longer have the capacity to match peak irrigation needs during the summer and must rely on soil water reserves to buffer the crop from water stress. Considerable research was conducted on preseason irrigation in the U.S. Great ...

  19. Complementarity and redundancy of interactions enhance attack rates and spatial stability in host-parasitoid food webs.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Guadalupe; Frost, Carol M; Rand, Tatyana A; Didham, Raphael K; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2014-07-01

    Complementary resource use and redundancy of species that fulfill the same ecological role are two mechanisms that can respectively increase and stabilize process rates in ecosystems. For example, predator complementarity and redundancy can determine prey consumption rates and their stability, yet few studies take into account the multiple predator species attacking multiple prey at different rates in natural communities. Thus, it remains unclear whether these biodiversity mechanisms are important determinants of consumption in entire predator-prey assemblages, such that food-web interaction structure determines community-wide consumption and stability. Here, we use empirical quantitative food webs to study the community-wide effects of functional complementarity and redundancy of consumers (parasitoids) on herbivore control in temperate forests. We find that complementarity in host resource use by parasitoids was a strong predictor of absolute parasitism rates at the community level and that redundancy in host-use patterns stabilized community-wide parasitism rates in space, but not through time. These effects can potentially explain previous contradictory results from predator diversity research. Phylogenetic diversity (measured using taxonomic distance) did not explain functional complementarity or parasitism rates, so could not serve as a surrogate measure for functional complementarity. Our study shows that known mechanisms underpinning predator diversity effects on both functioning and stability can easily be extended to link food webs to ecosystem functioning.

  20. How to expand irrigated land in a sustainable way ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, Amandine V.; Ludwig, Fulco; Palazzo, Amanda; Havlik, Petr; Kabat, Pavel

    2015-04-01

    climate change mitigation/adaptation when exposure and sensitivity to climate change is high and/or on adaptation measures to face increasing water demand. For example, some countries are likely to adopt measures to increase their water use efficiencies (irrigation system, soil and water conservation practices) to face water shortages, while others might consider improving their trade policy to avoid food shortage.

  1. Crop-specific seasonal estimates of irrigation water demand in South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biemans, H.; Siderius, C.; Mishra, A.; Ahmad, B.

    2015-08-01

    Especially in the Himalayan headwaters of the main rivers in South Asia, shifts in runoff are expected as a result of a rapidly changing climate. In recent years, our insight in these shifts and their impact on water availability has increased. However, a similar detailed understanding of the seasonal pattern in water demand is surprisingly absent. This hampers a proper assessment of water stress and ways to cope and adapt. In this study, the seasonal pattern of irrigation water demand resulting from the typical practice of multiple-cropping in South Asia was accounted for by introducing double-cropping with monsoon-dependent planting dates in a hydrology and vegetation model. Crop yields were calibrated to the latest subnational statistics of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal. The representation of seasonal land use and more accurate cropping periods lead to lower estimates of irrigation water demand compared to previous model-based studies, despite the net irrigated area being higher. Crop irrigation water demand differs sharply between seasons and regions; in Pakistan, winter (Rabi) and summer (Kharif) irrigation demands are almost equal, whereas in Bangladesh the Rabi demand is ~ 100 times higher. Moreover, the relative importance of irrigation supply vs. rain decreases sharply from west to east. Given the size and importance of South Asia, improved regional estimates of food production and its irrigation water demand will also affect global estimates. In models used for global water resources and food-security assessments, processes like multiple-cropping and monsoon-dependent planting dates should not be ignored.

  2. Crop-specific seasonal estimates of irrigation-water demand in South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biemans, Hester; Siderius, Christian; Mishra, Ashok; Ahmad, Bashir

    2016-05-01

    Especially in the Himalayan headwaters of the main rivers in South Asia, shifts in runoff are expected as a result of a rapidly changing climate. In recent years, our insight into these shifts and their impact on water availability has increased. However, a similar detailed understanding of the seasonal pattern in water demand is surprisingly absent. This hampers a proper assessment of water stress and ways to cope and adapt. In this study, the seasonal pattern of irrigation-water demand resulting from the typical practice of multiple cropping in South Asia was accounted for by introducing double cropping with monsoon-dependent planting dates in a hydrology and vegetation model. Crop yields were calibrated to the latest state-level statistics of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal. The improvements in seasonal land use and cropping periods lead to lower estimates of irrigation-water demand compared to previous model-based studies, despite the net irrigated area being higher. Crop irrigation-water demand differs sharply between seasons and regions; in Pakistan, winter (rabi) and monsoon summer (kharif) irrigation demands are almost equal, whereas in Bangladesh the rabi demand is ~ 100 times higher. Moreover, the relative importance of irrigation supply versus rain decreases sharply from west to east. Given the size and importance of South Asia improved regional estimates of food production and its irrigation-water demand will also affect global estimates. In models used for global water resources and food-security assessments, processes like multiple cropping and monsoon-dependent planting dates should not be ignored.

  3. Relationships between primary production and crop yields in semi-arid and arid irrigated agro-ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaafar, H. H.; Ahmad, F. A.

    2015-04-01

    In semi-arid areas within the MENA region, food security problems are the main problematic imposed. Remote sensing can be a promising too early diagnose food shortages and further prevent the population from famine risks. This study is aimed at examining the possibility of forecasting yield before harvest from remotely sensed MODIS-derived Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Net photosynthesis (net PSN), and Gross Primary Production (GPP) in semi-arid and arid irrigated agro-ecosystems within the conflict affected country of Syria. Relationships between summer yield and remotely sensed indices were derived and analyzed. Simple regression spatially-based models were developed to predict summer crop production. The validation of these models was tested during conflict years. A significant correlation (p<0.05) was found between summer crop yield and EVI, GPP and net PSN. Results indicate the efficiency of remotely sensed-based models in predicting summer yield, mostly for cotton yields and vegetables. Cumulative summer EVI-based model can predict summer crop yield during crisis period, with deviation less than 20% where vegetables are the major yield. This approach prompts to an early assessment of food shortages and lead to a real time management and decision making, especially in periods of crisis such as wars and drought.

  4. Irrigation-based livelihood trends in river basins: theory and policy implications for irrigation development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lankford, Bruce

    This paper examines irrigation development and policy in Tanzania utilising a livelihoods and river basin perspective. On the basis of observations, the author argues that river basins theoretically exhibit a sigmoid curve of irrigation development in three stages; proto-irrigation, irrigation-momentum and river basin management. This model arises from two governing factors. Firstly, irrigation is a complex livelihood activity that, although has benefits, also has costs, risks and alternatives that integrate across many systems; farmers implicitly understand this and enter into or keep out of irrigation accordingly. In the proto-irrigation stage, irrigators are less common, and irrigation is felt to be a relatively unattractive livelihood. In the irrigation-momentum stage, irrigators are drawn very much to irrigation in providing livelihood needs. Hence, given both of these circumstances, governments should be cautious about policies that call for the need to ‘provide irrigation’ (when farmers may not wish to irrigate) or to further increase it (when farmers already have the means and will to do so). Second, irrigation consumes water, generating externalities. Thus if irrigation momentum proceeds to the point when water consumption directly impacts on other sectors and livelihoods, (e.g. pastoralists, downstream irrigation, the environment) decision-makers should focus not necessarily on irrigation expansion, but on water management, allocation and conflict mediation. This three-stage theoretical model reminds us to take a balanced ‘livelihoods river-basin’ approach that addresses real problems in each given stage of river basin development and to develop policy accordingly. The paper contains a discussion on livelihood factors that affect entry into irrigation. It ends with a series of recommendations on policy; covering for example new large-scale systems; problems solving; and the use of an irrigation-river basin livelihoods approach. The recommendations

  5. Effects of long-term irrigation with untreated municipal wastewater on soil properties and crop quality.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Mehmet Emin; Aydin, Senar; Beduk, Fatma; Tor, Ali; Tekinay, Arzu; Kolb, Marit; Bahadir, Müfit

    2015-12-01

    Irrigating crops with untreated wastewater leads to elevated concentrations of heavy metals both in soil and cultivated crops. The current study was designed to determine heavy metal (i.e., Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Hg) accumulation in Konya soils in selected nine sites irrigated with wastewater for over 40 years. Non-irrigated soil samples and soil samples irrigated with well water were taken as control samples. Transport of these pollutants to the wheat samples cultivated in the investigated site was also examined. The obtained results reveal that high alkaline properties and clay structure of Konya soil reduce the mobility of contaminants and cause accumulation in the top layer of soil. Intense effect of wastewater irrigation on soil EC was determined. The highest concentrations of Pb, Cr, Cu, Cd, Zn, Ni, and Hg in wastewater irrigated soil were 5.32, 37.1, 31.5, 11.4, 91.5, 134, and 0.34 mg kg(-1), respectively. Wastewater irrigated soils were strongly polluted by means of Cd (8.23-11.6 mg kg(-1)) and moderately to strongly polluted by means of Ni (47.7-134 mg kg(-1)), exceeding Maximum Admissible Concentrations for Trace Elements in Agricultural Soils and Sewage Sludge Regulation limit values of Turkey. Maximum concentrations found for Pb, Cr, Cu, Cd, Zn, and Ni in wastewater irrigated wheat grain were 8.44, 1.30, 9.10, n.d, 29.31, and 0.94 mg kg(-1), respectively. Besides, Hg was not detected in any samples of wheat grain. Based on the regulation of Turkish Food Codex, Pb contamination in wheat samples grown in the sampling site was evidenced.

  6. A 12-Month Study of Food Crops Contaminated by Heavy Metals, Lusaka, Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, J. A.; Malamud, B. D.; Chishala, B. H.; Kapungwe, E.; Volk, J.; Harpp, K. S.

    2009-04-01

    We investigate heavy-metal contamination of irrigation water used for urban agriculture and subsequent contamination of food crops in Chunga, NW Lusaka, the capital of Zambia. Inhabitants of the Chunga area rely on urban agriculture as both a major source of income and food. From August 2004 to July 2005, monthly samples of irrigation water used and edible portions of food crops were taken from a farmer's plot at Chunga. The food crops (cabbage, Chinese cabbage, pumpkin leaves, rape, sweet potato leaves and tomatoes) are grown using irrigation throughout the year. Irrigation water samples and digested food crop samples were analysed using ICP-MS at the Department of Geology, Colgate University, USA for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb, and U. We find heavy-metal concentrations present in both irrigation water and food crop samples. Zambian sample concentrations were compared to Zambian and international legislative and guideline limits for concentrations of heavy metals in industrial effluent, heavy metals in irrigation water and heavy metals in foods. In irrigation water samples recommended national and/or international legislative limits for Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Hg, Pb and U were exceeded. Limits for Hg were exceeded by up to 130 times. There were heavy-metal concentrations above recommended limits in food crops for Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb throughout the different food crops grown and throughout the year. In all 14 samples recommended limits for Cr, Fe and Hg were exceeded. Zambian legislated limits for food crops were exceeded by up to 16 times for Pb and 58 times for Hg. The results of this study show that heavy metal contamination is present in irrigation water used and food crops grown in urban agriculture in Chunga, Lusaka, Zambia. Recommended maximum limits for heavy metals in irrigation water and food are exceeded in some samples indicating there may be a risk to health.

  7. Real-time drought forecasting system for irrigation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceppi, A.; Ravazzani, G.; Corbari, C.; Salerno, R.; Meucci, S.; Mancini, M.

    2014-09-01

    In recent years frequent periods of water scarcity have enhanced the need to use water more carefully, even in European areas which traditionally have an abundant supply of water, such as the Po Valley in northern Italy. In dry periods, water shortage problems can be enhanced by conflicting uses of water, such as irrigation, industry and power production (hydroelectric and thermoelectric). Furthermore, in the last decade the social perspective in relation to this issue has been increasing due to the possible impact of climate change and global warming scenarios which emerge from the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC, 2013). Hence, the increased frequency of drought periods has stimulated the improvement of irrigation and water management. In this study we show the development and implementation of the PREGI real-time drought forecasting system; PREGI is an Italian acronym that means "hydro-meteorological forecast for irrigation management". The system, planned as a tool for irrigation optimization, is based on meteorological ensemble forecasts (20 members) at medium range (30 days) coupled with hydrological simulations of water balance to forecast the soil water content on a maize field in the Muzza Bassa Lodigiana (MBL) consortium in northern Italy. The hydrological model was validated against measurements of latent heat flux acquired by an eddy-covariance station, and soil moisture measured by TDR (time domain reflectivity) probes; the reliability of this forecasting system and its benefits were assessed in the 2012 growing season. The results obtained show how the proposed drought forecasting system is able to have a high reliability of forecast at least for 7-10 days ahead of time.

  8. Balancing water scarcity and quality for sustainable irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assouline, Shmuel; Russo, David; Silber, Avner; Or, Dani

    2015-05-01

    The challenge of meeting the projected doubling of global demand for food by 2050 is monumental. It is further exacerbated by the limited prospects for land expansion and rapidly dwindling water resources. A promising strategy for increasing crop yields per unit land requires the expansion of irrigated agriculture and the harnessing of water sources previously considered "marginal" (saline, treated effluent, and desalinated water). Such an expansion, however, must carefully consider potential long-term risks on soil hydroecological functioning. The study provides critical analyses of use of marginal water and management approaches to map out potential risks. Long-term application of treated effluent (TE) for irrigation has shown adverse impacts on soil transport properties, and introduces certain health risks due to the persistent exposure of soil biota to anthropogenic compounds (e.g., promoting antibiotic resistance). The availability of desalinated water (DS) for irrigation expands management options and improves yields while reducing irrigation amounts and salt loading into the soil. Quantitative models are used to delineate trends associated with long-term use of TE and DS considering agricultural, hydrological, and environmental aspects. The primary challenges to the sustainability of agroecosystems lies with the hazards of saline and sodic conditions, and the unintended consequences on soil hydroecological functioning. Multidisciplinary approaches that combine new scientific knowhow with legislative, economic, and societal tools are required to ensure safe and sustainable use of water resources of different qualities. The new scientific knowhow should provide quantitative models for integrating key biophysical processes with ecological interactions at appropriate spatial and temporal scales.

  9. Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section (canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section (canal full) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Bitter Root Irrigation Canal, Heading at Rock Creek Diversion Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

  10. Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section and crossing - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Bitter Root Irrigation Canal, Heading at Rock Creek Diversion Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

  11. 43 CFR 418.7 - Who may receive irrigation deliveries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... individual water right holder indicating the number of eligible acres irrigated and the amount of water... Conditions of Water Delivery § 418.7 Who may receive irrigation deliveries. Project irrigation...

  12. 43 CFR 418.7 - Who may receive irrigation deliveries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... individual water right holder indicating the number of eligible acres irrigated and the amount of water... Conditions of Water Delivery § 418.7 Who may receive irrigation deliveries. Project irrigation...

  13. Impact of Long-Term Irrigation with Treated Sewage on Soil Magnetic Susceptibility and Organic Matter Content in North China.

    PubMed

    Yang, P G; Yang, M; Mao, R Z; Byrne, J M

    2015-07-01

    This study assessed the effect on magnetic susceptibility and organic matter content of arable soil by irrigation with either treated sewage or groundwater. Results indicated that organic matter and magnetic susceptibility values in the soil irrigated with sewage were increased by 7.1 % and 13.5 %, respectively, compared to agricultural soil that irrigated with groundwater. Both the sewage and groundwater irrigated soils contained a significant fraction of ultrafine superpara magnetic grains, as indicated by high frequency dependent susceptibility (χfd > 6 %). The enhancement of soil magnetic properties was determined to be caused by anthropogenic sewage irrigation and agrochemical use by investigation of vertical soil profiles. Magnetic susceptibility parameters were shown to be significantly correlated with organic matter content (y = 0.0057x + 1.3439, R(2) = 0.09, p < 0.05). This work indicates that measurements of magnetic susceptibility may offer a rapid first step for identifying the potential pollution in arable soils. PMID:25985871

  14. Exposure factors for wastewater-irrigated Asian vegetables and a probabilistic rotavirus disease burden model for their consumption.

    PubMed

    Mok, Hoi-Fei; Hamilton, Andrew J

    2014-04-01

    Many farmers in water-scarce regions of developing countries use wastewater to irrigate vegetables and other agricultural crops, a practice that may expand with climate change. There are a number of health risks associated with wastewater irrigation for human food crops, particularly with surface irrigation techniques common in the developing world. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to determine if the irrigation scheme meets health standards. However, only a few vegetables have been studied for wastewater risk and little information is known about the disease burden of wastewater-irrigated vegetable consumption in China. To bridge this knowledge gap, an experiment was conducted to determine volume of water left on Asian vegetables and lettuce after irrigation. One hundred samples each of Chinese chard (Brassica rapa var. chinensis), Chinese broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra), Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were harvested after overhead sprinkler irrigation. Chinese broccoli and flowering cabbage were found to capture the most water and lettuce the least. QMRAs were then constructed to estimate rotavirus disease burden from consumption of wastewater-irrigated Asian vegetables in Beijing. Results indicate that estimated risks from these reuse scenarios exceed WHO guideline thresholds for acceptable disease burden for wastewater use, signifying that reduction of pathogen concentration or stricter risk management is necessary for safe reuse. Considering the widespread practice of wastewater irrigation for food production, particularly in developing countries, incorporation of water retention factors in QMRAs can reduce uncertainty regarding health risks for consumers worldwide.

  15. Exposure factors for wastewater-irrigated Asian vegetables and a probabilistic rotavirus disease burden model for their consumption

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Hoi-Fei; Hamilton, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Many farmers in water-scarce regions of developing countries use wastewater to irrigate vegetables and other agricultural crops, a practice that may expand with climate change. There is a number of health risks associated with wastewater irrigation for human food crops, particularly with surface irrigation techniques common in the developing world. The World Health Organization recommends using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to determine if the irrigation scheme meets health standards. However, only a few vegetables have been studied for wastewater risk and little information is known about the disease burden of wastewater-irrigated vegetable consumption in China. To bridge this knowledge gap, an experiment was conducted to determine volume of water left on Asian vegetables and lettuce after irrigation. One hundred samples each of Chinese chard (Brassica rapa var. chinensis), Chinese broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra), Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were harvested after overhead sprinkler irrigation. Chinese broccoli and flowering cabbage were found to capture the most water and lettuce the least. QMRAs were then constructed to estimate rotavirus disease burden from consumption of wastewater-irrigated Asian vegetables in Beijing. Results indicate that estimated risks from these reuse scenarios exceed WHO guideline thresholds for acceptable disease burden for wastewater use, signifying that reduction of pathogen concentration or stricter risk management is necessary for safe reuse. Considering the widespread practice of wastewater irrigation for food production, particularly in developing countries, incorporation of water retention factors in QMRAs can reduce uncertainty regarding health risks for consumers worldwide. PMID:24576153

  16. Exposure factors for wastewater-irrigated Asian vegetables and a probabilistic rotavirus disease burden model for their consumption.

    PubMed

    Mok, Hoi-Fei; Hamilton, Andrew J

    2014-04-01

    Many farmers in water-scarce regions of developing countries use wastewater to irrigate vegetables and other agricultural crops, a practice that may expand with climate change. There are a number of health risks associated with wastewater irrigation for human food crops, particularly with surface irrigation techniques common in the developing world. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to determine if the irrigation scheme meets health standards. However, only a few vegetables have been studied for wastewater risk and little information is known about the disease burden of wastewater-irrigated vegetable consumption in China. To bridge this knowledge gap, an experiment was conducted to determine volume of water left on Asian vegetables and lettuce after irrigation. One hundred samples each of Chinese chard (Brassica rapa var. chinensis), Chinese broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra), Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were harvested after overhead sprinkler irrigation. Chinese broccoli and flowering cabbage were found to capture the most water and lettuce the least. QMRAs were then constructed to estimate rotavirus disease burden from consumption of wastewater-irrigated Asian vegetables in Beijing. Results indicate that estimated risks from these reuse scenarios exceed WHO guideline thresholds for acceptable disease burden for wastewater use, signifying that reduction of pathogen concentration or stricter risk management is necessary for safe reuse. Considering the widespread practice of wastewater irrigation for food production, particularly in developing countries, incorporation of water retention factors in QMRAs can reduce uncertainty regarding health risks for consumers worldwide. PMID:24576153

  17. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukalla, A. D.; Krol, M. S.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for freshwater. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and thus the consumptive WF of crops (ET / Y). The management practices are four irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip (SSD)), four irrigation strategies (full (FI), deficit (DI), supplementary (SI) and no irrigation), and three mulching practices (no mulching, organic (OML) and synthetic (SML) mulching). Various cases were considered: arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid environments in Israel, Spain, Italy and the UK, respectively; wet, normal and dry years; three soil types (sand, sandy loam and silty clay loam); and three crops (maize, potato and tomato). The AquaCrop model and the global WF accounting standard were used to relate the management practices to effects on ET, Y and WF. For each management practice, the associated green, blue and total consumptive WF were compared to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The average reduction in the consumptive WF is 8-10 % if we change from the reference to drip or SSD, 13 % when changing to OML, 17-18 % when moving to drip or SSD in combination with OML, and 28 % for drip or SSD in combination with SML. All before-mentioned reductions increase by one or a few per cent when moving from full to deficit irrigation. Reduction in overall consumptive WF always goes together with an increasing ratio of green to blue WF. The WF of growing a crop for a particular environment is smallest under DI, followed by FI, SI and rain-fed. Growing crops with sprinkler irrigation has the largest consumptive WF, followed by furrow, drip and SSD. Furrow irrigation has a smaller consumptive WF compared with sprinkler, even though the classical measure of "irrigation efficiency" for furrow

  18. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukalla, A. D.; Krol, M. S.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-07-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for fresh water. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and thus the consumptive WF of crops (ET/Y). The management practices are: four irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip (SSD)); four irrigation strategies (full (FI), deficit (DI), supplementary (SI) and no irrigation); and three mulching practices (no mulching, organic (OML) and synthetic (SML) mulching). Various cases were considered: arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid environments; wet, normal and dry years; three soil types; and three crops. The AquaCrop model and the global WF accounting standard were used to relate the management practices to effects on ET, Y and WF. For each management practice, the associated green, blue and total consumptive WF were compared to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The average reduction in the consumptive WF is: 8-10 % if we change from the reference to drip or SSD; 13 % when changing to OML; 17-18 % when moving to drip or SSD in combination with OML; and 28 % for drip or SSD in combination with SML. All before-mentioned reductions increase by one or a few per cent when moving from full to deficit irrigation. Reduction in overall consumptive WF always goes together with an increasing ratio of green to blue WF. The WF of growing a crop for a particular environment is smallest under DI, followed by FI, SI and rain-fed. Growing crops with sprinkler irrigation has the largest consumptive WF, followed by furrow, drip and SSD. Furrow irrigation has a smaller consumptive WF compared with sprinkler, even though the classical measure of "irrigation efficiency" for furrow is lower.

  19. [Effects of controlled alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation on apple seedling morphological characteristics and root hydraulic conductivity].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi-Liang; Zhang, Fu-Cang; Liu, Xiao-Gang; Ge, Zhen-Yang

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the effects of alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation (ADI) on the morphological characteristics and root hydraulic conductivity of apple seedlings, three irrigation modes, i.e., fixed partial root-zone drip irrigation (FDI, fixed watering on one side of the seedling root zone), controlled alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation (ADI, alternate watering on both sides of the seedling root zone), and conventional drip irrigation (CDI, watering cling to the seedling base), and three irrigation quotas, i. e., each irrigation amount of FDI and ADI was 10, 20 and 30 mm, and that of CDI was 20, 30 and 40 mm, respectively, were designed. In treatment ADI, the soil moisture content on the both sides of the root zone appeared a repeated alternation of dry and wet process; while in treatment CDI, the soil moisture content had less difference. At the same irrigation quotas, the soil moisture content at the watering sides had no significant difference under the three drip irrigation modes. At irrigation quota 30 mm, the root-shoot ratio, healthy index of seedlings, and root hydraulic conductivity in treatment ADI increased by 31.6% and 47.1%, 34.2% and 53.6%, and 9.0% and 11.0%, respectively, as compared with those in treatments CDI and FDI. The root dry mass and leaf area had a positive linear correlation with root hydraulic conductivity. It was suggested that controlled alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation had obvious compensatory effects on the root hydraulic conductivity of apple seedlings, improved the soil water use by the roots, benefited the equilibrated dry matter allocation in seedling organs, and markedly enhanced the root-shoot ratio and healthy index of the seedlings.

  20. [Effects of controlled alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation on apple seedling morphological characteristics and root hydraulic conductivity].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi-Liang; Zhang, Fu-Cang; Liu, Xiao-Gang; Ge, Zhen-Yang

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the effects of alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation (ADI) on the morphological characteristics and root hydraulic conductivity of apple seedlings, three irrigation modes, i.e., fixed partial root-zone drip irrigation (FDI, fixed watering on one side of the seedling root zone), controlled alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation (ADI, alternate watering on both sides of the seedling root zone), and conventional drip irrigation (CDI, watering cling to the seedling base), and three irrigation quotas, i. e., each irrigation amount of FDI and ADI was 10, 20 and 30 mm, and that of CDI was 20, 30 and 40 mm, respectively, were designed. In treatment ADI, the soil moisture content on the both sides of the root zone appeared a repeated alternation of dry and wet process; while in treatment CDI, the soil moisture content had less difference. At the same irrigation quotas, the soil moisture content at the watering sides had no significant difference under the three drip irrigation modes. At irrigation quota 30 mm, the root-shoot ratio, healthy index of seedlings, and root hydraulic conductivity in treatment ADI increased by 31.6% and 47.1%, 34.2% and 53.6%, and 9.0% and 11.0%, respectively, as compared with those in treatments CDI and FDI. The root dry mass and leaf area had a positive linear correlation with root hydraulic conductivity. It was suggested that controlled alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation had obvious compensatory effects on the root hydraulic conductivity of apple seedlings, improved the soil water use by the roots, benefited the equilibrated dry matter allocation in seedling organs, and markedly enhanced the root-shoot ratio and healthy index of the seedlings. PMID:22919832

  1. Informing sustainable irrigation management strategies in response to implementation of Washington State's Yakima Basin Integrated Plan (YBIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, K.; Adam, J. C.; Yoder, J.; Brady, M.; Stockle, C. O.

    2014-12-01

    As an important agricultural snowmelt-dominant watershed in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States, the Yakima River basin (YRB) is projected to experience increasing water scarcity problems during the summer irrigation season. The system is already experiencing over-allocation with unmet irrigation entitlements occurring more frequently, resulting in negative consequences to YRB agriculture and therefore the economy of the region. Water storage management is one climate change adaptation strategy particularly applicable to snowmelt-dominant watersheds experiencing a shift of its water availability away from the summer irrigation season. These changes in conjunction with climate change will significantly change the availability of water for agriculture, thus impacting farmers' irrigation decisions. These decisions occur at multiple time scales, including capital investment to change irrigation technology (decadal), to distributing the seasonal allocation of water in a projected drought year (seasonal), to deficit irrigating crops (daily to weekly). The Yakima Basin Integrated Water Resource Management Plan (YBIP) aims to improve the availability of water for agriculture, fish, and communities through a number of projects, including additional or modification of physical infrastructure. Our objective is to reduce the vulnerability of irrigated agriculture in the YRB to climate change through exploring changes in irrigation management strategies in response to implementation of each phase of YBIP. We apply VIC-CropSyst (a newly coupled hydrological/cropping model) and Yakima RiverWare (a water management model) to explore the relationships between climate, hydrology, crop growth and phenology, irrigation management, and YBIP implementation. Results suggest the importance of irrigation management strategies in YRB and indicate that if irrigation strategies are modified in response to changes in physical infrastructure, significant enhancements to instream

  2. Review of ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics: increasing action of irrigating solutions

    PubMed Central

    Mozo, Sandra; Llena, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Effective irrigant delivery and agitation are prerequisites for successful endodontic treatment. Ultrasonic irrigation can be performed with or without simultaneous ultrasonic instrumentation. Existing literature reveals that ultrasonic irrigation may have a very positive effect on chemical, biological and physical debridement of the root canal system as investigated in many in vitro studies. Objective: The purpose of this review article was to summarize and discuss the available information concerning ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics. Methods: This article presents an overview of ultrasonic irrigation methods and their debridement efficacy. In this paper the relevant literature on passive ultrasonic irrigation is reviewed. Information from original scientific papers or reviews listed in MEDLINE and Cochrane were included in the review. Results: The use of ultrasound in the irrigation procedure results in improved canal cleanliness, better irrigant transfer to the canal system, soft tissue debridement, and removal of smear layer and bacteria. There are many in vitro studies, but there is a need to standardize protocols, and correlate the clinical efficacy of ultrasonic devices with improved treatment outcomes. Understanding the basis of ultrasonic irrigation is fundamental for clinicians and researchers to improve the design and use of ultrasonic irrigation. Key words:Ultrasonic irrigation, ultrasound, smear layer, endodontics. PMID:22143738

  3. Ammonia emission during irrigation of dairy manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of liquid manure through irrigation systems has become more common in recent years. Emission of NH3 from surface-applied manure has been well documented, but less is known about emission during the irrigation process itself. We carried out a series of 11 experiments over a two-year perio...

  4. DRIP IRRIGATION OF CORN IN NORTHEAST ARKANSAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rainfall in the midsouthern US is sufficient to produce corn (Zea mays L.) without irrigation in most years; however, timely irrigation of corn has been shown to increase yields. The recent interest in ethanol fuels is expected to lead to increases in US corn production, and subsurface drip irrigati...

  5. Practical implications of applied irrigation research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundwater is essential to irrigated agriculture in the semi-arid Texas High Plains. Concerns over groundwater depletion have led to increased emphasis on water conservation. Irrigation scheduling coupled with accurate crop water use (ET) estimation is one of the most effective means to both conser...

  6. Nonsustainable groundwater sustaining irrigation: A global assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Yoshihide; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2012-06-01

    Water used by irrigated crops is obtained from three sources: local precipitation contributing to soil moisture available for root water uptake (i.e., green water), irrigation water taken from rivers, lakes, reservoirs, wetlands, and renewable groundwater (i.e., blue water), and irrigation water abstracted from nonrenewable groundwater and nonlocal water resources. Here we quantify globally the amount of nonrenewable or nonsustainable groundwater abstraction to sustain current irrigation practice. We use the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB to simulate gross crop water demand for irrigated crops and available blue and green water to meet this demand. We downscale country statistics of groundwater abstraction by considering the part of net total water demand that cannot be met by surface freshwater. We subsequently confront these with simulated groundwater recharge, including return flow from irrigation to estimate nonrenewable groundwater abstraction. Results show that nonrenewable groundwater abstraction contributes approximately 20% to the global gross irrigation water demand for the year 2000. The contribution of nonrenewable groundwater abstraction to irrigation is largest in India (68 km3 yr-1) followed by Pakistan (35 km3 yr-1), the United States (30 km3 yr-1), Iran (20 km3 yr-1), China (20 km3 yr-1), Mexico (10 km3 yr-1), and Saudi Arabia (10 km3 yr-1). Results also show that globally, this contribution more than tripled from 75 to 234 km3 yr-1 over the period 1960-2000.

  7. Soil-moisture sensors and irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This agricultural irrigation seminar will cover the major classes of soil-moisture sensors; their advantages and disadvantages; installing and reading soil-moisture sensors; and using their data for irrigation management. The soil water sensor classes include the resistance sensors (gypsum blocks, g...

  8. Evapotranspiration Estimates for Deficit Irrigated Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water deficits must be imposed on crops during non-critical growth periods to maximize net economic output per unit of water consumed by the plant. The reference ET-crop coefficient procedure widely used for managing fully irrigated crops would be easiest to implement for irrigation management of d...

  9. Water Resources Impacts on Tribal Irrigation Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minihane, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Branch of Irrigation and Power provides oversight and technical support to select irrigation projects and systems on tribal lands. The BIA provides operations and maintenance support for 16 irrigation systems. To make the best use of limited resources, the BIA must incorporate climate change impacts on hydrology and water management for these irrigation systems in the coming decades. The 16 irrigation projects discussed here are divided into three climatological regions: the Pacific Northwest Region, the Greater Rocky Mountain Region, and the Western, Southwest, & Navajo Region. Significant climate projections that impact irrigation systems in one or more of these regions include increased temperatures and evaporative demand, earlier snowmelt and runoff, an increase in floods, an increase in heavy precipitation events, an increase in the frequency and intensity of droughts, and declining water supplies. Some irrigation projects are particularly vulnerable to these climate impacts because they are in already water-stressed areas or areas in which water resources are over-allocated. Other irrigation projects will have to adjust their storage and water management strategies to accommodate changes in the timing of streamflow. Overall, though, the BIA will be better able to assist tribal nations by incorporating expected climate impacts into their water resources management practices.

  10. Irrigation scheduling: When, where, and how much?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation scheduling, a key element of proper water management, is the accurate forecasting of water application (amount and timing) for optimal crop production (yield and fruit quality). The goal is to apply the correct amount of water at the right time to minimize irrigation costs and maximize cr...

  11. Integrated irrigation and drainage water management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Results from several research projects conducted in the 1990's are summarized in this manuscript. The first projects are irrigation studies that evaluated the impact of pre-plant irrigation water on crop water use and deep percolation losses. The results showed significant losses with pre-plant ir...

  12. Enhancement of nutritional value of finger millet-based food (Indian dosa) by co-fermentation with horse gram flour.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Bruntha Devi; Rajendran, Vijayabharathi; Sathyaseelan, Sathyabama; Bhat, Rajeev; Venkatesan, Brindha Priyadarisini

    2012-02-01

    Co-fermentation of finger millet with horse gram was carried out to produce inexpensive protein-rich food (dosa-an Indian breakfast food). Natural fermentation of finger millet-horse gram flour blend in different proportions (2:1, 3:1, 4:1 and 5:1) was performed for 24 h. Biochemical analysis showed reasonable drop in pH (6.6-4.2) and starch content (25.52%) with considerable augment in titratable acidity (0.168-1.046%), soluble proteins (1.1-fold) and free amino acids (2.6-fold) at 16 h. Lactic acid bacteria dominated yeast counts throughout the fermentation accompanied by a decrease in total soluble and reducing sugars. Total essential amino acids increased 1.1-fold at 16-h fermentation with protein containing 48.68% of essential amino acids over total amino acids. Lysine increased from 5.87 to 6.73 g of amino acid/100 g of total amino acids. Dosa, prepared from 16-h fermented batter, showed better sensory attributes for 4:1 ratio. The formulated new product might be used to overcome the protein-energy malnutrition problems. PMID:21696301

  13. Food-grade argan oil supplementation in molasses enhances fermentative performance and antioxidant defenses of active dry wine yeast.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Torrellas, Max; Rábena, María Teresa; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Aranda, Agustín; Matallana, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    The tolerance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to desiccation is important for the use of this microorganism in the wine industry, since active dry yeast (ADY) is routinely used as starter for must fermentations. Both biomass propagation and dehydration cause cellular oxidative stress, therefore negatively affecting yeast performance. Protective treatments against oxidative damage, such as natural antioxidants, may have important biotechnological implications. In this study we analysed the antioxidant capacity of pure chemical compounds (quercetin, ascorbic acid, caffeic acid, oleic acid, and glutathione) added to molasses during biomass propagation, and we determine several oxidative damage/response parameters (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, protective metabolites and enzymatic activities) to assess their molecular effects. Supplementation with ascorbic, caffeic or oleic acids diminished the oxidative damage associated to ADY production. Based on these results, we tested supplementation of molasses with argan oil, a natural food-grade ingredient rich in these three antioxidants, and we showed that it improved both biomass yield and fermentative performance of ADY. Therefore, we propose the use of natural, food-grade antioxidant ingredients, such as argan oil, in industrial processes involving high cellular oxidative stress, such as the biotechnological production of the dry starter.

  14. Enhancement of prodigiosin production by Serratia marcescens TKU011 and its insecticidal activity relative to food colorants.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tzu-Wen; Chen, Shin-Yi; Chen, Yen-Chern; Chen, Chia-Hung; Yen, Yue-Horng; Wang, San-Lang

    2013-11-01

    Prodigiosin (PG) has been reported to have various biological activities. With the aim of increasing Serratia marcescens TKU011 PG production on squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium, the effects of phosphate and ferrous ion supplementation, autoclave treatment, and aeration were studied. Autoclave treatment showed positive results for PG productivity (2.48 mg/mL), which increased 2.5-fold when the organism was incubated in 50 mL of 40-min autoclaved medium in a baffle-based flask (250 mL) containing 1.5% SPP at 30 °C for 1 day and then at 25 °C for 2 additional days. Furthermore, the use of pigments including PG and the food colorants Allura Red AC (R40) and Tartrazine (Y4) as insecticides was also investigated. The lethal concentrations causing 50% Drosophila larval mortality (LC50) of PG, Y4, and R40 using a 5-d exposure period were 230, 449, and 30000 ppm, respectively. The results indicated that the biopigment PG and the food colorant Y4 were potentially toxic to Drosophila larvae.

  15. Infiltration of unconsumed irrigation water in Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brothers, William C.; Thiros, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    The ground-water hydrology of Panguitch Valley and adjacent areas, south-central Utah, was studied during 1988-90. One objective of the study was to measure ground-water recharge from infiltration of unconsumed irrigation water. Water-level and soil-moisture data were used to estimate travel times for water moving down through the soil profile, and to compare quantities of water reaching the water table after application of flood and sprinkler irrigation. During this study, estimates of travel times from land surface to the water table ranged from 11 days in June 1989 to 2 days in September 1989. Estimates of irrigation water recharging the ground-water system ranged from 25 to 75 percent of the water applied to the flood-irrigated field. Virtually no recharge was apparent for the sprinkler-irrigated field.

  16. Wound cleansing by high pressure irrigation.

    PubMed

    Rodeheaver, G T; Pettry, D; Thacker, J G; Edgerton, M T; Edlich, R F

    1975-09-01

    All traumatic wounds are contaminated to some degree by both soil and bacteria. Specific infection potentiating factors in soil impair the defenses of the tissue and invite infection. These factors are small in size and resist removal by low pressure irrigation. The efficiency of wound irrigation is markedly improved by delivering the irrigant to the wound under continuous high pressure. Irrigation of the wound with saline solution delivered at 15 pounds per square inch removed 84.8 per cent of the soil infection potentiating factors from the wound. The residual infection potentiating factors remaining in the wound did not significantly impair tissue defenses. On the basis of these experimental studies, clinical studies are now being initiated to test the therapeutic value of high pressure irrigation in traumatic wounds in humans.

  17. A comparison of different irrigation systems and gravitational effect on final extrusion of the irrigant

    PubMed Central

    Görduysus, Melahat; Görduysus, Ömer

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare manual needle irrigation (MNI), RinsEndo (RE), and passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and assess the effect of gravity on extrusion from the apex in vitro. Material and Methods The distobuccal roots of molars were used and the canals were instrumented up to F2. Teeth were mounted on models, which permitted visualization and manipulation of the apices for necessary procedures. The models were placed in articulator to simulate the jaw. Six groups (G) were formed as: G1, G2 and G3 represented mandibular positioning of teeth and were irrigated with MNI, RE, and PUI, respectively, while G4, G5, and G6 represented maxillary positioning of teeth and were also irrigated in same sequence. Prior to the final irrigation, 72 cube-shaped foam pieces covered with aluminum foil were weighed and the values were recorded as the initial weights. The cubes were then placed on the apical part of each sample. Final irrigation was performed with distilled water and the cubes were weighed again to determine their final weight. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U post-hoc test (p<0.05). Results Irrespective of the irrigation technique used, the amount of irrigant extruded from the apex showed a statistically significant difference related to the effect of gravity (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between irrigation methods (p>0.05). When the irrigation systems were compared to examine the effect of gravity, the significant difference was found between G2 and G5 (p<0.05). Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, MNI and PUI were found to be reliable irrigation systems. Caution should be exercised when using RinsEndo. Key words:Final irrigation, manual needle irrigation, passive ultrasonic irrigation, RinsEndo. PMID:26155336

  18. Growing Youth Food Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Wynne; Nault, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    How can youth be educated and empowered to become responsible food citizens? Evidence from a university-community partnership with youth in Michigan is presented to illuminate participatory approaches to youth engagement in food systems. We found that youth have valuable knowledge to enhance our understanding of food environments. At the same…

  19. Soil properties and enzyme activities as affected by biogas slurry irrigation in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiling; Yu, Weiwei; Zhang, Zhi; Luo, Surong

    2015-03-01

    Biogas slurry, as a quality organic fertilizer, is widely used on large scale livestock farmland in Southwest China. In the present study, slurry collected from anaerobic tank of dairy farm was used to irrigate farmland having typical purple soil in Chongquing, China. The study revealed that irrigation with biogasslurry increased soil ammonium nitrogen and soil nitrate by 47.8 and 19% respectively as compared to control check. The average soil available phosphorus and soil phosphorus absorption co-efficient changed slightly. Relative enzyme activities of N and P transformation were indicated by catalase, urease, invertase and phosphatase activity. Irrigation period and irrigation quantity were selected as variable factor Catalase, invertase and urease activity was highest when irrigation period and irrigation quantitiy was 4 days and 500 ml; whereas highest phosphatase activity increased significantly in purple irrigated by biogas slurry. The result of the present study is helpful in finding optimum irrigation conditions required for enzyme activity within defined range. It further reveals that biogas slurry enriches soil with various nutrients by enhancing N, P content and enzyme activities as well as it also deals with large number of biogas slurry for protecting the environment.

  20. Soil properties and enzyme activities as affected by biogas slurry irrigation in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiling; Yu, Weiwei; Zhang, Zhi; Luo, Surong

    2015-03-01

    Biogas slurry, as a quality organic fertilizer, is widely used on large scale livestock farmland in Southwest China. In the present study, slurry collected from anaerobic tank of dairy farm was used to irrigate farmland having typical purple soil in Chongquing, China. The study revealed that irrigation with biogasslurry increased soil ammonium nitrogen and soil nitrate by 47.8 and 19% respectively as compared to control check. The average soil available phosphorus and soil phosphorus absorption co-efficient changed slightly. Relative enzyme activities of N and P transformation were indicated by catalase, urease, invertase and phosphatase activity. Irrigation period and irrigation quantity were selected as variable factor Catalase, invertase and urease activity was highest when irrigation period and irrigation quantitiy was 4 days and 500 ml; whereas highest phosphatase activity increased significantly in purple irrigated by biogas slurry. The result of the present study is helpful in finding optimum irrigation conditions required for enzyme activity within defined range. It further reveals that biogas slurry enriches soil with various nutrients by enhancing N, P content and enzyme activities as well as it also deals with large number of biogas slurry for protecting the environment. PMID:25895278

  1. Enhanced daunomycin accumulation in human intestinal Caco-2 cells from non-ionic food emulsifiers unrelated to the p-glycoprotein inhibitory mechanism.

    PubMed

    Takaishi, Naoki; Satsu, Hideo; Shimizu, Makoto

    2006-11-01

    Some of the non-ionic surfactants used in pharmaceutical formulations inhibit P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the multi-drug transporter. The effect of such food emulsifiers as polyglycerol esters (PGE) and sugar esters (SE) of fatty acids on the P-gp activity was studied by using human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The cellular accumulation of [(3)H]-daunomycin, a P-gp substrate, was markedly enhanced by PGE and SE. This accumulation-enhancing activity varied among the emulsifiers, but was correlated with their surface activity. The uptake of soluble nutrients such as amino acids was only slightly reduced by PGE and SE. These results suggest that these emulsifiers specifically inhibited P-gp. When the basal-to-apical transport of daunomycin across the Caco-2 monolayers was measured, however, the emulsifiers did not decrease the efflux of daunomycin to the apical chamber. The enhanced accumulation of daunomycin would therefore not have been due to P-gp inhibition, but instead to the increased daunomycin permeability of cell membranes caused by the emulsifiers.

  2. Enhancing Nutrition Security via India's National Food Security Act: Using an Axe instead of a Scalpel?§

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Sonalde; Vanneman, Reeve

    2016-01-01

    In September 2013, India passed a historic National Food Security Act. This paper examines the potential impact of the two central pillars of this act - expansion of the Public Distribution System and strengthening of the Integrated Child Development Schemes – on child nutrition. Using new data from the India Human Development Survey of 2011-12, this paper shows that access to subsidized grains via PDS is not related to improved child nutrition, and while ICDS seems to be related to lower child undernutrition, it has a limited reach in spite of the universalization of the program. The paper suggests that a tiered strategy in dealing with child undernutrition that starts with the identification of undernourished children and districts and follows through with different strategies for dealing with severe, acute malnutrition, followed by a focus on moderate malnutrition, could be more effective than the existing focus on cereal distribution rooted in the NFSA. PMID:27034596

  3. Waste-heat mariculture of striped bass for population enhancement and food production. Final report on Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Van Olst, J.C.; Carlberg, J.M.

    1983-04-01

    Biological and economic data were obtained to determine whether the culture of striped bass (Morona saxatilis) in power plant thermal effluent could be a cost-effective means of utilizing an otherwise wasted energy resource to provide additional supplies of high-quality seafood. Experiments were conducted to provide some of the data necessary to predict tank-carrying capacity, food-conversion efficiency, and water flow requirements for striped bass cultured at high density in future commercial-scale operations. Computer models were developed for several modes of operation of a theoretical commercial production facility, and return-on-investment calculations were made which indicated that substantial profits are possible. At these sites, no heating or pumping of water would be required, and an annual return-on-operating costs of 103% was estimated.

  4. Current irrigation practices in the central United States reduce drought and extreme heat impacts for maize and soybean, but not for wheat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianyi; Lin, Xiaomao; Sassenrath, Gretchen F

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we assessed the adaptive effects of irrigation on climatic risks for three crops (maize, soybean, and wheat) at the regional scale from 1981 to 2012 in the Central US. Based on yields of 183 counties for maize, 121 for soybean and 101 for wheat, statistical models were developed for irrigated, rainfed and county-level yields. Results show that irrigation has a statistically significant effect on abating detrimental climate impacts, specifically drought and extreme heat, in maize and soybean but not in wheat. On average, irrigation reduces the negative influences of extreme heat by around 7.2% for maize and 5.0% for soybean yields for each additional 10 degree-days above the optimal temperature for each crop. This is approximately two-thirds of the negative effects of extreme heat under rainfed management. The remaining third of the yield reduction is caused by heat damage that cannot be alleviated by irrigation. No significant differences were detected between county yields and irrigated yields for maize and soybean, suggesting that the existing irrigation practices were reasonably efficient. Efforts to mitigate future climate risks for these two crops should focus on improving the heat sensitivity contributing to the yield losses from heat damage. In contrast, the existing irrigation does not improve the resilience of wheat to climate risks. Both increased temperature and drought were critical to wheat production, which was potentially caused by relatively poor irrigation supplies for wheat. Further enhancement of wheat yield may be possible through improved irrigation management.

  5. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of chitosan and other endodontic irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Shenoi, Pratima R; Morey, Elakshi S; Makade, Chetana S; Gunwal, Mohit K; Khode, Rajiv T; Wanmali, Sunay S

    2016-01-01

    The success of endodontic treatment is directly enhanced by elimination of microorganisms in infected root canals. Recently, chitosan, a natural, nontoxic biopolymer, has been introduced as an irrigant that has the capacity to remove the smear layer. The antimicrobial properties of chitosan as an endodontic irrigant have not yet been explored. The purpose of this study was to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of BioPure MTAD, 0.2% chitosan, 1% chitosan, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate, and 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococcus faecalis, which is frequently isolated from persistent root canal infections. The agar well diffusion method was used to measure the antimicrobial activities of these irrigants. Saline was used as a negative control. The order of effectiveness was determined by the measurement of inhibition zones. Data were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and the Duncan multiple range test. BioPure MTAD had a significantly larger mean inhibition zone against E faecalis than the other irrigants (P < 0.001). Although 0.2% chitosan did not show any inhibition zones, 1% chitosan was as effective as 3% NaOCl (P = 0.352), and both irrigants showed significantly greater effectivity than 2% chlorhexidine (P < 0.001). Thus, 1% chitosan can be an effective natural antimicrobial substitute for synthetic irrigants. PMID:27599284

  6. Modeling the Current and Future Impacts of Irrigation on Great Plains Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, K. J.; Snyder, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    continue to have an impact on evapotranspiration and precipitation over the Great Plains. With future climate change, irrigation will likely result in accelerated depletion of the Ogallala Aquifer, especially during drought conditions that are expected to increase in frequency. To comprehensively assess the impact of irrigation on the atmospheric branch of the hydrologic cycle of the Great Plains, data from simulations of WRF using current and future atmospheric conditions were assimilated into a back-trajectory analysis. In simulations using current atmospheric conditions, only 15.8% of evapotranspired moisture from irrigated fields fell out as precipitation over the Great Plains on average, resulting in 5.11 mm of May-September irrigation-induced precipitation and contributing to 6.11 mm of recycled precipitation. Reductions in non-recycled precipitation from simulations using current data suggest that irrigation reduces precipitation of advected moisture. Simulations forced with future climate data were analyzed to quantify the loss of irrigated water and the change in precipitation of advected moisture with climate change. Enhanced loss of water out of the region and reduced precipitation of advected moisture in a warmer future climate would likely mean additional withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer.

  7. Protein-enhanced soups: a consumer-accepted food for increasing dietary protein provision among older adults.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Elizabeth; Crowe, Kristi Michele; Lawrence, Jeannine

    2015-02-01

    Protein-enhanced soups (PES) may improve protein intake among older adults. This study examined sensory attributes (aroma, texture, taste, and overall acceptability) and preferences of PES (chicken noodle and cheddar broccoli) compared with flavor-matched control soups (FCS) among older adults (≥65 years) and evaluated dietary profile changes of a standard menu based on the substitution of one PES serving/d for a standard soup. Modified paired preference tests and 5-point facial hedonic scales were administered to participants (n = 44). No significant differences in sensory attributes between either PES compared with FCS were identified, but significant gender- and age-related differences (p < 0.05) were observed. About Sixty-one percent of participants preferred protein-enhanced chicken noodle soup while only 38% preferred protein-enhanced cheddar broccoli soup to their respective FCS. Substituting one PES serving for one non-fortified soup serving per day resulted in significantly higher (p < 0.001) protein profile. Results suggest that all attributes of PES were consistent with sensory expectations and PES substitution could improve protein provision.

  8. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Daniel; Aghajanzadeh, Arian; McKane, Aimee

    2015-08-01

    Pumping water for agricultural irrigation represents a significant share of California’s annual electricity use and peak demand. It also represents a large source of potential flexibility, as farms possess a form of storage in their wetted soil. By carefully modifying their irrigation schedules, growers can participate in demand response without adverse effects on their crops. This report describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by agricultural irrigators in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use in California. Typical on-­farm controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Case studies of demand response programs in California and across the country are reviewed, and their results along with overall California demand estimates are used to estimate statewide demand response potential. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.

  9. Assessment of reclaimed water irrigation on growth, yield, and water-use efficiency of forage crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhamisi, S. A.; Abdelrahman, H. A.; Ahmed, M.; Goosen, M. F. A.

    2011-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted to determine the effect of water quality (reclaimed and fresh water), water quantity, and their interactions on the growth, yield, and water use efficiency of forage maize during two winter seasons in the Arabian Gulf. The plants irrigated with the reclaimed water had higher plant height than those irrigated with the fresh water. The leaf length and leaf area (cm2) did not show any significant differences among the interaction. Reclaimed water had shorter time for 50% male and female flowering of forage maize plants, indicating earlier maturity. Plants irrigated with reclaimed water had higher chlorophyll content for all levels of water applications. A significant difference in green forage yield was found among the interactions. Reclaimed water gave the highest green forage yield of 72.12 and 59.40 t/ha at 1.4ETo and 1.0ETo, respectively. Plants irrigated with the reclaimed water used water more efficiently [3.65 kg/m3 of DM (dry matter)] than those irrigated with the fresh water [2.91 kg/m3 of DM (dry matter)] for all water quantities. The enhanced growth in wastewater-irrigated crops, compared with fresh water-irrigated crops, was attributed primarily to higher nutrient content (e.g., nitrogen) and lower salinity of the reclaimed water. The study concluded that treated wastewater irrigation increased yields of forage crops and their water use efficiency. Cost-benefit analysis, studies on the use these forage crops as animal feed, and more in depth evaluation of possible crop and soil contamination were recommended.

  10. Long-term impacts of pasture irrigation with treated sewage effluent on shallow groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Gwenzi, W; Munondo, R

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of 26 years of effluent irrigation on chemical and bacteriological quality of shallow (<3.0 m) groundwater. Annual loading rates for N and P exceeded pasture requirements, while trace metals were either lower or higher than guideline limits. Effluent irrigation removed TN (44-71%), TP (80%), Cr (96%) and coliform bacteria (87-99.9%) while Zn, Cu and Cd removal was negligible probably due to their enhanced mobility. Analysis of groundwater samples from effluent-irrigated and non-irrigated control sites showed that effluent irrigation increased the levels of all measured parameters compared to the control. Average groundwater quality parameters from effluent-irrigated sites compared to the control were: pH (6.1 vs. 5.7), EC (0.71 vs. 0.53 dS m(-1)), concentrations (mg L(-1)) for TP (2.3 vs. 0.3), DP (1.0 vs. 0.1), TN (15.1 vs. 2.5), NH(4)-N (2.6 vs. 0.5), NO(3)-N (4.1 vs. 1.3), Zn (0.4 vs. 0.05), Cu (0.13 vs. 0.02), Cd (0.05 vs. 0.01) and Cr (0.06 vs. 0.03). Across effluent-irrigated sites, FC and TC were 25 and 288 cfu/100 ml, respectively, versus nil for the control. Overall, effluent irrigation led to groundwater contamination by N, P, trace metals and coliform bacteria, which could threaten the long-term sustainability of the practice.

  11. Estimating the impacts of a reservoir for improved water use in irrigation in the Yarabamba region, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiech, Theoclea; Ertsen, Maurits W.; Pererya, Carlos Machicao

    The pressure on irrigation is increasing worldwide, not only because of - perceived or real - high water consumption in the irrigated sector, but also because an increased world population puts stress on food production. Numerous irrigated areas around the world face similar issues of water scarcity, disparity in water distribution and deficient infrastructure. As a result, farmers are typically restricted in their production strategies. A general strategy in the irrigation sector is the introduction of so-called modern techniques in existing irrigation systems, with the aim to increase agricultural production. This paper discusses such a modernization effort in the sub-basin of Yarabamba, Arequipa, Peru, in which a reservoir is being constructed to improve water use and stimulate economic development. Based on fieldwork, including interviews and scenario modeling with WEAP, the relationships between water users, their irrigation systems and the water balances in the basin were studied. Scenario studies showed that the reservoir might alleviate the current water shortages in the sub-basin, but that restrictions in the current infrastructure and management of irrigation may be of more importance than the reservoir. Especially existing interests and actions of upstream and downstream areas appear to be important factors; these will not be automatically solved with the new reservoir.

  12. Debris and irrigant extrusion potential of 2 rotary systems and irrigation needles.

    PubMed

    Altundasar, Emre; Nagas, Emre; Uyanik, Ozgur; Serper, Ahmet

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the amount of apically extruded irrigant using 2 Ni-Ti rotary systems. Forty mandibular premolars with single canals were randomly assigned into 4 groups. Flower arrangement foam cubes were weighed with a precision balance before being attached to the apical portions of all teeth. In group 1, preparation was completed with ProTaper files. In group 2 canals were prepared with RaCe files. In groups 1 and 2, the irrigant was delivered with a 30-gauge conventional dental needle. In groups 3 and 4, teeth were prepared as in groups 1 and 2 with the exception that the irrigant was delivered with a side-vented irrigation needle. The weight of the extruded material (irrigant and debris) for each group was calculated by comparing the pre- and postinstrumentation weights of the foams used for periapical modeling. Obtained data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests, with P equals .05 as the level for statistical significance. ProTaper files used with regular needle irrigation had the highest fluid extrusion. The lowest irrigant extrusion was observed with the RaCe system combined with a side-vented irrigation needle. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that irrigation needle and rotary instruments have an effect on the amount of extruded root canal irrigant.

  13. Quality assessment of irrigation water under a combination of rain and irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, Virginia; Costa, Jose Luis

    2015-04-01

    Complementary irrigation is one of the proposed management practices to increase the area under grain production mainly in the Humid Pampas. The most common source of irrigation water in the Humid Pampas comes from groundwater and is characterized by its high sodium bicarbonate content. However, the effect of the combination of irrigation and rain water on the chemical and physical properties of soils, especially when irrigation water comprises water with sodium bicarbonate, is still not well documented. The objective of the present study is to establish irrigation water suitability criteria under conditions of combined rain and irrigation. The trials were carried out on six irrigated plots and another five plots were chosen for validation purposes. Hydraulic conductivity and bulk density were measured in the field. Soil chemical analysis was performed on undisturbed soil samples. Supplementary irrigation using sodium bicarbonate water raises the soil electrical conductivity, the pH, exchangeable sodium percentage, soil sodium adsorption ratio and cation exchange capacity which produce an increase in bulk density, reducing the overall porosity of the soil. The effect of the soil sodium adsorption ratio on the soil hydraulic conductivity was evident when the soil sodium adsorption ratio levels were greater than 3.5. The dilution factor proposed in this study allows the classification of water for complementary irrigation linked to the management of irrigation.

  14. Impacts of irrigation on dry season precipitation in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen Roy, Shouraseni; Mahmood, Rezaul; Quintanar, Arturo I.; Gonzalez, Astrid

    2011-05-01

    There is a lack of observed data-based studies examining the role of enhanced soil moisture conditions (due to irrigation) on the prevailing precipitation. Therefore, in the present study, we have examined the impacts of the Green Revolution (GR) related expansion of irrigation and changes in dry season (the rabi (November to May) and the zaid (March to June)) precipitation in India. The results for some regions indicated decreasing and increasing trend in precipitation during the pre- and post-GR periods, respectively. For example, in eastern Madhya Pradesh, the pre- and post-GR precipitation trends for the zaid season were -0.45 and 2.40 mm year-1, respectively. On the other hand, some regions reported lower rate of decline in precipitation during the post-GR period. This paper suggests that both positive and lower declining trend during the post-GR period were linked to increased precipitation due to the introduction of irrigation. The study has found up to 69 mm (121%) increase in total amount of precipitation for growing seasons during the post-GR period. Moreover, a 175% increase in average precipitation was also recorded. All irrigated regions show a notable increase in precipitation during post-GR growing seasons. It was found that differences in growing season average precipitation between the pre- and post-GR periods were statistically significant for most of the regions. For further verification of results, the MM5 and Noah land surface model were applied. These applications show changes in precipitation and various precipitation controlling factors due to changes in soil moisture.

  15. Stirling Engines and Irrigation Pumping

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    This report was prepared in support of the Renewable Energy Applications and Training Project that is sponsored by the U.S. Agency for International Development for which ORNL provides technical assistance. It briefly outlines the performance that might be achievable from various kinds of Stirling-engine-driven irrigation pumps. Some emphasis is placed on the very simple liquid-piston engines that have been the subject of research in recent years and are suitable for manufacture in less well-developed countries. In addition to the results quoted here (possible limits on M4 and pumping head for different-size engines and various operating conditions), the method of calculation is described in sufficient detail for engineers to apply the techniques to other Stirling engine designs for comparison.

  16. Improving Response to Foodborne Disease Outbreaks in the United States: Findings of the Foodborne Disease Centers for Outbreak Response Enhancement (FoodCORE), 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Biggerstaff, Gwen

    2015-01-01

    Context Each year foodborne diseases (FBD) affect approximately 1 in 6 Americans, resulting in 128,000 hospitalizations and 3,000 deaths. Decreasing resources impact the ability of public health officials to identify, respond to, and control FBD outbreaks. Geographically dispersed outbreaks necessitate multijurisdictional coordination across all levels of the public health system. Rapid response depends on rapid detection. Objective Targeted resources were provided to state and local health departments to improve completeness and timeliness of laboratory, epidemiology, and environmental health (EH) activities for FBD surveillance and outbreak response. Design Foodborne Disease Centers for Outbreak Response Enhancement (FoodCORE) centers, selected through competitive award, implemented work plans designed to make outbreak response more complete and faster in their jurisdiction. Performance metrics were developed and used to evaluate the impact and effectiveness of activities. Participants Departments of Health in Connecticut, New York City, Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee, Utah, and Wisconsin. Results From the first year (Y1) of the program in October 2010 to the end of second year (Y2) in December 2012, the centers completed molecular subtyping for a higher proportion of Salmonella, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, and Listeria (SSL) isolates (86% vs 98%) and reduced the average time to complete testing from a median of 8 to 4 days. The centers attempted epidemiologic interviews with more SSL case-patients (93% vs 99%) and the average time to attempt interviews was reduced from a median of 4 to 2 days. During Y2, nearly 200 EH assessments were conducted. FoodCORE centers began documenting model practices such as streamlining and standardizing case-patient interviewing. Conclusion Centers used targeted resources and process evaluation to implement and document practices that improve the completeness and timeliness of FBD surveillance and outbreak response activities

  17. Listeria monocytogenes survival of UV-C radiation is enhanced by presence of sodium chloride, organic food material and by bacterial biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Bernbom, N; Vogel, B F; Gram, L

    2011-05-14

    The bactericidal effect on food processing surfaces of ceiling-mounted UV-C light (wavelength 254 nm) was determined in a fish smoke house after the routine cleaning and disinfection procedure. The total aerobic counts were reduced during UV-C light exposure (48 h) and the number of Listeria monocytogenes positive samples went from 30 (of 68) before exposure to 8 (of 68). We therefore in a laboratory model determined the L. monocytogenes reduction kinetics by UV-C light with the purpose of evaluating the influence of food production environmental variables, such as presence of NaCl, organic material and the time L. monocytogenes was allowed to adhere to steel before exposure. L. monocytogenes grown and attached in tryptone soy broth (TSB) with glucose were rapidly killed (after 2 min) by UV-C light. However, bacteria grown and adhered in TSB with glucose and 5% NaCl were more resistant and numbers declined with 4-5 log units during exposure of 8-10 min. Bacteria grown in juice prepared from cold-smoked salmon were protected and numbers were reduced with 2-3 log when UV-C light was used immediately after attachment whereas numbers did not change at all if bacteria had been allowed to form a biofilm for 7 days before exposure. It is not known if this enhanced survival is due to physiological changes in the attached bacterial cells, a physical protection of the cells in the food matrix or a combination. In conclusion, we demonstrate that UV-C light is a useful extra bacteriocidal step and that it, as all disinfecting procedures, is hampered by the presence of organic material.

  18. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with food waste (FW): Enhancement of bio-hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Angeriz-Campoy, Rubén; Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos J; Romero-García, Luis I

    2015-10-01

    Bio-hydrogen production from dry thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion (55°C and 20% total solids) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and food waste (FW) was studied. OFMSW coming from mechanical-biological treatment plants (MBT plants) presents a low organic matter concentration. However, FW has a high organic matter content but several problems by accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and system acidification. Tests were conducted using a mixture ratio of 80:20 (OFSMW:FW), to avoid the aforementioned problems. Different solid retention times (SRTs) - 6.6, 4.4, 2.4 and 1.9 days - were tested. It was noted that addition of food waste enhances the hydrogen production in all the SRTs tested. Best results were obtained at 1.9-day SRT. It was observed an increase from 0.64 to 2.51 L H2/L(reactor) day in hydrogen productivity when SRTs decrease from 6.6 to 1.9 days. However, the hydrogen yield increases slightly from 33.7 to 38 mL H2/gVS(added).

  19. Electrochemical determination of Sudan I in food samples at graphene modified glassy carbon electrode based on the enhancement effect of sodium dodecyl sulphonate.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xinying; Chao, Mingyong; Wang, Zhaoxia

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes a novel electrochemical method for the determination of Sudan I in food samples based on the electrochemical catalytic activity of graphene modified glassy carbon electrode (GMGCE) and the enhancement effect of an anionic surfactant: sodium dodecyl sulphonate (SDS). Using pH 6.0 phosphate buffer solution (PBS) as supporting electrolyte and in the presence of 1.5 × 10(-4)mol L(-1) SDS, Sudan I yielded a well-defined and sensitive oxidation peak at a GMGCE. The oxidation peak current of Sudan I remarkably increased in the presence of SDS. The experimental parameters, such as supporting electrolyte, concentration of SDS, and accumulation time, were optimised for Sudan I determination. The oxidation peak current showed a linear relationship with the concentrations of Sudan I in the range of 7.50 × 10(-8)-7.50 × 10(-6)mol L(-1), with the detection limit of 4.0 × 10(-8)mol L(-1). This new voltammetric method was successfully used to determine Sudan I in food products such as ketchup and chili sauce with satisfactory results. PMID:23411169

  20. Toward public health nutrition strategies in the European Union to implement food based dietary guidelines and to enhance healthier lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Stockley, L

    2001-04-01

    This paper suggests strategies for implementing the EU food based dietary guidelines. Dietary guidelines have been developed and disseminated in many countries across the world. However, the EU guidelines are the first to include a specific section on implementation. The aims of the guidelines are twofold, 1) to provide food based dietary guidelines which can be used as a consistent communication tool and 2) as a springboard to planning, implementing, and evaluating public health nutrition strategies. The report is not intended to be prescriptive. It aims to build upon a solid evidence base to provide practical and cost effective suggestions for developing public health strategies, which member countries can use and tailor to the social, cultural and health needs of their populations. Diet and physical activity related diseases impose vast costs on the European economy. However, despite the enormous costs to healthcare systems and in terms of lost productivity, there have been a very few resources allocated in Europe to attempting to prevent these, rather than treating them. The burden of disease exists in the majority of the population, and not in high-risk groups. The optimal public health strategy is thus to focus on the population as a whole, rather than targeting those with increased risk factors or pre-existing disease. Reviews have been carried out on the health impact effectiveness of various types of intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity in the population. These conclude that the most effective interventions a) adopt an integrated, multidisciplinary, and comprehensive approach b) involve a complementary range of actions, and c) work at an individual, community, environmental and policy level. Information provision in isolation is not effective, and may exacerbate inequalities in health. In some countries inequities in diet and physical activity are not only significant contributors to inequalities in health, but are increasing

  1. Enhanced hydrolysis and methane yield by applying microaeration pretreatment to the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jun Wei; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2013-04-01

    Microaeration has been used conventionally for the desulphurization of biogas, and recently it was shown to be an alternative pretreatment to enhance hydrolysis of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Previous studies on microaeration pretreatment were limited to the study of substrates with complex organic matter, while little has been reported on its effect on substrates with higher biodegradability such as brown water and food waste. Due to the lack of consistent microaeration intensities, previous studies were not comparable and thus inconclusive in proving the effectiveness of microaeration to the overall AD process. In this study, the role of microaeration pretreatment in the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste was evaluated in batch-tests. After a 4-day pretreatment with 37.5 mL-O2/L(R)-d added to the liquid phase of the reactor, the methane production of substrates were monitored in anaerobic conditions over the next 40 days. The added oxygen was consumed fully by facultative microorganisms and a reducing environment for organic matter degradation was maintained. Other than higher COD solubilization, microaeration pretreatment led to greater VFA accumulation and the conversion of other short chain fatty acids to acetate. This could be due to enhanced activities of hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria and the degradation of slowly biodegradable compounds under microaerobic conditions. This study also found that the nature of inoculum influenced the effects of microaeration as a 21% and 10% increase in methane yield was observed when pretreatment was applied to inoculated substrates, and substrates without inoculum, respectively.

  2. Endocrine disruptors found in food contaminants enhance allergic sensitization through an oxidative stress that promotes the development of allergic airway inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Takuma; Tada-Oikawa, Saeko; Wang, Linan; Murata, Mariko; Kuribayashi, Kagemasa

    2013-11-15

    In the past few decades, there has been a significant increase in incidence of allergic diseases. The hygiene hypothesis may provide some clues to explain this rising trend, but it may also be attributable to other environmental factors that exert a proallergic adjuvant effects. However, there is limited information on the risks of developing allergic asthma and related diseases through the ingestion of environmental chemicals found in food contaminants. In the present study, we have shown that oral administration of tributyltin, used as a model environmental chemical, induced oxidative-stress status in the bronchial lymph node, mesenteric lymph node and spleen, but not in the lung, where the initial step of allergic asthma pathogenesis takes place. Mice exposed to tributyltin exhibited heightened Th2 immunity to the allergen with more severe airway inflammation. Tributyltin also induced Treg cells apoptosis preferentially over non-Treg cells. All these effects of tributyltin exposure were canceled by the administration of glutathione monoethyl ester. Meanwhile, tributyltin did not affect airway inflammation of mice transferred with allergen-specific Th2 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that tributyltin exerts its pathological effect during the sensitization phase through oxidative stress that enhances the development of allergic diseases. The current study dissects the pathogenic role of oxidative stress induced by oral exposure to an environmental chemical during the sensitization phase of allergic airway inflammation and would be important for developing therapeutics for prevention of allergic diseases. - Highlights: • Oral exposure to TBT exacerbates airway inflammation. • TBT induces oxidative stress in secondary lymphoid organs, but not in the lung. • TBT preferentially induces regulatory T cell apoptosis over non-Treg cells. • TBT does not enhance pre-existing airway inflammation in sensitized mice. • Chemicals in food contaminants

  3. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... navigation Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Allergies ▸ Food Allergy Share | Food Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Food Allergy Overview If you have a food allergy, ...

  4. Water and energy footprint of irrigated agriculture in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daccache, A.; Ciurana, J. S.; Rodriguez Diaz, J. A.; Knox, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture constitutes the largest consumer of freshwater in the Mediterranean region and provides a major source of income and employment for rural livelihoods. However, increasing droughts and water scarcity have highlighted concerns regarding the environmental sustainability of agriculture in the region. An integrated assessment combining a gridded water balance model with a geodatabase and GIS has been developed and used to assess the water demand and energy footprint of irrigated production in the region. Modelled outputs were linked with crop yield and water resources data to estimate water (m3 kg-1) and energy (CO2 kg-1) productivity and identify vulnerable areas or ‘hotspots’. For a selected key crops in the region, irrigation accounts for 61 km3 yr-1 of water abstraction and 1.78 Gt CO2 emissions yr-1, with most emissions from sunflower (73 kg CO2/t) and cotton (60 kg CO2/t) production. Wheat is a major strategic crop in the region and was estimated to have a water productivity of 1000 t Mm-3 and emissions of 31 kg CO2/t. Irrigation modernization would save around 8 km3 of water but would correspondingly increase CO2 emissions by around +135%. Shifting from rain-fed to irrigated production would increase irrigation demand to 166 km3 yr-1 (+137%) whilst CO2 emissions would rise by +270%. The study has major policy implications for understanding the water-energy-food nexus in the region and the trade-offs between strategies to save water, reduce CO2 emissions and/or intensify food production.

  5. Volatile organic acid adsorption and cation dissociation by porphyritic andesite for enhancing hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid food wastes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fan; Li, Ming; Li, Dawei; Chen, Ling; Jiang, Weizhong; Kitamura, Yutaka; Li, Baoming

    2010-07-01

    Volatile organic acid adsorption, cation dissociation by porphyritic andesite, and their effects on the hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid food wastes were evaluated through batch experiments. The acetic acid adsorption experiments show that pH was mainly regulated by H(+) adsorption. The mono-layer and multi-layer adsorption were found under the low (8.3-83.2 mmol/L) and high (133.22-532.89 mmol/L) initial acetic acid concentration, respectively. The dissociated cations concentration in acidic solution showed the predominance of Ca(2+). Porphyritic andesite addition elevated the pH levels and accelerated hydrolysis and acidogenesis in the batch fermentation experiment. Leachate of porphyritic andesite addition achieved the highest hydrolysis constant of 22.1 x 10(-3)kgm(-2)d(-1) and VS degradation rates of 3.9 g L(-1)d(-1). The highest activity of microorganisms represented by specific growth rate of ATP, 0.16d(-1), and specific consumption rate of Ca(2+), 0.18d(-1), was obtained by adding leachate of porphyritic andesite.

  6. Volatile organic acid adsorption and cation dissociation by porphyritic andesite for enhancing hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid food wastes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fan; Li, Ming; Li, Dawei; Chen, Ling; Jiang, Weizhong; Kitamura, Yutaka; Li, Baoming

    2010-07-01

    Volatile organic acid adsorption, cation dissociation by porphyritic andesite, and their effects on the hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid food wastes were evaluated through batch experiments. The acetic acid adsorption experiments show that pH was mainly regulated by H(+) adsorption. The mono-layer and multi-layer adsorption were found under the low (8.3-83.2 mmol/L) and high (133.22-532.89 mmol/L) initial acetic acid concentration, respectively. The dissociated cations concentration in acidic solution showed the predominance of Ca(2+). Porphyritic andesite addition elevated the pH levels and accelerated hydrolysis and acidogenesis in the batch fermentation experiment. Leachate of porphyritic andesite addition achieved the highest hydrolysis constant of 22.1 x 10(-3)kgm(-2)d(-1) and VS degradation rates of 3.9 g L(-1)d(-1). The highest activity of microorganisms represented by specific growth rate of ATP, 0.16d(-1), and specific consumption rate of Ca(2+), 0.18d(-1), was obtained by adding leachate of porphyritic andesite. PMID:20156676

  7. The impact of climate change on grain maize production over Europe - adaptation with different irrigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceglar, A.; Srivastava, A. K.; Chukaliev, O.; Duveiller, G.; Niemeyer, S.

    2013-12-01

    The spatial distribution of water deficit and maize yield deficit across Europe has been compared between current and expected climatic conditions in the near future (time window 2030). Maize yields and water requirements were simulated using the WOFOST (World Food Studies) crop growth model. In our study, the priority has been given to future projections of the A1B emission scenario produced within the ENSEMBLE project: HadRM3 RCM nested within the HADCM3 GCM (HADLEY) and HIRHAM5 RCM nested within ECHAM5 GCM (ECHAM). The two realizations can be considered as warm (HADLEY) and cold (ECHAM5) according to simulated temperature in the near future and therefore represent the extremes in air temperature change within those analyzed in ENSEMBLES project, allowing us to evaluate the largest range of uncertainty in weather inputs to the impact model. In addition, we also explored the advantages of different irrigation strategies for the target crop to offset climate change impacts. In wake of limited amount of water availability for agriculture purposes, we explored effectiveness of three different irrigation strategies on maize yield over Europe, namely full, deficit and supplemental irrigation. The results of our study indicate that the maize yield under rainfed conditions is expected to decrease over the Southern Europe as well as regions around the Black Sea during the 2030s under both climate model realizations. Water deficit is expected to increase especially in the Mediterranean, whereas slightly less in parts of Central and Western Europe. However, adaptation strategies followed in this study negate the detrimental effect of climate change and result in an increased maize yield. Three irrigation strategies have been simulated differing in timing of water application and in the total volume of water supplied during the growing season. The results show that yields, achieved using deficit and full irrigation strategies, are not significantly different. Hence, at least

  8. Fostering low-cost soil moisture monitoring techniques to improve irrigation efficiency in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouleau, Clémence; Baracchini, Theo; Razurel, Pierre; Gorla, Lorenzo; Bolay, Jean-Claude; Perona, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Irrigated agriculture is a significant activity in water stressed semi-arid (e.g., the Sahel) regions, thereby yield and water management are fundamental aspects of irrigation success. Small farmers have often difficulties in managing crops and in evaluating water needs resulting in low yield with excessive water consumption, elevated pumping costs and soil degradation. In different proportions, this overuse of water concerns all irrigation techniques: gravity flows from reservoirs, watering cans irrigation from groundwater wells, micro- or drip irrigation. Baseline requirements for supporting sustainable technology are low costs, easy installation, minimal maintenance, and local production. We present and discuss results from the Info4Dourou2.0 explorative project in Burkina Faso, the main goal of which is to improve small-scale agriculture by the use of sensing and communication technologies. In particular, a support system that couples autonomous and continuous measurements of meteorological variables and soil matrix potential as well as soil humidity with agronomic models has been tested in drip-irrigated fields over a three-year period. In particular, the system is collecting data from three water potential sensors at different locations per field and informs the farmers through a simple interface of the correct amount of water needed by the plant. In its simplicity this system provides an easy to use and install irrigation management setup, and is therefore an ideal candidate in favor of sustainability. Info4Dourou2.0 pilot experiments have shown that farmers can obtain significantly higher yields using lower amounts of water. Overall, this methodology allows facing multiple urgent problems such as the use of environmental data to improve agricultural production towards ecosystem conservation, food security issues and adaptation to climatic change scenarios.

  9. Simulating N2O emissions from irrigated cotton wheat rotations in Australia using DAYCENT: Mitigation options by optimized fertilizer and irrigation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, Clemens; DelGrosso, Stephen; Parton, William; Rowlings, David; Grace, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Irrigation and fertilization do not only stimulate plant growth, but also accelerate microbial C- and N-turnover in the soil and thus can lead to enhanced emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) from soils. In Australia there are more than 2 million hectares of agricultural land under irrigation and research has now focused on a combination of nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation management to maintain crop yields, maximize nitrogen use efficiency and reduce N2O emissions. Process-based models are now being used to estimate N2O emissions and assess mitigation options of N2O fluxes by improving management at field, regional and national scales. To insure that model predictions are reliable it is important to rigorously test the model so that uncertainty bounds for N2O emissions can be reduced and the impacts of different management practices on emissions can be better quantified. We used high temporal frequency dataset of N2O emissions to validate the performance of the agroecosystem model DayCent to simulate daily N2O emissions from sub-tropical vertisols under different irrigation intensities. Furthermore, we evaluated potential N2O mitigation strategies in irrigated cotton-wheat rotations in Australia by simulating different fertilizer and irrigation management scenarios over a climatically variable 25 year time span. DayCent accurately predicted soil moisture dynamics and the timing and magnitude of high fluxes associated with fertilizer additions and irrigation events. At the daily scale we found a good correlation of predicted vs. measured N2O fluxes (r2 = 0.52), confirming that DayCent can be used to test agricultural practices for mitigating N2O emission from irrigated cropping systems. The simulations of different fertilization and irrigation practices in cotton-wheat rotations over a 25 year time frame clearly showed that there is scope for reducing N2O emissions by modified fertilizer and irrigation management. For wheat and for cotton the model predicted that a

  10. Irrigation water use in Kansas, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanning-Rush, Jennifer L.

    2016-03-22

    This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Kansas Department of Agriculture, Division of Water Resources, presents derivative statistics of 2013 irrigation water use in Kansas. The published regional and county-level statistics from the previous 4 years (2009–12) are shown with the 2013 statistics and are used to calculate a 5-year average. An overall Kansas average and regional averages also are calculated and presented. Total reported irrigation water use in 2013 was 3.3 million acre-feet of water applied to 3.0 million irrigated acres.

  11. Ancestral irrigation method by kanis in Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldán-Cañas, José; Chipana, René; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María

    2015-04-01

    Irrigation in the Andean region is an ancient practice. For centuries, farmers were able to use the waters of rivers, lakes and springs to complement or supplement the scarce rainfall regime. The inter-Andean valleys of the Department of La Paz are the best areas for the study of traditional irrigation systems. This work has been carried out in the community of Jatichulaya located in te town of Charazani, 300 km from the city of La Paz, which lies 3250 meters above sea level. The annual rainfall ranges around 450 mm distributed mainly between the months of December to March. Therefore, water is needed to achieve adequate crop yields. The traditional irrigation system is done by the method of Kanis, consisting of a surface irrigation already developed by traditional Andean cultures of the country, in harmony with the ecological and productive characteristics of the area. Water enters the irrigation plot through a main channel (mama kani) from which the secondary channels (juchuy kanis) are derived. The fundamental characteristic of this irrigation is that these channels are open at the same time the water enters into the plot. The system works properly, adapting to the topography of the area. The irrigation method practiced in this community does not cause water erosion of soils because water management within the plot is based on the ancient knowledge of farmers following the contour lines. This practice allows good irrigation development and soil protection without causing any problems. However, it was evident a high use of labor in irrigation practice. Irrigation scheduling is done according to requests made by the irrigators in a given period. Delivering of water to the farmers is made by the so-called Water Agent (Agente de Aguas) or person in charge of the distribution of water. The Water Agent is elected annually and its functions include the maintenance and care of all system waterworks. The period between August and January is the highest water demand and

  12. Spatial assessment of groundwater use potential for irrigation in Teesta Barrage Project in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahid, Shahriar M.; Babel, Mukand S.; Gupta, Ashim Das; Clemente, Roberto S.

    2007-03-01

    In Bangladesh, development of the groundwater resource for irrigation is a vital component of the government’s agricultural strategy to attain food self-sufficiency. Amidst reports of falling groundwater levels in many parts of Bangladesh, the potential of groundwater use has been investigated in the Teesta Barrage Project (TBP) in which large-scale groundwater development for dry-season irrigation has taken place in the recent past. Several techniques and tools have been applied such as the combination of analysis of groundwater hydrographs and mathematical modelling to derive key hydrogeological variables, calculation of net irrigation requirement and the use of geographical information systems. The results show that the economically attractive high-yielding variety (HYV) Boro (dry season) rice cultivation during the groundwater irrigation season may not be sustained in large parts of the project area if the current trends in abstraction are continued. However, due to spatial variation in abstraction, nine thanas (sub-districts)—out of a total of 21 in the project area—may still be able to expand groundwater-irrigated cropland and a groundwater-use potential of 40 mm/year may be created if deep-set shallow tubewells are used by the farmers to abstract groundwater. A structured approach, based on zoning of potential areas, is recommended for groundwater development and use.

  13. Fertilizer efficiency and environmental risk of irrigating Impatiens with composting leachate in decentralized solid waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Chuanbin; Wang Rusong; Zhang Yishan

    2010-06-15

    The reduction and reuse of composting leachate is an issue of importance in the field of decentralized solid waste management. In this study, composting leachate from source-separated food waste was treated and subsequently used as liquid fertilizer to irrigate Impatiens (Impatiens balsamina). The leachate was altered by adjusting storage time and dilution, and through addition of microbial inocula. For each test case, the effects of irrigation were monitored by analyzing the Impatiens extension degree, numbers of leaves and flowers, dry weight, and photosynthetic pigment content to assess fertilizer efficiency. The main results obtained revealed that the addition of microbial inocula and lengthening of storage times may lower COD concentrations, adjust pH value and maintain a comparatively high level of nutrient contents. By adding microbial inocula, a COD concentration of 9.6% and BOD{sub 5} concentration of 6.7% were obtained for non-treated leachate with the same storage time. COD concentrations in leachate decreased to 69.4% after 36 weeks storage. Moreover, composting leachate promoted growth of Impatiens. The dry weight biomass of Impatiens irrigated using treated diluted leachate was 1.15-2.94 times that obtained for Impatiens irrigated using tap water. Lastly, following the irrigation of Impatiens over a short period, soil did not accumulate VOCs and heavy metals to levels exceeding relative standards. Further research on heavy metal and salinity accumulation in plants should be undertaken to meet the needs of large-scale applications.

  14. Expansion of urban area and wastewater irrigated rice area in Hyderabad, India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gumma, K.M.; van, Rooijen D.; Nelson, A.; Thenkabail, P.S.; Aakuraju, R.V.; Amerasinghe, P.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate land use changes in urban and peri-urban Hyderabad and their influence on wastewater irrigated rice using Landsat ETM + data and spectral matching techniques. The main source of irrigation water is the Musi River, which collects a large volume of wastewater and stormwater while running through the city. From 1989 to 2002, the wastewater irrigated area along the Musi River increased from 5,213 to 8,939 ha with concurrent expansion of the city boundaries from 22,690 to 42,813 ha and also decreased barren lands and range lands from 86,899 to 66,616 ha. Opportunistic shifts in land use, especially related to wastewater irrigated agriculture, were seen as a response to the demand for fresh vegetables and easy access to markets, exploited mainly by migrant populations. While wastewater irrigated agriculture contributes to income security of marginal groups, it also supplements the food basket of many city dwellers. Landsat ETM + data and advanced methods such as spectral matching techniques are ideal for quantifying urban expansion and associated land use changes, and are useful for urban planners and decision makers alike. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  15. An evaluation of microbial health risks to livestock fed with wastewater-irrigated forage crops.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, P D; Bastos, R K X; Mara, D D

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the results of five experiments in which animal health risks associated with the consumption of crops irrigated with domestic wastewater were evaluated. Forage maize and Tanner grass were irrigated with treated wastewater and used in goats and calves feeding trials. The irrigated crops presented high levels of surface contamination with E. coli (10(4) -10(7) 25 g(-1) ) and salmonellae (up to 1.6 × 10(4) 25 g(-1)), but none of the animals showed signs of infection or of disease. Further, the microbiological quality of animal products always complied with the Brazilian and European Union standards for food safety. It is suggested that the WHO guideline values for restricted irrigation (≤ 10(4) E. coli 100 ml(-1) and ≤ 1 helminth egg l(-1)), which were developed to protect the health of agricultural field workers, would be equally protective of the health of both animals fed with wastewater-irrigated crops and humans consuming products from such animals.

  16. Fertilizer efficiency and environmental risk of irrigating Impatiens with composting leachate in decentralized solid waste management.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuanbin; Wang, Rusong; Zhang, Yishan

    2010-06-01

    The reduction and reuse of composting leachate is an issue of importance in the field of decentralized solid waste management. In this study, composting leachate from source-separated food waste was treated and subsequently used as liquid fertilizer to irrigate Impatiens (Impatiens balsamina). The leachate was altered by adjusting storage time and dilution, and through addition of microbial inocula. For each test case, the effects of irrigation were monitored by analyzing the Impatiens extension degree, numbers of leaves and flowers, dry weight, and photosynthetic pigment content to assess fertilizer efficiency. The main results obtained revealed that the addition of microbial inocula and lengthening of storage times may lower COD concentrations, adjust pH value and maintain a comparatively high level of nutrient contents. By adding microbial inocula, a COD concentration of 9.6% and BOD(5) concentration of 6.7% were obtained for non-treated leachate with the same storage time. COD concentrations in leachate decreased to 69.4% after 36weeks storage. Moreover, composting leachate promoted growth of Impatiens. The dry weight biomass of Impatiens irrigated using treated diluted leachate was 1.15-2.94 times that obtained for Impatiens irrigated using tap water. Lastly, following the irrigation of Impatiens over a short period, soil did not accumulate VOCs and heavy metals to levels exceeding relative standards. Further research on heavy metal and salinity accumulation in plants should be undertaken to meet the needs of large-scale applications.

  17. 43 CFR 418.7 - Who may receive irrigation deliveries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Conditions of Water Delivery § 418.7 Who may receive irrigation deliveries. Project irrigation water... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Who may receive irrigation deliveries. 418... individual water right holder indicating the number of eligible acres irrigated and the amount of...

  18. 43 CFR 418.7 - Who may receive irrigation deliveries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Conditions of Water Delivery § 418.7 Who may receive irrigation deliveries. Project irrigation water... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Who may receive irrigation deliveries. 418... individual water right holder indicating the number of eligible acres irrigated and the amount of...

  19. 43 CFR 418.7 - Who may receive irrigation deliveries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Conditions of Water Delivery § 418.7 Who may receive irrigation deliveries. Project irrigation water... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Who may receive irrigation deliveries. 418... individual water right holder indicating the number of eligible acres irrigated and the amount of...

  20. Impact of long-term wastewater irrigation on sorption and transport of atrazine in Mexican agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Müller, K; Duwig, C; Prado, B; Siebe, C; Hidalgo, C; Etchevers, J

    2012-01-01

    In the Mezquital Valley, Mexico, crops have been irrigated with untreated municipal wastewater for more than a century. Atrazine has been applied to maize and alfalfa grown in the area for weed control for 15 years. Our objectives were to analyse (i) how wastewater irrigation affects the filtering of atrazine, and (ii) if the length of irrigation has a significant impact. We compared atrazine sorption to Phaeozems that have been irrigated with raw wastewater for 35 (P35) and 85 (P85) years with sorption to