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Sample records for irs diagnostic diagram

  1. Constraining Globular Cluster Age Uncertainties using the IR Color-Magnitude Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correnti, Matteo; Gennaro, Mario; Kalirai, Jason S.; Brown, Thomas M.; Calamida, Annalisa

    2016-05-01

    Globular Clusters (GCs) in the Milky Way are the primary laboratories for establishing the ages of the oldest stellar populations and for measuring the color-magnitude relation of stars. In infrared (IR) color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), the stellar main sequence (MS) exhibits a “kink” due to opacity effects in M dwarfs such that lower mass and cooler dwarfs become bluer in the IR color baseline. This diagnostic offers a new opportunity to model GC CMDs and to reduce uncertainties on cluster properties (e.g., their derived ages). In this context, we analyzed Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 IR archival observations of four GCs—47 Tuc, M4, NGC 2808, and NGC 6752—for which the data are deep enough to fully sample the low-mass MS, reaching at least ≃2 mag below the “kink.” We derived the fiducial lines for each cluster and compared them with a grid of isochrones over a large range of parameter space, allowing age, metallicity, distance, and reddening to vary within reasonable selected ranges. The derived ages for the four clusters are, respectively, 11.6, 11.5, 11.2, and 12.1 Gyr and their random uncertainties are σ ˜ 0.7-1.1 Gyr. Our results suggest that the near-IR MS “kink,” combined with the MS turn-off, provides a valuable tool to measure GC ages and offers a promising opportunity to push the absolute age of GCs to sub-Gyr accuracy with the next generation IR telescopes such as the James Webb Space Telescope and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Telescope. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  2. Tumor diagnostics using fiber optical IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Harald; Bindig, Uwe; Waesche, Wolfgang; Liebold, K.; Roggan, Andre; Frege, P.; Gross, U. M.; Mueller, G.

    1999-04-01

    Aim of the project is the development of an in vivo endoscopic method to differentiate between cancerous from healthy tissue. The method is based on IR spectra in which each diseased state of the tissue has its own characteristic pattern as already shown in previous experiments. Two regions (1245 - 1195) cm-1 and (1045 - 995) cm-1 within the fingerprint (less than 1500 cm-1) region were selected for analysis. This paper will present the technical design of the laboratory set up and outcome of the development as well as the experiments. Two lead-salt diode lasers were used as excitation sources. The IR-radiation was transmitted via silverhalide fibers to the tissue to be investigated. On the detection side another IR fiber was used to transmit the signal to an MCT-detector (Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride). Measurement modes are Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) and diffuse Reflection/Remission. Spatial resolution was 100 X 100 micrometer2. The tissue used for these experiments was human colon carcinoma under humidity conditions. Samples were mapped using a stepper motor powered x/y/z-translation stage with a resolution of 1 micrometer. Results were compared with measurements carried out using a FTIR-interferometer and an FTIR-microscope in the region from 4000 - 900 cm-1. Soft- and Hardware control of the experiment is done using Labwindows/CVI (National Instruments, USA).

  3. IR DIAGNOSTICS FOR DYNAMIC FAILURE OF MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    McElfresh, M; DeTeresa, S

    2006-02-13

    This project explores the thermodynamics of dynamic deformation and failure of materials using high-speed spatially-resolved infrared (IR) measurements of temperature. During deformation mechanical work is converted to different forms of energy depending on the deformation processes. For example, it can be dissipated as heat in purely plastic deformation, stored as strain energy in dislocations in metals and in oriented polymeric molecular structures, and expended during the generation of new surfaces during damage and fracture. The problem of how this work is converted into these various forms is not well understood. In fact, there exists a controversy for the relatively simple case regarding the amount of work dissipated as heat during uniform plastic deformation. The goals of this work are to develop dynamic IR temperature measurement techniques and then apply them to gain a better understanding of the dynamic failure processes in both metals and polymeric composite materials. The experimental results will be compared against predictions of existing constitutive models and guide the development of higher fidelity models if needed.

  4. NEW APPROACHES: Using free body diagrams as a diagnostic instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteley, Peter

    1996-09-01

    A selection of `Free Body Diagrams' were completed by Advanced Level physics students prior to instruction. The diagrams drawn pointed to a range of understandings and conceptions held by the students that might help to guide instructional strategies.

  5. Helioseismic Ring-diagram Diagnostics of Solar Fares.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibacher, John W.; Baudin, Frédéric

    2014-06-01

    Flares are known to excite waves in the solar atmosphere. Maurya et al. (2009), using a local analysis (ring diagrams) of the 2003 Halloween flare, also showed they excite p-modes. We confirm and extend here these results by:-applying the same analysis to other locations on the Sun at the time of the Halloween flare-analyzing another event also showing a signature of p-mode excitation-looking in details at the results of the ring diagrams analysis in terms of noise fitting.The Halloween flare present an apparent localized excitation of p-modes, similar to what is observed for the other event analyzed.

  6. Applications of FT-IR spectrophotometry in cancer diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Bunaciu, Andrei A; Hoang, Vu Dang; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2015-01-01

    This review provides a brief background to the application of infrared spectroscopy, including Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, in biological fluids. It is not meant to be complete or exhaustive but to provide the reader with sufficient background for selected applications in cancer diagnostics. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is a fast and nondestructive analytical method. The infrared spectrum of a mixture serves as the basis to quantitate its constituents, and a number of common clinical chemistry tests have proven to be feasible using this approach. This review focuses on biomedical FT-IR applications, published in the period 2009-2013, used for early detection of cancer through qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  7. IR spectral analysis for the diagnostics of crust earthquake precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umarkhodgaev, R. M.; Liperovsky, V. A.; Mikhailin, V. V.; Meister, C.-V.; Naumov, D. Ju

    2012-04-01

    In regions of future earthquakes, a few days before the seismic shock, the emanation of radon and hydrogen is being observed, which causes clouds of increased ionisation in the atmosphere. In the present work the possible diagnostics of these clouds using infrared (IR) spectroscopy is considered, which may be important and useful for the general geophysical system of earthquake prediction and the observation of industrial emissions of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. Some possible physical processes are analysed, which cause, under the condition of additional ionisation in a pre-breakdown electrical field, emissions in the IR interval. In doing so, the transparency region of the IR spectrum at wavelengths of 7-15 μm is taken into account. This transparency region corresponds to spectral lines of small atmospheric constituents like CH4, CO2, N2O, NO2, NO, and O3. The possible intensities of the IR emissions observable in laboratories and in nature are estimated. The acceleration process of the electrons in the pre-breakdown electrical field before its adhesion to the molecules is analysed. The laboratory equipment for the investigation of the IR absorption spectrum is constructed for the cases of normal and decreased atmospheric pressures. The syntheses of ozone and nitrous oxides are performed in the barrier discharge. It is studied if the products of the syntheses may be used to model atmospheric processes where these components take part. Spectra of products of the syntheses in the wavelength region of 2-10 μm are observed and analysed. A device is created for the syntheses and accumulation of nitrous oxides. Experiments to observe the IR-spectra of ozone and nitrous oxides during the syntheses and during the further evolution of these molecules are performed. For the earthquake prediction, practically, the investigation of emission spectra is most important, but during the laboratory experiments, the radiation of the excited molecules is shifted by a

  8. Development of a diagnostic diagram for rapid field assessment of acidosis severity in diarrheic calves.

    PubMed

    Bellino, Claudio; Arnaudo, Fabrizio; Biolatti, Cristina; Borrelli, Antonio; Gianella, Paola; Maurella, Cristiana; Zabaldano, Giuseppe; Cagnasso, Aurelio; D'Angelo, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    To develop a diagnostic diagram for rapid field assessment of acidosis severity in diarrheic calves. Prospective cross-sectional study. 148 Piedmontese calves (38 calves in preliminary experiments; 83 diarrheic calves and 27 healthy control calves in the primary experiment). Physical examination was performed and a standard data collection form was completed for each calf. Blood samples were obtained and submitted for evaluation of acid-base balance, performance of a CBC, and measurement of electrolyte and total protein concentrations. Severe metabolic acidosis (extracellular base excess more negative than -10 mmol/L) was associated with abnormal mental status, delayed or absent suckle reflex, abnormal posture or gait, enophthalmos, and cold oral mucosal membranes. Clinical signs associated with severe metabolic acidosis were arranged into a grid to create a diagnostic diagram. Sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic diagram for the prediction of severe metabolic acidosis were 88% and 79%, respectively. Use of the diagnostic diagram may aid differentiation between severe and nonsevere acidosis patterns as determined on the basis of clinical signs.

  9. The Milky Way, the Local Group & the IR Tully-Fisher Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malhotra, S.; Spergel, D.; Rhoads, J.; Li, J.

    1996-01-01

    Using the near infrared fluxes of local group galaxies derived from Cosmic Background Explorer/Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment band maps and published Cepheid distances, we construct Tully-Fisher diagrams for the Local Group.

  10. SDSS IV MaNGA - spatially resolved diagnostic diagrams: a proof that many galaxies are LIERs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belfiore, Francesco; Maiolino, Roberto; Maraston, Claudia; Emsellem, Eric; Bershady, Matthew A.; Masters, Karen L.; Yan, Renbin; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Boquien, Médéric; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bundy, Kevin; Drory, Niv; Heckman, Timothy M.; Law, David R.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Pan, Kaike; Stanghellini, Letizia; Thomas, Daniel; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Westfall, Kyle B.

    2016-09-01

    We study the spatially resolved excitation properties of the ionized gas in a sample of 646 galaxies using integral field spectroscopy data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) programme. Making use of Baldwin-Philips-Terlevich diagnostic diagrams we demonstrate the ubiquitous presence of extended (kpc scale) low-ionization emission-line regions (LIERs) in both star-forming and quiescent galaxies. In star-forming galaxies LIER emission can be associated with diffuse ionized gas, most evident as extraplanar emission in edge-on systems. In addition, we identify two main classes of galaxies displaying LIER emission: `central LIER' (cLIER) galaxies, where central LIER emission is spatially extended, but accompanied by star formation at larger galactocentric distances, and `extended LIER' (eLIER) galaxies, where LIER emission is extended throughout the whole galaxy. In eLIER and cLIER galaxies, LIER emission is associated with radially flat, low H α equivalent width of line emission (<3 Å) and stellar population indices demonstrating the lack of young stellar populations, implying that line emission follows tightly the continuum due to the underlying old stellar population. The H α surface brightness radial profiles are always shallower than 1/r2 and the line ratio [O III] λ5007/[O II] λλ3727,29 (a tracer of the ionization parameter of the gas) shows a flat gradient. This combined evidence strongly supports the scenario in which LIER emission is not due to a central point source but to diffuse stellar sources, the most likely candidates being hot, evolved (post-asymptotic giant branch) stars. Shocks are observed to play a significant role in the ionization of the gas only in rare merging and interacting systems.

  11. Luminescence diagnostics of malignant tumors in the IR spectral range using Yb-porphyrin metallocomplexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. V.; Rumyantseva, V. D.; Shchamkhalov, K. S.; Shilov, I. P.

    2010-12-01

    The creation and application of new low-toxic photosensitizers for the luminescence diagnostics of cancer are considered. The new photosensitizers weakly generate singlet oxygen, exhibit developed luminescence, and retain the tumor-tropic properties of the therapeutic photosensitizers. Twenty one ytterbium complexes of porphyrin compounds that differ by the substituents at the periphery of the porphyrin ring are synthesized. The absorption and luminescence spectra and the luminescence decay curves of these substances are studied. The primary toxicological and pharmacokinetic investigations are performed for the most promising compounds in the organisms of experimental animals. The experimental data prove that the Yb-porphyrin complexes are promising as low-toxic markers for the luminescence diagnostics of malignant tumors in the IR spectral range (975-985 nm) that are free of the phototoxicity typical of the conventional porphyrins at a relatively high luminescence contrast and the selective accumulation in tissue.

  12. Mid-IR laser absorption diagnostics for hydrocarbon vapor sensing in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingbeil, Adam Edgar

    Fuel/air stoichiometry is an important parameter in modern combustion devices because it has a profound influence on efficiency, power, and pollutant formation. As engine technologies continue to advance, diagnostics and sensors are becoming essential for studying fundamental combustion processes and characterizing performance of combustion-based engines. Optical-absorption diagnostics have been used previously to probe various species in these environments and to infer quantities such as concentration, temperature, pressure, and velocity. However, there have been only a limited number of demonstrations of optical diagnostics for hydrocarbon fuels. This thesis describes the development of mid-IR optical-absorption sensors for time-resolved measurements of hydrocarbon species to infer critical parameters such as concentration and temperature. These sensors provide the necessary sensitivity and time resolution for measurements in shock tubes, pulse detonation engines, and internal combustion engines. Different aspects of the research conducted are summarized below. An FTIR spectrometer is used to measure the temperature-dependent absorption spectra of a selection of hydrocarbon species and blended fuels in the ˜3.3 mum region of the fundamental C-H stretching vibration. This spectroscopic library provides the first high-temperature spectral information for many of the species studied and facilitates development of sensitive diagnostics for various applications. This unique database also enables modelling of the absorption spectra of blended fuels such as gasoline. An ethylene and propane diagnostic is designed for measuring fuel concentration in a pulse detonation engine using a fixed-wavelength helium-neon laser. Time-resolved measurements during fired tests of a repetitively pulsed engine reveal non-ideal cycle-to-cycle interactions that cause a substantial amount of fuel to leave the engine unburned. By quantifying the fuel loading and identifying the amount of

  13. Iodine-water-alkanol and potassium iodide-water-alkanol systems: Phase diagrams and regularities of association according to IR and NMR spectroscopic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monakhova, Yu. B.; Varlamova, T. M.; Rubtsova, E. M.; Mushtakova, S. P.

    2015-04-01

    The variation of the iodine and potassium iodide solubilities in water-monoatomic alcohol (ethanol, propanol, isopropanol) solvents is considered from the standpoint of IR spectroscopic and chemometric data on association in water-alkanol binary mixtures. The iodine and potassium iodide solubilities in the mixed solvents vary nonlinearly with solvent composition because of the formation of 1 : 1 and 1 : 3 water-alcohol heteroassociates and alcohol homoassociates. Different kinds of phase diagram are observed for the iodine-water-alcohol systems: the I2-H2O-1-C3H7OH and the I2-H2O-2-C3H7OH diagrams have a phase separation region, while the I2-H2O-C2H5OH diagram does not. This fact is explained in terms of the interaction between the components of the systems. The variation of the potassium iodide solubility in the mixed solvent is discussed: a decrease in the KI solubility is symbatic to an increase in the relative concentration of 1 : 1 associates in the water-alcohol solution. The run of the iodine and potassium iodide solubility curves at low alcohol concentrations is explained on the basis of NMR spectroscopic data on association in aqueous solutions of the monoatomic alcohols.

  14. Diagnostics of Coronal Magnetic Fields Through the Hanle Effect in UV and IR Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raouafi, Nour E.; Riley, Pete; Gibson, Sarah; Fineschi, Silvano; Solanki, Sami K.

    2016-06-01

    The plasma thermodynamics in the solar upper atmosphere, particularly in the corona, are dominated by the magnetic field, which controls the flow and dissipation of energy. The relative lack of knowledge of the coronal vector magnetic field is a major handicap for progress in coronal physics. This makes the development of measurement methods of coronal magnetic fields a high priority in solar physics. The Hanle effect in the UV and IR spectral lines is a largely unexplored diagnostic. We use magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to study the magnitude of the signal to be expected for typical coronal magnetic fields for selected spectral lines in the UV and IR wavelength ranges, namely the HI Ly-α and the He I 10830 Å lines. We show that the selected lines are useful for reliable diagnosis of coronal magnetic fields. The results show that the combination of polarization measurements of spectral lines with different sensitivities to the Hanle effect may be most appropriate for deducing coronal magnetic properties from future observations.

  15. Molecular IR Spectroscopy: New Trends and Methods of Noninvasive Diagnostics of Tissue IN VIVO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyeva, Natalia; Bruch, Reinhard

    1998-05-01

    Fiberoptic evanescent wave Fourier transform infrared (FEW-FTIR) spectroscopy using fiberoptic sensors operated in the attenuated total reflection (ATR) regime in the middle infrared (IR) region of the spectrum (850-1850 cm-1) has recently been applied to the diagnostics of tissues. The method is suitable for noninvasive and rapid (seconds) direct measurements of the spectra of normal and pathological tissues in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. The aim of our studies is the express testing of various tumor tissues at the early stages of their development. The method is expected to be further developed for endoscopic and biopsy applications. We measured the normal skin and malignant tissues in vivo on the surface (directly on patients) in various cases of basaloma, melanoma and nevus. The experiments were performed in the operating room to measure the skin in the depth (under/in the layers of epidermis) of human breast, stomach, lung, and kidney tissues. The breast and skin tissues at different stages of tumor or cancer were distinguished very clearly in spectra of amide, side cyclic and noncyclic hydrogen bonded fragments of aminoacid residuals, phosphate groups and sugars. Computer monitoring is being developed for diagnostics.

  16. Diagnostics of cancer tissues by fiber optic evanescent wave Fourier transform IR (FEW-FTIR) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyeva, Natalia I.; Kolyakov, Sergei F.; Letokhov, Vladilen S.; Golovkina, Viktoriya N.

    1997-08-01

    Fiber optic evanescent wave Fourier transform infrared (FEW- FTIR) spectroscopy using fiberoptic sensors operated in the attenuated total reflection (ATR) regime in the middle infrared (IR) region of the spectrum (850 - 1850 cm-1) has recently found application in the diagnostics of tissues. The method is suitable for noninvasive and rapid (seconds) direct measurements of the spectra of normal and pathological tissues in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. The aim of our studies is the express testing of various tumor tissues at the early stages of their development. The method is expected to be further developed for endoscopic and biopsy applications. We measured in vivo the skin normal and malignant tissues on surface (directly on patients) in various cases of basaloma, melanoma and nevus. The experiments were performed in operating room for measurements of skin in the depth (under/in the layers of epidermis), human breast, stomach, lung, kidney tissues. The breast and skin tissues at different stages of tumor or cancer were distinguished very clearly in spectra of amide, side cyclic and noncyclic hydrogen bonded fragments of aminoacid residuals, phosphate groups and sugars. Computer monitoring is being developed for diagnostics.

  17. Estimation of precipitation from GOES IR imagery during FGGE: Application to diagnostic studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, F. R.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives were to (1) develop a method of estimating open-ocean rainfall and associated latent heat release via GOES IR satellite imagery; (2) to use remote precipitation estimates to investigate the role of diabatic forcing in the maintenance of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) during FGGE SOP-1/; and (3) to assess the significance of non-quasigeostrophic transports of energy in several cyclogenetic events preceding the development of a North Atlantic blocking episode during FGGE SOP-1. The bulk of the early FY-85 work was directed toward development of the single pixel indexing technique (SPI) which assigns a rain rate to GOES IR black-body temperatures, T sub b, via a non-linear statistical relationship developed with raingauge measurements. The method was tested against radar-derived rainfall during GATE raingauge measurements over coastal North Carolina and island stations in the South Pacific Ocean. Skill was found comparable to Arkin's method (1979 MWR) in convective situations. The results suggest that transferring a rain algorithm from one oceanic regime to another may not require substantial modification of coefficients or tunable parameters. Twelve H mean rainfall amounts were produced for the region bounded by 10 deg. N, 50 deg. S, 120 deg W and 170 deg. E during the period January 10 to 16, 1979. These estimates constitute a basic input to diagnostic calculations of diabatic heating over the SPCZ region. ECMWF level III-b data analyses was used to compute several components of the APE balance in the South Pacific during the period January 10 to 18, 1979.

  18. A Diagnostic Diagram to Understand the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer at High Wind Speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettle, Anthony

    2014-05-01

    Long time series of offshore meteorological measurements in the lower marine atmospheric boundary layer show dynamical regimes and variability that are forced partly by interaction with the underlying sea surface and partly by the passage of cloud systems overhead. At low wind speeds, the dynamics and stability structure of the surface layer depend mainly on the air-sea temperature difference and the measured wind speed at a standard height. The physical processes are mostly understood and the quantified through Monin-Obukhov (MO) similarity theory. At high wind speeds different dynamical regimes become dominant. Breaking waves contribute to the atmospheric loading of sea spray and water vapor and modify the character of air-sea interaction. Downdrafts and boundary layer rolls associated with clouds at the top of the boundary layer impact vertical heat and momentum fluxes. Data from offshore meteorological monitoring sites will typically show different behavior and the regime shifts depending on the local winds and synoptic conditions. However, the regular methods to interpret time series through spectral analysis give only a partial view of dynamics in the atmospheric boundary layer. Also, the spectral methods have limited use for boundary layer and mesoscale modellers whose geophysical diagnostics are mostly anchored in directly measurable quantities: wind speed, temperature, precipitation, pressure, and radiation. Of these, wind speed and the air-sea temperature difference are the most important factors that characterize the dynamics of the lower atmospheric boundary layer and they provide a dynamical and thermodynamic constraint to frame observed processes, especially at high wind speeds. This was recognized in the early interpretation of the Froya database of gale force coastal winds from mid-Norway (Andersen, O.J. and J. Lovseth, Gale force maritime wind. The Froya data base. Part 1: Sites and instrumentation. Review of the data base, Journal of Wind

  19. SUBMILLIMETER-HCN DIAGRAM FOR ENERGY DIAGNOSTICS IN THE CENTERS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Izumi, Takuma; Kohno, Kotaro; Aalto, Susanne; Espada, Daniel; Martín, Sergio; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Fathi, Kambiz; Harada, Nanase; Hsieh, Pei-Ying; Matsushita, Satoki; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Krips, Melanie; Meier, David S.; Nakai, Naomasa; Schinnerer, Eva; Sheth, Kartik; Terashima, Yuichi; Turner, Jean L.

    2016-02-10

    Compiling data from literature and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array archive, we show enhanced HCN(4–3)/HCO{sup +}(4–3) and/or HCN(4–3)/CS(7–6) integrated intensity ratios in circumnuclear molecular gas around active galactic nuclei (AGNs) compared to those in starburst (SB) galaxies (submillimeter HCN enhancement). The number of sample galaxies is significantly increased from our previous work. We expect that this feature could potentially be an extinction-free energy diagnostic tool of nuclear regions of galaxies. Non-LTE radiative transfer modelings of the above molecular emission lines involving both collisional and radiative excitation, as well as a photon trapping effect, were conducted to investigate the cause of the high line ratios in AGNs. As a result, we found that enhanced abundance ratios of HCN to HCO{sup +} and HCN to CS in AGNs as compared to SB galaxies by a factor of a few to even ≳10 are a plausible explanation for the submillimeter HCN enhancement. However, a counterargument of a systematically higher gas density in AGNs than in SB galaxies can also be a plausible scenario. Although we cannot fully distinguish these two scenarios at this moment owing to an insufficient amount of multi-transition, multi-species data, the former scenario is indicative of abnormal chemical composition in AGNs. Regarding the actual mechanism to realize the composition, we suggest that it is difficult with conventional gas-phase X-ray-dominated region ionization models to reproduce the observed high line ratios. We might have to take into account other mechanisms such as neutral–neutral reactions that are efficiently activated in high-temperature environments and/or mechanically heated regions to further understand the high line ratios in AGNs.

  20. Superconductivity and phase diagrams of the 4d - and 5d -metal-doped iron arsenides SrFe2-xMxAs2 (M=Rh,Ir,Pd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Fei; Zhu, Xiyu; Cheng, Peng; Mu, Gang; Jia, Ying; Fang, Lei; Wang, Yonglei; Luo, Huiqian; Zeng, Bin; Shen, Bing; Shan, Lei; Ren, Cong; Wen, Hai-Hu

    2009-07-01

    By substituting the Fe with the 4d - and 5d -transition metals Rh, Ir, and Pd in SrFe2As2 , we have successfully synthesized a series of superconductors SrFe2-xMxAs2 ( M=Rh , Ir, and Pd) and explored the phase diagrams of them. The systematic evolution of the lattice constants indicated that part of the Fe ions were successfully replaced by the transition metals Rh, Ir, and Pd. By increasing the doping content of Rh, Ir, and Pd, the antiferromagnetic (AF) state of the parent phase is suppressed progressively and superconductivity is induced. The general phase diagrams were obtained and found to be similar to the case of doping Co and Ni to the Fe sites. However, the detailed structure of the phase diagram, in terms of how fast to suppress the antiferromagnetic order and induce the superconductivity, varies from one kind of doped element to another. Regarding the close values of the maximum superconducting transition temperatures in doping Co, Rh, and Ir which locate actually in the same column in the periodic table of elements but have very different masses, we argue that the superconductivity is intimately related to the suppression of the AF order, rather than the electron-phonon coupling.

  1. Investigation of the Effect of the Combustion Site on Wood Specimens with the Use of IR Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zima, V. P.; Kasymov, D. P.

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated under laboratory conditions the effect of the combustion site modeled by a steppe combustible on wood specimens of different profiles (flat and cylindrical specimens) with the use of IR diagnostics. Experiments were carried out with the use of a JADE J5330SB infrared imager in the spectral range of 2.64-3.25 μm. The temperature profiles on the surface of wood specimens of different forms (flat and cylindrical specimens) have been obtained and the heat-stressed parts under the action of the model combustion site imitating a low-intensity low forest fire have been determined.

  2. Evolving American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Procedures On Use Of Infrared (IR) Imaging Devices For Building Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, James T.

    1981-01-01

    In the summer of 1979 a task group was formed under ASTM Subcommittee C16.30 Section 7. The task group was asked to develop standard practices for the utilization of infrared (IR) imaging devices for the in-situ evaluation of building insulation systems. The group's work to date has concentrated on bounding the problem and prioritizing the needs for standard procedures. Most recently, the group has concentrated on a very specific utilization of infrared (IR) imaging as a qualitative instrument for building retrofit insulation inspections. White papers on equipment specifications and interpretation of imagery were generated as guides to writing the first draft of a standard practice document on this insulation retrofit inspection problem. The first draft describes the knowledge level of the inspector, the procedures for the inspection and the instrumentation required for various levels of diagnostics. Care has been taken to insure compatibility with ASHRAE Draft Standard 101P and to insure that the document will serve the user community as a guide to proper application of infrared in this infrared (IR) applications area.

  3. Mid-IR Properties of an Unbiased AGN Sample of the Local Universe. I. Emission-Line Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendez, Marcio; Weaver, K.; Kraemer, S.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Tueller, J.; Markwardt, C. B.; Malumuth, E. M.; Engle, K.; Armus, L.; Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; Winter, L. M.

    2010-01-01

    We compare mid-IR emission-lines properties, from high-resolution Spitzer IRS spectra,of a statistically-complete hard X-ray (14-195 keV) selected sample of nearby (z < 0.05) AGN detected by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) aboard Swift. The luminosity distribution for the mid-infrared emission-lines, [O IV] 25.89 μm, [Ne II] 12.81μm , [Ne III] 15.56 μm and [Ne V] μm, and hard X-ray show no differences between Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 populations, although six newly discovered BAT AGN are shown to be under-luminous in [O IV], most likely the result of dust extinction in the host galaxy. The correlations between all the mid-infrared emission lines and BAT luminosities are statistically significant. The mid-infrared emission line fluxes are highly correlated, with the worst correlations for [Ne V]-[Ne II] and [O IV]-[Ne II], as a result of enhanced [Ne II] in some sources due to nuclear stellar activity, however the tightness of these mid-infrared correlations suggests that the emission lines primarily arise in gas ionized by the AGN. We also compared the mid-IR emission-lines in the BAT AGNs with those from published studies of star-forming galaxies and LINERs. We found that [Ne III] an [O IV] lines do not unambiguously identify AGNs as stand-along diagnostics, however the BAT AGNs fall into a distinctive region when comparing the [Ne III]/[Ne II] and the [O IV]/[Ne III] quantities. While it is likely that detection of [Ne V] indicates the presence of an AGN, the [Ne V] line is weak compared to [O IV] and may not be detected in weak AGN. We suggest that a composite method using [Ne II], [Ne III], and [O IV] provides a more robust diagnostic.

  4. Fuel Cell Manufacturing Diagnostic Techniques: IR Thermography with Reactive Flow through Excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Manak, A. J.; Ulsh, M.; Bender, G.

    2012-01-01

    While design and material considerations for PEMFCs have a large impact on cost, it is also necessary to consider a transition to high volume production of fuel cell systems, including MEA components, to enable economies of scale and reduce per unit cost. One of the critical manufacturing tasks is developing and deploying techniques to provide in‐process measurement of fuel cell components for quality control. This effort requires a subsidiary task: The study of the effect of manufacturing defects on performance and durability with the objective to establish validated manufacturing tolerances for fuel cell components. This work focuses on the development of a potential quality control method for gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs). The method consists of infrared (IR) thermography combined with reactive flow through (RFT) excitation. Detection of catalyst loading reduction defects in GDE catalyst layers will be presented.

  5. Mid-IR Properties of an Unbiased AGN Sample of the Local Universe. 1; Emission-Line Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, K. A.; Melendez, M.; Muhotzky, R. F.; Kraemer, S.; Engle, K.; Malumuth. E.; Tueller, J.; Markwardt, C.; Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; Winter, L. M.; Armus, L.

    2010-01-01

    \\Ve compare mid-IR emission-lines properties, from high-resolution Spitzer IRS spectra of a statistically-complete hard X-ray (14-195 keV) selected sample of nearby (z < 0.05) AGN detected by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) aboard Swift. The luminosity distribution for the mid-infrared emission-lines, [O IV] 25.89 microns, [Ne II] 12.81 microns, [Ne III] 15.56 microns and [Ne V] 14.32 microns, and hard X-ray continuum show no differences between Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 populations, although six newly discovered BAT AGNs are shown to be under-luminous in [O IV], most likely the result of dust extinction in the host galaxy. The overall tightness of the mid-infrared correlations and BAT luminosities suggests that the emission lines primarily arise in gas ionized by the AGN. We also compared the mid-IR emission-lines in the BAT AGNs with those from published studies of star-forming galaxies and LINERs. We found that the BAT AGN fall into a distinctive region when comparing the [Ne III]/[Ne II] and the [O IV]/[Ne III] quantities. From this we found that sources that have been previously classified in the mid-infrared/optical as AGN have smaller emission line ratios than those found for the BAT AGNs, suggesting that, in our X-ray selected sample, the AGN represents the main contribution to the observed line emission. Overall, we present a different set of emission line diagnostics to distinguish between AGN and star forming galaxies that can be used as a tool to find new AGN.

  6. Structure of the alloys and the phase equilibrium diagram of the Zr-Ru-Ir system. IV. The projection of the solidus surface of the partial system Zr-ZrRu-ZrIr

    SciTech Connect

    Eremenko, V.N.; Khoruzhaya, V.G.; Shtepa, T.D.

    1986-05-01

    The results of an investigation of the solidus surface of the second partial system of the ternary Zr-Ru-Ir-Zr-ZrRu-ZrIr system are presented. In the Zr-Ir system there exist four intermediate phases. For investigating the phase equilibria in the Zr-ZrRu-ZrIr system, alloys of 36 compositions were prepared by arc melting in argon. Under arc melting conditions, the majority of the alloys crystallized in a very nonequlibrium condition, as the result of which in the latter stage of the process they contained a relatively low-melting constituent. The alloys were investigated in the cast and annealed conditions by metallographic, hardness, x-ray diffraction, local x-ray spectral, and differential analyses. Temperature of the start of melting was determined by the Pirani-Altertum method. Illustrations show the isothermal section of the Zr-ZrRu-ZrIr system. In accordance with the solidus temperatures only four of the alloys investigated are found in the solid state while at 1200/sup 0/C only the alloys lying close to the isothermal plane of the solidus surface at 1175/sup 0/C remain in the liquid state.

  7. SDSS-IV MaNGA: the impact of diffuse ionized gas on emission-line ratios, interpretation of diagnostic diagrams and gas metallicity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Yan, Renbin; Bundy, Kevin; Bershady, Matthew; Haffner, L. Matthew; Walterbos, René; Maiolino, Roberto; Tremonti, Christy; Thomas, Daniel; Drory, Niv; Jones, Amy; Belfiore, Francesco; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Nitschelm, Christian; Andrews, Brett; Brinkmann, Jon; Brownstein, Joel R.; Cheung, Edmond; Li, Cheng; Law, David R.; Roman Lopes, Alexandre; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Storchi Bergmann, Thaisa; Simmons, Audrey

    2017-04-01

    Diffuse ionized gas (DIG) is prevalent in star-forming galaxies. Using a sample of 365 nearly face-on star-forming galaxies observed by Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO, we demonstrate how DIG in star-forming galaxies impacts the measurements of emission-line ratios, hence the interpretation of diagnostic diagrams and gas-phase metallicity measurements. At fixed metallicity, DIG-dominated low ΣHα regions display enhanced [S II]/Hα, [N II]/Hα, [O II]/Hβ and [O I]/Hα. The gradients in these line ratios are determined by metallicity gradients and ΣHα. In line ratio diagnostic diagrams, contamination by DIG moves H II regions towards composite or low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LI(N)ER)-like regions. A harder ionizing spectrum is needed to explain DIG line ratios. Leaky H II region models can only shift line ratios slightly relative to H II region models, and thus fail to explain the composite/LI(N)ER line ratios displayed by DIG. Our result favours ionization by evolved stars as a major ionization source for DIG with LI(N)ER-like emission. DIG can significantly bias the measurement of gas metallicity and metallicity gradients derived using strong-line methods. Metallicities derived using N2O2 are optimal because they exhibit the smallest bias and error. Using O3N2, R23, N2 = [N II]/Hα and N2S2Hα to derive metallicities introduces bias in the derived metallicity gradients as large as the gradient itself. The strong-line method of Blanc et al. (IZI hereafter) cannot be applied to DIG to get an accurate metallicity because it currently contains only H II region models that fail to describe the DIG.

  8. Comparing Narrow- and Broad-line AGNs in a New Diagnostic Diagram for Emission-line Galaxies Based on WISE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coziol, R.; Torres-Papaqui, J. P.; Andernach, H.

    2015-06-01

    Using a new color-color diagnostic diagram in the mid-infrared (MIR) built from WISE data, the MIRDD, we compare narrow-emission-line galaxies (NELGs) that exhibit different activity types (star-forming galaxies (SFGs) and active galactic nuclei (AGNs), i.e., LINERs, Seyfert 2 galaxies (Sy2s), and Transition-type Objects (TOs)), as determined using one standard diagnostic diagram in the optical (BPT-VO), with broad-line AGNs (QSOs and Sy1s) and BL Lac objects at low redshift (z≤slant 0.25). We show that the BL Lac objects occupy the same region as the LINERs in the MIRDD, whereas the QSOs and Sy1s occupy an intermediate region between the LINERs and the Sy2s. In the MIRDD these galaxies trace a sequence that can be reproduced by a power law, {{F}ν }={{ν }α }, where the spectral index, α, varies from 0 to -2, which is similar to what is observed in the optical/ultraviolet part of the spectra of AGNs with different luminosities. For the NELGs with different activity types, we perform a stellar-population synthesis analysis, confirming that their specific positions in the MIRD depend on their star formation histories (SFH) and demonstrating that the W2-W3 color is tightly correlated with the level of star formation in their host galaxies. In good agreement with the SFH analysis, a comparison of their MIR colors with the colors yielded by spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies with different activity types shows that the SED of the LINERs is similar to the SEDs of the QSOs and Sy1s, consistent with AGN galaxies with mild star formation, whereas the SEDs of the Sy2s and TOs are consistent with AGN galaxies with strong star formation components. For the BL Lac objects, we show that their blue MIR colors can only be fitted with an SED that has no star formation component, consistent with AGNs in elliptical-type galaxies. From their similarities in MIR colors and SEDs, we infer that, in the nearby universe, the level of star formation activity most probably

  9. Noninvasive express diagnostics of pulmonary diseases based on control of patient's gas emission using methods of IR and terahertz laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starikova, M. K.; Bulanova, A. A.; Bukreeva, E. B.; Karapuzikov, A. A.; Karapuzikov, A. I.; Kistenev, Y. V.; Klementyev, V. M.; Kolker, D. B.; Kuzmin, D. A.; Nikiforova, O. Y.; Ponomarev, Yu. N.; Sherstov, I. V.; Boyko, A. A.

    2013-11-01

    Pulmonary diseases diagnostics always occupies one of the key positions in medicine practices. A large variety of high technology methods are used today, but none of them cannot be used for early screening of pulmonary diseases. We discuss abilities of methods of IR and terahertz laser spectroscopy for noninvasive express diagnostics of pulmonary diseases on a base of analysis of absorption spectra of patient's gas emission, in particular, exhaled air. Experience in the field of approaches to experimental data analysis and hard-ware realization of gas analyzers for medical applications is also discussed.

  10. THE GALEX/S{sup 4}G UV–IR COLOR–COLOR DIAGRAM: CATCHING SPIRAL GALAXIES AWAY FROM THE BLUE SEQUENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Bouquin, Alexandre Y. K.; Gil de Paz, Armando; Gallego, Jesús; Boissier, Samuel; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Sheth, Kartik; Laine, Jarkko; Peletier, Reynier F.; Röck, Benjamin R.; Knapen, Johan H.

    2015-02-10

    We obtained GALEX FUV, NUV, and Spitzer/IRAC 3.6 μm photometry for >2000 galaxies, available for 90% of the S{sup 4}G sample. We find a very tight GALEX blue sequence (GBS) in the (FUV–NUV) versus (NUV–[3.6]) color–color diagram, which is populated by irregular and spiral galaxies, and is mainly driven by changes in the formation timescale (τ) and a degeneracy between τ and dust reddening. The tightness of the GBS provides an unprecedented way of identifying star-forming galaxies and objects that are just evolving to (or from) what we call the GALEX green valley (GGV). At the red end of the GBS, at (NUV–[3.6]) > 5, we find a wider GALEX red sequence (GRS) mostly populated by E/S0 galaxies that has a perpendicular slope to that of the GBS and of the optical red sequence. We find no such dichotomy in terms of stellar mass (measured by M{sub [3.6]}) since both massive (M{sub ⋆}>10{sup 11}M{sub ⊙}) blue- and red-sequence galaxies are identified. The type that is proportionally more often found in the GGV is the S0-Sa’s, and most of these are located in high-density environments. We discuss evolutionary models of galaxies that show a rapid transition from the blue to the red sequence on a timescale of 10{sup 8} yr.

  11. Thermodynamic Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaston, Scot

    1999-02-01

    Thermodynamic data such as equilibrium constants, standard cell potentials, molar enthalpies of formation, and standard entropies of substances can be a very useful basis for an organized presentation of knowledge in diverse areas of applied chemistry. Thermodynamic data can become particularly useful when incorporated into thermodynamic diagrams that are designed to be easy to recall, to serve as a basis for reconstructing previous knowledge, and to determine whether reactions can occur exergonically or only with the help of an external energy source. Few students in our chemistry-based courses would want to acquire the depth of knowledge or rigor of professional thermodynamicists. But they should nevertheless learn how to make good use of thermodynamic data in their professional occupations that span the chemical, biological, environmental, and medical laboratory fields. This article discusses examples of three thermodynamic diagrams that have been developed for this purpose. They are the thermodynamic energy account (TEA), the total entropy scale, and the thermodynamic scale diagrams. These diagrams help in the teaching and learning of thermodynamics by bringing the imagination into the process of developing a better understanding of abstract thermodynamic functions, and by allowing the reader to keep track of specialist thermodynamic discourses in the literature.

  12. Hubble Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djorgovski, S.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Initially introduced as a way to demonstrate the expansion of the universe, and subsequently to determine the expansion rate (the HUBBLE CONSTANT H0), the Hubble diagram is one of the classical cosmological tests. It is a plot of apparent fluxes (usually expressed as magnitudes) of some types of objects at cosmological distances, against their REDSHIFTS. It is used as a tool to measure the glob...

  13. Phase Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Matthew S.; Fruehan, Richard J.

    2014-08-01

    The thermodynamics of several aspects of the carbothermic reduction of alumina have been examined. In Part I, the results of measuring the evolved CO from the reaction between Al2O3 and C mixtures were used to determine the temperature and carbon contents for carbide formation at alumina saturation and at carbide saturation in the Al2O3-Al4C3 system. In this part of the paper, results are presented for a thermogravimetric study of the reactions of Al2O3 with carbon, as well as those for the determination of the Al2O3 liquidus line and the Al2O3-Al4O4C eutectic in the Al2O3-Al4C3 phase diagram. The critical temperature for Al2O3 and C to react, producing gas at 1 atm., was in agreement with that predicted from thermodynamics and measured in Part I of this paper. However, the Al2O3 liquidus appeared to be steeper and the eutectic temperature lower than the predicted phase diagram.

  14. Efficiency of ETV diagrams as diagnostic tools for long-term period variations. II. Non-conservative mass transfer, and gravitational radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanouris, N.; Kalimeris, A.; Antonopoulou, E.; Rovithis-Livaniou, H.

    2015-03-01

    Context. The credibility of an eclipse timing variation (ETV) diagram analysis is investigated for various manifestations of the mass transfer and gravitational radiation processes in binary systems. The monotonicity of the period variations and the morphology of the respective ETV diagrams are thoroughly explored in both the direct impact and the accretion disk mode of mass transfer, accompanied by different types of mass and angular momentum losses (through a hot-spot emission from the gainer and via the L2/L3 points). Aims: Our primary objective concerns the traceability of each physical mechanism by means of an ETV diagram analysis. Also, possible critical mass ratio values are sought for those transfer modes that involve orbital angular momentum losses strong enough to dictate the secular period changes even when highly competitive mechanisms with the opposite direction act simultaneously. Methods: The dot{J-dot{P}} relation that governs the orbital evolution of a binary system is set to provide the exact solution for the period and the function expected to represent the subsequent eclipse timing variations. The angular momentum transport is parameterized through appropriate empirical relations, which are inferred from semi-analytical ballistic models. Then, we numerically determine the minimum temporal range over which a particular mechanism is rendered measurable, as well as the critical mass ratio values that signify monotonicity inversion in the period modulations. Results: Mass transfer rates comparable to or greater than 10-8 M⊙ yr-1 are measurable for typical noise levels of the ETV diagrams, regardless of whether the process is conservative. However, the presence of a transient disk around the more massive component defines a critical mass ratio (qcr ≈ 0.83) above which the period turns out to decrease when still in the conservative regime, rendering the measurability of the anticipated variations a much more complicated task. The effects of

  15. Warped penguin diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Csaki, Csaba; Grossman, Yuval; Tanedo, Philip; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2011-04-01

    We present an analysis of the loop-induced magnetic dipole operator in the Randall-Sundrum model of a warped extra dimension with anarchic bulk fermions and an IR brane-localized Higgs. These operators are finite at one-loop order and we explicitly calculate the branching ratio for {mu}{yields}e{gamma} using the mixed position/momentum space formalism. The particular bound on the anarchic Yukawa and Kaluza-Klein (KK) scales can depend on the flavor structure of the anarchic matrices. It is possible for a generic model to either be ruled out or unaffected by these bounds without any fine-tuning. We quantify how these models realize this surprising behavior. We also review tree-level lepton flavor bounds in these models and show that these are on the verge of tension with the {mu}{yields}e{gamma} bounds from typical models with a 3 TeV Kaluza-Klein scale. Further, we illuminate the nature of the one-loop finiteness of these diagrams and show how to accurately determine the degree of divergence of a five-dimensional loop diagram using both the five-dimensional and KK formalism. This power counting can be obfuscated in the four-dimensional Kaluza-Klein formalism and we explicitly point out subtleties that ensure that the two formalisms agree. Finally, we remark on the existence of a perturbative regime in which these one-loop results give the dominant contribution.

  16. Caution: Venn Diagrams Ahead!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmins, Dovie L.; Winters, J. Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Two perspectives of the term "Venn diagram" reflect the typical differences in the uses of Venn diagrams in the subject areas of mathematics and language arts. These differences are subtle; nevertheless, they can potentially be confusing. In language arts, the circles in a Venn diagram typically represent things that can be compared and…

  17. Caution: Venn Diagrams Ahead!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmins, Dovie L.; Winters, J. Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Two perspectives of the term "Venn diagram" reflect the typical differences in the uses of Venn diagrams in the subject areas of mathematics and language arts. These differences are subtle; nevertheless, they can potentially be confusing. In language arts, the circles in a Venn diagram typically represent things that can be compared and…

  18. Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 31 NIST/ACerS Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database (PC database for purchase)   The Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database contains commentaries and more than 21,000 diagrams for non-organic systems, including those published in all 21 hard-copy volumes produced as part of the ACerS-NIST Phase Equilibria Diagrams Program (formerly titled Phase Diagrams for Ceramists): Volumes I through XIV (blue books); Annuals 91, 92, 93; High Tc Superconductors I & II; Zirconium & Zirconia Systems; and Electronic Ceramics I. Materials covered include oxides as well as non-oxide systems such as chalcogenides and pnictides, phosphates, salt systems, and mixed systems of these classes.

  19. IR in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haakenaasen, Randi; Lovold, Stian

    2003-01-01

    Infrared technology in Norway started at the Norwegian Defense Research Establishment (FFI) in the 1960s, and has since then spread to universities, other research institutes and industry. FFI has a large, integrated IR activity that includes research and development in IR detectors, optics design, optical coatings, advanced dewar design, modelling/simulation of IR scenes, and image analysis. Part of the integrated activity is a laboratory for more basic research in materials science and semiconductor physics, in which thin films of CdHgTe are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and processed into IR detectors by various techniques. FFI also has a lot of experience in research and development of tunable infrared lasers for various applications. Norwegian industrial activities include production of infrared homing anti-ship missiles, laser rangefinders, various infrared gas sensors, hyperspectral cameras, and fiberoptic sensor systems for structural health monitoring and offshore oil well diagnostics.

  20. Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiosi, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HR-diagram), pioneered independently by EJNAR HERTZSPRUNG and HENRY NORRIS RUSSELL, is a plot of the star luminosity versus the surface temperature. It stems from the basic relation for an object emitting thermal radiation as a black body: ...

  1. Inductively generating Euler diagrams.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Gem; Rodgers, Peter; Howse, John; Zhang, Leishi

    2011-01-01

    Euler diagrams have a wide variety of uses, from information visualization to logical reasoning. In all of their application areas, the ability to automatically layout Euler diagrams brings considerable benefits. In this paper, we present a novel approach to Euler diagram generation. We develop certain graphs associated with Euler diagrams in order to allow curves to be added by finding cycles in these graphs. This permits us to build Euler diagrams inductively, adding one curve at a time. Our technique is adaptable, allowing the easy specification, and enforcement, of sets of well-formedness conditions; we present a series of results that identify properties of cycles that correspond to the well-formedness conditions. This improves upon other contributions toward the automated generation of Euler diagrams which implicitly assume some fixed set of well-formedness conditions must hold. In addition, unlike most of these other generation methods, our technique allows any abstract description to be drawn as an Euler diagram. To establish the utility of the approach, a prototype implementation has been developed.

  2. Square Source Type Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aso, N.; Ohta, K.; Ide, S.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation in a small volume of earth interior is expressed by a symmetric moment tensor located on a point source. The tensor contains information of characteristic directions, source amplitude, and source types such as isotropic, double-couple, or compensated-linear-vector-dipole (CLVD). Although we often assume a double couple as the source type of an earthquake, significant non-double-couple component including isotropic component is often reported for induced earthquakes and volcanic earthquakes. For discussions on source types including double-couple and non-double-couple components, it is helpful to display them using some visual diagrams. Since the information of source type has two degrees of freedom, it can be displayed onto a two-dimensional flat plane. Although the diagram developed by Hudson et al. [1989] is popular, the trace corresponding to the mechanism combined by two mechanisms is not always a smooth line. To overcome this problem, Chapman and Leaney [2012] developed a new diagram. This diagram has an advantage that a straight line passing through the center corresponds to the mechanism obtained by a combination of an arbitrary mechanism and a double-couple [Tape and Tape, 2012], but this diagram has some difficulties in use. First, it is slightly difficult to produce the diagram because of its curved shape. Second, it is also difficult to read out the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components, which we want to obtain from the estimated moment tensors, because they do not appear directly on the horizontal or vertical axes. In the present study, we developed another new square diagram that overcomes the difficulties of previous diagrams. This diagram is an orthogonal system of isotropic and deviatoric axes, so it is easy to get the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components. Our diagram has another advantage that the probability density is obtained simply from the area within the diagram if the probability density

  3. Asteroseismology Across the HR Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, M. J.; Cunha, M. S.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.

    2003-05-01

    Ground-based observations have detected solar-like oscillations on Sun-like stars, and diagnostics similar to those used in helioseismology are now being used to test and constrain the physics and evolutionary state of these stars. Multi-mode oscillations are being observed in an abundance of other stars, including slowly pulsating B stars (SPB stars), delta-Scuti stars, Ap stars and the pulsating white dwarfs. New classes of pulsators continue to be discovered across the Herzsprung-Russell diagram. Yet the chances still to be faced to make asteroseismology across the HR diagram a reality are formidable. Observation, data analysis and theory all pose hard problems to be overcome. This book, reflecting the goal of the meeting, aims to facilitate a cross-fertilisation of ideas and approaches between fields covering different pulsators and with different areas of expertise. The book successfully covers most known types of pulsators, reflecting a highly productive and far reaching interchange of ideas which we believe is conveyed by the papers and posters published, making it a reference for researchers and postgraduate students working on stellar structure and evolution. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1173-3

  4. Weyl card diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Gregory; Wang, John E.

    2005-06-15

    To capture important physical properties of a spacetime we construct a new diagram, the card diagram, which accurately draws generalized Weyl spacetimes in arbitrary dimensions by encoding their global spacetime structure, singularities, horizons, and some aspects of causal structure including null infinity. Card diagrams draw only nontrivial directions providing a clearer picture of the geometric features of spacetimes as compared to Penrose diagrams, and can change continuously as a function of the geometric parameters. One of our main results is to describe how Weyl rods are traversable horizons and the entirety of the spacetime can be mapped out. We review Weyl techniques and as examples we systematically discuss properties of a variety of solutions including Kerr-Newman black holes, black rings, expanding bubbles, and recent spacelike-brane solutions. Families of solutions will share qualitatively similar cards. In addition we show how card diagrams not only capture information about a geometry but also its analytic continuations by providing a geometric picture of analytic continuation. Weyl techniques are generalized to higher dimensional charged solutions and applied to generate perturbations of bubble and S-brane solutions by Israel-Khan rods.

  5. The Relationship Between Catastrophic Thinking and Hand Diagram Areas.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Ali; Mellema, Jos J; Oflazoglu, Kamilcan; Isakov, Aleksandr; Ring, David; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the total area marked on pain and numbness diagrams and psychosocial factors (depression, pain catastrophic thinking, and health anxiety). A total of 155 patients marked painful and numb areas on separate hand diagrams. Patients also completed demographic, condition-related, and psychosocial (Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Depression Computer Adaptive Test, and Short Health Anxiety Inventory) questionnaires. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were used to determine factors associated with total area marked on the pain and numbness diagrams. The total area marked on the pain diagram correlated with catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and health anxiety. In multivariable analysis, catastrophic thinking was the sole predictor of marked pain area, accounting for 10% of variance in the hand pain diagram. The total area marked on the numbness diagram correlated with the interval between onset and visit, diagnosis, catastrophic thinking, and symptoms of depression. In multivariable analysis, the interval between onset and visit, a diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome, and catastrophic thinking were independently associated with total area marked on the hand numbness diagram. Catastrophic thinking was independently associated with larger pain and numbness areas on a hand diagram. This suggests that larger symptom markings on hand diagrams may indicate less effective coping strategies. Hand diagrams might be used as a basis for discussion of coping strategies and illness behavior in patients with upper extremity conditions. Diagnostic III. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of an H2/CH4 moderate pressure microwave plasma used for diamond deposition: modelling and IR tuneable diode laser diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, G.; Hassouni, K.; Stancu, G. D.; Mechold, L.; Röpcke, J.; Gicquel, A.

    2005-08-01

    Infra-red tuneable diode laser spectroscopy (IR TDLAS) has been used to detect and quantify the methyl radical and three stable carbon-containing species (CH4, C2H2 and C2H6) in a moderate pressure microwave (f = 2.45 GHz) bell-jar reactor used for diamond films deposition. A wide range of experimental conditions was investigated, with typical pressure/power required to perform diamond deposition, i.e. pressure from 2500 to 12 000 Pa and power from 600 W to 2 kW, which means gas temperatures ranging from 2200 to 3200 K, when the power density increases from 9 to 30 W cm-3. Since TDLAS is a line of sight averaged technique, the analysis of the experimental data required the use of a one-dimensional non-equilibrium transport model that provides species density and gas temperature variations along the optical beam. This model describes the plasma in terms of 28 species/131 reactions reactive flow. The thermal non-equilibrium is described by distinguishing a first energy mode for the electron and a second one for the heavy species. Parametric studies as a function of power density and methane percentage in the gas mixture are presented. The good agreement obtained between measurement and one-dimensional radial calculations allows a validation of the thermo-chemical model, which can be used as a tool to enlighten the chemistry in the spatially non-uniform H2/CH4 microwave discharge used for diamond deposition. This is especially of interest for high power density discharge conditions that remain poorly understood.

  7. Impulse-Momentum Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengrant, David

    2011-01-01

    Multiple representations are a valuable tool to help students learn and understand physics concepts. Furthermore, representations help students learn how to think and act like real scientists. These representations include: pictures, free-body diagrams, energy bar charts, electrical circuits, and, more recently, computer simulations and…

  8. Understanding Network Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Robert

    A survey of a range of introductory university level textbooks in the social sciences found little use of network diagrams (NDs), i.e., graphic representations of processes, organizations, systems, and mechanisms. NDs can be viewed as a text/picture hybrid medium with titles and captions serving to qualify and identify the meaning and status of…

  9. Impulse-Momentum Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengrant, David

    2011-01-01

    Multiple representations are a valuable tool to help students learn and understand physics concepts. Furthermore, representations help students learn how to think and act like real scientists. These representations include: pictures, free-body diagrams, energy bar charts, electrical circuits, and, more recently, computer simulations and…

  10. The Effect of Arrow Diagrams on Achievement in Applying the Chain Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uygur, Tangul; Ozdas, Aynur

    2007-01-01

    In this study the effectiveness of an arrow diagram which can help students apply the Chain Rule was investigated. Different variations of this diagram were used as mnemonic devices for applying the Chain Rule. For the investigation two instruments were developed, diagnostic test and post-test. The diagnostic test was developed to determine the…

  11. Tectonic discrimination diagrams revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeesch, Pieter

    2006-06-01

    The decision boundaries of most tectonic discrimination diagrams are drawn by eye. Discriminant analysis is a statistically more rigorous way to determine the tectonic affinity of oceanic basalts based on their bulk-rock chemistry. This method was applied to a database of 756 oceanic basalts of known tectonic affinity (ocean island, mid-ocean ridge, or island arc). For each of these training data, up to 45 major, minor, and trace elements were measured. Discriminant analysis assumes multivariate normality. If the same covariance structure is shared by all the classes (i.e., tectonic affinities), the decision boundaries are linear, hence the term linear discriminant analysis (LDA). In contrast with this, quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) allows the classes to have different covariance structures. To solve the statistical problems associated with the constant-sum constraint of geochemical data, the training data must be transformed to log-ratio space before performing a discriminant analysis. The results can be mapped back to the compositional data space using the inverse log-ratio transformation. An exhaustive exploration of 14,190 possible ternary discrimination diagrams yields the Ti-Si-Sr system as the best linear discrimination diagram and the Na-Nb-Sr system as the best quadratic discrimination diagram. The best linear and quadratic discrimination diagrams using only immobile elements are Ti-V-Sc and Ti-V-Sm, respectively. As little as 5% of the training data are misclassified by these discrimination diagrams. Testing them on a second database of 182 samples that were not part of the training data yields a more reliable estimate of future performance. Although QDA misclassifies fewer training data than LDA, the opposite is generally true for the test data. Therefore LDA is a cruder but more robust classifier than QDA. Another advantage of LDA is that it provides a powerful way to reduce the dimensionality of the multivariate geochemical data in a similar

  12. TEP process flow diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Wilms, R Scott; Carlson, Bryan; Coons, James; Kubic, William

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

  13. Spinning Witten diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleight, Charlotte; Taronna, Massimo

    2017-06-01

    We develop a systematic framework to compute the conformal partial wave expansions (CPWEs) of tree-level four-point Witten diagrams with totally symmetric external fields of arbitrary mass and integer spin in AdS d+1. As an intermediate step, we identify convenient bases of three-point bulk and boundary structures to invert linear map between spinning three-point conformal structures and spinning cubic couplings in AdS. Given a CFT d , this provides the complete holographic reconstruction of all cubic couplings involving totally symmetric fields in the putative dual theory on AdS d+1. Employing this framework, we determine the CPWE of a generic four-point exchange Witten diagram with spinning exchanged field. As a concrete application, we compute all four-point exchange Witten diagrams in the type A higher-spin gauge theory on AdS d+1, which is conjectured to be dual to the free scalar O ( N ) model.

  14. High Mass Black Holes in nearby AGNs. An IR connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Cruz, F. J.; Añorve, C.; Torres-Papaqui, J. P.; Morales, A.; Chow-Martínez, M.; Ortega-Minakata, R.; Trejo-Alonso, J. J.; Neri-Larios, D. M.; Robleto-Orús, A. C.

    2017-07-01

    From the SDSS DR7 we took a sample of 16733 galaxies which do not show all of the emission lines required to classify their activity according to the classical BPT diagram (Baldwin et al. 1981 PASP). Since they do not show these emission lines they are thought to be AGNs evolved enough so to host very massive Black Holes. We analyzed them in the IR region (WISE data) with the use of a new Infra Red Diagnostic Diagram (IRDD) (Coziol et al. 2015 AJ) and found that their position in the IR color space (W3W4 vs W2W3) corresponds to AGN activity with current low SF. We also found that the masses of the Black holes hosted by them are of the order of 109 M⊙. We then considered a subsample of nearby galaxies from the CALIFA survey DR3 (Sánchez et al. 2015) and using different apertures we estimate the velocity dispersion (using the Starlight code, Cid-Fernandez et al. 2005) and then the BH mass. Comparing these results with the pothometry (GALFIT code, Peng et al. 2003) for the same sample we observe that the estimated masses measured with both methods differ in almost 2 orders of magnitude (López-Cruz et al. 2014, Rusli et al. 2013). By using the IRDD we confirm that these galaxies are AGNs with low SF and host very massive black holes. Nevertheless, the photometry scaling relations should be reviewed to fully explain the big difference with the estimations of spectroscopic methods.

  15. Wilson Loop Diagrams and Positroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwala, Susama; Marin-Amat, Eloi

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we study a new application of the positive Grassmannian to Wilson loop diagrams (or MHV diagrams) for scattering amplitudes in N= 4 Super Yang-Mill theory ( N = 4 SYM). There has been much interest in studying this theory via the positive Grassmannians using BCFW recursion. This is the first attempt to study MHV diagrams for planar Wilson loop calculations (or planar amplitudes) in terms of positive Grassmannians. We codify Wilson loop diagrams completely in terms of matroids. This allows us to apply the combinatorial tools in matroid theory used to identify positroids (non-negative Grassmannians) to Wilson loop diagrams. In doing so, we find that certain non-planar Wilson loop diagrams define positive Grassmannians. While non-planar diagrams do not have physical meaning, this finding suggests that they may have value as an algebraic tool, and deserve further investigation.

  16. Petersen diagram revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolec, Radoslaw; Dziembowski, Wojciech; Moskalik, Pawel; Netzel, Henryka; Prudil, Zdenek; Skarka, Marek; Soszynski, Igor

    2017-09-01

    Over the recent years, the Petersen diagram for classical pulsators, Cepheids and RR Lyr stars, populated with a few hundreds of new multiperiodic variables. We review our analyses of the OGLE data, which resulted in a significant extension of the known, and in the discovery of a few new and distinct forms of multiperiodic pulsation. The showcase includes not only radial mode pulsators, but also radial-non-radial pulsators and stars with significant modulation observed on top of the beat pulsation. First theoretical models explaining the new forms of stellar variability are briefly discussed.

  17. IR Windstreaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Windstreaks are features caused by the interaction of wind and topographic landforms. The raised rims and bowls of impact craters causes a complex interaction such that the wind vortex in the lee of the crater can both scour away the surface dust and deposit it back in the center of the lee. If you look closely, you will see evidence of this in a darker 'rim' enclosing a brighter interior.

    This infrared image shows windstreaks in the region between Gordii Dorsum and Amazonis Mensa.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -15.8, Longitude 215 East (145 West). 97 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. IR Windstreaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Windstreaks are features caused by the interaction of wind and topographic landforms. The raised rims and bowls of impact craters causes a complex interaction such that the wind vortex in the lee of the crater can both scour away the surface dust and deposit it back in the center of the lee. If you look closely, you will see evidence of this in a darker 'rim' enclosing a brighter interior.

    This infrared image shows windstreaks in the region between Gordii Dorsum and Amazonis Mensa.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -15.8, Longitude 215 East (145 West). 97 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Markov Influence Diagrams.

    PubMed

    Díez, Francisco J; Yebra, Mar; Bermejo, Iñigo; Palacios-Alonso, Miguel A; Calleja, Manuel Arias; Luque, Manuel; Pérez-Martín, Jorge

    2017-02-01

    Markov influence diagrams (MIDs) are a new type of probabilistic graphical model that extends influence diagrams in the same way that Markov decision trees extend decision trees. They have been designed to build state-transition models, mainly in medicine, and perform cost-effectiveness analyses. Using a causal graph that may contain several variables per cycle, MIDs can model various patient characteristics without multiplying the number of states; in particular, they can represent the history of the patient without using tunnel states. OpenMarkov, an open-source tool, allows the decision analyst to build and evaluate MIDs-including cost-effectiveness analysis and several types of deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis-with a graphical user interface, without writing any code. This way, MIDs can be used to easily build and evaluate complex models whose implementation as spreadsheets or decision trees would be cumbersome or unfeasible in practice. Furthermore, many problems that previously required discrete event simulation can be solved with MIDs; i.e., within the paradigm of state-transition models, in which many health economists feel more comfortable.

  20. Program Synthesizes UML Sequence Diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Osborne, Richard N.

    2006-01-01

    A computer program called "Rational Sequence" generates Universal Modeling Language (UML) sequence diagrams of a target Java program running on a Java virtual machine (JVM). Rational Sequence thereby performs a reverse engineering function that aids in the design documentation of the target Java program. Whereas previously, the construction of sequence diagrams was a tedious manual process, Rational Sequence generates UML sequence diagrams automatically from the running Java code.

  1. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): the bright void galaxy population in the optical and mid-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, S. J.; Brown, M. J. I.; Pimbblet, K. A.; Cluver, M. E.; Croton, D. J.; Owers, M. S.; Lange, R.; Alpaslan, M.; Baldry, I.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Driver, S. P.; Holwerda, B. W.; Hopkins, A. M.; Jarrett, T. H.; Jones, D. Heath; Kelvin, L. S.; Lara-López, M. A.; Liske, J.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Loveday, J.; Meyer, M.; Norberg, P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Rodrigues, M.

    2015-11-01

    We examine the properties of galaxies in the Galaxies and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey located in voids with radii >10 h-1 Mpc. Utilizing the GAMA equatorial survey, 592 void galaxies are identified out to z ≈ 0.1 brighter than Mr = -18.4, our magnitude completeness limit. Using the WHα versus [N II]/Hα (WHAN) line strength diagnostic diagram, we classify their spectra as star forming, AGN, or dominated by old stellar populations. For objects more massive than 5 × 109 M⊙, we identify a sample of 26 void galaxies with old stellar populations classed as passive and retired galaxies in the WHAN diagnostic diagram, else they lack any emission lines in their spectra. When matched to Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mid-IR photometry, these passive and retired galaxies exhibit a range of mid-IR colour, with a number of void galaxies exhibiting [4.6] - [12] colours inconsistent with completely quenched stellar populations, with a similar spread in colour seen for a randomly drawn non-void comparison sample. We hypothesize that a number of these galaxies host obscured star formation, else they are star forming outside of their central regions targeted for single-fibre spectroscopy. When matched to a randomly drawn sample of non-void galaxies, the void and non-void galaxies exhibit similar properties in terms of optical and mid-IR colour, morphology, and star formation activity, suggesting comparable mass assembly and quenching histories. A trend in mid-IR [4.6] - [12] colour is seen, such that both void and non-void galaxies with quenched/passive colours <1.5 typically have masses higher than 1010 M⊙, where internally driven processes play an increasingly important role in galaxy evolution.

  2. Principles of plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Ian H.

    The physical principles, techniques, and instrumentation of plasma diagnostics are examined in an introduction and reference work for students and practicing scientists. Topics addressed include basic plasma properties, magnetic diagnostics, plasma particle flux, and refractive-index measurements. Consideration is given to EM emission by free and bound electrons, the scattering of EM radiation, and ion processes. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, sample problems, and a glossary of symbols are provided.

  3. Diagonal Slices of 3D Young Diagrams in the Approach of Maya Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Li-Qiang; Wang, Li-Fang; Wu, Ke; Yang, Jie

    2014-09-01

    According to the correspondence between 2D Young diagrams and Maya diagrams and the relation between 2D and 3D Young diagrams, we construct 3D Young diagrams in the approach of Maya diagrams. Moreover, we formulate the generating function of 3D Young diagrams, which is the MacMahon function in terms of Maya diagrams.

  4. Potential-pH Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnum, Dennis W.

    1982-01-01

    Potential-pH diagrams show the domains of redoxpotential and pH in which major species are most stable. Constructing such diagrams provides students with opportunities to decide what species must be considered, search literature for equilibrium constants and free energies of formation, and practice in using the Nernst equation. (Author/JN)

  5. Potential-pH Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnum, Dennis W.

    1982-01-01

    Potential-pH diagrams show the domains of redoxpotential and pH in which major species are most stable. Constructing such diagrams provides students with opportunities to decide what species must be considered, search literature for equilibrium constants and free energies of formation, and practice in using the Nernst equation. (Author/JN)

  6. Genus Ranges of Chord Diagrams

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Jonathan; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico

    2015-01-01

    A chord diagram consists of a circle, called the backbone, with line segments, called chords, whose endpoints are attached to distinct points on the circle. The genus of a chord diagram is the genus of the orientable surface obtained by thickening the backbone to an annulus and attaching bands to the inner boundary circle at the ends of each chord. Variations of this construction are considered here, where bands are possibly attached to the outer boundary circle of the annulus. The genus range of a chord diagram is the genus values over all such variations of surfaces thus obtained from a given chord diagram. Genus ranges of chord diagrams for a fixed number of chords are studied. Integer intervals that can be, and those that cannot be, realized as genus ranges are investigated. Computer calculations are presented, and play a key role in discovering and proving the properties of genus ranges. PMID:26478650

  7. Genus Ranges of Chord Diagrams.

    PubMed

    Burns, Jonathan; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico

    2015-04-01

    A chord diagram consists of a circle, called the backbone, with line segments, called chords, whose endpoints are attached to distinct points on the circle. The genus of a chord diagram is the genus of the orientable surface obtained by thickening the backbone to an annulus and attaching bands to the inner boundary circle at the ends of each chord. Variations of this construction are considered here, where bands are possibly attached to the outer boundary circle of the annulus. The genus range of a chord diagram is the genus values over all such variations of surfaces thus obtained from a given chord diagram. Genus ranges of chord diagrams for a fixed number of chords are studied. Integer intervals that can be, and those that cannot be, realized as genus ranges are investigated. Computer calculations are presented, and play a key role in discovering and proving the properties of genus ranges.

  8. Reliability block diagrams to model disease management.

    PubMed

    Sonnenberg, A; Inadomi, J M; Bauerfeind, P

    1999-01-01

    Studies of diagnostic or therapeutic procedures in the management of any given disease tend to focus on one particular aspect of the disease and ignore the interaction between the multitude of factors that determine its final outcome. The present article introduces a mathematical model that accounts for the joint contribution of various medical and non-medical components to the overall disease outcome. A reliability block diagram is used to model patient compliance, endoscopic screening, and surgical therapy for dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus. The overall probability of a patient with a Barrett's esophagus to comply with a screening program, be correctly diagnosed with dysplasia, and undergo successful therapy is 37%. The reduction in the overall success rate, despite the fact that the majority of components are assumed to function with reliability rates of 80% or more, is a reflection of the multitude of serial subsystems involved in disease management. Each serial component influences the overall success rate in a linear fashion. Building multiple parallel pathways into the screening program raises its overall success rate to 91%. Parallel arrangements render systems less sensitive to diagnostic or therapeutic failures. A reliability block diagram provides the means to model the contributions of many heterogeneous factors to disease outcome. Since no medical system functions perfectly, redundancy provided by parallel subsystems assures a greater overall reliability.

  9. Encoding of the infrared excess in the NUVrK color diagram for star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnouts, S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Chevallard, J.; Johnson, B. D.; Ilbert, O.; Treyer, M.; Aussel, H.; Capak, P.; Sanders, D. B.; Scoville, N.; McCracken, H. J.; Milliard, B.; Pozzetti, L.; Salvato, M.

    2013-10-01

    We present an empirical method of assessing the star formation rate (SFR) of star-forming galaxies based on their locations in the rest-frame color-color diagram (NUV - r) vs. (r - K). By using the Spitzer 24 μm sample in the COSMOS field (~16 400 galaxies with 0.2 ≤ z ≤ 1.3) and a local GALEX-SDSS-SWIRE sample (~700 galaxies with z ≤ 0.2), we show that the mean infrared excess ⟨IRX⟩ = ⟨ LIR/LUV ⟩ can be described by a single vector, NRK , that combines the two colors. The calibration between ⟨IRX⟩ and NRK allows us to recover the IR luminosity, LIR, with an accuracy of σ ~ 0.21 for the COSMOS sample and 0.27 dex for the local one. The SFRs derived with this method agree with the ones based on the observed (UV+IR) luminosities and on the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting for the vast majority (~85%) of the star-forming population. Thanks to a library of model galaxy SEDs with realistic prescriptions for the star formation history, we show that we need to include a two-component dust model (i.e., birth clouds and diffuse ISM) and a full distribution of galaxy inclinations in order to reproduce the behavior of the ⟨IRX⟩ stripes in the NUVrK diagram. In conclusion, the NRK method, based only on the rest-frame UV/optical colors available in most of the extragalactic fields, offers a simple alternative of assessing the SFR of star-forming galaxies in the absence of far-IR or spectral diagnostic observations. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  10. Brown Dwarf Microlensing Diagram

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-10

    For the first time, two space-based telescopes have teamed up with ground-based observatories to observe a microlensing event, a magnification of the light of a distant star due to the gravitational effects of an unseen object in the foreground. In this case, the cause of the microlensing event was a brown dwarf, dubbed OGLE-2015-BLG-1319, orbiting a star. In terms of mass, brown dwarfs fall somewhere between the size of the largest planets and the smallest stars. Curiously, scientists have found that, for stars roughly the mass of our sun, less than 1 percent have a brown dwarf orbiting within 3 AU (1 AU is the distance between Earth and the sun). This newly discovered brown dwarf may fall in that distance range. This microlensing event was observed by ground-based telescopes looking for these uncommon events, and subsequently seen by NASA's Spitzer and Swift space telescopes. As the diagram shows, Spitzer and Swift offer additional vantage points for viewing this chance alignment. While Swift orbits close to Earth, and saw (blue diamonds) essentially the same change in light that the ground-based telescopes measured (grey markers), Spitzer's location much farther away from Earth gave it a very different perspective on the event (red circles). In particular, Spitzer's vantage point resulted in a time lag in the microlensing event it observed, compared to what was seen by Swift and the ground-based telescope. This offset allowed astronomers to determine the distance to OGLE-2015-BLG-1319 as well as its mass: around 30-65 times that of Jupiter. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21077

  11. Ab initio phase diagram of iridium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burakovsky, L.; Burakovsky, N.; Cawkwell, M. J.; Preston, D. L.; Errandonea, D.; Simak, S. I.

    2016-09-01

    The phase diagram of iridium is investigated using the Z methodology. The Z methodology is a technique for phase diagram studies that combines the direct Z method for the computation of melting curves and the inverse Z method for the calculation of solid-solid phase boundaries. In the direct Z method, the solid phases along the melting curve are determined by comparing the solid-liquid equilibrium boundaries of candidate crystal structures. The inverse Z method involves quenching the liquid into the most stable solid phase at various temperatures and pressures to locate a solid-solid boundary. Although excellent agreement with the available experimental data (to ≲65 GPa) is found for the equation of state (EOS) of Ir, it is the third-order Birch-Murnaghan EOS with B0'=5 rather than the more widely accepted B0'=4 that describes our ab initio data to higher pressure (P ) . Our results suggest the existence of a random-stacking hexagonal close-packed structure of iridium at high P . We offer an explanation for the 14-layer hexagonal structure observed in experiments by Cerenius and Dubrovinsky.

  12. Rectangular diagrams of surfaces: representability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dynnikov, I. A.; Prasolov, M. V.

    2017-06-01

    Introduced here is a simple combinatorial way, which is called a rectangular diagram of a surface, to represent a surface in the three-sphere. It has a particularly nice relation to the standard contact structure on S^3 and to rectangular diagrams of links. By using rectangular diagrams of surfaces it is intended, in particular, to develop a method to distinguish Legendrian knots. This requires a lot of technical work of which the present paper addresses only the first basic question: which isotopy classes of surfaces can be represented by a rectangular diagram? Roughly speaking, the answer is this: there is no restriction on the isotopy class of the surface, but there is a restriction on the rectangular diagram of the boundary link arising from the presentation of the surface. The result extends to Giroux's convex surfaces for which this restriction on the boundary has a natural meaning. In a subsequent paper, transformations of rectangular diagrams of surfaces will be considered and their properties will be studied. By using the formalism of rectangular diagrams of surfaces an annulus in S^3 is produced here that is expected to be a counterexample to the following conjecture: if two Legendrian knots cobound an annulus and have zero Thurston-Bennequin numbers relative to this annulus, then they are Legendrian isotopic. Bibliography: 30 titles.

  13. Particles, Feynman Diagrams and All That

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Quantum fields are introduced in order to give students an accurate qualitative understanding of the origin of Feynman diagrams as representations of particle interactions. Elementary diagrams are combined to produce diagrams representing the main features of the Standard Model.

  14. Particles, Feynman Diagrams and All That

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Quantum fields are introduced in order to give students an accurate qualitative understanding of the origin of Feynman diagrams as representations of particle interactions. Elementary diagrams are combined to produce diagrams representing the main features of the Standard Model.

  15. The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow, Janice

    1991-01-01

    Describes a classroom use of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram to infer not only the properties of a star but also the star's probable stage in evolution, life span, and age of the cluster in which it is located. (ZWH)

  16. Atemporal diagrams for quantum circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, Robert B.; Wu Shengjun; Yu Li; Cohen, Scott M.

    2006-05-15

    A system of diagrams is introduced that allows the representation of various elements of a quantum circuit, including measurements, in a form which makes no reference to time (hence 'atemporal'). It can be used to relate quantum dynamical properties to those of entangled states (map-state duality), and suggests useful analogies, such as the inverse of an entangled ket. Diagrams clarify the role of channel kets, transition operators, dynamical operators (matrices), and Kraus rank for noisy quantum channels. Positive (semidefinite) operators are represented by diagrams with a symmetry that aids in understanding their connection with completely positive maps. The diagrams are used to analyze standard teleportation and dense coding, and for a careful study of unambiguous (conclusive) teleportation. A simple diagrammatic argument shows that a Kraus rank of 3 is impossible for a one-qubit channel modeled using a one-qubit environment in a mixed state.

  17. The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow, Janice

    1991-01-01

    Describes a classroom use of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram to infer not only the properties of a star but also the star's probable stage in evolution, life span, and age of the cluster in which it is located. (ZWH)

  18. Ion mixing and phase diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, S. S.; Liu, B. X.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1983-05-01

    Interactions induced by ion irradiation are generally considered to be non-equilibrium processes, whereas phase diagrams are determined by phase equilibria. These two entities are seemingly unrelated. However, if one assumes that quasi-equilibrium conditions prevail after the prompt events, subsequent reactions are driven toward equilibrium by thermodynamical forces. Under this assumption, ion-induced reactions are related to equilibrium and therefore to phase diagrams. This relationship can be seen in the similarity that exists in thin films between reactions induced by ion irradiation and reactions induced by thermal annealing. In the latter case, phase diagrams have been used to predict the phase sequence of stable compound formation, notably so in cases of silicide formation. Ion-induced mixing not only can lead to stable compound formation, but also to metastable alloy formation. In some metal-metal systems, terminal solubilities can be greatly extended by ion mixing. In other cases, where the two constituents of the system have different crystal structures, extension of terminal solubility from both sides of the phase diagram eventually becomes structurally incompatible and a glassy (amorphous) mixture can form. The composition range where this bifurcation is likely to occur is in the two-phase regions of the phase diagram. These concepts are potentially useful guides in selecting metal pairs that from metallic glasses by ion mixing. In this report, phenomenological correlation between stable (and metastable) phase formation and phase diagram is discussed in terms of recent experimental data.

  19. Luminescence properties of IR-emitting bismuth centres in SiO{sub 2}-based glasses in the UV to near-IR spectral region

    SciTech Connect

    Firstova, E G; Vel'miskin, V V; Firstov, S V; Dianov, E M; Bufetov, I A; Khopin, V F; Gur'yanov, A N; Bufetova, G A; Nishchev, K N

    2015-01-31

    We have studied UV excitation spectra of IR luminescence in bismuth-doped glasses of various compositions and obtained energy level diagrams of IR-emitting bismuth-related active centres (BACs) associated with silicon and germanium atoms up to ∼5.2 eV over the ground level. A possible energy level diagram of the BACs in phosphosilicate glass has been proposed. The UV excitation peaks for the IR luminescence of the BACs in the glasses have been shown to considerably overlap with absorption bands of the Bi{sup 3+} ion, suggesting that Bi{sup 3+} may participate in BAC formation. (optical fibres)

  20. Luminescence properties of IR-emitting bismuth centres in SiO2-based glasses in the UV to near-IR spectral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firstova, E. G.; Bufetov, I. A.; Khopin, V. F.; Vel'miskin, V. V.; Firstov, S. V.; Bufetova, G. A.; Nishchev, K. N.; Gur'yanov, A. N.; Dianov, E. M.

    2015-01-01

    We have studied UV excitation spectra of IR luminescence in bismuth-doped glasses of various compositions and obtained energy level diagrams of IR-emitting bismuth-related active centres (BACs) associated with silicon and germanium atoms up to ~5.2 eV over the ground level. A possible energy level diagram of the BACs in phosphosilicate glass has been proposed. The UV excitation peaks for the IR luminescence of the BACs in the glasses have been shown to considerably overlap with absorption bands of the Bi3+ ion, suggesting that Bi3+ may participate in BAC formation.

  1. Automatically Assessing Graph-Based Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Pete; Smith, Neil; Waugh, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    To date there has been very little work on the machine understanding of imprecise diagrams, such as diagrams drawn by students in response to assessment questions. Imprecise diagrams exhibit faults such as missing, extraneous and incorrectly formed elements. The semantics of imprecise diagrams are difficult to determine. While there have been…

  2. Automatically Assessing Graph-Based Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Pete; Smith, Neil; Waugh, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    To date there has been very little work on the machine understanding of imprecise diagrams, such as diagrams drawn by students in response to assessment questions. Imprecise diagrams exhibit faults such as missing, extraneous and incorrectly formed elements. The semantics of imprecise diagrams are difficult to determine. While there have been…

  3. Matched designs and causal diagrams

    PubMed Central

    Mansournia, Mohammad A; Hernán, Miguel A; Greenland, Sander

    2013-01-01

    We use causal diagrams to illustrate the consequences of matching and the appropriate handling of matched variables in cohort and case-control studies. The matching process generally forces certain variables to be independent despite their being connected in the causal diagram, a phenomenon known as unfaithfulness. We show how causal diagrams can be used to visualize many previous results about matched studies. Cohort matching can prevent confounding by the matched variables, but censoring or other missing data and further adjustment may necessitate control of matching variables. Case-control matching generally does not prevent confounding by the matched variables, and control of matching variables may be necessary even if those were not confounders initially. Matching on variables that are affected by the exposure and the outcome, or intermediates between the exposure and the outcome, will ordinarily produce irremediable bias. PMID:23918854

  4. Electrochemical Phase Diagrams for Aqueous Redox Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-22

    theoretical analysis permits a classification of potential-pH diagrams into two basic types: 1) Pourbaix diagrams , in which 1 the stability field of solid...property" diagrams will contain conventional Pourbaix and Ellingham diagrams as subsets. 3. Improve the data-base supporting the computations by...research grant DAAL03-86-K-0062 and the preceding grant DAAG29-84-K-0074. 1. John C. Angus and Charles T. Angus, "Computation of Pourbaix Diagrams Using

  5. Phase diagram and electrical behavior of silicon-rich iridium silicide compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allevato, C. E.; Vining, Cronin B.

    1992-01-01

    The iridium-silicon phase diagram on the silicon-rich side was investigated by means of X-ray powder diffraction, density, differential thermal analysis, metalography, microprobe analysis, and electrical resistivity. Attempts were made to prepare eight previously reported silicon-rich iridium silicide compounds by arc melting and Bridgman-like growth. However, microprobe analysis identified only four distinct compositions: IrSi, Ir3Si4, Ir3Si5 and IrSi sub about 3. The existence of Ir4Si5 could not be confirmed in this study, even though the crystal structure has been previously reported. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) in conjunction with X-ray powder diffraction confirm polymorphism in IrSi sub about 3, determined to have orthorhombic and monoclinic unit cells in the high and low temperature forms. A eutectic composition alloy of 83 +/- 1 atomic percent silicon was observed between IrSi sub about 3 and silicon. Ir3Si4 exhibits distinct metallic behavior while Ir3Si5 is semiconducting. Both and IrSi and IrSi sub about 3 exhibit nearly temperature independent electrical resistivities on the order of 5-10 x 10 exp -6 ohms-m.

  6. Phase diagram and electrical behavior of silicon-rich iridium silicide compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allevato, C. E.; Vining, Cronin B.

    1992-01-01

    The iridium-silicon phase diagram on the silicon-rich side was investigated by means of X-ray powder diffraction, density, differential thermal analysis, metalography, microprobe analysis, and electrical resistivity. Attempts were made to prepare eight previously reported silicon-rich iridium silicide compounds by arc melting and Bridgman-like growth. However, microprobe analysis identified only four distinct compositions: IrSi, Ir3Si4, Ir3Si5 and IrSi sub about 3. The existence of Ir4Si5 could not be confirmed in this study, even though the crystal structure has been previously reported. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) in conjunction with X-ray powder diffraction confirm polymorphism in IrSi sub about 3, determined to have orthorhombic and monoclinic unit cells in the high and low temperature forms. A eutectic composition alloy of 83 +/- 1 atomic percent silicon was observed between IrSi sub about 3 and silicon. Ir3Si4 exhibits distinct metallic behavior while Ir3Si5 is semiconducting. Both and IrSi and IrSi sub about 3 exhibit nearly temperature independent electrical resistivities on the order of 5-10 x 10 exp -6 ohms-m.

  7. Voronoi Diagrams and Spring Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this geometry project is to use Voronoi diagrams, a powerful modeling tool across disciplines, and the integration of technology to analyze spring rainfall from rain gauge data over a region. In their investigation, students use familiar equipment from their mathematical toolbox: triangles and other polygons, circumcenters and…

  8. Voronoi Diagrams and Spring Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this geometry project is to use Voronoi diagrams, a powerful modeling tool across disciplines, and the integration of technology to analyze spring rainfall from rain gauge data over a region. In their investigation, students use familiar equipment from their mathematical toolbox: triangles and other polygons, circumcenters and…

  9. Understanding the two-dimensional ionization structure in luminous infrared galaxies. A near-IR integral field spectroscopy perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colina, Luis; Piqueras López, Javier; Arribas, Santiago; Riffel, Rogério; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Rodriguez-Ardila, Alberto; Pastoriza, Miriani; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Sales, Dinalva

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the two-dimensional excitation structure of the interstellar medium (ISM) in a sample of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) and Seyferts using near-IR integral field spectroscopy. This study extends to the near infrared the well-known optical and mid-IR emission line diagnostics used to classify activity in galaxies. Based on the spatially resolved spectroscopy of prototypes, we identify in the [FeII]1.64 μm/Brγ- H22.12 μm/Brγ plane regions dominated by the different heating sources, i.e. active galactic nuclei (AGNs), young main-sequence massive stars, and evolved stars i.e. supernovae. The ISM in LIRGs occupy a wide region in the near-IR diagnostic plane from -0.6 to +1.5 and from -1.2 to +0.8 (in log units) for the [FeII]/Brγ and H2/Brγ line ratios, respectively. The corresponding median(mode) ratios are +0.18(0.16) and +0.02(-0.04). Seyferts show on average larger values by factors ~2.5 and ~1.4 for the [FeII]/Brγ and H2/Brγ ratios, respectively. New areas and relations in the near-IR diagnostic plane are defined for the compact, high surface brightness regions dominated by AGN, young ionizing stars, and supernovae explosions, respectively. In addition to these high surface brightness regions, the diffuse regions affected by the AGN radiation field cover an area similar to that of Seyferts, but with high values in [FeII]/Brγ that are not as extreme. The extended, non-AGN diffuse regions cover a wide area in the near-IR diagnostic diagram that overlaps that of individual excitation mechanisms (i.e. AGN, young stars, and supernovae), but with its mode value to that of the young star-forming clumps. This indicates that the excitation conditions of the extended, diffuse ISM are likely due to a mixture of the different ionization sources, weighted by their spatial distribution and relative flux contribution. The integrated line ratios in LIRGs show higher excitation conditions i.e. towards AGNs, than those measured by the spatially resolved

  10. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  11. IR Hot Wave

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, T. B.

    2010-04-01

    The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace is a breakthrough heat treatment system for manufacturing metal components. Near-infrared (IR) radiant energy combines with IR convective heating for heat treating. Heat treatment is an essential process in the manufacture of most components. The controlled heating and cooling of a metal or metal alloy alters its physical, mechanical, and sometimes chemical properties without changing the object's shape. The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace offers the simplest, quickest, most efficient, and cost-effective heat treatment option for metals and metal alloys. Compared with other heat treatment alternatives, the IR Hot Wave{trademark} system: (1) is 3 to 15 times faster; (2) is 2 to 3 times more energy efficient; (3) is 20% to 50% more cost-effective; (4) has a {+-}1 C thermal profile compared to a {+-}10 C thermal profile for conventional gas furnaces; and (5) has a 25% to 50% smaller footprint.

  12. Spectral Determinants on Mandelstam Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillairet, Luc; Kalvin, Victor; Kokotov, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    We study the regularized determinant of the Laplacian as a functional on the space of Mandelstam diagrams (noncompact translation surfaces glued from finite and semi-infinite cylinders). A Mandelstam diagram can be considered as a compact Riemann surface equipped with a conformal flat singular metric {|ω|^2}, where {ω} is a meromorphic one-form with simple poles such that all its periods are pure imaginary and all its residues are real. The main result is an explicit formula for the determinant of the Laplacian in terms of the basic objects on the underlying Riemann surface (the prime form, theta-functions, the canonical meromorphic bidifferential) and the divisor of the meromorphic form {ω}. As an important intermediate result we prove a decomposition formula of the type of Burghelea-Friedlander-Kappeler for the determinant of the Laplacian for flat surfaces with cylindrical ends and conical singularities.

  13. Hero's journey in bifurcation diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, L. H. A.; Mustaro, P. N.

    2012-06-01

    The hero's journey is a narrative structure identified by several authors in comparative studies on folklore and mythology. This storytelling template presents the stages of inner metamorphosis undergone by the protagonist after being called to an adventure. In a simplified version, this journey is divided into three acts separated by two crucial moments. Here we propose a discrete-time dynamical system for representing the protagonist's evolution. The suffering along the journey is taken as the control parameter of this system. The bifurcation diagram exhibits stationary, periodic and chaotic behaviors. In this diagram, there are transition from fixed point to chaos and transition from limit cycle to fixed point. We found that the values of the control parameter corresponding to these two transitions are in quantitative agreement with the two critical moments of the three-act hero's journey identified in 10 movies appearing in the list of the 200 worldwide highest-grossing films.

  14. Anatomy of geodesic Witten diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Heng-Yu; Kuo, En-Jui; Kyono, Hideki

    2017-05-01

    We revisit the so-called "Geodesic Witten Diagrams" (GWDs) [1], proposed to be the holographic dual configuration of scalar conformal partial waves, from the perspectives of CFT operator product expansions. To this end, we explicitly consider three point GWDs which are natural building blocks of all possible four point GWDs, discuss their gluing procedure through integration over spectral parameter, and this leads us to a direct identification with the integral representation of CFT conformal partial waves. As a main application of this general construction, we consider the holographic dual of the conformal partial waves for external primary operators with spins. Moreover, we consider the closely related "split representation" for the bulk to bulk spinning propagator, to demonstrate how ordinary scalar Witten diagram with arbitrary spin exchange, can be systematically decomposed into scalar GWDs. We also discuss how to generalize to spinning cases.

  15. Quantum Dimer Model: Phase Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Garry; Chamon, Claudio; Castelnovo, Claudio

    We present new theoretical analysis of the Quantum Dimer Model. We study dimer models on square, cubic and triangular lattices and we reproduce their phase diagrams (which were previously known only numerically). We show that there are several types of dimer liquids and solids. We present preliminary analysis of several other models including doped dimers and planar spin ice, and some results on the Kagome and hexagonal lattices.

  16. Reliability computation from reliability block diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelson, P. O.; Eckstein, E. Y.

    1975-01-01

    Computer program computes system reliability for very general class of reliability block diagrams. Four factors are considered in calculating probability of system success: active block redundancy, standby block redundancy, partial redundancy, and presence of equivalent blocks in the diagram.

  17. Scheil-Gulliver Constituent Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, Arthur D.; Eriksson, Gunnar; Bale, Christopher W.

    2017-06-01

    During solidification of alloys, conditions often approach those of Scheil-Gulliver cooling in which it is assumed that solid phases, once precipitated, remain unchanged. That is, they no longer react with the liquid or with each other. In the case of equilibrium solidification, equilibrium phase diagrams provide a valuable means of visualizing the effects of composition changes upon the final microstructure. In the present study, we propose for the first time the concept of Scheil-Gulliver constituent diagrams which play the same role as that in the case of Scheil-Gulliver cooling. It is shown how these diagrams can be calculated and plotted by the currently available thermodynamic database computing systems that combine Gibbs energy minimization software with large databases of optimized thermodynamic properties of solutions and compounds. Examples calculated using the FactSage system are presented for the Al-Li and Al-Mg-Zn systems, and for the Au-Bi-Sb-Pb system and its binary and ternary subsystems.

  18. Scheil-Gulliver Constituent Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, Arthur D.; Eriksson, Gunnar; Bale, Christopher W.

    2017-03-01

    During solidification of alloys, conditions often approach those of Scheil-Gulliver cooling in which it is assumed that solid phases, once precipitated, remain unchanged. That is, they no longer react with the liquid or with each other. In the case of equilibrium solidification, equilibrium phase diagrams provide a valuable means of visualizing the effects of composition changes upon the final microstructure. In the present study, we propose for the first time the concept of Scheil-Gulliver constituent diagrams which play the same role as that in the case of Scheil-Gulliver cooling. It is shown how these diagrams can be calculated and plotted by the currently available thermodynamic database computing systems that combine Gibbs energy minimization software with large databases of optimized thermodynamic properties of solutions and compounds. Examples calculated using the FactSage system are presented for the Al-Li and Al-Mg-Zn systems, and for the Au-Bi-Sb-Pb system and its binary and ternary subsystems.

  19. Phase diagram of crushed powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodard, Sébastien; Jalbaud, Olivier; Saurel, Richard; Burtschell, Yves; Lapebie, Emmanuel

    2016-12-01

    Compression of monodisperse powder samples in quasistatic conditions is addressed in a pressure range such that particles fragmentation occurs while the solid remains incompressible (typical pressure range of 1-300 MPa for glass powders). For a granular bed made of particles of given size, the existence of three stages is observed during compression and crush up. First, classical compression occurs and the pressure of the granular bed increases along a characteristic curve as the volume decreases. Then, a critical pressure is reached for which fragmentation begins. During the fragmentation process, the granular pressure stays constant in a given volume range. At the end of this second stage, 20%-50% of initial grains are reduced to finer particles, depending on the initial size. Then the compression undergoes the third stage and the pressure increases along another characteristic curve, in the absence of extra fragmentation. The present paper analyses the analogies between the phase transition in liquid-vapour systems and powder compression with crush-up. Fragmentation diagram for a soda lime glass is determined by experimental means. The analogues of the saturation pressure and latent heat of phase change are determined. Two thermodynamic models are then examined to represent the crush-up diagram. The first one uses piecewise functions while the second one is of van der Waals type. Both equations of state relate granular pressure, solid volume fraction, and initial particle diameter. The piecewise functions approach provides reasonable representations of the phase diagram while the van der Waals one fails.

  20. Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s). Transmitted causes ("causes of causes") tend not to be systematically analysed. The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties. The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets. Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback. PMID:22429606

  1. Arrows in Comprehending and Producing Mechanical Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiser, Julie; Tversky, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical systems have structural organizations--parts, and their relations--and functional organizations--temporal, dynamic, and causal processes--which can be explained using text or diagrams. Two experiments illustrate the role of arrows in diagrams of mechanical systems. In Experiment 1, people described diagrams with or without arrows,…

  2. Differential Effectiveness of Two Science Diagram Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, William G.

    Reported is an Aptitude Treatment Instruction (ATI) Study designed to evaluate the aptitude of verbal comprehension in terms of two unitary complex science diagram types: a single complex block word diagram and a single complex picture word diagram.. ATI theory and research indicate that different effective instructional treatments tend to help…

  3. Automated Discovery and Construction of Surface Phase Diagrams Using Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Ulissi, Zachary W; Singh, Aayush R; Tsai, Charlie; Nørskov, Jens K

    2016-10-06

    Surface phase diagrams are necessary for understanding surface chemistry in electrochemical catalysis, where a range of adsorbates and coverages exist at varying applied potentials. These diagrams are typically constructed using intuition, which risks missing complex coverages and configurations at potentials of interest. More accurate cluster expansion methods are often difficult to implement quickly for new surfaces. We adopt a machine learning approach to rectify both issues. Using a Gaussian process regression model, the free energy of all possible adsorbate coverages for surfaces is predicted for a finite number of adsorption sites. Our result demonstrates a rational, simple, and systematic approach for generating accurate free-energy diagrams with reduced computational resources. The Pourbaix diagram for the IrO2(110) surface (with nine coverages from fully hydrogenated to fully oxygenated surfaces) is reconstructed using just 20 electronic structure relaxations, compared to approximately 90 using typical search methods. Similar efficiency is demonstrated for the MoS2 surface.

  4. Timely Diagnostic Feedback for Database Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Lai, Yuan-Cheng; Chuang, Yuh-Shy

    2013-01-01

    To efficiently learn database concepts, this work adopts association rules to provide diagnostic feedback for drawing an Entity-Relationship Diagram (ERD). Using association rules and Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) techniques, this work implements a novel Web-based Timely Diagnosis System (WTDS), which provides timely diagnostic feedback…

  5. Timely Diagnostic Feedback for Database Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Lai, Yuan-Cheng; Chuang, Yuh-Shy

    2013-01-01

    To efficiently learn database concepts, this work adopts association rules to provide diagnostic feedback for drawing an Entity-Relationship Diagram (ERD). Using association rules and Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) techniques, this work implements a novel Web-based Timely Diagnosis System (WTDS), which provides timely diagnostic feedback…

  6. Diagram, a Learning Environment for Initiation to Object-Oriented Modeling with UML Class Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Py, Dominique; Auxepaules, Ludovic; Alonso, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents Diagram, a learning environment for object-oriented modelling (OOM) with UML class diagrams. Diagram an open environment, in which the teacher can add new exercises without constraints on the vocabulary or the size of the diagram. The interface includes methodological help, encourages self-correcting and self-monitoring, and…

  7. Diagram, a Learning Environment for Initiation to Object-Oriented Modeling with UML Class Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Py, Dominique; Auxepaules, Ludovic; Alonso, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents Diagram, a learning environment for object-oriented modelling (OOM) with UML class diagrams. Diagram an open environment, in which the teacher can add new exercises without constraints on the vocabulary or the size of the diagram. The interface includes methodological help, encourages self-correcting and self-monitoring, and…

  8. ISM Diagnostics: Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onaka, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    Infrared (IR) observations provide significant information on the lifecycle of dust grains in the interstellar medium (ISM), which is crucial for the understanding of the evolution of matter in the universe. The IR spectral energy distribution (SED) of the dust emission tells us the relative abundance of sub-micron grains, very small grains, and carriers of the unidentified infrared (UIR) emission bands, since they emit the far-IR, the mid-IR, and the UIR bands from the near- to mid-IR, respectively. On the other hand, the UIR emission bands themselves offer a useful means to probe the physical conditions from which the band emission arises because each band is assigned to a specific C-H or C-C vibration mode and because its relative intensity should reflect the properties of the band carriers and the physical conditions of the environment. Here the two diagnostic methods using IR observations are briefly described together with examples of the observational results. Implications for the dust lifecycle are also discussed.

  9. IR Linearity Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Bryan

    2012-10-01

    These observations will be used to monitor the signal non-linearity of the IR channel, as well as to update the IR channel non-linearity calibration reference file. The non-linearity behavior of each pixel in the detector will be investigated through the use of full frame and subarray flat fields, while the photometric behavior of point sources will be studied using observations of 47 Tuc. This is a continuation of the Cycle 19 non-linearity monitor, program 12696.

  10. IR linearity monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Bryan

    2013-10-01

    These observations will be used to monitor the signal non-linearity of the IR channel, as well as to update the IR channel non-linearity calibration reference file. The non-linearity behavior of each pixel in the detector will be investigated through the use of full frame and subarray flat fields, while the photometric behavior of point sources will be studied using observations of 47 Tuc. This is a continuation of the Cycle 20 non-linearity monitor, program 13079.

  11. Pulsar braking and the P-dot{P} diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Simon; Karastergiou, A.

    2017-05-01

    The location of radio pulsars in the period-period derivative (P-\\dot{P}) plane has been a key diagnostic tool since the early days of pulsar astronomy. Of particular importance is how pulsars evolve through the P-\\dot{P} diagram with time. Here we show that the decay of the inclination angle (\\dot{α }) between the magnetic and rotation axes plays a critical role. In particular, \\dot{α } strongly impacts on the braking torque, an effect that has been largely ignored in previous work. We carry out simulations that include a negative \\dot{α } term, and show that it is possible to reproduce the observational P-\\dot{P} diagram without the need for either pulsars with long birth periods or magnetic field decay. Our best model indicates a birth rate of one radio pulsar per century and a total Galactic population of ˜20 000 pulsars beaming towards Earth.

  12. Phase diagrams of polyelectrolyte solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdi, Khaled A.

    We study the phase diagram of polyelectrolyte solutions in salt and salt-free environments. We examine the phase behavior of polyelectrolyte solutions, in the semidilute regime, using different physical models, namely the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) and the cross-linked model. In the RPA, we calculate the electrostatic free energy by summing all the fluctuations of the chains and all present ionic species. Within this approximation, the phase diagrams of salt-free polyelectrolyte solutions show phase separation even without including short-range attractions or ion condensation. We find that the phase behavior of large chains resembles the phase diagram of polymer network solutions. That is, the equilibrium is established between a network phase and a chain-free phase. Upon the addition of salt, the dissociated ions increase the entropy of the system and overcome the energy from the electrostatic fluctuations. When the short-range attraction between monomers is included in the model, the free energy predicts phase segregation for all salt valences at high salt concentrations (1 mol/l and higher). The phenomenon is called salting-out and occurs simply because the addition of salt reduces the quality of the solvent and induces precipitation. However, phase segregation in the presence of multivalent ions in polyelectrolyte solutions occurs at low salt concentrations (less than 1 mol/l). We propose that this phase separation is due to polyions cross-linked by multivalent ions. We constructed a phenomenological two-state model to examine this phenomenon. The two phases coexisting in the solution are a network-like phase and a polymer-free phase. The polymer-free phase is modeled using Debye-Huckel theory. In the cross-linked phase, each condensed multivalent ion attracts an equal number of monomers creating a neutral cluster. The energy of the cluster is evaluated by a simple Coulombic energy. The bare monomer charges between the linkages are treated as line of

  13. Voronoi Diagrams Without Bounding Boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, E. T. K.

    2015-10-01

    We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010) and Nerbonne et al (2011).

  14. The IR-telescope project GIRL, German Infrared Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genthe, D.

    A description is given of the development and design features of the German Infrared Laboratory (GIRL) telescope as well as its objectives, performance characteristics and possible missions aboard Spacelab. Attention is given to the four focal plane instruments incorporated by the IR telescope: (1) an IR camera for the two spectral regions 5-15 and 30-120 microns; (2) a photometer/polarimeter for the spectral region between 3 and 250 microns; (3) an Ebert-Fastie spectrometer, for both aeronomy and astronomical measurements; and (4) a universal spectrometer for the investigation of spectral lines in the far infrared. Extensive charts and mechanical detail diagrams are provided

  15. Phase diagrams for sonoluminescing bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Lohse, Detlef; Brenner, Michael P.

    1996-11-01

    Sound driven gas bubbles in water can emit light pulses. This phenomenon is called sonoluminescence (SL). Two different phases of single bubble SL have been proposed: diffusively stable and diffusively unstable SL. We present phase diagrams in the gas concentration versus forcing pressure state space and also in the ambient radius versus gas concentration and versus forcing pressure state spaces. These phase diagrams are based on the thresholds for energy focusing in the bubble and two kinds of instabilities, namely (i) shape instabilities and (ii) diffusive instabilities. Stable SL only occurs in a tiny parameter window of large forcing pressure amplitude Pa˜1.2-1.5 atm and low gas concentration of less than 0.4% of the saturation. The upper concentration threshold becomes smaller with increased forcing. Our results quantitatively agree with experimental results of Putterman's UCLA group on argon, but not on air. However, air bubbles and other gas mixtures can also successfully be treated in this approach if in addition (iii) chemical instabilities are considered. All statements are based on the Rayleigh-Plesset ODE approximation of the bubble dynamics, extended in an adiabatic approximation to include mass diffusion effects. This approximation is the only way to explore considerable portions of parameter space, as solving the full PDEs is numerically too expensive. Therefore, we checked the adiabatic approximation by comparison with the full numerical solution of the advection diffusion PDE and find good agreement.

  16. Phase Diagrams of Nuclear Pasta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan, Matthew; Horowitz, Chuck; Berry, Don; da Silva Schneider, Andre

    2016-03-01

    In the inner crust of neutrons stars, where matter is near the saturation density, protons and neutrons arrange themselves into complex structures called nuclear pasta. Early theoretical work predicted a simple graduated hierarchy of pasta phases, consisting of spheres, cylinders, slabs, and uniform matter with voids. Previous work has simulated these phases with a simple classical model and has shown that the formation of these structures is dependent on the temperature, density, and proton fraction. However, previous work only studied a limited range of these parameters due to computational limitations. Thanks to recent advances in computing it is now possible to survey the structure of nuclear pasta for a larger range of parameters. By simulating nuclear pasta with constant temperature and proton fraction in an expanding simulation volume we are able to study the phase transitions in nuclear pasta, and thus produce a set of phase diagrams. We report on these phase diagrams as well as newly identified phases of nuclear pasta and discuss their implications for neutron star observables.

  17. Phase diagrams for high Tc superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Whitler, J.D.; Roth, R.S. NIST, Gaithersburg, MD )

    1991-01-01

    The phase diagrams of ternary and quaternary systems containing superconducting phases are presented, as are the phase diagrams of the associated binary systems. The diagrams are divided into two large groups: (1) alkaline earth-rare earth-copper-oxygen diagrams, and (2) alkaline earth-bismuth/lead-copper-oxygen diagrams. The first group includes BaO-REO-CuO systems followed by SrO-REO-CuO or Nd2O3-CeO-CuO systems. The second group includes systems related to the AE-Bi2O3-CuO and AE-PbO-CuO systems. The phase diagrams are accompanied by notes relating procedures used in the studies, results obtained, and comparisons with the results in the literature for the same system.

  18. Continuation of point clouds via persistence diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gameiro, Marcio; Hiraoka, Yasuaki; Obayashi, Ippei

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present a mathematical and algorithmic framework for the continuation of point clouds by persistence diagrams. A key property used in the method is that the persistence map, which assigns a persistence diagram to a point cloud, is differentiable. This allows us to apply the Newton-Raphson continuation method in this setting. Given an original point cloud P, its persistence diagram D, and a target persistence diagram D‧, we gradually move from D to D‧, by successively computing intermediate point clouds until we finally find a point cloud P‧ having D‧ as its persistence diagram. Our method can be applied to a wide variety of situations in topological data analysis where it is necessary to solve an inverse problem, from persistence diagrams to point cloud data.

  19. Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion.

    PubMed

    Kirshner, Robert P

    2004-01-06

    Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168-173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velocities come chiefly from Vesto Melvin Slipher, and the interpretation in terms of the de Sitter effect is out of the mainstream of modern cosmology, this article opened the way to investigation of the expanding, evolving, and accelerating universe that engages today's burgeoning field of cosmology.

  20. Gravity on-shell diagrams

    DOE PAGES

    Herrmann, Enrico; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2016-11-22

    Here, we study on-shell diagrams for gravity theories with any number of super-symmetries and find a compact Grassmannian formula in terms of edge variables of the graphs. Unlike in gauge theory where the analogous form involves only d log-factors, in gravity there is a non-trivial numerator as well as higher degree poles in the edge variables. Based on the structure of the Grassmannian formula for N = 8 supergravity we conjecture that gravity loop amplitudes also possess similar properties. In particular, we find that there are only logarithmic singularities on cuts with finite loop momentum and that poles at infinitymore » are present, in complete agreement with the conjecture presented in.« less

  1. Gravity on-shell diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Enrico; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2016-11-22

    Here, we study on-shell diagrams for gravity theories with any number of super-symmetries and find a compact Grassmannian formula in terms of edge variables of the graphs. Unlike in gauge theory where the analogous form involves only d log-factors, in gravity there is a non-trivial numerator as well as higher degree poles in the edge variables. Based on the structure of the Grassmannian formula for N = 8 supergravity we conjecture that gravity loop amplitudes also possess similar properties. In particular, we find that there are only logarithmic singularities on cuts with finite loop momentum and that poles at infinity are present, in complete agreement with the conjecture presented in.

  2. Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion

    PubMed Central

    Kirshner, Robert P.

    2004-01-01

    Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168–173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velocities come chiefly from Vesto Melvin Slipher, and the interpretation in terms of the de Sitter effect is out of the mainstream of modern cosmology, this article opened the way to investigation of the expanding, evolving, and accelerating universe that engages today's burgeoning field of cosmology. PMID:14695886

  3. A Regime Diagram for Subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegman, D. R.; Farrington, R.; Capitanio, F. A.; Schellart, W. P.

    2009-12-01

    Regime diagrams and associated scaling relations have profoundly influenced our understanding of planetary dynamics. Previous regime diagrams characterized the regimes of stagnant-lid, small viscosity contrast, transitional, and no-convection for temperature-dependent (Moresi and Solomatov, 1995), and non-linear power law rheologies (Solomatov and Moresi, 1997) as well as stagnant-lid, sluggish-lid, and mobile-lid regimes once the finite strength of rock was considered (Moresi and Solomatov, 1998). Scalings derived from such models have been the cornerstone for parameterized models of thermal evolution of rocky planets and icy moons for the past decade. While such a theory can predict the tectonic state of a planetary body, it is still rather incomplete in regards to predicting tectonics. For example, the mobile-lid regime is unspecific as to how continuous lithospheric recycling should occur on a terrestrial planet. Towards this goal, Gerya et al., (2008) advanced a new regime diagram aiming to characterize when subduction would manifest itself as a one-sided or two-sided downwelling and either symmetric or asymmetric. Here, we present a regime diagram for the case of a single-sided, asymmetric type of subduction (most Earth-like type). Using a 3-D numerical model of a free subduction, we describe a total of 5 different styles of subduction that can possibly occur. Each style is distinguished by its upper mantle slab morphology resulting from the sinking kinematics. We provide movies to illustrate the different styles and their progressive time-evolution. In each regime, subduction is accommodated by a combination of plate advance and slab rollback, with associated motions of forward plate velocity and trench retreat, respectively. We demonstrate that the preferred subduction mode depends upon two essential controlling factors: 1) buoyancy of the downgoing plate and 2) strength of plate in resisting bending at the hinge. We propose that a variety of subduction

  4. Gravity on-shell diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Enrico; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2016-11-01

    We study on-shell diagrams for gravity theories with any number of super-symmetries and find a compact Grassmannian formula in terms of edge variables of the graphs. Unlike in gauge theory where the analogous form involves only d log-factors, in gravity there is a non-trivial numerator as well as higher degree poles in the edge variables. Based on the structure of the Grassmannian formula for {N}=8 supergravity we conjecture that gravity loop amplitudes also possess similar properties. In particular, we find that there are only logarithmic singularities on cuts with finite loop momentum and that poles at infinity are present, in complete agreement with the conjecture presented in [1].

  5. Phase diagram of Hertzian spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pàmies, Josep C.; Cacciuto, Angelo; Frenkel, Daan

    2009-07-01

    We report the phase diagram of interpenetrating Hertzian spheres. The Hertz potential is purely repulsive, bounded at zero separation, and decreases monotonically as a power law with exponent 5/2, vanishing at the overlapping threshold. This simple functional describes the elastic interaction of weakly deformable bodies and, therefore, it is a reliable physical model of soft macromolecules, like star polymers and globular micelles. Using thermodynamic integration and extensive Monte Carlo simulations, we computed accurate free energies of the fluid phase and a large number of crystal structures. For this, we defined a general primitive unit cell that allows for the simulation of any lattice. We found multiple re-entrant melting and first-order transitions between crystals with cubic, trigonal, tetragonal, and hexagonal symmetries.

  6. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, M.; Yoo, C. S.

    2014-05-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood -resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 17 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400 °C.

  7. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-12-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO-AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N2, N2O, and H2O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV' transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

  8. Influence Diagrams: Automated Analysis with Dynamic Programming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    demonstrating both the efficiency of the dynamic programming features and the limitations of influence diagrams in modeling problems with significant...Introduction 1.1 General Background Influence diagrams are a -eccntly developed graphical modeling tool for repre- senting both the conceptual elements and the...the model [9:10]. The types of node included in basic influence diagrams are (see Figure 1): Chance Node The chance node represents a random variable

  9. Process Flow Diagrams for Training and Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venter, Jacobus

    This paper focuses on the use of process flow diagrams for training first responders who execute search and seizure warrants at electronic crime scenes. A generic process flow framework is presented, and the design goals and layout characteristics of process flow diagrams are discussed. An evaluation of the process flow diagrams used in training courses indicates that they are beneficial to first responders performing searches and seizures, and they speed up investigations, including those conducted by experienced personnel.

  10. Origin and use of crystallization phase diagrams

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Crystallization phase diagrams are frequently used to conceptualize the phase relations and also the processes taking place during the crystallization of macromolecules. While a great deal of freedom is given in crystallization phase diagrams owing to a lack of specific knowledge about the actual phase boundaries and phase equilibria, crucial fundamental features of phase diagrams can be derived from thermodynamic first principles. Consequently, there are limits to what can be reasonably displayed in a phase diagram, and imagination may start to conflict with thermodynamic realities. Here, the commonly used ‘crystallization phase diagrams’ are derived from thermodynamic excess properties and their limitations and appropriate use is discussed. PMID:25760697

  11. Galaxy emission line classification using three-dimensional line ratio diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Dopita, Michael A.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Scharwächter, Julia; Basurah, Hassan M.; Ali, Alaa; Amer, Morsi A.

    2014-10-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) line ratio diagnostic diagrams have become a key tool in understanding the excitation mechanisms of galaxies. The curves used to separate the different regions—H II-like or excited by an active galactic nucleus (AGN)—have been refined over time but the core technique has not evolved significantly. However, the classification of galaxies based on their emission line ratios really is a multi-dimensional problem. Here we exploit recent software developments to explore the potential of three-dimensional (3D) line ratio diagnostic diagrams. We introduce the ZQE diagrams, which are a specific set of 3D diagrams that separate the oxygen abundance and the ionization parameter of H II region-like spectra and also enable us to probe the excitation mechanism of the gas. By examining these new 3D spaces interactively, we define the ZE diagnostics, a new set of 2D diagnostics that can provide the metallicity of objects excited by hot young stars and that cleanly separate H II region-like objects from the different classes of AGNs. We show that these ZE diagnostics are consistent with the key log [N II]/Hα versus log [O III]/Hβ diagnostic currently used by the community. They also have the advantage of attaching a probability that a given object belongs to one class or the other. Finally, we discuss briefly why ZQE diagrams can provide a new way to differentiate and study the different classes of AGNs in anticipation of a dedicated follow-up study.

  12. IR Gain Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Bryan

    2012-10-01

    The gain of the IR channel of WFC3 will be measured using a series of internal flat fields. Using knowledge gained from ground testing and previous cycles, we propose to collect flat field ramps which will be used to create photon transfer curves and give a measure of the gain.

  13. IR gain monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Bryan

    2013-10-01

    The gain of the IR channel of WFC3 will be measured using a series of internal flat fields. Using knowledge gained from ground testing and previous cycles, we propose to collect flat field ramps which will be used to create photon transfer curves and give a measure of the gain. This continues the strategy of last cycle's gain monitor, in proposal 13080.

  14. Classification of ischaemic episodes with ST/HR diagrams.

    PubMed

    Faganeli Pucer, Jana; Demšar, Janez; Kukar, Matjaž

    2012-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the developed world's premier cause of mortality and the most probable cause of myocardial ischaemia. More advanced diagnostic tests aside, in electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis it manifests itself as a ST segment deviation, targeted by both exercise ECG and ambulatory ECG. In ambulatory ECG, besides ischaemic ST segment deviation episodes there are also non-ischaemic heart rate related episodes which aggravate real ischaemia detection. We present methods to transform the features developed for the heart rate adjustment of ST segment depression in exercise ECG for use in ambulatory ECG. We use annotations provided by the Long-Term ST Database to plot the ST/HR diagrams and then estimate the overall and maximal slopes of the diagrams in the exercise and recovery phase for each ST segment deviation episode. We also estimate the angle at the extrema of the ST/HR diagrams. Statistical analysis shows that ischaemic ST segment deviation episodes have significantly steeper overall and maximal slopes than heart rate related episodes, which indicates the explored features' utility for distinguishing between the two types of episodes. This makes the proposed features very useful in automated ECG analysis.

  15. Diagrams Benefit Symbolic Problem-Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Junyi; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The format of a mathematics problem often influences students' problem-solving performance. For example, providing diagrams in conjunction with story problems can benefit students' understanding, choice of strategy, and accuracy on story problems. However, it remains unclear whether providing diagrams in conjunction with symbolic…

  16. Pressure-temperature phase diagrams of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Smeller, László

    2002-03-25

    The pressure-temperature phase diagram of various biomolecules is reviewed. Special attention is focused on the elliptic phase diagram of proteins. The phenomenological thermodynamic theory describing this diagram explains the heat, cold and pressure denaturations in a unified picture. The limitations and possible developments of this theory are discussed as well. It is pointed out that a more complex diagram can be obtained when the intermolecular interactions are also taken into account. In this case metastable states appear on the pressure-temperature (p-T) diagram due to intermolecular interactions. Pressure-temperature phase diagrams of other biopolymers are also discussed. While the p-T diagrams of helix-coil transition of nucleic acids and of gel-liquid crystal transition of lipid bilayers are non-elliptical, those of gelatinization of starch and of phase separation of some synthetic polymers show an elliptic profile, similar to that of proteins. Finally, the p-T diagram of bacterial inactivation is shown to be elliptic. From the point of view of basic science, this fact shows that the key factor of inactivation should be the protein type, and from the viewpoint of practical applications, it serves as the theoretical basis of pressure treatment of biosystems.

  17. Vesicle deformation by microtubules: A phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emsellem, Virginie; Cardoso, Olivier; Tabeling, Patrick

    1998-10-01

    The experimental investigation of vesicles deformed by the growth of encapsulated microtubules shows that the axisymmetric morphologies can be classified into ovals, lemons, φ, cherries, dumbbells, and pearls. A geometrical phase diagram is established. Numerical minimization of the elastic energy of the membrane reproduces satisfactorily well the observed morphologies and the corresponding phase diagram.

  18. The morphological diagram of spinels

    SciTech Connect

    Ziolkowski, J.

    1996-02-01

    Catalytic anisotropy in mild oxidation reactions results from the varying activity of different crystal faces. Here, spinels exposing (100), (110), and (111) faces have been considered and their Curie-Wulff plots have been drawn, admitting that the relative G(hkl) surface free energies may change in a wide range as a function of composition, inversion, and segregation degree. The normalized free surface energies are defined as A = G(100)/G(111), B = G(110)/G(111), and C = G(111)/G(111) = 1 = const. This made it possible to construct bidimensional morphological diagrams (morphology = f(A,B) at C = const) in the exposed-face-type, solid-type, and exposure-percentage versions. Eleven morphological habits of grains have been identified, including (100)-cube, (110)-dodecahedron, (111)-hexagons, 18-hedron, 20-hedron, and up to 26-hedra bordered with (i) 6 (100)-octagons, 12 (110)-rectangles, and 8 (111)-hexagons, (ii) 6 (100)-squares, 12 (110)-rectangles, and 8 (111)-triangles, or (iii) 6 (100)-squares, 12 (110)-octagons, and 8 (100)-triangles. The analysis is valid for all compounds crystallizing in the cubic system and preferentially exposing the three enumerated faces.

  19. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-12-07

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO–AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and H{sub 2}O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV{sup ′} transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

  20. Phase Diagram of Ammonium Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-06-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often been subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood - resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety, in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN, in different chemical environments, at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 15 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 673 K. The present study has been supported by the U.S. DHS under Award Number 2008-ST-061-ED0001.

  1. Phase diagram of elastic spheres.

    PubMed

    Athanasopoulou, L; Ziherl, P

    2017-02-15

    Experiments show that polymeric nanoparticles often self-assemble into several non-close-packed lattices in addition to the face-centered cubic lattice. Here, we explore theoretically the possibility that the observed phase sequences may be associated with the softness of the particles, which are modeled as elastic spheres interacting upon contact. The spheres are described by two finite-deformation theories of elasticity, the modified Saint-Venant-Kirchhoff model and the neo-Hookean model. We determine the range of indentations where the repulsion between the spheres is pairwise additive and agrees with the Hertz theory. By computing the elastic energies of nine trial crystal lattices at densities far beyond the Hertzian range, we construct the phase diagram and find the face- and body-centered cubic lattices as well as the A15 lattice and the simple hexagonal lattice, with the last two being stable at large densities where the spheres are completely faceted. These results are qualitatively consistent with observations, suggesting that deformability may indeed be viewed as a generic property that determines the phase behavior in nanocolloidal suspensions.

  2. Pulsed IR inductive lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razhev, A. M.; Churkin, D. S.; Kargapol'tsev, E. S.

    2014-07-01

    Pulsed inductive discharge is a new alternative method of pumping active gas laser media. The work presents results of experimental investigations of near, mid, and far IR inductive gas lasers (H2, HF, and CO2) operating at different transitions of atoms and molecules with different mechanisms of formation of inversion population. The excitation systems of a pulsed inductive cylindrical discharge (pulsed inductively coupled plasma) and pulsed RF inductive discharge in the gases are developed. Various gas mixtures including H2, N2, He, Ne, F2, NF3, and SF6 are used. Characteristics of near IR H2 laser radiation are investigated. Maximal pulse peak power of 7 kW is achieved. The possibility of using a pulsed inductive discharge as a new method of pumping HF laser active medium is demonstrated. The pulsed RF inductive CO2 laser is created and a total efficiency of 17% is achieved.

  3. Dimensionality-strain phase diagram of strontium iridates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bongjae; Liu, Peitao; Franchini, Cesare

    2017-03-01

    The competition between spin-orbit coupling, bandwidth (W ), and electron-electron interaction (U ) makes iridates highly susceptible to small external perturbations, which can trigger the onset of novel types of electronic and magnetic states. Here we employ first principles calculations based on density functional theory and on the constrained random phase approximation to study how dimensionality and strain affect the strength of U and W in (SrIrO3)m/(SrTiO3) superlattices. The result is a phase diagram explaining two different types of controllable magnetic and electronic transitions, spin-flop and insulator-to-metal, connected with the disruption of the Jeff=1 /2 state which cannot be understood within a simplified local picture.

  4. Dunes in IR

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-09

    This image captured by NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows an infrared image of Kaiser Crater and the dune field on the crater floor. Brighter tones in the image are warmer surfaces. The basaltic dunes are dark in the visible, but bright in infrared. Orbit Number: 66814 Latitude: -47.0992 Longitude: 19.782 Instrument: IR Captured: 2017-01-05 08:54 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21504

  5. IR Detectors Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...2 1. Introduction The final report summarizes the results of continuing research and development of CZT substrates for fabrication of IR focal...agreed, that tasks 3 and 4 will be done in the first half of September based on time availability of the polishing lab and the summary will be sent

  6. The VISTA IR camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, Gavin B.; Caldwell, Martin; Ward, Kim; Whalley, Martin S.; Burke, Kevin; Lucas, John M.; Richards, Tony; Ferlet, Marc; Edeson, Ruben L.; Tye, Daniel; Shaughnessy, Bryan M.; Strachan, Mel; Atad-Ettedgui, Eli; Leclerc, Melanie R.; Gallie, Angus; Bezawada, Nagaraja N.; Clark, Paul; Bissonauth, Nirmal; Luke, Peter; Dipper, Nigel A.; Berry, Paul; Sutherland, Will; Emerson, Jim

    2004-09-01

    The VISTA IR Camera has now completed its detailed design phase and is on schedule for delivery to ESO"s Cerro Paranal Observatory in 2006. The camera consists of 16 Raytheon VIRGO 2048x2048 HgCdTe arrays in a sparse focal plane sampling a 1.65 degree field of view. A 1.4m diameter filter wheel provides slots for 7 distinct science filters, each comprising 16 individual filter panes. The camera also provides autoguiding and curvature sensing information for the VISTA telescope, and relies on tight tolerancing to meet the demanding requirements of the f/1 telescope design. The VISTA IR camera is unusual in that it contains no cold pupil-stop, but rather relies on a series of nested cold baffles to constrain the light reaching the focal plane to the science beam. In this paper we present a complete overview of the status of the final IR Camera design, its interaction with the VISTA telescope, and a summary of the predicted performance of the system.

  7. Counting planar diagrams with various restrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    't Hooft, Gerard

    1999-01-01

    Explicit expressions are considered for the generating functions concerning the number of planar diagrams with given numbers of 3- and 4-point vertices. It is observed that planar renormalization theory requires diagrams with restrictions, in the sense that one wishes to omit 'tadpole' insertions and 'seagull' insertions; at a later stage also self-energy insertions are to be removed, and finally also the dressed 3-point insertions and the dressed 4-point insertions. Diagrams with such restrictions can all be counted exactly. This results in various critical lines in the λ- g plane, where λ and g are effective zero-dimensional coupling constants. These lines can be localized exactly.

  8. Phase diagrams of self-organizing maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, H.-U.; Riesenhuber, M.; Geisel, T.

    1996-09-01

    We present a method which allows the analytic determination of phase diagrams in the self-organizing map, a model for the formation of topographic projection patterns in the brain and in signal processing applications. The method only requires an ansatz for the tesselation of the data space induced by the map, not for the explicit state of the map. We analytically obtain phase diagrams for various examples, including models for the development of orientation and ocular-dominance maps. The latter phase diagram exhibits transitions to broadening ocular-dominance patterns as observed in a recent experiment.

  9. CADDIS Volume 5. Causal Databases: Interactive Conceptual Diagrams (ICDs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In Interactive Conceptual Diagram (ICD) section of CADDIS allows users to create conceptual model diagrams, search a literature-based evidence database, and then attach that evidence to their diagrams.

  10. IR Earth Flats Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCullough, Peter

    2009-07-01

    This program is an experimental path finder for Cycle 18 calibration. {The WFC3 UVIS version of this is program 11914 and contains additional detail in its description}. Infrared-wavelength flat fields will be obtained by observing the dark side of the Earth during periods of full moon illumination. The observations will consist of full-frame streaked WFC3 IR imagery: per single "dark-sky" orbit, we anticipate achieving Poisson S/N > 100 per pixel in each of three to five exposures, depending on sample sequence {SPARS25 or SPARS50}.Why not use the Sunlit Earth? It is too bright for WFC3 IR full-frame minimum exposure time of 3 sec. Similarly, for NICMOS the sunlit-Earth is too bright which saturates the detector too quickly and/or induces abnormal behaviors such as super-shading {Gilmore 1998, NIC 098-011}. In the narrowband IR filters the sunlit earth sometimes is faint enough to not saturate immediately, but based upon predictions {Cox et al. 1987 "Standard Astronomical Sources for HST: 6. Spatially Flat Fields."} and observations {Gilmore 1998}, we consider sunlit Earth unlikely to be successful unless it is twilight.Other possibilities? Cox et al.'s Section II.D addresses many other possible sources for flat fields, rejecting them for a variety of reasons. A remaining possibility would be the totally eclipsed moon. Such eclipses provide approximately 2 hours {1 HST orbit} of opportunity per year, so they are too rare to be generically useful. An advantage of the moon over the Earth is that the moon subtends less than 0.25 square degree, whereas the Earth subtends a steradian or more, so scattered light and light prior to the unshuttered exposure presents additional problems for the Earth. Also, we're unsure if HST can point 180 deg from the Sun.

  11. New Phase Regions of Ir-Ru-Ti System with Eutectic-Peritectic Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutsyk, V.; Vorob'eva, V.

    2013-12-01

    Special surfaces, corresponding to phase transformation type changing, have been found and designed within six three-phase regions of the system Ti-Ir-Ru with a help of 3D computer model of its T-x-y diagram.

  12. Integrated diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunthausen, Roger J.

    1988-01-01

    Recently completed projects in which advanced diagnostic concepts were explored and/or demonstrated are summarized. The projects begin with the design of integrated diagnostics for the Army's new gas turbine engines, and advance to the application of integrated diagnostics to other aircraft subsystems. Finally, a recent project is discussed which ties together subsystem fault monitoring and diagnostics with a more complete picture of flight domain knowledge.

  13. IR Spot Weld Inspect

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jian; Feng, Zhili

    2014-01-01

    In automotive industry, destructive inspection of spot welds is still the mandatory quality assurance method due to the lack of efficient non-destructive evaluation (NDE) tools. However, it is costly and time-consuming. Recently at ORNL, a new NDE prototype system for spot weld inspection using infrared (IR) thermography has been developed to address this problem. This software contains all the key functions that ensure the NDE system to work properly: system input/output control, image acquisition, data analysis, weld quality database generation and weld quality prediction, etc.

  14. The IRS-1 signaling system.

    PubMed

    White, M F

    1994-02-01

    IRS-1 is a principal substrate of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. It undergoes multi-site tyrosine phosphorylation and mediates the insulin signal by associating with various signaling molecules containing Src homology 2 domains. Interleukin-4 also stimulates IRS-1 phosphorylation, and it is suspected that a few more growth factors or cytokines will be added to form a select group of receptors that utilize the IRS-1 signaling pathway. More IRS-1-like adapter molecules, such as 4PS (IRS-2), may remain to be found.

  15. Covariant diagrams for one-loop matching

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Zhengkang

    2017-05-30

    Here, we present a diagrammatic formulation of recently-revived covariant functional approaches to one-loop matching from an ultraviolet (UV) theory to a low-energy effective fi eld theory. Various terms following from a covariant derivative expansion (CDE) are represented by diagrams which, unlike conventional Feynman diagrams, involve gauge-covariant quantities and are thus dubbed "covariant diagrams." The use of covariant diagrams helps organize and simplify one-loop matching calculations, which we illustrate with examples. Of particular interest is the derivation of UV model-independent universal results, which reduce matching calculations of specifi c UV models to applications of master formulas. We also show how suchmore » derivation can be done in a more concise manner than the previous literature, and discuss how additional structures that are not directly captured by existing universal results, including mixed heavy-light loops, open covariant derivatives, and mixed statistics, can be easily accounted for.« less

  16. Some Geometric Aspects of the Ternary Diagram.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, G. M.; Watson, D. F.

    1989-01-01

    Uses the process of normalization in the Cartesian coordinate system which entails radial projection onto a transect to compare different compositions of minerals. Warns that the ternary diagram should not be used as a framework for calculations. (MVL)

  17. An Improved Mnemonic Diagram for Thermodynamic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Joaquin; Brainard, Alan J.

    1989-01-01

    Considers pressure, volume, entropy, temperature, Helmholtz free energy, Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and internal energy. Suggests the mnemonic diagram is for use with simple systems that are defined as macroscopically homogeneous, isotropic, uncharged, and chemically inert. (MVL)

  18. Covariant diagrams for one-loop matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhengkang

    2017-05-01

    We present a diagrammatic formulation of recently-revived covariant functional approaches to one-loop matching from an ultraviolet (UV) theory to a low-energy effective field theory. Various terms following from a covariant derivative expansion (CDE) are represented by diagrams which, unlike conventional Feynman diagrams, involve gauge-covariant quantities and are thus dubbed "covariant diagrams." The use of covariant diagrams helps organize and simplify one-loop matching calculations, which we illustrate with examples. Of particular interest is the derivation of UV model-independent universal results, which reduce matching calculations of specific UV models to applications of master formulas. We show how such derivation can be done in a more concise manner than the previous literature, and discuss how additional structures that are not directly captured by existing universal results, including mixed heavy-light loops, open covariant derivatives, and mixed statistics, can be easily accounted for.

  19. Architecture flow diagrams under teamwork reg sign

    SciTech Connect

    Nicinski, T.

    1992-02-01

    The Teamwork CASE tool allows Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs) to be maintained for structured analysis. Fermilab has extended teamwork under UNIX{trademark} to permit Hatley and Pirbhai Architecture Flow Diagrams (AFDs) to be associated with DFDs and subsequently maintained. This extension, called TWKAFD, allows a user to open an AFD, graphically edit it, and replace it into a TWKAFD maintained library. Other aspects of Hatley and Pirbhai's methodology are supported. This paper presents a quick tutorial on Architecture Diagrams. It then describes the user's view of TWKAFD, the experience incorporating it into teamwork, and the successes with using the Architecture Diagram methodology along with the shortcomings of using the teamwork/TWKAFD tool. 8 refs.

  20. Veitch diagram plotter simplifies Boolean functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, D. K.

    1964-01-01

    This device for simplifying the plotting of a Veitch diagram consists of several overlays for blocking out the unwanted squares. This method of plotting the various input combinations to a computer is used in conjunction with the Boolean functions.

  1. An Improved Mnemonic Diagram for Thermodynamic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Joaquin; Brainard, Alan J.

    1989-01-01

    Considers pressure, volume, entropy, temperature, Helmholtz free energy, Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and internal energy. Suggests the mnemonic diagram is for use with simple systems that are defined as macroscopically homogeneous, isotropic, uncharged, and chemically inert. (MVL)

  2. A Smart Thermal Block Diagram Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn; Miyake, Robert; Dodge, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    The presentation describes a Smart Thermal Block Diagram Tool. It is used by JPL's Team X in studying missions during the Pre-Phase A. It helps generate cost and mass estimates using proprietary data bases.

  3. Gluing Ladder Feynman Diagrams into Fishnets

    DOE PAGES

    Basso, Benjamin; Dixon, Lance J.

    2017-08-14

    We use integrability at weak coupling to compute fishnet diagrams for four-point correlation functions in planar Φ 4 theory. Our results are always multilinear combinations of ladder integrals, which are in turn built out of classical polylogarithms. The Steinmann relations provide a powerful constraint on such linear combinations, which leads to a natural conjecture for any fishnet diagram as the determinant of a matrix of ladder integrals.

  4. Lattice and Phase Diagram in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, Maria Paola

    2008-10-13

    Model calculations have produced a number of very interesting expectations for the QCD Phase Diagram, and the task of a lattice calculations is to put these studies on a quantitative grounds. I will give an overview of the current status of the lattice analysis of the QCD phase diagram, from the quantitative results of mature calculations at zero and small baryochemical potential, to the exploratory studies of the colder, denser phase.

  5. A universal structured-design diagramer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Program (FLOWCHARTER) generates standardized flowcharts and concordances for development and debugging of programs in any language. User describes programming-language grammar, providing syntax rules in Backus-Naur form (BNF), list of semantic rules, and set of concordance rules. Once grammar is described, user supplies only source code of program to be diagrammed. FLOWCHARTER automatically produces flow diagram and concordance. Source code for program is written for PASCAL Release 2 compiler, as distributed by University of Minnesota.

  6. Elementary diagrams in nuclear and neutron matter

    SciTech Connect

    Wiringa, R.B.

    1995-08-01

    Variational calculations of nuclear and neutron matter are currently performed using a diagrammatic cluster expansion with the aid of nonlinear integral equations for evaluating expectation values. These are the Fermi hypernetted chain (FHNC) and single-operator chain (SOC) equations, which are a way of doing partial diagram summations to infinite order. A more complete summation can be made by adding elementary diagrams to the procedure. The simplest elementary diagrams appear at the four-body cluster level; there is one such E{sub 4} diagram in Bose systems, but 35 diagrams in Fermi systems, which gives a level of approximation called FHNC/4. We developed a novel technique for evaluating these diagrams, by computing and storing 6 three-point functions, S{sub xyz}(r{sub 12}, r{sub 13}, r{sub 23}), where xyz (= ccd, cce, ddd, dde, dee, or eee) denotes the exchange character at the vertices 1, 2, and 3. All 35 Fermi E{sub 4} diagrams can be constructed from these 6 functions and other two-point functions that are already calculated. The elementary diagrams are known to be important in some systems like liquid {sup 3}He. We expect them to be small in nuclear matter at normal density, but they might become significant at higher densities appropriate for neutron star calculations. This year we programmed the FHNC/4 contributions to the energy and tested them in a number of simple model cases, including liquid {sup 3}He and Bethe`s homework problem. We get reasonable, but not exact agreement with earlier published work. In nuclear and neutron matter with the Argonne v{sub 14} interaction these contributions are indeed small corrections at normal density and grow to only 5-10 MeV/nucleon at 5 times normal density.

  7. Gluing Ladder Feynman Diagrams into Fishnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, Benjamin; Dixon, Lance J.

    2017-08-01

    We use integrability at weak coupling to compute fishnet diagrams for four-point correlation functions in planar ϕ4 theory. The results are always multilinear combinations of ladder integrals, which are in turn built out of classical polylogarithms. The Steinmann relations provide a powerful constraint on such linear combinations, leading to a natural conjecture for any fishnet diagram as the determinant of a matrix of ladder integrals.

  8. Reliability computation from reliability block diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelson, P. O.; Eckstein, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    A method and a computer program are presented to calculate probability of system success from an arbitrary reliability block diagram. The class of reliability block diagrams that can be handled include any active/standby combination of redundancy, and the computations include the effects of dormancy and switching in any standby redundancy. The mechanics of the program are based on an extension of the probability tree method of computing system probabilities.

  9. ISS EPS Orbital Replacement Unit Block Diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Gregory V.

    2001-01-01

    The attached documents are being provided to Switching Power Magazine for information purposes. This magazine is writing a feature article on the International Space Station Electrical Power System, focusing on the switching power processors. These units include the DC-DC Converter Unit (DDCU), the Bi-directional Charge/Discharge Unit (BCDU), and the Sequential Shunt Unit (SSU). These diagrams are high-level schematics/block diagrams depicting the overall functionality of each unit.

  10. FAR-IR/SUBMILLIMETER SPECTROSCOPIC COSMOLOGICAL SURVEYS: PREDICTIONS OF INFRARED LINE LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS FOR z < 4 GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Spinoglio, Luigi; Dasyra, Kalliopi M.; Gruppioni, Carlotta; Valiante, Elisabetta; Isaak, Kate

    2012-02-01

    Star formation and accretion onto supermassive black holes in the nuclei of galaxies are the two most energetic processes in the universe, producing the bulk of the observed emission throughout its history. We simulated the luminosity functions of star-forming and active galaxies for spectral lines that are thought to be good spectroscopic tracers of either phenomenon, as a function of redshift. We focused on the infrared (IR) and submillimeter domains, where the effects of dust obscuration are minimal. Using three different and independent theoretical models for galaxy formation and evolution, constrained by multi-wavelength luminosity functions, we computed the number of star-forming and active galaxies per IR luminosity and redshift bin. We converted the continuum luminosity counts into spectral line counts using relationships that we calibrated on mid- and far-IR spectroscopic surveys of galaxies in the local universe. Our results demonstrate that future facilities optimized for survey-mode observations, i.e., the Space Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics and the Cerro Chajnantor Atacama Telescope, will be able to observe thousands of z > 1 galaxies in key fine-structure lines, e.g., [Si II], [O I], [O III], [C II], in a half-square-degree survey, with 1 hr integration time per field of view. Fainter lines such as [O IV], [Ne V], and H{sub 2} (0-0)S1 will be observed in several tens of bright galaxies at 1 < z < 2, while diagnostic diagrams of active nucleus versus star formation activity will be feasible even for normal z {approx} 1 galaxies. We discuss the new parameter space that these future telescopes will cover and that strongly motivates their construction.

  11. Phase Diagram and Quantum Order by Disorder in the Kitaev K1-K2 Honeycomb Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousochatzakis, Ioannis; Reuther, Johannes; Thomale, Ronny; Rachel, Stephan; Perkins, N. B.

    2015-10-01

    We show that the topological Kitaev spin liquid on the honeycomb lattice is extremely fragile against the second-neighbor Kitaev coupling K2, which has recently been shown to be the dominant perturbation away from the nearest-neighbor model in iridate Na2 IrO3 , and may also play a role in α -RuCl3 and Li2 IrO3 . This coupling naturally explains the zigzag ordering (without introducing unrealistically large longer-range Heisenberg exchange terms) and the special entanglement between real and spin space observed recently in Na2 IrO3 . Moreover, the minimal K1-K2 model that we present here holds the unique property that the classical and quantum phase diagrams and their respective order-by-disorder mechanisms are qualitatively different due to the fundamentally different symmetries of the classical and quantum counterparts.

  12. Synthesis of monoclinic IrTe2 under high pressure and its physical properties

    DOE PAGES

    Li, X.; Yan, J. -Q.; Singh, D. J.; ...

    2015-10-12

    In a pressure-temperature (P-T) diagram for synthesizing IrTe2 compounds, the well-studied trigonal (H) phase with the CdI2-type structure is stable at low pressures. The superconducting cubic (C) phase can be synthesized under higher temperatures and pressures. A rhombohedral phase with the crystal structure similar to the C phase can be made at ambient pressure; but the phase contains a high concentration of Ir deficiency. Here, we report that a rarely studied monoclinic (M) phase can be stabilized in narrow ranges of pressure and temperature in this P-T diagram. Moreover, the peculiar crystal structure of the M-IrTe2 eliminates the tendency tomore » form Ir-Ir dimers found in the H phase. The M phase has been fully characterized by structural determination and measurements of electrical resistivity, thermoelectric power, DC magnetization, and specific heat. These physical properties have been compared with those in the H and C phases of Ir1-xTe2. Finally, we present magnetic and transport properties and specific heat of the M-IrTe2 can be fully justified by calculations with the density-functional theory.« less

  13. Synthesis of monoclinic IrTe2 under high pressure and its physical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.; Yan, J. -Q.; Singh, D. J.; Goodenough, J. B.; Zhou, J. -S.

    2015-10-12

    In a pressure-temperature (P-T) diagram for synthesizing IrTe2 compounds, the well-studied trigonal (H) phase with the CdI2-type structure is stable at low pressures. The superconducting cubic (C) phase can be synthesized under higher temperatures and pressures. A rhombohedral phase with the crystal structure similar to the C phase can be made at ambient pressure; but the phase contains a high concentration of Ir deficiency. Here, we report that a rarely studied monoclinic (M) phase can be stabilized in narrow ranges of pressure and temperature in this P-T diagram. Moreover, the peculiar crystal structure of the M-IrTe2 eliminates the tendency to form Ir-Ir dimers found in the H phase. The M phase has been fully characterized by structural determination and measurements of electrical resistivity, thermoelectric power, DC magnetization, and specific heat. These physical properties have been compared with those in the H and C phases of Ir1-xTe2. Finally, we present magnetic and transport properties and specific heat of the M-IrTe2 can be fully justified by calculations with the density-functional theory.

  14. Distinguishing and grading human gliomas by IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Gerald; Shaw, Anthony; Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Abuid, Mario H; Schackert, Gabriele; Sobottka, Stephan; Steller, Wolfram; Salzer, Reiner; Mantsch, Henry H

    2003-01-01

    As a molecular probe of tissue composition, IR spectroscopy can potentially serve as an adjunct to histopathology in detecting and diagnosing disease. This study demonstrates that cancerous brain tissue (astrocytoma, glioblastoma) is distinguishable from control tissue on the basis of the IR spectra of thin tissue sections. It is further shown that the IR spectra of astrocytoma and glioblastoma affected tissue can be discriminated from one another, thus providing insight into the malignancy grade of the tissue. Both the spectra and the methods employed for their classification reveal characteristic differences in tissue composition. In particular, the nature and relative amounts of brain lipids, including both the gangliosides and phospholipids, appear to be altered in cancerous compared to control tissue. Using a genetic classification approach, classification success rates of up to 89% accuracy were obtained, depending on the number of regions included in the model. The diagnostic potential and practical applications of IR spectroscopy in brain tumor diagnosis are discussed.

  15. Coherent IR radar technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gschwendtner, A. B.; Harney, R. C.; Hull, R. J.

    Recent progress in the development of coherent IR radar equipment is reviewed, focusing on the Firepond laser radar installation and the more compact systems derived for it. The design and capabilities of Firepond as a long-range satellite-tracking device are outlined. The technological improvements necessary to make laser radar mobile are discussed: a lightweight, stable 5-10-W transmitter laser for both CW and pulsed operation, a 12-element HgCdTe detector array, an eccentric-pupil Ritchey-Chretien telescope, and a combination of near-field phase modification and anamorphic expansion to produce a fan beam of relatively uniform intensity. Sample images obtained with a prototype system are shown, and the applicability of the mobile system to range-resolved coherent DIAL measurement is found to be similar to that of a baseline DIAL system.

  16. Integrated IR sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tom, Michael; Trujillo, Edward

    1994-06-01

    Integrated infrared (IR) sensors which exploit modular avionics concepts can provide features such as operational flexibility, enhanced stealthiness, and ease of maintenance to meet the demands of tactical, airborne sensor systems. On-board, tactical airborne sensor systems perform target acquisition, tracking, identification, threat warning, missile launch detection, and ground mapping in support of situation awareness, self-defense, navigation, target attack, weapon support, and reconnaissance activities. The use of sensor suites for future tactical aircraft such as US Air Force's multirole fighter require a blend of sensor inputs and outputs that may vary over time. It is expected that special-role units of these tactical aircraft will be formed to conduct tasks and missions such as anti-shipping, reconnaissance, or suppression of enemy air defenses.

  17. Harmonic Approaches to Non-Intrusive Load Diagnostics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    physical characteristics, such as induction motor rotor slots, coupled with using clean current spectral regions support automated diagnostic system...3.4 Developing NILM-based Diagnostics for Induction Machines ....................................... 41 3.4.1 Identify key motor parameters...24 Figure 2-10: Typical Induction Motor Start-up Current Measurement [22]................................ 24 Figure 2-11: Block diagram of

  18. The IRS-1 signaling system.

    PubMed

    Myers, M G; Sun, X J; White, M F

    1994-07-01

    Insulin-receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) is a principal substrate of the receptor tyrosine kinase for insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1, and a substrate for a tyrosine kinase activated by interleukin 4. IRS-1 undergoes multisite tyrosine phosphorylation and mediates downstream signals by 'docking' various proteins that contain Src homology 2 domains. IRS-1 appears to be a unique molecule; however, 4PS, a protein found mainly in hemopoietic cells, may represent another member of this family.

  19. Dynamic tactile diagram simplification on refreshable displays.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, Dianne T V

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of visual diagrams in educational and work environments, and even our daily lives, has created obstacles for individuals who are blind or visually impaired to independently access the information they represent. Although physical tactile pictures can be created to convey the visual information, it is typically a slow, cumbersome, and costly process. Refreshable haptic displays, which interact with computers, promise to make this access quicker, easier, and cheaper. One important aspect in converting visual to tactile diagrams is to simplify the diagram as otherwise it can be too difficult to interpret with touch. Enabling this to be under user control in an interactive environment, such as with refreshable displays, could allow users to avoid being overwhelmed by the diagrams at any instant in time while still retaining access to all information in "storage". Through this article the authors investigate whether two types of diagram simplification--boundary simplification and contextual simplification--showed potential utility in an interactive environment. Boundary simplification was found to be significantly helpful in answering general questions about borders on a geographic map, and contextual simplification was helpful in answering relational questions, as compared to using the original map unchanged.

  20. Pathway collages: personalized multi-pathway diagrams.

    PubMed

    Paley, Suzanne; O'Maille, Paul E; Weaver, Daniel; Karp, Peter D

    2016-12-13

    Metabolic pathway diagrams are a classical way of visualizing a linked cascade of biochemical reactions. However, to understand some biochemical situations, viewing a single pathway is insufficient, whereas viewing the entire metabolic network results in information overload. How do we enable scientists to rapidly construct personalized multi-pathway diagrams that depict a desired collection of interacting pathways that emphasize particular pathway interactions? We define software for constructing personalized multi-pathway diagrams called pathway-collages using a combination of manual and automatic layouts. The user specifies a set of pathways of interest for the collage from a Pathway/Genome Database. Layouts for the individual pathways are generated by the Pathway Tools software, and are sent to a Javascript Pathway Collage application implemented using Cytoscape.js. That application allows the user to re-position pathways; define connections between pathways; change visual style parameters; and paint metabolomics, gene expression, and reaction flux data onto the collage to obtain a desired multi-pathway diagram. We demonstrate the use of pathway collages in two application areas: a metabolomics study of pathogen drug response, and an Escherichia coli metabolic model. Pathway collages enable facile construction of personalized multi-pathway diagrams.

  1. Introduction to causal diagrams for confounder selection.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Elizabeth J; Aitken, Zoe; Lawrie, Jock; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Burgess, John A; Forbes, Andrew B

    2014-04-01

    In respiratory health research, interest often lies in estimating the effect of an exposure on a health outcome. If randomization of the exposure of interest is not possible, estimating its effect is typically complicated by confounding bias. This can often be dealt with by controlling for the variables causing the confounding, if measured, in the statistical analysis. Common statistical methods used to achieve this include multivariable regression models adjusting for selected confounding variables or stratification on those variables. Therefore, a key question is which measured variables need to be controlled for in order to remove confounding. An approach to confounder-selection based on the use of causal diagrams (often called directed acyclic graphs) is discussed. A causal diagram is a visual representation of the causal relationships believed to exist between the variables of interest, including the exposure, outcome and potential confounding variables. After creating a causal diagram for the research question, an intuitive and easy-to-use set of rules can be applied, based on a foundation of rigorous mathematics, to decide which measured variables must be controlled for in the statistical analysis in order to remove confounding, to the extent that is possible using the available data. This approach is illustrated by constructing a causal diagram for the research question: 'Does personal smoking affect the risk of subsequent asthma?'. Using data taken from the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study, the statistical analysis suggested by the causal diagram approach was performed.

  2. Atmospheric Entry Experiments at IRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auweter-Kurtz, M.; Endlich, P.; Herdrich, G.; Kurtz, H.; Laux, T.; Löhle, S.; Nazina, N.; Pidan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Entering the atmosphere of celestial bodies, spacecrafts encounter gases at velocities of several km/s, thereby being subjected to great heat loads. The thermal protection systems and the environment (plasma) have to be investigated by means of computational and ground facility based simulations. For more than a decade, plasma wind tunnels at IRS have been used for the investigation of TPS materials. Nevertheless, ground tests and computer simulations cannot re- place space flights completely. Particularly, entry mission phases encounter challenging problems, such as hypersonic aerothermodynamics. Concerning the TPS, radiation-cooled materials used for reuseable spacecrafts and ablator tech- nologies are of importance. Besides the mentioned technologies, there is the goal to manage guidance navigation, con- trol, landing technology and inflatable technologies such as ballutes that aim to keep vehicles in the atmosphere without landing. The requirement to save mass and energy for planned interplanetary missions such as Mars Society Balloon Mission, Mars Sample Return Mission, Mars Express or Venus Sample Return mission led to the need for manoeuvres like aerocapture, aero-breaking and hyperbolic entries. All three are characterized by very high kinetic vehicle energies to be dissipated by the manoeuvre. In this field flight data are rare. The importance of these manoeuvres and the need to increase the knowledge of required TPS designs and behavior during such mission phases point out the need of flight experiments. As result of the experience within the plasma diagnostic tool development and the plasma wind tunnel data base, flight experiments like the PYrometric RE-entry EXperiment PYREX were developed, fully qualified and successfully flown. Flight experiments such as the entry spectrometer RESPECT and PYREX on HOPE-X are in the conceptual phase. To increase knowledge in the scope of atmospheric manoeuvres and entries, data bases have to be created combining both

  3. The Semiotic Structure of Geometry Diagrams: How Textbook Diagrams Convey Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmel, Justin K.; Herbst, Patricio G.

    2015-01-01

    Geometry diagrams use the visual features of specific drawn objects to convey meaning about generic mathematical entities. We examine the semiotic structure of these visual features in two parts. One, we conduct a semiotic inquiry to conceptualize geometry diagrams as mathematical texts that comprise choices from different semiotic systems. Two,…

  4. Students' Understanding of Diagrams for Solving Word Problems: A Framework for Assessing Diagram Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poch, Apryl L.; van Garderen, Delinda; Scheuermann, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    A visual representation, such as a diagram, can be a powerful strategy for solving mathematical word problems. However, using a representation to solve mathematical word problems is not as simple as it seems! Many students with learning disabilities struggle to use a diagram effectively and efficiently. This article provides a framework for…

  5. The Semiotic Structure of Geometry Diagrams: How Textbook Diagrams Convey Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmel, Justin K.; Herbst, Patricio G.

    2015-01-01

    Geometry diagrams use the visual features of specific drawn objects to convey meaning about generic mathematical entities. We examine the semiotic structure of these visual features in two parts. One, we conduct a semiotic inquiry to conceptualize geometry diagrams as mathematical texts that comprise choices from different semiotic systems. Two,…

  6. Fishbone Diagrams: Organize Reading Content with a "Bare Bones" Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    Fishbone diagrams, also known as Ishikawa diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams, are one of the many problem-solving tools created by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a University of Tokyo professor. Part of the brilliance of Ishikawa's idea resides in the simplicity and practicality of the diagram's basic model--a fish's skeleton. This article describes how…

  7. Fishbone Diagrams: Organize Reading Content with a "Bare Bones" Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    Fishbone diagrams, also known as Ishikawa diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams, are one of the many problem-solving tools created by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a University of Tokyo professor. Part of the brilliance of Ishikawa's idea resides in the simplicity and practicality of the diagram's basic model--a fish's skeleton. This article describes how…

  8. 49 CFR 1152.10 - System diagram map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false System diagram map. 1152.10 Section 1152.10... TRANSPORTATION UNDER 49 U.S.C. 10903 System Diagram § 1152.10 System diagram map. (a) Each carrier shall prepare a diagram of its rail system on a map, designating all lines in its system by the...

  9. Use of Affinity Diagrams as Instructional Tools in Inclusive Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haselden, Polly G.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes how the affinity diagram, a tool for gathering information and organizing it into natural groupings, can be used in inclusive classrooms. It discusses how students can be taught to use an affinity diagram, how affinity diagrams can be used to reflect many voices, and how affinity diagrams can be used to plan class projects.…

  10. 49 CFR 1152.10 - System diagram map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false System diagram map. 1152.10 Section 1152.10... TRANSPORTATION UNDER 49 U.S.C. 10903 System Diagram § 1152.10 System diagram map. (a) Each carrier shall prepare a diagram of its rail system on a map, designating all lines in its system by the categories...

  11. 49 CFR 1152.10 - System diagram map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false System diagram map. 1152.10 Section 1152.10... TRANSPORTATION UNDER 49 U.S.C. 10903 System Diagram § 1152.10 System diagram map. (a) Each carrier shall prepare a diagram of its rail system on a map, designating all lines in its system by the categories...

  12. The Butterfly diagram leopard skin pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ternullo, Maurizio

    2011-08-01

    A time-latitude diagram where spotgroups are given proportional relevance to their area is presented. The diagram reveals that the spotted area distribution is higly dishomogeneous, most of it being concentrated in few, small portions (``knots'') of the Butterfly Diagram; because of this structure, the BD may be properly described as a cluster of knots. The description, assuming that spots scatter around the ``spot mean latitude'' steadily drifting equatorward, is challenged. Indeed, spots cluster around at as many latitudes as knots; a knot may appear at either lower or higher latitudes than previous ones, in a seemingly random way; accordingly, the spot mean latitude abruptly drifts equatorward or even poleward at any knot activation, in spite of any smoothing procedure. Preliminary analyses suggest that the activity splits, in any hemisphere, into two or more distinct ``activity waves'', drifting equatorward at a rate higher than the spot zone as a whole.

  13. Status of US ITER Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratton, B.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K.; Johnson, D.; Pablant, N.; Barnsley, R.; Bertschinger, G.; de Bock, M. F. M.; Reichle, R.; Udintsev, V. S.; Watts, C.; Austin, M.; Phillips, P.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Biewer, T. M.; Hanson, G.; Klepper, C. C.; Carlstrom, T.; van Zeeland, M. A.; Brower, D.; Doyle, E.; Peebles, A.; Ellis, R.; Levinton, F.; Yuh, H.

    2013-10-01

    The US is providing 7 diagnostics to ITER: the Upper Visible/IR cameras, the Low Field Side Reflectometer, the Motional Stark Effect diagnostic, the Electron Cyclotron Emission diagnostic, the Toroidal Interferometer/Polarimeter, the Core Imaging X-Ray Spectrometer, and the Diagnostic Residual Gas Analyzer. The front-end components of these systems must operate with high reliability in conditions of long pulse operation, high neutron and gamma fluxes, very high neutron fluence, significant neutron heating (up to 7 MW/m3) , large radiant and charge exchange heat flux (0.35 MW/m2) , and high electromagnetic loads. Opportunities for repair and maintenance of these components will be limited. These conditions lead to significant challenges for the design of the diagnostics. Space constraints, provision of adequate radiation shielding, and development of repair and maintenance strategies are challenges for diagnostic integration into the port plugs that also affect diagnostic design. The current status of design of the US ITER diagnostics is presented and R&D needs are identified. Supported by DOE contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466 (PPPL) and DE-AC05-00OR22725 (UT-Battelle, LLC).

  14. A pseudo-haptic knot diagram interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Weng, Jianguang; Hanson, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    To make progress in understanding knot theory, we will need to interact with the projected representations of mathematical knots which are of course continuous in 3D but significantly interrupted in the projective images. One way to achieve such a goal would be to design an interactive system that allows us to sketch 2D knot diagrams by taking advantage of a collision-sensing controller and explore their underlying smooth structures through a continuous motion. Recent advances of interaction techniques have been made that allow progress to be made in this direction. Pseudo-haptics that simulates haptic effects using pure visual feedback can be used to develop such an interactive system. This paper outlines one such pseudo-haptic knot diagram interface. Our interface derives from the familiar pencil-and-paper process of drawing 2D knot diagrams and provides haptic-like sensations to facilitate the creation and exploration of knot diagrams. A centerpiece of the interaction model simulates a "physically" reactive mouse cursor, which is exploited to resolve the apparent conflict between the continuous structure of the actual smooth knot and the visual discontinuities in the knot diagram representation. Another value in exploiting pseudo-haptics is that an acceleration (or deceleration) of the mouse cursor (or surface locator) can be used to indicate the slope of the curve (or surface) of whom the projective image is being explored. By exploiting these additional visual cues, we proceed to a full-featured extension to a pseudo-haptic 4D visualization system that simulates the continuous navigation on 4D objects and allows us to sense the bumps and holes in the fourth dimension. Preliminary tests of the software show that main features of the interface overcome some expected perceptual limitations in our interaction with 2D knot diagrams of 3D knots and 3D projective images of 4D mathematical objects.

  15. Renormalized asymptotic enumeration of Feynman diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borinsky, Michael

    2017-10-01

    A method to obtain all-order asymptotic results for the coefficients of perturbative expansions in zero-dimensional quantum field is described. The focus is on the enumeration of the number of skeleton or primitive diagrams of a certain QFT and its asymptotics. The procedure heavily applies techniques from singularity analysis. To utilize singularity analysis, a representation of the zero-dimensional path integral as a generalized hyperelliptic curve is deduced. As applications the full asymptotic expansions of the number of disconnected, connected, 1PI and skeleton Feynman diagrams in various theories are given.

  16. First Wall and Operational Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Lasnier, C; Allen, S; Boedo, J; Groth, M; Brooks, N; McLean, A; LaBombard, B; Sharpe, J; Skinner, C; Whyte, D; Rudakov, D; West, W; Wong, C

    2006-06-19

    In this chapter we review numerous diagnostics capable of measurements at or near the first wall, many of which contribute information useful for safe operation of a tokamak. There are sections discussing infrared cameras, visible and VUV cameras, pressure gauges and RGAs, Langmuir probes, thermocouples, and erosion and deposition measurements by insertable probes and quartz microbalance. Also discussed are dust measurements by electrostatic detectors, laser scattering, visible and IR cameras, and manual collection of samples after machine opening. In each case the diagnostic is discussed with a view toward application to a burning plasma machine such as ITER.

  17. Resonant tunneling IR detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodall, Jerry M.; Smith, T. P., III

    1990-01-01

    Researchers propose a novel semiconductor heterojunction photodetector which would have a very low dark current and would be voltage tunable. A schematic diagram of the device and its band structure are shown. The two crucial components of the device are a cathode (InGaAs) whose condition band edge is below the conduction band edge of the quantum wells and a resonant tunneling filter (GaAs-AlGaAs). In a standard resonant tunneling device the electrodes are made of the same material as the quantum wells, and this device becomes highly conducting when the quantum levels in the wells are aligned with the Fermi level in the negatively biased electrode. In contrast, the researchers device is essentially non-conducting under the same bias conditions. This is because the Fermi Level of the cathode (InGaAs) is still well below the quantum levels so that no resonant transport occurs and the barriers (AlGaAs) effectively block current flow through the device. However, if light with the same photon energy as the conduction-band discontinuity between the cathode and the quantum wells, E sub c3-E sub c1, is shone on the sample, free carriers will be excited to an energy corresponding to the lowest quantum level in the well closest to the cathode (hv plue E sub c1 = E sub o). These electrons will resonantly tunnel through the quantum wells and be collected as a photocurrent in the anode (GaAs). To improve the quantum efficiency, the cathode (InGaAs) should be very heavily doped and capped with a highly reflective metal ohmic contact. The thickness of the device should be tailored to optimize thin film interference effects and afford the maximum absorption of light. Because the device relies on resonant tunneling, its response should be very fast, and the small voltages needed to change the responsivity should allow for very high frequency modulation of the photocurrent. In addition, the device is tuned to a specific photon energy so that it can be designed to detect a fairly

  18. Can students evaluate their understanding of cause-and-effect relations? The effects of diagram completion on monitoring accuracy.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Mariëtte H; de Bruin, Anique B H; van Gog, Tamara; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J G; Dunlosky, John

    2014-09-01

    For effective self-regulated study of expository texts, it is crucial that learners can accurately monitor their understanding of cause-and-effect relations. This study aimed to improve adolescents' monitoring accuracy using a diagram completion task. Participants read six texts, predicted performance, selected texts for restudy, and were tested for comprehension. Three groups were compared, in which learners either completed causal diagrams immediately after reading, completed them after a delay, or received no-diagram control instructions. Accuracy of predictions of performance was highest for learning of causal relations following delayed diagram completion. Completing delayed diagrams focused learners specifically on their learning of causal relations, so this task did not improve monitoring of learning of factual information. When selecting texts for restudy, the participants followed their predictions of performance to the same degree, regardless of monitoring accuracy. Fine-grained analyses also showed that, when completing delayed diagrams, learners based judgments on diagnostic cues that indicated actual understanding of connections between events in the text. Most important, delayed diagram completion can improve adolescents' ability to monitor their learning of cause-and-effect relations.

  19. Automated discovery and construction of surface phase diagrams using machine learning

    SciTech Connect

    Ulissi, Zachary W.; Singh, Aayush R.; Tsai, Charlie; Nørskov, Jens K.

    2016-08-24

    Surface phase diagrams are necessary for understanding surface chemistry in electrochemical catalysis, where a range of adsorbates and coverages exist at varying applied potentials. These diagrams are typically constructed using intuition, which risks missing complex coverages and configurations at potentials of interest. More accurate cluster expansion methods are often difficult to implement quickly for new surfaces. We adopt a machine learning approach to rectify both issues. Using a Gaussian process regression model, the free energy of all possible adsorbate coverages for surfaces is predicted for a finite number of adsorption sites. Our result demonstrates a rational, simple, and systematic approach for generating accurate free-energy diagrams with reduced computational resources. Finally, the Pourbaix diagram for the IrO2(110) surface (with nine coverages from fully hydrogenated to fully oxygenated surfaces) is reconstructed using just 20 electronic structure relaxations, compared to approximately 90 using typical search methods. Similar efficiency is demonstrated for the MoS2 surface.

  20. Automated discovery and construction of surface phase diagrams using machine learning

    SciTech Connect

    Ulissi, Zachary W.; Singh, Aayush R.; Tsai, Charlie; Nørskov, Jens K.

    2016-08-24

    Surface phase diagrams are necessary for understanding surface chemistry in electrochemical catalysis, where a range of adsorbates and coverages exist at varying applied potentials. These diagrams are typically constructed using intuition, which risks missing complex coverages and configurations at potentials of interest. More accurate cluster expansion methods are often difficult to implement quickly for new surfaces. We adopt a machine learning approach to rectify both issues. Using a Gaussian process regression model, the free energy of all possible adsorbate coverages for surfaces is predicted for a finite number of adsorption sites. Our result demonstrates a rational, simple, and systematic approach for generating accurate free-energy diagrams with reduced computational resources. Finally, the Pourbaix diagram for the IrO2(110) surface (with nine coverages from fully hydrogenated to fully oxygenated surfaces) is reconstructed using just 20 electronic structure relaxations, compared to approximately 90 using typical search methods. Similar efficiency is demonstrated for the MoS2 surface.

  1. Automated discovery and construction of surface phase diagrams using machine learning

    DOE PAGES

    Ulissi, Zachary W.; Singh, Aayush R.; Tsai, Charlie; ...

    2016-08-24

    Surface phase diagrams are necessary for understanding surface chemistry in electrochemical catalysis, where a range of adsorbates and coverages exist at varying applied potentials. These diagrams are typically constructed using intuition, which risks missing complex coverages and configurations at potentials of interest. More accurate cluster expansion methods are often difficult to implement quickly for new surfaces. We adopt a machine learning approach to rectify both issues. Using a Gaussian process regression model, the free energy of all possible adsorbate coverages for surfaces is predicted for a finite number of adsorption sites. Our result demonstrates a rational, simple, and systematic approachmore » for generating accurate free-energy diagrams with reduced computational resources. Finally, the Pourbaix diagram for the IrO2(110) surface (with nine coverages from fully hydrogenated to fully oxygenated surfaces) is reconstructed using just 20 electronic structure relaxations, compared to approximately 90 using typical search methods. Similar efficiency is demonstrated for the MoS2 surface.« less

  2. MMW/IR beam combiner with graphene IR window for MMW/IR compact range compound test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dong; Li, Yanhong; Pang, Xudong; Zhu, Weihua; Wang, Liquan; Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Tailei; Zhu, Shouzheng

    2017-06-01

    A millimeter wave (MMW)/infrared (IR) beam combiner with a graphene IR window for the MMW/IR compact range (CR) compound test is creatively proposed with comprehensive analysis and simulation. Graphene is used as the IR window material to transfer the IR feed signal behind a perforated MMW CR reflector for it has the unique property of high IR transmissivity and high MMW conductivity. This research shows that graphene IR windows have better IR transmissivity than conducting inductive mesh IR windows when the beam combiner meets the MMW CR test demanding. Graphene IR windows also show a better MMW test bandwidth than dielectric IR windows. Meanwhile, the graphene IR window MMW/IR beam combiner has a circular aperture test zone with which it is sufficient to test a cylindrical unit under test according to the requirement.

  3. Study flow diagrams in Cochrane systematic review updates: an adapted PRISMA flow diagram

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cochrane systematic reviews are conducted and reported according to rigorous standards. A study flow diagram must be included in a new review, and there is clear guidance from the PRISMA statement on how to do this. However, for a review update, there is currently no guidance on how study flow diagrams should be presented. To address this, a working group was formed to find a solution and produce guidance on how to use these diagrams in review updates. A number of different options were devised for how these flow diagrams could be used in review updates, and also in cases where multiple searches for a review or review update have been conducted. These options were circulated to the Cochrane information specialist community for consultation and feedback. Following the consultation period, the working group refined the guidance and made the recommendation that for review updates an adapted PRISMA flow diagram should be used, which includes an additional box with the number of previously included studies feeding into the total. Where multiple searches have been conducted, the results should be added together and treated as one set of results. There is no existing guidance for using study flow diagrams in review updates. Our adapted diagram is a simple and pragmatic solution for showing the flow of studies in review updates. PMID:24886533

  4. Study flow diagrams in Cochrane systematic review updates: an adapted PRISMA flow diagram.

    PubMed

    Stovold, Elizabeth; Beecher, Deirdre; Foxlee, Ruth; Noel-Storr, Anna

    2014-05-29

    Cochrane systematic reviews are conducted and reported according to rigorous standards. A study flow diagram must be included in a new review, and there is clear guidance from the PRISMA statement on how to do this. However, for a review update, there is currently no guidance on how study flow diagrams should be presented. To address this, a working group was formed to find a solution and produce guidance on how to use these diagrams in review updates.A number of different options were devised for how these flow diagrams could be used in review updates, and also in cases where multiple searches for a review or review update have been conducted. These options were circulated to the Cochrane information specialist community for consultation and feedback. Following the consultation period, the working group refined the guidance and made the recommendation that for review updates an adapted PRISMA flow diagram should be used, which includes an additional box with the number of previously included studies feeding into the total. Where multiple searches have been conducted, the results should be added together and treated as one set of results.There is no existing guidance for using study flow diagrams in review updates. Our adapted diagram is a simple and pragmatic solution for showing the flow of studies in review updates.

  5. Spatial-temporal forecasting the sunspot diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covas, Eurico

    2017-09-01

    Aims: We attempt to forecast the Sun's sunspot butterfly diagram in both space (i.e. in latitude) and time, instead of the usual one-dimensional time series forecasts prevalent in the scientific literature. Methods: We use a prediction method based on the non-linear embedding of data series in high dimensions. We use this method to forecast both in latitude (space) and in time, using a full spatial-temporal series of the sunspot diagram from 1874 to 2015. Results: The analysis of the results shows that it is indeed possible to reconstruct the overall shape and amplitude of the spatial-temporal pattern of sunspots, but that the method in its current form does not have real predictive power. We also apply a metric called structural similarity to compare the forecasted and the observed butterfly cycles, showing that this metric can be a useful addition to the usual root mean square error metric when analysing the efficiency of different prediction methods. Conclusions: We conclude that it is in principle possible to reconstruct the full sunspot butterfly diagram for at least one cycle using this approach and that this method and others should be explored since just looking at metrics such as sunspot count number or sunspot total area coverage is too reductive given the spatial-temporal dynamical complexity of the sunspot butterfly diagram. However, more data and/or an improved approach is probably necessary to have true predictive power.

  6. Failure Diagram for Chemically Assisted Crack Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadananda, K.; Vasudevan, A. K.

    2011-02-01

    A failure diagram that combines the thresholds for failure of a smooth specimen to that of a fracture mechanics specimen, similar to the modified Kitagawa diagram in fatigue, is presented. For a given material/environment system, the diagram defines conditions under which a crack initiated at the threshold stress in a smooth specimen becomes a propagating crack, by satisfying the threshold stress intensity of a long crack. In analogy with fatigue, it is shown that internal stresses or local stress concentrations are required to provide the necessary mechanical crack tip driving forces, on one hand, and reaction/transportation kinetics to provide the chemical potential gradients, on the other. Together, they help in the initiation and propagation of the cracks. The chemical driving forces can be expressed as equivalent mechanical stresses using the failure diagram. Both internal stresses and their gradients, in conjunction with the chemical driving forces, have to meet the minimum magnitude and the minimum gradients to sustain the growth of a microcrack formed. Otherwise, nonpropagating conditions will prevail or a crack formed will remain dormant. It is shown that the processes underlying the crack nucleation in a smooth specimen and the crack growth of a fracture mechanics specimen are essentially the same. Both require building up of internal stresses by local plasticity. The process involves intermittent crack tip blunting and microcrack nucleation until the crack becomes unstable under the applied stress.

  7. Image Attributes: A Study of Scientific Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunskill, Jeff; Jorgensen, Corinne

    2002-01-01

    Discusses advancements in imaging technology and increased user access to digital images, as well as efforts to develop adequate indexing and retrieval methods for image databases. Describes preliminary results of a study of undergraduates that explored the attributes naive subjects use to describe scientific diagrams. (Author/LRW)

  8. Complexities of One-Component Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciccioli, Andrea; Glasser, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    For most materials, the solid at and near the triple-point temperature is denser than the liquid with which it is in equilibrium. However, for water and certain other materials, the densities of the phases are reversed, with the solid being less dense. The profound consequences for the appearance of the "pVT" diagram of one-component materials…

  9. Dynamic Tactile Diagram Simplification on Refreshable Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, Dianne T. V.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of visual diagrams in educational and work environments, and even our daily lives, has created obstacles for individuals who are blind or visually impaired to "independently" access the information they represent. Although physical tactile pictures can be created to convey the visual information, it is typically a slow,…

  10. Computer-Generated Diagrams for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carle, Mark A.; Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Describes 10 computer programs used to draw diagrams usually drawn on chalkboards, such as addition of three vectors, vector components, range of a projectile, lissajous figures, beats, isotherms, Snell's law, waves passing through a lens, magnetic field due to Helmholtz coils, and three curves. Several programming tips are included. (JN)

  11. Complexities of One-Component Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciccioli, Andrea; Glasser, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    For most materials, the solid at and near the triple-point temperature is denser than the liquid with which it is in equilibrium. However, for water and certain other materials, the densities of the phases are reversed, with the solid being less dense. The profound consequences for the appearance of the "pVT" diagram of one-component materials…

  12. Fog Machines, Vapors, and Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitz, Ed

    2008-01-01

    A series of demonstrations is described that elucidate the operation of commercial fog machines by using common laboratory equipment and supplies. The formation of fogs, or "mixing clouds", is discussed in terms of the phase diagram for water and other chemical principles. The demonstrations can be adapted for presentation suitable for elementary…

  13. Diagram of Liquid Rocket Systems General Arrangement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1964-05-21

    S64-05966 (1964) --- Diagram shows the general arrangement of the liquid rocket systems on the Gemini spacecraft are shown. The locations of the 25-pound, 85-pound and 100-pound thrusters of the orbital attitude and maneuver system and the 25-pound thrusters of the re-entry control system are shown.

  14. Spin wave Feynman diagram vertex computation package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Alexander; Javernick, Philip; Datta, Trinanjan

    Spin wave theory is a well-established theoretical technique that can correctly predict the physical behavior of ordered magnetic states. However, computing the effects of an interacting spin wave theory incorporating magnons involve a laborious by hand derivation of Feynman diagram vertices. The process is tedious and time consuming. Hence, to improve productivity and have another means to check the analytical calculations, we have devised a Feynman Diagram Vertex Computation package. In this talk, we will describe our research group's effort to implement a Mathematica based symbolic Feynman diagram vertex computation package that computes spin wave vertices. Utilizing the non-commutative algebra package NCAlgebra as an add-on to Mathematica, symbolic expressions for the Feynman diagram vertices of a Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnet are obtained. Our existing code reproduces the well-known expressions of a nearest neighbor square lattice Heisenberg model. We also discuss the case of a triangular lattice Heisenberg model where non collinear terms contribute to the vertex interactions.

  15. The Classification of Diagrams in Perturbation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, D. R.; Afnan, I. R.

    1995-06-01

    The derivation of scattering equations connecting the amplitudes obtained from diagrammatic expansions is of interest in many branches of physics. One method for deriving such equations is the classification-of-diagrams technique of Taylor. However, as we shall explain in this paper, there are certain points of Taylor's method which require clarification. Firstly, it is not clear whether Taylor's original method is equivalent to the simpler classification-of-diagrams scheme used by Thomas, Rinat, Afnan, and Blankleider (TRAB). Secondly, when the Taylor method is applied to certain problems in a time-dependent perturbation theory it leads to the over-counting of some diagrams. This paper first restates Taylor's method, in the process uncovering reasons why certain diagrams might be double-counted in the Taylor method. It then explores how far Taylor's method is equivalent to the simpler TRAB method. Finally, it examines precisely why the double-counting occurs in Taylor's method and derives corrections which compensate for this double-counting.

  16. Geometrical splitting and reduction of Feynman diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydychev, Andrei I.

    2016-10-01

    A geometrical approach to the calculation of N-point Feynman diagrams is reviewed. It is shown that the geometrical splitting yields useful connections between Feynman integrals with different momenta and masses. It is demonstrated how these results can be used to reduce the number of variables in the occurring functions.

  17. Weight diagram construction of Lax operators

    SciTech Connect

    Carbon, S.L.; Piard, E.J.

    1991-10-01

    We review and expand methods introduced in our previous paper. It is proved that cyclic weight diagrams corresponding to representations of affine Lie algebras allow one to construct the associated Lax operator. The resultant Lax operator is in the Miura-like form and generates the modified KdV equations. The algorithm is extended to the super-symmetric case.

  18. Fluctuations and the QCD Phase Diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Volker; Bzdak, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Here, we will discuss how the study of various fluctuation observables may be used to explore the phase diagram of the strong interaction. Furthermore, we will briefly summarize the present study of experimental and theoretical research in this area. We will then discuss various corrections and issues which need to be understood and applied for a meaningful comparison of experimental measurements with theoretical predictions.

  19. Drawing conformal diagrams for a fractal landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Winitzki, Sergei

    2005-06-15

    Generic models of cosmological inflation and the recently proposed scenarios of a recycling universe and the string theory landscape predict spacetimes whose global geometry is a stochastic, self-similar fractal. To visualize the complicated causal structure of such a universe, one usually draws a conformal (Carter-Penrose) diagram. I develop a new method for drawing conformal diagrams, applicable to arbitrary 1+1-dimensional spacetimes. This method is based on a qualitative analysis of intersecting lightrays and thus avoids the need for explicit transformations of the spacetime metric. To demonstrate the power and simplicity of this method, I present derivations of diagrams for spacetimes of varying complication. I then apply the lightray method to three different models of an eternally inflating universe (scalar-field inflation, recycling universe, and string theory landscape) involving the nucleation of nested asymptotically flat, de Sitter and/or anti-de Sitter bubbles. I show that the resulting diagrams contain a characteristic fractal arrangement of lines.

  20. Dynamic Tactile Diagram Simplification on Refreshable Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, Dianne T. V.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of visual diagrams in educational and work environments, and even our daily lives, has created obstacles for individuals who are blind or visually impaired to "independently" access the information they represent. Although physical tactile pictures can be created to convey the visual information, it is typically a slow,…

  1. The Keynesian Diagram: A Cross to Bear?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleck, Juergen

    In elementary economics courses students are often introduced to the basic concepts of macroeconomics through very simplified static models, and the concept of a macroeconomic equilibrium is generally explained with the help of an aggregate demand/aggregate supply (AD/AS) model and an income/expenditure model (via the Keynesian cross diagram).…

  2. Fog Machines, Vapors, and Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitz, Ed

    2008-01-01

    A series of demonstrations is described that elucidate the operation of commercial fog machines by using common laboratory equipment and supplies. The formation of fogs, or "mixing clouds", is discussed in terms of the phase diagram for water and other chemical principles. The demonstrations can be adapted for presentation suitable for elementary…

  3. Computer-Generated Diagrams for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carle, Mark A.; Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Describes 10 computer programs used to draw diagrams usually drawn on chalkboards, such as addition of three vectors, vector components, range of a projectile, lissajous figures, beats, isotherms, Snell's law, waves passing through a lens, magnetic field due to Helmholtz coils, and three curves. Several programming tips are included. (JN)

  4. Image Attributes: A Study of Scientific Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunskill, Jeff; Jorgensen, Corinne

    2002-01-01

    Discusses advancements in imaging technology and increased user access to digital images, as well as efforts to develop adequate indexing and retrieval methods for image databases. Describes preliminary results of a study of undergraduates that explored the attributes naive subjects use to describe scientific diagrams. (Author/LRW)

  5. Valid Structure Diagrams and Chemical Gibberish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauber, Stephen J.; Rankin, Kirk

    1972-01-01

    Chemical structure diagrams are considered as utterances in a written language. Two types of grammars are considered for this language: topological grammars and geometric grammars. The hypothesis is presented that compact computer storage may become accessible via grammars. (15 references) (Author/NH)

  6. Nonverbal Poetry: Family Life-Space Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardill, Donald R.

    2001-01-01

    Examines life-space diagrams as a form of nonverbal poetry which taps personal feelings, tells a story, and characterizes a particular life situation, forming a useful therapy technique that provides a family the opportunity to examine its internal family relationships. Offers two case studies, discusses five levels of knowing and awareness, and…

  7. The Binary Temperature-Composition Phase Diagram

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Philip C.; Reeves, James H.; Messina, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The equations for the liquid and gas lines in the binary temperature-composition phase diagram are derived by approximating that delta(H)[subscript vap] of the two liquids are equal. It is shown that within this approximation, the resulting equations are not too difficult to present in an undergraduate physical chemistry lecture.

  8. Constructing Causal Diagrams to Learn Deliberation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterday, Matthew W.; Aleven, Vincent; Scheines, Richard; Carver, Sharon M.

    2009-01-01

    Policy problems like "What should we do about global warming?" are ill-defined in large part because we do not agree on a system to represent them the way we agree Algebra problems should be represented by equations. As a first step toward building a policy deliberation tutor, we investigated: (a) whether causal diagrams help students learn to…

  9. Phase diagram of spiking neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Seyed-allaei, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    In computer simulations of spiking neural networks, often it is assumed that every two neurons of the network are connected by a probability of 2%, 20% of neurons are inhibitory and 80% are excitatory. These common values are based on experiments, observations, and trials and errors, but here, I take a different perspective, inspired by evolution, I systematically simulate many networks, each with a different set of parameters, and then I try to figure out what makes the common values desirable. I stimulate networks with pulses and then measure their: dynamic range, dominant frequency of population activities, total duration of activities, maximum rate of population and the occurrence time of maximum rate. The results are organized in phase diagram. This phase diagram gives an insight into the space of parameters – excitatory to inhibitory ratio, sparseness of connections and synaptic weights. This phase diagram can be used to decide the parameters of a model. The phase diagrams show that networks which are configured according to the common values, have a good dynamic range in response to an impulse and their dynamic range is robust in respect to synaptic weights, and for some synaptic weights they oscillates in α or β frequencies, independent of external stimuli. PMID:25788885

  10. On phase diagrams of magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Cassak, P. A.; Drake, J. F.

    2013-06-15

    Recently, “phase diagrams” of magnetic reconnection were developed to graphically organize the present knowledge of what type, or phase, of reconnection is dominant in systems with given characteristic plasma parameters. Here, a number of considerations that require caution in using the diagrams are pointed out. First, two known properties of reconnection are omitted from the diagrams: the history dependence of reconnection and the absence of reconnection for small Lundquist number. Second, the phase diagrams mask a number of features. For one, the predicted transition to Hall reconnection should be thought of as an upper bound on the Lundquist number, and it may happen for considerably smaller values. Second, reconnection is never “slow,” it is always “fast” in the sense that the normalized reconnection rate is always at least 0.01. This has important implications for reconnection onset models. Finally, the definition of the relevant Lundquist number is nuanced and may differ greatly from the value based on characteristic scales. These considerations are important for applications of the phase diagrams. This is demonstrated by example for solar flares, where it is argued that it is unlikely that collisional reconnection can occur in the corona.

  11. Magnetic field and temperature control over Pt/Co/Ir/Co/Pt multistate magnetic logic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgunov, R.; Hamadeh, A.; Fachec, T.; Lvovaa, G.; Koplak, O.; Talantsev, A.; Mangin, S.

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic configurations in Pt/Co/Ir/Co/Pt synthetic ferrimagnet bilayer of strong perpendicular anisotropy have been systematically studied. Magnetization versus field hysteresis loops have been measured for different temperatures ranging from 5 to 300 K. The applied field - temperature (H-T) magnetization switching diagram has been constructed by extracting the different switching fields as a function of temperature. This switching diagram can be well explained by considering the competition between energy barrier of layer's magnetization reversal, interlayer exchange coupling, and Zeeman energy.

  12. Infrared Imaging Tools for Diagnostic Applications in Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Gurjarpadhye, Abhijit Achyut; Parekh, Mansi Bharat; Dubnika, Arita; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Inayathullah, Mohammed

    Infrared (IR) imaging is a collection of non-invasive imaging techniques that utilize the IR domain of the electromagnetic spectrum for tissue assessment. A subset of these techniques construct images using back-reflected light, while other techniques rely on detection of IR radiation emitted by the tissue as a result of its temperature. Modern IR detectors sense thermal emissions and produce a heat map of surface temperature distribution in tissues. Thus, the IR spectrum offers a variety of imaging applications particularly useful in clinical diagnostic area, ranging from high-resolution, depth-resolved visualization of tissue to temperature variation assessment. These techniques have been helpful in the diagnosis of many medical conditions including skin/breast cancer, arthritis, allergy, burns, and others. In this review, we discuss current roles of IR-imaging techniques for diagnostic applications in dermatology with an emphasis on skin cancer, allergies, blisters, burns and wounds.

  13. Infrared Imaging Tools for Diagnostic Applications in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Gurjarpadhye, Abhijit Achyut; Parekh, Mansi Bharat; Dubnika, Arita; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Inayathullah, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Infrared (IR) imaging is a collection of non-invasive imaging techniques that utilize the IR domain of the electromagnetic spectrum for tissue assessment. A subset of these techniques construct images using back-reflected light, while other techniques rely on detection of IR radiation emitted by the tissue as a result of its temperature. Modern IR detectors sense thermal emissions and produce a heat map of surface temperature distribution in tissues. Thus, the IR spectrum offers a variety of imaging applications particularly useful in clinical diagnostic area, ranging from high-resolution, depth-resolved visualization of tissue to temperature variation assessment. These techniques have been helpful in the diagnosis of many medical conditions including skin/breast cancer, arthritis, allergy, burns, and others. In this review, we discuss current roles of IR-imaging techniques for diagnostic applications in dermatology with an emphasis on skin cancer, allergies, blisters, burns and wounds. PMID:26691203

  14. Students' different understandings of class diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boustedt, Jonas

    2012-03-01

    The software industry needs well-trained software designers and one important aspect of software design is the ability to model software designs visually and understand what visual models represent. However, previous research indicates that software design is a difficult task to many students. This article reports empirical findings from a phenomenographic investigation on how students understand class diagrams, Unified Modeling Language (UML) symbols, and relations to object-oriented (OO) concepts. The informants were 20 Computer Science students from four different universities in Sweden. The results show qualitatively different ways to understand and describe UML class diagrams and the "diamond symbols" representing aggregation and composition. The purpose of class diagrams was understood in a varied way, from describing it as a documentation to a more advanced view related to communication. The descriptions of class diagrams varied from seeing them as a specification of classes to a more advanced view, where they were described to show hierarchic structures of classes and relations. The diamond symbols were seen as "relations" and a more advanced way was seeing the white and the black diamonds as different symbols for aggregation and composition. As a consequence of the results, it is recommended that UML should be adopted in courses. It is briefly indicated how the phenomenographic results in combination with variation theory can be used by teachers to enhance students' possibilities to reach advanced understanding of phenomena related to UML class diagrams. Moreover, it is recommended that teachers should put more effort in assessing skills in proper usage of the basic symbols and models and students should be provided with opportunities to practise collaborative design, e.g. using whiteboards.

  15. Evolutionary paths along the BPT diagram for luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorenza, Stephanie L.; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.; Małek, Katarzyna E.; Liu, Charles T.

    2014-04-01

    The evolutionary connection between nuclear starbursts and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), which result from galaxy interactions and mergers and produce the bulk of their radiation as infrared (IR) emission, is not well understood. To this effort, we present and examine new spectrophotometric data for five U/LIRGs (10{sup 11} < L {sub IR} < 10{sup 13} L {sub ☉}) within the IRAS 2 Jy Redshift Survey with 0.05 ≲ z ≲ 0.07. We show that our sample consists almost entirely of composite objects—thus hosting both a nuclear starburst and an AGN—using the BPT diagrams. We then show that for our sample of U/LIRGs the properties that describe their nuclear starbursts and AGNs (e.g., star formation rate, L[O III], optical D parameter, D4000, and EW(Hδ)) are independent of one another, ensuring that no biases affect correlations between these parameters and the object locations on the BPT diagrams. Finally, we derive evolutionary paths on the BPT diagram involving [N II]/Hα that are based on how these parameters vary between two U/LIRGs positioned at the end-points of these paths. The U/LIRGs at the end-points of a given path represent the beginning and end states of a U/LIRG evolving along that path. These paths may be able to specifically explain how all local U/LIRGs evolve along the BPT diagram, and serve as a starting point for future quantitative analysis on the evolution of U/LIRGs.

  16. [Thalassaemia diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Kusters, Elske; Kerkhoffs, Jean-Louis H; van Rossum, André P

    2014-01-01

    The thalassaemias are characterised by quantitative aberrations in the production of the globin chains that make up haemoglobin, and are a subgroup of the haemoglobinopathies. In this LabQuiz we show how thalassaemia carrier status can be indicated in the results of regular laboratory tests, and discuss the laboratory diagnostics that can confirm or rule out thalassaemia. In these two cases we will present a man of Moroccan descent, and two brothers of Filipino descent, all with anaemia and microcytosis. We show it is possible to differentiate between iron-deficiency anaemia and thalassaemia carrier status on the basis of a complete blood count and measurement of ferritin levels, and which laboratory diagnostics can be subsequently performed in order to confirm a suspicion of thalassaemia. The background section discusses the properties and pitfalls of routine laboratory diagnostics for the thalassaemias, and thalassaemia diagnostics in the Dutch newborn screening programme.

  17. Diagnostic Laparoscopy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is Diagnostic Laparoscopy? A laparoscope is a telescope designed for medical use. It is connected to ... just below the ribs. A laparoscope (a tiny telescope) connected to a special camera is inserted through ...

  18. Beamlet diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Theys, M.

    1994-05-06

    Beamlet is a high power laser currently being built at Lawrence Livermore National Lab as a proof of concept for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Beamlet is testing several areas of laser advancements, such as a 37cm Pockels cell, square amplifier, and propagation of a square beam. The diagnostics on beamlet tell the operators how much energy the beam has in different locations, the pulse shape, the energy distribution, and other important information regarding the beam. This information is being used to evaluate new amplifier designs, and extrapolate performance to the NIF laser. In my term at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory I have designed and built a diagnostic, calibrated instruments used on diagnostics, setup instruments, hooked up communication lines to the instruments, and setup computers to control specific diagnostics.

  19. A Simple Approach for Boundary Improvement of Euler Diagrams.

    PubMed

    Simonetto, Paolo; Archambault, Daniel; Scheidegger, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    General methods for drawing Euler diagrams tend to generate irregular polygons. Yet, empirical evidence indicates that smoother contours make these diagrams easier to read. In this paper, we present a simple method to smooth the boundaries of any Euler diagram drawing. When refining the diagram, the method must ensure that set elements remain inside their appropriate boundaries and that no region is removed or created in the diagram. Our approach uses a force system that improves the diagram while at the same time ensuring its topological structure does not change. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach through case studies and quantitative evaluations.

  20. Optical/IR from ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strom, Stephen; Sargent, Wallace L. W.; Wolff, Sidney; Ahearn, Michael F.; Angel, J. Roger; Beckwith, Steven V. W.; Carney, Bruce W.; Conti, Peter S.; Edwards, Suzan; Grasdalen, Gary

    1991-01-01

    Optical/infrared (O/IR) astronomy in the 1990's is reviewed. The following subject areas are included: research environment; science opportunities; technical development of the 1980's and opportunities for the 1990's; and ground-based O/IR astronomy outside the U.S. Recommendations are presented for: (1) large scale programs (Priority 1: a coordinated program for large O/IR telescopes); (2) medium scale programs (Priority 1: a coordinated program for high angular resolution; Priority 2: a new generation of 4-m class telescopes); (3) small scale programs (Priority 1: near-IR and optical all-sky surveys; Priority 2: a National Astrometric Facility); and (4) infrastructure issues (develop, purchase, and distribute optical CCDs and infrared arrays; a program to support large optics technology; a new generation of large filled aperture telescopes; a program to archive and disseminate astronomical databases; and a program for training new instrumentalists)

  1. Phase diagrams and water activities of aqueous dicarboxylic acid systems of atmospheric importance.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Keith D; Friesen, Katherine; Bothe, Jameson R; Palet, Benjamin

    2008-11-20

    We have studied liquid/solid phase diagrams and water activities of the dicarboxylic acid/water binary systems for maleic, dl-malic, glutaric, and succinc acids using differential scanning calorimetry, infrared (IR) spectroscopy of thin films, and conductivity analysis of saturated solutions. For each binary system we report the measurements of the ice melting envelope, the acid dissolution envelope, and the ice/acid eutectic temperature and composition. Water activities have been determined by using the freezing point depression of ice. Additionally, an irreversible solid/solid phase transition for maleic acid was observed in both DSC and IR studies likely due to the conversion of a meta-stable crystal form of maleic acid to its most stable crystal form. In general we find good agreement with literature values for temperature-dependent acid solubilities.

  2. Penguin diagrams for improved staggered fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Weonjong

    2005-01-01

    We calculate, at the one-loop level, penguin diagrams for improved staggered fermion operators constructed using various fat links. The main result is that diagonal mixing coefficients with penguin operators are identical between the unimproved operators and the improved operators using such fat links as Fat7, Fat7+Lepage, Fat7, HYP (I) and HYP (II). In addition, it turns out that the off-diagonal mixing vanishes for those constructed using fat links of Fat7, Fat7 and HYP (II). This is a consequence of the fact that the improvement by various fat links changes only the mixing with higher dimension operators and off-diagonal operators. The results of this paper, combined with those for current-current diagrams, provide complete matching at the one-loop level with all corrections of O(g{sup 2}) included.

  3. Prediction of boron carbon nitrogen phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Sanxi; Zhang, Hantao; Widom, Michael

    We studied the phase diagram of boron, carbon and nitrogen, including the boron-carbon and boron-nitrogen binaries and the boron-carbon-nitrogen ternary. Based on the idea of electron counting and using a technique of mixing similar primitive cells, we constructed many ''electron precise'' structures. First principles calculation is performed on these structures, with either zero or high pressures. For the BN binary, our calculation confirms that a rhmobohedral phase can be stablized at high pressure, consistent with some experimental results. For the BCN ternary, a new ground state structure is discovered and an Ising-like phase transition is suggested. Moreover, we modeled BCN ternary phase diagram and show continuous solubility from boron carbide to the boron subnitride phase.

  4. Phase diagram of a single lane roundabout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-03-01

    Using the cellular automata model, we numerically study the traffic dynamic in a single lane roundabout system of four entry/exit points. The boundaries are controlled by the injecting rates α1, α2 and the extracting rate β. Both the system with and without Splitter Islands of width Lsp are considered. The phase diagram in the (α1 , β) space and its variation with the roundabout size, Pagg (i.e. the probability of aggressive entry), and Pexit (i.e. the probability of preferential exit) are constructed. The results show that the phase diagram in both cases consists of three phases: free flow, congested and jammed. However, as Lsp increases the free flow phase enlarges while the congested and jammed ones shrink. On the other hand, the short sized roundabout shows better performance in the free flow phase while the large one is more optimal in the congested phase. The density profiles are also investigated.

  5. Diagrams of stability of circumbinary planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, Elena

    2014-07-01

    The stability diagrams in the ``pericentric distance - eccentricity'' plane of initial data are built and analyzed for Kepler-38, Kepler-47, and Kepler-64 (PH1). This completes a survey of stability of the known up to now circumbinary planetary systems, initiated by Popova & Shevchenko (2013), where the analysis was performed for Kepler-16, 34, and 35. In the diagrams, the planets appear to be ``embedded'' in the fractal chaos border; however, I make an attempt to measure the ``distance'' to the chaos border in a physically consistent way. The obtained distances are compared to those given by the widely used numerical-experimental criterion by Holman & Wiegert (1999), who employed smooth polynomial approximations to describe the border. I identify the resonance cells, hosting the planets.

  6. Phase diagram of silica from computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saika-Voivod, Ivan; Sciortino, Francesco; Grande, Tor; Poole, Peter H.

    2004-12-01

    We evaluate the phase diagram of the “BKS” potential [van Beest, Kramer, and van Santen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1955 (1990)], a model of silica widely used in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We conduct MD simulations of the liquid, and three crystals ( β -quartz, coesite, and stishovite) over wide ranges of temperature and density, and evaluate the total Gibbs free energy of each phase. The phase boundaries are determined by the intersection of these free energy surfaces. Not unexpectedly for a classical pair potential, our results reveal quantitative discrepancies between the locations of the BKS and real silica phase boundaries. At the same time, we find that the topology of the real phase diagram is reproduced, confirming that the BKS model provides a satisfactory qualitative description of a silicalike material. We also compare the phase boundaries with the locations of liquid-state thermodynamic anomalies identified in previous studies of the BKS model.

  7. Modeling the Round Earth through Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padalkar, Shamin; Ramadas, Jayashree

    Earlier studies have found that students, including adults, have problems understanding the scientifically accepted model of the Sun-Earth-Moon system and explaining day-to-day astronomical phenomena based on it. We have been examining such problems in the context of recent research on visual-spatial reasoning. Working with middle school students in India, we have developed a pedagogical sequence to build the mental model of the Earth and tried it in three schools for socially and educationally disadvantaged students. This pedagogy was developed on the basis of (1) a reading of current research in imagery and visual-spatial reasoning and (2) students' difficulties identified during the course of pretests and interviews. Visual-spatial tools such as concrete (physical) models, gestures, and diagrams are used extensively in the teaching sequence. The building of a mental model is continually integrated with drawing inferences to understand and explain everyday phenomena. The focus of this article is inferences drawn with diagrams.

  8. Geometry Helps to Compare Persistence Diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Kerber, Michael; Morozov, Dmitriy; Nigmetov, Arnur

    2015-11-16

    Exploiting geometric structure to improve the asymptotic complexity of discrete assignment problems is a well-studied subject. In contrast, the practical advantages of using geometry for such problems have not been explored. We implement geometric variants of the Hopcroft--Karp algorithm for bottleneck matching (based on previous work by Efrat el al.), and of the auction algorithm by Bertsekas for Wasserstein distance computation. Both implementations use k-d trees to replace a linear scan with a geometric proximity query. Our interest in this problem stems from the desire to compute distances between persistence diagrams, a problem that comes up frequently in topological data analysis. We show that our geometric matching algorithms lead to a substantial performance gain, both in running time and in memory consumption, over their purely combinatorial counterparts. Moreover, our implementation significantly outperforms the only other implementation available for comparing persistence diagrams.

  9. Flamelet Regime Diagram for Turbulent Combustion Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Wai Lee; Ihme, Matthias; Kolla, Hemanth; Chen, Jacqueline

    2016-11-01

    The flamelet model has been widely used in numerical combustion investigations, particularly for the closure of large-eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent reacting flows. In most cases, the simulation results demonstrated good agreements with their experimental counterparts. However, a systematic analysis of the flamelet model's applicability, as well as its potential limitations, is seldom conducted, and the model performance is usually based only on a-posteriori comparisons. The objective of this work is to derive a metric that can formally quantify the suitability of the flamelet model in different flame configurations. For this purpose, a flamelet regime diagram has been developed and studied in the context of direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a turbulent lifted jet flame. The implementation of the regime diagram in LES has been investigated through explicit filtering of the DNS results.

  10. Phase diagram of UCoGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineev, V. P.

    2017-03-01

    The temperature-pressure phase diagram of ferromagnetic superconductor UCoGe includes four phase transitions. They are between the paramagnetic and the ferromagnetic states with the subsequent transition in the superconducting ferromagnetic state and between the normal and the superconducting states after which the transition to the superconducting ferromagnetic state has to occur. Here we have developed the Landau theory description of the phase diagram and established the specific ordering arising at each type of transition. The phase transitions to the ferromagnetic superconducting state are inevitably accompanied by the emergence of screening currents. The corresponding magnetostatics considerations allow for establishing the significant difference between the transition from the ferromagnetic to the ferromagnetic superconducting state and the transition from the superconducting to the ferromagnetic superconducting state.

  11. Band diagram of strained graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakar, Sanjay; Melnik, Roderick; Bonilla, Luis

    2016-04-01

    The influence of ripple waves on the band diagram of zigzag strained graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) is analyzed by utilizing the finite element method. Such waves have their origin in electromechanical effects. With a novel model, we demonstrate that electron-hole band diagrams of GNRs are highly influenced (i.e. level crossing of the bands are possible) by two combined effects: pseudo-magnetic fields originating from electroelasticity theory and external magnetic fields. In particular, we show that the level crossing point can be observed at large external magnetic fields (B ≈ 100T ) in strained GNRs, when the externally applied tensile edge stress is on the order of -100 eV/nm and the amplitude of the out-of-plane ripple waves is on the order of 1nm.

  12. Finding and accessing diagrams in biomedical publications.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Tobias; Luong, ThaiBinh; Krauthammer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Complex relationships in biomedical publications are often communicated by diagrams such as bar and line charts, which are a very effective way of summarizing and communicating multi-faceted data sets. Given the ever-increasing amount of published data, we argue that the precise retrieval of such diagrams is of great value for answering specific and otherwise hard-to-meet information needs. To this end, we demonstrate the use of advanced image processing and classification for identifying bar and line charts by the shape and relative location of the different image elements that make up the charts. With recall and precisions of close to 90% for the detection of relevant figures, we discuss the use of this technology in an existing biomedical image search engine, and outline how it enables new forms of literature queries over biomedical relationships that are represented in these charts.

  13. Finding and Accessing Diagrams in Biomedical Publications

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Tobias; Luong, ThaiBinh; Krauthammer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Complex relationships in biomedical publications are often communicated by diagrams such as bar and line charts, which are a very effective way of summarizing and communicating multi-faceted data sets. Given the ever-increasing amount of published data, we argue that the precise retrieval of such diagrams is of great value for answering specific and otherwise hard-to-meet information needs. To this end, we demonstrate the use of advanced image processing and classification for identifying bar and line charts by the shape and relative location of the different image elements that make up the charts. With recall and precisions of close to 90% for the detection of relevant figures, we discuss the use of this technology in an existing biomedical image search engine, and outline how it enables new forms of literature queries over biomedical relationships that are represented in these charts. PMID:23304318

  14. Sketching for Military Courses of Action Diagrams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Course-of- Action Diagrams. Proceedings of the 14th International Workshop on Qualitative Reasoning. Morelia, Mexico . June, 2000. 10. Forbus, K...computational model of sketching. IUI’01, January 14-17, 2001, Santa Fe, New Mexico 15. Forbus, K., Gentner, D. and Law, K. 1995. MAC/FAC: A...Operations 2002. pp. 85- 90. 22. Landay, J. and Myers, B. 1996. Sketching storyboards to illustrate interface behaviors. CHI’96 Conference Companion

  15. Phase diagram of a traffic roundabout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ding-wei

    2007-09-01

    We propose a simple cellular automaton model to study the traffic dynamics in a roundabout. Both numerical and analytical results are presented. We are able to obtain exact solutions in the full parameter space. Exact phase diagrams are derived. When the traffic from two directions mixed, there are only five distinct phases. Some of the combinations from naive intuition are strictly forbidden. We also compare the results to a signaled intersection.

  16. Displaying multimedia environmental partitioning by triangular diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.C.; Mackay, D.

    1995-11-01

    It is suggested that equilateral triangular diagrams are a useful method of depicting the equilibrium partitioning of organic chemicals among the three primary environmental media of the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the organosphere (natural organic matter and biotic lipids and waxes). The technique is useful for grouping chemicals into classes according to their partitioning tendencies, for depicting the incremental effects of substituents such as alkyl groups and chlorine, and for showing how partitioning changes in response to changes in temperature.

  17. Causal diagrams, gastroesophageal reflux and erosive oesophagitis.

    PubMed

    Shahar, Eyal

    2013-10-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux and its consequences have inspired numerous research questions in recent years: are non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) and erosive oesophagitis phenotypic expressions of gastroesophageal reflux disease? Why do patients with NERD not respond to treatment as well as patients with erosive oesophagitis? What is the natural history of NERD? Causal diagrams, coupled with conditional probabilities, offer clear and surprising answers. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Breaking bad news--a flow diagram.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, A; Maguire, P; Regnard, C

    1994-01-01

    Breaking bad news is neither an easy nor a popular task. Properly handled, however, it can be given in a positive way that the individual can both accept and understand. There may be a range of emotions and concerns following the telling of bad news. These need to be explored and worked through with each individual. This flow diagram describes the steps in this important process.

  19. Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S.; O`Brien, M.; Rudin, M.; Ferguson, J.; McFee, J.

    1994-11-30

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR).

  20. Hydrodynamics of bacterial colonies: Phase diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lega, J.; Passot, T.

    2004-09-01

    We present numerical simulations of a recent hydrodynamic model describing the growth of bacterial colonies on agar plates. We show that this model is able to qualitatively reproduce experimentally observed phase diagrams, which relate a colony shape to the initial quantity of nutrients on the plate and the initial wetness of the agar. We also discuss the principal features resulting from the interplay between hydrodynamic motions and colony growth, as described by our model.

  1. Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, D. S.

    1991-01-01

    Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramics are calculated from available fracture mechanics data. It is shown that the environment has a large effect on minimum time-to-failure as predicted by proof test diagrams.

  2. Diagram of Weightlessness effects at cell level aboard Gemini Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Diagram of experimemt on weightlessness effects at cell level aboard Gemini spacecraft. The round canister (top) shows the experiment package. The bottom portion of the diagram shows the breakdown of the experiment package, and how the experiment will proceed.

  3. 75 FR 61512 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION... Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams (OPDs) located within Atlantic Ocean areas,...

  4. TOWER SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING OVERHEAD TRACK DIAGRAM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING OVERHEAD TRACK DIAGRAM, OPERATING LEVERS (BEING PULLED BY OPERATOR TOM HARTMAN), AND AUXILIARY TRACK DIAGRAM ABOVE DESK AT LEFT. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Z Tower, State Route 46, Keyser, Mineral County, WV

  5. Asteroseismic Diagram for Subgiants and Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Ning; Tang, Yanke; Yu, Peng; Dou, Xianghua

    2017-02-01

    Asteroseismology is a powerful tool for constraining stellar parameters. NASA’s Kepler mission is providing individual eigenfrequencies for a huge number of stars, including thousands of red giants. Besides the frequencies of acoustic modes, an important breakthrough of the Kepler mission is the detection of nonradial gravity-dominated mixed-mode oscillations in red giants. Unlike pure acoustic modes, mixed modes probe deeply into the interior of stars, allowing the stellar core properties and evolution of stars to be derived. In this work, using the gravity-mode period spacing and the large frequency separation, we construct the ΔΠ1–Δν asteroseismic diagram from models of subgiants and red giants with various masses and metallicities. The relationship ΔΠ1–Δν is able to constrain the ages and masses of the subgiants. Meanwhile, for red giants with masses above 1.5 M ⊙, the ΔΠ1–Δν asteroseismic diagram can also work well to constrain the stellar age and mass. Additionally, we calculate the relative “isochrones” τ, which indicate similar evolution states especially for similar mass stars, on the ΔΠ1–Δν diagram.

  6. The Critical Importance of Russell's Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, O.

    2013-04-01

    The idea of dwarf and giants stars, but not the nomenclature, was first established by Eijnar Hertzsprung in 1905; his first diagrams in support appeared in 1911. In 1913 Henry Norris Russell could demonstrate the effect far more strikingly because he measured the parallaxes of many stars at Cambridge, and could plot absolute magnitude against spectral type for many points. The general concept of dwarf and giant stars was essential in the galactic structure work of Harlow Shapley, Russell's first graduate student. In order to calibrate the period-luminosity relation of Cepheid variables, he was obliged to fall back on statistical parallax using only 11 Cepheids, a very sparse sample. Here the insight provided by the Russell diagram became critical. The presence of yellow K giant stars in globular clusters credentialed his calibration of the period-luminosity relation by showing that the calibrated luminosity of the Cepheids was comparable to the luminosity of the K giants. It is well known that in 1920 Shapley did not believe in the cosmological distances of Heber Curtis' spiral nebulae. It is not so well known that in 1920 Curtis' plot of the period-luminosity relation suggests that he didn't believe it was a physical relation and also he failed to appreciate the significance of the Russell diagram for understanding the large size of the Milky Way.

  7. Antiferromagnetic phase diagram of the cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, L. H. C. M.; Teixeira, A. W.; Marino, E. C.

    2017-02-01

    Taking the spin-fermion model as the starting point for describing the cuprate superconductors, we obtain an effective nonlinear sigma-field hamiltonian, which takes into account the effect of doping in the system. We obtain an expression for the spin-wave velocity as a function of the chemical potential. For appropriate values of the parameters we determine the antiferromagnetic phase diagram for the YBa2Cu3O6+x compound as a function of the dopant concentration in good agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, our approach provides a unified description for the phase diagrams of the hole-doped and the electron doped compounds, which is consistent with the remarkable similarity between the phase diagrams of these compounds, since we have obtained the suppression of the antiferromagnetic phase as the modulus of the chemical potential increases. The aforementioned result then follows by considering positive values of the chemical potential related to the addition of holes to the system, while negative values correspond to the addition of electrons.

  8. Nonthermal Radio Emission and the HR Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Perhaps the most reliable indicator of non-radiative heating/momentum in a stellar atmosphere is the presence of nonthermal radio emission. To date, 77 normal stellar objects have been detected and identified as nonthermal sources. These stellar objects are tabulated herein. It is apparent that non-thermal radio emission is not ubiquitous across the HR diagram. This is clearly the case for the single stars; it is not as clear for the binaries unless the radio emission is associated with their late-type components. Choosing to make this association, the single stars and the late-type components are plotted together. The following picture emerges: (1) there are four locations on the HR diagram where non-thermal radio stars are found; (2) the peak incoherent 5 GHz luminosities show a suprisingly small range for stars within each class; (3) the fraction of stellar energy that escapes as radio emission can be estimated by comparing the integrated maximum radio luminosity to the bolometric luminosity; (4) there are no apparent differences in L sub R between binaries with two cool components, binaries with one hot and one cool component, and single stars for classes C and D; and (5) The late-type stars (classes B, C, and D) are located in parts of the HR diagram where there is reason to suspect that the surfaces of the stars are being braked with respect to their interiors.

  9. Automated D/3 to Visio Analog Diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Posey, Stephen B.

    2000-08-10

    ADVAD1 reads an ASCII file containing the D/3 DCS MDL input for analog points for a D/3 continuous database. It uses the information in the files to create a series of Visio files representing the structure of each analog chain, one drawing per Visio file. The actual drawing function is performed by Visio (requires Visio version 4.5+). The user can configure the program to select which fields in the database are shown on the diagram and how the information is to be presented. This gives a visual representation of the structure of the analog chains, showing selected fields in a consistent manner. Updating documentation can be done easily and the automated approach eliminates human error in the cadding process. The program can also create the drawings far faster than a human operator is capable, able to create approximately 270 typical diagrams in about 8 minutes on a Pentium II 400 MHz PC. The program allows for multiple option sets to be saved to provide different settings (i.e., different fields, different field presentations, and /or different diagram layouts) for various scenarios or facilities on one workstation. Option sets may be exported from the Windows registry to allow duplication of settings on another workstation.

  10. Nonthermal Radio Emission and the HR Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Perhaps the most reliable indicator of non-radiative heating/momentum in a stellar atmosphere is the presence of nonthermal radio emission. To date, 77 normal stellar objects have been detected and identified as nonthermal sources. These stellar objects are tabulated herein. It is apparent that non-thermal radio emission is not ubiquitous across the HR diagram. This is clearly the case for the single stars; it is not as clear for the binaries unless the radio emission is associated with their late-type components. Choosing to make this association, the single stars and the late-type components are plotted together. The following picture emerges: (1) there are four locations on the HR diagram where non-thermal radio stars are found; (2) the peak incoherent 5 GHz luminosities show a suprisingly small range for stars within each class; (3) the fraction of stellar energy that escapes as radio emission can be estimated by comparing the integrated maximum radio luminosity to the bolometric luminosity; (4) there are no apparent differences in L sub R between binaries with two cool components, binaries with one hot and one cool component, and single stars for classes C and D; and (5) The late-type stars (classes B, C, and D) are located in parts of the HR diagram where there is reason to suspect that the surfaces of the stars are being braked with respect to their interiors.

  11. Massive basketball diagram for a thermal scalar field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Jens O.; Braaten, Eric; Strickland, Michael

    2000-08-01

    The ``basketball diagram'' is a three-loop vacuum diagram for a scalar field theory that cannot be expressed in terms of one-loop diagrams. We calculate this diagram for a massive scalar field at nonzero temperature, reducing it to expressions involving three-dimensional integrals that can be easily evaluated numerically. We use this result to calculate the free energy for a massive scalar field with a φ4 interaction to three-loop order.

  12. Students' Learning Activities While Studying Biological Process Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students' learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each student completed three learning tasks. Verbal…

  13. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-30

    This executive summary contains a description of the logic diagram format; some examples from the diagram (Vol. 2) and associated technology evaluation data sheets (Vol. 3); a complete (albeit condensed) listing of the RA, D&D, and WM problems at ORNL; and a complete listing of the technology rankings for all the areas covered by the diagram.

  14. Science Visual Literacy: Learners' Perceptions and Knowledge of Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTigue, Erin M.; Flowers, Amanda C.

    2011-01-01

    Constructing meaning from science texts relies not only on comprehending the words but also the diagrams and other graphics. The goal of this study was to explore elementary students' perceptions of science diagrams and their skills related to diagram interpretation. 30 students, ranging from second grade through middle school, completed a diagram…

  15. The Problem of Labels in E-Assessment of Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayal, Ambikesh; Shepperd, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this article we explore a problematic aspect of automated assessment of diagrams. Diagrams have partial and sometimes inconsistent semantics. Typically much of the meaning of a diagram resides in the labels; however, the choice of labeling is largely unrestricted. This means a correct solution may utilize differing yet semantically equivalent…

  16. 49 CFR 1152.10 - System diagram map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... which the diagram or narrative, or any amended diagram or narrative, is filed with the Board; and (5...) The system diagram map shall be color-coded to show the 5 categories of lines as follows: (1) Red... described in § 1152.10(b)(2); (3) Yellow shall designate those lines described in § 1152.10(b)(3); (4)...

  17. Triangular Diagrams Teach Steady and Dynamic Behaviour of Catalytic Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klusacek, K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates how triangular diagrams can aid in presenting some of the rather complex transient interactions that occur among gas and surface species during heterogeneous catalytic reactions. The basic equations and numerical examples are described. Classroom use of the triangular diagram is discussed. Several diagrams and graphs are provided. (YP)

  18. The Problem of Labels in E-Assessment of Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayal, Ambikesh; Shepperd, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this article we explore a problematic aspect of automated assessment of diagrams. Diagrams have partial and sometimes inconsistent semantics. Typically much of the meaning of a diagram resides in the labels; however, the choice of labeling is largely unrestricted. This means a correct solution may utilize differing yet semantically equivalent…

  19. Students' Learning Activities While Studying Biological Process Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students' learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each student completed three learning tasks. Verbal…

  20. Differential Cognitive and Affective Responses to Flow Diagrams in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, William G.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Describes a study in which tenth-grade biology students who were low verbal performers scored significantly higher on achievement tests when provided with picture-word diagrams of biological concepts than when provided with block-word diagrams. Students and teachers also preferred picture-word diagrams as indicated by a questionnaire. (MLH)

  1. Science Visual Literacy: Learners' Perceptions and Knowledge of Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTigue, Erin M.; Flowers, Amanda C.

    2011-01-01

    Constructing meaning from science texts relies not only on comprehending the words but also the diagrams and other graphics. The goal of this study was to explore elementary students' perceptions of science diagrams and their skills related to diagram interpretation. 30 students, ranging from second grade through middle school, completed a diagram…

  2. Diagnostic thoracoscopy.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, T C

    1999-11-01

    Thoracoscopy is a minimally invasive diagnostic technique that provides access to the thoracic cavity for evaluation of intrathoracic pathology without surgical intervention. Intrathoracic structures can be visualized better with thoracoscopy than with an open thoracotomy. Indications for thoracoscopy include pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, intrathoracic masses, pneumothorax, primary pulmonary disease, and trauma. Thoracoscopy is technically similar to laparoscopy, using the same basic instrumentation and principles, but is easier to perform than laparoscopy. Patient preparation, anesthesia, and patient positioning are essentially the same for thoracoscopy as for a standard open thoracotomy. Thoracoscopy provides minimally invasive access to important diagnostic information with a very low incidence of complications.

  3. Astrovirus Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Pérot, Philippe; Lecuit, Marc; Eloit, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Various methods exist to detect an astrovirus infection. Current methods include electron microscopy (EM), cell culture, immunoassays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and various other molecular approaches that can be applied in the context of diagnostic or in surveillance studies. With the advent of metagenomics, novel human astrovirus (HAstV) strains have been found in immunocompromised individuals in association with central nervous system (CNS) infections. This work reviews the past and current methods for astrovirus detection and their uses in both research laboratories and for medical diagnostic purposes. PMID:28085120

  4. IRS Legacy Survey of the Green Valley in COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoville, Nicholas; Aussel, Herve; Capak, Peter; Frayer, David; Ilbert, Olivier; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Le Floc'h, Emeric; McCracken, Henry; Salvato, Mara; Sanders, David; Schinnerer, Eva; Sheth, Kartik; Surace, Jason; Yan, Lin

    2008-03-01

    We propose IRS low resolution spectroscopy is obtained for a complete flux-limited sample of 55 MIPS 24micron selected galaxies in the HST/ACS-COSMOS survey field at z = 0.65-0.85. All of the galaxies have S(24) > 0.7 mJy and confirmed IRAC counterparts. The IRS observations yield the PAH and silicate features, the mid-IR continuum SED and the Ne emission lines (for the brighter sources). These tracers provide diagnostics for the nature of the energy sources (starburst and/or AGN) in these dust obscured galaxies. This COSMOS IRS Legacy survey samples the full range of optical (e.g. U-V) color and absolute optical magnitude exhibited by luminous infrared-selected galaxies at our selected redshifts. Our sample of 24 micron sources allow us to better understand the role played by IR-selected galaxies in galaxy evolution, and provide a critical test of evolutionary models which suggest that sources in the Green Valley represent a transition stage as dusty spirals in the Blue Cloud merge and evolve into massive gas-poor elipticals on the Red Sequence.

  5. FT-IR spectroscopy characterization of schwannoma: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Isabelle; Neto, Lazaro P. M.; das Chagas, Maurilio José; Carvalho, Luís. Felipe C. S.; dos Santos, Laurita; Ribas, Marcelo; Loddi, Vinicius; Martin, Airton A.

    2016-03-01

    Schwannoma are rare benign neural neoplasia. The clinical diagnosis could be improved if novel optical techniques are performed. Among these techniques, FT-IR is one of the currently techniques which has been applied for samples discrimination using biochemical information with minimum sample preparation. In this work, we report a case of a schwannoma in the cervical region. A histological examination described a benign process. An immunohistochemically examination demonstrated positivity to anti-S100 protein antibody, indicating a diagnosis of schwannoma. The aim of this analysis was to characterize FT-IR spectrum of the neoplastic and normal tissue in the fingerprint (1000-1800 cm-1) and high wavenumber region (2800-3600 cm-1). The IR spectra were collect from tumor tissue and normal nerve samples by a FT-IR spectrophotometer (Spotlight Perkin Elmer 400, USA) with 64 scans, and resolution of 4 cm-1. A total of twenty spectra were recorded (10 from schwannoma and 10 from nerve). Multivariate Analysis was used to classify the data. Through average and standard deviation analysis we observed that the main spectral change occurs at ≍1600 cm-1 (amide I) and ≍1400 cm-1 (amide III) in the fingerprint region, and in CH2/CH3 protein-lipids and OH-water vibrations for the high wavenumber region. In conclusion, FT-IR could be used as a technique for schwannoma analysis helping to establish specific diagnostic.

  6. How Special Are Dark Gamma-Ray Burst: A Diagnostic Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rod, Evert; Wiers, Ralph A. M. J.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Kaper, Lex; Kaneko, Yuki; Kaper, Lex

    2005-01-01

    We present here a comprehensive study of the optical/near-infrared (IR) upper limits for gamma-ray bursts that have an X-ray afterglow. We have extrapolated the X-ray afterglows to optical wavelengths based on the physics of the fireball blast wave model and compared these results with optical upper limits for a large sample of bursts. We find a small set of only three bursts out of a sample of 20 for which the upper limits are not compatible with their X-ray afterglow properties within the context of any blast wave model. This sparse sample does not allow us to conclusively determine the cause of this optical/near-IR deficit. Extinction in the host galaxy is a likely cause, but high redshifts and different afterglow mechanisms might also explain the deficit in some cases. We note that the three bursts appear to have higher than average gamma-my peak fluxes. In a magnitude versus time diagram the bursts are separated from the majority of bursts with a detected optical/near-IR afterglow. However, two gamma- ray bursts with an optical afterglow (one of which is highly reddened) also fall in this region with dark bursts, making it likely that dark bursts are at the faint end of the set of optically detected bursts, and therefore the dark bursts likely form a continuum with the bursts with a detected optical afterglow. Our work provides a useful diagnostic tool for follow-up observations for potentially dark bursts; applied to the events detected with the Swift satellite, it will significantly increase our sample of truly dark bursts and shed light upon their nature. Subject headings: dust, extinction - gamma rays: bursts Online material: machine-readable tables

  7. Bond strength and electronic structures of coherent Ir /Ir3Zr interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, H. R.; Liu, Yong; Tang, Hui Ping; Xiang, Chang Shu

    2008-05-01

    First principles calculation reveals that the coherent Ir /Ir3Zr interfaces possess high values of bond strength and that interface orientation and atomic configuration have important effects on interface bonding and interface energy. Calculation also shows that the interface dipole is formed in the Ir /Ir3Zr interface due to an unequal loss of the electrons from Ir and Ir3Zr atoms, and density of states suggests that a stronger covalent bonding is formed in the interface than corresponding Ir or Ir3Zr bulks, which results in the strengthening effect of the Ir3Zr precipitation in the Ir-base superalloys from experimental observations in the literature.

  8. Diagnostic Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    Diagnostic imaging lets doctors look inside your body for clues about a medical condition. A variety of machines and techniques can create pictures of the structures and activities inside your body. The type of imaging your doctor uses depends on your symptoms and ...

  9. Near-IR activity of hybrid solar cells: Enhancement of efficiency by dissociating excitons generated in PbS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guchhait, Asim; Rath, Arup K.; Pal, Amlan J.

    2010-02-01

    Photovoltaic devices based on PbS nanoparticles remained inactive in the near-IR region due to a not-so-favorable energy band-diagram that does not allow dissociation of excitons generated in PbS. In this work, with the introduction of TiO2 nanostructures in the PbS-based hybrid system, we show an enhancement of photovoltaic performance in both visible and near-IR regions. The addition of TiO2 increases the power conversion efficiency from 0.006% to 0.12%. With the aid of energy band-diagram, we show that excitons generated in PbS even in the near-IR range can now become dissociated to yield photocurrent in the external circuit.

  10. Sinc function representation and three-loop master diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Easther, Richard; Guralnik, Gerald; Hahn, Stephen

    2001-04-15

    We test the Sinc function representation, a novel method for numerically evaluating Feynman diagrams, by using it to evaluate the three-loop master diagrams. Analytical results have been obtained for all these diagrams, and we find excellent agreement between our calculations and the exact values. The Sinc function representation converges rapidly, and it is straightforward to obtain accuracies of 1 part in 10{sup 6} for these diagrams and with longer runs we found results better than 1 part in 10{sup 12}. Finally, this paper extends the Sinc function representation to diagrams containing massless propagators.

  11. An automatic layout system for OMT-based object diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Satoshi; Ali, Jauhar; Tanaka, Jiro

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we propose an automatic layout method for the object diagram, the event trace diagram and the state diagram based on OMT (Object Modeling Technique) methodology. In our automatic layout system, when the elements of model (classes, associations etc.) are entered, an arrangement for them is computed, and the object model automatically appears in the editor`s window. We adopted Messinger`s algorithm using the rule of divide-and-conquer for the layout algorithm of the object diagram. Furthermore, diagrams can be maintained easily with the capabilities of automatic modification and direct manipulation interface.

  12. Strongly frustrated triangular spin lattice emerging from triplet dimer formation in honeycomb Li2IrO3.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Satoshi; Katukuri, Vamshi M; Yushankhai, Viktor; Stoll, Hermann; Rößler, Ulrich K; Hozoi, Liviu; Rousochatzakis, Ioannis; van den Brink, Jeroen

    2016-01-18

    Iridium oxides with a honeycomb lattice have been identified as platforms for the much anticipated Kitaev topological spin liquid: the spin-orbit entangled states of Ir(4+) in principle generate precisely the required type of anisotropic exchange. However, other magnetic couplings can drive the system away from the spin-liquid phase. With this in mind, here we disentangle the different magnetic interactions in Li2IrO3, a honeycomb iridate with two crystallographically inequivalent sets of adjacent Ir sites. Our ab initio many-body calculations show that, while both Heisenberg and Kitaev nearest-neighbour couplings are present, on one set of Ir-Ir bonds the former dominates, resulting in the formation of spin-triplet dimers. The triplet dimers frame a strongly frustrated triangular lattice and by exact cluster diagonalization we show that they remain protected in a wide region of the phase diagram.

  13. Strongly frustrated triangular spin lattice emerging from triplet dimer formation in honeycomb Li2IrO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimoto, Satoshi; Katukuri, Vamshi M.; Yushankhai, Viktor; Stoll, Hermann; Rößler, Ulrich K.; Hozoi, Liviu; Rousochatzakis, Ioannis; van den Brink, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Iridium oxides with a honeycomb lattice have been identified as platforms for the much anticipated Kitaev topological spin liquid: the spin-orbit entangled states of Ir4+ in principle generate precisely the required type of anisotropic exchange. However, other magnetic couplings can drive the system away from the spin-liquid phase. With this in mind, here we disentangle the different magnetic interactions in Li2IrO3, a honeycomb iridate with two crystallographically inequivalent sets of adjacent Ir sites. Our ab initio many-body calculations show that, while both Heisenberg and Kitaev nearest-neighbour couplings are present, on one set of Ir-Ir bonds the former dominates, resulting in the formation of spin-triplet dimers. The triplet dimers frame a strongly frustrated triangular lattice and by exact cluster diagonalization we show that they remain protected in a wide region of the phase diagram.

  14. Comprehending 3D Diagrams: Sketching to Support Spatial Reasoning.

    PubMed

    Gagnier, Kristin M; Atit, Kinnari; Ormand, Carol J; Shipley, Thomas F

    2016-11-25

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines commonly illustrate 3D relationships in diagrams, yet these are often challenging for students. Failing to understand diagrams can hinder success in STEM because scientific practice requires understanding and creating diagrammatic representations. We explore a new approach to improving student understanding of diagrams that convey 3D relations that is based on students generating their own predictive diagrams. Participants' comprehension of 3D spatial diagrams was measured in a pre- and post-design where students selected the correct 2D slice through 3D geologic block diagrams. Generating sketches that predicated the internal structure of a model led to greater improvement in diagram understanding than visualizing the interior of the model without sketching, or sketching the model without attempting to predict unseen spatial relations. In addition, we found a positive correlation between sketched diagram accuracy and improvement on the diagram comprehension measure. Results suggest that generating a predictive diagram facilitates students' abilities to make inferences about spatial relationships in diagrams. Implications for use of sketching in supporting STEM learning are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. State-transition diagrams for biologists.

    PubMed

    Bersini, Hugues; Klatzmann, David; Six, Adrien; Thomas-Vaslin, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    It is clearly in the tradition of biologists to conceptualize the dynamical evolution of biological systems in terms of state-transitions of biological objects. This paper is mainly concerned with (but obviously not limited too) the immunological branch of biology and shows how the adoption of UML (Unified Modeling Language) state-transition diagrams can ease the modeling, the understanding, the coding, the manipulation or the documentation of population-based immune software model generally defined as a set of ordinary differential equations (ODE), describing the evolution in time of populations of various biological objects. Moreover, that same UML adoption naturally entails a far from negligible representational economy since one graphical item of the diagram might have to be repeated in various places of the mathematical model. First, the main graphical elements of the UML state-transition diagram and how they can be mapped onto a corresponding ODE mathematical model are presented. Then, two already published immune models of thymocyte behavior and time evolution in the thymus, the first one originally conceived as an ODE population-based model whereas the second one as an agent-based one, are refactored and expressed in a state-transition form so as to make them much easier to understand and their respective code easier to access, to modify and run. As an illustrative proof, for any immunologist, it should be possible to understand faithfully enough what the two software models are supposed to reproduce and how they execute with no need to plunge into the Java or Fortran lines.

  16. Generic Phase Diagram of Binary Superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, Alexei

    Emergence of a large variety of self-assembled superlattices is a dramatic recent trend in the fields of nanoparticle and colloidal sciences. Motivated by this development, we propose a model that combines simplicity with a remarkably rich phase behavior, applicable to a wide range of such self-assembled systems. Those include nanoparticle and colloidal assemblies driven by DNA-mediated interactions, electrostatics, and possibly, by controlled drying. In our model, a binary system of Large and Small hard sphere (L and S)interact via selective short-range (''sticky'') attraction. In its simplest version, this Binary Sticky Sphere model features attraction only between 'S' and 'L' particles, respectively. We demonstrate that in the limit when this attraction is sufficiently strong compared to kT, the problem becomes purely geometrical: the thermodynamically preferred state should maximize the number of S-L contacts. A general procedure for constructing the phase diagram as a function of system composition f, and particle size ratio r, is outlined. In this way, the global phase behavior can be calculated very efficiently, for a given set of plausible candidate phases. Furthermore, the geometric nature of the problem enables us to generate those candidate phases through a well defined and intuitive construction. We calculate the phase diagrams both for 2D and 3D systems, and compare the results with existing experiments. Most of the 3D superlattices observed to date are featured in our phase diagram, while several more are yet to be discovered. The research was carried out at the CFN, DOE Office of Science Facility, at BNL, under Contract No. DE-SC0012704.

  17. State-Transition Diagrams for Biologists

    PubMed Central

    Bersini, Hugues; Klatzmann, David; Six, Adrien; Thomas-Vaslin, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    It is clearly in the tradition of biologists to conceptualize the dynamical evolution of biological systems in terms of state-transitions of biological objects. This paper is mainly concerned with (but obviously not limited too) the immunological branch of biology and shows how the adoption of UML (Unified Modeling Language) state-transition diagrams can ease the modeling, the understanding, the coding, the manipulation or the documentation of population-based immune software model generally defined as a set of ordinary differential equations (ODE), describing the evolution in time of populations of various biological objects. Moreover, that same UML adoption naturally entails a far from negligible representational economy since one graphical item of the diagram might have to be repeated in various places of the mathematical model. First, the main graphical elements of the UML state-transition diagram and how they can be mapped onto a corresponding ODE mathematical model are presented. Then, two already published immune models of thymocyte behavior and time evolution in the thymus, the first one originally conceived as an ODE population-based model whereas the second one as an agent-based one, are refactored and expressed in a state-transition form so as to make them much easier to understand and their respective code easier to access, to modify and run. As an illustrative proof, for any immunologist, it should be possible to understand faithfully enough what the two software models are supposed to reproduce and how they execute with no need to plunge into the Java or Fortran lines. PMID:22844438

  18. On critical exponents without Feynman diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Kallol; Sinha, Aninda

    2016-11-01

    In order to achieve a better analytic handle on the modern conformal bootstrap program, we re-examine and extend the pioneering 1974 work of Polyakov’s, which was based on consistency between the operator product expansion and unitarity. As in the bootstrap approach, this method does not depend on evaluating Feynman diagrams. We show how this approach can be used to compute the anomalous dimensions of certain operators in the O(n) model at the Wilson-Fisher fixed point in 4-ɛ dimensions up to O({ɛ }2). AS dedicates this work to the loving memory of his mother.

  19. Predicting Allostery Wiring Diagrams within Motor Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tehver, Riina

    2013-03-01

    Motor proteins are intricate molecular machines that make use of allostery as a basis of their function. Fundamental questions in trying to understand the operational mechanism of the motors is, therefore, how allostery communicated is within the proteins, what are the pathways that transmit allosteric signals, how to model and predict them. We have proposed a normal-mode analysis based perturbation model that predicts the pathways based on the structure and chemical composition of the molecules. We use the model to investigate allosteric pathways (allostery wiring diagrams) within motor proteins myosin V and VI.

  20. Failure Assessment Diagram for Titanium Brazed Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, Yury; Jones, Justin S.; Powell, Mollie M.; Puckett, David F.

    2011-01-01

    The interaction equation was used to predict failure in Ti-4V-6Al joints brazed with Al 1100 filler metal. The joints used in this study were geometrically similar to the joints in the brazed beryllium metering structure considered for the ATLAS telescope. This study confirmed that the interaction equation R(sub sigma) + R(sub Tau) = 1, where R(sub sigma) and R(sub Tau)are normal and shear stress ratios, can be used as conservative lower bound estimate of the failure criterion in ATLAS brazed joints as well as for construction of the Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD).

  1. Algorithms for Disconnected Diagrams in Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Gambhir, Arjun Singh; Stathopoulos, Andreas; Orginos, Konstantinos; Yoon, Boram; Gupta, Rajan; Syritsyn, Sergey

    2016-11-01

    Computing disconnected diagrams in Lattice QCD (operator insertion in a quark loop) entails the computationally demanding problem of taking the trace of the all to all quark propagator. We first outline the basic algorithm used to compute a quark loop as well as improvements to this method. Then, we motivate and introduce an algorithm based on the synergy between hierarchical probing and singular value deflation. We present results for the chiral condensate using a 2+1-flavor clover ensemble and compare estimates of the nucleon charges with the basic algorithm.

  2. On the iron-carbon phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustinovshikov, Yu. I.

    2009-10-01

    Experimental results that are obtained by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and carbide analysis and indicate the precipitation of carbon atoms clusters in a hypereutectoid steel during its annealing above the eutectoid temperature are presented. These results are compared to the reported data in order to construct a new Fe-C phase diagram, where cementite forms below the eutectoid temperature due to the tendency of the Fe-C system toward ordering and carbon unbound to iron precipitates above this temperature in the form of clusters or graphite particles due to the tendency of this system toward phase separation.

  3. Unique atom hyper-kagome order in Na4Ir3O8 and in low-symmetry spinel modifications.

    PubMed

    Talanov, V M; Shirokov, V B; Talanov, M V

    2015-05-01

    Group-theoretical and thermodynamic methods of the Landau theory of phase transitions are used to investigate the hyper-kagome atomic order in structures of ordered spinels and a spinel-like Na4Ir3O8 crystal. The formation of an atom hyper-kagome sublattice in Na4Ir3O8 is described theoretically on the basis of the archetype (hypothetical parent structure/phase) concept. The archetype structure of Na4Ir3O8 has a spinel-like structure (space group Fd\\bar 3m) and composition [Na1/2Ir3/2](16d)[Na3/2](16c)O(32e)4. The critical order parameter which induces hypothetical phase transition has been stated. It is shown that the derived structure of Na4Ir3O8 is formed as a result of the displacements of Na, Ir and O atoms, and ordering of Na, Ir and O atoms, ordering dxy, dxz, dyz orbitals as well. Ordering of all atoms takes place according to the type 1:3. Ir and Na atoms form an intriguing atom order: a network of corner-shared Ir triangles called a hyper-kagome lattice. The Ir atoms form nanoclusters which are named decagons. The existence of hyper-kagome lattices in six types of ordered spinel structures is predicted theoretically. The structure mechanisms of the formation of the predicted hyper-kagome atom order in some ordered spinel phases are established. For a number of cases typical diagrams of possible crystal phase states are built in the framework of the Landau theory of phase transitions. Thermodynamical conditions of hyper-kagome order formation are discussed by means of these diagrams. The proposed theory is in accordance with experimental data.

  4. Underrepresentation of Women and Minorities in the United States IR Academic Physician Workforce.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Mikhail C S S; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Richard, Chase; Chapman, Christina H; Laporte, Angelique; Both, Stefan; Thomas, Charles R; Deville, Curtiland

    2016-12-01

    To assess the United States interventional radiology (IR) academic physician workforce diversity and comparative specialties. Public registries were used to assess demographic differences among 2012 IR faculty and fellows, diagnostic radiology (DR) faculty and residents, DR subspecialty fellows (pediatric, abdominal, neuroradiology, and musculoskeletal), vascular surgery and interventional cardiology trainees, and 2010 US medical school graduates and US Census using binomial tests with .001 significance level (Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons). Significant trends in IR physician representation were evaluated from 1992 to 2012. Women (15.4%), blacks (2.0%), and Hispanics (6.2%) were significantly underrepresented as IR fellows compared with the US population. Women were underrepresented as IR (7.3%) versus DR (27.8%) faculty and IR fellows (15.4%) versus medical school graduates (48.3%), DR residents (27.8%), pediatric radiology fellows (49.4%), and vascular surgery trainees (27.7%) (all P < .001). IR ranked last in female representation among radiologic subspecialty fellows. Blacks (1.8%, 2.1%, respectively, for IR faculty and fellows); Hispanics (1.8%, 6.2%); and combined American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (1.8%, 0) showed no significant differences in representation as IR fellows compared with IR faculty, DR residents, other DR fellows, or interventional cardiology or vascular surgery trainees. Over 20 years, there was no significant increase in female or black representation as IR fellows or faculty. Women, blacks, and Hispanics are underrepresented in the IR academic physician workforce relative to the US population. Given prevalent health care disparities and an increasingly diverse society, research and training efforts should address IR physician workforce diversity. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nearby early-type galaxies with ionized gas. VI. The Spitzer-IRS view. Basic data set analysis and empirical spectral classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panuzzo, P.; Rampazzo, R.; Bressan, A.; Vega, O.; Annibali, F.; Buson, L. M.; Clemens, M. S.; Zeilinger, W. W.

    2011-04-01

    Context. A large fraction of early-type galaxies (ETGs) shows emission lines in their optical spectra, mostly with LINER characteristics. Despite the number of studies, the nature of the ionization mechanisms is still debated. Many ETGs also show several signs of rejuvenation episodes. Aims: We aim to investigate the ionization mechanisms and the physical processes of a sample of ETGs using mid-infrared spectra. Methods: We present here low resolution Spitzer-IRS spectra of 40 ETGs, 18 of which from our proposed Cycle 3 observations, selected from a sample of 65 ETGs showing emission lines in their optical spectra. We homogeneously extract the mid-infrared (MIR) spectra, and after the proper subtraction of a "passive" ETG template, we derive the intensity of the ionic and molecular lines and of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features. We use MIR diagnostic diagrams to investigate the powering mechanisms of the ionized gas. Results: The mid-infrared spectra of early-type galaxies show a variety of spectral characteristics. We empirically sub-divide the sample into five classes of spectra with common characteristics. Class-0, accounting for 20% of the sample, are purely passive ETGs with neither emission lines nor PAH features. Class-1 show emission lines but no PAH features, and account for 17.5% of the sample. Class-2, in which 50% of the ETGs are found, as well as having emission lines, show PAH features with unusual ratios, e.g. 7.7 μm/11.3 μm ≤ 2.3. Class-3 objects (7.5% of the sample) have emission lines and PAH features with ratios typical of star-forming galaxies. Class-4, containing only 5% of the ETGs, is dominated by a hot dust continuum. The diagnostic diagram [Ne iii]15.55 μm/[Ne ii]12.8 μm vs. [S iii]33.48 μm/[Si ii]34.82 μm, is used to investigate the different mechanisms ionizing the gas. According to the above diagram most of our ETGs contain gas ionized via either AGN-like or shock phenomena, or both. Conclusions: Most of

  6. Theoretical studies of Ir5Th and Ir5Ce nanoscale precipitates in Ir

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, James R; Averill, Frank; Cooper, Valentino R

    2014-01-01

    Experimentally, it is known that very small amounts of thorium and/or cerium added to iridium metal form a precipitate, Ir5Th / Ir5Ce, which improves the high temperature mechanical properties of the resulting alloys. We demonstrate that there are low-energy configurations for nano-scale precipitates of these phases in Ir, and that these coherent arrangements may assist in producing improved mechanical properties. One precipitate/matrix orientation gives a particularly low interfacial energy, and a low lattice misfit. Nanolayer precipitates with this orientation are found to be likely to form, with little driving force to coarsen. The predicted morphology of the precipitates and their orientation with the matrix phase provide a potential experiment that could be used to test these predictions.

  7. Condensation phase diagrams for lipid-coated perfluorobutane microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Mountford, Paul A; Sirsi, Shashank R; Borden, Mark A

    2014-06-03

    The goal of this study was to explore the thermodynamic conditions necessary to condense aqueous suspensions of lipid-coated gas-filled microbubbles into metastable liquid-filled nanodrops as well as the physicochemical mechanisms involved with this process. Individual perfluorobutane microbubbles and their lipid shells were observed as they were pressurized at 34.5 kPa s(-1) in a microscopic viewing chamber maintained at temperatures ranging from 5 to 75 °C. The microbubbles contracted under pressure, ultimately leading to either full dissolution or microbubble-to-nanodrop condensation. Temperature-pressure phase diagrams conveying condensation and stability transitions were constructed for microbubbles coated with saturated diacylphosphatidylcholine lipids of varying acyl chain length (C16 to C24). The onset of full dissolution was shifted to higher temperatures with the use of longer acyl chain lipids or supersaturated media. Longer chain lipid shells resisted both dissolution of the gas core and mechanical compression through a pronounced wrinkle-to-fold collapse transition. Interestingly, the lipid shell also provided a mechanical resistance to condensation, shifting the vapor-to-liquid transition to higher pressures than for bulk perfluorobutane. This result indicated that the lipid shell can provide a negative apparent surface tension under compression. Overall, the results of this study will aid in the design and formulation of vaporizable fluorocarbon nanodrops for various applications, such as diagnostic ultrasound imaging, targeted drug delivery, and thermal ablation.

  8. The efficiency and effectiveness of utilizing diagrams in interviews: an assessment of participatory diagramming and graphic elicitation.

    PubMed

    Umoquit, Muriah J; Dobrow, Mark J; Lemieux-Charles, Louise; Ritvo, Paul G; Urbach, David R; Wodchis, Walter P

    2008-08-08

    This paper focuses on measuring the efficiency and effectiveness of two diagramming methods employed in key informant interviews with clinicians and health care administrators. The two methods are 'participatory diagramming', where the respondent creates a diagram that assists in their communication of answers, and 'graphic elicitation', where a researcher-prepared diagram is used to stimulate data collection. These two diagramming methods were applied in key informant interviews and their value in efficiently and effectively gathering data was assessed based on quantitative measures and qualitative observations. Assessment of the two diagramming methods suggests that participatory diagramming is an efficient method for collecting data in graphic form, but may not generate the depth of verbal response that many qualitative researchers seek. In contrast, graphic elicitation was more intuitive, better understood and preferred by most respondents, and often provided more contemplative verbal responses, however this was achieved at the expense of more interview time. Diagramming methods are important for eliciting interview data that are often difficult to obtain through traditional verbal exchanges. Subject to the methodological limitations of the study, our findings suggest that while participatory diagramming and graphic elicitation have specific strengths and weaknesses, their combined use can provide complementary information that would not likely occur with the application of only one diagramming method. The methodological insights gained by examining the efficiency and effectiveness of these diagramming methods in our study should be helpful to other researchers considering their incorporation into qualitative research designs.

  9. The efficiency and effectiveness of utilizing diagrams in interviews: an assessment of participatory diagramming and graphic elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Umoquit, Muriah J; Dobrow, Mark J; Lemieux-Charles, Louise; Ritvo, Paul G; Urbach, David R; Wodchis, Walter P

    2008-01-01

    Background This paper focuses on measuring the efficiency and effectiveness of two diagramming methods employed in key informant interviews with clinicians and health care administrators. The two methods are 'participatory diagramming', where the respondent creates a diagram that assists in their communication of answers, and 'graphic elicitation', where a researcher-prepared diagram is used to stimulate data collection. Methods These two diagramming methods were applied in key informant interviews and their value in efficiently and effectively gathering data was assessed based on quantitative measures and qualitative observations. Results Assessment of the two diagramming methods suggests that participatory diagramming is an efficient method for collecting data in graphic form, but may not generate the depth of verbal response that many qualitative researchers seek. In contrast, graphic elicitation was more intuitive, better understood and preferred by most respondents, and often provided more contemplative verbal responses, however this was achieved at the expense of more interview time. Conclusion Diagramming methods are important for eliciting interview data that are often difficult to obtain through traditional verbal exchanges. Subject to the methodological limitations of the study, our findings suggest that while participatory diagramming and graphic elicitation have specific strengths and weaknesses, their combined use can provide complementary information that would not likely occur with the application of only one diagramming method. The methodological insights gained by examining the efficiency and effectiveness of these diagramming methods in our study should be helpful to other researchers considering their incorporation into qualitative research designs. PMID:18691410

  10. Diagnostic immunofluorescence*

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, William B.; Reimer, Charles B.

    1973-01-01

    The standardization of diagnostic immunofluorescence is a complex problem because diagnostic results are greatly influenced by interacting factors, such as the equipment, materials, and techniques for expressing and recording fluorescence. Furthermore, the characteristics of immunofluorescence reagents depend on how they are manufactured and used. The adoption of stable reference preparations of such reagents appears to be the only practicable way of standardizing laboratory test results. Several professional and regulatory organizations are actively promoting this objective. Consensus evaluation may be the best method of introducing proposed standards. Basic and applied research must provide the information needed to improve reagents and tests. Material fluorescent standards are proving helpful in standardizing fluorescence emission, but the most promising development is the use of insolubilized antigens to provide standards for more relevant immunological-fluorescence comparisons. Several important direct and indirect diagnostic immunofluorescence tests and reagents currently used in microbiological, histological, and pathological examinations require standardization. The medical profession should insist that commercial reagents be adequately characterized and that manufacturers supply the data necessary for their safe and informed use. PMID:4594319

  11. Dust content in compact HII regions (NGC 7538-IRS1, IRS2, and IRS3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akabane, K.; Kuno, N.

    2005-02-01

    The luminosity of the central star of the compact HII regions of NGC 7538 was estimated from the solid angle of the IR sources subtended relative to the central star, and was found to be 5˜ 10 times as intense as that of IR sources. Under the single central star approximation, the luminosity gives a stellar UV photon rate NU(*) (s-1) of ˜3.0 × 1048, ˜1.5 × 1049, ˜5.1 × 1049, and ˜1.7 × 1047 for the compact HII regions of NGC 7538-IRS1(A/2), B, IRS2, and IRS3, respectively. NU (*) and the observed electron density, ne, provide the dust opacity of the ionizing photon, τSd, for the optical path out to the Strömgren sphere radius rS, assuming a gas with standard dust content. Ionizing photon opacity over the same optical path but with the actual dust content τSda is also derived from ri / rS, where ri is the radius of the ionized sphere, which is estimated from NU(*) and the observed volume emission measure ne2 (4 π ri3/3) (Spitzer \\cite{Spitzer1978}). An observational trend of γ NU(*) / 4π ri2 1/2 ˜ constant, where γ = τSda / τSd}, was obtained for the 4 compact HII regions of the NGC 7538(N). Fourteen selected compact HII regions from data catalogued by VLA observations were examined for this trend, and a similar result was obtained. A limit of γ as 15 ≥ γ ≥ 0.1 was given for the 14 selected sources. The size of the dust-depleted cavity of the NGC 7538(N) suggested by Chini et al. (\\cite{Chini1986}) coincides with that of the ionized sphere of the IRS2 of the region.

  12. Compact IR synchrotron beamline design.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Thierry

    2017-03-01

    Third-generation storage rings are massively evolving due to the very compact nature of the multi-bend achromat (MBA) lattice which allows amazing decreases of the horizontal electron beam emittance, but leaves very little place for infrared (IR) extraction mirrors to be placed, thus prohibiting traditional IR beamlines. In order to circumvent this apparent restriction, an optimized optical layout directly integrated inside a SOLEIL synchrotron dipole chamber that delivers intense and almost aberration-free beams in the near- to mid-IR domain (1-30 µm) is proposed and analyzed, and which can be integrated into space-restricted MBA rings. Since the optics and chamber are interdependent, the feasibility of this approach depends on a large part on the technical ability to assemble mechanically the optics inside the dipole chamber and control their resulting stability and thermo-mechanical deformation. Acquiring this expertise should allow dipole chambers to provide almost aberration-free IR synchrotron sources on current and `ultimate' MBA storage rings.

  13. IR Variability of Eta Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nathan

    2008-02-01

    Every 5.5 years, η Carinae experiences a dramatic ``spectroscopic event'' when high-excitation lines in its UV, optical, and IR spectrum disappear, and its hard X-ray and radio continuum flux crash. This periodicity has been attributed to an eccentric binary system with a shell ejection occurring at periastron, and the next periastron event will occur at the very end of 2008. In addition, η Car shows long term changes as it is still recovering from its giant 19th century outburst. Both types of variability are directly linked to the current mass-loss rate and dust formation in its wind. Mid-IR images and spectra with T-ReCS provide a direct measure of changes in the current bolometric luminosity and a direct measure of the massw in dust formation episodes that may occur at periastron in the colliding wind shock. Near-IR emission lines trace related changes in the post-event wind and ionization changes in the circumstellar environment needed to test specific models for the cause of η Car's variability as it recovers from its recent ``event''. High resolution near-IR spectra with Phoenix will continue the important work of HST/STIS, investigating changes in the direct and reflected spectrum of the stellar wind, and ionization changes in the nebula.

  14. IR Variability of Eta Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nathan

    2007-02-01

    Every 5.5 years, η Carinae experiences a dramatic ``spectroscopic event'' when high-excitation lines in its UV, optical, and IR spectrum disappear, and its hard X-ray and radio continuum flux crash. This periodicity has been attributed to an eccentric binary system with a shell ejection occurring at periastron. In addition, η Car shows long term changes as it is still recovering from its giant 19th century outburst. Both types of variability are directly linked to the current mass-loss rate and dust formation in its wind. Mid-IR images and spectra with T-ReCS provide a direct measure of changes in the current bolometric luminosity and trace dust formation episodes. This will provide a direct measurement of the mass ejected. Near-IR emission lines trace related changes in the post-event wind and ionization changes in the circumstellar environment needed to test specific models for the cause of η Car's variability as it recovers from its recent ``event''. High resolution near-IR spectra with GNIRS will continue the important work of HST/STIS, investigating changes in the direct and reflected spectrum of the stellar wind, and ionization changes in the nebula.

  15. Instability Regions in the Upper HR Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deJager, Cornelis; Lobel, Alex; Nieuwenhuijzen, Hans; Stothers, Richard; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The following instability regions for blueward evolving supergiants are outlined and compared: (1) Areas in the Hertzsprung-Russell(HR) diagram where stars are dynamically unstable. (2) Areas where the effective acceleration in the upper part of the photospheres is negative, hence directed outward. (3) Areas where the sonic points of the stellar wind (Where wind velocity = sound velocity) are situated inside the photospheres, at a level deeper than tau(sub Ross) = 0.01. We compare the results with the positions of actual stars in the HR diagram and we find evidence that the recent strong contraction of the yellow hypergiant HR8752 was initiated in a period during which (g(sub eff)) is less than 0, whereupon the star became dynamically unstable. The instability and extreme shells around IRC+10420 are suggested to be related to three factors: (g(sub eff)) is less than 0; the sonic point is situated inside the photosphere; and the star is dynamically unstable.

  16. Phase diagrams of disordered Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapourian, Hassan; Hughes, Taylor L.

    2016-02-01

    Weyl semimetals are gapless quasitopological materials with a set of isolated nodal points forming their Fermi surface. They manifest their quasitopological character in a series of topological electromagnetic responses including the anomalous Hall effect. Here, we study the effect of disorder on Weyl semimetals while monitoring both their nodal/semimetallic and topological properties through computations of the localization length and the Hall conductivity. We examine three different lattice tight-binding models which realize the Weyl semimetal in part of their phase diagram and look for universal features that are common to all of the models, and interesting distinguishing features of each model. We present detailed phase diagrams of these models for large system sizes and we find that weak disorder preserves the nodal points up to the diffusive limit, but does affect the Hall conductivity. We show that the trend of the Hall conductivity is consistent with an effective picture in which disorder causes the Weyl nodes move within the Brillouin zone along a specific direction that depends deterministically on the properties of the model and the neighboring phases to the Weyl semimetal phase. We also uncover an unusual (nonquantized) anomalous Hall insulator phase which can only exist in the presence of disorder.

  17. Revisiting the phase diagram of hard ellipsoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odriozola, Gerardo

    2012-04-01

    In this work, the well-known Frenkel-Mulder phase diagram of hard ellipsoids of revolution [D. Frenkel and B. M. Mulder, Mol. Phys. 55, 1171 (1985), 10.1080/00268978500101971] is revisited by means of replica exchange Monte Carlo simulations. The method provides good sampling of dense systems and so, solid phases can be accessed without the need of imposing a given structure. At high densities, we found plastic solids and fcc-like crystals for semi-spherical ellipsoids (prolates and oblates), and SM2 structures [P. Pfleiderer and T. Schilling, Phys. Rev. E 75, 020402 (2007)] for x : 1-prolates and 1 : x-oblates with x ≥ 3. The revised fluid-crystal and isotropic-nematic transitions reasonably agree with those presented in the Frenkel-Mulder diagram. An interesting result is that, for small system sizes (100 particles), we obtained 2:1- and 1.5:1-prolate equations of state without transitions, while some order is developed at large densities. Furthermore, the symmetric oblate cases are also reluctant to form ordered phases.

  18. Revisiting the phase diagram of hard ellipsoids.

    PubMed

    Odriozola, Gerardo

    2012-04-07

    In this work, the well-known Frenkel-Mulder phase diagram of hard ellipsoids of revolution [D. Frenkel and B. M. Mulder, Mol. Phys. 55, 1171 (1985)] is revisited by means of replica exchange Monte Carlo simulations. The method provides good sampling of dense systems and so, solid phases can be accessed without the need of imposing a given structure. At high densities, we found plastic solids and fcc-like crystals for semi-spherical ellipsoids (prolates and oblates), and SM2 structures [P. Pfleiderer and T. Schilling, Phys. Rev. E 75, 020402 (2007)] for x : 1-prolates and 1 : x-oblates with x ≥ 3. The revised fluid-crystal and isotropic-nematic transitions reasonably agree with those presented in the Frenkel-Mulder diagram. An interesting result is that, for small system sizes (100 particles), we obtained 2:1- and 1.5:1-prolate equations of state without transitions, while some order is developed at large densities. Furthermore, the symmetric oblate cases are also reluctant to form ordered phases.

  19. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Kusdiantara, Rudy; Puspita, Dila; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A.; Siagian, Ucok W. R.; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y.

    2014-03-01

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.

  20. Preliminary Master Logic Diagram for ITER operation

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Taylor, N.P.; Poucet, A.E.

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes the work performed to develop a Master Logic Diagram (MLD) for the operations phase of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The MLD is a probabilistic risk assessment tool used to identify the broad set of potential initiating events that could lead to an offsite radioactive or toxic chemical release from the facility under study. The MLD described here is complementary to the failure modes and effects analyses (FMEAs) that have been performed for ITER`s major plant systems in the engineering evaluation of the facility design. While the FMEAs are a bottom-up or component level approach, the MLD is a top-down or facility level approach to identifying the broad spectrum of potential events. Strengths of the MLD are that it analyzes the entire plant, depicts completeness in the accident initiator process, provides an independent method for identification, and can also identify potential system interactions. MLDs have been used successfully as a hazard analysis tool. This paper describes the process used for the ITER MLD to treat the variety of radiological and toxicological source terms present in the ITER design. One subtree of the nineteen page MLD is shown to illustrate the levels of the diagram.

  1. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R.; Kusdiantara, Rudy Puspita, Dila Sidarto, Kuntjoro A. Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y.

    2014-03-24

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.

  2. Diagrams: A Visual Survey of Graphs, Maps, Charts and Diagrams for the Graphic Designer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Arthur

    Since the ultimate success of any diagram rests in its clarity, it is important that the designer select a method of presentation which will achieve this aim. He should be aware of the various ways in which statistics can be shown diagrammatically, how information can be incorporated in maps, and how events can be plotted in chart or graph form.…

  3. Diagrams: A Visual Survey of Graphs, Maps, Charts and Diagrams for the Graphic Designer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Arthur

    Since the ultimate success of any diagram rests in its clarity, it is important that the designer select a method of presentation which will achieve this aim. He should be aware of the various ways in which statistics can be shown diagrammatically, how information can be incorporated in maps, and how events can be plotted in chart or graph form.…

  4. PtIr-WO3 nanostructured alloy for electrocatalytic oxidation of ethylene glycol and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Murawska, Magdalena; Cox, James A; Miecznikowski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we characterized tungsten oxide-decorated carbon-supported PtIr nanoparticles and tested it for the electrooxidation reactions of ethylene glycol and ethanol. Phase and morphological evaluation of the proposed electrocatalytic materials are investigated employing various characterization techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electrochemical diagnostic measurements such as cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and linear sweep voltammetry revealed that the tungsten oxide-modified PtIr/Vulcan nanoparticles have higher catalytic activity for ethylene glycol and ethanol electrooxidation than that of PtIr/Vulcan. A significant enhancement for electrooxidation of CO-adsorbate monolayers occurred in the presence of a transition metal oxide relative to that of pure PtIr/Vulcan electrocatalyst. The likely reasons for this are modification on the Pt center electronic structure and/or increasing the population of reactive oxo groups at the PtIr/Vulcan electrocatalytic interface in different potential regions.

  5. Applications of QCL mid-IR imaging to the advancement of pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreedhar, Hari; Varma, Vishal K.; Bird, Benjamin; Guzman, Grace; Walsh, Michael J.

    2017-03-01

    Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) spectroscopic imaging is a novel technique with many potential applications to histopathology. Like traditional Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) imaging, QCL spectroscopic imaging derives biochemical data coupled to the spatial information of a tissue sample, and can be used to improve the diagnostic and prognostic value of assessment of a tissue biopsy. This technique also offers advantages over traditional FT-IR imaging, specifically the capacity for discrete frequency and real-time imaging. In this work we present applications of QCL spectroscopic imaging to tissue samples, including discrete frequency imaging, to compare with FT-IR and its potential value to pathology.

  6. A Continued Census of Mid-IR Variability from ULXs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Ryan; Kasliwal, Mansi; Heida, Marianne; Walton, Dom

    2017-04-01

    The nature of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) that radiate at luminosities >10^39 erg/s is still a mystery. ULXs are believed to be binaries with an accreting compact object and stellar mass-donor companion, but such high luminosities require accretion rates that are factors of 100 greater than the Eddington limit for accretion onto a neutron star or stellar mass black hole. The difficulties in interpreting ULXs are largely attributed to current observational challenges in determining their orbital properties as well as the properties of the mass-donor companion. Recently, near- and mid-infrared (IR) observations have been demonstrated as powerful diagnostics of the mass-donor companion and the circumstellar environment of ULXs. For example, serendipitous Spitzer/IRAC observations of the ULX Holmberg II X-1 in our Spitzer Infrared Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) revealed the first detection of mid-IR variability from a ULX, where we claimed that the mid-IR emission arises from a dusty circumbinary torus in the winds of a supergiant B[e] mass-donor companion. We identified 5 additional mid-IR ULX counterparts detected by Spitzer/IRAC, one of which shows significant variability like Holmberg II X-1. Although we are finding a growing sample of ULXs exhibiting mid-IR variability, it is unclear what causes it. Notably, the week - year cadence baselines of the SPIRITS observations are inadequate for resolving variability timescales consistent with several observed ULX orbital periods. In this proposal, we request time-series observations of 6 ULXs with cadence baselines ranging from 0.5 days to 1 week in order to identify the timescales associated mid-IR variability.

  7. Enhanced carbon tolerance on Ni-based reforming catalyst with Ir alloying: A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Kiyong; Choi, Sungjun; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Byung-Kook; Kim, Jedo; Kim, Hyoungchul

    2017-10-01

    Carbon deposition is a major cause of performance degradation for the Ni-based catalyst used in steam reforming of hydrocarbons. In this work, we perform first principle calculations to show that carbon tolerance behavior can be significantly enhanced by alloying Ni with Ir. The most stable atomic structure predicted by the surface phased diagram shows that Ir atoms prefer to stay on the surface of the alloy ensuring their exposure to the incoming gas. We find that the presence of Ir atoms suppress the surface migration of carbon atoms and weaken the stability of the adsorbed carbon agglomerates. Finally, we elucidate that the local reactivity change caused by the shift in the d-band structure is responsible for such good carbon tolerance behavior.

  8. Shaped Ir-Ni bimetallic nanoparticles for minimizing Ir utilization in oxygen evolution reaction.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jinkyu; Yang, Sungeun; Kim, Chanyeon; Roh, Chi-Woo; Kwon, Yongwoo; Kim, Yong-Tae; Lee, Hyunjoo

    2016-04-25

    Shaped Ir-Ni bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized and used for electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The obtained bimetallic nanoparticles showed significantly enhanced Ir mass activity and durability compared with Ir nanoparticles.

  9. Diagnostic compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, W.M.

    1981-07-28

    The invention discloses diagnostic compositions for use in obtaining images of a patient's lungs. The basic components of the composition of the invention are sodium pertechnetate which is radioactive and ethanol. This composition may be combusted and the resulting products cooled or alternatively the composition may be inserted into a pressure vessel with an aerosol. In both cases a gas like mixture results. A particular advantage is that a patient is able to breath the mixture of the invention in a normal way and does not need to undergo any training in inhalation.

  10. Pulmonary diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Donn, Steven M; Sinha, Sunil K

    2017-08-01

    Term infants with respiratory distress may have extremely varied etiologies of their illnesses. These range from anatomical malformations to infectious or inflammatory conditions to genetic, metabolic, or neurological abnormalities. This article reviews the present array of diagnostic studies available to the clinician, including the physical examination, imaging (radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, and nuclear scanning techniques), lung mechanics and function testing, evaluation of gas exchange (blood gases, pulse oximetry, transcutaneous monitoring, and end-tidal carbon monoxide measurements), and anatomical studies (bronchoscopy and lung biopsy). These tests and procedures are reviewed and a stepwise approach recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stoichiometry of alloy nanoparticles from laser ablation of PtIr in acetone and their electrophoretic deposition on PtIr electrodes.

    PubMed

    Jakobi, Jurij; Menéndez-Manjón, Ana; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Kienle, Lorenz; Wagener, Philipp; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2011-04-08

    Charged Pt-Ir alloy nanoparticles are generated through femtosecond laser ablation of a Pt₉Ir target in acetone without using chemical precursors or stabilizing agents. Preservation of the target's stoichiometry in the colloidal nanoparticles is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), high angle annular dark field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)-EDX elemental maps, high resolution TEM and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) measurements. Results are discussed with reference to thermophysical properties and the phase diagram. The nanoparticles show a lognormal size distribution with a mean Feret particle size of 26 nm. The zeta potential of -45 mV indicates high stability of the colloid with a hydrodynamic diameter of 63 nm. The charge of the particles enables electrophoretic deposition of nanoparticles, creating nanoscale roughness on three-dimensional PtIr neural electrodes within a minute. In contrast to coating with Pt or Ir oxides, this method allows modification of the surface roughness without changing the chemical composition of PtIr.

  12. Medical Reasoning with Rough-Set Influence Diagrams.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chia-Hui

    2015-08-01

    There are several advantages to evaluating a problem using influence diagram operations. The analyst can use a representation that is natural to the decision maker, since the algorithm executes all of the inference and analysis automatically. The influence diagram solution procedure can also result in significant gains in efficiency. Conditional independence is clearly exhibited in the diagram, so the size of intermediate calculations can be reduced, resulting in considerable reductions in both processing time and memory requirements. However, when imprecise knowledge from data sets is involved in the systems, how to reason from approximate information becomes a main issue in evaluating influence diagrams effectively. This study develops an alternative knowledge model, rough-set influence diagrams (RSID), which combine rough-set decision rules and graphical structures of influence diagrams in medical settings. The proposed RSID provides a comprehensive schema for knowledge representation and decision support.

  13. IRS View of a Planetary Collision in the Pleiades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Inseok; Lisse, Carey; Rhee, Joseph; Zuckerman, Ben

    2008-03-01

    Recently, we identified a sun-like Pleiades member, HD 23514, hosting a huge quantity of warm dust grains. Next to BD+20 307 (a field sun-like star), HD 23514 is currently the second dustiest, adolescent-age, star known with warm excess IR emission. Very short removal timescales of warm dust grains and adolescent ages of these two stars (>~100 Myr) indicate that the very dusty, warm excess, phenomenon is a transient event. A catastrophic collision between planetary embryos or planets is the most plausible origin of so much warm dust and such a collision mimics the postulated Moon-creation event in our terrestrial system. But the N-band spectra of BD+20 307 and HD 23514 appear very different, with peculiar emission at HD 23514 peaking at ~9 microns, a peak wavelength hardly seen among young stars and other main sequence excess stars. The strange N-band spectrum may point to an extra-ordinary condition around HD 23514 such as a very thick crust of a planet, a freakish chemical composition, or shocked silicates from a planetary collision. An IRS spectrum covering the 5-35um spectral range, rather than the highly restricted ground-based N-band spectrum will provide much stronger and clearer constraints on the dusty environment of HD 23514. We propose IRS observations with all four low resolution modules to obtain a diagnostic mid-IR spectrum of this rare, fascinating star.

  14. Competing orders and topology in the global phase diagram of pyrochlore iridates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Pallab; Roy, Bitan; Das Sarma, Sankar

    2017-02-01

    Strong electronic interactions and spin-orbit coupling can be conducive for realizing novel broken symmetry phases supporting quasiparticles with nontrivial band topology. 227 pyrochlore iridates provide a suitable material platform for studying such emergent phenomena where both topology and competing orders play important roles. In contrast to the most members of this material class, which are thought to display "all-in-all-out" (AIAO) type magnetically ordered low-temperature insulating ground states, Pr2Ir2O7 remains metallic while exhibiting "spin-ice" (SI) correlations at low temperatures. Additionally, this is the only 227 iridate compound, which exhibits a large anomalous Hall effect (AHE) along the [1,1,1] direction below 1.5 K, without possessing any measurable magnetic moment. By focusing on the normal state of 227 iridates, described by a parabolic semimetal with quadratic band touching, we use renormalization group analysis, mean-field theory, and phenomenological Landau theory as three complementary methods to construct a global phase diagram in the presence of generic local interactions among itinerant electrons of Ir ions. While the global phase diagram supports several competing multipolar orders, motivated by the phenomenology of 227 iridates we particularly emphasize the competition between AIAO and SI orders and how it can cause a mixed phase with "three-in-one-out" (3I1O) spin configurations. In terms of topological properties of Weyl quasiparticles of the 3I1O state, we provide an explanation for the magnitude and the direction of the observed AHE in Pr2Ir2O7 . We propose a strain-induced enhancement of the onset temperature for AHE in thin films of Pr2Ir2O7 and additional experiments for studying competing orders in the vicinity of the metal-insulator transition. In addition to providing a theory for competing orders and magnetic properties of Pr2Ir2O7 , the theoretical framework developed in this work should also be useful for a better

  15. Charge partitioning and anomalous hole doping in Rh-doped Sr2IrO4

    DOE PAGES

    Chikara, S.; Fabbris, G.; Terzic, J.; ...

    2017-02-15

    The simultaneous presence of sizable spin-orbit interactions and electron correlations in iridium oxides has led to predictions of novel ground states including Dirac semimetals, Kitaev spin liquids, and superconductivity. Electron and hole doping studies of spin-orbit assisted Mott insulator Sr2IrO4 are being intensively pursued due to extensive parallels with the La2CuO4 parent compound of cuprate superconductors. In particular, the mechanism of charge doping associated with replacement of Ir with Rh ions remains controversial with profound consequences for the interpretation of electronic structure and transport data. Using x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements at the Rh L, K, and Ir Lmore » edges we observe anomalous evolution of charge partitioning between Rh and Ir with Rh doping. The partitioning of charge between Rh and Ir sites progresses in a way that holes are initially doped into the Jeff = 1/2 band at low x only to be removed from it at higher x values. Furthermore, this anomalous hole doping naturally explains the reentrant insulating phase in the phase diagram of Sr2Ir1–xRhxO4 and ought to be considered when searching for superconductivity and other emergent phenomena in iridates doped with 4d elements.« less

  16. Charge partitioning and anomalous hole doping in Rh-doped Sr2IrO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikara, S.; Fabbris, G.; Terzic, J.; Cao, G.; Khomskii, D.; Haskel, D.

    2017-02-01

    The simultaneous presence of sizable spin-orbit interactions and electron correlations in iridium oxides has led to predictions of novel ground states including Dirac semimetals, Kitaev spin liquids, and superconductivity. Electron and hole doping studies of spin-orbit assisted Mott insulator Sr2Ir O4 are being intensively pursued due to extensive parallels with the La2CuO4 parent compound of cuprate superconductors. In particular, the mechanism of charge doping associated with replacement of Ir with Rh ions remains controversial with profound consequences for the interpretation of electronic structure and transport data. Using x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements at the Rh L, K, and Ir L edges we observe anomalous evolution of charge partitioning between Rh and Ir with Rh doping. The partitioning of charge between Rh and Ir sites progresses in a way that holes are initially doped into the Jeff=1 /2 band at low x only to be removed from it at higher x values. This anomalous hole doping naturally explains the reentrant insulating phase in the phase diagram of Sr2Ir1 -xRhxO4 and ought to be considered when searching for superconductivity and other emergent phenomena in iridates doped with 4 d elements.

  17. Microfluidic Evaporation for Phase Diagram Screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, Patrick; Salmon, Jean-Baptiste; Leng, Jacques

    2007-11-01

    We use a pervaporation-based microfluidic device to concentrate solutions in a controlled way. This allows us to develop chips for phase diagram screening,and to study both fundamental and technological issues, such as the impact of kinetic pathway of concentration on a variety of aqueous solutions (colloids, surfactants, polymers and mixtures of thereof). The first part of the presentation will deals with the characterization of the concentration process (including analytical results, numerical simulations, and experimental observations). It will be shown that our device is well suited for a wide range of particle sizes in the colloidal range. In the second part, we will present results obtained on several systems during (along) the concentration process (surfactants and polymers). On-chip FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) and microrheology measurements will be presented in addition to optical and fluorescence microscopy.

  18. The Phase Diagram of Superionic Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jiming; Clark, Bryan; Car, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    Using the variable cell Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics method, we study the phase diagram of superionic ice from 200GPa to 2.5TPa. We present evidence that at very high pressure the FCC structure of the oxygen sublattice may become unstable allowing for a new superionic ice phase, in which the oxygen sublattice takes the P21 structure found in zero-temperature total energy calculations. We also report on how the melting temperature of the hydrogen sublattice is affected by this new crystalline structure of the oxygen sublattice. This work was supported by the NSF under grant DMS-1065894(J.S. and R.C.) and PHY11-25915(B.C.).

  19. Analysis of Japanese banks’ historical tree diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Hiromichi; Mizuno, Takayuki; Takayasu, Misako

    2007-09-01

    By using the historical data from the Japanese banks’ database at “The Bankers Library” of Japanese Banker Association, we analyze the historical network of banks from 1868 to 2006. Firstly, we define a bank every year by a particle and draw a space-time evolution process of merger, division, establishment, and failure by a tree diagram structure. We found that the distribution of the tree basin size of real data and simulation result are mostly fitting well. Secondly, we analyze the raw data of financial statements of banks collected by the National Diet library. We confirm that the distributions of the amount of deposits have fat-tail every year, however, small deviations are observed relating to governmental policy.

  20. The wiring diagram for plant G signaling

    DOE PAGES

    Colaneri, Alejandro C.; Jones, Alan M.

    2014-10-01

    Like electronic circuits, the modular arrangement of cell-signaling networks decides how inputs produce outputs. Animal heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G-proteins) operate as switches in the circuits that signal between extracellular agonists and intracellular effectors. There still is no biochemical evidence for a receptor or its agonist in the plant G-protein pathways. Plant G-proteins deviate in many important ways from the animal paradigm. This paper covers important discoveries from the last two years that enlighten these differences and ends describing alternative wiring diagrams for the plant signaling circuits regulated by G-proteins. Finally, we propose that plant G-proteins are integrated inmore » the signaling circuits as variable resistor rather than switches, controlling the flux of information in response to the cell's metabolic state.« less

  1. Specification of Learning Content Using Feature Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damaševičius, Robertas

    The main idea of a learning object (LO) is to break educational content down into small chunks that can be reused in various learning environments. When reused, such small chunks of educational content are combined in various ways leading to a great variability of the learning content. We propose using feature diagrams (FDs) for the specification of learning content at different layers of abstraction starting from the organization of teaching material in a lecture down to the specification and demonstration of particular software/hardware components. FDs can be used by (1) designers, teachers, and learners for graphical representation of domain knowledge in LOs; (2) programmers to specify and express variability-commonality relationships of LOs at a higher abstraction level to allow the development and implementation of generative LOs; and (3) researchers as a vehicle for analysis and better understanding of the e-Learning domain itself.

  2. Phase diagrams of bosonic ABn chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, G. J.; Franco, R.; Silva-Valencia, J.

    2016-04-01

    The A B N - 1 chain is a system that consists of repeating a unit cell with N sites where between the A and B sites there is an energy difference of λ. We considered bosons in these special lattices and took into account the kinetic energy, the local two-body interaction, and the inhomogenous local energy in the Hamiltonian. We found the charge density wave (CDW) and superfluid and Mott insulator phases, and constructed the phase diagram for N = 2 and 3 at the thermodynamic limit. The system exhibited insulator phases for densities ρ = α/ N, with α being an integer. We obtained that superfluid regions separate the insulator phases for densities larger than one. For any N value, we found that for integer densities ρ, the system exhibits ρ + 1 insulator phases, a Mott insulator phase, and ρ CDW phases. For non-integer densities larger than one, several CDW phases appear.

  3. Phase diagram study of Fulleride family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meddeb, D.; Charfi-Kaddour, S.; Héritier, M.; Bennaceur, R.

    2004-08-01

    The phase diagram of the Fulleride compounds is studied as a function of n, i.e. the band filling of the LUMO or HOMO energy band, depending on the nature of the electron or hole doping, performed either chemically or by an electric field effect. We discuss the role of strong electron-electron correlation, related to electron-vibron interaction and Jahn-Teller distorsion. Superconducting coupling is expected for odd values of n and is expected to be strongest for n=3 in electron doped systems. We take into account the correlated nature of the electron Fermi liquid, which should exhibit a pseudogap phenomenon. Superconductivity is discussed within a strong coupling approach. We show that Tc( n) decrease away from n=3 on both sides of this maximum. Moreover, for even values of n, we obtain that the system is the neighbourhood of metal-insulator transition. The case of hole doping, although chemically unaccessible is also discussed.

  4. Geostrophic Scatter Diagrams and Potential Vorticity Dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, P. L.; Rhines, P. B.; White, A. A.

    1986-12-01

    where S is the potential vorticity forcing, K the lateral eddy (or viscous) v the horizontal velocity, and the integrals are taken over and around any region enclosed by a mean streamline. Hence dQ/dis often negative. corresponding to two common properties of quasi-geostrophic circulations: that the eddy motion (or viscosity) transport Q down its mean gradient (K > 0) and that the circulation integral have the same sign as the potential vorticity forcing. Two sets of examples, both involving (Q,) scatter diagrams constructed from numerically simulated data, are presented. One relates to steady baroclinic wave motion in a rotating annulus system, and the other to the time-averaged circulation in an ocean basin.

  5. Reentrant phase diagram of network fluids.

    PubMed

    Russo, J; Tavares, J M; Teixeira, P I C; Telo da Gama, M M; Sciortino, F

    2011-02-25

    We introduce a microscopic model for particles with dissimilar patches which displays an unconventional "pinched" phase diagram, similar to the one predicted by Tlusty and Safran in the context of dipolar fluids [Science 290, 1328 (2000)]. The model-based on two types of patch interactions, which account, respectively, for chaining and branching of the self-assembled networks-is studied both numerically via Monte Carlo simulations and theoretically via first-order perturbation theory. The dense phase is rich in junctions, while the less-dense phase is rich in chain ends. The model provides a reference system for a deep understanding of the competition between condensation and self-assembly into equilibrium-polymer chains.

  6. Phase Diagram of the Frustrated Hubbard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitzler, R.; Tong, N.-H.; Pruschke, Th.; Bulla, R.

    2004-07-01

    The Mott-Hubbard metal-insulator transition in the paramagnetic phase of the one-band Hubbard model has long been used to describe similar features in real materials like V2O3. In this Letter we investigate the antiferromagnetic phase of this model with frustration. At T=0 we find a first-order transition from a paramagnetic metal to an antiferromagnetic insulator. We show that even in the presence of strong magnetic frustration, the paramagnetic metal-insulator transition is hidden inside an extended antiferromagnetic region. This raises the question of whether the one-band Hubbard model with frustration is sufficient to describe the phase diagram of V2O3 or similar transition metal oxides even qualitatively.

  7. Phase diagram of water in carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Takaiwa, Daisuke; Hatano, Itaru; Koga, Kenichiro; Tanaka, Hideki

    2008-01-08

    A phase diagram of water in single-walled carbon nanotubes at atmospheric pressure is proposed, which summarizes ice structures and their melting points as a function of the tube diameter up to 1.7 nm. The investigation is based on extensive molecular dynamics simulations over numerous thermodynamic states on the temperature-diameter plane. Spontaneous freezing of water in the simulations and the analysis of ice structures at 0 K suggest that there exist at least nine ice phases in the cylindrical space, including those reported by x-ray diffraction studies and those unreported by simulation or experiment. Each ice has a structure that maximizes the number of hydrogen bonds under the cylindrical confinement. The results show that the melting curve has many local maxima, each corresponding to the highest melting point for each ice form. The global maximum in the melting curve is located at approximately 11 A, where water freezes in a square ice nanotube.

  8. Subsectors, Dynkin diagrams and new generalised geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland-Constable, Charles

    2017-08-01

    We examine how generalised geometries can be associated with a labelled Dynkin diagram built around a gravity line. We present a series of new generalised geometries based on the groups Spin( d, d) × ℝ + for which the generalised tangent space transforms in a spinor representation of the group. In low dimensions these all appear in subsectors of maximal supergravity theories. The case d = 8 provides a geometry for eight-dimensional backgrounds of M theory with only seven-form flux, which have not been included in any previous geometric construction. This geometry is also one of a series of "half-exceptional" geometries, which "geometrise" a six-form gauge field. In the appendix, we consider exam-ples of other algebras appearing in gravitational theories and give a method to derive the Dynkin labels for the "section condition" in general. We argue that generalised geometry can describe restrictions and subsectors of many gravitational theories.

  9. Reentrant Phase Diagram of Network Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, J.; Tavares, J. M.; Teixeira, P. I. C.; Telo da Gama, M. M.; Sciortino, F.

    2011-02-01

    We introduce a microscopic model for particles with dissimilar patches which displays an unconventional “pinched” phase diagram, similar to the one predicted by Tlusty and Safran in the context of dipolar fluids [Science 290, 1328 (2000)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.290.5495.1328]. The model—based on two types of patch interactions, which account, respectively, for chaining and branching of the self-assembled networks—is studied both numerically via Monte Carlo simulations and theoretically via first-order perturbation theory. The dense phase is rich in junctions, while the less-dense phase is rich in chain ends. The model provides a reference system for a deep understanding of the competition between condensation and self-assembly into equilibrium-polymer chains.

  10. The wiring diagram for plant G signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Colaneri, Alejandro C.; Jones, Alan M.

    2014-10-01

    Like electronic circuits, the modular arrangement of cell-signaling networks decides how inputs produce outputs. Animal heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G-proteins) operate as switches in the circuits that signal between extracellular agonists and intracellular effectors. There still is no biochemical evidence for a receptor or its agonist in the plant G-protein pathways. Plant G-proteins deviate in many important ways from the animal paradigm. This paper covers important discoveries from the last two years that enlighten these differences and ends describing alternative wiring diagrams for the plant signaling circuits regulated by G-proteins. Finally, we propose that plant G-proteins are integrated in the signaling circuits as variable resistor rather than switches, controlling the flux of information in response to the cell's metabolic state.

  11. Phase diagram of chirally imbalanced QCD matter

    SciTech Connect

    Chernodub, M. N.; Nedelin, A. S.

    2011-05-15

    We compute the QCD phase diagram in the plane of the chiral chemical potential and temperature using the linear sigma model coupled to quarks and to the Polyakov loop. The chiral chemical potential accounts for effects of imbalanced chirality due to QCD sphaleron transitions which may emerge in heavy-ion collisions. We found three effects caused by the chiral chemical potential: the imbalanced chirality (i) tightens the link between deconfinement and chiral phase transitions; (ii) lowers the common critical temperature; (iii) strengthens the order of the phase transition by converting the crossover into the strong first order phase transition passing via the second order end point. Since the fermionic determinant with the chiral chemical potential has no sign problem, the chirally imbalanced QCD matter can be studied in numerical lattice simulations.

  12. Understanding starch gelatinization: The phase diagram approach.

    PubMed

    Carlstedt, Jonas; Wojtasz, Joanna; Fyhr, Peter; Kocherbitov, Vitaly

    2015-09-20

    By constructing a detailed phase diagram for the potato starch-water system based on data from optical microscopy, synchrotron X-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry, we show that gelatinization can be interpreted in analogy with a eutectic transition. The phase rule explains why the temperature of the gelatinization transition (G) is independent on water content. Furthermore, the melting (M1) endotherm observed in DSC represents a liquidus line; the temperature for this event increases with increasing starch concentration. Both the lamellar spacing and the inter-helix distance were observed to decrease with increasing starch content for starch concentrations between approximately 65 wt% and 75 wt%, while the inter-helix distance continued decreasing upon further dehydration. Understanding starch gelatinization has been a longstanding challenge. The novel approach presented here shows interpretation of this phenomenon from a phase equilibria perspective.

  13. Workshop on Applications of Phase Diagrams in Metallurgy and Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, L. H.; Carter, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    A workshop was held to assess the current national and international status of phase diagram determinations and evaluations for alloys, ceramics, and semiconductors; to determine the needs and priorities, especially technological, for phase diagram determinations and evaluations; and to estimate the resources being used and potentially available for phase diagram evaluation. Highlights of the workshop, description of a new poster board design used in the poster sessions, lists of attendees and demonstrations, the program, and descriptions of the presentations are included.

  14. Time-temperature-transformation diagrams with more than one nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Michael C.

    1992-01-01

    The structures of time-temperature-transformation diagrams of glasses which crystallize the combined homogeneous and heterogeneous crystallization mechanisms are examined. Considerations are given to the factors which might produce more than one extremum in such diagrams. Specific nucleation and growth models are used, and the influence of the parameters which appear in the nucleation and growth rate expressions upon the structure of the diagrams is evaluated.

  15. Expression of Superparamagnetic Particles on FORC Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirt, A. M.; Kumari, M.; Crippa, F.; Petri-Fink, A.

    2015-12-01

    Identification of superparamagnetic (SP) particles in natural materials provides information on processes that lead to the new formation or dissolution of iron oxides. SP particles express themselves on first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams as a distribution centered near the origin of the diagram. Pike et al. (2001, GJI, 145, 721) demonstrated that thermal relaxation produces an upward shift in the FORC distribution, and attributed this to a pause encountered at each reversal field. In this study we examine the relationship between this upward shift and particles size on two sets of synthetic iron oxide nanoparticles. One set of coated magnetite particles have well-constrained particles size with 9, 16 and 20 nm as their diameter. A second set from the FeraSpin™ Series, consisting of FeraSpinXS, M and XL, were evaluated. Rock magnetic experiments indicate that the first set of samples is exclusively magnetite, whereas the FeraSpin samples contain predominantly magnetite with some degree of oxidation. Samples from both sets show that the upward shift of the FORC distribution at the origin increases with decreasing particle size. The amount of shift in the FeraSpin series is less when compared to the samples from the first set. This is attributed to the effect of interaction that counteracts the effect of thermal relaxation behavior of the SP particles. The FeraSpin series also shows a broader FORC distribution on the vertical axis that appears to be related to non-saturation of the hysteresis curve at maximum applied field. This non-saturation behavior can be due to spins of very fine particles or oxidation to hematite. AC susceptibility at low temperature indicates that particle interaction may affect the effective magnetic particle size. Our results suggest that the FORC distribution in pure SP particle systems provides information on the particle size distribution or oxidation, which can be further evaluated with low temperature techniques.

  16. Salivary diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J.M.; Garon, E.; Wong, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to monitor health status, disease onset and progression, and treatment outcome through non-invasive means is a most desirable goal in the health care promotion and delivery. There are three prerequisites to materialize this goal: specific biomarkers associated with a health or disease state; a non-invasive approach to detect and monitor the biomarkers; and the technologies to discriminate the biomarkers. A national initiative catalyzed by the National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) has created a roadmap to achieve these goals through the use of oral fluids as the diagnostic medium to scrutinize the health and/or disease status of individuals. Progress has shown this is an ideal opportunity to bridge state of the art saliva-based biosensors, optimized to disease discriminatory salivary biomarkers, for diagnostic applications. Oral fluid being the ‘mirror of body’ is a perfect medium to be explored for health and disease surveillance. The translational applications and opportunities are enormous. PMID:19627522

  17. Optimized IR synchrotron beamline design.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Thierry

    2015-09-01

    Synchrotron infrared beamlines are powerful tools on which to perform spectroscopy on microscopic length scales but require working with large bending-magnet source apertures in order to provide intense photon beams to the experiments. Many infrared beamlines use a single toroidal-shaped mirror to focus the source emission which generates, for large apertures, beams with significant geometrical aberrations resulting from the shape of the source and the beamline optics. In this paper, an optical layout optimized for synchrotron infrared beamlines, that removes almost totally the geometrical aberrations of the source, is presented and analyzed. This layout is already operational on the IR beamline of the Brazilian synchrotron. An infrared beamline design based on a SOLEIL bending-magnet source is given as an example, which could be useful for future IR beamline improvements at this facility.

  18. Status of the diagnostics development for the first operation phase of the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X

    SciTech Connect

    König, R. Biedermann, C.; Burhenn, R.; Endler, M.; Grulke, O.; Hathiramani, D.; Hirsch, M.; Jakubowski, M.; Kornejew, P.; Krychowiak, M.; Langenberg, A.; Laux, M.; Lorenz, A.; Otte, M.; Pasch, E.; Pedersen, T. S.; Schneider, W.; Thomsen, H.; Windisch, T.; Zhang, D.; and others

    2014-11-15

    An overview of the diagnostics which are essential for the first operational phase of Wendelstein 7-X and the set of diagnostics expected to be ready for operation at this time are presented. The ongoing investigations of how to cope with high levels of stray Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) radiation in the ultraviolet (UV)/visible/infrared (IR) optical diagnostics are described.

  19. Ir/IrSi3/Si Schottky-Barrier Infrared Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, True-Lon

    1991-01-01

    Quantum efficiency increased. Proposed Schottky-barrier infrared detector has double metallic layer of Ir and IrSi3 instead of single metallic layer of Ir, IrSi, or IrSi3. Offers advantages of both relatively high infrared absorption in thin film of Ir and stability and reproducibility of layer of IrSi3 in contact with Si. Also serves as barrier to chemical reactions between Ir overlayer and Si substrate. Detectors used to form focal-plane array integrated with charge-coupled-device-addressing and image-processing circuitry.

  20. Massive basketball diagram for a thermal scalar field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Jens O.; Braaten, Eric; Strickland, Michael

    2000-08-15

    The ''basketball diagram'' is a three-loop vacuum diagram for a scalar field theory that cannot be expressed in terms of one-loop diagrams. We calculate this diagram for a massive scalar field at nonzero temperature, reducing it to expressions involving three-dimensional integrals that can be easily evaluated numerically. We use this result to calculate the free energy for a massive scalar field with a {phi}{sup 4} interaction to three-loop order. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  1. 55. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ONE COMPLETE CYCLE - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  2. 54. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ONE COMPLETE CYCLE - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  3. 53. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ONE COMPLETE CYCLE - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  4. Visualization design and verification of Ada tasking using timing diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidale, R. F.; Szulewski, P. A.; Weiss, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    The use of timing diagrams is recommended in the design and testing of multi-task Ada programs. By displaying the task states vs. time, timing diagrams can portray the simultaneous threads of data flow and control which characterize tasking programs. This description of the system's dynamic behavior from conception to testing is a necessary adjunct to other graphical techniques, such as structure charts, which essentially give a static view of the system. A series of steps is recommended which incorporates timing diagrams into the design process. Finally, a description is provided of a prototype Ada Execution Analyzer (AEA) which automates the production of timing diagrams from VAX/Ada debugger output.

  5. Wellformedness properties in Euler diagrams: which should be used?

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Peter; Zhang, Leishi; Purchase, Helen

    2012-07-01

    Euler diagrams are often used to visualize intersecting data sets in applications such as criminology; genetics, medicine, and computer file systems. One interesting aspect of these diagrams is that some data sets cannot be drawn without breaking one or more "wellformedness properties," which are considered to reduce the user comprehension of the diagrams. However, it is possible to draw the same data with different diagrams, each of which breaks different wellformedness properties. Hence, some properties are "swappable," so motivating the study of which of the alternatives would be best to use. This paper reports on the two empirical studies to determine how wellformedness properties affect comprehension. One study was with abstract data, the other was with concrete data that visualized students' enrollment on university modules. We have results from both studies that imply that diagrams with concurrency or disconnected zones perform less well than other some other properties. Further, we have no results that imply that diagrams with brushing points adversely affect performance. Our data also indicate that nonsimple curves are preferred less than diagrams with other properties. These results will inform both human diagram designers and the developers of automated drawing systems on the best way to visualize data using Euler diagrams.

  6. High temperature Ir segregation in Ir-B ceramics: Effect of oxygen presence on stability of IrB2 and other Ir-B phases

    DOE PAGES

    Xie, Zhilin; Terracciano, Anthony C.; Cullen, David A.; ...

    2015-05-13

    The formation of IrB2, IrB1.35, IrB1.1 and IrB monoboride phases in the Ir–B ceramic nanopowder was confirmed during mechanochemical reaction between metallic Ir and elemental B powders. The Ir–B phases were analysed after 90 h of high energy ball milling and after annealing of the powder for 72 h at 1050°C in vacuo. The iridium monoboride (IrB) orthorhombic phase was synthesised experimentally for the first time and identified by powder X-ray diffraction. Additionally, the ReB2 type IrB2 hexagonal phase was also produced for the first time and identified by high resolution transmission electron microscope. Ir segregation along disordered domains ofmore » the boron lattice was found to occur during high temperature annealing. Furthermore, these nanodomains may have useful catalytic properties.« less

  7. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, R.L.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates envirorunental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. This volume, Volume 2, contains logic diagrams with an index. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use.

  8. Determination of cellulose crystallinity from powder diffraction diagrams: Powder Diffraction Diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Lindner, Benjamin; Petridis, Loukas; Langan, Paul; Smith, Jeremy C.

    2014-10-01

    Commonly one-dimensional (1D) (spherically averaged) powder diffraction diagrams are used to determine the degree of cellulose crystallinity in biomass samples. Here, it is shown using molecular modeling how disorder in cellulose fibrils can lead to considerable uncertainty in conclusions drawn concerning crystallinity based on 1D powder diffraction data alone. For example, cellulose microfibrils that contain both crystalline and noncrystalline segments can lead to powder diffraction diagrams lacking identifiable peaks, while microfibrils without any crystalline segments can lead to such peaks. Moreover, this leads to false positives, that is, assigning disordered cellulose as crystalline, and false negatives, that is, categorizing fibrils with crystalline segments as amorphous. Finally, the reliable determination of the fraction of crystallinity in any given biomass sample will require a more sophisticated approach combining detailed experiment and simulation.

  9. Rotorcraft Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haste, Deepak; Azam, Mohammad; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Monte, James

    2012-01-01

    Health management (HM) in any engineering systems requires adequate understanding about the system s functioning; a sufficient amount of monitored data; the capability to extract, analyze, and collate information; and the capability to combine understanding and information for HM-related estimation and decision-making. Rotorcraft systems are, in general, highly complex. Obtaining adequate understanding about functioning of such systems is quite difficult, because of the proprietary (restricted access) nature of their designs and dynamic models. Development of an EIM (exact inverse map) solution for rotorcraft requires a process that can overcome the abovementioned difficulties and maximally utilize monitored information for HM facilitation via employing advanced analytic techniques. The goal was to develop a versatile HM solution for rotorcraft for facilitation of the Condition Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) capabilities. The effort was geared towards developing analytic and reasoning techniques, and proving the ability to embed the required capabilities on a rotorcraft platform, paving the way for implementing the solution on an aircraft-level system for consolidation and reporting. The solution for rotorcraft can he used offboard or embedded directly onto a rotorcraft system. The envisioned solution utilizes available monitored and archived data for real-time fault detection and identification, failure precursor identification, and offline fault detection and diagnostics, health condition forecasting, optimal guided troubleshooting, and maintenance decision support. A variant of the onboard version is a self-contained hardware and software (HW+SW) package that can be embedded on rotorcraft systems. The HM solution comprises components that gather/ingest data and information, perform information/feature extraction, analyze information in conjunction with the dependency/diagnostic model of the target system, facilitate optimal guided troubleshooting, and offer

  10. The ultrasound examination in assessment of parotid gland tumours: the novel graphic diagram.

    PubMed

    Luczewski, L; Golusinski, P; Pazdrowski, J; Pienkowski, P; Kordylewska, M; Guntinas-Lichius, O; Golusinski, W

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasound is one of the main diagnostic techniques for parotid gland tumours. It is inexpensive, non-invasive and widely available. However, interpretation of the images is highly subjective and constitutes a major limitation. To overcome this problem, we developed a graphic diagram to provide a standardised template that can be used for more precise identification of the tumour localisation within the parenchyma of the parotid gland. This new diagram may be used to provide surgeons with an improved and more objective localisation of the tumour. The study included 237 patients who underwent surgery for parotid tumours. To obtain the precise spatial location of the tumours, three topographic coordinates of tumour location in the coronal, sagittal and transversal plane were marked preoperatively during sonography within the parenchyma of the parotid gland. The localisation identified ultrasonically was then compared to the postsurgical report: 197 (83 %) tumours were found within the superficial lobe of the parotid gland and 40 (17 %) within the deep lobe of the parotid gland. In 157 (66 %) cases, tumours were found within the lower pole of the parotid gland, and in 64 (27 %) at the level of earlobe and its insertion, 16 (7 %) tumours were located at the level of the tragus and above it. Based on the results obtained, a graphic diagram of parotid gland tumour locations was developed.

  11. Enantiomeric 3-chloromandelic acid system: binary melting point phase diagram, ternary solubility phase diagrams and polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Le Minh, Tam; von Langermann, Jan; Lorenz, Heike; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas

    2010-09-01

    A systematic study of binary melting point and ternary solubility phase diagrams of the enantiomeric 3-chloromandelic acid (3-ClMA) system was performed under consideration of polymorphism. The melting point phase diagram was measured by means of thermal analysis, that is, using heat-flux differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results reveal that 3-ClMA belongs to the racemic compound-forming systems. Polymorphism was found for both the enantiomer and the racemate as confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis. The ternary solubility phase diagram of 3-ClMA in water was determined between 5 and 50 degrees C by the classical isothermal technique. The solubilities of the pure enantiomers are extremely temperature-dependent. The solid-liquid equilibria of racemic 3-ClMA are not trivial due to the existence of polymorphism. The eutectic composition in the chiral system changes as a function of temperature. Further, solubility data in the alternative solvent toluene are also presented.

  12. Diffraction-limited IR Microspectroscopy with IRENI

    Treesearch

    J. Sedlmair; B. Illman; M. Unger; C. Hirschmugl

    2012-01-01

    In a unique way, IRENI (Infrared environmental Imaging), operated at the Synchrotron Radiation Center in Madison, combines IR spectroscopy and IR imaging, revealing the chemical morphology of a sample. Most storage ring based IR confocal microscopes have to overcome a trade-off between spatial resolution versus...

  13. Using Graded Relevance Assessments in IR Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kekalalainen, Jaana; Jarvelin, Kalervo

    2002-01-01

    Proposes evaluation methods based on the use of nondichotomous relevance judgements in information retrieval (IR) experiments. Argues that evaluation methods should credit IR methods for their ability to retrieve highly relevant documents. This is desirable from the user point of view in modern large IR environments. (Author/AEF)

  14. Magnetic, electrical, and thermodynamic properties of NpIr: Ambient and high-pressure measurements, and electronic structure calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, H. C.; McEwen, K. A.; Griveau, J.-C.; Eloirdi, R.; Amador, P.; Maldonado, P.; Oppeneer, P. M.; Colineau, E.

    2015-05-01

    We present bulk property measurements of NpIr, a newly synthesized member of the Np-Ir binary phase diagram, which is isostructural to the noncentrosymmetric pressure-induced ferromagnetic superconductor UIr. Magnetic susceptibility, electronic transport properties at ambient and high pressure, and heat capacity measurements have been performed for temperatures T =0.55 -300 K in a range of magnetic fields up to 14 T and under pressure up to 17.3 GPa. These reveal that NpIr is a moderately heavy fermion Kondo system with strong antiferromagnetic interactions, but there is no evidence of any phase transition down to 0.55 K or at the highest pressure achieved. Experimental results are compared with ab initio calculations of the electronic band structure and lattice heat capacity. An extremely low lattice thermal conductivity is predicted for NpIr at temperatures above 300 K.

  15. Strongly frustrated triangular spin lattice emerging from triplet dimer formation in honeycomb Li2IrO3

    PubMed Central

    Nishimoto, Satoshi; Katukuri, Vamshi M.; Yushankhai, Viktor; Stoll, Hermann; Rößler, Ulrich K.; Hozoi, Liviu; Rousochatzakis, Ioannis; van den Brink, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Iridium oxides with a honeycomb lattice have been identified as platforms for the much anticipated Kitaev topological spin liquid: the spin-orbit entangled states of Ir4+ in principle generate precisely the required type of anisotropic exchange. However, other magnetic couplings can drive the system away from the spin-liquid phase. With this in mind, here we disentangle the different magnetic interactions in Li2IrO3, a honeycomb iridate with two crystallographically inequivalent sets of adjacent Ir sites. Our ab initio many-body calculations show that, while both Heisenberg and Kitaev nearest-neighbour couplings are present, on one set of Ir–Ir bonds the former dominates, resulting in the formation of spin-triplet dimers. The triplet dimers frame a strongly frustrated triangular lattice and by exact cluster diagonalization we show that they remain protected in a wide region of the phase diagram. PMID:26776664

  16. Near-IR imaging of moderate redshift galaxy clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, S. A.; Dickinson, M. E.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.

    1993-01-01

    We have obtained near-IR imaging of 3 moderate-z clusters on the 1.3 m at KPNO with SQIID, a new camera offering wide-field (5.5 arcmin) simultaneous JHK band imaging. Our photometry on a sample of approximately 100 likely member galaxies in one of the clusters, Abell 370 at z = 0.37, shows that we can obtain magnitudes good to 20 percent down to K = 18, considerably below the estimated K* = 16.5 at this redshift. These data indicate that there are no systematic problems in obtaining photometry at faint levels with SQIID. With the development of larger arrays, the field is open to progress. The resulting J, H, and K data for three clusters are combined with previously obtained multiband optical photometry. We present an investigation of the spectral properties and evolution of the dominant cold stellar populations by comparing optical-to-IR colors and color-magnitude diagrams to predictions from population synthesis models and galaxy spectral evolution codes.

  17. Glaucoma diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Geimer, Sabina Andersson

    2013-02-01

    This thesis addresses several aspects of glaucoma diagnostics from both a clinical and a screening perspective. New instruments for diagnosing glaucoma have been developed over the past years, but little information is available regarding their performance as screening methods and their usefulness in ordinary clinical practice. PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH UNDERLYING THIS THESIS:  The objectives of this research were as follows: to compare the accuracy of results of analysis of the optic nerve head (ONH) achieved by computerized imaging using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) and by subjective assessment performed by physicians with different degrees of experience of glaucoma (paper III); to evaluate the effect of a continuous medical education (CME) lecture on subjective assessment of the ONH for diagnosis of glaucoma (paper II); to investigate subjective assessment of perimetric test results by physicians with varying knowledge of glaucoma with a trained artificial neural network (ANN) and to compare the certainty of the classifications (paper IV); and to compare the diagnostic performance of time-domain Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) with that of spectral-domain Cirrus OCT (paper I), frequency doubling technology (FDT) screening perimetry and scanning laser polarimetry with the GDx variable corneal compensator (VCC) in a random population-based sample and in patients with glaucoma of varying disease severity.   In evaluation of the ONH, use of the HRT statistical tools, Moorfields regression analysis (MRA) and the Glaucoma Probability Score (GPS) was compared with subjective assessment performed by 45 physicians. Optic nerve head images and photographs from 138 healthy and 97 glaucoma subjects were included. The sensitivity of MRA was higher (87-94%) than that of the average physician (62-82%), considerably greater than that of ophthalmologists with subspecialties other than glaucoma (53-77%) and non-significantly better than that of glaucoma

  18. IR susceptibility of naval ships using ShipIR/NTCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitekunas, David A.

    2010-04-01

    Methods of analysing the signature and susceptibility of naval platforms to infrared detection are described. An unclassified ShipIR destroyer model is used to illustrate the primary sources of infrared signature and detection: the exhaust system, solar-heating, and operating climate. The basic detection algorithm used by the Naval Threat Countermeasure Simulator (NTCS) component of ShipIR is described and used to analyse the effectiveness of various stealth technologies: stack suppression, low solar absorptive (LSA) paints, and Active Hull Cooling (AHC). Standard marine climate statistics are used to determine a minimum (5%), average (50%) and maximum (95%) signature condition for each operating region. The change in detection range of two wave-band sensors (3-5μm, 8-12 μm) operating at different altitudes (10m, 270m) in each of four climatic conditions is used to assess the effectiveness of each stealth solution, providing a more integral approach to infrared stealth design. These tools and methods form the basis on which future platform designs are being evaluated.

  19. Using a Spreadsheet To Explore Melting, Dissolving and Phase Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Compares phase diagrams relating to the solubilities and melting points of various substances in textbooks with those generated by a spreadsheet using data from the literature. Argues that differences between the diagrams give rise to new chemical insights. (Author/MM)

  20. Pourbaix ("E"-pH-M) Diagrams in Three Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesterfield, Lester L.; Maddox, Jeremy B.; Crocker, Michael S.; Schweitzer, George K.

    2012-01-01

    "E"-pH (Pourbaix) diagrams provide an important graphical link between the thermodynamic calculations of potential, pH, equilibrium constant, concentration, and changes in Gibbs energy and the experimentally observed behavior of species in aqueous solutions. The utility of "E"-pH diagrams is extended with the introduction of an additional…

  1. Quark diagrams and the. cap omega. /sup -/ nonleptonic decays

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, W.A.

    1980-09-01

    The quark-diagram model for nonleptonic two-body baryon decays is discussed and applied to the decay of the ..cap omega../sup -/ particle. Current algebra is not employed, but the relation between the quark diagrams and current algebra is explored.

  2. Adding Value to Force Diagrams: Representing Relative Force Magnitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendel, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all physics instructors recognize the instructional value of force diagrams, and this journal has published several collections of exercises to improve student skill in this area. Yet some instructors worry that too few students perceive the conceptual and problem-solving utility of force diagrams, and over recent years a rich variety of…

  3. Diagrams in Mathematics: To Draw or Not to Draw?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudaly, Vimolan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the use of diagrams as self-explanatory tools. It considers the use of diagrams, in general, and more specifically, examines research that is currently being undertaken in the broad field of visualisation. The research participants referred to in this article were Advanced Certificate of Education students and the paper…

  4. Diversions: Spatial Thinking Tasks--Cube Diagrams and Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, John

    2009-01-01

    This article illustrates spatial thinking tasks through cube diagrams and drawings. The author talks about the pentacube diagram that is based on the principle that a vertical cube-edge is shown "vertically". The author describes how to extend isometric drawing to include triangular wedges that are made by slicing single cubes, bi-cubes,…

  5. Persistence Diagrams of High-Resolution Temporal Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Méndez, F.; Carsteanu, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study applies Topological Data Analysis (TDA), by generating persistence diagrams to uncover patterns in the data of high-resolution temporal rainfall intensities from Iowa City (IIHR, U of Iowa). Persistence diagrams are a way to identify essential cycles in state-space representations of the data.

  6. Application of quaternary phase diagrams to compound semiconductor processing

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, R.

    1994-10-01

    Isobaric, isothermal phase diagrams are a molar representation of condensed phases in equilibrium with each other at a fixed temperature, pressure, and composition. Since three or four elements are usually involved at a fabricated interface in a semiconductor device, knowledge of the appropriate ternary or quaternary phase diagram is important for optimizing the processing parameters and designing long term stability of devices. While the use of phase diagrams is well-established in the fields of metallurgy, ceramics and mineralogy, only recently have phase diagrams been employed to provide a framework for understanding thin film reactions on a substrate, encountered in semiconductor processing. Even though there are many examples of applications of ternary phase diagrams in the semiconductor literature (for instance, metallization of GaAs, the use of refractory metal silicides for metallization layers in VLSI devices and oxidation of III-V compounds), the same is not true for quaternary phase diagrams. To date, the only application is oxidation of mercury cadmium telluride. This lack of examples is not warranted, as four elements are often involved at a critical interface in compound semiconductor processing and devices. This paper reports on the progress made to remedy this situation by considering the application of quaternary phase diagrams to understanding and predicting the behavior of II-VI thin film interfaces in photovoltaic devices under annealing conditions. Moreover, for the first time, solid solubility is taken into account for quaternary phase diagrams of semiconductor systems.

  7. Water, Water Everywhere: Phase Diagrams of Ordinary Water Substance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, L.

    2004-01-01

    The full phase diagram of water in the form of a graphical representation of the three-dimensional (3D) PVT diagram using authentic data is presented. An interesting controversy regarding the phase behavior of water was the much-touted proposal of a solid phase of water, polywater, supposedly stable under atmospheric conditions.

  8. Modeling cancer registration processes with an enhanced activity diagram.

    PubMed

    Lyalin, D; Williams, W

    2005-01-01

    Adequate instruments are needed to reflect the complexity of routine cancer registry operations properly in a business model. The activity diagram is a key instrument of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) for the modeling of business processes. The authors aim to improve descriptions of processes in cancer registration, as well as in other public health domains, through the enhancements of an activity diagram notation within the standard semantics of UML. The authors introduced the practical approach to enhance a conventional UML activity diagram, complementing it with the following business process concepts: timeline, duration for individual activities, responsibilities for individual activities within swimlanes, and descriptive text. The authors used an enhanced activity diagram for modeling surveillance processes in the cancer registration domain. Specific example illustrates the use of an enhanced activity diagram to visualize a process of linking cancer registry records with external mortality files. Enhanced activity diagram allows for the addition of more business concepts to a single diagram and can improve descriptions of processes in cancer registration, as well as in other domains. Additional features of an enhanced activity diagram allow to advance the visualization of cancer registration processes. That, in turn, promotes the clarification of issues related to the process timeline, responsibilities for particular operations, and collaborations among process participants. Our first experiences in a cancer registry best practices development workshop setting support the usefulness of such an approach.

  9. Diagram, Gesture, Agency: Theorizing Embodiment in the Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Elizabeth; Sinclair, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we use the work of philosopher Gilles Chatelet to rethink the gesture/diagram relationship and to explore the ways mathematical agency is constituted through it. We argue for a fundamental philosophical shift to better conceptualize the relationship between gesture and diagram, and suggest that such an approach might open up new…

  10. Diagramming Word Problems: A Strategic Approach for Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Garderen, Delinda; Scheuermann, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    While often recommended as a strategy to use in order to solve word problems, drawing a diagram is a complex process that requires a good depth of understanding. Many middle school students with learning disabilities (LD) often struggle to use diagrams in an effective and efficient manner. This article presents information for teaching middle…

  11. Water, Water Everywhere: Phase Diagrams of Ordinary Water Substance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, L.

    2004-01-01

    The full phase diagram of water in the form of a graphical representation of the three-dimensional (3D) PVT diagram using authentic data is presented. An interesting controversy regarding the phase behavior of water was the much-touted proposal of a solid phase of water, polywater, supposedly stable under atmospheric conditions.

  12. Adding Value to Force Diagrams: Representing Relative Force Magnitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendel, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all physics instructors recognize the instructional value of force diagrams, and this journal has published several collections of exercises to improve student skill in this area. Yet some instructors worry that too few students perceive the conceptual and problem-solving utility of force diagrams, and over recent years a rich variety of…

  13. Using a Spreadsheet To Explore Melting, Dissolving and Phase Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Compares phase diagrams relating to the solubilities and melting points of various substances in textbooks with those generated by a spreadsheet using data from the literature. Argues that differences between the diagrams give rise to new chemical insights. (Author/MM)

  14. Effects of Discussion Representation: Comparisons between Social and Cognitive Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Kyungbin; Park, Su Jin

    2017-01-01

    An online discussion facilitates students' higher order thinking in online classes, especially when adopted with the instructor's guidance. The current experimental study examined the effects of two different discussion representation tools (social and cognitive diagrams) on students' discussion behaviors. The social diagram emphasized…

  15. Drawing Euler Diagrams with Circles: The Theory of Piercings.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Gem; Leishi Zhang; Howse, John; Rodgers, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Euler diagrams are effective tools for visualizing set intersections. They have a large number of application areas ranging from statistical data analysis to software engineering. However, the automated generation of Euler diagrams has never been easy: given an abstract description of a required Euler diagram, it is computationally expensive to generate the diagram. Moreover, the generated diagrams represent sets by polygons, sometimes with quite irregular shapes that make the diagrams less comprehensible. In this paper, we address these two issues by developing the theory of piercings, where we define single piercing curves and double piercing curves. We prove that if a diagram can be built inductively by successively adding piercing curves under certain constraints, then it can be drawn with circles, which are more esthetically pleasing than arbitrary polygons. The theory of piercings is developed at the abstract level. In addition, we present a Java implementation that, given an inductively pierced abstract description, generates an Euler diagram consisting only of circles within polynomial time.

  16. Diagram This Headline in One Minute, if You Can

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landecker, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Say "sentence diagramming" to people of a certain age, and one gets different reactions. Say it to most college students, and one gets a blank look. But not from the 24 students in Lucy Ferriss's "Constructing Thought," a half-credit course in the English department at Trinity College. They know how to diagram a sentence--and…

  17. An Introductory Idea for Teaching Two-Component Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of two-component phase diagrams has attracted little attention in this "Journal," and it is hoped that this article will make a useful contribution. Current physical chemistry textbooks describe two-component phase diagrams adequately, but do so in a piecemeal fashion one section at a time; first solid-liquid equilibria, then…

  18. Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamizo, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The…

  19. 30 CFR 556.8 - Leasing maps and diagrams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leasing maps and diagrams. 556.8 Section 556.8... Management, General § 556.8 Leasing maps and diagrams. (a) Any area of the OCS which has been appropriately... operation under section 12(d) of the Act. (b) BOEM shall prepare leasing maps and official...

  20. 30 CFR 556.8 - Leasing maps and diagrams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leasing maps and diagrams. 556.8 Section 556.8... Management, General § 556.8 Leasing maps and diagrams. (a) Any area of the OCS which has been appropriately... operation under section 12(d) of the Act. (b) BOEM shall prepare leasing maps and official...

  1. 30 CFR 556.8 - Leasing maps and diagrams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leasing maps and diagrams. 556.8 Section 556.8... Management, General § 556.8 Leasing maps and diagrams. (a) Any area of the OCS which has been appropriately... operation under section 12(d) of the Act. (b) BOEM shall prepare leasing maps and official...

  2. Pourbaix ("E"-pH-M) Diagrams in Three Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesterfield, Lester L.; Maddox, Jeremy B.; Crocker, Michael S.; Schweitzer, George K.

    2012-01-01

    "E"-pH (Pourbaix) diagrams provide an important graphical link between the thermodynamic calculations of potential, pH, equilibrium constant, concentration, and changes in Gibbs energy and the experimentally observed behavior of species in aqueous solutions. The utility of "E"-pH diagrams is extended with the introduction of an additional…

  3. Improving Students' Diagram Comprehension with Classroom Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromley, Jennifer G.; Perez, Tony C.; Fitzhugh, Shannon L.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Wills, Theodore W.; Tanaka, Jacqueline C.

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested whether students can be taught to better understand conventional representations in diagrams, photographs, and other visual representations in science textbooks. The authors developed a teacher-delivered, workbook-and-discussion-based classroom instructional method called Conventions of Diagrams (COD). The authors trained 1…

  4. Improving Students' Diagram Comprehension with Classroom Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromley, Jennifer G.; Perez, Tony C.; Fitzhugh, Shannon L.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Wills, Theodore W.; Tanaka, Jacqueline C.

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested whether students can be taught to better understand conventional representations in diagrams, photographs, and other visual representations in science textbooks. The authors developed a teacher-delivered, workbook-and-discussion-based classroom instructional method called Conventions of Diagrams (COD). The authors trained 1…

  5. Diagram This Headline in One Minute, if You Can

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landecker, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Say "sentence diagramming" to people of a certain age, and one gets different reactions. Say it to most college students, and one gets a blank look. But not from the 24 students in Lucy Ferriss's "Constructing Thought," a half-credit course in the English department at Trinity College. They know how to diagram a sentence--and…

  6. Diagram, Gesture, Agency: Theorizing Embodiment in the Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Elizabeth; Sinclair, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we use the work of philosopher Gilles Chatelet to rethink the gesture/diagram relationship and to explore the ways mathematical agency is constituted through it. We argue for a fundamental philosophical shift to better conceptualize the relationship between gesture and diagram, and suggest that such an approach might open up new…

  7. Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamizo, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The…

  8. The Effect of Causal Diagrams on Text Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrudden, Matthew T.; Schraw, Gregory; Lehman, Stephen; Poliquin, Anne

    2007-01-01

    We examined the effect of studying a causal diagram on comprehension of causal relationships from an expository science text. A causal diagram is a type of visual display that explicitly represents cause-effect relationships. In Experiment 1, readers between conditions did not differ with respect to memory for main ideas, but the readers who…

  9. Carbon nanotube IR detectors (SV)

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, F. L.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC) collaborated to (1) evaluate the potential of carbon nanotubes as channels in infrared (IR) photodetectors; (2) assemble and characterize carbon nanotube electronic devices and measure the photocurrent generated when exposed to infrared light;(3) compare the performance of the carbon nanotube devices with that of traditional devices; and (4) develop and numerically implement models of electronic transport and opto-electronic behavior of carbon nanotube infrared detectors. This work established a new paradigm for photodetectors.

  10. Moisture map by IR thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinzato, E.; Cadelano, G.; Bison, P.

    2010-10-01

    A new approach to moisture detection in buildings by an optical method is presented. Limits of classical and new methods are discussed. The state of the art about the use of IR thermography is illustrated as well. The new technique exploits characteristics of the materials and takes into account explicitly the heat and mass exchange between surface and environment. A set of experiments in controlled laboratory conditions on different materials is used to better understand the physical problem. The testing procedure and the data reduction are illustrated. A case study on a heritage building points up the features of this technique.

  11. Calculation of Gallium-metal-Arsenic phase diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scofield, J. D.; Davison, J. E.; Ray, A. E.; Smith, S. R.

    1991-01-01

    Electrical contacts and metallization to GaAs solar cells must survive at high temperatures for several minutes under specific mission scenarios. The determination of which metallizations or alloy systems that are able to withstand extreme thermal excursions with minimum degradation to solar cell performance can be predicted by properly calculated temperature constitution phase diagrams. A method for calculating a ternary diagram and its three constituent binary phase diagrams is briefly outlined and ternary phase diagrams for three Ga-As-X alloy systems are presented. Free energy functions of the liquid and solid phase are approximated by the regular solution theory. Phase diagrams calculated using this method are presented for the Ga-As-Ge and Ga-As-Ag systems.

  12. Efficient Computation of 3D Clipped Voronoi Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Dong-Ming; Wang, Wenping; Lévy, Bruno; Liu, Yang

    The Voronoi diagram is a fundamental geometry structure widely used in various fields, especially in computer graphics and geometry computing. For a set of points in a compact 3D domain (i.e. a finite 3D volume), some Voronoi cells of their Voronoi diagram are infinite, but in practice only the parts of the cells inside the domain are needed, as when computing the centroidal Voronoi tessellation. Such a Voronoi diagram confined to a compact domain is called a clipped Voronoi diagram. We present an efficient algorithm for computing the clipped Voronoi diagram for a set of sites with respect to a compact 3D volume, assuming that the volume is represented as a tetrahedral mesh. We also describe an application of the proposed method to implementing a fast method for optimal tetrahedral mesh generation based on the centroidal Voronoi tessellation.

  13. Diagram of Cell to Cell Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Diagram depicts the importance of cell-cell communication as central to the understanding of cancer growth and progression, the focus of the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05) investigation. Microgravity studies will allow us to unravel the signaling and communication between these cells with the host and potential development of therapies for the treatment of cancer metastasis. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  14. Phase diagram of tobacco mosaic virus solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Hartmut; Löwen, Hartmut

    1999-02-01

    The phase behavior of an aqueous suspension of rodlike tobacco mosaic viruses is investigated theoretically as a function of the virus density and the concentration of added salt. The total free energy involves ``volume terms'' from the microscopic counter- and co-ions and an effective pair interaction between the colloidal rods described by a Yukawa-segment model according to linear screening theory. Within a thermodynamic perturbation approach, the short-range repulsion between the rods is mapped onto a reference system of effective hard spherocylinders. The free energy of the spherocylinder system is gained from combining a cell model with scaled particle theory, which yields a reasonable phase diagram. The remaining long-range interaction is treated within a mean-field approximation. As a result we find stable fluid, nematic, and smectic phases as well as AAA- and ABC-stacked crystals. For increasing salt concentration at fixed rod concentration, there is a nematic reentrant transition. We finally discuss our results in view of experimental data.

  15. Community detection by graph Voronoi diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deritei, Dávid; Lázár, Zsolt I.; Papp, István; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Sumi, Róbert; Varga, Levente; Ravasz Regan, Erzsébet; Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária

    2014-06-01

    Accurate and efficient community detection in networks is a key challenge for complex network theory and its applications. The problem is analogous to cluster analysis in data mining, a field rich in metric space-based methods. Common to these methods is a geometric, distance-based definition of clusters or communities. Here we propose a new geometric approach to graph community detection based on graph Voronoi diagrams. Our method serves as proof of principle that the definition of appropriate distance metrics on graphs can bring a rich set of metric space-based clustering methods to network science. We employ a simple edge metric that reflects the intra- or inter-community character of edges, and a graph density-based rule to identify seed nodes of Voronoi cells. Our algorithm outperforms most network community detection methods applicable to large networks on benchmark as well as real-world networks. In addition to offering a computationally efficient alternative for community detection, our method opens new avenues for adapting a wide range of data mining algorithms to complex networks from the class of centroid- and density-based clustering methods.

  16. Diagram of Cell to Cell Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Diagram depicts the importance of cell-cell communication as central to the understanding of cancer growth and progression, the focus of the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05) investigation. Microgravity studies will allow us to unravel the signaling and communication between these cells with the host and potential development of therapies for the treatment of cancer metastasis. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  17. Phase diagram for inertial granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGiuli, E.; McElwaine, J. N.; Wyart, M.

    2016-07-01

    Flows of hard granular materials depend strongly on the interparticle friction coefficient μp and on the inertial number I , which characterizes proximity to the jamming transition where flow stops. Guided by numerical simulations, we derive the phase diagram of dense inertial flow of spherical particles, finding three regimes for 10-4≲I ≲10-1 : frictionless, frictional sliding, and rolling. These are distinguished by the dominant means of energy dissipation, changing from collisional to sliding friction, and back to collisional, as μp increases from zero at constant I . The three regimes differ in their kinetics and rheology; in particular, the velocity fluctuations and the stress ratio both display nonmonotonic behavior with μp, corresponding to transitions between the three regimes of flow. We rationalize the phase boundaries between these regimes, show that energy balance yields scaling relations between microscopic properties in each of them, and derive the strain scale at which particles lose memory of their velocity. For the frictional sliding regime most relevant experimentally, we find for I ≥10-2.5 that the growth of the macroscopic friction μ (I ) with I is induced by an increase of collisional dissipation. This implies in that range that μ (I ) -μ (0 ) ˜I1 -2 b , where b ≈0.2 is an exponent that characterizes both the dimensionless velocity fluctuations L ˜I-b and the density of sliding contacts χ ˜Ib .

  18. Collaborative diagramming during problem based learning in medical education: Do computerized diagrams support basic science knowledge construction?

    PubMed

    De Leng, Bas; Gijlers, Hannie

    2015-05-01

    To examine how collaborative diagramming affects discussion and knowledge construction when learning complex basic science topics in medical education, including its effectiveness in the reformulation phase of problem-based learning. Opinions and perceptions of students (n = 70) and tutors (n = 4) who used collaborative diagramming in tutorial groups were collected with a questionnaire and focus group discussions. A framework derived from the analysis of discourse in computer-supported collaborative leaning was used to construct the questionnaire. Video observations were used during the focus group discussions. Both students and tutors felt that collaborative diagramming positively affected discussion and knowledge construction. Students particularly appreciated that diagrams helped them to structure knowledge, to develop an overview of topics, and stimulated them to find relationships between topics. Tutors emphasized that diagramming increased interaction and enhanced the focus and detail of the discussion. Favourable conditions were the following: working with a shared whiteboard, using a diagram format that facilitated distribution, and applying half filled-in diagrams for non-content expert tutors and\\or for heterogeneous groups with low achieving students. The empirical findings in this study support the findings of earlier more descriptive studies that diagramming in a collaborative setting is valuable for learning complex knowledge in medicine.

  19. Effects of Three Diagram Instruction Methods on Transfer of Diagram Comprehension Skills: The Critical Role of Inference While Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromley, Jennifer G.; Bergey, Bradley W.; Fitzhugh, Shannon; Newcombe, Nora; Wills, Theodore W.; Shipley, Thomas F.; Tanaka, Jacqueline C.

    2013-01-01

    Can students be taught to better comprehend the diagrams in their textbooks? Can such teaching transfer to uninstructed diagrams in the same domain or even in a new domain? What methods work best for these goals? Building on previous research showing positive results compared to control groups in both laboratory studies and short-term…

  20. Using Eye Tracking to Investigate Semantic and Spatial Representations of Scientific Diagrams during Text-Diagram Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jian, Yu-Cin; Wu, Chao-Jung

    2015-01-01

    We investigated strategies used by readers when reading a science article with a diagram and assessed whether semantic and spatial representations were constructed while reading the diagram. Seventy-one undergraduate participants read a scientific article while tracking their eye movements and then completed a reading comprehension test. Our…

  1. VennDiagramWeb: a web application for the generation of highly customizable Venn and Euler diagrams.

    PubMed

    Lam, Felix; Lalansingh, Christopher M; Babaran, Holly E; Wang, Zhiyuan; Prokopec, Stephenie D; Fox, Natalie S; Boutros, Paul C

    2016-10-03

    Visualization of data generated by high-throughput, high-dimensionality experiments is rapidly becoming a rate-limiting step in computational biology. There is an ongoing need to quickly develop high-quality visualizations that can be easily customized or incorporated into automated pipelines. This often requires an interface for manual plot modification, rapid cycles of tweaking visualization parameters, and the generation of graphics code. To facilitate this process for the generation of highly-customizable, high-resolution Venn and Euler diagrams, we introduce VennDiagramWeb: a web application for the widely used VennDiagram R package. VennDiagramWeb is hosted at http://venndiagram.res.oicr.on.ca/ . VennDiagramWeb allows real-time modification of Venn and Euler diagrams, with parameter setting through a web interface and immediate visualization of results. It allows customization of essentially all aspects of figures, but also supports integration into computational pipelines via download of R code. Users can upload data and download figures in a range of formats, and there is exhaustive support documentation. VennDiagramWeb allows the easy creation of Venn and Euler diagrams for computational biologists, and indeed many other fields. Its ability to support real-time graphics changes that are linked to downloadable code that can be integrated into automated pipelines will greatly facilitate the improved visualization of complex datasets. For application support please contact Paul.Boutros@oicr.on.ca.

  2. Effects of Three Diagram Instruction Methods on Transfer of Diagram Comprehension Skills: The Critical Role of Inference While Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromley, Jennifer G.; Bergey, Bradley W.; Fitzhugh, Shannon; Newcombe, Nora; Wills, Theodore W.; Shipley, Thomas F.; Tanaka, Jacqueline C.

    2013-01-01

    Can students be taught to better comprehend the diagrams in their textbooks? Can such teaching transfer to uninstructed diagrams in the same domain or even in a new domain? What methods work best for these goals? Building on previous research showing positive results compared to control groups in both laboratory studies and short-term…

  3. Using Eye Tracking to Investigate Semantic and Spatial Representations of Scientific Diagrams during Text-Diagram Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jian, Yu-Cin; Wu, Chao-Jung

    2015-01-01

    We investigated strategies used by readers when reading a science article with a diagram and assessed whether semantic and spatial representations were constructed while reading the diagram. Seventy-one undergraduate participants read a scientific article while tracking their eye movements and then completed a reading comprehension test. Our…

  4. Coprates Chasma Landslides in IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Today's daytime IR image is of a portion of Coprates Chasma, part of Valles Marineris. As with yesterday's image, this image shows multiple large landslides.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -8.2, Longitude 300.2 East (59.8 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Xanthe Terra Landslide in IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This is a daytime IR image of a chaos region within Xanthe Terra. As with earlier images, the landslide in this image is caused by the failure of steep slopes releasing material to form the landslide deposit.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 3.1, Longitude 309.7 East (50.3 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Xanthe Terra Landslide in IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This is a daytime IR image of a chaos region within Xanthe Terra. As with earlier images, the landslide in this image is caused by the failure of steep slopes releasing material to form the landslide deposit.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 3.1, Longitude 309.7 East (50.3 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Coprates Chasma Landslides in IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Today's daytime IR image is of a portion of Coprates Chasma, part of Valles Marineris. As with yesterday's image, this image shows multiple large landslides.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -8.2, Longitude 300.2 East (59.8 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagram: Part B, Remedial Action

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Part A of Vols. 1. and 2 focuses on D&D. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the RA of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. Remedial action is the focus of Vol. 2, Pt. B, which has been divided into the three necessary subelements of the RA: characterization, RA, and robotics and automation. Each of these sections address general ORNL problems, which are then broken down by problem area/constituents and linked to potential remedial technologies. The diagrams also contain summary information about a technology`s status, its science and technology needs, and its implementation needs.

  9. Forest Dynamics at the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project viewed through stocking diagrams

    Treesearch

    David R. Larsen; John M. Kabrick; Stephen R. Shifley; Randy G. Jensen

    2017-01-01

    Stocking diagrams come in two forms, the Gingrich diagram and the density management diagram. While they both present the same information about a forest stand, they each provide a different perspective on the data being displayed. Density management diagrams have been around since the 1930s and the Gingrich diagram has been around since the 1960s, but applications of...

  10. Comparison of Heat Flux Gages for High Enthalpy Flows - NASA Ames and IRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loehle, Stefan; Nawaz, Anuscheh; Herdrich, Georg; Fasoulas, Stefanos; Martinez, Edward; Raiche, George

    2016-01-01

    This article is a companion to a paper on heat flux measurements as initiated under a Space Act Agreement in 2011. The current focus of this collaboration between the Institute of Space Systems (IRS) of the University of Stuttgart and NASA Ames Research Center is the comparison and refinement of diagnostic measurements. A first experimental campaign to test different heat flux gages in the NASA Interaction Heating Facility (IHF) and the Plasmawindkanaele (PWK) at IRS was established. This paper focuses on the results of the measurements conducted at IRS. The tested gages included a at face and hemispherical probe head, a 4" hemispherical slug calorimeter, a null-point calorimeter from Ames and a null-point calorimeter developed for this purpose at IRS. The Ames null-point calorimeter was unfortunately defective upon arrival. The measured heat fluxes agree fairly well with each other. The reason for discrepancies can be attributed to signal-to-noise levels and the probe geometry.

  11. Diagram of Lake Stratification on Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-01

    This diagram presents some of the processes and clues related to a long-ago lake on Mars that became stratified, with the shallow water richer in oxidants than deeper water was. The sedimentary rocks deposited within a lake in Mars' Gale Crater more than three billion years ago differ from each other in a pattern that matches what is seen in lakes on Earth. As sediment-bearing water flows into a lake, bedding thickness and particle size progressively decrease as sediment is deposited in deeper and deeper water as seen in examples of thick beds (PIA19074) from shallowest water, thin beds (PIA19075) from deeper water and even thinner beds (PIA19828) from deepest water. At sites on lower Mount Sharp, inside the crater, measurements of chemical and mineral composition by NASA's Curiosity Mars rover reveal a clear correspondence between the physical characteristics of sedimentary rock from different parts of the lake and how strongly oxidized the sediments were. Rocks with textures indicating that the sediments were deposited near the edge of a lake have more strongly oxidized composition than rocks with textures indicating sedimentation in deep water. For example, the iron mineral hematite is more oxidized than the iron mineral magnetite. An explanation for why such chemical stratification occurs in a lake is that the water closer to the surface is more exposed to oxidizing effects of oxygen in the atmosphere and ultraviolet light. On Earth, a stratified lake with a distinct boundary between oxidant-rich shallows and oxidant-poor depths provides a diversity of environments suited to different types of microbes. If Mars has ever hosted microbial live, the stratified lake at Gale Crater may have similarly provided a range of different habitats for life. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21500

  12. Energetic Studies and Phase Diagram of Thioxanthene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Vera L. S.; Monte, Manuel J. S.; Santos, Luís M. N. B. F.; Gomes, José R. B.; Ribeiro da Silva, Maria D. M. C.

    2009-10-01

    The molecular stability of thioxanthene, a key species from which very important compounds with industrial relevance are derived, has been studied by a combination of several experimental techniques and computational approaches. The standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation of crystalline thioxanthene (117.4 ± 4.1 kJ·mol-1) was determined from the experimental standard molar energy of combustion, in oxygen, measured by rotating-bomb combustion calorimetry at T = 298.15 K. The enthalpy of sublimation was determined by a direct method, using the vacuum drop microcalorimetric technique, and also by an indirect method, using a static apparatus, where the vapor pressures at different temperatures were measured. The latter technique was used for both crystalline and undercooled liquid samples, and the phase diagram of thioxanthene near the triple point was obtained (triple point coordinates T = 402.71 K and p = 144.7 Pa). From the two methods, a mean value for the standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K (101.3 ± 0.8 kJ·mol-1), was derived. From the latter value and from the enthalpy of formation of the solid, the standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) enthalpy of formation of gaseous thioxanthene was calculated as 218.7 ± 4.2 kJ·mol-1. Standard ab initio molecular orbital calculations were performed using the G3(MP2)//B3LYP composite procedure and several homodesmotic reactions in order to derive the standard molar enthalpy of formation of thioxanthene. The ab initio results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data.

  13. The high-z quasar Hubble Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melia, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Two recent discoveries have made it possible for us to begin using high-z quasars as standard candles to construct a Hubble Diagram (HD) at z > 6. These are (1) the recognition from reverberation mapping that a relationship exists between the optical/UV luminosity and the distance of line-emitting gas from the central ionizing source. Thus, together with a measurement of the velocity of the line-emitting gas, e.g., via the width of BLR lines, such as Mg II, a single observation can therefore in principle provide a determination of the black hole's mass; and (2) the identification of quasar ULAS J1120+0641 at z = 7.085, which has significantly extended the redshift range of these sources, providing essential leverage when fitting theoretical luminosity distances to the data. In this paper, we use the observed fluxes and Mg II line-widths of these sources to show that one may reasonably test the predicted high-z distance versus redshift relationship, and we assemble a sample of 20 currently available high-z quasars for this exercise. We find a good match between theory and observations, suggesting that a more complete, high-quality survey may indeed eventually produce an HD to complement the highly-detailed study already underway (e.g., with Type Ia SNe, GRBs, and cosmic chronometers) at lower redshifts. With the modest sample we have here, we show that the Rh = ct Universe and ΛCDM both fit the data quite well, though the smaller number of free parameters in the former produces a more favorable outcome when we calculate likelihoods using the Akaike, Kullback, and Bayes Information Criteria. These three statistical tools result in similar probabilities, indicating that the Rh = ct Universe is more likely than ΛCDM to be correct, by a ratio of about 85% to 15%.

  14. The high-z quasar Hubble Diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Melia, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Two recent discoveries have made it possible for us to begin using high-z quasars as standard candles to construct a Hubble Diagram (HD) at z > 6. These are (1) the recognition from reverberation mapping that a relationship exists between the optical/UV luminosity and the distance of line-emitting gas from the central ionizing source. Thus, together with a measurement of the velocity of the line-emitting gas, e.g., via the width of BLR lines, such as Mg II, a single observation can therefore in principle provide a determination of the black hole's mass; and (2) the identification of quasar ULAS J1120+0641 at z = 7.085, which has significantly extended the redshift range of these sources, providing essential leverage when fitting theoretical luminosity distances to the data. In this paper, we use the observed fluxes and Mg II line-widths of these sources to show that one may reasonably test the predicted high-z distance versus redshift relationship, and we assemble a sample of 20 currently available high-z quasars for this exercise. We find a good match between theory and observations, suggesting that a more complete, high-quality survey may indeed eventually produce an HD to complement the highly-detailed study already underway (e.g., with Type Ia SNe, GRBs, and cosmic chronometers) at lower redshifts. With the modest sample we have here, we show that the R{sub h} = ct Universe and ΛCDM both fit the data quite well, though the smaller number of free parameters in the former produces a more favorable outcome when we calculate likelihoods using the Akaike, Kullback, and Bayes Information Criteria. These three statistical tools result in similar probabilities, indicating that the R{sub h} = ct Universe is more likely than ΛCDM to be correct, by a ratio of about 85% to 15%.

  15. GOODS-HERSCHEL: SEPARATING HIGH-REDSHIFT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STAR-FORMING GALAXIES USING INFRARED COLOR DIAGNOSTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Pope, Alexandra; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Daddi, Emmanuele; Elbaz, David; Pannella, Maurilio; Aussel, Herve; Dasyra, Kalliopi; Leiton, Roger; Scott, Douglas; Magnelli, Benjamin; Popesso, Paola; Altieri, Bruno; Coia, Daniela; Valtchanov, Ivan; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Dickinson, Mark; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Magdis, Georgios

    2013-02-15

    We have compiled a large sample of 151 high-redshift (z = 0.5-4) galaxies selected at 24 {mu}m (S {sub 24} > 100 {mu}Jy) in the GOODS-N and ECDFS fields for which we have deep Spitzer IRS spectroscopy, allowing us to decompose the mid-infrared spectrum into contributions from star formation and activity in the galactic nuclei. In addition, we have a wealth of photometric data from Spitzer IRAC/MIPS and Herschel PACS/SPIRE. We explore how effective different infrared color combinations are at separating our mid-IR spectroscopically determined active galactic nuclei from our star-forming galaxies. We look in depth at existing IRAC color diagnostics, and we explore new color-color diagnostics combining mid-IR, far-IR, and near-IR photometry, since these combinations provide the most detail about the shape of a source's IR spectrum. An added benefit of using a color that combines far-IR and mid-IR photometry is that it is indicative of the power source driving the IR luminosity. For our data set, the optimal color selections are S {sub 250}/S {sub 24} versus S {sub 8}/S {sub 3.6} and S {sub 100}/S {sub 24} versus S {sub 8}/S {sub 3.6}; both diagnostics have {approx}10% contamination rate in the regions occupied primarily by star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei, respectively. Based on the low contamination rate, these two new IR color-color diagnostics are ideal for estimating both the mid-IR power source of a galaxy when spectroscopy is unavailable and the dominant power source contributing to the IR luminosity. In the absence of far-IR data, we present color diagnostics using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mid-IR bands which can efficiently select out high-z (z {approx} 2) star-forming galaxies.

  16. Constraints on the phase diagram of nonmolecular CO2 imposed by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Mario; Gorelli, Federico A.

    2009-11-01

    The investigation of the high-pressure phase diagram of CO2 , specifically in the nonmolecular forms, is a challenging experimental issue, due to the large metastability of this material. Here we report on the determination of the pressure threshold for forming nonmolecular CO2 from the molecular crystal, in the P-T range of 10-53 GPa and 296-715 K, respectively. The study is based on a large set of IR spectroscopy measurements, which allows to detect, with a high sensitivity, the onset of the formation of nonmolecular, amorphous carbonia. This metastable form is first formed in the attempts to obtain nonmolecular, crystalline CO2 , upon increasing pressure, for kinetic reasons. Therefore, it is identified an upper pressure bound for the real-phase boundary between the molecular solid and the nonmolecular, thermodynamically stable crystal, which results to be remarkably lower than those detected by other techniques. Also, it is shown how the hysteresis of the molecular-to-nonmolecular transformation is reduced upon increasing the temperature. The study adds constraints on the high-pressure, thermodynamic phase diagram of nonmolecular CO2 .

  17. Anisotropic B-T Phase Diagram of Non-Kramers System PrRh2Zn20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Taichi; Machida, Yo; Izawa, Koichi; Shimada, Yuki; Nagasawa, Naohiro; Onimaru, Takahiro; Takabatake, Toshiro; Gourgout, Adrien; Pourret, Alexandre; Knebel, Georg; Brison, Jean-Pascal

    2017-04-01

    We have investigated the low temperature quadrupolar phenomena of the non-Kramers system PrRh2Zn20 under magnetic fields in the [100] and [110] directions. Our experiments reveal the B-T phase diagram of PrRh2Zn20 involving four electronic states regardless of the field direction, namely, a non-Fermi liquid (NFL) state, an antiferro-quadrupolar (AFQ) ordered state, a novel heavy-fermion (HF) state, and a field-induced singlet (FIS) state. In the wide range of the NFL state, the resistivity can be well scaled by a characteristic temperature, suggesting the realization of the quadrupole Kondo effect. The HF state exhibits a Fermi liquid behavior with a large A coefficient of the T2 term in the resistivity, suggesting the formation of nontrivial heavy quasi-particles. The FIS state results from the considerable splitting of a non-Kramers doublet by a magnetic field. The phase diagram shows a large anisotropy with respect to the field direction. It is found that the anisotropy of the phase diagram can be explained in terms of that of the energy splitting of the non-Kramers doublet by a magnetic field. This indicates that the low temperature properties of PrRh2Zn20 are governed by the non-Kramers doublet, namely, quadrupole degrees of freedom. Since a similar phase diagram has been obtained for the related compound PrIr2Zn20, it is expected that the B-T phase diagram constructed in this work is universal throughout non-Kramers systems.

  18. Penguin-like diagrams from the standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Ping, Chia Swee

    2015-04-24

    The Standard Model is highly successful in describing the interactions of leptons and quarks. There are, however, rare processes that involve higher order effects in electroweak interactions. One specific class of processes is the penguin-like diagram. Such class of diagrams involves the neutral change of quark flavours accompanied by the emission of a gluon (gluon penguin), a photon (photon penguin), a gluon and a photon (gluon-photon penguin), a Z-boson (Z penguin), or a Higgs-boson (Higgs penguin). Such diagrams do not arise at the tree level in the Standard Model. They are, however, induced by one-loop effects. In this paper, we present an exact calculation of the penguin diagram vertices in the ‘tHooft-Feynman gauge. Renormalization of the vertex is effected by a prescription by Chia and Chong which gives an expression for the counter term identical to that obtained by employing Ward-Takahashi identity. The on-shell vertex functions for the penguin diagram vertices are obtained. The various penguin diagram vertex functions are related to one another via Ward-Takahashi identity. From these, a set of relations is obtained connecting the vertex form factors of various penguin diagrams. Explicit expressions for the gluon-photon penguin vertex form factors are obtained, and their contributions to the flavor changing processes estimated.

  19. Spot the difference: Causal contrasts in scientific diagrams.

    PubMed

    Scholl, Raphael

    2016-12-01

    An important function of scientific diagrams is to identify causal relationships. This commonly relies on contrasts that highlight the effects of specific difference-makers. However, causal contrast diagrams are not an obvious and easy to recognize category because they appear in many guises. In this paper, four case studies are presented to examine how causal contrast diagrams appear in a wide range of scientific reports, from experimental to observational and even purely theoretical studies. It is shown that causal contrasts can be expressed in starkly different formats, including photographs of complexly visualized macromolecules as well as line graphs, bar graphs, or plots of state spaces. Despite surface differences, however, there is a measure of conceptual unity among such diagrams. In empirical studies they often serve not only to infer and communicate specific causal claims, but also as evidence for them. The key data of some studies is given nowhere except in the diagrams. Many diagrams show multiple causal contrasts in order to demonstrate both that an effect exists and that the effect is specific - that is, to narrowly circumscribe the phenomenon to be explained. In a large range of scientific reports, causal contrast diagrams reflect the core epistemic claims of the researchers. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Penguin-like diagrams from the standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Chia Swee

    2015-04-01

    The Standard Model is highly successful in describing the interactions of leptons and quarks. There are, however, rare processes that involve higher order effects in electroweak interactions. One specific class of processes is the penguin-like diagram. Such class of diagrams involves the neutral change of quark flavours accompanied by the emission of a gluon (gluon penguin), a photon (photon penguin), a gluon and a photon (gluon-photon penguin), a Z-boson (Z penguin), or a Higgs-boson (Higgs penguin). Such diagrams do not arise at the tree level in the Standard Model. They are, however, induced by one-loop effects. In this paper, we present an exact calculation of the penguin diagram vertices in the `tHooft-Feynman gauge. Renormalization of the vertex is effected by a prescription by Chia and Chong which gives an expression for the counter term identical to that obtained by employing Ward-Takahashi identity. The on-shell vertex functions for the penguin diagram vertices are obtained. The various penguin diagram vertex functions are related to one another via Ward-Takahashi identity. From these, a set of relations is obtained connecting the vertex form factors of various penguin diagrams. Explicit expressions for the gluon-photon penguin vertex form factors are obtained, and their contributions to the flavor changing processes estimated.

  1. Coronal Magnetism: Hanle Effect in UV and IR Spectral Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raouafi, N. E.; Riley, P.

    2014-12-01

    The plasma thermodynamics in the solar upper atmosphere, particularly in the corona, are dominated by the magnetic field, which controls the flow and dissipation of energy. The relative lack of knowledge of the coronal vector magnetic field is a major handicap for the progress in coronal physics. This makes the development of measurement methods of coronal magnetic fields a high priority in solar physics. The Hanle effect in the UV and IR spectral lines is a largely unexplored diagnostic. Here we use magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to study the magnitude of the signal to be expected for typical coronal magnetic fields for selected spectral lines in the UV and IR wavelength ranges, namely the H I Lyman series (i.e., α, β, and γ), O VI 103.2 nm line, and the He I 1083 nm line. We show that the selected lines may be useful for the diagnostic of coronal magnetic fields. We also show that the combination of polarization measurements of spectral lines with different sensitivities to the Hanle effect may be most appropriate for the interpretation of the data. We propose that UV coronal magnetic field mapper should be a central part of the science payload of any future spacebased solar observatory.

  2. Research principles and the construction of mnemonic diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venda, V. F.; Mitkin, A. A.

    1973-01-01

    Mnemonic diagrams are defined as a variety of information display devices, the essential element of which is conventional graphical presentation of technological or functional-operational links in a controlled system or object. Graphically displaying the operational structure of an object, the interd dependence between different parameters, and the interdependence between indicators and control organs, the mneomonic diagram reduces the load on the operator's memory and facilitates perception and reprocessing of information and decision making, while at the same time playing the role of visual support to the information activity of the operator. The types of mnemonic diagrams are listed.

  3. A Three-dimensional Topological Model of Ternary Phase Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Yingxue; Bao, Hong

    2017-01-01

    In order to obtain a visualization of the complex internal structure of ternary phase diagram, the paper realized a three-dimensional topology model of ternary phase diagram with the designed data structure and improved algorithm, under the guidance of relevant theories of computer graphics. The purpose of the model is mainly to analyze the relationship between each phase region of a ternary phase diagram. The model not only obtain isothermal section graph at any temperature, but also extract a particular phase region in which users are interested.

  4. Cu-Zn binary phase diagram and diffusion couples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to learn: (1) what information a binary phase diagram can yield; (2) how to construct and heat treat a simple diffusion couple; (3) how to prepare a metallographic sample; (4) how to operate a metallograph; (5) how to correlate phases found in the diffusion couple with phases predicted by the phase diagram; (6) how diffusion couples held at various temperatures could be used to construct a phase diagram; (7) the relation between the thickness of an intermetallic phase layer and the diffusion time; and (8) the effect of one species of atoms diffusing faster than another species in a diffusion couple.

  5. Geodesic Witten diagrams with an external spinning field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Mitsuhiro; Tamaoka, Kotaro

    2017-05-01

    We explore AdS/CFT correspondence between geodesic Witten diagrams and conformal blocks (conformal partial waves) with an external symmetric traceless tensor field. We derive an expression for the conformal partial wave with an external spin-1 field and show that this expression is equivalent to the amplitude of the geodesic Witten diagram. We also show the equivalence by using a conformal Casimir equation in embedding formalism. Furthermore, we extend the construction of the amplitude of the geodesic Witten diagram to an external arbitrary symmetric traceless tensor field. We show that our construction agrees with the known result of the conformal partial waves.

  6. Photovoltaic array space power plus diagnostics experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, D. R.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to summarize the five years of hardware development and fabrication represented by the Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics (PASP Plus) Instrument. The original PASP Experiment requirements and background is presented along with the modifications which were requested to transform the PASP Experiment into the PASP Plus Instrument. The PASP Plus hardware and software is described. Test results for components and subsystems are given as well as final system tests. Also included are appendices which describe the major subsystems and present supporting documentation such as block diagrams, schematics, circuit board artwork, drawings, test procedures and test reports.

  7. IR Thermography NDE of ISS Radiator Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay; Winfree, William; Morton, Richard; Wilson, Walter; Reynolds, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The presentation covers an active and a passive infrared (IR) thermography for detection of delaminations in the radiator panels used for the International Space Station (ISS) program. The passive radiator IR data was taken by a NASA astronaut in an extravehicular activity (EVA) using a modified FLIR EVA hand-held camera. The IR data could be successfully analyzed to detect gross facesheet disbonds. The technique used the internal hot fluid tube as the heat source in analyzing the IR data. Some non-flight ISS radiators were inspected using an active technique of IR flash thermography to detect disbond of face sheet with honeycomb core, and debonds in facesheet overlap areas. The surface temperature and radiated heat emission from flight radiators is stable during acquisition of the IR video data. This data was analyzed to detect locations of unexpected surface temperature gradients. The flash thermography data was analyzed using derivative analysis and contrast evolutions. Results of the inspection are provided.

  8. Near diffraction limited mid-IR spectromicroscopy using frequency upconversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Nicolai; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Mid-infrared microscopy and spectroscopy is interesting due to its medical, biological and chemical applications. Spectromicroscopy can be used for histopathology, sample analysis and diagnosis. The ability to do spectromicroscopy in the 2.5 to 4.5 μm wavelength range where many organic molecules have their fundamental vibrations, with the addition of sufficient spectroscopic resolution to resolve these bands, can e.g. potentially allow for diagnostics without the need for staining of the sample. On a longer timeframe, mid-IR spectromicroscopy has the potential for in-vivo diagnostics, combining morphological and spectral imaging. Recent developments in nonlinear frequency upconversion, have demonstrated the potential to perform both imaging and spectroscopy in the mid-IR range at unparalleled low levels of illumination, the low upconversion detector noise being orders of magnitude below competing technologies. With these applications in mind, we have incorporated microscopy optics into an image upconversion system, achieving near diffraction limited spatial resolution in the 3 μm range. Spectroscopic information is further acquired by appropriate control of the phase match condition of the upconversion process. Multispectral images for a region of interest can be obtained by XY-scanning this region of interest within the field of view of the mid-IR upconversion system. Thus, the whole region of interest can be imaged with all available converter wavelengths, and the spectral representation becomes equal for all points in the image. In addition, the range of converted/imaged wavelengths can be tuned continuously by changing the temperature of the crystal, or discretely by using a different poling channel in the PPLN crystal.

  9. Probabilistic HR Diagrams: A New Infrared and X-ray Chronometer for Very Young, Massive Stellar Clusters and Associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Jessica; Povich, Matthew S.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel method for constraining the duration of star formation in very young, massive star-forming regions. Constraints on stellar population ages are derived from probabilistic HR diagrams (pHRDs) generated by fitting stellar model spectra to the infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of Herbig Ae/Be stars and their less-evolved, pre-main sequence progenitors. Stellar samples for the pHRDs are selected based on the detection of X-ray emission associated with the IR source, and the lack of detectible IR excess emission at wavelengths ≤4.5 µm. The SED model fits were used to create two-dimensional probability distributions of the stellar parameters, specifically bolometric luminosity versus temperature and mass versus evolutionary age. We present first results from the pHRD analysis of the relatively evolved Carina Nebula and the unevolved M17 SWex infrared dark cloud, which reveal the expected, strikingly different star formation durations between these two regions. In the future, we will apply this method to analyze available X-ray and IR data from the MYStIX project on other Galactic massive star forming regions within 3 kpc of the Sun.

  10. To use or not to use diagrams: The effect of drawing a diagram in solving introductory physics problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maries, Alexandru; Singh, Chandralekha

    2013-01-01

    Drawing appropriate diagrams is a useful problem solving heuristic that can transform a given problem into a representation that is easier to exploit for solving it. A major focus while helping introductory physics students learn problem solving is to help them appreciate that drawing diagrams facilitates problem solution. We conducted an investigation in which 111 students in an algebra-based introductory physics course were subjected to two different interventions during recitation quizzes throughout the semester. They were either (1) asked to solve problems in which the diagrams were drawn for them or (2) explicitly told to draw a diagram. A comparison group was not given any instruction regarding diagrams. We developed a rubric to score the problem-solving performance of students in different intervention groups. We investigated two problems involving electric field and electric force and found that students who draw expert-like diagrams are more successful problem solvers and that a higher level of detail in a student's diagram corresponds to a better score.

  11. Interlock Logic System (ILS) diagrams (RADL Item 2-38, supplement) (engineering material)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    Illustrations of the interlock logic systen (ILS) of the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant are presented. The diagrams are separated into two parts: (1) solar portion of plant digital ILS diagrams, and (2) electrical power generation subsystem control loop diagrams. (BCS)

  12. The Fermion Representation of Quantum Toroidal Algebra on 3D Young Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Li-Qiang; Wang, Li-Fang; Wu, Ke; Yang, Jie

    2014-07-01

    We develop an equivalence between the diagonal slices and the perpendicular slices of 3D Young diagrams via Maya diagrams. Furthermore, we construct the fermion representation of quantum toroidal algebra on the 3D Young diagrams perpendicularly sliced.

  13. HST WFC3/IR Calibration Updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbin, Meredith; Brammer, Gabriel; Long, Knox S.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Ryan, Russell E.; McCullough, Peter R.; Baggett, Sylvia M.; Gosmeyer, Catherine; Bourque, Matthew; HST WFC3 Team

    2016-01-01

    We report on several improvements to the characterization, monitoring, and calibration of the HST WFC3/IR detector. The detector performance has remained overall stable since its installation during HST Servicing Mission 4 in 2009. We present an updated persistence model that takes into account effects of exposure time and spatial variations in persistence across the detector, new grism wavelength solutions and master sky images, and a new SPARS sample sequence. We also discuss the stability of the IR gain, the time evolution and photometric properties of IR "snowballs," and the effect of IR "blobs" on point-source photometry.

  14. Discovering the invisible universe. [Historical survey of electromagnetic (IR, UV, radio and x-ray) astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H. )

    1991-02-01

    The history of astronomical observations outside the visible range is surveyed in a review for general readers. Consideration is given to Jansky's discovery of cosmic radio emission, the pioneering radio observers of the 1940s, the larger radio telescopes built since 1950, aperture synthesis and the Very Large Array, terrestrial and space VLBI networks, ground-based and satellite observations in the IR band, the discovery and early laboratory characterization of X-rays, and X-ray observations from sounding rockets and satellites. Extensive photographs, drawings, diagrams, and sample images are provided.

  15. Phase diagram and quantum order by disorder in the Kitaev K1-K2 honeycomb magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousochatzakis, Ioannis; Reuther, Johannes; Thomale, Ronny; Rachel, Stephan; Perkins, Natalia

    We show that the topological Kitaev spin liquid on the honeycomb lattice is extremely fragile against the second neighbor Kitaev coupling K2, which has been recently identified as the dominant perturbation away from the nearest neighbor model in iridate Na2IrO3, and may also play a role in α-RuCl3. This coupling explains naturally the zig-zag ordering and the special entanglement between real and spin space observed recently in Na2IrO3. The minimal K1-K2 model that we present here holds in addition the unique property that the classical and quantum phase diagrams and their respective order-by-disorder mechanisms are qualitatively different due to their fundamentally different symmetry structure. Nsf DMR-1511768; Freie Univ. Berlin Excellence Initiative of German Research Foundation; European Research Council, ERC-StG-336012; DFG-SFB 1170; DFG-SFB 1143, DFG-SPP 1666, and Helmholtz association VI-521.

  16. A New Catalog of AGB Stars Based on Infrared Two-Color Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Kyung-Won; Hong, Jinju

    2017-08-01

    We present a new catalog of AGB stars based on infrared two-color diagrams (2CDs) and known properties of the pulsations and spectra. We exclude some misclassified objects from previous catalogs. We identify color areas in two IR 2CDs where most O-rich and C-rich objects listed in previous catalogs of AGB stars are found. By collecting new objects in these color selection areas in the two IR 2CDs, we find candidate objects for AGB stars. By using the color selection method, we identify 3996 new objects in the O-rich areas, 1487 new objects in the C-rich areas, and 295 new objects in the overlap areas of the two 2CDs simultaneously. We have found that 470 O-rich and 9 C-rich objects are Mira variables with positive spectral identification and they are newly identified AGB stars. We present a new catalog of 3828 O-rich AGB stars and 1168 C-rich AGB stars excluding misclassified objects and adding newly identified objects.

  17. INFRARED TWO-COLOR DIAGRAMS FOR AGB STARS, POST-AGB STARS, AND PLANETARY NEBULAE

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Kyung-Won

    2015-08-01

    We present various infrared two-color diagrams (2CDs) for asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, post-AGB stars, and Planetary Nebulae (PNe) and investigate possible evolutionary tracks. We use catalogs from the available literature for the sample of 4903 AGB stars (3373 O-rich; 1168 C-rich; 362 S-type), 660 post-AGB stars (326 post-AGB; 334 pre-PN), and 1510 PNe in our Galaxy. For each object in the catalog, we cross-identify the IRAS, AKARI, Midcourse Space Experiment, and 2MASS counterparts. The IR 2CDs can provide useful information about the structure and evolution of the dust envelopes as well as the central stars. To find possible evolutionary tracks from AGB stars to PNe on the 2CDs, we investigate spectral evolution of post-AGB stars by making simple but reasonable assumptions on the evolution of the central star and dust shell. We perform radiative transfer model calculations for the detached dust shells around evolving central stars in the post-AGB phase. We find that the theoretical dust shell model tracks using dust opacity functions of amorphous silicate and amorphous carbon roughly coincide with the densely populated observed points of AGB stars, post-AGB stars, and PNe on various IR 2CDs. Even though some discrepancies are inevitable, the end points of the theoretical post-AGB model tracks generally converge in the region of the observed points of PNe on most 2CDs.

  18. Spectroscopic Studies of Cyclopentane under Extreme Conditions and Implications for the P-T Phase Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chunli; Liu, Zhenxian; Cui, Qiliang; Hemley, Russell

    2013-06-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy and Raman scattering combined with diamond anvil cell (DAC) and cryogenic techniques have been employed to investigate cyclopentane up to 4 GPa in the temperature range of 100-350 K and isothermal compression up to 84 GPa at room temperature. Four phases including liquid, plastic phases I and II, and truly crystalline phase III are clearly identified in the P-T range studied based on the changes of the ring breathing mode and CH2 rocking modes. The phase diagram is extended to the pressure and temperature range of 0 - 4.0 GPa and 105 - 350 K. Further compression at room temperature up to 84 GPa, another high-pressure phase (IV) is observed based on the appearance of low frequency peaks related to the lattice vibrational modes in the synchrotron far-IR spectra. The spectroscopic results indicate that cyclopentane persists the orientation ordered crystalline phase up to 84 GPa at room temperature. This work was supported by NSF (DMR-0805056; EAR 06-49658, COMPRES) and DOE/ NNSA (DE-FC03-03N00144, CDAC). NSLS is supported by the DOE/BES (DE-AC02-98CH10886).

  19. Penguin diagram dominance in radiative weak decays of bottom baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Kohara, Yoji

    2005-05-01

    Radiative weak decays of antitriplet bottom baryons are studied under the assumption of penguin diagram dominance and flavor-SU(3) (or SU(2)) symmetry. Relations among decay rates of various decay modes are derived.

  20. Influence diagrams as oil spill decision science tools

    EPA Science Inventory

    Making inferences on risks to ecosystem services (ES) from ecological crises can be more reliably handled using decision science tools. Influence diagrams (IDs) are probabilistic networks that explicitly represent the decisions related to a problem and evidence of their influence...

  1. Lyapunov exponent diagrams of a 4-dimensional Chua system.

    PubMed

    Stegemann, Cristiane; Albuquerque, Holokx A; Rubinger, Rero M; Rech, Paulo C

    2011-09-01

    We report numerical results on the existence of periodic structures embedded in chaotic and hyperchaotic regions on the Lyapunov exponent diagrams of a 4-dimensional Chua system. The model was obtained from the 3-dimensional Chua system by the introduction of a feedback controller. Both the largest and the second largest Lyapunov exponents were considered in our colorful Lyapunov exponent diagrams, and allowed us to characterize periodic structures and regions of chaos and hyperchaos. The shrimp-shaped periodic structures appear to be malformed on some of Lyapunov exponent diagrams, and they present two different bifurcation scenarios to chaos when passing the boundaries of itself, namely via period-doubling and crisis. Hyperchaos-chaos transition can also be observed on the Lyapunov exponent diagrams for the second largest exponent.

  2. 129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. Sheet lO of 11 (#3283) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  3. 8. Photocopy of top half of an 1855 organizational diagram ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of top half of an 1855 organizational diagram of the New York and Erie Railroad. Original in the collections of the Library of Congress. - Erie Railway, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Deposit, Broome County, NY

  4. 9. Photocopy of bottom half of an 1855 organizational diagram ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of bottom half of an 1855 organizational diagram of the New York and Erie Railroad. Original in the collections of the Library of Congress. - Erie Railway, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Deposit, Broome County, NY

  5. View southwest of carousel displaying schematic diagrams of electrical system; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest of carousel displaying schematic diagrams of electrical system; operators console switchboard #1 is at lower right of photograph - Thirtieth Street Station, Power Director Center, Thirtieth & Market Streets in Amtrak Railroad Station, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. Temperature control in continuous furnace by structural diagram method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Xia; Hartley, Tom T.

    1991-01-01

    The fundamentals of the structural diagram method for distributed parameter systems (DPSs) are presented and reviewed. An example is given to illustrate the application of this method for control design.

  7. Influence diagrams as oil spill decision science tools

    EPA Science Inventory

    Making inferences on risks to ecosystem services (ES) from ecological crises can be more reliably handled using decision science tools. Influence diagrams (IDs) are probabilistic networks that explicitly represent the decisions related to a problem and evidence of their influence...

  8. Architecture flow diagrams under teamwork{reg_sign}

    SciTech Connect

    Nicinski, T.

    1992-02-01

    The Teamwork CASE tool allows Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs) to be maintained for structured analysis. Fermilab has extended teamwork under UNIX{trademark} to permit Hatley and Pirbhai Architecture Flow Diagrams (AFDs) to be associated with DFDs and subsequently maintained. This extension, called TWKAFD, allows a user to open an AFD, graphically edit it, and replace it into a TWKAFD maintained library. Other aspects of Hatley and Pirbhai`s methodology are supported. This paper presents a quick tutorial on Architecture Diagrams. It then describes the user`s view of TWKAFD, the experience incorporating it into teamwork, and the successes with using the Architecture Diagram methodology along with the shortcomings of using the teamwork/TWKAFD tool. 8 refs.

  9. 37. PHOTOGRAPHY OF ORIGINAL PLAN (MINNEAPOLIS CITY ENGINEER) GENERAL DIAGRAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. PHOTOGRAPHY OF ORIGINAL PLAN (MINNEAPOLIS CITY ENGINEER) GENERAL DIAGRAM OF STEEL ARCH BRIDGE (4 x 5 negative) - Steel Arch Bridge, Hennepin Avenue spanning west channel of Mississippi River, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  10. 21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  11. Flame Deflector Section, Elevation, Water Supply Flow Diagram, Exploded ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Flame Deflector - Section, Elevation, Water Supply Flow Diagram, Exploded Deflector Manifolds, and Interior Perspective - Marshall Space Flight Center, F-1 Engine Static Test Stand, On Route 565 between Huntsville and Decatur, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  12. Phase diagram for assembly of biologically-active peptide amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Tsonchev, Stefan; Niece, Krista L; Schatz, George C; Ratner, Mark A; Stupp, Samuel I

    2008-01-17

    We construct a phase diagram for self-assembling biologically active peptide amphiphiles. The structure and stability of the assemblies are studied as a function of pH and salinity of the solution. The general features of the phase diagram are predicted based on theoretical modeling of the self-assembly process, as well as experimental data, and further experiments are performed to verify and ascertain the boundary locations of the diagram. Depending on solution conditions, the amphiphiles can form cylindrical or spherical micelles, intermediate structures between these, or may not assemble at all. We also demonstrate that changing conditions may result in phase transitions among these structures. This type of phase diagram could be useful in the design of certain supramolecular nanostructures by providing information on the necessary conditions to form them.

  13. Adding Value to Force Diagrams: Representing Relative Force Magnitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, Paul

    2011-05-01

    Nearly all physics instructors recognize the instructional value of force diagrams, and this journal has published several collections of exercises to improve student skill in this area.1-4 Yet some instructors worry that too few students perceive the conceptual and problem-solving utility of force diagrams,4-6 and over recent years a rich variety of approaches has been proposed to add value to force diagrams. Suggestions include strategies for identifying candidate forces,6,7 emphasizing the distinction between "contact" and "noncontact" forces,5,8 and the use of computer-based tutorials.9,10 Instructors have suggested a variety of conventions for constructing force diagrams, including approaches to arrow placement and orientation2,11-13 and proposed notations for locating forces or marking action-reaction force pairs.8,11,14,15

  14. Diagrams of Spacecraft Reaction Control System (RCS) Function

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1964-01-13

    S64-03506 (1964) --- Diagrams shows Gemini spacecraft functions of the thrusters in the Gemini spacecraft's re-entry control system. Thrusters may be fired in various combinations to cause yaw, roll and pitch.

  15. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 230 - Diagrams and Drawings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diagrams and Drawings B Appendix B to Part 230..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Pt. 230, App. B Appendix B to Part 230—Diagrams and Drawings ER17No99.015 ER17No99.016 ER17No99.017 ER17No99.018...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 230 - Diagrams and Drawings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diagrams and Drawings B Appendix B to Part 230..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Pt. 230, App. B Appendix B to Part 230—Diagrams and Drawings ER17No99.015 ER17No99.016 ER17No99.017 ER17No99.018...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 230 - Diagrams and Drawings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Diagrams and Drawings B Appendix B to Part 230..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Pt. 230, App. B Appendix B to Part 230—Diagrams and Drawings ER17No99.015 ER17No99.016 ER17No99.017 ER17No99.018...

  18. Evaluation of site-site bridge diagrams for molecular fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatamanu, J.; Cann, N. M.

    2004-10-01

    The presence of bridge functions in formally exact integral equation theories is the primary obstacle preventing the extraction of exact fluid structure from these theories. The bridge functions are typically neglected but in many fluids their impact may be significant. Each bridge function can be subdivided into bridge diagrams, which are well defined but difficult to evaluate. The calculation of bridge diagrams for the Chandler-Silbey-Ladanyi (CSL) integral equation theory [D. Chandler, R. Silbey, and B. Ladanyi, Mol. Phys. 46, 1335 (1982)] is the subject of this paper. In particular, we evaluate the diagrams required to yield an exact theory up to the first power in density [O(ρ1)] and provide algorithms that remain feasible for any molecule. Further, the bridge diagrams are evaluated and compared with the f-bond and h-bond formulations. Exact bridge diagrams are numerically evaluated for several chiral molecules, for two polar dimers, and for SPC/E water [W. L. Jorgensen, J. Chandrasekhar, J. D. Madura, R. W. Impey, and M. L. Klein, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 926 (1983)]. The quality of the diagrams is assessed in two ways: First, the predicted interatomic distributions are compared with those obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. Second, the connectivity constraints are evaluated and the errors in satisfying these exact relationships are compared for the f-bond and h-bond formulations. For apolar fluids, a clear improvement in CSL theory is evident with the inclusion of O(ρ0) and O(ρ1) diagrams. In contrast, for polar fluids, the inclusion of bridge diagrams does not lead to improvement in the structural predictions.

  19. Construction of Penrose Diagrams for Dynamic Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Beth A.; Lindesay, James

    2008-01-01

    A set of Penrose diagrams is constructed in order to examine the large-scale causal structure of black holes with dynamic horizons. Coordinate dependencies of significant features, such as the event horizon and radial mass scale, are demonstrated on the diagrams. Unlike in static Schwarzschild geometries, the radial mass scale is clearly seen to differ from the horizon. Trajectories for photons near the horizon are briefly discussed.

  20. The Molybdenum titanium Phase Diagram Evaluated from Ab initio Calculations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-07

    between Titanium- Tantalum Alloy and Pure Titanium for Biomedical Applications, Mater. Trans. 48-3 (2007) 380-384. 8 E. B. Taddei, V. A. R. Henriques, C...surgical implant applications", Nov 2013 (originally approved in 2011). 13 L. Kaufman, Coupled thermochemical and phase diagram data for tantalum based...S. Barzilai, C. Toher, S. Curtarolo, O. Levy, Evaluation of the tantalum -titanium phase diagram from

  1. Block diagrams for the study of some endocrine processes.

    PubMed

    Derevenco, P; Vincze, J

    1977-01-01

    With the help of bibliographical data and contributions of the authors two block diagrams have been built. These block diagrams are scheming two processes connected with the exposure of the organism to a moderate physical exercise: (a) the control of the release and the effect of ACTH (b) the control of the release and effect of STH. Some practical conclusion can be drawn regarding the interpretation of the endocrine modifications during exercise including those during standard functional tests.

  2. Northern Polar Spring in IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 March 2004

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    This image was collected October 19, 2002 during the northern spring season. The top half of this daytime IR image shows the North Polar sand sea.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 76.2, Longitude 226.8 East (133.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in

  3. Northern Polar Spring in IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 March 2004

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    This image was collected October 19, 2002 during the northern spring season. The top half of this daytime IR image shows the North Polar sand sea.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 76.2, Longitude 226.8 East (133.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in

  4. Students' Learning Activities While Studying Biological Process Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-08-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students' learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each student completed three learning tasks. Verbal data and eye-tracking data were collected as indications of students' learning activities. For the verbal data, we applied a fine-grained coding scheme to optimally describe students' learning activities. For the eye-tracking data, we used fixation time and transitions between areas of interest in the process diagrams as indices of learning activities. Various learning activities while studying process diagrams were found that distinguished between more and less successful students. Results showed that between-student variance in comprehension score was highly predicted by meaning making of the process arrows (80%) and fixation time in the main area (65%). Students employed successful learning activities consistently across learning tasks. Furthermore, compared to unsuccessful students, successful students used a more coherent approach of interrelated learning activities for comprehending process diagrams.

  5. CALCULATING ASTEROSEISMIC DIAGRAMS FOR SOLAR-LIKE OSCILLATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    White, Timothy R.; Bedding, Timothy R.; Stello, Dennis; Huber, Daniel; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen; Kjeldsen, Hans

    2011-12-20

    With the success of the Kepler and CoRoT missions, the number of stars with detected solar-like oscillations has increased by several orders of magnitude; for the first time we are able to perform large-scale ensemble asteroseismology of these stars. In preparation for this golden age of asteroseismology we have computed expected values of various asteroseismic observables from models of varying mass and metallicity. The relationships between these asteroseismic observables, such as the separations between mode frequencies, are able to significantly constrain estimates of the ages and masses of these stars. We investigate the scaling relation between the large frequency separation, {Delta}{nu}, and mean stellar density. Furthermore we present model evolutionary tracks for several asteroseismic diagrams. We have extended the so-called C-D diagram beyond the main sequence to the subgiants and the red giant branch. We also consider another asteroseismic diagram, the {epsilon} diagram, which is more sensitive to variations in stellar properties at the subgiant stages and can aid in determining the correct mode identification. The recent discovery of gravity-mode period spacings in red giants forms the basis for a third asteroseismic diagram. We compare the evolutionary model tracks in these asteroseismic diagrams with results from pre-Kepler studies of solar-like oscillations and early results from Kepler.

  6. Surface phases of the transition-metal dichalcogenide IrT e2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Kim, Jisun; Yang, Yifan; Cao, Guixin; Jin, Rongying; Plummer, E. W.

    2017-03-01

    Transition-metal dichalcogenide IrT e2 has attracted attention because of its striped lattice, charge ordering, and superconductivity. We have investigated the surface structure of IrT e2 , using low-energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy. A complex striped lattice modulation as a function of temperature is observed, which shows hysteresis between cooling and warming. While the bulk 5 × 1 and 8 × 1 phases appear at high temperatures, the surface ground state has the 6 × 1 phase, not seen in the bulk, and the surface transition temperatures are distinct from the bulk. The broken symmetry at the surface creates a quite different phase diagram, with the coexistence of several periodicities resembling devil's staircase behavior.

  7. High Resolution Near-IR Spectroscopy of Protostars With Large Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Tom; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    It is now possible to measure absorption spectra of Class I protostars using D greater than or = 8m telescopes equipped with sensitive cryogenic IR spectrographs. Our latest high-resolution (R approx. 20,000) Keck data reveal that Class I protostars are indeed low-mass stars with dwarf-like features. However, they differ from T Tauri stars in that Class I protostars have much higher IR veilings (tau(sub k) greater than or = 1 - 3+) and they are rotating quickly, v sin i greater than 20 km/s. Interestingly, the vast majority of protostellar absorption spectra show stellar - not disk - absorption features. A preliminary H-R diagram suggests that protostellar photospheres may have different physical structures than T Tauri stars, perhaps due to their higher accretion rates.

  8. The Ionotropic Receptors IR21a and IR25a mediate cool sensing in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ni, Lina; Klein, Mason; Svec, Kathryn V; Budelli, Gonzalo; Chang, Elaine C; Ferrer, Anggie J; Benton, Richard; Samuel, Aravinthan Dt; Garrity, Paul A

    2016-04-29

    Animals rely on highly sensitive thermoreceptors to seek out optimal temperatures, but the molecular mechanisms of thermosensing are not well understood. The Dorsal Organ Cool Cells (DOCCs) of the Drosophila larva are a set of exceptionally thermosensitive neurons critical for larval cool avoidance. Here, we show that DOCC cool-sensing is mediated by Ionotropic Receptors (IRs), a family of sensory receptors widely studied in invertebrate chemical sensing. We find that two IRs, IR21a and IR25a, are required to mediate DOCC responses to cooling and are required for cool avoidance behavior. Furthermore, we find that ectopic expression of IR21a can confer cool-responsiveness in an Ir25a-dependent manner, suggesting an instructive role for IR21a in thermosensing. Together, these data show that IR family receptors can function together to mediate thermosensation of exquisite sensitivity.

  9. The Ionotropic Receptors IR21a and IR25a mediate cool sensing in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Lina; Klein, Mason; Svec, Kathryn V; Budelli, Gonzalo; Chang, Elaine C; Ferrer, Anggie J; Benton, Richard; Samuel, Aravinthan DT; Garrity, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Animals rely on highly sensitive thermoreceptors to seek out optimal temperatures, but the molecular mechanisms of thermosensing are not well understood. The Dorsal Organ Cool Cells (DOCCs) of the Drosophila larva are a set of exceptionally thermosensitive neurons critical for larval cool avoidance. Here, we show that DOCC cool-sensing is mediated by Ionotropic Receptors (IRs), a family of sensory receptors widely studied in invertebrate chemical sensing. We find that two IRs, IR21a and IR25a, are required to mediate DOCC responses to cooling and are required for cool avoidance behavior. Furthermore, we find that ectopic expression of IR21a can confer cool-responsiveness in an Ir25a-dependent manner, suggesting an instructive role for IR21a in thermosensing. Together, these data show that IR family receptors can function together to mediate thermosensation of exquisite sensitivity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13254.001 PMID:27126188

  10. IR line scanner on UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shi-chao; Qin, Jie-xin; Qi, Hong-xing; Xiao, Gong-hai

    2011-08-01

    This paper introduces the designing principle and method of the IR line scanner on UAV in three aspects of optical-mechanical system, electronics system and processing software. It makes the system achieve good results in practical application that there are many features in the system such as light weight, small size, low power assumption, wide field of view, high instantaneous field of view, high noise equivalent temperature difference, wirelessly controlled and so on. The entire system is designed as follows: Multi-element scanner is put into use for reducing the electrical noise bandwidth, and then improving SNR; Square split aperture scanner is put into use for solving the image ratation distortion, besides fit for large velocity to height ratio; DSP is put into use for non-uniformity correction and background nosie subtraction, and then improving the imagery quality; SD card is put into use as image data storage media instead of the hard disk; The image data is stored in SD card in FAT32 file system, easily playbacked by processing software on Windows and Linux operating system; wireless transceiver module is put into use for wirelessly controlled.

  11. Recent catalysis measurements at IRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massuti-Ballester, B.; Pidan, S.; Herdrich, G.; Fertig, M.

    2015-08-01

    At the Institute of Space Systems (IRS), experiments have been performed using the high enthalpy, inductively heated plasma generator (IPG) in plasma wind tunnel 3 (PWK3), in order to assess the catalytic behaviour of different materials. Utilising the Upwind Relaxation Algorithm for Non-equilibrium Flows of the University of Stuttgart (URANUS), a methodology for determining catalytic efficiencies by obtaining atomic recombination probabilities γ for high temperature materials, has been developed. This method eliminates the inherent uncertainties produced when using catalytic properties of previously tested materials to infer those of new materials. In this work, eight different candidates for the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of an entry vehicle have been studied, of which six are ceramic materials and the other two are metallic alloys. Thermochemical properties of these specimens are given for surface temperatures between 1000 and 2000 K in pure oxygen and pure nitrogen plasmas. The high enthalpies and relatively low pressure conditions in which these material samples have been tested in PWK3 are relevant for entry applications from Low Earth Orbit (LEO).

  12. IR detection with uncooled sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissot, J. L.

    2004-12-01

    The emergence of uncooled detectors has opened new opportunities for IR detection for both military and commercial applications. Development of such devices involves a lot of trade-offs between the different parameters that define the technological stack. These trade-offs explain the number of different architectures that are under worldwide development. The Laboratoire d'Electronique, de Technologies et d'Information (LETI) and ULIS have chosen to develop uncooled infrared sensor using a silicon technology. This silicon approach has the greatest potential for reducing infrared detector manufacturing cost. LETI and ULIS are now working to facilitate the infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) integration into equipment in order to address a very large market. Achievement of this goal needs the development of smart sensors with on-chip advanced functions and the decrease of manufacturing cost of IRFPA by decreasing the pixel pitch and simplifying the vacuum package. We present in this paper the new designs for readout circuit and packages that will be used for 384 × 288 and 160 × 120 arrays with a pitch of 35 μm and advanced results on 35 μm pixel pitch arrays. Thermographic application needs high stability infrared detector with a precise determination of the amount of absorbed infrared flux. Hence, infrared detector with internal temperature stabilized shield has been developed and characterized. The results will be presented.

  13. VIS-IR transmitting windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayya, S. S.; Chin, G. D.; Villalobos, G.; Sanghera, J. S.; Aggarwal, I. D.

    2005-05-01

    The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has developed two unique materials with excellent properties for various military and commercial applications in the UV-Vis-IR wavelength range. These materials are: an amorphous Barium Gallo-Germanate (BGG) glass and a polycrystalline Magnesium Aluminate Spinel. The BGG glass is made using traditional glass melting techniques, and was developed as a low cost alternative to the currently used window materials. Large prototype windows have been fabricated for a Navy reconnaissance program. BGG windows have been successfully tested for environmental ruggedness (MIL-F-48616) and rain erosion durability up to 300 mph. BGG glass is currently under development and evaluation for High Energy Laser (HEL) applications. A new process has been developed to sinter spinel to clear transparency with very high yields. This process has been used to make various sizes and shapes (flats and domes) and is readily scalable to industrial sizes to produce large windows & domes for various applications. NRL has also developed modified BGG glasses, which are compatible with Spinel and ALON substrates for bonding.

  14. Jefferson Laboratory IR Demo project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinn, Michelle D.

    1997-05-01

    The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (formerly known as CEBAF) has embarked on the construction of a 1 kW free-electron laser operating initially at 5 microns that is designed for laser-material interaction experiments and to explore the feasibility of scaling the system in power for Navy defense and industrial applications. The accelerator system for this IR demo includes a 10 MeV photocathode-based injector, a 32 MeV CEBAF-style superconducting radio-frequency linac, and single-pass transport that accelerates the beam from injector to wiggler, followed by energy-recovery deceleration to a dump. The initial optical configuration is a conventional near-concentric resonator with transmissive outcoupling. Following commissioning, the laser output will be extended to an operating range of 3-to-6.6 microns, and distributed to six labs in a user facility built with funds from the Commonwealth of Virginia. A description of the machine and facility and the project status are presented.

  15. Flexible human machine interface for process diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Reifman, J.; Graham, G.E.; Wei, T.Y.C.; Brown, K.R.; Chin, R.Y.

    1996-05-01

    A flexible human machine interface to design and display graphical and textual process diagnostic information is presented. The system operates on different computer hardware platforms, including PCs under MS Windows and UNIX Workstations under X-Windows, in a client-server architecture. The interface system is customized for specific process applications in a graphical user interface development environment by overlaying the image of the process piping and instrumentation diagram with display objects that are highlighted in color during diagnostic display. Customization of the system is presented for Commonwealth Edison`s Braidwood PWR Chemical and Volume Control System with transients simulated by a full-scale operator-training simulator and diagnosed by a computer-based system.

  16. What can we learn by comparing students' diagram-construction processes with the mathematical conceptions inferred from their explanations with completed diagrams?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobato, Joanne; Hohensee, Charles; Diamond, Jaime Marie

    2014-09-01

    Despite recent research interest in student-created diagrams, little research has systematically investigated students' diagram- construction processes, meaning the order and manner in which students create markings as they physically generate diagrams. In this study, we characterize the various processes students use to create diagrams that represent a quadratic motion situation involving increasing speed, and we explore how these diagram-construction processes are related to students' conceptions of speed as inferred from their explanations with their completed diagrams. Previous literature suggests contrasting predictions regarding whether or not students' diagram-construction processes are closely related (from our perspective as researchers) to students' inferred conceptions. We see the study as having value for research and practice by raising new questions related to diagram-construction processes, pointing to the potential formative assessment value of attending to diagram-construction processes, and demonstrating the need for the development of theory to explain the relationships identified by this study.

  17. Hydrogen intercalation under graphene on Ir(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grånäs, Elin; Gerber, Timm; Schröder, Ulrike A.; Schulte, Karina; Andersen, Jesper N.; Michely, Thomas; Knudsen, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Using high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy we study the intercalation of hydrogen under graphene/Ir(111). The hydrogen intercalated graphene is characterized by a component in C 1s that is shifted -0.10 to -0.18 eV with respect to pristine graphene and a component in Ir 4f at 60.54 eV. The position of this Ir 4f component is identical to that of the Ir(111) surface layer with hydrogen atoms adsorbed, indicating that the atomic hydrogen adsorption site on bare Ir(111) and beneath graphene is the same. Based on co-existence of fully- and non-intercalated graphene, and the inability to intercalate a closed graphene film covering the entire Ir(111) surface, we conclude that hydrogen dissociatively adsorbs at bare Ir(111) patches, and subsequently diffuses rapidly under graphene. A likely entry point for the intercalating hydrogen atoms is identified to be where graphene crosses an underlying Ir(111) step.

  18. High temperature Ir segregation in Ir-B ceramics: Effect of oxygen presence on stability of IrB2 and other Ir-B phases

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Zhilin; Terracciano, Anthony C.; Cullen, David A.; Blair, Richard G.; Orlovskaya, Nina

    2015-05-13

    The formation of IrB2, IrB1.35, IrB1.1 and IrB monoboride phases in the Ir–B ceramic nanopowder was confirmed during mechanochemical reaction between metallic Ir and elemental B powders. The Ir–B phases were analysed after 90 h of high energy ball milling and after annealing of the powder for 72 h at 1050°C in vacuo. The iridium monoboride (IrB) orthorhombic phase was synthesised experimentally for the first time and identified by powder X-ray diffraction. Additionally, the ReB2 type IrB2 hexagonal phase was also produced for the first time and identified by high resolution transmission electron microscope. Ir segregation along disordered domains of the boron lattice was found to occur during high temperature annealing. Furthermore, these nanodomains may have useful catalytic properties.

  19. Status Of Sofradir IR-CCD Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribolet, Philippe; Radisson, Patrick

    1988-05-01

    The topics of this paper deal with the IR-CCD detectors manufactured by SOFRADIR the new French joint venture. Description of the IRCCD technology and the advantages of this approach are given. In conclusion, some IR-CCD typical results are given.

  20. The WFC3 IR "Blobs" Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirzkal, N.; Hilbert, B.

    2012-11-01

    We present new results on the WFC3 IR "Blobs" based on analysis of data acquired using the WFC3 IR channel from 2010 to 2012. In particular, we trace the date of appearance of each of the Blobs we identified in our deep IR sky flats. The number of Blobs identified in the WFC3 IR channel is now 40, and increase of a factor of 2 from our earlier 2010 ISR. We also discuss the color of the blobs, as measured using the F105W, F125W and F160W filters. We find Blobs to be more opaque to bluer light and their effect is therefore slightly stronger in the F105W and F125W filters when comparing these to the F160W filter. We find that the IR Blobs have appeared during somewhat discrete events and that there was a period a little over one year long when no new Blobs appeared.